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Sample records for cardioverter defibrillator patients

  1. Patient perceptions of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    MacIver, Jane; Tibbles, Alana; Billia, Filio; Ross, Heather

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a class I recommendation for implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions to occur between physicians and heart failure patients. Few studies have reported the patient’s perspective on the timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions. Aim: To determine patient awareness, preferences and timing of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation discussions. Design: Grounded theory was used to collect and analyze interview data from 25 heart failure patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Setting and participants: Patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, from the Heart Function Clinic at University Health Network (Toronto, Canada). Results: The sample (n = 25) was predominately male (76%) with an average age of 62 years. Patients identified three stages where they felt implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation should be discussed: (1) prior to implantation, (2) with any significant deterioration but while they were of sound mind to engage in and communicate their preferences and (3) at end of life, where patients wished further review of their previously established preferences and decisions about implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation. Most patients (n = 17, 68%) said they would consider deactivation, six (24%) were undecided and two (8%) were adamant they would never turn it off. Conclusion: The patient preferences identified in this study support the need to include information on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation at implant, with change in clinical status and within broader discussions about end-of-life treatment preferences. Using this process to help patients determine and communicate their implantable cardioverter-defibrillator deactivation preferences may reduce the number of patients experiencing distressing implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks at end of life. PMID:27110361

  2. [Fitness to drive in patients with implanted cardioverter-defibrillator].

    PubMed

    Klein, H H

    2012-09-01

    A physician who takes care for patients with implanted cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) must inform them about their fitness to drive since these patients carry a higher risk for the occurrence of syncope or sudden cardiac death at the wheel. The driver's license law in Germany does not mention patients with ICD. The fitness to drive of patients with ICD is covered by the Advisory Board for Traffic Medicine in Germany (Bundesanstalt für Straßenwesen). These guidelines, however, are outdated and cannot be used to inform patients. Actually, these guidelines are under revision. Currently, the position paper of the German Society of Cardiology on "Fitness to drive and cardiovascular diseases" together with a recently published Dutch paper on this topic forms the basis of these recommendations. One week after ICD implantation for primary or one month after implantation for secondary prevention the patient may resume to drive. After adequate shocks the fitness to drive can be expected 2-4 months (3 months) later. The assessment of the fitness to drive has to be performed individually, taking into account also possible other influencing factors. In individual cases it appears to be justified that patients with ICD work as professional drivers.

  3. Dual-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Is it useful in patient with permanent atrial fibrillation?

    PubMed

    Porres-Aracama, José M; Cerezuela, José Luis; García-Urra, Francisco; Luque-Lezcano, Oscar; Herrero, Vicente

    2016-08-01

    In patients with permanent atrial fibrillation (AF) and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implant indication, a single-chamber device is the choice because AF does not provide interesting information for the treatment. It is very unusual to find patients with permanent AF that coexist with atrial tachycardia with various degree of Atrioventricular block. PMID:27525075

  4. How Does an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Work?

    MedlinePlus

    ... on Twitter. How Does an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Work? An implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) has wires with ... tune the programming of your ICD so it works better to correct irregular heartbeats. The type of ...

  5. Capsule endoscopy in patients with cardiac pacemakers, implantable cardioverter defibrillators and left heart assist devices.

    PubMed

    Bandorski, Dirk; Höltgen, Reinhard; Stunder, Dominik; Keuchel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    According to the recommendations of the US Food and Drug Administration and manufacturers, capsule endoscopy should not be used in patients carrying implanted cardiac devices. For this review we considered studies indexed (until 30.06.2013) in Medline [keywords: capsule endoscopy, small bowel endoscopy, cardiac pacemaker, implantable cardioverter defibrillator, interference, left heart assist device], technical information from Given Imaging and one own publication (not listed in Medline). Several in vitro and in vivo studies included patients with implanted cardiac devices who underwent capsule endoscopy. No clinically relevant interference was noticed. Initial reports on interference with a simulating device were not reproduced. Furthermore technical data of PillCam (Given Imaging) demonstrate that the maximum transmission power is below the permitted limits for cardiac devices. Hence, impairment of cardiac pacemaker, defibrillator or left ventricular heart assist device function by capsule endoscopy is not expected. However, wireless telemetry can cause dysfunction of capsule endoscopy recording. Application of capsule endoscopy is feasible and safe in patients with implanted cardiac devices such as pacemakers, cardioverter defibrillators, and left heart assist devices. Development of new technologies warrants future re-evaluation.

  6. Capsule endoscopy in patients with cardiac pacemakers, implantable cardioverter defibrillators and left heart assist devices

    PubMed Central

    Bandorski, Dirk; Höltgen, Reinhard; Stunder, Dominik; Keuchel, Martin

    2014-01-01

    According to the recommendations of the US Food and Drug Administration and manufacturers, capsule endoscopy should not be used in patients carrying implanted cardiac devices. For this review we considered studies indexed (until 30.06.2013) in Medline [keywords: capsule endoscopy, small bowel endoscopy, cardiac pacemaker, implantable cardioverter defibrillator, interference, left heart assist device], technical information from Given Imaging and one own publication (not listed in Medline). Several in vitro and in vivo studies included patients with implanted cardiac devices who underwent capsule endoscopy. No clinically relevant interference was noticed. Initial reports on interference with a simulating device were not reproduced. Furthermore technical data of PillCam (Given Imaging) demonstrate that the maximum transmission power is below the permitted limits for cardiac devices. Hence, impairment of cardiac pacemaker, defibrillator or left ventricular heart assist device function by capsule endoscopy is not expected. However, wireless telemetry can cause dysfunction of capsule endoscopy recording. Application of capsule endoscopy is feasible and safe in patients with implanted cardiac devices such as pacemakers, cardioverter defibrillators, and left heart assist devices. Development of new technologies warrants future re-evaluation. PMID:24714370

  7. Double valve replacement in a patient with implantable cardioverter defibrillator with severe left ventricular dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Manjunath, Girish; Rao, Prakash; Prakash, Nagendra; Shivaram, B. K.

    2016-01-01

    Recent data from landmark trials suggest that the indications for cardiac pacing and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are set to expand to include heart failure, sleep-disordered breathing, and possibly routine implantation in patients with myocardial infarction and poor ventricular function.[1] This will inevitably result in more patients with cardiac devices undergoing surgeries. Perioperative electromagnetic interference and their potential effects on ICDs pose considerable challenges to the anesthesiologists.[2] We present a case of a patient with automatic ICD with severe left ventricular dysfunction posted for double valve replacement. PMID:27716706

  8. Combined Subpectoral Implantation of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator and Augmentation Mammoplasty in a Young Female Patient

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Jun; Park, Je Wook; Youn, Jong-Chan; Lee, Dong Won; Koo, Bon-Nyeo; Lee, Moon-Hyoung

    2016-01-01

    Subcutaneous implantation of a cardiac implantable electronic device is the standard method. Occasionally, subpectoral cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) implantation via axillary incisions is performed in young female patients for cosmetic purposes. Because subpectoral CIED implantation and augmentation mammoplasty involve the same layer, it is feasible to perform both procedures simultaneously. We report a case of combined subpectoral implantation of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and augmentation mammoplasty via the axillary approach in a young female patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and small breasts. PMID:27721868

  9. Experience With the Wearable Cardioverter-Defibrillator in Patients at High Risk for Sudden Cardiac Death

    PubMed Central

    Günther, Michael; Quick, Silvio; Pfluecke, Christian; Rottstädt, Fabian; Szymkiewicz, Steven J.; Ringquist, Steven; Strasser, Ruth H.; Speiser, Uwe

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study evaluated the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) for use and effectiveness in preventing sudden death caused by ventricular tachyarrhythmia or fibrillation. Methods: From April 2010 through October 2013, 6043 German WCD patients (median age, 57 years; male, 78.5%) were recruited from 404 German centers. Deidentified German patient data were used for a retrospective, nonrandomized analysis. Results: Ninety-four patients (1.6%) were treated by the WCD in response to ventricular tachyarrhythmia/fibrillation. The incidence rate was 8.4 (95% confidence interval, 6.8–10.2) per 100 patient-years. Patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator explantation had an incidence rate of 19.3 (95% confidence interval, 12.2–29.0) per 100 patient-years. In contrast, an incidence rate of 8.2 (95% confidence interval, 6.4–10.3) was observed in the remaining cardiac diagnosis groups, including dilated cardiomyopathy, myocarditis, and ischemic and nonischemic cardiomyopathies. Among 120 shocked patients, 112 (93%) survived 24 hours after treatment, whereas asystole was observed in 2 patients (0.03%) with 1 resulting death. ConclusionS: This large cohort represents the first nationwide evaluation of WCD use in patients outside the US healthcare system and confirms the overall value of the WCD in German treatment pathways. PMID:27458236

  10. Chagas' disease and the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Ronaldo F; Neto, Argemiro S; Franken, Roberto A

    2006-01-01

    The authors discuss the epidemiology and pathogenesis of Chagas' disease in Brazil, including the use of treatment with a cardioverter-defibrillator in patients with low ejection fraction. Select patients may benefit from resynchronization therapy associated with cardioverter-defibrillator treatment. Electrophysiologic study is indicated in the assessment of the potential utility of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. PMID:17086031

  11. [Implantable cardioverter defibrillator: an update].

    PubMed

    le Heuzey, Jean-Yves; Aliot, Etienne

    2007-01-01

    Automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator is now a well established therapy to prevent sudden cardiac death. In secondary prevention (patients with a previous cardiac arrest) defibrillator can be considered as a class I indication, if there is no transient or reversible cause. The level of proof is A. in primary prevention the defibrillator is indicated in coronary artery disease patients with or without symptoms of mild to moderate heart failure (NYHA II or III), an ejection fraction lower than 30 %, measured at least one month after a myocardial infarction and 3 months after a revascularisation, surgery or angioplasty (level of proof B). It is also indicated in symptomatic spontaneous sustained ventricular tachycardias with underlying heart disease (level of proof B), in patients with spontaneous sustained ventricular tachycardia, poorly tolerated, without underlying heart disease for which pharmacological treatment or ablation can not be performed or failed (level of proof B). Finally it is also indicated in patients with syncope of unknown cause with sustained ventricular tachycardia or inducible ventricular fibrillation, with an underlying heart disease (level of proof B). The guidelines proposed by the different societies have also proposed class IIa recommendations which are the following: coronary artery disease patients with left ventricular dysfunction (ejection fraction between 31 or 35 %) measured at least one month after a myocardial infarction and 3 months after a revascularisation with an inducible ventricular arrhythmia. It can be also indicated in idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathies with an ejection fraction lower than 30% and NYHA class II or III. It can be also indicated in familial or inherited conditions with a high risk of sudden cardiac death by ventricular fibrillation without any other efficient known treatment and finally in heart failure patients remaining symptomatic, in class III or IV NYHA, with an optimal medical therapy, an

  12. Successful use of wearable cardioverter defibrillator in a patient with dextrocardia and persistent left superior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chingping; Oren, Jess W; Szymkiewicz, Steven J

    2013-09-01

    Congenital disorders, such as dextrocardia and persistent left superior vena cava, are rare. However, their presence is often associated with other cardiac anomalies, and may lead to lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmias, which result in sudden cardiac death. Treating patients with these disorders can present a challenge to clinicians, as it may cause technical difficulties during interventional procedures, and more often, altered defibrillation techniques in a setting of prehospital sudden cardiac arrest. This report describes the first case of successful defibrillation therapy delivered by the wearable cardioverter defibrillator to a patient with dextrocardia and persistent left superior vena cava during a ventricular tachycardia arrest.

  13. Exercise and competitive sports in patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Heidbuchel, Hein; Carré, Francois

    2014-11-21

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) prevent sudden arrhythmic death in patients with different arrhythmogenic cardiac diseases. Because intense physical activity may trigger ventricular arrhythmias and may favour inappropriate shock delivery that impacts quality of life, current international recommendations only give clearance for moderate leisure-time physical activity to patients with an ICD. Hence, athletes are deemed non-eligible to compete with their ICD. The rationale for the current restriction from competitive sports is discussed in this review, as well as new insights that may alter these recommendations for certain sports participants in the foreseeable future. This review provides guidance for the choice of a durable lead and device system, careful programming tailored to the characteristics of the patient's physiological and pathological heart rhythms, instalment of preventive bradycardic medication, and guided rehabilitation with psychological counselling, allowing a maximum of benefit and a minimum of harm for physically active ICD patients.

  14. Electrical storm in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: can it be forecast?

    PubMed

    Emkanjoo, Zahra; Alihasani, Narges; Alizadeh, Abolfath; Tayyebi, Mohammad; Bonakdar, Hamid; Barakpour, Hamid; Sadr-Ameli, Mohammad Ali

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to determine the prevalence and predictors of electrical storm in 227 patients who had received implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and had been monitored for 31.7 +/- 15.6 months. Of these, 174 (77%) were men. The mean age was 55.8 +/- 15.5 years (range, 20-85 yr), and the mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was 0.30 +/- 0.14. One hundred forty-six of the patients (64%) had underlying coronary artery disease. Cardioverter-defibrillators were implanted for secondary (80%) and primary (20%) prevention. Of the 227 patients, 117 (52%) experienced events that required ICD therapy. Thirty patients (mean age, 57.26 +/- 14.3 yr) had > or = 3 episodes requiring ICD therapy in a 24-hour period and were considered to have electrical storm. The mean number of events was 12.75 +/- 15 per patient. Arrhythmia-clustering occurred an average of 6.1 +/- 6.7 months after ICD implantation. Clinical variables with the most significant association with electrical storm were low LVEF (P = 0.04; hazard ratio of 0.261, and 95% confidence interval of 0.08-0.86) and higher use of class IA antiarrhythmic drugs (P = 0.018, hazard ratio of 3.84, and 95% confidence interval of 1.47-10.05). Amiodarone treatment and use of beta-blockers were not significant predictors when subjected to multivariate analysis. We conclude that electrical storm is most likely to occur in patients with lower LVEF and that the use of Class IA antiarrhythmic drugs is a risk factor.

  15. Updated care guidelines for patients with automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Moser, S A; Crawford, D; Thomas, A

    1993-04-01

    Since its clinical introduction, AICD therapy has gained significant acceptance. Some physicians consider it the "gold standard" in treating malignant tachyarrhythmias associated with sudden cardiac death. As the technology and therapy application have grown, nursing responsibilities have evolved as well. And, with the forthcoming combinations of technology such as AICDs with antitachycardia pacing and bradycardia pacing, the sophistication of the therapy is expected to increase. However, the most critical role for nurses in AICD patient care remains education. Increased utilization has made AICD implants more common, but many patients still lack the initial information and acceptance needed for therapeutic success. Health-care professionals who continue to update and share their understanding of this life-saving technology make invaluable contributions to the care of these patients who have received a second chance at life.

  16. Safety of Electromagnetic Articulography in Patients with Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joglar, Jose A.; Nguyen, Carol; Garst, Diane M.; Katz, William F.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: "Electromagnetic articulography (EMA)" uses a helmet to create alternating magnetic fields for tracking speech articulator movement. An important safety consideration is whether EMA magnetic fields interfere with the operation of speakers' pacemakers or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). In this investigation, individuals…

  17. Clinical Course After Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation: Chagasic Versus Ischemic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Francisca Tatiana Moreira; Rocha, Eduardo Arrais; Monteiro, Marcelo de Paula Martins; Lima, Neiberg de Alcantara; Rodrigues Sobrinho, Carlos Roberto Martins; Pires Neto, Roberto da Justa

    2016-01-01

    Background: The outcome of Chagas disease patients after receiving implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is still controversial. Objective: To compare clinical outcomes after ICD implantation in patients with chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) and ischemic heart disease (IHD). Methods: Prospective study of a population of 153 patients receiving ICD (65 with CCC and 88 with IHD). The devices were implanted between 2003 and 2011. Survival rates and event-free survival were compared. Results: The groups were similar regarding sex, functional class and ejection fraction. Ischemic patients were, on average, 10 years older than CCC patients (p < 0.05). Patients with CCC had lower schooling and monthly income than IHD patients (p < 0.05). The number of appropriate therapies was 2.07 higher in CCC patients, who had a greater incidence of appropriate shock (p < 0.05). Annual mortality rate and electrical storm incidence were similar in both groups. There was no sudden death in CCC patients, and only one in IHD patients. Neither survival time (p = 0.720) nor event-free survival (p = 0.143) significantly differed between the groups. Conclusion: CCC doubles the risk of receiving appropriate therapies as compared to IHD, showing the greater complexity of arrhythmias in Chagas patients. PMID:27411097

  18. Quality of Life in Patients with an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Tomzik, Juliane; Koltermann, Katharina C; Zabel, Markus; Willich, Stefan N; Reinhold, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Despite the indisputable mortality advantages of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), no consensus exists regarding their impact on quality of life (QoL). This systematic review investigates differences in QoL between patients with ICDs and controls. We systematically searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases. Articles were included if they were published after the year 2000 and reported on original studies with a control group. Five randomized controlled trials with a total of 5,138 patients and 10 observational studies with a total of 1,513 patients met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies found comparable QoL for ICD recipients and patients in the control groups, three studies found an increased QoL for ICD patients, and three studies found a decreased QoL for ICD patients. The question of whether QoL relates to ICD therapy cannot be answered conclusively due to the heterogeneity of the existing studies. Lower QoL was apparent among patients with an ICD who experienced several device discharges. Medical staff should be particularly aware of the signs of both psychological and physical disorders in these patients. Further investigations on QoL in ICD patients are desirable, but ethical reasons restrict the conduct of randomized trials. PMID:26664905

  19. Quality of Life in Patients with an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Tomzik, Juliane; Koltermann, Katharina C.; Zabel, Markus; Willich, Stefan N.; Reinhold, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Despite the indisputable mortality advantages of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs), no consensus exists regarding their impact on quality of life (QoL). This systematic review investigates differences in QoL between patients with ICDs and controls. We systematically searched the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, Web of Science, and PsychINFO databases. Articles were included if they were published after the year 2000 and reported on original studies with a control group. Five randomized controlled trials with a total of 5,138 patients and 10 observational studies with a total of 1,513 patients met the inclusion criteria. Nine studies found comparable QoL for ICD recipients and patients in the control groups, three studies found an increased QoL for ICD patients, and three studies found a decreased QoL for ICD patients. The question of whether QoL relates to ICD therapy cannot be answered conclusively due to the heterogeneity of the existing studies. Lower QoL was apparent among patients with an ICD who experienced several device discharges. Medical staff should be particularly aware of the signs of both psychological and physical disorders in these patients. Further investigations on QoL in ICD patients are desirable, but ethical reasons restrict the conduct of randomized trials. PMID:26664905

  20. Indications for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD).

    PubMed

    Aizawa, Yoshifusa; Chinushi, Masaomi; Washizuka, Takashi

    2004-05-01

    Since the first clinical use of implantable defibrillator in human, the technology and the function of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) have been much improved and now, ICD can be implanted within the chest wall. ICD is the most reliable therapy to prevent sudden cardiac death (SCD) in patients with documented VT/VF and the efficacy is most clear in patients with depressed heart function. It is now extended as a tool of the primary prevention of SCD in high risk patients after myocardial infarction. However, such beneficial effect is not applicable to DCM though patients might have depressed heart function. ICD is not free from procedure- or device-related problems which need to be resolved. From unknown causes, VT/VF might recur in an incessant form and an emergency admission is needed. Therefore, even during ICD therapy, patients often require antiarrhythmic drugs or catheter ablation. PMID:15206546

  1. Predictors and Clinical Impact of Inappropriate Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Shocks in Korean Patients

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jeong Hoon; Byeon, Kyeongmin; Yim, Hye Ran; Park, Jung Wae; Park, Seung-Jung; Huh, June; Kim, June Soo

    2012-01-01

    Limited data are available on inappropriate shocks in Korean patients implanted with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). We investigated the impact of inappropriate shocks on clinical outcomes. This retrospective, single-center study included 148 patients treated between October 1999 and June 2011. The primary outcome was a composite event of all-cause mortality or hospitalization for any cardiac reason. The median follow-up duration was 29 months (interquartile range: 8 to 53). One or more inappropriate shocks occurred in 34 (23.0%) patients. A history of atrial fibrillation was the only independent predictor of inappropriate shock (hazard ratio [HR]: 4.16, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.89-9.15, P < 0.001). Atrial fibrillation was the most common cause of inappropriate shock (67.7%), followed by supraventricular tachycardia (23.5%), and abnormal sensing (8.8%). A composite event of all-cause mortality or hospitalizations for any cardiac reason during follow-up was not significantly different between patients with or without inappropriate shock (inappropriate shock vs no inappropriate shock: 35.3% vs 35.4%, adjusted HR: 1.06, 95% CI: 0.49-2.29, P = 0.877). Inappropriate shocks do not affect clinical outcomes in patients implanted with an ICD, although the incidence of inappropriate shocks is high. PMID:22690092

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging safety in pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients: how far have we come?

    PubMed

    Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Ritter, Oliver

    2015-06-21

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been regarded a general contraindication in patients with cardiovascular implanted electronic devices such as cardiac pacemakers or cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) due to the risk of severe complications and even deaths caused by interactions of the magnetic resonance (MR) surrounding and the electric devices. Over the last decade, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for such potentially life-threatening complications as well as technical advances have allowed an increasing number of pacemaker and ICD patients to safely undergo MRI. This review lists the key findings from basic research and clinical trials over the last 20 years, and discusses the impact on current day clinical practice. With 'MR-conditional' devices being the new standard of care, MRI in pacemaker and ICD patients has been adopted to clinical routine today. However, specific precautions and specifications of these devices should be carefully followed if possible, to avoid patient risks which might appear with new MR technology and further increasing indications and patient numbers. PMID:25796053

  3. Magnetic resonance imaging safety in pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator patients: how far have we come?

    PubMed Central

    Nordbeck, Peter; Ertl, Georg; Ritter, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has long been regarded a general contraindication in patients with cardiovascular implanted electronic devices such as cardiac pacemakers or cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) due to the risk of severe complications and even deaths caused by interactions of the magnetic resonance (MR) surrounding and the electric devices. Over the last decade, a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms responsible for such potentially life-threatening complications as well as technical advances have allowed an increasing number of pacemaker and ICD patients to safely undergo MRI. This review lists the key findings from basic research and clinical trials over the last 20 years, and discusses the impact on current day clinical practice. With ‘MR-conditional’ devices being the new standard of care, MRI in pacemaker and ICD patients has been adopted to clinical routine today. However, specific precautions and specifications of these devices should be carefully followed if possible, to avoid patient risks which might appear with new MR technology and further increasing indications and patient numbers. PMID:25796053

  4. [The Wearable Cardioverter-Defibrillator (WCD)].

    PubMed

    Helms, Thomas M; Müller, A; Schwab, J O; Bänsch, D; Karle, C; Klingenheben, T; Zugck, C; Perings, C

    2015-06-01

    While the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has been proven to be the best choice for patients with long-term risk for sudden cardiac arrest/sudden cardiac death (SCA/SCD), the question is how to manage patients with only temporary risk, e.g., during the guidelines-recommended waiting period until the decision for an ICD can be made. These patient groups should be monitored around the clock to guarantee a lifesaving shock within a few minutes, if necessary.These conditions can be accomplished by the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator (WCD) in the outpatient sector. The WCD is worn on the skin and consists of four nonadhesive ECG electrodes as well as three defibrillation electrodes-two at the back and one at the front-embedded in a garment. The defibrillation unit is connected via a cord and can be worn over the shoulder or on a belt. Cardiac events can be recorded and retrospectively analyzed by the treating physician.The WCD is a safe and effective measure to terminate potentially lethal ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. It may be used early after myocardial infarction with reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), as well as for patients with acute heart failure in nonischemic cardiomyopathy with uncertain cause and prognosis. In addition, it may be used for patients waiting for heart transplantation, for patients who cannot be implanted an ICD due to comorbidities, and for patients after explantation of their ICD, e.g., because of infection until reimplantation.One may expect that risk stratification of patients with the WCD will lead to even better selection for ICD use. PMID:25939989

  5. No Electromagnetic Interference Occurred in a Patient with a HeartMate II Left Ventricular Assist System and a Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    PubMed Central

    Raman, Ajay Sundara; Kar, Biswajit; Loyalka, Pranav; Hariharan, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    The use of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators is a novel option for preventing arrhythmia-mediated cardiac death in patients who are at risk of endovascular-device infection or in whom venous access is difficult. However, the potential for electromagnetic interference between subcutaneous defibrillators and left ventricular assist devices is largely unknown. We report the case of a 24-year-old man in whom we observed no electromagnetic interference between a subcutaneous implanted cardioverter-defibrillator and a HeartMate II Left Ventricular Assist System, at 3 different pump speeds. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such findings in this circumstance. PMID:27127441

  6. No Electromagnetic Interference Occurred in a Patient with a HeartMate II Left Ventricular Assist System and a Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Raman, Ajay Sundara; Shabari, Farshad Raissi; Kar, Biswajit; Loyalka, Pranav; Hariharan, Ramesh

    2016-04-01

    The use of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillators is a novel option for preventing arrhythmia-mediated cardiac death in patients who are at risk of endovascular-device infection or in whom venous access is difficult. However, the potential for electromagnetic interference between subcutaneous defibrillators and left ventricular assist devices is largely unknown. We report the case of a 24-year-old man in whom we observed no electromagnetic interference between a subcutaneous implanted cardioverter-defibrillator and a HeartMate II Left Ventricular Assist System, at 3 different pump speeds. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such findings in this circumstance.

  7. Readability and Content of Patient Education Material Related to Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Strachan, Patricia H.; de Laat, Sonya; Carroll, Sandra L.; Schwartz, Lisa; Vaandering, Katie; Toor, Gurjit K.; Arthur, Heather M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are increasingly offered to patients for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. Candidates for ICD receive ICD-related patient education material when they make decisions to consent or decline a primary prevention ICD. Printed patient education material directed at ICD candidates has not been the focus of direct appraisal. Objective We evaluated the readability and content of ICD-related print education materials made available to patients who were enrolled in a study involving patient decision making for ICD from 3 ICD sites in southern Ontario, Canada. Methods All ICD print materials referred to during interviews and/or that were available in ICD site waiting rooms were collected for analysis. Readability testing was conducted using the SMOG (“simple measurement of gobbledygook”) and Fry methods. The material was evaluated according to selected plain-language criteria, thematic content analysis, and rhetoric analysis. Results Twenty-one print materials were identified and analyzed. Documents were authored by device manufacturers, tertiary care hospitals, and cardiac support organizations. Although many documents adhered to plain-language recommendations, text-reading levels were higher than recommended. Twelve major content themes were identified. Content focused heavily on the positive aspects of living with the device to the exclusion of other possible information that could be relevant to the decisions that patients made. Conclusions Print-based patient education materials for ICD candidates are geared to a highly literate population. The focus on positive information to the exclusion of potentially negative aspects of the ICD, or alternatives to accepting 1, could influence and/or confuse patients about the purpose and implications of this medical device. Development of print materials is indicated that includes information about possible problems and that would be relevant for the

  8. Association of Physician Certification and Outcomes Among Patients Receiving an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    PubMed Central

    Curtis, Jeptha P.; Luebbert, Jeffrey J.; Wang, Yongfei; Rathore, Saif S.; Chen, Jersey; Heidenreich, Paul A.; Hammill, Stephen C.; Lampert, Rachel I.; Krumholz, Harlan M.

    2009-01-01

    Context Allowing nonelectrophysiologists to perform implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) procedures is controversial. However, it is not known whether outcomes of ICD implantation vary by physician specialty. Objective To determine the association of implanting physician certification with outcomes following ICD implantation. Design, Setting, and Patients Retrospective cohort study using cases submitted to the ICD Registry performed between January 2006 and June 2007. Patients were grouped by the certification status of the implanting physician into mutually exclusive categories: electrophysiologists, nonelectrophysiologist cardiologists, thoracic surgeons, and other specialists. Hierarchical logistic regression models were developed to determine the independent association of physician certification with outcomes. Main Outcome Measures In-hospital procedural complication rates and the proportion of patients meeting criteria for a defibrillator with cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT-D) who received that device. Results Of 111 293 ICD implantations included in the analysis, 78 857 (70.9%) were performed by electrophysiologists, 24 399 (21.9%) by nonelectrophysiologist cardiologists, 1862 (1.7%) by thoracic surgeons, and 6175 (5.5%) by other specialists. Compared with patients whose ICD was implanted by electrophysiologists, patients whose ICD was implanted by either nonelectrophysiologist cardiologists or thoracic surgeons were at increased risk of complications in both unadjusted (electrophysiologists, 3.5% [2743/78 857]; nonelectrophysiologist cardiologists, 4.0% [970/24 399]; thoracic surgeons, 5.8% [108/1862]; P < .001) and adjusted analyses (relative risk [RR] for nonelectrophysiologist cardiologists, 1.11 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 1.01–1.21]; RR for thoracic surgeons, 1.44 [95% CI, 1.15–1.79]). Among 35 841 patients who met criteria for CRT-D, those whose ICD was implanted by physicians other than electrophysiologists were significantly

  9. Prediction of ventricular arrhythmia events in ischemic heart disease patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Feng, Tianjie; Zhang, Shu; Chen, Keping; Hua, Wei; Ren, Xiaoqing

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the study was to exam the prediction of ventricular arrhythmia events in ischemic heart disease patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD). A total of 123 consecutive patients confirmed ischemia heart disease with ICD were examined. After device implantation, the occurrence of appropriate ICD therapy was noted. Patients were divided into two groups according to the ventricular arrhythmia occurrence. Patients with ventricular arrhythmia occurrence had a significantly great incidence of atrial fibrillation history compare to the no-ventricular arrhythmia occurrence group (8 vs. 39%, P = 0.02). The level of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) baseline was also significantly higher in the ventricular arrhythmia group than in the no ventricular arrhythmia (3.78 ± 1.1 vs. 0.94 ± 0.7, P < 0.01). The taking of β blocker is not common in ventricular arrhythmia group patients than no ventricular arrhythmia group (5 vs. 29%, P = 0.03). By univariate comparison, male sex, the history of atrial fibrillation, and a high level of hsCRP were significant predictors for ventricular arrhythmia occurrence. By multivariate analysis, the atrial fibrillation burden, and had a high level of hsCRP were significant for incidence of ventricular arrhythmia occurrence in ischemic heart disease patients. β-block were more likely to be free from ventricular arrhythmia occurrence. The high level of hsCRP, and the atrial fibrillation burden were strong predictor of ventricular arrhythmia occurrence in secondary prevention ICD recipients with ischemic heart disease. Taking β-blockers was free from ventricular arrhythmia occurrence.

  10. Hospice Use Following Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation in Older Patients

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Normand, Sharon-Lise; Parzynski, Craig S.; Spertus, John A.; Mor, Vincent; Mitchell, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    Background— Older recipients of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are at increased risk for short-term mortality in comparison with younger patients. Although hospice use is common among decedents aged >65, its use among older ICD recipients is unknown. Methods and Results— Medicare patients aged >65 matched to data in the National Cardiovascular Data Registry – ICD Registry from January 1, 2006 to March 31, 2010 were eligible for analysis (N=194 969). The proportion of ICD recipients enrolled in hospice, cumulative incidence of hospice admission, and factors associated with time to hospice enrollment were evaluated. Five years after device implantation, 50.9% of patients were either deceased or in hospice. Among decedents, 36.8% received hospice services. The cumulative incidence of hospice enrollment, accounting for the competing risk of death, was 4.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4.6%–4.8%) within 1 year and 21.3% (95% CI, 20.7%–21.8%) at 5 years. Factors most strongly associated with shorter time to hospice enrollment were older age (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.77; 95% CI, 1.73–1.81), class IV heart failure (versus class I; adjusted hazard ratio, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.66–1.94); ejection fraction <20 (adjusted hazard ratio, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.48–1.67), and greater hospice use among decedents in the patients’ health referral region. Conclusions— More than one-third of older patients dying with ICDs receive hospice care. Five years after implantation, half of older ICD recipients are either dead or in hospice. Hospice providers should be prepared for ICD patients, whose clinical trajectories and broader palliative care needs require greater focus. PMID:27016104

  11. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators. Prophylactic Use

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    of evidence for each outcome. The balance between benefits and harms, quality of evidence, applicability, and the certainty of the baseline risks are considered in judgments about the strength of recommendations. Summary of Findings Overall, ICDs are effective for the primary prevention of SCD. Three studies – the Multicentre Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial I (MADIT I), the Multicentre Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II (MADIT II), and SCD-HeFT – showed there was a statistically significant decrease in total mortality for patients who prophylactically received an ICD compared with those who received conventional therapy (Table 1). Table 1: Results of Key Studies on the Use of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators for the Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death – All-Cause Mortality Study, * Year Population N Follow-up, Months Mortality, ICD† Group, % Mortality, Control Group, % Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P NNT† MADIT, 1996 (2) Ischemic 196 27 15.8 38.6 0.46 (0.26–0.82) .009 4 Priormyocardialinfarction Conventional therapy 54% relative reduction Ejection fraction ≤ 0.35NSVT†EP† + MADIT II, 2002 (3) Ischemic 1232 20 14.2 19.8 0.69(0.51–0.93) .016 18 Priormyocardialinfarction Conventional therapy 31% relative reduction Ejection fraction ≤ 0.30 SCD-HeFT, 2005 (4) Ischemic & Nonischemic 2521 60 22 29 0.77 (0.62–0.96) .007 13 Optimal therapy Ejection fraction < 0.35 23% relative reduction * MADIT I: Multicentre Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial I; MADIT II: Multicentre Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial II; SCD-HeFT: Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure Trial. † EP indicates electrophysiology; ICD, implantable cardioverter defibrillator; NNT, number needed to treat; NSVT, nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. The NNT will appear higher if follow-up is short. For ICDs, the absolute benefit increases over time for at least a 5-year period; the NNT declines, often substantially, in studies with a longer follow

  12. Induction ovens and electromagnetic interference: what is the risk for patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators?

    PubMed

    Binggeli, Christian; Rickli, Hans; Ammann, Peter; Brunckhorst, Corinna; Hufschmid, Urs; Luechinger, Roger; Duru, Firat

    2005-04-01

    Electromagnetic fields may interfere with normal implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) function. Although the devices are effectively shielded and use exclusively bipolar leads, electromagnetic interference (EMI) remains a concern when patients are exposed to several household appliances. The aim of this study was to evaluate potential EMI risk of induction ovens, which are increasingly common in private households. In vitro measurements of an induction oven for private households GK 43 TI (V-Zug, Inc., Zug, Switzerland) showed that heating is regulated by increasing operating time from level 1 (100 ms/sec) to 5 (continuous operation). From levels 5 to 9 the magnetic field increases. Nineteen patients with left-sided implants of single- and dual-chamber ICD systems (8 Medtronic, 7 Guidant, and 4 St. Jude Medical) (18 males, 1 female), age (mean +/- SEM) 58 +/- 3 years, were included in this study. All patients were examined in standing position, bent over the cooking pot (minimal distance to the induction coil 25 cm), and with the cooking pot put eccentrically over the induction field at three different cooking levels (level 2, 5, and 9). The tests were repeated touching the cooking pot with one hand. Ventricular sensitivity was left unchanged. Ventricular tachycardia therapies were turned off in Medtronic and Guidant devices and ventricular sensing was continuously monitored in St. Jude Medical devices during testing. Interrogation of the devices after exposure did not show any inappropriate tachycardia detection, oversensing, or reprogramming. In conclusion, ICD patients can be reassured that EMI is unlikely to affect their devices if induction ovens are used in their kitchens.

  13. Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in a Patient with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) and Posttraumatic stress disorder(PTSD).

    PubMed

    Ansari, Sahar; Arbabi, Mohammad

    2014-07-01

    The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) has currently become the standard treatment for preventing sudden cardiac death. There are some psychological consequences in patients with ICD such as posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after the shocks induced by ICD. This report aimed to present the case of a 54-year-old man with ICD who had developed PTSD; his PTSD was treated, using cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy consisting of relaxation, mindfulness and problem solving techniques. In patients with ICD who are experiencing PTSD using cognitive behavioral interventions may be helpful to reduce their psychological sufferings.

  14. The automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Mirowski, M; Reid, P R; Mower, M M; Watkins, L; Platia, E V; Griffith, L S; Juanteguy, J M

    1984-05-01

    The automatic implantable cardioverter-defibrillator is an electronic device designed to monitor the heart continuously, to identify malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias, and then to deliver effective countershock to restore normal rhythm. There are two defibrillating electrodes which are also used for waveform analysis; one is located in the superior vena cava, the other is placed over the cardiac apex. A third bipolar right ventricular electrode serves for rate counting and R-wave synchronization. When ventricular fibrillation occurs, a 25 joule pulse is delivered; when ventricular tachycardia faster than a preset rate is detected, the discharge is R-wave synchronized. The device can recycle three times if required. Special batteries can deliver over 100 shocks or provide a 3-year monitoring life. Implantation of the device is made either through a thoracotomy or by a subxiphoid approach. Thus far, the device has been implanted in 160 patients with a follow-up of 42 months. Acceleration of ventricular tachycardia to a faster rhythm or to ventricular fibrillation occurred only rarely and is dealt with most successfully through recycling. Actuarial analysis of the initial 52 patients has indicated 22.9% one-year total mortality, a 52% decrease from the 48% mortality that would be expected in the same group of patients without the device; the mortality attributed to arrhythmias was only 8.5%. In conclusion, the automatic cardioverter-defibrillator can reliably identify and correct potentially lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmias, leading to a substantial increase in survival in properly selected high-risk patients. PMID:6204311

  15. Athletes with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Ponamgi, Shiva P.; DeSimone, Christopher V.; Ackerman, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Athletes with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) represent a diverse group of individuals who may be at an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) when engaging in vigorous physical activity. Therefore, they are excluded by the current guidelines from participating in most competitive sports except those classified as low intensity, such as bowling and golf. The lack of substantial data on the natural history of the cardiac diseases affecting these athletes, as well as the unknown efficacy of implanted ICDs in terminating life-threatening arrhythmias occurring during intense exercise, have resulted in the restrictive nature of these now decade old guidelines. Recently, there is emerging data, derived from a few retrospective studies and a large prospective registry that demonstrates the relative safety of high-risk athletes participating in competitive sports and challenges the prohibitive nature of these guidelines. Nevertheless, the safe participation of all athletes with an ICD in competitive sports continues to be contemplated. The increased number of inappropriate shocks, damage to the ICD/pacemaker system, and the questionable efficacy of the delivered shock in the setting of vigorous physical activity are some of the main challenges faced by these athletes who choose to continue participation in competitive sports. The fear of SCD and ICD shocks faced by these athletes is also associated with a negative psychological burden and affects their quality of life, as does restricting them from all competitive sports. Therefore, shared decision making is necessary between the clinician and athlete after carefully analyzing the risks and benefits associated with competitive sports participation. PMID:26100423

  16. When to consider an implantable cardioverter defibrillator following myocardial infarction?

    PubMed

    Szwejkowski, Benjamin R; Wright, Gary A; Connelly, Derek T; Gardner, Roy S

    2015-12-01

    After reading this article the reader should be familiar with: Current guidelines for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) use post myocardial infarction (MI) and ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Primary prevention ICD guidelines. Secondary prevention ICD guidelines. Non-sustained ventricular tachycardia in patients post MI and the use of ICDs. Programming ICDs. PMID:26526420

  17. Biventricular implantable cardioverter defibrillator and inappropriate shocks.

    PubMed

    Srivathsan, Komandoor; Bazzell, Jane L; Lee, Richard W

    2003-01-01

    A 53-year-old man with nonischemic cardiomyopathy underwent implantation of a biventricular implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) for symptomatic ventricular tachycardia. He received five shocks while attempting to exercise, 48 hours after implantation. Interrogation of the device revealed double counting of ventricular sensed events by the left and right ventricular leads. Shortening the AV delay and AV nodal blockade (beta-blocker) to promote ventricular pacing failed to prevent additional inappropriate ICD discharges. After detailed consideration of all options including AV nodal ablation, we chose to disconnect the left ventricular lead pending availability of newer devices with sensing functions limited to the right ventricular lead. Since then, the patient has not experienced any additional inappropriate discharges. PMID:12625617

  18. Serum-Based Oxylipins Are Associated with Outcomes in Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Patients

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yiyi; Guallar, Eliseo; Blasco-Colmenares, Elena; Harms, Amy C.; Vreeken, Rob J.; Hankemeier, Thomas; Tomaselli, Gordon F.; Cheng, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Individuals with systolic heart failure are at risk of ventricular arrhythmias and all-cause mortality. Little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying these events. We sought to better understand if oxylipins, a diverse class of lipid metabolites derived from the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, were associated with these outcomes in recipients of primary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). Methods Among 479 individuals from the PROSE-ICD study, baseline serum were analyzed and quantitatively profiled for 35 known biologically relevant oxylipin metabolites. Associations with ICD shocks for ventricular arrhythmias and all-cause mortality were evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models. Results Six oxylipins, 17,18-DiHETE (HR = 0.83, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.99 per SD change in oxylipin level), 19,20-DiHDPA (HR = 0.79, 95% CI 0.63 to 0.98), 5,6-DiHETrE (HR = 0.73, 95% CI 0.58 to 0.91), 8,9-DiHETrE (HR = 0.76, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.95), 9,10-DiHOME (HR = 0.81, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.00), and PGF1α (HR = 1.33, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.71) were associated with the risk of appropriate ICD shock after multivariate adjustment for clinical factors. Additionally, 4 oxylipin-to-precursor ratios, 15S-HEPE / FA (20:5-ω3), 17,18-DiHETE / FA (20:5-ω3), 19,20-DiHDPA / FA (20:5-ω3), and 5S-HEPE / FA (20:5-ω3) were positively associated with the risk of all-cause mortality. Conclusion In a prospective cohort of patients with primary prevention ICDs, we identified several novel oxylipin markers that were associated with appropriate shock and mortality using metabolic profiling techniques. These findings may provide new insight into the potential biologic pathways leading to adverse events in this patient population. PMID:27281224

  19. Electroconvulsive therapy in the setting of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Davis, Asha; Zisselman, Marc; Simmons, Tony; McCall, W Vaughn; McCafferty, John; Rosenquist, Peter B

    2009-09-01

    Electroconvulsive therapy has potent cardiovascular effects, which may pose a challenge in treating patients with preexisting cardiac disease. Although it is well studied in the treatment of refractory depression, there are still pitfalls to overcome when treating those with comorbid cardiovascular disease. The synergistic effects of depression and cardiovascular disease in affecting the morbidity and mortality of patients make treatment a significant issue. The authors discuss 3 elderly patients treated for major depression, all of whom previously had implantable cardioverter-defibrillators placed. All 3 patients were effectively treated, with no major adverse effects. The cases illustrate how taking the appropriate preventative measures allow even the most medically challenging patient to undergo effective treatment and highlight the debate surrounding the intraoperative management of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator devices. PMID:19300291

  20. Do implantable cardioverter defibrillators improve survival in patients with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction after coronary artery bypass graft surgery?

    PubMed

    Fazal, Iftikhar A; Bates, Matthew G D; Matthews, Iain G; Turley, Andrew J

    2011-06-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) improve survival in patients with severe left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) after coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery. ICDs are designed to terminate potentially fatal cardiac tachyarrhythmias. A right ventricular lead is mandatory for detection, pacing and defibrillation capabilities. Dual chamber ICDs have an additional right atrial lead and are used for patients with conventional atrioventricular pacing indications. More sophisticated, biventricular devices exist to provide cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) in addition to defibrillation (CRT-D). ICDs have been extensively investigated in patients with LVSD post myocardial infarction and in patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy for both secondary prevention (history of ventricular arrhythmias) and primary prevention (deemed high risk for ventricular arrhythmias). This best evidence topic aims to review the evidence and its applicability to patients post CABG. Nine hundred and sixteen papers were identified using the search method outlined. Eight randomised controlled trials, two meta-analyses, and one non-randomised trial, in addition to international guidelines presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The current evidence base and guidelines suggest that ICDs should be considered for all patients with LVSD [ejection fraction (EF) ≤30-40%] receiving optimal pharmacological management, who are ≥40 days post MI [four weeks for National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE)] and in New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I-III. UK NICE guidelines require in addition; non-sustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) on a Holter monitor and inducible ventricular tachycardia at electrophysiological study for EF between 30 and 35%; or a QRS >120 ms if EF <30%. The North American guidelines

  1. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy in pediatric and congenital heart disease patients: a single tertiary center experience in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Bo Kyung; Bang, Ji Seok; Choi, Eun Young; Kim, Gi Beom; Kwon, Bo Sang; Noh, Chung Il; Choi, Jung Yun; Kim, Woong Han

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) to prevent sudden cardiac death is increasing in children and adolescents. This study investigated the use of ICDs in children with congenital heart disease. Methods This retrospective study was conducted on the clinical characteristics and effectiveness of ICD implantation at the department of pediatrics of a single tertiary center between 2007 and 2011. Results Fifteen patients underwent ICD implantation. Their mean age at the time of implantation was 14.5±5.4 years (range, 2 to 22 years). The follow-up duration was 28.9±20.4 months. The cause of ICD implantation was cardiac arrest in 7, sustained ventricular tachycardia in 6, and syncope in 2 patients. The underlying disorders were as follows: ionic channelopathy in 6 patients (long QT type 3 in 4, catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia [CPVT] in 1, and J wave syndrome in 1), cardiomyopathy in 5 patients, and postoperative congenital heart disease in 4 patients. ICD coils were implanted in the pericardial space in 2 children (ages 2 and 6 years). Five patients received appropriate ICD shock therapy, and 2 patients received inappropriate shocks due to supraventricular tachycardia. During follow-up, 2 patients required lead dysfunction-related revision. One patient with CPVT suffered from an ICD storm that was resolved using sympathetic denervation surgery. Conclusion The overall ICD outcome was acceptable in most pediatric patients. Early diagnosis and timely ICD implantation are recommended for preventing sudden death in high-risk children and patients with congenital heart disease. PMID:23559974

  2. Prevalence and outcomes of patients receiving implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for primary prevention not based on guidelines.

    PubMed

    Levine, Yehoshua C; Tuttle, Mark K; Rosenberg, Michael A; Goldberg, Randal; Matos, Jason; Samuel, Michelle; Kramer, Daniel B; Buxton, Alfred E

    2015-06-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) implantation outside practice guidelines remains contentious, particularly during the mandated waiting periods in patients with recent cardiac events. We assessed the prevalence and outcomes of non-guideline-based (NGB) ICD implantations in a tertiary academic medical center, with a specific focus on adjudication of arrhythmia events. All patients who underwent initial primary prevention ICD implantation at our institution from 2004 to 2012 were categorized as having received guideline-based (GB) or NGB implants and were retrospectively assessed for first episode of appropriate ICD therapy and total mortality. Of 807 patients, 137 (17.0%) received NGB implants. During a median follow-up of 2.9 years, patients with NGB implants had similar times to first appropriate ICD therapy (median time to event 1.94 vs 2.17 years in patients with GB implants, p = 0.20). After multivariable analysis, patients with NGB implants remained at higher risk for death (hazard ratio 1.54, 95% confidence interval 1.1 to 2.2, p = 0.03) but not appropriate ICD therapy (hazard ratio 0.83, 95% confidence interval 0.5 to 1.3, p = 0.51). Furthermore, only 1 of 125 patients who underwent implant within the 40-day waiting period after myocardial infarction or 3-month waiting period after revascularization or cardiomyopathy diagnosis received an appropriate therapy within this period. In conclusion, few patients received NGB ICD implants in our academic medical center. Although these patients have similar long-term risk of receiving appropriate ICD therapy compared with patients with GB implants, this risk is very low during the waiting periods mandated by clinical practice guidelines. These results suggest that there is little need to rush into implanting ICDs during these waiting periods. PMID:25840578

  3. Cognitive-Behavioral Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress in Patients With Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators: Results From a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Ford, Jessica; Rosman, Lindsey; Wuensch, Karl; Irvine, Jane; Sears, Samuel F

    2016-08-01

    Approximately 20% of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to a history of cardiac arrest, device implantation, and ICD shock. There has been very little examination of treatment of PTSD symptoms in these patients. This study evaluated the effect of a specific cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for ICD patients with high levels of PTSD symptoms: a manualized program consisting of 8 telephone sessions with a trained counselor, a patient education book, and a stress management procedure on compact disc. Participants were 193 ICD patients, who were randomized to CBT or usual cardiac care (UCC) who completed self-report surveys at the time of recruitment and 6 and 12 months after initial measurement. Previous publication on the primary research evaluation questions reported that the CBT condition resulted in greater improvement on PTSD and depression symptoms than the UCC for the general population of ICD patients, but did not evaluate the effect on those with elevated symptoms of PTSD. The authors conducted secondary analyses of the effect of treatment on high and low PTSD symptom groups based on a cutoff for the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (Weiss & Marmar, 1997). Participants in the CBT group who had high symptoms experienced significantly greater symptom reduction from baseline to 12 months (d = 2.44, p = .021) than the UCC group (d = 1.12). Participants with low symptoms had small reductions regardless of group assignment (d = 0.16, p = .031). ICD-focused CBT was sufficient to produce a large, statistically significant reduction in PTSD symptoms in ICD patients with indications for treatment.

  4. Magnets and implantable cardioverter defibrillators: what's the problem?

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Blanco, Yiliam F; Souki, Fouad; Tamayo, Evelyn; Candiotti, Keith

    2013-01-01

    A growing number of surgical patients present to the operating room with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). Peri-operative care of these patients dictates that ICD function be suspended for many surgical procedures to avoid inappropriate, and possibly harmful, ICD therapy triggered by electromagnetic interference (EMI). An alternative to reprogramming the ICD is the use of a magnet to temporarily suspend its function. However, this approach is not without complications. We report a case where magnet use failed to inhibit ICD sensing of EMI, and a shock was delivered to the patient. Measures to decrease EMI, controversies regarding magnet use, and expert recommendations are discussed.

  5. Anger-induced T-wave alternans predicts future ventricular arrhythmias in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Lampert, Rachel; Shusterman, Vladimir; Burg, Matthew; McPherson, Craig; Batsford, William; Goldberg, Anna; Soufer, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine whether T-wave alternans (TWA) induced by anger in a laboratory setting predicts future ventricular arrhythmias (VT/VF) in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). Background Anger can precipitate spontaneous VT/VF, and induce TWA. Whether anger-induced TWA predicts future arrhythmias is unknown. Methods Sixty-two patients with ICDs underwent ambulatory ECG during a mental stress protocol, three months post-implant. TWA was analyzed using time-domain methods. After ≥ 1 year follow-up, ICD stored data was reviewed to determine incidence of ICD-terminated VT/VF. Results Patients with ICD-terminated arrhythmias during follow-up (N=10) had higher TWA induced by anger, 13.2uV (iqr 9.3-16), compared to 9.3uV (7.5-11.5) (p<0.01). Patients in the highest quartile of anger-induced TWA (>11.9uV, N=15) were more likely to experience arrhythmias by one year than those in the lower quartiles, (33% versus 4%), and during extended follow-up (40% versus 9%, p<0.01 for both.) In multivariable regression controlling for ejection fraction, prior clinical arrhythmia, and wide QRS, anger-induced TWA remained a significant predictor of arrhythmia, with likelihood in the top quartile 10.8 times that of other patients (CI 1.6-113, p<0.05.) Conclusion Anger-induced TWA predicts future ventricular arrhythmias in patients with ICDs, suggesting that emotion-induced repolarization instability may be one mechanism linking stress and sudden death. Whether there is a clinical role for anger-induced TWA testing requires further study. PMID:19245968

  6. Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy to Avoid Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Shocks

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Jaber

    2016-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are effective in the prevention of arrhythmic sudden cardiac death. Many patients receiving an ICD are affected by heart failure and are at risk of ventricular arrhythmias, which may lead to appropriate shocks. On the other hand, in this population the incidence of atrial fibrillation, giving rise to inappropriate ICD shocks, is high. Accordingly, ICD discharges occur frequently and many patients with an ICD will need concomitant antiarrhythmic drug therapy to avoid or reduce the frequency of shocks. Therapeutic agents such as β-blockers, class I or class III antiarrhythmic drugs effectively suppress arrhythmias, but may have side-effects. Some drugs could eventually influence the function of ICDs by altering defibrillation or pacing threshold. Few prospective randomised trials are available, but current data suggest that amiodarone is most effective for prevention of appropriate or inappropriate ICD shocks. This review article summarises current knowledge regarding the antiarrhythmic management of patients with ICDs.

  7. Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy to Avoid Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Shocks.

    PubMed

    Abboud, Jaber; R Ehrlich, Joachim

    2016-08-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are effective in the prevention of arrhythmic sudden cardiac death. Many patients receiving an ICD are affected by heart failure and are at risk of ventricular arrhythmias, which may lead to appropriate shocks. On the other hand, in this population the incidence of atrial fibrillation, giving rise to inappropriate ICD shocks, is high. Accordingly, ICD discharges occur frequently and many patients with an ICD will need concomitant antiarrhythmic drug therapy to avoid or reduce the frequency of shocks. Therapeutic agents such as β-blockers, class I or class III antiarrhythmic drugs effectively suppress arrhythmias, but may have side-effects. Some drugs could eventually influence the function of ICDs by altering defibrillation or pacing threshold. Few prospective randomised trials are available, but current data suggest that amiodarone is most effective for prevention of appropriate or inappropriate ICD shocks. This review article summarises current knowledge regarding the antiarrhythmic management of patients with ICDs. PMID:27617090

  8. Antiarrhythmic Drug Therapy to Avoid Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Shocks

    PubMed Central

    Abboud, Jaber

    2016-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are effective in the prevention of arrhythmic sudden cardiac death. Many patients receiving an ICD are affected by heart failure and are at risk of ventricular arrhythmias, which may lead to appropriate shocks. On the other hand, in this population the incidence of atrial fibrillation, giving rise to inappropriate ICD shocks, is high. Accordingly, ICD discharges occur frequently and many patients with an ICD will need concomitant antiarrhythmic drug therapy to avoid or reduce the frequency of shocks. Therapeutic agents such as β-blockers, class I or class III antiarrhythmic drugs effectively suppress arrhythmias, but may have side-effects. Some drugs could eventually influence the function of ICDs by altering defibrillation or pacing threshold. Few prospective randomised trials are available, but current data suggest that amiodarone is most effective for prevention of appropriate or inappropriate ICD shocks. This review article summarises current knowledge regarding the antiarrhythmic management of patients with ICDs. PMID:27617090

  9. Effect of Advancing Age and Multiple Chronic Conditions on Mortality in Patients with End-Stage Renal Disease after Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Placement

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswami, Ashok; Kiley, Mary-Lou; Anthony, Faith F; Chen, Yuexin; Chen, Jason; Rajagopal, Sumanth; Liu, Taylor I; Young, Charlie; Paxton, Elizabeth W

    2016-01-01

    Context: There is insufficient information on the effect that advancing age and multiple chronic conditions (MCC) have on mortality after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) vs non-ESRD. Objective: To assess whether a differential effect of age and MCC exists between ESRD and non-ESRD. Design: Population-based, retrospective cohort study using data from the national Kaiser Permanente Cardiac Device Registry of patients who underwent placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator between January 1, 2007, and December 31, 2013. Main Outcome Measures: All-cause mortality. Results: Of 7825 patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator placement, ESRD-affected patients constituted 4.0% of the cohort (n = 311), were similar in age (p = 0.91), and presented with a larger comorbidity burden (3.3 ± 1.3 vs 2.4 ± 1.5, p < 0.001). The effect of advancing age (every 5 years) on mortality in the ESRD cohort (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.11, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.03–1.20) was less than in the non-ESRD cohort (HR = 1.28, 95% CI = 1.25–1.32). Similarly, the effect of each additional comorbidity in the ESRD cohort was less (HR = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.91–1.19) than in the non-ESRD group (HR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.16–1.25). Lastly, ESRD was independently associated with a 3-fold greater hazard of mortality. Conclusions: Advancing age and increasing number of MCC have a differential effect on mortality risk in patients with ESRD compared with their non-ESRD counterparts. Future studies should focus on assessment of nonlinear relationships of age, MCC, and naturally occurring clusters of MCC on mortality. PMID:26562307

  10. Development and Testing of an Intervention to Improve Outcomes for Partners Following Receipt of an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator in the Patient

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Cynthia M.; Thompson, Elaine A.; Kudenchuk, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe 3 foundational studies and how their results were used to formulate, design, and test a novel partner intervention for implementation in the immediate post-ICD (implantable cardioverter defibrillator) period after returning home. Nursing’s expanding role into chronic illness management in the creation of evidence-based practice is highlighted. A randomized clinical trial comparing 2 intervention programs is being conducted with patients who receive an ICD for the first time and their intimate partners. Primary outcomes are physical functioning, psychological adjustment, relationship impact, and health care utilization. PMID:23107992

  11. Association Between Comorbidities and Outcomes in Heart Failure Patients With and Without an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator for Primary Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Khazanie, Prateeti; Hellkamp, Anne S; Fonarow, Gregg C; Bhatt, Deepak L; Masoudi, Frederick A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Heidenreich, Paul A; Yancy, Clyde W; Curtis, Lesley H; Hernandez, Adrian F; Peterson, Eric D; Al-Khatib, Sana M

    2015-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy is associated with improved outcomes in patients with heart failure (HF), but whether this association holds among older patients with multiple comorbid illnesses and worse HF burden remains unclear. Methods and Results Using the National Cardiovascular Data Registry’s ICD Registry and the Get With The Guidelines–Heart Failure (GWTG-HF) registry linked with Medicare claims, we examined outcomes associated with primary-prevention ICD versus no ICD among HF patients aged ≥65 years in clinical practice. We included patients with an ejection fraction ≤35% who received (ICD Registry) and who did not receive (GWTG-HF) an ICD. Compared with patients with an ICD, patients in the non-ICD group were older and more likely to be female and white. In matched cohorts, the 3-year adjusted mortality rate was lower in the ICD group versus the non-ICD group (46.7% versus 55.8%; adjusted hazard ratio [HR] 0.76; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.83). There was no associated difference in all-cause readmission (HR 0.99; 95% CI 0.92 to 1.08) but a lower risk of HF readmission (HR 0.88; 95% CI 0.80 to 0.97). When compared with no ICD, ICDs were also associated with better survival in patients with ≤3 comorbidities (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.69 to 0.87) and >3 comorbidities (HR 0.77; 95% CI 0.64 to 0.93) and in patients with no hospitalization for HF (HR 0.75; 95% CI 0.65 to 0.86) and at least 1 prior HF hospitalization (HR 0.69; 95% CI 0.58 to 0.82). In subgroup analyses, there were no interactions between ICD and mortality risk for comorbidity burden (P=0.95) and for prior HF hospitalization (P=0.46). Conclusion Among older HF patients, ICDs for primary prevention were associated with lower risk of mortality even among those with high comorbid illness burden and prior HF hospitalization. PMID:26251283

  12. [Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator at the end of life].

