Science.gov

Sample records for cardioverter defibrillator patients

  1. Prevalence of appropriate cardioverter-defibrillator shocks in 1038 consecutive patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Adam; Aronow, Wilbert S; Lai, Hoang; Desai, Harit; Singla, Atul; Frishman, William H; Cohen, Martin; Sorbera, Carmine

    2009-01-01

    During a 33-month follow-up of 1038 consecutive patients who had implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, appropriate shocks occurred in 329 of 1038 patients (32%). Appropriate shocks occurred in 101 of 380 patients (27%) treated with beta-adrenergic blockers alone; in 31 of 95 patients (33%) treated with amiodarone alone; in 39 of 149 patients (26%) treated with beta-blockers plus amiodarone; in 11 of 28 patients (39%) treated with sotalol alone; and in 147 of 386 patients (38%) treated with no beta-blockers, amiodarone, or sotalol (P < 0.001 comparing patients treated with beta-adrenergic blockers alone with patients treated with no beta-blockers, amiodarone, or sotalol; and P < 0.01 comparing patients treated with beta-blockers plus amiodarone with patients treated with no beta-blockers, amiodarone, or sotalol). In conclusion, patients having implantable cardioverter-defibrillators should also be treated with beta-adrenergic blockers to reduce the frequency of appropriate shocks.

  2. Role of antiarrhythmic drugs in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Van Herendael, Hugo; Pinter, Arnold; Ahmad, Kamran; Korley, Victoria; Mangat, Iqwal; Dorian, Paul

    2010-05-01

    The transvenous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) has emerged as the primary therapy for patients at high risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. A high number of ICD recipients will require subsequent adjunctive treatment with antiarrhythmic drugs (AADs). This review provides an overview of potential reasons for AAD initiation, candidates for treatment, current medical options, and possible drug-device interactions.

  3. Organisation of care for Swedish patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator, a national survey.

    PubMed

    Bolse, Kärstin; Johansson, Ingela; Strömberg, Anna

    2011-09-01

    To describe the clinical aspects of implantable cardioverter defibrillators care in Sweden with focus on organisation, the role and education of nurses, patient information and education and areas in need of improvement. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators implantations have developed rapidly in recent years and are now an established arrhythmia treatment. The expanding indication for implantable cardioverter defibrillators implantation demands new competencies and resources in the implantable cardioverter defibrillators team members. Participants were recruited among physicians and nurses in all of the hospitals implanting implantable cardioverter defibrillators (n = 16). Data were collected by a questionnaire. Additionally, all written educational materials provided to patients pre- and postimplant were collected from all 16 hospitals. Deductive content analysis using Sarvimäki and Stenbock-Hult's five holistic dimensions was employed to ascertain how information was provided in brochures and information materials. Half of the hospitals (n=8) had nurse-based outpatient clinics and several others planned to introduce them. Three hospitals carried out distance follow-ups by means of tele-monitoring. The nurses had received specific implantable cardioverter defibrillators education from implantable cardioverter defibrillators companies and/or various university courses. The biophysical dimension dominated in the information material, while the emotional, intellectual and socio-cultural dimensions were scarcely described, and the spiritual-existential was not referred to at all. Holistic care of implantable cardioverter defibrillators patients can be achieved by means of a multidisciplinary implantable cardioverter defibrillators team and more patient-centred educational strategies. In Sweden, the organisation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators care and follow-up is developing towards more nurse-based clinics. Development and implementation of structured

  4. Sports participation in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Lampert, R; Olshansky, B

    2012-06-01

    The safety of sports participation for patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) is not yet defined, and current recommendations in both Europe and the US restrict these patients from competative sports more vigorous than golf or bowling. Postulated risks include increased frequency of arrhythmias, inability of the ICD to terminate ventricular arrhythmias during the metabolic changes accompanying extreme exercise, injury to the patient, or damage to the ICD system. However, survey data suggest that many ICD patients do participate in sports, and risks may be fewer than postulated. Ongoing research will better delineate the risks of sports for patients with ICDs.

  5. Spinal cord stimulation for refractory angina in a patient implanted with a cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Ferrero, Paolo; Grimaldi, Roberto; Massa, Riccardo; Chiribiri, Amedeo; De Luca, Anna; Castellano, Maddalena; Cardano, Paola; Trevi, Gian Paolo

    2007-01-01

    Spinal cord stimulation is currently used to treat refractory angina. Some concerns may arise about the possible interaction concerning the spinal cord stimulator in patients already implanted with a pacemaker or a cardioverter defibrillator. We are going to describe the successful implantation of a spinal cord stimulator in a patient previously implanted with a cardioverter defibrillator.

  6. Patient perceptions of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions: A qualitative study.

    PubMed

    MacIver, Jane; Tibbles, Alana; Billia, Filio; Ross, Heather

    2016-01-01

    There is a class I recommendation for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions to occur between physicians and heart failure patients. Few studies have reported the patient's perspective on the timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions. To determine patient awareness, preferences and timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions. Grounded theory was used to collect and analyze interview data from 25 heart failure patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, from the Heart Function Clinic at University Health Network (Toronto, Canada). The sample (n = 25) was predominately male (76%) with an average age of 62 years. Patients identified three stages where they felt implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation should be discussed: (1) prior to implantation, (2) with any significant deterioration but while they were of sound mind to engage in and communicate their preferences and (3) at end of life, where patients wished further review of their previously established preferences and decisions about implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation. Most patients (n = 17, 68%) said they would consider deactivation, six (24%) were undecided and two (8%) were adamant they would never turn it off. The patient preferences identified in this study support the need to include information on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation at implant, with change in clinical status and within broader discussions about end-of-life treatment preferences. Using this process to help patients determine and communicate their implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation preferences may reduce the number of patients experiencing distressing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks at end of life.

  7. Patient perceptions of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    MacIver, Jane; Tibbles, Alana; Billia, Filio; Ross, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a class I recommendation for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions to occur between physicians and heart failure patients. Few studies have reported the patient’s perspective on the timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions. Aim: To determine patient awareness, preferences and timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions. Design: Grounded theory was used to collect and analyze interview data from 25 heart failure patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Setting and participants: Patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, from the Heart Function Clinic at University Health Network (Toronto, Canada). Results: The sample (n = 25) was predominately male (76%) with an average age of 62 years. Patients identified three stages where they felt implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation should be discussed: (1) prior to implantation, (2) with any significant deterioration but while they were of sound mind to engage in and communicate their preferences and (3) at end of life, where patients wished further review of their previously established preferences and decisions about implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation. Most patients (n = 17, 68%) said they would consider deactivation, six (24%) were undecided and two (8%) were adamant they would never turn it off. Conclusion: The patient preferences identified in this study support the need to include information on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation at implant, with change in clinical status and within broader discussions about end-of-life treatment preferences. Using this process to help patients determine and communicate their implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation preferences may reduce the number of patients experiencing distressing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks at end of life. PMID:27110361

  8. Evaluation of an education and follow-up programme for implantable cardioverter defibrillator-implanted patients.

    PubMed

    Cinar, Fatma I; Tosun, Nuran; Kose, Sedat

    2013-09-01

    To determine the experiences, problems and the need for care and education of implantable cardioverter defibrillator-implanted patients and to assess the effects of an education and nurse follow-up programme on their quality of life, anxiety, depression and knowledge level. Although implantable cardioverter defibrillator has become a well-established therapy for people experiencing potentially lethal dysrhythmias, implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients may have physical and psychosocial problems due to the implantation. Applying a planning education and follow-up programme to implantable cardioverter defibrillator-implanted patients may prevent the need for more intensive treatment during the postimplantation period. A mixed methods design that used both qualitative and quantitative data collections and analysis was used for this study. The study was performed in the cardiology department in Turkey between 2009-2010. The data were collected using the 'Semi-Structured Interview Form', 'Form for Assessment of Patients' Knowledge Level about implantable cardioverter defibrillator', 'Spielberger's State-Trait Anxiety Inventory', 'Beck Depression Inventory II' and 'The Short-Form 36 Health Survey'. All forms were completed at the beginning of the study and at six months. The study included 27 patients in the experimental group and 27 patients in the control group. The results showed that the patients were living with various physical and psychosocial problems and insufficient knowledge regarding the implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Education and follow-up programme increased knowledge levels, decreased anxiety and depression scores and improved several subscales of quality of life in the experimental group patients. It was recommended that education and follow-up programme be used for patients scheduled to undergo implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation, starting before implantation and continuing thereafter, to help patients adapt to a life

  9. Coping with Trauma and Stressful Events As a Patient with an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Page Coping With Trauma and Stressful Events as a Patient With an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Jessica Ford , ... plan for developing effective coping responses. Is There a Difference Between a Stressful Event and a Traumatic ...

  10. Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Ferrick, Aileen M; Tian, David; Vudathaneni, Vijaya; Shevchuk, Olga L; Ferrick, Neal J; Frishman, William

    The use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) has favorably impacted the prevention and treatment of sudden cardiac death (SCD) associated with ventricular arrhythmias. However, there are situations where an ICD cannot be immediately implanted, even though the patient is at high risk for SCD. The wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) is a unique technology that can bridge this gap for patients. The WCD has been demonstrated to terminate ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation if worn and used correctly. With proper training, it is relatively easy to put on, maintain, and use. Most patients are compliant and are able to consistently wear the device. The WCD negates the infection risk or procedural complications associated with insertion and possible extraction of leads, as with an ICD. In terms of primary prevention of ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%, prospective, randomized studies evaluating the survival of patients utilizing the WCD will need to be performed before evidenced-based criteria for its use can be established. On the basis of current data, WCD use for those awaiting heart transplant, for those with ICD indications status post-ICD explant, and for high-risk SCD patients with possible reversible cardiomyopathy appears to be a reasonable approach on the basis of current data.

  11. The ethics of unilateral implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator deactivation: patient perspectives.

    PubMed

    Daeschler, Margaret; Verdino, Ralph J; Kirkpatrick, James N

    2017-08-01

    Decisions about deactivation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are complicated. Unilateral do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders (against patient/family wishes) have been ethically justified in cases of medical futility. Unilateral deactivation of ICDs may be seen as a logical extension of a unilateral DNR order. However, the ethical implications of unilateral ICD deactivation have not been explored. Sixty patients who had an ICD or cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) were interviewed at a quaternary medical centre outpatient electrophysiology practice. Survey questions addressed whether deactivation of defibrillator function was included in advanced directives, whether deactivation constitutes physician-assisted suicide, and whether unilateral deactivation can be ethically justified. Responses were elicited to scenarios in which defibrillation function was deactivated in different contexts (including patient request to deactivate, existing DNR, and unilateral deactivation). Only 15% of respondents had thought about device deactivation if they were to develop a serious illness from which they were not expected to recover. A majority (53%) had advance directives, but only one mentioned what to do with the device. However, a majority (78%) did not consider deactivation of an ICD shocking function against patients' wishes to be ethical or moral. Management of ICDs and CRT-Ds as patients near the end of their lives creates ethical dilemmas. Few patients consider device deactivation at end-of-life, although a large majority believes that unilateral deactivation is not ethical/moral, even in the setting of medical futility. Advance care planning for these patients should address device deactivation.

  12. Patients, intimate partners and family experiences of implantable cardioverter defibrillators: qualitative systematic review.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Losa-Iglesias, Marta E; Alvarez-López, Cristina; Cachón-Pérez, Miguel; Reyes, Rosalie Ann R; Salvadores-Fuentes, Paloma; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2011-12-01

    This paper is a report of an interpretive review of qualitative research on how an implantable cardioverter defibrillator affects adult recipients and their significant others. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator detects pathological cardiac rhythms and automatically converts the rhythm with electrical counter shocks. A systematic literature search was conducted for qualitative research papers published between January 1999 and January 2009. PubMed, Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge and CINAHL databases were searched with the following key words: internal defibrillator, implantable defibrillator and qualitative research. Twenty-two papers were included. The critical appraisal skills programme and prompts were used to appraise studies. Thematic analysis and synthesis approaches were used to interpret evidence. People with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator were found to experience physical, psychological and social changes. Shocks produce fear and anxiety, affecting relationships and sexual relations. The use of support groups and the use of the Internet are important in helping adjustment to an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Women's responses to an implantable cardioverter defibrillator appear different than men's responses and include concerns about physical appearance and relationship issues. Postdischarge follow-up and educational programmes are still underdeveloped. Patients need additional education, support and follow-up care after hospital discharge. Patients and significant others benefit from collaboration between patient associations and healthcare professional societies. Future research is needed to identify the specific challenges that women recipients face. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. Use of the wearable cardioverter defibrillator in high-risk cardiac patients: data from the Prospective Registry of Patients Using the Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillator (WEARIT-II Registry).

    PubMed

    Kutyifa, Valentina; Moss, Arthur J; Klein, Helmut; Biton, Yitschak; McNitt, Scott; MacKecknie, Bonnie; Zareba, Wojciech; Goldenberg, Ilan

    2015-10-27

    Prospective data on the safety and efficacy of the wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) in a real-world setting are lacking. The Prospective Registry of Patients Using the Wearable Defibrillator (WEARIT-II) Registry was designed to provide real-world data on the WCD as a strategy during a period of risk stratification. The WEARIT-II Registry enrolled 2000 patients with ischemic (n=805, 40%), or nonischemic cardiomyopathy (n=927, 46%), or congenital/inherited heart disease (n=268) prescribed WCD between August 2011 and February 2014. Clinical data, arrhythmia events, implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation, and improvement in ejection fraction were captured. The median age was 62 years; the median ejection fraction was 25%. The median WCD wear time was 90 days, with median daily use of 22.5 hours. There was a total of 120 sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias in 41 patients, of whom 54% received appropriate WCD shock. Only 10 patients (0.5%) received inappropriate WCD therapy. The rate of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias by 3 months was 3% among patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and congenital/inherited heart disease, and 1% among nonischemic patients (P=0.02). At the end of WCD use, 840 patients (42%) were implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. The most frequent reason not to implant an implantable cardioverter defibrillator following WCD use was improvement in ejection fraction. The WEARIT-II Registry demonstrates a high rate of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias at 3 months in at-risk patients who are not eligible for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator, and suggests that the WCD can be safely used to protect patients during this period of risk assessment. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Time-Dependent Changes in Psychosocial Distress in Japanese Patients with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Saito, Nao; Taru, Chiemi; Miyawaki, Ikuko

    2016-12-02

    This prospective study clarified changes in the mood states of Japanese patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators as well as factors related to the mood states. Using a longitudinal repeated-measure design, 29 patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators completed the Profile of Mood States-Short Form Japanese Version questionnaire before discharge and 1, 4, 7, and 13 months after implantation. One month after discharge, the mood states of the patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators improved. From 7 to 13 months after discharge, moods deteriorated; 13 months after discharge, moods were equivalent to those at the time of discharge. No relationship with defibrillation experience was detected in this study, but employment, age, sex, and lack of experience of syncopal attack were factors related to poor mood states for patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Therefore, Japanese patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators with any factor deteriorating their mood state should be monitored so that their mood state does not deteriorate again between six months and one year after implantation.

  15. Decision-Making Experiences of Patients with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Green, Ariel R; Jenkins, Amy; Masoudi, Frederick A; Magid, David J; Kutner, Jean S; Leff, Bruce; Matlock, Daniel D

    2016-10-01

    When patients are not adequately engaged in decision making, they may be at risk of decision regret. Our objective was to explore patients' perceptions of their decision-making experiences related to implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). Cross-sectional, mailed survey of 412 patients who received an ICD without cardiac resynchronization therapy for any indication between 2006 and 2009. Patients were asked about decision participation and decision regret. A total of 295 patients with ICDs responded (72% response rate). Overall, 79% reported that they were as involved in the decision as they wanted. However, 28% reported that they were not told of the option of not getting an ICD and 37% did not remember being asked if they wanted an ICD. In total, 19% reported not wanting their ICD at the time of implantation. Those who did not want the ICD were younger (<65 years; 74% vs 43%, P < 0.001), had higher decision regret (31/100 vs 11/100, P < 0.001), and reported less participation in decision making (the doctor "totally" made the decision, 9% vs 3%; P < 0.001). A considerable number of ICD recipients recalled not wanting their ICD at the time of implantation. While these findings may be prone to recall bias, they likely identify opportunities to improve ICD decision making. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Patients' perception of implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Hill, Loreena; McIlfatrick, Sonja; Taylor, Brian; Dixon, Lana; Harbinson, Mark; Fitzsimons, Donna

    2015-04-01

    Individualised care at the end of life requires professional understanding of the patient's perception of implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation. The aim was to evaluate the evidence on patients' perception of implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation at end of life. Systematic narrative review of empirical studies was published during 2008-2014. Data were collected from six databases, citations from relevant articles and expert recommendations. In all, 18 studies included with collective population of n = 5810. Concept mapping highlighted three themes: (1) Diverse preferences regarding discussion and deactivation. Deactivation was rarely discussed pre-implantation, with some studies demonstrating patients' reluctance to discuss implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation at any stage. Two studies found the majority of patients valued such discussions. Diversity was reflected in patients' willingness to deactivate, ranging from 12% (n = 9) in Irish cohort to 79% (n = 195) in Dutch study. (2) Ethical and legal considerations were predominant in Canadian and American literature as patients wanted to contribute but felt the decision should be a doctor's responsibility. Advance directives were uncommon in Europe, and where they existed the implantable cardioverter defibrillator was not mentioned. (3) 'Living in the now' was evident as despite deteriorating symptoms many patients maintained a positive outlook and anticipated surviving more than 10 years. Several studies asserted living longer was more important than quality of life. Patients regard the implantable cardioverter defibrillator as a complex and solely beneficial device, with little insight regarding its potential impact on a peaceful death. This review confirms the need for professionals to discuss with patients and families implantable cardioverter defibrillator functionality and deactivation at appropriate opportunities. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Successful intermuscular implantation of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator in a Japanese patient with pectus excavatum.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yusuke; Ueda, Marehiko; Winter, Joachim; Nakano, Miyo; Nakano, Masahiro; Ishimura, Masayuki; Miyazawa, Kazuo; Tateno, Kaoru; Kobayashi, Yoshio

    2017-02-01

    The entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) system was developed to provide a life-saving defibrillation therapy that does not affect the heart and vasculature. The subcutaneous ICD is preferred over the transvenous ICD for patients with a history of recurrent infection presenting major life-threatening rhythms. In this case report, we describe the first successful intermuscular implantation of a completely subcutaneous ICD in a Japanese patient with pectus excavatum. There were no associated complications with the device implantation or lead positioning. Further, the defibrillation threshold testing did not pose any problem with the abnormal anatomy of the patient.

  18. Dental management of a patient fitted with subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator device and concomitant warfarin treatment.

    PubMed

    Shah, Altaf Hussain; Khalil, Hesham Saleh; Kola, Mohammed Zaheer

    2015-07-01

    Automated Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (AICD), simply known as an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD), has been used in patients for more than 30 years. An Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) is a small battery-powered electrical impulse generator that is implanted in patients who are at a risk of sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia or any such related event. Typically, patients with these types of occurrences are on anticoagulant therapy. The desired International Normalized Ratio (INR) for these patients is in the range of 2-3 to prevent any subsequent cardiac event. These patients possess a challenge to the dentist in many ways, especially during oral surgical procedures, and these challenges include risk of sudden death, control of post-operative bleeding and pain. This article presents the dental management of a 60 year-old person with an ICD and concomitant anticoagulant therapy. The patient was on multiple medications and was treated for a grossly neglected mouth with multiple carious root stumps. This case report outlines the important issues in managing patients fitted with an ICD device and at a risk of sudden cardiac death.

  19. Dental management of a patient fitted with subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator device and concomitant warfarin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Altaf Hussain; Khalil, Hesham Saleh; Kola, Mohammed Zaheer

    2015-01-01

    Automated Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (AICD), simply known as an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD), has been used in patients for more than 30 years. An Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) is a small battery-powered electrical impulse generator that is implanted in patients who are at a risk of sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation, ventricular tachycardia or any such related event. Typically, patients with these types of occurrences are on anticoagulant therapy. The desired International Normalized Ratio (INR) for these patients is in the range of 2–3 to prevent any subsequent cardiac event. These patients possess a challenge to the dentist in many ways, especially during oral surgical procedures, and these challenges include risk of sudden death, control of post-operative bleeding and pain. This article presents the dental management of a 60 year-old person with an ICD and concomitant anticoagulant therapy. The patient was on multiple medications and was treated for a grossly neglected mouth with multiple carious root stumps. This case report outlines the important issues in managing patients fitted with an ICD device and at a risk of sudden cardiac death. PMID:26236132

  20. Psychiatric Disorders and Quality of Life in Patients With Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Filho, Gastão; Pereira, Valeska; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; Silva, Adriana Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To systematically review the literature with regard to psychiatric disorders and quality of life in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Data Sources: Research was conducted in 3 databases (ISI Web of Science, PubMed, and PsycINFO) using the terms implantable, cardioverter, defibrillator, quality of life, psych*, anxiety, and depression. Study Selection: The search yielded 1,399 references. Non-English and repeated references were excluded. After abstract analysis, 42 references were recovered for full-text reading, and 25 articles were selected for this review. Data Extraction: Research took place in April 2012, and no time restriction was placed on any of the database searches. Review or theoretical articles were excluded, and only clinical trials and epidemiologic studies were selected for this review. Results: A systematic review of the literature revealed mostly observational prospective cohort studies followed by cross-sectional observational studies and randomized clinical trials. Few studies included in the review were observational retrospective cohort or case-control studies. There are prominent signs and symptoms of anxiety and depression in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Disorders include phobic anxiety, posttraumatic stress disorder, panic disorder, somatoform disorder, agoraphobia, and depression. Quality of life in the physical, social, and psychological domains is affected and is related to the intensity and the frequency of the device’s electrical discharge. Conclusions: Work regarding psychiatric comorbidity in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator has shown that anxiety and depression are common. The patients and their families should be informed by their doctors that the presence of the device minimizes risk of sudden death and allows them to have a normal life. PMID:23930235

  1. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator during laser transurethral resection of the prostate.

    PubMed

    Deroee, A F; Cohen, B J; O'Hara, J F

    2014-01-01

      Implantable cardioverter defibrillators have been instrumental in the health and safety of patients who are at increased risk of sudden death by ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Consensus on the perioperative management of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices has suggested that certain surgical interventions (including transurethral resection of the prostate) may interfere with the sensing capability of the device, thereby resulting in unforeseen adverse outcomes. However, improvements in the implantable cardioverter defibrillators have made it less susceptible to surgical interference. In addition, current guidelines recommend deactivation of the implantable cardioverter defibrillators to an asynchronous mode prior to most surgical interventions. We present the first two case reports in which implantable cardioverter defibrillators were not deactivated prior to GreenLight 180-W XPS laser-guided transurethral resection of the prostate. We left the implantable cardioverter defibrillators activated to allow them to detect and treat lethal arrhythmias by direct rather than extrinsic cardioversion. There was no cardiac arrhythmia incident in these two cases. Laser technology is not a documented source of electromagnetic interference in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. There is no current evidence that links lasers to implantable cardioverter defibrillators malfunction. With increasing numbers of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators undergoing many different laser surgical procedures, further studies are warranted to analyze in depth the effects of laser therapy on implantable cardioverter defibrillators function and update in current guidelines.

  2. Athletic participation in the young patient with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Lampert, Rachel; Law, Ian

    2017-01-01

    The decision of whether to allow a young patient with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator to continue to participate in sports is complex and multi-factorial. The positive physical and psychosocial impact of sports participation must be weighed against the potential adverse events associated with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Arrhythmias appear to be more prevalent in athletes and occur more frequently during physical activity or competition/practice, but there is growing evidence that device therapy is effective in athletes across a wide range of competitive sports. Failure of a device to convert a life-threatening arrhythmia, major injury from a shock, and increased lead failure have thus far not been reported in the prospective Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Sports Registry, but follow-up remains relatively short. Thoughtful consideration of disease state, arrhythmia risk, and the potential dangers of device therapy during the desired sports is imperative before allowing participation. Frank discussion with children and families regarding the possibility of shocks during sports, as well as at other times, is imperative. Ongoing and future studies will help guide these decisions.

  3. Patient-tailored implantable cardioverter defibrillator testing using the upper limit of vulnerability: the TULIP protocol.

    PubMed

    Lemke, Bernd; Lawo, Thomas; Zarse, Markus; Lubinski, Andrzej; Kreutzer, Ulrich; Mueller, Johannes; Schuchert, Andreas; Mitzenheim, Sabine; Danilovic, Dejan; Deneke, Thomas

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated the feasibility of the TULIP (Threshold test using Upper Limit during ImPlantation) protocol, which was designed to provide a confirmed, low defibrillation energy value during implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation with only two induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) episodes. Ninety-eight patients (62 +/- 12 years, 86 male) from 13 clinical centres underwent an active can ICD implantation. A single coupling interval derived from electrocardiogram lead II during ventricular pacing was used for VF induction shocks at 13, 11, 9, and 6 J in a step-down manner until the upper limit of VF induction (ULVI) was determined. If ULVI >or=9 J, a defibrillation energy of ULVI + 4 J was tested. For ULVI <9 J, the defibrillation test energy was 9 J. In 79/98 patients (80.6%), two induced VF episodes were sufficient to obtain confirmed defibrillation energy of 11.1 +/- 3.3 J. The mean strength of the successful VF induction shock was 6.8 +/- 4.3 J, the coupling interval was 303 +/- 35 ms, and the number of delivered induction shocks until the first VF induction was 3.9 +/- 1.6. TULIP is a safe and simple device testing procedure allowing the determination of confirmed, low defibrillation energy in most patients with two VF episodes induced at a single coupling interval.

  4. Promoting health-related quality of life in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Wong, Florence

    2017-03-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are an effective treatment to reduce mortality rates in patients who are at risk of sudden cardiac death. However, ICDs have been shown to reduce the patient's mental and physical health-related quality of life. It is essential for nurses to have an understanding of the factors associated with health-related quality of life in patients with ICDs, to develop appropriate strategies to improve patient care and optimise quality of life. A case study is included in this article to enhance understanding of the effects these devices can have on a patient's quality of life.

  5. Safety and feasibility of dobutamine stress echocardiography in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Elhendy, Abdou; Windle, John; Porter, Thomas R

    2003-08-15

    Coronary artery disease is the underlying etiology of left ventricular dysfunction and arrhythmias in most patients who receive implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). The aim of this study was to assess the safety and feasibility of dobutamine stress echocardiography (DSE) in patients with an ICD. DSE (dobutamine up to 50 microg/kg/min, atropine up to 2 mg) was performed in 87 patients with an ICD and known or suspected coronary artery disease. The ICD was inactivated before the stress test and reactivated after the study; no serious complications occurred. DSE is a safe and feasible method for evaluating myocardial ischemia in patients with an ICD.

  6. Capsule endoscopy in patients with cardiac pacemakers, implantable cardioverter defibrillators and left heart assist devices

    PubMed Central

    Bandorski, Dirk; Höltgen, Reinhard; Stunder, Dominik; Keuchel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    According to the recommendations of the US Food and Drug Administration and manufacturers, capsule endoscopy should not be used in patients carrying implanted cardiac devices. For this review we considered studies indexed (until 30.06.2013) in Medline [keywords: capsule endoscopy, small bowel endoscopy, cardiac pacemaker, implantable cardioverter defibrillator, interference, left heart assist device], technical information from Given Imaging and one own publication (not listed in Medline). Several in vitro and in vivo studies included patients with implanted cardiac devices who underwent capsule endoscopy. No clinically relevant interference was noticed. Initial reports on interference with a simulating device were not reproduced. Furthermore technical data of PillCam (Given Imaging) demonstrate that the maximum transmission power is below the permitted limits for cardiac devices. Hence, impairment of cardiac pacemaker, defibrillator or left ventricular heart assist device function by capsule endoscopy is not expected. However, wireless telemetry can cause dysfunction of capsule endoscopy recording. Application of capsule endoscopy is feasible and safe in patients with implanted cardiac devices such as pacemakers, cardioverter defibrillators, and left heart assist devices. Development of new technologies warrants future re-evaluation. PMID:24714370

  7. Fish-oil supplementation in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins MD, David J.A.; Josse, Andrea R.; Beyene, Joseph; Dorian, Paul; Burr, Michael L.; LaBelle, Roxanne; Kendall, Cyril W.C.; Cunnane, Stephen C.

    2008-01-01

    Background A recent Cochrane meta-analysis did not confirm the benefits of fish and fish oil in the secondary prevention of cardiac death and myocardial infarction. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials that examined the effect of fish-oil supplementation on ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia to determine the overall effect and to assess whether heterogeneity exists between trials. Methods We searched electronic databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL) from inception to May 2007. We included randomized controlled trials of fish-oil supplementation on ventricular fibrillation or ventricular tachycardia in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. The primary outcome was implantable cardioverter defibrillator discharge. We calculated relative risk [RR] for outcomes at 1-year follow-up for each study. We used the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects methods when there was significant heterogeneity between trials and the Mantel-Hanzel fixed-effects method when heterogeneity was negligible. Results We identified 3 trials of 1–2 years' duration. These trials included a total of 573 patients who received fish oil and 575 patients who received a control. Meta-analysis of data collected at 1 year showed no overall effect of fish oil on the relative risk of implantable cardioverter defibrillator discharge. There was significant heterogeneity between trials. The second largest study showed a significant benefit of fish oil (relative risk [RR] 0.74, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.56–0.98). The smallest showed an adverse tendency at 1 year (RR 1.23, 95% CI 0.92–1.65) and significantly worse outcome at 2 years among patients with ventricular tachycardia at study entry (log rank p = 0.007). Conclusion These data indicate that there is heterogeneity in the response of patients to fish-oil supplementation. Caution should be used when prescribing fish-oil supplementation for

  8. Experience With the Wearable Cardioverter-Defibrillator in Patients at High Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Michael; Quick, Silvio; Pfluecke, Christian; Rottstädt, Fabian; Szymkiewicz, Steven J.; Ringquist, Steven; Strasser, Ruth H.; Speiser, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) for use and effectiveness in preventing sudden death caused by ventricular tachyarrhythmia or fibrillation. Methods: From April 2010 through October 2013, 6043 German WCD patients (median age, 57 years; male, 78.5%) were recruited from 404 German centers. Deidentified German patient data were used for a retrospective, nonrandomized analysis. Results: Ninety-four patients (1.6%) were treated by the WCD in response to ventricular tachyarrhythmia/fibrillation. The incidence rate was 8.4 (95% confidence interval, 6.8–10.2) per 100 patient-years. Patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator explantation had an incidence rate of 19.3 (95% confidence interval, 12.2–29.0) per 100 patient-years. In contrast, an incidence rate of 8.2 (95% confidence interval, 6.4–10.3) was observed in the remaining cardiac diagnosis groups, including dilated cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, and ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies. Among 120 shocked patients, 112 (93%) survived 24 hours after treatment, whereas asystole was observed in 2 patients (0.03%) with 1 resulting death. ConclusionS: This large cohort represents the first nationwide evaluation of WCD use in patients outside the US healthcare system and confirms the overall value of the WCD in German treatment pathways. PMID:27458236

  9. Experience With the Wearable Cardioverter-Defibrillator in Patients at High Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death.

    PubMed

    Wäßnig, Nadine K; Günther, Michael; Quick, Silvio; Pfluecke, Christian; Rottstädt, Fabian; Szymkiewicz, Steven J; Ringquist, Steven; Strasser, Ruth H; Speiser, Uwe

    2016-08-30

    This study evaluated the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) for use and effectiveness in preventing sudden death caused by ventricular tachyarrhythmia or fibrillation. From April 2010 through October 2013, 6043 German WCD patients (median age, 57 years; male, 78.5%) were recruited from 404 German centers. Deidentified German patient data were used for a retrospective, nonrandomized analysis. Ninety-four patients (1.6%) were treated by the WCD in response to ventricular tachyarrhythmia/fibrillation. The incidence rate was 8.4 (95% confidence interval, 6.8-10.2) per 100 patient-years. Patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator explantation had an incidence rate of 19.3 (95% confidence interval, 12.2-29.0) per 100 patient-years. In contrast, an incidence rate of 8.2 (95% confidence interval, 6.4-10.3) was observed in the remaining cardiac diagnosis groups, including dilated cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, and ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies. Among 120 shocked patients, 112 (93%) survived 24 hours after treatment, whereas asystole was observed in 2 patients (0.03%) with 1 resulting death. This large cohort represents the first nationwide evaluation of WCD use in patients outside the US healthcare system and confirms the overall value of the WCD in German treatment pathways. © 2016 The Authors.

  10. Bilateral Subclavian Vein Occlusion in a SAPHO Syndrome Patient Who Needed an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Masato; Yamamoto, Yuko; Yamada, Shintaro; Maemura, Sonoko; Nakata, Ryo; Motozawa, Yoshihiro; Yamamoto, Keisuke; Takizawa, Masataka; Uozumi, Hiroki; Ikenouchi, Hiroshi

    2016-05-25

    A 79-year-old Asian man was hospitalized because of progressive exertional dyspnea with decreasing left ventricular ejection fraction and frequent non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Pre-procedure venography for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation showed occlusion of the bilateral subclavian veins. In consideration of subcutaneous humps in the sterno-clavicular area and palmoplantar pustulosis, we diagnosed him as having synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome and speculated that it induced peri-osteal chronic inflammation in the sterno-clavicular area, resulting in occlusion of the adjacent bilateral subclavian veins. An automatic external defibrillator (AED) was installed in the patient's house and total subcutaneous ICD was considered. Venous thrombosis in SAPHO syndrome is not frequent but has been reported. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of bilateral subclavian vein occlusion in a SAPHO syndrome patient who needs ICD implantation.

  11. Marked attenuation of shock burden by the use of antitachycardia pacing therapy in a patient with an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Ganjehei, Leila; Nazeri, Alireza; Massumi, Ali; Razavi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    A 76-year-old man was admitted to our institution for elective exchange of his implanted cardioverter-defibrillator generator. Nine years earlier, he had been diagnosed with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and nonsustainable ventricular tachycardia. At that time, he had received a single-chamber implanted cardioverter-defibrillator, which was upgraded to a dual-chamber implanted cardioverter-defibrillator 3 years later. In the course of the current admission, routine device interrogation during exchange of the patient's implanted cardioverter-defibrillator generator revealed 150 episodes of ventricular tachycardia in the preceding 7 months, 137 of which had been successfully treated by antitachycardia pacing therapy without shock. These findings show the remarkable effectiveness of antitachycardia pacing in terminating ventricular tachycardia while preventing the delivery of shocks, minimizing patient discomfort, and avoiding implanted cardioverter-defibrillator battery depletion.

  12. Factors associated with anxiety and depression among patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Wong, Mei Fung Florence

    2017-05-01

    To identify factors associated with anxiety and depression of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator is effective to increase survival from life-threatening arrhythmias, but it lowers health-related quality of life. Anxiety and depression had significant negative association with health-related quality of life. However, knowledge about factors associated with these two negative emotions in this specific population is inadequate. A cross-sectional descriptive design was conducted. Secondary analysis was performed to address the aim. A convenience sampling of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators was performed. Anxiety and depression were measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale through face-to-face interview. Stepwise multivariable regression results showed that older age (aged 60-69 and ≥70: B = 2·08 and 3·31, p = 0·039 and <0·001), self-care dependence (B = 3·47, p < 0·001), being married (B = -2·21, p = 0·004) and having ischaemic heart disease (B = -1·80, p = 0·008) were significantly associated with depression. However, there was no significant factor associated with anxiety. Factors associated with depression among patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator are identified. Older age (aged ≥60) and more self-care dependence have positive, but being married and having ischaemic heart disease have negative association with depression. Strategies to reduce psychological distress are highlighted. The study findings direct the care to improve health-related quality of life by reducing and controlling vulnerabilities arising from depression. Patients who are older people (≥aged 60) and more self-care dependent perceive higher depression. Nursing strategies are suggested to reduce depression especially for those who are older people and more self-care dependent. Early screening is essential to provide immediate care for reducing vulnerabilities

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging in patients with a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Keller, Jirí; Neužil, Petr; Vymazal, Josef; Janotka, Marek; Brada, Jirí; Žáček, Radovan; Vopálka, Roman; Weichet, Jirí; Reddy, Vivek Y

    2015-05-01

    Our aim was to evaluate the potential for safely imaging patients with a new type of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator called the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) in a 1.5 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner. With the increasing number of patients with cardiac implantable devices who are indicated for MRI, there is a growing need for establishing MRI compatibility of cardiac implantable devices. Patients with implanted S-ICD systems underwent one or more types of anatomical MRI scans. The S-ICD was programmed off and patients were monitored throughout the imaging procedure. Device function was evaluated pre- and post-scan. Patients were asked to report immediately any pain, torqueing movement, or heating sensation in the area of the pocket or electrode. Fifteen patients underwent a total of 22 examinations at 1.5 T. Scans included brain, spine, knee, and heart. Two patients were re-scanned due to complaints of heating over the can during lumbar scans, which was caused by a thermistor probe placed on the skin to measure skin temperature. All the remaining scans occurred without incident. No evidence of device malfunction was observed. This study is the first to domonstrate the feasibility of exposing S-ICD patients to MRI using the scanning and monitoring protocol described. More data are required to support S-ICD as a MRI conditional device. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  14. Chagas' disease and the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ronaldo F; Neto, Argemiro S; Franken, Roberto A

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss the epidemiology and pathogenesis of Chagas' disease in Brazil, including the use of treatment with a cardioverter-defibrillator in patients with low ejection fraction. Select patients may benefit from resynchronization therapy associated with cardioverter-defibrillator treatment. Electrophysiologic study is indicated in the assessment of the potential utility of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

  15. Weather and triggering of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Jennifer L.; Laden, Francine; Link, Mark S.; Schwartz, Joel; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Dockery, Douglas W.

    2015-01-01

    Outdoor ambient weather has been hypothesized to be responsible for the seasonal distribution of cardiac arrhythmias. Because people spend most of their time indoors, we hypothesized that weather-related arrhythmia risk would be better estimated using an indoor measure or an outdoor measure that correlates well with indoor conditions, such as absolute humidity. The clinical records of 203 patients in eastern Massachusetts, USA, with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator were abstracted for arrhythmias between 1995 and 2002. We used case-crossover methods to examine the association between weather and ventricular arrhythmia (VA). Among 84 patients who experienced 787 VAs, lower estimated indoor temperature (odds ratio (OR) = 1.16, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.05–1.27 for a 1 °C decrease in the 24-h average) and lower absolute humidity (OR = 1.06, 95% CI 1.03–1.08 for a 0.5 g/m3 decrease in the 96-h average) were associated with increased risk. Lower outdoor temperature increased risk only in warmer months, likely attributable to the poor correlation between outdoor and indoor temperature during cooler months. These results suggest that lower temperature and drier air are associated with increased risk of VA onset among implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients. PMID:24169878

  16. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... a special device called a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device. The CRT device is able to pace both ventricles at ... better job pumping blood out of the heart. CRT devices that have a defibrillator are called CRT- ...

  17. Economical aspect of PET/CT-guided diagnosis of suspected infective endocarditis in a patient with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Farkowski, Michal M; Milkowski, Maciej; Dziuk, Mirosław; Pytkowski, Mariusz; Marciniak, Marta; Kraska, Alicja; Szwed, Hanna; Sterlinski, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    We present a case report of potential reduction of hospitalization costs due to utilization of PET/CT in a diagnostic work-up of a patient with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and suspicion of infective endocarditis. The PET/CT scan would have shorten hospital stay, prevented clinical complications and reduced the cost of hospitalization by 45%.

  18. Emotions and health: findings from a randomized clinical trial on psychoeducational nursing to patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Kikkenborg Berg, Selina; Støier, Louise; Moons, Philip; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Winkel, Per; Ulrich Pedersen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Serious illness will inevitably lead to a fundamental emotional reaction. Traditionally, in interventional treatment or rehabilitation trials, the psychological status of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators has been evaluated with anxiety and depression as outcome measures. In caring for these patients, the aim of nursing is to help patients manage life with complex heart disease. The early detection and management of negative emotional response might prevent the development of pathological conditions such as depression. The aims of this study were to (a) describe the trajectory of primary emotions over time in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators and (b) examine the potential effects of psychoeducational nursing on primary emotions. During the inclusion period (October 2007 to November 2009), 196 patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator were randomized (1:1) to rehabilitation versus usual care. Rehabilitation consisted of a psychoeducational nursing component and an exercise training component. This article concerns phase 1, psychoeducational nursing, guided by a theory of nursing, Rosemary Rizzo Parses Human Becoming Practice Methodologies. The outcome measure is the Emotions and Health Scale. The scale consists of 8 primary emotions: joy, agreeableness, surprise, fear, sadness, disgust, anger, and anticipation. Mean (SD) age was 58 (13) years, and 79% of the participants were men. Significant improvements were found in primary emotional responses over time (P < .05) when combining groups. However, no difference in emotional intensity was found between the groups after 3 months of psychoeducational nursing intervention (P > .05). Primary emotions are affected after implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation. Improvements over time were found. However, it was not possible to detect any effect of a short-term psychoeducational nursing intervention. Evaluating the primary emotions might be a good way for nurses

  19. Florid psychopathology in patients receiving shocks from implanted cardioverter-defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, J.; Turkington, D.; Thomas, G.; McComb, J.; Tynan, M.

    1997-01-01

    Objectives—To increase awareness of the potential for disabling anxiety and depression in patients receiving shocks from implanted cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs).
Patients and methods—ICDs are implanted in patients at this hospital for control of serious ventricular tachyarrhythmias inadequately controlled by drug treatment, who are unsuitable for map guided antiarrhythmic surgery. All are reviewed regularly at a dedicated ICD clinic and are advised to make contact between visits if they experience shocks. Symptoms of anxiety or depression were not actively sought, nor was a patient support group operating at the time of this data collection. When overt psychopathology was identified, patients were referred to a designated psychiatrist for management.
Results—Over a six year period, six (17%) of 35 patients with ICDs developed florid psychiatric problems after experiencing shocks. None had premorbid psychiatric predisposition. Of the six patients suffering severe psychiatric problems, four were men, their age range was 30-63 years, and left ventricular ejection fraction was 18-40%. All shocks were appropriate for clinical arrhythmias and ranged in frequency from two in six months to 111 in 24 hours. All six patients manifested severe anxiety, focused on fear of future shocks. Depression was also evident in three patients and two had become housebound. All responded within weeks to anxiolytic or antidepressant drugs, combined with relaxation and cognitive therapies. Ongoing psychiatric therapy was refused by one patient, and was required for between three and 18 months in the remainder. One patient died and one received a cardiac transplant during the follow up period (median 27.5 months, range 8-43).
Conclusions—Because ICD implantation occurs against a complex medical background with inevitable psychological stress, all such patients should be considered at high risk for developing psychopathology.

 Keywords: implantable cardioverter-defibrillators

  20. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge and end-of-life device deactivation: A cross-sectional survey.

    PubMed

    McEvedy, Samantha M; Cameron, Jan; Lugg, Eugene; Miller, Jennifer; Haedtke, Chris; Hammash, Muna; Biddle, Martha J; Lee, Kyoung Suk; Mariani, Justin A; Ski, Chantal F; Thompson, David R; Chung, Misook Lee; Moser, Debra K

    2017-06-01

    End-of-life implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation discussions should commence before device implantation and be ongoing, yet many implantable cardioverter defibrillators remain active in patients' last days. To examine associations among implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge, patient characteristics and attitudes to implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation. Cross-sectional survey using the Experiences, Attitudes and Knowledge of End-of-Life Issues in Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients Questionnaire. Participants were classified as insufficient or sufficient implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge and the two groups were compared. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients ( n = 270, mean age 61 ± 14 years; 73% male) were recruited from cardiology and implantable cardioverter defibrillator clinics attached to two tertiary hospitals in Melbourne, Australia, and two in Kentucky, the United States. Participants with insufficient implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge ( n = 77, 29%) were significantly older (mean age 66 vs 60 years, p = 0.001), less likely to be Caucasian (77% vs 87%, p  = 0.047), less likely to have received implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks (26% vs 40%, p = 0.031), and more likely to have indications of mild cognitive impairment (Montreal Cognitive Assessment score <24: 44% vs 16%, p < 0.001). Insufficient implantable cardioverter defibrillator knowledge was associated with attitudes suggesting unwillingness to discuss implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation, even during the last days towards end of life ( p < 0.05). Implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients, especially those who are older or have mild cognitive impairment, often have limited knowledge about implantable cardioverter defibrillator deactivation. This study identified several potential teachable moments throughout the patients' treatment trajectory

  1. MR Imaging in Patients with Cardiac Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Sommer, Torsten; Bauer, Wolfgang; Fischbach, Katharina; Kolb, Christof; Luechinger, Roger; Wiegand, Uwe; Lotz, Joachim; Eitel, Ingo; Gutberlet, Matthias; Thiele, Holger; Schild, Hans H; Kelm, Malte; Quick, Harald H; Schulz-Menger, Jeanette; Barkhausen, Jörg; Bänsch, Dietmar

    2017-02-15

    This joint consensus paper of the German Roentgen Society and the German Cardiac Society provides physical and electrophysiological background information and specific recommendations for the procedural management of patients with cardiac pacemakers (PM) and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) undergoing magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. The paper outlines the responsibilities of radiologists and cardiologists regarding patient education, indications, and monitoring with modification of MR sequences and PM/ICD reprogramming strategies being discussed in particular. The aim is to optimize patient safety and to improve legal clarity in order to facilitate the access of SM/ICD patients to MR imaging. Key Points:  · Conventional PM and ICD systems are no longer an absolute but rather a relative contraindication for performing an MR examination. Procedural management includes the assessment of the individual risk/benefit ratio, comprehensive patient informed consent about specific risks and "off label" use, extensive PM/ICD-related and MR-related safety precautions to reduce these risks to the greatest extent possible, as well as adequate monitoring techniques.. · MR conditional pacemaker and ICD systems have been tested and approved for MR examination under specific conditions ("in-label" use). Precise understanding of and compliance with the terms of use for the specific pacemaker system are essential for patient safety.. · The risk for an ICD patient during MR examinations is to be considered significantly higher compared to PM patients due to the higher vulnerability of the structurally damaged myocardium and the higher risk of irreversible damage to conventional ICD systems. The indication for a MR examination of an ICD patient should therefore be determined on a stricter basis and the expected risk/benefit ratio should be critically reviewed.. · This complex subject requires close collaboration between radiology and cardiology.. Citation Format

  2. Psychological vulnerability, ventricular tachyarrhythmias and mortality in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients: is there a link?

    PubMed

    Pedersen, Susanne S; Brouwers, Corline; Versteeg, Henneke

    2012-07-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is the first-line treatment for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. Despite the demonstrated survival benefits of the ICD, predicting which patients will die from a ventricular tachyarrhythmia remains a major challenge. So far, psychological factors have not been considered as potential risk markers that might enhance the prediction of sudden cardiac death. This article evaluates the evidence for a link between psychological vulnerability, ventricular tachyarrhythmias and mortality and the pathways that might explain such a link. This review demonstrates that there is cumulative evidence supporting a link between psychological vulnerability and risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and mortality in ICD patients independent of disease severity and other biomedical risk factors. It may be premature to include psychological factors in risk algorithms, but information on the psychological profile of the patient may help to optimize the management and care of these patients in clinical practice.

  3. The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator: current technology and evolving indications.

    PubMed

    Reek, Sven; Burri, Haran; Roberts, Paul R; Perings, Christian; Epstein, Andrew E; Klein, Helmut U; Lip, Gregory; Gorenek, Bulent; Sticherling, Christian; Fauchier, Laurent; Goette, Andreas; Jung, Werner; Vos, Marc A; Brignole, Michele; Elsner, Christian; Dan, Gheorghe-Andrei; Marin, Francisco; Boriani, Giuseppe; Lane, Deirdre; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina; Savelieva, Irina

    2017-03-01

    The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator has been available for over a decade and now is frequently prescribed for patients deemed at high arrhythmic risk in whom the underlying pathology is potentially reversible or who are awaiting an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. The use of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator is included in the new 2015 ESC guidelines for the management of ventricular arrhythmias and prevention of sudden cardiac death. The present review provides insight into the current technology and an overview of this approach. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Incidence of appropriate cardioverter-defibrillator shocks and mortality in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators with ischemic cardiomyopathy versus nonischemic cardiomyopathy at 33-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Kaushang; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Desai, Harit; Amin, Harshad; Lai, Hoang M.; Frishman, William H.; Cohen, Martin; Sorbera, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to investigate at long-term follow-up the incidence of appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks and of all-cause mortality in patients with ICDs with ischemic cardiomyopathy versus nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Material and methods ICDs were implanted in 485 patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and in 299 patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy, all of whom had coronary angiography. Baseline characteristics were not significantly different between the 2 groups. Follow-up was 965 days in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy versus 1039 days in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (p not significant). The ICDs were interrogated every 3 months to see if shocks occurred. Results Appropriate ICD shocks occurred in 179 of 485 patients (37%) with ischemic cardiomyopathy and in 93 of 299 patients (31%) with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (p not significant). All-cause mortality occurred in 162 of 485 patients (33%) with ischemic cardiomyopathy and in 70 of 299 patients (23%) with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (p = 0.002). Conclusions The incidence of appropriate ICD shocks was not significantly different at 33-month follow-up in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy versus nonischemic cardiomyopathy. However, patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy had a significantly higher incidence of all-cause mortality than patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (p = 0.002). PMID:22427764

  5. The role of the wearable cardioverter defibrillator in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Chung, Mina K

    2014-05-01

    The wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) is an option for external monitoring and defibrillation in patients at risk for sudden cardiac arrest caused by ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation and who are not candidates for or who refuse an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). WCDs provide monitoring with backup defibrillation protection. WCDs have been used when a patient's condition delays or prohibits ICD implantation, or as a bridge when an indicated ICD must be explanted. WCDs are used for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death during high-risk gap periods early after myocardial infarction, coronary revascularization, or new diagnosis of heart failure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Inductionless or limited shock testing is possible in most patients with implantable cardioverter- defibrillators/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators: results of the multicenter ASSURE Study (Arrhythmia Single Shock Defibrillation Threshold Testing Versus Upper Limit of Vulnerability: Risk Reduction Evaluation With Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantations).

    PubMed

    Day, John D; Doshi, Rahul N; Belott, Peter; Birgersdotter-Green, Ulrika; Behboodikhah, Mahnaz; Ott, Peter; Glatter, Kathryn A; Tobias, Serge; Frumin, Howard; Lee, Byron K; Merillat, John; Wiener, Isaac; Wang, Samuel; Grogin, Harlan; Chun, Sung; Patrawalla, Rob; Crandall, Brian; Osborn, Jeffrey S; Weiss, J Peter; Lappe, Donald L; Neuman, Stacey

    2007-05-08

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators have relied on multiple ventricular fibrillation (VF) induction/defibrillation tests at implantation to ensure that the device can reliably sense, detect, and convert VF. The ASSURE Study (Arrhythmia Single Shock Defibrillation Threshold Testing Versus Upper Limit of Vulnerability: Risk Reduction Evaluation With Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantations) is the first large, multicenter, prospective trial comparing vulnerability safety margin testing versus defibrillation safety margin testing with a single VF induction/defibrillation. A total of 426 patients receiving an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator underwent vulnerability safety margin or defibrillation safety margin screening at 14 J in a randomized order. After this, patients underwent confirmatory testing, which required 2 VF conversions without failure at < or = 21 J. Patients who passed their first 14-J and confirmatory tests, irrespective of the results of their second 14-J test, had their devices programmed to a 21-J shock for ventricular tachycardia (VT) or VF > or = 200 bpm and were followed up for 1 year. Of 420 patients who underwent 14-J vulnerability safety margin screening, 322 (76.7%) passed. Of these, 317 (98.4%) also passed 21-J confirmatory tests. Of 416 patients who underwent 14-J defibrillation safety margin screening, 343 (82.5%) passed, and 338 (98.5%) also passed 21-J confirmatory tests. Most clinical VT/VF episodes (32 of 37, or 86%) were terminated by the first shock, with no difference in first shock success. In all observed cases in which the first shock was unsuccessful, subsequent shocks terminated VT/VF without complication. Although spontaneous episodes of fast VT/VF were limited, there was no difference in the odds of first shock efficacy between groups. Screening with vulnerability safety margin or defibrillation safety

  7. Epileptic seizure in a patient with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: Quo vadis right ventricular lead?

    PubMed

    Wedekind, Horst; Rozhnev, Andrey; Kleine-Katthöfer, Peter; Kranig, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    The case of a 77-year-old man admitted for suspected epileptic seizure is reported. Patient history showed implantation of a single-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) after cardiac arrest in 2007 with replacement in 2012 due to battery depletion; the patient reported no previous syncope, unconsciousness or seizures. Interrogation records of the ICD showed five ventricular tachyarrhythmia episodes that corresponded to the "seizure". Further examination revealed incorrect position of the RV-lead. Diagnosis was a provoked epileptic seizure due to undersensing of ventricular tachycardia because of improper ICD lead implantation in the coronary sinus. Treatment consisted of implantation of a new device with an additional ICD lead into the right ventricle.

  8. [Full dental rehabilitation of a patient with implantable cardioverter defibrillator].

    PubMed

    Imre, Ildikó; Tóth, Zsuzsanna

    2012-06-01

    During dental rehabilitation of a patient with ICD, an upper telescope retained overdenture with acrylic baseplate and lower cantilever bridges were constructed. In the consultation following the anamnesis and the clinical examination, the cardiologist did not believe antibiotic profilaxis to be necessary, adding that it is advisable to avoid the use of ultrasonic depurator and electrocauter. Nowadays after saving the life the improving of patient's better quality of life is an important aspect. The risk of ICD-implantation is minimal however, not negligible, the patient can pursue a way of life free of limitation. According to the latest trends, the number of ICD-implantations will increase exponentially in the near future, due to the aging of the population, the simplification and safeness of implantation and the increase of patients who can be treated with the device. In case of arritmia or putative dysfunction, the latest ICD-s are able to send emergency alert to the arritmia centre with the help of an outer transmitter. Probably the system will completely change the follow-up of patients with ICD within the next few years, clinical researches of its efficiency are going on at present.

  9. Outcomes of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Use in Patients With Comorbidities

    PubMed Central

    Steinberg, Benjamin A.; Al-Khatib, Sana M.; Edwards, Rex; Han, JooYoon; Bardy, Gust H.; Bigger, Thomas J.; Buxton, Alfred E.; Moss, Arthur J.; Lee, Kerry L.; Steinman, Richard; Dorian, Paul; Hallstrom, Alfred; Cappato, Riccardo; Kadish, Alan H.; Kudenchuk, Peter J.; Mark, Daniel B.; Inoue, Lurdes Y.T.; Sanders, Gillian D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine if the benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) is modulated by medical comorbidity. Background Primary prevention ICDs improve survival in patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. Their benefit in patients with significant comorbid illness has not been demonstrated. Methods Original, patient-level datasets from MADIT I (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial I), MADIT II, DEFINITE (Defibrillators in Non-Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Treatment Evaluation), and SCD-HeFT (Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial) were combined. Patients in the combined population (N = 3,348) were assessed with respect to the following comorbidities: smoking, pulmonary disease, diabetes, peripheral vascular disease, atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, and chronic kidney disease. The primary outcome was overall mortality, using the hazard ratio (HR) of time to death for patients receiving an ICD versus no ICD by extent of medical comorbidity, and adjusted for age, sex, race, left ventricular ejection fraction, use of antiarrhythmic drugs, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. Results Overall, 25% of patients (n = 830) had <2 comorbid conditions versus 75% (n = 2,518) with significant comorbidity (≥2). The unadjusted hazard of death for patients with an ICD versus no ICD was significantly lower, but this effect was less for patients with ≥2 comorbidities (unadjusted HR: 0.71; 95% confidence interval: 0.61 to 0.84) compared with those with <2 comorbidities (unadjusted HR: 0.59; 95% confidence interval: 0.40 to 0.87). After adjustment, the benefit of an ICD decreased with increasing number of comorbidities (p = 0.004). Conclusions Patients with extensive comorbid medical illnesses may experience less benefit from primary prevention ICDs than those with less comorbidity; implantation should be carefully considered in sick patients. Further study of ICDs in medically complex

  10. Safety of Electromagnetic Articulography in Patients with Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joglar, Jose A.; Nguyen, Carol; Garst, Diane M.; Katz, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: "Electromagnetic articulography (EMA)" uses a helmet to create alternating magnetic fields for tracking speech articulator movement. An important safety consideration is whether EMA magnetic fields interfere with the operation of speakers' pacemakers or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). In this investigation,…

  11. Safety of Electromagnetic Articulography in Patients with Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joglar, Jose A.; Nguyen, Carol; Garst, Diane M.; Katz, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: "Electromagnetic articulography (EMA)" uses a helmet to create alternating magnetic fields for tracking speech articulator movement. An important safety consideration is whether EMA magnetic fields interfere with the operation of speakers' pacemakers or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). In this investigation,…

  12. iPad2(R) use in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators causes electromagnetic interference: the EMIT Study.

    PubMed

    Kozik, Teri M; Chien, Gianna; Connolly, Therese F; Grewal, Gurinder S; Liang, David; Chien, Walter

    2014-04-10

    Over 140 million iPads(®) have been sold worldwide. The iPad2(®), with magnets embedded in its frame and Smart Cover and 3G cellular data capability, can potentially cause electromagnetic interference in implantable cardioverter defibrillators. This can lead to potentially life-threatening situations in patients. The goal of this study was to determine whether the iPad2(®) can cause electromagnetic interference in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Twenty-seven patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators were studied. The iPad2(®) was held at reading distance and placed directly over the device with cellular data capability activated and deactivated. The manufacturers/models of devices and the patients' body mass index were noted. The presence of electromagnetic interference was detected by using a programmer supplied by each manufacturer. Magnet mode with suspension of anti-tachycardia therapy was triggered in 9 (33%) patients. All occurred when the iPad2(®) was placed directly over the device. The cellular data status did not cause interference and no noise or oversensing was noted. There was no significant difference between the mean body mass index of the groups with or without interference. The iPad2(®) can trigger magnet mode in implantable cardioverter defibrillators when laid directly over the device. This is potentially dangerous if patients should develop life-threatening arrhythmias at the same time. As new electronic products that use magnets are produced, the potential risk to patients with implantable defibrillators needs to be addressed.

  13. Optimal Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Programming.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bindi K

    2016-11-17

    Optimal programming of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) is essential to appropriately treat ventricular tachyarrhythmias and to avoid unnecessary and inappropriate shocks. There have been a series of large clinical trials evaluating tailored programming of ICDs. We reviewed the clinical trials evaluating ICD therapies and detection, as well as the consensus statement on ICD programming. In so doing, we found that prolonged ICD detection times, higher rate cutoffs, and antitachycardia pacing programming decreases inappropriate and painful therapies in a primary prevention population. The use of supraventricular tachyarrhythmia discriminators can also decrease inappropriate shocks. Tailored ICD programming using the knowledge gained from recent ICD trials can decrease inappropriate and unnecessary ICD therapies, and decrease mortality.

  14. Optimal Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Programming.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bindi K

    Optimal programming of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) is essential to appropriately treat ventricular tachyarrhythmias and to avoid unnecessary and inappropriate shocks. There have been a series of large clinical trials evaluating tailored programming of ICDs. We reviewed the clinical trials evaluating ICD therapies and detection, and the consensus statement on ICD programming. In doing so, we found that prolonged ICD detection times, higher rate cutoffs, and antitachycardia pacing (ATP) programming decreases inappropriate and painful therapies in a primary prevention population. The use of supraventricular tachyarrhythmia discriminators can also decrease inappropriate shocks. Tailored ICD programming using the knowledge gained from recent ICD trials can decrease inappropriate and unnecessary ICD therapies and decrease mortality.

  15. Echocardiographic parameters to predict inadequate defibrillation safety margin in patients receiving implantable cardioverter defibrillators for primary prevention.

    PubMed

    Jain, Sachin Kumar Amruthlal; Ghanbari, Hamid; Hourani, Rayan; Larsen, Timothy R; Daccarett, Marcos; Machado, Christian

    2013-06-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have become an important part of the management of patients with congestive heart failure. At the time of ICD implantation, ventricular fibrillation (VF) is induced to assess adequate energy required for defibrillation. There are multiple parameters which influence the defibrillation safety margin (DSM); however, these factors are not well-established when ICDs are implanted for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with severe systolic dysfunction. We evaluated multiple clinical and echocardiographic parameters as predictors of adequate DSM in patients referred for ICD implantation for the primary prevention of SCD. We prospectively enrolled 41 patients for ICD implantation with clinical indications for the primary prevention of SCD. Two blinded independent readers evaluated the prespecified echocardiographic parameters. These included left ventricular (LV) mass, indices of right ventricular and LV systolic and diastolic functions, and LV geometric dimensions. Basic clinical demographics, including age, gender, comorbidities, and etiology of cardiomyopathy, were also evaluated. DSM was established using our standard protocol for defibrillation testing which includes VF with successful first shock terminating VF at a value at least 10 J below the maximum output of the implanted device. High defibrillation thresholds (DFT) were defined as >21 J. The mean age is 61.8 ± 14.7 years, with men comprising the majority of the patients (73 %). The only clinical variables which predicted the high DFT were age (in years) (54.5 ± 17.5 vs. 65.7 ± 11.3, p = 0.044), QRS duration (in milliseconds) (116.0 ± 29.5 vs. 110.5 ± 21.8, p = 0.03), LV mass (in grams) (241.0 ± 77.9 vs. 181.9 ± 52.3, p = 0.006), and LV mass index (in grams per square meter) (111.1 ± 38.2 vs. 86.4 ± 21.1, p = 0.02). On multivariate logistic regression analysis, LV mass was

  16. National experience with long-term use of the wearable cardioverter defibrillator in patients with cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Lamichhane, Madhab; Gardiner, Joseph C; Bianco, Nicole R; Szymkiewicz, Steven J; Thakur, Ranjan K

    2017-01-01

    The wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) is generally used for short periods of sudden cardiac death (SCD) risk; circumstances may occasionally result in prolonged use (over 1 year). The aim of this study was to determine the benefits and risks of prolonged use in patients with systolic heart failure (HF). ZOLL's post-market US database included adult patients (≥18 years) with ischemic and/or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM, NICM) and at least 1 year of use. Cox-regression was used to identify factors associated with survival with WCD use, and reasons for stopping use were entered as time-dependent factors. Among 220 patients, age (mean ± SD) 55.4 ± 14.8 years, WCD use 451.4 ± 289.9 days, and 67.3 % were male and their left ventricle ejection fraction (EF) averaged 20.9 ± 7.2 %. Eighty-nine (40.5 %) were continuing WCD use at the last follow-up. Thirty-six (16.4 %) and 56 (25.5 %) patients discontinued WCD use because of EF recovery and implantable cardioverter (ICD) implantation, respectively. Nine patients (4.1 %) received appropriate shock therapy for 13 episodes of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmia with 12 (92.3 %) successful shocks. One patient died of refractory ventricular fibrillation. One patient died from sinus bradycardia transitioning to asystole. Eight patients (3.6 %) had nine episodes of non-fatal inappropriate shocks. Long-term use of the WCD is safe and effective. Recovery of EF was seen in significant number of patients even after 1 year of WCD use.

  17. Clinical Course After Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation: Chagasic Versus Ischemic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Francisca Tatiana Moreira; Rocha, Eduardo Arrais; Monteiro, Marcelo de Paula Martins; Lima, Neiberg de Alcantara; Rodrigues Sobrinho, Carlos Roberto Martins; Pires Neto, Roberto da Justa

    2016-01-01

    Background: The outcome of Chagas disease patients after receiving implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is still controversial. Objective: To compare clinical outcomes after ICD implantation in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). Methods: Prospective study of a population of 153 patients receiving ICD (65 with CCC and 88 with IHD). The devices were implanted between 2003 and 2011. Survival rates and event-free survival were compared. Results: The groups were similar regarding sex, functional class and ejection fraction. Ischemic patients were, on average, 10 years older than CCC patients (p < 0.05). Patients with CCC had lower schooling and monthly income than IHD patients (p < 0.05). The number of appropriate therapies was 2.07 higher in CCC patients, who had a greater incidence of appropriate shock (p < 0.05). Annual mortality rate and electrical storm incidence were similar in both groups. There was no sudden death in CCC patients, and only one in IHD patients. Neither survival time (p = 0.720) nor event-free survival (p = 0.143) significantly differed between the groups. Conclusion: CCC doubles the risk of receiving appropriate therapies as compared to IHD, showing the greater complexity of arrhythmias in Chagas patients. PMID:27411097

  18. Risk stratification for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy: the role of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Klein, Helmut U; Goldenberg, Ilan; Moss, Arthur J

    2013-08-01

    The benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy depends upon appropriate evaluation of a persisting risk of sudden death and estimation of the patient's overall survival. Assessment of a stable and unchangeable arrhythmogenic substrate is often difficult. Structural abnormality and ventricular dysfunction, the two major risk parameters, may recover, and heart failure symptoms can improve so that ICD therapy may not be indicated. Risk stratification can take time while the patient continues to be at high risk of arrhythmic death, and patients may need temporary bridging by a defibrillator in cases of interrupted ICD therapy. The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) combines a long-term electrocardiogram (ECG)-monitoring system with an external automatic defibrillator. The LIfeVest® (ZOLL, Pittsburgh, PA, USA) is composed of a garment, containing two defibrillation patch electrodes on the back, and an elastic belt with a front-defibrillation patch electrode and four non-adhesive ECG electrodes, connected to a monitoring and defibrillation unit. The WCD is a safe and effective tool to terminate ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation events, unless a conscious patient withholds shock delivery. It may be used in patients in the early phase after acute myocardial infarction with poor left ventricular function, after acute coronary revascularization procedures (percutaneous coronary intervention or coronary artery bypass grafting) and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (≤35%), in patients with acute heart failure in non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy of uncertain aetiology and prognosis. The WCD may be helpful in subjects with syncope of assumed tachyarrhythmia origin or in patients with inherited arrhythmia syndromes. The WCD may replace ICD implantation in patients waiting for heart transplantation or who need a ventricular-assist device. This review describes the technical details and characteristics of the WCD, discusses its

  19. [Sexual activity in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients included in cardiac rehabilitation].

    PubMed

    Maroto-Montero, José María; Maroto-de Pablo, Marta; Starling-Duarte, Juan; Prados-Cabiedas, Carolina; Villahoz-Garcia, Carmen; Cabrero-Soblechero, Lara; Sánchez-Corbal, Marta; Valverde-Dos Anjos, Belén; Muñoz-Sanjuan, Yésica

    2017-08-25

    Analysis of the effects of a Cardiac Rehabilitation Program (CRP) on life quality and sexual activity levels, in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Twenty-five patients (22 men and 3 women) were included in the study consisting in the analysis of the existence of defibrillator discharges, its repercussion on the couple and the effects of CRP on physical and psychological aspects and on sexual activity (SA). Patient mean age was 55years (22 to 79). Initially, fear for device discharges was present in all patients. On arrival, 14 patients (56%) did not have SA: 2 with ages of 69 and 79years; a woman due to severe anxiety; an alcoholic man, and 10 because the ICD had been implanted less than 1month before. Nine men and two women had restarted SA: 5 of them 5-52months after the implantation and the other 6, 30days after implantation of the ICD while attending the CRP. At the end of the study, 21 patients had regain SA. Two men had clinical signs of depression and anxiety, one requiring specialized treatment. Functional capacity improved significantly, 6.5±3.0METs at the beginning of the program and 9.2±3.3MRTs at the end, with P<.005. There was only one inappropriate discharge. Discharges caused by newest devices have dropped significantly. This fact, together with the action of CRP at physical, psychological and informative levels, makes it possible to control the dysfunctions in life quality and sexuality in patients. Copyright © 2017 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  20. Benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy after generator replacement in patients with Brugada syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ju Youn; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Sung Su; Lee, Ki Hong; Park, Hyung-Wook; Cho, Jeong-Gwan; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Joung, Boyoung; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Park, Seung-Jung; On, Young Keun; Kim, June Soo; Lim, Hong Euy; Shim, Jaemin; Choi, Jong-Il; Park, Sang Weon; Kim, Young-Hoon; Lee, Woo Seok; Kim, Jun; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Choi, Kee-Joon; Kim, You-Ho; Oh, Yong-Seog; Lee, Man-Young; Rho, Tai-Ho

    2015-01-01

    An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is the only proven effective therapeutic strategy for patients with Brugada syndrome (BS). However, it is controversial whether the device should be replaced even in patients who had never experienced appropriate ICD therapy until the time of generator replacement. This was a nationwide, multicenter retrospective study that enrolled patients who were diagnosed with BS and had an ICD implantation between January 1998 and April 2014. Appropriate ICD therapies administered for ventricular tachyarrhythmia were evaluated during follow-up. A total of 117 patients (age 43 ± 12 years, male 115 [98.3%]) were enrolled, and the mean follow-up duration was 6.0 ± 4.1 years. Thirty-seven (31.6%) patients had experienced appropriate ICD therapy during follow-up. Of all patients, 46 underwent replacement of the device. After the first generator replacement, the incidence of appropriate ICD therapy remained as high as 65.2% in patients who previously experienced appropriate ICD therapy before generator replacement. In 30 patients who did not experience any cardiac events until the first generator change, two (8.7%) had an episode of appropriate ICD therapy afterwards. No episode of ICD therapy before generator replacement could not guarantee a safe clinical course. ICD generator replacement should be considered even in patients without ICD therapy before. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Catheter ablation for ventricular tachycardia in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (CALYPSO) pilot trial.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Sana M; Daubert, James P; Anstrom, Kevin J; Daoud, Emile G; Gonzalez, Mario; Saba, Samir; Jackson, Kevin P; Reece, Tammy; Gu, Joan; Pokorney, Sean D; Granger, Christopher B; Hess, Paul L; Mark, Daniel B; Stevenson, William G

    2015-02-01

    We conducted this pilot randomized clinical trial to determine the feasibility of a large clinical trial aimed at testing whether early use of catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) is superior to antiarrhythmic medications at reducing mortality. Patients were enrolled at 4 sites if they had ischemic heart disease, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), and received ≥1 ICD shock or ≥3 antitachycardia pacing therapies for VT. Patients were randomized to 2 arms: (1) antiarrhythmic medication (n = 14) and (2) catheter ablation (n = 13); patients were followed at 3 and 6 months. Endpoints included recurrent VT, time to first ICD therapy for VT, and death. Of 243 screened patients, 27 were enrolled. Main reasons for screen failures were: (1) patient was already on an antiarrhythmic medication (88 [41%]), (2) VT due to a reversible cause (23 [11%]), and (3) incessant VT (20 [9%]). Fourteen patients had recurrent VT, 8 (62%) in the ablation arm and 6 (43%) in the antiarrhythmic medication arm. Median time to recurrent VT was 75 days (25th, 75th: 51, 89) in the ablation arm and 57 days (30, 145) in the antiarrhythmic arm. Four patients died, 2 in each arm. This clinical trial shows that most patients in clinical practice have already failed antiarrhythmic drug therapy before catheter ablation is considered, and the VT recurrence rates and death in these patients are high. For a large clinical trial to be feasible, factors limiting early consideration of catheter ablation need to be identified and addressed. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Do abandoned leads pose risk to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients?

    PubMed

    Glikson, Michael; Suleiman, Mahmoud; Luria, David M; Martin, Marjorie L; Hodge, David O; Shen, Win-Kuang; Bradley, David J; Munger, Thomas M; Rea, Robert F; Hayes, David L; Hammill, Stephen C; Friedman, Paul A

    2009-01-01

    With the increased number of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) recipients and the frequent need for device upgrading, lead malfunction is a concern, but the optimal approach to managing nonfunctioning leads is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and characteristics of complications related to abandoned ICD leads. Patients with abandoned leads were identified by retrospective review of the Mayo Clinic ICD database from August 1993 to May 2002. We reviewed the medical records to assess long-term follow-up for venous thromboembolic complications, device sensing malfunction, appropriateness of delivered shocks, defibrillation threshold (DFT) values before and after lead abandonment, and subsequent surgical procedures related to devices or leads. We identified 78 ICD patients (81% males; mean age 63 +/- 14 years) with 101 abandoned leads (69 in the right ventricle, 31 in the right atrium or superior vena cava, 1 in the coronary sinus). During a mean follow-up of 3.1 +/- 2.0 years, neither sensing malfunction nor venous thromboembolic complications were detected. DFT values were high in 13 patients (17%), but there was no significant increase in mean DFT values before and after lead abandonment in 43 patients for whom both values were available (16.2 +/- 9.2 J before abandonment vs 14.1 +/- 5.5 J after; P = .24). Fourteen patients (18%) required further ICD-related surgery; none of these operations were attributed to abandoned leads. Five-year rates of appropriate and inappropriate shocks were 25.9% and 20.5%, respectively. Abandoning a nonfunctioning lead appears to be safe and does not pose a clinically significant additional risk of future complications.

  3. Nontraditional implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement in adult patients with limited venous access: a case series.

    PubMed

    Bhakta, Mayurkumar; Obioha, Chedozie C; Sorajja, Dan; Srivathsan, Komadoor; Arabia, Francisco A; Devaleria, Patrick A; Jaroszewski, Dawn E; Scott, Luis R; Altemose, Gregory T

    2010-02-01

    Conventional transvenous approaches for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) lead placement are not possible in some patients with limited venous access or severe tricuspid valve dysfunction. We retrospectively identified six patients who underwent ICD placement or revision requiring nontraditional alternative surgical lead placement at our institution between November 2006 and August 2008. The baseline and operative patient characteristic data were accumulated and reviewed. All the patients (mean age 71 +/- 3.4 years) underwent nontraditional surgical placement of epicardial ICD leads and traditional placement of ventricular epicardial bipolar pacing/sensing leads. Five patients had the distal lead tip fixed to the anterior epicardium of the right ventricular outflow tract, which was then looped under and around the ventricles, forming a "sling," and tunneled to a left subclavicular pocket. One patient had a single unipolar subcutaneous array lead fashioned into a "loop" and placed under the inferior aspect of the ventricles. The average procedure time was 311 +/- 115 minutes with a mean defibrillatory threshold (DFT) of < or = 22 + 3 J. Post-procedure hospitalization was 9.3 +/- 4.4 days and no device-related complications were encountered. Mean device follow-up of 451 + 330 days showed normal function and two appropriate successful ICD discharges. Nontraditional alternative surgical methods for the placement of ICD systems in adult patients with limited venous access or TV dysfunction can achieve results similar to those of conventionally placed endovascular leads with limited complications and comparable DFTs in short-term follow-up.

  4. Longitudinal study of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: methods and clinical characteristics of patients receiving implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for primary prevention in contemporary practice.

    PubMed

    Masoudi, Frederick A; Go, Alan S; Magid, David J; Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E; Doris, Jonathan M; Fiocchi, Frances; Garcia-Montilla, Romel; Glenn, Karen A; Goldberg, Robert J; Gupta, Nigel; Gurwitz, Jerry H; Hammill, Stephen C; Hayes, John J; Jackson, Nathaniel; Kadish, Alan; Lauer, Michael; Miller, Aaron W; Multerer, Deborah; Peterson, Pamela N; Reifler, Liza M; Reynolds, Kristi; Saczynski, Jane S; Schuger, Claudio; Sharma, Param P; Smith, David H; Suits, Mary; Sung, Sue Hee; Varosy, Paul D; Vidaillet, Humberto J; Greenlee, Robert T

    2012-11-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are increasingly used for primary prevention after randomized, controlled trials demonstrating that they reduce the risk of death in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction. The extent to which the clinical characteristics and long-term outcomes of unselected, community-based patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction undergoing primary prevention ICD implantation in a real-world setting compare with those enrolled in the randomized, controlled trials is not well characterized. This study is being conducted to address these questions. The study cohort includes consecutive patients undergoing primary prevention ICD placement between January 1, 2006 and December 31, 2009 in 7 health plans. Baseline clinical characteristics were acquired from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD Registry. Longitudinal data collection is underway, and will include hospitalization, mortality, and resource use from standardized health plan data archives. Data regarding ICD therapies will be obtained through chart abstraction and adjudicated by a panel of experts in device therapy. Compared with the populations of primary prevention ICD therapy randomized, controlled trials, the cohort (n=2621) is on average significantly older (by 2.5-6.5 years), more often female, more often from racial and ethnic minority groups, and has a higher burden of coexisting conditions. The cohort is similar, however, to a national population undergoing primary prevention ICD placement. Patients undergoing primary prevention ICD implantation in this study differ from those enrolled in the randomized, controlled trials that established the efficacy of ICDs. Understanding a broad range of health outcomes, including ICD therapies, will provide patients, clinicians, and policy makers with contemporary data to inform decision-making.

  5. Safety of the Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillator (WCD) in Patients with Implanted Pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Schmitt, Joern; Abaci, Guezine; Johnson, Victoria; Erkapic, Damir; Gemein, Christopher; Chasan, Ritvan; Weipert, Kay; Hamm, Christian W; Klein, Helmut U

    2017-03-01

    The wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) is an important approach for better risk stratification, applied to patients considered to be at high risk of sudden arrhythmic death. Patients with implanted pacemakers may also become candidates for use of the WCD. However, there is a potential risk that pacemaker signals may mislead the WCD detection algorithm and cause inappropriate WCD shock delivery. The aim of the study was to test the impact of different types of pacing, various right ventricular (RV) lead positions, and pacing modes for potential misleading of the WCD detection algorithm. Sixty patients with implanted pacemakers received the WCD for a short time and each pacing mode (AAI, VVI, and DDD) was tested for at least 30 seconds in unipolar and bipolar pacing configuration. In case of triggering the WCD detection algorithm and starting the sequence of arrhythmia alarms, shock delivery was prevented by pushing of the response buttons. In six of 60 patients (10%), continuous unipolar pacing in DDD mode triggered the WCD detection algorithm. In no patient, triggering occurred with bipolar DDD pacing, unipolar and bipolar AAI, and VVI pacing. Triggering was independent of pacing amplitude, RV pacing lead position, and pulse generator implantation site. Unipolar DDD pacing bears a high risk of false triggering of the WCD detection algorithm. Other types of unipolar pacing and all bipolar pacing modes do not seem to mislead the WCD detection algorithm. Therefore, patients with no reprogrammable unipolar DDD pacing should not become candidates for the WCD. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging safety in pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients: how far have we come?

    PubMed Central

    Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Ritter, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been regarded a general contraindication in patients with cardiovascular implanted electronic devices such as cardiac pacemakers or cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) due to the risk of severe complications and even deaths caused by interactions of the magnetic resonance (MR) surrounding and the electric devices. Over the last decade, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for such potentially life-threatening complications as well as technical advances have allowed an increasing number of pacemaker and ICD patients to safely undergo MRI. This review lists the key findings from basic research and clinical trials over the last 20 years, and discusses the impact on current day clinical practice. With ‘MR-conditional’ devices being the new standard of care, MRI in pacemaker and ICD patients has been adopted to clinical routine today. However, specific precautions and specifications of these devices should be carefully followed if possible, to avoid patient risks which might appear with new MR technology and further increasing indications and patient numbers. PMID:25796053

  7. Treatment of patients with cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators during radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Solan, Amy N; Solan, Merrill J; Bednarz, Greg; Goodkin, Michael B

    2004-07-01

    To define the practical clinical guidelines that can be implemented by busy radiation oncology departments to minimize the risk of harm to patients with implanted cardiac pacemaker (ICP) and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) devices during radiotherapy. A literature review was conducted to identify the mechanism of potential damage to ICPs and ICDs from exposure to electromagnetic interference and/or ionizing radiation and to assess the published evidence of such device malfunction or failure. Recommendations for patient management were obtained from three major manufacturers. Eighty-seven radiation oncology facilities across the United States and Canada were contacted to determine current practice patterns; 75 centers responded. The published documentation of potential life-threatening malfunction of ICP and ICD devices exposed to electromagnetic interference and ionizing radiation is considerable. However, major discrepancies exist among manufacturer recommendations and wide variations are present among radiation oncology facilities regarding patient management precautions. Precautions are necessary to minimize the risk to patients with ICP and ICD devices during radiotherapy. Practical management guidelines are presented that can be readily adopted by any busy clinical radiation oncology practice.

  8. No Electromagnetic Interference Occurred in a Patient with a HeartMate II Left Ventricular Assist System and a Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Ajay Sundara; Kar, Biswajit; Loyalka, Pranav; Hariharan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    The use of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators is a novel option for preventing arrhythmia-mediated cardiac death in patients who are at risk of endovascular-device infection or in whom venous access is difficult. However, the potential for electromagnetic interference between subcutaneous defibrillators and left ventricular assist devices is largely unknown. We report the case of a 24-year-old man in whom we observed no electromagnetic interference between a subcutaneous implanted cardioverter-defibrillator and a HeartMate II Left Ventricular Assist System, at 3 different pump speeds. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such findings in this circumstance. PMID:27127441

  9. No Electromagnetic Interference Occurred in a Patient with a HeartMate II Left Ventricular Assist System and a Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Raman, Ajay Sundara; Shabari, Farshad Raissi; Kar, Biswajit; Loyalka, Pranav; Hariharan, Ramesh

    2016-04-01

    The use of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators is a novel option for preventing arrhythmia-mediated cardiac death in patients who are at risk of endovascular-device infection or in whom venous access is difficult. However, the potential for electromagnetic interference between subcutaneous defibrillators and left ventricular assist devices is largely unknown. We report the case of a 24-year-old man in whom we observed no electromagnetic interference between a subcutaneous implanted cardioverter-defibrillator and a HeartMate II Left Ventricular Assist System, at 3 different pump speeds. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such findings in this circumstance.

  10. Association between patient activity and long-term cardiac death in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Shuang; Chen, Keping; Su, Yangang; Hua, Wei; Chen, Silin; Liang, Zhaoguang; Xu, Wei; Dai, Yan; Liu, Zhimin; Fan, Xiaohan; Hou, Cuihong; Zhang, Shu

    2017-05-01

    Background Patient activity (PA) has been demonstrated to predict all-cause mortality. However, the association between PA and cardiac death is unclear. Aims The aims of this study were to determine whether PA can predict cardiac death and what is the cut-off of PA to discriminate cardiac death, as well as the mechanism underlying the relationship between PA and survival in patients with home monitoring. Methods This study retrospectively analysed clinical and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator device data in 845 patients. Data regarding PA and PP variability during the first 30-60 days of home monitoring were collected, and mean values were calculated. The primary endpoint was cardiac death, and the secondary endpoint was all-cause mortality. Results The mean PA percentage was 11 ± 5.8%. Based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, we determined that a PA cut-off value of 7.84% (113 min) can predict cardiac death. During a mean follow-up period of 31.1 ± 12.9 months (ranging from three to 60 months), PA ≤ 7.84% was associated with increased risks of cardiac death in an unadjusted analysis; after adjusting in a multivariate Cox model, the relationship remained significant between PA≤7.84% and cardiac death (hazard ratio = 3.644, 95% confidence interval = 2.424-5.477, p < 0.001). Moreover, a significant correlation was observed between PA and PP variability ( r = 0.601, p < 0.001). Conclusions A baseline PA ≤ 7.84% was associated with a higher risk of cardiac death in patients who have survived more than three months after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator implantation. PA had a sizable effect on heart rate variability, reflecting autonomic function.

  11. Radiotherapy in patients with pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Zaremba, Tomas; Jakobsen, Annette Ross; Søgaard, Mette; Thøgersen, Anna Margrethe; Riahi, Sam

    2016-04-01

    An increasing number of patients with implantable cardiac rhythm devices undergo radiotherapy (RT) for cancer and are thereby exposed to the risk of device failure. Current safety recommendations seem to have limitations by not accounting for the risk of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators malfunctioning at low radiation doses. Besides scant knowledge about optimal safety measures, only little is known about the exact prevalence of patients with devices undergoing RT. In this review, we provide a short overview of the principles of RT and present the current evidence on the predictors and mechanisms of device malfunctions during RT. We also summarize practical recommendations from recent publications and from the industry. Strongly associated with beam energy of photon RT, device malfunctions occur at ∼3% of RT courses, posing a substantial issue in clinical practice. Malfunctions described in the literature typically consist of transient software disturbances and only seldom manifest as a permanent damage of the device. Through close cooperation between cardiologists and oncologists, a tailored individualized approach might be necessary in this patient group in waiting time for updated international guidelines in the field. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Outcomes of single- or dual-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator systems in Japanese patients

    PubMed Central

    Ueda, Akiko; Oginosawa, Yasushi; Soejima, Kyoko; Abe, Haruhiko; Kohno, Ritsuko; Ohe, Hisaharu; Momose, Yuichi; Nagaoka, Mika; Matsushita, Noriko; Hoshida, Kyoko; Miwa, Yosuke; Miyakoshi, Mutsumi; Togashi, Ikuko; Maeda, Akiko; Sato, Toshiaki; Yoshino, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Background There are no criteria for selecting single- or dual-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in patients without a pacing indication. Recent reports showed no benefit of the dual-chamber system despite its preference in the United States. As data on ICD selection and respective outcomes in Japanese patients are scarce, we investigated trends regarding single- and dual-chamber ICD usage in Japan. Methods Data from a total of 205 ICD recipients with structural heart disease (median age, 63 years) in two Japanese university hospitals were reviewed. Patients with bradycardia with a pacing indication and permanent atrial fibrillation at implantation were excluded. Results Single- and dual-chamber ICDs were implanted in 36 (18%) and 169 (82%) patients, respectively. Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy dominated both groups. Seventeen dual-chamber patients developed atrial pacing-dependency over 4.5 years, and it developed immediately after implantation in 14. Although preoperative testing showed no sign of bradycardia in these patients, their pacing rate was set higher than it was in patients who were pacing-independent (61 vs. 46 paces per min, p<0.01). Two single-chamber patients (5%) underwent atrial lead insertion. While inappropriate shock equally occurred in both groups (7 vs. 21 patients, single- vs. dual-chamber, P=0.285), device-related infection occurred only in dual-chamber patients (0 vs. 9 patients, P=0.155). No differences in death or heart failure hospitalization were observed between groups. Conclusions Dual-chamber ICDs were four-fold more common in Japanese patients without a pacing indication. No benefit over single-chamber ICD was observed. Newly developed atrial pacing-dependency seemed to be limited and could have been overestimated due to higher pacing rate settings in dual-chamber patients. PMID:27092188

  13. Depression and anxiety status of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator and precipitating factors.

    PubMed

    Bilge, Ahmet Kaya; Ozben, Beste; Demircan, Sabri; Cinar, Mutlu; Yilmaz, Ercument; Adalet, Kamil

    2006-06-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are life-saving devices in treatment of life-threatening arrhythmia. We evaluate the emotional status of Turkish patients with ICD and try to explain factors that affect emotional status of the patients. Ninety-one patients with previously implanted ICD were included in the study. Follow-up periods, presence of ICD shock, shock frequency, time of the recent shock, age, and gender were noted. Depression and anxiety scores were evaluated according to Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) chart. Mean anxiety and depression scores were found as 9.1 +/- 5.3 and 7.2 +/- 5.1, respectively. According to HAD charts, 42 patients (46%) had anxiety and 37 patients (41%) had depression. Depression scores indicated significant difference between subgroups divided on the basis of follow-up periods (P = 0.026) and on the basis of time of recent shock (P = 0.028). There was significant difference in anxiety scores (P = 0.016) between patients with ICD shocks and patients with no shocks. When the patients were divided into subgroups according to shock frequency, both depression (P = 0.024) and anxiety (P = 0.016) scores presented significant difference. In female patients, depression and anxiety scores were found significantly higher compared to male patients (P = 0.046 and P = 0.016, respectively). In multivariate analysis, gender and shock frequency were found as predictors for anxiety scores (P = 0.019 and P = 0.044, respectively). However same analysis revealed no predictive factor for depression score. Our study indicates presence of depression and anxiety in nearly half of the patients with ICD. Consultation with psychiatry should be a part of the treatment for patients with ICD, especially for those who constitute high-risk groups.

  14. Adjunctive antiarrhythmic drug therapy in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-González, Ignacio; Dos-Subirá, Laura; Guyatt, Gordon H

    2007-02-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of adjunctive antiarrhythmic drug therapy for preventing implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapies. We conducted a systematic literature search to identify all randomized, controlled trials assessing the efficacy of adjunctive antiarrhythmic drug therapy. Trial data were reviewed and extracted independently by two investigators in an unblinded, standardized manner. Eight trials including a total of 1889 patients were analysed. There was heterogeneity in the type of antiarrhythmic used in the treatment arm (amiodarone, sotalol, azimilide, and dofetilide) as well as in the control group (five trials compared with placebo and three trials compared with beta-blocker). The main outcome, risk of shock therapy, was reduced when comparing amiodarone plus beta-blocker with beta-blocker alone (HR 0.27; 95% CI 0.14-0.52) and when comparing sotalol with placebo (HR 0.55; 95% CI 0.4-0.78). The effect was not conclusive when comparing sotalol with other beta-blocker (HR 0.61; 95% CI 0.37-1) and azimilide or dofetilide with placebo (HR 0.78; 95% CI 0.58-1.04 and HR 0.67; 95% CI 0.43-1.04, respectively). Although there were some benefits for secondary outcomes in all antiarrhythmics, the magnitude of the benefit was higher with amiodarone. Amiodarone is the most effective treatment to reduce ICD shock therapies. The benefit of other antiarrhythmics is limited to secondary outcomes.

  15. Association between Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety with Heart Rate Variability in Patients with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Jennifer L.; Weinstein, Ali A.; Krantz, David S.; Haigney, Mark C.; Stein, Phyllis K.; Stone, Peter H.; Gottdiener, John S.; Kop, Willem J.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Depression and anxiety are associated with autonomic nervous system dysfunction, which may promote the risk of malignant cardiac arrhythmias. This study investigates whether depression and anxiety symptoms are associated with measures of autonomic nervous system dysfunction in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators who are at high risk of cardiac rhythm disturbances. Methods Patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) underwent ambulatory electrocardiographic monitoring (n=44, mean age 62.1 ± 9.3 yrs). Depression was assessed using the Beck Depression Inventory and anxiety using the Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale. Heart rate variability (HRV) was assessed using time (RMSSD, pNN50 and SDNN) and frequency domain measures derived from 24 hour R-R intervals. Multivariate models were adjusted for age, sex, hypertension, diabetes and smoking status. Results Defibrillator patients with elevated depression symptoms (n=12) had significantly lower RMSSD (15.25 ± 1.66 ms, vs. 24.97 ± 2.44, p = 0.002) and pNN50 (1.83 ± 0.77 vs. 5.61 ± 1.04, p = 0.006) than defibrillator patients with low depression symptoms (n=32). These associations remained significant after multivariate adjustment for covariates. ICD patients with high anxiety levels (n=10) displayed lower RMSSD (p = 0.013), which became marginally significant when adjusting for covariates (p = 0.069). Conclusion Depression and anxiety in defibrillator patients are associated with autonomic nervous system dysfunction indices of reduced parasympathetic control. Autonomic nervous system dysfunction may partially explain the association between depression and anxiety with life-threatening cardiac outcomes in vulnerable patients. PMID:19661191

  16. Prognosis after Implantation of Cardioverter-Defibrillators in Korean Patients with Brugada Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Son, Myoung Kyun; Byeon, Kyeongmin; Park, Seung-Jung; Kim, June Soo; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Choi, Kee-Joon; Kim, You-Ho; Park, Sang Weon; Kim, Young-Hoon; Park, Hyung Wook; Cho, Jeong Gwan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Our study aims to analyze prognosis after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation in Korean patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS). Materials and Methods This was a retrospective study of BrS patients implanted with an ICD at one of four centers in Korea between January 1998 and April 2012. Sixty-nine patients (68 males, 1 female) were implanted with an ICD based on aborted cardiac arrest (n=38, 55%), history of syncope (n=17, 25%), or induced ven tricular tachyarrhythmia on electrophysiologic study in asymptomatic patients (n=14, 20%). A family history of sudden cardiac death and a spontaneous type 1 electrocardiography (ECG) were noted in 13 patients (19%) and 44 patients (64%), respectively. Results During a mean follow-up of 59±46 months, 4.6±5.5 appropri ate shocks were delivered in 19 patients (28%). Fourteen patients (20%) experienced 5.2±8.0 inappropriate shocks caused by supraventricular arrhythmia, lead failure, or abnormal sensing. Six patients were admitted for cardiac causes during follow-up, but no cardiac deaths occurred. An episode of aborted cardiac arrest was a significant predictor of appropriate shock, and the composite of cardiac events in the Cox pro portional hazard model [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) was 11.34 (1.31-97.94) and 4.78 (1.41-16.22), respectively]. However, a spontaneous type 1 ECG was not a predictor of cardiac events. Conclusion Appropriate shock (28%) and inappropriate shock (20%) were noted during a mean follow-up of 59±46 months in Korean BrS patients implanted with an ICD. An episode of aborted cardiac ar rest was the most powerful predictor of cardiac events. PMID:24339285

  17. Long-term outcome of patients who received implantable cardioverter defibrillators for stable ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Glikson, Michael; Lipchenca, Igor; Viskin, Sami; Ballman, Karla V; Trusty, Jane M; Gurevitz, Osnat T; Luria, David M; Eldar, Michael; Hammill, Stephen C; Friedman, Paul A

    2004-06-01

    Evidence is inconclusive concerning the role of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) to treat patients with hemodynamically stable ventricular tachycardia (VT). The goal of this study was to estimate future risk of unstable ventricular arrhythmias in patients who received ICDs for stable VT. We reviewed complete ICD follow-up data from 82 patients (age 66.1 +/- 11.3 years; left ventricular ejection fraction 32.3%+/- 11.2%; mean +/- SD) who received ICDs for stable VT. During the follow-up period of 23.6 +/- 21.5 months (mean +/- SD), 15 patients (18%) died, and 10 (12%) developed unstable ventricular arrhythmia, 8 of whom had the unstable arrhythmia as the first arrhythmia after ICD placement. Estimated 2- and 4-year survival in the whole group was 80% and 74%, respectively. Estimated 2- and 4-year probability of any VT and unstable VT was 67% and 77% and 11% and 25%, respectively. There were no differences in age, ejection fraction, sex, underlying heart disease, cycle length, symptoms, baseline electrophysiologic study results, or QRS characteristics of qualifying VT between patients who developed unstable ventricular arrhythmia and patients who did not. Twenty-nine patients (35%) had at least one inappropriate shock, and 11 (13%) underwent further surgery for ICD-related complications. Patients who present with hemodynamically stable VT are at risk for subsequent unstable VT. ICD treatment offers potential salvage of patients with stable VT who subsequently develop unstable VT/ventricular fibrillation, although complications and inappropriate shocks are considerable. No predictors could be found for high and low risk for unstable arrhythmias. These findings support ICD treatment for stable VT survivors.

  18. Implant and clinical characteristics for pediatric and congenital heart patients in the national cardiovascular data registry implantable cardioverter defibrillator registry.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Christopher P; Freedenberg, Vicki; Wang, Yongfei; Curtis, Jeptha P; Gleva, Marye J; Berul, Charles I

    2014-12-01

    In 2010, the National Cardiovascular Data Registry enhanced pediatric, nonatherosclerotic structural heart disease and congenital heart disease (CHD) data collection. This report characterizes CHD and pediatric patients undergoing implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation. In this article, we report implantable cardioverter defibrillator procedures (April 2010 to December 2012) in the registry for 2 cohorts: (1) all patients with CHD (atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, tetralogy of Fallot, Ebstein anomaly, transposition of the great vessels, and common ventricle) and (2) patients <21 years. We evaluated indications and characteristics to include transvenous and nontransvenous lead implants, CHD type, and New York Heart Association class. There were 3139 CHD procedures, 1601 for patients <21 years and 126 for CHD <21 years. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator indications for patients with CHD were primary prevention in 1943 (61.9%) and secondary prevention in 1107 (35.2%). Pediatric patients had 935 (58.4%) primary prevention and 588 (36.7%) secondary prevention devices. Primary prevention had higher New York Heart Association class. Nontransvenous age (35.9 ± 23.2 versus 40.1 ± 24.6 years; P=0.05) and nontransvenous height (167.1 ± 18.9 cm; range, 53-193 cm versus 170.4 ± 13.1 cm; range, 61-203 cm; P<0.01) were lower than for transvenous patients. CHD and pediatrics had similar rates of transvenous (97%) and nontransvenous (3%) leads and did not differ from the overall registry. Transposition of the great vessels and common ventricle had higher rates of nontransvenous leads. Primary prevention exceeds secondary prevention for CHD and pediatrics. Nontransvenous lead patients were younger, with higher rates of transposition of the great vessels and common ventricle patients compared with transvenous lead patients. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Readability and content of patient education material related to implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Strachan, Patricia H; de Laat, Sonya; Carroll, Sandra L; Schwartz, Lisa; Vaandering, Katie; Toor, Gurjit K; Arthur, Heather M

    2012-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are increasingly offered to patients for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Candidates for ICD receive ICD-related patient education material when they make decisions to consent or decline a primary prevention ICD. Printed patient education material directed at ICD candidates has not been the focus of direct appraisal. We evaluated the readability and content of ICD-related print education materials made available to patients who were enrolled in a study involving patient decision making for ICD from 3 ICD sites in southern Ontario, Canada. All ICD print materials referred to during interviews and/or that were available in ICD site waiting rooms were collected for analysis. Readability testing was conducted using the "simple measurement of gobbledygook" and Fry methods. The material was evaluated according to selected plain-language criteria, thematic content analysis, and rhetoric analysis. Twenty-one print materials were identified and analyzed. Documents were authored by device manufacturers, tertiary care hospitals, and cardiac support organizations. Although many documents adhered to plain-language recommendations, text-reading levels were higher than recommended. Twelve major content themes were identified. Content focused heavily on the positive aspects of living with the device to the exclusion of other possible information that could be relevant to the decisions that patients made. Print-based patient education materials for ICD candidates are geared to a highly literate population. The focus on positive information to the exclusion of potentially negative aspects of the ICD, or alternatives to accepting 1, could influence and/or confuse patients about the purpose and implications of this medical device. Development of print materials is indicated that includes information about possible problems and that would be relevant for the multicultural and debilitated population who may require ICDs. The

  20. Readability and Content of Patient Education Material Related to Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, Patricia H.; de Laat, Sonya; Carroll, Sandra L.; Schwartz, Lisa; Vaandering, Katie; Toor, Gurjit K.; Arthur, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are increasingly offered to patients for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Candidates for ICD receive ICD-related patient education material when they make decisions to consent or decline a primary prevention ICD. Printed patient education material directed at ICD candidates has not been the focus of direct appraisal. Objective We evaluated the readability and content of ICD-related print education materials made available to patients who were enrolled in a study involving patient decision making for ICD from 3 ICD sites in southern Ontario, Canada. Methods All ICD print materials referred to during interviews and/or that were available in ICD site waiting rooms were collected for analysis. Readability testing was conducted using the SMOG (“simple measurement of gobbledygook”) and Fry methods. The material was evaluated according to selected plain-language criteria, thematic content analysis, and rhetoric analysis. Results Twenty-one print materials were identified and analyzed. Documents were authored by device manufacturers, tertiary care hospitals, and cardiac support organizations. Although many documents adhered to plain-language recommendations, text-reading levels were higher than recommended. Twelve major content themes were identified. Content focused heavily on the positive aspects of living with the device to the exclusion of other possible information that could be relevant to the decisions that patients made. Conclusions Print-based patient education materials for ICD candidates are geared to a highly literate population. The focus on positive information to the exclusion of potentially negative aspects of the ICD, or alternatives to accepting 1, could influence and/or confuse patients about the purpose and implications of this medical device. Development of print materials is indicated that includes information about possible problems and that would be relevant for the

  1. Association of Physician Certification and Outcomes Among Patients Receiving an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Jeptha P.; Luebbert, Jeffrey J.; Wang, Yongfei; Rathore, Saif S.; Chen, Jersey; Heidenreich, Paul A.; Hammill, Stephen C.; Lampert, Rachel I.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2009-01-01

    Context Allowing nonelectrophysiologists to perform implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) procedures is controversial. However, it is not known whether outcomes of ICD implantation vary by physician specialty. Objective To determine the association of implanting physician certification with outcomes following ICD implantation. Design, Setting, and Patients Retrospective cohort study using cases submitted to the ICD Registry performed between January 2006 and June 2007. Patients were grouped by the certification status of the implanting physician into mutually exclusive categories: electrophysiologists, nonelectrophysiologist cardiologists, thoracic surgeons, and other specialists. Hierarchical logistic regression models were developed to determine the independent association of physician certification with outcomes. Main Outcome Measures In-hospital procedural complication rates and the proportion of patients meeting criteria for a defibrillator with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-D) who received that device. Results Of 111 293 ICD implantations included in the analysis, 78 857 (70.9%) were performed by electrophysiologists, 24 399 (21.9%) by nonelectrophysiologist cardiologists, 1862 (1.7%) by thoracic surgeons, and 6175 (5.5%) by other specialists. Compared with patients whose ICD was implanted by electrophysiologists, patients whose ICD was implanted by either nonelectrophysiologist cardiologists or thoracic surgeons were at increased risk of complications in both unadjusted (electrophysiologists, 3.5% [2743/78 857]; nonelectrophysiologist cardiologists, 4.0% [970/24 399]; thoracic surgeons, 5.8% [108/1862]; P < .001) and adjusted analyses (relative risk [RR] for nonelectrophysiologist cardiologists, 1.11 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01–1.21]; RR for thoracic surgeons, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.15–1.79]). Among 35 841 patients who met criteria for CRT-D, those whose ICD was implanted by physicians other than electrophysiologists were significantly

  2. Determinants and trajectory of phobic anxiety in patients living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Cho, En-Young Nicole; von Känel, Roland; Marten-Mittag, Birgit; Ronel, Joram; Kolb, Christof; Baumert, Jens; Ladwig, Karl-Heinz

    2012-05-01

    The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the gold standard therapy to prevent life-threatening arrhythmias. Phobic anxiety predicts ventricular arrhythmia in coronary heart disease patients, but little is known about phobic anxiety in ICD patients. This study aimed to identify determinants and the course of phobic anxiety in ICD patients. 140 outpatients living with an ICD (mean age 56±14 years, 66% men). Phobic anxiety was assessed with the Symptom Checklist-90 Revised at a mean of 27±21 months (range 3-109) post-ICD placement (baseline) and after an average follow-up of 41±18 months (range 10-82). Multivariate linear regression models considered sociodemographic factors, clinical variables and psychological scales as potential determinants of phobic anxiety scores. ICD patients reported more than 10-fold higher levels of phobic anxiety than a previous representative population survey (2.6±3.4 vs 0.2±0.4). Greater age (p=0.003), previous shock experience (p=0.007), depressed mood (p<0.001) and hypochondriasis (p=0.005) were associated with higher phobic anxiety scores at baseline. Multimorbidity (p=0.030) and higher baseline phobic anxiety (p<0.001) determined greater phobic anxiety at follow-up. Younger age (p=0.029) and an elevated number of non-cardiac diseases (p=0.019) were both associated with an increase in phobic anxiety scores from baseline to follow-up. More patients had high phobic anxiety levels (score >4) at follow-up compared with baseline (31% vs 24%; p=0.048). Phobic anxiety was comparably high and persisted over time in ICD patients. Modifiable determinants of phobic anxiety were identified, which may inform tailored interventions to improve ICD patients' distress and perhaps also prognosis.

  3. Changes in Daily Life of Iranian Patients with implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Pasyar, Nilofar; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Rakhshan, Mahnaz; Nikoo, Mohammad Hossein; Navab, Elham

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Although Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) saves the life of patients with life-threatening ventricular dysrhythmias, it causes various challenges in their life span. Considering the increase in the number of ICD users, more knowledge is required regarding changes in the patients’ life after device implantation. The aim of this study was description of changes in daily life of patients after ICD implantation Methods: This qualitative study was conducted through content analysis method. The participants were selected through purposive sampling. They included 3 women and 9 men whose ages ranged from 24 to 74 years, with the mean age of 42.58+1.55 years. They had implanted ICDs in order to treat life-threatening dysrhythmias. The study data were collected through interview and field notes from November 2013 to October 2014. The data were simultaneously analyzed using constant comparative analysis. Results: Through analysis of the study data, 2 categories were emerged representing dimensions of changes in daily life of the patients with ICD. These categories were changes in the social role and familial challenges after implantation. Change in social role included the following subcategories: “Change in manifestation of routines”, “Shift in leisure time”, “Change in job and education status”, and “Change in interaction between the patient and society members”. In addition, familial challenges after implantation consisted of 2 subcategories, namely “Difficulty in marriage” and “ICD implantation and a range of familial changes”. Conclusion: The study findings can be of great importance in nurses’ clinical practice for providing the patients with holistic care, education, support, and follow-up. They can also be used as a guide assisting clinical treatment of the patients with ICD. PMID:28409167

  4. Survival after primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement among patients with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Hess, Paul L; Hellkamp, Anne S; Peterson, Eric D; Sanders, Gillian D; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Curtis, Lesley H; Hammill, Bradley G; Pun, Patrick H; Curtis, Jeptha P; Anstrom, Kevin J; Hammill, Stephen C; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2014-10-01

    Guidelines recommend that implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) candidates have an estimated longevity of ≥1 year. Longevity can be affected by chronic kidney disease (CKD). Using the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD registry linked with the Social Security Death Master File, we assessed the rate of death after primary prevention ICD placement between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2007, according to CKD stage. Using Cox models, we identified factors associated with death among patients with CKD. Compared with patients without CKD (n=26,056), those with CKD (n=21,226) were older, less commonly men, more often white, and more frequently had comorbid illness. Compared with patients without CKD, patients with a glomerular filtration rate 30 to 60, glomerular filtration rate <30, and end-stage renal disease on dialysis had a higher risk of death after ICD placement (hazard ratio, 2.08; 95% confidence interval, 1.99-2.18; P<0.0001; hazard ratio, 4.20; 95% confidence interval, 3.92-4.50; P<0.0001; and hazard ratio, 4.80; 95% confidence interval, 4.46-5.17; P<0.0001, respectively). Corresponding 1-year death rates were 4.4%, 9.1%, 20.2%, and 22.4%. Among patients with CKD, factors associated with increased risk of death included CKD severity, age >65 years, heart failure symptoms, diabetes mellitus, lung disease, serum sodium <140 mEq/L, atrial fibrillation or flutter, and a lower ejection fraction. The risk of death after primary prevention ICD placement is proportional to CKD severity. Among patients with CKD, several factors are prognostically significant and could inform clinical decision making on primary prevention ICD candidacy. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Statins, ventricular arrhythmias and heart rate variability in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators and coronary heart disease.

    PubMed

    Riahi, Sam; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Heath, Finn; Pedersen, Anders Kirstein; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Mølgaard, Henning; Toft, Egon

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias and heart rate variability were influenced by statin treatment and lipid levels in patients treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Heart rate variability measurements were performed in 86 patients with coronary heart disease and an ICD implant. The number of events with ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia were recorded during a 12-month period. This study lends little support for an antiarrhythmic effect of statins or any relation between plasma lipids and lipoproteins and malignant ventricular arrhythmias in patients with an ICD. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators. Prophylactic Use

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    of evidence for each outcome. The balance between benefits and harms, quality of evidence, applicability, and the certainty of the baseline risks are considered in judgments about the strength of recommendations. Summary of Findings Overall, ICDs are effective for the primary prevention of SCD. Three studies – the Multicentre Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial I (MADIT I), the Multicentre Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADIT II), and SCD-HeFT – showed there was a statistically significant decrease in total mortality for patients who prophylactically received an ICD compared with those who received conventional therapy (Table 1). Table 1: Results of Key Studies on the Use of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators for the Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death – All-Cause Mortality Study, * Year Population N Follow-up, Months Mortality, ICD† Group, % Mortality, Control Group, % Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P NNT† MADIT, 1996 (2) Ischemic 196 27 15.8 38.6 0.46 (0.26–0.82) .009 4 Priormyocardialinfarction Conventional therapy 54% relative reduction Ejection fraction ≤ 0.35NSVT†EP† + MADIT II, 2002 (3) Ischemic 1232 20 14.2 19.8 0.69(0.51–0.93) .016 18 Priormyocardialinfarction Conventional therapy 31% relative reduction Ejection fraction ≤ 0.30 SCD-HeFT, 2005 (4) Ischemic & Nonischemic 2521 60 22 29 0.77 (0.62–0.96) .007 13 Optimal therapy Ejection fraction < 0.35 23% relative reduction * MADIT I: Multicentre Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial I; MADIT II: Multicentre Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II; SCD-HeFT: Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial. † EP indicates electrophysiology; ICD, implantable cardioverter defibrillator; NNT, number needed to treat; NSVT, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. The NNT will appear higher if follow-up is short. For ICDs, the absolute benefit increases over time for at least a 5-year period; the NNT declines, often substantially, in studies with a longer follow

  7. Longitudinal changes in intracardiac repolarization lability in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    PubMed Central

    Guduru, Abhilash; Lansdown, Jason; Chernichenko, Daniil; Berger, Ronald D.; Tereshchenko, Larisa G.

    2013-01-01

    Background: While it is known that elevated baseline intracardiac repolarization lability is associated with the risk of fast ventricular tachycardia (FVT)/ventricular fibrillation (VF), the effect of its longitudinal changes on the risk of FVT/VF is unknown. Methods and Results: Near-field (NF) right ventricular (RV) intracardiac electrograms (EGMs) were recorded every 3–6 months at rest in 248 patients with structural heart disease [mean age 61.2 ± 13.3; 185(75%) male; 162(65.3%) ischemic cardiomyopathy] and implanted cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) [201 (81%) primary prevention]. Intracardiac beat-to-beat QT variability index (QTVINF) was measured on NF RV EGM. During the first study phase (median 18 months), participants made on average 2.4 visits. Then remote follow-up was continued for an additional median period of 3 years. Average QTVINF did not change during the first year after ICD implantation (−0.342 ± 0.603 at baseline vs. −0.262 ± 0.552 at 6 months vs. −0.334 ± 0.603 at 12 months); however, it decreased thereafter (−0.510 ± 0.603 at 18 months; P = 0.042). Adjusted population-averaged GEE model showed that the odds of developing FVT/VF increased by 75% for each 1 unit increase in QTVINF. (OR 1.75 [95%CI 1.05–2.92]; P = 0.031). However, individual patient–specific QTVINF trends (increasing, decreasing, flat) varied from patient to patient. For a given patient, the odds of developing FVT/VF were not associated with increasing or decreasing QTVINF over time [OR 1.27; (95%CI 0.05–30.10); P = 0.881]. Conclusion: While on average the odds of FVT/VF increased with an increase in QTVINF, patient-specific longitudinal trends in QTVINF did not affect the odds of FVT/VF. PMID:23964242

  8. Neuromuscular electrical stimulation of the thighs in cardiac patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Cenik, Fadime; Schoberwalter, Dieter; Keilani, Mohammad; Maehr, Bruno; Wolzt, Michael; Marhold, Maximilian; Crevenna, Richard

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to update scientific knowledge concerning the safety of neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) to increase exercise capacity and prevent cardiac cachexia in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). A systematic review including the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, and SCOPUS was conducted for the time period from 1966 to March 31, 2016. Only four articles fulfilled the inclusion criteria (three original articles/safety studies and one case report). The three (safety) studies used NMES to increase muscle strength and/or endurance capacity of the thighs. NMES did not show electromagnetic interference (EMI) with ICD function. EMI was described in a case report of 2 patients with subpectoral ICDs and application of NMES on abdominal muscles. This review indicates that NMES may be applied in cardiac ICD patients if 1) individual risks (e. g., pacing dependency, acute heart failure, unstable angina, ventricular arrhythmic episode in the last 3 months) are excluded by performing a safety check before starting NMES treatment and 2) "passive" exercise using NMES is performed only for thighs and gluteal muscles in 3) compliant ICD patients (especially for home-based NMES) and 4) the treatment is regularly supervised by a physician and the device is examined after the first use of NMES to exclude EMI. Nevertheless, further studies including larger sample sizes are necessary to exclude any risk when NMES is used in this patient group.

  9. Hospice Use Following Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation in Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Parzynski, Craig S.; Spertus, John A.; Mor, Vincent; Mitchell, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Background— Older recipients of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are at increased risk for short-term mortality in comparison with younger patients. Although hospice use is common among decedents aged >65, its use among older ICD recipients is unknown. Methods and Results— Medicare patients aged >65 matched to data in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry – ICD Registry from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2010 were eligible for analysis (N=194 969). The proportion of ICD recipients enrolled in hospice, cumulative incidence of hospice admission, and factors associated with time to hospice enrollment were evaluated. Five years after device implantation, 50.9% of patients were either deceased or in hospice. Among decedents, 36.8% received hospice services. The cumulative incidence of hospice enrollment, accounting for the competing risk of death, was 4.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6%–4.8%) within 1 year and 21.3% (95% CI, 20.7%–21.8%) at 5 years. Factors most strongly associated with shorter time to hospice enrollment were older age (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.73–1.81), class IV heart failure (versus class I; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.66–1.94); ejection fraction <20 (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.48–1.67), and greater hospice use among decedents in the patients’ health referral region. Conclusions— More than one-third of older patients dying with ICDs receive hospice care. Five years after implantation, half of older ICD recipients are either dead or in hospice. Hospice providers should be prepared for ICD patients, whose clinical trajectories and broader palliative care needs require greater focus. PMID:27016104

  10. Influence of secondary neutrons induced by proton radiotherapy for cancer patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Although proton radiotherapy is a promising new approach for cancer patients, functional interference is a concern for patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). The purpose of this study was to clarify the influence of secondary neutrons induced by proton radiotherapy on ICDs. Methods The experimental set-up simulated proton radiotherapy for a patient with an ICD. Four new ICDs were placed 0.3 cm laterally and 3 cm distally outside the radiation field in order to evaluate the influence of secondary neutrons. The cumulative in-field radiation dose was 107 Gy over 10 sessions of irradiation with a dose rate of 2 Gy/min and a field size of 10 × 10 cm2. After each radiation fraction, interference with the ICD by the therapy was analyzed by an ICD programmer. The dose distributions of secondary neutrons were estimated by Monte-Carlo simulation. Results The frequency of the power-on reset, the most serious soft error where the programmed pacing mode changes temporarily to a safety back-up mode, was 1 per approximately 50 Gy. The total number of soft errors logged in all devices was 29, which was a rate of 1 soft error per approximately 15 Gy. No permanent device malfunctions were detected. The calculated dose of secondary neutrons per 1 Gy proton dose in the phantom was approximately 1.3-8.9 mSv/Gy. Conclusions With the present experimental settings, the probability was approximately 1 power-on reset per 50 Gy, which was below the dose level (60-80 Gy) generally used in proton radiotherapy. Further quantitative analysis in various settings is needed to establish guidelines regarding proton radiotherapy for cancer patients with ICDs. PMID:22284700

  11. Assessing Health Literacy in Urban Patients With Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators and Pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Kathleen T; Sciacca, Robert R; Gonzalez, Paul; Castillo, Carmen; Frulla, Ashton

    2015-01-01

    Functional health literacy (FHL) has become an increasingly prevalent topic of discussion in patient health and well-being. Although FHL has been studied in a variety of populations, it has not been investigated in patients with pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs).The purpose of this study was to evaluate FHL in a primarily older, urban-dwelling ICD/pacemaker population. A secondary objective was to compare 2 commonly used instruments for assessing FHL.A convenience sample of 116 patients was recruited from an urban ICD/pacemaker clinic. Participants were asked to complete the Short Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults (STOFHLA) followed by the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults to assess reading comprehension and numeracy. Logistic regression was used to assess the association between FHL and patient descriptors.The population was 68 ± 13 years of age, and 62.7% were men. The sample was ethnically diverse: 37.1% white, 39.7% Hispanic, and 22.4% African American; 77.4% of the population reported finishing high school. Of the 109 completing the Test of Functional Health Literacy in Adults, 60.6% had adequate FHL, 10.1% had marginal FHL, and 29.4% had inadequate FHL. The presence of coexisting chronic conditions such as diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension was associated with inadequate/marginal FHL (P = .007, P = .004, and P = .02, respectively). Of the 113 completing STOFHLA, 67.3% had adequate FHL, 7.1% had marginal FHL, and 25.7% had inadequate FHL. The presence of diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and hypertension was also associated with inadequate/marginal FHL as assessed by STOFHLA (P = .009, P = .02, and P = .004, respectively).In this older, urban, ICD/pacemaker population, approximately 40% had inadequate/marginal FHL. These results warrant further investigation of FHL in other cardiovascular populations.

  12. Induction ovens and electromagnetic interference: what is the risk for patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators?

    PubMed

    Binggeli, Christian; Rickli, Hans; Ammann, Peter; Brunckhorst, Corinna; Hufschmid, Urs; Luechinger, Roger; Duru, Firat

    2005-04-01

    Electromagnetic fields may interfere with normal implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) function. Although the devices are effectively shielded and use exclusively bipolar leads, electromagnetic interference (EMI) remains a concern when patients are exposed to several household appliances. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential EMI risk of induction ovens, which are increasingly common in private households. In vitro measurements of an induction oven for private households GK 43 TI (V-Zug, Inc., Zug, Switzerland) showed that heating is regulated by increasing operating time from level 1 (100 ms/sec) to 5 (continuous operation). From levels 5 to 9 the magnetic field increases. Nineteen patients with left-sided implants of single- and dual-chamber ICD systems (8 Medtronic, 7 Guidant, and 4 St. Jude Medical) (18 males, 1 female), age (mean +/- SEM) 58 +/- 3 years, were included in this study. All patients were examined in standing position, bent over the cooking pot (minimal distance to the induction coil 25 cm), and with the cooking pot put eccentrically over the induction field at three different cooking levels (level 2, 5, and 9). The tests were repeated touching the cooking pot with one hand. Ventricular sensitivity was left unchanged. Ventricular tachycardia therapies were turned off in Medtronic and Guidant devices and ventricular sensing was continuously monitored in St. Jude Medical devices during testing. Interrogation of the devices after exposure did not show any inappropriate tachycardia detection, oversensing, or reprogramming. In conclusion, ICD patients can be reassured that EMI is unlikely to affect their devices if induction ovens are used in their kitchens.

  13. Psychological correlates, allostatic overload and clinical course in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).

    PubMed

    Gostoli, Sara; Bonomo, Matteo; Roncuzzi, Renzo; Biffi, Mauro; Boriani, Giuseppe; Rafanelli, Chiara

    2016-10-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is a key treatment option for both primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Despite this, there is a growing number of studies showing that ICD is often associated with post-implantation deleterious psychosocial effects, even in the absence of medical complications. Knowledge about the predictive role of pre-ICD psychological profile is scant. The present research aims to describe patients' pre-ICD psychological profile, focusing on acute and chronic distress, such as anxiety, depression, type D personality, psychosomatic syndromes and allostatic overload (AO), and to evaluate if these psychological variables could affect ICD outcomes and survival. 117 consecutive patients (74.4% males; mean age=63.1±13.7years) underwent psychological assessment prior to ICD implantation. Data on ICD-related complications and death were collected up to 26months after the intervention. At baseline, 36.8% of the sample had anxiety and 17.9% depression. Among psychosomatic syndromes, psychological factors affecting medical conditions were the most frequent (37.6%). 12.8% presented with type D personality, whereas 16.2% showed moderate AO and 4.3% severe AO. 25.6% of the patients had post-ICD complications and 6% died. Severe AO was the only predictor of survival. Our findings show that a reliable evaluation of stress and the inability to cope with it (allostatic overload) may help to identify patients at higher risk of post-ICD complications and death. Such sensitive index, more than traditional psychiatric diagnostic criteria, may help the physician to identify easily manifestations of distress and clinically relevant information, which could affect medical illness outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator recalls on patients' anxiety, depression, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Undavia, Manish; Goldstein, Nathan E; Cohen, Pilar; Sinthawanarong, Kamoltip; Singson, Magdalena; Bhutani, Divaya; Munson, Tracey; Gomes, Joseph Anthony; Fischer, Avi; Mehta, Davendra

    2008-11-01

    In the past 2 years, multiple implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) manufacturers have issued recalls on ICD models due to the potential for serious malfunction and even patient death. Previous studies examining the relationship between these recalls and patients' psychological well-being have been limited by small sample size and conflicting results. The purpose of this study is to examine the association between ICD recalls and patients' anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Patients were drawn from an outpatient electrophysiology clinic at a tertiary care hospital in New York City. Patients who had devices subject to a recall (cases) were identified from lists provided by device manufacturer and controls (patients with ICDs not subjected to a recall) were drawn from a convenience sample of outpatients. The survey instrument consisted of two validated questionnaires--Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) and MacNew heart disease health-related quality of life (QOL) instrument. In addition, a series of Likert-type scales were designed to elucidate patients' concerns related to the following domains: anger, trust, hope, concerns regarding ICD shock, fear of death (FOD), and physicians' ability to reduce their concern about the ICD recall. Data were analyzed using simple descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses (chi(2) and t-test) as appropriate. Sixty-one cases and 43 control patients were enrolled. Thirty-two patients (52%) with devices subject to a recall opted for a generator replacement. There were no significant differences in the mean scores on the HADS scale, or the MacNew QOL scale between these two groups of patients (cases and controls). Subgroup analysis within the group of patients whose ICDs were recalled (cases) revealed a reduced QOL among patients with a class I recall (reasonable probability that the product will cause serious adverse health consequences or death) as compared to those with a class II recall (product may cause

  15. Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators--general and anesthetic considerations.

    PubMed

    Rapsang, Amy G; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis

    2014-01-01

    A pacemaking system consists of an impulse generator and lead or leads to carry the electrical impulse to the patient's heart. Pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator codes were made to describe the type of pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator implanted. Indications for pacing and implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation were given by the American College of Cardiologists. Certain pacemakers have magnet-operated reed switches incorporated; however, magnet application can have serious adverse effects; hence, devices should be considered programmable unless known otherwise. When a device patient undergoes any procedure (with or without anesthesia), special precautions have to be observed including a focused history/physical examination, interrogation of pacemaker before and after the procedure, emergency drugs/temporary pacing and defibrillation, reprogramming of pacemaker and disabling certain pacemaker functions if required, monitoring of electrolyte and metabolic disturbance and avoiding certain drugs and equipments that can interfere with pacemaker function. If unanticipated device interactions are found, consider discontinuation of the procedure until the source of interference can be eliminated or managed and all corrective measures should be taken to ensure proper pacemaker function should be done. Post procedure, the cardiac rate and rhythm should be monitored continuously and emergency drugs and equipments should be kept ready and consultation with a cardiologist or a pacemaker-implantable cardioverter defibrillator service may be necessary. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in young patients with cardiomyopathies and channelopathies: a single Italian centre experience.

    PubMed

    Migliore, Federico; Silvano, Maria; Zorzi, Alessandro; Bertaglia, Emanuele; Siciliano, Mariachiara; Leoni, Loira; De Franceschi, Pietro; Iliceto, Sabino; Corrado, Domenico

    2016-07-01

    This study was designed to prospectively evaluate the risk-benefit ratio of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy in young patients with cardiomyopathies and channelopathies. The study population included 96 consecutive patients [68 men, median age 27 (22-32) years] with cardiomyopathies, such as arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (n = 35), dilated cardiomyopathy (n = 17), hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (n = 15), Brugada syndrome (n = 14), idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (n = 5), left ventricular noncompaction (n = 4), long-QT syndrome (n = 4) and short-QT syndrome (n = 2), who were 18-35 years old at the time of ICD implantation. During a mean follow-up of 72.6 ± 53.3 months, one patient with end-stage hypertrophic cardiomyopathy died because of acute heart failure, and 11 patients underwent orthotopic heart transplantation. Twenty patients (20.8%) had a total of 38 appropriate ICD interventions (4%/year), and 26 patients (27.1%) experienced a total of 49 adverse ICD-related events (5.4%/year), including 23 inappropriate ICD interventions occurring in nine patients (9.4%) and 26 device-related complications requiring surgical revision occurring in 20 patients (20.8%). Lead failure/fracture requiring lead extraction was the most common complication (n = 9). A threshold for ICD therapy less than 300 ms was associated with a borderline significant lower probability of inappropriate ICD interventions (hazard ratio = 0.2; 95% confidence interval 0.02-1.2; P = 0.07), whereas underweight status was an independent predictor of device-related complications (hazard ratio = 5.4; 95% confidence interval 1.5-19.4; P = 0.01). In young patients with cardiomyopathies and channelopathies, ICD therapy provided life-saving protection by effectively terminating life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. However, because ICD-related adverse events are common, the risk/benefit ratio should be

  17. Predictors of long-term mortality in Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADIT II) patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Gillespie, John; Zareba, Wojciech; Brown, Mary W; Goldenberg, Ilan; Klein, Helmut; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Slava; Andrews, Mark; Dwyer, Edward M; Hall, W Jackson; Moss, Arthur J

    2009-04-01

    Data on long-term follow-up and factors influencing mortality in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) recipients are limited. The aim of this study was to evaluate mortality during long-term follow-up and the predictive value of several risk markers in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADIT II) patients with implanted cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). The study involved U.S. patients from the MADIT II trial randomized to and receiving ICD treatment. Data regarding long-term mortality were retrieved from the National Death Registry. Several clinical, biochemical, and electrocardiogram variables were tested in a multivariate Cox model for predicting long-term mortality, and a score identifying high-, medium-, and lower risk patients was developed. The study population consisted of 655 patients, mean age 64 +/- 10 years. During a follow-up of up to 9 years, averaging 63 months, 294 deaths occurred. The 6-year cumulative probability of death was 40%, with evidence of a constant risk of about 8.5% per year among survivors. Median survival was estimated at 8 years. Multivariate analysis identified age >65 years, New York Heart Association class 3-4, diabetes, non-sinus rhythm, and increased levels of blood urea nitrogen as independent risk predictors of mortality. Patients with three or more of these risk factors were characterized by a 6-year mortality rate of 68%, compared with 43% in those with one to two risk factors and 19% in patients with no risk factors. A combination of a few readily available clinical variables indicating advanced disease and comorbid conditions identifies ICD patients at high risk of mortality during long-term follow-up.

  18. Athletes with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Ponamgi, Shiva P.; DeSimone, Christopher V.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Athletes with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) represent a diverse group of individuals who may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) when engaging in vigorous physical activity. Therefore, they are excluded by the current guidelines from participating in most competitive sports except those classified as low intensity, such as bowling and golf. The lack of substantial data on the natural history of the cardiac diseases affecting these athletes, as well as the unknown efficacy of implanted ICDs in terminating life-threatening arrhythmias occurring during intense exercise, have resulted in the restrictive nature of these now decade old guidelines. Recently, there is emerging data, derived from a few retrospective studies and a large prospective registry that demonstrates the relative safety of high-risk athletes participating in competitive sports and challenges the prohibitive nature of these guidelines. Nevertheless, the safe participation of all athletes with an ICD in competitive sports continues to be contemplated. The increased number of inappropriate shocks, damage to the ICD/pacemaker system, and the questionable efficacy of the delivered shock in the setting of vigorous physical activity are some of the main challenges faced by these athletes who choose to continue participation in competitive sports. The fear of SCD and ICD shocks faced by these athletes is also associated with a negative psychological burden and affects their quality of life, as does restricting them from all competitive sports. Therefore, shared decision making is necessary between the clinician and athlete after carefully analyzing the risks and benefits associated with competitive sports participation. PMID:26100423

  19. Clinical application of the fibrillation number in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Minki; Lee, Hancheol; Lee, Young-Seon; Chung, Soonwon; Choi, Sung Hwan; Shim, Eun Bo; Pak, Hui-Nam

    2014-09-01

    Although ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) develops suddenly with catastrophic results, its prediction is limited. We tested the fibrillation number (FibN) for potential predictor of VT/VF using clinical data of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients after validating the number by computational modeling. For clinical application of FibN, we used electrocardiography and echocardiography data: QRS width, QTc, and left ventricular (LV) end-systolic dimension (FibNVT/VF1) or LV end-diastolic dimension (FibNVT/VF2). We compared the maintenance duration of VT/VF for various FibN values using computational modeling, and tested FibNVT/VF in 142 patients with ICD for secondary prevention and 426 patients in age-sex matched control group (81.9% male, 56.1 ± 12.3 years old). 1. Computational results showed a positive correlation between VT/VF maintenance duration and FibN (R = 0.82, p < 0.001). 2. FibNVT/VFs were significantly higher in patients with ICD than in control (both FibNVT/VF1 and FibNVT/VF2, p < 0.001). 3. Within ICD group, FibNVT/VF values were higher in patients with cardiomyopathy than those without (both FibNVT/VF1 and FibNVT/VF2, p < 0.001). 4. During 50 ± 39 months follow-up period, the frequency of appropriate ICD therapy was higher in the high FibNVT/VF group (FibNVT/VF1, p = 0.001; FibNVT/VF2, p = 0.002). Both FibNVT/VF1 (HR 2.51, 95%CI 1.48-4.24, p = 0.001) and FibNVT/VF2 (HR 2.11, 95%CI 1.25-3.55, p = 0.005) were independently associated with appropriate ICD therapy in multi-variate analyses. FibNVT/VF, a parameter based on wavelength and heart size, correlates well with maintenance of VT/VF in computational modeling, and may have predictive value for VT/VF events in patients with ICD for secondary prevention. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators in Patients with CKD: A Propensity-Matched Mortality Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nakhoul, Georges N.; Schold, Jesse D.; Arrigain, Susana; Harb, Serge C.; Jolly, Stacey; Wilkoff, Bruce L.; Nally, Joseph V.

    2015-01-01

    Background and objectives Benefits of transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) in prevention of sudden cardiac death among the general population are proven. However, the benefit of ICDs remains unclear in CKD. A propensity-matched analysis was conducted to examine the survival benefits of ICDs placed for primary prevention in those with CKD not on dialysis (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m2). Design, setting, participants, & measurements The Cleveland Clinic CKD registry was utilized to identify individuals who had an echocardiogram at the institution (between 2001 and October 2011). A propensity score of the likelihood of receiving an ICD was developed with the following variables: demographics, comorbid conditions, use of cardioprotective medications, eGFR, left ventricular ejection fraction, and ventricular arrhythmia. One-to-one greedy matching was used with 0.1 caliper width to match patients with and without an ICD. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine survival of matched patients with and without an ICD. Results This study included 1053 ICD patients and 9435 potential controls. Of 1053 ICD patients (60%), 631 were matched to the control group. During a median follow-up of 2.9 years (25th and 75th percentiles, 1.5, 4.7), 578 patients died. After adjusting for covariates, the hazard of mortality among propensity-matched patients was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.59 to 0.82) for the ICD group compared with the non-ICD group. A significant interaction was found between ICDs and eGFR (P=0.04). Presence of an ICD was associated with a lower risk of death among those with eGFRs of 45–59 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.77) and 30–44 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.85), but not among those with eGFRs<30 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.35). Conclusions Transvenous ICDs placed for primary prevention are associated with a survival benefit in those with stage 3 CKD

  1. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in patients with CKD: a propensity-matched mortality analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakhoul, Georges N; Schold, Jesse D; Arrigain, Susana; Harb, Serge C; Jolly, Stacey; Wilkoff, Bruce L; Nally, Joseph V; Navaneethan, Sankar D

    2015-07-07

    Benefits of transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) in prevention of sudden cardiac death among the general population are proven. However, the benefit of ICDs remains unclear in CKD. A propensity-matched analysis was conducted to examine the survival benefits of ICDs placed for primary prevention in those with CKD not on dialysis (eGFR<60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)). The Cleveland Clinic CKD registry was utilized to identify individuals who had an echocardiogram at the institution (between 2001 and October 2011). A propensity score of the likelihood of receiving an ICD was developed with the following variables: demographics, comorbid conditions, use of cardioprotective medications, eGFR, left ventricular ejection fraction, and ventricular arrhythmia. One-to-one greedy matching was used with 0.1 caliper width to match patients with and without an ICD. A Cox proportional hazards model was used to examine survival of matched patients with and without an ICD. This study included 1053 ICD patients and 9435 potential controls. Of 1053 ICD patients (60%), 631 were matched to the control group. During a median follow-up of 2.9 years (25th and 75th percentiles, 1.5, 4.7), 578 patients died. After adjusting for covariates, the hazard of mortality among propensity-matched patients was 0.69 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.59 to 0.82) for the ICD group compared with the non-ICD group. A significant interaction was found between ICDs and eGFR (P=0.04). Presence of an ICD was associated with a lower risk of death among those with eGFRs of 45-59 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (hazard ratio [HR], 0.58; 95% CI, 0.44 to 0.77) and 30-44 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (HR, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.50 to 0.85), but not among those with eGFRs<30 ml/min per 1.73 m(2) (HR, 0.98; 95% CI, 0.71 to 1.35). Transvenous ICDs placed for primary prevention are associated with a survival benefit in those with stage 3 CKD, but not in those with stage 4 CKD. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of

  2. Usefulness of Left Atrial Emptying Fraction to Predict Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients With Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Rijnierse, Mischa T; Kamali Sadeghian, Mehran; Schuurmans Stekhoven, Sophie; Biesbroek, P Stefan; van der Lingen, Anne-Lotte C; van de Ven, Peter M; van Rossum, Albert C; Nijveldt, Robin; Allaart, Cornelis P

    2017-07-15

    Impaired left atrial emptying fraction (LAEF) is an important predictor of mortality in patients with heart failure. As it may reflect increased LV wall stress, it might predict ventricular arrhythmia (VA) specifically. This study evaluated the predictive value of LAEF assessed with cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging with respect to appropriate device therapy (ADT) for VA and compared its role with CMR assessed scar size and other risk factors. In total, 229 patients (68% male, 63 ± 10 years, 61% ischemic cardiomyopathy) with LV ejection fraction ≤35% who underwent CMR and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation for primary prevention in 2005 to 2012 were included. CMR was used to quantify LV volumes and function. LV scar size was quantified when late gadolinium enhancement was available (n = 166). Maximum and minimum left atrial volumes and LAEF were calculated using the biplane area-length method. The occurrence of ADT and mortality was assessed during a median follow-up of 3.9 years. Sixty-two patients (27%) received ADT. Univariable Cox analysis showed that male gender, creatinine level, minimum left atrial volume, LAEF, and total scar size were significant predictors of ADT. In multivariable Cox analysis, LAEF (hazard ratio 0.75 per 10%, p <0.01), and scar size (hazard ratio 1.03 per g, p = 0.03) remained the only independent predictors of ADT. Patients with both LAEF > median and scar size < median were at low risk (13% ADT at 5 years), whereas those with LAEF < median and scar size > median experienced 40% ADT at 5 years (log-rank p = 0.01). In conclusion, LAEF independently predicts ADT in patients with primary prevention ICDs. Combined assessment of LAEF and scar size identifies a group with low risk of ADT. Therefore, LAEF assessment could assist in risk stratification for VA to select patients with the highest benefit from ICD implantation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Safety threshold of R-wave amplitudes in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Lillo-Castellano, J M; Marina-Breysse, Manuel; Gómez-Gallanti, Alfonso; Martínez-Ferrer, J B; Alzueta, Javier; Pérez-Álvarez, Luisa; Alberola, Arcadi; Fernández-Lozano, Ignacio; Rodríguez, Anibal; Porro, Rosa; Anguera, Ignacio; Fontenla, Adolfo; González-Ferrer, J J; Cañadas-Godoy, Victoria; Pérez-Castellano, Nicasio; Garófalo, Daniel; Salvador-Montañés, Óscar; Calvo, Conrado J; Quintanilla, Jorge G; Peinado, Rafael; Mora-Jiménez, Inmaculada; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián; Rojo-Álvarez, J L; Filgueiras-Rama, David

    2016-10-15

    A safety threshold for baseline rhythm R-wave amplitudes during follow-up of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) has not been established. We aimed to analyse the amplitude distribution and undersensing rate during spontaneous episodes of ventricular fibrillation (VF), and define a safety amplitude threshold for baseline R-waves. Data were obtained from an observational multicentre registry conducted at 48 centres in Spain. Baseline R-wave amplitudes and VF events were prospectively registered by remote monitoring. Signal processing algorithms were used to compare amplitudes of baseline R-waves with VF R-waves. All undersensed R-waves after the blanking period (120 ms) were manually marked. We studied 2507 patients from August 2011 to September 2014, which yielded 229 VF episodes (cycle length 189.6±29.1 ms) from 83 patients that were suitable for R-wave comparisons (follow-up 2.7±2.6 years). The majority (77.6%) of VF R-waves (n=13953) showed lower amplitudes than the reference baseline R-wave. The decrease in VF amplitude was progressively attenuated among subgroups of baseline R-wave amplitude (≥17; ≥12 to <17; ≥7 to <12; ≥2.2 to <7 mV) from the highest to the lowest: median deviations -51.2% to +22.4%, respectively (p=0.027). There were no significant differences in undersensing rates of VF R-waves among subgroups. Both the normalised histogram distribution and the undersensing risk function obtained from the ≥2.2 to <7 mV subgroup enabled the prediction that baseline R-wave amplitudes ≤2.5 mV (interquartile range: 2.3-2.8 mV) may lead to ≥25% of undersensed VF R-waves. Baseline R-wave amplitudes ≤2.5 mV during follow-up of patients with ICDs may lead to high risk of delayed detection of VF. NCT01561144; results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  4. [The implantable automatic cardioverter-defibrillator].

    PubMed

    Klein, H; Tröster, J; Trappe, H J; Becht, I; Siclari, F

    1990-04-01

    In addition to medical treatment for ventricular tachyarrhythmias which has not proven to be sufficient, nonmedical modes of treatment are available such as electrophysiologically-guided surgical measures and catheter ablation, both of which are restricted to only a relatively small patient population and require further technical refinement. In 1980, Mirowski introduced the automatic implantable defibrillator and, to date, world-wide, this device has been implanted in 8000 patients. CHARACTERISTICS AND IMPLANTATION OF THE AUTOMATIC IMPLANTABLE CARDIOVERTER/DEFIBRILLATOR (AICD): The AICD continuously monitors the electrical activity of the heart, recognizes the onset of threatening ventricular tachycardias and terminates these according to the respectively programmed mode by delivering direct current shocks or stimuli. The currently used defibrillators consist of an impulse generator with lithium batteries and an electrode system. The batteries can charge a capacitor with about 700 volts in five to eight seconds which produces a current with an energy up to 30 Joules on discharge. The current is delivered either by two plate electrodes on the right and left ventricles or a plate electrode on the left ventricle and a spiral electrode inserted in the superior vena cava. The electrodes also serve the purpose of tachycardia detection by means of an electrical signal, the probability density function (PDF), that is, a significant decrease in the potentials to isoelectric. With this, it is only possible to terminate ventricular fibrillation. Additional electrical detection criteria are obtained and analyzed by two adjacently positioned epicardial screw electrodes or a bipolar endocardial electrode, enable identification of ventricular tachycardia as well. If the tachycardia detection criteria are fulfilled, the capacitor is discharged according to its programmed shock energy. In 1988, programmable defibrillators were introduced. Current defibrillator treatment also

  5. Intraoperative defibrillation threshold testing and postoperative long-term efficacy of cardioverter-defibrillator implantation

    PubMed Central

    GAN, TIANYI; CAO, XIAOZHI; YU, ZHANG; TANG, BAOPENG; LI, JINXIN; XU, GUOJUN; ZHOU, XIANHUI; ZHANG, YANYI; LI, YAODONG; ZHANG, JIANGHUA

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the defibrillation threshold (DFT) of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and outcomes of treatment. Sixty-four patients received cardioverter-defibrillator implantation. During implantation, the DFT was determined by the defibrillation safety margin (DSM). All patients were followed up for 12–48 months after the implantation. The overall DFT was 14.27±2.56 J and the DSM was 18.40±1.89 J. Malignant ventricular arrhythmias occurred in 42 patients following cardioverter-defibrillator implantation including 500 episodes of non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and 289 episodes of persistent VT. VT was treated using antitachycardia pacing (ATP); 265 episodes were treated successfully by a single ATP treatment (91.69%) and 12 episodes were treated successfully by two ATP treatments (4.15%). Twelve episodes were converted by low-energy electrical cardioversion (4.15%). A total of 175 ventricular fibrillation (VF) episodes were identified, of which 18 episodes automatically terminated prior to treatment. In total, 146 episodes were converted by a single cardioversion with a defibrillation energy of 13.21±2.58 J and 11 episodes were converted by two cardioversions with a defibrillation energy of 16.19±2.48 J. It is safe and feasible to determine the DFT by DSM measurement during cardioverterdefibrillator implantation. PMID:23251292

  6. Phone-Delivered Mindfulness Training for Patients with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators: Results of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Crawford, Sybil L.; Carmody, James; Rosenthal, Lawrence; Yeh, Gloria; Stanley, Mary; Rose, Karen; Browning, Clifford; Ockene, Ira S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The reduction in adrenergic activity and anxiety associated with meditation may be beneficial for patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Purpose To determine the feasibility of a phone-delivered mindfulness intervention in patients with defibrillators and to obtain preliminary indications of efficacy on mindfulness and anxiety. Methods Clinically stable outpatients were randomized to a mindfulness intervention (8 weekly individual phone sessions) or to a scripted follow-up phone call. We used the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the Five Facets of Mindfulness to measure anxiety and mindfulness; and multivariate linear regression to estimate the intervention effect on pre-post intervention changes in these variables. Results We enrolled 45 patients (23 mindfulness, 22 control; age 43–83; 30 % women). Retention was 93 %; attendance was 94 %. Mindfulness (beta = 3.31; p = .04) and anxiety (beta = − 1.15; p = .059) improved in the mindfulness group. Conclusions Mindfulness training can be effectively phone-delivered and may improve mindfulness and anxiety in cardiac defibrillator outpatients. PMID:23605175

  7. Factors associated with health-related quality of life among patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: identification of foci for nursing intervention.