    PubMed

    Pfeiffer, D; Hagendorff, A; Kühne, C; Reinhardt, S; Klein, N

    2015-06-01

    Brady- and tachyarrhythmias at the end of life are common observations. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators answer with antibrady and antitachycardia pacing, which will not be associated with any complaints of the dying patient. In contrast, defibrillation and cardioversion shocks are extremely painful. Therefore shocks should be inactivated at the end of life. Family doctors, internists, emergency physicians and paramedics are unable to inactivate shocks. Deactivation of shocks at the end of life is not comparable to euthanasia or assisted suicide, but allow the patient to die at the end of an uncurable endstage disease. Deactivation of shocks should be discussed with the patient before initial implantation of the devices. The precise moment of the inactivation at the end of life should be discussed with patients and relatives. There is no common recommendation for the time schedule of this decision; therefore it should be based on the individual situation of the patient. Emergency health care physicians need magnets and sufficient information to inactivate defibrillators. The wishes of the patient have priority in the decision process and should be written in the patient's advance directive, which must be available in the final situation. However the physician must not necessarily follow every wish of the patient. As long as the laws in the European Union are not uniform, German recommendations are needed. PMID:26001358

  13. A case-crossover analysis of particulate air pollution and cardiac arrhythmia in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Rich, Kira E; Petkau, John; Vedal, Sverre; Brauer, Michael

    2004-06-01

    We investigated the relationship between air pollution and incidence of cardiac arrhythmia in a study of patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). Thirty-four patients (ages 15-85 yr, 80% male) with ICDs residing in the Vancouver, Canada, area were included in the analyses, representing all patients attending the 2 ICD clinics in the study region who had recorded at least 1 ICD discharge during the 14 February to 31 December 2000 study period. Air pollutant (PM(2.5), PM(10), SO(4)(2-), elemental carbon [EC], organic carbon [OC], O(3), SO(2), NO(2), and CO) concentrations on days for which ICD discharges were observed ("case days") were compared to concentrations on control days in case-crossover analyses. Control days were selected symmetrically, 7 days before and after each case day. ICD discharges occurring within 72 h of 1 another were grouped and considered as 1 discharge event. Temperature, relative humidity, barometric pressure, rainfall, and wind speed were included simultaneously as covariates. Sensitivity analyses examined the effect of grouping ICD discharges, of including meteorological variables, and of excluding discharges that were considered inappropriate by a cardiologist. As in previous studies, mean concentrations and interquartile ranges of air pollutants in Vancouver were low (e.g., PM(2.5) mean = 8.2 microg/m(3)). Although in general there were no statistically significant results, there were trends that might indicate associations between pollutants and ICD discharges. Odds ratios (OR) were consistently higher in summer than in winter (e.g., lag 0 per interquartile range increase in EC: 1.09 [0.86-1.37] vs. 0.61 [0.31-1.18]) and, in general, the highest ORs were observed for same-day effects. The one major exception was the observation of high ORs for ozone in winter (e.g., lag 1: 2.27 [0.67-7.66]). While an OR of 1.55 (0.51-4.70) was observed in summer at lag 0 for PM(10), no indications of positive associations were

  14. Deactivation of Pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Kramer, Daniel B.; Mitchell, Susan L.; Brock, Dan W.

    2013-01-01

    Cardiac implantable electrical devices (CIEDs), including pacemakers (PMs) and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), are the most effective treatment for life-threatening arrhythmias. Patients or their surrogates may request device deactivation to avoid prolongation of the dying process or in other settings, such as after device-related complications or with changes in their health care goals. Despite published guidelines outlining theoretical and practical aspects of this common clinical scenario, significant uncertainty remains for both patients and health care providers regarding the ethical and legal status of CIED deactivation. This review outlines the ethical and legal principles supporting CIED deactivation at patients’ request, centered upon patient autonomy and authority over their own medical treatment. The empirical literature describing stakeholder views and experiences surrounding CIED deactivation is described, along with lessons for future research and practice guidance surrounding the care of patients with CIEDs. PMID:23217433

  15. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in a 34-year-old patient with eating disorders and after the third sudden cardiac arrest.

    PubMed

    Piotrowicz, Ewa; Orzechowski, Piotr; Bilinska, Maria; Przybylski, Andrzej; Szumowski, Lukasz; Piotrowicz, Ryszard

    2015-03-01

    Eating disorders (ED) such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia are psychiatric diseases associated with the highest mortality rate of any other psychiatric disorders. More recently, long-term outcome studies with follow-up of over 20 years report a mortality of between 15% and 18% (Casiero and Frishman, Cardiol Rev 14(5), 227, 2006). The sudden death secondary to arrhythmias is often the cause of death in these patients (Casiero and Frishman, Cardiol Rev 14(5), 227, 2006). A case of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia (VA) in a patient with ED is presented. Clinical records (cardiologic, psychiatric), electrocardiograms, echocardiogram, coronary angiogram, cardiac magnetic resonance, and endocrine diagnostics were performed. Finally a cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) was implanted in the patient after her third cardiac arrest. An optimal approach to antiarrhythmic therapy in such patients is a real challenge for a cardiologist.

  16. Initial experience of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillators in Singapore: a case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Tien Siang Eric; Tan, Boon Yew; Ho, Kah Leng; Lim, Chuh Yih Paul; Teo, Wee Siong; Ching, Chi-Keong

    2015-01-01

    Transvenous implantable cardioverter defibrillators are a type of implantable cardiac device. They are effective at reducing total and arrhythmic mortality in patients at risk of sudden cardiac death. Subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillators (S-ICDs) are a new alternative that avoids the disadvantages of transvenous lead placement. In this case series, we report on the initial feasibility and safety of S-ICD implantation in Singapore. PMID:26512151

  17. Cognitive and Behavioral Treatments for Anxiety and Depression in a Patient with an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD): A Case Report and Clinical Discussion

    PubMed Central

    Sears, Samuel F.; Conti, Jamie B.

    2011-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are the treatment of choice for patients at risk for potentially life threatening arrhythmias. The associated stress of living with an implanted device and receiving ICD shock therapy has been noted to exert a psychological toll on the individual patient and family. Anxious and depressive symptomatology is frequently reported by these patients, thus creating a demand for tailored psychological interventions for this population. The current case report describes the components, delivery, and effectiveness of a targeted treatment approach for anxiety and depression in an individual with an ICD. Test results and interview data revealed significant improvements in multiple domains of cognitive, emotional, and behavioral functioning. Improvements in marital relations were also achieved. These treatment effects were maintained at follow-up and in the context of acute, medical stressors. Future clinical and research directions are also discussed. PMID:19404725

  18. Circadian variations in the occurrence of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Kozák, Milan; Krivan, Lubomír; Semrád, Borivoj

    2003-03-01

    A circadian distribution has been demonstrated in episodes of sudden cardiac death, acute myocardial infarction, ventricular premature complexes, heart rate variability, and ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The aim of this study was to evaluate the circadian distribution of ventricular tachyarrhythmia episodes in a population of ICD patients. Data were gathered from 72 patients (55 men, 17 women; mean age 62.7 +/- 12.2 years, mean LVEF 0.0037 +/- 0.0011) with ICDs implanted for standard indications. Patients were followed every 3 months over a mean period of 21 +/- 12.8 months. At each examination, symptoms at arrhythmia onset and perception of ICD therapy were recorded, and the ICD memory was interrogated. During follow-up, 1,023 episodes' of malignant ventricular arrhythmias were detected and effectively terminated, 506 of which were fully analyzed. A morning peak in ventricular tachyarrhythmias was demonstrated between 7:00 and 11:00 AM, and an afternoon peak between 6:00 and 7:00 PM. A significantly lower occurrence of VT was observed at 1:00 AM and between 4:00 and 6:00 AM. A circadian distribution in the occurrence of ventricular tachycardias was found. The three striking features of the data are: the early morning peak (about three hours after waking up), relatively stable incidence throughout waking hours, and decline in incidence in the previous period. PMID:12698674

  19. Economic evaluations of implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Lidia; Pinilla-Domínguez, Pilar; García-Quintana, Antonio; Caballero-Dorta, Eduardo; García-García, F Javier; Linertová, Renata; Imaz-Iglesia, Iñaki

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the cost-effectiveness studies of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) for primary or secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). A systematic review of the literature published in English or Spanish was performed by electronically searching MEDLINE and MEDLINE in process, EMBASE, NHS-EED, and EconLit. Some keywords were implantable cardioverter defibrillator, heart failure, heart arrest, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, syncope, sudden death. Selection criteria were the following: (1) full economic evaluations published after 1995, model-based studies or alongside clinical trials (2) that explored the cost-effectiveness of ICD with or without associated treatment compared with placebo or best medical treatment, (3) in adult patients for primary or secondary prevention of SCD because of ventricular arrhythmias. Studies that fulfilled these criteria were reviewed and data were extracted by two reviewers. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed and a narrative synthesis was prepared. In total, 24 studies were included: seven studies on secondary prevention and 18 studies on primary prevention. Seven studies were performed in Europe. For secondary prevention, the results showed that the ICD is considered cost-effective in patients with more risk. For primary prevention, the cost-effectiveness of ICD has been widely studied, but uncertainty about its cost-effectiveness remains. The cost-effectiveness ratios vary between studies depending on the patient characteristics, methodology, perspective, and national settings. Among the European studies, the conclusions are varied, where the ICD is considered cost-effective or not dependent on the study.

  20. Economic evaluations of implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    García-Pérez, Lidia; Pinilla-Domínguez, Pilar; García-Quintana, Antonio; Caballero-Dorta, Eduardo; García-García, F Javier; Linertová, Renata; Imaz-Iglesia, Iñaki

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this paper was to review the cost-effectiveness studies of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) for primary or secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD). A systematic review of the literature published in English or Spanish was performed by electronically searching MEDLINE and MEDLINE in process, EMBASE, NHS-EED, and EconLit. Some keywords were implantable cardioverter defibrillator, heart failure, heart arrest, myocardial infarction, arrhythmias, syncope, sudden death. Selection criteria were the following: (1) full economic evaluations published after 1995, model-based studies or alongside clinical trials (2) that explored the cost-effectiveness of ICD with or without associated treatment compared with placebo or best medical treatment, (3) in adult patients for primary or secondary prevention of SCD because of ventricular arrhythmias. Studies that fulfilled these criteria were reviewed and data were extracted by two reviewers. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed and a narrative synthesis was prepared. In total, 24 studies were included: seven studies on secondary prevention and 18 studies on primary prevention. Seven studies were performed in Europe. For secondary prevention, the results showed that the ICD is considered cost-effective in patients with more risk. For primary prevention, the cost-effectiveness of ICD has been widely studied, but uncertainty about its cost-effectiveness remains. The cost-effectiveness ratios vary between studies depending on the patient characteristics, methodology, perspective, and national settings. Among the European studies, the conclusions are varied, where the ICD is considered cost-effective or not dependent on the study. PMID:25323413

  1. The Significance of Shocks in Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Anthony; Kaura, Amit; Sunderland, Nicholas; Dhillon, Paramdeep S

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) trials have unequivocally shown a reduction in mortality in appropriately selected patients with heart failure and depressed left ventricular function. However, there is a strong association between shocks and increased mortality in ICD recipients. It is unclear if shocks are merely a marker of a more severe cardiovascular disease or directly contribute to the increase in mortality. The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between ICD shocks and mortality, and explore possible mechanisms. Data examining the effect of shocks in the absence of spontaneous arrhythmias as well as studies of non-shock therapy and strategies to reduce shocks are analysed to try and disentangle the shocks versus substrate debate.

  2. The Significance of Shocks in Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Recipients.

    PubMed

    Li, Anthony; Kaura, Amit; Sunderland, Nicholas; Dhillon, Paramdeep S; Scott, Paul A

    2016-08-01

    Large-scale implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) trials have unequivocally shown a reduction in mortality in appropriately selected patients with heart failure and depressed left ventricular function. However, there is a strong association between shocks and increased mortality in ICD recipients. It is unclear if shocks are merely a marker of a more severe cardiovascular disease or directly contribute to the increase in mortality. The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between ICD shocks and mortality, and explore possible mechanisms. Data examining the effect of shocks in the absence of spontaneous arrhythmias as well as studies of non-shock therapy and strategies to reduce shocks are analysed to try and disentangle the shocks versus substrate debate. PMID:27617089

  3. The Significance of Shocks in Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Recipients

    PubMed Central

    Li, Anthony; Kaura, Amit; Sunderland, Nicholas; Dhillon, Paramdeep S

    2016-01-01

    Large-scale implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) trials have unequivocally shown a reduction in mortality in appropriately selected patients with heart failure and depressed left ventricular function. However, there is a strong association between shocks and increased mortality in ICD recipients. It is unclear if shocks are merely a marker of a more severe cardiovascular disease or directly contribute to the increase in mortality. The aim of this review is to examine the relationship between ICD shocks and mortality, and explore possible mechanisms. Data examining the effect of shocks in the absence of spontaneous arrhythmias as well as studies of non-shock therapy and strategies to reduce shocks are analysed to try and disentangle the shocks versus substrate debate. PMID:27617089

  4. Manual vs. automatic capture management in implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Murgatroyd, Francis D.; Helmling, Erhard; Lemke, Bernd; Eber, Bernd; Mewis, Christian; van der Meer-Hensgens, Judith; Chang, Yanping; Khalameizer, Vladimir; Katz, Amos

    2010-01-01

    Aims The Secura™ ICD and Consulta™ CRT-D are the first defibrillators to have automatic right atrial (RA), right ventricular (RV), and left ventricular (LV) capture management (CM). Complete CM was evaluated in an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) population. Methods and results Two prospective clinical studies were conducted in 28 centres in Europe and Israel. Automatic CM data were compared with manual threshold measurements, the CM applicability was determined, and adjustments to pacing outputs were analysed. In total, 160 patients [age 64.6 ± 10.4 years, 77% male, 80 ICD and 80 cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D)] were included. The differences between automatic and manual measurements were ≤0.25 V in 97% (RA CM) and 96% (RV CM) and were all within the safety margin. Fully automatic CM measurements were available within 1 week prior to the 3-month visit in 90% (RA), 99% (RV), and 97% (LV) of the patients. Results indicated increased output (threshold >2.5 V) due to raised RA threshold in seven (4.4%), high RV threshold in nine (5.6%), and high LV threshold in three patients (3.8%). All high threshold detections and all automatic modulations of pacing output were adjudicated appropriate. Conclusion Complete CM adjusts pacing output appropriately, permitting a reduction in office visits while it may maximize device longevity. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov identifiers: NCT00526227 and NCT00526162. PMID:20231152

  5. Improving the appropriateness of sudden arrhythmic death primary prevention by implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction. Point of view

    PubMed Central

    Disertori, Marcello; Gulizia, Michele M.; Casolo, Giancarlo; Delise, Pietro; Di Lenarda, Andrea; Di Tano, Giuseppe; Lunati, Maurizio; Mestroni, Luisa; Salerno-Uriarte, Jorge; Tavazzi, Luigi

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the current guidelines for the primary prevention of sudden arrhythmic death, which are based on ejection fraction, do not allow the optimal selection of patients with low left ventricular ejection fraction of ischemic and nonischemic etiology for implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator. Ejection fraction alone is limited in both sensitivity and specificity. An analysis of the risk of sudden arrhythmic death with a combination of multiple tests (ejection fraction associated with one or more arrhythmic risk markers) could partially compensate for these limitations. We propose a polyparametric approach for defining the risk of sudden arrhythmic death using ejection fraction in combination with other clinical and arrhythmic risk markers (i.e. late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance, T-wave alternans, programmed ventricular stimulation, autonomic tone, and genetic testing) that have been validated in nonrandomized trials. In this article, we examine these approaches to identify three subsets of patients who cannot be comprehensively assessed by the current guidelines: patients with ejection fraction of 35% or less and a relatively low risk of sudden arrhythmic death despite the ejection fraction value; patients with ejection fraction of 35% or less and high competitive risk of death due to evolution of heart failure or noncardiac causes; and patients with ejection fraction between 35 and 45% with relatively high risk of sudden arrhythmic death despite the ejection fraction value. PMID:26895401

  6. Design and Methods for a Pilot Study of a Phone-Delivered, Mindfulness-Based Intervention in Patients with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Salmoirago-Blotcher, Elena; Carmody, James; Yeh, Gloria; Crawford, Sybil; Rosenthal, Lawrence; Ockene, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Background. Meditation practices are associated with a reduction in adrenergic activity that may benefit patients with severe cardiac arrhythmias. This paper describes the design and methods of a pilot study testing the feasibility of a phone-delivered mindfulness-based intervention (MBI) for treatment of anxiety in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). Design and Methods. Consecutive, clinically stable outpatients (n = 52) will be screened for study eligibility within a month of an ICD-related procedure or ICD shock and will be randomly assigned to MBI or to usual care. MBI patients will receive eight weekly individual phone sessions based on two mindfulness practices (awareness of breath and body scan) plus home practice with a CD for 20 minutes daily. Patients assigned to usual care will be offered the standard care planned by the hospital. Assessments will occur at baseline and at the completion of the intervention (between 9 and 12 weeks after randomization). The primary study outcome is feasibility; secondary outcomes include anxiety, mindfulness, and number of administered shocks during the intervention period. Conclusions. If proven feasible and effective, phone-delivered mindfulness-based interventions could improve psychological distress in ICD outpatients with serious cardiovascular conditions. PMID:22536294

  7. The mismatch between patient life expectancy and the service life of implantable devices in current cardioverter-defibrillator therapy: a call for larger device batteries.

    PubMed

    Neuzner, Jörg

    2015-06-01

    In 2005, Bob Hauser published a paper in the Journal of the American College of Cardiology entitled "The growing mismatch between patient longevity and the service life of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators". Now, nearly a decade later, I would like to perform a second look on the problem of a mismatching between ICD device service life and the survival of ICD recipients. Since 2005, the demographics of the ICD population has changed significantly. Primary prevention has become the dominant indication in defibrillator therapy and device implantation is indicated more and more in earlier stages of cardiac diseases. In former larger scale ICD trials, the patient average 5-year survival probability was in a range of 68-71%; in newer CRT-D trials in a range of 72-88%. Due to a progressively widened ICD indication and implantation preferentially performed in patients with better life expectancy, the problem of inadequate device service life is of growing importance. The early days of defibrillator therapy started with a generator volume of 145 ccm and a device service life <18 months. In this early period, the device miniaturization and extension of service life were similar challenges for the technicians. Today, we have reached a formerly unexpected extent of device miniaturization. However, technologic improvements were often preferentially translated in further device miniaturization and not in prolonging device service life. In his analysis, Bob Hauser reported a prolonged device service life of 2.3 years in ICD models with a larger battery capacity of 0.54 up to 0.69 Ah. Between 2008 and 2014, several studies had been published on the problem of ICD longevity in clinical scenarios. These analyses included "older" and currently used single chamber, dual chamber and CRT devices. The reported average 5-year device service life ranged from 0 to 75%. Assuming today technology, larger battery capacities will only result in minimal increase in device volume. Selected

  8. Isorhythmic dissociation with smart sensing in a dual-chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Strohmer, Bernhard

    2006-07-01

    Isorhythmic dissociation is an uncommon but clinically important finding in a patient implanted with a dual chamber cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) capable of SmartSensing. The surface ECG mimicked a malfunction of the pacemaker that was related to the concomitant hemodynamic deterioration. Device interrogation revealed dissociation of the intrinsic junctional and the pacemaker rhythm, which appeared at similar rates. Careful analysis of intracardiac electrograms and marker channel annotations helped to unravel the limitations for physiologic pacing.

  9. Overview of implantable cardioverter defibrillator and cardiac resynchronisation therapy in heart failure management

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Pow-Li; Foo, David

    2016-01-01

    Clinical trials have established the benefits of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT) in the treatment of heart failure patients. As adjuncts to guideline-directed medical therapy, ICDs confer mortality benefits from sudden cardiac arrest, while CRT reduces mortality, hospitalisation rates and improves functional capacity. This review discusses the use of ICDs and CRT devices in heart failure management, outlining the evidence supporting their use, indications and contraindications. PMID:27440409

  10. [Tachycardia detection in implantable cardioverter-defibrillators by Sorin/LivaNova : Algorithms, pearls and pitfalls].

    PubMed

    Kolb, Christof; Ocklenburg, Rolf

    2016-09-01

    For physicians involved in the treatment of patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) the knowledge of tachycardia detection algorithms is of paramount importance. This knowledge is essential for adequate device selection during de-novo implantation, ICD replacement, and for troubleshooting during follow-up. This review describes tachycardia detection algorithms incorporated in ICDs by Sorin/LivaNova and analyses their strengths and weaknesses.

  11. [Tachycardia detection in implantable cardioverter-defibrillators by Sorin/LivaNova : Algorithms, pearls and pitfalls].

    PubMed

    Kolb, Christof; Ocklenburg, Rolf

    2016-09-01

    For physicians involved in the treatment of patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) the knowledge of tachycardia detection algorithms is of paramount importance. This knowledge is essential for adequate device selection during de-novo implantation, ICD replacement, and for troubleshooting during follow-up. This review describes tachycardia detection algorithms incorporated in ICDs by Sorin/LivaNova and analyses their strengths and weaknesses. PMID:27605232

  12. Sensing and detection in Medtronic implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mark L; Swerdlow, Charles D

    2016-09-01

    Ensuring sensing and detection of ventricular tachycardia (VT) and ventricular fibrillation (VF) was a prerequisite for the clinical trials that established the survival benefit of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). However, for decades, a high incidence of unnecessary shocks limited patients' and physicians' acceptance of ICD therapy. Oversensing, misclassification of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) as VT, and self-terminating VT accounted for the vast majority of unnecessary shocks. Medtronic ICDs utilize sensitive baseline settings with minimal blanking periods to ensure accurate sensing of VF, VT, and SVT electrograms. Programmable algorithms reject oversensing caused by far-field R waves, T waves, and non-physiologic signals caused by lead failure. A robust hierarchy of SVT-VT discriminators minimize misclassification of SVT as VT. These features, combined with evidence-based programming, have reduced the 1‑year inappropriate shock rate to 1.5 % for dual-/triple-chamber ICDs and to 2.5 % for single-chamber ICDs. PMID:27624809

  13. Generator and Lead-Related Complications of Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Yaminisharif, Ahmad; Soofizadeh, Nader; Shafiee, Akbar; Kazemisaeid, Ali; Jalali, Arash; Vasheghani-Farahani, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Background: Increase in the number of patients treated with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) requests more attention regarding its complications. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the generator- and lead-related complications at implantation and during follow-up in the patients who were treated with ICD for primary and secondary prevention reasons. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 255 consecutive patients who underwent transvenous ICD implantation for the first time in a 7-year period and were followed-up for 3 years at Tehran Heart Center. The personal and clinical data of the patients as well as specific data on the ICD implantation were retrieved. The frequency of each of the complications was reported and the study variables were compared between the patients with and without complications using Student’s t-test and chi-square test where appropriate. P values less than 0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results: Out of a total of 525 implanted leads and 255 implanted devices in 255 patients (mean age = 62.57 ± 13.50 years; male = 196 [76.9%]), complications leading to generator or lead replacement occurred in 32 patients (12.5%). The results revealed no significant difference between the patients with and without complications regarding gender and age (P = 0.206 and P = 0.824, respectively). Also, no significant difference was found between the two groups concerning the ejection fraction (P = 0.271). Lead fracture was the most frequent lead-related complication and was observed in 17 patients (6.6%). Besides, it was mainly observed in the RV leads. Generator-related complications leading to generator replacement were observed in 2 patients (0.7%). Conclusions: Despite considerable improvements in the ICD technology, the rate of the ICD complications leading to device replacement and surgical revision, especially those related to the leads, is still clinically important. PMID:24936484

  14. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator infection due to Mycobacterium mageritense.

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, Masato; Goya, Masahiko; Ogawa, Midori; Fukuda, Kazumasa; Taniguchi, Hatsumi; Ando, Kenji; Iwabuchi, Masashi; Miyazaki, Hiroaki

    2016-03-01

    Rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (RGM) are usually detected in blood cultures after 4-5 days of incubation, so it is important to differentiate RGM from contamination of commensal organisms on human skin. We report an unusual case of Mycobacterium mageritense bacteremia and infection of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator originally misidentified as Corynebacterium spp. or Nocardia spp. in gram-stained smears. 16S rRNA gene sequencing had utility in the definitive identification of isolates. We should be aware that RGM infection may exist in repeated implantable device infections. PMID:26719132

  15. Gender Differences in Appropriate Shocks and Mortality among Patients with Primary Prophylactic Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Conen, David; Arendacká, Barbora; Röver, Christian; Bergau, Leonard; Munoz, Pascal; Wijers, Sofieke; Sticherling, Christian; Zabel, Markus; Friede, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Background Some but not all prior studies have shown that women receiving a primary prophylactic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) have a lower risk of death and appropriate shocks than men. Purpose To evaluate the effect of gender on the risk of appropriate shock, all-cause mortality and inappropriate shock in contemporary studies of patients receiving a primary prophylactic ICD. Data Source PubMed, LIVIVO, Cochrane CENTRAL between 2010 and 2016. Study Selection Studies providing at least 1 gender-specific risk estimate for the outcomes of interest. Data Extraction Abstracts were screened independently for potentially eligible studies for inclusion. Thereby each abstract was reviewed by at least two authors. Data Synthesis Out of 680 abstracts retained by our search strategy, 20 studies including 46’657 patients had gender-specific information on at least one of the relevant endpoints. Mean age across the individual studies varied between 58 and 69 years. The proportion of women enrolled ranged from 10% to 30%. Across 6 available studies, women had a significantly lower risk of first appropriate shock compared with men (pooled multivariable adjusted hazard ratio 0.62 (95% CI [0.44; 0.88]). Across 14 studies reporting multivariable adjusted gender-specific hazard ratio estimates for all-cause mortality, women had a lower risk of death than men (pooled hazard ratio 0.75 (95% CI [0.66; 0.86]). There was no statistically significant difference for the incidence of first inappropriate shocks (3 studies, pooled hazard ratio 0.99 (95% CI [0.56; 1.73]). Limitations Individual patient data were not available for most studies. Conclusion In this large contemporary meta-analysis, women had a significantly lower risk of appropriate shocks and death than men, but a similar risk of inappropriate shocks. These data may help to select patients who benefit from primary prophylactic ICD implantation. PMID:27618617

  16. Predictors of early mortality in implantable cardioverter-defibrillator recipients

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Kenneth M.; Mittal, Suneet; Gilliam, F. Roosevelt; Gilligan, David M.; Zhong, Qian; Kraus, Stacia Merkel; Meyer, Timothy E.

    2009-01-01

    Aims Multiple trials have shown that implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) prolong survival in secondary and primary prevention populations. However, in spite of the efficacy of these devices in terminating life-threatening arrhythmias, total mortality remains high. Methods and results We evaluated 1703 patients (mean age: 67 ± 12 years, 82% male) with conventional ICD indications, who were enrolled and followed between 2001 and 2004 at 128 US centres. Patients were followed for up to a year, and vital status was obtained for 1655 patients (97%, median follow-up: 377 days). There were 183 deaths within 1 year of ICD implantation (1-year mortality rate: 16%). Predictors of mortality included a history of atrial fibrillation (AF, P < 0.0001), diabetes (P = 0.0001), failure to use cholesterol-lowering medications (P < 0.001), use of digitalis and derivatives (P < 0.0001), use of diuretics (P < 0.0001), low body mass index (BMI, P < 0.0001), increasing age (P < 0.0001), low left ventricular ejection fraction (P < 0.0001), low activity hours (P < 0.0001), elevated resting heart rate (P = 0.014), low mean arterial pressure (MAP, P = 0.007), and poor functional status (New York Heart Association class, P < 0.0001). In multivariate modelling, AF (P ≤ 0.001), diabetes (P = 0.004), BMI (P = 0.001), MAP (P = 0.040), and functional class (P = 0.006) predicted mortality. Conclusion In this population undergoing ICD implantation, poor functional status, low MAP, diabetes, low BMI, and AF were strongly associated with death within a year. PMID:19279025

  17. Longevity of implantable cardioverter defibrillators: a comparison among manufacturers and over time

    PubMed Central

    von Gunten, Simon; Schaer, Beat A.; Yap, Sing-Chien; Szili-Torok, Tamas; Kühne, Michael; Sticherling, Christian; Osswald, Stefan; Theuns, Dominic A.M.J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims Longevity of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) is crucial for patients and healthcare systems as replacements impact on infection rates and cost-effectiveness. Aim was to determine longevity using very large databases of two teaching hospitals with a high number of replacements and a rather homogeneous distribution among manufacturers. Methods and results The study population consists of all patients in whom an ICD was inserted in. All ICD manufacturers operating in Switzerland and the Netherlands and all implanted ICDs were included. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator replacements due to normal battery depletion were considered events, and other replacements were censored. Longevity was assessed depending on manufacturers, pacing mode, implant before/after 2006, and all parameters combined. We analysed data from 3436 patients in whom 4881 ICDs [44.2% VVI-ICDs, 27.4% DDD-ICDs, 26.3% cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT)-ICDs, 2.0% subcutaneous ICDs] were implanted. The four major manufacturers had implant shares between 18.4 and 31.5%. Replacement due to battery depletion (27.4%) was performed for 1339 ICDs. Patient survival at 5 years was 80.1%. Longevity at 5 years improved in contemporary compared with elderly ICDs [63.9–80.6% across all ICDs, of 73.7–92.1% in VVIs, 58.2–76.1% in DDDs, and of 47.1–66.3% in CRT defibrillators, all P value < 0.05]. Remarkable differences were seen among manufacturers, and those with better performance in elderly ICDs were not those with better performance in contemporary ones. Conclusion Implantable cardioverter defibrillator longevity increased in contemporary models independent of manufacturer and pacing mode. Still, significant differences exist among manufacturers. These results might impact on device selection. PMID:26609076

  18. A Canadian hospital's experience with the automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator.

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, A D; Guiraudon, G; Klein, G J; Yee, R

    1987-01-01

    The automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator is a device that can be implanted in patients for treatment of recurrent ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. It was recently approved for clinical use in Canada. The authors describe their experience with 12 patients (mean age 51.3 years) who underwent implantation of a defibrillator. All 12 patients had a history of documented ventricular fibrillation, which was idiopathic in 3 and due to ischemic heart disease in 9. Electrophysiologic testing revealed inducible ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation in 8 of the 10 patients tested. An important criterion for selection for implantation was failure of pharmacologic therapy to suppress ventricular arrhythmias induced during electrophysiologic testing. Of the 12 patients, 1 died within 24 hours after implantation. During a mean follow-up period of 15.5 months there were no further deaths. All the surviving patients expressed satisfaction with the device; five of the seven under the age of 60 years have returned to work, and one has returned to school. This initial favourable experience with the automatic implantable cardioverter/defibrillator suggests that future increases in the availability of the device and improvements in its function will lead to much more widespread use, as the population of patients at risk of sudden cardiac death is large. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 4 PMID:3442769

  19. Removal of the broken part of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator's electrode causing pulmonary embolism via femoral vein.

    PubMed

    Zencir, Cemil; Selvi, Mithat; Elbi, Huseyin; Cetin, Mustafa; Gungor, Hasan; Akgullu, Cagdas; Badak, Muharrem Ismail

    2015-12-01

    A 66-year-old patient with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy underwent transvenous extraction of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. The distal part of the electrode was broken during manual traction through the left subclavian vein. In the present case, we showed a rare complication of transvenous lead extraction and its management. PMID:26995444

  20. Long-term follow up of patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and mild, moderate, or severe impairment of left ventricular function.

    PubMed Central

    Trappe, H. J.; Wenzlaff, P.; Pfitzner, P.; Fieguth, H. G.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether patients with life threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias, impaired left ventricular function, and severe heart failure will benefit from implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) treatment. DESIGN: 410 patients were followed up after ICD implant. Left ventricular function was assessed by the New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class of heart failure: 50 patients (12%) were in NYHA I-II, 151 (37%) in NYHA II, 117 (29%) in NYHA II-III, and 92 (22%) in NYHA III. Epicardial ICD implantation was performed in 209 patients (51%) and 201 patients (49%) received non-thoracotomy ICDs. RESULTS: Perioperatively, 12 patients (3%) died, more often after epicardial ICD implant (11/209 patients, 5%) than after transvenous implant (1/201 patients, < 1%) (P < 0.05). During a mean (SD) follow up of 28 (24) months (range < 1 to 114 months), 90 patients (23%) died: nine (2%) died from sudden arrhythmia; five (1%) also died suddenly but probably not from arrhythmic causes; 55 (14%) died from cardiac causes (congestive heart failure, myocardial reinfarction); 21 (5%) died from non-cardiac causes. The three year, five year, and seven year survival was 92-96% for arrhythmic mortality in NYHA class I, II and III, compared to a three year survival of 94% and a five year and seven year survival of 84% for patients in NYHA class II-III. 338 patients (82%) received ICD shocks (21 (SD 43) shocks per patient); patients in NYHA class II (83%), class II-III (84%), and class III (90%) received ICD discharges more often than those in class I-II (64%) (P < 0.05). The mean (SD) time interval between ICD implant and the first ICD shock was shorter in NYHA class II (16 (17) months), class II-III (19 (27) months), and class III (16 (19) months) than in class 0-I (22 (24) months) (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Patients with mild, moderate, and severe left ventricular dysfunction benefit from ICD treatment and these patients survive for a considerable time after the

  1. Subglandular placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator for an improved cosmetic outcome.

    PubMed

    Wright, Cassidy D; Roehl, Kendall R; Stephen Huang, Shoei K; Mahabir, Raman C

    2013-11-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) technology has progressed through the years decreasing the size of the device, and its effectiveness in preventing sudden cardiac death has made it a mainstay of treatment for many patients. As the use of ICDs in younger patients has increased, issues with placement of an ICD in the usual prepectoral, infraclavicular region have arisen. Subglandular placement through an inframammary incision provides a unique approach and an aesthetically pleasing outcome for ICD placement. We present a review of the current literature and 3 cases of young female patients who had placement of an ICD using this approach.

  2. Prediction of Appropriate Shocks Using 24-Hour Holter Variables and T-Wave Alternans After First Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Implantation in Patients With Ischemic or Nonischemic Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Seegers, Joachim; Bergau, Leonard; Expósito, Pascal Muñoz; Bauer, Axel; Fischer, Thomas H; Lüthje, Lars; Hasenfuß, Gerd; Friede, Tim; Zabel, Markus

    2016-07-01

    In patients treated with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), prediction of both overall survival and occurrence of shocks is important if improved patient selection is desired. We prospectively studied the predictive value of biomarkers and indexes of cardiac and renal function and spectral microvolt T-wave alternans testing and 24-hour Holter variables in a population who underwent first ICD implantation. Consecutive patients in sinus rhythm with ischemic or dilated cardiomyopathy scheduled for primary or secondary prophylactic ICD implantation were enrolled. Exercise microvolt T-wave alternans and 24-hour Holter for number of ventricular premature contractions (VPCs), deceleration capacity, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence were done. Death of any cause and first appropriate ICD shock were defined as end points. Over 33 ± 15 months of follow-up, 36 of 253 patients (14%) received appropriate shocks and 39 of 253 patients (15%) died. Only 3 of 253 patients (1%) died after receiving at least 1 appropriate shock. In univariate analyses, New York Heart Association class, ejection fraction, N-terminal pro brain-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP), renal function, ICD indication, deceleration capacity, heart rate variability, and heart rate turbulence were predictive of all-cause mortality and VPC number and deceleration capacity predicted first appropriate shock. NT-proBNP (≥1,600 pg/ml) was identified as the only independent predictor of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio 3.0, confidence interval 1.3 to 7.3, p = 0.014). In contrast, VPC number predicted appropriate shocks (hazard ratio 2.3, confidence interval 1.0 to 5.5, p = 0.047) as the only independent risk marker. In conclusion, NT-proBNP is a strong independent predictor of mortality in a typical prospective cohort of newly implanted patients with ICD, among many electrocardiographic and clinical variables studied. Number of VPCs was identified as a predictor of appropriate shocks

  3. Tools and strategies for the reduction of inappropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator shocks.

    PubMed

    Tzeis, Stylianos; Andrikopoulos, George; Kolb, Christof; Vardas, Panos E

    2008-11-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have been shown to provide a survival benefit in patients at high risk of sudden cardiac death. A major problem associated with ICD therapy is the occurrence of inappropriate shocks which impair patients' quality of life and may also be arrhythmogenic. Despite recent technological advances, the incidence of inappropriate shocks remains high, thus posing a challenge that we have to meet. In the present review we summarise the available tools and the strategies that can be followed in order to reduce inappropriate ICD shocks.

  4. Silicone Breast Implant and Automatic Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator: Can They Coexist? A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Or, Friedman; Arik, Zaretski

    2016-08-01

    We present a case of a silicone breast implant rupture after insertion of an automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD). A 51-year-old woman presented to our plastic surgery clinic to exchange her silicone breast implants. The patient underwent cosmetic mastopexy and breast augmentation in 2008. Because of recurrent myocardial infarctions and chronic heart failure, she underwent an insertion of an AICD in 2014 in which the left breast implant was hit. In this report, we discuss the first case of an AICD insertion, disrupting a breast implant. This case report illustrates the rare but real possibility of breast implant rupture after even minor surgical manipulation of the breast area. PMID:27622117

  5. An updated review of implantable cardioverter/defibrillators, induced anxiety, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, J Michael; Sola, Christopher L

    2011-01-01

    Despite overall favorable acceptance of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs), patients may experience discharges as frightening and painful. The authors reviewed ICD-induced psychopathology in 2005. During the past 2 years the number of studies examining psychopathology and quality of life after ICD implantation has increased dramatically, warranting this update of that review. Variables assessed have included recipient age, gender, social support network, perception of control and predictability of shocks, and personality style. Now the picture of what is known is, if anything, cloudier than it was 2 years ago, with little definitive and much contradictory data emerging in most of these categories. PMID:21109213

  6. Rationale and design of WEBCARE: A randomized, controlled, web-based behavioral intervention trial in cardioverter-defibrillator patients to reduce anxiety and device concerns and enhance quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is generally well accepted, but 25-33% of patients experience clinical levels of anxiety, depression, and impaired quality of life (QoL) following implantation. Few trials in ICD patients have investigated whether behavioral intervention may mitigate the development of these adjustment problems. We present the rationale and study design of the WEB-based distress management program for implantable CARdioverter dEfibrillator patients (WEBCARE) trial. Methods WEBCARE is a multi-center, multi-disciplinary, randomized, controlled behavioral intervention trial designed to examine the effectiveness of a web-based approach in terms of reducing levels of anxiety and device concerns and enhancing QoL. Consecutive patients hospitalized for the implantation of an ICD will be approached for study participation while in hospital and randomized to the intervention arm (n = 175) versus usual care (n = 175) at baseline (5-10 days post implantation). Patients will complete assessments of patient-centered outcomes at baseline, 14, 26, and 52 weeks after implantation. Patients randomized to the intervention arm will receive a 12-week web-based behavioral intervention starting 2 weeks after implantation. Primary endpoints include (ii) patient-centered outcomes (i.e., anxiety, depression, ICD acceptance, QoL); (iii) health care utilization; and (iiii) cost-effectiveness. All primary endpoints will be assessed with standardized and validated disease-specific or generic questionnaires. Secondary endpoints include (iii) cortisol awakening response; and (iiii) ventricular arrhythmias. Discussion WEBCARE will show whether a behavioral intervention using a web-based approach is feasible and effective in reducing anxiety and ICD concerns and improving QoL in ICD patients. Trial Registration http://www.ClinicalTrials.gov. Identifier: NCT00895700. PMID:20030843

  7. [A 65-year-old man with wearable cardioverter/defibrillator early after acute myocardial infarction].

    PubMed

    Horlbeck, F W; Nickenig, G; Schwab, J O

    2015-09-01

    A 65-year-old man with severe coronary artery disease and coronary artery bypass graft presented with an acute posterior ST-elevation myocardial infarction. Immediate percutaneous coronary intervention resulted in successful revascularisation of the culprit lesion (RCx) with several remaining coronary stenoses. Despite the reduced left ventricular ejection fraction, no primary prevention indication for an implantable cardioverter/defibrillator early after myocardial infarction existed. Due to the complex coronary anatomy with several remaining stenotic vessels we regarded the patient to be at a particularly high risk for lethal ventricular arrhythmias and provided him with a wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD). Twenty-six days later, he experienced spontaneous ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation which was successfully treated with high voltage therapy by the WCD. Subsequently, we decided to implant him an ICD following secondary prevention indication. Besides established indications for primary prevention ICD therapy, some patients early after myocardial infarction may be at a particularly high risk for sudden cardiac death. Temporary protection with a WCD in carefully selected patients can offer a safe opportunity for later reevaluation of permanent ICD implantation depending on the course of left ventricular ejection fraction and the occurrence of arrhythmia. PMID:26338064

  8. Interference between pacemakers/implantable cardioverter defibrillators and video capsule endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Bandorski, Dirk; Gehron, Johannes; Höltgen, Reinhard

    2013-01-01

    Our Letter to the Editor, related to the article “Small bowel capsule endoscopy in patients with cardiac pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators: Outcome analysis using telemetry” by Cuschieri et al, comments on some small errors, that slipped into the authors discussions. The given informations concerning the pacemaker- and implantable cardioverter defibrillators modes were inaccurate and differ between the text and the table. Moreover, as 8 of 20 patient’s pacemakers were programmed to VOO or DOO (“interference mode”) and one patient was not monitored by telemetry during capsule endoscopy, 9 of 20 patients (45%) lack the informations of possible interference between capsule endoscopy their implanted device. Another objection refers to the interpretation of an electrocardiogram (figure 1, trace B) presented: in contrast to the author’s opinion the marked spike should be interpreted as an artefact and not as ”undersensing of a fibrillatory wave”. Finally, three comments to cited reviews were not complete respectively not quoted correctly. PMID:23596547

  9. Guidelines on the management of implantable cardioverter defibrillators at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Datino, T; Rexach, L; Vidán, M T; Alonso, A; Gándara, Á; Ruiz-García, J; Fontecha, B; Martínez-Sellés, M

    2014-01-01

    This article is a joint document of the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology, the Spanish Society of Palliative Care and the Section of Geriatric Cardiology of the Spanish Society of Cardiology. Its aim is to address the huge gap that exists in Spain with regard to the management of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in the final stages of life. It is increasingly common to find patients carrying these devices that are in the terminal stage of an advanced disease. This occurs in patients with advanced heart disease and subsequent heart failure refractory to treatment but also in a patient with an ICD who develops cancer disease, organ failure or other neurodegenerative diseases with poor short-term prognosis. The vast majority of these patients are over 65, so the paper focuses particularly on the elderly who are in this situation, but the decision-making process is similar in younger patients with ICDs who are in the final phase of their life.

  10. [Guidelines on the management of implantable cardioverter defibrillators at the end of life].

    PubMed

    Datino, T; Rexach, L; Vidán, M T; Alonso, A; Gándara, Á; Ruiz-García, J; Fontecha, B; Martínez-Sellés, M

    2014-01-01

    This article is a joint document of the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology, the Spanish Society of Palliative Care and the Section of Geriatric Cardiology of the Spanish Society of Cardiology. Its aim is to address the huge gap that exists in Spain with regard to the management of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in the final stages of life. It is increasingly common to find patients carrying these devices that are in the terminal stage of an advanced disease. This occurs in patients with advanced heart disease and subsequent heart failure refractory to treatment but also in a patient with an ICD who develops cancer disease, organ failure or other neurodegenerative diseases with poor short-term prognosis. The vast majority of these patients are over 65, so the paper focuses particularly on the elderly who are in this situation, but the decision-making process is similar in younger patients with ICDs who are in the final phase of their life.

  11. [Twiddler-Syndrome in a subpectoral implanted unipolar cardioverter-defibrillator].

    PubMed

    Mewis, C; Kühlkamp, V; Dörnberger, V; Kalighi, K; Seipel, L

    1998-01-01

    Twiddler's syndrome is a rare complication in patients with pacemakers. We report this very rare syndrome in a patient with pectoral implanted unipolar cardioverter defibrillator. This syndrome was detected because the patient presented in the 3 month routine visit an exitblock with an increased pacing impedance. The defibrillation threshold remained unchanged. The chest x-ray revealed an inferolaterally migrated generator with a multiply rotated lead. The intraoperative exploration showed a generator which was rotated nine-fold around its longitudinal axis with a multiple twisted unipolar lead. The lead was substituted and the aggregate fixed with a suture to the underlying muscle fascia. An atrophy of the pectoralis muscle was found in this patient which previously resulted from a long hospital stay. This atrophy was identified as a possible risk factor for the development of Twiddler's syndrome. This report illustrates that Twiddler's syndrome, a rare complication in patients with pectoral ICD, may become a significant problem in these patients as it is for pacemaker patients but with more serious possible consequences.

  12. Current implantable cardioverter-defibrillator programming in Europe: the results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Proclemer, Alessandro; Grazia Bongiorni, Maria; Etsner, Heidi; Todd, Derick; Sciaraffia, Elena; Blomström-Lundqvist, Carina

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) survey was to examine the current practice on the choice of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) type, use of defibrillation testing, and ICD programming for detection and therapy of ventricular arrhythmias. In accordance with recent guidelines and the results of observational studies, the majority of EHRA research network centres reported a high utilization rate of dual-chamber ICDs in the presence of symptomatic and asymptomatic sinus node dysfunction, biventricular ICD in high-degree atrioventricular block and QRS duration <120 ms, and a limited use of defibrillation testing either in primary and secondary prevention settings. Activation of the long ventricular tachycardia (VT) detection window, slow VT zone, antitachycardia pacing before shock for slow and fast VT, and atrial tachyarrhythmia discrimination were considered useful in ICD programming for the majority of patients.

  13. Silicone Breast Implant and Automatic Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator: Can They Coexist? A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Arik, Zaretski

    2016-01-01

    Summary: We present a case of a silicone breast implant rupture after insertion of an automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD). A 51-year-old woman presented to our plastic surgery clinic to exchange her silicone breast implants. The patient underwent cosmetic mastopexy and breast augmentation in 2008. Because of recurrent myocardial infarctions and chronic heart failure, she underwent an insertion of an AICD in 2014 in which the left breast implant was hit. In this report, we discuss the first case of an AICD insertion, disrupting a breast implant. This case report illustrates the rare but real possibility of breast implant rupture after even minor surgical manipulation of the breast area. PMID:27622117

  14. Changing Views: Safety and Efficacy of Implantable Cardioverter- Defibrillator Therapy in Athletes.

    PubMed

    Pavlů, Luděk; Hutyra, Martin; Táborský, Miloš

    2015-11-01

    The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is highly effective in reducing sudden death from ventricular tachyarrhythmia among high-risk cardiac patients. Conventional advice given to patients with ICD is to avoid physical activity more strenuous than playing golf or bowling. This recommendation is given due to a theoretical risk of arrhythmia precipitation, and thus increased risk of death due to failure to defibrillate, injury resulting from loss of control caused by arrhythmia-related syncope or shock, and also due to sport related direct damage to the ICD system. Recent prospective data from an international registry involving 372 athletes with ICDs in situ and actively participating in sports has been published. This indicates that, although physical activity resulted in an increased number of shocks compared to rest, there was no significant difference between intensive physical activity and any other activity (10% vs. 8%, p=0.34) in frequency of shocks. Furthermore, over a median follow-up period of 31 months (21-46 months), in the period of sports activity and 2 hour rest directly after there were no occurrences of death, resuscitated arrest or arrhythmia, or shock-related injury. This data is likely to start a shift in every-day clinical decision-making leading to revision of the high level of precautions imposed on the rapidly enlarging ICD recipient population. PMID:26849548

  15. Driving restrictions advised by midwestern cardiologists implanting cardioverter defibrillators: present practices, criteria utilized, and compatibility with existing state laws.

    PubMed

    DiCarlo, L A; Winston, S A; Honoway, S; Reed, P

    1992-08-01

    Although some patients remain at risk of losing physical control or collapsing after implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator for sustained ventricular arrhythmias, little is known about restrictions advised by arrhythmia specialists to patients with implanted devices concerning physical activities such as driving. In this study, all of the 58 cardiologists implanting cardioverter defibrillators in three contiguous midwestern states were surveyed to determine present practices and the compatibility of these practices with existing state law. Of the 51 respondents (88%), 27 cardiologists (53%) advised only those implanted patients who had had arrhythmia-induced presyncope or physical collapse to cease driving. Twenty two of the remaining cardiologists (43%) advised all implanted patients to cease driving, whereas two cardiologists (4%) never advised any implanted patient to restrict driving. Permanent driving abstinence was advised by seven of the responding cardiologists (14%), while temporary driving abstinence for periods of 2-12 months (mean 6 +/- 3 months) was recommended by the remaining 42 respondents (82%) who advised against driving. The criteria utilized, driving restrictions advised, and durations advised for driving restrictions were not uniform in any of the 13 surveyed university and nonaffiliated cardiology practices with greater than or equal to 2 implanting cardiologists. Overall, 38 cardiologists (74%) advised against driving and recommended durations that equaled or exceed their state's minimum legal requirements, although only 27 of the 51 cardiologists (53%) based their practice upon knowledge of their state's driving laws. The results of this survey suggest that the majority of cardiologists who implant cardioverter defibrillators advise their patients against driving postoperatively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Surgical techniques for implanting implantable cardioverter defibrillators in children and infants.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shoji; Motohashi, Shinya; Matsumoto, Masahiko

    2014-10-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) are now being used in children. ICDs can be used to prevent sudden cardiac death caused by not only congenital heart defects, but also various non-structural diseases, such as long QT syndrome. However, a standard implantation technique for children, especially infants, has not yet been established. As the surgical implantation in infants is not amenable to transvenous lead placement, it was necessary to choose from epicardial, subcutaneous and pericardial ICD systems. However, many of these systems are associated with high rates of late complications. Lead fracture, insulation breakage, migration, buckling or crinkling of the patch lead and constrictive pericarditis have been reported as the most common lead-related complications. An increase in the defibrillation threshold is another issue that must be considered when using an ICD in a child or infant. Further studies on the outcomes, psychosomatic impact and other specific complications in the pediatric population need to be considered. The clinical use of ICDs in infants is still limited. Therefore, it is important to have many surgical options available so that the treatment can be custom-tailored to suit individual patients. PMID:24154922

  17. A single implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock unmasking an electrical storm of 389 ventricular tachycardia episodes triggering device therapies.

    PubMed

    Arias, Miguel A; Valverde, Irene; Puchol, Alberto; Castellanos, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Padial, Luis; Sánchez, Ana M; Alvarez-Temiño, María; Palomino, Miguel

    2008-11-01

    We describe the case of a patient with ischemic cardiomyopathy who presented the first implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) shock approximately 5 months after implantation. Device interrogation surprisingly revealed the occurrence of 389 ventricular tachyarrhythmia episodes terminated by asymptomatic antitachycardia pacing (ATP) except for the episode requiring shock. The present case of electrical storm highlights how contemporary tiered ATP schemes constitute a valuable but underused form of termination for ventricular tachyarrhythmias in ICD patients, reducing the number of painful shocks and their adverse consequences.

  18. Ambient temperature and activation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuinn, L.; Hajat, S.; Wilkinson, P.; Armstrong, B.; Anderson, H. R.; Monk, V.; Harrison, R.

    2013-09-01

    The degree to which weather influences the occurrence of serious cardiac arrhythmias is not fully understood. To investigate, we studied the timing of activation of implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) in relation to daily outdoor temperatures using a fixed stratum case-crossover approach. All patients attending ICD clinics in London between 1995 and 2003 were recruited onto the study. Temperature exposure for each ICD patient was determined by linking each patient's postcode of residence to their nearest temperature monitoring station in London and the South of England. There were 5,038 activations during the study period. Graphical inspection of ICD activation against temperature suggested increased risk at lower but not higher temperatures. For every 1 °C decrease in ambient temperature, risk of ventricular arrhythmias up to 7 days later increased by 1.2 % (95 % CI -0.6 %, 2.9 %). In threshold models, risk of ventricular arrhythmias increased by 11.2 % (0.5 %, 23.1 %) for every 1° decrease in temperature below 2 °C. Patients over the age of 65 exhibited the highest risk. This large study suggests an inverse relationship between ambient outdoor temperature and risk of ventricular arrhythmias. The highest risk was found for patients over the age of 65. This provides evidence about a mechanism for some cases of low-temperature cardiac death, and suggests a possible strategy for reducing risk among selected cardiac patients by encouraging behaviour modification to minimise cold exposure.

  19. Arrhythmia Management in the Elderly-Implanted Cardioverter Defibrillators and Prevention of Sudden Death.

    PubMed

    Manian, Usha; Gula, Lorne J

    2016-09-01

    We present an overview of arrhythmia management in elderly patients as it pertains to implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy and prevention of sudden death. Treatment of arrhythmia in elderly patients is fraught with challenges pertaining to goals of care and patient frailty. With an ever increasing amount of technology available, realistic expectations of therapy need to balance quality and quantity of life. The ICD is an important treatment option for selected patients at risk of ventricular arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. However, the incidence of sudden death as a percentage of all-cause mortality decreases with age. Studies have reported that 20% of elderly patients might die within 1 year of an episode of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmia, but most because of nonarrhythmic causes. This illustrates the 'sudden cardiac death paradox,' with a great proportion of death in elderly patients, even those at risk for ventricular arrhythmias, attributable to medical conditions that cannot be addressed by an ICD. We discuss current practices in ICD therapy in elderly patients, existing evidence from registries and clinical trials, approaches to risk stratification, and important ethical considerations. Although the decision on whether ICD insertion is appropriate in the elderly population remains an area of uncertainty from an evidence-based and ethical perspective, we offer insight on potential clinical and research strategies for this growing population. PMID:27568872

  20. Sensing failure in a tiered therapy implantable cardioverter defibrillator: role of auto adjustable gain.

    PubMed

    Wase, A; Natale, A; Dhala, A A; Deshpande, S; Sra, J S; Blanck, Z; Maglio, C; Jazayeri, M R; Akhtar, M

    1995-06-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators have an established role in the management of life-threatening tachyarrhythmias. These devices use sophisticated sensing circuitry to detect and promptly treat a vast majority of these arrhythmias. However, they are not foolproof. We report one case where the device failed to sense every other QRS complex during induced ventricular fibrillation due to marked electrical alterans. Thus, undersensing can be a potentially fatal problem despite the use of auto adjustable gain. PMID:7659589

  1. Ambient temperature and activation of implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    McGuinn, L; Hajat, S; Wilkinson, P; Armstrong, B; Anderson, H R; Monk, V; Harrison, R

    2013-09-01

    The degree to which weather influences the occurrence of serious cardiac arrhythmias is not fully understood. To investigate, we studied the timing of activation of implanted cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) in relation to daily outdoor temperatures using a fixed stratum case-crossover approach. All patients attending ICD clinics in London between 1995 and 2003 were recruited onto the study. Temperature exposure for each ICD patient was determined by linking each patient's postcode of residence to their nearest temperature monitoring station in London and the South of England. There were 5,038 activations during the study period. Graphical inspection of ICD activation against temperature suggested increased risk at lower but not higher temperatures. For every 1 °C decrease in ambient temperature, risk of ventricular arrhythmias up to 7 days later increased by 1.2 % (95 % CI -0.6 %, 2.9 %). In threshold models, risk of ventricular arrhythmias increased by 11.2 % (0.5 %, 23.1 %) for every 1° decrease in temperature below 2 °C. Patients over the age of 65 exhibited the highest risk. This large study suggests an inverse relationship between ambient outdoor temperature and risk of ventricular arrhythmias. The highest risk was found for patients over the age of 65. This provides evidence about a mechanism for some cases of low-temperature cardiac death, and suggests a possible strategy for reducing risk among selected cardiac patients by encouraging behaviour modification to minimise cold exposure.

  2. Iranian Patients’ Experiences of the Internal Cardioverter Defibrillator Device Shocks: a Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Pasyar, Nilofar; Sharif, Farkhondeh; Rakhshan, Mahnaz; Nikoo, Mohammad; Navab, Elham

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) is a valuable treatment for the patients at risk of sudden cardiac death. In this method, after diagnosis of pathological cardiac rhythms, shock is automatically applied to normalize the rhythms. Shock is discharged when the patients are conscious, but the patients’ experiences of shock have remained unknown. Thus, this study aimed to identify and describe the patients’ experiences of shocks received from ICD. Methods: The present qualitative study was conducted through thematic analysis and semi-structured interviews on 9 patients mean age 41.55 (1.57) with ICD from November 2013 to July 2014. Data analysis was also performed simultaneously using constant comparative analysis. Results: In this study, two main themes, namely "with a parachute for life" and "Faced with nuisance", were obtained representing the patients’ experiences regarding ICD shock. With a parachute for life included subthemes, such as "Rebirth", "Comforter and healing", and "Life assurance". In addition, "Faced with nuisance" consisted of 2 subthemes of "Discomfort in moments of shock" and "Displeasure after shock". Conclusion: This study provided a basis for evaluation of patients nursing after discharge. By identification of the patients’ experiences regarding shock, the present study can help the professional health staff to efficiently play their roles and provide patients with holistic care. It can also be effective in designing behavioral and cognitive interventional programs to change the patients’ attitude and promote their adaptation with their conditions. PMID:26744727

  3. [Guidelines on the management of implantable cardioverter defibrillators at the end of life].

    PubMed

    Datino, T; Rexach, L; Vidán, M T; Alonso, A; Gándara, Á; Ruiz-García, J; Fontecha, B; Martínez-Sellés, M

    2014-01-01

    This article is a joint document of the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology, the Spanish Society of Palliative Care and the Section of Geriatric Cardiology of the Spanish Society of Cardiology. Its aim is to address the huge gap that exists in Spain with regard to the management of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in the final stages of life. It is increasingly common to find patients carrying these devices that are in the terminal stage of an advanced disease. This occurs in patients with advanced heart disease and subsequent heart failure refractory to treatment but also in a patient with an ICD who develops cancer disease, organ failure or other neurodegenerative diseases with poor short-term prognosis. The vast majority of these patients are over 65, so the paper focuses particularly on the elderly who are in this situation, but the decision-making process is similar in younger patients with ICDs who are in the final phase of their life. PMID:24331838

  4. Guidelines on the management of implantable cardioverter defibrillators at the end of life.

    PubMed

    Datino, T; Rexach, L; Vidán, M T; Alonso, A; Gándara, Á; Ruiz-García, J; Fontecha, B; Martínez-Sellés, M

    2014-01-01

    This article is a joint document of the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology, the Spanish Society of Palliative Care and the Section of Geriatric Cardiology of the Spanish Society of Cardiology. Its aim is to address the huge gap that exists in Spain with regard to the management of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in the final stages of life. It is increasingly common to find patients carrying these devices that are in the terminal stage of an advanced disease. This occurs in patients with advanced heart disease and subsequent heart failure refractory to treatment but also in a patient with an ICD who develops cancer disease, organ failure or other neurodegenerative diseases with poor short-term prognosis. The vast majority of these patients are over 65, so the paper focuses particularly on the elderly who are in this situation, but the decision-making process is similar in younger patients with ICDs who are in the final phase of their life. PMID:24119393

  5. The CopenHeartSF trial—comprehensive sexual rehabilitation programme for male patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator or ischaemic heart disease and impaired sexual function: protocol of a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Johansen, Pernille Palm; Zwisler, Ann-Dorthe; Hastrup-Svendsen, Jesper; Frederiksen, Marianne; Lindschou, Jane; Winkel, Per; Gluud, Christian; Giraldi, Annamaria; Steinke, Elaine; Jaarsma, Tiny; Berg, Selina Kikkenborg

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Sexuality is an important part of people’s physical and mental health. Patients with heart disease often suffer from sexual dysfunction. Sexual dysfunction has a negative impact on quality of life and well-being in persons with heart disease, and sexual dysfunction is associated with anxiety and depression. Treatment and care possibilities seem to be lacking. Studies indicate that non-pharmacological interventions such as exercise training and psychoeducation possess the potential of reducing sexual dysfunction in patients with heart disease. The CopenHeartSF trial will investigate the effect of a comprehensive sexual rehabilitation programme versus usual care. Methods and analysis CopenHeartSF is an investigator-initiated randomised clinical superiority trial with blinded outcome assessment, with 1:1 central randomisation to sexual rehabilitation plus usual care versus usual care alone. Based on sample size calculations, 154 male patients with impaired sexual function due to implantable cardioverter defibrillator or ischaemic heart disease will be included from two university hospitals in Denmark. All patients receive usual care and patients allocated to the experimental intervention group follow a 12-week sexual rehabilitation programme consisting of an individualised exercise programme and psychoeducative consultation with a specially trained nurse. The primary outcome is sexual function measured by the International Index of Erectile Function. The secondary outcome measure is psychosocial adjustment to illness by the Psychosocial Adjustment to Illness Scale, sexual domain. A number of explorative analyses will also be conducted. Ethics and dissemination CopenHeartSF is approved by the regional ethics committee (no H-4-2012-168) and the Danish Data Protection Agency (no 2007-58-0015) and is performed in accordance with good clinical practice and the Declaration of Helsinki in its latest form. Registration Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01796353

  6. New Zealand primary implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation and biventricular pacing guidelines.