    PubMed

    Wong, Florence Mei Fung; Sit, Janet Wing Hung; Wong, Eliza Mi Ling; Choi, Kai Chow

    2014-12-01

    To explore factors associated with health-related quality of life of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators. Substantial evidence indicates that implantable cardioverter defibrillator is proven to increase survival rate by terminating life-threatening arrhythmia. However, this device can negatively affect health-related quality of life. Little is known about factors associated with health-related quality of life of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators, particularly in Asian population. A transversal descriptive design was used. Data were collected from a convenience sample of 139 adult patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators from 4 January-30 April 2012 using the structured questionnaires administered by the researcher and medical record reviews. The Short Form-36 Health Survey version 2 was used to measure health-related quality of life. A total of 139 Chinese patients, including 107 (77·0%) males with a mean age of 63·0 (14·6) years, were selected. The physical component summary was relatively lower, whereas the mental component summary was relatively higher than that of the general Hong Kong Chinese population. Multivariable regression analysis revealed gender, self-care dependence, educational level, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, anxiety and depression significantly associated with physical or mental quality of life. Depression was a common factor affecting physical and mental quality of life. Self-care dependence, atrial fibrillation, diabetes mellitus, depression and anxiety could be improved. Our findings expand existing knowledge on identifying at-risk patients for having lower quality of life, thus allowing development of appropriate interventions targeting risk factors for improving health-related quality of life of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Attrition and Adherence in a Web-Based Distress Management Program for Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients (WEBCARE): Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Alings, Marco; van der Voort, Pepijn; Theuns, Dominic; Bouwels, Leon; Herrman, Jean-Paul; Valk, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    Background WEB-Based Distress Management Program for Implantable CARdioverter defibrillator Patients (WEBCARE) is a Web-based randomized controlled trial, designed to improve psychological well-being in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). As in other Web-based trials, we encountered problems with attrition and adherence. Objective In the current study, we focus on the patient characteristics, reasons, and motivation of (1) completers, (2) those who quit the intervention, and (3) those who quit the intervention and the study in the treatment arm of WEBCARE. Methods Consecutive first-time ICD patients from six Dutch referral hospitals were approached for participation. After signing consent and filling in baseline measures, patients were randomized to either the WEBCARE group or the Usual Care group. Results The treatment arm of WEBCARE contained 146 patients. Of these 146, 34 (23.3%) completed the treatment, 88 (60.3%) dropped out of treatment but completed follow-up, and 24 (16.4%) dropped out of treatment and study. Results show no systematic differences in baseline demographic, clinical, or psychological characteristics between groups. A gradual increase in dropout was observed with 83.5% (122/146) completing the first lesson, while only 23.3% (34/146) eventually completed the whole treatment. Reasons most often given by patients for dropout were technical problems with the computer, time constraints, feeling fine, and not needing additional support. Conclusions Current findings underline the importance of focusing on adherence and dropout, as this remains a significant problem in behavioral Web-based trials. Examining possibilities to address barriers indicated by patients might enhance treatment engagement and improve patient outcomes. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00895700; http://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00895700 (Archived by WebCite at http://www.webcitation.org/6NCop6Htz). PMID:24583632

  9. Lower Body Mass Index and Atrial Fibrillation as Independent Predictors for Mortality in Patients with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator

    PubMed Central

    Schernthaner, Christiana; Pichler, Maximilian; Strohmer, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Aim To evaluate risk factors related to total mortality in an unselected population of patients implanted with a cardioverter defibrillator. Methods Survival analysis was performed retrospectively investigating the records of 77 consecutive patients implanted with defibrillators (median 67 years, range 38-83 years; 63 men). All patients were followed regularly in 3-month intervals. The cause of mortality was assessed clinically, including post-mortem examination of device to assess possible arrhythmogenic death. Predictors were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier analysis with log-rank tests and by Cox regression analysis (proportional hazards). Results Defibrillator recipients had a mean (±SD) ejection fraction of 34 ± 13%, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDD) of 6.24 ± 0.8 cm, QRS duration of 129 ± 34 ms, and body mass index (BMI) of 26.4 ± 4.3 kg/m2. Atrial fibrillation was present in 32 patients, paroxysmal fibrillation in 23, and permanent fibrillation in 9 patients. The estimate of mean survival time for all patients was 51.5 (95% confidence interval 46.6-56.5) months. During the study period 11/77 (14%) patients died. Mean follow-up time was 24.5 months (range 0.2-60.7) for survivors and 7.6 months (range 1.5-42) for non-survivors. Independent predictors of mortality were the NYHA class (P = 0.004), BMI≤26 kg/m2 (P = 0.024), presence of paroxysmal or permanent atrial fibrillation (P = 0.014), and absence of arterial hypertension (P = 0.010). LVEDD showed a weak significant effect on survival (P = 0.049). Conclusion Patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator and a normal to lower BMI or atrial fibrillation had a significantly higher overall mortality. These factors may be indicative of end stage heart failure or diseases associated with high sympathetic activation. PMID:17309140

  10. How implantable cardioverter-defibrillators work and simple programming.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Randall M

    2017-01-01

    Following the sudden death of a friend in 1966, Dr Michel Mirowski began pioneering work on the first implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. By 1969 he had developed an experimental model and performed the first transvenous defibrillation. In 1970 he reported on the use of a "standby automatic defibrillator" that was tested successfully in dogs. He postulated that such a device "when adapted for clinical use, might be implanted temporarily or permanently in selected patients particularly prone to develop ventricular fibrillation and thus provide them with some degree of protection from sudden coronary death". In 1980 he reported on the first human implants of an "electronic device designed to monitor cardiac electrical activity, to recognise ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachyarrhythmias … and then to deliver corrective defibrillatory discharges". Through innovations in circuitry, battery, and capacitor technologies, the current implantable cardioverter-defibrillator is 10 times smaller and exponentially more sophisticated than that first iteration. This article will review the inner workings of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and outline several features that make it the wonder in technology that it has become.

  11. Clinical Risk Stratification for Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Hardy, Judy; Yee, Raymond; Healey, Jeffrey S.; Birnie, David; Simpson, Christopher S.; Crystal, Eugene; Mangat, Iqwal; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Wang, Xuesong; Krahn, Andrew D.; Dorian, Paul; Austin, Peter C.; Tu, Jack V.

    2015-01-01

    Background— A conceptualized model may be useful for understanding risk stratification of primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillators considering the competing risks of appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock versus mortality. Methods and Results— In a prospective, multicenter, population-based cohort with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% referred for primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator, we developed dual risk stratification models to determine the competing risks of appropriate defibrillator shock versus mortality using a Fine-Gray subdistribution hazard model. Among 7020 patients referred, 3445 underwent defibrillator implant (79.7% men, median, 66 years [25th, 75th: 58–73]). During 5918 person-years of follow-up, appropriate shock occurred in 204 patients (3.6 shocks/100 person-years) and 292 died (4.9 deaths/100 person-years). Competing risk predictors of appropriate shock included nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, serum creatinine concentration, digoxin or amiodarone use, and QRS duration near 130-ms peak. One-year cumulative incidence of appropriate shock was 0.9% in the lowest risk category, and 1.7%, 2.5%, 4.9%, and 9.3% in low, intermediate, high, and highest risk groups, respectively. Hazard ratios for appropriate shock ranged from 4.04 to 7.79 in the highest 3 deciles (all P≤0.001 versus lowest risk). Cumulative incidence of 1-year death was 0.6%, 1.9%, 3.3%, 6.2%, and 17.7% in lowest, low, intermediate, high, and highest risk groups, respectively. Mortality hazard ratios ranged from 11.48 to 36.22 in the highest 3 deciles (all P<0.001 versus lowest risk). Conclusions— Simultaneous estimation of risks of appropriate shock and mortality can be performed using clinical variables, providing a potential framework for identification of patients who are unlikely to benefit from prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator. PMID:26224792

  12. Clinical Risk Stratification for Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Lee, Douglas S; Hardy, Judy; Yee, Raymond; Healey, Jeffrey S; Birnie, David; Simpson, Christopher S; Crystal, Eugene; Mangat, Iqwal; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy; Wang, Xuesong; Krahn, Andrew D; Dorian, Paul; Austin, Peter C; Tu, Jack V

    2015-09-01

    A conceptualized model may be useful for understanding risk stratification of primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillators considering the competing risks of appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock versus mortality. In a prospective, multicenter, population-based cohort with left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% referred for primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator, we developed dual risk stratification models to determine the competing risks of appropriate defibrillator shock versus mortality using a Fine-Gray subdistribution hazard model. Among 7020 patients referred, 3445 underwent defibrillator implant (79.7% men, median, 66 years [25th, 75th: 58-73]). During 5918 person-years of follow-up, appropriate shock occurred in 204 patients (3.6 shocks/100 person-years) and 292 died (4.9 deaths/100 person-years). Competing risk predictors of appropriate shock included nonsustained ventricular tachycardia, atrial fibrillation, serum creatinine concentration, digoxin or amiodarone use, and QRS duration near 130-ms peak. One-year cumulative incidence of appropriate shock was 0.9% in the lowest risk category, and 1.7%, 2.5%, 4.9%, and 9.3% in low, intermediate, high, and highest risk groups, respectively. Hazard ratios for appropriate shock ranged from 4.04 to 7.79 in the highest 3 deciles (all P≤0.001 versus lowest risk). Cumulative incidence of 1-year death was 0.6%, 1.9%, 3.3%, 6.2%, and 17.7% in lowest, low, intermediate, high, and highest risk groups, respectively. Mortality hazard ratios ranged from 11.48 to 36.22 in the highest 3 deciles (all P<0.001 versus lowest risk). Simultaneous estimation of risks of appropriate shock and mortality can be performed using clinical variables, providing a potential framework for identification of patients who are unlikely to benefit from prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator. © 2015 The Authors.

  13. Capsule endoscopy in patients with cardiac pacemakers, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, and left heart devices: a review of the current literature.

    PubMed

    Bandorski, Dirk; Keuchel, Martin; Brück, Martin; Hoeltgen, Reinhard; Wieczorek, Marcus; Jakobs, Ralf

    2011-01-01

    Background and Study Aims. Capsule endoscopy is an established tool for investigation of the small intestine. Because of limited clinical experience in patients with cardiac devices, the Food and Drug Administration and the manufacturer recommended not to use capsule endoscopy in these patients. The vast majority of investigations did not reveal any interference between capsule endoscopy and cardiac devices. Methods. Studies investigating interference between CE and cardiac devices were analysed. For the review we considered studies published in English or German and indexed in Medline, as well as highly relevant abstracts. Results. In vitro and in vivo studies mainly revealed no interference between capsule endoscopy and cardiac devices. Technical data of capsule endoscopy (Given Imaging) reveal that interference with cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillator is impossible. Telemetry can interfere with CE video. Conclusion. The clinical use of capsule endoscopy (Given Imaging) is unproblematic in patients with cardiac pacemakers.

  14. The Relevance of the Primary Prevention Criteria for Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Implantation in Korean Symptomatic Severe Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, JiYeong; Lee, Min-Ho; Kang, Do-Yoon; Sung, Young-Jun; Lee, Dong-Won; Oh, Ilyoung; Choi, Yun-Shik; Oh, Seil

    2012-01-01

    Background and Objectives Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is recommended as the primary tool for prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) in symptomatic patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction. There is a paucity of information on whether this recommendation is appropriate for the Korean population with severe heart failure. Subjects and Methods The study group consisted of 275 consecutive patients (mean age 65 years, 71% male) who met the ICD implantation criteria for primary prevention (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤30% and New York Heart Association functional class II or III). We analyzed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of an ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICMP) group (n=131) and a non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICMP) group (n=144). The outcomes of these 2 groups were compared with the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADIT-II) conventional and Defibrillators in the Non-ischemic Cardiomyopathy Treatment Evaluation (DEFINITE) standard therapy groups, respectively. Results Eighty patients (29%) died during a follow-up period of 40±17 months. The NICMP group had better all-cause mortality rates than the ICMP group (19% vs. 40%, p<0.001), however both groups had a similar incidence of SCD (7% vs. 10%, p=0.272). The 2-year all-cause mortality and SCD for the ICMP group were similar to those of the MADIT-II conventional therapy group (20% vs. 20%, 7% vs. 10%, respectively, all p>0.05). All-cause mortality and the incidence of SCD in the NICMP group were comparable to those of the DEFINITE standard therapy group (13% vs. 17%, 6% vs. 6%, respectively, all p>0.05). Conclusion Korean patients with severe heart failure in both the ICMP and NICMP groups had all-caused mortality and risk of SCD comparable to patients in the MADIT-II and DEFINITE standard therapy groups. Therefore, the primary prevention criteria for ICD implantation would be appropriate in both Korean ICMP and NICMP patients. PMID:22493612

  15. Serum amine-based metabolites and their association with outcomes in primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yiyi; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Harms, Amy C; London, Barry; Halder, Indrani; Singh, Madhurmeet; Dudley, Samuel C; Gutmann, Rebecca; Guallar, Eliseo; Hankemeier, Thomas; Tomaselli, Gordon F; Cheng, Alan

    2016-09-01

    Heart failure patients are at increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and all-cause mortality. However, existing clinical and serum markers only modestly predict these adverse events. We sought to use metabolic profiling to identify novel biomarkers in two independent prospective cohorts of patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Baseline serum was quantitatively profiled for 42 known biologically relevant amine-based metabolites among 402 patients from the Prospective Observational Study of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (PROSE-ICD) Study (derivation group) and 240 patients from the Genetic Risk Assessment of Defibrillator Events (GRADE) Study (validation group) for ventricular arrhythmia-induced ICD shocks and all-cause mortality. Three amines, N-methyl-l-histidine, symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA), and l-kynurenine, were derived and validated to be associated with all-cause mortality. The hazard ratios of mortality in PROSE-ICD and GRADE were 1.48 (95% confidence interval 1.14-1.92) and 1.67 (1.22-2.27) for N-methyl-l-histidine, 1.49 (1.17-1.91) and 1.77 (1.27-2.45) for SDMA, 1.31 (1.06-1.63) and 1.73 (1.32-2.27) for l-kynurenine, respectively. l-Histidine, SDMA, and l-kynurenine were associated with ventricular arrhythmia-induced ICD shocks in PROSE-ICD, but they did not reach statistical significance in the GRADE cohort. Utilizing metabolic profiling in two independent prospective cohorts of patients undergoing ICD implantation for primary prevention of SCD, we identified several novel amine markers that were associated with appropriate shock and mortality. These findings shed insight into the potential biologic pathways leading to adverse events in ICD patients. Further studies are needed to confirm the prognostic value of these findings. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email

  16. Diabetes Mellitus and Outcomes of Cardiac Resynchronization With Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Therapy in Older Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Masoudi, Frederick A; Bao, Haikun; Spatz, Erica S; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale data on outcomes with cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator in patients with diabetes mellitus are limited. We compared outcomes after cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator implantation among patients with heart failure who have diabetes mellitus versus those without diabetes mellitus. Survival curves and covariate adjusted hazard ratio (HR) or odds ratio were used to assess the risks for death, readmission, and device-related complications by diabetes mellitus status among 18 428 patients at least 65 years old receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator from the National Cardiovascular Data Registry, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry between 2006 and 2009, with up to 3 years of follow-up. Accounting for differences between groups, compared with those without diabetes mellitus (n=11 345), patients with diabetes mellitus (n=7083) had a higher risk of death both at 1 year (HR, 1.16 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.05-1.29]; P=0.0037) and 3 years (HR, 1.21 [1.14-1.29]; P<0.001) after device implantation and higher risks of all-cause readmission (sub-HR, 1.16 [1.11-1.21] at 1 year; P<0.0001; sub-HR, 1.15 [1.11-1.19] at 3 years; P<0.0001) and heart failure-related readmission (sub-HR, 1.18 [1.09-1.28] at 1 year; P<0.0001; and sub-HR, 1.22 [1.15-1.30] at 3 years; P<0.0001). Device-related complications within 90 days did not differ between those with and without diabetes mellitus (odds ratio: 0.90 [0.77-1.06]; P=0.37). Interactions of age, sex, ischemic cardiomyopathy, renal failure, or QRS duration were not significant. In older patients with heart failure receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator, diabetes mellitus was independently associated with greater risks of death and rehospitalization, but similar risks of procedural complications. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator system placed in a 4.9-kg infant.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Roosevelt; Aboutalebi, Amir; Kim, Jeffrey J; Kertesz, Naomi; Morales, David L S

    2011-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators have aided the prevention of sudden cardiac death in adults. The hope is to provide similar benefits to the pediatric population as the devices become smaller. Herein, we present the case of a 4.9-kg, 5-week-old infant boy who presented with cardiopulmonary arrest. After emergency defibrillation, conventional treatment options included long-term hospitalization for later cardioverter-defibrillator implantation, or installation of an external defibrillator with subsequent home telemetry. On the basis of the infant's body dimensions, we decided that an epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was feasible and the best option. We performed a median sternotomy and placed a Vitality® implantable cardioverter-defibrillator with a 25-cm defibrillator coil and a 35-cm bipolar ventricular lead. The patient experienced no postoperative morbidity or rhythm disturbances and was discharged from the hospital on postoperative day 5. He was placed on β-blocker therapy and has remained well for 3 years.Although external devices can be placed in a small patient, we believe that they are too susceptible to lead damage and lead migration, and that the defibrillator thresholds are less reliable. We think that dysrhythmias even in very small children can be treated effectively and safely with use of an epicardial implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. To our knowledge, this 4.9-kg infant is the smallest patient to have undergone a successful implantation of this kind.

  18. Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Circulation . 2013 ; 128 : 944 – 953 . OpenUrl Abstract / FREE Full Text 2. ↵ Lambiase PD , Theuns DAMJ , Barr C , Knopps ... defibrillator. Circulation . 2013 ; 128 : 938 – 940 . OpenUrl FREE Full Text View Abstract American Heart Association Professional? Log in ...

  19. Safety of Outpatient Implantation of the Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Datino, Tomás; Miracle Blanco, Ángel; Núñez García, Alberto; González-Torrecilla, Esteban; Atienza Fernández, Felipe; Arenal Maíz, Ángel; Hernández-Hernández, Jesús; Ávila Alonso, Pablo; Eidelman, Gabriel; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2015-07-01

    Strategies are needed to reduce health care costs and improve patient care. The objective of our study was to analyze the safety of outpatient implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators. A retrospective study was conducted in 401 consecutive patients who received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator between 2007 and 2012. The rate of intervention-related complications was compared between 232 patients (58%) whose implantation was performed in the outpatient setting and 169 patients (42%) whose intervention was performed in the inpatient setting. The mean age (standard deviation) of the patients was 62 (14) years; 336 (84%) were male. Outpatients had lower left ventricular ejection fraction and a higher percentage had an indication for primary prevention of sudden death, compared to inpatients. Only 21 outpatients (9%) required subsequent hospitalization. The rate of complications until the third month postimplantation was similar for outpatients (6.0%) and inpatients (5.3%); P = .763. In multivariate analysis, only previous anticoagulant therapy was related to the presence of complications (odds ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.4-7.4; P < .01), mainly due to an increased rate of pocket hematomas. Each outpatient implantation saved approximately €735. Outpatient implantation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators is safe and reduces costs. Close observation is recommended for patients receiving chronic anticoagulation therapy due to an increased risk of complications. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical Effects and Implications of Cardiac Rehabilitation for Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients: A Mixed-Methods Approach Embedding Data From the Copenhagen Outpatient ProgrammE-Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Randomized Clinical Trial With Qualitative Data.

    PubMed

    Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Moons, Philip; Christensen, Anne Vingaard; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Pedersen, Birthe D; Pedersen, Preben Ulrich

    2015-01-01

    The Copenhagen Outpatient ProgrammE-Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator trial was a randomized clinical trial that compared a complex rehabilitation intervention including exercise training and psychoeducational interventions with usual care. A significant difference between rehabilitation and usual care was found in physical capacity and general and mental health. However, the clinical effect sizes of these findings were not investigated, and the findings from the quantitative and qualitative analyses were not triangulated to address the issue of whether the qualitative results could help explain the quantitative results and bring forward additional information. The objectives are to (a) determine the clinical effect sizes of the primary outcomes and (b) triangulate the quantitative and qualitative findings. A total of 196 patients with first-time implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation were randomized (1:1) to comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation (12 weeks of exercise training and 1 year of psychoeducational follow-up) versus treatment as usual. Two primary outcomes, perceived health (Short Form-36) and peak oxygen uptake, were used. Cohen d was calculated. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 patients representing the rehabilitation group. Triangulation was carried out by integrating the findings from the quantitative and qualitative results in light of each other. Clinically meaningful effects were found between groups in peak oxygen uptake, general health, and mental health in favor of the rehabilitation group. Within groups, we found medium/high effect sizes on the mental component score in the rehabilitation group over time and only a small effect in the usual care group. The mechanisms of these effects were further explained by the qualitative findings. Patients with better physical health learned how to interpret body signals and adjust exercise behavior and experienced increased physical capacity. Those with better mental health

  1. The mode of death in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator patients: results from routine clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Thijssen, Joep; van Rees, Johannes B; Venlet, Jeroen; Borleffs, C Jan Willem; Höke, Ulas; Putter, Hein; van der Velde, Enno T; van Erven, Lieselot; Schalij, Martin J

    2012-10-01

    Although data on the mode of death of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) patients have been examined in randomized clinical trials, in routine clinical practice data are scarce. To provide reasonable expectations and prognosis for patients and physicians, this study assessed the mode of death in routine clinical practice. To assess the mode of death in ICD/CRT-D recipients in routine clinical practice. All patients who underwent an ICD or CRT-D implantation at the Leiden University Medical Center, the Netherlands, between 1996 and 2010 were included. Patients were divided into primary prevention ICD, secondary prevention ICD, and CRT-D patients. For patients who died during follow-up, the mode of death was retrieved from hospital and general practitioner records and categorized according to a predetermined classification: heart failure death, other cardiac death, sudden death, noncardiac death, and unknown death. A total of 2859 patients were included in the analysis. During a median follow-up of 3.4 years (interquartile range 1.7-5.7 years), 107 (14%) primary prevention ICD, 253 (28%) secondary prevention ICD, and 302 (25%) CRT-D recipients died. The 8-year cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality was 39.9% (95% confidence interval 37.0%-42.9%). Heart failure death and noncardiac death were the most common modes of death for all groups. Sudden death accounted for approximately 7%-8% of all deaths. For all patients, heart failure and noncardiac death are the most common modes of death. The proportion of patients who died suddenly was low and comparable for primary and secondary ICD and CRT-D patients. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The patient perspective on remote monitoring of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator: Narrative review and future directions.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Ivy; Meine, Matias; Zitron, Edgar; Widdershoven, Jos; Kimman, Geert; Prevot, Sébastien; Rauwolf, Thomas; Anselme, Frédéric; Szendey, Istvan; Romero Roldán, Javier; Mabo, Philippe; Schaer, Beat; Denollet, Johan; Versteeg, Henneke

    2017-07-01

    Studies have shown that remote patient monitoring (RPM) of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) is at least comparable to in-clinic follow-up with regard to clinical outcomes and might be cost-effective, yet RPM is not standard clinical practice within Europe. Better insight into the patient perspective on RPM may aid in its acceptance, implementation, and reimbursement. This narrative review (1) summarizes existing evidence on the impact of RPM on patient-reported outcomes and (2) discusses future directions in examining the patient perspective. Literature review indicated that only five randomized trials on RPM in ICD patients included patient-reported outcomes, with inconclusive results. Observational studies show a trend toward good patient satisfaction and acceptation of RPM. Yet, results should be interpreted with caution due to a number of limitations including a potential selection bias, use of generic/nonvalidated questionnaires, relatively short follow-up durations, and a lack of subgroup identification. Although RPM seems to be safe, effective, timely, and efficient, the patient perspective has received little attention so far. The scarce evidence on patient-reported outcomes in RPM studies seems to be positive, but future trials with a follow-up of ≥12 months and validated patient-reported outcome measures are needed. The REMOTE-CIED study from our group is the first prospective randomized controlled trial primarily designed to examine the patient perspective on RPM, and is powered to identify characteristics associated with RPM satisfaction and benefit. Results are expected in 2018 and will add valuable information to the current evidence. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Wearable cardioverter-defibrillator use in patients perceived to be at high risk early post-myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Epstein, Andrew E; Abraham, William T; Bianco, Nicole R; Kern, Karl B; Mirro, Michael; Rao, Sunil V; Rhee, Edward K; Solomon, Scott D; Szymkiewicz, Steven J

    2013-11-19

    The aim of this study was to describe usage of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) during mandated waiting periods following myocardial infarction (MI) for patients perceived to be at high risk for sudden cardiac arrest (SCA). Current device guidelines and insurance coverage require waiting periods of either 40 days or 3 months before implanting a cardioverter-defibrillator post-myocardial infarction (MI), depending on whether or not acute revascularization was undertaken. We assessed characteristics of and outcomes for patients who had a WCD prescribed in the first 3 months post-MI. The WCD medical order registry was searched for patients who were coded as having had a "recent MI with ejection fraction ≤35%" or given an International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision 410.xx diagnostic code (acute MI), and then matched to device-recorded data. Between September 2005 and July 2011, 8,453 unique patients (age 62.7 ± 12.7 years, 73% male) matched study criteria. A total of 133 patients (1.6%) received 309 appropriate shocks. Of these patients, 91% were resuscitated from a ventricular arrhythmia. For shocked patients, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was ≤30% in 106, 30% to 35% in 17, >36% in 8, and not reported in 2 patients. Of the 38% of patients not revascularized, 84% had a LVEF ≤30%; of the 62% of patients revascularized, 77% had a LVEF ≤30%. The median time from the index MI to WCD therapy was 16 days. Of the treated patients, 75% received treatment in the first month, and 96% within the first 3 months of use. Shock success resulting in survival was 84% in nonrevascularized and 95% in revascularized patients. During the 40-day and 3-month waiting periods in patients post-MI, the WCD successfully treated SCA in 1.4%, and the risk was highest in the first month of WCD use. The WCD may benefit individual patients selected for high risk of SCA early post-MI. Copyright © 2013 American College of Cardiology Foundation

  4. The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator in a real-world clinical setting: experience in 102 consecutive patients.

    PubMed

    Erath, Julia W; Vamos, Mate; Sirat, Abdul Sami; Hohnloser, Stefan H

    2017-04-01

    The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) is used for temporary protection of patients deemed to be at high risk for sudden death (SCD) not yet meeting indications for the implantable defibrillator (ICD). To evaluate the efficacy, safety, and compliance of/to WCD use and subsequent medium-term outcome of patients in a single-center observational study. A total of 102 consecutive patients were fitted with the WCD from 2012 to 2015 and followed for a mean of 11 months (±8 months). The most common clinical indication for WCD-prescription (63%) was a new diagnosis of severely impaired LV function (LVEF ≤35%). The median wear time of the WCD was 54 days with a daily use of 23 h. Appropriate WCD therapy occurred in four patients (seven shocks for VF, one shock for VT). An ICD was finally implanted in 56 patients (55%). Improvement in LV function was the most common reason not to implant an ICD (HR 0.37; 95% CI 0.19-0.73; p = 0.004). Two patients had inappropriate shocks from their WCD due to atrial fibrillation/flutter. Five patients fitted with an ICD after the end of WCD therapy suffered VT/VF episodes. After wearing the WCD, six patients died (five ICD recipients and one non-ICD recipient). WCD therapy was well accepted by patients and provided temporary protection against ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients at risk for SCD. The WCD may help to avoid unnecessary ICD implantations in a significant proportion of patients.

  5. Normativity under change: Older persons with implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Svanholm, Jette Rolf; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Mortensen, Peter Thomas; Christensen, Charlotte Fuglesang; Birkelund, Regner

    2016-05-01

    In modern society, death has become 'forbidden' fed by the medical technology to conquer death. The technological paradigm is challenged by a social-liberal political ideology in postmodern Western societies. The question raised in this study was as follows: Which arguments, attitudes, values and paradoxes between modern and postmodern tendencies concerning treatment and care of older persons with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator appear in the literature? The aim of this study was to describe and interpret how the field of tension concerning older persons with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator - especially end-of-life issues - has been expressed in the literature throughout the last decade. Paul Ricoeur's reflexive interpretive approach was used to extract the meaningful content of the literature involving qualitative, quantitative and normative literature. Analysis and interpretation involved naive reading, structural analysis and critical interpretation. The investigation complied with the principles outlined in the Declaration of Helsinki. The unifying theme was 'Normativity under change'. The sub-themes were 'Death has become legitimate', 'The technological imperative is challenged' and 'Patients and healthcare professionals need to talk about end-of-life issues'. There seems to be a considerable distance between the normative approach of how practice ought to be and findings in empirical studies. Modern as well as postmodern attitudes and perceptions illustrate contradictory tendencies regarding deactivation of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator and replacement of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator in older persons nearing the end of life. The tendencies challenge each other in a struggle to gain position. On the other hand, they can also complement each other because professionalism and health professional expertise cannot stand alone when the patient's life is at stake but must be unfolded in an alliance with the patient who

  6. Decision-Making of Patients With Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators at End of Life: Family Members' Experiences.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mei Ching; Sulmasy, Daniel P; Gallo, Joseph; Kub, Joan; Hughes, Mark T; Russell, Stuart; Kellogg, Anela; Owens, Sharon G; Terry, Peter; Nolan, Marie T

    2017-07-01

    Many patients with advanced heart failure (HF) experience the life-extending benefits of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD), but at the end stage of HF, patients may experience shocks with increasing frequency and change the plan for end-of-life (EOL) care including the deactivation of the ICD. This report describes family members' experiences of patients with ICD making decisions at EOL. Understanding the decision-making of patients with ICD at EOL can promote informed decision-making and improve the quality of EOL care. This pilot study used a mixed methods approach to test the effects of a nurse-guided discussion in decision-making about ICD deactivation (turning off the defibrillation function) at the EOL. Interviews were conducted, audiotaped, and transcribed in 2012 to 2013 with 6 family members of patients with advanced HF and ICDs. Three researchers coded the data and identified themes in 2014. Three main themes described family members' experiences related to patients having HF with ICDs making health-care decision at EOL: decision-making preferences, patients' perception on ICD deactivation, and communication methods. Health-care providers need to have knowledge of patients' decision-making preferences. Preferences for decision-making include the allowing of appropriate people to involve and encourages direct conversation with family members even when advance directives is completed. Information of ICD function and the option of deactivation need to be clearly delivered to patients and family members. Education and guidelines will facilitate the communication of the preferences of EOL care.

  7. Depression and anxiety symptoms are associated with reduced dietary adherence in heart failure patients treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Luyster, Faith S; Hughes, Joel W; Gunstad, John

    2009-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) patients treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) are a growing patient population for whom the general treatment guidelines for HF still apply. Dietary recommendations, sodium and fluid restriction and daily weight monitoring, are a critical component of HF self-management. However, HF patients often report poor adherence to these recommendations. Studies that have investigated factors associated with poor diet adherence have focused on knowledge and beliefs. The current study extends previous research by examining the impact of psychosocial factors (depression, anxiety, and social support) on adherence to dietary recommendations in this growing subgroup of HF patients. Eighty-eight HF patients, with a mean age of 70 years, treated with an ICD (77% male) completed questionnaires assessing depression and anxiety symptoms, social support, and dietary adherence. Most patients reported following dietary recommendations in the past week most of the time (63%), whereas only 16% of patients reported following dietary recommendations all of the time. Greater depression and anxiety symptoms were associated with poorer dietary adherence, whereas social support did not predict reported dietary adherence. Findings suggest that many HF patients treated with an ICD do not comply with dietary recommendations. Depression and anxiety symptoms were found to be associated with worse dietary adherence, whereas social support was not related to adherence. Further research is needed to understand the role of social support in dietary adherence in HF patients.

  8. Efficacy of cognitive behavioral therapy in reducing psychiatric symptoms in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Maia, A C C O; Braga, A A; Soares-Filho, G; Pereira, V; Nardi, A E; Silva, A C

    2014-04-01

    This article is a systematic review of the available literature on the benefits that cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) offers patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and confirms its effectiveness. After receiving the device, some patients fear that it will malfunction, or they remain in a constant state of tension due to sudden electrical discharges and develop symptoms of anxiety and depression. A search with the key words "anxiety", "depression", "implantable cardioverter", "cognitive behavioral therapy" and "psychotherapy" was carried out. The search was conducted in early January 2013. Sources for the search were ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, and PsycINFO. A total of 224 articles were retrieved: 155 from PubMed, 69 from ISI Web of Knowledge. Of these, 16 were written in a foreign language and 47 were duplicates, leaving 161 references for analysis of the abstracts. A total of 19 articles were eliminated after analysis of the abstracts, 13 were eliminated after full-text reading, and 11 articles were selected for the review. The collection of articles for literature review covered studies conducted over a period of 13 years (1998-2011), and, according to methodological design, there were 1 cross-sectional study, 1 prospective observational study, 2 clinical trials, 4 case-control studies, and 3 case studies. The criterion used for selection of the 11 articles was the effectiveness of the intervention of CBT to decrease anxiety and depression in patients with ICD, expressed as a ratio. The research indicated that CBT has been effective in the treatment of ICD patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms. Research also showed that young women represented a risk group, for which further study is needed. Because the number of references on this theme was small, further studies should be carried out.

  9. n-3 Fatty acids and ventricular arrhythmias in patients with ischaemic heart disease and implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Jeppe Hagstrup; Riahi, Sam; Schmidt, Erik Berg; Mølgaard, Henning; Kirstein Pedersen, Anders; Heath, Finn; Cosedis Nielsen, Jens; Toft, Egon

    2005-07-01

    To investigate the relationship between serum content of n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and the incidence of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). We included 98 patients with ischaemic heart disease and an ICD. The numbers of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and ventricular tachycardia (VT) events were assessed during a 12-month period and related to the concentration of n-3 PUFA in serum phospholipids. Patients with more than one arrhythmic event had significantly lower n-3 PUFA levels compared with patients without arrhythmias (mean 7.1% vs 9.2%, P<0.01). Dividing the patients into quintiles according to their n-3 PUFA level those with the lowest content of n-3 PUFA had more ventricular arrhythmias than patients with the highest concentration of n-3 PUFA (mean 1.3 event vs 0.2 event, P<0.05). Patients with a low content of n-3 PUFA in serum had a higher incidence of ventricular arrhythmias compared with patients with high serum levels of n-3 PUFA. The data suggest that the protection offered by n-3 PUFA against sudden cardiac death observed in previous studies is mediated by a direct antiarrhythmic effect of n-3 PUFA.

  10. Frequency and Implications of Ischemia Prior to Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia in Patients Treated With a Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillator Following Myocardial Infarction.

    PubMed

    Kandzari, David E; Perumal, Ramu; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2016-07-01

    Autopsy studies imply that recurrent myocardial infarction (MI) accounts for the majority of sudden death early after acute MI, rather than primary arrhythmia. However, diagnosis of recurrent MI by autopsy is challenging and excludes electrocardiographic data to adjudicate arrhythmic causes. We examined the frequency of ischemia prior to treated ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (VT/VF) and outcomes in patients using the wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) following acute MI. Primary arrhythmia, rather than ischemia, is a frequent contributor to sudden death following MI. All patients treated for VT/VF over a 6-year period while wearing a WCD following acute MI with advanced left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction ≤35%) were included. Patients with ST-segment changes ≥0.1 mV before VT/VF were classified ischemic. Demographics and clinical outcomes were compared between those with ischemia-mediated vs primary arrhythmia. Among 273 patients fulfilling study criteria, 15.4% had ischemia prior to VT/VF. Clinical and WCD use characteristics did not significantly differ between ischemic and primary VT/VF groups. Termination of VT/VF by WCD treatment approximated 96% in both groups. Survival 24 hours post-treatment was 88% and 84% (P = 0.54) for patients with and without ischemic VT/VF, respectively. Furthermore, 30-day cumulative survival for those with and without ischemic VT/VF was 77% and 70%, respectively (P = 0.57). Ischemia is an infrequent cause of VT/VF following MI, contradicting previous study conclusions that recurrent MI is responsible for most post-MI sudden death. Etiology of VT/VF, however, did not influence defibrillation success or survival, which was high for both groups. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Behavioral interventions in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator: Lessons learned and where to go from here?

    PubMed Central

    Habibović, Mirela; Burg, Matthew M.; Pedersen, Susanne S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the first line treatment for primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. A subgroup of patients experiences psychological distress post implant, and no clear evidence base exists regarding how best to address patients’ needs. The aim of this critical review is to provide an overview of behavioral interventions in ICD patients to date, and to delineate directions for future research using lessons learned from the ongoing RISTA and WEBCARE trials. Methods We searched the PubMed and PsycInfo databases to identify reports of behavioral trials targeting distress and related factors in ICD patients published between 1980 and April 2012. Results We identified 17 trials for the review. Generally, compared to usual care, behavioral interventions were associated with reduced anxiety and depression, and improved physical functioning, with effect sizes ranging from small to moderate-large (0.10 – 1.79 for anxiety; 0.23 – 1.20 for depression). Important limitations were small sample sizes and potential selection bias, hampering generalizability of the results. In addition to a need for larger trials, experiences from the RISTA and WEBCARE trials suggest that intervention trials tailored to the individual patient may be the way forward.. Conclusions Behavioral interventions show promise with respect to reducing distress in ICD patients. Large-scale intervention trials targeted to the individual needs and preferences of patients are warranted, as a ‘one size fits all’ approach is unlikely to work for all ICD patients. PMID:23438053

  12. Ventricular arrhythmias and changes in heart rate preceding ventricular tachycardia in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Lerma, Claudia; Wessel, Niels; Schirdewan, Alexander; Kurths, Jürgen; Glass, Leon

    2008-07-01

    The objective was to determine the characteristics of heart rate variability and ventricular arrhythmias prior to the onset of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Sixty-eight beat-to-beat time series from 13 patients with an ICD were analyzed to quantify heart rate variability and ventricular arrhythmias. The episodes of VT were classified in one of two groups depending on whether the sinus rate in the 1 min preceding the VT was greater or less than 90 beats per minute. In a subset of patients, increased heart rate and reduced heart rate variability was often observed up to 20 min prior to the VT. There was a non-significant trend to higher incidence of premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) before VT compared to control recordings. The patterns of the ventricular arrhythmias were highly heterogeneous among different patients and even within the same patient. Analysis of the changes of heart rate and heart rate variability may have predictive value about the onset of VT in selected patients. The patterns of ventricular arrhythmia could not be used to predict onset of VT in this group of patients.

  13. [New algorithms for discrimination between supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with implantable cardioverter/defibrillator].

    PubMed

    Neuzner, J; Schlepper, M

    1997-03-01

    The current therapy with implantable cardioverter/defibrillators (ICD) is lacking specificity. The technical concept of arrhythmia detection, as a single channel ventricular rate threshold does not provide a clear differentiation between supraventricular and ventricular rhythms. Nearly 25% of all ICD-therapies are related to a false positive detection of supraventricular arrhythmias.The use of alternative, non rate based detection algorithms is limited due to the reduced long-term stability of the sensors and due to a high battery drain. Based on the current concept of arrhythmia detection, the use of additional timing algorithms as the variability of consecutive RR-cycle length ("Rate-Stability") and the detection of a sudden acceleration in the ventricular rate ("Rate-Onset") provide a clinical relevant increase in specificity in ICD-therapy. A further class of detection algorithms uses the morphologic assessment of intracardiac electrograms. Despite the fact that these morphology based algorithms have shown a high sensitivity and specificity in the discrimination between ventricular and non-ventricular rhythms, only one algorithm was implemented in ICD-generators and the clinical importance in ICD-therapy was very small. In 1995 a new morphology based detection algorithm was introduced in ICD-therapy. The "width criterion" is based on the measurment of the duration of the intracardiac signal. In 1995 and 1996 the first two series of a dual chamber ICD system were introduced in clinical ICD-therapy. These devices provide a two-channel atrio-ventricular arrhythmia detection in connection with a DDD antibradycardia pacing therapy. The use of DDD-ICD systems is expected to be a great step forward to enhance diagnostic specificty. A number of rate and timing detection algorithms and algorithms comparing the assoziation of atrial and ventricular signals may improve the discrimination between supraventricular and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The future implementation

  14. Clinical impact of defibrillation testing at the time of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator insertion.

    PubMed

    Hadid, Claudio; Atienza, Felipe; Strasberg, Boris; Arenal, Ángel; Codner, Pablo; González-Torrecilla, Esteban; Datino, Tomás; Percal, Tamara; Almendral, Jesús; Ortiz, Mercedes; Martins, Raphael; Martinez-Alzamora, Nieves; Fernandez Aviles, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular fibrillation is routinely induced during implantable cardioverter-defibrillator insertion to assess defibrillator performance, but this strategy is experiencing a progressive decline. We aimed to assess the efficacy of defibrillator therapies and long-term outcome in a cohort of patients that underwent defibrillator implantation with and without defibrillation testing. Retrospective observational series of consecutive patients undergoing initial defibrillator insertion or generator replacement. We registered spontaneous ventricular arrhythmias incidence and therapy efficacy, and mortality. A total of 545 patients underwent defibrillator implantation (111 with and 434 without defibrillation testing). After 19 (range 9-31) months of follow-up, the death rate per observation year (4% vs. 4%; p = 0.91) and the rate of patients with defibrillator-treated ventricular arrhythmic events per observation year (with test: 10% vs. without test: 12%; p = 0.46) were similar. The generalized estimating equations-adjusted first shock probability of success in patients with test (95%; CI 88-100%) vs. without test (98%; CI 96-100%; p = 0.42) and the proportion of successful antitachycardia therapies (with test: 87% vs. without test: 80%; p = 0.35) were similar between groups. There was no difference in the annualized rate of failed first shock per patient and per shocked patient between groups (5% vs. 4%; p = 0.94). In this observational study, that included an unselected population of patients with a defibrillator, no difference was found in overall mortality, first shock efficacy and rate of failed shocks regardless of whether defibrillation testing was performed or not.

  15. Safety Profile of Liver FibroScan in Patients with Cardiac Pacemakers or Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Pranke, Stephanie; Rashidi, Farid; Nosib, Shravan; Worobetz, Lawrence

    2017-01-01

    Background. Emerging evidence suggests that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with coronary artery diseases and arrhythmias. The FibroScan (Echosens, France), a widely available, noninvasive device, is able to detect liver fibrosis and steatosis within this patient population. However, the FibroScan is currently contraindicated in patients with cardiac pacemakers (PM) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD). Objective. To determine the safety profile of FibroScan testing in patients with PM or ICD. Methods. Consecutive outpatients undergoing routine device interrogations at a tertiary level teaching hospital underwent simultaneous liver stiffness measurements. PM or ICD performance data, device types, patient demographics, medical history, and previous laboratory and conventional liver imaging results were collected. Results. Analysis of 107 subjects with 33 different types of implanted cardiac devices, from 5 different companies (Medtronic, Sorin, ELA Medical, Boston Scientific, and St. Jude), did not demonstrate any adverse events as defined by abnormal device sensing/pacing or ICD firing. This population included high risk subjects undergoing active pacing (n = 53) and with right pectoral PM placement (n = 1). None of the subjects had any clinical signs of decompensated congestive heart failure or cirrhosis during the exam. Conclusion. TE with FibroScan can be safely performed in patients with PM or ICD. PMID:28349045

  16. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio predicts appropriate therapy in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy patients with primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator

    PubMed Central

    Uçar, Fatih M.; Açar, Burak

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate whether an inflammatory marker of neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) predicts appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy (shock or anti tachycardia pacing) in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDC) patients. Methods: We retrospectively examined IDC patients (mean age: 58.3 ± 11.8 years, 81.5% male) with ICD who admitted to outpatient clinic for pacemaker control at 2 tertiary care hospitals in Ankara and Edirne, Turkey from January 2013-2015. All ICDs were implanted for primary prevention. Hematological and biochemical parameters were measured prior procedure. Results: Over a median follow-up period of 43 months (Range 7-125), 68 (33.1%) patients experienced appropriate ICD therapy. The NLR was increased in patients that received appropriate therapy (4.39 ± 2.94 versus 2.96 ± 1.97, p<0.001). To identify independent risk factors for appropriate therapy, a multivariate linear regression model was conducted and age (β=0.163, p=0.013), fasting glucose (β=0.158, p=0.017), C-reactive protein (CRP) (β=0.289, p<0.001) and NLR (β=0.212, p<0.008) were found to be independent risk factors for appropriate ICD therapy. Conclusions: Before ICD implantation by using NLR and CRP, arrhythmic episodes may be predictable and better antiarrhythmic medical therapy optimization may protect these IDC patients from unwanted events. PMID:28133686

  17. [Spanish implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry. Seventh official report of the spanish society of cardiology working group on implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (2010)].

    PubMed

    Alzueta, Javier; Fernández, José Maria

    2011-11-01

    The authors summarize the findings of the Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry for 2010 compiled by the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators. Members of the Spanish Society of Cardiology were prospectively surveyed; data were recorded voluntarily by each implantation team on one-page questionnaires. In total, 4627 device implantations were reported, comprising 85.6% of the overall estimated number of implantations. The reported implantation rate was 100.61 per million population and the estimated total implantation rate was 117.50 per million. The proportion of first implantations was 73.87%. We collected data from 143 hospitals (9 more than in 2009). The majority of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantations were performed in men (81%). The mean age was 62.5 ± 13 years. Most of the patients had severe or moderate-to-severe ventricular dysfunction and were in New York Heart Association functional class II. Ischemic heart disease was the most frequent underlying cardiac condition, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy. The number of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantations indicated for primary prevention increased over the previous year and now accounts for 65.6% of first implantations. In all, 76.1% of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantations were performed by cardiac electrophysiologists. The 2010 Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry includes data on almost 86% of all the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantations performed in Spain. Although the number has continued to increase, it still remains far lower than the European average. There has been a significant increase in the number of implantations indicated for primary prevention. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. The Challenges of Living With an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Abbasi, Mohammad; Negarandeh, Reza; Norouzadeh, Reza; Shojae Mogadam, Amir Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background Dysrhythmia is one of the most common causes of sudden cardiac death worldwide. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the most effective method of treatment for dysrhythmias causing cardiac arrest. However, living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator is associated with challenges such as fear, anxiety, and depression. Objectives The purpose of this study was to identify the challenges of living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Patients and Methods In this qualitative study, an interpretive phenomenological approach was used, with thirteen participants (seven men and six women) between the ages of 21 and 70 years old (mean = 58.15, SD = 14.4). The duration of having an implantable cardioverter defibrillator was 1 - 120 months (mean = 23.15, SD = 33.31). Maximum variation sampling was used to purposefully select the participants from the governmental Imam Khomeini hospital in Tehran, Iran, between May and October of 2013. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for 30 to 45 minutes, and Van Manen’s six-step method was used in this study. Results The challenges of living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator include: living with fear, concerns about the future, concerns about device malfunction, fearing death during the shock, pain due to the shock, loss of control, the cost of the device, and the lifestyle limitations. Conclusions Patients who live with implantable cardioverter defibrillators face many concerns and challenges. Therefore, the role of nurses in teaching patients before and after implementation is very important. PMID:28180011

  19. Comparative Evaluation of Four Risk Scores for Predicting Mortality in Patients With Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator for Primary Prevention.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Mañero, Moisés; Abu Assi, Emad; Sánchez-Gómez, Juan Miguel; Fernández-Armenta, Juan; Díaz-Infante, Ernesto; García-Bolao, Ignacio; Benezet-Mazuecos, Juan; Andrés Lahuerta, Ana; Expósito-García, Víctor; Bertomeu-González, Vicente; Arce-León, Álvaro; Barrio-López, María Teresa; Peinado, Rafael; Martínez-Sande, Luis; Arias, Miguel A

    2016-11-01

    Several clinical risk scores have been developed to identify patients at high risk of all-cause mortality despite implantation of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. We aimed to examine and compare the predictive capacity of 4 simple scoring systems (MADIT-II, FADES, PACE and SHOCKED) for predicting mortality after defibrillator implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in a Mediterranean country. A multicenter retrospective study was performed in 15 Spanish hospitals. Consecutive patients referred for defibrillator implantation between January 2010 and December 2011 were included. A total of 916 patients with ischemic and nonischemic heart disease were included (mean age, 62 ± 11 years, 81.4% male). Over 33.4 ± 12.9 months, 113 (12.3%) patients died (cardiovascular origin in 86 [9.4%] patients). At 12, 24, 36, and 48 months, mortality rates were 4.5%, 7.6%, 10.8%, and 12.3% respectively. All the risk scores showed a stepwise increase in the risk of death throughout the scoring system of each of the scores and all 4 scores identified patients at greater risk of mortality. The scores were significantly associated with all-cause mortality throughout the follow-up period. PACE displayed the lowest c-index value regardless of whether the population had heart disease of ischemic (c-statistic = 0.61) or nonischemic origin (c-statistic = 0.61), whereas MADIT-II (c-statistic = 0.67 and 0.65 in ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy, respectively), SHOCKED (c-statistic = 0.68 and 0.66, respectively), and FADES (c-statistic = 0.66 and 0.60) provided similar c-statistic values (P ≥ .09). In this nontrial-based cohort of Mediterranean patients, the 4 evaluated risk scores showed a significant stepwise increase in the risk of death. Among the currently available risk scores, MADIT-II, FADES, and SHOCKED provide slightly better performance than PACE. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All

  20. Small bowel capsule endoscopy in patients with cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators: Outcome analysis using telemetry review

    PubMed Central

    Cuschieri, Justin R; Osman, Mohammed N; Wong, Richard CK; Chak, Amitabh; Isenberg, Gerard A

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To determine if there were any interactions between cardiac devices and small bowel capsules secondary to electromagnetic interference (EMI) in patients who have undergone small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE). METHODS: Authors conducted a chart review of 20 patients with a cardiac pacemaker (CP) or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) who underwent continuous electrocardiographic monitoring during their SBCE from 2003-2008. authors searched for unexplained electrocardiogram (ECG) findings, changes in CP and ICD set parameters, any abnormality in transmitted capsule data, and adverse clinical events. RESULTS: There were no adverse events or hemodynamically significant arrhythmias reported. CP and ICD set parameters were preserved. The majority of ECG abnormalities were also found in pre- or post- SBCE ECG tracings and the CP behavior during arrhythmias appeared appropriate. Two patients seemed to have episodes of undersensing by the CP. However, similar findings were documented in ECGs taken outside the time frame of the SBCE. One patient was observed to have a low signal encountered from the capsule resulting in lack of localization, but no images were lost. CONCLUSION: Capsule-induced EMI remains a possibility but is unlikely to be clinically important. CP-induced interference of SBCE is also possible, but is infrequent and does not result in loss of images transmitted by the capsule. PMID:22442746

  1. The Challenges of Living With an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Abbasi, Mohammad; Negarandeh, Reza; Norouzadeh, Reza; Shojae Mogadam, Amir Reza

    2016-10-01

    Dysrhythmia is one of the most common causes of sudden cardiac death worldwide. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the most effective method of treatment for dysrhythmias causing cardiac arrest. However, living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator is associated with challenges such as fear, anxiety, and depression. The purpose of this study was to identify the challenges of living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. In this qualitative study, an interpretive phenomenological approach was used, with thirteen participants (seven men and six women) between the ages of 21 and 70 years old (mean = 58.15, SD = 14.4). The duration of having an implantable cardioverter defibrillator was 1 - 120 months (mean = 23.15, SD = 33.31). Maximum variation sampling was used to purposefully select the participants from the governmental Imam Khomeini hospital in Tehran, Iran, between May and October of 2013. Semi-structured interviews were conducted for 30 to 45 minutes, and Van Manen's six-step method was used in this study. The challenges of living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator include: living with fear, concerns about the future, concerns about device malfunction, fearing death during the shock, pain due to the shock, loss of control, the cost of the device, and the lifestyle limitations. Patients who live with implantable cardioverter defibrillators face many concerns and challenges. Therefore, the role of nurses in teaching patients before and after implementation is very important.

  2. Electrical injury during "hands on" defibrillation-A potential risk of internal cardioverter defibrillators?

    PubMed

    Stockwell, Beverley; Bellis, Gareth; Morton, Geraint; Chung, Karen; Merton, W Louis; Andrews, Neil; Smith, Gary B

    2009-07-01

    Despite clear guidance for the need for rescuers to avoid contact with a patient during external defibrillation, the advice regarding the potential dangers of rescuer contact during the firing of an internal cardioverter defibrillator [ICD] generally implies that such contact is safe. This case report describes documented nerve injury to a rescuer by a shock delivered from an ICD during chest compression on a patient in cardiac arrest. The authors also discuss the existing literature on the subject and make suggestions for future management.

  3. [Cost effectiveness of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for patients who are at risk for sudden death in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Alcaraz, Andrea; González-Zuelgaray, Jorge; Augustovski, Federico

    2011-01-01

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-utility of the cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) among patients who are at risk for sudden death in Argentina, from three scenarios: public health, social security and private sector. We developed a Markov model to evaluate the survival, quality of life and cost of the prophylactic implantation of an ICD, as compared with pharmacological therapy, among three different target populations according to clinical trials selected using a systematic review, and choosing epidemiological, effectiveness, resource use and cost parameters. A healthcare system perspective was adopted. A 3% discount rate was used. The use of the ICD was more costly and more effective than control therapy. The cohort with greater benefits was represented by MADIT I study, showing an incremental cost effectiveness rate (ICER) of $8,539 (dollar 2009) for public, $9,371 for social security and $10,083 for private sector. ICERs for secondary prevention population were $21,016, $22,520 and $24,012, and for MADIT II population were $17,379, $18,574 and $19,799. The analysis was robust to different deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses, except for the cost of ICD and for battery life. The results varied considerably depending on the cohort and discretely according to the health system. ICD could be cost-effective in Argentina, mainly in the MADIT I patients. Copyright © 2011 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Impact of manufacturer advisories and FDA recalls of implantable cardioverter defibrillator generators in pediatric and congenital heart disease patients.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Tarun; Dubin, Anne M; Atkins, Dianne L; Bradley, David J; Shannon, Kevin M; Erickson, Christopher C; Franklin, Wayne H; Cecchin, Frank; Berul, Charles I

    2008-12-01

    Recalls of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) generators have affected many patients. No information is available regarding the impact specifically on pediatric and congenital heart disease (CHD) patients. This study was undertaken to determine implications of ICD manufacturers' advisories and recalls on children and CHD patients. The first part of this study involved single-center review of patients who underwent ICD placement between 2000 and 2005. Patients with ICDs affected by the 2005 advisories/recalls were reviewed for incidence of explantation, malfunction and complications. Secondly, members of the Pediatric and Congenital Electrophysiology Society (PACES) were queried for patients with affected devices, incidences of explantation, malfunction, and explant-related complications. Data were pooled for aggregate summary. Among 233 patients who underwent ICD implantation at our institution during the study period, 58 (25%) patients had advisory/recalled devices and 13 of 58 (22%) underwent explantation following 3.1 +/- 1.3 years implant duration. No defects were identified by the manufacturer. No patients experienced complications requiring reintervention or rehospitalization. Questionnaire responses were received from 22 PACES institutions, included 177 patients with affected devices, of which 76 (43%) were removed. One patient died from complications following revision, and 1 patient had complications requiring reoperation. Two explanted devices had loose headers; no other defects were discovered. Taken together, 2 of 89 explanted devices were defective, and 2 complications occurred from explantation. Advisories and recalls affect substantial numbers of pediatric and CHD patients. A significant proportion underwent explantation. Although complications are infrequent, there are important medical, psychosocial, and financial impacts associated with ICD replacement.

  5. Technical and practical aspects of remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients in Poland - preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Andrzej; Zakrzewska-Koperska, Joanna; Maciag, Aleksander; Derejko, Paweł; Orczykowski, Michał; Szumowski, Lukasz; Walczak, Franciszek

    2009-05-01

    The aim of remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) is to increase the patient's safety by early detection of technical or medical malfunctions and decrease the number of follow-up visits. To evaluate the feasibility and reliability of internet-based home monitoring of ICD recipients in Poland. Twenty-seven patients with ICD with remote monitoring options were evaluated; 20 (74%) patients had a single chamber ICD, 6 (22%) patients had a dual chamber ICD and one had an ICD with a resynchronisation therapy option. Medical and technical events reported by the remote monitoring system as well as interruptions in monitoring longer than 14 days were analysed. The patients were followed for 12.7 +/- 10.5 months. Two of them died because of heart failure (6 and 13 months after ICD implantation, respectively). The remote monitoring system reported medical events in 13 (48%) patients. In total, we received 32 event reports (from 1 to 19 per patient, mean 2.6) which were generated due to the detection of ventricular tachycardia (VT) (17 events in 9 patients), ventricular fibrillation (VF) (9 episodes in 6 patients), ineffective defibrillation with the maximal energy (5 reports in 3 patients) and supraventricular tachycardia in the VT detection window (1). Two patients had more than 3 VT/VF episodes during 24 h. There were no reports on technical abnormalities of the ICD system. Interruptions in home monitoring longer than 14 days occurred in 5 (18.5%) patients and lasted 2 to 14 weeks (mean 2.8 +/- 7.1). The longest break was caused by the patient's stay abroad. The remaining interruptions were caused by: journeys (5 episodes), hospitalisations (4), and a temporary stay in a place without sufficient GSM coverage (3). During the follow-up period there were no interruptions in monitoring caused by transmitter or ICD failure. All data received by the home monitoring system were confirmed during the follow-up visits. Remote monitoring of ICD recipients

  6. Usefulness of microvolt T-wave alternans for predicting outcome in patients with Chagas disease with implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Marco Paulo Tomaz; da Costa Rocha, Manoel Otávio; Neto, Elson Santos; Brandão, Fernando Vieira; Lombardi, Federico; Ribeiro, Antonio Luiz Pinho

    2016-11-01

    Chagas disease (ChD) may lead to life-threatening heart disease, including malignant ventricular arrhythmias. The use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) has become the main therapeutic strategy for secondary prevention of SCD in Chagas disease (ChD). Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) is a direct measure of ventricular repolarization instability and has emerged as a potentially useful way of determining arrhythmia vulnerability. However, this methodology has not been evaluated in patients with ChD. To evaluate the predictive value of MTWA testing for appropriate therapy or death in ChD patients with ICDs. This prospective study included consecutive patients who received ICD implantations in a Brazilian tertiary referral center. Seventy-two patients were followed for a median time of 422 (range 294-642) days. Thirty-three patients had ChD. The MTWA was non-negative (positive or indeterminate) in 27 (81.8%) of ChD patients. The combined primary outcome (appropriate ICD therapy or death) occurred in 29 patients (40.3%); 17 out 33 ChD patients presented the primary outcome. There was a statistically significant difference in event-free survival between ChD patients with negative and non-negative MTWA results (p=0.02). Non-negative MTWA tests nearly triple the risk of appropriate ICD therapy or death (HR=2.7, 95% CI: 1.7-4.4, p=0.01) in patients with ChD and was the only variable associated with outcomes. The sensitivity and the negative predictive value was 100% in ChD patients. MTWA may be useful in recognizing high-risk ICD patients who may require adjunctive therapies with antiarrhythmic drugs or catheter ablation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Prevalence and Outcomes of Patients Receiving Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators for Primary Prevention Not Based on Guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Levine, Yehoshua C.; Tuttle, Mark K.; Rosenberg, Michael A.; Goldberg, Randal; Matos, Jason; Samuel, Michelle; Kramer, Daniel B.; Buxton, Alfred E.

    2015-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation outside practice guidelines remains contentious, particularly during the mandated waiting periods in patients with recent cardiac events. We assessed the prevalence and outcomes of noneguideline-based (NGB) ICD implantations in a tertiary academic medical center, with a specific focus on adjudication of arrhythmia events. All patients who underwent initial primary prevention ICD implantation at our institution from 2004 to 2012 were categorized as having received guideline-based (GB) or NGB implants and were retrospectively assessed for first episode of appropriate ICD therapy and total mortality. Of 807 patients, 137 (17.0%) received NGB implants. During a median follow-up of 2.9 years, patients with NGB implants had similar times to first appropriate ICD therapy (median time to event 1.94 vs 2.17 years in patients with GB implants, p = 0.20). After multivariable analysis, patients with NGB implants remained at higher risk for death (hazard ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.2, p = 0.03) but not appropriate ICD therapy (hazard ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.5 to 1.3, p = 0.51). Furthermore, only 1 of 125 patients who underwent implant within the 40-day waiting period after myocardial infarction or 3-month waiting period after revascularization or cardiomyopathy diagnosis received an appropriate therapy within this period. In conclusion, few patients received NGB ICD implants in our academic medical center. Although these patients have similar long-term risk of receiving appropriate ICD therapy compared with patients with GB implants, this risk is very low during the waiting periods mandated by clinical practice guidelines. These results suggest that there is little need to rush into implanting ICDs during these waiting periods. PMID:25840578

  8. Survival Benefit of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators in Left Ventricular Assist Device-Supported Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    Refaat, Marwan M.; Tanaka, Toshikazu; Kormos, Robert L; McNamara, Dennis; Teuteberg, Jeffrey; Winowich, Steve; London, Barry; Simon, Marc A

    2012-01-01

    Background Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (ICDs) reduce mortality in heart failure (HF). In patients requiring ventricular assist device (VAD), the benefit from ICD therapy is not well established. The aim of the study is to define the impact of ICD on outcomes in VAD - supported patients. Methods and Results We reviewed data for consecutive adult HF patients receiving VAD as bridge-to-transplantation from 1996 to 2003. Primary outcome was survival to transplantation. A total of 144 VADs were implanted [85 left ventricular (LVAD), 59 biventricular (BIVAD), age 50±12 years, 77% male, LVEF 18±9%, 54% ischemic]. Mean length of support was 119 days (range 1–670); 103 (72%) patients survived to transplantation. Forty-five patients had an ICD (33 LVAD, 12 BIVAD). More LVAD patients had an appropriate ICD shock before implantation than afterwards (16 vs. 7, p=0.02). There was a trend towards higher shock frequency before LVAD implant than after (3.3±5.2 vs 1.1±3.8 shocks/year, p=0.06). Mean time to first shock after VAD implant was 129±109 days. LVAD-supported patients with an ICD were significantly more likely to survive to transplantation (LVAD: 1-year actuarial survival to transplantation 91% with ICD vs. 57% without ICD, log-rank p=0.01; BIVAD: 54% vs. 47%, log-rank p=NS). An ICD was associated with significantly increased survival in a multivariate model controlling for confounding variables (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.04-6.21, p=0.04). Conclusions Shock frequency decreases after VAD implantation, likely due to ventricular unloading, but appropriate ICD shocks still occur in 21% of patients. An ICD is associated with improved survival in LVAD-supported HF patients. PMID:22300782

  9. What Are the Risks of Having an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are the Risks of Having an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator? Unnecessary Electrical ... prescribe medicine so unnecessary pulses occur less often. Risks Related to Surgery Although rare, some ICD risks ...

  10. Efficacy and Limitations of Tachycardia Detection Interval Guided Reprogramming for Reduction of Inappropriate Shock in Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Patients.

    PubMed

    Fujiishi, Tamami; Niwano, Shinichi; Murakami, Masami; Nakamura, Hironori; Igarashi, Tazuru; Ishizue, Naruya; Oikawa, Jun; Kishihara, Jun; Fukaya, Hidehira; Niwano, Hiroe; Ako, Junya

    2016-05-25

    The avoidance of inappropriate shock therapy is an important clinical issue in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients. We retrospectively analyzed therapeutic events in ICD patients, and the effect of tachycardia detection interval (TDI) and tachycardia cycle length (TCL) guided reprograming on the reduction of inappropriate ICD therapy. The clinical determinants of after reprogramming were also evaluated.A total of 254 consecutive ICD patients were included in the study, and the incidence of antitachycardia therapy was evaluated during the follow-up period of 27.3 ± 18.7 months. When inappropriate antitachycardia therapy appeared, TDI was reprogrammed not to exceed the detected TCL and the patients continued to be followed-up. Various clinical parameters were compared between patients with and without inappropriate ICD therapy. During the initial follow-up period of 18.6 ± 15.6 months, ICD therapy occurred in 127/254 patients (50%) including inappropriate antitachycardia pacing (ATP) (12.9%) and shock (44.35%). Determinants of initial inappropriate therapy were dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), history of therapeutic hypothermia, and QRS duration. Of the 61 patients with inappropriate therapy, 24 received TCL guided reprogramming. During the additional observation period of 17.0 ± 16.8 months, inappropriate therapy recurred in 5/24 patients (2 ATP, 3 shocks). The determinant of these inappropriate therapy events after reprogramming was the presence of supraventricular tachycardia.By applying simple TCL and TDI guided reprogramming, inappropriate therapy was reduced by 79%. The determinant of inappropriate therapy after reprogramming was the presence of supraventricular tachycardia.

  11. The benefits of remote monitoring in long-term care for patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Ošmera, Ondřej; Bulava, Alan

    2014-01-01

    The increasing number of patients with implantable cardiac devices raises the need for more efficient outpatient follow-up care. Due to technological progress in communication and transmission systems and in the implantable devices themselves, telemonitoring can be widely used as an important part of care for patients and devices. Our objective was to evaluate the benefits of continuous remote monitoring using the BIOTRONIK Home Monitoring® (HM) system compared to standard outpatient follow-ups. 198 patients with single- or dual-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implanted for primary or secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death were randomized into a group of patients followed through standard outpatient visits ( HM-) and a group telemonitored by the HM system (HM+). Planned and emergency visits, ICD-related hospitalizations, and delivered shocks and their appropriateness were evaluated in the respective groups. A significant reduction was achieved in the number of planned (by 48%, p<0.001) and total visits (by 45%, p<0.001) during a three-year evaluation. A comparable number of patients experienced one or more shocks. Mortality rates were equivalent, as was the number of patients hospitalized in relation to their ICD. However, there was a significant reduction in the number and proportion of inappropriate shocks delivered in the HM+ patient group: by 80% (p=0.002) in outpatient follow-up care and by 90% (p<0.001) when multiple shocks requiring hospitalization were included. The HM system was an effective and safe method of follow-up in patients with an implanted ICD. Remote monitoring reduces the number of outpatient visits and inappropriate shocks.

  12. Magnets and implantable cardioverter defibrillators: what's the problem?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Blanco, Yiliam F; Souki, Fouad; Tamayo, Evelyn; Candiotti, Keith

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of surgical patients present to the operating room with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Peri-operative care of these patients dictates that ICD function be suspended for many surgical procedures to avoid inappropriate, and possibly harmful, ICD therapy triggered by electromagnetic interference (EMI). An alternative to reprogramming the ICD is the use of a magnet to temporarily suspend its function. However, this approach is not without complications. We report a case where magnet use failed to inhibit ICD sensing of EMI, and a shock was delivered to the patient. Measures to decrease EMI, controversies regarding magnet use, and expert recommendations are discussed.

  13. Automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator discharges and acute myocardial injury

    SciTech Connect

    Avitall, B.; Port, S.; Gal, R.; McKinnie, J.; Tchou, P.; Jazayeri, M.; Troup, P.; Akhtar, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Multiple defibrillations by the automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (AICD) have been reported to result in localized epicardial damage. No data exist, however, regarding whether this damage can be detected in the clinical setting or whether it interferes with the detection of true myocardial infarction. Forty-nine patients who received defibrillations by patch electrodes were studied prospectively. We attempted to document the presence of myocardial injury with the following three commonly used modalities for the detection of myocardial infarction: serial electrocardiographic changes, serial creatine phosphokinase (CPK) and CPK-MB release, and technetium 99m pyrophosphate scanning. Fifteen patients received defibrillations by AICD patches at the time of AICD generator replacement. Nine patients received defibrillations at the time of new AICD lead placement. The average total energy delivered was 85 +/- 29 J. None of these patients had detectable myocardial injury. Ten patients had defibrillations by the AICD patches at the time of bypass operation. One patient in this group developed acute myocardial infarction in the inferior wall after posterior descending coronary bypass operation, as detected by electrocardiogram, 99mTc pyrophosphate scanning, and CPK-MB analysis. Fifteen patients were evaluated for spontaneous AICD discharges. Thirteen had a maximum of five consecutive shocks, and cumulative energy delivered was not greater than 330 J. None of these patients had detectable injury. Two patients had CPK-MB release of 15.3% and 7.5%, respectively. One of these patients had a positive 99mTc pyrophosphate scan. These two patients received 12 and 17 rapid and consecutive AICD discharges, respectively, with cumulative delivered energy of 360 and 510 J, respectively.

  14. Hospice Use Following Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation in Older Patients: Results From the National Cardiovascular Data Registry.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Daniel B; Reynolds, Matthew R; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Parzynski, Craig S; Spertus, John A; Mor, Vincent; Mitchell, Susan L

    2016-05-24

    Older recipients of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are at increased risk for short-term mortality in comparison with younger patients. Although hospice use is common among decedents aged >65, its use among older ICD recipients is unknown. Medicare patients aged >65 matched to data in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry - ICD Registry from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2010 were eligible for analysis (N=194 969). The proportion of ICD recipients enrolled in hospice, cumulative incidence of hospice admission, and factors associated with time to hospice enrollment were evaluated. Five years after device implantation, 50.9% of patients were either deceased or in hospice. Among decedents, 36.8% received hospice services. The cumulative incidence of hospice enrollment, accounting for the competing risk of death, was 4.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6%-4.8%) within 1 year and 21.3% (95% CI, 20.7%-21.8%) at 5 years. Factors most strongly associated with shorter time to hospice enrollment were older age (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.73-1.81), class IV heart failure (versus class I; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.66-1.94); ejection fraction <20 (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.48-1.67), and greater hospice use among decedents in the patients' health referral region. More than one-third of older patients dying with ICDs receive hospice care. Five years after implantation, half of older ICD recipients are either dead or in hospice. Hospice providers should be prepared for ICD patients, whose clinical trajectories and broader palliative care needs require greater focus. © 2016 The Authors.

  15. Incidence and predictors of appropriate therapies delivered by the implantable cardioverter defibrillator in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gracieux, Junève; Sanders, Gillian D; Pokorney, Sean D; Lopes, Renato D; Thomas, Kevin; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2014-12-20

    Although the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) improves the survival of patients at increased risk of sudden cardiac death due to systolic heart failure, ICD shocks have been associated with both worse survival and quality of life. We performed a systematic review of primary prevention ICD studies to evaluate the incidence and clinical predictors of appropriate ICD shocks or anti-tachycardia pacing (ATP) in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy. We performed a literature search in MEDLINE. Eligible studies had to be full text, written in the English language, performed in adults aged ≥ 19, and published from 1999 through April 2014. Of 289 identified studies, 9 met all our inclusion criteria. The mean length of follow up ranged from 17 to 45.5 months. The incidence of appropriate ICD therapy varied from 17% to 31%. Among those studies, only 4 included data on the clinical characteristics of appropriate ICD therapy recipients. Characteristics associated with appropriate ICD therapy included male sex, advanced New York Heart Association class, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, and lower serum creatinine. Patients who received appropriate therapy were also less likely to be on a beta-blocker. Left ventricular ejection fraction was not significantly different between patients who received appropriate ICD therapy and those who did not. The incidence of appropriate ICD therapy is not trivial in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and a primary prevention ICD. Predictors of appropriate ICD therapy have not been adequately assessed in large patient populations. As such, large prospective studies of predictors of appropriate ICD therapies are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Systematic fluoroscopic and electrical assessment of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients implanted with silicone-polyurethane copolymer (Optim™) coated leads.

    PubMed

    Forleo, Giovanni B; Di Biase, Luigi; Panattoni, Germana; Politano, Alessandro; Magliano, Giulia; Santini, Luca; Natale, Andrea; Romeo, Francesco

    2014-02-01

    Serious concerns have been recently raised about the reliability of the silicone-polyurethane copolymer (Optim™) lead insulation system. We sought to identify insulation defects and Optim-lead failures by systematic fluoroscopic and electrical assessment in a prospectively defined cohort of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients. Between July 2007 and December 2011, 234 patients were implanted with 413 optim-coated leads as part of an ICD system at a single centre. Fluoroscopic screening with high-resolution cine-fluoroscopy at 30 frames per second was offered to all patients. In addition, the electrical integrity of all implanted leads was assessed. Durata, Riata ST Optim, and low-voltage Optim leads were implanted in 199, 26, and 188 cases, respectively. During a total follow-up of 10 036 lead-months, there were 7 Optim-lead failures (defined as electrical malfunction resulting in lead replacement) and 31 deaths; no cases of electrical noises were encountered. The overall incidence of lead failure was 1.2 vs. 0.3 per 100 lead-years, for high- and low-voltage leads, respectively (P = 0.1). One hundred fifty-one patients agreed to undergo fluoroscopy screening; none of the 264 analysed Optim leads were found to have any fluoroscopically visible structural defects after an average of 31 months post-implant. This study represents the first systematic screening of Optim-coated leads in a large unselected cohort of ICD patients. Over a 5-year period few lead failures were observed and normal fluoroscopic appearance was present in all patients.

  17. The role of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in patients with continuous flow left ventricular assist devices - A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sahil; Garg, Lohit; Nanda, Sudip; Sharma, Abhishek; Bhatia, Nirmanmoh; Manda, Yugandhar; Singh, Amitoj; Fegley, Mark; Shirani, Jamshid

    2016-11-01

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) are each known to improve mortality in patients with advanced congestive heart failure (CHF). If ICDs contribute to improved survival specifically in recipients of LVADs is currently unknown. To evaluate the impact of presence of ICD on mortality in continuous flow LVAD recipients. A meta- analysis of available literature was performed. PubMed, Embase and Google Scholar databases were searched for studies that compared mortality in continuous flow LVAD patients with ICDs (new implantation or no de-activation) and without ICDs (including de-activation of existing implant). Pooled analysis using a fixed effects model was used for outcomes of interest. We included 3 observational studies for a total of 292 patients (203 (69.5%) with ICD versus 89 (30.5%) without ICD). The presence of an active ICD was not associated with improved survival [OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.33-1.18; p=0.15]. In bridge to transplantation [BT] patients (224 patients, 149 with ICD versus 75 without ICD), an active ICD was not associated with a higher probability of survivzal [OR 1.47, 95% CI 0.78-2.76; p=0.23]. There was no difference in the occurrence of severe right ventricular dysfunction or failure between two groups [OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.42-1.47; p=0.45]. The risk of LVAD related complications were similar [OR 0.68, 95% CI 0.35-1.31; P=0.25]. This meta-analysis demonstrates that there is no survival benefit with ICD in heart failure patients supported with continuous flow LVAD. There is an urgent need of large-scale randomized trials to specifically address this issue. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Impact of new X-ray technology on patient dose in pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantations.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Joris D; Ottervanger, Jan Paul; Delnoy, Peter Paul H M; Lagerweij, Martine C M; Knollema, Siert; Slump, Cornelis H; Jager, Pieter L

    2017-01-01

    New X-ray technology providing new image processing techniques may reduce radiation exposure. The aim of this study was to quantify this radiation exposure reduction for patients during pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. In this retrospective study, 1185 consecutive patients who had undergone de novo pacemaker or ICD implantation during a 2-year period were included. All implantations in the first year were performed using the reference technology (Allura Xper), whereas in the second year, the new X-ray technology (AlluraClarity) was used. Radiation exposure, expressed as the dose area product (DAP), was compared between the two time periods to determine the radiation exposure reduction for pacemaker and ICD implantations without cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and with CRT. Procedure duration and contrast volume were used as measures to compare complexity and image quality. The study population consisted of 591 patients who had undergone an implantation using the reference technology, and 594 patients with the new X-ray technology. The two groups did not differ in age, gender, or body mass index. The DAP decreased with 69 % from 16.4 ± 18.5 to 5.2 ± 6.6 Gy cm(2) for the non-CRT implantations (p < 0.001). The DAP decreased with 75 % from 72.1 ± 60.0 to 17.8 ± 17.4 Gy cm(2) for the CRT implantations (p < 0.001). Nevertheless, procedure duration and contrast volume did not differ when using the new technology (p = 0.09 and p = 0.20, respectively). Introduction of new X-ray technology resulted in a radiation exposure reduction of more than 69 % for patients during pacemaker and ICD implantation while image quality was unaffected.

  19. Influence of Renal Function on Mortality and Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients Undergoing First Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Generator Replacement

    PubMed Central

    WAKS, JONATHAN W.; HIGGINS, ANGELA Y.; MITTLEMAN, MURRAY A.; BUXTON, ALFRED E.

    2016-01-01

    Background Impaired renal function is associated with increased mortality among patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). The relationship between renal function at time of ICD generator replacement and subsequent appropriate ICD therapies is not known. Methods and Results We identified 441 patients who underwent first ICD generator replacement between 2000 and 2011 and had serum creatinine measured within 30 days of their procedure. Patients were divided into tertiles based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Adjusted Cox proportional hazard and competing risk models were used to assess relationships between eGFR and subsequent mortality and appropriate ICD therapy. Median eGFR was 37.6, 59.3, and 84.8 mL/min/1.73 m2 for tertiles 1–3, respectively. Five-year Kaplan–Meier survival probability was 34.8%, 61.4%, and 84.5% for tertiles 1–3, respectively (P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, compared to tertile 3, worse eGFR tertile was associated with increased mortality (HR 2.84, 95% CI [1.36–5.94] for tertile 2; HR 3.84, 95% CI [1.81–8.12] for tertile 1). At 5 years, 57.0%, 58.1%, and 60.2% of patients remained free of appropriate ICD therapy in tertiles 1–3, respectively (P = 0.82). After adjustment, eGFR tertile was not associated with future appropriate ICD therapy. Results were unchanged in an adjusted competing risk model accounting for death. Conclusions At time of first ICD generator replacement, lower eGFR is associated with higher mortality, but not with appropriate ICD therapies. The poorer survival of ICD patients with reduced eGFR does not appear to be influenced by arrhythmia status, and there is no clear proarrhythmic effect of renal dysfunction, even after accounting for the competing risk of death. PMID:25431143

  20. Influence of renal function on mortality and ventricular arrhythmias in patients undergoing first implantable cardioverter-defibrillator generator replacement.

    PubMed

    Waks, Jonathan W; Higgins, Angela Y; Mittleman, Murray A; Buxton, Alfred E

    2015-03-01

    Impaired renal function is associated with increased mortality among patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). The relationship between renal function at time of ICD generator replacement and subsequent appropriate ICD therapies is not known. We identified 441 patients who underwent first ICD generator replacement between 2000 and 2011 and had serum creatinine measured within 30 days of their procedure. Patients were divided into tertiles based on estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Adjusted Cox proportional hazard and competing risk models were used to assess relationships between eGFR and subsequent mortality and appropriate ICD therapy. Median eGFR was 37.6, 59.3, and 84.8 mL/min/1.73 m(2) for tertiles 1-3, respectively. Five-year Kaplan-Meier survival probability was 34.8%, 61.4%, and 84.5% for tertiles 1-3, respectively (P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, compared to tertile 3, worse eGFR tertile was associated with increased mortality (HR 2.84, 95% CI [1.36-5.94] for tertile 2; HR 3.84, 95% CI [1.81-8.12] for tertile 1). At 5 years, 57.0%, 58.1%, and 60.2% of patients remained free of appropriate ICD therapy in tertiles 1-3, respectively (P = 0.82). After adjustment, eGFR tertile was not associated with future appropriate ICD therapy. Results were unchanged in an adjusted competing risk model accounting for death. At time of first ICD generator replacement, lower eGFR is associated with higher mortality, but not with appropriate ICD therapies. The poorer survival of ICD patients with reduced eGFR does not appear to be influenced by arrhythmia status, and there is no clear proarrhythmic effect of renal dysfunction, even after accounting for the competing risk of death. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Use of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators in Heart Failure Patients and Risk of Mortality: A Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yucong; Li, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) in heart failure (HF) patients compared to pharmacologic/conventional management. Material/Methods We searched PubMed, Embase, and Springer Link Library databases up to February 10th, 2014. Pooled risk ratio (RR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the mortality of the patients with HF were collected and calculated in a fixed-effects model or a random-effects model, as appropriate. Summary effect estimates were also stratified by sex and follow-up time. Egger’s regression asymmetry tests were utilized for publication bias detection. Results A total of 7 separate studies including 15 520 patients (10 801 ICD cases and 4719 controls) with HF were considered in the meta-analysis. The overall estimates showed that ICD could statistically significantly reduce the mortality of male (RR=0.73, 95% CI: 0.66–0.80) and female (RR=0.75, 95% CI: 0.63–0.90) patients. In addition, the further stratification subgroup analysis indicated that ICD presented a significant reduction (male: RR=0.72, 95% CI: 0.64–0.81; female: RR=0.69, 95% CI: 0.56–0.85) of mortality after 2–3 years of ICD therapy. The RR (95% CI) effects of mortality after 4–5 years of ICD therapy for males and females were 0.76 (0.51–1.14) and 0.96 (0.68–1.37), respectively. Conclusions This meta-analysis suggests that ICD could reduce HF patient mortality despite the sex difference. PMID:26093516

  2. Association of air pollution with increased incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias recorded by implantable cardioverter defibrillators: Vulnerable patients to air pollution.

    PubMed

    Kim, In-Soo; Sohn, Jungwoo; Lee, Seung-Jun; Park, Jin-Kyu; Uhm, Jae-Sun; Pak, Hui-Nam; Lee, Moon-Hyoung; Kim, Changsoo; Joung, Boyoung

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the acute effects of exposure to air pollution on ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTAs) in an East Asian population. The association between air pollution and VTA has not yet been studied in an East Asian country affected by the Asian dust phenomenon, which worsens air quality. The study cohort consisted of 160patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) devices in the Seoul metropolitan area who were followed for 5.5±3.8years. We used ICD records of VTAs and matched these with hourly measurements of air pollutant concentrations and meteorological data. Fine particle mass and gaseous air pollution plus temperature and relative humidity were measured hourly during the study period. During the study period, 1064 VTA events including 204 instances of ventricular fibrillation (VF) were observed. We found a statistically significant association between overall VTA events and SO2 (lag 24h; OR 1.49, 95%CI 1.16-1.92, p=0.002), PM10 (lag 2h; OR 2.56, 95%CI 2.03-3.23, p<0.001), NO2 (lag 24h; OR 1.25, 95%CI 1.19-1.31, p<0.001) and CO (lag 24h; OR 1.05, 95%CI 1.02-1.08, p=0.003). Sustained ventricular tachycardia or VF was also independently associated with SO2, PM10, NO2 and CO (all p<0.01). Exposures to SO2, PM10, NO2, and CO (all p<0.01) were significantly related to overall VTAs, especially in patients with structural heart disease (SHD). Associations between air pollution and VTA were observed in a metropolitan area of an East Asian country. Exposures to SO2, PM10, NO2, and CO were significantly associated with VTAs in ICD patients with SHD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator pocket infection caused by Klebsiella pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ertas, F; Acet, H; Kaya, H; Kayan, F; Soydinc, S

    2012-09-01

    Like any other foreign bodies, implanted cardiac devices can become infected. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphilococci are the most common causes of infections of pacemaker and defibrillator systems. In this case an implantable cardioverter defibrillator pocket infection caused by an extremely rare microorganism, Klebsiella pneumonia, is presented.

  4. Over 10 years with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator - a long term follow-up of 60 patients.

    PubMed

    Sterliński, Maciej; Przybylski, Andrzej; Gepner, Katarzyna; Syska, Paweł; Maciag, Aleksander; Lewandowski, Michał; Kowalik, Ilona; Pytkowski, Mariusz; Sitkowska-Rysiak, Ewa; Lichomski, Jerzy; Szwed, Hanna; Sadowski, Zygmunt

    2010-09-01

    Transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) have been implanted in Poland since 1995. As the method spreads it is important to consider its long-term benefits and disadvantages. To assess survival, efficacy and complication rate in ICD patients, who received the device more than ten years earlier. Retrospective analysis of 60 ICD patients implanted between 1995-1999. There were 42 (70%) males, mean age 50.6 ± 16.4 years. In 59 patients ICD was implanted for sudden cardiac death (SCD) secondary prevention. Thirty eight patients (34 M, 63.3%) had coronary artery disease (CAD). The CAD was diagnosed in 89.5% of males and 10.5% of females (p〈 0.0001). Mean follow-up time was 75.4 ± 34.7 months. During this time 22 patients died (37%, 19 M, 3 F). Three deaths were SCD. Mean one-year mortality was 6.7%. Deaths were more frequent among males: 45.2% vs 16.7%, p〈 0.005. In CAD mortality was higher than in non-CAD patients (50% vs 13.6%, p〈 0.005). Appropriate ICD discharges in the ventricular fibrillation (VF) zone occurred in 35 (58%) patients, and in ventricular tachycardia (VT) zone - in 26 (43%) patients. Mean intervention rate per year was 3.7 for VF and 0.6 for VT. Complications occurred in 27 (45%) patients and 5 (8%) of them had no ICD intervention during follow-up. In 5 patients more than one complication was diagnosed. There were inappropriate discharges in 15 (25%) patients, 11 (18%) had electrical storm, and ICD-related infections were noted in 3 (5%) patients. During the perioperative period, lead revisions were done in 4 patients; in 3 with discharges induced by T-wave oversensing and in one with lead dislocation. Four cases of lead failure occurred during follow-up, requiring new lead implantation. In 4 patients, electrical storm (3 patients) and supraventricular tachycardia with ICD discharges (1 patient) were treated with radiofrequency ablation. Only 10 (17%) patients did not demonstrate any ICD interventions or ICD

  5. Effect of a psychoeducational intervention on depression, anxiety, and health resource use in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients.

    PubMed

    Dunbar, Sandra B; Langberg, Jonathan J; Reilly, Carolyn M; Viswanathan, Bindu; McCarty, Frances; Culler, Steven D; O'Brien, Marian C; Weintraub, William S

    2009-10-01

    Psychological responses have been reported for some patients after the insertion of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). This study tested the effects of a psychoeducational intervention on anxiety, depressive symptoms, functional status, and health resource use during the first year after ICD implantation. ICD patients (n = 246) were randomized to usual care (UC), group (GRP), or telephone counseling (TC) intervention that included education, symptom management, and coping skill training. Participants were 58 +/- 11 years, 73% men, and 23% minorities. Anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]), depressive symptoms (Beck Depression Inventory II [BDI-II]), and functional status (Duke Activity Status Inventory [DASI]) were measured at baseline and after 1, 3, 6, and 12 months. Health resource use and disability days were tracked. Analyses were repeated-measures analysis of covariance to assess Group x Time effects,chi(2)for percentage with clinically significant anxiety and depression at each time point, and logistic regression. All groups experienced decreased anxiety and depressive symptoms over the 12 months; GRP intervention had lower STAI (P = 0.03) than UC at 3 months. Logistic regression revealed group differences for predicted probability of having depressive symptoms at 12 months (UC = 0.31, GRP = 0.17, TC = 0.13, P = 0.03). UC had greater calls to providers at 1 and 6 months (P < 0.05) and more sick/disability days at 12 months (P = 0.01) than intervention groups. A psychoeducational intervention reduced anxiety and depressive symptoms early after ICD implant, lowered probability of depressive symptoms at 1 year, and decreased disability days/calls to providers. These findings support further study and clinical use of both group and telephone interventions to yield better psychological outcomes after ICD implant.

  6. Disease-specific quality of life-patient acceptance: racial and gender differences in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Mary H; Engelke, Martha K; Sears, Samuel F; Swanson, Melvin; Neil, Janice A

    2013-01-01

    Despite its established effectiveness, living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is associated with ongoing physical and psychosocial distress. Little is known about which factors impact the patients' adjustment to living with the device and whether there are racial or gender differences related to these factors. The purpose of this study was to investigate factors (demographic, clinical, psychosocial, and religiosity) related to patients' ICD acceptance and to examine racial and gender differences in ICD acceptance. A total of 101 ICD patients (mean age, 65 ± 12.8 years, 34% female, 42% African American [AA]) seen in a cardiology clinic between January and August 2010 completed the Florida Patient Acceptance Survey (FPAS), Florida shock anxiety scale, ENRICHD social support instrument, hospital anxiety and depression scale, Hoge Religiosity Scale, and a demographic sheet during their clinic visit. All multiple-item scales demonstrated good internal consistency reliability, with Cronbach α values ranging from .77 to .89. Overall patient acceptance of the ICD was high, with an average FPAS acceptance score of 80.9 on the 0-to-100 point scale. The FPAS subscale scores indicated that the group was very positive about the benefits of having the device (mean, 90.3) and had few body image concerns (mean, 10.6), low device-related distress (mean, 15.6), and moderate return to function scores (mean, 63.0). White ICD participants were more accepting of their device than AA ICD patients were, scoring statistically significantly higher than AA patients on total patient acceptance and return to function and significantly lower than AA patients on device-related distress and shock anxiety. Controlling for ethnicity (β = .10, P = .15), age (β = .01, P = .90), and number of comorbidities (β = .19, P = .003) in a hierarchical multiple regression, shock anxiety (β = .31, P < .001), knowledge of the device (β = .23, P = .001), social support (β = .13, P

  7. The effect of intermittent atrial tachyarrhythmia on heart failure or death in cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator versus implantable cardioverter-defibrillator patients: a MADIT-CRT substudy (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy).

    PubMed

    Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Pietrasik, Grzegorz; Goldenberg, Ilan; Kutyifa, Valentina; Daubert, James P; Ruwald, Martin H; Jons, Christian; McNitt, Scott; Wang, Paul; Zareba, Wojciech; Moss, Arthur J

    2014-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of both history of intermittent atrial tachyarrhythmias (IAT) and in-trial IAT on the risk of heart failure (HF) or death comparing cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D) to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) treatment in mildly symptomatic HF patients with left bundle branch block (LBBB). Limited data exist regarding the benefit of CRT-D in patients with IAT. The benefit of CRT-D in reducing the risk of HF/death was evaluated using multivariate Cox models incorporating the presence of, respectively, a history of IAT at baseline and time-dependent development of in-trial IAT during follow-up in 1,264 patients with LBBB enrolled in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study. The overall beneficial effect of CRT-D versus ICD on the risk of HF/death was not significantly different between LBBB patients with or without history of IAT (HR: 0.50, p = 0.028, and HR: 0.46, p < 0.001, respectively; p for interaction = 0.79). Among patients who had in-trial IAT, CRT-D was associated with a significant 57% reduction in the risk of HF/death compared with ICD-only therapy (HR: 0.43, p = 0.047), similar to the effect of the device among patients who did not have IAT (HR: 0.47, p < 0.001; p for interaction = 0.85). The percentage of patients with biventricular pacing ≥92% was similar in both groups (p = 0.43). Consistent results were shown for the benefit of CRT-D among patients who had in-trial atrial fibrillation/flutter (HR: 0.30, p = 0.027; p for interaction = 0.41). In the MADIT-CRT study, the clinical benefit of CRT-D in LBBB patients was not attenuated by prior history of IAT or by the development of in-trial atrial tachyarrhythmias. (MADIT-CRT: Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy; NCT00180271). Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by

  8. Survival of patients receiving a primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in clinical practice vs clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Al-Khatib, Sana M; Hellkamp, Anne; Bardy, Gust H; Hammill, Stephen; Hall, W Jackson; Mark, Daniel B; Anstrom, Kevin J; Curtis, Jeptha; Al-Khalidi, Hussein; Curtis, Lesley H; Heidenreich, Paul; Peterson, Eric D; Sanders, Gillian; Clapp-Channing, Nancy; Lee, Kerry L; Moss, Arthur J

    2013-01-02

    Randomized clinical trials have shown that implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy saves lives. Whether the survival of patients who received an ICD in primary prevention clinical trials differs from that of trial-eligible patients receiving a primary prevention ICD in clinical practice is unknown. To determine whether trial-eligible patients who received a primary prevention ICD as documented in a large national registry have a survival rate that differs from the survival rate of similar patients who received an ICD in the 2 largest primary prevention clinical trials, MADIT-II (n = 742) and SCD-HeFT (n = 829). Retrospective analysis of data for patients enrolled in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD Registry between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2007, meeting the MADIT-II criteria (2464 propensity score-matched patients) or the SCD-HeFT criteria (3352 propensity score-matched patients). Mortality data for the registry patients were collected through December 31, 2009. Cox proportional hazards models were used to compare mortality from any cause. The median follow-up time in MADIT-II, SCD-HeFT, and the ICD Registry was 19.5, 46.1, and 35.2 months, respectively. Compared with patients enrolled in the clinical trials, patients in the ICD Registry were significantly older and had a higher burden of comorbidities. In the matched cohorts, there was no significant difference in survival between MADIT-II-like patients in the registry and MADIT-II patients randomized to receive an ICD (2-year mortality rates: 13.9% and 15.6%, respectively; adjusted ICD Registry vs trial hazard ratio, 1.06; 95% CI, 0.85-1.31; P = .62). Likewise, the survival among SCD-HeFT-like patients in the registry was not significantly different from survival among patients randomized to receive ICD therapy in SCD-HeFT (3-year mortality rates: 17.3% and 17.4%, respectively; adjusted registry vs trial hazard ratio, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.97-1.38; P = .11). There was no significant

  9. Implantation of a right ventricular implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead in the right ventricular outflow tract in a patient with Ebstein anomaly and right ventricular lead dislocation.

    PubMed

    Pecha, Simon; Yildirim, Yalin; Hahnel, Fabian; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Aydin, Muhammed Ali

    2014-04-01

    An 80-year-old patient with Ebstein anomaly and prior implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation was sent to our heart center because of right ventricular (RV)-ICD lead dislocation. Positioning of the new RV lead was difficult, no stable position could be found, and sensing and threshold measurements showed weak results in the RV basis, apex, and septum. So, we conducted positioning of the lead in the RV outflow tract where a stable position with good sensing and threshold parameters was found.

  10. Development and testing of an intervention to improve outcomes for partners following receipt of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator in the patient.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Cynthia M; Thompson, Elaine A; Kudenchuk, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe 3 foundational studies and how their results were used to formulate, design, and test a novel partner intervention for implementation in the immediate post-ICD (implantable cardioverter defibrillator) period after returning home. Nursing's expanding role into chronic illness management in the creation of evidence-based practice is highlighted. A randomized clinical trial comparing 2 intervention programs is being conducted with patients who receive an ICD for the first time and their intimate partners. Primary outcomes are physical functioning, psychological adjustment, relationship impact, and health care utilization.

  11. Nurse- and peer-led self-management programme for patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator; a feasibility study

    PubMed Central

    Smeulders, Esther STF; van Haastregt, Jolanda CM; Dijkman-Domanska, Barbara K; van Hoef, Elisabeth FM; van Eijk, Jacques ThM; Kempen, Gertrudis IJM

    2007-01-01

    Background The prevalence of cardiovascular disease is increasing. Improved treatment options increase survival after an acute myocardial infarction or sudden cardiac arrest, although patients often have difficulty adjusting and regaining control in daily life. In particular, patients who received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) experience physical and psychological problems. Interventions to enhance perceived control and acceptance of the device are therefore necessary. This paper describes a small-scale study to explore the feasibility and the possible benefits of a structured nurse- and peer-led self-management programme ('Chronic Disease Self-Management Program' – CDSMP) among ICD patients. Methods Ten male ICD patients (mean age = 65.5 years) participated in a group programme, consisting of six sessions, led by a team consisting of a nurse specialist and a patient with cardiovascular disease. Programme feasibility was evaluated among patients and leaders by measuring performance of the intervention according to protocol, attendance and adherence of the participating ICD patients, and patients' and leaders' opinions about the programme. In addition, before and directly after attending the intervention, programme benefits (e.g. perceived control, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and quality of life) were assessed. Results The programme was conducted largely according to protocol. Eight patients attended at least four sessions, and adherence ranged from good to very good. On average, the patients reported to have benefited very much from the programme, which they gave an overall report mark of 8.4. The leaders considered the programme feasible as well. Furthermore, improvements were identified for general self-efficacy expectancies, symptoms of anxiety, physical functioning, social functioning, role limitations due to physical problems, and pain. Conclusion This study suggests that a self-management programme led by a team consisting of a

  12. Ethnic differences among implantable cardioverter defibrillators recipients in Israel.

    PubMed

    Sabbag, Avi; Suleiman, Mahmoud; Glick, Aharon; Medina, Aharon; Golovchiner, Gregory; Steiner, Hillel; Arad, Michael; Goldenberg, Ilan; Glikson, Michael; Beinart, Roy

    2015-04-15

    Heart failure is an increasingly common condition arising from a variety of different pathophysiological processes. Little is known about the unique features of Israeli Arabs who present with heart failure and who undergo cardiac device implantation. The study population comprised of 4,671 patients who were enrolled in the national Israeli Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator registry. We compared demographic, clinical, and echocardiographic characteristics; device-related indications; and outcomes between Israeli Arabs (n = 733) and Jews (n = 3,938), who were enrolled in the registry from July 2010 through December 2013. Israeli Arabs constituted 15.7% of the study population. They were younger at presentation compared with Jews (57 ± 15 vs 66 ± 12 years, respectively; p <0.001), with a greater burden of co-morbidities, including diabetes mellitus and chronic obstructive lung disease and smoking. In addition, Arab patients had a greater frequency of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (40.2% vs 24.6%, respectively; p <0.001), which was associated with a greater frequency of familial history of sudden cardiac death. During 15 ± 9 month follow-up, the mortality rates and appropriate device therapy were similar in both ethnic groups. In conclusion, Israeli Arab patients implanted with implantable cardioverter defibrillators display unique clinical features with greater prevalence of non-ischemic cardiomyopathy characterized by an early-onset and rapid deterioration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Differences in predictors of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapies in patients with ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Darma, Angeliki; Nedios, Sotirios; Kosiuk, Jedrzej; Richter, Sergio; Doering, Michael; Arya, Arash; Rolf, Sascha; Sommer, Philipp; Hindricks, Gerhard; Bollmann, Andreas

    2016-03-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have been shown to reduce mortality in patients with both ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy by terminating life-threatening arrhythmias. However, such arrhythmic events are unequally distributed among different patient subgroups. We aimed to evaluate predictors of appropriate ICD therapies as a step towards risk stratification in a real-world cohort. The prevalence and predictors of appropriate ICD therapies were analysed in 330 consecutive patients (mean age 65 ± 11, 81% male) with implanted ICDs due to ischaemic (n = 204) or dilated (n = 126) cardiomyopathy. During a mean follow-up of 19 ± 9 months, 1545 appropriate ICD therapies (antitachycardia pacing and shocks) were detected in 94 patients (29%). In multivariate analysis applied on the whole cohort, the presence of atrial fibrillation [AF: odds ratio (OR) = 1.906, confidence interval (CI) = 1.143-3.177, P = 0.013] and secondary prevention indication (OR = 1.963, CI = 1.123-3.432, P = 0.018) was associated with ICD therapy. The presence of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) had a protective value (OR = 0.563, CI = 0.327-0.968, P = 0.038). Moreover, the predictors were different depending on the aetiology of the cardiomyopathy: in the ischaemic group, only secondary prevention indication (OR = 2.0, CI = 1.029-3.891, P = 0.041) and the presence of a biventricular system (OR = 0.359, CI = 0.163-0.794, P = 0.011) remained significant, while in the non-ischaemic group, an association with AF was observed (OR = 4.281, CI = 1.632-11.231, P = 0.003). The aetiology of cardiomyopathy should be taken into consideration for the therapy of ICD patients. The protective role of CRT devices should be pointed out in ischaemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and a more rigorous antiarrhythmic treatment should be considered for ICM patients with secondary prevention or for dilated cardiomyopathy patients with AF. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All

  14. Efficacy and safety of celivarone, with amiodarone as calibrator, in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for prevention of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator interventions or death: the ALPHEE study.

    PubMed

    Kowey, Peter R; Crijns, Harry J G M; Aliot, Etienne M; Capucci, Alessandro; Kulakowski, Piotr; Radzik, David; Roy, Denis; Connolly, Stuart J; Hohnloser, Stefan H

    2011-12-13

    Celivarone is a new antiarrhythmic agent developed for the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias. This study investigated the efficacy and safety of celivarone in preventing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) interventions or death. Celivarone (50, 100, or 300 mg/d) was assessed compared with placebo in this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study. Amiodarone (200 mg/d after loading dose of 600 mg/d for 10 days) was used as a calibrator. A total of 486 patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤40% and at least 1 ICD intervention for ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation in the previous month or ICD implantation in the previous month for documented ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation were randomized. Median treatment duration was 9 months. The primary efficacy end point was occurrence of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation-triggered ICD interventions (shocks or antitachycardia pacing) or sudden death. The proportion of patients experiencing an appropriate ICD intervention or sudden death was 61.5% in the placebo group; 67.0%, 58.8%, and 54.9% in the celivarone 50-, 100-, and 300-mg groups, respectively; and 45.3% in the amiodarone group. Hazard ratios versus placebo for the primary end point ranged from 0.860 for celivarone 300 mg to 1.199 for celivarone 50 mg. None of the comparisons versus placebo were statistically significant. Celivarone had an acceptable safety profile. Celivarone was not effective for the prevention of ICD interventions or sudden death. http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00993382.

  15. Impact of Substrate-Based Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia on Cardiac Mortality in Patients with Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Yuki; Maury, Philippe; Sacher, Frédéric; Khairy, Paul; Daly, Matthew; Lim, Han S; Zellerhoff, Stephan; Jesel, Laurence; Rollin, Anne; Duparc, Alexandre; Mondoly, Pierre; Aurillac-Lavignolle, Valerie; Shah, Ashok; Denis, Arnaud; Cochet, Hubert; Derval, Nicolas; Hocini, Mélèze; Haïssaguerre, Michel; Jaïs, Pierre

    2015-09-01

    This study sought to determine if the acute procedural outcome of ventricular tachycardia (VT) substrate ablation is associated with a mortality benefit in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD). A total of 195 ICD recipients (65±11years) with ischemic or non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy underwent substrate-based ablation targeting elimination of local abnormal ventricular activities (LAVA). Acute procedural success, which was defined as elimination of all identified LAVA in addition to the lack of VT inducibility, was achieved in 95 (49%) patients. During a median follow-up of 23 months, patients with acute procedure success had a significantly lower incidence of ICD shocks compared to those with ablation failure (8% vs. 30%, p<0.001). In multivariate analysis, acute procedural success was associated with a lower risk of VT recurrence (hazard ratio [HR] 0.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.18-0.49, P<0.001) and all-cause mortality (HR 0.32, 95%CI 0.17-0.60, P<0.001). While the impact of ablation success on mortality was not statistically significant in patients with LVEF>35% (HR 0.45, 95%CI 0.15-1.34, P = 0.15) and those with NYHA class I/II (HR 0.63, 95%CI 0.29-1.40, P = 0.26), it was marked in patients with LVEF≤35% (HR 0.30, 95%CI 0.14-0.62, P = 0.001) and NYHA class III/IV (HR 0.17, 95%CI 0.05-0.57, P = 0.004). LAVA elimination in addition to VT non-inducibility as a procedural outcome for substrate-based ablation is associated with reduced mortality and better VT-free survival during follow-up. This prognostic benefit may be most pronounced in patients with severe heart failure as indicated by severely depressed LV function and NYHA class III/IV symptoms. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Current trends in use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy with a pacemaker or defibrillator in Japanese pediatric patients: results from a nationwide questionnaire survey.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Tsugutoshi; Sumitomo, Naokata; Yoshimoto, Jun; Miyazaki, Aya; Hinokiyama, Kazuhiro; Ushinohama, Hiroya; Yasukochi, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    In Japan, the use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), cardiac resynchronization therapy with a biventricular pacemaker (CRTP) and CRT with a defibrillator (CRTD) in children has not been studied statistically, and dual-chamber (DDD) pacemakers are still used for pediatric CRT because of current government regulations. Data were obtained from 15 children's and 74 general hospitals through a questionnaire survey regarding the aforementioned therapies performed before 2012 in Japanese children (<16 years old). ICD, CRT with DDD, CRTP and CRTD were used in 64 (42%), 47 (31%), 34 (22%) and 7 (5%), respectively, of all cases reported (n=152). Among all CRTP and CRT-DDD cases (n=81), the use of DDD accounted for 41% in general hospitals vs. 89% in children's hospitals, and CRT-DDD and CRTP were effective in 67 cases (83%). Of 64 ICD cases, appropriate shocks were experienced in 28 cases (44%), and inappropriate shocks in 19 cases (29%). Additionally, data from the Japan Arrhythmia Device Industry Association obtained for overall device usage analysis revealed that CRTP was more commonly used in children than in adults. There is an increasing need for pediatric device therapy, especially CRTP. However, many children's hospitals were still using DDD pacemakers in 2012. Although the demand for device therapy in children may be small, it is indispensable in pediatric cardiology.

  17. [Primary prevention of sudden cardiac death through a wearable cardioverter-defibrillator].

    PubMed

    Gabrielli, Domenico; Benvenuto, Manuela; Baroni, Matteo; Oliva, Fabrizio; Capucci, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator is the gold standard for the prevention of sudden cardiac death due to tachyarrhythmias. However, its use is not free from short and long-term risks. In the last years, the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) has become a widespread option for patients who need a safe and reversible protection against ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Notwithstanding this, its everyday application is restricted by several limitations, including the risk of inappropriate shocks, the device size and the need for strict compliance of both patients and caregivers. In this review, we report the most relevant literature data on WCD usage along with the main fields of applications and future perspectives.

  18. Substrate-dependent risk stratification for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapies using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging: The importance of T1 mapping in nonischemic patients.

    PubMed

    Claridge, Simon; Mennuni, Silvia; Jackson, Thomas; Behar, Jonathan M; Porter, Bradley; Sieniewicz, Benjamin; Bostock, Julian; O'Neill, Mark; Murgatroyd, Francis; Gill, Jaswinder; Carr-White, Gerald; Chiribiri, Amedeo; Razavi, Reza; Chen, Zhong; Rinaldi, Christopher Aldo

    2017-07-01

    The role of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in nonischemic cardiomyopathy is unclear and better risk-stratification is required. We sought to determine if T1 mapping predicts appropriate defibrillator therapy in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. We studied a mixed cohort of ischemic and nonischemic patients to determine whether different cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) applications (T1 mapping, late gadolinium enhancement, and Grayzone) were selectively predictive of therapies for the different arrhythmic substrates. We undertook a prospective longitudinal study of consecutive patients receiving defibrillators in a tertiary cardiac center. Participants underwent CMR myocardial tissue characterization using T1 mapping and conventional CMR scar assessment before device implantation. QRS duration and fragmentation on the surface electrocardiogram were also assessed. The primary endpoint was appropriate defibrillator therapy. One-hundred thirty patients were followed up for a median of 31 months (IQR ± 9 months). In nonischemic patients, T1(_native) was the sole predictor of the primary endpoint (hazard ratio [HR] 1.12 per 10 millisecond increment in value [95% confidence interval [CI] 1.04-1.21; P ≤ 0.01]). In ischemic patients, Grayzone(_2SD-3SD) was the strongest predictor of appropriate therapy (HR 1.34 per 1% left ventricular increment in value [95% CI 1.03-1.76; P = 0.03]). QRS fragmentation correlated well with myocardial scar core (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [ROC AUC] 0.64; P = 0.02) but poorly with T1(_native) (ROC AUC 0.4) and did not predict appropriate therapy. In the medium-long term, T1(_native) mapping was the only independent predictor of therapy in nonischemic patients, whereas Grayzone was a better predictor in ischemic patients. These findings suggest a potential role for T1(_native) mapping in the selection of patients for ICDs in a nonischemic population. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Utility of the Wearable Cardioverter-Defibrillator in Patients With Newly Diagnosed Cardiomyopathy: A Decade-Long Single-Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhurmeet; Wang, Norman C; Jain, Sandeep; Voigt, Andrew H; Saba, Samir; Adelstein, Evan C

    2015-12-15

    The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) has emerged as a means of protecting patients with newly diagnosed nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) or ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) against sudden cardiac death while awaiting re-evaluation of cardiac function. This study sought to characterize the risk of appropriate WCD therapy in newly diagnosed NICM and ICM patients according to cardiomyopathy etiology in an independent study. Medical records of all patients prescribed a WCD between June 2004 and May 2015 at our institution (n = 639) were analyzed, focusing on 254 patients with newly diagnosed NICM and 271 patients with newly diagnosed ICM. Patients with a prior implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or sustained ventricular arrhythmias were excluded (n = 114). The primary endpoint was appropriate WCD therapy. Median WCD wear time was 61 days (interquartile range [IQR]: 25 to 102 days) per patient and 22 h/day (IQR: 17 to 23 h/day). During 56.7 patient-years, 0 NICM patients received an appropriate WCD shock, whereas 3 (1.2%) received an inappropriate shock. During 46.7 patient-years, 6 (2.2%) ICM patients received an appropriate shock; 5 survived the episode, and 4 survived to hospital discharge. All 6 patients with an appropriate shock were male with QRS duration >120 ms. Two (0.7%) ICM patients received an inappropriate shock. In this independent, retrospective study, the risk of appropriate WCD therapies in patients with newly diagnosed NICM was minimal. Routine use of the WCD in this population should be prospectively evaluated. The risk of appropriate therapies in newly diagnosed ICM was comparable to that observed in prior observational studies. Copyright © 2015 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Deactivation of Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Daniel B.; Mitchell, Susan L.; Brock, Dan W.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac implantable electrical devices (CIEDs), including pacemakers (PMs) and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), are the most effective treatment for life-threatening arrhythmias. Patients or their surrogates may request device deactivation to avoid prolongation of the dying process or in other settings, such as after device-related complications or with changes in their health care goals. Despite published guidelines outlining theoretical and practical aspects of this common clinical scenario, significant uncertainty remains for both patients and health care providers regarding the ethical and legal status of CIED deactivation. This review outlines the ethical and legal principles supporting CIED deactivation at patients’ request, centered upon patient autonomy and authority over their own medical treatment. The empirical literature describing stakeholder views and experiences surrounding CIED deactivation is described, along with lessons for future research and practice guidance surrounding the care of patients with CIEDs. PMID:23217433

  1. Initial experience of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillators in Singapore: a case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Tien Siang Eric; Tan, Boon Yew; Ho, Kah Leng; Lim, Chuh Yih Paul; Teo, Wee Siong; Ching, Chi-Keong

    2015-01-01

    Transvenous implantable cardioverter defibrillators are a type of implantable cardiac device. They are effective at reducing total and arrhythmic mortality in patients at risk of sudden cardiac death. Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillators (S-ICDs) are a new alternative that avoids the disadvantages of transvenous lead placement. In this case series, we report on the initial feasibility and safety of S-ICD implantation in Singapore. PMID:26512151

  2. Initial experience of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillators in Singapore: a case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lim, Tien Siang Eric; Tan, Boon Yew; Ho, Kah Leng; Lim, Chuh Yih Paul; Teo, Wee Siong; Ching, Chi-Keong

    2015-10-01

    Transvenous implantable cardioverter defibrillators are a type of implantable cardiac device. They are effective at reducing total and arrhythmic mortality in patients at risk of sudden cardiac death. Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillators (S-ICDs) are a new alternative that avoids the disadvantages of transvenous lead placement. In this case series, we report on the initial feasibility and safety of S-ICD implantation in Singapore.

  3. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator specific rehabilitation improves health cost outcomes: Findings from the COPE-ICD randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Koch, Mette Bjerrum; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Pedersen, Preben U; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2015-03-01

    The Copenhagen Outpatient ProgrammE - implantable cardioverter defibrillator (COPE-ICD) trial included patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators in a randomized controlled trial of rehabilitation. After 6-12 months significant differences were found in favour of the rehabilitation group for exercise capacity, general and mental health. The aim of this paper is to explore the long-term health effects and cost implications associated with the rehabilitation programme; more specifically, (i) to compare implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy history and mortality between rehabilitation and usual care groups; (ii) to examine the difference between rehabilitation and usual care groups in terms of time to first admission; and (iii) to determine attributable direct costs. Patients with first-time implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation (n = 196) were randomized (1:1) to comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation or usual care. Outcomes were measured by implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy history from patient records and national register follow-up on mortality, hospital admissions and costs. No significant differences were found after 3 years for implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy or mortality between rehabilitation and usual care. Time to first admission did not differ. The cost of rehabilitation was 335 USD/276 Euro per patient enrolled in rehabilitation. The total attributable cost of rehabilitation after 3 years was -6,789 USD/-5,593 Euro in favour of rehabilitation. No long-term health outcome benefits were found for the rehabilitation programme. However, the rehabilitation programme resulted in a reduction in total attributable direct costs.

  4. [The automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for prevention of sudden heart death in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Paul, T; Luhmer, I; Trappe, H J; Klein, H; Fieguth, H G; Brauer, C; Scharpwinkel, U; Kallfelz, H C

    1993-08-01

    Little experience exists with the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in the pediatric population. Since 1990, an automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator was implanted in four young patients (mean age 15.8 years, mean body weight 53.3 kg) with life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias at our institution. In three patients, a cardiac anomaly was evident (dilated cardiomyopathy, status post Rastelli operation for complex transposition of the great arteries, status post atrial switch for transposition of the great arteries), the last patient had a normal cardiac anatomy. Indications for implantation were resuscitation from documented hypotensive ventricular tachycardia in one patient and recurrent syncope of suspected cardiac origin in the remaining three patients. At preimplantation electrophysiological study, all four patients had inducible ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation. At implantation of the cardioverter defibrillator in the operating theatre, the ventricular tachyarrhythmias were again induced and terminated reliably by the device. After a mean follow-up of 13 months, three of the four patients had appropriate discharges without syncope or resuscitation. The automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator appears to be a feasible and effective therapy also in pediatric patients for prevention of sudden cardiac death due to ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

  5. Potential roles of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator in acute phase care of patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death: A single-center Japanese experience.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shingo; Shoji, Yoshihiro; Ishida, Yuji; Kinjo, Takahiko; Tsushima, Yuichi; Seno, Maiko; Nishizaki, Fumie; Itoh, Taihei; Izumiyama, Kei; Yokota, Takashi; Yokoyama, Hiroaki; Yamada, Masahiro; Horiuchi, Daisuke; Kimura, Masaomi; Higuma, Takumi; Tomita, Hirofumi; Okumura, Ken

    2017-01-01

    The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) has been expected to play a role as an effective bridge therapy to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation in patients at high risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VA). Although WCD has been available since April 2014 in Japan, its usefulness remains unclear. During the early period after hospitalization, patients at high risk of VA after excluding some elderly patients were prescribed WCD. The consecutive 50 patients with WCD use (median age 56 years, 38 for secondary prevention) were studied. We analyzed clinical efficacy and safety of WCD, and examined its potential roles. Of the 50 patients, 38 used WCD only during hospitalization. During WCD use [median 16 (IQR 8-33) days], all patients wore WCD for 98% of a day regardless of in or out-of-hospital use. Sustained VA was detected in 4 patients (8%; for primary prevention in 1) with 7 episodes, and 6 of 7 episodes required shock therapy. Of the 6 shock therapies, 4 were for sustained ventricular tachycardia with the median rate of 236beats/min (IQR 203-250), and the other 2 for ventricular fibrillation. Subsequently, only 27 patients (54%) of all underwent ICD implantation following the WCD use, because of reduced risk of VA after optimal pharmacological therapy or improvement in the left ventricular function. The WCD use for the acute phase care of patients at high risk of VA can be safe and effective, and may be useful for evaluating indication of ICD implantation. Copyright © 2016 Japanese College of Cardiology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Use and Abuse of Internal Cardioverter Defibrillators for Primary Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Silverstein, Joshua R; Katritsis, Demosthenes G; Josephson, Mark E

    2012-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in developed countries. Internal cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have been developed to treat potentially life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Multiple randomised trials have been completed to assess the efficacy of primary prevention ICDs in selected populations. In response to the randomised, controlled trials guidelines have been established to help guide physicians in choosing appropriate patients who may benefit from primary prevention ICDs. Unfortunately, many patients who currently fall within the guidelines are either not represented in the clinical trials or disregarded. The morbidity associated with ICD implant is also overlooked and the cost-benefit analyses are exaggerated in favour of ICD implant. This review article summarises major clinical trials addressing primary prevention ICDs, and also highlights the evidence supporting the use and abuse of ICDs. PMID:26835029

  7. Cost effectiveness of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator: a preliminary analysis

    PubMed Central

    O'Brien, Bernie J; Buxton, Martin J; Rushby, Julia A

    1992-01-01

    Background—An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may be effective in reducing the risk of sudden cardiac death. The high cost of ICD treatment, however, compared with alternatives raises the question of whether this new technology is an efficient use of scarce health care resources. Objective—To estimate the incremental cost effectiveness of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator compared with drug treatment with amiodarone in the management of patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death. Design—A cost effectiveness model was constructed from data already published and other secondary sources. Differences in patient survival were calculated from life tables for comparable ICD and amiodarone patient series. Costs were based on typical patient management protocols derived from current United Kingdom practice and interviews with physicians. Main outcome measures—Cost effectiveness of ICD treatment was computed over 20 years; all future costs and effects were discounted at 6% per year. Results—Estimated life expectancy was 11·1 and 6·7 years with ICD and amiodarone respectively; the discounted 20 year difference lies in the range 1·7 to 3·7 years. Discounted 20 year treatment costs were £28 400 for the ICD and £2300 for amiodarone. Cost effectiveness of ICD treatment lies in the range of £15 400 to £8200 per life-year gained. Conclusions—Cost effectiveness of ICD treatment is similar to some existing cardiac programmes funded under the NHS but uncertainty exists due to limitations of the data. Costs of ICD treatment may fall in the future as the life of the device increases and less invasive implantation methods are needed. The effectivess of ICD compared with amiodarone is currently being studied by a randomised controlled trial. PMID:1389748

  8. The 6 volt battery for implantable cardioverter/defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Drews, J; Wolf, R; Fehrmann, G; Staub, R

    1998-01-01

    The usage of a 6 V lithium manganese dioxide battery results in a significant reduction of capacitor loading time within implantable defibrillators/cardioverters. In order to provide ERI indication a new cathode formulation has been developed. The battery shows no voltage delays, a low self-discharge and fulfilled all requirements to an energy source for an implantable device.

  9. Mycobacterium fortuitum causing infection of a biventricular pacemaker/implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuhning L; Bridge, Bronwyn; Wang, Jeffrey; Jovin, Ion S

    2012-12-01

    Increased utilization of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) has seen a corresponding rise in related infections. Non-tuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) are rarely the cause. Treatment involves susceptibilities, antimicrobials, and device removal. This study presents a patient who underwent a biventricular implantable cardioverter defibrillator upgrade with a multi-drug resistant Mycobacterium fortuitum located at the pocket site and a lead infection.

  10. Inappropriate shock delivery by implantable cardioverter defibrillator due to electrical interference with washing machine.

    PubMed

    Chongtham, Dhanaraj Singh; Bahl, Ajay; Kumar, Rohit Manoj; Talwar, K K

    2007-05-31

    We report a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy who received an inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock due to electrical interference from a washing machine. This electrical interference was detected as an episode of ventricular fibrillation with delivery of shock without warning symptoms.

  11. Transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead reliability: implications for postmarket surveillance.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Daniel B; Hatfield, Laura A; McGriff, Deepa; Ellis, Christopher R; Gura, Melanie T; Samuel, Michelle; Retel, Linda Kallinen; Hauser, Robert G

    2015-05-29

    As implantable cardioverter-defibrillator technology evolves, clinicians and patients need reliable performance data on current transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator systems. In addition, real-world reliability data could inform postmarket surveillance strategies directed by regulators and manufacturers. We evaluated Medtronic Sprint Quattro, Boston Scientific Endotak, and St Jude Medical Durata and Riata ST Optim leads implanted by participating center physicians between January 1, 2006 and September 1, 2012. Our analytic sample of 2653 patients (median age 65, male 73%) included 445 St Jude, 1819 Medtronic, and 389 Boston Scientific leads. After a median of 3.2 years, lead failure was 0.28% per year (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.43), with no statistically significant difference among manufacturers. Simulations based on these results suggest that detecting performance differences among generally safe leads would require nearly 10 000 patients or very long follow-up. Currently marketed implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads rarely fail, which may be reassuring to clinicians advising patients about risks and benefits of transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator systems. Regulators should consider the sample size implications when designing comparative effectiveness studies and evaluating new technology for preventing sudden cardiac death. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  12. Transvenous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Lead Reliability: Implications for Postmarket Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Daniel B; Hatfield, Laura A; McGriff, Deepa; Ellis, Christopher R; Gura, Melanie T; Samuel, Michelle; Retel, Linda Kallinen; Hauser, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Background As implantable cardioverter-defibrillator technology evolves, clinicians and patients need reliable performance data on current transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator systems. In addition, real-world reliability data could inform postmarket surveillance strategies directed by regulators and manufacturers. Methods and Results We evaluated Medtronic Sprint Quattro, Boston Scientific Endotak, and St Jude Medical Durata and Riata ST Optim leads implanted by participating center physicians between January 1, 2006 and September 1, 2012. Our analytic sample of 2653 patients (median age 65, male 73%) included 445 St Jude, 1819 Medtronic, and 389 Boston Scientific leads. After a median of 3.2 years, lead failure was 0.28% per year (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.43), with no statistically significant difference among manufacturers. Simulations based on these results suggest that detecting performance differences among generally safe leads would require nearly 10 000 patients or very long follow-up. Conclusions Currently marketed implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads rarely fail, which may be reassuring to clinicians advising patients about risks and benefits of transvenous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator systems. Regulators should consider the sample size implications when designing comparative effectiveness studies and evaluating new technology for preventing sudden cardiac death. PMID:26025935

  13. Intermittent, erratic behaviour of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator secondary to a hidden magnetic source of interference

    PubMed Central

    Beinart, Roy; Guy, Mary L.; Ellinor, Patrick T.

    2011-01-01

    Interference between pacemakers or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and electromagnetic fields are of great concern due to the potential harmful influence on the function of the device. We report a case of intermittent, erratic behaviour of an ICD secondary to electromagnetic interference (EMI) caused by small magnets that were incorporated into the patient's clothing. PMID:21576126

  14. Economic evaluations of implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Lidia; Pinilla-Domínguez, Pilar; García-Quintana, Antonio; Caballero-Dorta, Eduardo; García-García, F Javier; Linertová, Renata; Imaz-Iglesia, Iñaki

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the cost-effectiveness studies of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) for primary or secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). A systematic review of the literature published in English or Spanish was performed by electronically searching MEDLINE and MEDLINE in process, EMBASE, NHS-EED, and EconLit. Some keywords were implantable cardioverter defibrillator, heart failure, heart arrest, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, syncope, sudden death. Selection criteria were the following: (1) full economic evaluations published after 1995, model-based studies or alongside clinical trials (2) that explored the cost-effectiveness of ICD with or without associated treatment compared with placebo or best medical treatment, (3) in adult patients for primary or secondary prevention of SCD because of ventricular arrhythmias. Studies that fulfilled these criteria were reviewed and data were extracted by two reviewers. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed and a narrative synthesis was prepared. In total, 24 studies were included: seven studies on secondary prevention and 18 studies on primary prevention. Seven studies were performed in Europe. For secondary prevention, the results showed that the ICD is considered cost-effective in patients with more risk. For primary prevention, the cost-effectiveness of ICD has been widely studied, but uncertainty about its cost-effectiveness remains. The cost-effectiveness ratios vary between studies depending on the patient characteristics, methodology, perspective, and national settings. Among the European studies, the conclusions are varied, where the ICD is considered cost-effective or not dependent on the study.

  15. The Significance of Shocks in Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Anthony; Kaura, Amit; Sunderland, Nicholas; Dhillon, Paramdeep S

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) trials have unequivocally shown a reduction in mortality in appropriately selected patients with heart failure and depressed left ventricular function. However, there is a strong association between shocks and increased mortality in ICD recipients. It is unclear if shocks are merely a marker of a more severe cardiovascular disease or directly contribute to the increase in mortality. The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between ICD shocks and mortality, and explore possible mechanisms. Data examining the effect of shocks in the absence of spontaneous arrhythmias as well as studies of non-shock therapy and strategies to reduce shocks are analysed to try and disentangle the shocks versus substrate debate. PMID:27617089

  16. Relationship of Extreme Cold Weather and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Shocks.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Justin M; Liu, Shuangbo; Hiebert, Brett; Tam, James W; Seifer, Colette M

    2017-09-15

    Cold weather to 0°C has been implicated as a risk factor for ventricular arrhythmias and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks. The effect of more extreme cold weather on the risk of ventricular arrhythmias and ICD shocks is unknown. We sought to describe the relationship between extreme cold weather and the risk of ICD shocks. We retrospectively identified patients seen at the Pacemaker and Defibrillator Clinic at St. Boniface Hospital in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada between 2010 and 2015 with an ICD shock. We excluded multiple shocks occurring on the same day in a single patient. We collected weather data, and evaluated the relationship between ICD shocks and weather on the same day as the shock using Negative Binomial regression. Three hundred and sixty patients experienced a total of 1,355 shocks. When excluding multiple shocks occurring in a single patient on the same day, there were 756 unique shocks. The daily high (DH) was the strongest predictor of receiving an ICD shock. Compared with the warmest days (DH above 10°C), shocks were 25% more common on the coldest days (DH below -10°C), and 8% more common on cold days (DH between -10°C and 10°C). This linear trend was statistically significant, with a p-value of 0.04. In conclusion, we found an association between extreme cold weather and ICD shocks. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Utilization trends and clinical outcomes in patients implanted with a single- vs a dual-coil implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead: Insights from the ALTITUDE Study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jonathan C; Saxon, Leslie A; Jones, Paul W; Wehrenberg, Scott; Marcus, Gregory M

    2015-08-01

    Historically, the most commonly implanted implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) lead is dual coil. Conventional wisdom holds that single-coil leads may be less effective than dual-coil leads, but easier to extract. No contemporary large-scale studies have evaluated the relative epidemiology of these 2 leads or compared their respective clinical outcomes. We sought to evaluate trends in single- vs dual-coil ICD lead implantation and differences in clinical outcomes. We evaluated 129,520 ICD recipients enrolled in the LATITUDE remote monitoring system between 2004 and 2014. Kaplan-Meier analyses and Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used for univariate and multivariate survival analysis, respectively. The majority of ICD recipients received a dual-coil lead (n = 110,330 [85.2%]). Single-coil lead implantation increased from 1.9% to 55.2% between 2004 and 2014. After adjusting for age, sex, device type, and year of implant, single-coil lead implantation was associated with a greater odds of induction for defibrillation testing (odds ratio 1.05; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.01-1.09; P = .0274), a higher rate of lead being taken out of service (hazard ratio 1.19; 95% CI 1.06-1.33; P = .0032), and a decreased mortality rate (hazard ratio 0.91; 95% CI 0.87-0.96; P = .0004). In a 795 patient subset with adjudicated shock outcomes, first shock success was no different (87.0% in single coil vs 86.1% in dual coil; P = .8473). In a large real-world US population, single-coil lead implantation rates increased substantially between 2004 and 2014. Single-coil lead implantation was associated with more frequent defibrillation testing and the lead being taken out of service, but was not associated with increased mortality or more frequent defibrillation failure. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Home monitoring remote control of pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients in clinical practice: impact on medical management and health-care resource utilization.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Renato Pietro; Morichelli, Loredana; Santini, Massimo

    2008-02-01

    To evaluate the impact of Home Monitoringtrade mark(HM) remote control on patient medical treatment and on health-care resource utilization. One hundred and seventeen patients received HM pacemakers or defibrillators. A pacing expert nurse consulted daily the website and submitted critical cases to physician. During a mean follow-up of 227 +/- 128 days, 25,210 messages were received (23,545 daily messages and 1665 alert events) resulting in 90.7% of HM supervised days. Fifty-nine minutes/week for the nurse and 12 min/week for the physician were spent for HM data analysis during 267 web-connections. The mean connection time per patient was 115 +/- 60 s. The nurse submitted to the physician 133 critical cases in 56 patients. The diagnosis were atrial fibrillation (47%), ventricular tachyarrhythmias (9%), inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator intervention (4%), unsustained ventricular tachycardia (7%), device suboptimal programming (23%), and impending heart failure (10%). Sixty-six unplanned follow-up in 43 patients led to drug therapy change (44%), device reprogramming (18%), diagnosis confirmation without further intervention (24%), no confirmation (6%), further diagnostic tests (9%). HM technology allowed optimization of medical treatment and device programming with low consumption of health-care resource.

  19. Predictors of implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks during the first year.

    PubMed

    Dougherty, Cynthia M; Hunziker, Jim

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to predict implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks using demographic and clinical characteristics in the first year after implantation for secondary prevention of cardiac arrest. A prospective design was used to follow 168 first-time ICD recipients over 12 months. Demographic and clinical data were obtained from medical records at the time of ICD insertion. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock data were obtained from ICD interrogation reports at hospital discharge, 3, 6, and 12 months. Logistic regression was used to predict ever receiving an ICD shock using background characteristics. Patients received an ICD for secondary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest, they were 64.1 years old, 89% were white, 77% were male, with a mean (SD) ejection fraction of 33.7% (14.1%). The cumulative percentage of ever receiving an ICD shock was 33.3% over 1 year. Three variables predicted shocks in the first year: history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (odds ratio [OR], 4.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-16.4; P = .03), history of congestive heart failure (OR, 3.55; 95% CI, 1.4-9.3; P = .01), and documented ventricular tachycardia (VT) at the time of ICD implant (OR, 10.05; 95% Cl, 1.8-55.4; P = .01). High levels of anxiety approached significance (OR = 2.82; P = .09). The presence of COPD, congestive heart failure, or VT at ICD implant was a significant predictor of receiving an ICD shock in the first year after ICD implantation. Because ICD shocks are distressing, painful, and associated with greater mortality, healthcare providers should focus attention on prevention of shocks by controlling VT, careful management of HF symptoms, reduction of the use of short acting beta agonist medications in COPD, and perhaps recognizing and treating high levels of anxiety.

  20. Patient barriers to implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation for the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Laura Lihua; Lim, Choon Pin; Aung, Soe Tin; Quetua, Paul; Ho, Kah Leng; Chong, Daniel; Teo, Wee Siong; Sim, David; Ching, Chi Keong

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Device therapy is efficacious in preventing sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with reduced ejection fraction. However, few who need the device eventually opt to undergo implantation and even fewer reconsider their decisions after deliberation. This is due to many factors, including unresolved patient barriers. This study identified the factors that influenced patients’ decision to decline implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation, and those that influenced patients who initially declined an implant to reconsider having one. METHODS A single-centre survey was conducted among 240 patients who had heart failure with reduced ejection fraction and met the ICD implantation criteria, but had declined ICD implantation. RESULTS Participants who refused ICD implantation were mostly male (84%), Chinese (71%), married (72%), currently employed (54%), and had up to primary or secondary education (78%) and monthly income of < SGD 3,000 (51%). Those who were more likely to reconsider their decision were aware that SCD was a consequence of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, knowledgeable of the preventive role of ICDs, currently employed and aware that their doctor strongly recommended the implant. Based on multivariate analysis, knowledge of the role of ICDs for primary prophylaxis was the most important factor influencing patient decision. CONCLUSION This study identified the demographic and social factors of patients who refused ICD therapy. Knowledge of the role of ICDs in preventing SCD was found to be the strongest marker for reconsidering ICD implantation. Measures to address this information gap may lead to higher rates of ICD implantation. PMID:27075476

  1. Sex difference in appropriate shocks but not mortality during long-term follow-up in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Joachim; Conen, David; Jung, Klaus; Bergau, Leonard; Dorenkamp, Marc; Lüthje, Lars; Sohns, Christian; Sossalla, Samuel T; Fischer, Thomas H; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Friede, Tim; Zabel, Markus

    2016-08-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have been shown to improve survival, although a considerable number of patients never receive therapy. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators are routinely implanted regardless of sex. There is continuing controversy whether major outcomes differ between men and women. In this retrospective single-centre study, 1151 consecutive patients (19% women) undergoing ICD implantation between 1998 and 2010 were followed for mortality and first appropriate ICD shock over 4.9 ± 2.7 years. Sex-related differences were investigated using multivariable Cox models adjusting for potential confounders. During follow-up, 318 patients died, a rate of 5.9% per year among men and 4.6% among women (uncorrected P = 0.08); 266 patients received a first appropriate ICD shock (6.3% per year among men vs. 3.6% among women, P = 0.002). After multivariate correction, independent predictors of all-cause mortality were age (hazard ratio, HR = 1.04 per year of age, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.03-1.06], P < 0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (HR = 0.98 per %, 95% CI [0.97-1.00], P = 0.025), renal function (HR = 0.99 per mL/min/1.73 m(2), 95% CI [0.99-1.00], P = 0.009), use of diuretics (HR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.29-2.54], P = 0.0023), peripheral arterial disease (HR = 2.21, 95% CI [1.62-3.00], P < 0.001), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR = 1.48, 95% CI [1.13-1.94], P = 0.029), but not sex. Female sex (HR = 0.51, 95% CI [0.33-0.81], P = 0.013), older age (HR = 0.98, 95% CI [0.97-0.99], P < 0.001), and primary prophylactic ICD indication (HR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.52-0.93], P = 0.043) were independent predictors for less appropriate shocks. Women receive 50% less appropriate shocks than men having similar mortality in this large single-centre population. These data may pertain to individually improved selection of defibrillator candidates using risk factors, e.g. sex as demonstrated in this study. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford

  2. Sex difference in appropriate shocks but not mortality during long-term follow-up in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Seegers, Joachim; Conen, David; Jung, Klaus; Bergau, Leonard; Dorenkamp, Marc; Lüthje, Lars; Sohns, Christian; Sossalla, Samuel T.; Fischer, Thomas H.; Hasenfuss, Gerd; Friede, Tim; Zabel, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Aims Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have been shown to improve survival, although a considerable number of patients never receive therapy. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators are routinely implanted regardless of sex. There is continuing controversy whether major outcomes differ between men and women. Methods and results In this retrospective single-centre study, 1151 consecutive patients (19% women) undergoing ICD implantation between 1998 and 2010 were followed for mortality and first appropriate ICD shock over 4.9 ± 2.7 years. Sex-related differences were investigated using multivariable Cox models adjusting for potential confounders. During follow-up, 318 patients died, a rate of 5.9% per year among men and 4.6% among women (uncorrected P = 0.08); 266 patients received a first appropriate ICD shock (6.3% per year among men vs. 3.6% among women, P = 0.002). After multivariate correction, independent predictors of all-cause mortality were age (hazard ratio, HR = 1.04 per year of age, 95% confidence interval (CI) [1.03–1.06], P < 0.001), left ventricular ejection fraction (HR = 0.98 per %, 95% CI [0.97–1.00], P = 0.025), renal function (HR = 0.99 per mL/min/1.73 m2, 95% CI [0.99–1.00], P = 0.009), use of diuretics (HR = 1.81, 95% CI [1.29–2.54], P = 0.0023), peripheral arterial disease (HR = 2.21, 95% CI [1.62–3.00], P < 0.001), and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (HR = 1.48, 95% CI [1.13–1.94], P = 0.029), but not sex. Female sex (HR = 0.51, 95% CI [0.33–0.81], P = 0.013), older age (HR = 0.98, 95% CI [0.97–0.99], P < 0.001), and primary prophylactic ICD indication (HR = 0.69, 95% CI [0.52–0.93], P = 0.043) were independent predictors for less appropriate shocks. Conclusion Women receive 50% less appropriate shocks than men having similar mortality in this large single-centre population. These data may pertain to individually improved selection of defibrillator candidates using risk factors, e.g. sex as demonstrated in

  3. Upper limit of vulnerability determination during implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement to minimize ventricular fibrillation inductions.

    PubMed

    Glikson, Michael; Gurevitz, Osnat T; Trusty, Jane M; Sharma, Vinod; Luria, David M; Eldar, Michael; Shen, Win-Kuang; Rea, Robert F; Hammill, Stephen C; Friedman, Paul A

    2004-12-01

    The defibrillation threshold (DFT) and upper limit of vulnerability (ULV) were determined using step-down protocols in 50 patients who underwent implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement or testing. The sensitivity and specificity of each ULV energy level was assessed for detecting an increased DFT, correlation of the DFT and ULV, and optimal shock timing for ULV determination. A ULV <10 or 11 J (failure to induce ventricular fibrillation with 10- to 11-J shocks) was 100% predictive of an acceptable DFT and may be sufficient to exclude unacceptable DFTs in 60% of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator recipients. All 4 shocks used to scan the peak of the T wave during ULV testing were necessary for accurate ULV determination.

  4. Temporal Influence of Heart Failure Hospitalizations Prior to Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator or Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With Defibrillator on Subsequent Outcome in Mild Heart Failure Patients (from MADIT-CRT).

    PubMed

    Lee, Andy Y; Moss, Arthur J; Ruwald, Martin H; Kutyifa, Valentina; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Bronislava; Zareba, Wojciech; Ruwald, Anne-Christine

    2015-05-15

    The temporal effect of heart failure (HF) hospitalization occurring at different time periods before implantation has not yet been studied in detail. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential association between time from last HF hospitalization to device implantation and effects on subsequent outcomes and benefit from cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRT-D). Multivariate Cox models were used to determine the temporal influence of previous HF hospitalization on the end point of HF or death within all left bundle branch block implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and CRT-D patients enrolled in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (MADIT-CRT) trial (n = 1,250) and to evaluate the clinical benefit of CRT-D implantation, comparing CRT-D patients with ICD patients within each previous HF hospitalization group. The patients with previous HF hospitalization ≤12 months before device implantation had the greatest incidence of HF or death during 4-year follow-up (31%), while those with previous HF hospitalization >12 months and those with no previous HF hospitalization had similar lower rates of HF or death (22% and 24%, respectively). All patients treated with CRT-D derived significant clinical benefit compared with their ICD counterparts, regardless of time of previous hospitalization (hazard ratios 0.38 [no previous hospitalization], 0.49 (≤12 months), and 0.45 (>12 months); p for interaction = 0.67). In conclusion, in the present study of patients with mild HF with prolonged QRS intervals and LBBB, a previous HF hospitalization ≤12 months was associated with increased risk for HF or death compared with >12 months and no previous HF hospitalizations. The clinical benefit of CRT-D was evident in all patients regardless of time from last HF hospitalization to implantation compared with ICD only.