    PubMed

    Smith, Warren

    2010-02-19

    Primary implantation of an implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) is recommended for patients with ischaemic or non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy present for at least 3 months, with ejection fraction (EF) = or <30% measured = or >3 months after optimal heart failure treatment. Patients should be on maximal heart failure treatment as tolerated for = or >3 and preferably 6 months, and in New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II or III. They should be = or >3 months remote from any revascularisation procedure or have no clinical symptoms or findings that would make them a candidate for revascularisation. There should be no associated disease reducing survival <18 months. Biventricular pacing is recommended for patients with an EF = or <35% after = or >6 weeks of optimal heart failure treatment, whose QRS duration is >149 ms or is 120-149 ms with two additional criteria for dyssynchrony (aortic pre-ejection delay >140 ms, interventricular mechanical delay >40 ms or delayed activation of the posterolateral left ventricular wall). They should be NYHA Class III, have had no major cardiovascular event in the prior 6 weeks and be in sinus rhythm. There should be no major comorbidity reducing survival <18 months or seriously impairing quality of life.

  7. Appropriateness of sling immobilization to prevent lead displacement after pacemaker/implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation.

    PubMed

    Naffe, Aster; Iype, Mini; Easo, Mini; McLeroy, Sandra Dejong; Pinaga, Kelli; Vish, Nancy; Wheelan, Kevin; Franklin, Jay; Adams, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    After pacemaker/implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (pacemaker/ICD) implantation, patients are often required to immobilize the affected arm with a sling to minimize the risk of lead displacement. We examined whether performing a resistive range-of-motion exercise protocol after pacemaker/ICD surgery would result in lead displacement and, therefore, whether sling immobilization and activity restrictions are justified. Ten subjects who had undergone pacemaker/ICD surgery performed four individual resistive range-of-motion exercises (three sets of 10 repetitions for each: one warm-up set without weight and two sets with a 1- or 2-pound hand weight) with the affected arm prior to hospital discharge. For each subject, an electrophysiology nurse specialist used a noninvasive device programmer to evaluate surgical lead placement before and after the exercises. As an adjunct to the study, we queried clinicians at 48 US hospitals about sling immobilization and activity restrictions after pacemaker/ICD implantation at their institutions. No lead displacement occurred after the weightlifting exercises were performed. Based on these results in a small group of patients, it appears that requiring the use of a joint immobilization sling is overly restrictive, promotes fear, and hinders recovery. We encourage the development of consistent discharge instructions that will promote early mobility and a safe and rapid return to normal activities.

  8. Beam Profile Disturbances from Implantable Pacemakers or Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Gossman, Michael S.; Nagra, Bipinpreet; Graves-Calhoun, Alison; Wilkinson, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    The medical community is advocating for progressive improvement in the design of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and implantable pacemakers to accommodate elevations in dose limitation criteria. With advancement already made for magnetic resonance imaging compatibility in some, a greater need is present to inform the radiation oncologist and medical physicist regarding treatment planning beam profile changes when such devices are in the field of a therapeutic radiation beam. Treatment plan modeling was conducted to simulate effects induced by Medtronic, Inc.-manufactured devices on therapeutic radiation beams. As a continuation of grant-supported research, we show that radial and transverse open beam profiles of a medical accelerator were altered when compared with profiles resulting when implantable pacemakers and cardioverter-defibrillators are placed directly in the beam. Results are markedly different between the 2 devices in the axial plane and the sagittal planes. Vast differences are also presented for the therapeutic beams at 6-MV and 18-MV x-ray energies. Maximum changes in percentage depth dose are observed for the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator as 9.3% at 6 MV and 10.1% at 18 MV, with worst distance to agreement of isodose lines at 2.3 cm and 1.3 cm, respectively. For the implantable pacemaker, the maximum changes in percentage depth dose were observed as 10.7% at 6 MV and 6.9% at 18 MV, with worst distance to agreement of isodose lines at 2.5 cm and 1.9 cm, respectively. No differences were discernible for the defibrillation leads and the pacing lead.

  9. Ironic Technology: Old Age and the implantable cardioverter defibrillator in US health care

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Sharon R.; Mueller, Paul S.; Ottenberg, Abigale L.; Koenig, Barbara A.

    2010-01-01

    We take the example of cardiac devices, specifically the implantable cardioverter defibrillator, or ICD, to explore the complex cultural role of technology in medicine today. We focus on persons age 80 and above, for whom ICD use is growing in the U.S. We highlight an ironic feature of this device. While it postpones death and ‘saves’ life by thwarting a lethal heart rhythm, it also prolongs living in a state of dying from heart failure. In that regard the ICD is simultaneously a technology of life extension and dying. We explore that irony among the oldest age group -- those whose considerations of medical interventions are framed by changing societal assumptions of what constitutes premature death, the appropriate time for death and medicine’s goals in an aging society. Background to the rapidly growing use of this device among the elderly is the ‘technological imperative’ in medicine, bolstered today by the value given to evidence-based studies. We show how evidence contributes to standards of care and to the expansion of Medicare reimbursement criteria. Together, those factors shape the ethical necessity of physicians offering and patients accepting the ICD in late life. Two ethnographic examples document the ways in which those factors are lived in treatment discussions and in expectations about death and longevity. PMID:21126815

  10. Electromagnetic interference of automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator and HeartWare left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Labedi, Mohamed R; Alharethi, Rami; Kfoury, A G; Budge, Deborah; Bruce, Reid; Rasmusson, Brad; Bunch, T Jared

    2013-01-01

    The use of continuous-flow left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) have markedly improved outcomes in patients with advanced heart failure (HF). The HeartWare LVAD is a miniaturized centrifugal pump implanted within the pericardial space. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) are susceptible to oversensing of extracardiac signals (electromagnetic interference [EMI]). We report two cases of EMI in patients that received a HeartWare LVAD as destination therapy for advanced HF. The patients were 75 and 78 years old, both with severe ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (ejection fraction < 0.20) and New York Heart Association class 4 heart failure. Both patients had a St. Jude Medical Unify ICD with a 7 Fr dual coil St. Jude Medical Durata ICD lead. In both patients, the lead location was in the right ventricular apex with an inferior orientation. Both patients experienced immediate ICD therapies after LVAD placement, requiring the tachytherapies to be disabled. ICD programming changes to increase sensitivity and the detection windows were ineffective. Both patients underwent ICD system revision. In one patient, the existing lead was moved to an anteroseptal location that stopped the EMI. In the other patient, the ICD system was changed to allow a separate right ventricular sensing lead in an anteroseptal location and a dual coil ICD lead placed in an apical location, a strategy used to obtain an acceptable defibrillation threshold. The patients have had no subsequent EMI detected on clinical and remote monitoring. Patients with a right ventricular apical ICD lead placement that undergo placement of a HeartWare LVAD are susceptible to EMI and inappropriate ICD therapies. These cases suggest the primary mechanism is proximity of the ICD lead to the device and as such relocation to an anteroseptal location can overcome the problem. These data suggest that all patients that receive a HeartWare LVAD with an ICD should have the device carefully checked at maximum LVAD

  11. The Gulf Implantable Cardioverter-defibrillator Registry: Rationale, Methodology, and Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Alsheikh-Ali, Alawi A.; Hersi, Ahmad S.; Hamad, Adel K. S.; Al Fagih, Ahmed R.; Al-Samadi, Faisal M.; Almusaad, Abdulmohsen M.; Bokhari, Fayez A.; Al-Kandari, Fawzia; Al-Ghamdi, Bandar S.; Al Rawahi, Najib; Asaad, Nidal; Alkaabi, Salem; Daoulah, Amin; Zaky, Hosam A.; Elhag, Omer; Al Hebaishi, Yahya S.; Sweidan, Raed; Alanazi, Haitham; Chase, David; Sabbour, Hani; Al Meheiri, Mohammad; Al Abri, Ismail; Amin, Mohammad; Dagriri, Khaled; Ahmed, Adil O.; Shafquat, Azam; Khan, Shahul Hameed

    2015-01-01

    Background: The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is effective in the prevention of sudden cardiac death in high-risk patients. Little is known about ICD use in the Arabian Gulf. We designed a study to describe the characteristics and outcomes of patients receiving ICDs in the Arab Gulf region. Methods: Gulf ICD is a prospective, multi-center, multinational, and observational study. All adult patients 18 years or older, receiving a de novo ICD implant and willing to sign a consent form will be eligible. Data on baseline characteristics, ICD indication, procedure and programing, in-hospital, and 1-year outcomes will be collected. Target enrollment is 1500 patients, which will provide adequate precision across a wide range of expected event rates. Results: Fifteen centers in six countries are enrolling patients (Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain, and Qatar). Two-thirds of the centers have dedicated electrophysiology laboratories, and in almost all centers ICDs are implanted exclusively by electrophysiologists. Nearly three-quarters of the centers reported annual ICD implant volumes of ≤150 devices, and pulse generator replacements constitute <30% of implants in the majority of centers. Enrollment started in December 2013, and accrual rate increased as more centers entered the study reaching an average of 98 patients per month. Conclusions: Gulf ICD is the first prospective, observational, multi-center, and multinational study of the characteristics and, the outcomes of patients receiving ICDs in the Arab Gulf region. The study will provide valuable insights into the utilization of and outcomes related to ICD therapy in the Gulf region. PMID:26900416

  12. Effect of cardiac resynchronization therapy with implantable cardioverter defibrillator versus cardiac resynchronization therapy with pacemaker on mortality in heart failure patients: results of a high-volume, single-centre experience

    PubMed Central

    Kutyifa, Valentina; Geller, Laszlo; Bogyi, Peter; Zima, Endre; Aktas, Mehmet K; Ozcan, Emin Evren; Becker, David; Nagy, Vivien Klaudia; Kosztin, Annamaria; Szilagyi, Szabolcs; Merkely, Bela

    2014-01-01

    Aims There are limited and contradictory data on the effects of CRT with implantable cardioverter defibrillator (CRT-D) on mortality as compared with CRT with pacemaker (CRT-P). Methods and results We evaluated the long-term outcome of patients implanted with a CRT-D or CRT-P device in our high-volume single-centre experience. Data on all-cause mortality were derived from clinic visits and the Hungarian National Healthcare Fund Death Registry. Kaplan–Meier survival analyses and multivariate Cox regression models were used to evaluate all-cause mortality in patients with CRT-D vs. CRT-P, stratified by the aetiology of cardiomyopathy. From 2000 to 2011, 1122 CRT devices, 693 CRT-P (LVEF 28.2 ± 7.4%) and 429 CRT-D (LVEF 27.6 ± 6.4%), were implanted at our centre. During the median follow-up of 28 months, 379 patients died from any cause, 250 patients (36%) with an implanted CRT-P and 129 patients (30%) with an implanted CRT-D. There was no evidence of mortality benefit in patients implanted with a CRT-D compared with a CRT-P in the total cohort [hazard ratio (HR) 0.98, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.73–1.32, P = 0.884]. In patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy, CRT-D treatment was associated with a significant 30% risk reduction in all-cause mortality compared with an implanted CRT-P (HR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51–0.97, P = 0.03). In non-ischaemic patients, there was no mortality benefit of CRT-D over CRT-P (HR 0.98, 95% CI 0.73–1.32, P = 0.894, interaction P-value = 0.15). Conclusions In heart failure patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy, CRT-D was associated with a mortality benefit compared with CRT-P, but no benefit of CRT-D over CRT-P in mortality was observed in non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy. PMID:25379962

  13. The oral cavity is not a primary source for implantable pacemaker or cardioverter defibrillator infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background To test the hypothesis that the oral cavity is a potential source for implantable pacemaker and cardioverter defibrillators infections, the bacterial diversity on explanted rhythm heart management devices was investigated and compared to the oral microbiome. Methods A metagenomic approach was used to analyze the bacterial diversity on the surfaces of non-infected and infected pacemakers. The DNA from surfaces swaps of 24 non-infected and 23 infected pacemaker were isolated and subjected to bacterial-specific DNA amplification, single strand conformation polymorphism- (SSCP) and sequencing analysis. Species-specific primer sets were used to analyze for any correlation between bacterial diversity on pacemakers and in the oral cavity. Results DNA of bacterial origin was detected in 21 cases on infected pacemakers and assigned to the bacterial phylotypes Staphylococcus epidermidis, Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus schleiferi and Stapyhlococcus. In 17 cases bacterial DNA was found on pacemakers with no clinical signs of infections. On the basis of the obtained sequence data, the phylotypes Propionibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus and an uncultured bacterium were identified. Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis were the only bacteria detected in pacemeaker (n = 25) and oral samples (n = 11). Conclusions The frequency of the coincidental detection of bacteria on infected devices and in the oral cavity is low and the detected bacteria are highly abundant colonizers of non-oral human niches. The transmission of oral bacteria to the lead or device of implantable pacemaker or cardioverter defibrillators is unlikely relevant for the pathogenesis of pacemaker or cardioverter defibrillators infections. PMID:23575037

  14. Referring Physicians’ Discordance with the Primary Prevention Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Guidelines: A National Survey

    PubMed Central

    Castellanos, Jorge M; Smith, Lisa M; Varosy, Paul D.; Dehlendorf, Christine; Marcus, Gregory M

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND The ACC/AHA/HRS Guidelines provide patient selection criteria for primary prevention implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). For unknown reasons, guideline discordant practice is common. OBJECTIVE To determine referring physicians’ concordance with the primary prevention ICD guidelines. METHODS We mailed a survey regarding ICD guidelines and individual practice characteristics to a random national sample of 3,000 physicians, 1/3rd each specializing in family medicine, internal medicine, and general cardiology, selected from the American Medical Association Masterfile. RESULTS Sixty-four percent with correct contact information responded. Three hundred and ninety-five (28%, 95% CI 25–30%) respondents never refer patients with the intent of consideration for a primary prevention ICD, including 7% (95% CI 5–10%) of cardiologists. Two hundred and twelve (15%, 95% CI 13–17%) believe ventricular arrhythmias are required before a primary prevention ICD is indicated; 525 (36%, 95% CI 34–39%) believe an ejection fraction > 40% warrants a primary prevention ICD; and 361 (25%, 95% CI 23–27%) would refer a patient for a primary prevention ICD within 40 days of a myocardial infarction. In multivariate analyses, family practice physicians and physicians residing in the Western US most often provided guideline-discordant answers, while cardiologists and those that refer to an electrophysiologist most often provided guideline-concordant answers. Primary care physicians that manage heart failure patients without referral to a subspecialist were not more likely to provide guideline concordant answers. CONCLUSIONS Answers discordant with the primary prevention ICD guidelines were common, suggesting that referring physician beliefs are an important barrier to appropriate patient referrals for primary prevention ICD implantation. PMID:22306794

  15. Influence of primary and secondary prevention indications on anxiety about the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    PubMed Central

    Rahmawati, Anita; Chishaki, Akiko; Ohkusa, Tomoko; Sawatari, Hiroyuki; Tsuchihashi-Makaya, Miyuki; Ohtsuka, Yuko; Nakai, Mori; Miyazono, Mami; Hashiguchi, Nobuko; Sakurada, Harumizu; Takemoto, Masao; Mukai, Yasushi; Inoue, Shujirou; Sunagawa, Kenji; Chishaki, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    Background Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) have been established for primary and secondary prevention of fatal arrhythmias. However, little is known about the influence of ICD indications on quality of life (QOL) and psychological disturbances. This study aimed to examine whether there were differences in QOL and psychological distress in patients that have an ICD for primary or secondary prevention of fatal arrhythmias. Methods A multicenter survey of 179 consecutive outpatients (29.1% primary prevention) with ICD implantations completed the Short Form-8 (SF-8), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), and Worries about ICD (WAICD). Results Patients with an ICD for primary prevention had a higher trait anxiety score and worries about ICD score than patients with an ICD for secondary prevention (41.7±12.4 vs. 34.7±12.3, p=0.001 and 39.6±18.0 vs. 30.0±18.9, p=0.002, respectively), even after adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. In multivariable analysis of variance, primary prevention ICD recipients reported a poorer QOL on the vitality subscale of the SF-8. Conclusions In our study population, which mostly consisted of New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I and II subjects, primary prevention ICD recipients were more prone to experience worries about their ICD, anxiety, and a poorer QOL compared to secondary prevention ICD recipients. In clinical practice, primary prevention ICD patients should be closely monitored. If warranted, they should be offered psychological intervention, as anxiety and low QOL were predictors of mortality. PMID:27092190

  16. Rare infection of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead with Candida albicans: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Nina Thakkar; Bray, Natasha; Wang, Hong; Zelnick, Kenneth; Osman, Ahmed; Vicuña, Ricardo

    2014-10-01

    Infection of implanted cardiac devices has a low rate of occurrence. Fungal infections of such devices represent an atypical phenomenon, associated with high mortality. Both medical and surgical therapies are recommended for a successful outcome. A 60-year-old woman with past medical history of heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) placement, sarcoidosis and diabetes presented with fevers and atypical pleuritic chest pain. Transthoracic echocardiogram revealed a highly mobile 2.09 cm by 4.49 cm mass associated with the ICD wire. Blood cultures were positive for Candida albicans. The patient underwent sternotomy for removal. The vegetation was 4 cm by 2 cm by 2 cm in size, attached to the right ventricle without interference with the tricuspid valve. The patient was treated with micafungin for 2 weeks and then fluconazole for 6 weeks. In this case report, we describe the rare infection of an ICD lead with C. albicans, in the form of a fungal ball. This is the 18th reported case of Candida device-related endocarditis and the first reported in a woman. Prior case reports have occurred primarily in pacemaker rather than ICD leads. The vegetation size is also one of the largest that has been reported, measuring 4 cm at its greatest length. As Candida device-related endocarditis is so rare, and as fatality occurs in half of cases, clinical management can only be derived from sporadic case reports. Therefore, the course of this patient's disease care will be a useful adjunct to the current literature for determining treatment and prognosis in similar cases.

  17. Sustaining cyborgs: sensing and tuning agencies of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Oudshoorn, Nelly

    2015-02-01

    Recently there has been a renewed interest in cyborgs, and particularly in new and emerging fusions of humans and technologies related to the development of human enhancement technologies. These studies reflect a trend to follow new and emerging technologies. In this article, I argue that it is important to study 'older' and more familiar cyborgs as well. Studying 'the old' is important because it enables us to recognize hybrids' embodied experiences. This article addresses two of these older hybrids: pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators inserted in the bodies of people suffering from heart-rhythm disturbances. My concern with hybrid bodies is that internal devices seem to present a complex and neglected case if we wish to understand human agency. Their 'users' seem to be passive because they cannot exert any direct control over the working of their devices. Technologies inside bodies challenge a longstanding tradition of theorizing human-technology relations only in terms of technologies external to the body. Cyborg theory is problematic as well because most studies tend to conceptualize the cyborg merely as a discursive entity and silence the voices of people living as cyborgs. Inspired by feminist research that foregrounds the materiality of the lived and intimate relations between bodies and technologies, I argue that creating these intimate relations requires patients' active involvement in sustaining their hybrid bodies. Based on observations of these monitoring practices in a Dutch hospital and interviews with patients and technicians, the article shows that heart cyborgs are far from passive. On the contrary, their unique experience in sensing the entangled agencies of technologies and their own heart plays a crucial role in sustaining their hybrid bodies.

  18. Intrapericardial and retrocardial implantation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead in a child with type 3 long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ichikawa, Yasuhiro; Iwamoto, Mari; Yanagi, Sadamitsu; Masuda, Munetaka

    2011-10-01

    A 6-year-old girl with type 3 long QT syndrome was safely and successfully implanted with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) system. Prior to implantation, she had experienced uncontrollable life-threatening arrhythmia in spite of high-dose administration of mexiletine. An ICD coil lead for transvenous use was placed in the intrapericardial and retrocardial space and was connected to a generator placed in front of the posterior sheath of the right abdominal rectal muscle. Administration of a beta-blocker in addition to atrial pacing almost completely eliminated the patient's life-threatening arrhythmia attacks. Intrapericardial and retrocardial implantation of ICD coil leads might be useful for children. PMID:21818650

  19. A Prospective Randomized Trial of Moderately Strenuous Aerobic Exercise After an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

    PubMed Central

    Dougherty, Cynthia M.; Glenny, Robb W.; Burr, Robert L.; Flo ARNP, Gayle L.; Kudenchuk, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite its salutary effects on health, aerobic exercise is often avoided after receipt of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) because of fears that exercise may provoke acute arrhythmias. We prospectively evaluated the effects of a home aerobic exercise training and maintenance program (EX) on aerobic performance, ICD shocks and hospitalizations exclusively in ICD recipients. Methods and Results One hundred sixty (124 men, 36 women) were randomized who had an ICD for primary (43%) or secondary (57%) prevention to EX or usual care (UC). The primary outcome was peak oxygen consumption (peakVO2), measured with cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline, 8 and 24 weeks. EX consisted of 8 weeks of home walking 1 hour/day, 5 days/week at 60-80% of heart rate reserve, followed by 16 weeks of maintenance home walking for 150 minutes/week. Adherence to EX was determined from exercise logs, ambulatory HR recordings of exercise, and weekly telephone contacts. UC received no exercise directives and were monitored by monthly telephone contact. Adverse events were identified by ICD interrogations, patient reports and medical records. ICD recipients averaged 55±12 years and mean ejection fraction of 40.6±15.7, all were taking beta blocker medications. EX significantly increased peakVO2 ml/kg/min (EX 26.7±7.0; UC 23.9±6.6, p=0.002) at 8 weeks, which persisted during maintenance exercise at 24 weeks (EX 26.9±7,7; UC 23.4±6.0, p<0.001). ICD shocks were infrequent (EX=4 vs UC=8), with no differences in hospitalizations or deaths between groups. Conclusions Prescribed home exercise is safe and significantly improves cardiovascular performance in ICD recipients without causing shocks or hospitalizations. PMID:25792557

  20. Programming implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in primary prevention: higher or later.

    PubMed

    Clementy, Nicolas; Pierre, Bertrand; Simeon, Edouard; Lallemand, Bénédicte; Fauchier, Laurent; Babuty, Dominique

    2014-05-01

    Defibrillator shocks, appropriate or not, are associated with significant morbidity, as they decrease quality of life, can be involved in depression and anxiety, and are known to be proarrhythmic. Most recent data have even shown an association between shocks and overall mortality. As opposed to other defibrillator-related complications, the rate of inappropriate and unnecessary shocks can (and should) be decreased with adequate programming. This review focuses on the different programming strategies and tips available to reduce the rate of shocks in primary prevention patients with left ventricular dysfunction implanted with a defibrillator, as well as some of the manufacturers' device specificities.

  1. Efficacy of metoprolol and sotalol in the prevention of recurrences of sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Kettering, Klaus; Mewis, Christian; Dörnberger, Volker; Vonthein, Reinhard; Bosch, Ralph F; Kühlkamp, Volker

    2002-11-01

    ICDs provide protection against sudden cardiac death in patients with life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Nevertheless, most ICD recipients receive adjunctive antiarrhythmic drug therapy to reduce the number of recurrent episodes and ICD discharges. The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of metoprolol and d,l-sotalol in preventing VT/VF recurrences in patients with an ICD in a prospective, randomized trial. One hundred patients (83 men, 17 women; mean age 59 years, SD +/- 11 years) were randomized to receive metoprolol or sotalol after implantation of an ICD. There were no significant differences between the two groups with regard to age, sex, underlying cardiac disease, left ventricular ejection fraction, NYHA class assessment and clinical arrhythmia. The median follow-up was 728 days (25th percentile: 530 days, 75th percentile: 943 days) in the metoprolol group and 727 days (25th percentile: 472 days, 75th percentile: 1,223 days) in the sotalol group (P = 0.52). Thirty-three patients treated with metoprolol and 30 patients receiving sotalol had at least one episode during the follow-up. Event-free survival curves were generated for the two treatment arms using the Kaplan-Meier method and showed no significant difference (P = 0.68). Eight patients treated with metoprolol and six patients treated with sotalol died during follow-up. Total mortality was not significantly different between the two study groups (P = 0.43). Metoprolol is as efficacious as sotalol in preventing VT/VF recurrences in patients with an ICD.

  2. Correlation of Geomagnetic Activity with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Shocks and Antitachycardia Pacing

    PubMed Central

    Ebrille, Elisa; Konecny, Tomas; Konecny, Dana; Spacek, Radim; Jones, Paul; Ambroz, Pavel; DeSimone, Christopher V; Powell, Brian D; Hayes, David L; Friedman, Paul A; Asirvatham, Samuel J

    2016-01-01

    Objective Small-scale observational studies have suggested that geomagnetic activity (GMA) may negatively correlate with the frequency of life-threatening arrhythmias. We investigated a potential relationship between implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapies and daily GMA recorded in a large database. Patients and Methods The ALTITUDE database, derived from the Boston Scientific LATITUDE remote monitoring system, was retrospectively analyzed for the frequency of ICD therapies. Daily GMA was expressed as the planetary K-index and the integrated A-index and graded as Levels I – quiet, II – unsettled, III – active, and IV – storm. Results A daily mean of 59,468 ± 11,397 patients were monitored between 2009 and 2012. The distribution of days according to GMA was: Level I 75%, Level II 18%, Level III 5%, Level IV 2%. The daily number of ICD shocks received per 1000 active patients in the database was 1.29 ± 0.47, 1.17 ± 0.46, 1.03 ± 0.37, and 0.94 ± 0.29 on Level I, Level II, Level III, and Level IV days respectively; the daily sum of shocks and antitachycardia pacing (ATP) therapies was 9.29 ± 2.86, 8.46 ± 2.45, 7.92 ± 1.80, and 7.83 ± 2.28 on quiet, unsettled, active and storm days respectively. A statistically significant inverse relationship between GMA and the frequency of ICD therapies was identified, with the most pronounced difference between Level I and Level IV days (p < .001 for shocks, p = .008 for shocks + ATP). Conclusion In a large scale cohort analysis, ICD therapies were delivered less frequently on days of higher GMA, confirming the previous pilot data and suggesting that higher GMA does not pose an increased risk of arrhythmias using ICD therapies as a surrogate marker. Further studies are needed to gain an in-depth understanding of the underlying mechanisms. PMID:25659238

  3. Clinical management of electromagnetic interferences in patients with pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: review of the literature and focus on magnetic resonance conditional devices.

    PubMed

    Corzani, Alessandro; Ziacchi, Matteo; Biffi, Mauro; Allaria, Luca; Diemberger, Igor; Martignani, Cristian; Bratten, Tara; Gardini, Beatrice; Boriani, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    The number of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) has greatly increased in the last 10 years. Many electronic devices used in daily activities generate electromagnetic interferences (EMIs) that can interact with CIEDs. In clinical practice, it is very important to know the potential sources of EMIs and their effect on CIEDs in order to understand how to manage or mitigate them. A very important source of EMI is magnetic resonance (MR), which is considered nowadays the diagnostic gold standard for different anatomical districts. In this review, we focused on the effects of EMI on CIEDs and on the clinical management. Moreover, we made a clarification about MR and CIEDs.In patients with CIEDs, EMIs may cause potentially serious and even life-threatening complications (inappropriate shocks, device malfunctions, inhibition of pacing in pacemaker-dependent patients) and may rarely dictate device replacement. The association of inappropriate shocks with increased mortality highlights the importance of minimizing the occurrence of EMI. Adequate advice and recommendations about the correct management of EMIs in patients with CIEDs are required to avoid all complications during hospitalization and in daily life. Furthermore, the article focused on actual management about MR and CIEDs.

  4. Safety and Cost-Effectiveness of Same-Day Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Implantation.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Gavin; McAloon, Christopher James; Chohan, Bhaveek; Heining, Dominic; Anderson, Benjamin; Barker, Jethro; Randeva, Harpal; Osman, Faizel

    2016-05-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation improve morbidity and mortality in selected patients. Many centers still admit patients overnight. We evaluated the safety, feasibility, and cost savings of same-day CRT/ICD device implantation by performing a retrospective study of all consecutive elective CRT/ICD implants at a tertiary center from January 2009 to April 2013. All emergency and/or inpatient cases were excluded. Data were collected on baseline demographics, implantation indication, procedure details, complications (categorized as immediate [≤24 hours], short term [24 hours to 6 weeks], medium term [6 weeks to 4 months], and long term [>4 months]), and mortality (30 day and 1 year). Comparisons were made between those having planned same-day versus overnight stay procedures. A cost analysis was performed to evaluate cost savings of the same-day policy. A total of 491 devices were implanted during this period: 267 were elective (54 planned overnight, 213 planned same-day) of which 229 were CRT pacemakers or CRT defibrillators and 38 ICDs. There were 26 total overall complications (9.7%) with no significant differences between planned same-day versus planned overnight stay cohorts (9.4% vs 11.1%, p = 0.8) and specifically no differences in immediate, short-, medium-, and long-term complications at follow-up. The 30-day and 1-year mortality rates did not differ between the two groups. An overnight stay at our hospital costs $450 (£300); our cost saving during this period was $91,800 (£61,200). Same-day CRT/ICD implantation is safe, feasible, and associated with significant cost savings. It provides significant advantages for patients and health care providers, especially given the current financial climate. PMID:26993428

  5. Home monitoring of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators: interpretation reliability of the second-generation “IEGM Online” system

    PubMed Central

    Nägele, Herbert; Lipoldová, Jolana; Oswald, Hanno; Klein, Gunnar; Elvan, Arif; Vester, Ernst; Bauer, Wolfgang; Bondke, Hansjürgen; Reif, Sebastian; Daub, Claudia; Menzel, Frank; Schrader, Jürgen; Zach, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Aims Intracardiac electrograms (IEGMs) are essential for the assessment of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) function. The Biotronik Home Monitoring systems transmit an ‘IEGM Online’ that is shorter than the full-length programmer IEGM due to technical constrains. The aim of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the physician's classification of the underlying rhythm based on the second-generation IEGM Online. Methods and results In total, 1533 patients treated with single- and dual-chamber ICDs and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators were enrolled at 67 investigational sites and followed for 15 months. The investigators classified the rhythm shown in IEGM Online as ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, atrial fibrillation, other supraventricular tachyarrhythmia, oversensing due to lead failure, T-wave oversensing, or other rhythm. At the next in-office follow-up, the investigators classified independently the rhythm seen in the corresponding programmer IEGM. The two rhythm classifications were compared thereafter. Both IEGM Online and programmer IEGM were available in 2099 arrhythmic or oversensing events, of which 146 (7.0%) were classified as other rhythm or artefacts and were excluded as inconclusive or atypical. The remaining 1953 events, affecting 352 patients (23.0%), were classified correctly in 1803 cases (92.3%). The accuracy of rough rhythm classification as ventricular, supraventricular, or oversensing was 97.2%. Conclusion The Lumax and IEGM Online HD Evaluation study demonstrates that remote IEGM analysis is reasonably accurate in a remote monitoring system that transmits shorter IEGM than the full-length programmer IEGM for the sake of frequent, fully automatic data transmission. PMID:25567067

  6. Impact of dual chamber pacing on the incidence of atrial and ventricular tachyarrhythmias in recipients of implantable cardioverter defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Strohmer, Bernhard; Mermi, Johann; Castellanos, Eduardo; Mayr, Harald; Gill, Jaswinder; Abadia, Antonio Asso; Kuehl, Martin; Wolpert, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Recent observations suggest that frequent dual-chamber pacing in recipients of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) may adversely influence clinical outcomes. This prospective, multicenter study examined the relationship between the frequency of atrial (%AP) and ventricular pacing (%VP) and the incidence of atrial (AT) and/or ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VT) in a standard ICD population. A total of 141 consecutive patients with primary and secondary ICD indications were studied. Continuous arrhythmia detection with a dual-chamber ICD revealed paroxysmal AT in 60 (43%) and VT in 72 (51%) patients within 6 months of device implantation. Far-field oversensing of ventricular signals occurred in 13% of all "atrial tachy response" mode switches. Without adjustment for covariates, a higher %AP was associated with an increased incidence of AT (P < 0.05). However, this association remained only weakly significant after adjustment for covariates using a multivariate model. High New York heart failure functional classes correlated significantly with AT (P = 0.02) and VT (P = 0.007). Rate-modulated pacing, programmed in 1/3 of patients, correlated with occurrence of AT (P = 0.006), but not with occurrence of VT. With respect to dual-chamber pacing, a %AP >/= 48% combined with a %VP > 40% was associated with an increased probability for VT. In conclusion, AT and VT occurred frequently within 6 months after dual-chamber ICD implantation. High rates of DDD/R stimulation were associated with a trend toward higher incidence of AT, VT, or both.

  7. High-intensity cardiac rehabilitation training of a firefighter after placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    PubMed Central

    DeJong, Sandra; Arnett, Justin K.; Kennedy, Kathleen; Franklin, Jay O.; Berbarie, Rafic F.

    2014-01-01

    Firefighters who have received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) are asked to retire or are permanently placed on restricted duty because of concerns about their being incapacitated by an ICD shock during a fire emergency. We present the case of a 40-year-old firefighter who, after surviving sudden cardiac arrest and undergoing ICD implantation, sought to demonstrate his fitness for active duty by completing a high-intensity, occupation-specific cardiac rehabilitation training program. The report details the exercise training, ICD monitoring, and stress testing that he underwent. During the post-training treadmill stress test in firefighter turnout gear, the patient reached a functional capacity of 17 metabolic equivalents (METs), exceeding the 12-MET level required for his occupation. He had no ICD shock therapy or recurrent sustained arrhythmias during stress testing or at any time during his cardiac rehabilitation stay. By presenting this case, we hope to stimulate further discussion about firefighters who have an ICD, can meet the functional capacity requirements of their occupation, and want to return to work. PMID:24982569

  8. Tachycardia detection in modern implantable cardioverter-defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, Thomas; Dahlke, Daniel; Chebbo, Amin; Neumann, Ilka

    2016-09-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) have to reliably sense, detect, and treat malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Inappropriate treatment of non life-threatening tachyarrhythmias should be avoided. This article outlines the functionality of ICDs developed and manufactured by BIOTRONIK. Proper sensing is achieved by an automatic sensitivity control which can be individually tailored to solve special under- and oversensing situations. The programming of detection zones for ventricular fibrillation (VF), ventricular tachycardia (VT), and zones to monitor other tachyarrhythmias is outlined. Dedicated single-chamber detection algorithms based on average heart rate, cycle length variability, sudden rate onset, and changes in QRS morphology as used in ICDs by BIOTRONIK are described in detail. Preconditions and confirmation algorithms for therapy deliveries as antitachycardia pacing (ATP) and high energy shocks are explained. Finally, a detailed description of the dual-chamber detection algorithm SMART is given. It comprises additional detection criteria as stability of atrial intervals, 1:1 conduction, atrial-ventricular (AV) multiplicity, AV trend, and AV regularity to differentiate between ventricular and supraventricular tachyarrhythmias. PMID:27576695

  9. Potential clinical impact of cardiovascular magnetic resonance assessment of ejection fraction on eligibility for cardioverter defibrillator implantation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For the primary prevention of sudden cardiac death, guidelines provide left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) criteria for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) placement without specifying the technique by which it should be measured. We sought to investigate the potential impact of performing cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for EF on ICD eligibility. Methods The study population consisted of patients being considered for ICD implantation who were referred for EF assessment by CMR. Patients who underwent CMR within 30 days of echocardiography were included. Echocardiographic EF was determined by Simpson’s biplane method and CMR EF was measured by Simpson’s summation of discs method. Results Fifty-two patients (age 62±15 years, 81% male) had a mean EF of 38 ± 14% by echocardiography and 35 ± 14% by CMR. CMR had greater reproducibility than echocardiography for both intra-observer (ICC, 0.98 vs 0.94) and inter-observer comparisons (ICC 0.99 vs 0.93). The limits of agreement comparing CMR and echocardiographic EF were – 16 to +10 percentage points. CMR resulted in 11 of 52 (21%) and 5 of 52 (10%) of patients being reclassified regarding ICD eligibility at the EF thresholds of 35 and 30% respectively. Among patients with an echocardiographic EF of between 25 and 40%, 9 of 22 (41%) were reclassified by CMR at either the 35 or 30% threshold. Echocardiography identified only 1 of the 6 patients with left ventricular thrombus noted incidentally on CMR. Conclusions CMR resulted in 21% of patients being reclassified regarding ICD eligibility when strict EF criteria were used. In addition, CMR detected unexpected left ventricular thrombus in almost 10% of patients. Our findings suggest that the use of CMR for EF assessment may have a substantial impact on management in patients being considered for ICD implantation. PMID:23043729

  10. Sleep Quality and Sleepiness in Persons with Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators: Outcome from a Clinical Randomized Longitudinal Trial

    PubMed Central

    BERG, SELINA KIKKENBORG; HIGGINS, MELINDA; REILLY, CAROLYN M.; LANGBERG, JONATHAN J.; DUNBAR, SANDRA B.

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients receiving an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) report various types and degree of sleep disruptions, but little is known regarding their characteristics, duration, and associated factors. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe the effect of a psychoeducational intervention on sleep quality and daytime sleepiness, (2) to describe patterns of sleep over time, and (3) to identify predictors of poor sleep in an ICD population. Methods A randomized longitudinal intervention trial was designed to test the effects of a psychoeducational intervention, which included a sleep education and counseling session in patients receiving their initial ICD. Patients (n = 236; 75% men; mean age 58.4 [±11.2] from the PsychoEducationAl Intervention for ICD PatiEnts (PEACE) trial comprised the study population. Variables related to sleep were measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Inventory (PSQI) and Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS). Results No psychoeducational intervention effects on sleep outcomes were observed. However, 67.2% of the patients reported poor sleep quality at baseline, and 56.8% had low sleep quality at 6 months based on PSQI scores >5; one-third (32.6%) were excessively sleepy based on ESS scores =10 at 6 months. Anxiety, depression, physical function, pain intensity, and pain severity were all highly correlated to each other across time. Female gender was a significant covariate for the PSQI. New York Heart Association (NYHA) class was a significant covariate for sleepiness (Epworth). Conclusions Low sleep quality and daytime sleepiness are found at time of insertion and over time in patients with ICD. Female gender, higher NYHA class, as well as two latent factors encompassing increased anxiety, depressive symptoms, and decreased physical function and increased pain, were significant predictors of poor sleep quality and sleepiness over time. These data help identify those at higher risk for sleep problems after ICD. PMID

  11. Results of ENHANCED Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Programming to Reduce Therapies and Improve Quality of Life (from the ENHANCED-ICD Study).

    PubMed

    Mastenbroek, Mirjam H; Pedersen, Susanne S; van der Tweel, Ingeborg; Doevendans, Pieter A; Meine, Mathias

    2016-02-15

    Novel implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) discrimination algorithms and programming strategies have significantly reduced the incidence of inappropriate shocks, but there are still gains to be made with respect to reducing appropriate but unnecessary antitachycardia pacing (ATP) and shocks. We examined whether programming a number of intervals to detect (NID) of 60/80 for ventricular tachyarrhythmia (VT)/ventricular fibrillation (VF) detection was safe and the impact of this strategy on (1) adverse events related to ICD shocks and syncopal events; (2) ATPs/shocks; and (3) patient-reported outcomes. The "ENHANCED Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator programming to reduce therapies and improve quality of life" study (ENHANCED-ICD study) was a prospective, safety-monitoring study enrolling 60 primary and secondary prevention patients at the University Medical Center Utrecht. Patients implanted with any type of ICD with SmartShock technology and aged 18 to 80 years were eligible to participate. In all patients, a prolonged NID 60/80 was programmed. The cycle length for VT/fast VT/VF was 360/330/240 ms, respectively. Programming a NID 60/80 proved safe for ICD patients. Because of the new programming strategy, unnecessary ICD therapy was prevented in 10% of ENHANCED-ICD patients during a median follow-up period of 1.3 years. With respect to patient-reported outcomes, levels of distress were highest and perceived health status lowest at the time of implantation, which both gradually improved during follow-up. In conclusion, the ENHANCED-ICD study demonstrates that programming a NID 60/80 for VT/VF detection is safe for ICD patients and does not negatively impact their quality of life.

  12. Pacemakers, implantable cardioverter/defibrillators, and extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy: evidence-based guidelines for the modern era.

    PubMed

    Platonov, Michael A; Gillis, Anne M; Kavanagh, Katherine M

    2008-02-01

    Early work examining interactions between extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy (SWL) and implantable pacemakers or implantable cardioverter/defibrillators suggested that shockwave oversensing may result in inappropriate suppression of pacing, delivery of antitachycardia pacing therapy, delivery of inappropriate shock therapy, or outright damage to such devices. In the absence of national guidelines, those provided by manufacturers are nonuniform and practice patterns vary between centers. Improvements in SWL energy delivery as well as in device shielding and discrimination technologies have demonstrated improved safety data in recent years. We review these advances in both technologies as well as the most recent data to construct practice guidelines for the modern era.

  13. Home monitoring report from a single lead Lumax DX implantable cardioverter defibrillator: New observations in a new system.

    PubMed

    Konstantino, Yuval; Kleiman, Alex; Amit, Guy

    2016-06-01

    A 56-year-old man underwent a single lead Lumax 640 DX implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death. A DX system consists of a single lead, which provides atrial as well as ventricular electrograms, and enhances atrial arrhythmia detection. Three months after the implantation, high-frequency episodes were detected on the far field and the atrial channels, but not on the bipolar right ventricular channel; these were classified as atrial tachycardia. In the present report, we discussed the unusual pattern of the artifacts that was related to an electromagnetic interference detected by the novel DX system. PMID:27354868

  14. Replacement of implantable cardioverter defibrillators and cardiac resynchronization therapy devices: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Tilz, Roland; Boveda, Serge; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Dobreanu, Dan; Haugaa, Kristina H; Dagres, Nikolaos

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this EP Wire was to assess the management, indications, and techniques for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) device replacement in Europe. A total of 24 centres in 14 European countries completed the questionnaire. All centres were members of the European Heart Rhythm Association Electrophysiology Research Network. Replacement procedures were performed by electrophysiologists in 52% of the centres, by cardiologists in 33%, and both in the remaining centres. In the majority of centres, the procedures were performed during a short hospitalization (<2 days; 61.2%), or on an outpatient basis (28%). The overwhelming majority of centres reported that they replaced ICDs at the end of battery life. Only in a small subset (<10%) of patients with ICD for primary prevention and without ventricular tachycardia (VT) since implantation, ICD was not replaced. In inherited primary arrhythmia syndromes, 80% of the centres always replaced the ICD at the end of battery life. After VT ablation, only few centres (9%) explanted or downgraded the device that was previously implanted for secondary prevention, but only in those patients without new VT episodes. Patient's life expectancy <1 year was the most commonly reported reason (61%) to downgrade from a CRT-D to a CRT-P device. While warfarin therapy was continued in 47% of the centres, non-vitamin K oral anticoagulants were discontinued without bridging 24 h prior to replacement procedures in 60%. Finally, in 65% of the centres, VT induction and shock testing during ICD and CRT-D replacement were performed only in the case of leads with a warning or with borderline measurements. This survey provides a snapshot of the perioperative management, indications, and techniques of ICD and CRT device replacement in Europe. It demonstrates some variations between participating centres, probably related to local policies and to the heterogeneity of the ICD population. PMID

  15. Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Adults with Transposition of the Great Arteries: A Review of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Placement

    PubMed Central

    Cedars, Ari M.

    2015-01-01

    Transposition of the great arteries encompasses a set of structural congenital cardiac lesions that has in common ventriculoarterial discordance. Primarily because of advances in medical and surgical care, an increasing number of children born with this anomaly are surviving into adulthood. Depending upon the subtype of lesion or the particular corrective surgery that the patient might have undergone, this group of adult congenital heart disease patients constitutes a relatively new population with unique medical sequelae. Among the more common and difficult to manage are cardiac arrhythmias and other sequelae that can lead to sudden cardiac death. To date, the question of whether implantable cardioverter-defibrillators should be placed in this cohort as a preventive measure to abort sudden death has largely gone unanswered. Therefore, we review the available literature surrounding this issue. PMID:26413012

  16. Primary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Adults with Transposition of the Great Arteries: A Review of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Placement.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Sandeep S; Cedars, Ari M

    2015-08-01

    Transposition of the great arteries encompasses a set of structural congenital cardiac lesions that has in common ventriculoarterial discordance. Primarily because of advances in medical and surgical care, an increasing number of children born with this anomaly are surviving into adulthood. Depending upon the subtype of lesion or the particular corrective surgery that the patient might have undergone, this group of adult congenital heart disease patients constitutes a relatively new population with unique medical sequelae. Among the more common and difficult to manage are cardiac arrhythmias and other sequelae that can lead to sudden cardiac death. To date, the question of whether implantable cardioverter-defibrillators should be placed in this cohort as a preventive measure to abort sudden death has largely gone unanswered. Therefore, we review the available literature surrounding this issue. PMID:26413012

  17. Wrong detection of ventricular fibrillation in an implantable cardioverter defibrillator caused by the movement near the MRI scanner bore.

    PubMed

    Mattei, Eugenio; Censi, Federica; Triventi, Michele; Mancini, Matteo; Napolitano, Antonio; Genovese, Elisabetta; Cannata, Vittorio; Falsaperla, Rosaria; Calcagnini, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The static magnetic field generated by MRI systems is highly non-homogenous and rapidly decreases when moving away from the bore of the scanner. Consequently, the movement around the MRI scanner is equivalent to an exposure to a time-varying magnetic field at very low frequency (few Hz). For patients with an implanted cardiac stimulators, such as an implantable cardioverter/defibrillator (ICD), the movements inside the MRI environment may thus induce voltages on the loop formed by the leads of the device, with the potential to affect the behavior of the stimulator. In particular, the ICD's detection algorithms may be affected by the induced voltage and may cause inappropriate sensing, arrhythmia detections, and eventually inappropriate ICD therapy.We performed in-vitro measurements on a saline-filled humanshaped phantom (male, 170 cm height), equipped with an MRconditional ICD able to transmit in real-time the detected cardiac activity (electrograms). A biventricular implant was reproduced and the ICD was programmed in standard operating conditions, but with the shock delivery disabled. The electrograms recorded in the atrial, left and right ventricle channels were monitored during rotational movements along the vertical axis, in close proximity of the bore. The phantom was also equipped with an accelerometer and a magnetic field probe to measure the angular velocity and the magnetic field variation during the experiment. Pacing inhibition, inappropriate detection of tachyarrhythmias and of ventricular fibrillation were observed. Pacing inhibition began at an angular velocity of about 7 rad/s, (dB/dt of about 2 T/s). Inappropriate detection of ventricular fibrillation occurred at about 8 rad/s (dB/dt of about 3 T/s). These findings highlight the need for a specific risk assessment of workers with MR-conditional ICDs, which takes into account also effects that are generally not considered relevant for patients, such as the movement around the scanner bore. PMID

  18. Safety Of Mris In Patients With Pacemakers And Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Baher, Alex; Shah, Dipan

    2013-01-01

    With a burgeoning population, increases in life expectancy, and expanding indications, the number of patients with cardiac devices such as pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators continues to increase each year. A majority of these patients will develop an indication for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in their lifetime. MRIs have established themselves as one of the most powerful imaging tools for a variety of conditions. However, given the historic safety concerns, many physicians are reluctant to use MRIs in this patient population. In this paper, we discuss the potential adverse effects of MRIs in patients with cardiac devices, review key studies that have addressed strategies to limit adverse effects, and provide our cardiovascular MRI laboratory’s protocol for imaging patients with implanted cardiac devices. PMID:24066196

  19. Experience of cardioverter-defibrillators inserted without thoracotomy: evaluation of transvenously inserted intracardiac leads alone or with a subcutaneous axillary patch.

    PubMed Central

    Jordaens, L; Trouerbach, J W; Vertongen, P; Herregods, L; Poelaert, J; Van Nooten, G

    1993-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--To compare the efficacy of a purely transvenous cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) system with that of a system with a supplementary subcutaneous patch. To evaluate clinical follow up of these lead arrangements that do not require thoracotomy. DESIGN--A simplified defibrillation protocol to test two different lead arrangements during implantation, with routine clinical follow up after implantation. SETTING--Tertiary referral centre for treatment of arrhythmia. PATIENTS--22 consecutive patients selected for implantation of an ICD because of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias (ventricular fibrillation or sustained ventricular tachycardia) of whom 20 entered the test protocol. INTERVENTION--Implantation of an ICD with transvenously inserted intracardiac leads and a subcutaneous patch and assessment of effective defibrillation followed by testing of the purely transvenous approach. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Reproducible conversion of ventricular fibrillation to sinus rhythm at a certain energy level, providing a safety margin of at least 10 J for both lead arrangements. Confirmation of efficacy during clinical follow up (mean 6 months). RESULTS--A transvenous lead system combined with a subcutaneous axillary patch was implanted in 20/22 patients and it provided adequate and acceptable energy levels. In 10/20 tested patients a purely transvenous lead configuration provided an acceptable safety margin as well. Nine patients had clinical recurrences: all these arrhythmias were successfully converted. CONCLUSION--A transvenous lead system was sufficient in 50% of the patients at the time of implantation. Data on long-term clinical follow up of this arrangement are not available. The approach without thoracotomy with a subcutaneous patch is feasible and effective in most patients selected for ICD treatment. Images PMID:8457387

  20. Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Shock after Stenting Across the Device Leads.

    PubMed

    Mehra, Sanjay; Chelu, Mihail Gabriel

    2016-02-01

    A 45-year-old man with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and end-stage renal disease had lived uneventfully with a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) for 5 years. Less than a month before presenting at our institution, he had undergone stenting of his partially occluded subclavian vein, to relieve stenosis of the ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula that was used for his hemodialysis. The CRT-D subsequently discharged. Device interrogation revealed that electrical noise originating from leads damaged by the stent had caused the inappropriate shock and intermittent electrical discharges thereafter. The patient was highly traumatized by these events and insisted upon device removal, which deprived him of a potentially life-saving intervention. He later had a cardiac arrest that resulted in sustained profound hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy with minimal neurologic recovery: his family placed him in a long-term care facility on ventilator support, with a tracheostomy and feeding tube. This situation might have been avoided through collaboration between the interventional radiologist and the electrophysiologist. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and end-stage renal disease who presented with inappropriate defibrillator discharge caused by lead damage secondary to stenting across the leads. PMID:27047295

  1. Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Shock after Stenting Across the Device Leads

    PubMed Central

    Chelu, Mihail Gabriel

    2016-01-01

    A 45-year-old man with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and end-stage renal disease had lived uneventfully with a cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D) for 5 years. Less than a month before presenting at our institution, he had undergone stenting of his partially occluded subclavian vein, to relieve stenosis of the ipsilateral arteriovenous fistula that was used for his hemodialysis. The CRT-D subsequently discharged. Device interrogation revealed that electrical noise originating from leads damaged by the stent had caused the inappropriate shock and intermittent electrical discharges thereafter. The patient was highly traumatized by these events and insisted upon device removal, which deprived him of a potentially life-saving intervention. He later had a cardiac arrest that resulted in sustained profound hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy with minimal neurologic recovery: his family placed him in a long-term care facility on ventilator support, with a tracheostomy and feeding tube. This situation might have been avoided through collaboration between the interventional radiologist and the electrophysiologist. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with nonischemic cardiomyopathy and end-stage renal disease who presented with inappropriate defibrillator discharge caused by lead damage secondary to stenting across the leads. PMID:27047295

  2. [Practical questions around individual with a pacemaker or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator].

    PubMed

    Manaouil, Cécile; Fantoni, Sophie; Montpellier, Dominique; Tordjman, Eric; Jarde, Olivier

    2012-07-01

    An individual with a pacemaker can ask his GP for information about potential problems associated with the device. Should a pacemaker continue to be used by end-of-life patients? Should a pacemaker be stopped in a limited care situation? What precautions should be taken when treating a patient with a pacemaker? Pacemakers and implantable defibrillators are sensitive to electromagnetic interference (EMI). Medically, MRIs are theoretically contraindicated, even though examinations could be performed without a major problem, and special precautions should be taken when using an electrosurgical cutter or radiotherapy. In case of death, a doctor or embalmer must remove the patient's pacemaker due to its risk of explosion during cremation. Doctors who sign cremation forms have a legal obligation to provide such information. It may affect an employee's ability to work. Are there some professions that are not well suited for individuals with a pacemaker? PMID:22138293

  3. A plea for delivery of high-voltage shocks during implantable cardioverter-defibrillator replacement or system upgrade.

    PubMed

    Sticherling, Christian; Schaer, Beat; Kühne, Michael; Osswald, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a faulty lead that led to failure to defibrillate during defibrillation threshold testing at the time of elective generator replacement. Standard lead measurements failed to detect the malfunction. Many centres perform neither defibrillation threshold testing nor commanded high-energy shock delivery. Even changes in the position of the lead in relation to the generator may cause problems that will go undetected without high-voltage shock delivery. We therefore caution against the wholesale abandonment of high-voltage shock testing in patients with pre-existing implanted leads.

  4. A plea for delivery of high-voltage shocks during implantable cardioverter-defibrillator replacement or system upgrade.

    PubMed

    Sticherling, Christian; Schaer, Beat; Kühne, Michael; Osswald, Stefan

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a faulty lead that led to failure to defibrillate during defibrillation threshold testing at the time of elective generator replacement. Standard lead measurements failed to detect the malfunction. Many centres perform neither defibrillation threshold testing nor commanded high-energy shock delivery. Even changes in the position of the lead in relation to the generator may cause problems that will go undetected without high-voltage shock delivery. We therefore caution against the wholesale abandonment of high-voltage shock testing in patients with pre-existing implanted leads. PMID:22498180

  5. Remote monitoring and follow-up of pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Haran; Senouf, David

    2009-01-01

    In the era of communication technology, new options are now available for following-up patients implanted with pacemakers (PMs) and defibrillators (ICDs). Most major companies offer devices with wireless capabilities that communicate automatically with home transmitters, which then relay data to the physician, thereby allowing remote patient follow-up and monitoring. These systems are being widely used in the USA for remote follow-up, and have been more recently introduced in Europe, where their adoption is increasing. In this article, we describe the currently existing systems, review the available evidence in the literature regarding remote follow-up and monitoring of PMs and ICDs, and finally discuss some unresolved issues. PMID:19470595

  6. Battery drain in daily practice and medium-term projections on longevity of cardioverter-defibrillators: an analysis from a remote monitoring database

    PubMed Central

    Boriani, Giuseppe; Ritter, Philippe; Biffi, Mauro; Ziacchi, Matteo; Diemberger, Igor; Martignani, Cristian; Valzania, Cinzia; Valsecchi, Sergio; Padeletti, Luigi; Gadler, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Aims The longevity of generators is a crucial determinant of the cost-effectiveness of therapy with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-D). We evaluated the trend of device-measured residual battery capacity and longevity projections over 5-year follow-up. We also investigated possible factors associated with battery drain. Methods and results Data from 4851 patients in the European LATITUDE® database who were followed up for a minimum of 3 years were analysed. The factors associated with battery drain (i.e. year-to-year decrease in residual battery capacity), and thus potentially impacting on device longevity, were mainly the pacing parameters in CRT-D devices and the number of shocks delivered and diverted in both ICD and CRT-D (all P < 0.01 on linear regression analysis). Over the first 5 years, the longevity estimates provided by devices showed low intra-patient variability and increased with time. The estimates exceeded 10 years for CRT-D and 13 and 12 years for single- and dual-chamber ICDs, respectively. In CRT-D patients, the expected patient age on replacement was 80 ± 12 years, and the expected probability of undergoing device replacement was 63 ± 13% for New York Heart Association (NYHA) II patients and 37 ± 16% for NYHA III patients. For comparison, the probabilities of replacing a CRT-D lasting 5 years were 78 ± 8 and 59 ± 13%, respectively (both P < 0.001). Conclusion Battery drain was mainly associated with pacing output in CRT-D devices and with the number of capacitor charges in both ICD and CRT-D devices. The longevity estimates provided by the devices were consistent and conservative. According to these estimates, among CRT-D recipients a low proportion of patients should require device replacement. PMID:26847076

  7. Relation between detection rate and inappropriate shocks in single versus dual chamber cardioverter-defibrillator--an analysis from the OPTION trial.

    PubMed

    Kolb, Christof; Sturmer, Marcio; Babuty, Dominique; Sick, Peter; Davy, Jean Marc; Molon, Giulio; Schwab, Jörg Otto; Mantovani, Giuseppe; Wickliffe, Andrew; Lennerz, Carsten; Semmler, Verena; Siot, Pierre-Henri; Reif, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The programming of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) influences inappropriate shock rates. The aim of the study is to analyse rates of patients with appropriate and inappropriate shocks according to detection zones in the OPTION trial. All patients received dual chamber (DC) ICDs randomly assigned to be programmed either to single chamber (SC) or to DC settings including PARAD+ algorithm. In a post-hoc analysis, rates of patients with inappropriate and appropriate shocks were calculated for shocks triggered at heart rates ≥ 170 bpm (ventricular tachycardia zone) and at rates ≥ 200 bpm (ventricular fibrillation zone). In the SC group, higher rates of patients with total and inappropriate shocks were delivered at heart rates ≥ 170 bpm than at rates ≥ 200 bpm (total shocks: 21.1% vs. 16.6%; p = 0.002; inappropriate shocks: 7.6% vs. 4.5%, p = 0.016; appropriate shocks: 15.2% vs. 13.5%; p = n.s.). No such differences were observed in the DC group (total shocks: 14.3% vs. 12.6%; p = n.s.; inappropriate shocks: 3.9% vs. 3.6%; p = n.s.; appropriate shocks: 12.2% vs. 10.4%; p = n.s.). The higher frequency of patients with total shocks with SC settings than with DC settings that benefit from PARAD+ was driven by a higher percentage of patients with inappropriate shocks in the VT zone (170-200 bpm) in the SC population. PMID:26892534

  8. Implantation of a defibrillator in a patient with an upper airway stimulation device.

    PubMed

    Ong, Adrian A; O'Brien, Terrence X; Nguyen, Shaun A; Gillespie, M Boyd

    2016-02-01

    The patient is a 62-year-old man with continuous positive airway pressure-intolerant obstructive sleep apnea who was enrolled in a study for a hypoglossal nerve upper airway stimulation device (UAS). Nearly 2.5 years later, he was admitted to the hospital for unstable angina. Diagnostic workup revealed a prior myocardial infarction, an ejection fraction of 30% on maximal medical therapy, and episodes of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia. During hospitalization, the patient received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). This is the first reported case of simultaneous use of a UAS and an ICD, and we report no untoward device interference between the two implantable devices.