  5. Survival benefit of the primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator among older patients: does age matter? An analysis of pooled data from 5 clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Hess, Paul L; Al-Khatib, Sana M; Han, Joo Y; Edwards, Rex; Bardy, Gust H; Bigger, J Thomas; Buxton, Alfred; Cappato, Riccardo; Dorian, Paul; Hallstrom, Al; Kadish, Alan H; Kudenchuk, Peter J; Lee, Kerry L; Mark, Daniel B; Moss, Arthur J; Steinman, Richard; Inoue, Lurdes Y T; Sanders, Gillian

    2015-03-01

    The impact of patient age on the risks of death or rehospitalization after primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) placement is uncertain. Data from 5 major ICD trials were merged: the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial I (MADIT-I), the Multicenter UnSustained Tachycardia Trial (MUSTT), the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADIT-II), the Defibrillators in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy Treatment Evaluation Trial (DEFINITE), and the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT). Median age at enrollment was 62 (interquartile range 53-70) years. Compared with their younger counterparts, older patients had a greater burden of comorbid illness. In unadjusted exploratory analyses, ICD recipients were less likely to die than nonrecipients in all age groups: among patients aged <55 years: hazard ratio 0.48, 95% posterior credible interval 0.33 to 0.69; among patients aged 55 to 64 years: hazard ratio 0.69, 95% posterior credible interval 0.53 to 0.90; among patients aged 65 to 74 years: hazard ratio 0.67, 95% posterior credible interval, 0.53 to 0.85; and among patients aged ≥75 years: hazard ratio 0.54, 95% posterior credible interval 0.37 to 0.78. Sample sizes were limited among patients aged ≥75 years. In adjusted Bayesian-Weibull modeling, point estimates indicate ICD efficacy persists but is attenuated with increasing age. There was evidence of an interaction between age and ICD treatment on survival (two-sided posterior tail probability of no interaction <0.01). Using an adjusted Bayesian logistic regression model, there was no evidence of an interaction between age and ICD treatment on rehospitalization (two-sided posterior tail probability of no interaction 0.44). In this analysis, the survival benefit of the ICD exists but is attenuated with increasing age. The latter finding may be because of the higher burden of comorbid illness, competing causes of death, or limited sample size of

  6. Spanish implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry. Eighth official report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (2011).

    PubMed

    Alzueta, Javier; Fernández, José María

    2012-11-01

    To summarize the findings of the Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry for 2011 compiled by the Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia Section of the Spanish Society of Cardiology. Each implantation team voluntarily and prospectively recorded data on a data collection form, which was then sent to the Spanish Society of Cardiology. Overall, 4481 device implantations were notified, representing 83.6% of the estimated total number of implantations. The notified implantation rate was 97 per million population and the estimated total implantation rate was 116.2 per million. First implantations accounted for 70.2% of the total notified. Data were collected from 167 hospitals (22 more than in 2010). Most implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantations took place in men (82.1%). The mean age was 62.4 (14.1) years. Most patients had severe or moderate-to-severe ventricular dysfunction and were in New York Heart Association functional class II. The most frequent underlying cardiac condition was ischemic heart disease, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy. The number of indications for primary prevention increased over the previous year and accounted for 70.6% of first implantations. Overall, 78.4% of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators were implanted by cardiac electrophysiologists. The 2011 Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry includes data on almost 84% of all implantations of these devices performed in Spain. This was the first year in which the number of implants decreased slightly from the previous year, as also occurred in the rest of Europe. The percentage of implants for primary prevention continued to increase. Full English text available from:www.revespcardiol.org. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Importance of ventricular tachycardia storms not terminated by implantable cardioverter defibrillators shocks in patients with CASQ2 associated catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Marai, Ibrahim; Khoury, Asaad; Suleiman, Mahmoud; Gepstein, Lior; Blich, Miri; Lorber, Abraham; Boulos, Monther

    2012-07-01

    In this study, the clinical and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD)-related follow-up of patients with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) with homogenous missense mutations in CASQ2 was summarized. Patients were followed in a pediatric cardiology clinic and an ICD clinic. All patients were treated with high-dose β blockers. ICDs were recommended for patients who remained symptomatic despite medical treatment. Twenty-seven patients were followed for 1 to 15 years (median 9). Twenty patients (74%) were symptomatic at diagnosis; 13 (65%) remained symptomatic after treatment with high-dose β blockers and thus were advised to receive ICDs. Eight of these patients refused ICDs, and eventually 6 (75%) died suddenly. Four of the 5 patients who received ICDs had ventricular tachycardia storms treated but not terminated by recurrent ICD shocks. These ventricular tachycardia storms (2 episodes in 2 patients and 1 episode in 2 patient) terminated spontaneously after finishing the programmed ICD shocks, without degeneration to ventricular fibrillation. None of the patients who received ICDs died. In conclusion, patients with CASQ2-associated CPVT should be recommended to receive ICDs to prevent sudden death when medical therapy is not effective. These patients may have recurrent ventricular tachycardia storms treated but not terminated by recurrent ICD shocks, without degeneration to ventricular fibrillation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Lack of current implantable cardioverter defibrillator guidelines application for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in Latin American patients with heart failure: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Zuelgaray, Jorge; Pellizon, Oscar; Muratore, Claudio A; Oropeza, Elsa Silva; Rabinovich, Rafael; Ramos, José Luis; Tentori, Maria Cristina; Reyes, Nicolás; Aguayo, Rubén; Marin, Jorge; Peterson, Brett J

    2013-02-01

    This cross-sectional study evaluated the application of accepted international implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) guidelines for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure. The PLASMA (Probabilidad de Sufrir Muerte Arritmica) study was designed to characterize management of cardiac patients in Latin America. Twelve centres included 1958 consecutively admitted patients in cardiology units in 2008 and 2009. Discharged patients were evaluated for primary prevention, ICD indication and prescription by general cardiologists. Of 1711 discharged patients, 1525 (89%) had data available for evaluating indication status. Class I indications for ICD therapy were met for 153 (10%) patients based on collected data. Only 20 (13%, 95% confidence interval: 7.7-18.4%) patients with indication were prescribed an ICD. Patients prescribed an ICD were younger than patients who were not prescribed an ICD (62 vs. 68 years, P < 0.01). The reasons given by cardiologists for not prescribing an ICD for 133 patients with an indication were: indication criteria not met (75%), life expectancy <1 year (9.7%), rejection by the patient (5.2%), no medical coverage paying for the device (3.7%), psychiatric patient (2.2%), and other reasons (4.2%). In Latin America, international guidelines for primary prevention ICD implantation are not well followed. The main reason is that cardiologists believe that patients do not meet indication criteria, even though study data confirm that criteria are met. This poses a significant challenge and underlines the importance of continuous and improved medical education.

  9. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Reduces Ventricular Arrhythmias in Primary but Not Secondary Prophylactic Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients: Insight From the Resynchronization in Ambulatory Heart Failure Trial.

    PubMed

    Sapp, John L; Parkash, Ratika; Wells, George A; Yetisir, Elizabeth; Gardner, Martin J; Healey, Jeffrey S; Thibault, Bernard; Sterns, Laurence D; Birnie, David; Nery, Pablo B; Sivakumaran, Soori; Essebag, Vidal; Dorian, Paul; Tang, Anthony S L

    2017-03-01

    The RAFT (Resynchronization in Ambulatory Heart Failure Trial) demonstrated that cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) reduced both mortality and heart failure hospitalizations in patients with functional class II or III heart failure and widened QRS. We examined the influence of CRT on ventricular arrhythmias in patients with primary versus secondary prophylaxis defibrillator indications. All ventricular arrhythmias among RAFT study participants were downloaded and adjudicated by 2 blinded reviewers with an overreader for disagreements and committee review for remaining discrepancies. Incidence of ventricular arrhythmias among patients randomized to CRT-D versus implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) were compared within the groups of patients treated for primary prophylaxis and for secondary prophylaxis. Of 1798 enrolled patients, 1764 had data available for adjudication and were included. Of these, 1531 patients were implanted for primary prophylaxis, while 233 patients were implanted for secondary prophylaxis; 884 patients were randomized to ICD and 880 to CRT-D. During 5953.6 patient-years of follow-up, there were 11 278 appropriate ICD detections of ventricular arrhythmias. In the primary prophylaxis group, CRT-D significantly reduced incidence ventricular arrhythmias in comparison to ICD (hazard ratio, 0.86; 95% confidence interval, 0.74-0.99; P=0.044). This effect was not seen in the secondary prophylaxis group (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% confidence interval, 0.82-1.58; P=0.45). CRT-D was not associated with significant differences in overall ventricular arrhythmia burden in either group. CRT reduced the rate of onset of new ventricular arrhythmias detected by ICDs in patients without a history of prior ventricular arrhythmias. This effect was not observed among patients who had prior ventricular arrhythmias. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00251251. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. The use of guideline recommended beta-blocker therapy in primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients: insight from Danish nationwide registers.

    PubMed

    Ruwald, Anne-Christine; Gislason, Gunnar Hilmar; Vinther, Michael; Johansen, Jens Brock; Nielsen, Jens Cosedis; Petersen, Helen Høgh; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Riahi, Sam; Jøns, Christian

    2017-02-20

    We aimed to examine the use of guideline recommended beta-blocker therapy prior to and after primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation in a 'real-life' setting. From the Danish Pacemaker and ICD Registry we identified all 1st-time primary prevention ICD and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) implantations in Denmark from 2007-12 (n = 2935). Use of beta-blocker, type and dose was acquired through the Danish Prescription Registry. According to guideline recommendations, we defined target daily doses as ≥50 mg carvedilol and ≥200 mg metoprolol. Prior to implantation 2427 of 2935 (83%) patients received beta-blocker therapy, with 2166 patients (89%) having initiated treatment 3 months or more prior to implantation. The majority of patients was prescribed carvedilol (52%) or metoprolol (41%). Patients on carvedilol reached target dosages more frequently than patients on metoprolol, with 39% of patients on carvedilol and 26% of patients on metoprolol at the time of implantation (P < 0.001 for all time-points). Increase in proportion of patients reaching target daily doses was observed for both carvedilol and metoprolol after ICD implantation. Carvedilol treatment was a strong predictor for being on target dose of BB at time of implant, as was treatment with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and/or spironolactone, no history of myocardial infarction, younger age and less pronounced heart failure symptoms. In a real-life setting of primary prevention ICD patients, 39% and 26% of patients were titrated to optimal target dose of carvedilol or metoprolol prior to implantation. A higher proportion of patients on carvedilol reached target dose, as compared with metoprolol.

  11. [Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry. Fourth Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (2007)].

    PubMed

    Peinado Peinado, Rafael; Torrecilla, Esteban G; Ormaetxe, José; Alvarez, Miguel

    2008-11-01

    This article presents the 2007 findings of the Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) Registry, established by the Working Group on Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators, Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia Section, Spanish Society of Cardiology. The Spanish Society of Cardiology received prospective data recorded on a single-page questionnaire on 96.6% of device implantations. Overall, 3,291 implantations were reported (90.1% of the estimated total). The reported implantation rate was 72.8 per million inhabitants, and 77.1% were first implantations. The majority of ICDs were implanted in males (mean age, 61 [12] years) in functional class II with severe or moderate-to-severe left ventricular dysfunction. The most frequent form of heart disease was ischemic heart disease, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy. Indications for primary prevention remained unchanged relative to the previous year and now account for half of all first implantations, with an increasing number of patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. The number of ICDs incorporating cardiac resynchronization therapy has increased slightly and now comprises 30.1% of the total. Around 70% of ICD implantations were performed in an electrophysiology laboratory by a cardiac electrophysiologist. The incidence of complications was very low. The 2007 Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry contains data on more than 90% of all ICD implantations performed in Spain, thereby confirming that it has become increasingly representative in recent years. The number of implantations has continued to grow, though the proportion carried out for primary prevention has stabilized at around 50%.

  12. An unusual presentation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead perforation.

    PubMed

    Crusio, Robbert H J; Greenberg, Yisachar J

    2009-01-01

    Recently, there have been increased reports of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) lead perforation. Controversy exists about the safety of certain leads. A 37-year-old man with an ischemic cardiomyopathy presented four days postimplantation of an ICD lead with localized nonpleuritic chest wall pain. Imaging demonstrated proximity of the lead to the rib, suggestive of irritation of the periosteum. The lead was repositioned to the right ventricular septum without adverse effect on defibrillation. Lead perforation presenting with focal chest pain due to rib irritation is unusual. Placement of ICD leads on the right ventricular septum should be considered to improve safety.

  13. Normalization of Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction and Incidence of Appropriate Antitachycardia Therapy in Patients With Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator for Primary Prevention of Sudden Death.

    PubMed

    House, Chad M; Nguyen, Danny; Thomas, Avis J; Nelson, William B; Zhu, Dennis W

    2016-02-01

    Patients with severely depressed left ventricular ejection fractions (LVEFs) receive implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) for the primary prevention of sudden death. In some patients, however, LVEF may improve or even normalize over time. Limited data are available on the incidence of appropriate antitachycardia therapy, including pacing and shock, in these patients. We retrospectively identified consecutive patients at our institution with an ICD for primary prevention who had LVEF measurement available at initial implantation and at the time of generator replacement. None of these patients had ever received appropriate antitachycardia therapy before generator replacement. The incidence of appropriate antitachycardia therapy after generator replacement was assessed. Of the 125 patients who received generator replacement, 53 (42%) received an ICD and 72 (58%) a cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D). Among them, 30 (21%) had LVEF normalized to ≥50%, 25 (17%) had LVEF partially improved to 36%-49%, and 70 (63%) had LVEF that remained depressed at ≤35%. During an overall follow-up period of 25 ± 18 months, none of the individuals with normalized LVEF experienced appropriate antitachycardia therapy regardless of ICD or CRT-D. Meanwhile, 20% of patients with LVEF at 36%-49% and 14% of patients with LVEF at ≤35% received appropriate ICD therapy. The omnibus P value for any differences among the 3 LVEF groups was 0.046 for the entire cohort, 0.01 for ICD, and 0.15 for CRT-D patients. These preliminary data suggest that patients with reduced LVEF and primary-prevention ICDs who normalize their LVEF over time may be at lower risk of appropriate antitachycardia therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Who Needs an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator?

    MedlinePlus

    ... people who have heart failure may need a CRT-D device. This device combines a type of pacemaker called a cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device with a defibrillator. CRT-D devices help ...

  15. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator infection caused by Tsukamurella.

    PubMed

    Almehmi, Ammar; Pfister, Alfred K; McCowan, Ronald; Matulis, Susie

    2004-01-01

    Human infections with Tsukamurella are very rare with only 13 reported cases in the literature. Certain conditions, such as immunosuppression, an indwelling foreign body, and postoperative wounds predispose humans to Tsukamurella infections. The rarity of Tsukamurella infection in humans makes its diagnosis and treatment very difficult. This article describes the first case of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) infection related to Tsukamurella in the literature.

  16. Beyond the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: are we making progress?

    PubMed

    Weiss, James N

    2008-06-01

    Sudden cardiac death due to ventricular fibrillation occurs when a dynamic interaction between triggers and substrate leads to the development of reentry, initiation of ventricular tachycardia, and its degeneration to fibrillation. To move beyond the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator as the only effective therapy for aborting sudden cardiac death, an improved understanding of trigger-substrate interaction is essential. This brief review summarizes some of the recent progress in this direction.

  17. Lingular pneumonia obscured by implanted cardioverter-defibrillator: Lateral thinking.

    PubMed

    Sewell, Laura; Harries, Ivan; Chandrasekaran, Barinathan

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old female with an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator was admitted with a short history suggestive of a diagnosis of pneumonia. An AP radiograph did not identify an area of consolidation. A subsequent lateral radiograph highlighted an extensive left-lingular-lobe consolidation that had been obscured by the cardiac device. This case highlights the fact that large devices can obscure significant pathology, and that lateral or cross-sectional imaging may be helpful in reaching a diagnosis.

  18. Evaluating the Efficacy and Safety of Internal Cardioversion with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Device for Atrial Fibrillation in Systolic Heart Failure Patients.

    PubMed

    Sunman, Hamza; Aytemir, Kudret; Yorgun, Hikmet; Canpolat, Uğur; Yalçin, Muhammet Ulvi; Maharjan, Naresh; Asil, Serkan; Şahiner, Levent; Kaya, Barış; Özer, Necla; Oto, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) commonly observed in patients with heart failure and cardioversion was often needed to restore the sinus rhythm. Previously, there is no study evaluating usefulness of internal cardioversion with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) device. In this study, we aimed to compare the efficacy and long-term effects of internal cardioversion with ICD devices compared to conventional external cardioversion in patients with AF and heart failure. Seventy patients with AF and heart failure who underwent electrical cardioversion were enrolled in the study. Forty patients (mean age 65.36 ± 10.37, 35 male) were assigned to undergo internal cardioversion with approximately 35 J shocks delivered through the ICD electrode. Standard external cardioversion was performed for the remaining patients (30 patients; mean age 66.20 ± 11.89; 24 male) that were similar with regard to baseline, and electrocardiographic characteristics. Sinus rhythm was restored in 32 of 40 patients (80.0%) assigned to internal cardioversion compared with 25 of 30 patients (83.3%) assigned to external cardioversion (P = 0.725). We did not witness any serious complication during the procedure and hospitalization. On the follow-up, there was no statistically significant difference in recurrence of AF and incidence of major cardiovascular events between the internal and external cardioversion groups. Internal cardioversion with ICD device is an effective and safe method to restore sinus rhythm in heart failure patients with AF. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Mortality Implications of Appropriate Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy in Secondary Prevention Patients: Contrasting Mortality in Primary Prevention Patients From a Prospective Population-Based Registry.

    PubMed

    Almehmadi, Fahad; Porta-Sánchez, Andreu; Ha, Andrew C T; Fischer, Hadas D; Wang, Xuesong; Austin, Peter C; Lee, Douglas S; Nanthakumar, Kumaraswamy

    2017-08-19

    We sought to examine the mortality impact of appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy between patients who received ICD for primary versus secondary prevention purposes. From a prospective, population-based registry, we identified 7020 patients who underwent de novo ICD implantation between February 2007 and May 2012 in Ontario, Canada. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. We used multivariable Cox proportional hazard modeling to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics and analyzed the mortality impact of first appropriate ICD therapy (shock and antitachycardia pacing [ATP]) as a time-varying covariate. There were 1929 (27.5%) patients who received ICDs for secondary prevention purposes. The median follow-up period was 5.02 years. Compared with those with secondary prevention ICDs, patients with primary prevention ICDs had more medical comorbidities, and lower ejection fraction. Patients who experienced appropriate ICD shock or ATP had greater risk of death compared with those who did not, irrespective of implant indication. In the primary prevention group, the adjusted hazard ratios of death for appropriate shock and ATP were 2.00 (95% CI: 1.72-2.33) and 1.73 (95% CI: 1.52-1.97), respectively. In the secondary prevention group, the adjusted hazard ratios of death for appropriate ICD shock and ATP were 1.46 (95% CI: 1.20-1.77) and 1.38 (95% CI: 1.16-1.64), respectively. Despite having a more favorable clinical profile, occurrence of appropriate ICD shock or ATP in patients with secondary prevention ICDs was associated with similar magnitudes of mortality risk as those with primary prevention ICDs. A heightened degree of care is warranted for all patients who experience appropriate ICD shock or ATP therapy. © 2017 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  20. Prophylactic catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia before cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy: Clinical outcomes after a single endocardial ablation.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Takei, Asumi; Fukuzawa, Koji; Kiuchi, Kunihiko; Takami, Kaoru; Itoh, Mitsuaki; Imamura, Kimitake; Fujiwara, Ryudo; Nakanishi, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Soichiro; Matsumoto, Akinori; Shimane, Akira; Okajima, Katsunori; Hirata, Ken-Ichi

    2015-06-01

    Outcomes related to prophylactic catheter ablation (PCA) for ventricular tachycardia (VT) before implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation in non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) are not well characterized. We assessed the efficacy of single endocardial PCA in NICM patients. We retrospectively analyzed 101 consecutive NICM patients with sustained VT. We compared clinical outcomes of patients who underwent PCA (ABL group) with those who did not (No ABL group). Successful PCA was defined as no inducible clinical VT. We also compared the clinical outcomes of patients with successful PCA (PCA success group) with those of the No ABL group. Endpoints were appropriate ICD therapy (shock and anti-tachycardia pacing) and the occurrence of electrical storm (ES). PCA was performed in 42 patients, and it succeeded in 20. The time to ES occurrence was significantly longer in the ABL group than in the No ABL group (p=0.04). The time to first appropriate ICD therapy and ES occurrence were significantly longer in the PCA success group than in the No ABL group (p=0.02 and p<0.01, respectively). Single endocardial PCA can decrease ES occurrence in NICM patients. However, high rates of VT recurrence and low success rates are issues to be resolved; therefore, the efficacy of single endocardial PCA is currently limited.

  1. Prophylactic catheter ablation of ventricular tachycardia before cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy: Clinical outcomes after a single endocardial ablation

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Atsushi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Takei, Asumi; Fukuzawa, Koji; Kiuchi, Kunihiko; Takami, Kaoru; Itoh, Mitsuaki; Imamura, Kimitake; Fujiwara, Ryudo; Nakanishi, Tomoyuki; Yamashita, Soichiro; Matsumoto, Akinori; Shimane, Akira; Okajima, Katsunori; Hirata, Ken-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Outcomes related to prophylactic catheter ablation (PCA) for ventricular tachycardia (VT) before implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation in non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) are not well characterized. We assessed the efficacy of single endocardial PCA in NICM patients. Methods We retrospectively analyzed 101 consecutive NICM patients with sustained VT. We compared clinical outcomes of patients who underwent PCA (ABL group) with those who did not (No ABL group). Successful PCA was defined as no inducible clinical VT. We also compared the clinical outcomes of patients with successful PCA (PCA success group) with those of the No ABL group. Endpoints were appropriate ICD therapy (shock and anti-tachycardia pacing) and the occurrence of electrical storm (ES). Results PCA was performed in 42 patients, and it succeeded in 20. The time to ES occurrence was significantly longer in the ABL group than in the No ABL group (p=0.04). The time to first appropriate ICD therapy and ES occurrence were significantly longer in the PCA success group than in the No ABL group (p=0.02 and p<0.01, respectively). Conclusion Single endocardial PCA can decrease ES occurrence in NICM patients. However, high rates of VT recurrence and low success rates are issues to be resolved; therefore, the efficacy of single endocardial PCA is currently limited. PMID:26336545

  2. Characteristics and outcomes of diabetic patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator in a real world setting: results from the Israeli ICD registry.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Hillel; Geist, Michael; Goldenberg, Ilan; Suleiman, Mahmoud; Glikson, Michael; Tenenbaum, Alexander; Swissa, Moshe; Fisman, Enrique Z; Golovchiner, Gregory; Strasberg, Boris; Barsheshet, Alon

    2016-12-01

    There are limited data regarding the effect of diabetes mellitus (DM) on the risks of both appropriate and inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy. The present study was designed to compare the outcome of appropriate and inappropriate ICD therapy in patients with or without DM. The risk of a first appropriate ICD therapy for ventricular tachyarrhythmias (including anti tachycardia pacing and shock) was compared between 764 DM and 1346 non-DM patients enrolled in the national Israeli ICD registry. We also compared the risks of inappropriate ICD therapy, and death or cardiac hospitalization between diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Diabetic patients were older, were more likely to have ischemic cardiomyopathy, lower ejection fraction, atrial fibrillation, and other co-morbidities. The 3-year cumulative incidence of appropriate ICD therapy was similar in the DM and non-DM groups (12 and 13%, respectively, p = 0.983). Multivariate analysis showed that DM did not affect the risk of appropriate ICD therapy (HR = 1.07, 95% CI 0.78-1.47, p = 0.694) or inappropriate therapy (HR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.42-1.23, p = 0.232). However, DM was associated with a 31% increased risk for death or cardiac hospitalization (p = 0.005). Results were similar in subgroup analyses including ICD and defibrillators with cardiac resynchronization therapy function recipients, primary or secondary prevention indication for an ICD. Despite a significant excess of cardiac hospitalizations and mortality in the diabetic population, there was no difference in the rate of ICD treatments, suggesting that the outcome difference is not related to arrhythmias.

  3. Right ventricular pacing is an independent predictor for ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation occurrence and heart failure events in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Gardiwal, Ajmal; Yu, Hong; Oswald, Hanno; Luesebrink, Ulrich; Ludwig, Andreas; Pichlmaier, Andreas Maximilian; Drexler, Helmut; Klein, Gunnar

    2008-03-01

    There is increasing evidence that right ventricular (RV) pacing may have detrimental effects by increasing morbidity and mortality for heart failure in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients. In this study we prospectively tested the hypothesis that cumulative RV pacing increases ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) occurrence (primary endpoint) and hospitalization and mortality for heart failure (secondary endpoint) in a predominantly secondary prophylactic ICD patient population. Two hundred and fifty patients were divided into two groups according to the median of cumulative RV pacing (< or =2 vs. >2%) and prospectively followed-up for occurrence of primary and secondary endpoints for 18 +/- 4 months. Established predictors for VT/VF occurrence and heart failure events such as age, left ventricular ejection fraction (EF), QRS duration, history of atrial fibrillation, and NT-proBNP were collected at enrollment. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that cumulative RV pacing > 2% and EF < 40% were independent predictors for VT/VF occurrence and heart failure events. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that patients with >2% cumulative RV pacing more frequently suffered from VT/VF occurrence and heart failure hospitalization. Cumulative RV pacing > 2% and EF < 40% are independent predictors for VT/VF occurrence and mortality and hospitalization for heart failure in predominantly secondary prophylactic ICD patients. Our data show that algorithms capable of reducing cumulative RV pacing should be used more frequently in clinical practice.

  4. Appropriate evaluation and treatment of heart failure patients after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator discharge: time to go beyond the initial shock.

    PubMed

    Mishkin, Joseph D; Saxonhouse, Sherry J; Woo, Gregory W; Burkart, Thomas A; Miles, William M; Conti, Jamie B; Schofield, Richard S; Sears, Samuel F; Aranda, Juan M

    2009-11-24

    Multiple clinical trials support the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) for prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure (HF). Unfortunately, several complicating issues have arisen from the universal use of ICDs in HF patients. An estimated 20% to 35% of HF patients who receive an ICD for primary prevention will experience an appropriate shock within 1 to 3 years of implant, and one-third of patients will experience an inappropriate shock. An ICD shock is associated with a 2- to 5-fold increase in mortality, with the most common cause being progressive HF. The median time from initial ICD shock to death ranges from 168 to 294 days depending on HF etiology and the appropriateness of the ICD therapy. Despite this prognosis, current guidelines do not provide a clear stepwise approach to managing these high-risk patients. An ICD shock increases HF event risk and should trigger a thorough evaluation to determine the etiology of the shock and guide subsequent therapeutic interventions. Several combinations of pharmacologic and device-based interventions such as adding amiodarone to baseline beta-blocker therapy, adjusting ICD sensitivity, and employing antitachycardia pacing may reduce future appropriate and inappropriate shocks. Aggressive HF surveillance and management is required after an ICD shock, as the risk of sudden cardiac death is transformed to an increased HF event risk.

  5. Improving the appropriateness of sudden arrhythmic death primary prevention by implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction. Point of view

    PubMed Central

    Disertori, Marcello; Gulizia, Michele M.; Casolo, Giancarlo; Delise, Pietro; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Di Tano, Giuseppe; Lunati, Maurizio; Mestroni, Luisa; Salerno-Uriarte, Jorge; Tavazzi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the current guidelines for the primary prevention of sudden arrhythmic death, which are based on ejection fraction, do not allow the optimal selection of patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction of ischemic and nonischemic etiology for implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator. Ejection fraction alone is limited in both sensitivity and specificity. An analysis of the risk of sudden arrhythmic death with a combination of multiple tests (ejection fraction associated with one or more arrhythmic risk markers) could partially compensate for these limitations. We propose a polyparametric approach for defining the risk of sudden arrhythmic death using ejection fraction in combination with other clinical and arrhythmic risk markers (i.e. late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance, T-wave alternans, programmed ventricular stimulation, autonomic tone, and genetic testing) that have been validated in nonrandomized trials. In this article, we examine these approaches to identify three subsets of patients who cannot be comprehensively assessed by the current guidelines: patients with ejection fraction of 35% or less and a relatively low risk of sudden arrhythmic death despite the ejection fraction value; patients with ejection fraction of 35% or less and high competitive risk of death due to evolution of heart failure or noncardiac causes; and patients with ejection fraction between 35 and 45% with relatively high risk of sudden arrhythmic death despite the ejection fraction value. PMID:26895401

  6. Remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients: a safe, time-saving, and cost-effective means for follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Raatikainen, M.J. Pekka; Uusimaa, Paavo; van Ginneken, Mireille M.E.; Janssen, Jacques P.G.; Linnaluoto, Markku

    2008-01-01

    Aims The purpose of this prospective study was to investigate whether internet-based remote monitoring offers a safe, practical, and cost-effective alternative to the in-office follow-up visits of patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Methods and results Forty-one patients (62 ± 10 years, range 41–76, 83% male) with previously implanted ICD were followed for 9 months. One-hundred and nineteen scheduled and 18 unscheduled data transmissions were performed. There were no device-related adverse events. Over 90% of the patients found the system easy to use. Physicians reported the system as being ‘very easy’ or ‘easy’ to use and found the data comparable to traditional device interrogation in 99% of the cases. They were able to address all unscheduled data transmissions remotely. Compared with the in-office visits, remote monitoring required less time from patients (6.9 ± 5.0 vs. 182 ± 148 min, P < 0.001) and physicians (8.4 ± 4.5 vs. 25.8 ± 17.0 min, P < 0.001) to complete the follow-up. Substitution of two routine in-office visits during the study by remote monitoring reduced the overall cost of routine ICD follow-up by 524€ per patient (41%). Conclusion Remote monitoring offers a safe, feasible, time-saving, and cost-effective solution to ICD follow-up. PMID:18703585

  7. The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter and defibrillator: advantages, limitations and future directions.

    PubMed

    Verma, Nishant; Rhyner, John; Knight, Bradley P

    2015-01-01

    The totally subcutaneous implantable cardioverter and defibrillator (S-ICD) represents the most innovative development in implantable cardioverter and defibrillator therapy in the last 15 years. Its development arose out of concern for the long-term complications of transvenous devices. Clinical trials have shown that it is a safe and effective device for patients at risk of sudden cardiac death. The lack of transvenous and intracardiac components makes it an attractive choice for young patients, those with limited vascular access and increased infectious risk. Despite these advantages, the current S-ICD system has limitations, including the inability to deliver cardiac pacing. Future programming and technologic advancements have the opportunity to dramatically improve the efficacy and broaden the patient population treated with the S-ICD.

  8. Spouses' reflections on implantable cardioverter defibrillator treatment with focus on the future and the end-of-life: a qualitative content analysis.

    PubMed

    Fluur, Christina; Bolse, Kärstin; Strömberg, Anna; Thylén, Ingela

    2014-08-01

    To explore future reflections of spouses living with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipient with focus on the end-of-life phase in an anticipated palliative phase. A history of or risk for life-threatening arrhythmias may require an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Despite the life-saving capacity of the device, eventually life will come to an end. As discussion about preferences of shock therapy at end-of-life phase seldom takes place in advance, the implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients may face defibrillating shocks in the final weeks of their lives, adding to stress and anxiety in patients and their families. Qualitative study with in-depth interviews analysed with a content analysis. Interviews were performed with 18 spouses of medically stable implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients during 2011-2012. The spouses described how they dealt with changes in life and an uncertain future following the implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation. Six subcategories conceptualized the spouses' concerns: Aspiring for involvement; Managing an altered relationship; Being attentive to warning signs; Worries for deterioration in the partner's health; Waiting for the defibrillating shock; and Death is veiled in silence. Despite the partner's serious state of health; terminal illness or death and the role of the device was seldom discussed with healthcare professionals or the implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipient. Open and honest communication was requested as important to support coping with an unpredictable life situation and to reduce worries and uncertainty about the future and end-of-life. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The clinical course of patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: Extended experience on clinical outcome, device replacements, and device-related complications.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Aafke C; Borleffs, C Jan Willem; Buiten, Maurits S; Thijssen, Joep; van Rees, Johannes B; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Schalij, Martin J; van Erven, Lieselot

    2015-06-01

    Large randomized trials demonstrated the beneficial effect of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) and cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) treatments in selected patients. Data on long-term follow-up of patients outside the setting of clinical trials are scarce. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term outcome of ICD and CRT-D recipients. All patients who underwent ICD (n = 1729 [57%]) or CRT-D (n = 1326 [43%]) implantation at the Leiden University Medical Center since 1996 were evaluated. Follow-up visits were performed every 3-6 months, and events were registered. Cumulative incidence curves of device therapy and device-related complications were adjusted for the competing risk of all-cause mortality. After a median follow-up of 5.1 years (25th-75th percentile 3.1-7.8 years), 842 patients (28%) died. The cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality was 49% (95% confidence interval [CI] 45%-54%) in ICD recipients after 12 years of follow-up and 55% (95% CI 52%-58%) in CRT-D recipients after 8 years of follow-up. A total of 1081 patients (35%) received appropriate defibrillator therapy. The cumulative incidence of appropriate therapy in ICD patients was 58% (95% CI 54%-62%) after 12 years of follow-up and 39% (95% CI 35%-43%) in CRT-D patients after 8 years of follow-up. Twelve-year cumulative incidences of adverse events were 20% (95% CI 18%-22%) for inappropriate shock, 6% (95% CI 5%-8%) for device-related infection, and 17% (95% CI 14%-21%) for lead failure. After long-term follow-up of ICD (12 years) and CRT-D (8 years) recipients, 49% of ICD recipients and 55% of CRT-D recipients had died. Appropriate ICD therapy was received by the majority (58%) of ICD recipients and by almost 40% of CRT-D recipients. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Physiotherapy as a Rare Cause of Twiddler’s Syndrome in a Patient With an Implanted Cardioverter Defibrillator

    PubMed Central

    Schernthaner, Christiana; Danmayr, Franz; Krausler, Richard; Strohmer, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    A 65-year-old male patient with a history of ischemic cardiomyopathy developed ventricular tachycardia resulting in presyncope. An ICD was indicated for secondary prophylaxis of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. A dual chamber ICD was implanted from the right side because insertion of the device from the left side was unfeasible after surgery of a left subscapularis tendon lesion. ICD implantation and testing of defibrillation threshold were uneventful. During early follow-up a progressive increase of the stimulation threshold was detected. On chest X-ray coiling of both atrial and ventricular leads was noted and caused inadvertently by active shoulder-arm physiotherapy. Complete revision of the ICD system was necessary for restoration of the pacemaker function of the ICD. This unique case highlights important steps for early recognition and prevention of Twiddler’s syndrome that may occur due to physiotherapy treatment even without abnormal manipulations by the patient.

  11. Antitachycardia pacing programming in implantable cardioverter defibrillator: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    De Maria, Elia; Giacopelli, Daniele; Borghi, Ambra; Modonesi, Letizia; Cappelli, Stefano

    2017-05-26

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) programming involves several parameters. In recent years antitachycardia pacing (ATP) has gained an increasing importance in the treatment of ventricular arrhythmias, whether slow or fast. It reduces the number of unnecessary and inappropriate shocks and improves both patient's quality of life and device longevity. There is no clear indication regarding the type of ATP to be used, except for the treatment of fast ventricular tachycardias (188 bpm-250 bpm) where it has been shown a greater efficacy and safety of burst compared to ramp; 8 impulses in each sequence of ATP appears to be the best programming option in this setting. Beyond ATP use, excellent clinical results were obtained with programming standardization following these principles: extended detection time in ventricular fibrillation (VF) zone; supraventricular discrimination criteria up to 200 bpm; first shock in VF zone at the maximum energy in order to reduce the risk of multiple shocks. The MADIT-RIT trial and some observational registries have also recently demonstrated that programming with a widespread use of ATP, higher cut-off rates or delayed intervention reduces the number of inappropriate and unnecessary therapies and improves the survival of patients during mid-term follow-up.

  12. Mechanisms underlying the lack of effect of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy on mortality in high-risk patients with recent myocardial infarction: insights from the Defibrillation in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (DINAMIT).

    PubMed

    Dorian, Paul; Hohnloser, Stefan H; Thorpe, Kevin E; Roberts, Robin S; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Gent, Michael; Connolly, Stuart J

    2010-12-21

    although implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) lower mortality in stable patients with low ejection fraction late after myocardial infarction, randomized trials of ICD versus control subjects implanted early after myocardial infarction do not show mortality benefit. Our objective was to investigate possible mechanisms underlying the lack of mortality benefit in the Defibrillation in Acute Myocardial Infarction Trial (DINAMIT). this is a secondary analysis of the prospective randomized clinical trial. Outpatients with recent (6 to 40 days) acute myocardial infarction, left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction <35%), and low heart rate variability were randomized to ICD (n=311) or to standard medical therapy (n=342). In a competing-risks analysis, those factors that increased the risk of arrhythmic death also increased the risk of nonarrhythmic deaths. After adjustment for these factors, receiving an ICD was associated with a decreased risk of arrhythmic death (hazard ratio, 0.33; 95% confidence interval, 0.15 to 0.71) but an increase in nonarrhythmic death (hazard ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.00 to 2.80). In an adjusted time-dependent analysis, patients receiving an ICD and having appropriate ICD therapy had a 15.1% yearly hazard of mortality compared with 5.2% in ICD patients with no appropriate therapy (P<0.001). The reduction in sudden death in ICD patients was completely offset by increased nonarrhythmic deaths, which were greatest in patients receiving ICD shock therapy (hazard ratio, 6.0; 95% confidence interval, 2.8 to 12.7). in patients receiving ICDs early after myocardial infarction, those factors that are associated with arrhythmia requiring ICD therapy are also associated with a high risk of nonsudden death, negating the benefit of ICDs in this setting.

  13. Inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock from a transcutaneous muscle stimulation device therapy.

    PubMed

    Siu, Chung-Wah; Tse, Hung-Fat; Lau, Chu-Pak

    2005-06-01

    Inappropriate shock from implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) may result from external electromagnetic interference (EMI), especially for unipolar ventricle sensing. Previous case reports and small in-vitro safety study suggested that endocardial bipolar lead system may be immune from EMI resulting from transcutaneous electrical neuromuscle stimulation (TENS) therapy. This report presents an unusual case of inappropriate discharge in a patient with ICD of endocardial bipolar lead system, receiving TENS from a commercially available device.

  14. Overview of implantable cardioverter defibrillator and cardiac resynchronisation therapy in heart failure management

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Pow-Li; Foo, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials have established the benefits of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) in the treatment of heart failure patients. As adjuncts to guideline-directed medical therapy, ICDs confer mortality benefits from sudden cardiac arrest, while CRT reduces mortality, hospitalisation rates and improves functional capacity. This review discusses the use of ICDs and CRT devices in heart failure management, outlining the evidence supporting their use, indications and contraindications. PMID:27440409

  15. Better identification of patients who benefit from implantable cardioverter defibrillators by genotyping the G protein beta3 subunit (GNB3) C825T polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Wieneke, Heinrich; Naber, Christoph N; Piaszek, Leon; Sack, Stefan; Frey, Ulrich H; Heusch, Gerd; Erbel, Raimund; Siffert, Winfried

    2006-09-01

    There is a need for better identification of patients at high risk for malignant arrhythmias who would benefit from implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). The purpose of this study was to assess whether the C825T polymorphism in the G-protein beta3 subunit gene, GNB3, might serve as a genetic marker for recurrent ventricular arrhythmias. Genotyping was performed in 82 patients with ischemic heart disease treated with an ICD for primary and secondary prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the probability of remaining free from VT/VF with cycle length (CL) < 330 ms that required treatment by the ICD. Genotyping yielded 7 individuals homozygous for the 825T allele (TT), 36 homozygous for the C825 allele (CC), and 39 heterozygotes (CT). Multivariate analysis revealed that the C825T polymorphism (P = 0.004), left ventricular ejection fraction (P = 0.009), and QRS-duration (P = 0.039) were independent determinants of severe ventricular arrhythmias. Homozygous carriers of the C825 allele had a 3.9-fold risk for severe ventricular arrhythmias. The results from this pilot study suggest that the C825T polymorphism may have a modifying effect on the propensity towards life-threatening arrhythmias. Genotyping the C825T polymorphism may help to better identify individuals at high risk for life-threatening arrhythmias who benefit from ICD therapy.

  16. The mismatch between patient life expectancy and the service life of implantable devices in current cardioverter-defibrillator therapy: a call for larger device batteries.

    PubMed

    Neuzner, Jörg

    2015-06-01

    In 2005, Bob Hauser published a paper in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology entitled "The growing mismatch between patient longevity and the service life of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators". Now, nearly a decade later, I would like to perform a second look on the problem of a mismatching between ICD device service life and the survival of ICD recipients. Since 2005, the demographics of the ICD population has changed significantly. Primary prevention has become the dominant indication in defibrillator therapy and device implantation is indicated more and more in earlier stages of cardiac diseases. In former larger scale ICD trials, the patient average 5-year survival probability was in a range of 68-71%; in newer CRT-D trials in a range of 72-88%. Due to a progressively widened ICD indication and implantation preferentially performed in patients with better life expectancy, the problem of inadequate device service life is of growing importance. The early days of defibrillator therapy started with a generator volume of 145 ccm and a device service life <18 months. In this early period, the device miniaturization and extension of service life were similar challenges for the technicians. Today, we have reached a formerly unexpected extent of device miniaturization. However, technologic improvements were often preferentially translated in further device miniaturization and not in prolonging device service life. In his analysis, Bob Hauser reported a prolonged device service life of 2.3 years in ICD models with a larger battery capacity of 0.54 up to 0.69 Ah. Between 2008 and 2014, several studies had been published on the problem of ICD longevity in clinical scenarios. These analyses included "older" and currently used single chamber, dual chamber and CRT devices. The reported average 5-year device service life ranged from 0 to 75%. Assuming today technology, larger battery capacities will only result in minimal increase in device volume. Selected

  17. [Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator and Perioperative Magnet Application: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Miho; Tokuhira, Natsuko; Sawa, Teiji; Ibuki, Takae

    2015-02-01

    An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) can falsely recognize noise by monopolar electrocautery as tachyarrhythmia and deliver inappropriate antitachycardia therapy. Application of a clinical magnet on an ICD suspends antitachycardia therapy, but it has not been widely used for this purpose. A 67-year-old male underwent laryngopharyngectomy, cervical esophagectomy, right neck dissection, tracheostomy and reconstruction with free jejunal transplant for recurrent hypopharyngeal cancer. He had an ICD (PARADYM DR8550, Sorin) implanted below the left clavicle for ventricular tachycardia and prolonged QT syndrome. During the operation, a clinical magnet was left on the ICD to disable antitachycardia therapy. The magnet mode of the ICD provided asynchronous AAI pacing at 96 beats x min(-1). The surgery proceeded uneventfully. No episode of ventricular tachyarrythmia or pacing inhibition by electromagnetic interference was observed on electrocardiogram. This case illustrated the potential role of a clinical magnet as an alternative to reprogramming of an ICD by a programmer in the perioperative management of a patient with an ICD when a technical expert to operate a programmer is not available.

  18. Sensing and detection in Medtronic implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark L; Swerdlow, Charles D

    2016-09-01

    Ensuring sensing and detection of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) was a prerequisite for the clinical trials that established the survival benefit of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). However, for decades, a high incidence of unnecessary shocks limited patients' and physicians' acceptance of ICD therapy. Oversensing, misclassification of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) as VT, and self-terminating VT accounted for the vast majority of unnecessary shocks. Medtronic ICDs utilize sensitive baseline settings with minimal blanking periods to ensure accurate sensing of VF, VT, and SVT electrograms. Programmable algorithms reject oversensing caused by far-field R waves, T waves, and non-physiologic signals caused by lead failure. A robust hierarchy of SVT-VT discriminators minimize misclassification of SVT as VT. These features, combined with evidence-based programming, have reduced the 1‑year inappropriate shock rate to 1.5 % for dual-/triple-chamber ICDs and to 2.5 % for single-chamber ICDs.

  19. Critical analysis of ineffective post implantation implantable cardioverter-defibrillator-testing

    PubMed Central

    Roos, Markus; Geller, J Christoph; Ohlow, Marc-Alexander

    2017-01-01

    AIM To test of the implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator is done at the time of implantation. We investigate if any testing should be performed. METHODS All consecutive patients between January 2006 and December 2008 undergoing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation/replacement (a total of 634 patients) were included in the retrospective study. RESULTS Sixteen patients (2.5%) were not tested (9 with LA/LV-thrombus, 7 due to operator’s decision). Analyzed were 618 patients [76% men, 66.4 + 11 years, 24% secondary prevention (SP), 46% with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) < 20%, 56% had coronary artery disease (CAD)] undergoing defibrillation safety testing (SMT) with an energy of 21 + 2.3 J. In 22/618 patients (3.6%) induced ventricular fibrillation (VF) could not be terminated with maximum energy of the ICD. Six of those (27%) had successful SMT after system modification or shock lead repositioning, 14 patients (64%) received a subcutaneous electrode array. Younger age (P = 0.0003), non-CAD (P = 0.007) and VF as index event for SP (P = 0.05) were associated with a higher incidence of ineffective SMT. LVEF < 20% and incomplete revascularisation in patients with CAD had no impact on SMT. CONCLUSION Defibrillation testing is well-tolerated. An ineffective SMT occurred in 4% and two third of those needed implantation of a subcutaneous electrode array to pass a SMT > 10 J. PMID:28289531

  20. [The wearable cardioverter/defibrillator : Temporary protection from sudden cardiac death].

    PubMed

    Duncker, D; Bauersachs, J; Veltmann, C

    2016-09-01

    In the majority of cases sudden cardiac death (SCD) is caused by ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) represent an evidence-based and established method for prevention of SCD. For patients who do not fulfill the criteria for guideline-conform implantation of an ICD but still have an increased, e.g. transient risk for SCD, a wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) vest was developed to temporarily prevent SCD. Numerous studies have shown the safety and efficacy of the WCD, although there is still a gap in evidence concerning a reduction in overall mortality and improvement in prognosis. This article gives an overview on the currently available literature on WCD, the indications, potential risks and complications.

  1. Wearable cardioverter defibrillator: a life vest till the life boat (ICD) arrives.

    PubMed

    Francis, Johnson; Reek, Sven

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is a life saving device ensuring protection against life threatening ventricular arrhythmias. But there are certain situations like a recent myocardial infarction where the standard guidelines do not recommend the implantation of an ICD while the patient can still be at a risk of demise due to a life threatening ventricular arrhythmia. There could also be a temporary indication for protection while explanting an infected ICD system. The wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) is a device which comes to the rescue in such situations. In this brief review, we discuss the historical aspects of the development of a WCD, technical aspects as well as the clinical trial data and real world scenario of its use. Copyright © 2013 Cardiological Society of India. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Outcomes in heart failure patients referred for consideration of implantable cardioverter defibrillator for primary prophylaxis of sudden cardiac death: what are the risks of waiting?

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Nina; Mangat, Iqwal; O'Donnell, Suzan S; Pinter, Arnold; Korley, Victoria; Lane, Chris; Dorian, Paul

    2009-10-01

    Clinical trials have confirmed that implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) reduce mortality in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction below 30%. The 'real-world' prognosis before ICD implantation in such patients is not known. The estimated risk of death is 0.8% per month, and this forms the basis for wait-time recommendations. To determine the consequences of waiting for ICD implantation among heart failure patients eligible for primary prophylactic ICD. The present retrospective study evaluated consecutive patients who were deemed eligible for primary prophylactic ICD implantation. Survival outcomes were tracked for patients who declined an ICD, those who accepted and received an ICD, and patients who accepted an ICD but died while waiting. Of 470 patients referred for evaluation, 218 were deemed eligible for an ICD. A total of 174 of 218 patients (79.8%) accepted an ICD; 39 (17.9%) declined, and five (2.3%) were deemed to be at too great a risk for the procedure. The mortality rate at two years among patients who accepted an ICD was 18.8% before ICD implantation and 12.2% after ICD implantation. Among patients who declined ICD implantation, the two year mortality rate was 5.3%. Among patients waiting for an ICD, five of 19 deaths were out-of- hospital sudden deaths. Of 12 patients who died after ICD implantation, there were no documented out-of-hospital sudden deaths. Consistent with current estimates, the mortality rate at two years among patients who accepted and were waiting for an ICD implant was 18.8%. After receiving an ICD, the mortality rate was 12.2% at two years.

  3. Outcomes in heart failure patients referred for consideration of implantable cardioverter defibrillator for primary prophylaxis of sudden cardiac death: What are the risks of waiting?

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Nina; Mangat, Iqwal; O’Donnell, Suzan S; Pinter, Arnold; Korley, Victoria; Lane, Chris; Dorian, Paul

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Clinical trials have confirmed that implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) reduce mortality in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction below 30%. The ‘real-world’ prognosis before ICD implantation in such patients is not known. The estimated risk of death is 0.8% per month, and this forms the basis for wait-time recommendations. OBJECTIVES: To determine the consequences of waiting for ICD implantation among heart failure patients eligible for primary prophylactic ICD. METHODS: The present retrospective study evaluated consecutive patients who were deemed eligible for primary prophylactic ICD implantation. Survival outcomes were tracked for patients who declined an ICD, those who accepted and received an ICD, and patients who accepted an ICD but died while waiting. RESULTS: Of 470 patients referred for evaluation, 218 were deemed eligible for an ICD. A total of 174 of 218 patients (79.8%) accepted an ICD; 39 (17.9%) declined, and five (2.3%) were deemed to be at too great a risk for the procedure. The mortality rate at two years among patients who accepted an ICD was 18.8% before ICD implantation and 12.2% after ICD implantation. Among patients who declined ICD implantation, the two-year mortality rate was 5.3%. Among patients waiting for an ICD, five of 19 deaths were out-of-hospital sudden deaths. Of 12 patients who died after ICD implantation, there were no documented out-of-hospital sudden deaths. CONCLUSION: Consistent with current estimates, the mortality rate at two years among patients who accepted and were waiting for an ICD implant was 18.8%. After receiving an ICD, the mortality rate was 12.2% at two years. PMID:19812807

  4. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator and survival after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to acute myocardial infarction in Denmark in the years 2001-2012, a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Winther-Jensen, Matilde; Kjaergaard, Jesper; Lassen, Jens F; Køber, Lars; Torp-Pedersen, Christian; Hansen, Steen M; Lippert, Freddy; Kragholm, Kristian; Christensen, Erika F; Hassager, Christian

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest caused by myocardial infarction in Denmark 2001-2012 and subsequent survival. The Danish Cardiac Arrest Registry was used to identify patients ⩾18 years surviving to discharge without prior implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Information on cardioverter defibrillator implantation was obtained from the National Patient Registry. We identified 974 myocardial infarction-out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients surviving to hospital discharge, 130 of these patients (13%) had a cardioverter defibrillator implanted early (⩽40 days post-out-of-hospital cardiac arrest), 58 patients (6%) had late implantable cardioverter defibrillator (41-365 days post-out-of-hospital cardiac arrest). Odds of implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation within one year were higher in patients receiving cardiopulmonary resuscitation (odds ratio (OR)CPR: 1.99, confidence interval (CI): 1.23-3.22, p=0.01), and Charlson Comorbidity Index level 1, (ORCCI1: 2.10, CI:1.25-3.49, p<0.01). Odds of a late implantable cardioverter defibrillator was higher in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) (ORPCI: 3.67, CI: 1.35-9.97, p=0. 01). An early, but not late implantable cardioverter defibrillator was associated with increased survival (event time ratioEarly ICD: 1.45, CI: 1.11-1.90, p=0.01). Chronic heart failure, higher age groups, Charlson Comorbidity Index levels 1 to ⩾3 and male sex were associated with lower survival. Highest income was associated with higher survival. Cardioverter defibrillator implantation rates in patients surviving an myocardial infarction-out-of-hospital cardiac arrest increased from 14% to 19% over the period. Of the total patient population, 13% had implantation earlier than recommended by guidelines, presumably as primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Acute PCI and arrest later in the study

  5. Microvolt T-wave alternans for the risk stratification of dangerous ventricular arrhythmias in patients with previously implanted automatic cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, Maciej; Kossuth, Irmina; Zielonka, Joanna; Wielusiński, Maciej; Kazimierczak, Arkadiusz; Kornacewicz Jach, Zdzisława; Przybycień, Krzysztof; Kaliszczak, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the main cause of death in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). Implantation of an automatic cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) significantly reduces mortality of these patients. T-wave alternans (TWA) analysis is a relatively new method of SCD risk stratification. However, it's prognostic role in patients with ICD has not yet been fully established. To assess the predictive value of TWA in patients with previously implanted ICD. The study included 67 patients with properly functioning ICD (54 men and 13 women, aged 62.2 ± 8.4 years). All patients underwent TWA analysis on the treadmill using the Cambridge Heart 2000 system. Results were considered as positive, negative or indeterminate. Each patient had at least 1 clinical control visit with ICD interrogation during the 12 ± ± 6 months of follow-up. The recurrence of sustained ventricular arrhythmias: ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF) was analysed. No significant relationship was found between previous infarction (p = 0.810), aetiology (p = 0.768), LVEF (p = 0.413) or age (p = 0.562) and the incidence of arrhythmia during follow-up. The results of TWA were not significantly different between patients with or without VT or VF. The TWA analysis identified patients with arrhythmia recurrences with a sensitivity of 62%, specificity of 49%, negative predictive value of 81%, and positive predictive value of 28%. The TWA performance was better in patients with non-ischaemic than ischaemic cardiomyopathy (negative predictive value: 100%, positive predictive value: 75%). The TWA alternans was moderately effective for identification of patients with ICD and ventricular arrhythmia recurrences. The test was most useful for identification of patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy who are of low arrhythmic risk.

  6. Remote monitoring of implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a prospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Mark H; Compton, Steven J; Mead, R Hardwin; Weiss, Daniel N; Sherfesee, Lou; Englund, Jennifer; Mongeon, Luc R

    2004-06-01

    A prospective study evaluating the functionality and ease of use of the Medtronic CareLink Network, "CareLink," was conducted at ten investigational sites. This internet-based remote monitoring service allows clinicians to remotely manage their patients' implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and chronic diseases. The network is comprised of a patient monitor, a secure server, and clinician and patient websites. Under clinician direction, patients interrogated their ICDs at home, and transmitted data to secure servers via a standard telephone line. Comprehensive device data and a 10-second presenting rhythm electrogram were captured by the monitor and available for access and review on the clinician website. The information could also be printed using a standard desktop computer with internet access. During this study, patients were asked to transmit device data twice, at least 7 days apart, as scheduled by the clinic. Monitor functionality was assessed, and ease of using the system components was evaluated via questionnaires completed by patients and clinicians following each data transmission and review. Fifty-nine patients (64 +/- 14 years, range 22-85 years) completed 119 transmissions with only 14 calls to the study support center. Clinician review of data transmissions revealed several clinically significant findings, including silent AF discovery, assessment of antiarrhythmic drug efficacy in a previously diagnosed AF patient, previously unobserved atrial undersensing, and ventricular tachycardia. ICD patients found the monitor easy to use. Clinicians were pleased with the performance of the network and the quality of the web-accessed data, and found it comparable to an in-office device interrogation. CareLink is a practical tool for routine device management and may allow timely identification of clinically important issues.

  7. Implantation of the Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator: An Evaluation of 4 Implantation Techniques.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Tom F; Miller, Marc A; Quast, Anne-Floor B E; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Dukkipati, Srinivas R; Reddy, Vivek; Wilde, Arthur A; Willner, Jonathan M; Knops, Reinoud E

    2017-01-01

    Alternative techniques to the traditional 3-incision subcutaneous implantation of the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator may offer procedural and cosmetic advantages. We evaluate 4 different implant techniques of the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Patients implanted with subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators from 2 hospitals between 2009 and 2016 were included. Four implantation techniques were used depending on physician preference and patient characteristics. The 2- and 3-incision techniques both place the pulse generator subcutaneously, but the 2-incision technique omits the superior parasternal incision for lead positioning. Submuscular implantation places the pulse generator underneath the serratus anterior muscle and subfascial implantation underneath the fascial layer on the anterior side of the serratus anterior muscle. Reported outcomes include perioperative parameters, defibrillation testing, and clinical follow-up. A total of 246 patients were included with a median age of 47 years and 37% female. Fifty-four patients were implanted with the 3-incision technique, 118 with the 2-incision technique, 38 with submuscular, and 37 with subfascial. Defibrillation test efficacy and shock lead impedance during testing did not differ among the groups; respectively, P=0.46 and P=0.18. The 2-incision technique resulted in the shortest procedure duration and time-to-hospital discharge compared with the other techniques (P<0.001). A total of 18 complications occurred, but there were no significant differences between the groups (P=0.21). All infections occurred in subcutaneous implants (3-incision, n=3; 2-incision, n=4). In the 2-incision group, there were no lead displacements. The presented implantation techniques are feasible alternatives to the standard 3-incision subcutaneous implantation, and the 2-incision technique resulted in shortest procedure duration. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Clinical experience with the transvenous Medtronic Pacer Cardioverter Defibrillator (PCD) System.

    PubMed Central

    Golino, A; Pappone, C; Panza, A; Santomauro, M; Iorio, D; De Amicis, V; Chiariello, M; Spampinato, N

    1993-01-01

    We review our experience with the transvenous Medtronic Pacer Cardioverter Defibrillator System (Model 7217B), a multifunction implantable pacer defibrillator combined with a transvenous lead system (Transvene). From April 1991 to October 1992, we implanted this device in 19 consecutive patients (11 men and 8 women; average age, 56.5 years). Nine patients (47.4%), 5 with coronary artery disease and 4 with dilated cardiomyopathy, had an ejection fraction of < 30%. The average operative time was 129 minutes. In 18 patients (94.7%), the transvenous lead system provided effective sensing, pacing, and defibrillation during intraoperative testing. In each of these cases, the defibrillation threshold was less than 18 J. In 1 patient (5.3%), it was necessary to switch to epicardial leads, which were implanted through a left thoracotomy. All patients were extubated in the recovery room. The average hospital stay was 8 days. There was no early mortality or morbidity. During a maximum follow-up period of 17 months (mean, 9.2 months), no sudden death occurred. The implantable system terminated 245 ventricular tachycardia episodes in 14 patients (73.7%) and 82 ventricular fibrillation episodes in 13 patients (68.4%). Two hundred eleven (86.1%) of the ventricular tachycardia episodes were resolved by antitachycardia pacing alone. In 2 patients (10.5%), the caval electrode became dislocated; repositioning of the electrode was followed by repeat defibrillation threshold evaluation. Our experience shows that the transvenous Medtronic Pacer Cardioverter Defibrillator System provides safe, effective treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Because the perioperative mortality and morbidity are extremely low, use of this device may be particularly beneficial in patients with a high operative risk. Moreover, the lower number of unpleasant therapeutic shocks should increase patient a acceptance of the device. Images PMID:8298322

  9. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators for Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in CKD: A Meta-analysis of Patient-Level Data from 3 Randomized Trials

    PubMed Central

    Pun, Patrick H.; Al-Khatib, Sana M.; Han, Joo Yoon; Edwards, Rex; Bardy, Gust H.; Bigger, J. Thomas; Buxton, Alfred E.; Moss, Arthur J.; Lee, Kerry L.; Steinman, Richard; Dorian, Paul; Hallstrom, Al; Cappato, Riccardo; Kadish, Alan H.; Kudenchuk, Peter J.; Mark, Daniel B.; Hess, Paul L.; Inoue, Lurdes Y. T.; Sanders, Gillian D.

    2014-01-01

    Background The benefit of a primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) among patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) is uncertain. Study Design Meta-analysis of patient-level data from randomized controlled trials. Setting & Population Patients with symptomatic heart failure and left ventricular ejection fraction of <35%. Selection Criteria for Studies From 7 available randomized control studies with patient level data, we selected studies with available data on important covariates. Studies without patient-level data on baseline eGFR were excluded. Intervention Primary prevention ICD versus usual care Outcomes Mortality, re-hospitalizations, and effect modification by estimated GFR (eGFR) Results We included data from the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial I (MADIT-I), MADIT-II, and the Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT). 2,867 patients were included; 36.3% had at least stage 3 CKD (eGFR<60). The Kaplan-Meier estimate of the probability of death during follow-up was 43.3% among 1,334 patients receiving usual care and 35.8% among 1,533 ICD recipients. After adjustment for baseline differences, there was evidence that the survival benefit of ICDs in comparison to usual care depends on eGFR (posterior probability for null interaction p <0.001). The ICD was associated with survival benefit among patients with an eGFR ≥ 60 (adjusted HR (aHR)=0.49 [95% posterior credible interval (PCI) 0.24-0.95]) but not among patients with eGFR <60 (aHR = 0.80 [95% PCI 0.40-1.53]). eGFR did not modify the association between the ICD and re-hospitalizations. Limitations Few patients with eGFR <30 were available. Differences in trial-to-trial measurement techniques may lead to residual confounding. Conclusions Reductions in baseline eGFR decrease the survival benefit associated with the ICD. These findings should be confirmed by additional studies specifically targeting patients with varying levels of eGFR. PMID:24518128

  10. Role of patient education in the perception and acceptance of home monitoring after recent implantation of cardioverter defibrillators: the EDUCAT study.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Gabriel; Amara, Walid; Mansourati, Jacques; Bizeau, Olivier; Couderc, Philippe; Delarche, Nicolas; Garrigue, Stéphane; Guyomar, Yves; Hermida, Jean-Sylvain; Moïni, Cyrus; Popescu, Elena

    2014-10-01

    Much attention is being paid to the education of and provision of medical information to patients, to optimize their understanding and acceptance of their disease. To ascertain the impact of educating recent recipients of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) on their perception and acceptance of a home monitoring (HM) system. Questionnaire 1, completed one month after ICD implantation, was designed to assess: the quality of patient preparation for HM; patient comprehension of HM; and patient anxiety experienced during its installation. The comprehension questions were assigned a score of -2 for an incorrect answer, +1 for a correct answer and 0 for neither (total score ranging from -40 to +20). Questionnaire 2, completed six months after ICD implantation, assessed patient acceptance of and anxiety about HM. The registry included 571 patients (mean age 63.9±12.8 years; 83% men; 76% of ICDs implanted for primary prevention) followed by HM for 6.2±1.2 months. Questionnaire 1 was completed by 430 (75.3%) patients and questionnaire 2 by 398 (69.7%) patients. Younger patients had a better comprehension of HM than older patients. High-quality training conditions improved the comprehension score, and a positive association was observed between anxiety and acceptance levels and the comprehension score. The 80±20% mean data transmission rate (days of transmission/days of follow-up ratio) was unrelated to the comprehension scores. A clear understanding was associated with a higher acceptance of HM, although it was unrelated to the data transmission rate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Cardiac sympathetic innervation assessed with (123)I-MIBG retains prognostic utility in diabetic patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction evaluated for primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    García-González, P; Fabregat-Andrés, Ó; Cozar-Santiago, P; Sánchez-Jurado, R; Estornell-Erill, J; Valle-Muñoz, A; Quesada-Dorador, A; Payá-Serrano, R; Ferrer-Rebolleda, J; Ridocci-Soriano, F

    2016-01-01

    Scintigraphy with iodine-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) is a non-invasive tool for the assessment of cardiac sympathetic innervation (CSI) that has proven to be an independent predictor of survival. Recent studies have shown that diabetic patients with heart failure (HF) have a higher deterioration in CSI. It is unknown if (123)I-MIBG has the same predictive value for diabetic and non-diabetic patients with advanced HF. An analysis is performed to determine whether CSI with (123)I-MIBG retains prognostic utility in diabetic patients with HF, evaluated for a primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Seventy-eight consecutive HF patients (48 diabetic) evaluated for primary prevention ICD implantation were prospectively enrolled and underwent (123)I-MIBG to assess CSI (heart-to-mediastinum ratio - HMR). A Cox proportional hazards multivariate analysis was used to determine the influence of (123)I-MIBG images for prediction of cardiac events in both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. The primary end-point was a composite of arrhythmic event, cardiac death, or admission due to HF. During a mean follow-up of 19.5 [9.3-29.3] months, the primary end-point occurred in 24 (31%) patients. Late HMR was significantly lower in diabetic patients (1.30 vs. 1.41, p=0.014). Late HMR≤1.30 was an independent predictor of cardiac events in diabetic (hazard ratio 4.53; p=0.012) and non-diabetic patients (hazard ratio 12.31; p=0.023). Diabetic patients with HF evaluated for primary prevention ICD show a higher deterioration in CSI than non-diabetics; nevertheless (123)I-MIBG imaging retained prognostic utility for both diabetic and non-diabetic patients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  12. Physicians’ Knowledge and Attitudes Regarding Implantable Cardioverter- Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Sherazi, Saadia; Zareba, Wojciech; Daubert, James P.; McNitt, Scott; Shah, Abrar H.; Aktas, Mehmet K.; Block, Robert C.

    2012-01-01

    Background Information is limited regarding the knowledge and attitudes of physicians typically involved in the referral of patients for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. Methods We conducted a survey of primary care physicians and cardiologists at the University of Rochester Medical Center and the Unity Health System Rochester, NY from December 2008 to February 2009. The survey collected information regarding knowledge and attitudes of physicians towards ICD therapy. Results Of the 332 surveys distributed, 110 (33%) were returned. Over-all 94 (87%) physicians reported referring patients for ICD implantation. Eighteen (17%) physicians reported unawareness of guidelines for ICD use. Sixty-four (59%) physicians recommended ICD in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤ 35%. Sixty-five (62%) physicians use ≤ 35% as LVEF criteria for ICD referral in patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy. Cardiologists were more familiar than primary care physicians with LVEF criteria for implantation of ICD in patients with ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (p value 0.005 and 0.002 respectively). Twenty-nine (27%) participants were unsure regarding benefits of ICDs in eligible women and Blacks. Eighty two (76%) physicians believed that an ICD could benefit patients ≥70 years whereas only 53 (49%) indicated that an ICD would benefit patients ≥ 80 years of age. A lack of familiarity with current clinical guidelines regarding ICD implantation exists. Primary care physicians are less aware of clinical guidelines than are cardiologists. This finding highlights the need to improve the dissemination of guidelines to primary care physicians in an effort to improve ICD utilization. PMID:20535717

  13. Device Artifact Reduction for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Patients with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators and Ventricular Tachycardia: Late Gadolinium Enhancement Correlation with Electroanatomical Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Steven M; Tung, Roderick; Rashid, Shams; Gima, Jean; Cote, Shelly; Pavez, Geraldine; Khan, Sarah; Ennis, Daniel B; Finn, J. Paul; Boyle, Noel; Shivkumar, Kalyanam; Hu, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Background Late Gadolinium Enhancement (LGE) MRI of ventricular scar has been shown to be accurate for detection and characterization of arrhythmia substrates. However, the majority of patients referred for ventricular tachycardia (VT) ablation have an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), which obscures image integrity and the clinical utility of MRI. Objective To develop and validate a wideband LGE MRI technique for device artifact removal. Methods A novel wideband LGE MRI technique was developed to allow for improved scar evaluation on patients with ICDs. The wideband technique and the standard LGE MRI were tested on 18 patients with ICDs. VT ablation was performed in 13 of 18 patients with either endocardial and/or epicardial approach and the correlation between the scar identified on MRI and electroanatomical mapping was analyzed. Results Hyper-intensity artifact was present in 16/18 of patients using standard MRI, which was eliminated using the wideband LGE and allowed for MRI interpretation in 15/16 patients. All patients had ICD lead characteristics confirmed as unchanged post- MRI and had no adverse events. LGE scar was seen in 11/18 patients. Among the 15 patients where wideband LGE allowed visualization of myocardium, 10 had LGE scar and 5 had normal myocardium in the regions with image artifacts when using the standard LGE. The left ventricular scar size measurements using wideband MRI and EAM were correlated with R2=0.83, P=0.00003. Conclusions The wideband LGE-MRI improves the ability to visualize myocardium for clinical interpretation, which correlated well with EAM findings during VT ablation. PMID:24140812

  14. Battery longevity in cardiac resynchronization therapy implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Alam, Mian Bilal; Munir, Muhammad Bilal; Rattan, Rohit; Flanigan, Susan; Adelstein, Evan; Jain, Sandeep; Saba, Samir

    2014-02-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) deliver high burden ventricular pacing to heart failure patients, which has a significant effect on battery longevity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether battery longevity is comparable for CRT-ICDs from different manufacturers in a contemporary cohort of patients. All the CRT-ICDs implanted at our institution from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010 were included in this analysis. Baseline demographic and clinical data were collected on all patients using the electronic medical record. Detailed device information was collected on all patients from scanned device printouts obtained during routine follow-up. The primary endpoint was device replacement for battery reaching the elective replacement indicator (ERI). A total of 646 patients (age 69 ± 13 years), implanted with CRT-ICDs (Boston Scientific 173, Medtronic 416, and St Jude Medical 57) were included in this analysis. During 2.7 ± 1.5 years follow-up, 113 (17%) devices had reached ERI (Boston scientific 4%, Medtronic 25%, and St Jude Medical 7%, P < 0.001). The 4-year survival rate of device battery was significantly worse for Medtronic devices compared with devices from other manufacturers (94% for Boston scientific, 67% for Medtronic, and 92% for St Jude Medical, P < 0.001). The difference in battery longevity by manufacturer was independent of pacing burden, lead parameters, and burden of ICD therapy. There are significant discrepancies in CRT-ICD battery longevity by manufacturer. These data have important implications on clinical practice and patient outcomes.

  15. Use of remote monitoring of newly implanted cardioverter-defibrillators: insights from the patient related determinants of ICD remote monitoring (PREDICT RM) study.

    PubMed

    Akar, Joseph G; Bao, Haikun; Jones, Paul; Wang, Yongfei; Chaudhry, Sarwat I; Varosy, Paul; Masoudi, Frederick A; Stein, Kenneth; Saxon, Leslie A; Curtis, Jeptha P

    2013-11-26

    Current guidelines recommend using remote patient monitoring (RPM) for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, but the patterns of adoption of this technology have not been described. Successful use of RPM depends on (1) the enrollment of the patient into an RPM system and (2) subsequent activation of RPM by the enrolled patient. We examined RPM enrollment and activation rates and the patient, physician, and institutional determinants of RPM use. Information about the use of RPM-capable devices was obtained from the Boston Scientific Corporation ALTITUDE program and linked to the National Cardiovascular Data Registry ICD Registry. Patients were first categorized as RPM-enrolled and RPM-not enrolled, and the RPM-enrolled patients were further categorized into RPM-active and RPM-inactive groups based on whether they transmitted RPM data. Variables associated with RPM enrollment and activation were identified with the use of multivariable logistic regression. Among 39 158 patients with newly implanted RPM-capable devices, 62% (n=24 113) were RPM-enrolled. Of those enrolled, 76% (n=18 289, or 47% of the entire cohort) activated their device. RPM enrollment was highly variable among institutions. The hospital-specific median odds ratio for RPM enrollment was 3.43, signifying that physician or institutional factors are associated with RPM enrollment. In contrast, the hospital-specific median odds ratio for RPM activation was 1.69. Age, race, health insurance, geographic location, and health-related factors were similarly associated with both RPM enrollment and activation. RPM technology is used in less than half of eligible patients. Lack of enrollment into RPM systems is the major cause of underutilization, and this primarily relates to the local practice environment.

  16. Azimilide reduces emergency department visits and hospitalizations in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in a placebo-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Dorian, Paul; Al-Khalidi, Hussein R; Hohnloser, Stefan H; Brum, Jose M; Dunnmon, Preston M; Pratt, Craig M; Holroyde, Michael J; Kowey, Peter

    2008-09-23

    The goal of this study was to determine whether azimilide, as compared with placebo, will reduce the number of emergency department (ED) visits and hospitalizations caused by arrhythmias or cardiac events in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Patients with an ICD may require ED visits and hospitalizations because of arrhythmias, which trigger ICD therapies. The effect of adjunctive antiarrhythmic therapy on these outcomes is not known. A total of 633 patients with an ICD were randomized in the SHIELD (SHock Inhibition Evaluation with AzimiLiDe) trial, a blinded, placebo-controlled randomized trial of the investigational class III antiarrhythmic azimilide (75 and 125 mg/day), and, prospectively, cardiac and arrhythmic ED visits and hospitalization data were collected over 1 year. All patients had symptomatic sustained ventricular tachycardia (72%) or ventricular fibrillation (28%) before study entry. Overall, 44% (n = 276) experienced at least 1 cardiac ED visit or hospitalization. Among 214 patients assigned to placebo, 38.3% had at least 1 arrhythmic-related ED visit or hospitalization compared with 21.8% of 220 patients assigned to 75-mg azimilide (p < 0.001) and 27.6% of 199 patients assigned to 125 mg azimilide (p < 0.05). Symptomatic ventricular tachycardia treated by antitachycardia pacing, shocks, and shocks plus symptomatic arrhythmias were significant predictors of cardiac-related ED visits or hospitalizations (relative risk: 2.0, 3.0, and 3.1, respectively). In a stepwise logistic regression model, the presence of congestive heart failure (New York Heart Association functional class II/III) was the only additional independent predictor of cardiac ED visits or hospitalizations. Azimilide significantly reduces the number of ED visits and hospitalizations in patients with an ICD at high risk of arrhythmias.

  17. Insulation defects in Riata implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads.

    PubMed

    Sato, Akinori; Chinushi, Masaomi; Iijima, Kenichi; Izumi, Daisuke; Furushima, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    The structures composing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads have become more complicated and thinner with technological advances. Silicon insulation defects with and without clinically manifested electrical abnormalities have been reported in Riata leads (St. Jude Medical). The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and clinical implications of insulation defects in Riata leads implanted at our hospital. The subjects included 10 consecutive patients who received 8-French Riata ICD leads with dual-coil conductors (model 1580 or 1581) between 2006 and 2010 at our hospital. Operative records, chest X-rays and interrogation data were reviewed. In all cases, Atlas+ (St. Jude Medical) was used as an ICD generator and the Riata leads were implanted transvenously and fixed to the right ventricular apex. During a mean follow-up period of 52±9 (36-70) months, chest X-rays revealed insulation defects in Riata leads and conductor wires projecting from the bodies of the Riata leads in two of 10 (20%) patients. One of the patients received inappropriate ICD therapies due to T-wave oversensing based on attenuation of R waves and augmentation of T waves 41 months after implantation. In the other patient, an insulation defect without any clinically manifested electrical troubles was detected 50 months after implantation. Riata leads have a high incidence of insulation defects, which may be occasionally accompanied by inappropriate ICD discharges. For patients with Riata leads, careful observation of any changes in the lead-electrical measurements and a routine chest X-ray follow-up are necessary.

  18. Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance to Predict Appropriate Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapy in Ischemic and Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy Patients Using Late Gadolinium Enhancement Border Zone: Comparison of Four Analysis Methods.

    PubMed

    Jablonowski, Robert; Chaudhry, Uzma; van der Pals, Jesper; Engblom, Henrik; Arheden, Håkan; Heiberg, Einar; Wu, Katherine C; Borgquist, Rasmus; Carlsson, Marcus

    2017-09-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) border zone on cardiac magnetic resonance imaging has been proposed as an independent predictor of ventricular arrhythmias. The purpose was to determine whether size and heterogeneity of LGE predict appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy in ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM) and nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM) patients and to evaluate 4 LGE border-zone algorithms. ICM and NICM patients who underwent LGE cardiac magnetic resonance imaging prior to ICD implantation were retrospectively included. Two semiautomatic algorithms, expectation maximization, weighted intensity, a priori information and a weighted border zone algorithm, were compared with a modified full-width half-maximum and a 2-3SD threshold-based algorithm (2-3SD). Hazard ratios were calculated per 1% increase in LGE. A total of 74 ICM and 34 NICM were followed for 63 months (1-140) and 52 months (0-133), respectively. ICM patients had 27 appropriate ICD events, and NICM patients had 7 ICD events. In ICM patients with primary prophylactic ICD, LGE border zone predicted ICD therapy in univariable and multivariable analysis measured by the expectation maximization, weighted intensity, a priori information, weighted border zone, and modified full-width half-maximum algorithms (hazard ratios 1.23, 1.22, and 1.05, respectively; P<0.05; negative predictive value 92%). For NICM, total LGE by all 4 methods was the strongest predictor (hazard ratios, 1.03-1.04; P<0.05), though the number of events was small. Appropriate ICD therapy can be predicted in ICM patients with primary prevention ICD by quantifying the LGE border zone. In NICM patients, total LGE but not LGE border zone had predictive value for ICD therapy. However, the algorithms used affects the predictive value of these measures. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Implantable intravascular defibrillator: defibrillation thresholds of an intravascular cardioverter-defibrillator compared with those of a conventional ICD in humans.

    PubMed

    Neuzil, Petr; Reddy, Vivek Y; Merkely, Bela; Geller, Laszlo; Molnar, Levente; Bednarek, Jacek; Bartus, Krzysztof; Richey, Mark; Bsee, T J Ransbury; Sanders, William E

    2014-02-01

    A percutaneous intravascular cardioverter-defibrillator (PICD) has been developed with a right ventricular (RV) single-coil lead and titanium electrodes in the superior vena cava (SVC)-brachiocephalic vein (BCV) region and the inferior vena cava (IVC). To compare defibrillation thresholds (DFTs) of the PICD with those of a conventional ICD in humans. Ten patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy and ejection fraction ≤35% were randomized to initial testing with either PICD or conventional ICD. A standard dual-coil lead was positioned in the RV apex. If randomized to PICD, the device was placed into the vasculature such that 1 titanium electrode was positioned in the SVC-BCV region and the second in the IVC. For PICD DFTs, the RV coil of the conventional ICD lead was connected to the PICD mandrel [shock vector: RV (+) to SVC-BCV (-) + IVC (-)]. When testing the conventional ICD, a subcutaneous pocket was formed in the left pectoralis region and the ICD was connected to the lead system and positioned in the pocket [shock vector: RV (+) to SVC (-) + active can (-)]. Each device was removed before testing with the other. A step-down binary search protocol determined the DFT, with the initial shock being 9 J. The mean PICD DFT was 7.6 ± 3.3 J, and the conventional ICD system demonstrated a mean DFT of 9.5 ± 4.7 J (N = 10; paired t test, P = .28). The intravascular defibrillator has DFTs similar to those of commercially available ICDs. Published by Heart Rhythm Society on behalf of Heart Rhythm Society.

  20. Postoperative infection with the automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator: clinical presentation and use of the gallium scan in diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, P.A.; Wallace, S.; Tucker, B.; Hurvitz, R.J.; Ilvento, J.; Mirabel, G.S.; Cannom, D.S.

    1988-08-01

    This report describes three patients with infection involving an automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator. All three patients presented with fever, fluid in the pulse generator pocket, leukocytosis and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate. A gallium scan, together with aspiration and culture of the fluid from the pocket, confirmed the diagnosis in each case.

  1. Impact of T wave amplitude in lead aVR on predicting cardiac events in ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathy patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Konno, Tetsuo; Tamura, Yudai; Tsuda, Toyonobu; Furusho, Hiroshi; Takamura, Masayuki; Sakata, Kenji; Yamagishi, Masakazu; Hayashi, Kenshi

    2017-04-25

    T wave amplitudes during ventricular repolarization in the lead aVR (TAaVR) are shown to be associated with adverse cardiac events in patients with several cardiovascular diseases, such as postmyocardial infarction. However, the utility of TAaVR has not been previously evaluated in patients with cardiomyopathy who have received implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Patients with ischemic or nonischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM or NICM, respectively) and who received an ICD may experience worsening of their condition due to the introduction of electric shock during treatment. This study aimed to investigate the utility of TAaVR in the prediction of cardiac events in ICM or NICM patients with ICD. Ninety-three consecutive ICM or NICM patients with ICD were retrospectively analyzed (median age: 64 years; male: 77.4%; ICD for secondary prevention: 76.3%; NICM: 64.5%). The median follow-up period was 31 months. The primary endpoint was defined as composite cardiac events, including cardiac death, major ventricular arrhythmic events (MVAE), or hospitalization due to heart failure (HHF). Multivariate Cox regression analysis demonstrated that less negative TAaVR (-0.1 mV ≤ TAaVR <0 mV and 0 mV ≤ TAaVR) was independently associated with the primary endpoint (HR: 3.75; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-23.7; p = .04). Kaplan-Meier curve also revealed that the event free survival rate in the less negative TAaVR group was significantly lower than that in the normal TAaVR group (<-0.1 mV) (p < .01). TAaVR is useful in risk stratification for cardiac events in ICM or NICM patients with ICD. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Evolution of left ventricular ejection fraction after acute myocardial infarction: implications for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator eligibility.

    PubMed

    Sjöblom, Johanna; Muhrbeck, Josephine; Witt, Nils; Alam, Mahbubul; Frykman-Kull, Viveka

    2014-08-26

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy improves survival in patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Although the risk of sudden cardiac death is highest in the first month after AMI, there is no survival benefit of early implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation, and the optimal time frame has yet to be established. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate what proportion of post-AMI patients had improved LV function to such an extent that the indication for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was no longer present. Patients admitted for AMI with reduced LVEF (≤40%) were eligible for inclusion. Repeat echocardiographic examinations were performed 5 days, 1 month, and 3 months after the AMI. We prospectively included 100 patients with LVEF of 31±5.8% after AMI. At the 1-month follow-up, 55% had an LVEF >35%. The main improvement in LVEF had occurred by 1 month. The mean difference in LVEF over the next 2 months was small, 1.9 percentage units. During the first 9 weeks, 10% of the patients suffered from life-threatening arrhythmias. Most patients have improved LVEF after AMI, and in the majority, the improvement can be confirmed after 1 month, implying that further delay of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation may not be warranted. Life-threatening arrhythmias occurred in 10% of the patients, illustrating the high risk for sudden cardiac death in this population. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  3. The Screen-ICD trial. Screening for anxiety and cognitive therapy intervention for patients with implanted cardioverter defibrillator (ICD): a randomised controlled trial protocol

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Selina Kikkenborg; Herning, Margrethe; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Thygesen, Lau Caspar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Previous research shows that patients with an implanted cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) have a fourfold increased mortality risk when suffering from anxiety compared with ICD patients without anxiety. This research supports the screening of ICD patients for anxiety with the purpose of starting relevant intervention. Methods and analysis Screen-ICD consists of 3 parts: (1) screening of all hospitalised and outpatient patients at two university hospitals using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), scores ≥8 are invited to participate. (2) Assessment of type of anxiety by Structured Clinical Interview for DSM Disorders (SCID). (3) Investigator-initiated randomised clinical superiority trial with blinded outcome assessment, with 1:1 randomisation to cognitive–behavioural therapy (CBT) performed by a cardiac nurse with CBT training, plus usual care or usual care alone. The primary outcome is HADS-A measured at 16 weeks. Secondary outcomes include Becks Anxiety Inventory, HeartQoL, Hamilton Anxiety Scale, heart rate variability, ICD shock, time to first shock and antitachycardia pacing. A total of 88 participants will be included. The primary analyses are based on the intention-to-treat principle and we use a mixed model with repeated measurements for continuous outcomes. For binary outcomes (HADS-A score <8), we use a generalised mixed model with repeated measurements. Ethics and dissemination The trial is performed in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki. All patients must give informed consent prior to participation and the trial is initiated after approval by the Danish Data Protection Agency (RH-2015-282) and the regional ethics committee (H-16018868). Positive, neutral and negative results of the trial will be published. Trial registration number NCT02713360. PMID:27798030

  4. [Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry. Third Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (2006)].

    PubMed

    Peinado, Rafael; Torrecilla, Esteban G; Ormaetxe, José; Alvarez, Miguel

    2007-12-01

    To report the 2006 findings of the Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) Registry, established by the Working Group on Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators, Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia Section, Spanish Society of Cardiology. Each ICD team voluntarily reported data to the Spanish Society of Cardiology by completing a single-page questionnaire. Prospective data were collected on 91.8% of implantations. In total, 2679 implantations were reported to the registry (86.6% of the estimated total). The reported implantation rate was 60 per million inhabitants, and the estimated rate was 69 per million. The proportion of first implantations was 80%. The majority of ICDs were implanted in males (mean age 61.5 [14] years) with severe or moderate-to-severe left ventricular dysfunction who were in functional class II or I. Ischemic heart disease was the most frequent etiology, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy. This is the first year that half of first device implantations were carried out for primary prevention, with substantial increases among patients with ischemic heart disease and dilated cardiomyopathy. The number of ICDs incorporating cardiac resynchronization therapy has continued to grow, and now comprises 28.6% of all devices implanted. As in the previous year, around 70% of ICD implantations were performed in an electrophysiology laboratory by a cardiac electrophysiologist. The incidence of complications during device implantation was very low. The 2006 Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry contains data on more than 86% of all ICD implantations performed in Spain. Half of first device implantations were carried out for the purposes of primary prevention.

  5. Performance of Lead Integrity Alert to assist in the clinical diagnosis of implantable cardioverter defibrillator lead failures: analysis of different implantable cardioverter defibrillator leads.

    PubMed

    Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Gunderson, Bruce D; Stromberg, Kurt D; Swerdlow, Charles D

    2013-12-01

    The Lead Integrity Alert (LIA) was developed for Medtronic implantable cardioverter defibrillators to reduce inappropriate shocks for rapid oversensing caused by conductor fractures and reported for Medtronic Fidelis conductor fractures. The goal of this study was to compare the performance of LIA with conventional impedance monitoring for identifying lead system events (LSEs) and lead failures (LFs) in lead families that differ from Fidelis. We analyzed data from 12 793 LIA enabled implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and lead combinations including 6123 St. Jude Riata or Durata, 5114 Boston Scientific Endotak, and 1556 Fidelis combinations followed in the CareLink remote monitoring network for LSEs and LFs. Each alert was adjudicated based on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator stored electrograms/diagnostics and clinical data as an LSE or non-lead system event by 2 physicians after reviewing the electrograms and clinical data. During 13 562 patient-years of LIA follow-up, there were 179 adjudicated alerts, of which 84 were LSEs (including 65 LFs) and 95 were non-lead system events. LIA identified >66% more LSE and >67% more LF compared with conventional impedance monitoring and did not differ by lead family for LSE (P=0.573) or LF (P=0.332). Isolated spikes on electrogram were associated more often with LF in St. Jude leads (71%) compared with Endotak (9%; P<0.001) and Fidelis leads (11%; P<0.001). The non-lead system event detection rate was different among lead families (P<0.001) ranging from 1 in every 78.5 years (Endotak), 228.9 years (St. Jude leads), and 627.6 years (Fidelis). LIA markedly increased the detection rate of LSE compared with conventional impedance monitoring.

  6. Gender Differences in Appropriate Shocks and Mortality among Patients with Primary Prophylactic Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Conen, David; Arendacká, Barbora; Röver, Christian; Bergau, Leonard; Munoz, Pascal; Wijers, Sofieke; Sticherling, Christian; Zabel, Markus; Friede, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Some but not all prior studies have shown that women receiving a primary prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) have a lower risk of death and appropriate shocks than men. To evaluate the effect of gender on the risk of appropriate shock, all-cause mortality and inappropriate shock in contemporary studies of patients receiving a primary prophylactic ICD. PubMed, LIVIVO, Cochrane CENTRAL between 2010 and 2016. Studies providing at least 1 gender-specific risk estimate for the outcomes of interest. Abstracts were screened independently for potentially eligible studies for inclusion. Thereby each abstract was reviewed by at least two authors. Out of 680 abstracts retained by our search strategy, 20 studies including 46'657 patients had gender-specific information on at least one of the relevant endpoints. Mean age across the individual studies varied between 58 and 69 years. The proportion of women enrolled ranged from 10% to 30%. Across 6 available studies, women had a significantly lower risk of first appropriate shock compared with men (pooled multivariable adjusted hazard ratio 0.62 (95% CI [0.44; 0.88]). Across 14 studies reporting multivariable adjusted gender-specific hazard ratio estimates for all-cause mortality, women had a lower risk of death than men (pooled hazard ratio 0.75 (95% CI [0.66; 0.86]). There was no statistically significant difference for the incidence of first inappropriate shocks (3 studies, pooled hazard ratio 0.99 (95% CI [0.56; 1.73]). Individual patient data were not available for most studies. In this large contemporary meta-analysis, women had a significantly lower risk of appropriate shocks and death than men, but a similar risk of inappropriate shocks. These data may help to select patients who benefit from primary prophylactic ICD implantation.

  7. Effectiveness of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Therapy for Heart Failure Patients according to Ischemic or Non-Ischemic Etiology in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kyu-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Hee; Jung, Byung Chun; Cho, Yongkeun; Bae, Myung Hwan; Kim, Yoon-Nyun; Park, Hyoung-Seob; Han, Seongwook; Lee, Young Soo; Hyun, Dae-Woo; Kim, Jun; Kim, Dae Kyeong; Cha, Tae-Jun

    2017-01-01

    Background and Objectives This study was performed to describe clinical characteristics of patients with left ventriculars (LV) dysfunction and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), and to evaluate the effect of ICD therapy on survival in Yeongnam province of Korea. Subjects and Methods From a community-based device registry (9 centers, Yeongnam province, from November 1999 to September 2012), 146 patients with LV dysfunction and an ICD implanted for primary or secondary prophylaxis, were analyzed. The patients were divided into two groups, based on the etiology (73 with ischemic cardiomyopathy and 73 with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy), and indication for the device implantation (36 for primary prevention and 110 for secondary prevention). The cumulative first shock rate, all cause death, and type and mode of death, were determined according to the etiology and indication. Results Over a mean follow-up of 3.5 years, the overall ICD shock rate was about 39.0%. ICD shock therapy was significantly more frequent in the secondary prevention group (46.4% vs. 16.7%, p=0.002). The cumulative probability of a first appropriate shock was higher in the secondary prevention group (p=0.015). There was no significant difference in the all-cause death, cardiac death, and mode of death between the groups according to the etiology and indication. Conclusion Studies from this multicenter regional registry data shows that in both ischemic and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy patients, the ICD shock therapy rate was higher in the secondary prevention group than primary prevention group. PMID:28154594

  8. Gender Differences in Appropriate Shocks and Mortality among Patients with Primary Prophylactic Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conen, David; Arendacká, Barbora; Röver, Christian; Bergau, Leonard; Munoz, Pascal; Wijers, Sofieke; Sticherling, Christian; Zabel, Markus; Friede, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background Some but not all prior studies have shown that women receiving a primary prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) have a lower risk of death and appropriate shocks than men. Purpose To evaluate the effect of gender on the risk of appropriate shock, all-cause mortality and inappropriate shock in contemporary studies of patients receiving a primary prophylactic ICD. Data Source PubMed, LIVIVO, Cochrane CENTRAL between 2010 and 2016. Study Selection Studies providing at least 1 gender-specific risk estimate for the outcomes of interest. Data Extraction Abstracts were screened independently for potentially eligible studies for inclusion. Thereby each abstract was reviewed by at least two authors. Data Synthesis Out of 680 abstracts retained by our search strategy, 20 studies including 46’657 patients had gender-specific information on at least one of the relevant endpoints. Mean age across the individual studies varied between 58 and 69 years. The proportion of women enrolled ranged from 10% to 30%. Across 6 available studies, women had a significantly lower risk of first appropriate shock compared with men (pooled multivariable adjusted hazard ratio 0.62 (95% CI [0.44; 0.88]). Across 14 studies reporting multivariable adjusted gender-specific hazard ratio estimates for all-cause mortality, women had a lower risk of death than men (pooled hazard ratio 0.75 (95% CI [0.66; 0.86]). There was no statistically significant difference for the incidence of first inappropriate shocks (3 studies, pooled hazard ratio 0.99 (95% CI [0.56; 1.73]). Limitations Individual patient data were not available for most studies. Conclusion In this large contemporary meta-analysis, women had a significantly lower risk of appropriate shocks and death than men, but a similar risk of inappropriate shocks. These data may help to select patients who benefit from primary prophylactic ICD implantation. PMID:27618617

  9. Identifying patients with less potential to benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy: comparison of the performance of four risk scoring systems.

    PubMed

    Kaura, Amit; Sunderland, Nicholas; Kamdar, Ravi; Petzer, Edward; McDonagh, Theresa; Murgatroyd, Francis; Dhillon, Para; Scott, Paul

    2017-08-01

    Patients at high non-sudden cardiac death risk may gain no significant benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy. A number of approaches have been proposed to identify these patients, including single clinical markers and more complex scoring systems. The aims of this study were to use the proposed scoring systems to (1) establish how many current ICD recipients may be too high risk to derive significant benefit from ICD therapy and (2) evaluate how well the scoring systems predict short-term mortality in an unselected ICD cohort. We performed a single-centre retrospective observational study of all new ICD implants over 5 years (2009-2013). We used four published scoring systems (Bilchick, Goldenberg, Kramer and Parkash) and serum urea to identify new ICD recipients whose short-term predicted mortality risk was high. We evaluated how well the scoring systems predicted death. Over 5 years, there were 406 new implants (79% male, mean age 70 (60-76), 58% primary prevention). During a follow-up of 936 ± 560 days, 96 patients died. Using the scoring systems, the proportion of ICD recipients predicted to be at high short-term mortality risk were 5.9% (Bilchick), 34.7% (Goldenberg), 7.4% (Kramer), 21.4% (Parkash) and 25% (urea, cut-off of >9.28 mM). All four risk scores predicted mortality (P < 0.0001); however, none outperformed urea for the prediction of 1- or 3-year mortality. Using published scoring systems, a significant proportion of current ICD recipients are at high short-term mortality risk. Although all four scoring systems predicted mortality during follow-up, none significantly outperformed serum urea.

  10. Shock Reduction With Multiple Bursts of Antitachycardia Pacing Therapies to Treat Fast Ventricular Tachyarrhythmias in Patients With Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators: A Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Anguera, Ignasi; Dallaglio, Paolo; Martínez-Ferrer, Jose; Rodríguez, Aníbal; Alzueta, Javier; Pérez-Villacastín, Julián; Porres, José Manuel; Viñolas, Xavier; Fontenla, Adolfo; Fernández-Lozano, Ignacio; García-Alberola, Arcadio; Sabaté, Xavier

    2015-07-01

    An empirical sequence of burst antitachycardia pacing (ATP) is effective in terminating fast ventricular tachycardias (FVT) in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). We aimed to determine whether multiple ATP bursts for termination of FVT results in shock reduction compared to a single ATP burst. We analyzed data from the Umbrella trial, a multicenter prospective observational study of ICD patients followed by the CareLink Monitoring System. We compared the safety and effectiveness of a single ATP burst (Group 1) with a strategy of successive ATP sequences (Group 2) for termination of FVT episodes (cycle lengths 250-320 milliseconds) before shock therapy. Over a mean follow-up of 35 months, a total of 650 FVT episodes were detected in 154 patients (mean cycle length: 299 ± 18 milliseconds). Effectiveness of the first burst ATP in Group 1 was 73% and shocks were required in 27% of episodes. Effectiveness of the first burst ATP in Group 2 was 77%, and this increased to 91% with the third or successive ATP bursts. Shocks were required in 9% of episodes in group 2, representing a 67% reduction in the need of high-energy shocks. Median duration of FVT episodes and mortality in both groups were similar. Multivariate analysis indicated that programming multiple ATP bursts (OR 3.4, 95%CI 1.7-6.8, P = 0.001) was an independent predictor of ATP effectiveness. This study provides first evidence that a strategy of multiple burst ATP sequences for termination of FVT episodes leads to a clinically meaningful reduction in the need for shocks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Safety and efficacy of strategic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator programming to reduce the shock delivery burden in a primary prevention patient population.

    PubMed

    Buber, Jonathan; Luria, David; Gurevitz, Osnat; Bar-Lev, David; Eldar, Michael; Glikson, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Strategically chosen ventricular tachycardia (VT)/ventricular fibrillation (VF) detection and therapy parameters aimed at reducing shock deliveries were proven effective in studies that utilized single manufacturer devices with a follow-up of up to 1 year. Whether these beneficiary effects can be generalized to additional manufacturers and be maintained for longer periods is to be determined. Our aim was to evaluate the durability and applicability of the programming of strategic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) of various manufacturers, which is aimed at reducing the shock delivery burden in primary prevention ICD recipients. A retrospective analysis of prospectively collected data of 300 ICD recipients of various manufacturers was conducted; 160 devices were strategically programmed to reduce shocks and 140 were not. The primary endpoint was the composite of death and appropriate shocks. Additional outcomes were inappropriate shocks, syncope events, and non-sustained VTs. At a median follow-up of 24 months, 19 patients died, 31 received appropriate shocks, and 41 received inappropriate shocks. Multivariate analysis showed that strategic programming dedicated to shock reduction was associated with a 64% risk reduction in the primary endpoint [hazard ratio (HR): 0.13-0.93; P = 0.03] and a 70% reduction in inappropriate shock deliveries (HR: 0.16-0.72; P = 0.01). Very few syncope events occurred (five patients, 1.6%), and there was no between-group difference in this outcome. Utilization of strategically chosen VT/VF detection and therapy parameters was found to be effective and safe in ICDs of various manufacturers at a median follow-up period of 2 years among primary prevention patients.

  12. Longevity of implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a comparison among manufacturers and over time.

    PubMed

    von Gunten, Simon; Schaer, Beat A; Yap, Sing-Chien; Szili-Torok, Tamas; Kühne, Michael; Sticherling, Christian; Osswald, Stefan; Theuns, Dominic A M J

    2016-05-01

    Longevity of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) is crucial for patients and healthcare systems as replacements impact on infection rates and cost-effectiveness. Aim was to determine longevity using very large databases of two teaching hospitals with a high number of replacements and a rather homogeneous distribution among manufacturers. The study population consists of all patients in whom an ICD was inserted in. All ICD manufacturers operating in Switzerland and the Netherlands and all implanted ICDs were included. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator replacements due to normal battery depletion were considered events, and other replacements were censored. Longevity was assessed depending on manufacturers, pacing mode, implant before/after 2006, and all parameters combined. We analysed data from 3436 patients in whom 4881 ICDs [44.2% VVI-ICDs, 27.4% DDD-ICDs, 26.3% cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)-ICDs, 2.0% subcutaneous ICDs] were implanted. The four major manufacturers had implant shares between 18.4 and 31.5%. Replacement due to battery depletion (27.4%) was performed for 1339 ICDs. Patient survival at 5 years was 80.1%. Longevity at 5 years improved in contemporary compared with elderly ICDs [63.9-80.6% across all ICDs, of 73.7-92.1% in VVIs, 58.2-76.1% in DDDs, and of 47.1-66.3% in CRT defibrillators, all P value < 0.05]. Remarkable differences were seen among manufacturers, and those with better performance in elderly ICDs were not those with better performance in contemporary ones. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator longevity increased in contemporary models independent of manufacturer and pacing mode. Still, significant differences exist among manufacturers. These results might impact on device selection. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  13. Effect of psycho-educational interventions on quality of life in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Kao, Chi-Wen; Chen, Miao-Yi; Chen, Ting-Yu; Lin, Pai-Hui

    2016-09-30

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) were developed for primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death. However, ICD recipients' mortality is significantly predicted by their quality of life (QOL). The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of psycho-educational interventions on QOL in patients with ICDs. We systematically searched PubMed, Medline, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL through April 2015 and references of relevant articles. Studies were reviewed if they met following criteria: (1) randomized controlled trial, (2) participants were adults with an ICD, and (3) data were sufficient to evaluate the effect of psychological or educational interventions on QOL measured by the SF-36 or SF-12. Studies were independently selected and their data were extracted by two reviewers. Study quality was evaluated using a modified Jadad scale. The meta-analysis was conducted using the Cochrane Collaboration's Review Manager Software Package (RevMan 5). Study heterogeneity was assessed by Q statistics and I (2) statistic. Depending on heterogeneity, data were pooled across trials using fixed-effect or random-effect modeling. Seven randomized controlled trials fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria, and included 1017 participants. The psycho-educational interventions improved physical component summary (PCS) scores in the intervention groups more than in control groups (mean difference 2.08, 95 % CI 0.86 to 3.29, p < 0.001), but did not significantly affect mental component summary (MCS) scores (mean difference 0.84, 95 % CI -1.68 to 3.35, p = 0.52). Our meta-analysis demonstrates that psycho-educational interventions improved the physical component, but not the mental component of QOL in patients with ICDs.

  14. Bridging a temporary high risk of sudden arrhythmic death. Experience with the wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD).

    PubMed

    Klein, Helmut U; Meltendorf, Ulf; Reek, Sven; Smid, Jan; Kuss, Sebastian; Cygankiewicz, Iwona; Jons, Christian; Szymkiewicz, Steven; Buhtz, Frank; Wollbrueck, Anke; Zareba, Wojciech; Moss, Arthur J

    2010-03-01

    The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is able to reduce sudden arrhythmic death in patients who are considered to be at high risk. However, the arrhythmic risk may be increased only temporarily as long as the proarrhythmic conditions persist, left ventricular ejection fraction remains low, or heart failure prevails. The wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) represents an alternative approach to prevent sudden arrhythmic death until either ICD implantation is clearly indicated or the arrhythmic risk is considered significantly lower or even absent. The WCD is also indicated for interrupted protection by an already implanted ICD, temporary inability to implant an ICD, and lastly refusal of an indicated ICD by the patient. The WCD is not an alternative to the ICD, but a device that may contribute to better selection of patients for ICD therapy. The WCD has the characteristics of an ICD, but does not need to be implanted, and it has similarities with an external defibrillator, but does not require a bystander to apply lifesaving shocks when necessary. The WCD was introduced into clinical practice about 8 years ago, and indications for its use are currently expanding. This article describes the technological aspects of the WCD, discusses current indications for its use, and reviews the clinical studies with the WCD. Additionally, data are reported on the clinical experience with the WCD based on 354 patients from Germany hospitalized between 2000 and 2008 who wore the WCD for a mean of 3 months.

  15. Spanish implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry. 5th official report of the spanish society of cardiology working group on implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (2008).

    PubMed

    Peinado, Rafael; Torrecilla, Esteban G; Ormaetxe, José; Alvarez, Miguel; Cózar, Rocío; Alzueta, Javier

    2009-12-01

    To summarize the findings of the Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) Registry for 2008 compiled by the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators. Prospective data recorded voluntarily on single-page questionnaires were sent to the Spanish Society of Cardiology by each implantation team. Overall, 3486 device implantations were reported, which is 84.7% of the estimated total number of implantations. The reported implantation rate was 76 per million population and the estimated total implantation rate was 90 per million. The proportion of first implantations was 78.1%. There continued to be substantial regional variations within Spain. The majority of ICD implantations took place in men (mean age 62+/-12 years) who had severe or moderate-to-severe ventricular dysfunction and were in New York Heart Association functional class II. Ischemic heart disease was the most frequent underlying cardiac condition, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy. The number of indications for primary prevention increased relative to the previous year, especially in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, and now account for 57% of first implantations. The types of ICD implanted were unchanged from 2007. Overall, 73.6% of ICDs were implanted by cardiac electrophysiologists. The 2008 Spanish ICD Registry includes data on almost 85% of all ICD implantations performed in Spain. Although the number has continued to increase, it still remains far from the European average. There was a significant increase in indications for primary prevention. Substantial regional variations continue to exist within Spain.

  16. [Spanish implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry. First official report of the spanish society of cardiology working group on implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (2002-2004)].

    PubMed

    Peinado, Rafael; Arenal, Angel; Arribas, Fernando; Torrecilla, Esteban; Alvarez, Miguel; Ormaetxe, José M; Pérez-Castellano, Nicasio

    2005-12-01

    To report the 2002-2004 findings of the Spanish National Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) Registry, established by the Spanish Society of Cardiology Working Group on Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators. Data were collected prospectively after implantation using a single-page questionnaire returned to the Spanish Society of Cardiology. Participation was voluntary. The registry received reports on 925, 1,046 and 1414 implants, respectively, in the years 2002, 2003 and 2004. These figures represent 63%, 59% and 67.5%, respectively, of the total number of ICDs implanted. The reported implantation rates were 22, 24 and 33 per million, respectively, and the estimated total implantation rates were 35, 41 and 49, per million, respectively. The number of device replacements increased from 20% to 30% between 2002 and 2004. The majority of patients were male, their median age was 66 years, they had severe or moderate left ventricular dysfunction, and they were in functional class I or II. The most common underlying heart disease was ischemic heart disease. The main indications for an ICD were sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia and aborted sudden cardiac death, though the number of prophylactic indications has increased. Most ICDs were implanted in an electrophysiology laboratory by a cardiac electrophysiologist. The implantation rates of dual-chamber ICDs and ICDs with cardiac resynchronization therapy were approximately 30% and 15%, respectively. Very few complications occurred during implantation. The Spanish National ICD Registry contains a representative sample of ICD implantations performed in the country. The registry is one of the largest reported.

  17. Concerns about implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks mediate the relationship between actual shocks and psychological distress.

    PubMed

    Thylén, Ingela; Moser, Debra K; Strömberg, Anna; Dekker, Rebecca A; Chung, Misook L

    2016-06-01

    Although most implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) patients cope well, fears about receiving ICD shocks have been identified as a major determinant of psychological distress. The relationships among ICD-related concerns, receipt of defibrillating shocks, and symptoms of anxiety and depression have not yet been investigated. Our objective was to examine whether the relationship between receipt of defibrillating shocks and psychological distress was mediated by patients' concerns related to their ICD. All Swedish ICD-recipients were invited to this cross-sectional correlational study; 3067 completing the survey (55% response rate). Their mean age was 66 ± 11 years, and 80% were male. One-third (35%) had received defibrillating shocks, and 26% had high ICD-related concerns. Regression analyses demonstrated that having received at least one shock significantly predicted symptoms of anxiety and depression [odds ratio (OR) 1.58 and OR 3.04, respectively]. The association between receipt of shocks and psychologically distress was mediated by high ICD-related concerns which explained 68% of the relationship between shocks and symptoms of anxiety, and 54% of the relationship between shocks and symptoms of depression. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator-related concerns have a bigger impact on psychological distress than receipt of an actual shock. Assessing ICD-related concerns in clinical practice can identify patients at risk for psychological distress. Further research on assessment of, and interventions targeting, ICD-related concerns is warranted. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. The wearable cardioverter defibrillator as a bridge to implantable defibrillator post myocardial infarction: what do we know?

    PubMed

    Barsheshet, Alon; Vamvouris, Theodora; Goldenberg, Ilan

    2016-07-01

    Ventricular tachyarrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation) can lead to aborted cardiac arrest or sudden cardiac death in patients with poor left ventricular function early after acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Although it has been shown that the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) can treat ventricular tachyarrhythmias and save lives in patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy, it's use during the early phase post AMI has not been shown to reduce mortality. Current device guidelines require a waiting period of 40 days post AMI and 3 months post revascularization. Thus, there is a time gap where high-risk patients may not be protected. This review summarizes the characteristics of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) and its role in bridging the gap between an AMI and time of ICD eligibility. In addition, we focus on the efficacy of the WCD in treating ventricular tachyarrhythmias events, compliance and safety of the WCD use. Expert commentary: The WCD use during the early post AMI period can add crucial information to the process of risk stratification and decision-making whether an individual needs an implantation of an ICD or not. The WCD can serve as a safe and effective bridge during the interval preceding ICD placement.

  19. Who should receive an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator after myocardial infarction?

    PubMed

    Mountantonakis, Stavros; Hutchinson, Mathew D

    2009-12-01

    Despite a decline in overall cardiovascular mortality, the incidence of sudden cardiac death (SCD) continues to rise. Patients who survive a myocardial infarction (MI) with depressed ejection fraction are at particularly high risk for SCD. The development of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) has revolutionized SCD prevention; however, despite the current fervor for device implantation, many unresolved questions remain about risk stratification in post-MI patients. This review presents the current indications and timing of ICD implantation for primary and secondary prevention of SCD after MI. Several conventional and investigational methods of risk stratification after MI, as well as current controversies regarding device implantation in specific patient populations, are also reviewed.

  20. Subglandular placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for an improved cosmetic outcome.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cassidy D; Roehl, Kendall R; Stephen Huang, Shoei K; Mahabir, Raman C

    2013-11-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) technology has progressed through the years decreasing the size of the device, and its effectiveness in preventing sudden cardiac death has made it a mainstay of treatment for many patients. As the use of ICDs in younger patients has increased, issues with placement of an ICD in the usual prepectoral, infraclavicular region have arisen. Subglandular placement through an inframammary incision provides a unique approach and an aesthetically pleasing outcome for ICD placement. We present a review of the current literature and 3 cases of young female patients who had placement of an ICD using this approach.

  1. Long-term benefit of first-line peri-implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implant ventricular tachycardia-substrate ablation in secondary prevention patients.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Juan; Cabanelas, Nuno; Penela, Diego; Fernández-Armenta, Juan; Andreu, David; Borràs, Roger; Korshunov, Viatcheslav; Cabrera, Mario; Vasanelli, Francesca; Arbelo, Elena; Guasch, Eduard; Martínez, Mikel; Tolosana, Jose M; Mont, Lluis; Berruezo, Antonio

    2017-06-01

    This study assessed the benefit of peri-implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implant ventricular tachycardia (VT)-substrate ablation in patients with structural heart disease (SHD). Patients with SHD and indication for secondary prevention ICD implant were prospectively included. Patients presenting with incessant and/or slow VT or frequent (≥2) VT episodes who underwent peri-ICD VT-substrate ablation (the scar dechannelling technique) were compared with those who received ICD alone and did not meet ablation criteria. The primary endpoint was any sustained VT/ICD therapy during follow-up. Of 206 patients included (43.2% non-ischaemic), 70 were assigned to ablation and 136 received ICD implant alone. During a mean follow-up of 45.6 ± 24.7 months, the primary endpoint was more frequent in the non-ablation group (47.1 vs. 22.9%; P< 0.0001). Higher VT recurrence-free survival rate [log-rank P= 0.001; HR = 0.42 (0.24-0.73), P= 0.002] and ICD shock-free survival rate [log-rank P= 0.007; HR = 0.36 (0.17-0.78); P = 0.01] were observed in the ablation group. Higher relative risk reduction was observed in ischaemic [HR = 0.38 (0.18-0.83); P = 0.015] vs. non-ischaemic patients [HR = 0.49 (0.23-1.01); P = 0.08]. Patients with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <35% showed no differences in VT recurrence between treatment groups (log-rank P = 0.213) although VT burden during follow-up was lower in the ablation group [median (interquartile range) 1 (1-3) vs. 4 (1-10) VT episodes; P = 0.05]. First-line peri-ICD implant VT-substrate ablation was associated with decreased VT recurrence and ICD shocks during long-term follow-up in patients with SHD and indication for secondary prevention ICD implant, especially in ischaemic patients. In patients with LVEF <35%, no benefit was observed in terms of VT recurrence-free survival, although VT burden during follow-up was lower in the ablation group.

  2. Prediction of Appropriate Shocks Using 24-Hour Holter Variables and T-Wave Alternans After First Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation in Patients With Ischemic or Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Joachim; Bergau, Leonard; Expósito, Pascal Muñoz; Bauer, Axel; Fischer, Thomas H; Lüthje, Lars; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Friede, Tim; Zabel, Markus

    2016-07-01

    In patients treated with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), prediction of both overall survival and occurrence of shocks is important if improved patient selection is desired. We prospectively studied the predictive value of biomarkers and indexes of cardiac and renal function and spectral microvolt T-wave alternans testing and 24-hour Holter variables in a population who underwent first ICD implantation. Consecutive patients in sinus rhythm with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy scheduled for primary or secondary prophylactic ICD implantation were enrolled. Exercise microvolt T-wave alternans and 24-hour Holter for number of ventricular premature contractions (VPCs), deceleration capacity, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence were done. Death of any cause and first appropriate ICD shock were defined as end points. Over 33 ± 15 months of follow-up, 36 of 253 patients (14%) received appropriate shocks and 39 of 253 patients (15%) died. Only 3 of 253 patients (1%) died after receiving at least 1 appropriate shock. In univariate analyses, New York Heart Association class, ejection fraction, N-terminal pro brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), renal function, ICD indication, deceleration capacity, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence were predictive of all-cause mortality and VPC number and deceleration capacity predicted first appropriate shock. NT-proBNP (≥1,600 pg/ml) was identified as the only independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.0, confidence interval 1.3 to 7.3, p = 0.014). In contrast, VPC number predicted appropriate shocks (hazard ratio 2.3, confidence interval 1.0 to 5.5, p = 0.047) as the only independent risk marker. In conclusion, NT-proBNP is a strong independent predictor of mortality in a typical prospective cohort of newly implanted patients with ICD, among many electrocardiographic and clinical variables studied. Number of VPCs was identified as a predictor of appropriate shocks

  3. National Trends in the Use of Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy With or Without Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Lindvall, Charlotta; Chatterjee, Neal A; Chang, Yuchiao; Chernack, Betty; Jackson, Vicki A; Singh, Jagmeet P; Metlay, Joshua P

    2016-01-19

    Candidates for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) receive either a biventricular pacemaker or a biventricular pacemaker with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (CRT-D). Optimal device selection remains challenging because the benefit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy may not be uniform, particularly in patients at competing risk of nonsudden death. In this serial cross-sectional study using the National Inpatient Sample database, we identified 311,086 admissions associated with CRT implant between 2006 to 2012. CRT-D was the most common device type (86.1%), including in patients ≥ 75 years of age with ≥ 5 Elixhauser comorbidities (75.5%). Multivariate predictors of CRT-D implant included demographic, clinical, and geographic factors: prior ventricular arrhythmia (rate ratio [RR], 1.14; 95% CI, 1.13-1.14), ischemic heart disease (RR, 1.11; 95% CI, 1.10-1.11), male sex (RR, 1.10; 95% CI, 1.09-1.10), black race (RR, 1.06; 95% CI: 1.04-1.07), and Northeast geographic region (RR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.04-1.09). There was significant interhospital variation in the use of CRT-D (10-90 percentile range, 72.9%-98.0% CRT-D). The majority of patients in this contemporary US cohort underwent implantation of CRT-D. Predictors of CRT-D implant included demographic, clinical, and geographic factors. In patient subgroups predicted to have an attenuated benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy (older adults with multiple comorbidities), CRT-D remained the dominant device type. An improved understanding of the determinants of device selection may aid in decision making and ultimately better align patient risk with device benefit at the time of CRT implantation. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. [Implantation of an automatic cardioverter-defibrillator in small children--two case reports].

    PubMed

    Przybylski, Andrzej; Kucińska, Beata; Grabowski, Krzysztof; Sterliński, Maciej; Wróblewska-Kałuzewska, Maria; Szwed, Hanna

    2004-07-01

    Implantation of an automatic cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in children may be challenging due to the increased risk of periprocedural and long-term complications. ICD was implanted in two boys with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, aged 6 and 9 years, with of a body weight of 20 and 25 kg, respectively. In one patient an ICD was implanted due to a history of ventricular fibrillation whereas the second patient underwent prophylactic ICD implantation due to a family history of sudden cardiac death. No short- or mid-term complications were recorded. Difficulties and risks of ICD implantation in children are discussed.

  5. Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Registry. Ninth official report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Electrophysiology and Arrhythmias Section (2012).

    PubMed

    Alzueta, Javier; Fernández, José María

    2013-11-01

    To summarize the findings of the Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Registry for 2012 compiled by the Electrophysiology and Arrhythmias Section of the Spanish Society of Cardiology. Prospective data recorded voluntarily on single-page questionnaires were sent to the Spanish Society of Cardiology by each implantation team. Overall, 4216 device implantations were reported, representing 80.8% of the estimated total number of implantations. The reported implantation rate was 91.2 per million population and the estimated total implantation rate was 113 per million. The proportion of first implantations was 69.4%. We collected data from 161 hospitals (6 fewer than in 2011). The majority of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator recipients were men (83.4%). Mean age was 61.8 (13.4) years. Most patients had severe or moderate-to-severe ventricular dysfunction and were in New York Heart Association functional class II. Ischemic heart disease was the most frequent underlying cardiac condition, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy. The number of indications for primary prevention decreased over the previous year and now account for 58.1% of first implantations. Overall, 81% of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator were implanted by cardiac electrophysiologists. The 2012 Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Registry includes data on 80.8% of all implantable cardioverter-defibrillators implantations performed in Spain. This is the second consecutive year in which the number of implantations has slightly decreased compared to the previous year. This year, the percentage of implantations for primary prevention indications also decreased. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Lability of R- and T-wave peaks in three-dimensional electrocardiograms in implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmia during follow-up.

    PubMed

    Han, Lichy; Tereshchenko, Larisa G

    2010-01-01

    From experiments, we know that the heterogeneity of action potential duration and morphology is an important mechanism of ventricular tachyarrhythmia. Electrocardiogram (ECG) markers of repolarization lability are known; however, lability of depolarization has not been systematically studied. We propose a novel method for the assessment of variability of both depolarization and repolarization phases of the cardiac cycle. Baseline orthogonal ECGs of 81 patients (mean ± SD age, 56 ± 13 years; 61 male [75%]) with structural heart disease and implanted single-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) were analyzed. Clean 30-beat intervals with absence of premature beats were then selected. Baseline wandering was corrected before analysis. Peaks of R wave and peaks of T wave were detected for each beat, and the axis magnitude was calculated. The peaks were plotted to show clouds of peaks and then used to construct a convex hull, and the volumes of the R peaks cloud and T peaks cloud and ratio of volumes were calculated. During a mean (SD) follow-up period of 13 (10) months, 9 of the 81 patients had sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) and received appropriate ICD therapies. All ICD events were adjudicated by three independent electrophysiologists. There was no statistically significant difference in the volume of T-wave peaks or R-wave peaks between patients with and without VT or VF during follow-up; however, R/T peaks cloud volume ratio was significantly lower in patients with subsequent VT/VF (22.4 ± 25.4 versus 13.1 ± 7.9, P = .024). Larger volume of T peaks cloud, measured during 30 beats of three-dimensional ECG, is associated with higher risk of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias and appropriate ICD therapies. New method to assess temporal variability of repolarization in three-dimensional ECGs by measuring volume of peak clouds shows potential for further exploration for VT/VF risk stratification. Copyright

  7. Psychometric properties of HeartQoL, a core heart disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire, in Danish implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients.

    PubMed

    Zangger, Graziella; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Kikkenborg Berg, Selina; Kristensen, Marie S; Grønset, Charlotte N; Uddin, Jamal; Pedersen, Susanne S; Oldridge, Neil B; Thygesen, Lau C

    2017-01-01

    Background Patient-reported health-related quality of life is increasingly used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and as a performance measure to evaluate quality of care. The objective of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of the Danish HeartQoL questionnaire, a core heart disease-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire, in implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients. Design This study involved cross-sectional and test-retest study designs. Method Implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients in the cross-sectional study completed the HeartQoL, the Short-Form 36 Health Survey, and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. The HeartQoL structure, construct-related validity (convergent and discriminative) and reliability (internal consistency) were assessed. HeartQoL reproducibility (test-retest) was assessed in an independent sample of implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients. Results Mokken scale analysis supported the bi-dimensional structure of HeartQoL among 358 implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients. Convergent ( r > 0.72) and discriminative validity were confirmed. The HeartQoL scales demonstrated satisfactory internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha > 0.90). Test-retest reliability (two weeks interval) was assessed in 89 implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients and found to be acceptable for each scale (intra-class correlation > 0.90). Conclusion The Danish HeartQoL questionnaire demonstrated satisfactory key psychometric attributes of validity and reliability in this implantable cardioverter defibrillator population. This study adds support for the HeartQoL as a core heart-specific health-related quality of life questionnaire in a broad group of patients with heart disease including implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients.

  8. Inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator magnet-mode switch induced by a laptop computer.

    PubMed

    Tiikkaja, Maria; Aro, Aapo; Alanko, Tommi; Lindholm, Harri; Hietanen, Maila

    2012-06-01

    An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) experienced electromagnetic interference from a laptop computer's hard disk. The patient with the ICD was using his laptop computer at home while lying on his bed. The laptop was positioned on his chest, when he heard a beeping sound from the ICD, indicating magnet mode conversion. This situation was replicated in a controlled environment, and the conversion was found to be due to the static magnetic field produced by the laptop's hard disk. The ICD's conversion to magnet mode can be dangerous because it ends all tachyarrhythmia detections and therapies.

  9. Silicone Breast Implant and Automatic Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator: Can They Coexist? A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Or, Friedman; Arik, Zaretski

    2016-08-01

    We present a case of a silicone breast implant rupture after insertion of an automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD). A 51-year-old woman presented to our plastic surgery clinic to exchange her silicone breast implants. The patient underwent cosmetic mastopexy and breast augmentation in 2008. Because of recurrent myocardial infarctions and chronic heart failure, she underwent an insertion of an AICD in 2014 in which the left breast implant was hit. In this report, we discuss the first case of an AICD insertion, disrupting a breast implant. This case report illustrates the rare but real possibility of breast implant rupture after even minor surgical manipulation of the breast area.

  10. [Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation at the end of life: ethical, clinical and communication issues].

    PubMed

    Romanò, Massimo; Piga, Maria Antonella; Bertona, Roberta; Negro, Roberto; Ruggeri, Chiara; Zorzoli, Federica; Villani, Rosvaldo

    2017-02-01

    The number of cardioverter-defibrillator implants is increasing worldwide, with the main indication being primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. During the follow-up, patients may die from progression of their underlying heart disease or from nonarrhythmic causes, such as malignancies, dementia and lung disease, without receiving appropriate shocks until the last few days or weeks of their life. These events occur roughly in 30% of patients, mainly in the last 24 hours before death. In this case, inappropriate and even appropriate shock deliveries can no longer prolong life and may simply lead to pain and reduced quality of life. Therefore, it appears important to discuss early with the patients and their relatives about deactivation of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) at the end of life.The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the ethical, clinical and communication issues of ICD deactivation, with a special focus on patients' wishes. It is outlined that patients are not adequately informed about risks and benefits of ICD and the option of ICD deactivation; the doctors are not used to discuss with the patients the topics of end-of-life decisions. Complete information must be part of current informed consent before ICD implantation and should be updated during the follow-up, with special attention to patients with heart failure in relation to their prognosis and advance directives, as suggested by international guidelines.

  11. Fuzzy logic-based diagnostic algorithm for implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Bárdossy, András; Blinowska, Aleksandra; Kuzmicz, Wieslaw; Ollitrault, Jacky; Lewandowski, Michał; Przybylski, Andrzej; Jaworski, Zbigniew

    2014-02-01

    The paper presents a diagnostic algorithm for classifying cardiac tachyarrhythmias for implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). The main aim was to develop an algorithm that could reduce the rate of occurrence of inappropriate therapies, which are often observed in existing ICDs. To achieve low energy consumption, which is a critical factor for implantable medical devices, very low computational complexity of the algorithm was crucial. The study describes and validates such an algorithm and estimates its clinical value. The algorithm was based on the heart rate variability (HRV) analysis. The input data for our algorithm were: RR-interval (I), as extracted from raw intracardiac electrogram (EGM), and in addition two other features of HRV called here onset (ONS) and instability (INST). 6 diagnostic categories were considered: ventricular fibrillation (VF), ventricular tachycardia (VT), sinus tachycardia (ST), detection artifacts and irregularities (including extrasystoles) (DAI), atrial tachyarrhythmias (ATF) and no tachycardia (i.e. normal sinus rhythm) (NT). The initial set of fuzzy rules based on the distributions of I, ONS and INST in the 6 categories was optimized by means of a software tool for automatic rule assessment using simulated annealing. A training data set with 74 EGM recordings was used during optimization, and the algorithm was validated with a validation data set with 58 EGM recordings. Real life recordings stored in defibrillator memories were used. Additionally the algorithm was tested on 2 sets of recordings from the PhysioBank databases: MIT-BIH Arrhythmia Database and MIT-BIH Supraventricular Arrhythmia Database. A custom CMOS integrated circuit implementing the diagnostic algorithm was designed in order to estimate the power consumption. A dedicated Web site, which provides public online access to the algorithm, has been created and is available for testing it. The total number of events in our training and validation sets was 132. In

  12. The Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillator: an Early Single Centre Australian Experience. Some Pitfalls and Caveats for Use.

    PubMed

    Bhaskaran, Abhishek; Bartlett, Monique; Kovoor, Pramesh; Davis, Lloyd M

    2016-02-01

    Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillators (WCD) have been effectively used for more than a decade in North America and Europe for prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) due to ventricular arrhythmias. This device has only recently been available in Australia. At Westmead hospital, WCD has been used since 2013 as a bridging therapy to an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for those at high risk, but are temporarily not suitable for an implantable device. Indications for use were explanted infected ICD, dilated cardiomyopathy, post partum cardiomyopathy, valvular heart disease and myocarditis. The default device settings were: ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) threshold of 150 bpm and 200 bpm respectively and response times were 60 secs for VT and 25 secs for VF. WCD was used in eight patients. Duration of use ranged from five to 180 days with median of 77 days. Daily usage averaged 23.4±0.6hours. All except one were compliant with the device and none of our patients received shock or died during device usage. Four of the eight patients received ICD, two declined ICD, one was judged to no longer require ICD and one remains under assessment. WCD is easy to use, well tolerated and is effective for SCD prevention in patients who are temporarily not suitable for ICD. However patients need to be actively followed-up to reduce the duration of WCD usage and thereby be cost effective. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation for primary and secondary prevention: indications and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Pick, Justin M; Batra, Anjan S

    2017-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators effectively reduce the rate of sudden cardiac death in children. Significant efforts have been made to better characterise the indications for their placement, and over the past two decades there has been a shift in their use from secondary to primary prevention. Primary prevention includes placement in patients thought to be at high risk of sudden cardiac death before the patient experiences any event. Secondary prevention includes placement after a high-risk event including sustained ventricular tachycardia or resuscitated cardiac arrest. Although liberal device implantation may be appealing even in patients having marginal indications, studies have shown high rates of adverse effects including inappropriate device discharges and the need for re-intervention because of hardware malfunction. The indications for placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, whether for primary or secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death, vary based on cardiac pathology. This review will assist the provider in understanding the risks and benefits of device implantation in order to enhance the shared decision-making capacity of patients, families, and providers.

  14. Third- and fourth-generation implantable cardioverter defibrillators: current status and future development.

    PubMed

    Saksena, S; Diaz, M L; Varanasi, S; Mathew, P; Berg, J; Krol, R B; Kaushik, R R

    1994-10-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy has become the mainstay of therapy for patients with a history of sudden cardiac death or life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. The current generation of ICDs used for secondary prevention combines features for tachycardia reversion with demand ventricular pacing, antitachycardia pacing, programmable shock therapy, and tachycardia events memory. Although demand pacing and defibrillation is indicated for primary prevention usage of ICDs, the application of antitachycardia pacing modes is more controversial. High energy cardioversion and defibrillation shocks remaining the mainstay of sudden death prevention will be redefined as more effective defibrillation shock modes and lead systems are developed. Fourth-generation ICD systems accomplished a significant reduction of device size and almost universal success using an endocardial lead configuration and pectoral implant. A variety of new directions of ICD therapy in clinical practice such as primary prevention applications and the adjunctive role of antiarrhythmic drug therapy are currently being examined in clinical trials. The concepts underlying initiation of tachyarrhythmias are being studied to develop new approaches to tachycardia prevention. These include rate support, subthreshold stimulation, and multiple site pacing. The current developments of ICD therapy promise continued growth of this technology.

  15. [The Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillator (WCD) for the prevention of sudden cardiac death -- a single center experience].

    PubMed

    Reek, S; Meltendorf, U; Geller, J C; Wollbrück, A; Grund, S; Klein, H U

    2002-12-01

    The Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillator (WCD) is an external defibrillator that automatically detects and treats ventricular tachyarrhythmias without the need for assistance from a bystander while at the same time allowing the patient to ambulate freely. The main components of the system are the defibrillator unit and a chest belt with electrodes for arrhythmia detection and therapy delivery. Between December 1998 and October 2001, 84 patients used the device at our institution. The majority of patients had a history of acute myocardial infarction or coronary artery bypass surgery with an increased risk for sudden cardiac death or were awaiting heart transplantation. During a mean follow-up of 116+/-90 days, 7 episodes of ventricular tachyarrhythmias were detected and terminated successfully by the WCD in 5 patients. In 9720 days, there was one inappropriate shock due to oversensing of electrical noise. Four patients died during follow-up; none of them had a cardiac arrest while wearing the device. Five patients were excluded because of irregularities in device use. An ICD was implanted in 24 patients at the end of the follow-up period. The WCD is effective in detecting and treating ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with an intermittently increased risk for sudden cardiac death. Further use of the system in larger patient populations is needed to confirm its safety and cost effectiveness.

  16. Wearable cardioverter-defibrillator for prevention of sudden cardiac death after infected implantable cardioverter-defibrillator removal: A cost-effectiveness evaluation.

    PubMed

    Healy, Christopher A; Carrillo, Roger G

    2015-07-01

    Prevention of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA) after removal of an infected implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is a challenging clinical dilemma. The cost-effectiveness of the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) in this setting remains uncertain. The purpose of this study was to compare the cost-effectiveness of the WCD with discharge home, discharge to a skilled nursing facility, or inpatient monitoring for the prevention of SCA after infected ICD removal. A decision model was developed to compare the cost-effectiveness of use of the WCD to several different strategies for patients who undergo ICD removal. One-way and 2-way sensitivity analyses were performed to account for uncertainties. In the base-case analysis, the incremental cost-effectiveness of the WCD strategy was $20,300 per life-year (LY) or $26,436 per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) compared to discharge home without a WCD. Discharge to a skilled nursing facility and in-hospital monitoring resulted in higher costs and worse clinical outcomes. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was as low as $15,392/QALY if the WCD successfully terminated 95% of SCA events and exceeded the $50,000/QALY willingness-to-pay threshold if the efficacy was <69%.The WCD strategy remained cost-effective, assuming 5.6% 2-month SCA risk, as long as the time to reimplantation was at least 2 weeks. The WCD likely is cost-effective in protecting patients against SCA after infected ICD removal while waiting for ICD reimplantation compared to keeping patients in the hospital or discharging them home or to a skilled nursing facility. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduction of ventricular tachyarrhythmia by treatment of atrial fibrillation in ICD patients with dual-chamber implantable cardioverter/defibrillators capable of atrial therapy delivery: the REVERT-AF Study.

    PubMed

    Gradaus, Rainer; Seidl, Karlheinz; Korte, Thomas; Himmrich, Ewald; Wieneke, Heinrich; Schuchert, Andreas; Bauer, Wolfgang; Gerss, Joachim; Wollmann, Christian G; Borggrefe, Martin; Böcker, Dirk

    2007-07-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, multicentre study was to investigate whether the incidence of ventricular tachyarrhythmia can be reduced in standard implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD) patients by implanting a dual-chamber ICD capable of atrial therapy delivery. A Jewel AF or GEM III AT ICD (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) was implanted in 122 patients (62.3 +/- 10.5 years; 84.4% male; coronary artery disease 71.3%; left ventricular ejection fraction 39.7 +/- 13.6%; secondary ICD indication 91%). Overall, 31.2% of the patients had paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF)/atrial tachycardia (AT) before ICD implantation (n = 38). Implantable cardioverter/defibrillator therapies for AT/AF were activated and de-activated every 3 months in a cross-over study design. The mean follow-up was 18.5 +/- 7.7 months (6.29 +/- 2.2 cross-over/patient). Overall, there were 684 episodes of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in 48.4% of patients (n = 59). In 33.6% of patients (n = 41), 532 supraventricular tachyarrhythmias occurred. Activation of ICD therapies for AT/AF did not result in a reduction of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (P = 0.92). Patients with monomorphic ventricular tachycardias (mVTs) as index arrhythmia for ICD implantation or inducible mVTs in the electrophysiological study had the highest probability of recurrences of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. For patients with standard indications for ICD therapy and no indication for cardiac pacing, a dual-chamber ICD capable of atrial tachyarrhythmia treatment offers no benefit concerning a reduction of ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

  18. The Occurrence of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Therapies After Generator Replacement in Patients Who No Longer Meet Primary Prevention Indications.

    PubMed

    Kawata, Hiro; Hirai, Taishi; Doukas, Demetrios; Hirai, Rie; Steinbrunner, Jenni; Wilson, John; Noda, Takashi; Hsu, Jonathan; Krummen, David; Feld, Gregory; Wilber, David; Santucci, Peter; Birgersdotter-Green, Ulrika

    2016-06-01

    At the time of generator replacement, after ICD implantation for primary prevention, many patients may no longer meet implantation criteria. We investigated the occurrence of ICD therapy after generator replacement in patients initially implanted ICD for primary prevention. Patients from 3 hospitals undergoing ICD generator replacement, who were initially implanted for primary prevention, were retrospectively evaluated for occurrence of appropriate ICD therapy after generator replacement. Patients were categorized as to whether or not they had appropriate ICD therapy during their first battery life, and by their left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) before generator replacement. Data from 168 patients were analyzed, with average follow-up after generator replacement of 41.2 ± 26.5 months. Seventy-six (45.2%) patients had ventricular arrhythmia episodes (>180 beats per minutes) and 63 (37.5%) received appropriate ICD therapy during the first battery life. Among 105 patients without ICD therapy before generator replacement, those with an LVEF ≤35% before ICD replacement had higher occurrence of ICD therapy after generator replacement than patients with an LVEF ≥36%. Patients who no longer met primary prevention ICD indications (no ICD therapy and LVEF ≥36% before generator replacement) showed a lower risk for ICD therapy after generator replacement (11.6% over 5-year follow-up). In patients without ICD therapy before generator replacement, low LVEF (≤35%) contributed to future ICD therapy. In patients initially undergoing ICD implantation for primary prevention, history of ICD therapy during the first battery life and LVEF should be utilized for risk stratification at the time of generator replacement. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry. Sixth official report of the Spanish Society Of Cardiology Working Group on Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillators (2009).

    PubMed

    Alzueta, Javier; Linde, Antonio; Barrera, Alberto; Peña, Jose; Peinado, Rafael

    2010-12-01

    This article describes the findings of the 2009 Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) Registry compiled by the Working Group on Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators of the Spanish Society of Cardiology's Electrophysiology and Arrhythmias Section. Each implantation team voluntarily sent prospective data recorded on a single-page document to the Spanish Society of Cardiology. In total, 4108 device implantations were reported, which comprised 88.6% of the estimated total number of implantations carried out. The number of implants reported corresponded to 89 per million population and the estimated total number was 100.2 per million. The proportion of first implantations among those reported was 71.3%. Data were received from 134 centers, 17 more than in 2008. There continued to be significant regional variations between the various Spanish autonomous regions. The highest implantation rate (81%) was in men (mean age 62 years) who had severe or moderate-to-severe ventricular dysfunction and were in New York Heart Association functional class II. The most common heart condition was ischemic heart disease, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy. Indications for primary prevention accounted for 55.9% of first implantations; this figure was lower than the previous year's for the first time since 2003. The most significant increase observed was in patients with ischemic heart disease. The 2009 Spanish ICD registry included data on almost 89% of all ICD implantations performed in the country. Although the number of implantations has continued to increase, it still remains far from the European average. The percentage of implantations performed for primary prevention was observed to have stabilized.

  20. Outcome of Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Implantation in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease on Dialysis.

    PubMed

    El-Chami, Mikhael F; Levy, Mathew; Kelli, Heval M; Casey, Mary; Hoskins, Michael H; Goyal, Abhinav; Langberg, Jonathan J; Patel, Anshul; Delurgio, David; Lloyd, Michael S; Leon, Angel R; Merchant, Faisal M

    2015-08-01

    Although the subcutaneous ICD (S-ICD®) is an attractive alternative in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), data on S-ICD outcomes in dialysis patients are lacking. Patients with cardiomyopathy undergoing S-ICD implantation in our center were stratified by need for chronic dialysis at the time of implant. The primary endpoint was incidence of death, heart failure hospitalization or appropriate S-ICD shocks, and secondary endpoints were incidence of inappropriate shocks or implant related complications requiring surgical re-intervention. Mean follow-up was longer in the nondialysis cohort (514 ± 495 vs. 227 ± 233 days, P = 0.006), so all endpoints were analyzed using time-dependent comparisons and reported as annual event rates. Out of 79 S-ICD implants included in this analysis, 27 patients were on dialysis. Dialysis patients were older and more likely to be diabetic. Mean ejection fraction across the entire cohort was 26.9% without significant difference between dialysis and nondialysis groups. Although not significant, the incidence of the primary endpoint was higher in the dialysis cohort (23.8%/year vs. 10.9%/year, P = 0.317), driven primarily by a higher rate of appropriate shocks. The rate of inappropriate shocks was similar between groups (dialysis 6.0%/year vs. nondialysis 6.8%/year, P = 0.509). No patients in the dialysis cohort had complications requiring surgical re-intervention versus 6 patients in the nondialysis cohort (P = 0.086). Our data suggest that S-ICD implantation in dialysis patients is not associated with an excess risk of implant related complications or inappropriate shocks. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Defibrillation testing in everyday medical practice during implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation in France: analysis from the LEADER registry.

    PubMed

    Sadoul, Nicolas; Defaye, Pascal; Mouton, Elisabeth; Bizeau, Olivier; Dupuis, Jean-Marc; Blangy, Hugues; Delarche, Nicolas; Blanc, Jean-Jacques; Lazarus, Arnaud

    2013-11-01

    Defibrillation testing (DT) is usually performed during implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation. We conducted a multicentre prospective study to determine the DT procedures used in everyday practice, to compare the characteristics of patients with or without DT, and to compare severe adverse events in these two populations during implantation and follow-up. The LEADER registry enrolled 904 patients included for primo-implantation of a single (n=261), dual (n=230) or triple (n=429) defibrillation system in 42 French centres. Baseline characteristics of patients (62.0 ± 13.5 years; 88% men; primary indication 62%) who underwent ventricular fibrillation (VF) induction (VF induction group, n=810) and those who did not (untested group, n=94, representing 10.4% of the entire study population) revealed that the untested group were older (P<0.01), had a lower left ventricular ejection fraction, a wider QRS complex and a higher New York Heart Association class and were more often implanted for primary prevention (P<0.001 for all). The main reason given for not performing ICD testing was poor haemodynamic condition (59/94). At 1 year, the cumulative survival rate was 95% in tested patients and 85% in untested patients (P<0.001), mainly because of heart failure deaths. There was one sudden cardiac death in the VF induction group and none in the untested group (P=1.000). In this study, more than 10% of ICD patients were implanted without VF induction. Untested patients appeared to be sicker than tested patients, with a more severe long-term outcome, but without any difference in mortality due to arrhythmic events. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Obstetric hemorrhage in a case of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy with automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator: Anaesthesia and intensive care management.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Sandeep Kumar; Bhat, Ravindra R; Kavitha, Jayaram; Kundra, Pankaj; Parida, Satyen

    2016-01-01

    The physiological changes occurring during pregnancy and labor may reveal or exacerbate the symptoms of hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). The addition of obstetric hemorrhage to this presents a unique challenge to the anesthesiologists and intensivists managing these patients in the operation theatres and the Intensive Care Units. Here we present a case of HOCM with automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator in situ and postpartum hemorrhagic shock.