  9. Integrated approach for smart implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) device with real time ECG monitoring: use of flexible sensors for localized arrhythmia sensing and stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Munish; Chapalamadugu, Kalyan C.; Miranda, Aimon C.; Gelot, Shyam; Moreno, Wilfrido; Adithya, Prashanth C.; Law, Catherine; Tipparaju, Srinivas M.

    2013-01-01

    Arrhythmias are the most common cause of death associated with sudden death and are common in US and worldwide. Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT), evolving from pacemakers and development of implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), has been adopted for therapeutic use and demonstrated benefits in patients over the years due to its design and intricate functionality. Recent research has been focused on significant design improvement and efforts are dedicated toward device size reduction, weight and functionality in commercially available ICD's since its invention in the 1960's. Commercially available CRT-D has shown advancement on both clinical and technical side. However, improved focus is required on the device miniaturization, technologically supported and integrated wireless based system for real time heart monitoring electrocardiogram (ECG). In the present report a concise overview for the state-of-the art technology in ICDs and avenues for future development are presented. A unique perspective is also included for ICD device miniaturization and integration of flexible sensing array. Sensor array integration along with its capabilities for identifying localized arrhythmia detection and targeted stimulation for enhancing ICD device capabilities is reviewed. PMID:24167492

  10. Perceptions of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator: A qualitative study of families with a history of sudden life-threatening cardiac events and recommendations to improve care

    PubMed Central

    Linder, Jarrett; Hidayatallah, Nadia; Stolerman, Marina; McDonald, Thomas V.; Marion, Robert; Walsh, Christine; Dolan, Siobhan

    2014-01-01

    Objective To identify major concerns associated with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) and to provide recommendations to adult and pediatric physicians involved in the care of patients with ICDs. Background Cardiac ion channelopathies are a well-recognized cause of sudden cardiac death in infants, children, adolescents, and young adults. ICDs are effective in preventing sudden death from fatal arrhythmias in patients with known cardiac channelopathies. There is a paucity of research on the effect of ICDs on quality of life in patients with cardiac channelopathy diagnoses, especially young patients. Methods A qualitative study interviewing patients and families affected by inherited arrhythmias was conducted. Fifty participants with personal or family histories of cardiac events or sudden death were interviewed individually or in focus groups by clinical psychologists. All interviews were transcribed verbatim and then analyzed and coded based on current qualitative research theory to identify themes related to the research question. Twenty-four participants discussed ICDs in their interviews. Results Participants reported concerns about ICDs, and these concerns were categorized into six themes: (1) comprehension and physician-patient communication; (2) anxiety; (3) restrictions and fallacies; (4) complications; (5) utility; and (6) alternative therapy. Participants noted communication breakdowns between providers and their colleagues, and between providers and their patients. Participants and their families experienced many different forms of anxiety, including worry about the aesthetics of the ICDs and fears of being shocked. Multiple restrictions, fallacies, and complications were also cited. Conclusion Interview themes were used to formulate recommendations for counseling and educating patients with ICDs. PMID:25383067

  11. Usefulness of cardiac resynchronisation therapy devices and implantable cardioverter defibrillators in the treatment of heart failure due to severe systolic dysfunction: systematic review of clinical trials and network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    García García, M A; Rosero Arenas, M A; Ruiz Granell, R; Chorro Gascó, F J; Martínez Cornejo, A

    2016-01-01

    Aim To assess the effectiveness of cardiac resynchronisation therapy (CRT), implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy, and the combination of these devices (CRT+ICD) in adult patients with left ventricular dysfunction and symptomatic heart failure. Methods A comprehensive systematic review of randomised clinical trials was conducted. Several electronic databases (PubMed, Embase, Ovid, Cochrane, ClinicalTrials.gov) were reviewed. The mortality rates between treatments were compared. A network was established comparing the various options, and direct, indirect and mixed comparisons were made using multivariate meta-regression. The degree of clinical and statistical homogeneity was assessed. Results 43 trials involving 13 017 patients were reviewed. Resynchronisation therapy, defibrillators, and combined devices (CRT+ICD) are clearly beneficial compared to optimal medical treatment, showing clear benefit in all of these cases. In a theoretical order of efficiency, the first option is combined therapy (CRT+ICD), the second is CRT, and the third is defibrillator implantation (ICD). Given the observational nature of these comparisons, and the importance of the overlapping CIs, we cannot state that the combined option (CRT+ICD) offers superior survival benefit compared to the other two options. Conclusions The combined option of CRT+ICD seems to be better than the option of CRT alone, although no clear improvement in survival was found for the combined option. It would be advisable to perform a direct comparative study of these two options. PMID:27326223

  12. T-wave oversensing by an implantable cardioverter defibrillator after successful ablation of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Strohmer, Bernhard; Schernthaner, Christiana; Pichler, Maximilian

    2006-04-01

    Focal ablation of trigger premature ventricular complexes (PVCs) from the Purkinje system helped to suppress idiopathic ventricular fibrillation (VF) in an athlete who had suffered from frequent appropriate shock therapies. However, only a few days after successful ablation T-wave oversensing occurred during exercise and resulted in repetitive distressing defibrillator shocks. Despite lack of any changes on the surface ECG, the endocardially recorded electrogram revealed an unfavorable ratio of R-to-T-wave amplitude predisposing to double counting with accelerated heart rates. This case illustrates that T-wave oversensing may complicate the clinical course after successful ablation of malignant Purkinje ectopy.

  13. Relation between detection rate and inappropriate shocks in single versus dual chamber cardioverter-defibrillator – an analysis from the OPTION trial

    PubMed Central

    Kolb, Christof; Sturmer, Marcio; Babuty, Dominique; Sick, Peter; Davy, Jean Marc; Molon, Giulio; Schwab, Jörg Otto; Mantovani, Giuseppe; Wickliffe, Andrew; Lennerz, Carsten; Semmler, Verena; Siot, Pierre-Henri; Reif , Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    The programming of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) influences inappropriate shock rates. The aim of the study is to analyse rates of patients with appropriate and inappropriate shocks according to detection zones in the OPTION trial. All patients received dual chamber (DC) ICDs randomly assigned to be programmed either to single chamber (SC) or to DC settings including PARAD+ algorithm. In a post-hoc analysis, rates of patients with inappropriate and appropriate shocks were calculated for shocks triggered at heart rates ≥170 bpm (ventricular tachycardia zone) and at rates ≥200 bpm (ventricular fibrillation zone). In the SC group, higher rates of patients with total and inappropriate shocks were delivered at heart rates ≥170 bpm than at rates ≥200 bpm (total shocks: 21.1% vs. 16.6%; p = 0.002; inappropriate shocks: 7.6% vs. 4.5%, p = 0.016; appropriate shocks: 15.2% vs. 13.5%; p = n.s.). No such differences were observed in the DC group (total shocks: 14.3% vs. 12.6%; p = n.s.; inappropriate shocks: 3.9% vs. 3.6%; p = n.s.; appropriate shocks: 12.2% vs. 10.4%; p = n.s.). The higher frequency of patients with total shocks with SC settings than with DC settings that benefit from PARAD+ was driven by a higher percentage of patients with inappropriate shocks in the VT zone (170–200 bpm) in the SC population. PMID:26892534

  14. A pilot study of a mindfulness based stress reduction program in adolescents with implantable cardioverter defibrillators or pacemakers.

    PubMed

    Freedenberg, Vicki A; Thomas, Sue A; Friedmann, Erika

    2015-04-01

    Adolescents with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) or pacemakers (PMs) face unique challenges that can cause psychosocial distress. Psychosocial interventions are effective for adults with cardiac devices and could potentially impact adolescents' adjustment to these devices. Mindfulness Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a structured psycho-educational program that includes meditation, yoga, and group support and has been studied extensively among adults. This study examined the feasibility of the MBSR program for adolescents with ICDs/PMs, a population previously unexamined in the research literature. The participants completed measures of anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale) and coping (Responses to Stress Questionnaire) at baseline and after the six-session MBSR intervention. Mean age of the cohort (n = 10) was 15 ± 3 years, 6 were male, 6 had a PM, and 4 had an ICD. Feasibility was demonstrated by successful recruitment of 10 participants, 100 % participation and completion. Anxiety decreased significantly following the intervention, with a large effect size, t[9] = 3.67, p < .01, ŋ (2) = .59. Anxiety frequency decreased from baseline to post-intervention (Fisher's exact test p = .024), and 90 % of participants reported decreased anxiety scores post-intervention. Coping skills related negatively to anxiety (r = -.65, p = .04) and depression (r = -.88, p = .001). Post-intervention, the group independently formed their own Facebook group and requested to continue meeting monthly. Although generalizability is limited due to the small sample size, this successful pilot study paves the way for larger studies to examine the efficacy of MBSR interventions in adolescents with high-risk cardiac diagnoses.

  15. Failure of a novel silicone–polyurethane copolymer (Optim™) to prevent implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead insulation abrasions

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Robert G.; Abdelhadi, Raed H.; McGriff, Deepa M.; Kallinen Retel, Linda

    2013-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to determine if Optim™, a unique copolymer of silicone and polyurethane, protects Riata ST Optim and Durata implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) leads (SJM, St Jude Medical Inc., Sylmar, CA, USA) from abrasions that cause lead failure. Methods and results We searched the US Food and Drug Administration's (FDA's) Manufacturers and User Device Experience (MAUDE) database on 13 April 2012 using the simple search terms ‘Riata ST Optim™ abrasion analysis’ and ‘Durata abrasion analysis’. Lead implant time was estimated by subtracting 3 months from the reported lead age. The MAUDE search returned 15 reports for Riata ST Optim™ and 37 reports for Durata leads, which were submitted by SJM based on its analyses of returned leads for clinical events that occurred between December 2007 and January 2012. Riata ST Optim™ leads had been implanted 29.1 ± 11.7 months. Eight of 15 leads had can abrasions and three abrasions were caused by friction with another device, most likely another lead. Four of these abrasions resulted in high-voltage failures and one death. One failure was caused by an internal insulation defect. Durata leads had been implanted 22.2 ± 10.6 months. Twelve Durata leads had can abrasions, and six leads had abrasions caused by friction with another device. Of these 18 can and other device abrasions, 13 (72%) had electrical abnormalities. Low impedances identified three internal insulation abrasions. Conclusions Riata ST Optim™ and Durata ICD leads have failed due to insulation abrasions. Optim™ did not prevent these abrasions, which developed ≤4 years after implant. Studies are needed to determine the incidence of these failures and their clinical implications. PMID:22915789

  16. Longevity of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators for cardiac resynchronization therapy in current clinical practice: an analysis according to influencing factors, device generation, and manufacturer

    PubMed Central

    Landolina, Maurizio; Curnis, Antonio; Morani, Giovanni; Vado, Antonello; Ammendola, Ernesto; D'onofrio, Antonio; Stabile, Giuseppe; Crosato, Martino; Petracci, Barbara; Ceriotti, Carlo; Bontempi, Luca; Morosato, Martina; Ballari, Gian Paolo; Gasparini, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    Aims Device replacement at the time of battery depletion of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) may carry a considerable risk of complications and engenders costs for healthcare systems. Therefore, ICD device longevity is extremely important both from a clinical and economic standpoint. Cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-D) battery longevity is shorter than ICDs. We determined the rate of replacements for battery depletion and we identified possible determinants of early depletion in a series of patients who had undergone implantation of CRT-D devices. Methods and results We retrieved data on 1726 consecutive CRT-D systems implanted from January 2008 to March 2010 in nine centres. Five years after a successful CRT-D implantation procedure, 46% of devices were replaced due to battery depletion. The time to device replacement for battery depletion differed considerably among currently available CRT-D systems from different manufacturers, with rates of batteries still in service at 5 years ranging from 52 to 88% (log-rank test, P < 0.001). Left ventricular lead output and unipolar pacing configuration were independent determinants of early depletion [hazard ratio (HR): 1.96; 95% 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.57–2.46; P < 0.001 and HR: 1.58, 95% CI: 1.25–2.01; P < 0.001, respectively]. The implantation of a recent-generation device (HR: 0.57; 95% CI: 0.45–0.72; P < 0.001), the battery chemistry and the CRT-D manufacturer (HR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.47–0.89; P = 0.008) were additional factors associated with replacement for battery depletion. Conclusion The device longevity at 5 years was 54%. High left ventricular lead output and unipolar pacing configuration were associated with early battery depletion, while recent-generation CRT-Ds displayed better longevity. Significant differences emerged among currently available CRT-D systems from different manufacturers. PMID:25976906

  17. Comparison of the Effects of High-Energy Photon Beam Irradiation (10 and 18 MV) on 2 Types of Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillators

    SciTech Connect

    Hashii, Haruko; Hashimoto, Takayuki; Okawa, Ayako; Shida, Koichi; Isobe, Tomonori; Hanmura, Masahiro; Nishimura, Tetsuo; Aonuma, Kazutaka; Sakae, Takeji; Sakurai, Hideyuki

    2013-03-01

    Purpose: Radiation therapy for cancer may be required for patients with implantable cardiac devices. However, the influence of secondary neutrons or scattered irradiation from high-energy photons (≥10 MV) on implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) is unclear. This study was performed to examine this issue in 2 ICD models. Methods and Materials: ICDs were positioned around a water phantom under conditions simulating clinical radiation therapy. The ICDs were not irradiated directly. A control ICD was positioned 140 cm from the irradiation isocenter. Fractional irradiation was performed with 18-MV and 10-MV photon beams to give cumulative in-field doses of 600 Gy and 1600 Gy, respectively. Errors were checked after each fraction. Soft errors were defined as severe (change to safety back-up mode), moderate (memory interference, no changes in device parameters), and minor (slight memory change, undetectable by computer). Results: Hard errors were not observed. For the older ICD model, the incidences of severe, moderate, and minor soft errors at 18 MV were 0.75, 0.5, and 0.83/50 Gy at the isocenter. The corresponding data for 10 MV were 0.094, 0.063, and 0 /50 Gy. For the newer ICD model at 18 MV, these data were 0.083, 2.3, and 5.8 /50 Gy. Moderate and minor errors occurred at 18 MV in control ICDs placed 140 cm from the isocenter. The error incidences were 0, 1, and 0 /600 Gy at the isocenter for the newer model, and 0, 1, and 6 /600Gy for the older model. At 10 MV, no errors occurred in control ICDs. Conclusions: ICD errors occurred more frequently at 18 MV irradiation, which suggests that the errors were mainly caused by secondary neutrons. Soft errors of ICDs were observed with high energy photon beams, but most were not critical in the newer model. These errors may occur even when the device is far from the irradiation field.

  18. Sexual Health for Patients with an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... LIBRARY Hello, Guest! My alerts Sign In Join Facebook Twitter Home About this Journal Editorial Board General Statistics Circulation Cover Doodle → Blip the Doodle Go Red For Women's Issue Information for Advertisers Author Reprints Commercial Reprints Customer Service and Ordering ...

  19. [Postmarketing surveillance in patients with cardiac pace-makers or automatic implantable defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Fauchier, L; de Bouët du Portal, H; Giraudeau, C; Froger, S; Cosnay, P; Babuty, D

    2005-01-01

    This article includes an overview of the actual French control and regulation system of the safety alerts involving pacemakers and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and an evaluation of the general information and trends about the characteristics of the reported incidents obtained in the last years in that field. The national security agencies have the mission to collect the data on safety and efficacy of medical devices but manufacturers, physicians and patients also have a role to play. The technical appreciation of the necessity of a notification is not easy in some cases but the lack of notification of a severe incident may lead to heavy penal consequences. If doubtful cases, one should keep in mind the spirit of these safety systems: a collective insurance against the risks related to the use of medical devices. In the 10 last years, the annual advisory rate was increased. The pacemakers were recalled more frequently than implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in absolute value but less frequently in relative value (advisories per 100 person-years). This increase may be related to the growing number of device implants and expanding indications for device therapy, to the increasing sophistication of the devices and to the modifications in the regulation aspects of these problems with a closer attention of users and physicians to the several types of malfunctions.

  20. Combined etiology of anaphylactic cardiogenic shock: amiodarone, epinephrine, cardioverter defibrillator, left ventricular assist devices and the Kounis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kounis, Nicholas G; Soufras, George D; Davlouros, Periklis; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylactic shock is a life-threatening condition which needs detailed and mediculous clinical assessment and thoughtful treatment. Several causes can join forces in order to degranulate mast cells. Amiodarone which is an iodine-containing highly lipophilic benzofuran can induce allergic reactions and anaphylactic shock in sensitized patients. Epinephrine is a life saving drug, but in sulfite allergic patients it should be given with caution due its metabisulfite preservative. Metals covering cardiac defibrillators and pacemakers can act as antigens attached to serum proteins and induce allergic reactions. In anaphylactic shock, myocardial involvement due to vasospasm-induced coronary blood flow reduction manifesting as Kounis syndrome should be always considered. Clinically, combined treatment targeting the primary cause of anaphylaxis together with protection of cardiac tissue seems to be of paramount importance.

  1. Combined etiology of anaphylactic cardiogenic shock: Amiodarone, epinephrine, cardioverter defibrillator, left ventricular assist devices and the Kounis syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kounis, Nicholas G.; Soufras, George D.; Davlouros, Periklis; Tsigkas, Grigorios; Hahalis, George

    2015-01-01

    Anaphylactic shock is a life-threatening condition which needs detailed and mediculous clinical assessment and thoughtful treatment. Several causes can join forces in order to degranulate mast cells. Amiodarone which is an iodine-containing highly lipophilic benzofuran can induce allergic reactions and anaphylactic shock in sensitized patients. Epinephrine is a life saving drug, but in sulfite allergic patients it should be given with caution due its metabisulfite preservative. Metals covering cardiac defibrillators and pacemakers can act as antigens attached to serum proteins and induce allergic reactions. In anaphylactic shock, myocardial involvement due to vasospasm-induced coronary blood flow reduction manifesting as Kounis syndrome should be always considered. Clinically, combined treatment targeting the primary cause of anaphylaxis together with protection of cardiac tissue seems to be of paramount importance. PMID:25849705

  2. [High incidence of isolator fractures in transvenous implantation of cardioverter defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Mewis, C; Kühlkamp, V; Dörnberger, V; Mermi, J; Seipel, L

    1997-02-01

    With the growing complexity of transvenous ICD-lead systems the incidence of lead complications might increase in comparison to usual pacemaker leads. The incidence of insulation defects of transvenous leads was determined during a mean follow-up time of 23.8 +/- 10.9 months. Among 130 transvenous ICD-patients, eight insulation-breaks in seven patients (6%) could be identified after a mean follow-up of 28 +/- 13 months. After a follow-up period of 12 months no lead defect was identified, after 24 months 96.3 +/- 1.8% of all transvenous leads were free of complications, after 36 months 87.9 +/- 6% and after 48 months in 61.2 +/- 18.7% of all leads no isolator fracture was found. In seven cases an operative revision was required. All insulation-defects were exclusively found in abdominally implanted silicone lead-systems type Endotak/CPI (Cardiac Pacemakers, Inc., USA): isolator fractures occurred in 12% of all Endotak leads used, 19% of the Endotak C models 62, 64, 72 and 74 were affected. In none of 66 implanted Transvene lead systems (Medtronic, Inc., USA) were isolator defects found. In six patients the proximal part of the sensing lead near the device was affected. All of these patients experienced potentially harmful repetitive device discharges. In one patient during elective ICD-replacement an isolation break of the proximal shock electrode was found, in another patient between the proximal and distal shock-electrode. Despite regular follow-ups with impedance-measurements, only in one case was the insulation break foreseeable. Stored electrograms were helpful to disclose insulation defects. With increasing age of the transvenous lead systems a growing number of insulation defects has to be expected. Especially the isolators of the first Endotak C models 60-74 seem to create major problems with increasing age.

  3. [Who dictates the rhythm which must be followed? : Pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators in anesthesiology].

    PubMed

    Bischoff, M; Walther, A; Serf, C

    2011-08-01

    The number of patients with implantable cardiac devices for the treatment of cardiac dysrhythmia is steadily climbing. Due to the increase in indications for implantation and the range of functions, an end to this development is not yet in sight. In order to provide safety in the everyday handling of these systems it is necessary to pay attention to various aspects prior to, during and after surgery or anesthesia.

  4. Long-term structural failure of coaxial polyurethane implantable cardioverter defibrillator leads.

    PubMed

    Hauser, Robert G; Cannom, David; Hayes, David L; Parsonnet, Victor; Hayes, John; Ratliff, Norman; Tyers, G Frank O; Epstein, Andrew E; Vlay, Stephen C; Furman, Seymour; Gross, Jay

    2002-06-01

    Transvene models 6936/6966, a coaxial polyurethane ICD lead, may be prone to structural failure. These models comprise 54% of ICD lead failures in the authors' Multicenter Registry database. Because ICD leads perform a vital function, the clinical features, causes, and probability of Transvene 6936/6966 lead failure were determined. The Registry and United States Food and Drug Administration databases were queried for the clinical features and structural causes of the Transvene 6936/6966 lead failure, and a five-center substudy estimated the survival probability for 521 Transvene 6936/6966 implants. The mean time to failure was 4.8 +/- 2.1 years, and the estimated survival at 60 and 84 months after implant were 92% and 84%, respectively. Oversensing was the most common sign of failure (76%), and 24 patients experienced inappropriate shocks. The manufacturer's reports indicated that high voltage coil fracture and 80A polyurethane defects were the predominant causes of lead failure. Transvene models 6936 and 6966 coaxial polyurethane ICD leads are prone to failure over time. Patients who have these leads should be evaluated frequently. Additional studies are needed to identify safe management strategies. PMID:12137338

  5. An updated review of implantable cardioverter/defibrillators, induced anxiety, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Bostwick, J Michael; Sola, Christopher L

    2007-12-01

    During the past 2 years the number of studies examining psychopathology and quality of life after ICD implantation has increased dramatically. Variables assessed have included recipient age, gender, and social support network. How recipients respond to having the device, particularly after experiencing firing, has been evaluated in light of new depression and anxiety disorder diagnoses as well as premorbid personality structure. Now the picture of what is known is, if anything, cloudier than it was 2 years ago, with little definitive and much contradictory data emerging in most of these categories. It still seems clear that in a significant minority of ICD recipients the device negatively affects quality of life, probably more so if it fires. Education about life with the device before receiving it remains paramount. Reports continue to appear of patients developing new-onset diagnosable anxiety disorders such as panic and posttraumatic stress disorder. Until recently the strongest predictors of induced psychopathology were considered to be the frequency and recency of device firing. It now seems that preimplantation psychologic variables such as degree of optimism or pessimism and an anxious personality style may confer an even greater risk than previously thought. Certainly many variables factor into the induction of psychopathology in these patients. Among these factors are age, gender, and perception of control of shocks, as well as the predictability of shocks and psychologic attributions made by the patient regarding the device. Another source of variability is this population's medical heterogeneity. Some patients receive ICDs after near-death experiences; others get them as anticipatory prophylaxis. Some have longstanding and entrenched heart disease; others were apparently healthy before sudden dangerous arrhythmias. Diagnoses as diverse as myocardial infarction in the context of advanced coronary artery disease and dilated cardiomyopathy after acute viral

  6. Estimating dose to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator outside the treatment fields using a skin QED diode, optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters, and LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters.

    PubMed

    Chan, Maria F; Song, Yulin; Dauer, Lawrence T; Li, Jingdong; Huang, David; Burman, Chandra

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the relative sensitivity of skin QED diodes, optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) (microStar™ DOT, Landauer), and LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as a function of distance from a photon beam field edge when applied to measure dose at out-of-field points. These detectors have been used to estimate radiation dose to patients' implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) located outside the treatment field. The ICDs have a thin outer case made of 0.4- to 0.6-mm-thick titanium (∼2.4-mm tissue equivalent). A 5-mm bolus, being the equivalent depth of the devices under the patient's skin, was placed over the ICDs. Response per unit absorbed dose-to-water was measured for each of the dosimeters with and without bolus on the beam central axis (CAX) and at a distance up to 20 cm from the CAX. Doses were measured with an ionization chamber at various depths for 6- and 15-MV x-rays on a Varian Clinac-iX linear accelerator. Relative sensitivity of the detectors was determined as the ratio of the sensitivity at each off-axis distance to that at the CAX. The detector sensitivity as a function of the distance from the field edge changed by ± 3% (1-11%) for LiF TLD-700, decreased by 10% (5-21%) for OSLD, and increased by 16% (11-19%) for the skin QED diode (Sun Nuclear Corp.) at the equivalent depth of 5 mm for 6- or 15-MV photon energies. Our results showed that the use of bolus with proper thickness (i.e., ∼d(max) of the photon energy) on the top of the ICD would reduce the scattered dose to a lower level. Dosimeters should be calibrated out-of-field and preferably with bolus equal in thickness to the depth of interest. This can be readily performed in clinic.

  7. Estimating dose to implantable cardioverter-defibrillator outside the treatment fields using a skin QED diode, optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters, and LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, Maria F.; Song, Yulin; Dauer, Lawrence T.; Li Jingdong; Huang, David; Burman, Chandra

    2012-10-01

    The purpose of this work was to determine the relative sensitivity of skin QED diodes, optically stimulated luminescent dosimeters (OSLDs) (microStar Trade-Mark-Sign DOT, Landauer), and LiF thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) as a function of distance from a photon beam field edge when applied to measure dose at out-of-field points. These detectors have been used to estimate radiation dose to patients' implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) located outside the treatment field. The ICDs have a thin outer case made of 0.4- to 0.6-mm-thick titanium ({approx}2.4-mm tissue equivalent). A 5-mm bolus, being the equivalent depth of the devices under the patient's skin, was placed over the ICDs. Response per unit absorbed dose-to-water was measured for each of the dosimeters with and without bolus on the beam central axis (CAX) and at a distance up to 20 cm from the CAX. Doses were measured with an ionization chamber at various depths for 6- and 15-MV x-rays on a Varian Clinac-iX linear accelerator. Relative sensitivity of the detectors was determined as the ratio of the sensitivity at each off-axis distance to that at the CAX. The detector sensitivity as a function of the distance from the field edge changed by {+-} 3% (1-11%) for LiF TLD-700, decreased by 10% (5-21%) for OSLD, and increased by 16% (11-19%) for the skin QED diode (Sun Nuclear Corp.) at the equivalent depth of 5 mm for 6- or 15-MV photon energies. Our results showed that the use of bolus with proper thickness (i.e., {approx}d{sub max} of the photon energy) on the top of the ICD would reduce the scattered dose to a lower level. Dosimeters should be calibrated out-of-field and preferably with bolus equal in thickness to the depth of interest. This can be readily performed in clinic.

  8. Acute perforation in spite of implantation with an "antiperforation" defibrillator lead.

    PubMed

    Chien, Walter W; Chin, John

    2009-12-01

    A 74-year-old male underwent implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator per multicenter automatic defibrillator trial two criteria. The new St. Jude Medical Riata STS Durata defibrillator lead (St. Jude Medical, Sylmar, CA, USA) was used. This lead has a slight curve at the right ventricle shock coil and a silicone tip designed to decrease tip pressure at the endocardium interface. We presented a case of acute perforation during implantation of this lead. The patient was treated with pericardiocentesis and recovered.

  9. Patient ECG recording control for an automatic implantable defibrillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fountain, Glen H. (Inventor); Lee, Jr., David G. (Inventor); Kitchin, David A. (Inventor)

    1986-01-01

    An implantable automatic defibrillator includes sensors which are placed on or near the patient's heart to detect electrical signals indicative of the physiology of the heart. The signals are digitally converted and stored into a FIFO region of a RAM by operation of a direct memory access (DMA) controller. The DMA controller operates transparently with respect to the microprocessor which is part of the defibrillator. The implantable defibrillator includes a telemetry communications circuit for sending data outbound from the defibrillator to an external device (either a patient controller or a physician's console or other) and a receiver for sensing at least an externally generated patient ECG recording command signal. The patient recording command signal is generated by the hand held patient controller. Upon detection of the patient ECG recording command, DMA copies the contents of the FIFO into a specific region of the RAM.

  10. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... How Does an ICD Work During ICD Surgery After ICD Surgery What Are the Risks Lifestyle Clinical Trials Links Related Topics Arrhythmia Heart Attack How the Heart Works Pacemakers Sudden Cardiac Arrest Send a link to NHLBI to ...

  11. Implantable cardioverter defibrillator - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Baddour LM, Epstein AE, Erickson CC, et al. Update on cardiovascular implantable electronic device infections and their management: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association. Circulation . ...

  12. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... under the skin. Like pacemakers , ICDs contain a generator containing a computer, battery, and wires called “leads” ... while the other end is connected to the generator. The battery in the generator lasts 5-8 ...

  13. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... food tips Heart attack - discharge Heart disease - risk factors Heart failure ... Division of Cardiology, Harborview Medical Center, University of Washington Medical School, Seattle, WA. Also reviewed ...

  14. [Shock-induced, but not terminated ventricular tachycardia in a patient with implantable defibrillator].

    PubMed

    Kühlkamp, V; Dörnberger, V; Mermi, J; Mewis, C; Seipel, L

    1996-05-01

    A 62-year-old male patient with coronary artery disease and drug refractory sustained ventricular tachycardia received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (PRX III, model 1720, CPI) with a transvenous lead system (Endotak, model 0115, CPI) in combination with a subcutaneous array electrode (SQ array, model 049, CPI). The intraoperative defibrillation threshold was 15 J and was confirmed 1 week later at the hospital discharge test. Three months after discharge from hospital the patient reported 5 shocks during moderate physical exertion followed by a tachycardia associated with dizziness which terminated spontaneously. The print out of the stored electrogram showed a supraventricular tachycardia (probably sinus tachycardia) with a heart rate of 154/min which activated the device. Antitachycardia pacing did not terminate the supraventricular tachycardia, and hence shock therapy was delivered. The first shock (34 J) converted the supraventricular tachycardia to a ventricular tachycardia with a heart rate of 178/min, which was not terminated by four consecutive 34 J DC shocks. There was no hint of a device or lead failure. Determination of the defibrillation threshold reconfirmed the 15 J value for termination of ventricular fibrillation. However, neither a 1 J shock nor a 34 J shock terminated a monomorphic sustained ventricular tachycardia (cycle length 340 ms) induced by noninvasive programmed electrical stimulation. The ventricular tachycardia was, however, reproducibly terminate by antitachycardia pacing. It is concluded that an inappropriate high-energy DC shock might induce a sustained ventricular tachycardia. However, a sufficient defibrillation threshold for the termination of ventricular fibrillation does not necessarily mean that a sustained ventricular tachycardia will be terminated by a high-energy DC shock.

  15. Manual for the psychotherapeutic treatment of acute and post-traumatic stress disorders following multiple shocks from implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)

    PubMed Central

    Jordan, Jochen; Titscher, Georg; Peregrinova, Ludmila; Kirsch, Holger

    2013-01-01

    Background: In view of the increasing number of implanted cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), the number of people suffering from so-called “multiple ICD shocks” is also increasing. The delivery of more than five shocks (appropriate or inappropriate) in 12 months or three or more shocks (so called multiple shocks) in a short time period (24 hours) leads to an increasing number of patients suffering from severe psychological distress (anxiety disorder, panic disorder, adjustment disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder). Untreated persons show chronic disease processes and a low rate of spontaneous remission and have an increased morbidity and mortality. Few papers have been published concerning the psychotherapeutic treatment for these patients. Objective: The aim of this study is to develop a psychotherapeutic treatment for patients with a post-traumatic stress disorder or adjustment disorder after multiple ICD shocks. Design: Explorative feasibility study: Treatment of 22 patients as a natural design without randomisation and without control group. The period of recruitment was three years, from March 2007 to March 2010. The study consisted of two phases: in the first phase (pilot study) we tested different components and dosages of psychotherapeutic treatments. The final intervention programme is presented in this paper. In the second phase (follow-up study) we assessed the residual post-traumatic stress symptoms in these ICD patients. The time between treatment and follow-up measurement was 12 to 30 months. Population: Thirty-one patients were assigned to the Department of Psychocardiology after multiple shocks. The sample consisted of 22 patients who had a post-traumatic stress disorder or an adjustment disorder and were willing and able to participate. They were invited for psychological treatment. 18 of them could be included into the follow-up study. Methods: After the clinical assessment at the beginning and at the end of the inpatient treatment a post

  16. Development of a hybrid battery system for an implantable biomedical device, especially a defibrillator/cardioverter (ICD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drews, Jürgen; Wolf, R.; Fehrmann, G.; Staub, R.

    An implantable defibrillator battery has to provide pulse power capabilities as well as high energy density. Low self-discharge rates are mandatory and a way to check the remaining available capacity is necessary. These requirements are accomplished by a system consisting of a lithium/manganese dioxide 6 V battery, plus a lithium/iodine-cell. The use of a high rate 6 V double-cell design in combination with a high energy density cell reduces the total volume required by the power source within an implantable defibrillator. The design features and performance data of the hybrid system are described.

  17. Mexiletine as an adjunctive therapy to amiodarone reduces the frequency of ventricular tachyarrhythmia events in patients with an implantable defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dongsheng; Van Herendael, Hugo; Alshengeiti, Lamia; Dorian, Paul; Mangat, Iqwal; Korley, Victoria; Ahmad, Kamran; Golovchiner, Gregory; Aves, Theresa; Pinter, Arnold

    2013-08-01

    The most effective pharmacological management of frequent ventricular tachyarrhythmia events in patients with an implantable defibrillator who failed or did not tolerate amiodarone is unknown. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess the efficacy and tolerability of mexiletine in such patients. The patients served as self-controls. The number of treated ventricular tachyarrhythmia episodes (primary outcome); mortality, shocks from the defibrillator, and electrical storm events (secondary outcomes) during mexiletine therapy was compared with a matched duration of observation just before initiating mexiletine in 29 patients who were treated with a median dose of 300 mg/d of mexiletine and were followed for a median of 12 months. None of the patients had to stop mexiletine due to side effect. There was a significant reduction in the incidence of ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation episodes (median 2 vs. 12 events, P = 0.001) and shocks (median 0 vs. 2 events, P = 0.003) in the first 3 months of treatment, but long-term efficacy was only observed among patients who continued amiodarone therapy. In conclusion, mexiletine, when added to amiodarone in case of amiodarone inefficacy, reduces ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation events and appropriate therapies in patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. A randomized trial should validate the efficacy and safety of mexiletine as an adjunctive therapy to amiodarone. PMID:23609328

  18. Elderly Benefit from Using Implantable Defibrillators

    MedlinePlus

    ... org Learn More Elderly benefit from using implantable defibrillators June 17, 2013 Categories: Heart News Study Highlights: Older people may benefit from implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) as much as younger people. Overall health, ...

  19. Runaway implantable defibrillator--a rare complication of radiation therapy.

    PubMed

    Nemec, Jan

    2007-05-01

    A case of a patient with runaway implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) due to radiation therapy of a lung cancer is reported. This manifested as poorly tolerated wide complex tachycardia due to inappropriate rapid ventricular pacing, The event terminated with polymorphic VT, which inhibited pacing and ceased spontaneously before ICD discharge. The likely cause was corruption of device random access memory by ionizing radiation.

  20. Rationale and design of a prospective study of the efficacy of a remote monitoring system used in implantable cardioverter defibrillator follow-up: the Lumos-T Reduces Routine Office Device Follow-Up Study (TRUST) study.

    PubMed

    Varma, Niraj

    2007-12-01

    Increased implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implant volumes (and product advisories/recalls) pose management challenges. Most device interrogations at 3- to 6-month routine follow-up visits are "nonactionable," that is, require no clinically significant reprogramming, lead revision, or initiation or up-titration of antiarrhythmic medications. Conversely, implanted devices collect important diagnostic data (eg, atrial fibrillation onset, system integrity) that remain concealed between device interrogations. Remote monitoring may resolve some of these challenges, but has not been studied in a large-scale clinical trial. Home Monitoring (HM) uses automatic (without patient intervention) data and electrogram transmissions with rapid (<24 hours) event notification of significant (including silent) events. The Lumos-T Reduces Routine Office Device Follow-Up Study (TRUST) is a multicenter, prospective, randomized study enrolling 1000 ICD patients designed to test whether HM can safely reduce the number of scheduled nonactionable office device interrogations by 50% and provide early detection and notification of cardiac and/or device problems. After enrollment, TRUST patients are randomized 2:1 to either HM or to control (ie, HM off) arms and are seen for an in-office follow-up 3 months postimplant. At subsequent 3-month intervals, control patients have conventional office visits, whereas in HM, patient data are remotely retrieved and evaluated. In HM patients, early notification may automatically occur between periodic checks for compromised system integrity (battery, lead parameters, high-voltage circuitry) or arrhythmia occurrence (eg, atrial fibrillation, ventricular arrhythmia). All study patients will have a final office visit 15 months after implant. The results of TRUST may confirm the role of remote monitoring as an intensive surveillance mechanism for device management. PMID:18035071

  1. [Magnets, pacemaker and defibrillator: fatal attraction?].

    PubMed

    Bergamin, C; Graf, D

    2015-05-27

    This article aims at clarifying the effects of a clinical magnet on pacemakers and Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators. The effects of electromagnetic interferences on such devices, including interferences linked to electrosurgery and magnetic resonance imaging are also discussed. In general, a magnet provokes a distinctive effect on a pacemaker by converting it into an asynchronous mode of pacing, and on an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator by suspending its own antitachyarythmia therapies without affecting the pacing. In the operating room, the magnet has to be used cautiously with precisely defined protocols which respect the type of the device used, the type of intervention planned, the presence or absence of EMI and the pacing-dependency of the patient.

  2. Electrical storm in patients with an implanted defibrillator: a matter of definition.

    PubMed

    Israel, Carsten W; Barold, S Serge

    2007-10-01

    The term "electrical storm" (ES) indicates a state of cardiac electrical instability manifested by several episodes of ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTs) within a short time. In patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), ES is best defined as 3 appropriate VT detections in 24 h, treated by antitachycardia pacing, shock or eventually untreated but sustained in a VT monitoring zone. The number of shocks and inappropriate detections are irrelevant for the definition. ES occurs in approximately 25% of ICD patients within 3 years, with typically 5-55 individual VTs within one storm. Potential triggers can be found in approximately 66% of patients and include new/worsened heart failure, changes in antiarrhythmic medication, context with other illness, psychological stress, diarrhea, and hypokalemia. In most patients, ES consists of monomorphic VT indicating the presence of reentry while ventricular fibrillation indicating acute ischemia is rare. ES seems to have a low immediate mortality (1%) but frequently (50-80%) leads to hospitalization. Long-term prognostic implications of ES are unclear. The key intervention in ES is reduction of the elevated sympathetic tone by beta blockers and frequently benzodiazepines. Amiodarone i.v. has also been successful and azimilide seems promising while class I antiarrhythmic drugs are usually unsuccessful. Substrate mapping and VT ablation may be useful in treatment and prevention of ES. Prevention of ES requires ICD programming systematically avoiding unnecessary shocks (long VT detection, antitachycardia pacing where ever possible) which otherwise can fuel the sympathetic tone and prolong ES.

  3. Disease management: remote monitoring in heart failure patients with implantable defibrillators, resynchronization devices, and haemodynamic monitors.

    PubMed

    Abraham, William T

    2013-06-01

    Heart failure represents a major public health concern, associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. A particular focus of contemporary heart failure management is reduction of hospital admission and readmission rates. While optimal medical therapy favourably impacts the natural history of the disease, devices such as cardiac resynchronization therapy devices and implantable cardioverter defibrillators have added incremental value in improving heart failure outcomes. These devices also enable remote patient monitoring via device-based diagnostics. Device-based measurement of physiological parameters, such as intrathoracic impedance and heart rate variability, provide a means to assess risk of worsening heart failure and the possibility of future hospitalization. Beyond this capability, implantable haemodynamic monitors have the potential to direct day-to-day management of heart failure patients to significantly reduce hospitalization rates. The use of a pulmonary artery pressure measurement system has been shown to significantly reduce the risk of heart failure hospitalization in a large randomized controlled study, the CardioMEMS Heart Sensor Allows Monitoring of Pressure to Improve Outcomes in NYHA Class III Heart Failure Patients (CHAMPION) trial. Observations from a pilot study also support the potential use of a left atrial pressure monitoring system and physician-directed patient self-management paradigm; these observations are under further investigation in the ongoing LAPTOP-HF trial. All these devices depend upon high-intensity remote monitoring for successful detection of parameter deviations and for directing and following therapy.

  4. Utilization and likelihood of radiologic diagnostic imaging in patients with implantable cardiac defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Matthew R.; Ryan, Michael P.; Wolff, Steven D.; Mollenkopf, Sarah A.; Turakhia, Mintu P.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To examine imaging utilization in a matched cohort of patients with and without implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) and to project magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) utilization over a 10‐year period. Materials and Methods The Truven Health MarketScan Commercial claims and Medicare Supplemental health insurance claims data were used to identify patients with continuous health plan enrollment in 2009–2012. Patients with ICDs were identified using ICD‐9 and CPT codes, and matched to patients with the same demographic and comorbidity profile, but no record of device implantation. Diagnostic imaging utilization was compared across the matched cohorts, in total, by imaging categories, and in subpopulations of stroke, back pain, and joint pain. MRI use in the nonimplant group over the 4‐year period was extrapolated out to 10 years for ICD‐indicated patients. Results A cohort of 18,770 matched patients were identified; average age 65.5 ± 13.38 and 21.9% female. ICD patients had significantly less MRI imaging (0.23 0.70 SD vs. 0.00 0.08 SD, P < 0.0001) than nonimplant patients. Among patients with records of stroke/transient ischemic attack (TIA) (ICD 5%, nonimplant 4%) and accompanying diagnostic imaging, 44% of nonimplant patients underwent MRI vs. 1% of ICD patients (P < 0.0001). Forecast models estimated that 53% to 64% of ICD‐eligible patients may require an MRI within 10 years. Conclusion MRI utilization is lower in ICD patients compared to nonimplant patients, yet the burden of incident stroke/TIA, back, and joint pain suggests an unmet need for MR‐conditional devices. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2016;43:115–127. PMID:26118943

  5. A patch in the pectoral position lowers defibrillation threshold.

    PubMed

    Karasik, P; Solomon, A; Verdino, R; Moore, H; Rodak, D; Hannan, R; Fletcher, R

    1997-06-01

    Implantable pacemaker cardioverter defibrillators are now available with biphasic waveforms, which have been shown to markedly improve defibrillation thresholds (DFTs). However, in a number of patients the DFT remains high. Also, DFT may increase after implantation, especially if antiarrhythmic drugs are added. We report on the use of a subcutaneous patch in the pectoral position in 15 patients receiving a transvenous defibrillator as a method of easily reducing the DFT. A 660-mm2 patch electrode was placed beneath the generator in a pocket created on the pectoral fascia. The energy required for defibrillation was lowered by 56% on average, and the system impedance was lowered by a mean of 25%. This maneuver allowed all patients to undergo a successful implant with adequate safety margin.

  6. Enhanced detection criteria in implantable cardioverter defibrillators: sensitivity and specificity of the stability algorithm at different heart rates.

    PubMed

    Kettering, K; Dörnberger, V; Lang, R; Vonthein, R; Suchalla, R; Bosch, R F; Mewis, C; Eigenberger, B; Kühlkamp, V

    2001-09-01

    The lack of specificity in the detection of ventricular tachyarrhythmias remains a major clinical problem in the therapy with ICDs. The stability criterion has been shown to be useful in discriminating ventricular tachyarrhythmias characterized by a small variation in cycle lengths from AF with rapid ventricular response presenting a higher degree of variability of RR intervals. But RR variability decreases with increasing heart rate during AF. Therefore, the aim of the study was to determine if the sensitivity and specificity of the STABILITY algorithm for spontaneous tachyarrhythmias is related to ventricular rate. Forty-two patients who had received an ICD (CPI Ventak Mini I, II, III or Ventak AV) were enrolled in the study. Two hundred ninety-eight episodes of AF with rapid ventricular response and 817 episodes of ventricular tachyarrhythmias were analyzed. Sensitivity and specificity in the detection of ventricular tachyarrhythmias were calculated at different heart rates. When a stability value of 30 ms was programmed the result was a sensitivity of 82.7% and a specificity of 91.4% in the detection of slow ventricular tachyarrhythmias (heart rate < 150 beats/min). When faster ventricular tachyarrhythmias with rates between 150 and 169 beats/min (170-189 beats/min) were analyzed, a stability value of 30 ms provided a sensitivity of 94.5% (94.7%) and a specificity of 76.5% (54.0%). For arrhythmia episodes > or = 190 beats/min, the same stability value resulted in a sensitivity of 78.2% and a specificity of 41.0%. Even when other stability values were taken into consideration, no acceptable sensitivity/specificity values could be obtained in this subgroup. RR variability decreases with increasing heart rate during AF while RR variability remains almost constant at different cycle lengths during ventricular tachyarrhythmias. Thus, acceptable performance of the STABILITY algorithm appears to be limited to ventricular rate zones < 170 beats/min.

  7. Subcutaneous Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... discriminator functions and lacks antitachycardia pacing. Expanded Programmability Programming that allows lower shock energies and the ability ... the original device and placed in a new one. Postprocedural hospitalization is occasionally needed. Replacement procedures can ...

  8. Defibrillator analyzers.

    PubMed

    1999-12-01

    Defibrillator analyzers automate the inspection and preventive maintenance (IPM) testing of defibrillators. They need to be able to test at least four basic defibrillator performance characteristics: discharge energy, synchronized-mode operation, automated external defibrillation, and ECG monitoring. We prefer that they also be able to test a defibrillator's external noninvasive pacing function--but this is not essential if a facility already has a pacemaker analyzer that can perform this testing. In this Evaluation, we tested seven defibrillator analyzers from six suppliers. All seven units accurately measure the energies of a variety of discharge wave-forms over a wide range of energy levels--from 1 J for use in a neonatal intensive care unit to 360 J for use on adult patients requiring maximum discharge energy. Most of the analyzers are easy to use. However, only three of the evaluated units could perform the full range of defibrillator tests that we prefer. We rated these units Acceptable--Preferred. Three more units could perform four of the five tests, they could not test the pacing feature of a defibrillator. These units were rated Acceptable. The seventh unit could perform only discharge energy testing and synchronized-mode testing and was difficult to use. We rate that unit Acceptable--Not Recommended. PMID:10604089

  9. Electrical storm of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia after a cardiac-resynchronization-therapy-defibrillator upgrade.

    PubMed

    Kantharia, Bharat K; Patel, Jigar A; Nagra, Bipinpreet S; Ledley, Gary S

    2006-08-01

    In patients with significant left ventricular dysfunction and congestive heart failure despite optimal medical therapy, implantation of cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillation (CRT-D) devices has been shown to improve symptoms and mortality. In this report, we describe a case of a patient with ischaemic cardiomyopathy who developed incessant ventricular tachycardia (VT) after undergoing an upgrade from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator to a CRT-D device. The patient required multiple anti-arrhythmic agents, removal of the coronary sinus lead, and radiofrequency ablation to control VT. Thus, in rare patients, the CRT devices may potentially cause 'proarrhythmia' with serious consequences.

  10. Impact of expanding indications on the safety of pacemakers and defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Maisel, William H

    2003-01-01

    The number of patients living with a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) increased markedly during the 1990's. Expanding device indications and increasing device sophistication has important implications for patient and device safety. While the FDA is responsible for assessing the safety and efficacy of medical devices, manufacturers, physicians, patients, medical professional societies, and legislators will all play a role in ensuring that medical device patients continue to receive safe, quality medical care. PMID:12766513

  11. Management of radiation therapy patients with cardiac defibrillator or pacemaker.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Francesca; Gomellini, Sara; Caruso, Cristina; Barbara, Raffaele; Musio, Daniela; Coppi, Tamara; Cardinale, Mario; Tombolini, Vincenzo; de Paula, Ugo

    2016-06-01

    The increasing growth of population with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) such as Pacemaker (PM) and Implantable Cardiac Defibrillators (ICD), requires particular attention in management of patients needing radiation treatment. This paper updates and summarizes some recommendations from different international guidelines. Ionizing radiation and/or electromagnetic interferences could cause device failure. Current approaches to treatment in patients who have these devices vary among radiation oncology centres. We refer to the German Society of Radiation Oncology and Cardiology guidelines (ed. 2015); to the Society of Cardiology Australia and New Zealand Statement (ed. 2015); to the guidelines in force in the Netherlands (ed. 2012) and to the Italian Association of Radiation Oncology recommendations (ed. 2013) as reported in the guidelines for the treatment of breast cancer in patients with CIED. Although there is not a clear cut-off point, risk of device failure increases with increasing doses. Cumulative dose and pacing dependency have been combined to categorize patients into low-, medium- and high-risk groups. Measures to secure patient safety are described for each category. The use of energy ≤6MV is preferable and it's strongly recommended not to exceed a total dose of 2 Gy to the PM and 1 Gy for ICD. Given the dangers of device malfunction, radiation oncology departments should adopt all the measures designed to minimize the risk to patients. For this reason, a close collaboration between cardiologist, radiotherapist and physicist is necessary. PMID:26706454

  12. Management of radiation therapy patients with cardiac defibrillator or pacemaker.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Francesca; Gomellini, Sara; Caruso, Cristina; Barbara, Raffaele; Musio, Daniela; Coppi, Tamara; Cardinale, Mario; Tombolini, Vincenzo; de Paula, Ugo

    2016-06-01

    The increasing growth of population with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) such as Pacemaker (PM) and Implantable Cardiac Defibrillators (ICD), requires particular attention in management of patients needing radiation treatment. This paper updates and summarizes some recommendations from different international guidelines. Ionizing radiation and/or electromagnetic interferences could cause device failure. Current approaches to treatment in patients who have these devices vary among radiation oncology centres. We refer to the German Society of Radiation Oncology and Cardiology guidelines (ed. 2015); to the Society of Cardiology Australia and New Zealand Statement (ed. 2015); to the guidelines in force in the Netherlands (ed. 2012) and to the Italian Association of Radiation Oncology recommendations (ed. 2013) as reported in the guidelines for the treatment of breast cancer in patients with CIED. Although there is not a clear cut-off point, risk of device failure increases with increasing doses. Cumulative dose and pacing dependency have been combined to categorize patients into low-, medium- and high-risk groups. Measures to secure patient safety are described for each category. The use of energy ≤6MV is preferable and it's strongly recommended not to exceed a total dose of 2 Gy to the PM and 1 Gy for ICD. Given the dangers of device malfunction, radiation oncology departments should adopt all the measures designed to minimize the risk to patients. For this reason, a close collaboration between cardiologist, radiotherapist and physicist is necessary.

  13. A study to improve communication between clinicians and patients with advanced heart failure: methods and challenges behind the working to improve discussions about defibrillator management trial.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Nathan E; Kalman, Jill; Kutner, Jean S; Fromme, Erik K; Hutchinson, Mathew D; Lipman, Hannah I; Matlock, Daniel D; Swetz, Keith M; Lampert, Rachel; Herasme, Omarys; Morrison, R Sean

    2014-12-01

    We report the challenges of the Working to Improve Discussions About Defibrillator Management trial, our novel, multicenter trial aimed at improving communication between cardiology clinicians and their patients with advanced heart failure (HF) who have implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). The study objectives are (1) to increase ICD deactivation conversations, (2) to increase the number of ICDs deactivated, and (3) to improve psychological outcomes in bereaved caregivers. The unit of randomization is the hospital, the intervention is aimed at HF clinicians, and the patient and caregiver are the units of analysis. Three hospitals were randomized to usual care and three to intervention. The intervention consists of an interactive educational session, clinician reminders, and individualized feedback. We enroll patients with advanced HF and their caregivers, and then we regularly survey them to evaluate whether the intervention has improved communication between them and their HF providers. We encountered three implementation barriers. First, there were institutional review board concerns at two sites because of the palliative nature of the study. Second, we had difficulty in creating entry criteria that accurately identified an HF population at high risk of dying. Third, we had to adapt our entry criteria to the changing landscape of ventricular assist devices and cardiac transplant eligibility. Here we present our novel solutions to the difficulties we encountered. Our work has the ability to enhance conduct of future studies focusing on improving care for patients with advanced illness.

  14. Coping with Trauma and Stressful Events As a Patient with an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... 29, 2013 Jessica Ford From the Departments of Psychology (J.F., S.F.S.) and Department of Cardiovascular Sciences (S. ... site Samuel F. Sears From the Departments of Psychology (J.F., S.F.S.) and Department of Cardiovascular Sciences (S. ...

  15. Implantable Defibrillators for Secondary Prevention of Sudden Cardiac Death in Cardiac Surgery Patients With Perioperative Ventricular Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Nageh, Maged F.; Kim, John J.; Chen, Lie‐Hong; Yao, Janis F.

    2014-01-01

    Background Randomized studies of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) have excluded sudden cardiac death survivors who had revascularization before or after an arrhythmic event. To evaluate the role of ICD and the effects of clinical variables including degree of revascularization, we studied cardiac surgery patients who had an ICD implanted for sustained perioperative ventricular arrhythmias. Methods and Results The electronic database for Southern California Kaiser Foundation hospitals was searched for patients who had cardiac surgery between 1999 and 2005 and an ICD implanted within 3 months of surgery. One hundred sixty‐four patients were identified; 93/164 had an ICD for sustained pre‐ or postoperative ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation requiring resuscitation. Records were reviewed for the following: presenting arrhythmia, ejection fraction, and degree of revascularization. The primary end point was total mortality (TM) and/or appropriate ICD therapy (ICD‐T), and secondary end points are TM and ICD‐T. During the mean follow up of 49 months, the primary endpoint of TM+ICD‐T and individual end points of TM and ICD‐T were observed in 52 (56%), 35 (38%), and 28 (30%) patients, respectively, with 55% of TM, and 23% of ICD‐T occurring within 2 years of implant. In multivariate risk analysis, none of the following was associated with any of the end points: incomplete revascularization, presenting ventricular arrhythmia, and timing of arrhythmias. Conclusion Our data supports the recent guidelines for ICD in this cohort of patients, as the presence of irreversible substrate and triggers of ventricular arrhythmias, cannot be reliably excluded even with complete revascularization. Further studies are needed to understand this complex group of patients. PMID:25146702

  16. Towards Low Energy Atrial Defibrillation.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Philip; Kodoth, Vivek; McEneaney, David; Rodrigues, Paola; Velasquez, Jose; Waterman, Niall; Escalona, Omar

    2015-01-01

    A wireless powered implantable atrial defibrillator consisting of a battery driven hand-held radio frequency (RF) power transmitter (ex vivo) and a passive (battery free) implantable power receiver (in vivo) that enables measurement of the intracardiac impedance (ICI) during internal atrial defibrillation is reported. The architecture is designed to operate in two modes: Cardiac sense mode (power-up, measure the impedance of the cardiac substrate and communicate data to the ex vivo power transmitter) and cardiac shock mode (delivery of a synchronised very low tilt rectilinear electrical shock waveform). An initial prototype was implemented and tested. In low-power (sense) mode, >5 W was delivered across a 2.5 cm air-skin gap to facilitate measurement of the impedance of the cardiac substrate. In high-power (shock) mode, >180 W (delivered as a 12 ms monophasic very-low-tilt-rectilinear (M-VLTR) or as a 12 ms biphasic very-low-tilt-rectilinear (B-VLTR) chronosymmetric (6ms/6ms) amplitude asymmetric (negative phase at 50% magnitude) shock was reliably and repeatedly delivered across the same interface; with >47% DC-to-DC (direct current to direct current) power transfer efficiency at a switching frequency of 185 kHz achieved. In an initial trial of the RF architecture developed, 30 patients with AF were randomised to therapy with an RF generated M-VLTR or B-VLTR shock using a step-up voltage protocol (50-300 V). Mean energy for successful cardioversion was 8.51 J ± 3.16 J. Subsequent analysis revealed that all patients who cardioverted exhibited a significant decrease in ICI between the first and third shocks (5.00 Ω (SD(σ) = 1.62 Ω), p < 0.01) while spectral analysis across frequency also revealed a significant variation in the impedance-amplitude-spectrum-area (IAMSA) within the same patient group (|∆(IAMSAS1-IAMSAS3)[1 Hz - 20 kHz] = 20.82 Ω-Hz (SD(σ) = 10.77 Ω-Hz), p < 0.01); both trends being absent in all patients that failed to cardiovert. Efficient

  17. Towards Low Energy Atrial Defibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Philip; Kodoth, Vivek; McEneaney, David; Rodrigues, Paola; Velasquez, Jose; Waterman, Niall; Escalona, Omar

    2015-01-01

    A wireless powered implantable atrial defibrillator consisting of a battery driven hand-held radio frequency (RF) power transmitter (ex vivo) and a passive (battery free) implantable power receiver (in vivo) that enables measurement of the intracardiacimpedance (ICI) during internal atrial defibrillation is reported. The architecture is designed to operate in two modes: Cardiac sense mode (power-up, measure the impedance of the cardiac substrate and communicate data to the ex vivo power transmitter) and cardiac shock mode (delivery of a synchronised very low tilt rectilinear electrical shock waveform). An initial prototype was implemented and tested. In low-power (sense) mode, >5 W was delivered across a 2.5 cm air-skin gap to facilitate measurement of the impedance of the cardiac substrate. In high-power (shock) mode, >180 W (delivered as a 12 ms monophasic very-low-tilt-rectilinear (M-VLTR) or as a 12 ms biphasic very-low-tilt-rectilinear (B-VLTR) chronosymmetric (6ms/6ms) amplitude asymmetric (negative phase at 50% magnitude) shock was reliably and repeatedly delivered across the same interface; with >47% DC-to-DC (direct current to direct current) power transfer efficiency at a switching frequency of 185 kHz achieved. In an initial trial of the RF architecture developed, 30 patients with AF were randomised to therapy with an RF generated M-VLTR or B-VLTR shock using a step-up voltage protocol (50–300 V). Mean energy for successful cardioversion was 8.51 J ± 3.16 J. Subsequent analysis revealed that all patients who cardioverted exhibited a significant decrease in ICI between the first and third shocks (5.00 Ω (SD(σ) = 1.62 Ω), p < 0.01) while spectral analysis across frequency also revealed a significant variation in the impedance-amplitude-spectrum-area (IAMSA) within the same patient group (|∆(IAMSAS1-IAMSAS3)[1 Hz − 20 kHz] = 20.82 Ω-Hz (SD(σ) = 10.77 Ω-Hz), p < 0.01); both trends being absent in all patients that failed to cardiovert. Efficient

  18. T-wave alternans negative coronary patients with low ejection and benefit from defibrillator implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohnloser, S. H.; Ikeda, T.; Bloomfield, D. M.; Dabbous, O. H.; Cohen, R. J.

    2003-01-01

    In a trial of prophylactic implantation of a defibrillator, a mortality benefit was seen among patients with previous myocardial infarction and a left-ventricular ejection fraction of 0.30 or less. We identified 129 similar patients from two previously published clinical trials in which microvolt T-wave alternans testing was prospectively assessed. At 24 months of follow-up, no sudden cardiac death or cardiac arrest was seen among patients who tested T-wave alternans negative, compared with an event rate of 15.6% among the remaining patients. Testing of T-wave alternans seems to identify patients who are at low risk of ventricular tachyarrhythmic event and who may not benefit from defibrillator therapy.

  19. Automated external defibrillators (AEDs).

    PubMed

    2003-06-01

    Automated external defibrillators, or AEDs, will automatically analyze a patient's ECG and, if needed, deliver a defibrillating shock to the heart. We sometimes refer to these devices as AED-only devices or stand-alone AEDs. The basic function of AEDs is similar to that of defibrillator/monitors, but AEDs lack their advanced capabilities and generally don't allow manual defibrillation. A device that functions strictly as an AED is intended to be used by basic users only. Such devices are often referred to as public access defibrillators. In this Evaluation, we present our findings for a newly evaluated model, the Zoll AED Plus. We also summarize our findings for the previously evaluated model that is still on the market and describe other AEDs that are also available but that we haven't evaluated. We rate the models collectively for first-responder use and public access defibrillation (PAD) applications.