  3. Effectiveness of prophylactic implantation of cardioverter-defibrillators without cardiac resynchronization therapy in patients with ischaemic or non-ischaemic heart disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Theuns, Dominic A.M.J.; Smith, Tim; Hunink, Myriam G.M.; Bardy, Gust H.; Jordaens, Luc

    2010-01-01

    Aims Much controversy exists concerning the efficacy of primary prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) in patients with low ejection fraction due to coronary artery disease (CAD) or dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). This is also related to the bias created by function improving interventions added to ICD therapy, e.g. resynchronization therapy. The aim was to investigate the efficacy of ICD-only therapy in primary prevention in patients with CAD or DCM. Methods and results Public domain databases, MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, were searched from 1980 to 2009 for randomized clinical trials of ICD vs. conventional therapy. Two investigators independently abstracted the data. Pooled estimates were calculated using both fixed-effects and random-effects models. Eight trials were included in the final analysis (5343 patients). Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators significantly reduced the arrhythmic mortality [relative risk (RR): 0.40; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.27–0.67] and all-cause mortality (RR: 0.73; 95% CI: 0.64–0.82). Regardless of aetiology of heart disease, ICD benefit was similar for CAD (RR: 0.67; 95% CI: 0.51–0.88) vs. DCM (RR: 0.74; 95% CI: 0.59–0.93). Conclusions The results of this meta-analysis provide strong evidence for the beneficial effect of ICD-only therapy on the survival of patients with ischaemic or non-ischaemic heart disease, with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%, if they are 40 days from myocardial infarction and ≥3 months from a coronary revascularization procedure. PMID:20974768

  4. Impact of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator, Amiodarone, and Placebo on the Mode of Death in Stable Patients With Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Douglas L.; Prutkin, Jordan M.; Hellkamp, Anne S.; Mitchell, L. Brent; Bernstein, Robert C.; Wood, Freda; Boehmer, John P.; Carlson, Mark D.; Frantz, Robert P.; McNulty, Steve E.; Rogers, Joseph G.; Anderson, Jill; Johnson, George W.; Walsh, Mary Norine; Poole, Jeanne E.; Mark, Daniel B.; Lee, Kerry L.; Bardy, Gust H.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial (SCD-HeFT) demonstrated that implantable cardioverterdefibrillator (ICD) therapy reduces all-cause mortality in patients with New York Heart Association class II/III heart failure and a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% on optimal medical therapy. Whether ICD therapy reduced sudden death caused by ventricular tachyarrhythmias without affecting heart failure deaths in this population is unknown. Methods and Results SCD-HeFT randomized 2521 subjects to placebo, amiodarone, or shock-only, single-lead ICD therapy. Over a median follow-up of 45.5 months, a total of 666 deaths occurred, which were reviewed by an Events Committee and initially categorized as cardiac or noncardiac. Cardiac deaths were further adjudicated as resulting from sudden death presumed to be ventricular tachyarrhythmic, bradyarrhythmia, heart failure, or other cardiac causes. ICD therapy significantly reduced cardiac mortality compared with placebo (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.60 to 0.95) and tachyarrhythmia mortality (adjusted hazard ratio, 0.40; 95% confidence interval, 0.27 to 0.59) and had no impact on mortality resulting from heart failure or noncardiac causes. The cardiac and tachyarrhythmia mortality reductions were evident in subjects with New York Heart Association class II but not in subjects with class III heart failure. The reduction in tachyarrhythmia mortality with ICD therapy was similar in subjects with ischemic and nonischemic disease. Compared with placebo, amiodarone had no significant effect on any mode of death. Conclusions ICD therapy reduced cardiac mortality and sudden death presumed to be ventricular tachyarrhythmic in SCD-HeFT and had no effect on heart failure mortality. Amiodarone had no effect on all-cause mortality or its cause-specific components, except an increase in non-cardiac mortality in class III patients. PMID:19917887

  5. Role of defibrillation threshold testing during implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement: data from the Israeli ICD Registry.

    PubMed

    Arnson, Yoav; Suleiman, Mahmoud; Glikson, Michael; Sela, Ron; Geist, Michael; Amit, Guy; Schliamser, Jorge E; Goldenberg, Ilan; Ben-Zvi, Shlomit; Orvin, Katia; Rosenheck, Shimon; Adam Freedberg, Nahum; Strasberg, Boris; Haim, Moti

    2014-05-01

    Defibrillation threshold (DFT) testing during placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has been considered mandatory. Accumulating data suggest a more limited role for DFT. The purpose of this study was to compare the outcome of ICD recipients who underwent DFT testing compared with those who did not. In this prospective cohort analysis of patients who received an ICD between July 2010 and March 2013, we compared patients who underwent DFT testing and those who did not. Primary end-points were death and malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Secondary end-points included the composite end-points and inappropriate ICD discharges. Of the 3596 patients in the registry, 614 patients (17%) underwent DFT testing during ICD placement vs 2982 (83%) who did not. Variables associated with ICD testing were implantation for secondary prevention (relative risk [RR] 1.87), prior ventricular arrhythmias (RR 1.81), use of antiarrhythmic medication (RR 1.59), and sinus rhythm (RR 2.05). Factors predisposing against testing were cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator implantation (RR 0.56) and concomitant diuretic use (RR 0.71). ICD testing was not associated with 1-year mortality (5.3% vs 5.1%, P = .74), delivery of appropriate shocks (8.6% vs 5.6%, P = .16), combined outcomes of ventricular arrhythmias and death (12.9% vs 11.3%, P = .45), or inappropriate ICD discharges (3.9% vs 2.1%, P = .2) compared to no DFT testing. No significant differences in the incidence of mortality, malignant ventricular arrhythmias, or inappropriate ICD discharges were observed between patients who underwent DFT testing compared to those who did not. Our results may support avoiding DFT testing during ICD placement, but this requires confirmation by additional prospective studies. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Rationale and design of the MONITOR-ICD study: a randomized comparison of economic and clinical effects of automatic remote MONITORing versus control in patients with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Zabel, Markus; Müller-Riemenschneider, Falk; Geller, J Christoph; Brachmann, Johannes; Kühlkamp, Volker; Dissmann, Rüdiger; Reinhold, Thomas; Roll, Stephanie; Lüthje, Lars; Bode, Frank; Eckardt, Lars; Willich, Stefan N

    2014-10-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) remote follow-up and ICD remote monitoring (RM) are established means of ICD follow-up. The reduction of the number of in-office visits and the time to decision is proven, but the true clinical benefit is still unknown. Cost and cost-effectiveness of RM remain leading issues for its dissemination. The MONITOR-ICD study has been designed to assess costs, cost-effectiveness, and clinical benefits of RM versus standard-care follow-up in a prospective multicenter randomized controlled trial. Patients indicated for single- or dual-chamber ICD are eligible for the study and are implanted an RM-capable Biotronik ICD (Lumax VR-T or Lumax DR-T; Biotronik SE & Co KG, Berlin, Germany). Implantable cardioverter defibrillator programming and alert-based clinical responses in the RM group are highly standardized by protocol. As of December 2011, recruitment has been completed, and 416 patients have been enrolled. Subjects are followed-up for a minimum of 12months and a maximum of 24months, ending in January 2013. Disease-specific costs from a societal perspective have been defined as primary end point and will be compared between RM and standard-care groups. Secondary end points include ICD shocks (including appropriate and inappropriate shocks), cardiovascular hospitalizations and cardiovascular mortality, and additional health economic end points. The MONITOR-ICD study will be an important randomized RM study to report data on a primary economic end point in 2014. Its results on ICD shocks will add to the currently available evidence on clinical benefit of RM. Copyright © 2014 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Living with life-saving technology - coping strategies in implantable cardioverter defibrillators recipients.

    PubMed

    Flemme, Inger; Johansson, Ingela; Strömberg, Anna

    2012-02-01

    To describe coping strategies and coping effectiveness in recipients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator and to explore factors influencing coping. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators are documented as saving lives and are used to treat ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. Despite the implantable cardioverter defibrillator not evidently interfering with everyday life, there is conflicting evidence regarding the psychosocial impact of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation such as anxiety, depression, perceived control and quality of life and how these concerns may relate to coping. Cross-sectional multicentre design. Individuals (n = 147, mean age 63 years, 121 men) who had lived with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator between 6-24 months completed the Jalowiec Coping Scale-60, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, Control Attitude Scale and Quality of Life Index-Cardiac version. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators recipients seldom used coping strategies, and the coping strategies used were perceived as fairly helpful. Optimism was found to be the most frequently used (1·8 SD 0·68) and most effective (2·1 SD 0·48) coping strategy, and recipients perceived moderate control in life. Anxiety (β = 3·5, p ≤ 0·001) and gender (β = 12·3, p = 0·046) accounted for 26% of the variance in the total use of coping strategies, suggesting that the more symptoms of anxiety and being women the greater use of coping strategies. Most recipients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator did not appraise daily concerns as stressors in need of coping and seem to have made a successful transition in getting on with their lives 6-24 months after implantation. Relevance to clinical practice.  Nurses working with recipients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator should have a supportive communication so that positive outcomes such as decreased anxiety and increased perceived control and quality of life

  8. Protection from outpatient sudden cardiac death following ICD removal using a wearable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Tanawuttiwat, Tanyanan; Garisto, Juan D; Salow, Arturo; Glad, Joann M; Szymkiewicz, Steve; Saltzman, Heath E; Kutalek, Steven P; Carrillo, Roger G

    2014-05-01

    An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is effective in preventing sudden cardiac death (SCD). Once an ICD is removed and reimplantation is not feasible, a wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) may be an alternative option. We determined the effectiveness of WCD for SCD prevention in patients who were discharged after ICD removal. A retrospective study was conducted on all WCD (LifeVest, ZOLL, Pittsburgh, PA, USA) patients who underwent ICD removal due to cardiac device infections (CDIs) at two referral centers between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2009. Clinical characteristics, device information, and WCD data were analyzed. Sudden cardiac arrest was defined as all sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation occurring within a single 24-hour period. Ninety-seven patients (mean age 62.8 ± 13.3, male 80.4%) were included in the study. The median duration of antibiotic use was 14.7 days (interquartile range [IQR] 10-30). The median daily WCD use was 20 hours/day and the median length of use was 21 days (IQR 5-47). A total of three patients were shocked by WCD. Two patients had four episodes of sustained VT, successfully terminated by the WCD. A third patient experienced two inappropriate treatments due to oversensitivity of the signal artifact. Three patients experienced sudden death outside the hospital while not wearing the device. Five patients died while hospitalized. WCD can prevent SCD, until ICD reimplantation is feasible in patients who underwent device removals for CDI. However, patient compliance is essential for the effective use of this device. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. The Wearable Cardioverter Defibrillator in Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy: A US National Database Analysis.

    PubMed

    Salehi, Negar; Nasiri, Mojdeh; Bianco, Nicole R; Opreanu, Madalina; Singh, Vini; Satija, Vaibhav; Jhand, Aravdeep S; Karapetyan, Lilit; Safadi, Abdul Rahman; Surapaneni, Phani; Thakur, Ranjan K

    2016-10-01

    The wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) is often used in patients at risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) who are not yet candidates for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Newly diagnosed cardiomyopathy may be reversible, and a WCD may protect patients during the initial period of risk. We evaluate the benefit and compliance of the WCD in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM). We reviewed a national database of patients with NICM who used WCDs and who self-reported a history of excess alcohol use, although other causes of cardiomyopathy could not be excluded. The database contained demographic data, initial ejection fraction (EF), reason for WCD prescription, compliance and use data, any detected arrhythmias, therapies, and reason for discontinuing WCD. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS, version 9.3 (SAS Institute, Cary, NC). Of the 127 patients, 88% were men with a mean age of 52.6 ± 11.0 years. The mean initial EF was 19.9% ± 7.4%. Patients wore the WCD for a median of 51 days and a median daily use of 18.0 hours per day. The most common reasons for discontinuing the WCD were improvement in EF (33%) or ICD implantation (23.6%). Seven patients (5.5%) had 9 sustained ventricular arrhythmia events, which were successfully treated with 100% conversion. There were 11 deaths (8.6%) during 100 days of follow-up. No deaths resulted from WCD shock failure or undersensing. NICM may have a significant risk of ventricular arrhythmias and death in the first few months. The WCD delivered appropriate therapy in 5.5% of patients. This study suggests that a WCD may be effective temporary prophylaxis for prevention of SCD in patients with newly diagnosed NICM. Copyright © 2016 Canadian Cardiovascular Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Registry. Tenth Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Electrophysiology and Arrhythmias Section (2013).

    PubMed

    Alzueta, Javier; Pedrote, Alonso; Fernández Lozano, Ignacio

    2014-11-01

    To present the findings of the Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Registry for 2013 compiled by the Electrophysiology and Arrhythmias Section of the Spanish Society of Cardiology. Prospective data were voluntarily recorded on a data collection form and sent to the Spanish Society of Cardiology by each implantation team. Overall, 4772 device implantations were reported, representing 85% of the estimated total number of implantations. The reported implantation rate was 102 per million population and the estimated total implantation rate was 120 per million. The proportion of first implantations was 68.8%. Data were received from 154 hospitals (4 fewer than in 2012). Most implantable cardioverter-defibrillator recipients were men (83.3%). The mean age was 62.5 (13.4) years. Most patients had severe or moderate-to-severe ventricular dysfunction and were in New York Heart Association functional class II. The most frequent underlying cardiac condition was ischemic heart disease, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy. Indications for primary prevention accounted for 53.0% of first implantations, consolidating the decrease first observed in 2012. Overall, 79.8% of devices were implanted by cardiac electrophysiologists. The 2013 Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Registry includes information on 85% of the devices implanted in Spain. The total number of implantations increased compared with the previous 2 years. The percentage of implantations for primary prevention indications decreased compared with the previous year. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Do ultrasonic dental scalers interfere with implantable cardioverter defibrillators? An in vivo investigation.

    PubMed

    Maiorana, Carlo; Grossi, Giovanni B; Garramone, Rocco A; Manfredini, Ruggero; Santoro, Franco

    2013-11-01

    To test the in vivo effects of an ultrasonic dental scaler on various implanted cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) models. 12 consecutive patients with ICDs had continuous both electrocardiogram monitoring and device interrogation to detect interferences during the use of an ultrasonic dental scaler. No interferences were detected by any ICD. Evaluation of the electrocardiograms for each patient failed to show any abnormalities in pacing during testing. The results of this study suggest that the routinary clinic use of piezoelectric dental scalers do not interfere with the functioning of any of the tested ICDs. Ultrasonic dental scalers have been suspected of electromagnetic interference (EMI) with the normal functioning of ICDs and the use of this type of equipment for patients with these devices has been controversial. This is the first in vivo study to investigate EMI of ICD activity during the operation with ultrasonic dental scaler. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Life-saving implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in cardiac AL amyloidosis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ketna S; Hawkins, Philip N; Whelan, Carol J; Gillmore, Julian D

    2014-01-01

    Cardiac involvement is the main determinant of prognosis in systemic monoclonal immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis. Ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death are not uncommon. The electrical events that precede sudden death, and their potential to be treated effectively, remain undefined. There are no European guidelines for the use of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in amyloidosis. ICDs in general are not usually offered to patients with a life expectancy of less than 1 year. We describe a patient who presented with cardiac AL amyloidosis who underwent prophylactic ICD implantation for the prevention of sudden cardiac death during treatment with chemotherapy, in whom life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia was successfully terminated over a 3-year period. PMID:25535224

  13. Evaluation of shock waveform configuration on the defibrillation capacity of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in dogs.

    PubMed

    Pariaut, Romain; Saelinger, Carley; Vila, Jorge; Deforge, William; Queiroz-Williams, Patricia; Beaufrère, Hugues; Zimmerman, Michael; Saile, Katrin; Reynolds, Caryn A

    2012-09-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) are programmed to detect ventricular arrhythmias and terminate them by delivering an electrical shock. A defibrillation threshold (DFT) at least 10 J below the maximum device output is recommended for successful therapy. Shock waveform configuration is a programmable parameter used to achieve a low DFT. It is hypothesized that a fixed-pulse configuration results in lower defibrillation energy requirements than a fixed-tilt configuration. 10 mongrel dogs. ICD generator and transvenous lead were surgically implanted. Defibrillation threshold was determined using a protocol guided by the upper limit of vulnerability. Fixed-pulse and fixed-tilt (50%/50%) waveform configurations were tested in a random order. Plasma cardiac troponin I (cTnI) was measured for signs of myocardial injury. The experiment was completed in 9 dogs. Overall mean DFT value was 424 ± 88 V (9.2 ± 3.9 J). Mean differences among voltage, energy and impedance at the DFT for fixed-pulse (422 ± 97 V, 9.1 ± 4.2 J, 62.6 ± 13.8 Ω) and fixed-tilt (426 ± 83 V, 9.3 ± 3.8 J, 62.8 ± 18.5 Ω) configurations were not statistically significant (All P > 0.21). Cardiac TnI concentration changed from 0.03 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.02-0.04) at baseline to 0.11 ng/mL (95 CI: 0.08-0.16) after DFT was obtained with the first waveform configuration and 0.19 ng/mL (95% CI: 0.13-0.28) at the end of the study period. There were no significant changes in heart rate, end-tidal CO2 and blood pressure over time (all P > 0.09). The tested ICD device and lead placement reliably produced acceptable DFT values, based on a 10-J safety margin below the maximum device output. A benefit of fixed-pulse configuration could not be demonstrated over the standard fixed-tilt waveform. Signs of acute myocardial damage from repeated high-voltage shocks and episodes of ventricular fibrillation seemed of limited clinical significance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of Significant Weight Change on Inappropriate Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Therapy.

    PubMed

    Daimee, Usama A; Biton, Yitschak; Aktas, Mehmet K; Zannad, Faiez; Klein, Helmut; Szepietowska, Barbara; McNitt, Scott; Polonsky, Bronislava; Wang, Paul J; Zareba, Wojciech; Moss, Arthur J; Kutyifa, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Weight loss has been associated with adverse outcomes among heart failure (HF) patients, including those receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy with defibrillator (CRT-D). The effect of significant weight change on inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy among CRT-D patients is not well understood. We evaluated the impact of significant weight change at 1 year on subsequent inappropriate ICD therapy during follow-up among 993 CRT-D patients enrolled in the Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial-Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy. Patients were divided into three subgroups based on weight change at 1 year after enrollment: weight loss (weight loss ≥ 5%), weight gain (weight gain ≥ 5%), and stable weight (weight loss and weight gain < 5%). The primary end point was inappropriate ICD therapy. Secondary end point included inappropriate ICD therapy related to supraventricular arrhythmias (SVAs). There were 102 (10.3%) patients who experienced weight loss, 689 (69.4%) whose weight was stable, and 202 (20.3%) who gained weight at 1 year. Patients with weight loss had increased risk of subsequent inappropriate ICD therapy relative to patients with stable weight (hazard ratio [HR] = 2.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.39-3.98, P = 0.001) or weight gain (HR = 2.27, 95% CI: 1.18-4.38, P = 0.014). Furthermore, patients losing weight were at greater risk of subsequent inappropriate ICD therapy related to SVAs when compared to patients with stable weight (HR = 2.16, 95% CI: 1.18-3.95, P = 0.013) or weight gain (HR = 2.02, 95% CI: 0.95-4.29, P = 0.068). In mild HF patients receiving CRT-D, significant weight loss at 1 year is associated with increased risk of subsequent inappropriate ICD therapy, including risk related to SVAs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. The federal audit of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implants: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, Jonathan S; Mittal, Suneet

    2012-04-03

    The federal government has investigated a large number of institutions regarding concerns that implantable cardioverter-defibrillator procedures were performed in violation of the criteria set forth in a National Coverage Determination. We describe our experience and responses to such an audit, as well as the to complexities and nuances of practicing evidence-based medicine in the setting of heavy regulatory oversight.

  16. Inappropriate shock delivery due to interference between a washing machine and an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Christof; Schmieder, Sebastian; Schmitt, Claus

    2002-12-01

    Electromagnetic interference with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) can cause inappropriate delivery of therapies or temporary inhibition of ICD functions. The presented case describes electromagnetic interference between a washing machine and an ICD resulting in an inappropriate discharge of the device due to false detection of ventricular fibrillation.

  17. Battery and capacitor technology for uniform charge time in implantable cardioverter-defibrillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skarstad, Paul M.

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are implantable medical devices designed to treat ventricular fibrillation by administering a high-voltage shock directly to the heart. Minimizing the time a patient remains in fibrillation is an important goal of this therapy. Both batteries and high-voltage capacitors used in these devices can display time-dependency in performance, resulting in significant extension of charge time. Altering the electrode balance in lithium/silver vanadium oxide batteries used to power these devices has minimized time-dependent changes in battery resistance. Charge-interval dependent changes in capacitor cycling efficiency have been minimized for stacked-plate aluminum electrolytic capacitors by a combination of material and processing factors.

  18. Silicone Breast Implant and Automatic Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator: Can They Coexist? A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Arik, Zaretski

    2016-01-01

    Summary: We present a case of a silicone breast implant rupture after insertion of an automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD). A 51-year-old woman presented to our plastic surgery clinic to exchange her silicone breast implants. The patient underwent cosmetic mastopexy and breast augmentation in 2008. Because of recurrent myocardial infarctions and chronic heart failure, she underwent an insertion of an AICD in 2014 in which the left breast implant was hit. In this report, we discuss the first case of an AICD insertion, disrupting a breast implant. This case report illustrates the rare but real possibility of breast implant rupture after even minor surgical manipulation of the breast area. PMID:27622117

  19. Design and implementation of a population-based registry of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators (ICDs) in Ontario.

    PubMed

    Lee, Douglas S; Birnie, David; Cameron, Douglas; Crystal, Eugene; Dorian, Paul; Gula, Lorne J; Healey, Jeffrey S; Janmohammed, Amir; Khaykin, Yaariv; Krahn, Andrew D; LeFeuvre, Catherine; Simpson, Christopher S; Yee, Raymond; Hardy, Judy; Slaughter, Pamela M; Chen, Zhongliang; Alter, David A; Laupacis, Andreas; Tu, Jack V

    2008-09-01

    There are scarce population-based data on the use, complication rates, and outcomes of patients receiving implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). This study sought to describe the methodology of the Ontario ICD Database, a prospective study of all ICD recipients in Ontario, Canada. In this registry, web-based data collection will be performed in all patients referred to a cardiac electrophysiologist for consideration of an ICD. The variables included in the database were determined by consensus. Outcomes to be assessed will include defibrillator device therapies (e.g., shock or antitachycardia pacing), morbidity, and death. Preliminary statistics are reported after the first 6 months of data collection. Of 208 total variables selected by consensus, 111 (53.4%) were referral/patient characteristics, 12 (5.8%) were implant-related, and 85 (40.9%) were outcome variables. Among 990 referred patients, 902 were accepted, with the following ICD indications: primary prevention (63.3%), secondary prevention (21.6%), and generator replacement (15.1%). The mean (SD) age of patients with implants was 63.9 +/- 12.6 years, and 79% were men. Among accepted ICD patients, 66% had ischemic heart disease, 23% had nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy, and 11% had other cardiac conditions. Left ventricular (LV) systolic dysfunction was highly prevalent, with 82% of primary and 44% of secondary prevention patients having LV ejection fraction defibrillator patient characteristics and clinical and device-related outcomes. Contemporary ICDs are implanted largely for primary prevention, and the majority of these conformed with LV ejection fraction guidelines.

  20. Applicability of a risk score for prediction of the long-term benefit of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator in patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy.

    PubMed

    Barra, Sérgio; Looi, Khang-Li; Gajendragadkar, Parag R; Khan, Fakhar Z; Virdee, Munmohan; Agarwal, Sharad

    2016-08-01

    The Goldenberg risk score, comprising five clinical risk factors (New York Heart Association class >2, atrial fibrillation, QRS duration >120 ms, age >70 years, and urea >26 mg/dL), may help identify patients in whom the survival benefit of the defibrillator may be limited. We aim at assessing whether this score can accurately predict the long-term all-cause mortality risk of patients receiving cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and identify those who are more likely to benefit from the defibrillator. In this retrospective observational cohort study, 638 patients with ischaemic or non-ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy who had CRT-defibrillator (CRT-D) (n = 224) vs. CRT-pacemaker (CRT-P) (n = 414) implantation were prospectively followed up for survival outcomes. The long-term outcome of patients with CRT-D vs. CRT-P was compared within risk score categories and in patients with severe renal dysfunction. Mean follow-up in surviving and deceased patients was 62.7 and 32.5 months, respectively. This score showed higher discriminative performance in all-cause mortality prediction in CRT-D vs. CRT-P patients (area under the curve 0.718 ± 0.041 vs. 0.650 ± 0.032, respectively, P = 0.001). In those with scores 0-2, a CRT-D device decreased mortality rates in the first 4 years of follow-up compared with CRT-P (11.3 vs. 24.7%, P = 0.041), but this effect attenuated with longer follow-up duration (21.2 vs. 32.7%, P = 0.078). In this group, the benefit of CRT-D during the follow-up was seen after adjusting for traditional mortality predictors (hazard ratio 0.339, P = 0.001). No significant differences in mortality rates were seen in patients with score ≥3 (57.9% with CRT-D vs. 56.9%, P = 0.8) and those with severe renal dysfunction (92.9% in CRT-D vs. 76.2%, P = 0.17). Similar results were seen following propensity score matching. A simple risk stratification score comprising five clinical risk factors may help identify CRT patients who are more likely to benefit from

  1. Clinical characteristics and outcomes of elderly patients treated with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy in a real-world setting: data from the Israeli ICD Registry.

    PubMed

    Suleiman, Mahmoud; Goldenberg, Ilan; Haim, Moti; Schliamser, Jorge E; Boulos, Monther; Ilan, Michael; Swissa, Moshe; Gavrielov-Yusim, Natalie; Fuchs, Therese; Amit, Guy; Glikson, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Elderly patients are underrepresented in clinical trials of device therapy. To provide real-world data regarding outcomes associated with device-based therapy in a large cohort of elderly patients enrolled in the Israeli ICD Registry. Between July 2010 and June 2012, a total of 2807 consecutive patients undergoing implanted cardioverter-defibrillator/cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (ICD/CRT-D) implantation were prospectively enrolled in the Israeli ICD Registry. For the present analysis, patients were categorized into 3 age groups: ≤60 years (n = 1378 [49%]), 61-75 years (n = 863 [31%]), and >75 years (n = 566 [20%]). Elderly patients (>75 years of age) had more comorbid conditions and were more likely to undergo CRT-D implantation (all P < .01). However, the rate of device-related complications associated with surgical reinterventions at 1 year was <3% regardless of age (P = .70 for the comparison among the 3 age groups). Multivariate analysis showed that the risk of heart failure or death and of appropriate ICD therapy for ventricular arrhythmias was significantly increased with increasing age among patients who received an ICD. In contrast, the age-related increase in the risk of all end points was attenuated among patients who received CRT-D devices (all P values for age-by-device-type interactions are <.05). In a real-world scenario, elderly patients (>75 years of age) comprise approximately 20% of the ICD/CRT-D recipients and experience a device reintervention rate similar to that of their younger counterparts. Our data suggest that the association between advanced age and adverse clinical outcomes is attenuated in elderly patients implanted with CRT-D devices. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Experience of elderly Spanish men with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Losa-Iglesias, Marta Elena; Salvadores-Fuentes, Paloma; Alonso-Blanco, Cristina; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar

    2011-07-01

    An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator is the treatment of choice for ventricular arrhythmias and sudden death. Clinical trials and qualitative studies normally exclude elderly patients. The aim of this study was to describe the experience of elderly Spanish men with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. This was a qualitative phenomenological study. Sampling was purposeful and used the snowball technique. Unstructured interviews and recipients' personal accounts were collected. Data collection finished with information saturation. Analysis was performed using the Giorgi proposal with triangulation between research-team members. Data were audited by an external researcher. The change and the need to adapt to the new situation can be perceived as a loss of independence by the elderly. The significance of the partner in the Spanish context is particularly relevant during the narration. Also, their view of the world is transformed, they experience an internal change. Additionally, the elderly patient may become confined to their home and shut off from their surroundings, accompanied by a sensation of being "stuck" and "imprisoned" by their own process. Elderly recipients can end up "clinging on" to customs as they are felt to define the recipient's identity and utility within their social and personal context. Their partner is of huge significance for elderly recipients. The geriatric health personnel must contribute to promote and maintain activities of daily living in elderly. Future qualitative studies taking an in-depth look at the experience and readjustment process of elderly recipients and the relationship among older people and technological equipment should be further conducted. © 2011 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  3. [Surgical and interventional use of radiofrequency current: is there interference with implantable cardioverter/defibrillators?].

    PubMed

    Fiek, M; Dorwarth, U; Durchlaub, I; Mayer, A; Steinbeck, G; Hoffmann, E

    2002-07-01

    During surgical and interventional procedures, interactions between implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) and electrical cautery, respectively, application of radiofrequency (RF) energy may occur. Induction of inadequate shock therapies or device malfunction may result and represent a potential perioperative hazard for the patient. Hence, we analyzed the intraoperative interactions in 23 consecutive ICD patients with regard to different surgical and interventional procedures. Sixteen surgical operations (general surgery n = 7, urologic n = 5, abdominal n = 2, gynecological n = 1, thoracic n = 1) and 7 interventional therapies (RF catheter ablation n = 5, endoscopic papillotomy n = 2) were performed. The ICD devices were all located in the left pectoral position and consisted of 15 single and 8 dual chamber defibrillators. During the procedure tachyarrhythmia detection (VF 295 +/- 21 ms, VT 370 +/- 55 ms) of the devices was maintained active (monitoring mode); only ICD therapies were inactivated. The indifferent electrode of the electrical cauter/RF generator was placed in standard positions (right mid femoral position n = 18, thoracic spine area n = 5). After the procedure, the ICD memory was checked for detections, respectively, for changes of the programming. There was no misdetection or reprogramming of the ICD caused by electrical cautery or RF energy. Despite the lack of undesired interactions ICDs should be inactivated preoperatively to assure maximum patient safety. However, should inactivation be ineffective or not manageable, electromagnetic interference is highly unlikely.

  4. Concomitant Use of the Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator and a Permanent Pacemaker.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jason; Patton, Kristen K; Prutkin, Jordan M

    2016-11-01

    The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) is a novel implanted defibrillator for the prevention of sudden cardiac death that avoids intravascular access. Use of this device is limited by its inability to provide backup pacing. Combined use of the S-ICD with a permanent pacemaker may be the optimal choice in certain situations though experience with the use of both devices together remains limited. We reviewed our single-center experience with the S-ICD from March 2011 to November 2015. Four patients with concomitant use of the S-ICD and a permanent pacemaker were identified. Clinical indication for device therapy, operative details, and subsequent follow-up was reviewed. During implantation, S-ICD sensing of paced morphologies was evaluated at maximal voltage output. After S-ICD implant, if feasible, the upper rate was adjusted to ≤50% of the S-ICD tachycardia zone to minimize risk of inappropriate shocks. After a mean follow-up of over 1 year, no adverse events occurred, including no inappropriate shock, lead malfunction, or device infection. One patient had a total of eight appropriate shocks, while another individual had no inappropriate shocks despite having a unipolar pacing lead. In unique situations, combined use of the S-ICD and a permanent pacemaker may be preferable to alternative options. In our experience, this approach was successful in varying conditions including complex congenital heart disease, recurrent device infection, and limited vascular access. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Electromagnetic interference from welding and motors on implantable cardioverter-defibrillators as tested in the electrically hostile work site.

    PubMed

    Fetter, J G; Benditt, D G; Stanton, M S

    1996-08-01

    This study was designed to determine the susceptibility of an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator to electromagnetic interference in an electrically hostile work site environment, with the ultimate goal of allowing the patient to return to work. Normal operation of an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator depends on reliable sensing of the heart's electrical activity. Consequently, there is concern that external electromagnetic interference from external sources in the work place, especially welding equipment or motor-generator systems, may be sensed and produce inappropriate shocks or abnormal reed switch operation, temporarily suspending detection of ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation. The effects of electromagnetic interference on the operation of one type of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (Medtronic models 7217 and 7219) was measured by using internal event counter monitoring in 10 patients operating arc welders at up to 900 A or working near 200-hp motors and 1 patient close to a locomotive starter drawing up to 400 A. The electromagnetic interference produced two sources of potential interference on the sensing circuit or reed switch operation, respectively: 1) electrical fields with measured frequencies up to 50 MHz produced by the high currents during welding electrode activation, and 2) magnetic fields produced by the current in the welding electrode and cable. The defibrillator sensitivity was programmed to the highest (most sensitive) value: 0.15 mV (model 7219) or 0.3 mV (model 7217). The ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation therapies were temporarily turned off but the detection circuits left on. None of the implanted defibrillators tested were affected by oversensing of the electric field as verified by telemetry from the detection circuits. The magnetic field from 225-A welding current produced a flux density of 1.2 G; this density was not adequate to close the reed switch, which requires approximately 10 G

  6. Surgery for postinfarction ventricular tachycardia in the pre-implantable cardioverter defibrillator era: early and long term outcomes in 100 consecutive patients

    PubMed Central

    Bourke, J; Campbell, R; McComb, J; Furniss, S; Doig, J; Hilton, C

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To report outcome following surgery for postinfarction ventricular tachycardia undertaken in patients before the use of implantable defibrillators.
DESIGN—A retrospective review, with uniform patient selection criteria and surgical and mapping strategy throughout. Complete follow up. Long term death notification by OPCS (Office of Population Censuses and Statistics) registration.
SETTING—Tertiary referral centre for arrhythmia management.
PATIENTS—100 consecutive postinfarction patients who underwent map guided endocardial resection at this hospital in the period 1981-91 for drug refractory ventricular tachyarrhythmias.
RESULTS—Emergency surgery was required for intractable arrhythmias in 28 patients, and 32 had surgery within eight weeks of infarction ("early"). Surgery comprised endocardial resections in all, aneurysmectomy in 57, cryoablations in 26, and antiarrhythmic ventriculotomies in 11. Twenty five patients died < 30 days after surgery, 21 of cardiac failure. This high mortality reflects the type of patients included in the series. Only 12 received antiarrhythmic drugs after surgery. Perioperative mortality was related to preoperative left ventricular function and the context of surgery. Mortality rates for elective surgery more than eight weeks after infarction, early surgery, emergency surgery, and early emergency surgery were 18%, 31%, 46%, and 50%, respectively. Actuarial survival rates at one, three, five, and 10 years after surgery were 66%, 62%, 57%, and 35%.
CONCLUSIONS—Surgery offers arrhythmia abolition at a risk proportional to the patient's preoperative risk of death from ventricular arrhythmias. The long term follow up results suggest a continuing role for surgery in selected patients even in the era of catheter ablation and implantable defibrillators.


Keywords: arrhythmias; myocardial infarction; surgical management PMID:10409528

  7. Single lead catheter of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator with floating atrial sensing dipole implanted via persistent left superior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Malagù, Michele; Toselli, Tiziano; Bertini, Matteo

    2016-04-26

    Persistent left superior vena cava (LSVC) is a congenital anomaly with 0.3%-1% prevalence in the general population. It is usually asymptomatic but in case of transvenous lead positioning, i.e., for pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), may be a cause for significant complications or unsuccessful implantation. Single lead ICD with atrial sensing dipole (ICD DX) is a safe and functional technology in patients without congenital abnormalities. We provide a review of the literature and a case report of successful implantation of an ICD DX in a patient with LSVC and its efficacy in treating ventricular arrhythmias.

  8. Single lead catheter of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator with floating atrial sensing dipole implanted via persistent left superior vena cava

    PubMed Central

    Malagù, Michele; Toselli, Tiziano; Bertini, Matteo

    2016-01-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava (LSVC) is a congenital anomaly with 0.3%-1% prevalence in the general population. It is usually asymptomatic but in case of transvenous lead positioning, i.e., for pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), may be a cause for significant complications or unsuccessful implantation. Single lead ICD with atrial sensing dipole (ICD DX) is a safe and functional technology in patients without congenital abnormalities. We provide a review of the literature and a case report of successful implantation of an ICD DX in a patient with LSVC and its efficacy in treating ventricular arrhythmias. PMID:27152145

  9. Wearable cardioverter-defibrillator as a bridge to cardiac transplantation: A national database analysis.

    PubMed

    Opreanu, Madalina; Wan, Chingping; Singh, Vini; Salehi, Negar; Ahmad, Jaffri; Szymkiewicz, Steven J; Thakur, Ranjan K

    2015-10-01

    Life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias (VAs) and sudden cardiac death (SCD) are common in patients awaiting heart transplantation (HT), and the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is often used for primary prevention in this setting. Use of ICDs in these patients is not without risks and is sometimes contraindicated. The wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) may be a reasonable alternative to bridge the period of risk leading up to HT. We obtained a convenience sample of patients prescribed an WCD as a bridge therapy to HT. The available data consisted of demographics, cardiac transplantation status, associated comorbidities, device use, device-stored electrocardiogram (ECG) and reason for discontinuing the WCD. Statistical analyses were performed using SPSS version 17 and GraphPad PRISM 5. The registry included 121 patients consisting of 83 (69%) men and 38 (31%) women. The mean age was 44 ± 18 years. Mean ejection fraction was 25 ± 15%. Non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (CMP) was the underlying diagnosis in 67 (55%) patients, whereas 21 (17%) patients had ischemic CMP and 33 (27%) had a mixed or uncharacterized CMP. New York Heart Association Class III heart failure was present in 32% and 34% were in Class IV. Eighty-eight patients (73%) were being evaluated for HT or were on an HT waiting list, and 33 patients (27%) had had a prior HT, experienced rejection, and were awaiting re-transplantation. The patients wore the WCD for an average of 127 ± 392 days (median 39 days) with average daily use of 17 ± 7 hours (median 20 hours). Seven patients (6%) received appropriate WCD shocks. Fifty-one patients (42%) ended use after ICD implantation and 13 patients (11%) after HT. There were 11 deaths (9%). A significant proportion of patients on the HT waiting list will have VA. WCD use in our study showed high compliance and efficacy and a low complication rate, suggesting that the WCD is a reasonable bridge therapy for preventing SCD in patients awaiting HT

  10. Wearable cardioverter defibrillator in stress cardiomyopathy and cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Francisco O; Krishna, Rama K; Hrachian, Hakop; Santana, Orlando

    2013-09-13

    A 57-year-old woman presented with nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea. She had severe hypokalaemia and hypomagnesemia with marked QTc (680 ms) prolongation after suspected viral diarrhoea. She then developed progressive dyspnoea with congestion. An echocardiogram was obtained and showed severe hypokinesis with apical ballooning and hyperdynamic cardiac base, suggestive of stress cardiomyopathy. A repeat ECG showed further prolongation of the QTc (883 ms) and she rapidly developed polymorphic ventricular tachycardia. She underwent cardiac arrest and was successfully resuscitated. A coronary angiogram confirmed the diagnosis of stress cardiomyopathy. We had therapeutic dilemma at discharge to implant a permanent automated implantable cardiac defibrillator in view of the high risk for recurrent ventricular tachycardia, or follow-up for resolution of both reversible causes of the prolonged QTc (stress cardiomyopathy and electrolytes abnormalities). We suggested an alternate treatment for sudden death prevention in high risk patients who have reversible cause for QT interval prolongation.

  11. Frequency and clinical impact of retained implantable cardioverter defibrillator lead materials in heart transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun; Hwang, Jongmin; Choi, Jin Hee; Choi, Hyo-In; Kim, Min-Seok; Jung, Sung-Ho; Nam, Gi-Byoung; Choi, Kee-Joon; Lee, Jae Won; Kim, You-Ho; Kim, Jae-Joong

    2017-01-01

    End-stage heart failure patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) with/without cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-D) often require heart transplantation (HTPL) as a last-resort treatment. We aimed to assess the frequency and clinical impact of retained ICD lead materials in HTPL patients. In this retrospective single center study, we examined the clinical records and chest radiographs of patients with ICD and CRT-D who underwent HTPL between January 1992 and July 2014. Of 40 patients with ICD and CRT-D at HTPL, 19 (47.5%) patients had retained ICD lead materials within the central venous system. Retained ICD lead materials following HTPL were more frequently noted in patients with longer implantation durations until HTPL. None of the patients underwent extraction procedures after HTPL. All patients were asymptomatic and did not exhibit significant complications or death related to the retained ICD lead materials. Seven (7/40, 17.5%) patients without any retained ICD lead materials underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) during the follow-up period (median, 29.5 months); none of the patients with retained lead materials were given MRI. Considering the common use of MRI in HTPL patients, further studies on the prophylactic extraction of retained ICD lead materials and safety of MRI in these patients are needed.

  12. Complications Associated With Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators in Adults With Congenital Heart Disease or Left Ventricular Noncompaction Cardiomyopathy (From the NCDR(®) Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry).

    PubMed

    Gleva, Marye J; Wang, Yongfei; Curtis, Jeptha P; Berul, Charles I; Huddleston, Charles B; Poole, Jeanne E

    2017-08-08

    Patients with childhood heart disease are living longer and entering adulthood, and may undergo implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation to reduce the risk of sudden death. We evaluated the characteristics of adult patients with congenital heart disease or left ventricular noncompaction cardiomyopathy (LVNC) in the National Cardiovascular Disease Registry ICD Registry and determined ICD-related in-hospital complications. Patients with LVNC or transposition of the great arteries, tetralogy of Fallot, Ebstein's anomaly, atrial septal defect, ventricular septal defect, or common ventricle were identified in the registry. In-hospital complications were compared among different diagnoses using the chi-square test for categorical variables and the F-test in analyses of variance for continuous variables. A total of 3,077 patients were identified. The mean age was 48.0 ± 16.0 years, and 39.9% were female. Single-chamber ICDs were implanted in 25.2%, dual chamber in 41.9%, and cardiac resynchronization in 30.8%. Intraprocedural or postprocedural complications occurred in 70 patients (2.3%); there were 6 in-hospital deaths (0.2%). The most frequent complications were acute lead dislodgments, pneumothorax, and hematomas. Patients with Ebstein's anomaly had the greatest complication rate (8.3%, p = 0.03). The complication rate was 1.55% in single-chamber devices, 1.86% in dual chamber, and 3.5% in cardiac resynchronization (p < 0.001). For initial implants, the complication rate was 2.55%, 1.62% in generator replacements, and 8.77% in lead revisions (p = 0.001). In conclusion, in this large contemporary adult cohort of congenital heart disease and LVNC patients who underwent ICD implant procedures, periprocedural complication rates were low. Lead-related risks predominated. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Posttraumatic stress 18 months following cardioverter defibrillator implantation: shocks, anxiety, and personality.

    PubMed

    Habibović, Mirela; van den Broek, Krista C; Alings, Marco; Van der Voort, Pepijn H; Denollet, Johan

    2012-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) has been observed in cardiac patients, but little is known about PTSD in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) patients. We examined the prevalence and predictors (clinical variables, personality, and anxiety) of PTSD in ICD patients. Three hundred ninety-five ICD patients (20.1% female; mean age = 62.8 ± 10.3 years) from two Dutch referral hospitals completed the 14-item Type D scale (DS14) and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory to assess Type D (distressed) personality (high negative affect with social inhibition) and anxiety (on the State Anxiety Inventory) at the time of implantation. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent predictors of PTSD at 18 months postimplantation. At 18 months postimplantation, 30 patients (7.6%) qualified for a PTSD diagnosis. Of these patients, 55% (n = 16) had a Type D personality, 83% (n = 25) experienced anxiety at baseline, and 24% (n = 7) had experienced shocks during follow-up. Both Type D personality (odds ratio [OR] = 3.5) and baseline anxiety (OR = 4.3) were significant predictors of posttraumatic stress at 18 months postimplantation, independent of shocks and other clinical and demographic covariates. Shocks were not significantly associated with PTSD. A significant group of ICD patients is at risk of posttraumatic stress 18 months postimplantation, especially Type D patients and patients with increased levels of baseline anxiety. Identification of patients with Type D personality and anxiety at the time of implantation may be warranted to prevent PTSD in ICD patients.

  14. Ambient temperature and activation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinn, L.; Hajat, S.; Wilkinson, P.; Armstrong, B.; Anderson, H. R.; Monk, V.; Harrison, R.

    2013-09-01

    The degree to which weather influences the occurrence of serious cardiac arrhythmias is not fully understood. To investigate, we studied the timing of activation of implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) in relation to daily outdoor temperatures using a fixed stratum case-crossover approach. All patients attending ICD clinics in London between 1995 and 2003 were recruited onto the study. Temperature exposure for each ICD patient was determined by linking each patient's postcode of residence to their nearest temperature monitoring station in London and the South of England. There were 5,038 activations during the study period. Graphical inspection of ICD activation against temperature suggested increased risk at lower but not higher temperatures. For every 1 °C decrease in ambient temperature, risk of ventricular arrhythmias up to 7 days later increased by 1.2 % (95 % CI -0.6 %, 2.9 %). In threshold models, risk of ventricular arrhythmias increased by 11.2 % (0.5 %, 23.1 %) for every 1° decrease in temperature below 2 °C. Patients over the age of 65 exhibited the highest risk. This large study suggests an inverse relationship between ambient outdoor temperature and risk of ventricular arrhythmias. The highest risk was found for patients over the age of 65. This provides evidence about a mechanism for some cases of low-temperature cardiac death, and suggests a possible strategy for reducing risk among selected cardiac patients by encouraging behaviour modification to minimise cold exposure.

  15. A rare cause of cyanosis and hypoxia that should not be forgotten after implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation.

    PubMed

    Canpolat, Uğur; Bahadır, Nihan; Şahiner, Levent; Aytemir, Kudret

    2017-09-01

    Transvenous pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation procedures are usually performed under local anesthetic, and prilocaine is the most common agent to be used. The data regarding methemoglobinemia after cardiac device implantation are scarce. Thus, presently described is the case of a 47-year-old female patient with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia who underwent ICD implantation for secondary prophylaxis and developed cyanosis as a result of prilocaine-associated methemoglobinemia. Prilocaine was administered during the procedure. To our knowledge, this is the second case in the literature presenting methemoglobinemia due to local anesthetic after transvenous cardiac device implantation.

  16. Implantable cardioverter defibrillators and Chagas' disease: results of the ICD Registry Latin America.

    PubMed

    Muratore, Claudio A; Batista Sa, Luiz A; Chiale, Pablo A; Eloy, Ricardo; Tentori, Maria Cristina; Escudero, Jaime; Lima, Antonio Malan Cavalcanti; Medina, Luis E; Garillo, Raúl; Maloney, Jennifer

    2009-02-01

    Chagas' disease is an endemic parasitic affliction in Latin America. It is frequently associated with ventricular tachyarrhythmia and sudden death. The aim of this study is to assess the evolution of patients with Chagas' disease treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Eighty-nine chagasic patients with ICD were included for analysis from the Medtronic ICD Registry Latin America. At implant, mean age was 59 +/- 10 years, and 72% were male. Eighty-one patients (91%) had secondary prevention indications. Mean left ventricular ejection fraction was 40 +/- 11%, and mean follow-up was 12 +/- 7 months. During follow-up, six patients died (6.7%); three due to congestive heart failure, one due to sudden death, and two due to non-cardiac cause. Hospitalization occurred in seven patients. Thirty-eight patients (42%) received appropriate ICD therapies. A total of 737 episodes were detected by the ICD. The mean period between ICD implantation and the first appropriate therapy was 104 days. Electrical storms were observed in 14 of the 89 patients (15.7%). Inappropriate therapies were observed in seven patients. This registry confirms that ICD therapy provides protection by effectively terminating life-threatening arrhythmias in patients with Chagas' disease. This is especially so when patients receive the device for secondary prevention.

  17. Examination of the Effect of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators on Health-Related Quality of Life

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, Katia; Corona, Ethan; Veazie, Peter; Dick, Andrew W.; Zhao, Hongwei; Moss, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    Background While implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) improve survival, their benefit in terms of health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is negligible. Objective To examine how shocks and congestive heart failure (CHF) mediate the effect of ICDs on HRQOL. Methods The US patients from the MADIT-II (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Trial-II) trial (n = 983) were randomized to receive an ICD or medical treatment only. HRQOL was assessed using the Health Utility Index 3 at baseline and 3, 12, 24, and 36 months following randomization. Logistic regressions were used to test for the effect of ICDs on the CHF indicator, and linear regressions were used to examine the effect of ICD shocks and CHF on HRQOL in living patients. We used a Monte Carlo simulation and a parametric Weibull distribution survival model to test for the effect of selective attrition. Observations were clustered by patients and robust standard errors (RSEs) were used to control for the non-independence of multiple observations provided by the same patient. Results Patients in the ICD arm had 41% higher odds of experiencing CHF since their last assessment compared with those in the control arm (RSE = 0.19, p = 0.01). Developing CHF reduced HRQOL at the subsequent visit by 0.07 (p < 0.01). Having ICD shocks reduced overall HRQOL by 0.04 (p = 0.04) at the subsequent assessment. The negative effect of ICD firing on HRQOL was an order of magnitude greater than the effect of CHF. Conclusions A higher prevalence of CHF and shocks among patients with ICDs and their negative effect on HRQOL may partially explain the lack of HRQOL benefit of ICD therapy. PMID:19929037

  18. Epicardial Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator in a 2-Month-Old Infant.

    PubMed

    Sughimoto, Koichi; Tsuchida, Yuta; Hayashi, Hidenori; Torii, Shinzo; Kitamura, Tadashi; Horai, Tetsuya; Miyaji, Kagami

    2017-03-01

    We describe the implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) in a 2-month-old infant with frequent sustained ventricular tachycardia (VT) refractory to antiarrhythmic agents. An epicardial ICD shock coil lead and pacing leads were placed, as was a cumbersome device console that was stored in a pocket between the left external and internal oblique muscles. These methods were safe and feasible even for such a small infant, and possible adverse events were avoided.

  19. Intermuscular Two-Incision Technique for Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Implantation: Results from a Multicenter Registry.

    PubMed

    Migliore, Federico; Allocca, Giuseppe; Calzolari, Vittorio; Crosato, Martino; Facchin, Domenico; Daleffe, Elisabetta; Zecchin, Massimo; Fantinel, Mauro; Cannas, Sergio; Arancio, Rocco; Marchese, Procolo; Zanon, Francesco; Zorzi, Alessandro; Iliceto, Sabino; Bertaglia, Emanuele

    2017-03-01

    The traditional technique for subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) implantation, which involves three incisions and a subcutaneous pocket, is associated with possible complications, including inappropriate interventions. The aim of this prospective multicenter study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of an alternative intermuscular two-incision technique for S-ICD implantation. The study population included 36 consecutive patients (75% male, mean age 44 ± 12 years [range 20-69]) who underwent S-ICD implantation using the intermuscular two-incision technique. This technique avoids the superior parasternal incision for the lead placement and consists of creating an intermuscular pocket between the anterior surface of the serratus anterior and the posterior surface of the latissimus dorsi muscles instead of a subcutaneous pocket. All patients were successfully implanted in the absence of any procedure-related complications with a successful 65-J standard polarity defibrillation threshold testing, except in one, who received a second successful shock after pocket revision. During a mean follow-up of 10 months (range 3-30), no complications requiring surgical revision were observed. At device interrogation, stable sensing without interferences was observed in all patients. Two patients (5.5%) experienced appropriate and successful shock on ventricular fibrillation and in four patients (11%), a total of seven nonsustained self-terminated ventricular tachycardias were correctly detected. No inappropriate interventions were observed. Our experience suggests that the two-incision intermuscular technique is a safe and efficacious alternative to the current technique for S-ICD implantation that may help reducing complications including inappropriate interventions and offer a better cosmetic outcome, especially in thin individuals. © 2016 The Authors. Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Arrhythmia Management in the Elderly-Implanted Cardioverter Defibrillators and Prevention of Sudden Death.

    PubMed

    Manian, Usha; Gula, Lorne J

    2016-09-01

    We present an overview of arrhythmia management in elderly patients as it pertains to implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy and prevention of sudden death. Treatment of arrhythmia in elderly patients is fraught with challenges pertaining to goals of care and patient frailty. With an ever increasing amount of technology available, realistic expectations of therapy need to balance quality and quantity of life. The ICD is an important treatment option for selected patients at risk of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. However, the incidence of sudden death as a percentage of all-cause mortality decreases with age. Studies have reported that 20% of elderly patients might die within 1 year of an episode of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia, but most because of nonarrhythmic causes. This illustrates the 'sudden cardiac death paradox,' with a great proportion of death in elderly patients, even those at risk for ventricular arrhythmias, attributable to medical conditions that cannot be addressed by an ICD. We discuss current practices in ICD therapy in elderly patients, existing evidence from registries and clinical trials, approaches to risk stratification, and important ethical considerations. Although the decision on whether ICD insertion is appropriate in the elderly population remains an area of uncertainty from an evidence-based and ethical perspective, we offer insight on potential clinical and research strategies for this growing population.

  1. The innominate vein as alternative venous access for complicated implantable cardioverter defibrillator revisions.

    PubMed

    Aleksic, Ivan; Kottenberg-Assenmacher, Eva; Kienbaum, Peter; Szabo, Andras K; Sommer, Sebastian-Patrick; Wieneke, Heiner; Yildirim, Cagatay; Leyh, Rainer G

    2007-08-01

    Venous complications of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) systems may cause significant problems when the need for system revision or upgrades arises. Such revisions require venous access close to the site of the previous ICD implantation. The internal and external jugular vein have disadvantages due to a long subcutaneous course crossing the clavicle and problems with lead extraction if infection occurs. In seven patients with ICD revisions due to lead dysfunction (n = 4) and upgrade to a biventricular device (n = 2) and status after system removal due to infection with new device implantation (n = 1) conventional venous access could not be obtained. Intraoperative contrast venography demonstrated an occluded left subclavian and/or left innominate vein in all patients. In all patients, we gained venous access through puncture of the right innominate vein and tunneled the new lead subcutaneously to the ICD pocket on the left. No intraoperative complications were observed. All patients are followed in our ICD clinic. Mean follow-up is 16 +/- 4 months now. So far, no clinical or lead complications with this access have been observed. We have demonstrated that ICD lead placement through puncture of the right innominate vein is feasible. We propose the innominate vein as an alternative route for establishing venous access in patients requiring ICD revisions or upgrades who suffer from venous obstruction. ICD implanting physicians should acquaint themselves with the technique of right innominate vein puncture to use this vein as a bail-out strategy in patients with complicated venous access.

  2. Combined use of non-thoracotomy cardioverter defibrillators and endocardial pacemakers.

    PubMed Central

    Noguera, H. H.; Peralta, A. O.; John, R. M.; Venditti, F. J.; Martin, D. T.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the potential interactions in patients with endocardial permanent pacemakers and non-thoracotomy implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) systems. DESIGN: Case series and cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary referral centre. PATIENTS: Fifteen consecutive patients with both endocardial pacemakers (12 dual chamber and three single chamber) and non-thoracotomy ICD systems. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Detection inhibition of induced ventricular fibrillation; double counting; and pacemaker function after shocks. In the evaluation of detection inhibition, 124 VF inductions were analysed for detection duration compared with induced VF episodes in controls with an ICD but without a pacemaker. RESULTS: Two patients (13%) showed detection inhibition of VF and required pacemaker system change at the time of the ICD implant. With the final lead position, despite frequent pacemaker undersensing of VF, ICD detection of VF was not inhibited during any induction, and neither initial detection nor redetection times for VF were different from controls. Double/triple counting of pacemaker artefact and evoked electrogram was noted in three patients (20%). In two, this was remedied during the implantation procedure, and in the other it was abolished when amiodarone treatment was discontinued. Pacemaker function was affected by ICD discharges in two patients, one who showed postshock atrial undersensing and loss of capture, and another whose pacemaker reverted to VVI mode. CONCLUSIONS: When careful testing is performed at implantation to detect and remedy device interactions, non-thoracotomy ICD treatment and endocardial pacemakers can be used safely in combination. Images PMID:9290402

  3. Do implantable cardioverter defibrillators contribute to new depression or anxiety symptoms? A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Amiaz, Revital; Asher, Elad; Rozen, Guy; Czerniak, Efrat; Glikson, Michael; Weiser, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In this retrospective cross-sectional study, we evaluated the existence of psychiatric symptoms which appeared after implantation of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). Patients with ICDs were diagnosed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI) and were excluded if they had any psychiatric diagnosis prior to ICD implantation. Depression and anxiety were evaluated using the HAM-D and HAM-A rating scales and their attitude towards the ICD using a visual analog scale (VAS). Ninety five ICD patients with mean age of 66 years (±11.5) were recruited, 80 (84%) were men. Four (4%) patients were diagnosed with new-onset MDD and one patient (1%) with anxiety. Twenty seven (28%) were found to have significant depressive symptoms (HAM-D >8), without MDD diagnosis; half of them attributing these symptoms to the device. Seven (8%) patients experienced phantom shocks and had relatively higher depressive scores (HAM-D 10.3 vs. 5.8; F = 3.696; p = 0.058). The MDD rates in our study were rather consistent with those reported for cardiac patients. We suggest that ICD contributed little, if any, additional depressive or anxiety symptoms after implantation. We found that the overall attitude towards the device was positive and that shocks and phantom shocks were related to depressive symptoms.

  4. Depression and outcome among veterans with implantable cardioverter defibrillators with or without cardiac resynchronization therapy capability.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Alaa A; Brumberg, Genevieve E; Pointer, Lauren; Bekelman, David B; Rumsfeld, John S; Yang, Yanfei; Pellegrini, Cara N; Heidenreich, Paul A; Keung, Edmund; Massie, Barry M; Varosy, Paul D

    2014-08-01

    The impact of depression on outcome in implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) recipients has not been fully appreciated. We assessed the prevalence of depression and its association with heart failure (HF) outcome among veterans with ICDs. Patients enrolled between January 2005 and January 2010 in the Outcomes among Veterans with Implantable Defibrillators Registry were studied. We examined the cross-sectional association of depression with severity of HF functional class as well as the association of depression with the composite outcome of mortality or HF hospitalization over a mean follow-up time of 2.7 years. There were 3,862 patients enrolled. Patients with depression (1,162, 43%) were younger (63.1 ± 9.4 years vs 66.6 ± 9.9 years, P < 0.001), more likely to have a history of tobacco or alcohol abuse (P < 0.0001) or atrial fibrillation (P = 0.05) while having a higher ejection fraction (28.3% vs 27.4%, P = 0.03). Depression was associated with advanced HF class at time of implant; odds ratio (OR; vs class I) for class III: 1.65 (confidence interval [CI] 1.17-2.33), class IV: 1.73 (95% CI 1.08-2.76). Death or HF hospitalization was more likely to occur in patients with depression (35.2% vs 32.0%, HR: 1.15 [95% CI 0.99-1.33]). The predictive value of depression was stronger after multivariable adjustment; HR: 1.25 (95% CI 1.05-1.49). Depression was prevalent among veterans with ICDs. Depression was associated with severity of HF. The predictive value of associated depression was significant after multivariable adjustment. ©2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Low inappropriate shock rates in patients with single- and dual/triple-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillators using a novel suite of detection algorithms: PainFree SST trial primary results.

    PubMed

    Auricchio, Angelo; Schloss, Edward J; Kurita, Takashi; Meijer, Albert; Gerritse, Bart; Zweibel, Steven; AlSmadi, Faisal M; Leng, Charles T; Sterns, Laurence D

    2015-05-01

    The benefits of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have been well demonstrated in many clinical trials, and ICD shocks for ventricular tachyarrhythmias save lives. However, inappropriate and unnecessary shock delivery remains a significant clinical issue with considerable consequences for patients and the healthcare system. The purpose of the PainFree SmartShock Technology (SST) study was to investigate new-generation ICDs to reduce inappropriate and unnecessary shocks through novel discrimination algorithms with modern programming strategies. This prospective, multicenter clinical trial enrolled 2790 patients with approved indication for ICD implantation (79% male, mean age 65 years; 69% primary prevention indication, 27% single-chamber ICD, 33% replacement or upgrade). Patients were followed for a minimum of 12 months, and mean follow-up was 22 months. The primary end-point of the study was the percentage of patients remaining free of inappropriate shocks at 1 year postimplant, analyzed separately for dual/triple-chamber ICDs (N = 2019) and single-chamber ICDs (N = 751). The inappropriate shock rate at 1 year was 1.5% for patients with dual/triple-chamber ICDs and 2.5% for patients with single-chamber devices. Two years postimplant, the inappropriate shock rate was 2.8% for patients with dual-/triple chamber ICDs and 3.7% for those with single-chamber ICDs. The most common cause of an inappropriate shock in both groups was atrial fibrillation or flutter. In a large patient cohort receiving ICDs for primary or secondary prevention, the adoption of novel enhanced detection algorithms in conjunction with routine implementation of modern programming strategies led to a very low inappropriate shock rate. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Long-term prognosis in patients with Brugada syndrome based on Class II indication for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in the HRS/EHRA/APHRS Expert Consensus Statement: multicenter study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Masahiko; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Yokoyama, Yasuhiro; Aihara, Naohiko; Hiraoka, Masayasu; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2014-10-01

    The HRS/EHRA/APHRS Expert Consensus Statement for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) in Brugada syndrome (BrS) has recently been published. However, the validity of the Class II indication for ICD in BrS patients is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the validity of the Class II indication for ICD implantation in the Consensus Statement with a large Japanese cohort of BrS. Among 410 patients with BrS, a total of 213 consecutive BrS patients with the Class II indication for ICD implantation (mean age 53 ± 14 years, 199 men) were enrolled. Clinical outcomes were compared between patients with Class IIa (n = 66) and those with Class IIb (n = 147) indication according to the Consensus Statement. The incidence of cardiac events (documented ventricular tachyarrhythmias or sudden cardiac death) during follow-up of 62 ± 34 months was significantly higher in patients with Class IIa (n = 8, 2.2% per year) than those with Class IIb indication (n = 4, 0.5% per year; P = .01). We confirmed that Class IIa indication identified a group of patients with increased risk compared to Class IIb indication for ICD in the Consensus Statement of 2013. In patients with Class II indication, the combination of a history of syncope and spontaneous type 1 ECG may be an important factor in distinguishing intermediate- from low-risk patients with BrS in Japan. Copyright © 2014 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Iranian Patients’ Experiences of the Internal Cardioverter Defibrillator Device Shocks: a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Pasyar, Nilofar; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Rakhshan, Mahnaz; Nikoo, Mohammad; Navab, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) is a valuable treatment for the patients at risk of sudden cardiac death. In this method, after diagnosis of pathological cardiac rhythms, shock is automatically applied to normalize the rhythms. Shock is discharged when the patients are conscious, but the patients’ experiences of shock have remained unknown. Thus, this study aimed to identify and describe the patients’ experiences of shocks received from ICD. Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted through thematic analysis and semi-structured interviews on 9 patients mean age 41.55 (1.57) with ICD from November 2013 to July 2014. Data analysis was also performed simultaneously using constant comparative analysis. Results: In this study, two main themes, namely "with a parachute for life" and "Faced with nuisance", were obtained representing the patients’ experiences regarding ICD shock. With a parachute for life included subthemes, such as "Rebirth", "Comforter and healing", and "Life assurance". In addition, "Faced with nuisance" consisted of 2 subthemes of "Discomfort in moments of shock" and "Displeasure after shock". Conclusion: This study provided a basis for evaluation of patients nursing after discharge. By identification of the patients’ experiences regarding shock, the present study can help the professional health staff to efficiently play their roles and provide patients with holistic care. It can also be effective in designing behavioral and cognitive interventional programs to change the patients’ attitude and promote their adaptation with their conditions. PMID:26744727

  8. [Guidelines on the management of implantable cardioverter defibrillators at the end of life].

    PubMed

    Datino, T; Rexach, L; Vidán, M T; Alonso, A; Gándara, Á; Ruiz-García, J; Fontecha, B; Martínez-Sellés, M

    2014-01-01

    This article is a joint document of the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology, the Spanish Society of Palliative Care and the Section of Geriatric Cardiology of the Spanish Society of Cardiology. Its aim is to address the huge gap that exists in Spain with regard to the management of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in the final stages of life. It is increasingly common to find patients carrying these devices that are in the terminal stage of an advanced disease. This occurs in patients with advanced heart disease and subsequent heart failure refractory to treatment but also in a patient with an ICD who develops cancer disease, organ failure or other neurodegenerative diseases with poor short-term prognosis. The vast majority of these patients are over 65, so the paper focuses particularly on the elderly who are in this situation, but the decision-making process is similar in younger patients with ICDs who are in the final phase of their life. Copyright © 2013 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  9. Guidelines on the management of implantable cardioverter defibrillators at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Datino, T; Rexach, L; Vidán, M T; Alonso, A; Gándara, Á; Ruiz-García, J; Fontecha, B; Martínez-Sellés, M

    2014-01-01

    This article is a joint document of the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology, the Spanish Society of Palliative Care and the Section of Geriatric Cardiology of the Spanish Society of Cardiology. Its aim is to address the huge gap that exists in Spain with regard to the management of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in the final stages of life. It is increasingly common to find patients carrying these devices that are in the terminal stage of an advanced disease. This occurs in patients with advanced heart disease and subsequent heart failure refractory to treatment but also in a patient with an ICD who develops cancer disease, organ failure or other neurodegenerative diseases with poor short-term prognosis. The vast majority of these patients are over 65, so the paper focuses particularly on the elderly who are in this situation, but the decision-making process is similar in younger patients with ICDs who are in the final phase of their life. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  10. Impact of carvedilol and metoprolol on inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy: the MADIT-CRT trial (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy).

    PubMed

    Ruwald, Martin H; Abu-Zeitone, Abeer; Jons, Christian; Ruwald, Anne-Christine; McNitt, Scott; Kutyifa, Valentina; Zareba, Wojciech; Moss, Arthur J

    2013-10-08

    The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of carvedilol and metoprolol on the endpoint of inappropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in the MADIT-CRT (Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation With Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study. The impact of carvedilol and metoprolol on inappropriate therapy in heart failure patients with devices has not yet been investigated. All patients in the MADIT-CRT study who received a device (N = 1,790) were identified. Using time-dependent Cox regression analysis, we compared patients treated with different types of beta-blockers or no beta-blockers on the primary endpoint of inappropriate therapy, delivered as antitachycardia pacing (ATP) or shock therapy. Secondary endpoints were inappropriate therapy due to atrial fibrillation and atrial tachyarrhythmias, also evaluated as ATP or shock therapy. Inappropriate therapy occurred in 253 (14%) of 1,790 patients during a follow-up period of 3.4 ± 1.1 years. Treatment with carvedilol was associated with a significantly decreased risk of inappropriate therapy compared with metoprolol (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.64 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.48 to 0.85]; p = 0.002). The reduction in risk was consistent for inappropriate ATP (HR: 0.66 [95% CI: 0.48 to 0.90]; p = 0.009) and inappropriate shock therapy (HR: 0.54 [95% CI: 0.36 to 0.80]; p = 0.002). The risk of inappropriate therapy caused by atrial fibrillation was also reduced in patients receiving carvedilol compared with metoprolol (HR: 0.50 [95% CI: 0.32 to 0.81]; p = 0.004). General use of beta-blockers (93%) and adherence in this study was high. In heart failure patients undergoing either cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator or with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator device, carvedilol was associated with a 36% lower rate of inappropriate ATP and shock therapy compared with metoprolol. Inappropriate therapy due to atrial fibrillation was associated with a 50% lower rate in

  11. Potential interference of small neodymium magnets with cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Wolber, Thomas; Ryf, Salome; Binggeli, Christian; Holzmeister, Johannes; Brunckhorst, Corinna; Luechinger, Roger; Duru, Firat

    2007-01-01

    Magnetic fields may interfere with the function of cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). Neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets, which are small in size but produce strong magnetic fields, have become widely available in recent years. Therefore, NdFeB magnets may be associated with an emerging risk of device interference. We conducted a clinical study to evaluate the potential of small NdFeB magnets to interfere with cardiac pacemakers and ICDs. The effect of four NdFeB magnets (two spherical magnets 8 and 10 mm in diameter, a necklace made of 45 spherical magnets, and a magnetic name tag) was tested in forty-one ambulatory patients with a pacemaker and 29 patients with an ICD. The maximum distance at which the magnetic switch of a device was influenced was observed. Magnetic interference was observed in all patients. The maximum distance resulting in device interference was 3 cm. No significant differences were found with respect to device manufacturer and device types. Small NdFeB magnets may cause interference with cardiac pacemakers and ICDs. Patients should be cautioned about the interference risk associated with NdFeB magnets during daily life.

  12. Polymorphisms associated with ventricular tachyarrhythmias: rationale, design, and endpoints of the 'diagnostic data influence on disease management and relation of genomics to ventricular tachyarrhythmias in implantable cardioverter/defibrillator patients (DISCOVERY)' study.

    PubMed

    Wieneke, Heinrich; Spencker, Sebastian; Svendsen, Jesper Hastrup; Martinez, Juan Gabriel; Strohmer, Bernhard; Toivonen, Lauri; Le Marec, Hervé; Garcia, Javier; Kaup, Bernd; Soykan, Orhan; Corrado, Domenico; Siffert, Winfried

    2010-03-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy is effective in primary and secondary prevention for patients who are at high risk of sudden cardiac death. However, the current risk stratification of patients who may benefit from this therapy is unsatisfactory. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are DNA sequence variations occurring when a single nucleotide in the genome differs among members of a species. A novel concept has emerged being that these common genetic variations might modify the susceptibility of a certain population to specific diseases. Thus, genetic factors may also modulate the risk for arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death, and identification of common variants could help to better identify patients at risk. The DISCOVERY study is an interventional, longitudinal, prospective, multi-centre diagnostic study that will enrol 1287 patients in approximately 80 European centres. In the genetic part of the DISCOVERY study, candidate gene polymorphisms involved in coding of the G-protein subunits will be correlated with the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias in patients receiving an ICD for primary prevention. Furthermore, in order to search for additional sequence variants contributing to ventricular arrhythmias, a genome-wide association study will be conducted if sufficient a priori evidence can be gathered. In the second part of the study, associations of SNPs with ventricular arrhythmias will be sought and a search for potential new biological arrhythmic pathways will be investigated. As it is a diagnostic study, DISCOVERY will also investigate the impact of long-term device diagnostic data on the management of patients suffering from chronic cardiac disease as well as medical decisions made regarding their treatment.

  13. Impact of Substrate Modification by Catheter Ablation on Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Interventions in Patients With Unstable Ventricular Arrhythmias and Coronary Artery Disease: Results From the Multicenter Randomized Controlled SMS (Substrate Modification Study).