  20. Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator Lead Failure and Management.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, Charles D; Kalahasty, Gautham; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2016-03-22

    The implantable-cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) lead is the most vulnerable component of the ICD system. Despite advanced engineering design, sophisticated manufacturing techniques, and extensive bench, pre-clinical, and clinical testing, lead failure (LF) remains the Achilles' heel of the ICD system. ICD LF has a broad range of adverse outcomes, ranging from intermittent inappropriate pacing to proarrhythmia leading to patient mortality. ICD LF is often considered in the context of design or construction defects, but is more appropriately considered in the context of the finite service life of a mechanical component placed in chemically stressful environment and subjected to continuous mechanical stresses. This clinical review summarizes LF mechanisms, assessment, and differential diagnosis of LF, including lead diagnostics, recent prominent lead recalls, and management of LF and functioning, but recalled leads. Despite recent advances in lead technology, physicians will likely continue to need to understand how to manage patients with transvenous ICD leads. PMID:26988958

  1. Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator Lead Failure and Management.

    PubMed

    Swerdlow, Charles D; Kalahasty, Gautham; Ellenbogen, Kenneth A

    2016-03-22

    The implantable-cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) lead is the most vulnerable component of the ICD system. Despite advanced engineering design, sophisticated manufacturing techniques, and extensive bench, pre-clinical, and clinical testing, lead failure (LF) remains the Achilles' heel of the ICD system. ICD LF has a broad range of adverse outcomes, ranging from intermittent inappropriate pacing to proarrhythmia leading to patient mortality. ICD LF is often considered in the context of design or construction defects, but is more appropriately considered in the context of the finite service life of a mechanical component placed in chemically stressful environment and subjected to continuous mechanical stresses. This clinical review summarizes LF mechanisms, assessment, and differential diagnosis of LF, including lead diagnostics, recent prominent lead recalls, and management of LF and functioning, but recalled leads. Despite recent advances in lead technology, physicians will likely continue to need to understand how to manage patients with transvenous ICD leads.

  2. A Study to Improve Communication Between Clinicians and Patients With Advanced Heart Failure: Methods and Challenges Behind the Working to Improve diScussions about DefibrillatOr Management (WISDOM) Trial

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Nathan E.; Kalman, Jill; Kutner, Jean S.; Fromme, Erik K.; Hutchinson, Mathew D.; Lipman, Hannah I.; Matlock, Daniel D.; Swetz, Keith M.; Lampert, Rachel; Herasme, Omarys; Morrison, R. Sean

    2014-01-01

    We report the challenges of the Working to Improve diScussions about DefibrillatOr Management (WISDOM) Trial, our novel, multicenter trial aimed at improving communication between cardiology clinicians and their patients with advanced heart failure (HF) who have implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs). The study objectives are to: 1) increase ICD deactivation conversations; 2) increase the number of ICDs deactivated; and 3) improve psychological outcomes in bereaved caregivers. The unit of randomization is the hospital, the intervention is aimed at HF clinicians, and the patient and caregiver are the units of analysis. Three hospitals were randomized to usual care and three to intervention. The intervention consists of an interactive educational session, clinician reminders, and individualized feedback. We enroll patients with advanced HF and their caregivers, and then we regularly survey them to evaluate whether the intervention has improved communication between them and their heart failure providers. We encountered three implementation barriers. First, there were Institutional Review Board (IRB) concerns at two sites because of the palliative nature of the study. Second, we had difficulty in creating entry criteria that accurately identified a HF population at high risk of dying. Third, we had to adapt our entry criteria to the changing landscape of ventricular assist devices and cardiac transplant eligibility. Here we present our novel solutions to the difficulties we encountered. Our work has the ability to enhance conduct of future studies focusing on improving care for patients with advanced illness. PMID:24768595

  3. Incidence of ineffective safety margin testing (<10 J) and efficacy of routine subcutaneous array insertion during implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation.

    PubMed

    Ohlow, Marc-Alexander; Roos, Marcus; Lauer, Bernward; Geller, J Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess (1) the incidence of safety margin testing <10 J (SMT) and (2) the efficacy/safety of routinely adding a subcutaneous array (SQA) (Medtronic 6996SQ) for these patients. Patients with SMT smaller than a 10-J safety margin from maximum output were considered to have very high readings and underwent SQA insertion. These patients were compared with the rest of the patients who had acceptable SMT (≥10 J). A total of 616 patients underwent ICD implantation during the analysis period. Of those, 16 (2.6%) had SMT <10 J. By univariate analysis, younger age, and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, were all significant predictors of SMT <10 J (p < 0.05). In all 16 cases, other methods to improve SMT prior to array insertion were attempted but failed for all patients: reversing shock polarity (n = 15), removing the superior vena cava coil (n = 14), reprogramming shock waveform (n = 9), and repositioning right ventricular lead (n = 9). Addition of the SQA successfully increased SMT to within safety margin for all patients (32 ± 2 versus 21 ± 3 J; p < 0.001). Follow-up (mean 48.1 ± 21 months) was available for all patients with SQA, only 2 cases with inappropriate shocks due to atrial fibrillation had to be noted. None of the patients experienced complications due to SQA implantation. SMT <10 J occur in about 2.6% of patients undergoing ICD implantation. SQA insertion corrects this problem without procedural/mid-term complications.

  4. Incidence of ineffective safety margin testing (<10 J) and efficacy of routine subcutaneous array insertion during implantable cardioverter defibrillator implantation.

    PubMed

    Ohlow, Marc-Alexander; Roos, Marcus; Lauer, Bernward; Geller, J Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess (1) the incidence of safety margin testing <10 J (SMT) and (2) the efficacy/safety of routinely adding a subcutaneous array (SQA) (Medtronic 6996SQ) for these patients. Patients with SMT smaller than a 10-J safety margin from maximum output were considered to have very high readings and underwent SQA insertion. These patients were compared with the rest of the patients who had acceptable SMT (≥10 J). A total of 616 patients underwent ICD implantation during the analysis period. Of those, 16 (2.6%) had SMT <10 J. By univariate analysis, younger age, and non-ischemic cardiomyopathy, were all significant predictors of SMT <10 J (p < 0.05). In all 16 cases, other methods to improve SMT prior to array insertion were attempted but failed for all patients: reversing shock polarity (n = 15), removing the superior vena cava coil (n = 14), reprogramming shock waveform (n = 9), and repositioning right ventricular lead (n = 9). Addition of the SQA successfully increased SMT to within safety margin for all patients (32 ± 2 versus 21 ± 3 J; p < 0.001). Follow-up (mean 48.1 ± 21 months) was available for all patients with SQA, only 2 cases with inappropriate shocks due to atrial fibrillation had to be noted. None of the patients experienced complications due to SQA implantation. SMT <10 J occur in about 2.6% of patients undergoing ICD implantation. SQA insertion corrects this problem without procedural/mid-term complications. PMID:27676160

  5. Overreaction to noncompaction in a patient with ankylosing spondylitis, Parkinson disease, migraine and myopathy.

    PubMed

    Stöllberger, Claudia; Stix, Alexander; Finsterer, Josef

    2011-07-01

    A patient with ankylosing spondylitis, migraine, Parkinson syndrome, renal insufficiency and myopathy, received an implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator because of asymptomatic left ventricular hypertrabeculation/noncompaction as primary prophylaxis against sudden cardiac death. Inadvertently the ventricular lead was placed in a cardiac vein, the patient suffered from pericardial effusion and it was impossible to remove the lead. Implantation of an implantable-cardioverter-defibrillator simply upon the presence of LVHT appears not justified and may be more harmful than beneficial. Studies about the risk of SCD in adults with LVHT are necessary and will hopefully clarify if primary prevention of SCD is indicated.

  6. Interference from a hand held radiofrequency remote control causing discharge of an implantable defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Man, K C; Davidson, T; Langberg, J J; Morady, F; Kalbfleisch, S J

    1993-08-01

    A 46-year-old man with a history of sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia underwent an implantation of a third generation multiprogrammable implantable cardioverter defibrillator. One year post implant, while manipulating a remote control to a radiofrequency modulated toy car, the patient experienced a defibrillator discharge not preceded by an arrhythmia prodrome. Subsequent interrogation of the defibrillator revealed that a 34-joule shock had been delivered and had been preceded by RR intervals ranging from 141-406 msec, consistent with sensing lead noise. The remote control utilizes a 12-volt battery and has a carrier frequency of 75.95 MHz and a modulating frequency of 50 Hz. Evaluation of the remote control and defibrillator interaction revealed that the remote control was able to trigger tachyarrhythmia sensing and reproduce the clinical episode. Interference was present only when the remote control was within 8 cm of the pulse generator and at specific angles relative to the device and only when the antenna length was > 45 cm. Interference was eliminated when a ground wire was attached to the antenna and when an aluminium shield was placed between the pulse generator and the remote control. This case report suggests that patients with third generation multiprogrammable defibrillators should be cautioned against close contact with potential sources of electromagnetic interference, such as remote control units.

  7. Who Needs an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator?

    MedlinePlus

    ... would make one likely) on the following tests. EKG (Electrocardiogram) An EKG is a simple, painless test that detects and ... beating and its rhythm (steady or irregular). An EKG also records the strength and timing of electrical ...

  8. Cardioverter-Defibrillator: A Treatment for Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... phone, and has two main parts: a pulse generator and one or more leads. The pulse generator constantly keeps track of your heartbeat. It’s like ... say: "leed") is a wire from the pulse generator to the inside of your heart. The lead ...

  9. [The clinical practice guidelines of the Sociedad Española de Cardiología on the automatic implantable defibrillator].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Villacastín, J; Carmona Salinas, J R; Hernández Madrid, A; Marín Huerta, E; Merino Llorens, J L; Ormaetxe Merodio, J; Moya i Mitjans, A

    1999-12-01

    Since the first implantation in man in 1980 implantable cardioverter defibrillator technology has greatly improved and the number of devices implanted has increased considerably every year. Non thoracotomy lead systems and biphasic shocks are now the approach of choice, offering an almost 100% success rate. This document reviews the recommendations for qualification of personnel and for the centres implanting and carrying out follow-ups on defibrillators. The current indications for the implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator are also addressed.

  10. Defibrillator/monitor/pacemakers.

    PubMed

    2003-05-01

    Defibrillator/monitors allow operators to assess and monitor a patient's ECG and, when necessary, deliver a defibrillating shock to the heart. When integral noninvasive pacing is added, the device is called a defibrillator/monitor/pacemaker. In this Evaluation, we present our findings for two newly evaluated models, the Welch Allyn PIC 50 and the Zoll M Series CCT, and we summarize our findings for the previously evaluated models that are still on the market. We rate the models for the following applications: general crash-cart use, in-hospital transport use, and emergency medical service (EMS) use.

  11. Case report: use caution when applying magnets to pacemakers or defibrillators for surgery.

    PubMed

    Schulman, Peter M; Rozner, Marc A

    2013-08-01

    The application of a magnet to a pacemaker (intended to cause asynchronous pacing) or implanted cardioverter defibrillator (intended to prevent shocks) during surgery without a clear understanding of actual magnet function(s) or precautions can have unexpected, untoward, or harmful consequences. In this report, we present 3 cases in which inadequate assessment of cardiac implanted electronic device (CIED) function, coupled with magnet application, contributed to or resulted in inappropriate antitachycardia pacing or shocks, CIED damage, or patient injury. Although these cases might be rare, they reinforce the need for a timely, detailed preoperative review of CIED function and programming as recommended by the American Society of Anesthesiologists and the Heart Rhythm Society.

  12. Myocardial ischemic hyperacute T-wave oversensing leading to a defibrillator shock storm

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Nauman; Kluger, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate sensing is essential for the normal functioning of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). T-wave oversensing is a potential clinical problem in ICD patients that may result in inappropriate shocks. Oversensing may have various underlying causes and can be treated with noninvasive or invasive means. We present the case of a 45-year-old man presenting with shock storm as a result of T-wave oversensing. Workup revealed a hemodynamically significant stenosis of the left anterior descending artery treated with percutaneous coronary intervention and drug-eluting stent placement. This resulted in the resolution of T-wave missensing and restoration of normal ICD functioning. PMID:25829654

  13. Long-term efficacy of implantable cardiac resynchronization therapy plus defibrillator for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with mild heart failure: an updated meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei-Ping; Li, Chun-Lei; Guo, Jin-Cheng; Zhang, Li-Xin; Liu, Ran; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Zhang, Ling

    2016-07-01

    Previous studies of implantable cardiac resynchronization therapy plus defibrillator (CRT-D) therapy used for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death have suggested that CRT-D therapy is less effective in patients with mild heart failure and a wide QRS complex. However, the long-term benefits are variable. We performed a meta-analysis of randomized trials identified in systematic searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Database. Three studies (3858 patients) with a mean follow-up of 66 months were included. Overall, CRT-D therapy was associated with significantly lower all-cause mortality than was implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy (OR, 0.78; 95 % CI, 0.63-0.96; P = 0.02; I (2) = 19 %). However, the risk of cardiac mortality was comparable between two groups (OR, 0.74; 95 % CI, 0.53-1.01; P = 0.06). CRT-D treatment was associated with a significantly lower risk of hospitalization for heart failure (OR, 0.67; 95 % CI, 0.50-0.89; P = 0.005; I (2) = 55 %). The composite outcome of all-cause mortality and hospitalization for heart failure was also markedly lower with CRT-D therapy than with ICD treatment alone (OR, 0.67; 95 % CI, 0.57-0.77; P < 0.0001; I (2) = 0 %). CRT-D therapy decreased the long-term risk of mortality and heart failure events in patients with mild heart failure with a wide QRS complex. However, long-term risk of cardiac mortality was similar between two groups. More randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings, especially in patients with NYHA class I heart failure or patients without LBBB.

  14. The value of predischarge ICD tests in patients with a successful peroperative test.

    PubMed

    Kesek, M; Saraj, A; Blomström-Lundqvist, C

    2000-01-01

    An internal cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is normally extensively tested during implantation. The necessity of retesting prior to discharge of the patient is a matter of debate. In our material of 30 patients undergoing first-time implantation of a transvenous internal defibrillator system, we retrospectively compare the predischarge defibrillation test with the peroperative test. A successful peroperative defibrillation test with no failed shocks at 10 J below maximal energy level was followed by a successful predischarge test with the same safety margin in 18/19 patients, while one patient required a maximal energy ICD shock for conversion at the predischarge test. We conclude that the predischarge defibrillation test can be omitted if the peroperative test was successful, with no failed shocks at 10 J below maximal energy level and if the shock therapy is set to maximal energy level.

  15. Pacemaker and defibrillator deactivation in competent hospice patients: an ethical consideration.

    PubMed

    Ballentine, Jennifer M

    2005-01-01

    The Denver Community Bioethics Committee (DCBC) is an independent, community-based group that undertakes ethics consultations for any individual or organization. Its members include adult protection professionals, physicians, elder-law attorneys, chaplains, nurses, social workers, and lay persons. In its 11-year history, the Committee has heard numerous cases concerning end-of-life care, futile treatment, and patients' rights. In 2003, a Colorado hospice provider asked the DCBC for assistance in developing a policy on deactivation of pacemakers and defibrillators in competent hospice patients. The hospice had encountered concerns from some physicians and cardiac care clinicians that deactivating such devices treads the fine line between legitimate withdrawal of burdensome treatment and assisted death. Although the specific deliberations of the DCBC are confidential, this article summarizes contributions from the committee's discussion, as well as independent research undertaken by the author.

  16. Shock whilst gardening--implantable defibrillators & lawn mowers.

    PubMed

    Von Olshausen, G; Lennerz, C; Grebmer, C; Pavaci, H; Kolb, C

    2014-02-01

    Electromagnetic interference with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) can cause inappropriate shock delivery or temporary inhibition of ICD functions. We present a case of electromagnetic interference between a lawn mower and an ICD resulting in an inappropriate discharge of the device due to erroneous detection of ventricular fibrillation.

  17. Pacing and Defibrillators in Complex Congenital Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chubb, Henry; O’Neill, Mark; Rosenthal, Eric

    2016-01-01

    Device therapy in the complex congenital heart disease (CHD) population is a challenging field. There is a myriad of devices available, but none designed specifically for the CHD patient group, and a scarcity of prospective studies to guide best practice. Baseline cardiac anatomy, prior surgical and interventional procedures, existing tachyarrhythmias and the requirement for future intervention all play a substantial role in decision making. For both pacing systems and implantable cardioverter defibrillators, numerous factors impact on the merits of system location (endovascular versus non-endovascular), lead positioning, device selection and device programming. For those with Fontan circulation and following the atrial switch procedure there are also very specific considerations regarding access and potential complications. This review discusses the published guidelines, device indications and the best available evidence for guidance of device implantation in the complex CHD population. PMID:27403295

  18. Development and feasibility testing of decision support for patients who are candidates for a prophylactic implantable defibrillator: a study protocol for a pilot randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Patients, identified to be at risk for but who have never experienced a potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmia, have the option of receiving an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) as prophylaxis against sudden cardiac death - a primary prevention indication. In Canada, there is no clear framework to support patients’ decision-making for these devices. Decision support, using a decision aid, could moderate treatment-related uncertainty and prepare patients to make well-informed decisions. Patient decision aids provide information on treatment options, risks, and benefits, to help patients clarify their values for outcomes of treatment options. The objectives of this research are: 1) develop a decision aid, 2) evaluate the decision aid, and 3) determine the feasibility of conducting a trial. Methods/design A development panel comprised of the core investigative team, health service researchers, decision science experts, cardiovascular healthcare practitioners, and ICD patient representatives will collaborate to provide input on the content and format of the aid. To generate probabilities to include in the aid, we will synthesize primary prevention ICD evidence. To obtain anonymous input about the facts and content, we will employ a modified Delphi process. To evaluate the draft decision aid will invite ICD patients and their families (n = 30) to rate its acceptability. After we evaluate the aid, to determine the feasibility, we will conduct a feasibility pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT) in new ICD candidates (n = 80). Participants will be randomized to receive a decision aid prior to specialist consultation versus usual care. Results from the pilot RCT will determine the feasibility of research processes; inform sample size calculation, measure decision quality (knowledge, values, decision conflict) and the influence of health related quality of life on decision-making. Discussion Our study seeks to develop a decision aid, for patients

  19. Subcutaneous chronic implantable defibrillation systems in humans.

    PubMed

    Cappato, Riccardo; Smith, Warren M; Hood, Margaret A; Crozier, Ian G; Jordaens, Luc; Spitzer, Stefan G; Ardashev, Andrey V; Boersma, Lucas; Lupo, Pierpaolo; Grace, Andrew A; Bardy, Gust H

    2012-09-01

    The recent introduction of subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (S-ICD) has raised attention about the potential of this technology for clinical use in daily clinical practice. We review the methods and results of the four studies conducted in humans for approval of this innovative technology for daily practice. Two studies using a temporary S-ICD system (acute human studies) were conducted to search for an appropriate lead configuration and energy requirements. For this purpose, 4 S-ICD configurations were tested in 78 patients at the time of transvenous (TV)-ICD implantation. The optimal configuration was tested in 49 more patients to comparatively assess the subcutaneous defibrillation threshold (S-DFT) versus the standard TV-ICD. Long-term implants were evaluated in 55 patients using an implanted system (chronic human study). The acute humans studies led to an optimal S-ICD configuration comprising a parasternal electrode and left anterolateral thoracic pulse generator. Both configurations successfully terminated 98% of induced ventricular fibrillation (VF), but significantly higher energy levels were required with S-ICD than with TV-ICD systems (36.6 ± 19.8 J vs. 11.1 ± 8.5 J). In the chronic study, all 137 VF episodes induced at time of implant were detected with a 98% conversion rate. Two pocket infections and four lead revisions were required during 10 ± 1 months of follow-up. During this period, survival was 98%, and 12 spontaneous ventricular tachyarrhythmias were detected and treated by the device. These data show that the S-ICD systems here consistently detected and converted VF induced at time of implant as well as sustained ventricular tachyarrhythmias occurring during follow-up (248). PMID:22426601

  20. Automatic adjustment of chopping-modulated defibrillation pulses to patient transthoracic resistance.

    PubMed

    Krasteva, V; Cansell, A; Daskalov, I

    2003-01-01

    Defibrillation of the heart requires a high amplitude short duration current pulse to be passed through large electrodes placed on the patient's chest. The current meets a virtually active resistance, which can vary in the approximate range of 25 to 180 Omega. As the delivered current or energy depends on the resistance, several methods have been developed to reduce or compensate its influence. For example, pre-shock resistance has been measured by a high-frequency current and the current or energy set accordingly; measurements have been made from the initial tilt and the pulse durations adjusted; and pre-shock measurements have been made by a sub-shock pulse to generate an appropriately selected constant current. A method is proposed using high-frequency chopped biphasic pulses, with pulse-width and period modulation of the elementary pulses. Patient resistance is measured with the first elementary pulse and depending on its value a modulated waveform is generated, selected by a micro-controller from a preprogrammed set. Thus the selected energy is accurately delivered to the patient. In addition, this method allows the shaping of a desired mean patient current waveform, maintaining adequate charge balance between the two phases and securing an appropriate time course of the model-derived transmembrane potential. PMID:12623607

  1. [Implantation of a dual chamber pacemaker-defibrillator (DDD-ICD) in a patient with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy].

    PubMed

    Neuberger, H R; Mewis, C; Dörnberger, V; Bosch, R F; Kühlkamp, V

    1999-07-01

    A 70-year-old woman with severely symptomatic hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy was unresponsive to drug treatment. She had recurrent ventricular tachyarrhythmias and syncope and was at high risk for sudden death; a dual chamber pacemaker defibrillator (DDD-ICD) was implanted. Her initial left ventricular outflow tract gradient was 80 mm Hg and fell to 40 mm Hg during dual-chamber pacing at an atrial ventricular delay of 140 ms. In the follow-up over six months she was asymptomatic with respect to angina pectoris; ventricular tachycardias could be successfully terminated by antitachycardia pacing or by shocks. A dual chamber pacemaker defibrillator is an important therapeutic option for patients with symptomatic hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy and ventricular tachyarrhythmias.

  2. Increased defibrillator therapies during influenza season in patients without influenza vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Sheldon M.; de Souza, Russell J.; Kumareswaran, Ramanan

    2015-01-01

    Background The association between influenza vaccination and implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) therapies during influenza season is not known and is described in this study. Understanding this association is important since reduction in ICD therapies during influenza season via use of influenza vaccination would benefit patients physically and psychologically. Methods Patients presenting to the Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center ICD clinic between September 1st, 2011 and November 31st, 2011 were asked to complete a survey evaluating their use of the influenza vaccine. The number of patients with any ICD therapy and the total number of ICD therapies in the six months before and the three months during the 2010–2011 influenza season were determined. Poisson regression analysis was employed to assess differences in the average number of ICD therapies received during the influenza season based on vaccine status (vaccinated vs. unvaccinated). The analysis was repeated after limiting the cohort to patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35%. Results A total of 229 patients completed the survey, 78% of whom received the influenza vaccine. Four patients had more than one ICD shock during the study period. Electrical storm was rare (n=2). A trend toward more ICD therapies (unadjusted incident rate ratio (IRR)=3.2; P=0.07) and appropriate ICD shocks (unadjusted IRR=9.0; P=0.17) was noted for unvaccinated compared to vaccinated patients. This association persisted when analysis was limited to patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction ≤35% (all ICD therapies: unadjusted IRR=5.8; P=0.045; adjusted IRR=2.6; P=0.33). No patient who received the influenza vaccine, and had a reduced ejection fraction, received an approprite ICD shock during influenza season (unadjusted P<0.002). Conclusion A trend toward more ICD therapies during influenza season was observed in patients who did not receive the influenza vaccine compared to those who did. The

  3. Recurrent ventricular fibrillation under sufficient medical treatment in patient with coronary artery spasm

    PubMed Central

    Hiki, Masaru; Tokano, Takashi; Nakazato, Yuji; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    In cases of coronary artery spasm, life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias are possible and can lead to sudden cardiac death. Treatment for this condition includes implantable cardioverter defibrillators, but their effectiveness in patients who present with ventricular fibrillation is debated. Our patient presented with intractable ventricular fibrillation episodes that triggered shocks from her implanted defibrillator. At 2 years of follow-up, we placed her on 200 mg/day of oral amiodarone, after identifying short-coupled premature contractions as the trigger for the ventricular fibrillation. In the 2 years following initiation of this drug therapy, the patient had no further fibrillation episodes. PMID:23821622

  4. Recurrent ventricular fibrillation under sufficient medical treatment in patient with coronary artery spasm.

    PubMed

    Hiki, Masaru; Tokano, Takashi; Nakazato, Yuji; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2013-07-02

    In cases of coronary artery spasm, life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias are possible and can lead to sudden cardiac death. Treatment for this condition includes implantable cardioverter defibrillators, but their effectiveness in patients who present with ventricular fibrillation is debated. Our patient presented with intractable ventricular fibrillation episodes that triggered shocks from her implanted defibrillator. At 2 years of follow-up, we placed her on 200 mg/day of oral amiodarone, after identifying short-coupled premature contractions as the trigger for the ventricular fibrillation. In the 2 years following initiation of this drug therapy, the patient had no further fibrillation episodes.

  5. Nuclear magnetic resonance imaging in patients with cardiac pacing devices.

    PubMed

    Buendía, Francisco; Sánchez-Gómez, Juan M; Sancho-Tello, María J; Olagüe, José; Osca, Joaquín; Cano, Oscar; Arnau, Miguel A; Igual, Begoña

    2010-06-01

    Currently, nuclear magnetic resonance imaging is contraindicated in patients with a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. This study was carried out because the potential risks in this situation need to be clearly defined. This prospective study evaluated clinical and electrical parameters before and after magnetic resonance imaging was performed in 33 patients (five with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators and 28 with pacemakers). In these patients, magnetic resonance imaging was considered clinically essential. There were no clinical complications. There was a temporary communication failure in two cases, sensing errors during imaging in two cases, and a safety signal was generated in one pacemaker at the maximum magnetic resonance frequency and output level. There were no technical restrictions on imaging nor were there any permanent changes in the performance of the cardiac pacing device. PMID:20515632

  6. A second defibrillator chest patch electrode will increase implantation rates for nonthoracotomy defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Solomon, A J; Swartz, J F; Rodak, D J; Moore, H J; Hannan, R L; Tracy, C M; Fletcher, R D

    1996-09-01

    Nonthoracotomy defibrillator systems can be implanted with a lower morbidity and mortality, compared to epicardial systems. However, implantation may be unsuccessful in up to 15% of patients, using a monophasic waveform. It was the purpose of this study to prospectively examine the efficacy of a second chest patch electrode in a nonthoracotomy defibrillator system. Fourteen patients (mean age 62 +/- 11 years, ejection fraction = 0.29 +/- 0.12) with elevated defibrillation thresholds, defined as > or = 24 J, were studied. The initial lead system consisted of a right ventricular electrode (cathode), a left innominate vein, and subscapular chest patch electrode (anodes). If the initial defibrillation threshold was > or = 24 J, a second chest patch electrode was added. This was placed subcutaneously in the anterior chest (8 cases), or submuscularly in the subscapular space (6 cases). This resulted in a decrease in the system impedance at the defibrillation threshold, from 72.3 +/- 13.3 omega to 52.2 +/- 8.6 omega. Additionally, the defibrillation threshold decreased from > or = 24 J, with a single patch, to 16.6 +/- 2.8 J with two patches. These changes were associated with successful implantation of a nonthoracotomy defibrillator system in all cases. In conclusion, the addition of a second chest patch electrode (using a subscapular approach) will result in lower defibrillation thresholds in patients with high defibrillation thresholds, and will subsequently increase implantation rates for nonthoracotomy defibrillators.

  7. [Wearable Automatic External Defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Luo, Huajie; Luo, Zhangyuan; Jin, Xun; Zhang, Leilei; Wang, Changjin; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan

    2015-11-01

    Defibrillation is the most effective method of treating ventricular fibrillation(VF), this paper introduces wearable automatic external defibrillators based on embedded system which includes EGG measurements, bioelectrical impedance measurement, discharge defibrillation module, which can automatic identify VF signal, biphasic exponential waveform defibrillation discharge. After verified by animal tests, the device can realize EGG acquisition and automatic identification. After identifying the ventricular fibrillation signal, it can automatic defibrillate to abort ventricular fibrillation and to realize the cardiac electrical cardioversion.

  8. Defibrillation safety in emergency helicopter transport.

    PubMed

    Dedrick, D K; Darga, A; Landis, D; Burney, R E

    1989-01-01

    Rotary aircraft play a growing role in the transport of critically ill patients who may require emergency treatment, including defibrillation, during transport. The close quarters and proximity of vital electronic equipment have generated concern among personnel carrying out defibrillation in the air. We address the chief safety issues in helicopter defibrillation by providing measurements of the transient leakage current resulting from contact with a paddle and tested in-flight electronic interference and survey the defibrillation experience of helicopter programs. Our data show that airborne defibrillation is safe. A maximum of 1.5 mA of transient leakage current was measured from a standard battery-powered defibrillator, well within the accepted safety standard of 50 mA. In flight, there was no interference with the avionics or medical equipment, and adequate clearance was available for personnel. Of the helicopter programs surveyed, 69 (87%) had defibrillated in flight without incident. We conclude that defibrillation can be performed in the helicopter without hesitation whether on the ground or in the air, provided standard defibrillation precautions are observed.

  9. [Implantation of a biventricular ICD in a patient with dextrocardia with situs inversus].

    PubMed

    Vurgun, Veysel Kutay; Gerede, Menekşe; Altın, Ali Timuçin; Candemir, Başar; Akyürek, Ömer

    2015-01-01

    In order to reduce sudden cardiac death and heart failure symptoms, biventricular implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) implantation is a treatment method commonly used in selected patients with cardiomyopathy. The frequency of dextrocardia in congenital heart defects is approximately 0.4/10000. In this group, the frequency of cardiomyopathy development is rare. In this case report we present a patient with dextrocardia undergoing implantation of biventricular ICD.

  10. Defibrillator/monitor/pacemakers.

    PubMed

    2005-06-01

    In this Evaluation, we present our test results and ratings for two newly evaluated defibrillator/monitor/pacemakers--the Medtronic ERS Lifepak 20 and the Philips HeartStart MRx. We also summarize and update our findings for eight previously evaluated models that are still on the market. We rate the models based on their desirability for in-hospital applications, such as general crash-cart use and in-hospital transport use, and for prehospital applications, specifically emergency medical service (EMS) use. The primary function of the devices examined in this study is to allow operators to assess and monitor a patient's ECG and, when necessary, deliver a defibrillating shock to the heart. However, currently available models can also be equipped to do much more during a resuscitation attempt - from monitoring multiple physiologic parameters to providing noninvasive pacing capability to functioning as an automated external defibrillator (AED). Our testing examined all these capabilities to help hospital and EMS purchasers make effective selection decisions.

  11. Automated External Defibrillator

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a portable device that ... Institutes of Health Department of Health and Human Services USA.gov

  12. Defibrillation lead placement using a transthoracic transatrial approach in a case without transvenous access due to lack of the right superior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Yosuke; Okamura, Hideo; Sato, Syunsuke; Nakajima, Ikutaro; Ishibashi, Kohei; Miyamoto, Kouji; Noda, Takashi; Aiba, Takeshi; Kamakura, Shiro; Kobayashi, Junjiro; Yasuda, Satoshi; Ogawa, Hisao; Kusano, Kengo

    2015-06-01

    A 65-year-old woman with a history of syncope was diagnosed with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. She had previously undergone mastectomy of the left breast owing to breast cancer. Holter electrocardiogram (ECG) and monitor ECG revealed sick sinus syndrome (Type II) and non-sustained ventricular tachycardia. Sustained ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation were induced in an electrophysiological study. Although the patient was eligible for treatment with a dual chamber implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), venography revealed lack of the right superior vena cava (R-SVC). Lead placement from the left subclavian vein would have increased the risk of lymphedema owing to the patient׳s mastectomy history. Consequently, the defibrillation lead was placed in the right ventricle by direct puncture of the right auricle through the tricuspid valve. The atrial lead was sutured to the atrial wall, and the postoperative course was unremarkable. Defibrillation lead placement using a transthoracic transatrial approach can be an alternative method in cases where a transvenous approach for lead placement is not feasible.

  13. Questions to Ask Your Doctor--Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... implanted to restore normal heart rhythm and prevent sudden cardiac death. To help you understand what it does and how it may affect you or your family member before and after implantation, ask your doctor or healthcare team any ...

  14. How to Respond to an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Recall

    MedlinePlus

    ... American Heart Association Facebook Twitter Hello, Guest! My alerts Sign In Join Institution: NATIONAL INST HEALTH LIBRARY ... Institution: NATIONAL INST HEALTH LIBRARY Hello, Guest! My alerts Sign In Join Facebook Twitter Home About this ...

  15. How Will Having an Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator Affect My Lifestyle?

    MedlinePlus

    ... High-tension wires Metal detectors Industrial welders Electrical generators These devices can disrupt the electrical signaling of ... 2 feet away from industrial welders or electrical generators. Rarely, ICDs have caused unnecessary shocks during long, ...

  16. The power of exercise-induced T-wave alternans to predict ventricular arrhythmias in patients with implanted cardiac defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Burattini, Laura; Man, Sumche; Sweene, Cees A

    2013-01-01

    The power of exercise-induced T-wave alternans (TWA) to predict the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias was evaluated in 67 patients with an implanted cardiac defibrillator (ICD). During the 4-year follow-up, electrocardiographic (ECG) tracings were recorded in a bicycle ergometer test with increasing workload ranging from zero (NoWL) to the patient's maximal capacity (MaxWL). After the follow-up, patients were classified as either ICD_Cases (n = 29), if developed ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, or ICD_Controls (n = 38). TWA was quantified using our heart-rate adaptive match filter. Compared to NoWL, MaxWL was characterized by faster heart rates and higher TWA in both ICD_Cases (12-18 μ V vs. 20-39 μ V; P < 0.05) and ICD_Controls (9-15 μ V vs. 20-32 μ V; P < 0.05). Still, TWA was able to discriminate the two ICD groups during NoWL (sensitivity = 59-83%, specificity = 53-84%) but not MaxWL (sensitivity = 55-69%, specificity = 39-74%). Thus, this retrospective observational case-control study suggests that TWA's predictive power for the occurrence of ventricular arrhythmias could increase at low heart rates.

  17. Combining Amplitude Spectrum Area with Previous Shock Information Using Neural Networks Improves Prediction Performance of Defibrillation Outcome for Subsequent Shocks in Out-Of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest Patients

    PubMed Central

    He, Mi; Lu, Yubao; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Hehua; Gong, Yushun; Li, Yongqin

    2016-01-01

    Objective Quantitative ventricular fibrillation (VF) waveform analysis is a potentially powerful tool to optimize defibrillation. However, whether combining VF features with additional attributes that related to the previous shock could enhance the prediction performance for subsequent shocks is still uncertain. Methods A total of 528 defibrillation shocks from 199 patients experienced out-of-hospital cardiac arrest were analyzed in this study. VF waveform was quantified using amplitude spectrum area (AMSA) from defibrillator's ECG recordings prior to each shock. Combinations of AMSA with previous shock index (PSI) or/and change of AMSA (ΔAMSA) between successive shocks were exercised through a training dataset including 255shocks from 99patientswith neural networks. Performance of the combination methods were compared with AMSA based single feature prediction by area under receiver operating characteristic curve(AUC), sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV) and prediction accuracy (PA) through a validation dataset that was consisted of 273 shocks from 100patients. Results A total of61 (61.0%) patients required subsequent shocks (N = 173) in the validation dataset. Combining AMSA with PSI and ΔAMSA obtained highest AUC (0.904 vs. 0.819, p<0.001) among different combination approaches for subsequent shocks. Sensitivity (76.5% vs. 35.3%, p<0.001), NPV (90.2% vs. 76.9%, p = 0.007) and PA (86.1% vs. 74.0%, p = 0.005)were greatly improved compared with AMSA based single feature prediction with a threshold of 90% specificity. Conclusion In this retrospective study, combining AMSA with previous shock information using neural networks greatly improves prediction performance of defibrillation outcome for subsequent shocks. PMID:26863222

  18. Single-incision and single-element array electrode to lower the defibrillation threshold.

    PubMed

    Kühlkamp, V; Khalighi, K; Dörnberger, V; Ziemer, G

    1997-10-01

    Occasional patients have excessive defibrillation energy requirements despite appropriate transvenous defibrillation lead position and the use of biphasic shocks. A single-element subcutaneous array electrode was implanted in 2 patients with a high defibrillation threshold. The array electrode was implanted through the same infraclavicular incision that was used for implantation of the transvenous lead. The defibrillation threshold decreased from 30 J to 15 J and from 24 J to 9 J with the subcutaneous array electrode.

  19. Insulation Failure of the Linox Defibrillator Lead: A Case Report and Retrospective Review of a Single Center Experience.

    PubMed

    Howe, Andrew J; McKeag, Nicholas A; Wilson, Carol M; Ashfield, Kyle P; Roberts, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) lead insulation failure and conductor externalization have been increasingly reported. The 7.8F silicon-insulated Linox SD and Linox S ICD leads (Biotronik, Berlin, Germany) were released in 2006 and 2007, respectively, with an estimated 85,000 implantations worldwide. A 39-year-old female suffered an out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation (VF) arrest with successful resuscitation. An ICD was implanted utilizing a single coil active fixation Linox(Smart) S lead (Biotronik, Berlin, Germany). A device-triggered alert approximately 3 years after implantation confirmed nonphysiological high rate sensing leading to VF detection. A chest X-ray showed an abnormality of the ICD lead and fluoroscopic screening confirmed conductor externalization proximal to the defibrillator coil. In view of the combined electrical and fluoroscopic abnormalities, urgent lead extraction and replacement were performed. A review of Linox (Biotronik) and Vigila (Sorin Group, Milan, Italy) lead implantations within our center (n = 98) identified 3 additional patients presenting with premature lead failure, 2 associated with nonphysiological sensed events and one associated with a significant decrease in lead impedance. All leads were subsequently removed and replaced. This case provides a striking example of insulation failure affecting the Linox ICD lead and, we believe, is the first to demonstrate conductor externalization manifesting both electrical and fluoroscopic abnormalities.

  20. Mechanisms of Defibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Dosdall, Derek J.; Fast, Vladimir G.; Ideker, Raymond E.

    2014-01-01

    Electrical shock has been the one effective treatment for ventricular fibrillation for several decades. With the advancement of electrical and optical mapping techniques, histology, and computer modeling, the mechanisms responsible for defibrillation are now coming to light. In this review, we discuss recent work that demonstrates the various mechanisms responsible for defibrillation. On the cellular level, membrane depolarization and electroporation affect defibrillation outcome. Cell bundles and collagenous septae are secondary sources and cause virtual electrodes at sites far from shocking electrodes. On the whole-heart level, shock field gradient and critical points determine whether a shock is successful or whether reentry causes initiation and continuation of fibrillation. PMID:20450352

  1. [Multiple inappropriate defibrillator shocks due to insulation failure of a Biotronik Linox defibrillator lead with externalized conductor].

    PubMed

    Elfarra, Hamdi; Moosdorf, Rainer; Rybinski, Leszek; Grimm, Wolfram

    2016-03-01

    In this article the case of a patient who received a total of 35 inappropriate defibrillator shocks due to insulation failure with externalized conductor of a Biotronik Linox® lead is described. The implanted defibrillator was immediately inactivated and the failed lead was extracted using a laser sheath system.

  2. What to Expect Before a Heart Transplant

    MedlinePlus

    ... Cardiac Rehabilitation Heart Failure Heart Surgery Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators Ventricular Assist Device Send a link to NHLBI ... at the transplant centers may place implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) in patients before surgery. ICDs are small ...

  3. Effect of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Receptor Blockers on Appropriate Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator Shock in Patients with Severe Systolic Heart Failure (From the GRADE Multicenter Study)

    PubMed Central

    AlJaroudi, Wael A.; Refaat, Marwan M.; Habib, Robert H.; Al-Shaar, Laila; Singh, Madhurmeet; Gutmann, Rebecca; Bloom, Heather L.; Dudley, Samuel C.; Ellinor, Patrick T.; Saba, Samir F.; Shalaby, Alaa A.; Weiss, Raul; McNamara, Dennis M.; Halder, Indrani; London, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a leading cause of mortality in patients with cardiomyopathy. While angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and receptor blockers (ARB) decrease cardiac mortality in these cohorts, their role in preventing SCD has not been well established. We sought to determine whether the use of ACEi or ARB in patients with cardiomyopathy is associated with a lower incidence of appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) shocks in the Genetic Risk Assessment of Defibrillator Events (GRADE) study which included subjects with an ejection fraction of ≤30% and ICDs. Treatment with ACEi/ARB versus no ACEi/ARB was physician dependent. There were 1509 patients (mean age [SD] 63[12] years, 80% male, mean [SD] EF 21% [6%]) with 1213 (80%) on ACEi/ARB, and 296 (20%) not on ACEi/ARB. We identified 574 propensity matched patients (287 in each group). After a mean (SD) of 2.5(1.9) years, there were 334 (22%) appropriate shocks in the entire cohort. The use of ACEi/ARB was associated with lower incidence of shocks at 1, 3 and 5 years in the matched cohort (7.7%, 16.7%, 18.5% vs. 13.2%, 27.5%, and 32.0% (RR= 0.61[0.43–0.86], p =0.005). Among patients with GFR >60 and 30–60 ml/min/1.73m2, those on no-ACEi/ARB were at 45% and 77% increased risk of ICD shock as compared to those on ACEi/ARB, respectively. ACEi/ARB were associated with significant lower incidence of appropriate ICD shock in patients with cardiomyopathy and GFR ≥30 ml/min/1.73m2, and with neutral effect among those GFR <30 ml/min/1.73m2. PMID:25682436

  4. Investigation of capacitor failures in an automated external defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Tan, K-S; Hinberg, I

    2002-09-01

    Over the past 2 years, the Canadian Medical Devices Bureau has received a number of reports of capacitor failures on the high voltage board of an automated external defibrillator. Twenty-five cases of broken capacitor leads were found during routine preventive maintenance by the biomedical engineering staff of the institutions reporting the incidents. The Bureau has carried out a laboratory investigation to determine the effect of missing capacitors on the energy delivered by the defibrillator and to assess whether these capacitor failures represent a significant risk to patients. Our findings indicate that the automated external defibrillator will not perform acceptably with two broken capacitors. They further suggest that, during preventive maintenance, operators should use a defibrillator analyser to measure the delivered energy output rather than using the internal energy measurement circuit within the automated external defibrillator. PMID:12394622

  5. Double Sequential Defibrillation for Refractory Ventricular Fibrillation: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Lybeck, Aurora M; Moy, Hawnwan Philip; Tan, David K

    2015-01-01

    A 40-year-old male struck his chest against a pole during a basketball game and had sudden out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. After bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation, fire and emergency medical services personnel provided six defibrillation attempts prior to emergency department arrival. A 7th attempt in the emergency department using a different vector was unsuccessful. On the 8th attempt, using a second defibrillator with defibrillator pads placed adjacent to the primary set of defibrillator pads, two shocks were administered in near simultaneous fashion. The double sequential defibrillation was successful and the patient had return of spontaneous circulation at the next pulse check. He recovered in the intensive care unit, was discharged home 1 month later, and continues to follow up in clinic over 1 year later with a Cerebral Performance Category score of 1 (short-term memory deficits).

  6. Should amiodarone or lidocaine be given to patients who arrest after cardiac surgery and fail to cardiovert from ventricular fibrillation?

    PubMed

    Leeuwenburgh, Boudewijn P J; Versteegh, Michael I M; Maas, Jacinta J; Dunning, Joel

    2008-12-01

    A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was whether the administration of amiodarone or lidocaine in patients with refractory VT/VF after cardiac surgery results in successful cardioversion. Altogether more than 434 papers were found using the reported search, from which 23 articles were used to answer the clinical question. No randomized trials have been found in which amiodarone was studied in patients with refractory VF/VT after cardiac surgery. Recommendations on the use of amiodarone in patients with refractory VF/VT in both European and American 2005 Guidelines on Resuscitation are mainly based on expert consensus and are supported by a few randomized trials in patients with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. We would therefore recommend that amiodarone is the first line drug that should be used in patients with refractory ventricular arrhythmias after cardiac surgery that persist after three failed attempts at cardioversion. Lidocaine should only be used if amiodarone is not available or if its use is contraindicated. Amiodarone should be administered as an intravenous bolus of 300 mg after the third unsuccessful shock.

  7. Tools for risk stratification of sudden cardiac death: A review of the literature in different patient populations

    PubMed Central

    Ragupathi, Loheetha; Pavri, Behzad B.

    2014-01-01

    While various modalities to determine risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) have been reported in clinical studies, currently reduced left ventricular ejection fraction remains the cornerstone of SCD risk stratification. However, the absolute burden of SCD is greatest amongst populations without known cardiac disease. In this review, we summarize the evidence behind current guidelines for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) use for the prevention of SCD in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). We also evaluate the evidence for risk stratification tools beyond clinical guidelines in the general population, patients with IHD, and patients with other known or suspected medical conditions. PMID:24568833

  8. Apical aneurysm and myocardial bridging in a patient with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy: association or consequence of the myocardial bridging?

    PubMed

    Foucault, Anthony; Hilpert, Loic; Hédoire, Francois; Saloux, Eric; Gomes, Sophie; Pellissier, Arnaud; Scanu, Patrice; Champ-Rigot, Laure; Milliez, Paul

    2012-01-01

    The identification of high-risk patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) for primary prevention of sudden cardiac death (SCD) remains a challenging issue, since major risk factors sometimes lack specificity. We report the case of a patient with HC and association of apical aneurysm and myocardial bridging who had been initially not implanted because she had only one major risk factor. She subsequently experienced a sustained ventricular tachycardia that finally motivated the implantation. We conclude that it is never an easy decision to implant a preventive implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Nevertheless, additional criteria for a better selection of patients who would benefit from an ICD implant are certainly useful.

  9. Position paper for management of elderly patients with pacemakers and implantable cardiac defibrillators Groupe de rythmologie et stimulation cardiaque de la Société française de cardiologie et Société française de gériatrie et gérontologie.

    PubMed

    Fauchier, Laurent; Alonso, Christine; Anselme, Frédéric; Blangy, Hugues; Bordachar, Pierre; Boveda, Serge; Clementy, Nicolas; Defaye, Pascal; Deharo, Jean-Claude; Friocourt, Patrick; Gras, Daniel; Halimi, Franck; Klug, Didier; Mansourati, Jacques; Obadia, Benjamin; Pasquié, Jean-Luc; Pavin, Dominique; Sadoul, Nicolas; Taieb, Jérôme; Piot, Olivier; Hanon, Olivier

    2016-09-01

    Despite the increasingly high rate of implantation of pacemakers (PM) and cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) in elderly patients, data supporting their clinical and cost-effectiveness in this age stratum are ambiguous and contradictory. We reviewed the data regarding the applicability, safety, and effectiveness of the conventional pacing, ICD and cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) in elderly patients. Although peri-procedural risk may be slightly higher in the elderly, the procedure of implantation of PMs and ICDs is still relatively safe in this age group. In older patients with sinus node disease, a general consensus is that dual chamber pacing, along with the programming of an algorithm to minimise ventricular pacing is preferred. In very old patients presenting with intermittent or suspected AV block, VVI pacing may be appropriate. In terms of correcting potentially life-threatening arrhythmias, the effectiveness of ICD therapy is comparable in older and younger individuals. However, the assumption of persistent ICD benefit in the elderly population is questionable, as any advantage of the device on arrhythmic death may be attenuated by a higher total non-arrhythmic mortality. While septuagenarians and octogenarians have higher annual all-cause mortality rates, ICD therapy may remain effective in selected patients at high risk of arrhythmic death and with minimum comorbidities despite advanced age. ICD implantation among the elderly, as a group, may not be cost-effective, but the procedure may reach cost-effectiveness in those expected to live >5-7 years after implantation. The elderly patients usually experience a significant functional improvement after CRT, similar to that observed in middle-aged patients. Management of CRT non responders remains globally the same, while considering a less aggressive approach in terms of re interventions (revision of LV lead placement, addition of a RV or LV lead, LV endocardial pacing configuration). Overall, age

  10. Performance of 2014 NICE defibrillator implantation guidelines in heart failure risk stratification

    PubMed Central

    Cubbon, Richard M; Witte, Klaus K; Kearney, Lorraine C; Gierula, John; Byrom, Rowenna; Paton, Maria; Sengupta, Anshuman; Patel, Peysh A; MN Walker, Andrew; Cairns, David A; Rajwani, Adil; Hall, Alistair S; Sapsford, Robert J; Kearney, Mark T

    2016-01-01

    Objective Define the real-world performance of recently updated National Institute for Health and Care Excellence guidelines (TA314) on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) use in people with chronic heart failure. Methods Multicentre prospective cohort study of 1026 patients with stable chronic heart failure, associated with left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≤45% recruited in cardiology outpatient departments of four UK hospitals. We assessed the capacity of TA314 to identify patients at increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD) or appropriate ICD shock. Results The overall risk of SCD or appropriate ICD shock was 2.1 events per 100 patient-years (95% CI 1.7 to 2.6). Patients meeting TA314 ICD criteria (31.1%) were 2.5-fold (95% CI 1.6 to 3.9) more likely to suffer SCD or appropriate ICD shock; they were also 1.5-fold (95% CI 1.1 to 2.2) more likely to die from non-cardiovascular causes and 1.6-fold (95% CI 1.1 to 2.3) more likely to die from progressive heart failure. Patients with diabetes not meeting TA314 criteria experienced comparable absolute risk of SCD or appropriate ICD shock to patients without diabetes who met TA314 criteria. Patients with ischaemic cardiomyopathy not meeting TA314 criteria experienced comparable absolute risk of SCD or appropriate ICD shock to patients with non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy who met TA314 criteria. Conclusions TA314 can identify patients with reduced LVEF who are at increased relative risk of sudden death. Clinicians should also consider clinical context and the absolute risk of SCD when advising patients about the potential risks and benefits of ICD therapy. PMID:26857212

  11. [Current management of patients with ventricular tachycardia].

    PubMed

    Puljević, D; Buljević, B; Milicić, D

    2001-01-01

    Ventricular arrhythmia has for decades been considered as a premonitory sign and risk marker of sudden death. Novel theories about arrhythmogenesis and conditions for the occurrence of sudden death, as well as evidence about proarrhythmic effect of antiarrhythmic drugs, have changed the views on the treatment of ventricular arrhythmia. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is most often associated with structural heart disease: ischemic heart disease and previous myocardial infarction, cardiomyopathy (dilated and hypertrophic), arrhythmogenic right ventricular dysplasia, valvular heart disease (mitral valve prolapse), heart failure, condition after surgical correction of a congenital heart disease. Sometimes VT occurs without structural heart disease (congenital LQTS, Brugada syndrome, idiopathic VT). Today's standpoint is to treat only symptomatic and/or prognostically significant arrhythmias. Prognostic significance of VT mostly depends on the type and degree of structural heart disease and on global cardiac function. In patients with asymptomatic non-sustained VT and low risk for sudden death no treatment is needed or antiarrhythmics are administered. Conversely, in high risk patients implantation of automatic cardioverter-defibrillator is indicated. In the treatment of acute attack of VT the following can be used: electroconversion, cardiac pacing (overdrive), lidocaine, amiodarone, beta-blockers, and occasionally magnesium or verapamil. In the prevention of recurrent arrhythmia and sudden death we can use: amiodarone, sotalol, mexiletin, phenytoin, beta-blockers, radiofrequency ablation, implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, and in specific patients verapamil, pacemaker or left ganglion stellatum denervation.

  12. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and receptor blockers on appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator shock in patients with severe systolic heart failure (from the GRADE Multicenter Study).

    PubMed

    AlJaroudi, Wael A; Refaat, Marwan M; Habib, Robert H; Al-Shaar, Laila; Singh, Madhurmeet; Gutmann, Rebecca; Bloom, Heather L; Dudley, Samuel C; Ellinor, Patrick T; Saba, Samir F; Shalaby, Alaa A; Weiss, Raul; McNamara, Dennis M; Halder, Indrani; London, Barry

    2015-04-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a leading cause of mortality in patients with cardiomyopathy. Although angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEi) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) decrease cardiac mortality in these cohorts, their role in preventing SCD has not been well established. We sought to determine whether the use of ACEi or ARB in patients with cardiomyopathy is associated with a lower incidence of appropriate implantable cardiac defibrillator (ICD) shocks in the Genetic Risk Assessment of Defibrillator Events study that included subjects with an ejection fraction of ≤30% and ICDs. Treatment with ACEi/ARB versus no-ACEi/ARB was physician dependent. There were 1,509 patients (mean age [SD] 63 [12] years, 80% men, mean [SD] EF 21% [6%]) with 1,213 (80%) on ACEi/ARB and 296 (20%) not on ACEi/ARB. We identified 574 propensity-matched patients (287 in each group). After a mean (SD) of 2.5 (1.9) years, there were 334 (22%) appropriate shocks in the entire cohort. The use of ACEi/ARB was associated with lower incidence of shocks at 1, 3, and 5 years in the matched cohort (7.7%, 16.7%, and 18.5% vs 13.2%, 27.5%, and 32.0%; RR = 0.61 [0.43 to 0.86]; p = 0.005). Among patients with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >60 and 30 to 60 ml/min/1.73 m(2), those on no-ACEi/ARB were at 45% and 77% increased risk of ICD shock compared with those on ACEi/ARB, respectively. ACEi/ARB were associated with significant lower incidence of appropriate ICD shock in patients with cardiomyopathy and GFR ≥30 ml/min/1.73 m(2) and with neutral effect in those with GFR <30 ml/min/1.73 m(2). PMID:25682436

  13. The DATAS rationale and design: a controlled, randomized trial to assess the clinical benefit of dual chamber (DDED) defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Quesada, Aurelio; Almendral, Jesús; Arribas, Fernando; Ricci, Renato; Wolpert, Christian; Adragao, Pedro; Cobo, Eric; Navarro, Xavier

    2004-03-01

    Single chamber (SC) implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) have several limitations that might be relevant during follow-up, like atrial pacing requirements, inadequate therapies, sustained atrial tachyarrhythmias and difficulties to achieve an accurate diagnosis of the arrhythmia. Dual chamber (DC) ICDs offer an attractive and rational solution, although controversy remains if the costs and complexity of these devices offer a real clinical advantage. The Dual Chamber & Atrial Tachyarrhythmias Adverse Events Study (DATAS) was designed to analyze the ability of DC ICD, DDED, to reduce clinically significant adverse events compared with SC ICD in a non-selected population with conventional indications for ICD implantation. This is a prospective, multicentre, randomized, open labelled study, with three arms: two of them (simulated SC ICD and true DC ICD) cross-over, and the third (true SC ICD) parallels the other two. The composite primary end point comprises four Clinically Significant Adverse Events (CSAE): (1) all-cause mortality, (2) invasive intervention, hospitalization or prolongation of hospitalization due to cardiovascular cause, (3) inappropriate shocks, and (4) sustained symptomatic atrial tachyarrhythmias that (a) require urgent termination or (b) last more than 48h leading to therapeutic intervention. Secondary end points constitute each of the individual components of CSAE, cardiovascular status, quality of life and a detailed analysis of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. To date (June 2003) there have been 343 patients enroled from 947 screened patients. The projected enrollment includes 360 patients and the conclusion of the study is expected at the beginning of 2005.

  14. Successful defibrillation in profound hypothermia (core body temperature 25.6 degrees C).

    PubMed

    Thomas, R; Cahill, C J

    2000-11-01

    We report a case of successful defibrillation in a severely hypothermic patient with a core body temperature of 25.6 degrees C as measured oesophageally. Ventricular fibrillation is a recognised life threatening arrhythmia in severely hypothermic patients. The traditional wisdom is that this arrhythmia is refractory to defibrillation at temperatures below 28 degrees C. PMID:11114463

  15. [Psychiatric complication of an implanted automatic defibrillator].