    PubMed

    Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Tilz, Roland Richard; Deneke, Thomas; Hoffmann, Boris A; Ventura, Rodolfo; Hansen, Peter Steen; Zarse, Markus; Hohnloser, Stefan H; Kautzner, Josef; Willems, Stephan

    2017-03-01

    The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is the standard therapy to prevent sudden cardiac death in patients with coronary artery disease and unstable ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The prospective multinational SMS (Substrate Modification Study) was designed to assess whether prophylactic ablation of the arrhythmogenic substrate reduces or prevents the recurrence of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation in such patients. Of 111 patients included in an intention-to-treat analysis, 54 were randomly assigned catheter ablation plus ICD implantation (ablation group: 68±8 years; 47 men), whereas 57 were assigned ICD implantation without catheter ablation (ICD-only group: 66±8 years; 46 men). Primary study end point was the time to first recurrence of ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation. ICD episodes were assessed and verified by an independent board. Patients were followed up for 2.3±1.1 years. The primary end point was reached by 25 ablation patients and 26 ICD-only patients. Two-year event-free survival was estimated at 49.0% (95% confidence interval, 33.3%-62.9%) in the former and 52.4% (36.7%-65.9%) in the latter groups. Comparison of episode incidence revealed no significant difference in the primary end point (P=0.84). In an Andersen-Gill regression model with multiple end point recurrences, the difference between the study arms significantly favored catheter ablation for both the primary end point and all but one of the predefined subgroups of detected arrhythmia events. SMS failed to meet the primary end point of time to first ventricular tachycardia/ventricular fibrillation recurrence. However, catheter ablation did reduce the total number of ICD interventions during the duration of follow-up. https://clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00170287. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  14. Sex differences in outcome after implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation in nonischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Albert, Christine M; Quigg, Rebecca; Saba, Samir; Estes, N A Mark; Shaechter, Andi; Subacius, Haris; Howard, Adam; Levine, Joseph; Kadish, Alan

    2008-08-01

    Women have been underrepresented in randomized trials of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy, and limited data suggest that women may not benefit from prophylactic ICD implantation to the same extent as men. In the Defibrillators in Non-Ischemic Cardiomyopathy Treatment Evaluation (DEFINITE) trial, a reduction in all-cause mortality was seen in men (P = .018) but not for women (P = .76). Sex-specific cumulative probabilities of event-free survival from total, arrhythmic, and noncardiac mortality as well as appropriate shocks were calculated, and log-rank tests were performed. Interaction terms in multivariable Cox proportional hazards models were used to test the hypothesis that the effectiveness of the ICD differed between men and women. Among 458 patients (326 men and 132 women) with nonischemic cardiomyopathy enrolled in the DEFINITE trial, the test for an interaction between sex and ICD treatment on total mortality was not significant in unadjusted (P = .11) or in multivariable adjusted (P = .18) analyses. When we examined cause-specific mortality, we found no sex difference in the incidence of arrhythmic death. Instead, we documented a relative excess of noncardiac death among women randomized to the ICD (P = .02) as compared with women randomized to standard medical therapy. With respect to device use, there was a trend for women to have fewer appropriate ICD shocks after multivariable adjustment (P = .06). Among patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy enrolled in DEFINITE, we found no conclusive evidence for a sex difference in the effectiveness of the ICD; however, the trial was not adequately powered to detect such interaction effects. Larger studies are required to definitively address whether the benefit of ICD therapy differs between men and women.

  15. Determinants of all-cause mortality in different age groups in patients with severe systolic left ventricular dysfunction receiving an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (from the Italian ClinicalService Multicenter Observational Project).

    PubMed

    Fumagalli, Stefano; Gasparini, Maurizio; Landolina, Maurizio; Lunati, Maurizio; Boriani, Giuseppe; Proclemer, Alessandro; Santini, Massimo; Mangoni, Lorenza; Padeletti, Margherita; Marchionni, Niccolò; Padeletti, Luigi

    2014-05-15

    Heart failure (HF) is a common condition in elderly patients. Despite great improvements in medical therapy, HF mortality remains high. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) significantly lengthens the survival rate of subjects with severe HF, but little evidence exists on its effect in elderly persons. Aim of this study was to compare the age-related determinants of prognosis in a large population of patients with ICD. We divided all patients who underwent an ICD implantation in 117 Italian centers of the "ClinicalService Project" into 3 age groups (<65, 65 to 74, ≥ 75 years), and collected clinical and instrumental variables at baseline and during follow-up (median length: 27 months). Between 2004 and 2011, 6,311 patients were enrolled (5,174 men; left ventricular ejection fraction 29% ± 9%); 1,510 subjects were ≥ 75 years (23.9%; mean age 78 ± 3 years). The prevalence of co-morbidities increased with age. HF was most frequently due to coronary artery disease in the elderly, who also showed the worst New York Heart Association class. At multivariate analysis, older age, coronary artery disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic renal failure, diabetes, complex ventricular arrhythmias, and left ventricular ejection fraction were significant predictors of all-cause mortality. After adjustment, the hazard ratio(age group) for mortality was 22.6% less than at univariate analysis. When groups were analyzed separately, age alone predicted mortality in the oldest. In conclusion, a large proportion of our population was aged ≥ 75 years. Mortality was related to age and several co-morbidities, except for the oldest patients in whom age alone resulted predictive.

  16. The CopenHeartSF trial—comprehensive sexual rehabilitation programme for male patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator or ischaemic heart disease and impaired sexual function: protocol of a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Pernille Palm; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Hastrup-Svendsen, Jesper; Frederiksen, Marianne; Lindschou, Jane; Winkel, Per; Gluud, Christian; Giraldi, Annamaria; Steinke, Elaine; Jaarsma, Tiny; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sexuality is an important part of people’s physical and mental health. Patients with heart disease often suffer from sexual dysfunction. Sexual dysfunction has a negative impact on quality of life and well-being in persons with heart disease, and sexual dysfunction is associated with anxiety and depression. Treatment and care possibilities seem to be lacking. Studies indicate that non-pharmacological interventions such as exercise training and psychoeducation possess the potential of reducing sexual dysfunction in patients with heart disease. The CopenHeartSF trial will investigate the effect of a comprehensive sexual rehabilitation programme versus usual care. Methods and analysis CopenHeartSF is an investigator-initiated randomised clinical superiority trial with blinded outcome assessment, with 1:1 central randomisation to sexual rehabilitation plus usual care versus usual care alone. Based on sample size calculations, 154 male patients with impaired sexual function due to implantable cardioverter defibrillator or ischaemic heart disease will be included from two university hospitals in Denmark. All patients receive usual care and patients allocated to the experimental intervention group follow a 12-week sexual rehabilitation programme consisting of an individualised exercise programme and psychoeducative consultation with a specially trained nurse. The primary outcome is sexual function measured by the International Index of Erectile Function. The secondary outcome measure is psychosocial adjustment to illness by the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale, sexual domain. A number of explorative analyses will also be conducted. Ethics and dissemination CopenHeartSF is approved by the regional ethics committee (no H-4-2012-168) and the Danish Data Protection Agency (no 2007-58-0015) and is performed in accordance with good clinical practice and the Declaration of Helsinki in its latest form. Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01796353

  17. A prospective 1-year study of changes in neuropsychological functioning after implantable cardioverter-defibrillator surgery.

    PubMed

    Hallas, Claire N; Burke, Julie L; White, David G; Connelly, Derek T

    2010-04-01

    The testing of the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), through the induction of repeated episodes of ventricular fibrillation, has been associated with disturbances in cerebral activity and increased levels of cytoplasmic enzymes. However, the neuropsychological outcomes of cerebral changes and their quality-of-life implications are unknown. Fifty-two ICD recipients completed standardized validated neuropsychological tests 1 to 3 days before ICD surgery and then 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery. They also completed psychometric tests measuring anxiety, depression, and quality of life. Between 31% and 39% of patients showed a significant neuropsychological impairment from their baseline function 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after surgery. Ten percent of patients had late-onset deficits at 12 months only. Frequent areas of impairment were auditory and visual memory and attention. Neuropsychological impairment was not related to mood or quality of life at follow-up, although anxiety and depression predicted reduced quality of life. ICD implantation is associated with neuropsychological impairment that dissipates for the majority of recipients after 12 months. Short-term memory function and attention are particularly vulnerable to changes in oxygen during ICD testing. Although anxiety and depression are prevalent, there is little evidence for the direct impact of mood on cognition, and deficits appear not to be associated with reduced quality of life. These results provide evidence for longitudinal outcomes of ICD surgery and have implications for patient rehabilitation and adjustment.

  18. Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Registry. Twelfth Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Electrophysiology and Arrhythmias Section (2015).

    PubMed

    Alzueta, Javier; Fernández-Lozano, Ignacio; Barrera, Alberto

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of the Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Registry for 2015, as compiled by the Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia Section of the Spanish Society of Cardiology. Data collection sheets were voluntarily completed by each implantation team and prospectively sent to the Spanish Society of Cardiology. The number of reported implantations was 5465 (85% of the estimated total number of implantations). The implantation rate was 118 per million population while the estimated rate was 138. First implantations comprised 71.8%. Data were obtained from 169 hospitals (7 more than in 2014). Most implantations (82.7%) were performed in men. The mean patient age was 62.8±13.3 years. Most patients showed severe or moderate-to-severe ventricular dysfunction and were in New York Heart Association function class II. The most frequent cardiac condition was ischemic heart disease, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy. Implantations for primary prevention indications comprised 58.2%. Electrophysiologists performed 79.6% of the implantations. The 2015 Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Registry received information on 85% of the implantations performed in Spain. The number of implantations has grown from previous years. The percentage of implantations for primary prevention indications has slightly decreased from the previous registry. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Registry. Eleventh Official Report of the Spanish Society of Cardiology Electrophysiology and Arrhythmias Section (2014).

    PubMed

    Alzueta, Javier; Asso, Antonio; Quesada, Aurelio

    2015-11-01

    We present the results of the Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Registry for 2014, as compiled by the Electrophysiology and Arrhythmia Section of the Spanish Society of Cardiology. Data collection sheets were voluntarily completed by each implantation team and prospectively sent to the Spanish Society of Cardiology. The number of reported implantations was 4911 (82% of the estimated total number of implantations). The implantation rate was 106 per million population while the estimated rate was 128. First implantations comprised 72.2%. Data were obtained from 162 hospitals (8 more than in 2013). Most implantations (82%) were performed in men. The mean patient age was 61.8±13.7 years. Most patients showed severe or moderate-to-severe ventricular dysfunction and were in New York Heart Association functional class II. The most frequent cardiac condition was ischemic heart disease, followed by dilated cardiomyopathy. Implantations for primary prevention indications comprised 58.5%. Electrophysiologists performed 85.6% of the implantations. The 2014 Spanish Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Registry received information on 82% of the implantations performed in Spain. The number of implantations has increased from previous years and the percentage of implantations for primary prevention indications has increased from the previous year. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  20. Current use of implantable electrical devices in Sweden: data from the Swedish pacemaker and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator registry.

    PubMed

    Gadler, Fredrik; Valzania, Cinzia; Linde, Cecilia

    2015-01-01

    The National Swedish Pacemaker and Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (ICD) Registry collects prospective data on all pacemaker and ICD implants in Sweden. We aimed to report the 2012 findings of the Registry concerning electrical devices implantation rates and changes over time, 1 year complications, long-term device longevity and patient survival. Forty-four Swedish implanting centres continuously contribute implantation of pacemakers and ICDs to the Registry by direct data entry on a specific website. Clinical and technical information on 2012 first implants and postoperative complications were analysed and compared with previous years. Patient survival data were obtained from the Swedish population register database. In 2012, the mean pacemaker and ICD first implantation rates were 697 and 136 per million inhabitants, respectively. The number of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) first implantations/million capita was 41 (CRT pacemakers) and 55 (CRT defibrillators), with only a slight increase in CRT-ICD rate compared with 2011. Most device implantations were performed in men. Complication rates for pacemaker and ICD procedures were 5.3 and 10.1% at 1 year, respectively. Device and lead longevity differed among manufacturers. Pacemaker patients were older at the time of first implant and had generally worse survival rate than ICD patients (63 vs. 82% after 5 years). Pacemaker and ICD implantation rates seem to have reached a level phase in Sweden. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and CRT implantation rates are very low and do not reflect guideline indications. Gender differences in CRT and ICD implantations are pronounced. Device and patient survival rates are variable, and should be considered when deciding device type. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Utilization and outcomes of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator, 1987 to 1995.

    PubMed

    Hlatky, Mark A; Saynina, Olga; McDonald, Kathryn M; Garber, Alan M; McClellan, Mark B

    2002-09-01

    The patterns of adoption of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and the outcomes of its use have not been well documented in general, unselected populations. The purpose of this study was to document the impact of the ICD in widespread clinical practice. We identified ICD recipients by use of the hospital discharge databases of Medicare beneficiaries for 1987 through 1995 and of California residents for 1991 through 1995. The index admission for each patient was linked to previous and subsequent admissions and to mortality files to create a longitudinal patient profile. The rate of ICD implantations increased >10-fold between 1987 and 1995, as both the number of hospitals performing the procedure and the volume of ICD implantations per hospital rose. Mortality rates within 30 days of ICD implantation decreased from 6.0% to 1.9%, and mortality rates within 1 year fell from 19.3% to 11.4%. Surgical interventions to revise or replace the ICD within the first year remained about 5%, however, and cumulative expenditures at 1 year ($46,000-$51,000) changed very little. ICD implantation rates varied >3-fold among different regions of the United States. ICD use has expanded markedly during the study period, with improved mortality rates, but medical expenditures and rates of surgical revision remain high for ICD recipients.

  2. Medical therapy versus implantable cardioverter -defibrillator in preventing sudden cardiac death in patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction and heart failure: a meta-analysis of > 35,000 patients.

    PubMed

    Peck, Kah Yong; Lim, Yuan Zhi; Hopper, Ingrid; Krum, Henry

    2014-05-01

    Patients with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) are at high risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have an important role in preventing SCD in selected patients with LVSD and chronic heart failure (CHF). Drug therapies for LVSD and CHF also appear to also be useful in reducing SCD. However, the magnitude of benefit of these approaches on SCD is uncertain. We therefore conducted a meta-analysis comparing the effect on SCD achieved by ICDs versus medical therapies, additional to standard background medical therapies including ACE inhibitors and/or beta-blockers (BBs). Our meta-analysis included trials of >100 patients with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), i.e.,<40%. Fourteen randomized controlled trials met the criteria for meta-analysis, 10 involving medical therapies (angiotensin receptor blockers [ARBs], mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists [MRAs], ivabradine, n3-polyunsaturated fatty acid [PUFA], ferric carboxymaltose and aliskiren) and four involving ICDs. Results were pooled using the Mantel-Haenszel random effects method. Drug therapy (n=36,172) reduced the risk of SCD overall (risk ratio (RR)=0.89, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.82-0.98, p=0.02) when compared to placebo. MRAs alone were most effective in reducing SCD (n=11,032, RR=0.79 [0.68-0.91], p=0.001). ICD insertion greatly reduced SCD (n=4,269, RR=0.39 [0.30-0.51], p<0.00001) compared with placebo. The difference in treatment effect between the ICD and drug therapy was significant (p<0.002), and between ICD and MRAs (p<0.002). Drug therapies when added to a standard background regimen comprising ACE inhibitor and/or BB reduced SCD overall and MRAs alone were most effective in this regard. ICDs were more effective than drugs in SCD abrogation. However, the added procedural morbidity and the cost of ICD need to be considered in decision-making re-approach to SCD reduction in the individual patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  3. Beam Profile Disturbances from Implantable Pacemakers or Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gossman, Michael S.; Nagra, Bipinpreet; Graves-Calhoun, Alison; Wilkinson, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The medical community is advocating for progressive improvement in the design of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and implantable pacemakers to accommodate elevations in dose limitation criteria. With advancement already made for magnetic resonance imaging compatibility in some, a greater need is present to inform the radiation oncologist and medical physicist regarding treatment planning beam profile changes when such devices are in the field of a therapeutic radiation beam. Treatment plan modeling was conducted to simulate effects induced by Medtronic, Inc.-manufactured devices on therapeutic radiation beams. As a continuation of grant-supported research, we show that radial and transverse open beam profiles of a medical accelerator were altered when compared with profiles resulting when implantable pacemakers and cardioverter-defibrillators are placed directly in the beam. Results are markedly different between the 2 devices in the axial plane and the sagittal planes. Vast differences are also presented for the therapeutic beams at 6-MV and 18-MV x-ray energies. Maximum changes in percentage depth dose are observed for the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator as 9.3% at 6 MV and 10.1% at 18 MV, with worst distance to agreement of isodose lines at 2.3 cm and 1.3 cm, respectively. For the implantable pacemaker, the maximum changes in percentage depth dose were observed as 10.7% at 6 MV and 6.9% at 18 MV, with worst distance to agreement of isodose lines at 2.5 cm and 1.9 cm, respectively. No differences were discernible for the defibrillation leads and the pacing lead.

  4. Successful Delivery by a Cesarean Section in a Parturient with Severe Dilated Cardiomyopathy, an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator, and a Repaired Tetralogy of Fallot

    PubMed Central

    Al-Aqeedi, Rafid Fayadh; Alnabti, Abdulrahman; Al-Ani, Fuad; Dabdoob, Wafer; Abdullatef, Waleed Khalid

    2011-01-01

    Repaired congenital heart disease has become more prevalent in women of childbearing age. We report an unusual case of a 24-year-old multigravida with a repaired tetralogy of Fallot, severe dilated cardiomyopathy, and implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement who was managed successfully by a cesarean section three times. This case underscores the impact of such events on maternal and fetal safety and the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the management of pregnant patients with complex congenital and medical problems. PMID:21731806

  5. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in lamin A/C mutation carriers with cardiac conduction disorders.

    PubMed

    Anselme, Frédéric; Moubarak, Ghassan; Savouré, Arnaud; Godin, Bénédicte; Borz, Bogdan; Drouin-Garraud, Valérie; Gay, Arnaud

    2013-10-01

    Sudden cardiac death is frequent in patients with lamin A/C gene (LMNA) mutations and may be related to ventricular arrhythmias (VA). To evaluate a strategy of prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation in LMNA mutation carriers with significant cardiac conduction disorders. Forty-seven consecutive patients (mean age 38 ± 11 years; 26 men) were prospectively enrolled between March 1999 and April 2009. Prophylactic ICD implantation was performed in patients with significant cardiac conduction disorders: patients requiring permanent pacing for bradycardia or already implanted with a pacemaker at the initial presentation, or patients with a PR interval of >0.24 seconds and either complete left bundle branch block or nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. Twenty-one (45%) patients had significant conduction disorders and received a prophylactic ICD. Among ICD recipients, no patient died suddenly and 11 (52%) patients required appropriate ICD therapy during a median follow-up of 62 months. Left ventricular ejection fraction was ≥45% in 9 patients at the time of the event. Among the 10 patients without malignant VA, device memory recorded nonsustained ventricular tachycardia in 8 (80%). The presence of significant conduction disorders was the only factor related to the occurrence of malignant VA (hazard ratio 5.20; 95% confidence interval 1.14-23.53; P = .03). Life-threatening VAs are common in patients with LMNA mutations and significant cardiac conduction disorders, even if left ventricular ejection fraction is preserved. ICD is an effective treatment and should be considered in this patient population. © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Interference of cardiac pacemaker and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator activity during electronic dental device use.

    PubMed

    Roedig, Jason J; Shah, Jignesh; Elayi, Claude Samy; Miller, Craig S

    2010-05-01

    The authors conducted a study to determine if electromagnetic interference of cardiac pacemaker and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) activity occurs during the operation of electronic dental devices. The authors tested nine electronic dental devices in vitro to assess their ability to interfere with the function of two pacemakers and two ICDs as determined by electrocardiographic telemetry. The pacing activity of both pacemakers and the dual-chamber ICD were inhibited during operation of the battery-operated composite curing light at between 2 and 10 centimeters from the generator or leads. The use of the ultrasonic scaler interfered with the pacing activity of the dual-chamber pacemaker at between 17 and 23 cm from the generator or leads, the single-chamber pacemaker at 15 cm from the generator or leads and both ICDs at 7 cm from the leads. The operation of the ultrasonic cleaning system interfered with the activity of the dual-chamber pacemaker at between 15 and 23 cm from the generator or leads, and of the single-chamber pacemaker at 12 cm. Operation of the electric toothbrush, electrosurgical unit, electric pulp tester, high- and low-speed handpieces, and an amalgamator did not alter pacing function. Select electronic dental devices interfere with pacemakers' and ICDs' sensing and pacing activity in vitro. Use of the ultrasonic scaler, ultrasonic cleaning system and battery-operated composite curing light may produce deleterious effects in patients who have pacemakers or ICDs.

  7. Interference of neodymium magnets with cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Ryf, Salome; Wolber, Thomas; Duru, Firat; Luechinger, Roger

    2008-01-01

    Permanent magnets may interfere with the function of cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). Neodymium-iron-boron (NdFeB) magnets have become widely available in recent years and are incorporated in various articles of daily life. We conducted an in-vitro study to evaluate the ability of NdFeB magnets for home and office use to cause interference with cardiac pacemakers and ICDs. The magnetic fields of ten NdFeB magnets of different size and shape were measured at increasing distances beginning from the surface until a field-strength (B-field) value of 0.5 mT was reached. Furthermore, for each magnet the distance was determined at which a sample pacemaker switched from magnet mode to normal mode. Depending on the size and remanence of individual magnets, a B-field value of 0.5 mT was found at distances ranging from 1.5 cm to 30 cm and a value of 1 mT at distances from 1 cm to 22 cm. The pacemaker behavior was influenced at distances from 1 cm to 24 cm. NdFeB magnets for home and office use may cause interference with cardiac pacemakers and ICDs at distances up to 24 centimeters. Patient education and product declarations should include information about the risk associated with these magnets.

  8. Ironic Technology: Old Age and the implantable cardioverter defibrillator in US health care

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Sharon R.; Mueller, Paul S.; Ottenberg, Abigale L.; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    We take the example of cardiac devices, specifically the implantable cardioverter defibrillator, or ICD, to explore the complex cultural role of technology in medicine today. We focus on persons age 80 and above, for whom ICD use is growing in the U.S. We highlight an ironic feature of this device. While it postpones death and ‘saves’ life by thwarting a lethal heart rhythm, it also prolongs living in a state of dying from heart failure. In that regard the ICD is simultaneously a technology of life extension and dying. We explore that irony among the oldest age group -- those whose considerations of medical interventions are framed by changing societal assumptions of what constitutes premature death, the appropriate time for death and medicine’s goals in an aging society. Background to the rapidly growing use of this device among the elderly is the ‘technological imperative’ in medicine, bolstered today by the value given to evidence-based studies. We show how evidence contributes to standards of care and to the expansion of Medicare reimbursement criteria. Together, those factors shape the ethical necessity of physicians offering and patients accepting the ICD in late life. Two ethnographic examples document the ways in which those factors are lived in treatment discussions and in expectations about death and longevity. PMID:21126815

  9. Ironic technology: Old age and the implantable cardioverter defibrillator in US health care.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Sharon R; Mueller, Paul S; Ottenberg, Abigale L; Koenig, Barbara A

    2011-01-01

    We take the example of cardiac devices, specifically the implantable cardioverter defibrillator, or ICD, to explore the complex cultural role of technology in medicine today. We focus on persons age 80 and above, for whom ICD use is growing in the U.S. We highlight an ironic feature of this device. While it postpones death and 'saves' life by thwarting a lethal heart rhythm, it also prolongs living in a state of dying from heart failure. In that regard the ICD is simultaneously a technology of life extension and dying. We explore that irony among the oldest age group -- those whose considerations of medical interventions are framed by changing societal assumptions of what constitutes premature death, the appropriate time for death and medicine's goals in an aging society. Background to the rapidly growing use of this device among the elderly is the 'technological imperative' in medicine, bolstered today by the value given to evidence-based studies. We show how evidence contributes to standards of care and to the expansion of Medicare reimbursement criteria. Together, those factors shape the ethical necessity of physicians offering and patients accepting the ICD in late life. Two ethnographic examples document the ways in which those factors are lived in treatment discussions and in expectations about death and longevity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Indications for implantable cardioverter-defibrillators based on evidence and judgment.

    PubMed

    Myerburg, Robert J; Reddy, Vivek; Castellanos, Agustin

    2009-08-25

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are generally reliable medical devices that have the potential to add quality years of life for appropriate candidates. Indications for ICDs have emerged from a series of randomized clinical trials, observational data from cohorts of high-risk patients with less common diseases, and expert opinion based on limited data in uncommon disorders. The randomized trials are limited by inadequate stratification designs that resulted from insufficient funding availability. The result was outcomes that led to uneven applications, based in part on post-implant experience of device utilization. In this document, we explore the basis for the features of the evidence available to support ICD use, the role of clinical judgment in circumstances in which data are limited or lacking, and the need for additional research to improve the specificity of indications. Directions for new research initiatives are considered. In addition, a general overview of a clinical research paradigm is presented, in which the research and health care delivery arms of the health care enterprise combine in research design and funding, as the latter bears the impact of the outcomes of the former. Impact estimates during the design of trials, considering reasonable contingencies for outcomes, are suggested as a means of justifying the size, scope, and appropriate costs of studies. If we who are involved in clinical research and health care delivery do not resolve this problem, for both ICDs and other new therapies that appear in the future, society will do it for us.

  11. Current Indications for Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators in Non-Ischemic Cardiomyopathies and Channelopathies.

    PubMed

    González-Torrecilla, Esteban; Arenal, Angel; Atienza, Felipe; Datino, Tomás; Bravo, Loreto; Ruiz, Pablo; Ávila, Pablo; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    Current indications for implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in patients with channelopathies and cardiomyopathies of non-ischemic origin are mainly based on non-randomized evidence. In patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM), there is a tendency towards a beneficial effect on total mortality of ICD therapy in patients with significant left ventricular (LV) dysfunction. Although an important reduction in sudden cardiac death (SCD) seems to be clearly demonstrated in these patients, a net beneficial effect on total mortality is unclear mostly in cases with good functional status. Risk stratification has been changing over the last two decades in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). Its risk profile has been delineated in parallel with the beneficial effect of ICD in high risk patients. Observational results based on "appropriate" ICD interventions do support its usefulness both in primary and secondary SCD prevention in these patients. Novel risk models quantify the rate of sudden cardiac death in these patients on individual basis. Less clear risk stratification is available for cases of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy (ARVC) and in other uncommon familiar cardiomyopathies. Main features of risk stratification vary among the different channelopathies (long QT syndrome -LQTS-, Brugada syndrome, etc) with great debate on the management of asymptomatic patients. For most familiar cardiomyopathies, ICD therapy is the only accepted strategy in the prevention of SCD. So far, genetic testing has a limited role in risk evaluation and management of the individual patient. This review aims to summarize these criticisms and to refine the current indications of ICD implantation in patients with cardiomyopathies and major channelopathies.

  12. Programmed Ventricular Stimulation to Risk Stratify for Early Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation to Prevent Tachyarrhythmias following Acute Myocardial Infarction (PROTECT-ICD): Trial Protocol, Background and Significance.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Sarah; Taylor, Andrew J; Stiles, Martin; Chow, Clara; Kovoor, Pramesh

    2016-11-01

    The 'Programmed Ventricular Stimulation to Risk Stratify for Early Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation to Prevent Tachyarrhythmias following Acute Myocardial Infarction' (PROTECT-ICD) trial is an Australian-led multicentre randomised controlled trial targeting prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients who have at least moderately reduced cardiac function following a myocardial infarct (MI). The primary objective of the trial is to assess whether electrophysiological study to guide prophylactic implantation of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) early following MI (first 40 days) will lead to a significant reduction in sudden cardiac death and non-fatal arrhythmia. The secondary objective is to assess the utility of cardiac MRI (CMR) in assessing early myocardial characteristics, and its predictive value for both inducible ventricular tachycardia (VT) at EPS and SCD/ non-fatal arrhythmia at follow-up.

  13. Anesthesia care for subcutaneous implantable cardioverter/defibrillator placement: a single-center experience.

    PubMed

    Essandoh, Michael K; Portillo, Juan G; Weiss, Raul; Otey, Andrew J; Zuleta-Alarcon, Alix N; Humeidan, Michelle L; Torres, Jose L; Flores, Antolin S; Castellon-Larios, Karina; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Andritsos, Michael J; Perez, William J; Stein, Erica J; Turner, Katja R; Dimitrova, Galina T; Awad, Hamdy; Bhandary, Sujatha P; Tripathi, Ravi S; Joseph, Nicholas C; Hummel, John D; Augostini, Ralph S; Kalbfleisch, Steven J; Tyler, Jaret D; Houmsse, Mahmoud; Daoud, Emile G

    2016-06-01

    The recently approved subcutaneous implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (S-ICD) uses a single extrathoracic subcutaneous lead to treat life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, such as ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. This is different from conventional transvenous ICDs, which are typically implanted under sedation. Currently, there are no reports regarding the anesthetic management of patients undergoing S-ICD implantation. This study describes the anesthetic management and outcomes in patients undergoing S-ICD implantation and defibrillation threshold (DFT) testing. The study population consists of 73 patients who underwent S-ICD implantation. General anesthesia (n = 69, 95%) or conscious/deep sedation (n = 4, 5%) was used for device implantation. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and heart rate were recorded periprocedurally for S-ICD implantation and DFTs. Major adverse events were SBP <90 mm Hg refractory to vasopressor agents, significant bradycardia (heart rate <45 beats per minute) requiring pharmacologic intervention and, "severe" pain at the lead tunneling site and the S-ICD generator insertion site based on patient perception. Of the 73 patients, 39 had SBP <90 mm Hg (53%), and intermittent boluses of vasopressors and inotropes were administered with recovery of SBP. In 2 patients, SBP did not respond, and the patients required vasopressor infusion in the intensive care unit. Although the S-ICD procedure involved extensive tunneling and a mean of 2.5 ± 1.7 DFTs per patient, refractory hypotension was a major adverse event in only 2 patients. The mean baseline SBP was 132.5 ± 22.0 mm Hg, and the mean minimum SBP during the procedure was 97.3 ± 9.2 mm Hg (P < .01). There was also a mean 13-beats per minute decrease in heart rate (P < .01), but no pharmacologic intervention was required. Eight patients developed "severe" pain at the lead tunneling and generator insertion sites and were adequately managed with intravenous morphine

  14. The Italian subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator survey: S-ICD, why not?

    PubMed

    Botto, Giovanni Luca; Forleo, Giovanni B; Capucci, Alessandro; Solimene, Francesco; Vado, Antonello; Bertero, Giovanni; Palmisano, Pietro; Pisanò, Ennio; Rapacciuolo, Antonio; Infusino, Tommaso; Vicentini, Alessandro; Viscusi, Miguel; Ferrari, Paola; Talarico, Antonello; Russo, Giovanni; Boriani, Giuseppe; Padeletti, Luigi; Lovecchio, Mariolina; Valsecchi, Sergio; D'Onofrio, Antonio

    2016-12-23

    A recommendation for a subcutaneous-implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) has been added to recent European Society of Cardiology Guidelines. However, the S-ICD is not ideally suitable for patients who need pacing. The aim of this survey was to analyse the current practice of ICD implantation and to evaluate the actual suitability of S-ICD. The survey 'S-ICD Why Not?' was an independent initiative taken by the Italian Heart Rhythm Society (AIAC). Clinical characteristics, selection criteria, and factors guiding the choice of ICD type were collected in consecutive patients who underwent ICD implantation in 33 Italian centres from September to December 2015. A cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device was implanted in 39% (369 of 947) of patients undergoing de novo ICD implantation. An S-ICD was implanted in 12% of patients with no CRT indication (62 of 510 with available data). S-ICD patients were younger than patients who received transvenous ICD, more often had channelopathies, and more frequently received their device for secondary prevention of sudden death. More frequently, the clinical reason for preferring a transvenous ICD over an S-ICD was the need for pacing (45%) or for antitachycardia pacing (36%). Nonetheless, only 7% of patients fulfilled conditions for recommending permanent pacing, and 4% of patients had a history of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia that might have been treatable with antitachycardia pacing. The vast majority of patients needing ICD therapy are suitable candidates for S-ICD implantation. Nevertheless, it currently seems to be preferentially adopted for secondary prevention of sudden death in young patients with channelopathies. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology.

  15. Underutilization of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator in Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Arrest

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmanadoss, Umashankar; Sherazi, Saadia; Aggarwal, Ashim; Hsi, David; Aktas, Mehmet K.; Daubert, James P.; Shah, Abrar H

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate the overall use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest (SCA), among eligible patients from an outpatient cardiology clinic and to determine what factors might contribute to underutilization of ICDs. Methods This report was a retrospective chart review of patients with ischemic or non-ischemic cardiomyopathy and left ventricular ejection fraction ≤ 35% from an outpatient cardiology practice from January 2005 to May 2008. These patients met the eligibility criteria for ICD implantation for primary prevention of SCA. A detailed review of medical records captured distribution of ICD implantation including future plans for ICD implant, patient preference against ICD use, presence of severe co-morbidities, and any other documented reasons/contraindications regarding ICD implantation. Results Of the 275 patients who were eligible for ICD for primary prevention of SCA, 119 (43%) had an ICD implantation. ICDs were used in 84 (48%) eligible men and 35 (35%) eligible women (P 0.02). Among 156 (57%) patients who did not receive ICD, 79 (28%) had severe co-morbidities precluding them from having ICD. Twenty-six patients (10%) refused to have ICD implanted. The remaining 51 (19%) patient charts did not include any documentation regarding ICD use (future plan or contraindication). Conclusions ICDs are underutilized for primary prevention of SCA, with rates of use being lowest among eligible women. This underutilization exists even after accounting for patient preferences and presence of severe co-morbid conditions that might make an otherwise eligible patient not a suitable candidate for ICD implantation.

  16. Sex and Race/Ethnicity Differences in Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Counseling and Use Among Patients Hospitalized With Heart Failure: Findings from the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Program.

    PubMed

    Hess, Paul L; Hernandez, Adrian F; Bhatt, Deepak L; Hellkamp, Anne S; Yancy, Clyde W; Schwamm, Lee H; Peterson, Eric D; Schulte, Phillip J; Fonarow, Gregg C; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2016-08-16

    Previous studies have found that women and black patients eligible for a primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are less likely than men or white patients to receive one. We performed an observational analysis of the Get With The Guidelines-Heart Failure Program from January 1, 2011, to March 21, 2014. Patients admitted with heart failure and an ejection fraction ≤35% without an ICD were included. Rates of ICD counseling among eligible patients and ICD receipt among counseled patients were examined by sex and race/ethnicity. Among 21 059 patients from 236 sites, 4755 (22.6%) received predischarge ICD counseling. Women were counseled less frequently than men (19.3% versus 24.6%, P<0.001, adjusted odds ratio [OR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78-0.91). Racial and ethnic minorities were less likely to receive counseling than white patients (black 22.6%, Hispanic 18.6%, other race/ethnic group 14.4% versus white 24.3%, P<0.001 for each): adjusted OR versus white, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.63 to 0.76 for black patients; adjusted OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.55 to 0.70 for Hispanic patients; adjusted OR, 0.53; 95% CI, 0.43 to 0.65 for other patients. Among the 4755 counseled patients, 2977 (62.6%) received an ICD or had one planned for placement after hospital stay. Among those counseled, women and men were similarly likely to receive an ICD (adjusted OR, 1.13; 95% CI, 0.99-1.29). However, black (adjusted OR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.56-0.88) and Hispanic patients (adjusted OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.46-1.01) were less likely to receive an ICD. Up to 4 of 5 hospitalized patients with heart failure eligible for ICD counseling did not receive it, particularly women and minority patients. Among counseled patients, ICD use differences by race and ethnicity persisted. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Outcomes After Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Generator Replacement for Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Malini; Waks, Jonathan W; Friedman, Paul A; Kramer, Daniel B; Buxton, Alfred E; Noseworthy, Peter A; Mehta, Ramila A; Hodge, David O; Higgins, Angela Y; Webster, Tracy L; Witt, Chance M; Cha, Yong-Mei; Gersh, Bernard J

    2016-03-01

    The effectiveness of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) for primary prevention of sudden death in patients with an ejection fraction (EF) ≤ 35% and clinical heart failure is well established. However, outcomes after replacement of the ICD generator in patients with recovery of EF to >35% and no previous therapies are not well characterized. Between 2001 and 2011, generator replacement was performed at 2 tertiary medical centers in 253 patients (mean age, 68.3 ± 12.7 years; 82% men) who had previously undergone ICD placement for primary prevention but subsequently never received appropriate ICD therapy. EF had recovered to > 35% in 72 of 253 (28%) patients at generator replacement. During median (quartiles) follow-up of 3.3 (1.8-5.3) years after generator replacement, 68 of 253 (27%) experienced appropriate ICD therapy. Patients with EF ≤ 35% were more likely to experience ICD therapy compared with those with EF > 35% (12% versus 5% per year; hazard ratio, 3.57; P = 0.001). On multivariable analysis, low EF predicted appropriate ICD therapy after generator replacement (hazard ratio, 1.96 [1.35-2.87] per 10% decrement; P = 0.001). Death occurred in 25% of patients 5 years after generator replacement. Mortality was similar in patients with EF ≤ 35% and > 35% (7% versus 5% per year; hazard ratio, 1.10; P = 0.68). Atrial fibrillation (3.24 [1.63-6.43]; P < 0.001) and higher blood urea nitrogen (1.28 [1.14-1.45] per increase of 10 mg/dL; P < 0.001) were associated with mortality. Although approximately one fourth of patients with a primary prevention ICD and no previous therapy have EF >35% at the time of generator replacement, these patients continue to be at significant risk for appropriate ICD therapy (5% per year). These data may inform decisions on ICD replacement. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Investigation of the Utility of the Audible Alert in Recent Generation Medtronic Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Manandhar, Meryna; Nemirovsky, Dmitry; Feigenblum, David Y; Simons, Grant R

    2016-12-01

    Medtronic implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs; Medtronic Inc., Mounds View, MN, USA) are equipped with Patient Alert™, a feature in which the ICD generator emits a series of audible tones to notify patients of possible system malfunction. A prior study of this issue revealed that only 50% of patients with older Medtronic devices were able to hear alerts. More recently, Medtronic has incorporated modifications to the alert. Therefore, we studied how frequently alert tones emitted by the current generation of Medtronic ICDs are audible by patients. A series of patients were evaluated in an outpatient ICD clinic. Alert tones were demonstrated using a device programmer in a quiet room and in the presence of low-level background noise. Patients reported whether they heard the tones, and they completed questionnaires regarding the tones. The total sample size was 100 patients, 81 male, who ranged from 29 years to 94 years of age (mean age 72.1 ± 11.8). Among the study subjects, 46% were older than 75 years, 41% were between 55 years and 75 years, and 13% were younger than 55 years. In the absence of background noise, 94% of patients were able to hear both alerts, 1% heard only one alert, and 5% heard neither. In the presence of background noise, 88% of patients heard both the alerts, 7% heard only one alert, and 5% heard neither alerts. Our results demonstrate that alert tones in recent generation Medtronic ICDs have improved audibility, compared to prior published data, among a large outpatient ICD population. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Prospective observational study of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in primary prevention of sudden cardiac death: study design and cohort description.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Alan; Dalal, Darshan; Butcher, Barbara; Norgard, Sanaz; Zhang, Yiyi; Dickfeld, Timm; Eldadah, Zayd A; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A; Guallar, Eliseo; Tomaselli, Gordon F

    2013-02-22

    Primary-prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) reduce total mortality in patients with severe left ventricular systolic function. However, only a minority of patients benefit from these devices. We designed the Prospective Observational Study of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators (PROSE-ICD) to identify risk factors and enhance our understanding of the biological mechanisms that predispose to arrhythmic death in patients undergoing ICD implantation for primary prevention of sudden death. This is a multicenter prospective cohort study with a target enrollment of 1200 patients. The primary end point is ICD shocks for adjudicated ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The secondary end point is total mortality. All patients undergo a comprehensive evaluation including history and physical examination, signal-averaged electrocardiograms, and blood sampling for genomic, proteomic, and metabolomic analyses. Patients are evaluated every 6 months and after every known ICD shock for additional electrocardiographic and blood sampling. As of December 2011, a total of 1177 patients have been enrolled with more nonwhite and female patients compared to previous randomized trials. A total of 143 patients have reached the primary end point, whereas a total of 260 patients died over an average follow-up of 59 months. The PROSE-ICD study represents a real-world cohort of individuals with systolic heart failure receiving primary-prevention ICDs. Extensive electrophysiological and structural phenotyping as well as the availability of serial DNA and serum samples will be important resources for evaluating novel metrics for risk stratification and identifying patients at risk for arrhythmic sudden death. URL: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ Unique Identifier: NCT00733590.

  20. A review of implantable cardioverter defibrillator failures during radiation therapy in three Sydney hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Felicity J; Ryan, Elaine A

    2017-08-01

    In recent years, using radiation energies greater than 10 MV in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) has been contra-indicated due to the risk of a power on reset (POR) occurring. The ICD is often greater than 30 cm from the treatment field and subject to scatter radiation only. The aim of this study was to use recent patient cases to verify published failure rates and treatment recommendations. Five patients with ICDs who experienced a device malfunction during radiation therapy treatments were identified in three Sydney hospitals between 2008 and 2012. The types of treatments delivered during these events were assessed. Further assessment of all ICD patients at one Sydney hospital during this time was carried out to assess the rate of ICD failure during high energy treatments using 18 MV. All ICDs that suffered malfunctions were exposed to scatter radiation only. All were exposed to partial or exclusive irradiation using 18 MV photons. Accumulated doses to the ICDs were estimated to be well below accepted dose limits found in literature. One centre reported a 22.2% rate of POR during exposure to 18 MV radiation therapy during this time frame. Where possible, radiation therapy using energies greater than 10 MV should be avoided for ICD patients. While the use of these energies carries a risk of failure, it must be weighed against potential benefit to the patient requiring treatment if no alternatives are available. Stringent monitoring of these patients, including regular cardiac device checks and ECG monitoring is recommended if treatment is to proceed with energies greater than 10 MV. © 2017 The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Radiologists.

  1. Feedback to providers improves evidence-based implantable cardioverter-defibrillator programming and reduces shocks.

    PubMed

    Silver, Marc T; Sterns, Laurence D; Piccini, Jonathan P; Joung, Boyoung; Ching, Chi-Keong; Pickett, Robert A; Rabinovich, Rafael; Liu, Shufeng; Peterson, Brett J; Lexcen, Daniel R

    2015-03-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shocks are associated with increased anxiety, health care utilization, and potentially mortality. The purpose of the Shock-Less Study was to determine if providing feedback reports to physicians on their adherence to evidence-based shock reduction programming could improve their programming behavior and reduce shocks. Shock-Less enrolled primary prevention (PP) and secondary prevention (SP) ICD patients between 2009 and 2012 at 118 study centers worldwide and followed patients longitudinally after their ICD implant. Center-specific therapy programming reports (TPRs) were delivered to each center 9 to 12 months after their first enrollment. The reports detailed adherence to evidence-based programming targets: number of intervals to detect ventricular fibrillation (VF NID), longest treatment interval (LTI), supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) discriminators (Wavelet, PR Logic), SVT limit, Lead Integrity Alert (LIA), and antitachycardia pacing (ATP). Clinicians programmed ICDs at their discretion. The primary outcome measure was the change in utilization of evidence-based shock reduction programming before (phase I, n = 2694 patients) and after initiation of the TPR (phase II, n = 1438 patients). Patients implanted after feedback reports (phase II) were up to 20% more likely to have their ICDs programmed in line with evidence-based shock reduction programming (eg, VF NID in PP patients 30/40 in 33.5% vs 18.6%, P < .0001). Patients implanted in phase II had a lower risk of all-cause shock (adjusted hazard ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.58-0.90, P = .003). Providing programming feedback reports improves adherence to evidence-based shock reduction programming and is associated with lower risk of ICD shocks. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: First single-center experience with other cardiac implantable electronic devices.

    PubMed

    Kuschyk, Jürgen; Stach, Ksenija; Tülümen, Erol; Rudic, Boris; Liebe, Volker; Schimpf, Rainer; Borggrefe, Martin; Röger, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    The subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD) is an implantable device for antiarrhythmic therapy with no intravascular leads. The purpose of this study was to describe the technical feasibility of combining the S-ICD with other cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), including pacemakers with transvenous or epicardial electrodes. We also provide the first experience of combining an S-ICD with catheter-based therapies, including cardiac contractility modulation (CCM) and vagus nerve stimulation. Between July 2011 and November 2014, 6 patients received a CCM device and S-ICD, 3 patients with a single-chamber pacemaker using either transvenous or epicardial pacing electrodes received and S-ICD, and 1 patient with an implanted S-ICD received vagus nerve stimulation. In all patients, intraoperative S-ICD testing, crosstalk tests, and postoperative ergometric testing were performed. In all 10 patients, device implantations were successfully performed without complications. S-ICD therapy was shown to be technically feasible with concomitant CIED. Mean follow-up was nearly 17 months. S-ICD testing and crosstalk testing before and during exercise enabled device programming across a broad range of test conditions and was associated with no subsequent evidence of adverse device interaction. None of the devices required permanent inactivation or removal, and no patient received an inappropriate shock. In suitable patients, combining an S-ICD with CCM or pacemaker may provide an acceptable means to reduce the number of transvascular leads. S-ICD appeared safe with CCM over an intermediate follow-up period. Additional prospective randomized controlled trials examining S-ICD in conjunction with CIEDs are warranted. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Gulf Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Registry: Rationale, Methodology, and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Hersi, Ahmad S.; Hamad, Adel K. S.; Al Fagih, Ahmed R.; Al-Samadi, Faisal M.; Almusaad, Abdulmohsen M.; Bokhari, Fayez A.; Al-Kandari, Fawzia; Al-Ghamdi, Bandar S.; Al Rawahi, Najib; Asaad, Nidal; Alkaabi, Salem; Daoulah, Amin; Zaky, Hosam A.; Elhag, Omer; Al Hebaishi, Yahya S.; Sweidan, Raed; Alanazi, Haitham; Chase, David; Sabbour, Hani; Al Meheiri, Mohammad; Al Abri, Ismail; Amin, Mohammad; Dagriri, Khaled; Ahmed, Adil O.; Shafquat, Azam; Khan, Shahul Hameed

    2015-01-01

    Background: The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is effective in the prevention of sudden cardiac death in high-risk patients. Little is known about ICD use in the Arabian Gulf. We designed a study to describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving ICDs in the Arab Gulf region. Methods: Gulf ICD is a prospective, multi-center, multinational, and observational study. All adult patients 18 years or older, receiving a de novo ICD implant and willing to sign a consent form will be eligible. Data on baseline characteristics, ICD indication, procedure and programing, in-hospital, and 1-year outcomes will be collected. Target enrollment is 1500 patients, which will provide adequate precision across a wide range of expected event rates. Results: Fifteen centers in six countries are enrolling patients (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain, and Qatar). Two-thirds of the centers have dedicated electrophysiology laboratories, and in almost all centers ICDs are implanted exclusively by electrophysiologists. Nearly three-quarters of the centers reported annual ICD implant volumes of ≤150 devices, and pulse generator replacements constitute <30% of implants in the majority of centers. Enrollment started in December 2013, and accrual rate increased as more centers entered the study reaching an average of 98 patients per month. Conclusions: Gulf ICD is the first prospective, observational, multi-center, and multinational study of the characteristics and, the outcomes of patients receiving ICDs in the Arab Gulf region. The study will provide valuable insights into the utilization of and outcomes related to ICD therapy in the Gulf region. PMID:26900416

  4. The Gulf Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Registry: Rationale, Methodology, and Implementation.

    PubMed

    Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A; Hersi, Ahmad S; Hamad, Adel K S; Al Fagih, Ahmed R; Al-Samadi, Faisal M; Almusaad, Abdulmohsen M; Bokhari, Fayez A; Al-Kandari, Fawzia; Al-Ghamdi, Bandar S; Al Rawahi, Najib; Asaad, Nidal; Alkaabi, Salem; Daoulah, Amin; Zaky, Hosam A; Elhag, Omer; Al Hebaishi, Yahya S; Sweidan, Raed; Alanazi, Haitham; Chase, David; Sabbour, Hani; Al Meheiri, Mohammad; Al Abri, Ismail; Amin, Mohammad; Dagriri, Khaled; Ahmed, Adil O; Shafquat, Azam; Khan, Shahul Hameed

    2015-01-01

    The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is effective in the prevention of sudden cardiac death in high-risk patients. Little is known about ICD use in the Arabian Gulf. We designed a study to describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving ICDs in the Arab Gulf region. Gulf ICD is a prospective, multi-center, multinational, and observational study. All adult patients 18 years or older, receiving a de novo ICD implant and willing to sign a consent form will be eligible. Data on baseline characteristics, ICD indication, procedure and programing, in-hospital, and 1-year outcomes will be collected. Target enrollment is 1500 patients, which will provide adequate precision across a wide range of expected event rates. Fifteen centers in six countries are enrolling patients (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain, and Qatar). Two-thirds of the centers have dedicated electrophysiology laboratories, and in almost all centers ICDs are implanted exclusively by electrophysiologists. Nearly three-quarters of the centers reported annual ICD implant volumes of ≤150 devices, and pulse generator replacements constitute <30% of implants in the majority of centers. Enrollment started in December 2013, and accrual rate increased as more centers entered the study reaching an average of 98 patients per month. Gulf ICD is the first prospective, observational, multi-center, and multinational study of the characteristics and, the outcomes of patients receiving ICDs in the Arab Gulf region. The study will provide valuable insights into the utilization of and outcomes related to ICD therapy in the Gulf region.

  5. The oral cavity is not a primary source for implantable pacemaker or cardioverter defibrillator infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To test the hypothesis that the oral cavity is a potential source for implantable pacemaker and cardioverter defibrillators infections, the bacterial diversity on explanted rhythm heart management devices was investigated and compared to the oral microbiome. Methods A metagenomic approach was used to analyze the bacterial diversity on the surfaces of non-infected and infected pacemakers. The DNA from surfaces swaps of 24 non-infected and 23 infected pacemaker were isolated and subjected to bacterial-specific DNA amplification, single strand conformation polymorphism- (SSCP) and sequencing analysis. Species-specific primer sets were used to analyze for any correlation between bacterial diversity on pacemakers and in the oral cavity. Results DNA of bacterial origin was detected in 21 cases on infected pacemakers and assigned to the bacterial phylotypes Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus schleiferi and Stapyhlococcus. In 17 cases bacterial DNA was found on pacemakers with no clinical signs of infections. On the basis of the obtained sequence data, the phylotypes Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus and an uncultured bacterium were identified. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the only bacteria detected in pacemeaker (n = 25) and oral samples (n = 11). Conclusions The frequency of the coincidental detection of bacteria on infected devices and in the oral cavity is low and the detected bacteria are highly abundant colonizers of non-oral human niches. The transmission of oral bacteria to the lead or device of implantable pacemaker or cardioverter defibrillators is unlikely relevant for the pathogenesis of pacemaker or cardioverter defibrillators infections. PMID:23575037

  6. Perceptions of healthcare professionals' support, shock anxiety and device acceptance among implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients.

    PubMed

    Morken, Ingvild M; Norekvål, Tone M; Bru, Edvin; Larsen, Alf I; Karlsen, Bjørg

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the extent to which perceived support from healthcare professionals and shock anxiety is related to device acceptance among implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients. Device acceptance can be influenced by several factors, one of which is shock anxiety associated with poor device acceptance. Reduced shock anxiety, as well as increased device acceptance, has been reported after psycho-educational programmes. As healthcare professionals appear to play a significant role in providing support and education during regular follow-up visits, they may constitute an important social support system that could be another factor influencing device acceptance. However, little is known about the relationship between perceived support from healthcare professionals and device acceptance among recipients. A cross-sectional survey design. A sample comprising implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients completed questionnaires assessing perceived support from healthcare professionals, shock anxiety and device acceptance. Demographic and clinical data were collected by self-report and from medical records in September-October 2010. The descriptive results indicated that approximately 85% of the recipients experienced high device acceptance. Regression analysis demonstrated that constructive support from healthcare professionals was positively associated with device acceptance and moderated the negative relationship between shock anxiety and device acceptance. Non-constructive support and shock anxiety had a negative statistical association with device acceptance. Healthcare professionals may represent a valuable constructive support system that can enhance device acceptance among implantable cardioverter defibrillator recipients, partly by preventing shock anxiety from leading to poor device acceptance. Non-constructive communication on the part of healthcare professionals could hinder device acceptance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Validation of an Organizational Management Model of Remote Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Monitoring Alerts.

    PubMed

    Guédon-Moreau, Laurence; Finat, Loïc; Boulé, Stéphane; Wissocque, Ludivine; Marquié, Christelle; Brigadeau, François; Kouakam, Claude; Mondésert, Blandine; Kacet, Salem; Klug, Didier; Lacroix, Dominique

    2015-07-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are a standard means of sudden cardiac death prevention. Compared with ambulatory visits, remote monitoring (RM) of ICD recipients has improved the quality of health care and spared its resources. Few studies have addressed the organization of RM. We optimized and validated our institutional model of RM organization for ICD recipients. This observational study of 562 ICD recipients compared 2 RM periods consisting of iterative, qualitative, and quantitative (1) device diagnostic evaluations by nurses and cardiologists; and (2) selected decisional trees. The main study end points were the professional interventions prompted by, and times allocated to, RM alerts. During the first period, 1134 alerts occurred in 427 patients (286 patient-year), of which 376 (33%) were submitted to cardiologists' reviews, compared with, 1522 alerts in 562 patients (458 patient-year), of which 273 (18%) were submitted to cardiologists' reviews during the second period (P<0.001). An intervention was prompted by 73 of 376 (19.4%) alerts in the first versus 77 of 273 (28.2%) in the second period (P=0.009). The mean time to manage an alert was 4 minutes 31 s in the first versus 2 minutes 10 s in the second period (P<0.001). The annual numbers of alert-related hospitalizations were 10.8 versus 8.1 per 100-patient-year (P=0.230), and annual numbers of alert-related visits were 9.8 and 6.1 per 100-patient-year (P=0.081), respectively. An optimized RM organization based on automated alerts and decisional trees enabled a focus on clinically relevant events and a decrease in the consumption of resources without compromising the quality of ICD recipients' care. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  8. Current implantable cardioverter-defibrillator programming in Europe: the results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Proclemer, Alessandro; Grazia Bongiorni, Maria; Etsner, Heidi; Todd, Derick; Sciaraffia, Elena; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to examine the current practice on the choice of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) type, use of defibrillation testing, and ICD programming for detection and therapy of ventricular arrhythmias. In accordance with recent guidelines and the results of observational studies, the majority of EHRA research network centres reported a high utilization rate of dual-chamber ICDs in the presence of symptomatic and asymptomatic sinus node dysfunction, biventricular ICD in high-degree atrioventricular block and QRS duration <120 ms, and a limited use of defibrillation testing either in primary and secondary prevention settings. Activation of the long ventricular tachycardia (VT) detection window, slow VT zone, antitachycardia pacing before shock for slow and fast VT, and atrial tachyarrhythmia discrimination were considered useful in ICD programming for the majority of patients. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2014. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Cosmetic approach for placement of the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in young women.

    PubMed

    Curiale, S; Rosenfeld, L E; Elefteriades, J A

    1991-12-01

    A surgical approach is described for a more cosmetically acceptable placement of the automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in young women. The transvenous sensing lead and the vena caval spring electrode are placed through a small subclavicular incision. The left ventricular patch electrode is placed through an anterior minithoracotomy in the crease under the left breast. A small transverse incision in the left lower quadrant is used to place the generator under the external oblique fascia in the low abdominal wall. Minimal cosmetic impairment from incisions and hardware results.

  10. Importance of the atrial channel for ventricular arrhythmia therapy in the dual chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Dijkman, B; Wellens, H J

    2000-12-01

    Performance of dual chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) systems has been judged based on functioning of the ventricular tachycardia:supraventricular tachycardia (VT:SVT) discrimination criteria and DDD pacing. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of dual chamber diagnostics to improve the electrical and antiarrhythmic therapy of ventricular arrhythmias. Information about atrial and ventricular rhythm in relation to ventricular arrhythmia occurrence and therapy was evaluated in 724 spontaneous arrhythmia episodes detected and treated by three types of dual chamber ICDs in 41 patients with structural heart disease. Device programming was based on clinically documented and induced ventricular arrhythmias. In ambulatory patients, sinus tachycardia preceded ventricular arrhythmias more often than in the hospital during exercise testing. The incidence of these VTs could be reduced by increasing the dose of a beta-blocking agent in only two patients. In five patients in whom sinus tachycardia developed after onset of hemodynamic stable VT, propranolol was more effective than Class III antiarrhythmics combined with another beta-blocking agent with regard to the incidence of VT and pace termination. In all but three cases, atrial arrhythmias were present for a longer time before the onset of ventricular arrhythmias. During atrial arrhythmias, fast ventricular rates before the onset of ventricular rate were observed more often than RR irregularities and short-long RR sequences. Dual chamber diagnostics allowed proper interpretation of detection and therapy outcome in patients with different types of ventricular arrhythmia. The advantages of the dual chamber ICD system go further than avoiding the shortcomings of the single chamber system. Information from the atrial chamber allows better device programming and individualization of drug therapy for ventricular arrhythmia.

  11. Time dependence of risks and benefits in pediatric primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy.

    PubMed

    DeWitt, Elizabeth S; Triedman, John K; Cecchin, Frank; Mah, Doug Y; Abrams, Dominic J; Walsh, Edward P; Gauvreau, Kimberlee; Alexander, Mark E

    2014-12-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) used to prevent sudden cardiac arrest in children not only provide appropriate therapy in 25% of patients but also result in a significant incidence of inappropriate shocks and other device complications. ICDs placed for secondary prevention have higher rates of appropriate therapy than those placed for primary prevention. Pediatric patients with primary prevention ICDs were studied to determine time-dependent incidence of appropriate use and adverse events. A total of 140 patients aged <21 years (median age, 15 years) at first ICD implantation at Boston Children's Hospital (2000-2009) in whom devices were placed for primary prevention were retrospectively identified. Demographics and times to first appropriate shock; adverse events (including inappropriate shock, lead failure, reintervention, and complication); generator replacement and follow-up were noted. During mean follow-up of 4 years, appropriate shock occurred in 19% patients and first adverse event (excluding death/transplant) occurred in 36%. Risk of death or transplant was ≈1% per year and was not related to receiving appropriate therapy. Conditional survival analysis showed rates of appropriate therapy and adverse events decrease soon after implantation, but adverse events are more frequent than appropriate therapy throughout follow-up. Primary prevention ICDs were associated with appropriate therapy in 19% and adverse event in 36% in this cohort. The incidence of both first appropriate therapy and device-related adverse events decreased during longer periods of follow-up after implantation. This suggests that indications for continued device therapy in pediatric primary prevention ICD patients might be reconsidered after a period of nonuse. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  12. Sensitivity and specificity of the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator pre-implant screening tool.

    PubMed

    Zeb, Mehmood; Curzen, Nick; Allavatam, Venugopal; Wilson, David; Yue, Arthur; Roberts, Paul; Morgan, John

    2015-09-15

    The sensitivity and specificity of the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) pre-implant screening tool required clinical evaluation. Bipolar vectors were derived from electrodes positioned at locations similar to those employed for S-ICD sensing and pre-implant screening electrodes, and recordings collected through 80-electrode PRIME®-ECGs, in six different postures, from 40 subjects (10 healthy controls, and 30 patients with complex congenital heart disease (CCHD); 10 with Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), 10 with single ventricle physiology (SVP), and 10 with transposition of great arteries (TGA)). The resulting vectors were analysed using the S-ICD pre-implant screening tool (Boston Scientific) and processed through the sensing algorithm of S-ICD (Boston Scientific). The data were then evaluated using 2 × 2 contingency tables. Fisher exact and McNemar tests were used for a comparison of the different categories of CCHD, and p < 0.05 vs. controls considered to be statistically significant. 57% of patients were male, mean age of 36.3 years. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the S-ICD screening tool were 95%, 79%, 59% and 98%, respectively, for controls, and 84%, 79%, 76% and 86%, respectively, in patients with CCHD (p = 0.0001). The S-ICD screening tool was comparatively more sensitive in normal controls but less specific in both CCHD patients and controls; a possible explanation for the reported high incidence of inappropriate S-ICD shocks. Thus, we propose a pre-implant screening device using the S-ICD sensing algorithm to minimise false exclusion and selection, and hence minimise potentially inappropriate shocks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Two-incision technique for implantation of the subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Knops, Reinoud E; Olde Nordkamp, Louise R A; de Groot, Joris R; Wilde, Arthur A M

    2013-08-01

    Three incisions in the chest are necessary for implantation of the entirely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (S-ICD). The superior parasternal incision is a possible risk for infection and a potential source of discomfort. A less invasive alternative technique of implanting the S-ICD electrode--the two-incision technique--avoids the superior parasternal incision. The purpose of this prospective cohort study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of the two-incision technique for implantation of the S-ICD. Consecutive patients who received an S-ICD between October 2010 and December 2011 were implanted using the two-incision technique, which positions the parasternal part of the S-ICD electrode using a standard 11Fr peel-away sheath. All patients were routinely evaluated for at least 1 year for complications and device interrogation at the outpatient clinic. Thirty-nine patients (46% male, mean age 44 ± 15 years) were implanted with a S-ICD using the two-incision technique. During mean follow-up of 18 months (range 14-27 months) no dislocations were observed, and there was no need for repositioning of either the ICD or the electrode. No serious infections occurred during follow-up except for 2 superficial wound infections of the pocket incision site. Device function was normal in all patients, and no inappropriate sensing occurred related to the implantation technique. The two-incision technique is a safe and efficacious alternative for S-ICD implantations and may help to reduce complications. The two-incision technique offers physicians a less invasive and simplified implantation procedure of the S-ICD. Copyright © 2013 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Driving restrictions after implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation: an evidence-based approach

    PubMed Central

    Thijssen, Joep; Borleffs, C. Jan Willem; van Rees, Johannes B.; de Bie, Mihály K.; van der Velde, Enno T.; van Erven, Lieselot; Bax, Jeroen J.; Cannegieter, Suzanne C.; Schalij, Martin J.

    2011-01-01

    Aims Little evidence is available regarding restrictions from driving following implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation or following first appropriate or inappropriate shock. The purpose of the current analysis was to provide evidence for driving restrictions based on real-world incidences of shocks (appropriate and inappropriate). Methods and results A total of 2786 primary and secondary prevention ICD patients were included. The occurrence of shocks was noted during a median follow-up of 996 days (inter-quartile range, 428–1833 days). With the risk of harm (RH) formula, using the incidence of sudden cardiac incapacitation, the annual RH to others posed by a driver with an ICD was calculated. Based on Canadian data, the annual RH to others of 5 in 100 000 (0.005%) was used as a cut-off value. In both primary and secondary prevention ICD patients with private driving habits, no restrictions to drive directly following implantation, or an inappropriate shock are warranted. However, following an appropriate shock, these patients are at an increased risk to cause harm to other road users and therefore should be restricted to drive for a period of 2 and 4 months, respectively. In addition, all ICD patients with professional driving habits have a substantial elevated risk to cause harm to other road users during the complete follow-up after both implantation and shock and should therefore be restricted to drive permanently. Conclusion The current analysis provides a clinically applicable tool for guideline committees to establish evidence-based driving restrictions. PMID:21646229

  15. Exercise training and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks in patients with heart failure: results from HF-ACTION (Heart Failure and A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise TraiNing).

    PubMed

    Piccini, Jonathan P; Hellkamp, Anne S; Whellan, David J; Ellis, Stephen J; Keteyian, Steven J; Kraus, William E; Hernandez, Adrian F; Daubert, James P; Piña, leana L; O'Connor, Christopher M

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exercise training is associated with an increased risk of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy in patients with heart failure (HF). Few data are available regarding the safety of exercise training in patients with ICDs and HF. HF-ACTION (Heart Failure and A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise TraiNing) randomized 2,331 outpatients with HF and an ejection fraction (EF) ≤35% to exercise training or usual care. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to examine the relationship between exercise training and ICD shocks. We identified 1,053 patients (45%) with an ICD at baseline who were randomized to exercise training (n = 546) or usual care (n = 507). Median age was 61 years old, and median EF was 24%. Over a median of 2.2 years of follow-up, 20% (n = 108) of the exercise patients had a shock versus 22% (n = 113) of the control patients. A history of sustained ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.93 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.47 to 2.54]), previous atrial fibrillation/flutter (HR: 1.63 [95% CI: 1.22 to 2.18]), exercise-induced dysrhythmia (HR: 1.67 [95% CI: 1.23 to 2.26]), lower diastolic blood pressure (HR for 5-mm Hg decrease <60: 1.35 [95% CI: 1.12 to 1.61]), and nonwhite race (HR: 1.50 [95% CI: 1.13 to 2.00]) were associated with an increased risk of ICD shocks. Exercise training was not associated with the occurrence of ICD shocks (HR: 0.90 [95% CI: 0.69 to 1.18], p = 0.45). The presence of an ICD was not associated with the primary efficacy composite endpoint of death or hospitalization (HR: 0.99 [95% CI: 0.86 to 1.14], p = 0.90). We found no evidence of increased ICD shocks in patients with HF and reduced left ventricular function who underwent exercise training. Exercise therapy should not be prohibited in ICD recipients with HF. (Exercise Training Program to Improve Clinical Outcomes in Individuals With Congestive Heart Failure; NCT00047437)

  16. Low risk of electromagnetic interference between smartphones and contemporary implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Burri, Haran; Mondouagne Engkolo, Louis Paulin; Dayal, Nicolas; Etemadi, Abdul; Makhlouf, Anne-Marie; Stettler, Carine; Trentaz, Florence

    2016-05-01

    Manufacturers of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) recommend that cell phones be maintained at a distance of ∼15 cm from the implanted device in order to avoid risk of dysfunction due to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Data relating to this issue are outdated and do not reflect modern technology. Our aim was to evaluate whether EMI is still an issue with contemporary ICDs and smartphones. Consecutive patients implanted with a wireless-enabled ICD were tested for potential interference with two models of recent 4G smartphones in conditions intended to maximize risk of EMI. A magnet effect (due to the phone speakers) was tested by placing the smartphones in the standby mode directly over the ICD generator. The presence of EMI artefacts on the real-time electrograms was evaluated by placing the smartphones in the standby, dialling, and operating modes directly over the generator casing and over the parasternal region in the vicinity of the ventricular lead. A total of 63 patients equipped with 29 different models of single, dual, or biventricular ICDs from five major manufacturers were included. None of the patients showed any evidence of interference with the smartphones during any of the 882 tests. The risk of EMI between modern smartphones and contemporary ICDs is low. This is probably due to the filters incorporated in the ICDs and low emission by the phones, as well as the small size of the magnets in the smartphones tested. NCT02330900 (http://www.clinicaltrials.gov). Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2016. For permissions please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Analysis of willingness to pay for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska, Dominika; Guertin, Jason R; Liu, Aihua; Abrahamowicz, Michal; Lelorier, Jacques; Lespérance, François; Brophy, James M; Rinfret, Stéphane

    2011-02-01

    Despite being effective in the primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest, the cost-effectiveness of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy remains debated. We attempted to estimate the value ICD recipients place on their ICD device. We used the contingent valuation method to evaluate the willingness to pay (WTP) and the cost benefit of ICD therapy in an unselected population of 237 recipients. A hypothetical scenario was presented to patients in which at the end of their current ICD no public reimbursement for the replacement would occur. Patients were asked to indicate their out-of-pocket WTP for a replacement ICD using a close-ended question format. Seven different "take-it-or-leave-it" bids were randomly varied and assigned to patients. Median WTP was calculated with nonparametric methods, and multiple logistic regression models were generated to identify factors associated with WTP. Only cost of the device was considered. Median WTP was estimated at CAN $4,125, which corresponds to 21% of the cost of the device (CAN $20,000). In multiple logistic regression analysis, a higher bid (odds ratio [OR] 0.95, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.91 to 0.99, per CAN $1,000 increase) was associated with a lower WTP, whereas a higher gross family income (OR 2.3, 95% CI 0.9 to 9.0) and higher education (OR 2.2, 95% CI 0.9 to 5.1) were associated with a trend for higher WTP. In conclusion, ICD recipients would be willing to pay a substantial amount for a replacement ICD. Considering the expensive price of the device, ICD recipients value favorably the benefits provided by the ICD.

  18. Shock or no shock - a question of philosophy or should intraoperative implantable cardioverter defibrillator testing be recommended?

    PubMed

    Keyser, Andreas; Hilker, Michael K; Schmidt, Sebastian; von Bary, Christian; Zink, Wolfgang; Ried, Michael; Schmid, Christof; Diez, Claudius

    2013-03-01

    Implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in patients with a high risk for life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias is a standard therapy. The development of new ICD leads, shock algorithms, high-energy defibrillators and rapid energy supply has improved the devices. Nevertheless, the discussion regarding 'shock or no shock' to test the system intraoperatively has not silenced yet. In this study, all 718 patients (60.0 ± 14.2 years old, 570 male) who were treated with a first ICD at our institution since 2005 were analysed. The indication for implantation was primarily prophylactic in 511 patients (71.3%). Underlying diseases included ischaemic cardiomyopathy (358 patients, 50%), dilated cardiomyopathy (270 patients, 37.7%) and others (12.3%). Mean ejection fraction was 27.4 ± 11.8%. Intraoperative ventricular fibrillation was induced with a T-wave shock or burst stimulation. The primary end-point was failing the initial intraoperative testing. During the initial testing, 28 patients (3.9%) had a defibrillation threshold (DFT) >21 J. The mean age of these patients was 51 ± 14 years, ranging from 22 to 71 years, 20 were male, and the ejection fraction was 23.8 ± 11.8%. The indication for ICD implantation was prophylactic in 13 patients. Twenty-one of the 28 patients suffered from dilated cardiomyopathy, whereas seven patients had ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Twenty-four ICDs were implanted on the left side and four on the right side. None of the patients had been treated with amiodarone at the time of implantation. All patients achieved a sufficient DFT ≤ 21 J by changing the ICD leads, device repositioning and/or optimizing the shock configuration. The standard of care intraoperative ICD testing remains necessary.

  19. Influence of radiotherapy on the latest generation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators

    SciTech Connect

    Hurkmans, Coen W. . E-mail: Coen.Hurkmans@cze.nl; Scheepers, Egon; Springorum, Bob G.F.; Uiterwaal, Hans

    2005-09-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy can influence the functioning of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). ICDs offer the same functionality as pacemakers, but are also able to deliver a high-voltage shock to the heart if needed. Guidelines for radiotherapy treatment of patients with an implanted rhythm device have been published in 1994 by The American Association of Physicists in Medicine, and are based only on experience with pacemakers. Data on the influence of radiotherapy on ICDs are limited. The objective of our study is to determine the influence of radiotherapy on the latest generation of ICDs. Methods and Materials: Eleven modern ICDs have been irradiated in our department. The irradiation was performed with a 6-MV photon beam. The given dose was fractionated up to a cumulative dose of 120 Gy. Two to 5 days passed between consecutive irradiations. Frequency, output, sensing, telemetry, and shock energy were monitored. Results: Sensing interference by ionizing radiation on all ICDs has been demonstrated. For four ICDs, this would have caused the inappropriate delivery of a shock because of interference. At the end of the irradiation sessions, all devices had reached their point of failure. Complete loss of function was observed for four ICDs at dose levels between