    PubMed

    Goëb, J L; Galloyer-Fortier, A; Dupuis, J M; Victor, J; Gohier, B; Garré, J B

    2003-12-01

    The implantable automatic defibrillator has completely changed the prognosis of potentially fatal ventricular arrhythmias by the delivery of an electric shock in the event of ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. This vital device is sometimes poorly accepted from the psychological point of view by patients having been traumatised by experiences of sudden death from which they have been rescuscitated. Anxiety and depression are common and they have an important effect on the quality of life. The unpredictable occurrence of painful, multiple and uncontrollable electrical shocks may induce a state of acute stress with stunning, the resemblance of which to the model of learned helplessness described experimentally in the animal by Seligman, is discussed. The authors report the case of a 20 year old man whose automatic defibrillator was activated twenty times in one night. His state of stress and impotence was such that he lay prostate in his bed. Suicide seemed to be the only possible way of escaping from the electrical shocks of the device which was perceived as being dangerous. The management of this condition is not standardised but it requires the collaboration of the cardiac rhythmological and psychiatric teams. Medication with antidepressant drugs alone is not sufficient. The regulation of the sensitivity of the defibrillator gives the patient a feeling of mastering the situation: submission is not total! Research along this line should improve the patients' acceptation of the device and their quality of life. PMID:15248453

  16. ICD Shock, Not Ventricular Fibrillation, Causes Elevation of High Sensitive Troponin T after Defibrillation Threshold Testing—The Prospective, Randomized, Multicentre TropShock-Trial

    PubMed Central

    Semmler, Verena; Biermann, Jürgen; Haller, Bernhard; Jilek, Clemens; Sarafoff, Nikolaus; Lennerz, Carsten; Vrazic, Hrvoje; Zrenner, Bernhard; Asbach, Stefan; Kolb, Christof

    2015-01-01

    Background The placement of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) has become routine practice to protect high risk patients from sudden cardiac death. However, implantation-related myocardial micro-damage and its relation to different implantation strategies are poorly characterized. Methods A total of 194 ICD recipients (64±12 years, 83% male, 95% primary prevention of sudden cardiac death, 35% cardiac resynchronization therapy) were randomly assigned to one of three implantation strategies: (1) ICD implantation without any defibrillation threshold (DFT) testing, (2) estimation of the DFT without arrhythmia induction (modified “upper limit of vulnerability (ULV) testing”) or (3) traditional safety margin testing including ventricular arrhythmia induction. High-sensitive Troponin T (hsTnT) levels were determined prior to the implantation and 6 hours after. Results All three groups showed a postoperative increase of hsTnT. The mean delta was 0.031±0.032 ng/ml for patients without DFT testing, 0.080±0.067 ng/ml for the modified ULV-testing and 0.064±0.056 ng/ml for patients with traditional safety margin testing. Delta hsTnT was significantly larger in both of the groups with intraoperative ICD testing compared to the non-testing strategy (p≤0.001 each). There was no statistical difference in delta hsTnT between the two groups with intraoperative ICD testing (p = 0.179). Conclusion High-sensitive Troponin T release during ICD implantation is significantly higher in patients with intraoperative ICD testing using shock applications compared to those without testing. Shock applications, with or without arrhythmia induction, did not result in a significantly different delta hsTnT. Hence, the ICD shock itself and not ventricular fibrillation seems to cause myocardial micro-damage. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01230086 PMID:26208329

  17. Public access defibrillation: a shocking idea?

    PubMed

    Woollard, M

    2001-06-01

    Currently, survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in the United Kingdom is poor. Ambulance response standards require that an ambulance reach 75 per cent of cardiac arrests within 8 min. But a short time to defibrillation from the onset of collapse is a key predictor of outcome from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The Department of Health has recently implemented a lay responder defibrillation programme, with the aim of shortening this time interval for victims in public places. This initiative utilizes automated external defibrillators (AEDs), which provide written and recorded voice prompts to minimize training requirements and errors in use. Lay responder AED programmes with very short response times have reported survival to discharge rates of up to 53 per cent for patients presenting in ventricular fibrillation (VF). This compares well with the results of a meta-analysis that reported a survival rate of only 6.4 per cent for traditional defibrillator-equipped ambulance systems. The annual incidence of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in England is 123 per 100,000 population. Approximately half of these present in VF, and could benefit from an AED programme. But only 16 per cent of cardiac arrests occur in a public place. It has been calculated that there are approximately 5,000 instances of VF in public places each year in England. If half of these patients can be reached and administered a first shock within 4 min of their collapse, an additional 400 victims may survive each year. Given the current investment by the DoH of 2 million pounds, this suggests a cost per life saved of approximately 505 pounds over a 10 year period. PMID:11450941

  18. Potential impact of public access defibrillators on survival after out of hospital cardiopulmonary arrest: retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Pell, Jill P; Sirel, Jane M; Marsden, Andrew K; Ford, Ian; Walker, Nicola L; Cobbe, Stuart M

    2002-01-01

    Objective To estimate the potential impact of public access defibrillators on overall survival after out of hospital cardiac arrest. Design Retrospective cohort study using data from an electronic register. A statistical model was used to estimate the effect on survival of placing public access defibrillators at suitable or possibly suitable sites. Setting Scottish Ambulance Service. Subjects Records of all out of hospital cardiac arrests due to heart disease in Scotland in 1991-8. Main outcome measures Observed and predicted survival to discharge from hospital. Results Of 15 189 arrests, 12 004 (79.0%) occurred in sites not suitable for the location of public access defibrillators, 453 (3.0%) in sites where they may be suitable, and 2732 (18.0%) in suitable sites. Defibrillation was given in 67.9% of arrests that occurred in possibly suitable sites for locating defibrillators and in 72.9% of arrests that occurred in suitable sites. Compared with an actual overall survival of 744 (5.0%), the predicted survival with public access defibrillators ranged from 942 (6.3%) to 959 (6.5%), depending on the assumptions made regarding defibrillator coverage. Conclusions The predicted increase in survival from targeted provision of public access defibrillators is less than the increase achievable through expansion of first responder defibrillation to non-ambulance personnel, such as police or firefighters, or of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Additional resources for wide scale coverage of public access defibrillators are probably not justified by the marginal improvement in survival. What is already known on this topicThree quarters of all deaths from acute coronary events occur before the patient reaches a hospitalDefibrillation is an independent predictor of survival from out of hospital cardiac arrestThe probability of a rhythm being amenable to defibrillation declines with timeInterest in providing public access defibrillators to reduce the time to

  19. Pacemaker and Defibrillator Lead Extraction

    MedlinePlus

    ... to cure the infection without completely removing all hardware from the body. This requires removal of the ... Footnotes References Figures & Tables Info & Metrics eLetters Article Tools Print Citation Tools Pacemaker and Defibrillator Lead Extraction ...

  20. Optimizing defibrillation waveforms for ICDs.

    PubMed

    Kroll, Mark W; Swerdlow, Charles D

    2007-04-01

    While no simple electrical descriptor provides a good measure of defibrillation efficacy, the waveform parameters that most directly influence defibrillation are voltage and duration. Voltage is a critical parameter for defibrillation because its spatial derivative defines the electrical field that interacts with the heart. Similarly, waveform duration is a critical parameter because the shock interacts with the heart for the duration of the waveform. Shock energy is the most often cited metric of shock strength and an ICD's capacity to defibrillate, but it is not a direct measure of shock effectiveness. Despite the physiological complexities of defibrillation, a simple approach in which the heart is modeled as passive resistor-capacitor (RC) network has proved useful for predicting efficient defibrillation waveforms. The model makes two assumptions: (1) The goal of both a monophasic shock and the first phase of a biphasic shock is to maximize the voltage change in the membrane at the end of the shock for a given stored energy. (2) The goal of the second phase of a biphasic shock is to discharge the membrane back to the zero potential, removing the charge deposited by the first phase. This model predicts that the optimal waveform rises in an exponential upward curve, but such an ascending waveform is difficult to generate efficiently. ICDs use electronically efficient capacitive-discharge waveforms, which require truncation for effective defibrillation. Even with optimal truncation, capacitive-discharge waveforms require more voltage and energy to achieve the same membrane voltage than do square waves and ascending waveforms. In ICDs, the value of the shock output capacitance is a key intermediary in establishing the relationship between stored energy-the key determinant of ICD size-and waveform voltage as a function of time, the key determinant of defibrillation efficacy. The RC model predicts that, for capacitive-discharge waveforms, stored energy is minimized

  1. Transthoracic electrical impedance during external defibrillation: comparison of measured and modelled waveforms.

    PubMed

    Al Hatib, F; Trendafilova, E; Daskalov, I

    2000-02-01

    The transthoracic electrical impedance is an important defibrillation parameter, affecting the defibrillating current amplitude and energy, and therefore the defibrillation efficiency. A close relationship between transthoracic impedance and defibrillation success rate was observed. Pre-shock measurements (using low amplitude high frequency current) of the impedance were considered a solution for selection of adequate shock voltages or for current-based defibrillation dosage. A recent approach, called 'impedance-compensating defibrillation' was implemented, where the pulse duration was controlled with respect to the impedance measured during the initial phase of the shock. These considerations raised our interest in reassessment of the transthoracic impedance characteristics and the corresponding measurement methods. The purpose of this work is to study the variations of the transthoracic impedance by a continuous measurement technique during the defibrillation shock and comparing the data with results obtained by modelling. Voltage and current impulse waveforms were acquired during cardioversion of patients with atrial fibrillation or flutter. The same type of defibrillation pulse was taken from dogs after induction of fibrillation. The electrodes were located in the anterior position, for both the patients and animals.

  2. What Is an Automated External Defibrillator?

    MedlinePlus

    ANSWERS by heart Treatments + Tests What Is an Automated External Defibrillator? An automated external defibrillator (AED) is a lightweight, portable device ... AED? Non-medical personnel such as police, fire service personnel, flight attendants, security guards and other lay ...

  3. Utilization of YouTube as a Tool to Assess Patient Perception Regarding Implanted Cardiac Devices

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, Kevin; Mainali, Prajeena; Deshmukh, Abhishek; Pant, Sadip; Badheka, Apurva O; Paydak, Hakan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The outreach of YouTube may have a dramatic role in the widespread dissemination of knowledge on implantable cardioverter devices (ICD). Aims: This study was designed to review and analyze the information available on YouTube pertaining to implantable cardiac devices such as implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) and pacemakers. Materials and Methods: YouTube was queried for the terms “ICD”, “Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator”, and “Pacemaker”. The videos were reviewed and categorized as according to content; number of views and “likes” or “dislikes” was recorded by two separate observers. Results: Of the 55 videos reviewed, 18 of the videos were categorized as patient education, 12 were advertisements, 8 were intraoperative videos documenting the device implantation procedures, 7 of the videos were produced to document personal patient experiences, and 4 were categorized as documentation of a public event. 3 were intended to educate health care workers. The remaining 3 were intended to raise public awareness about sudden cardiac death. The videos portraying intraoperative procedures generated the most “likes” or “dislikes” per view. Conclusion: While YouTube provides a logical platform for delivery of health information, the information on this platform is not regulated. Initiative by reputed authorities and posting accurate information in such platform can be a great aid in public education regarding device therapy. PMID:25077075

  4. 21 CFR 870.5325 - Defibrillator tester.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Defibrillator tester. 870.5325 Section 870.5325...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Therapeutic Devices § 870.5325 Defibrillator tester. (a) Identification. A defibrillator tester is a device that is connected to the output of...

  5. Sudden and Fatal Malfunction of a Durata Defibrillator Lead due to External Insulation Failure.

    PubMed

    Shah, Anand D; Hirsh, David S; Langberg, Jonathan J

    2016-01-01

    Defibrillator lead malfunction can be a disastrous complication, leading to loss of protection from sudden cardiac death in a high-risk patient population. Recognition of lead-specific risk for failure can assist in development of focused screening or surveillance, as in the case of the Riata lead (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA) or the Sprint Fidelis lead (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA). A case of defibrillation failure secondary to a Durata lead insulation failure is presented. A brief review of the literature and current St. Jude Medical implantable cardiac defibrillator lead design is presented. Identification of arcing is identified as a potential sign of catastrophic insulation failure.

  6. Sudden Cardiac Arrest in a Patient With Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Case Report and a Brief Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Tanush; Paul, Neha; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Balasubramaniyam, Nivas; Aronow, Wilbert S; Kolte, Dhaval; Khera, Sahil; Shah, Amar B; Gass, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a phenotypic variant of nonobstructive HCM, in which hypertrophy of the myocardium predominantly involves the left ventricular apex. It is common in Japanese and other Asian populations but is rare in the United States. Apical HCM has a relatively benign prognosis in terms of cardiovascular mortality; however, morbid events such as ventricular aneurysms, apical thrombi, diastolic dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, and myocardial infarction are not uncommon. We report a case of an 18-year-old white man who presented to our hospital after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The patient had a witnessed collapse while playing basketball in the field. He was found to be pulseless and unresponsive by his coach, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was immediately started. Upon arrival of emergency medical services, an automated external defibrillator advised shock and he was defibrillated thrice. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 15 minutes. He was intubated for airway protection and was brought to the hospital. Therapeutic hypothermia was initiated. He demonstrated good neurological status after active rewarming. Subsequent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of apical HCM with right ventricular involvement. The patient underwent an implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement for secondary prevention and was subsequently discharged. In conclusion, apical HCM can rarely be associated with adverse cardiovascular events. The diagnosis may be missed on transthoracic 2-dimensional cardiac echocardiogram, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging should be considered to exclude apical HCM in young patients who present after sudden cardiac arrest. PMID:25923227

  7. Sudden Cardiac Arrest in a Patient With Apical Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy: Case Report and a Brief Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Tanush; Paul, Neha; Palaniswamy, Chandrasekar; Balasubramaniyam, Nivas; Aronow, Wilbert S; Kolte, Dhaval; Khera, Sahil; Shah, Amar B; Gass, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Apical hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a phenotypic variant of nonobstructive HCM, in which hypertrophy of the myocardium predominantly involves the left ventricular apex. It is common in Japanese and other Asian populations but is rare in the United States. Apical HCM has a relatively benign prognosis in terms of cardiovascular mortality; however, morbid events such as ventricular aneurysms, apical thrombi, diastolic dysfunction, atrial fibrillation, and myocardial infarction are not uncommon. We report a case of an 18-year-old white man who presented to our hospital after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. The patient had a witnessed collapse while playing basketball in the field. He was found to be pulseless and unresponsive by his coach, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation was immediately started. Upon arrival of emergency medical services, an automated external defibrillator advised shock and he was defibrillated thrice. Return of spontaneous circulation was achieved in 15 minutes. He was intubated for airway protection and was brought to the hospital. Therapeutic hypothermia was initiated. He demonstrated good neurological status after active rewarming. Subsequent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of apical HCM with right ventricular involvement. The patient underwent an implantable cardioverter defibrillator placement for secondary prevention and was subsequently discharged. In conclusion, apical HCM can rarely be associated with adverse cardiovascular events. The diagnosis may be missed on transthoracic 2-dimensional cardiac echocardiogram, and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging should be considered to exclude apical HCM in young patients who present after sudden cardiac arrest.

  8. My Child Needs or Has an Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator: What Should I Do?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Association . Circulation . 2011 ; 123 : 1454 – 1485 . OpenUrl FREE Full Text 5. ↵ Brown RT DeMaso DR . Pediatric heart disease . ... shock . Circulation . 2005 ; 111 : e380 – e382 . OpenUrl FREE Full Text 8. ↵ MedTees . http://www.cafepress.com/medtees/s_icd . ...

  9. 77 FR 20873 - Qualification of Drivers; Application for Exemptions; Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-06

    ... on January 17, 2008 (73 FR 3316), or you may visit http://edocket.access.gpo.gov/2008/pdf/E8-785.pdf... final rule implementing section 4007 (69 FR 51589). Under this rule, FMCSA must publish a notice of each... person has no current clinical diagnosis of myocardial infarction, angina pectoris,...

  10. Use of Automated External Defibrillators

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory K Christensen

    2009-02-01

    In an effort to improve survival from cardiac arrest, the American Heart Association (AHA) has promoted the Chain of Survival concept, describing a sequence of prehospital steps that result in improved survival after sudden cardiac arrest. These interventions include immediate deployment of emergency medical services, prompt cardiopulmonary resuscitation, early defibrillation when indicated, and early initiation of advanced medical care. Early defibrillation has emerged as the most important intervention with survival decreasing by 10% with each minute of delay in defibrillation. Ventricular Fibrillation (VF) is a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the heart cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them tremble rather than contract properly. VF is a medical emergency and if the arrhythmia continues for more than a few seconds, blood circulation will cease, and death can occur in a matter of minutes. During VF, contractions of the heart are not synchronized, blood flow ceases, organs begin to fail from oxygen deprivation and within 10 minutes, death will occur. When VF occurs, the victim must be defibrillated in order to establish the heart’s normal rhythm. On average, the wait for an ambulance in populated areas of the United States is about 11 minutes. In view of these facts, the EFCOG Electrical Safety Task Group initiated this review to evaluate the potential value of deployment and use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) for treatment of SCA victims. This evaluation indicates the long term survival benefit to victims of SCA is high if treated with CPR plus defibrillation within the first 3-5 minutes after collapse. According to the American Heart Association (AHA), survival rates as high as 74% are possible if treatment and defibrillation is performed in the first 3 minutes. In contrast survival rates are only 5% where no AED programs have been established to provide prompt CPR and defibrillation. ["CPR statistics

  11. Management of Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients with Mechanical Ventricular Support Devices.

    PubMed

    Healy, Chris; Viles-Gonzalez, Juan F; Sacher, Frederic; Coffey, James O; d'Avila, Andre

    2015-08-01

    The use of mechanical ventricular support devices in the management of patients with advanced heart failure continues to increase. These devices have been shown to prolong life as a destination therapy and to increase survival when used as a bridge to transplantation. However, they are associated with a high rate of complications, including bleeding, infection, device malfunction, and ventricular arrhythmias (VAs). The mechanical support provided by the device typically allows for VAs to be well tolerated in the acute setting, though there are numerous long-term complications related to VAs such as ventricular remodeling, right ventricular failure in patients with left ventricular assist devices, and possibly increased mortality. Controversy exists as to the appropriate role of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in these patients. This review will focus on the management options available for patients with mechanical ventricular support devices and VAs. PMID:26072439

  12. Arrhythmia risk stratification of patients after myocardial infarction using personalized heart models.

    PubMed

    Arevalo, Hermenegild J; Vadakkumpadan, Fijoy; Guallar, Eliseo; Jebb, Alexander; Malamas, Peter; Wu, Katherine C; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) from arrhythmias is a leading cause of mortality. For patients at high SCD risk, prophylactic insertion of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) reduces mortality. Current approaches to identify patients at risk for arrhythmia are, however, of low sensitivity and specificity, which results in a low rate of appropriate ICD therapy. Here, we develop a personalized approach to assess SCD risk in post-infarction patients based on cardiac imaging and computational modelling. We construct personalized three-dimensional computer models of post-infarction hearts from patients' clinical magnetic resonance imaging data and assess the propensity of each model to develop arrhythmia. In a proof-of-concept retrospective study, the virtual heart test significantly outperformed several existing clinical metrics in predicting future arrhythmic events. The robust and non-invasive personalized virtual heart risk assessment may have the potential to prevent SCD and avoid unnecessary ICD implantations. PMID:27164184

  13. Arrhythmia risk stratification of patients after myocardial infarction using personalized heart models

    PubMed Central

    Arevalo, Hermenegild J.; Vadakkumpadan, Fijoy; Guallar, Eliseo; Jebb, Alexander; Malamas, Peter; Wu, Katherine C.; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2016-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) from arrhythmias is a leading cause of mortality. For patients at high SCD risk, prophylactic insertion of implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) reduces mortality. Current approaches to identify patients at risk for arrhythmia are, however, of low sensitivity and specificity, which results in a low rate of appropriate ICD therapy. Here, we develop a personalized approach to assess SCD risk in post-infarction patients based on cardiac imaging and computational modelling. We construct personalized three-dimensional computer models of post-infarction hearts from patients' clinical magnetic resonance imaging data and assess the propensity of each model to develop arrhythmia. In a proof-of-concept retrospective study, the virtual heart test significantly outperformed several existing clinical metrics in predicting future arrhythmic events. The robust and non-invasive personalized virtual heart risk assessment may have the potential to prevent SCD and avoid unnecessary ICD implantations. PMID:27164184

  14. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Scar Imaging for Sudden Cardiac Death Risk Stratification in Patients with Non-Ischemic Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; Chattranukulchai, Pairoj

    2015-01-01

    In patients with non-ischemic cardiomyopathy (NICM), risk stratification for sudden cardiac death (SCD) and selection of patients who would benefit from prophylactic implantable cardioverter-defibrillators remains challenging. We aim to discuss the evidence of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR)-derived myocardial scar for the prediction of adverse cardiovascular outcomes in NICM. From the 15 studies analyzed, with a total of 2747 patients, the average prevalence of myocardial scar was 41%. In patients with myocardial scar, the risk for adverse cardiac events was more than 3-fold higher, and risk for arrhythmic events 5-fold higher, as compared to patients without scar. Based on the available observational, single center studies, CMR scar assessment may be a promising new tool for SCD risk stratification, which merits further investigation. PMID:26175568

  15. Bundle-Branch Block Morphology and Other Predictors of Outcome After Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy in Medicare Patients

    PubMed Central

    Bilchick, Kenneth C.; Kamath, Sandeep; DiMarco, John P.; Stukenborg, George J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Clinical trials of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) have enrolled a select group of patients, with few patients in subgroups such as right bundle-branch block (RBBB). Analysis of population-based outcomes provides a method to identify real-world predictors of CRT outcomes. Methods and Results Medicare Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Registry (2005 to 2006) data were merged with patient outcomes data. Cox proportional-hazards models assessed death and death/heart failure hospitalization outcomes in patients with CRT and an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (CRT-D). The 14 946 registry patients with CRT-D (median follow-up, 40 months) had 1-year, 3-year, and overall mortality rates of 12%, 32%, and 37%, respectively. New York Heart Association class IV heart failure status (1-year hazard ratio [HR], 2.23; 3-year HR, 1.98; P<0.001) and age ≥80 years (1-year HR, 1.74; 3-year HR, 1.75; P<0.001) were associated with increased mortality both early and late after CRT-D. RBBB (1-year HR, 1.44; 3-year HR, 1.37; P<0.001) and ischemic cardiomyopathy (1-year HR, 1.39; 3-year HR, 1.44; P<0.001) were the next strongest adjusted predictors of both early and late mortality. RBBB and ischemic cardiomyopathy together had twice the adjusted hazard for death (HR, 1.99; P<0.001) as left BBB and nonischemic cardiomyopathy. QRS duration of at least 150 ms predicted more favorable outcomes in left BBB but had no impact in RBBB. A secondary analysis showed lower hazards for CRT-D compared with standard implantable cardioverter-defibrillators in left BBB compared with RBBB. Conclusions In Medicare patients, RBBB, ischemic cardiomyopathy, New York Heart Association class IV status, and advanced age were powerful adjusted predictors of poor outcome after CRT-D. Real-world mortality rates 3 to 4 years after CRT-D appear higher than previously recognized. PMID:21041691

  16. Risk Stratification for Sudden Cardiac Death In Patients With Non-ischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Shekha, Karthik; Ghosh, Joydeep; Thekkoott, Deepak; Greenberg, Yisachar

    2005-01-01

    Non ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDCM) is a disorder of myocardium. It has varying etiologies. Albeit the varying etiologies of this heart muscle disorder, it presents with symptoms of heart failure, and rarely as sudden cardiac death (SCD). Manifestations of this disorder are in many ways similar to its counterpart, ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (IDCM). A proportion of patients with NIDCM carries a grave prognosis and is prone to sudden cardiac death from sustained ventricular arrhythmias. Identification of this subgroup of patients who carry the risk of sudden cardiac death despite adequate medical management is a challenge .Yet another method is a blanket treatment of patients with this disorder with anti arrhythmic medications or anti tachyarrhythmia devices like implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD). However this modality of treatment could be a costly exercise even for affluent economies. In this review we try to analyze the existing data of risk stratification of NIDCM and its clinical implications in practice. PMID:16943952

  17. Defibrillation time intervals and outcomes of cardiac arrest in hospital: retrospective cohort study from Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wenhui; Chan, Paul S; Nallamothu, Brahmajee K; Grunwald, Gary K; Self, Alyssa; Sasson, Comilla; Varosy, Paul D; Anderson, Monique L; Schneider, Preston M; Ho, P Michael

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe temporal trends in the time interval between first and second attempts at defibrillation and the association between this time interval and outcomes in patients with persistent ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation (VT/VF) arrest in hospital. Design Retrospective cohort study Setting 172 hospitals in the United States participating in the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry, 2004-12. Participants Adults who received a second defibrillation attempt for persistent VT/VF arrest within three minutes of a first attempt. Interventions Second defibrillation attempts categorized as early (time interval of up to and including one minute between first and second defibrillation attempts) or deferred (time interval of more than one minute between first and second defibrillation attempts). Main outcome measure Survival to hospital discharge. Results Among 2733 patients with persistent VT/VF after the first defibrillation attempt, 1121 (41%) received a deferred second attempt. Deferred second defibrillation for persistent VT/VF increased from 26% in 2004 to 57% in 2012 (P<0.001 for trend). Compared with early second defibrillation, unadjusted patient outcomes were significantly worse with deferred second defibrillation (57.4% v 62.5% for return of spontaneous circulation, 38.4% v 43.6% for survival to 24 hours, and 24.7% v 30.8% for survival to hospital discharge; P<0.01 for all comparisons). After risk adjustment, deferred second defibrillation was not associated with survival to hospital discharge (propensity weighting adjusted risk ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.78 to 1.01; P=0.08; hierarchical regression adjusted 0.92, 0.83 to 1.02; P=0.1). Conclusions Since 2004, the use of deferred second defibrillation for persistent VT/VF in hospital has doubled. Deferred second defibrillation was not associated with improved survival. PMID:27052620

  18. Transthoracic defibrillation: effect of sternotomy on chest impedance.

    PubMed

    Kerber, R E; Vance, S; Schomer, S J; Mariano, D J; Charbonnier, F

    1992-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of sternotomy on transthoracic impedance, a major determinant of current flow and defibrillation success. Transthoracic impedance was determined by using a validated test-pulse technique that does not require actual shocks. Seventeen patients undergoing median sternotomy were studied prospectively. Transthoracic impedance was determined before operation, 3 to 5 days after operation and (in eight patients) greater than or equal to 1 month after operation. When measured using paddle electrodes placed in the standard apex-right parasternal defibrillating position, transthoracic impedance declined after sternotomy in all patients, from 77 +/- 18 to 59 +/- 17 omega (p less than 0.01); smaller declines were demonstrated by using other electrode positions. Transthoracic impedance remained below the preoperative level in the eight patients who underwent a second set of measurements at least 1 month after operation. Six normal subjects not undergoing sternotomy underwent serial transthoracic impedance measurements at least 5 days apart; mean transthoracic impedance did not change. It is concluded that transthoracic impedance declines after sternotomy. At any operator-selected energy level a higher current flow will result after sternotomy; this may facilitate postoperative defibrillation.

  19. Pediatric defibrillation after cardiac arrest: initial response and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; López-Herce, Jesús; García, Cristina; Domínguez, Pedro; Carrillo, Angel; Bellón, Jose María

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Shockable rhythms are rare in pediatric cardiac arrest and the results of defibrillation are uncertain. The objective of this study was to analyze the results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation that included defibrillation in children. Methods Forty-four out of 241 children (18.2%) who were resuscitated from inhospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest had been treated with manual defibrillation. Data were recorded according to the Utstein style. Outcome variables were a sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and one-year survival. Characteristics of patients and of resuscitation were evaluated. Results Cardiac disease was the major cause of arrest in this group. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (PVT) was the first documented electrocardiogram rhythm in 19 patients (43.2%). A shockable rhythm developed during resuscitation in 25 patients (56.8%). The first shock (dose, 2 J/kg) terminated VF or PVT in eight patients (18.1%). Seventeen children (38.6%) needed more than three shocks to solve VF or PVT. ROSC was achieved in 28 cases (63.6%) and it was sustained in 19 patients (43.2%). Only three patients (6.8%), however, survived at 1-year follow-up. Children with VF or PVT as the first documented rhythm had better ROSC, better initial survival and better final survival than children with subsequent VF or PVT. Children who survived were older than the finally dead patients. No significant differences in response rate were observed when first and second shocks were compared. The survival rate was higher in patients treated with a second shock dose of 2 J/kg than in those who received higher doses. Outcome was not related to the cause or the location of arrest. The survival rate was inversely related to the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Conclusion Defibrillation is necessary in 18% of children who suffer cardiac arrest. Termination of VF or PVT after the first defibrillation dose is achieved in a low

  20. Comparison of single-biphasic versus sequential-biphasic shocks on defibrillation threshold in pigs.

    PubMed

    Csanadi, Z; Jones, D L; Wood, G K; Klein, G J

    1997-06-01

    Current generation implantable cardioverter defibrillators use monophasic, biphasic, or sequential pulse shocks, most of which truncate after a given time, dumping the remaining charge on the capacitor through an internal resistor. We hypothesized that having an additional current pathway, and delivering the majority of the remaining charge on a single capacitor to the two pathways using additional shock phases, would improve defibrillation efficacy. This hypothesis was tested by comparing DFTs using a simulated single capacitor, single-biphasic shock (two 5-ms pulses separated by 0.2 ms), delivered to coupled pairs of electrodes, to those using a sequential-biphasic shock (four 5-ms pulses separated by 0.2 ms) delivered to separate opposing electrodes, delivered from the same electrodes for both waveforms. In eight open-chest anesthetized pigs, four mesh electrodes (Medtronic TX-7, 6.5 cm2), were sutured on the epicardium of the anterior and posterior surfaces of each ventricle. Shocks were delivered from a 200-microF capacitor bank. Triplicate DFTs were obtained using each waveform in a randomized crossover design. Initial leading edge voltage (mean +/- SEM: 420 +/- 33 V vs 497 +/- 34 V; P < 0.05), initial peak current (4.8 +/- 0.4 A vs 13 +/- 1.1 A; P < 0.001), and delivered energy (16.9 +/- 2.6 J vs 30.4 +/- 5.3 J; P < 0.05) at the DFT were all significantly lower using sequential-biphasic shocks than those using single-biphasic shocks, respectively. We conclude that for direct heart defibrillation, it is worthwhile to combine sequential capability to biphasic shocks and deliver the remaining charge on the capacitor to the two different pathways. PMID:9227756

  1. Electrical Heart Defibrillation with Ion Channel Blockers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feeney, Erin; Clark, Courtney; Puwal, Steffan

    Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality in the United States. Rotary electrical waves within heart muscle underlie electrical disorders of the heart termed fibrillation; their propagation and breakup leads to a complex distribution of electrical activation of the tissue (and of the ensuing mechanical contraction that comes from electrical activation). Successful heart defibrillation has, thus far, been limited to delivering large electrical shocks to activate the entire heart and reset its electrical activity. In theory, defibrillation of a system this nonlinear should be possible with small electrical perturbations (stimulations). A successful algorithm for such a low-energy defibrillator continues to elude researchers. We propose to examine in silica whether low-energy electrical stimulations can be combined with antiarrhythmic, ion channel-blocking drugs to achieve a higher rate of defibrillation and whether the antiarrhythmic drugs should be delivered before or after electrical stimulation has commenced. Progress toward a more successful, low-energy defibrillator will greatly minimize the adverse effects noted in defibrillation and will assist in the development of pediatric defibrillators.

  2. Sudden cardiac death in hemodialysis patients: an in-depth review.

    PubMed

    Green, Darren; Roberts, Paul R; New, David I; Kalra, Philip A

    2011-06-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is the leading cause of death in hemodialysis patients, accounting for death in up to one-quarter of this population. Unlike in the general population, coronary artery disease and heart failure often are not the underlying pathologic processes for SCD; accordingly, current risk stratification tools are inadequate when assessing these patients. Factors assuming greater importance in hemodialysis patients may include left ventricular hypertrophy, electrolyte shift, and vascular calcification. Knowledge regarding SCD in hemodialysis patients is insufficient, in part reflecting the lack of an agreed-on definition of SCD in this population, although epidemiologic studies suggest the most common times for SCD to occur are toward the end of the long 72-hour weekend interval between dialysis sessions and in the 12 hours immediately after hemodialysis. Accordingly, it is hypothesized that the dialysis procedure itself may have important implications for SCD. Supporting this is recognition that hemodialysis is associated with both ventricular arrhythmias and dynamic electrocardiographic changes. Importantly, echocardiography and electrocardiography may show changes that are modifiable by alterations to dialysis prescription. The most effective preventative strategy in the general population, implanted cardioverter-defibrillator devices, are less effective in the presence of chronic kidney disease and have not been studied adequately in dialysis patients. Last, many dialysis patients experience SCD despite not fulfilling current criteria for implantation, making appropriate allocation of defibrillators uncertain.

  3. How are European patients at risk of malignant arrhythmias or sudden cardiac death identified and informed about their risk profile: results of the European Heart Rhythm Association survey.

    PubMed

    Proclemer, Alessandro; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Dagres, Nikolaos; Sciaraffia, Elena; Todd, Derick; Blomstrom-Lundqvist, Carina

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this EP wire is to examine clinical practice in the field of screening of patients of risk of ventricular arrhythmias and/or sudden cardiac death (SCD) in European countries. A systematic screening programme existed in the majority of centres and was organized by a multidisciplinary dedicated team or by an activity programme of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) or heart failure clinics. In particular, high-risk subgroups of patients with ischaemic and non-ischaemic cardiomyopathy ICD implantation are considered strongly indicated within 90 days of myocardial revascularization or initial diagnosis. Cardiac magnetic resonance imaging appears as an important tool to better characterize the left ventricular arrhythmogenic substrate in patients at risk of SCD.

  4. Role of Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging in the Management and Treatment of Ventricular Tachycardia in Patients With Structural Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Mehrotra, Amit K; Callans, David

    2015-01-01

    Treatment for ventricular tachycardia (VT) generally includes 1 or more of the following options: antiarrhythmic therapy, an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and/or catheter ablation. Catheter ablation is performed with an electroanatomic mapping system to define the heart's 3D anatomy, as well as regions of scar. Radiofrequency energy is then applied to areas of abnormal substrate within which are located channels critical to the VT circuit. Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging is a non-invasive modality that provides high-resolution images of cardiac structure and function. CMR has become a very useful tool for sudden cardiac death risk stratification and to facilitate successful radiofrequency ablation of VT in patients with abnormal cardiac substrate. The role of CMR in the management and treatment of VT in patients with structural heart disease is reviewed.

  5. Effect of a single element subcutaneous array electrode added to a transvenous electrode configuration on the defibrillation field and the defibrillation threshold.

    PubMed

    Kühlkamp, V; Dörnberger, V; Khalighi, K; Mewis, C; Suchalla, R; Ziemer, G; Seipel, L

    1998-12-01

    Even with the use of biphasic shocks, up to 5% of patients need an additional subcutaneous lead to obtain a defibrillation safety margin of at least 10 J. The number of patients requiring additional subcutaneous leads may even increase, because recent generation devices have a < 34 J maximum output in order to decrease their size. In 20 consecutive patients, a single element subcutaneous array lead was implanted in addition to a transvenous lead system consisting of a right ventricular (RV) and a vena cava superior lead using a single infraclavicular incision. The RV lead acted as the cathode; the subcutaneous lead and the lead in the subclavian vein acted as the anode. The biphasic defibrillation threshold was determined using a binary search protocol. Patients were randomized as to whether to start them with the transvenous lead configuration or the combination of the transvenous lead and the subcutaneous lead. In addition, a simplified assessment of the defibrillation field was performed by determining the interelectrode area for the transvenous lead only and the transvenous lead in combination with the subcutaneous lead from a biplane chest X ray. The intraoperative defibrillation threshold was reconfirmed after 1 week, after 3 months, and after 12 months. The mean defibrillation threshold with the additional subcutaneous lead was significantly (P = 0.0001) lower (5.7 +/- 2.9 J) than for the transvenous lead system (9.5 +/- 4.6 J). With the subcutaneous lead, the impedance of the high voltage circuit decreased from 48.9 +/- 7.4 omega to 39.2 +/- 5.0 omega. In the frontal plane, the interelectrode area increased by 11.3% +/- 5.5% (P < 0.0001) and in the lateral plane by 29.5% +/- 12.4% (P < 0.0001). The defibrillation threshold did not increase during follow-up. Complications with the subcutaneous electrode were not observed during a follow-up of 15.8 +/- 2 months. The single finger array lead is useful in order to lower the defibrillation threshold and can be

  6. Cardiomyopathy and the use of implanted cardio-defibrillators in children.

    PubMed

    Kaminer, S J; Pickoff, A S; Dunnigan, A; Sterba, R; Wolff, G S

    1990-05-01

    Children and adults with cardiomyopathy and ventricular dysrhythmias have a uniformly poor prognosis, despite medical therapy. The use of automatic implantable cardio-defibrillators in adult patients with medically resistant ventricular dysrhythmias has resulted in a positive impact on survival. Because of its size and former lack of programmability, the device has been used rarely in children. Four patients with cardiomyopathy, in whom refractory ventricular dysrhythmias were managed with automatic implantable cardio-defibrillators, are presented. Two of these children are the youngest and smallest known in whom the device has been used; one of them received the first programmable model. The use of the automatic implantable cardio-defibrillator may enhance survival in selected young patients. PMID:1693196

  7. Prophylactic left thoracic sympathectomy to prevent electrical storms in CPVT patients needing ICD placement.

    PubMed

    Moray, Amol; Kirk, Edwin P; Grant, Peter; Camphausen, Christoph

    2011-11-01

    Catecholaminergic Polymorphic Ventricular Tachycardia (CPVT), a life threatening arrhythmia induced by sympathetic stimulation in susceptible individuals is often refractory to antiarrhythmic agents. First line of treatment, beta-blockers can be ineffective in up to 50% with implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) placement for refractory cases. Paradoxically ICD can be arryhthmogenic from shock-associated sympathetic stimulation, initiating more shocks and "electrical storms". This has led to the use of more effective beta blockade offered by left sympathectomy, now performed by minimally invasive video assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS). Sympathectomy has been traditionally performed long after ICD placement, after the patient has experienced multiple shocks, thus necessitating two procedures. We report simultaneous ICD insertion and thoracoscopic sympathectomy in a 10 year-old boy with CPVT, and suggest it as a better approach than sequential procedures. To our knowledge this is first such reported case.

  8. 75 FR 70015 - External Defibrillators; Public Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... (CDC) to develop a multi-city AED registry that will link with the CDC-funded Cardiac Arrest Registry.... What factors or criteria should be considered when designing external defibrillators for use...

  9. [Public access defibrillation in the Sorrento Peninsula].

    PubMed

    Santomauro, Maurizio; Giordano, Raffaele; Poli, Vincenzo; Iaccarino, Vincenzo; Palagiano, Francesco; Matarazzo, Luigi; Langella, Giuseppina; Riganti, Carla; Vosa, Carlo

    2012-10-01

    Early cardiac defibrillation is the only effective therapy to stop ventricular fibrillation or pulseless ventricular tachycardia. It is still considered the gold standard for the treatment of ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation, and is the only intervention capable of improving survival in cardiac arrest survivors. Timing of intervention, however, is crucial because after only 10 min success rates are very low (0-2%). Unfortunately, adequate relief cannot always be provided within the necessary time. The purpose of the public access defibrillation project in Sorrento was to create fixed and mobile first aid with automated external defibrillators in combination with the local 118 emergency system. With the involvement of pharmacies, bathing establishments and schools, 31 equally distant sites for public access defibrillation were made available. This organization was supplemented by mobile units on the cars of the Municipal Police and Civil Protection, and on patrol boats in the harbor.

  10. Left Ventricular Dilatation Increases the Risk of Ventricular Arrhythmias in Patients With Reduced Systolic Function

    PubMed Central

    Aleong, Ryan G; Mulvahill, Matthew J; Halder, Indrani; Carlson, Nichole E; Singh, Madhurmeet; Bloom, Heather L; Dudley, Samuel C; Ellinor, Patrick T; Shalaby, Alaa; Weiss, Raul; Gutmann, Rebecca; Sauer, William H; Narayanan, Kumar; Chugh, Sumeet S; Saba, Samir; London, Barry

    2015-01-01

    Background Reduced left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction increases the risk of ventricular arrhythmias; however, LV ejection fraction has a low sensitivity to predict ventricular arrhythmias. LV dilatation and mass may be useful to further risk-stratify for ventricular arrhythmias. Methods and Results Patients from the Genetic Risk of Assessment of Defibrillator Events (GRADE) study (N =930), a study of heart failure subjects with defibrillators, were assessed for appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shock and death, heart transplant, or ventricular assist device placement by LV diameter and mass. LV mass was divided into normal, mild, moderate, and severe classifications. Severe LV end-diastolic diameter had worse shock-free survival than normal and mild LV end-diastolic diameter (P =0.0002 and 0.0063, respectively; 2-year shock free, severe 74%, moderate 80%, mild 91%, normal 88%; 4-year shock free, severe 62%, moderate 69%, mild 72%, normal 81%) and freedom from death, transplant, or ventricular assist device compared with normal and moderate LV end-diastolic diameter (P<0.0001 and 0.0441, respectively; 2-year survival: severe 78%, moderate 85%, mild 82%, normal 89%; 4-year survival: severe 55%, moderate 64%, mild 63%, normal 74%). Severe LV mass had worse shock-free survival than normal and mild LV mass (P =0.0370 and 0.0280, respectively; 2-year shock free: severe 80%, moderate 81%, mild 91%, normal 87%; 4-year shock free: severe 68%, moderate 73%, mild 76%, normal 76%) but no association with death, transplant, or ventricular assist device (P =0.1319). In a multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis adjusted for LV ejection fraction, LV end-diastolic diameter was associated with appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator shocks (hazard ratio 1.22, P =0.020). LV end-diastolic diameter was associated with time to death, transplant, or ventricular assist device (hazard ratio 1.29, P =0.0009). Conclusions LV dilatation may complement

  11. Defibrillation in the movies: a missed opportunity for public health education

    PubMed Central

    Mgbako, Ofole U.; Ha, Yoonhee P.; Ranard, Benjamin L.; Hypolite, Kendra A.; Sellers, Allison M.; Nadkarni, Lindsay D.; Becker, Lance B.; Asch, David A.; Merchant, Raina M.

    2014-01-01

    Aim To characterise defibrillation and cardiac arrest survival outcomes in movies. Methods Movies from 2003–2012 with defibrillation scenes were reviewed for patient and rescuer characteristics, scene characteristics, defibrillation characteristics, additional interventions, and cardiac arrest survival outcomes. Resuscitation actions were compared with chain of survival actions and the American Heart Association (AHA) Emergency Cardiovascular Care (ECC) 2020 Impact Goals. Cardiac arrest survival outcomes were compared with survival rates reported in the literature and targeted by the AHA ECC 2020 Impact Goals. Results Thirty-five scenes were identified in 32 movies. Twenty-five (71%) patients were male, and 29 (83%) rescuers were male. Intent of defibrillation was resuscitation in 29 (83%) scenes and harm in 6 (17%) scenes. Cardiac arrest was the indication for use in 23 (66%) scenes, and the heart rhythm was made known in 18 scenes (51%). When the heart rhythm was known, defibrillation was appropriately used for ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation in 5 (28%) scenes and inappropriately used for asystole in 7 (39%) scenes. In 8 scenes with in-hospital cardiac arrest, 7 (88%) patients survived, compared to survival rates of 23.9% reported in the literature and 38% targeted by an AHA ECC 2020 Impact Goal. In 12 movie scenes with out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, 8 (67%) patients survived, compared to survival rates of 7.9–9.5% reported in peer-reviewed literature and 15.8% targeted by an AHA ECC 2020 Impact Goal. Conclusion In movies, defibrillation and cardiac arrest survival outcomes are often portrayed inaccurately, representing missed opportunities for public health education. PMID:25241344

  12. Increased Platelet-to-Lymphocyte Ratios and Low Relative Lymphocyte Counts Predict Appropriate Shocks in Heart Failure Patients with ICDs

    PubMed Central

    Balci, Kevser Gülcihan; Balci, Mustafa Mücahit; Arslan, Ugur; Açar, Burak; Maden, Orhan; Selcuk, Hatice; Selcuk, Timur

    2016-01-01

    Background Platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) and relative lymphocyte count (L%) are commonly available tests that can be obtained from complete blood count. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between appropriate defibrillator therapy and PLR, and whether decreased lymphocyte count may predict appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks in heart failure (HF) patients. Methods A total of 147 patients with ischemic or non-ischemic HF who underwent ICD implantation for primary prevention were enrolled in this study. Peripheral venous blood samples were drawn on the same day as ICD implantation. White blood cell counts with differentials, red blood cell indices, and platelet counts were calculated with an automated blood cell counter. All patients were evaluated according to the presence of appropriate ICD therapy. Results Baseline ejection fraction was significantly lower in the appropriate shock received group (p = 0.040). Median PLR was significantly higher and L% was significantly lower in the appropriate shock received group (p < 0.001). In both ischemic and non-ischemic HF groups, median L% was significantly lower in the appropriate shock received group (p < 0.001; p = 0.006, respectively). In multivariable logistic regression analysis, only L% showed a strong association with appropriate shock therapy (p < 0.001). Conclusions Higher PLRs are related to appropriate shocks in patients that received ICD with lower EF. Furthermore, decreased L% is independently associated with appropriate shocks in HF. PMID:27713602

  13. Integration of Attributes from Non-Linear Characterization of Cardiovascular Time-Series for Prediction of Defibrillation Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Shandilya, Sharad; Kurz, Michael C.; Ward, Kevin R.; Najarian, Kayvan

    2016-01-01

    Objective The timing of defibrillation is mostly at arbitrary intervals during cardio-pulmonary resuscitation (CPR), rather than during intervals when the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOH-CA) patient is physiologically primed for successful countershock. Interruptions to CPR may negatively impact defibrillation success. Multiple defibrillations can be associated with decreased post-resuscitation myocardial function. We hypothesize that a more complete picture of the cardiovascular system can be gained through non-linear dynamics and integration of multiple physiologic measures from biomedical signals. Materials and Methods Retrospective analysis of 153 anonymized OOH-CA patients who received at least one defibrillation for ventricular fibrillation (VF) was undertaken. A machine learning model, termed Multiple Domain Integrative (MDI) model, was developed to predict defibrillation success. We explore the rationale for non-linear dynamics and statistically validate heuristics involved in feature extraction for model development. Performance of MDI is then compared to the amplitude spectrum area (AMSA) technique. Results 358 defibrillations were evaluated (218 unsuccessful and 140 successful). Non-linear properties (Lyapunov exponent > 0) of the ECG signals indicate a chaotic nature and validate the use of novel non-linear dynamic methods for feature extraction. Classification using MDI yielded ROC-AUC of 83.2% and accuracy of 78.8%, for the model built with ECG data only. Utilizing 10-fold cross-validation, at 80% specificity level, MDI (74% sensitivity) outperformed AMSA (53.6% sensitivity). At 90% specificity level, MDI had 68.4% sensitivity while AMSA had 43.3% sensitivity. Integrating available end-tidal carbon dioxide features into MDI, for the available 48 defibrillations, boosted ROC-AUC to 93.8% and accuracy to 83.3% at 80% sensitivity. Conclusion At clinically relevant sensitivity thresholds, the MDI provides improved performance as compared to AMSA

  14. [Sport for pacemaker patients].

    PubMed

    Israel, C W

    2012-06-01

    Sport activity is an important issue in many patients with a pacemaker either because they performed sport activities before pacemaker implantation to reduce the cardiovascular risk or to improve the course of an underlying cardiovascular disease (e.g. coronary artery disease, heart failure) by sports. Compared to patients with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) the risks from underlying cardiovascular disease (e.g. ischemia, heart failure), arrhythmia, lead dysfunction or inappropriate therapy are less important or absent. Sport is contraindicated in dyspnea at rest, acute heart failure, new complex arrhythmia, acute myocarditis and acute myocardial infarction, valvular disease with indications for intervention and surgery and comorbidities which prevent physical activity. Patients with underlying cardiovascular disease (including hypertension) should preferably perform types and levels of physical activity that are aerobic (with dynamic exercise) such as running, swimming, cycling instead of sport with high anaerobic demands and high muscular workload. In heart failure, studies demonstrated advantages of isometric sport that increases the amount of muscle, thereby preventing cardiac cachexia. Sport with a risk of blows to the chest or physical contact (e.g. boxing, rugby, martial arts) should be avoided. Implantation, programming and follow-up should respect specific precautions to allow optimal physical activity with a pacemaker including implantation of bipolar leads on the side contralateral to the dominant hand, individual programming of the upper sensor and tracking rate and regular exercise testing. PMID:22854824

  15. Malfunctions of Implantable Cardiac Devices in Patients Receiving Proton Beam Therapy: Incidence and Predictors

    SciTech Connect

    Gomez, Daniel R.; Poenisch, Falk; Pinnix, Chelsea C.; Sheu, Tommy; Chang, Joe Y.; Memon, Nada; Mohan, Radhe; Rozner, Marc A.; Dougherty, Anne H.

    2013-11-01

    Purpose: Photon therapy has been reported to induce resets of implanted cardiac devices, but the clinical sequelae of treating patients with such devices with proton beam therapy (PBT) are not well known. We reviewed the incidence of device malfunctions among patients undergoing PBT. Methods and Materials: From March 2009 through July 2012, 42 patients with implanted cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED; 28 pacemakers and 14 cardioverter-defibrillators) underwent 42 courses of PBT for thoracic (23, 55%), prostate (15, 36%), liver (3, 7%), or base of skull (1, 2%) tumors at a single institution. The median prescribed dose was 74 Gy (relative biological effectiveness; range 46.8-87.5 Gy), and the median distance from the treatment field to the CIED was 10 cm (range 0.8-40 cm). Maximum proton and neutron doses were estimated for each treatment course. All CIEDs were checked before radiation delivery and monitored throughout treatment. Results: Median estimated peak proton and neutron doses to the CIED in all patients were 0.8 Gy (range 0.13-21 Gy) and 346 Sv (range 11-1100 mSv). Six CIED malfunctions occurred in 5 patients (2 pacemakers and 3 defibrillators). Five of these malfunctions were CIED resets, and 1 patient with a defibrillator (in a patient with a liver tumor) had an elective replacement indicator after therapy that was not influenced by radiation. The mean distance from the proton beam to the CIED among devices that reset was 7.0 cm (range 0.9-8 cm), and the mean maximum neutron dose was 655 mSv (range 330-1100 mSv). All resets occurred in patients receiving thoracic PBT and were corrected without clinical incident. The generator for the defibrillator with the elective replacement indicator message was replaced uneventfully after treatment. Conclusions: The incidence of CIED resets was about 20% among patients receiving PBT to the thorax. We recommend that PBT be avoided in pacing-dependent patients and that patients with any type of CIED receiving

  16. The Entirely Subcutaneous Defibrillator (S-Icd): State of the Art and Selection of the Ideal Candidate

    PubMed Central

    Maria, Elia De; Olaru, Alina; Cappelli, Stefano

    2015-01-01

    The traditional transvenous defibrillator has been one of the greatest advancement in Cardiology in the last 30 years and has demonstrated to reduce arrhythmic and total mortality in selected patients. However the traditional defibrillator can have a high price to pay in terms of complications, the “weakest link” being the transvenous/endocardial leads. The entirely subcutaneous defibrillator (S-ICD) has recently entered into the clinical scenario and represents a valid alternative to the transvenous device. S-ICD can provide substantial advantages, especially among some subgroups of patients (i.e. after device infection, in young patients and arrhythmogenic syndromes). However, given its characteristics, it is fundamental to choose patients that can benefit the most. In this review we will describe advantages and limitations of the S-ICD and point-out how to select the “ideal candidate” for the implantation. PMID:25158682

  17. [Possibilities for cardiac defibrillation using intravascular electrodes].

    PubMed

    Amosov, G G; Tolpekin, V E; Gasanov, E K; Fomichev, D I

    1987-05-01

    The efficiency of electric defibrillation of the heart was assessed in 17 experiments where the position of action electrodes varied. It is suggested that intravascular application of one electrode plus extravascular application of the other gives the optimum effect. The duration of unassisted reversible fibrillation averaged 3 minutes.

  18. How Can Death Due to Sudden Cardiac Arrest Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... heartbeats that can trigger the ICD. Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillator The illustration shows the location of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator in the upper chest. The electrodes are inserted ...

  19. Rhetorical strategies used in the reporting of implantable defibrillator primary prevention trials.

    PubMed

    Wilson, John R

    2011-06-15

    Previous studies have suggest that the authors of randomized trial reports frequently use rhetorical strategies, such as framing, the use of ratios rather than absolute values to report results, and underreporting of complications, to convince readers of treatment efficacy. The objective of this study was to determine if such rhetorical strategies were used in the publication of implantable-cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) primary prevention trials. Medline and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for all publications that described ICD primary prevention trials and that involved >100 subjects. Each publication was analyzed for evidence of message framing, the exclusive use of ratios to report outcomes, underreporting of ICD complications, and interpretation bias favoring ICD therapy. Ten publications were identified. Introductory remarks in 8 of the 10 publications cited the evaluation of ICD benefits as the sole objective and mentioned only background studies that supported ICD efficacy, suggesting message framing in support of ICD efficacy. Five publications provided no specific information about the frequency of unsuccessful ICD implantations, and 8 publications provided incomplete or no information about implantation and postimplantation complications. ICD complications were not mentioned in the discussion sections of 9 publications, and none of the publications included a comprehensive comparison of ICD benefits versus risks, consistent with interpretation bias. Ratios and statistically insignificant data were not used to emphasize ICD benefits. In conclusion, message framing, underreporting of ICD complications, and interpretation bias were used to emphasize ICD efficacy in the reporting of ICD primary prevention trials.

  20. [Internet therapy for ICD-patients].

    PubMed

    Schulz, S M; Pauli, P

    2011-09-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD) are increasingly used for the prevention of potentially lethal cardiac arrhythmias due to their confirmed superior medical efficiency. Nevertheless, ICD-patients often suffer from psychosocial problems, e.g., anxiety and depression. These issues are rarely addressed in routine medical follow-up care. Due to the limited mobility of many ICD-patients, Internet-based care may be ideal for delivering psychosocial care to patients in their homes. Our pilot study and case studies illustrate prospects and challenges of this approach. We developed icd-forum.de, a 6-week internet-based prevention program that provides a platform for information, a virtual self-help group, and a professionally moderated chat room in order to help decrease anxiety and to improve quality of life. A critical evaluation in the context of other published studies on the subject allows recommendations for the implementation of future internet-based psychosocial programs for ICD-patients to be deduced. It is the authors' opinion that such programs offer advantages specifically for heart failure patients and they recommend their broader use. Prior to this, conclusive evaluation studies are needed. PMID:21826541

  1. Endoscopic Electrosurgery in Patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices

    PubMed Central

    Baeg, Myong Ki; Kim, Sang-Woo; Ko, Sun-Hye; Lee, Yoon Bum; Hwang, Seawon; Lee, Bong-Woo; Choi, Hye Jin; Park, Jae Myung; Lee, In-Seok; Oh, Yong-Seog; Choi, Myung-Gyu

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs) undergoing endoscopic electrosurgery (EE) are at a risk of electromagnetic interference (EMI). We aimed to analyze the effects of EE in CIED patients. Methods: Patients with CIED who underwent EE procedures such as snare polypectomy, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD), and endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST) were retrospectively analyzed. Postprocedural symptoms as well as demographic and outpatient follow-up data were reviewed through medical records. Electrical data, including preprocedural and postprocedural arrhythmia records, were reviewed through pacemaker interrogation, 24-hour Holter monitoring, or electrocardiogram. Results: Fifty-nine procedures in 49 patients were analyzed. Fifty procedures were performed in 43 patients with a pacemaker, and nine were performed in six patients with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. There were one gastric and 44 colon snare polypectomies, five gastric and one colon ESDs, and eight ERCPs with EST. Fifty-five cases of electrical follow-up were noted, with two postprocedural changes not caused by EE. Thirty-one pacemaker interrogations had procedure recordings, with two cases of asymptomatic tachycardia. All patients were asymptomatic with no adverse events. Conclusions: Our study reports no adverse events from EE in patients with CIED, suggesting that this procedure is safe. However, because of the possibility of EMI, recommendations on EE should be followed. PMID:26867552

  2. Automated external defibrillator use for in-hospital emergency management.

    PubMed

    Huschak, G; Dünnebier, A; Kaisers, U X; Huschens, B; Bercker, S

    2016-05-01

    The in-hospital spread of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) is aimed to allow for a shock-delivery within three minutes. However, it has to be questioned if the implementation of AED alone really contributes to a 'heart-safe hospital'. We performed a cohort study of 1008 in-hospital emergency calls in a university tertiary care hospital, analysing cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) cases with and without AED use. In total, 484 patients (48%) had cardiac arrest and received CPR. Response time of the emergency team was 4.3 ± 4.0 minutes. Only 8% percent of the CPR cases had a shockable rhythm. In three of 43 placements a shock was delivered by the AED. There were no differences in survival between patients with CPR only and CPR with AED use. Our data do not support the use of an AED for in-hospital CPR if a professional response team is rapidly available. PMID:27246934

  3. Modeling Defibrillation of the Heart: Approaches and Insights

    PubMed Central

    Trayanova, Natalia; Constantino, Jason; Ashihara, Takashi; Plank, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    Cardiac defibrillation, as accomplished nowadays by automatic, implantable devices (ICDs), constitutes the most important means of combating sudden cardiac death. While ICD therapy has proved to be efficient and reliable, defibrillation is a traumatic experience. Thus, research on defibrillation mechanisms, particularly aimed at lowering defibrillation voltage, remains an important topic. Advancing our understanding towards a full appreciation of the mechanisms by which a shock interacts with the heart is the most promising approach to achieve this goal. The aim of this paper is to assess the current state-of-the-art in ventricular defibrillation modeling, focusing on both numerical modeling approaches and major insights that have been obtained using defibrillation models, primarily those of realistic ventricular geometry. The paper showcases the contributions that modeling and simulation have made to our understanding of the defibrillation process. The review thus provides an example of biophysically based computational modeling of the heart (i.e., cardiac defibrillation) that has advanced the understanding of cardiac electrophysiological interaction at the organ level and has the potential to contribute to the betterment of the clinical practice of defibrillation. PMID:22273793

  4. Reliability systems for implantable cardiac defibrillator batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, Esther S.

    The reliability of the power sources used in implantable cardiac defibrillators is critical due to the life-saving nature of the device. Achieving a high reliability power source depends on several systems functioning together. Appropriate cell design is the first step in assuring a reliable product. Qualification of critical components and of the cells using those components is done prior to their designation as implantable grade. Product consistency is assured by control of manufacturing practices and verified by sampling plans using both accelerated and real-time testing. Results to date show that lithium/silver vanadium oxide cells used for implantable cardiac defibrillators have a calculated maximum random failure rate of 0.005% per test month.

  5. Late Gadolinium Enhancement in Patients with Nonischemic Dilated Cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Memon, Sarfaraz; Ganga, Harsha V; Kluger, Jeffrey

    2016-07-01

    One-third of all patients with heart failure have nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy (NIDM). Five-year mortality from NIDM is as high as 20% with sudden cardiac death (SCD) as the cause in 30% of the deaths. Currently, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is used as the main criteria to risk stratify patients requiring an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) to prevent SCD. However, LVEF does not necessarily reflect myocardial propensity for electrical instability leading to ventricular tachycardia (VT) or ventricular fibrillation (VF). Due to the differential risk in various subgroups of patients for arrhythmic death, it is important to identify appropriate patients for ICD implantation so that we can optimize healthcare resources and avoid the complications of ICDs in individuals who are unlikely to benefit. We performed a systematic search and review of clinical trials of NIDM and the use of ICDs and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging with late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) for risk stratification. LGE identifies patients with NIDM who are at high risk for SCD and enables optimized patient selection for ICD placement, while the absence of LGE may reduce the need for ICD implantation in patients with NIDM who are at low risk for future VF/VT or SCD. PMID:27071516

  6. Legal aspects in implantable defibrillator extraction.

    PubMed

    D'Ovidio, C; Costantini, S; Vellante, P; Carnevale, A

    2013-10-01

    At the Institute of Legal Medicine in Chieti, a case of iatrogenic superior vena cava perforation was observed during laser extraction of an infected biventricular implantable cardiac defibrillator. The presentation of this particular case represented a starting point for studying the occurrence of similar complications in literature, since their knowledge and understanding should induce resolution of any organisation problems, aid in increasing physicians' training and impose the availability of cardiac surgeons during such operations.

  7. Health Care Utilization and Expenditures Associated With Remote Monitoring in Patients With Implantable Cardiac Devices.

    PubMed

    Ladapo, Joseph A; Turakhia, Mintu P; Ryan, Michael P; Mollenkopf, Sarah A; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2016-05-01

    Several randomized trials and decision analysis models have found that remote monitoring may reduce health care utilization and expenditures in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), compared with in-office monitoring. However, little is known about the generalizability of these findings to unselected populations in clinical practice. To compare health care utilization and expenditures associated with remote monitoring and in-office monitoring in patients with CIEDs, we used Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Medicare Supplemental Databases. We selected patients newly implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D), or permanent pacemaker (PPM), in 2009, who had continuous health plan enrollment 2 years after implantation. Generalized linear models and propensity score matching were used to adjust for confounders and estimate differences in health care utilization and expenditures in patients with remote or in-office monitoring. We identified 1,127; 427; and 1,295 pairs of patients with a similar propensity for receiving an ICD, CRT-D, or PPM, respectively. Remotely monitored patients with ICDs experienced fewer emergency department visits resulting in discharge (p = 0.050). Remote monitoring was associated with lower health care expenditures in office visits among patients with PPMs (p = 0.025) and CRT-Ds (p = 0.006) and lower total inpatient and outpatient expenditures in patients with ICDs (p <0.0001). In conclusion, remote monitoring of patients with CIEDs may be associated with reductions in health care utilization and expenditures compared with exclusive in-office care.

  8. Health Care Utilization and Expenditures Associated With Remote Monitoring in Patients With Implantable Cardiac Devices.

    PubMed

    Ladapo, Joseph A; Turakhia, Mintu P; Ryan, Michael P; Mollenkopf, Sarah A; Reynolds, Matthew R

    2016-05-01

    Several randomized trials and decision analysis models have found that remote monitoring may reduce health care utilization and expenditures in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), compared with in-office monitoring. However, little is known about the generalizability of these findings to unselected populations in clinical practice. To compare health care utilization and expenditures associated with remote monitoring and in-office monitoring in patients with CIEDs, we used Truven Health MarketScan Commercial Claims and Medicare Supplemental Databases. We selected patients newly implanted with an implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD), cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator (CRT-D), or permanent pacemaker (PPM), in 2009, who had continuous health plan enrollment 2 years after implantation. Generalized linear models and propensity score matching were used to adjust for confounders and estimate differences in health care utilization and expenditures in patients with remote or in-office monitoring. We identified 1,127; 427; and 1,295 pairs of patients with a similar propensity for receiving an ICD, CRT-D, or PPM, respectively. Remotely monitored patients with ICDs experienced fewer emergency department visits resulting in discharge (p = 0.050). Remote monitoring was associated with lower health care expenditures in office visits among patients with PPMs (p = 0.025) and CRT-Ds (p = 0.006) and lower total inpatient and outpatient expenditures in patients with ICDs (p <0.0001). In conclusion, remote monitoring of patients with CIEDs may be associated with reductions in health care utilization and expenditures compared with exclusive in-office care. PMID:26996767

  9. del Nido versus St. Thomas Cardioplegia Solutions: A Single-Center Retrospective Analysis of Post Cross-Clamp Defibrillation Rates.

    PubMed

    Buel, Shane T; Striker, Carrie Whittaker; O'Brien, James E

    2016-06-01

    There are many cardioplegia solutions currently in use for pediatric cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). The most common being del Nido solution. Another common cardioplegia solution used for pediatric CPB is St. Thomas. In October 2014, Children's Mercy Kansas City changed from the use of modified St. Thomas to del Nido. This study compared rates of post cross-clamp fibrillation requiring defibrillation between del Nido solution and modified St. Thomas solution stratified by weight at Children's Mercy Kansas City. This retrospective study consisted of 394 patients who underwent cardiac surgery requiring cardioplegia between January 1, 2014 and July 31, 2015. The outcome measured was defibrillation upon cross-clamp removal. Statistical significance was determined using Fishers exact test with a two-sided significance level of .05. Incidence of defibrillation post cross-clamp removal was 4.4% in the del Nido group and 26.8% in the St. Thomas group (p < .0001). Analysis by weight stratifications displays a reduction in post cross-clamp defibrillation rates in groups using the del Nido solution. The 0- to 6-kg category had an incidence of fibrillation of 1.23% in the del Nido group and 17.5% in the St. Thomas group (p < .0003). The 6- to 15-kg category had an incidence of defibrillation of 1.82% in the del Nido group and 14% in the St. Thomas group (p < .0198). The 15- to 60-kg category had an incidence of defibrillation of 8.9% in the del Nido group and 61% in the St. Thomas group (p < .0001). The >60-kg category had an incidence of defibrillation of 16.7% in the del Nido group and 63% in the St. Thomas group (p < .0623). This study demonstrates a 6-fold decrease in the overall rate of defibrillation post cross-clamp removal between St. Thomas and del Nido cardioplegia solutions. Analyses of weight stratifications demonstrate a decrease in the rate of defibrillation post cross-clamp removal in all categories within the del Nido group. PMID:27578896

  10. An innovative approach to medical control: semiautomatic defibrillators with solid-state memory modules for recording cardiac arrest events.

    PubMed

    Cummins, R O; Austin, D; Graves, J R; Hambly, C

    1988-08-01

    We evaluated the use of microprocessor-based memory modules incorporated into automatic external defibrillators. These solid-state modules store information about each clinical use, including selected segments of the ECG rhythm and notations on defibrillator operation. A playback unit provides annotated printouts of the recorded information. The purpose of our evaluation was to determine whether this memory module could adequately support medical control "run-reviews" when compared with dualfunction (voice and ECG) tape recordings. A total of 41 resuscitation attempts by emergency medical technicians trained to defibrillate (EMT-Ds) were evaluated in five preselected performance areas: defibrillation skills, command and communication at the scene, patient assessment and support, safety, and speed. When performance was reviewed using the tape recordings, the average EMT-D performance score was 16.2 (maximum, 20); when reviewed using the printouts from the medical control modules, the average score, 7.2, was significantly lower (P less than .01). The lower scores with the medical control module occurred because not all five areas of skill could be evaluated adequately by the memory module approach. Assessment of the areas of communication/command at the scene, patient assessment/support, and safety required verbal tape recordings. The medical control module appeared superior to the tape recordings at providing a quick, convenient, and accurate evaluation of rhythm assessment, shock decisions, time intervals, and defibrillator performance. They make several features of medical control review easier and more convenient, and may encourage implementation of early defibrillation programs. We conclude, however, that medical control modules cannot replace on-scene tape recordings for adequate medical control of EMT-D programs. PMID:3394986

  11. Early out-of-hospital experience with an impedance-compensating low-energy biphasic waveform automatic external defibrillator.

    PubMed

    White, R D

    1997-11-01

    Impedance-compensating low-energy biphasic truncated exponential (BTE) waveforms are effective in transthoracic defibrillation of short-duration ventricular fibrillation (VF). However, the BTE waveform has not been examined in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) with patients in prolonged VF often associated with myocardial ischemia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the BTE waveform automatic external defibrillator (AED) in the out-of-hospital setting with long-duration VF. AEDs incorporating a 150-J BTE waveform were placed in 12 police squad cars and 4 paramedic-staffed advanced life support ambulances. AEDs were applied to arrested patients by first-arriving personnel, whether police or paramedics. Data were obtained from PC Data Cards within the AED. Defibrillation was defined as at least transient termination of VF. Ten patients, 64 +/- 14 years, were treated for VF with BTE shocks. Another 8 patients were in nonshockable rhythms and the AEDs, appropriately, did not advise a shock. Five of the 10 VF arrests were witnessed with a 911 call-to-shock time of 6.6 +/- 1.7 minutes. VF detection and defibrillation occurred in all 10 patients. Spontaneous circulation was restored in 3 of 5 witnessed arrest patients and 1 survived to discharge home. Fifty-one VF episodes were converted with 62 shocks. Presenting VF amplitude and rate were 0.43 +/- 0.22 (0.13-0.86) mV and 232 +/- 62 (122-353) beats/min, respectively, and defibrillation was achieved with the first shock in 7 of 10 patients. Including transient conversions, defibrillation occurred in 42 of 51 VF episodes (82%) with one BTE shock. Shock impedance was 85 +/- 10 (39-138) ohms. Delivered energy and peak voltage were 152 +/- 2 J and 1754 +/- 4 V, respectively. The average number of shocks per VF episode was 1.2 +/- 0.5 (1-3). More than one shock was needed in only 9 episodes; none required > 3 shocks to defibrillate. Impedance-compensating low-energy BTE waveforms terminated VF in OHCA patients

  12. Remote monitoring of patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices: a Southeast Asian, single-centre pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Paul Chun Yih; Lee, Audry Shan Yin; Chua, Kelvin Chi Ming; Lim, Eric Tien Siang; Chong, Daniel Thuan Tee; Tan, Boon Yew; Ho, Kah Leng; Teo, Wee Siong; Ching, Chi Keong

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Remote monitoring of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) has been shown to improve patient safety and reduce in-office visits. We report our experience with remote monitoring via the Medtronic CareLink® network. METHODS Patients were followed up for six months with scheduled monthly remote monitoring transmissions in addition to routine in-office checks. The efficacy of remote monitoring was evaluated by recording compliance to transmissions, number of device alerts requiring intervention and time from transmission to review. Questionnaires were administered to evaluate the experiences of patients, physicians and medical technicians. RESULTS A total of 57 patients were enrolled; 16 (28.1%) had permanent pacemakers, 34 (59.6%) had implantable cardioverter defibrillators and 7 (12.3%) had cardiac resynchronisation therapy defibrillators. Overall, of 334 remote transmissions scheduled, 73.7% were on time, 14.5% were overdue and 11.8% were missed. 84.6% of wireless transmissions were on time, compared to 53.8% of non-wireless transmissions. Among all transmissions, 4.4% contained alerts for which physicians were informed and only 1.8% required intervention. 98.6% of remote transmissions were reviewed by the second working day. 73.2% of patients preferred remote monitoring. Physicians agreed that remote transmissions provided information equivalent to in-office checks 97.1% of the time. 77.8% of medical technicians felt that remote monitoring would help the hospital improve patient management. No adverse events were reported. CONCLUSION Remote monitoring of CIED is safe and feasible. It has possible benefits to patient safety through earlier detection of arrhythmias or device malfunction, permitting earlier intervention. Wireless remote monitoring, in particular, may improve compliance to device monitoring. Patients may prefer remote monitoring due to possible improvements in quality of life. PMID:27439396

  13. A Novel Method for Epicardial Defibrillator Lead Placement in Young Children: Coil Between the Great Arteries.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Raghav; Williams, Matthew R; Perry, James C; Shepard, Suzanne; DiBardino, Daniel

    2016-10-01

    The primary and secondary prevention of sudden cardiac death resulting from malignant arrhythmia, channelopathy, and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy often requires the implantation of automatic internal cardiac defibrillators (AICDs) in the pediatric population. In young patients, the small size of the systemic veins, complex anatomy of congenital heart disease, and body habitus often preclude safe and durable transvenous placement of the AICD coil, requiring innovative methods to circumvent this problem. This report describes the technique used at Rady Children's Hospital San Diego/UCSD for the epicardial placement of an ICD system with a transvenous ICD coil placed between the aorta and pulmonary artery, thereby producing a stable location and excellent coil-to-can vector for successful defibrillation. PMID:27645989

  14. Ventricular Arrhythmias in Apparently Normal Hearts: Who Needs an Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator?

    PubMed

    Tan, Alex Y; Ellenbogen, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia is often considered a benign form of ventricular arrhythmia in patients without apparent structural heart disease. However, a subset of patients may develop malignant ventricular arrhythmias and present with syncope and sudden cardiac arrest. Survivors of cardiac arrest are candidates for implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs). The indications for ICDs in patients with less than a full-blown cardiac arrest presentation but with electrocardiographically high-risk ectopy features remain uncertain. This article addresses some of the uncertainties and pitfalls in ICD risk stratification in this patient group and explores potential mechanisms for malignant conversion of benign premature ventricular complexes to sustained arrhythmia. PMID:27521094

  15. Ventricular Arrhythmias in Apparently Normal Hearts: Who Needs an Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator?

    PubMed

    Tan, Alex Y; Ellenbogen, Kenneth

    2016-09-01

    Idiopathic ventricular tachycardia is often considered a benign form of ventricular arrhythmia in patients without apparent structural heart disease. However, a subset of patients may develop malignant ventricular arrhythmias and present with syncope and sudden cardiac arrest. Survivors of cardiac arrest are candidates for implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs). The indications for ICDs in patients with less than a full-blown cardiac arrest presentation but with electrocardiographically high-risk ectopy features remain uncertain. This article addresses some of the uncertainties and pitfalls in ICD risk stratification in this patient group and explores potential mechanisms for malignant conversion of benign premature ventricular complexes to sustained arrhythmia.

  16. Static filling pressure in patients during induced ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Schipke, J D; Heusch, G; Sanii, A P; Gams, E; Winter, J

    2003-12-01

    The static pressure resulting after the cessation of flow is thought to reflect the filling of the cardiovascular system. In the past, static filling pressures or mean circulatory filling pressures have only been reported in experimental animals and in human corpses, respectively. We investigated arterial and central venous pressures in supine, anesthetized humans with longer fibrillation/defibrillation sequences (FDSs) during cardioverter/defibrillator implantation. In 82 patients, the average number of FDSs was 4 +/- 2 (mean +/- SD), and their duration was 13 +/- 2 s. In a total of 323 FDSs, arterial blood pressure decreased with a time constant of 2.9 +/- 1.0 s from 77.5 +/- 34.4 to 24.2 +/- 5.3 mmHg. Central venous pressure increased with a time constant of 3.6 +/- 1.3 s from 7.5 +/- 5.2 to 11.0 +/- 5.4 mmHg (36 points, 141 FDS). The average arteriocentral venous blood pressure difference remained at 13.2 +/- 6.2 mmHg. Although it slowly decreased, the pressure difference persisted even with FDSs lasting 20 s. Lack of true equilibrium pressure could possibly be due to a waterfall mechanism. However, waterfalls were identified neither between the left ventricle and large arteries nor at the level of the diaphragm in supine patients. We therefore suggest that static filling pressures/mean circulatory pressures can only be directly assessed if the time after termination of cardiac pumping is adequate, i.e., >20 s. For humans, such times are beyond ethical options. PMID:12907428

  17. Static filling pressure in patients during induced ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Schipke, J D; Heusch, G; Sanii, A P; Gams, E; Winter, J

    2003-12-01

    The static pressure resulting after the cessation of flow is thought to reflect the filling of the cardiovascular system. In the past, static filling pressures or mean circulatory filling pressures have only been reported in experimental animals and in human corpses, respectively. We investigated arterial and central venous pressures in supine, anesthetized humans with longer fibrillation/defibrillation sequences (FDSs) during cardioverter/defibrillator implantation. In 82 patients, the average number of FDSs was 4 +/- 2 (mean +/- SD), and their duration was 13 +/- 2 s. In a total of 323 FDSs, arterial blood pressure decreased with a time constant of 2.9 +/- 1.0 s from 77.5 +/- 34.4 to 24.2 +/- 5.3 mmHg. Central venous pressure increased with a time constant of 3.6 +/- 1.3 s from 7.5 +/- 5.2 to 11.0 +/- 5.4 mmHg (36 points, 141 FDS). The average arteriocentral venous blood pressure difference remained at 13.2 +/- 6.2 mmHg. Although it slowly decreased, the pressure difference persisted even with FDSs lasting 20 s. Lack of true equilibrium pressure could possibly be due to a waterfall mechanism. However, waterfalls were identified neither between the left ventricle and large arteries nor at the level of the diaphragm in supine patients. We therefore suggest that static filling pressures/mean circulatory pressures can only be directly assessed if the time after termination of cardiac pumping is adequate, i.e., >20 s. For humans, such times are beyond ethical options.

  18. [ILCOR recommendation on signage of automated external defibrillators (AEDs)].

    PubMed

    Truhlár, A

    2010-05-01

    Early defibrillation is a determinant of survival in both out-of-hospital and in-hospital cardiac arrests from ventricular fibrillation and pulseless ventricular tachycardia. The review summarizes importance of early defibrillation with automated external defibrillators (AED) and presents the International Liaison Committee on Resuscitation (ILCOR) recommendation for universal AED sign. The aim of the recommendation is to unify the AED signs worldwide and to spread the knowledge of this. The public in general, but healthcare professionals particularly, should be able to recognize AED location and use the device immediately in case of cardiac arrest.

  19. 21 CFR 870.5300 - DC-defibrillator (including paddles).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... heart or to terminate other cardiac arrhythmias. This generic type of device includes low energy... defibrillating the atria or ventricles of the heart or to terminate other cardiac arrhythmias. The device...

  20. 21 CFR 870.5300 - DC-defibrillator (including paddles).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... heart or to terminate other cardiac arrhythmias. This generic type of device includes low energy... defibrillating the atria or ventricles of the heart or to terminate other cardiac arrhythmias. The device...

  1. Long-term electrocardiographic follow-up from childhood of an adult patient with Brugada syndrome associated with sick sinus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Nao; Iwamoto, Mari; Nakano, Yukiko; Sumita, Shinichi; Ishikawa, Toshiyuki; Hokosaki, Tatsunori; Akaike, Toru; Nishizawa, Takashi; Takigiku, Kiyohiro; Shibata, Toshimitsu; Niimura, Ichirou

    2009-03-01

    We had the unique opportunity of following the electrocardiographic (ECG) course of a 13-year-old male with sinus dysfunction and atrial flutter who subsequently developed a Brugada-type ECG pattern associated with sick sinus syndrome at 25 years old. Family history showed that the patient's mother and maternal grandfather suddenly died while sleeping at night. When the patient was 13 years old, he lost consciousness after running a marathon. The patient was diagnosed with sinus dysfunction and atrial flutter, and he underwent pacemaker implantation at 15 years old. ECG examinations performed between 13 and 20 years old showed incomplete right bundle branch block and ST elevation with early depolarization. On ECG examinations performed when the patient was 21 years old and thereafter, the V(2) lead always showed a saddleback-type ST elevation. At 25 years old, the late potential was positive and the electrophysiological study induced ventricular fibrillation. A challenge test with pilsicainide showed remarkable ST elevation by the V(2) lead. The 24-h Holter ECG monitoring showed remarkable ST elevation after eating a snack and during night time when the patient was asleep. The patient was diagnosed with Brugada syndrome and an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted. Genetic analysis did not reveal mutation of the SCN5A gene.

  2. Natural history of Brugada syndrome in a patient with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Silva, Doroteia; Martins, Fernando Maymone; Cavaco, Diogo; Adragão, Pedro; Silva, Margarida Matos; Anjos, Rui; Ferreira, Álvaro; Gaspar, Isabel Mendes

    2015-01-01

    Risk stratification of sudden death in patients with Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a controversial issue, and there is currently no consensus on the best method. Examination of data from the natural history of the disease is of fundamental importance and may help to identify relatives at risk. At the same time, study of the genetic mutations responsible for the disease may also contribute to risk stratification of the syndrome, enabling identification of asymptomatic relatives carrying mutations. This paper presents the case of a young man, aged 26, monitored as a pediatric cardiology outpatient from birth for a simple structural heart defect not requiring surgery. Analysis of the evolution of the patient's electrocardiogram revealed the appearance, at the age of 20, of a pattern compatible with type I BrS. Following an episode of syncope and induction of polymorphic ventricular tachycardia in the electrophysiological study, a cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted. One year later, a single shock terminated an episode of ventricular fibrillation. A molecular study of the SCN5A gene identified a rare mutation, c.3622G>T (p.Glu1208X), recently described and associated with more severe phenotypes in patients with BrS, as in the case presented. PMID:26148667

  3. Buprenorphine as a safe alternative to methadone in a patient with acquired long QT syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    de Jong, I M; de Ruiter, G S

    2013-05-01

    A 52-year-old man with a medical history of intravenous drug abuse was admitted to our hospital with syncope due to torsades de pointes (TdP). Two days earlier, he had used methadone. The electrocardiogram showed a prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc) of 600 ms. Continuous telemetry observation showed multiple episodes of TdP. The patient was diagnosed with bradyarrhythmia-induced TdP with acquired long QT syndrome resulting from methadone use. The QTc normalised within 2 weeks after discontinuation of the methadone. In this case of a patient with opioid dependency, there is a reasonable risk of repeated methadone use. Therefore, implantable cardioverter defibrillator or pacemaker implantation is justified but risky because of possible infections when using intravenous drugs. Given the high mortality rates seen in untreated illicit opioid users, this patient needs an alternative pharmacological treatment. Buprenorphine is an opiate-receptor agonist associated with less QTc prolongation. The patient was referred to a rehab clinic and treated with an oral combination of buprenorphine and naloxone (Suboxone). During this therapy, his QTc remained normal. PMID:22020456

  4. TED-Time and life saving External Defibrillator for home-use.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Teddy A; Rosenheck, Shimon; Gorni, Shraga; Katz, Ioni; Mendelbaum, Mendel; Gilon, Dan

    2014-06-01

    Sudden Cardiac Death--SCD --is a major unmet health problem that needs urgent and prompt solution. AICDs are very expensive, risky and indicated for a small group of patients, at the highest risk. AEDs--Automatic External Defibrillators--are designed for public places and although safe, cannot enter the home-market due to their cost and need for constant, high-cost maintenance. We developed TED, a low-cost AED that derives its energy off the mains, designed for home-use, to save SCD victims' lives. PMID:24721586

  5. TED-Time and life saving External Defibrillator for home-use.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Teddy A; Rosenheck, Shimon; Gorni, Shraga; Katz, Ioni; Mendelbaum, Mendel; Gilon, Dan

    2014-06-01

    Sudden Cardiac Death--SCD --is a major unmet health problem that needs urgent and prompt solution. AICDs are very expensive, risky and indicated for a small group of patients, at the highest risk. AEDs--Automatic External Defibrillators--are designed for public places and although safe, cannot enter the home-market due to their cost and need for constant, high-cost maintenance. We developed TED, a low-cost AED that derives its energy off the mains, designed for home-use, to save SCD victims' lives.

  6. Massive Electrical Storm at Disease Onset in a Patient with Brugada Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pallisgaard, Jannik L.; Gang, Uffe; Kanters, Jørgen K.; Hansen, Peter R.

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 49 Final Diagnosis: — Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: — Objective: Rare disease Background: Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a genetic arrhythmogenic disease characterized by ST-segment elevations in the right precordial leads of the electrocardiogram (ECG). These ECG changes may be concealed and BrS may present with electrical storm characterized by recurrent ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Case Report: A 49-year-old previously healthy man was admitted with electrical storm. The patient received direct current (DC) cardioversion shocks and only after intravenous lidocaine did the electrical storm slowly subside with a total of 255 DC shocks administered during the first 24 h after admission. He fully recovered and received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. Subsequent drug challenge with flecainide revealed type 1 BrS. Conclusions: Massive electrical storm can be the first symptom of BrS and the diagnostic ECG changes may be concealed at presentation. Although hundreds of DC shocks may be required during initial treatment, full recovery can be achieved. PMID:25528772

  7. ICD Leads Extraction and Clearing of Access Way in a Patient With Superior Vena Cava Syndrome: Building A Tunnel.

    PubMed

    Kiuchi, Márcio Galindo; Andrade, Ricardo Luiz Lima; da Silva, Gustavo Ramalho; Souto, Hanry Barros; Chen, Shaojie; Villacorta Junior, Humberto

    2015-09-01

    Central vein disease is defined as at least 50% narrowing up to total occlusion of central veins of the thorax including superior vena cava, brachiocephalic, subclavian, and internal jugular vein. Thrombosis due to intravascular leads occurs in approximately 30% to 45% of patients early or late after implantation of a pacemaker by transvenous access.In this case, we report a male patient, 65-years old, hypertensive, type 2 diabetic, with atherosclerotic disease, coronary artery disease, underwent coronary artery bypass surgery in the past 10 years, having already experienced an acute myocardial infarction, bearer automatic implantable cardioverter defibrillator for 8 years after an episode of aborted sudden death due to ischemic cardiomyopathy, presenting left superior vena cava syndrome. The use of clopidogrel and rivaroxaban for over a year had no benefit on symptoms improvement.After atrial and ventricular leads extraction, a new shock lead was positioned in the right ventricle using active fixation and a new atrial lead was positioned in the right atrium, passing inside of the stents. Two days after the procedure the patient was asymptomatic and was discharged. PMID:26402803

  8. Treatment of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest with a low-energy impedance-compensating biphasic waveform automatic external defibrillator. The LIFE Investigators.

    PubMed

    Gliner, B E; Jorgenson, D B; Poole, J E; White, R D; Kanz, K G; Lyster, T D; Leyde, K W; Powers, D J; Morgan, C B; Kronmal, R A; Bardy, G H

    1998-01-01

    Few victims of sudden cardiac arrest survive. A new generation of automatic external defibrillators (AEDs), smaller, lighter, easier to use, and less costly, makes the goal of widespread AED deployment and early defibrillation feasible. A low-energy impedance-compensating biphasic waveform allows AED device characteristics more suitable to the goal of early defibrillation than high-energy waveforms. This study observed the performance of such a biphasic waveform in the out-of-hospital setting on 100 consecutive victims of sudden cardiac arrest treated by a wide range of first-responders. AEDs incorporating 150-J impedance-compensating biphasic waveforms were placed into service of 34 EMS systems. Data were obtained from the AED PC data card-recording system. The first endpoint was to determine the effectiveness of this waveform in terminating ventricular fibrillation (VF). The second endpoint was to determine whether or not the use of such an AED culminated in an organized rhythm at the time of patient transfer to an advanced life support (ALS) team or emergency department (ED). The third endpoint was to assess the efficiency of the human-factors design of the AED by measuring user time intervals. The 34 sites provided data from 286 consecutive AED uses, 100 from SCA victims with VF as their initial rhythm upon attachment of the AED. All 286 patients were correctly identified by the AED as requiring a shock (100% sensitivity for the 100 VF patients) or not (100% specificity to the 186 patients not presenting in VF). Times from emergency call to first shock delivery averaged 9.1 +/- 7.3 minutes. A single 150-J biphasic shock defibrillated the initial VF episode in 86% of patients. For all 450 episodes of VF in these 100 patients, an average of 86% +/- 24% of VF episodes were terminated with a single biphasic shock. Of the 449 VF episodes that received up to three shocks, 97% +/- 11% were terminated with three shocks or fewer. The average number of shocks per VF

  9. EHRA Expert Consensus Statement on the management of cardiovascular implantable electronic devices in patients nearing end of life or requesting withdrawal of therapy.

    PubMed

    Padeletti, Luigi; Arnar, David O; Boncinelli, Lorenzo; Brachman, Johannes; Camm, John A; Daubert, Jean Claude; Hassam, Sarah K; Kassam, Sarah; Deliens, Luc; Glikson, Michael; Hayes, David; Israel, Carsten; Lampert, Rachel; Lobban, Trudie; Raatikainen, Pekka; Siegal, Gil; Vardas, Panos; Kirchhof, Paulus; Becker, Rüdiger; Cosio, Francisco; Loh, Peter; Cobbe, Stuart; Grace, Andrew; Morgan, John

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this Consensus Statement is to focus on implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) deactivation in patients with irreversible or terminal illness. This statement summarizes the opinions of the Task Force members, convened by the European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA) and the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS), based on ethical and legal principles, as well as their own clinical, scientific, and technical experience. It is directed to all healthcare professionals who treat patients with implanted ICDs, nearing end of life, in order to improve the patient dying process. This statement is not intended to recommend or promote device deactivation. Rather, the ultimate judgement regarding this procedure must be made by the patient (or in special conditions by his/her legal representative) after careful communication about the deactivation's consequences, respecting his/her autonomy and clarifying that he/she has a legal and ethical right to refuse it. Obviously, the physician asked to deactivate the ICD and the industry representative asked to assist can conscientiously object to and refuse to perform device deactivation. PMID:20675674

  10. Living with an implantable cardiac defibrillator: a model of chronic uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Sandra L; McGillion, Michael; Arthur, Heather M

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, the number of patients receiving implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) for the prevention of sudden cardiac death has grown significantly. This growth is largely the result of broadened indication for ICD use because of the success of trials demonstrating efficacy. Early ICD indication centered on secondary prevention, which then advanced to primary prevention in high-risk patients. Nurses delivering care to these patients not only manage this complex technology but also patients' uncertainty about their survival and related psychosocial adjustment to receiving an ICD. To inform practice, theoretical models such as Mishel's (1988) uncertainty in illness model provide insight into such acute phases of illness. This article proposes expansion of the uncertainty in illness model to advance knowledge in this field for nurses caring for patients with ICD.

  11. Radiated radiofrequency immunity testing of automated external defibrillators - modifications of applicable standards are needed

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background We studied the worst-case radiated radiofrequency (RF) susceptibility of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) based on the electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) requirements of a current standard for cardiac defibrillators, IEC 60601-2-4. Square wave modulation was used to mimic cardiac physiological frequencies of 1 - 3 Hz. Deviations from the IEC standard were a lower frequency limit of 30 MHz to explore frequencies where the patient-connected leads could resonate. Also testing up to 20 V/m was performed. We tested AEDs with ventricular fibrillation (V-Fib) and normal sinus rhythm signals on the patient leads to enable testing for false negatives (inappropriate "no shock advised" by the AED). Methods We performed radiated exposures in a 10 meter anechoic chamber using two broadband antennas to generate E fields in the 30 - 2500 MHz frequency range at 1% frequency steps. An AED patient simulator was housed in a shielded box and delivered normal and fibrillation waveforms to the AED's patient leads. We developed a technique to screen ECG waveforms stored in each AED for electromagnetic interference at all frequencies without waiting for the long cycle times between analyses (normally 20 to over 200 s). Results Five of the seven AEDs tested were susceptible to RF interference, primarily at frequencies below 80 MHz. Some induced errors could cause AEDs to malfunction and effectively inhibit operator prompts to deliver a shock to a patient experiencing lethal fibrillation. Failures occurred in some AEDs exposed to E fields between 3 V/m and 20 V/m, in the 38 - 50 MHz range. These occurred when the patient simulator was delivering a V-Fib waveform to the AED. Also, we found it is not possible to test modern battery-only-operated AEDs for EMI using a patient simulator if the IEC 60601-2-4 defibrillator standard's simulated patient load is used. Conclusions AEDs experienced potentially life-threatening false-negative failures from radiated RF, primarily

  12. Comparison of Causes of Death After Heart Transplantation in Patients With Left Ventricular Ejection Fractions ≤35% Versus >35.

    PubMed

    Birati, Edo Y; Mathelier, Hansie; Molina, Maria; Hanff, Thomas C; Mazurek, Jeremy A; Atluri, Pavan; Acker, Michael A; Rame, J Eduardo; Margulies, Kenneth B; Goldberg, Lee R; Jessup, Mariell

    2016-04-15

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a common cause of death in the general population, occurring in 300,000 to 350,000 people in the United States alone. Currently, there are no data supporting implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in patients who underwent orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). In this retrospective study, we included all patients who underwent primary OHT at our institution from 2007 to 2013. We compared the cause of death in patients who underwent OHT and evaluated the correlation of the cause of death and the patients' LVEF. Our objectives were to determine whether patients who underwent OHT with LVEF <35% are at increased risk for SCD compared with those who underwent OHT with normal LVEF. To summarize our results, a total of 345 patients were included in our study (mean age 50 ± 14 years, 68% men). The mean follow-up was 1,260 ± 698 days. Forty patients (11.5%) died >6 months after OHT. Surviving patients had higher LVEF compared with deceased patients (64 ± 7% and 50 ± 24%, respectively, p ≤0.001). In all, 10 (25%) of the deceased patients died suddenly, 9 (23%) from sepsis, and 8 (20%) from malignancy. Of the 11 deceased patients with LVEF ≤35%, 2 patients (18%) died suddenly compared with 9 SCDs among the 29 deceased patients (31%) with LVEF >35% (p = 0.54). In conclusion, patients who underwent OHT who died were more likely to have LVEF <35%, and a quarter of the deceased patients who underwent OHT died suddenly. A reduced LVEF was not associated with an increased risk of SCD. PMID:26899490

  13. Comparison of Causes of Death After Heart Transplantation in Patients With Left Ventricular Ejection Fractions ≤35% Versus >35.

    PubMed

    Birati, Edo Y; Mathelier, Hansie; Molina, Maria; Hanff, Thomas C; Mazurek, Jeremy A; Atluri, Pavan; Acker, Michael A; Rame, J Eduardo; Margulies, Kenneth B; Goldberg, Lee R; Jessup, Mariell

    2016-04-15

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a common cause of death in the general population, occurring in 300,000 to 350,000 people in the United States alone. Currently, there are no data supporting implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy in patients who underwent orthotopic heart transplant (OHT) with low left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF). In this retrospective study, we included all patients who underwent primary OHT at our institution from 2007 to 2013. We compared the cause of death in patients who underwent OHT and evaluated the correlation of the cause of death and the patients' LVEF. Our objectives were to determine whether patients who underwent OHT with LVEF <35% are at increased risk for SCD compared with those who underwent OHT with normal LVEF. To summarize our results, a total of 345 patients were included in our study (mean age 50 ± 14 years, 68% men). The mean follow-up was 1,260 ± 698 days. Forty patients (11.5%) died >6 months after OHT. Surviving patients had higher LVEF compared with deceased patients (64 ± 7% and 50 ± 24%, respectively, p ≤0.001). In all, 10 (25%) of the deceased patients died suddenly, 9 (23%) from sepsis, and 8 (20%) from malignancy. Of the 11 deceased patients with LVEF ≤35%, 2 patients (18%) died suddenly compared with 9 SCDs among the 29 deceased patients (31%) with LVEF >35% (p = 0.54). In conclusion, patients who underwent OHT who died were more likely to have LVEF <35%, and a quarter of the deceased patients who underwent OHT died suddenly. A reduced LVEF was not associated with an increased risk of SCD.

  14. Advantage of four-electrode over two-electrode defibrillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bragard, J.; Šimić, A.; Laroze, D.; Elorza, J.

    2015-12-01

    Defibrillation is the standard clinical treatment used to stop ventricular fibrillation. An electrical device delivers a controlled amount of electrical energy via a pair of electrodes in order to reestablish a normal heart rate. We propose a technique that is a combination of biphasic shocks applied with a four-electrode system rather than the standard two-electrode system. We use a numerical model of a one-dimensional ring of cardiac tissue in order to test and evaluate the benefit of this technique. We compare three different shock protocols, namely a monophasic and two types of biphasic shocks. The results obtained by using a four-electrode system are compared quantitatively with those obtained with the standard two-electrode system. We find that a huge reduction in defibrillation threshold is achieved with the four-electrode system. For the most efficient protocol (asymmetric biphasic), we obtain a reduction in excess of 80% in the energy required for a defibrillation success rate of 90%. The mechanisms of successful defibrillation are also analyzed. This reveals that the advantage of asymmetric biphasic shocks with four electrodes lies in the duration of the cathodal and anodal phase of the shock.

  15. How does an electric field defibrillate cardiac muscle?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pumir, Alain; Krinsky, Valentin I.

    Cardiac fibrillation is caused by an irregular wave propagation. Fibrillation can be eliminated by a strong electric field (5 kV, 20 A, 2 msec). The mechanism of this phenomenon (defibrillation) is not known. The principal difficulty, as shown in experiments and confirmed by classical cable theory, is that the changes in transmembrane potential, e, induced by electric field, decay exponentially with distance from the electrodes. We study wave suppression by an electric field in generic excitable media. In excitable media consisting of separate cells (similar to biological tissues), we have found a suppression of rotating waves and defibrillation induced by strong electric field, contrary to what happens in continuous media. We show that the spatially periodic component of e which arises in cellular media is responsible for defibrillation. We have found that (i) it does not decay with distance; (ii) it can excite quiescent cells and terminate excitation in excited cells; (iii) the coupling between cardiac cells is a crucial parameter affecting the amplitude of the spatially periodic component of e, and the efficiency of defibrillation. New experiments on cardiac muscle are proposed.

  16. 21 CFR 870.5310 - Automated external defibrillator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Automated external defibrillator. 870.5310 Section 870.5310 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Therapeutic Devices § 870.5310...

  17. Use of a cardioselective beta-blocker for pediatric patients with prolonged QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Moltedo, Jose M; Kim, Jeffrey J; Friedman, Richard A; Kertesz, Naomi J; Cannon, Bryan C

    2011-01-01

    The data on the efficacy of atenolol for long-QT syndrome (LQTS) are controversial. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of atenolol for pediatric patients with LQTS. A retrospective observational study investigating all patients who had LQTS treated with atenolol at two institutions was performed. The study identified 57 patients (23 boys and 34 girls) with a mean QT corrected for heart rate (QTc) of 521 ± 54 ms. The mean age of these patients at diagnosis was 9 ± 6 years. Their clinical manifestations included no symptoms (n = 33, 58%), ventricular tachycardia (n = 10, 18%), syncope (n = 6, 10%), resuscitated sudden cardiac death (n = 4, 7%), atrioventricular block (n = 2, 4%), and bradycardia or presyncope (n = 2, 3%). Of the 57 patients, 13 (22%) had a family history of sudden death. The follow-up period was 5.4 ± 4.5 years. Atenolol at a mean dose of 1.4 ± 0.5 mg/kg/day was administered twice a day for all the patients. The mean maximum heart rate was 132 ± 27 bpm on Holter monitors and 155 ± 16 bpm on exercise treadmill tests, with medication doses titrated up to achieve a maximum heart rate lower than 150 bpm on both tests. During the follow-up period, one patient died (noncompliant with atenolol at the time of death), and the remaining patients had no sudden cardiac death events. Four patients (8%) had recurrent ventricular arrhythmias, three of whom received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (all symptomatic at the time of diagnosis). For three patients (6%), it was necessary to rotate to a different beta-blocker because of side effects or inadequate heart rate control. Atenolol administered twice daily constitutes a valid and effective alternative for the treatment of pediatric patients with LQTS.

  18. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Defibrillator Treatment in a Child with Heart Failure and Ventricular Arrhythmia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hak Ju; Cho, Sungkyu; Kim, Woong-Han

    2016-08-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a new treatment for refractory heart failure. However, most patients with heart failure treated with CRT are adults, middle-aged or older with idiopathic or ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. We treated a 12-year-old boy, who was transferred after cardiac arrest, with dilated cardiomyopathy, left bundle-branch block, and ventricular tachycardia. We performed cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRT-D). After CRT-D, left ventricular ejection fraction improved from 22% to 44% assessed by echocardiogram 1 year postoperatively. On electrocardiogram, QRS duration was shortened from 206 to 144 ms. The patient's clinical symptoms also improved. For pediatric patients with refractory heart failure and ventricular arrhythmia, CRT-D could be indicated as an effective therapeutic option. PMID:27525239

  19. New insights into defibrillation of the heart from realistic simulation studies.

    PubMed

    Trayanova, Natalia A; Rantner, Lukas J

    2014-05-01

    Cardiac defibrillation, as accomplished nowadays by automatic, implantable devices, constitutes the most important means of combating sudden cardiac death. Advancing our understanding towards a full appreciation of the mechanisms by which a shock interacts with the heart, particularly under diseased conditions, is a promising approach to achieve an optimal therapy. The aim of this article is to assess the current state-of-the-art in whole-heart defibrillation modelling, focusing on major insights that have been obtained using defibrillation models, primarily those of realistic heart geometry and disease remodelling. The article showcases the contributions that modelling and simulation have made to our understanding of the defibrillation process. The review thus provides an example of biophysically based computational modelling of the heart (i.e. cardiac defibrillation) that has advanced the understanding of cardiac electrophysiological interaction at the organ level, and has the potential to contribute to the betterment of the clinical practice of defibrillation.

  20. Initial dynamics of the EKG during an electrical defibrillation of the heart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bikov, I. I.; Chebotarov, Y. P.; Nikolaev, V. G.

    1980-01-01

    In tests on 11 mature dogs, immobilized by means of an automatic blocking and synchronization system, artefact free EKG were obtained, beginning 0.04-0.06 sec after passage of a defibrillating current. Different versions of the start of fibrillation were noted, in application of the defibrillating stimulus in the early phase of the cardiac cycle. A swinging phenomenon, increasing amplitude, of fibrillation was noted for 0.4-1.5 sec after delivery of a subthreshold stimulus. Conditions for a positive outcome of repeated defibrillation were found, and a relationship was noted between the configuration of the exciting process with respect to the lines of force of the defibrillating current and the defibrillation threshold. It was shown that the initial EKG dynamics after defibrillation is based on a gradual shift of the pacemaker from the myocardium of the ventricles to the sinus node, through phases of atrioventricular and atrial automatism.

  1. Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy Defibrillator Treatment in a Child with Heart Failure and Ventricular Arrhythmia

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hak Ju; Cho, Sungkyu; Kim, Woong-Han

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is a new treatment for refractory heart failure. However, most patients with heart failure treated with CRT are adults, middle-aged or older with idiopathic or ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. We treated a 12-year-old boy, who was transferred after cardiac arrest, with dilated cardiomyopathy, left bundle-branch block, and ventricular tachycardia. We performed cardiac resynchronization therapy with a defibrillator (CRT-D). After CRT-D, left ventricular ejection fraction improved from 22% to 44% assessed by echocardiogram 1 year postoperatively. On electrocardiogram, QRS duration was shortened from 206 to 144 ms. The patient’s clinical symptoms also improved. For pediatric patients with refractory heart failure and ventricular arrhythmia, CRT-D could be indicated as an effective therapeutic option. PMID:27525239

  2. Predicting Risk of Endovascular Device Infection in Patients with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia (PREDICT-SAB)

    PubMed Central

    Sohail, M. Rizwan; Palraj, Bharath Raj; Khalid, Sana; Uslan, Daniel Z.; Al-Saffar, Farah; Friedman, Paul A.; Hayes, David L.; Lohse, Christine M.; Wilson, Walter R.; Steckelberg, James M.; Baddour, Larry M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Prompt recognition of underlying cardiovascular implantable electronic device (CIED) infection in patients presenting with S. aureus bacteremia (SAB) is critical for optimal management of these cases. The goal of this study was to identify clinical predictors of CIED infection in patients presenting with SAB and no signs of pocket infection. Methods and Results All cases of SAB in CIED recipients at Mayo Clinic from 2001 to 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. We identified 131 patients with CIED who presented with SAB and had no clinical signs of device pocket infection. Forty-five (34%) of these patients had underlying CIED infection based on clinical and/or echocardiographic criteria. The presence of a permanent pacemaker rather than an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (OR 3.90, 95% CI 1.65–9.23), P=0.002), >1 device-related procedure (OR 3.30, 95% CI 1.23–8.86, P=0.018), and duration of SAB ≥4 days (OR 5.54, 95% CI 3.32–13.23, P<0.001) were independently associated with an increased risk of CIED infection in a multivariable model. The area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) for the multivariable model was 0.79, indicating a good discriminatory capacity to distinguish SAB patients with and without CIED infection. Conclusions Among patients presenting with SAB and no signs of pocket infection, the risk of underlying CIED infection can be calculated based on the type of device, number of device-related procedures, and duration of SAB. We propose that patients without any of these high-risk features have a very low risk of underlying CIED infection and may be monitored closely without immediate device extraction. Prospective studies are needed to validate this risk prediction model. PMID:25504648

  3. Skeletal muscle grids for assessing current distributions from defibrillation shocks.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, J; Gatlin, B; Eason, J; Koomullil, G; Pilkington, T

    1992-01-01

    This paper utilizes a structured and an unstructured grid representation of a torso with an anisotropic skeletal muscle to assess current distributions from defibrillation shocks. The results show that a finite-element solution on an unstructured grid of 400,000 elements (60,000 nodes) achieves comparable current distributions with a finite-difference solution on a structured grid that uses approximately the same number of nodes. Moreover, a finite-element solution on a 65,000-element (10,500 nodes) unstructured grid yielded fractional percent current results within 5% of the finer grids. The structured and unstructured grid models are used to investigate recent interpretations of experimental data that concluded that more than 80% of the total defibrillation current is shunted by the anisotropic skeletal muscle thoracic cage. It is concluded that these interpretations, which were based on a one-dimensional resistive network representation of the three-dimensional defibrillation situation, overestimate by 25% the current shunted by the anisotropic thoracic cage. PMID:1424684

  4. Clinical Effectiveness of CRT and ICD Therapy in Heart Failure Patients by Racial/Ethnic Classification

    PubMed Central

    Ziaeian, Boback; Zhang, Yan; Albert, Nancy M.; Curtis, Anne B.; Gheorghiade, Mihai; Heywood, J. Thomas; Mehra, Mandeep R.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Reynolds, Dwight; Walsh, Mary Norine; Yancy, Clyde W.; Fonarow, Gregg C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Clinical trials have demonstrated benefit for cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapies in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF); yet, questions have been raised with regard to the benefit of device therapy for minorities. OBJECTIVES The purpose of this study was to determine the clinical effectiveness of CRT and ICD therapies as a function of race/ethnicity in outpatients with HFrEF (ejection fraction ≤35%). METHODS Data from IMPROVE HF (Registry to Improve the Use of Evidence-Based Heart Failure Therapies in the Outpatient Setting) were analyzed by device status and race/ethnicity among guideline-eligible patients for mortality at 24 months. Multivariate Generalized Estimating Equations analyses were conducted, adjusting for patient and practice characteristics. RESULTS The ICD/cardiac resynchronization defibrillator (CRT-D)–eligible cohort (n = 7,748) included 3,391 (44%) non-Hispanic white, 719 (9%) non-Hispanic black, and 3,638 (47%) other racial/ethnic minorities or race-not-documented patients. The cardiac resynchronization pacemaker (CRT-P)/CRT-D–eligible cohort (n = 1,188) included 596 (50%) non-Hispanic white, 99 (8%) non-Hispanic black, and 493 (41%) other/not-documented patients. There was clinical benefit associated with ICD/CRT-D therapy (adjusted odds ratio: 0.64, 95% confidence interval: 0.52 to 0.79, p = 0.0002 for 24-month mortality), which was of similar proportion in white, black, and other minority/not-documented patients (device–race/ethnicity interaction p = 0.7861). For CRT-P/CRT-D therapy, there were also associated mortality benefits (adjusted odds ratio: 0.55, 95% confidence interval: 0.33 to 0.91, p = 0.0222), and the device–race/ethnicity interaction was not significant (p = 0.5413). CONCLUSIONS The use of guideline-directed CRT and ICD therapy was associated with reduced 24-month mortality without significant interaction by racial

  5. [Long-term outcome of pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatment for ventricular arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Ohnishi, S; Kasanuki, H

    2000-03-01

    Recent advances of nonpharmacological therapy such as catheter ablation and implantable cardioverter defibrillator and lessons from the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial(CAST) have changed the strategy for ventricular arrhythmias. The safety and efficacy of radiofrequency catheter ablation of symptomatic sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia without structural heart disease has made ablation the firstline curative therapy. In idiopathic ventricular fibrillation such as Brugada syndrome, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the most effective treatment to prevent sudden cardiac death. In patients with asymptomatic ventricular tachyarrhythmias in heart failure, class I antiarrhythmic drugs should be avoided due to proarrhythmic and negative inotropic effects that may be responsible for increased mortality in some trials. In such patients, amiodarone and beta-blocker may reduce sudden cardiac death. For patients with sustained ventricular tachycardia or ventricular fibrillation in heart failure, amiodarone or implantable cardioverter defibrillator should be considered. In comparison with amiodarone, implantable cardioverter defibrillator markedly reduced sudden death in ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation survivors in Antiarrhythmics Versus Implantable Defibriltors(AVID). Although better patient selection and clarification of mapping criteria improved the successful ablation rate in patients with structural heart disease, candidates of ablation are few. In patients with extensive structural heart disease, multiple ventricular tachycardias are often present. Catheter ablation of a single ventricular tachycardia may be only palliative. Therefore, implantable cardioverter defibrillator is the most effective treatment to prevent sudden cardiac death, with amiodarone and ablation as the adjunctive therapy to prevent frequent ventricular tachycardia. Furthermore, an implantable cardioverter defibrillator improved survival in selected

  6. Double Sequential External Defibrillation in Out-of-Hospital Refractory Ventricular Fibrillation: A Report of Ten Cases.

    PubMed

    Cabañas, José G; Myers, J Brent; Williams, Jefferson G; De Maio, Valerie J; Bachman, Michael W

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is considered the out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOHCA) rhythm with the highest likelihood of neurologically intact survival. Unfortunately, there are occasions when VF does not respond to standard defibrillatory shocks. Current American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines acknowledge that the data are insufficient in determining the optimal pad placement, waveform, or energy level that produce the best conversion rates from OOHCA with VF. Objective. To describe a technique of double sequential external defibrillation (DSED) for cases of refractory VF (RVF) during OOHCA resuscitation. Methods. A retrospective case series was performed in an urban/suburban emergency medical services (EMS) system with advanced life support care and a population of 900,000. Included were all adult OOHCAs having RVF during resuscitation efforts by EMS providers. RVF was defined as persistent VF following at least 5 unsuccessful single shocks, epinephrine administration, and a dose of antiarrhythmic medication. Once the patient was in RVF, EMS personnel applied a second set of pads and utilized a second defibrillator for single defibrillation with the new monitor/pad placement. If VF continued, EMS personnel then utilized the original and second monitor/defibrillator charged to maximum energy, and shocks were delivered from both machines simultaneously. Data were collected from electronic dispatch and patient care reports for descriptive analysis. Results. From 01/07/2008 to 12/31/2010, a total of 10 patients were treated with DSED. The median age was 76.5 (IQR: 65-82), with median resuscitation time of 51minutes (IQR: 45-62). The median number of single shocks was 6.5 (IQR: 6-11), with a median of 2 (IQR: 1-3) DSED shocks delivered. VF broke after DSED in 7 cases (70%). Only 3 patients (30%) had ROSC in the field, and none survived to discharge. Conclusion. This case series demonstrates that DSED may be a feasible technique as part of

  7. Five things physicians and patients should question in hospice and palliative medicine.

    PubMed

    Fischberg, Daniel; Bull, Janet; Casarett, David; Hanson, Laura C; Klein, Scott M; Rotella, Joseph; Smith, Thomas; Storey, C Porter; Teno, Joan M; Widera, Eric

    2013-03-01

    Overuse or misuse of tests and treatments exposes patients to potential harm. The American Board of Internal Medicine Foundation's Choosing Wisely® campaign is a multiyear effort to encourage physician leadership in reducing harmful or inappropriate resource utilization. Via the campaign, medical societies are asked to identify five tests or procedures commonly used in their field, the routine use of which in specific clinical scenarios should be questioned by both physicians and patients based on the evidence that the test or procedure is ineffective or even harmful. The American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine (AAHPM) was invited, and it agreed to participate in the campaign. The AAHPM Choosing Wisely Task Force, with input from the AAHPM membership, developed the following five recommendations: 1) Don't recommend percutaneous feeding tubes in patients with advanced dementia; instead, offer oral-assisted feeding; 2) Don't delay palliative care for a patient with serious illness who has physical, psychological, social, or spiritual distress because they are pursuing disease-directed treatment; 3) Don't leave an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator activated when it is inconsistent with the patient/family goals of care; 4) Don't recommend more than a single fraction of palliative radiation for an uncomplicated painful bone metastasis; and 5) Don't use topical lorazepam (Ativan®), diphenhydramine (Benadryl®), and haloperidol (Haldol®) (ABH) gel for nausea. These recommendations and their supporting rationale should be considered by physicians, patients, and their caregivers as they collaborate in choosing those treatments that do the most good and avoid the most harm for those living with serious illness.

  8. 78 FR 17890 - Effective Date of Requirement for Premarket Approval for Automated External Defibrillator System.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-25

    ... Approval for Automated External Defibrillator System. AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... the following class III preamendments devices: Automated external defibrillators systems (AEDs), which... Innovation Act (FDASIA) (Pub. L. 112-144) establish a comprehensive system for the regulation of...

  9. Electrophysiology Studies (EPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... you need medicine, a pacemaker , an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) , cardiac ablation or surgery. These studies take ... catheter ablation . If a pacemaker or implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) might help you. If you are at ...

  10. Pacemaker

    MedlinePlus

    ... Topics Arrhythmia Atrial Fibrillation Heart Block Implantable Cardioverter Defibrillators Long QT Syndrome Send a link to NHLBI ... arrhythmias with another device called an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). An ICD is similar to a pacemaker. ...

  11. Complications after Surgical Procedures in Patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Devices: Results of a Prospective Registry

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Katia Regina; Albertini, Caio Marcos de Moraes; Crevelari, Elizabeth Sartori; de Carvalho, Eduardo Infante Januzzi; Fiorelli, Alfredo Inácio; Martinelli Filho, Martino; Costa, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: Complications after surgical procedures in patients with cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIED) are an emerging problem due to an increasing number of such procedures and aging of the population, which consequently increases the frequency of comorbidities. Objective: To identify the rates of postoperative complications, mortality, and hospital readmissions, and evaluate the risk factors for the occurrence of these events. Methods: Prospective and unicentric study that included all individuals undergoing CIED surgical procedures from February to August 2011. The patients were distributed by type of procedure into the following groups: initial implantations (cohort 1), generator exchange (cohort 2), and lead-related procedures (cohort 3). The outcomes were evaluated by an independent committee. Univariate and multivariate analyses assessed the risk factors, and the Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Results: A total of 713 patients were included in the study and distributed as follows: 333 in cohort 1, 304 in cohort 2, and 76 in cohort 3. Postoperative complications were detected in 7.5%, 1.6%, and 11.8% of the patients in cohorts 1, 2, and 3, respectively (p = 0.014). During a 6-month follow-up, there were 58 (8.1%) deaths and 75 (10.5%) hospital readmissions. Predictors of hospital readmission included the use of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (odds ratio [OR] = 4.2), functional class III­-IV (OR = 1.8), and warfarin administration (OR = 1.9). Predictors of mortality included age over 80 years (OR = 2.4), ventricular dysfunction (OR = 2.2), functional class III-IV (OR = 3.3), and warfarin administration (OR = 2.3). Conclusions: Postoperative complications, hospital readmissions, and deaths occurred frequently and were strongly related to the type of procedure performed, type of CIED, and severity of the patient's underlying heart disease. PMID:27579544

  12. Sick sinus syndrome in a patient with extensive cardiac lipomatosis (sinus node dysfunction in lipomatosis).

    PubMed

    Kadmon, Ehud; Paz, Rami; Kusniec, Jairo; Strasberg, Boris

    2010-04-01

    We present a case of a 45-year-old man with an incidental and longstanding diagnosis of extensive mediastinal and cardiac lipomatosis. Along the years, he had experienced various arrhythmias, mainly bradyarrhythmias, mostly asymptomatic. Recently after documenting a sinus pause of 6 seconds and runs of nonsustained ventricular tachycardias, he underwent an implantation of a cardioverter-defibrillator. There are many reports of cardiac lipomatosis in the literature, including reports of related ventricular arrhythmias, some of which are fatal. (PACE 2010; 513-515).

  13. [Comparative analyses of the reliability of automatic external defibrillators].

    PubMed

    Tchoudovski, I; Schlindwein, M; Jäger, M; Kikillus, N; Bolz, A

    2004-06-01

    Automatic external defibrillators are gaining increasing acceptance. Last year 6000 devices were installed in Germany. Since the average user has only limited medical knowledge, high demands have to be made on the automatic ECG diagnosis (fibrillation detection). Within the framework of this study a fully automatic test system that permits an objective comparison of the performance of the various devices available on the market was constructed. Older devices in particular do not always meet the requirements defined by international standards with regard to sensitivity and specificity. In addition, company philosophy appears to differ in terms of the preferential emphasis on sensitivity or specificity. Purchasers of such devices need take these findings into consideration.

  14. Sustained Ventricular Tachycardia in Apparently Normal Hearts: Ablation Should Be the First Step in Management.

    PubMed

    Moss, Joshua D; Tung, Roderick

    2016-09-01

    Patients without structural heart disease tend to have fewer morphologies of ventricular tachycardia, with automaticity and triggered activity a more common mechanism than re-entry associated with extremely low risk of sudden death. Ablation can be curative in patients with a single morphology of ventricular tachycardia that is focal in origin, particularly in patients without overt structural heart disease. There are limited data in secondary prevention implantable cardioverter defibrillator literature to support the routine implementation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator in normal hearts. Antiarrhythmic drugs have not been shown to reduce all-cause mortality in patients with and without structural heart disease. PMID:27521095

  15. Defibrillation via the elimination of spiral turbulence in a model for ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Sinha, S; Pande, A; Pandit, R

    2001-04-16

    Ventricular fibrillation, the major reason behind sudden cardiac death, is turbulent cardiac electrical activity in which rapid, irregular disturbances in the spatiotemporal electrical activation of the heart make it incapable of any concerted pumping action. Methods of controlling ventricular fibrillation include electrical defibrillation as well as injected medication. Electrical defibrillation, though widely used, involves subjecting the whole heart to massive, and often counterproductive, electrical shocks. We propose a defibrillation method that uses a very low-amplitude shock (of order mV) applied for a brief duration (of order 100 ms) and over a coarse mesh of lines on our model ventricle.

  16. New horizon for infection prevention technology and implantable device.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Yusuke; Ueda, Marehiko; Kobayashi, Yoshio; Schwab, Joerg O

    2016-08-01

    There has been a significant increase in the number of patients receiving cardiovascular implantable electronic devices (CIED) over the last two decades. CIED infection represents a serious complication after CIED implantation and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Recently, newly advanced technologies have offered attractive and suitable therapeutic alternatives. Notably, the leadless pacemaker and anti-bacterial envelope decrease the potential risk of CIED infection and the resulting mortality, when it does occur. A completely subcutaneous implantable cardioverter defibrillator is also an alternative to the transvenous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), as it does not require implantation of any transvenous or epicardial leads. Among the patients who require ICD removal and subsequent antibiotics secondary to infection, the wearable cardioverter defibrillator represents an alternative approach to inpatient monitoring for the prevention of sudden cardiac death. In this review paper, we aimed to introduce the advanced technologies and devices for prevention of CIED infection. PMID:27588153

  17. Part 3: Adult Basic Life Support and Automated External Defibrillation: 2015 International Consensus on Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Emergency Cardiovascular Care Science With Treatment Recommendations.

    PubMed

    Travers, Andrew H; Perkins, Gavin D; Berg, Robert A; Castren, Maaret; Considine, Julie; Escalante, Raffo; Gazmuri, Raul J; Koster, Rudolph W; Lim, Swee Han; Nation, Kevin J; Olasveengen, Theresa M; Sakamoto, Tetsuya; Sayre, Michael R; Sierra, Alfredo; Smyth, Michael A; Stanton, David; Vaillancourt, Christian

    2015-10-20

    This review comprises the most extensive literature search and evidence evaluation to date on the most important international BLS interventions, diagnostics, and prognostic factors for cardiac arrest victims. It reemphasizes that the critical lifesaving steps of BLS are (1) prevention, (2) immediate recognition and activation of the emergency response system, (3) early high-quality CPR, and (4) rapid defibrillation for shockable rhythms. Highlights in prevention indicate the rational and judicious deployment of search-and-rescue operations in drowning victims and the importance of education on opioid-associated emergencies. Other 2015 highlights in recognition and activation include the critical role of dispatcher recognition and dispatch-assisted chest compressions, which has been demonstrated in multiple international jurisdictions with consistent improvements in cardiac arrest survival. Similar to the 2010 ILCOR BLS treatment recommendations, the importance of high quality was reemphasized across all measures of CPR quality: rate, depth, recoil, and minimal chest compression pauses, with a universal understanding that we all should be providing chest compressions to all victims of cardiac arrest. This review continued to focus on the interface of BLS sequencing and ensuring high-quality CPR with other important BLS interventions, such as ventilation and defibrillation. In addition, this consensus statement highlights the importance of EMS systems, which employ bundles of care focusing on providing high-quality chest compressions while extricating the patient from the scene to the next level of care. Highlights in defibrillation indicate the global importance of increasing the number of sites with public-access defibrillation programs. Whereas the 2010 ILCOR Consensus on Science provided important direction for the “what” in resuscitation (ie, what to do), the 2015 consensus has begun with the GRADE methodology to provide direction for the quality of

  18. Benign cardiac tumours, malignant arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Kimberley A; Wong, Kenny K; Tipple, Marion; Sanatani, Shubhayan

    2010-01-01

    Four cases of pediatric cardiac tumours (PCTs) associated with ventricular arrhythmias are reported. Sudden cardiac death attributable to the tumour occurred in two children. A third child received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator and the fourth had persistent ventricular arrhythmia despite medical therapy. Most PCTs are considered benign; however, the development of malignant arrhythmias may complicate the management of these tumours in some patients. The literature regarding the arrhythmogenic potential of PCTs and the use of implantable cardioverter defibrillators in these patients is reviewed. The series highlights the deficiency of prognostic information for this cohort. PMID:20151061

  19. Development of standard test methods for evaluating defibrillation recovery characteristics of disposable ECG electrodes.

    PubMed

    Schoenberg, A A; Booth, H E; Lyon, P C

    1979-01-01

    A clinically relevant test for the measurement of defibrillation overload recovery of prefilled disposable ECG electrodes was developed and is proposed for use in an ECG electrode standard under development by AAMI. Defibrillation overload voltages and currents, as well as electrode polarization recovery voltages, were first measured in animal tests on 12 types of electrodes to allow correlation with various bench tests using a capacitor discharge at 10, 200, or 1000 V. Current overloads absorbed by the electrodes under worst conditions in animal tests were in the range of 2 percent of the defibrillation current flowing through the chest. These overloads were absorbed by most Ag-AgCl electrodes without excessive polarization. However, stainless steel, brass, and tin electrodes tended to polarize to levels that would saturate many ECG monitors. A standard bench test using a 200-V 10-muF capacitor was recommended for inclusion in the AAMI standard to determine whether electrodes are acceptable for use during defibrillation.

  20. Epicardial Automatic Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator In A Child With Symptomatic Bugada Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moltedo, Jose M; Abello, Mauricio; Gustavo, Sivori; Javier, Celada; Delucis, Pablo Garcia

    2011-01-01

    An 18 month old 14 kg male with symptomatic Brugada syndrome underwent placement of an epicardial automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator using a single coil transvenous lead sutured to the anterolateral aspect of the left ventricle. PMID:21760684

  1. Defibrillator electrode-chest wall coupling agents: influence on transthoracic impedance and shock success.

    PubMed

    Aylward, P E; Kieso, R; Hite, P; Charbonnier, F; Kerber, R E

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the difference in transthoracic impedance produced by different coupling agents affects the success of shocks for defibrillation. Three different coupling agents, Harco pads (Hewlett-Packard), Littman pads (3M) and Redux paste (Hewlett-Packard), were assessed in 10 anesthetized dogs in which ventricular fibrillation was induced by electrical stimulation of the right ventricle. Defibrillation was attempted 15 seconds later, using 50, 100 and 150 joules (selected energy). Actual delivered energy, current, impedance and the percent of the shocks that achieved defibrillation were determined for the three coupling agents. Redux paste gave significantly lower impedance and higher current than the two disposable performed coupling pads tested. Despite this, there were no significant differences in shock success among the three coupling agents. Thus, in this experimental model, over a three-fold energy range, disposable coupling pads were as effective as electrode paste for defibrillation despite the slightly higher impedance of the disposable pads.

  2. Use of automated external defibrillators in a Brazilian airline. A 1-year experience.

    PubMed

    Alves, P M; de Freitas, E J; Mathias, H A; da Motta, A E; Silva, R de C; Müller, M; Almeida, S F; Stapleton, E; Timerman, S; Ramires, J A

    2001-04-01

    After the incorporation of automated external defibrillators by other airlines and the support of the Brazilian Society of Cardiology, Varig Airlines began the onboard defibrillation program with the initial purpose of equipping wide-body aircrafts frequently used in international flights and that airplanes use in the Rio - São Paulo route. With all flight attendants trained, the automated external defibrillation devices were incorporated to 34 airplanes of a total fleet of 80 aircrafts. The devices were installed in the baggage compartments secured with velcro straps and 2 pairs of electrodes, one or which pre-connected to the device to minimize application time. Later, a portable monitor was address to the resuscitation kit in the long flights. The expansion of the knowledge of the basic life support fundamentors and the corrected implantation of the survival chain and of the automated external defibrillators will increase the extense of recovery of cardiorespiratory arrest victims in aircrafts.

  3. Effect of Smaller Left Ventricular Capture Threshold Safety Margins to Improve Device Longevity in Recipients of Cardiac Resynchronization-Defibrillation Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Steinhaus, Daniel A.; Waks, Jonathan W.; Collins, Robert; Kleckner, Karen; Kramer, Daniel B.; Zimetbaum, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    Device longevity in cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) is affected by the pacing capture threshold (PCT) and programmed pacing amplitude of the left ventricular (LV) pacing lead. The aims of this study were to evaluate the stability of LV pacing thresholds in a nationwide sample of CRT defibrillator recipients and to determine potential longevity improvements associated with a decrease in the LV safety margin while maintaining effective delivery of CRT. CRT defibrillator patients in the Medtronic CareLink database were eligible for inclusion. LV PCT stability was evaluated using ≥2 measurements over a 14-day period. Separately, a random sample of 7,250 patients with programmed right atrial and right ventricular amplitudes ≤2.5 V, LV thresholds ≤ 2.5 V, and LV pacing ≥90% were evaluated to estimate theoretical battery longevity improvement using LV safety margins of 0.5 and 1.5 V. Threshold stability analysis in 43,256 patients demonstrated LV PCT stability of <0.5 V in 77% of patients and <1 V in 95%. Device longevity analysis showed that the use of a 0.5-V safety margin increased average battery longevity by 0.62 years (95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.63) compared with a safety margin of 1.5 V. Patients with LV PCTs >1 V had the greatest increases in battery life (mean increase 0.86 years, 95% confidence interval 0.85 to 0.87). In conclusion, nearly all CRT defibrillator patients had LV PCT stability <1.0 V. Decreasing the LV safety margin from 1.5 to 0.5 V provided consistent delivery of CRT for most patients and significantly improved battery longevity. PMID:25933732

  4. The effect of time on CPR and automated external defibrillator skills in the Public Access Defibrillation Trial

    PubMed Central

    Christenson, Jim; Nafziger, Sarah; Compton, Scott; Vijayaraghavan, Kris; Slater, Brian; Ledingham, Robert; Powell, Judy; McBurnie, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Background The time to skill deterioration between primary training/retraining and further retraining in Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillation (AED) for lay-persons is unclear. The Public Access Defibrillation (PAD) Trial was a multi-center randomized controlled trial evaluating survival after CPR-only vs. CPR+AED delivered by onsite non-medical volunteer responders in out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Aims This sub-study evaluated the relationship of time between primary training/retraining and further retraining on volunteer performance during pretest AED and CPR skill evaluation. Methods Volunteers at 1260 facilities in 24 North American regions underwent training/retraining according to facility randomization, which included an initial session and a refresher session at approximately 6 months. Before the next retraining, a CPR and AED skill test was completed for 2729 volunteers. Primary outcome for the study was assessment of global competence of CPR or AED performance (adequate vs not adequate) using Chi-square tests for trends by time interval (3, 6, 9, and 12 months). Confirmatory (GEE) logistic regression analysis, adjusted for site and potential confounders. Results The proportion of volunteers judged to be competent did not diminish by interval (3,6,9,12 months) for either CPR or AED skills. After adjusting for site and potential confounders, longer intervals before to further retraining was associated with a slightly lower likelihood of performing adequate CPR but not with AED scores. Conclusions After primary training/retraining, the CPR skills of targeted lay responders deteriorate nominally but 80% remain competent up to one year. AED skills do not significantly deteriorate and 90% of volunteers remain competent up to one year. PMID:17303309

  5. The prevalence of methicillin resistant organisms among pacemaker and defibrillator implant recipients

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, David J; Afzal, Aisha; Evonich, Rudolph; Haines, David E

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Pacemaker and defibrillator infections are an uncommon, but catastrophic complication of device implantation. The present study examined the prevalence of device-related infections, the patterns of antibiotic resistance, and the presence of methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) nares colonization in device implant recipients. Methods Two protocols were employed using a retrospective and a prospective analysis. A retrospective chart review of 218 patients with suspected device infection from 1/2000 to 1/2011 was performed. Demographics, infection rates, and patterns of antibiotic resistance were compared. The prospective analysis enrolled one hundred eighty two patients undergoing device implantations or generator replacements. The nares were swabbed and analyzed for the presence of staphylococcus aureus, and tested for methicillin sensitivity. Results Over a period of ten years, 12,771 device implants/generator changes/system revisions were performed, with an infection rate of 1.2%. Methicillin resistance (MR) was identified in 98/218 (44.9%) of patients. Those with MR infection had more diabetes and cardiomyopathy. There was no significant increase in methicillin resistance over time (p=0.30). Our prospective analysis included 110 men. A total of 32 patients (17.6%) had positive cultures for SA: 6.6% with MRSA. Patients positive for MRSA nares colonization had a statistically significant greater length of hospital stay 8.5 days (mean) versus 4.4 days (P=0.049). Conclusions Methicillin resistant organisms appear to be emerging and persistent pathogens in device implants. The screening of MRSA colonization may identify new populations at risk. Further studies and analysis are needed to determine the cost effectiveness of a screening protocol. PMID:22720201

  6. Teenage pregnancy with catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and documented ICD discharges.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Aziez; Phillips, John R

    2016-04-01

    We report the first case of pregnancy in a pediatric patient with catecholiminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT). Pregnant adolescents with CPVT are at high risk for NSVT and malignant VT during pregnancy, despite antiarrhythmic medication. They may receive multiple implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapies. Such patients require close monitoring with special care during the first trimester. PMID:27099728

  7. The Public Access Defibrillation (PAD) trial: study design and rationale.

    PubMed

    Ornato, Joseph P; McBurnie, Mary Ann; Nichol, Graham; Salive, Marcel; Weisfeldt, Myron; Riegel, Barbara; Christenson, James; Terndrup, Thomas; Daya, Mohamud

    2003-02-01

    The PAD Trial is a prospective, multicenter, randomized clinical study testing whether volunteer, non-medical responders can improve survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OOH-CA) by using automated external defibrillators (AEDs). These lay volunteers, who have no traditional responsibility to respond to a medical emergency as part of their primary job description, will form part of a comprehensive, integrated community approach to the treatment of OOH-CA. The study is being conducted at 24 field centers in the United States and Canada. Approximately 1000 community units (e.g. apartment or office buildings, gated communities, sports facilities, senior centers, shopping malls, etc.) were randomized to treatment by trained laypersons who will provide either cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) alone or CPR plus use of an AED, while awaiting arrival of the community's emergency medical services responders. The primary endpoint is the number of OOH-CA victims who survive to hospital discharge. Secondary endpoints include neurological status, health-related quality of life (HRQL), cost, and cost-effectiveness. Data collection will last approximately 15 months and is expected to be completed in September 2003.

  8. Anomalous ECG downloads from semi-automatic external defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Calle, P A; Vanhaute, O; Ranhoff, J F; Buylaert, W A

    1998-08-01

    The coincidental print-out by two different Laerdal systems (subsequently called 'system A' and 'system B') of the same medical control module (MCM) for a Laerdal Heartstart 2000 semi-automatic external defibrillator (SAED) led to the discovery of three deficiencies in the information storage and printing processes. First, we noted that the impedance reported via system A was consistently higher. Second, we found the attachment of 'mysterious' ECG samples in the reports from system B, but not from system A. A third problem was the unpredictable (in)ability of system B to print out the information from the MCMs. Further investigations with help from the company suggested that the above-mentioned problems were caused by incompatibilities between the software in the different parts of equipment used (i.e. SAED devices, MCMs, printing systems and a computer program to store the information in a database). These observations demonstrate the need for strict medical supervision on all aspects of a SAED project, and for feed-back from clinicians to manufacturers. PMID:9863574

  9. Numerical analysis of electrical defibrillation. The parallel approach.

    PubMed

    Ng, K T; Hutchinson, S A; Gao, S

    1995-01-01

    Numerical modeling offers a viable tool for studying electrical defibrillation, allowing the behavior of field quantities to be observed easily as the different system parameters are varied. One numerical technique, namely the finite-element method, has been found particularly effective for modeling complex thoracic anatomies. However, an accurate finite-element model of the thorax often requires a large number of elements and nodes, leading to a large set of equations that cannot be solved effectively with the computational power of conventional computers. This is especially true if many finite-element solutions need to be achieved within a reasonable time period (eg, electrode configuration optimization). In this study, the use of massively parallel computers to provide the memory and reduction in solution time for solving these large finite-element problems is discussed. Both the uniform and unstructured grid approaches are considered. Algorithms that allow efficient mapping of uniform and unstructured grids to data-parallel and message-passing parallel computers are discussed. An automatic iterative procedure for electrode configuration optimization is presented. The procedure is based on the minimization of an objective function using the parallel direct search technique. Computational performance results are presented together with simulation results. PMID:8656104

  10. Y2K: effects on pacemaker and implantable defibrillator programmers.

    PubMed

    Flynn, D P; Daubert, J P; Huang, D T; Ocampo, C M; O'Gorman, E

    1999-01-01

    All permanent pacemakers and implantable defibrillators (PPM/ICDs) will continue to function as programmed without regard to the date in the year 2000 (Y2K). All manufacturers contacted reassured us that some of these devices incorporate a day/year clock in the circuitry; however, these are not involved in sensing or delivering programmed therapy. Some manufacturers' device programmers will roll over to the year 2000 without any problems at all, whereas others may have difficulty with date and time stamping on printed reports. We tested 14 different types of PPM/ICD programmers for Y2K compliance using 8 tests. Five of the 14 models passed each test and were labeled at our institution with a green "Y2K" sticker to identify them as Y2K compatible and needing no special attention after December 31, 1999. The most common test failed was the ability to roll the date forward from December 31, 1999, with the programmer power off. Organizations should consider testing and replacing noncompliant device programmers or placing a red sticker with "Y2K" crossed out on noncompliant pieces. The red sticker alerts the advanced practice nurse or physician to the need to confirm the appropriate date and time in the programmer after startup in the year 2000 and before interrogating or programming any PPM/ICD, to avoid inappropriate date and time stamping on printed reports from that programmer.

  11. Machine Learning Techniques for the Detection of Shockable Rhythms in Automated External Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    Irusta, Unai; Morgado, Eduardo; Aramendi, Elisabete; Ayala, Unai; Wik, Lars; Kramer-Johansen, Jo; Eftestøl, Trygve; Alonso-Atienza, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Early recognition of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and electrical therapy are key for the survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients treated with automated external defibrillators (AED). AED algorithms for VF-detection are customarily assessed using Holter recordings from public electrocardiogram (ECG) databases, which may be different from the ECG seen during OHCA events. This study evaluates VF-detection using data from both OHCA patients and public Holter recordings. ECG-segments of 4-s and 8-s duration were analyzed. For each segment 30 features were computed and fed to state of the art machine learning (ML) algorithms. ML-algorithms with built-in feature selection capabilities were used to determine the optimal feature subsets for both databases. Patient-wise bootstrap techniques were used to evaluate algorithm performance in terms of sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and balanced error rate (BER). Performance was significantly better for public data with a mean Se of 96.6%, Sp of 98.8% and BER 2.2% compared to a mean Se of 94.7%, Sp of 96.5% and BER 4.4% for OHCA data. OHCA data required two times more features than the data from public databases for an accurate detection (6 vs 3). No significant differences in performance were found for different segment lengths, the BER differences were below 0.5-points in all cases. Our results show that VF-detection is more challenging for OHCA data than for data from public databases, and that accurate VF-detection is possible with segments as short as 4-s. PMID:27441719

  12. Machine Learning Techniques for the Detection of Shockable Rhythms in Automated External Defibrillators.

    PubMed

    Figuera, Carlos; Irusta, Unai; Morgado, Eduardo; Aramendi, Elisabete; Ayala, Unai; Wik, Lars; Kramer-Johansen, Jo; Eftestøl, Trygve; Alonso-Atienza, Felipe

    2016-01-01

    Early recognition of ventricular fibrillation (VF) and electrical therapy are key for the survival of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patients treated with automated external defibrillators (AED). AED algorithms for VF-detection are customarily assessed using Holter recordings from public electrocardiogram (ECG) databases, which may be different from the ECG seen during OHCA events. This study evaluates VF-detection using data from both OHCA patients and public Holter recordings. ECG-segments of 4-s and 8-s duration were analyzed. For each segment 30 features were computed and fed to state of the art machine learning (ML) algorithms. ML-algorithms with built-in feature selection capabilities were used to determine the optimal feature subsets for both databases. Patient-wise bootstrap techniques were used to evaluate algorithm performance in terms of sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp) and balanced error rate (BER). Performance was significantly better for public data with a mean Se of 96.6%, Sp of 98.8% and BER 2.2% compared to a mean Se of 94.7%, Sp of 96.5% and BER 4.4% for OHCA data. OHCA data required two times more features than the data from public databases for an accurate detection (6 vs 3). No significant differences in performance were found for different segment lengths, the BER differences were below 0.5-points in all cases. Our results show that VF-detection is more challenging for OHCA data than for data from public databases, and that accurate VF-detection is possible with segments as short as 4-s. PMID:27441719

  13. Update in cardiac arrhythmias and pacing.

    PubMed

    García-Bolao, Ignacio; Ruiz-Mateas, Francisco; Bazan, Victor; Berruezo, Antonio; Alcalde, Oscar; Leal del Ojo, Juan; Acosta, Juan; Martínez Sellés, Manuel; Mosquera, Ignacio

    2015-03-01

    This article discusses the main advances in cardiac arrhythmias and pacing published between 2013 and 2014. Special attention is given to the interventional treatment of atrial fibrillation and ventricular arrhythmias, and on advances in cardiac pacing and implantable cardioverter defibrillators, with particular reference to the elderly patient.

  14. Electrical defibrillation optimization: An automated, iterative parallel finite-element approach

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, S.A.; Shadid, J.N.; Ng, K.T.; Nadeem, A.

    1997-04-01

    To date, optimization of electrode systems for electrical defibrillation has been limited to hand-selected electrode configurations. In this paper we present an automated approach which combines detailed, three-dimensional (3-D) finite element torso models with optimization techniques to provide a flexible analysis and design tool for electrical defibrillation optimization. Specifically, a parallel direct search (PDS) optimization technique is used with a representative objective function to find an electrode configuration which corresponds to the satisfaction of a postulated defibrillation criterion with a minimum amount of power and a low possibility of myocardium damage. For adequate representation of the thoracic inhomogeneities, 3-D finite-element torso models are used in the objective function computations. The CPU-intensive finite-element calculations required for the objective function evaluation have been implemented on a message-passing parallel computer in order to complete the optimization calculations in a timely manner. To illustrate the optimization procedure, it has been applied to a representative electrode configuration for transmyocardial defibrillation, namely the subcutaneous patch-right ventricular catheter (SP-RVC) system. Sensitivity of the optimal solutions to various tissue conductivities has been studied. 39 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Determination of safety factor for defibrillator waveforms in cultured heart cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, J L; Jones, R E

    1982-04-01

    We studied excitation thresholds and arrhythmias produced in cultured chick embryo myocardial cells subjected to electric shocks using rectangular, untruncated resistor-capacitor (RC), and critically damped resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) waveforms with variable intensities while photocell mechanograms were recorded. Strength-duration curves for excitation and production of a specific postshock arrhythmia (4-s arrest) were constructed. Excitation curves closely resembled those for in situ defibrillation threshold (or specific % success). The ratio between the shock intensity producing a 4-s arrest and that producing excitation at each duration (termed the "safety factor") was determined. Waveforms with a large safety factor in vitro defibrillated most effectively in situ with little postshock dysfunction. Waveforms with low safety factors had a low rate of success in situ and produced much postshock dysfunction. Safety factor of monophasic clinical waveforms were lower than that of the 5-ms rectangular wave. The close correspondence between in vitro safety factor and in situ defibrillating effectiveness, as reported in the literature, suggests that the cell culture system is an effective screening system for determining waveforms that will improve the efficacy and safety of defibrillation procedures. PMID:7065279

  16. Cardiac Arrest During Medically-Supervised Exercise Training: A Report of Fifteen Successful Defibrillations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pyfer, Howard R.; And Others

    The Cardio-Pulmonary Research Institute conducted an exercise program for men with a history of coronary heart disease. Over 7 years, there were 15 cases of cardiac arrest during exercise (one for every 6,000 man-hours of exercise). Trained medical personnel were present in all cases, and all were resuscitated by electrical defibrillation with no…

  17. Determination of safety factor for defibrillator waveforms in cultured heart cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, J L; Jones, R E

    1982-04-01

    We studied excitation thresholds and arrhythmias produced in cultured chick embryo myocardial cells subjected to electric shocks using rectangular, untruncated resistor-capacitor (RC), and critically damped resistor-inductor-capacitor (RLC) waveforms with variable intensities while photocell mechanograms were recorded. Strength-duration curves for excitation and production of a specific postshock arrhythmia (4-s arrest) were constructed. Excitation curves closely resembled those for in situ defibrillation threshold (or specific % success). The ratio between the shock intensity producing a 4-s arrest and that producing excitation at each duration (termed the "safety factor") was determined. Waveforms with a large safety factor in vitro defibrillated most effectively in situ with little postshock dysfunction. Waveforms with low safety factors had a low rate of success in situ and produced much postshock dysfunction. Safety factor of monophasic clinical waveforms were lower than that of the 5-ms rectangular wave. The close correspondence between in vitro safety factor and in situ defibrillating effectiveness, as reported in the literature, suggests that the cell culture system is an effective screening system for determining waveforms that will improve the efficacy and safety of defibrillation procedures.

  18. Preventing Sudden Cardiac Death: Automated External Defibrillators in Ohio High Schools

    PubMed Central

    Lear, Aaron; Hoang, Minh-Ha; Zyzanski, Stephen J.

    2015-01-01

    Context Ohio passed legislation in 2004 for optional public funding of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) in all Ohio high schools. Objective To report occurrences of sudden cardiac arrest in which AEDs were used in Ohio high schools and to evaluate the adherence of Ohio high schools with AEDs to state law and published guidelines on AEDs and emergency action plans (EAPs) in schools. Design Cross-sectional survey. Setting Web-based survey. Patients or Other Participants A total of 264 of 827 schools that were members of the Ohio High School Athletic Association. Main Outcome Measure(s) We surveyed schools on AED use, AED maintenance, and EAPs. Results Twenty-five episodes of AED deployment at 22 schools over an 11-year period were reported; 8 (32%) involved students and 17 (68%) involved adults. The reported survival rate was 60% (n = 15). Most events (n = 20, 80%) in both students and adults occurred at or near athletic facilities. The annual use rate of AEDs was 0.7%. Fifty-three percent (n = 140) of schools reported having an EAP in place for episodes of cardiac arrest. Of the schools with EAPs, 57% (n = 80) reported having rehearsed them. Conclusions Our data supported the placement of AEDs in high schools given the frequency of use for sudden cardiac arrest and the survival rate reported. They also suggested the need for increased awareness of recommendations for EAPs and the need to formulate and practice EAPs. School EAPs should emphasize planning for events in the vicinity of athletic facilities. PMID:26381367

  19. Cardiac Repolarization Instability during Psychological Stress in Patients with Ventricular Arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Abisse, Saddam S.; Lampert, Rachel; Burg, Mattew; Soufer, Robert; Shusterman, Vladimir

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Changes in the autonomic nervous system activity (ANS) are a major trigger of life-threatening ventricular tachyarrhythmias (VTA). Mental arithmetic, a condition administered in a laboratory setting, can provide insight into the ANS effects on cardiac physiology. We examined the responses of cardiac repolarization to laboratory-induced psychological stressors in patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICDs) with the objective of identifying the indices that differentiate patients with and without subsequent VTA in follow-up. Methods Continuous ECG signals were recorded using 3 standard bipolar (Holter) leads in 56 patients (age: 63.6±11.9, female: 12%, LVEF: 32.3±11) with ICDs during mental arithmetic. The patients were separated into those with subsequent VTA during 3–4 years of follow-up (Group 1: N=9 pts) and those without VTA (Group 2: N=47 pts). Changes in repolarization (QT-interval, mean T-wave amplitude (Tamp), and T-wave area (Tarea) were analyzed during 5min of baseline, stress and recovery. The temporal instability of Tamp and Tarea was examined using the range (Δ) and variance (σ2) of beat-to-beat variations of the corresponding parameters. Results There were no significant differences in HR between the two groups at baseline (61 vs. 63 bpm, p=0.97), during stress (64 vs. 65 bpm, p=0.40), and recovery (62 vs. 61 bpm, p= 0.88). However, during mental stress and post-stress recovery ΔTamp was almost 2-fold greater in Group 1 compared with Group 2 (111 (57–203)) vs. 68 (44–94) μV p=0.04, respectively). Changes in QT-intervals were also greater in Group 1 compared with Group 2 (p=0.02). Conclusion Among patients with ICDs, changes of T-wave amplitude after psychological stress were greater in those with subsequent arrhythmic events. This might signal proarrhythmic repolarization response and help identify patients who would benefit the most from ICD implantation and proactive management. PMID:21920534

  20. Implementation of a Screening Program for Patients at Risk for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Roberts, Carmen R.; Wofford, Joanie E.; Hoy, Haley M.; Faddis, Mitchell N.

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) recipients who suffer from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are known to be associated with significant cardiac-specific mortality. Clinical observations suggest that PTSD is frequently undetected in ICD recipients followed up at electrophysiology (EP) outpatient clinics. Early recognition of PTSD is important to reduce the risk of serious manifestations on patient outcomes. METHODS All ICD recipients aged 19 years or older at the Washington University School of Medicine (WASHU) EP clinic, a large urban EP clinic, were invited to participate in the project. An informed consent letter with an attached primary care: posttraumatic stress disorder (PC: PTSD) survey was offered to the participants who met the inclusion criteria. Those who completed the survey were included in the project. Individuals with positive survey result were offered a referral to mental health services. Comparisons between PTSD and non-PTSD patients were done using a two-sample t-test for continuous variables. Using Fisher’s exact test, PTSD prevalence was compared to the study by Ladwig et al in which prevalence was determined as the proportion of patients with positive findings of PTSD (n = 38/147). All analyses were conducted using SAS v9.4. The proportion of patients having PTSD was determined and an exact 95% confidence interval was evaluated based on the binomial distribution. RESULTS Using a convenience sample, 50 ICD recipients (33 males and 17 females) were enrolled. The project had a 30-day outcome period. Nine (18%) of the 50 participants had positive PC: PTSD findings and all these nine participants were referred to a mental health specialist. The current project demonstrated an 18% (9/50) PTSD prevalence rate when compared to a 26% (38/147) prevalence rate in the study by Ladwig et al (P = 0.34). Although this project did not demonstrate 20% PTSD prevalence rate, as hypothesized, the 18% PTSD prevalence rate is

  1. Public Claims about Automatic External Defibrillators: An Online Consumer Opinions Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients are no longer passive recipients of health care, and increasingly engage in health communications outside of the traditional patient and health care professional relationship. As a result, patient opinions and health related judgements are now being informed by a wide range of social, media, and online information sources. Government initiatives recognise self-delivery of health care as a valuable means of responding to the anticipated increased global demand for health resources. Automated External Defibrillators (AEDs), designed for the treatment of Sudden Cardiac Arrest (SCA), have recently become available for 'over the counter' purchase with no need for a prescription. This paper explores the claims and argumentation of lay persons and health care practitioners and professionals relating to these, and how these may impact on the acceptance, adoption and use of these devices within the home context. Methods We carry out a thematic content analysis of a novel form of Internet-based data: online consumer opinions of AED devices posted on Amazon.com, the world's largest online retailer. A total of #83 online consumer reviews of home AEDs are analysed. The analysis is both inductive, identifying themes that emerged from the data, exploring the parameters of public debate relating to these devices, and also driven by theory, centring around the parameters that may impact upon the acceptance, adoption and use of these devices within the home as indicated by the Technology Acceptance Model (TAM). Results Five high-level themes around which arguments for and against the adoption of home AEDs are identified and considered in the context of TAM. These include opinions relating to device usability, usefulness, cost, emotional implications of device ownership, and individual patient risk status. Emotional implications associated with AED acceptance, adoption and use emerged as a notable factor that is not currently reflected within the existing TAM

  2. Effects of Blended Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Defibrillation E-learning on Nursing Students' Self-efficacy, Problem Solving, and Psychomotor Skills.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Young; Woo, Chung Hee; Yoo, Jae Yong

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to identify the educational effects of a blended e-learning program for graduating nursing students on self-efficacy, problem solving, and psychomotor skills for core basic nursing skills. A one-group pretest/posttest quasi-experimental design was used with 79 nursing students in Korea. The subjects took a conventional 2-week lecture-based practical course, together with spending an average of 60 minutes at least twice a week during 2 weeks on the self-guided e-learning content for basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation using Mosby's Nursing Skills database. Self- and examiner-reported data were collected between September and November 2014 and analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t test, and Pearson correlation. The results showed that subjects who received blended e-learning education had improved problem-solving abilities (t = 2.654) and self-efficacy for nursing practice related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (t = 3.426). There was also an 80% to 90% rate of excellent postintervention performance for the majority of psychomotor skills, but the location of chest compressions, compression rate per minute, artificial respiration, and verification of patient outcome still showed low levels of performance. In conclusion, blended E-learning, which allows self-directed repetitive learning, may be more effective in enhancing nursing competencies than conventional practice education.

  3. Effects of Blended Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation and Defibrillation E-learning on Nursing Students' Self-efficacy, Problem Solving, and Psychomotor Skills.

    PubMed

    Park, Ju Young; Woo, Chung Hee; Yoo, Jae Yong

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to identify the educational effects of a blended e-learning program for graduating nursing students on self-efficacy, problem solving, and psychomotor skills for core basic nursing skills. A one-group pretest/posttest quasi-experimental design was used with 79 nursing students in Korea. The subjects took a conventional 2-week lecture-based practical course, together with spending an average of 60 minutes at least twice a week during 2 weeks on the self-guided e-learning content for basic cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation using Mosby's Nursing Skills database. Self- and examiner-reported data were collected between September and November 2014 and analyzed using descriptive statistics, paired t test, and Pearson correlation. The results showed that subjects who received blended e-learning education had improved problem-solving abilities (t = 2.654) and self-efficacy for nursing practice related to cardiopulmonary resuscitation and defibrillation (t = 3.426). There was also an 80% to 90% rate of excellent postintervention performance for the majority of psychomotor skills, but the location of chest compressions, compression rate per minute, artificial respiration, and verification of patient outcome still showed low levels of performance. In conclusion, blended E-learning, which allows self-directed repetitive learning, may be more effective in enhancing nursing competencies than conventional practice education. PMID:27046387

  4. Worldwide experience with a totally subcutaneous implantable defibrillator: early results from the EFFORTLESS S-ICD Registry

    PubMed Central

    Lambiase, Pier D.; Barr, Craig; Theuns, Dominic A.M.J.; Knops, Reinoud; Neuzil, Petr; Johansen, Jens Brock; Hood, Margaret; Pedersen, Susanne; Kääb, Stefan; Murgatroyd, Francis; Reeve, Helen L.; Carter, Nathan; Boersma, Lucas; Adragão, P.; Agarwal, S.; Barr, C.; Boersma, L.; Brock-Johanssen, J.; Butter, C.; Calò, L.; Eckhardt, L.; Gulizia, M.; Scholten, M.; Dekker, L.; Khiani, R.; Hjortshot, S.; Høgh Petersen, H.; Hood, M.; Kääb, S.; Knops, R.; Kuschyk, J.; Lambiase, P.; Maass, K. A.; McLeod, K.; Molon, G.; Morgan, J.; Mortensen, P.; Murgatroyd, F.; Neuzil, P.; Pepper, C.; Sheridan, P.; Stellbrink, C.; Stuart, G.; Theuns, D.; Vernooy, K.; Veltmann, C.; Wende, C.

    2014-01-01

    Aims The totally subcutaneous implantable-defibrillator (S-ICD) is a new alternative to the conventional transvenous ICD system to minimize intravascular lead complications. There are limited data describing the long-term performance of the S-ICD. This paper presents the first large international patient population collected as part of the EFFORTLESS S-ICD Registry. Methods and results The EFFORTLESS S-ICD Registry is a non-randomized, standard of care, multicentre Registry designed to collect long-term, system-related, clinical, and patient reported outcome data from S-ICD implanted patients since June 2009. Follow-up data are systematically collected over 60-month post-implant including Quality of Life. The study population of 472 patients of which 241 (51%) were enrolled prospectively has a mean follow-up duration of 558 days (range 13–1342 days, median 498 days), 72% male, mean age of 49 ± 18 years (range 9–88 years), 42% mean left ventricular ejection fraction. Complication-free rates were 97 and 94%, at 30 and 360 days, respectively. Three hundred and seventeen spontaneous episodes were recorded in 85 patients during the follow-up period. Of these episodes, 169 (53%) received therapy, 93 being for Ventricular Tachycardia/Fibrillation (VT/VF). One patient died of recurrent VF and severe bradycardia. Regarding discrete VT/VF episodes, first shock conversion efficacy was 88% with 100% overall successful clinical conversion after a maximum of five shocks. The 360-day inappropriate shock rate was 7% with the vast majority occurring for oversensing (62/73 episodes), primarily of cardiac signals (94% of oversensed episodes). Conclusion The first large cohort of real-world data from an International patient S-ICD population demonstrates appropriate system performance with clinical event rates and inappropriate shock rates comparable with those reported for conventional ICDs. Clinical trial registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier NCT

  5. Pacemaker implantation in a patient with brugada and sick sinus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Risgaard, Bjarke; Bundgaard, Henning; Jabbari, Reza; Haunsø, Stig; Winkel, Bo Gregers; Tfelt-Hansen, Jacob

    2013-03-26

    Brugada syndrome (BrS) is a rare and inherited primary arrhythmic syndrome characterized by ST-segment elevations in the right precordial leads (V1-V3) with an increased risk of sudden cardiac death (SCD). Arrhythmias in BrS are often nocturne, and brady-arrhythmias are often seen in patients with loss-of-function mutations in SCN5A. In this case-report we present a 75-year old woman referred to our outpatient clinic for inherited cardiac diseases for a familial clinical work-up. Since childhood she had suffered from dizziness, absence seizures, and countless Syncope's. In 2004 sick sinus syndrome was suspected and she was treated with implantation of a pacemaker (PM) at another institution. An inherited cardiac disease was one day suddenly suspected, as the patient had a 61-year old brother who was diagnosed with symptomatic BrS, and treated with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) after aborted SCD. A mutation screening revealed a SCN5A [S231CfsX251 (c.692-693delCA)] loss-of-function mutation not previously reported, and as a part of the cascade screening in relatives she was therefore referred to our clinic. In the 7 year period after PM implantation she had experienced no cardiac symptoms, although her electrocardiogram changes now were consistent with a BrS type 1 pattern. A genetic test confirmed that she had the same mutation in SCN5A as her brother. In this case-report we present a loss-of function mutation in SCN5A not previously associated with BrS nor presented in healthy controls. Sinus node dysfunction has previously been documented in patients with symptomatic BrS, which suggests it is not a rare concomitant. The only accepted treatment of BrS is today implantation of an ICD. In the future studies should evaluate if PM in some cases of symptomatic BrS can be used instead of ICDs in patients with a loss-of-function SCN5A mutations.

  6. Effective date of requirement for premarket approval for automated external defibrillator systems. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2015-01-29

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA or the Agency) is issuing a final order to require the filing of premarket approval applications (PMA) for automated external defibrillator (AED) systems, which consist of an AED and those AED accessories necessary for the AED to detect and interpret an electrocardiogram and deliver an electrical shock (e.g., pad electrodes, batteries, adapters, and hardware keys for pediatric use). PMID:25730922

  7. Superiority of Biphasic Over Monophasic Defibrillation Shocks is Attributable to Less Intracellular Calcium Transient Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Gyo-Seung; Tang, Liang; Joung, Boyoung; Morita, Norishige; Hayashi, Hideki; Karagueuzian, Hrayr S.; Weiss, James N.; Lin, Shien-Fong; Chen, Peng-Sheng

    2008-01-01

    Objectives To test the hypothesis that superiority of biphasic waveform (BW) over monophasic waveform (MW) defibrillation shocks is attributable to less intracellular calcium (Cai) transient heterogeneity. Background The mechanism by which BW shocks have a higher defibrillation efficacy than MW shocks remains unclear. Methods We simultaneously mapped epicardial membrane potential (Vm) and Cai during 6 ms MW and 3/3 ms BW shocks in 19 Langendorff-perfused rabbit ventricles. After shock, the percentage of depolarized area was plotted over time. The maximum (peak) postshock values (VmP and CaiP, respectively) were used to measure heterogeneity. Higher VmP and CaiP imply less heterogeneity. Results The defibrillation threshold was for BW and MW shocks were 288±99 V and 399±155 V, respectively (p=0.0005). Successful BW shocks had higher VmP (88±9 %) and CaiP (70±13 %) than unsuccessful MW shocks (VmP 76 %±10, p<0.001; CaiP, 57±8 %, p<0.001) of the same shock strength. In contrast, for unsuccessful BW and MW shocks of the same shock strengths, the VmP and CaiP were not significantly different. MW shocks more frequently created regions of low Cai surrounded by regions of high Cai (postshock Cai sinkholes). The defibrillation threshold for MW and BW shocks became similar after disabling the sarcoplasmic reticulum with thapsigargin and ryanodine. Conclusions The greater efficacy of BW shocks is directly related to their less heterogeneous effects on shock-induced sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca release and Cai transients. Less heterogeneous Cai transients reduces the probability of Cai sinkhole formation, thereby preventing the postshock reinitiation of VF. PMID:18755345

  8. [A comparison of the two schemes of protection of the electrocardiograph against defibrillator impulse].

    PubMed

    Lebedev, V V

    2004-01-01

    Two typical scheme of protection of the input cascade of the electrocardiograph against defibrillator impulses are under consideration. It is concluded that the conditions of check-up and testing as envisaged in State Standard R 50267.25 (MEK 601-2-25-93), is not in line with the real operation conditions, therefore, appropriate changes are suggested to be made in the above Standard. The offered scheme is shown to ensure a decrease of the electrodes' polarization potential by 100 times.

  9. Availability and use of public access defibrillators in Busan Metropolitan City, South Korea.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Chang Guk; Jeong, Jinwoo; Kwon, In Ho; Lee, Jae Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is considered an important health issue worldwide, and early defibrillation is a key element for a favourable prognosis. In South Korea, public access defibrillation (PAD) programmes were initiated in 2007. However, the impact of PAD programmes on OHCA survival rates remains unclear. This study evaluated the deployment and maintenance status of public automatic external defibrillators (AED), including how frequently they were used, in Busan Metropolitan City, South Korea. Managers of possible AED sites were first contacted by telephone and asked to confirm the possession of an AED. AED suppliers were contacted for AED sales records to identify missing AED sites. AEDs located in ambulances and medical institutions were not included. Investigators visited confirmed AED sites and completed a checklist on AED maintenance and use. In total, 206 AEDs were located, indicative of an AED density of 0.268 AED/km(2) and a prevalence of 6.07 per 100,000 in Busan Metropolitan City. We found that public AEDs had been used for resuscitation only 15 times, an average rate of use of once every 26.3 years. Our results indicate that AEDs in Busan Metropolitan City are underused according to the guidelines, and several are in low-priority locations. We believe that AED deployment based on cardiac arrest statistics is important to optimise layperson AED training and utilisation. PMID:27652097

  10. Optogenetics design of mechanistically-based stimulation patterns for cardiac defibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Crocini, Claudia; Ferrantini, Cecilia; Coppini, Raffaele; Scardigli, Marina; Yan, Ping; Loew, Leslie M.; Smith, Godfrey; Cerbai, Elisabetta; Poggesi, Corrado; Pavone, Francesco S.; Sacconi, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    Current rescue therapies for life-threatening arrhythmias ignore the pathological electro-anatomical substrate and base their efficacy on a generalized electrical discharge. Here, we developed an all-optical platform to examine less invasive defibrillation strategies. An ultrafast wide-field macroscope was developed to optically map action potential propagation with a red-shifted voltage sensitive dye in whole mouse hearts. The macroscope was implemented with a random-access scanning head capable of drawing arbitrarily-chosen stimulation patterns with sub-millisecond temporal resolution allowing precise epicardial activation of Channelrhodopsin2 (ChR2). We employed this optical system in the setting of ventricular tachycardia to optimize mechanistic, multi-barrier cardioversion/defibrillation patterns. Multiple regions of conduction block were created with a very high cardioversion efficiency but with lower energy requirements as compared to whole ventricle interventions to interrupt arrhythmias. This work demonstrates that defibrillation energies can be substantially reduced by applying discrete stimulation patterns and promotes the progress of current anti-arrhythmic strategies. PMID:27748433

  11. Hidden in Plain Sight: A Crowdsourced Public Art Contest to Make Automated External Defibrillators More Visible

    PubMed Central

    Griffis, Heather M.; Kilaru, Austin S.; Sellers, Allison M.; Hershey, John C.; Hill, Shawndra S.; Kramer-Golinkoff, Emily; Nadkarni, Lindsay; Debski, Margaret M.; Padrez, Kevin A.; Becker, Lance B.; Asch, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to explore the feasibility of using a crowdsourcing study to promote awareness about automated external defibrillators (AEDs) and their locations. Methods. The Defibrillator Design Challenge was an online initiative that asked the public to create educational designs that would enhance AED visibility, which took place over 8 weeks, from February 6, 2014, to April 6, 2014. Participants were encouraged to vote for AED designs and share designs on social media for points. Using a mixed-methods study design, we measured participant demographics and motivations, design characteristics, dissemination, and Web site engagement. Results. Over 8 weeks, there were 13 992 unique Web site visitors; 119 submitted designs and 2140 voted. The designs were shared 48 254 times on Facebook and Twitter. Most designers–voters reported that they participated to contribute to an important cause (44%) rather than to win money (0.8%). Design themes included: empowerment, location awareness, objects (e.g., wings, lightning, batteries, lifebuoys), and others. Conclusions. The Defibrillator Design Challenge engaged a broad audience to generate AED designs and foster awareness. This project provides a framework for using design and contest architecture to promote health messages. PMID:25320902

  12. Characterization of available automated external defibrillators in the market based on the product manuals in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Chik Leung; Cheng, Ka Wai; Ma, Tze Hang; Wong, Yau Hang; Cheng, Ka Lok; Kam, Chak Wah

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To popularize the wide-spread use of automated external defibrillator (AED) to save life in sudden cardiac arrest, we compared the strength and weakness of different types of AEDs to enable a sound selection based on regional requirement. METHODS: This was a retrospective descriptive study. Different types of AEDs were compared according to the information of AEDs from manuals and brochures provided by the manufacturers. Fifteen types of AEDs were divided into 3 groups, basic, intermediate and advanced. RESULTS: Lifeline™ AUTO AED had the best performance in price, portability and user-friendly among AEDs of basic level. It required less time for shock charging. Samaritan PAD defibrillator was superior in price, portability, durability and characteristic among AEDs of intermediate level. It had the longest warranty and highest protection against water and dust. Lifeline™ PRO AED had the best performance in most of the criteria among AEDs of advanced level and offered CPR video and manual mode for laypersons and clinicians respectively. CONCLUSION: Lifeline™ AUTO AED, Samaritan PAD defibrillator, Lifeline™ PRO AED are superior in AEDs of basic, intermediate and advanced levels, respectively. A feasible AED may be chosen by users according to the regional requirement and the current information about the best available products. PMID:27313810

  13. Mortality pattern and cause of death in a long-term follow-up of patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI

    PubMed Central

    Moloi, Soniah; Chandrasekhar, Jaya; Farshid, Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Objective We aimed to assess the pattern of mortality and cause of death in a cohort of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Methods Consecutive patients with STEMI treated with primary PCI during 2006–2013 were evaluated with a mean follow-up of 3.5 years (1–8.4 years). We used hospital and general practice records and mortality data from The Australian National Death Index. Results Among 1313 patients (22.5% female) with mean age of 62.3±13.1 years, 181 patients (13.7%) died during long-term follow-up. In the first 7 days, 45 patients (3.4%) died, 76% of these due to cardiogenic shock. Between 7 days and 1 year, another 50 patients died (3.9%), 58% from cardiovascular causes and 22% from cancer. Beyond 1 year, there were 86 deaths with an estimated mean mortality rate of 2.05% per year, 36% of deaths were cardiovascular and 52% non-cardiovascular, including 29% cancer-related deaths. On multivariate analysis, age ≥75 years, history of diabetes, prior PCI, cardiogenic shock, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 and symptom-to-balloon time >360 min were independent predictors of long-term mortality. In 16 patients who died of sudden cardiac death postdischarge, only 4 (25%) had ejection fraction ≤35% and would have been eligible for an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. Conclusions In the era of routine primary PCI, we found a mortality rate of 7.3% at 1 year, and 2.05% per year thereafter. Cause of death was predominantly cardiovascular in the first year and mainly non-cardiovascular after 1 year. Age, diabetes, prior PCI, cardiogenic shock, eGFR <60 and delayed treatment were independent predictors of mortality. PMID:27099764

  14. Incessant slow bundle branch reentrant ventricular tachycardia in a young patient with left ventricular noncompaction.

    PubMed

    Barra, Sérgio; Moreno, Nuno; Providência, Rui; Gonçalves, Helena; Primo, João José

    2013-06-01

    A 15-year-old girl was admitted to the cardiology outpatient clinic due to mild palpitations and documented incessant slow ventricular tachycardia (VT) with left bundle branch block (LBBB) pattern. The baseline electrocardiogram revealed first-degree atrioventricular block and intraventricular conduction defect. Transthoracic echocardiography showed prominent trabeculae and intertrabecular recesses suggesting left ventricular noncompaction (LVNC), which was confirmed by cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. During electrophysiological study, a sustained bundle branch reentrant VT with LBBB pattern and cycle length of 480 ms, similar to the clinical tachycardia, was easily and reproducibly inducible. As there was considerable risk of need for chronic ventricular pacing following right bundle ablation, no ablation was attempted and a cardioverter-defibrillator was implanted. To the best of our knowledge, no case reports of BBR-VT as the first manifestation of LVNC have been published. Furthermore, this is an extremely rare presentation of BBR-VT, which is usually a highly malignant arrhythmia.

  15. Optimal Installation Locations for Automated External Defibrillators in Taipei 7-Eleven Stores: Using GIS and a Genetic Algorithm with a New Stirring Operator

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Tzai-Hung

    2014-01-01

    Immediate treatment with an automated external defibrillator (AED) increases out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) patient survival potential. While considerable attention has been given to determining optimal public AED locations, spatial and temporal factors such as time of day and distance from emergency medical services (EMSs) are understudied. Here we describe a geocomputational genetic algorithm with a new stirring operator (GANSO) that considers spatial and temporal cardiac arrest occurrence factors when assessing the feasibility of using Taipei 7-Eleven stores as installation locations for AEDs. Our model is based on two AED conveyance modes, walking/running and driving, involving service distances of 100 and 300 meters, respectively. Our results suggest different AED allocation strategies involving convenience stores in urban settings. In commercial areas, such installations can compensate for temporal gaps in EMS locations when responding to nighttime OHCA incidents. In residential areas, store installations can compensate for long distances from fire stations, where AEDs are currently held in Taipei. PMID:25045396

  16. 41 CFR 102-79.115 - What guidelines must an agency follow if it elects to establish a public access defibrillation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SPACE Assignment and Utilization of Space Public Access Defibrillation Programs § 102-79.115 What... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What guidelines must an agency follow if it elects to establish a public access defibrillation program in a Federal facility?...

  17. Devices for Arrhythmia

    MedlinePlus

    ... the heart an electric shock (as with a defibrillator ). For people with recurrent arrhythmias, medical devices such as a pacemaker and implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) can help by continuously monitoring the heart's ...

  18. Activation during ventricular defibrillation in open-chest dogs. Evidence of complete cessation and regeneration of ventricular fibrillation after unsuccessful shocks.

    PubMed Central

    Chen, P S; Shibata, N; Dixon, E G; Wolf, P D; Danieley, N D; Sweeney, M B; Smith, W M; Ideker, R E

    1986-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that a defibrillation shock is unsuccessful because it fails to annihilate activation fronts within a critical mass of myocardium, we recorded epicardial and transmural activation in 11 open-chest dogs during electrically induced ventricular fibrillation (VF). Shocks of 1-30 J were delivered through defibrillation electrodes on the left ventricular apex and right atrium. Simultaneous recordings were made from septal, intramural, and epicardial electrodes in various combinations. Immediately after all 104 unsuccessful and 116 successful defibrillation shocks, an isoelectric interval much longer than that observed during preshock VF occurred. During this time no epicardial, septal, or intramural activations were observed. This isoelectric window averaged 64 +/- 22 ms after unsuccessful defibrillation and 339 +/- 292 ms after successful defibrillation (P less than 0.02). After the isoelectric window of unsuccessful shocks, earliest activation was recorded from the base of the ventricles, which was the area farthest from the apical defibrillation electrode. Activation was synchronized for one or two cycles following unsuccessful shocks, after which VF regenerated. Thus, after both successful and unsuccessful defibrillation with epicardial shocks of greater than or equal to 1 J, an isoelectric window occurs during which no activation fronts are present; the postshock isoelectric window is shorter for unsuccessful than for successful defibrillation; unsuccessful shocks transiently synchronize activation before fibrillation regenerates; activation leading to the regeneration of VF after the isoelectric window for unsuccessful shocks originates in areas away from the defibrillation electrodes. The isoelectric window does not support the hypothesis that defibrillation fails solely because activation fronts are not halted within a critical mass of myocardium. Rather, unsuccessful epicardial shocks of greater than or equal to 1 J halt all activation

  19. Automatic external defibrillators in the sports arena: the right place, the right time.

    PubMed

    Cantwell, J D

    1998-12-01

    At first glance, the idea of having automatic external defibrillators (AEDs) at sports events may seem curious, since spectator sports are the domain of young, healthy athletes. Yet athletes are not entirely free of cardiac risk. More important, there are many other people at sports events (officials, coaches, fans) who are at risk for cardiac arrest. In just one example, baseball umpire John McSherry suffered a fatal heart attack before a national TV audience during the Cincinnati Reds' home opener in April 1996.

  20. Early administration of epinephrine (adrenaline) in patients with cardiac arrest with initial shockable rhythm in hospital: propensity score matched analysis

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars W; Kurth, Tobias; Chase, Maureen; Berg, Katherine M; Cocchi, Michael N; Callaway, Clifton

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate whether patients who experience cardiac arrest in hospital receive epinephrine (adrenaline) within the two minutes after the first defibrillation (contrary to American Heart Association guidelines) and to evaluate the association between early administration of epinephrine and outcomes in this population. Design Prospective observational cohort study. Setting Analysis of data from the Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry, which includes data from more than 300 hospitals in the United States. Participants Adults in hospital who experienced cardiac arrest with an initial shockable rhythm, including patients who had a first defibrillation within two minutes of the cardiac arrest and who remained in a shockable rhythm after defibrillation. Intervention Epinephrine given within two minutes after the first defibrillation. Main outcome measures Survival to hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes included return of spontaneous circulation and survival to hospital discharge with a good functional outcome. A propensity score was calculated for the receipt of epinephrine within two minutes after the first defibrillation, based on multiple characteristics of patients, events, and hospitals. Patients who received epinephrine at either zero, one, or two minutes after the first defibrillation were then matched on the propensity score with patients who were “at risk” of receiving epinephrine within the same minute but who did not receive it. Results 2978patients were matched on the propensity score, and the groups were well balanced. 1510 (51%) patients received epinephrine within two minutes after the first defibrillation, which is contrary to current American Heart Association guidelines. Epinephrine given within the first two minutes after the first defibrillation was associated with decreased odds of survival in the propensity score matched analysis (odds ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.59 to 0.82; P<0.001). Early epinephrine

  1. Training lay persons to use automatic external defibrillators: success of initial training and one-year retention of skills.

    PubMed

    Cummins, R O; Schubach, J A; Litwin, P E; Hearne, T R

    1989-03-01

    This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of recruitment of lay persons to use automatic external defibrillators (AEDs), the effectiveness of their initial training, and the need for and frequency of retraining over time. Volunteers (n = 146), recruited from a variety of settings, included security personnel and administrative staff from large corporate centers, supervisors from senior care and exercise facilities, and employees in high-rise office buildings. Seven sites for 14 AEDs were recruited. In a single, two-hour class, participants learned to identify and respond to cardiac arrest, to notify emergency personnel, to retrieve and attach the semiautomatic (shock advisory) AED, and to respond to instructions presented on the display screen of the device. A skills check list was used to grade each student on performance of cardiopulmonary resuscitation, operation of the device, and time required to deliver an electric countershock. Retesting was performed one or more times after initial training to assess skill retention. The study lasted 1 year. All age groups, both sexes, and each responder type easily learned to operate the AED, with a trend for lower performance scores in people aged greater than 60 years. Performance time and skills declined significantly after initial training, but returned to satisfactory levels after one retraining session and were even higher after two retraining sessions. With retesting, errors that would have prevented delivery of countershocks to patients in ventricular fibrillation were rare (six of 146 tests, 4%). During the year of this study only three cardiac arrests occurred in the study sites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. PDE constrained optimization of electrical defibrillation in a 3D ventricular slice geometry.

    PubMed

    Chamakuri, Nagaiah; Kunisch, Karl; Plank, Gernot

    2016-04-01

    A computational study of an optimal control approach for cardiac defibrillation in a 3D geometry is presented. The cardiac bioelectric activity at the tissue and bath volumes is modeled by the bidomain model equations. The model includes intramural fiber rotation, axially symmetric around the fiber direction, and anisotropic conductivity coefficients, which are extracted from a histological image. The dynamics of the ionic currents are based on the regularized Mitchell-Schaeffer model. The controls enter in the form of electrodes, which are placed at the boundary of the bath volume with the goal of dampening undesired arrhythmias. The numerical optimization is based on Newton techniques. We demonstrated the parallel architecture environment for the computation of potentials on multidomains and for the higher order optimization techniques.

  3. Design of an ultrahigh-energy hydrogen thyratron/SCR research defibrillator.

    PubMed

    Schuder, J C; Gold, J H

    1976-01-01

    The design features of an ultrahigh-energy research defibrillator are described. Three voltage sources are used. The first is a 60-Hz supply of adjustable amplitude and duration for inducing fibrillation. The second source uses an 18.000-joule capacitor bank which can be charged to 800, 1600, or 2400 volts. SCRs in series with the chest are used to initiate the discharge, and SCRs shunting the capacitor bank terminate the discharge. The third source employs another 18,000-joule capacitor bank which can be charged to 5000, 10,000 or 15,000 volts. In this source, large ceramic-enveloped hydrogen thyratrons are used for both initiating and terminating the discharge. In the second and third sources, which can deliver rectangular, trapezoidal, truncated exponential, or untruncated exponential waveforms, capacitor charge time is 10 sec and the duration of the delivered shock is continuously adjustable from 100 musec through 1 sec. PMID:1272088

  4. When inappropriate becomes beneficial.

    PubMed

    Arroja, José David; Zimmermann, Marc

    2015-03-01

    We report the case of a young man who accidentally received a prolonged electric discharge from electrical wires and released the electric source with the help of an inappropriate shock from his implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), after misinterpretation of the electrical signal by the device as a ventricular tachycardia. This case illustrates the "electrical noise" phenomenon, and underscores the need for precautions for patients with an ICD and their physicians.

  5. When inappropriate becomes beneficial.

    PubMed

    Arroja, José David; Zimmermann, Marc

    2015-03-01

    We report the case of a young man who accidentally received a prolonged electric discharge from electrical wires and released the electric source with the help of an inappropriate shock from his implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD), after misinterpretation of the electrical signal by the device as a ventricular tachycardia. This case illustrates the "electrical noise" phenomenon, and underscores the need for precautions for patients with an ICD and their physicians. PMID:25707735

  6. Electromagnetic Interference in a Private Swimming Pool

    PubMed Central

    Iskandar, Sandia; Lavu, Madhav; Atoui, Moustapha; Lakkireddy, Dhanunjaya

    2016-01-01

    Although current lead design and filtering capabilities have greatly improved, Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) from environmental sources has been increasingly reported in patients with Cardiac Implantable Electronic Device (CIED) [1]. Few cases of inappropriate intracardiac Cardioverter Defibrillator (ICD) associated with swimming pool has been described [2]. Here we present a case of 64 year old male who presented with an interesting EMI signal that was subsequently identified to be related to AC current leak in his swimming pool. PMID:27479205

  7. The evaluation and management of electrical storm.

    PubMed

    Eifling, Michael; Razavi, Mehdi; Massumi, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Electrical storm is an increasingly common and life-threatening syndrome that is defined by 3 or more sustained episodes of ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, or appropriate shocks from an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator within 24 hours. The clinical presentation can be dramatic. Electrical storm can manifest itself during acute myocardial infarction and in patients who have structural heart disease, an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator, or an inherited arrhythmic syndrome. The presence or absence of structural heart disease and the electrocardiographic morphology of the presenting arrhythmia can provide important diagnostic clues into the mechanism of electrical storm. Electrical storm typically has a poor outcome.The effective management of electrical storm requires an understanding of arrhythmia mechanisms, therapeutic options, device programming, and indications for radiofrequency catheter ablation. Initial management involves determining and correcting the underlying ischemia, electrolyte imbalances, or other causative factors. Amiodarone and β-blockers, especially propranolol, effectively resolve arrhythmias in most patients. Nonpharmacologic treatment, including radiofrequency ablation, can control electrical storm in drug-refractory patients. Patients who have implantable cardioverter-defibrillators can present with multiple shocks and may require drug therapy and device reprogramming. After the acute phase of electrical storm, the treatment focus should shift toward maximizing heart-failure therapy, performing revascularization, and preventing subsequent ventricular arrhythmias. Herein, we present an organized approach for effectively evaluating and managing electrical storm.

  8. A novel mutation in the RYR2 gene leading to catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation: dose-dependent arrhythmia-event suppression by β-blocker therapy.

    PubMed

    Kazemian, Pedram; Gollob, Michael H; Pantano, Alfredo; Oudit, Gavin Y

    2011-01-01

    Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia (CPVT) is a genetic condition that presents with exercise-induced polymorphic arrhythmias. We describe a case report of a 25-year-old woman who had a cardiac arrest due to ventricular fibrillation. Genetic analysis revealed a novel missense mutation in exon 90 of the ryanodine receptor (RyR2) gene resulting in substitution of arginine for serine at residue 4153 (S4153R). The patient received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator and low-dose β-blocker therapy. She had recurrent polymorphic ventricular arrhythmias treated with appropriate cardioverter-defibrillator shocks and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation. Titration of β-blocker to a much higher dose suppressed further episodes of ventricular arrhythmia and paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, resulting in reduction in device therapies.

  9. Large Controlled Observational Study on Remote Monitoring of Pacemakers and Implantable Cardiac Defibrillators: A Clinical, Economic, and Organizational Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with implantable devices such as pacemakers (PMs) and implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) should be followed up every 3–12 months, which traditionally required in-clinic visits. Innovative devices allow data transmission and technical or medical alerts to be sent from the patient's home to the physician (remote monitoring). A number of studies have shown its effectiveness in timely detection and management of both clinical and technical events, and endorsed its adoption. Unfortunately, in daily practice, remote monitoring has been implemented in uncoordinated and rather fragmented ways, calling for a more strategic approach. Objective The objective of the study was to analyze the impact of remote monitoring for PM and ICD in a “real world” context compared with in-clinic follow-up. The evaluation focuses on how this service is carried out by Local Health Authorities, the impact on the cardiology unit and the health system, and organizational features promoting or hindering its effectiveness and efficiency. Methods A multi-center, multi-vendor, controlled, observational, prospective study was conducted to analyze the impact of remote monitoring implementation. A total of 2101 patients were enrolled in the study: 1871 patients were followed through remote monitoring of PM/ICD (I-group) and 230 through in-clinic visits (U-group). The follow-up period was 12 months. Results In-clinic device follow-ups and cardiac visits were significantly lower in the I-group compared with the U-group, respectively: PM, I-group = 0.43, U-group = 1.07, P<.001; ICD, I-group = 0.98, U-group = 2.14, P<.001. PM, I-group = 0.37, U-group = 0.85, P<.001; ICD, I-group = 1.58, U-group = 1.69, P=.01. Hospitalizations for any cause were significantly lower in the I-group for PM patients only (I-group = 0.37, U-group = 0.50, P=.005). There were no significant differences regarding use of the emergency department for both PM and ICD patients. In the I-group, 0.30 (PM

  10. Tunnel Propagation Following Defibrillation with ICD Shocks: Hidden Postshock Activations in the Left Ventricular Wall Underlie Isoelectric Window

    PubMed Central

    Constantino, Jason; Long, Yun; Ashihara, Takashi; Trayanova, Natalia A.

    2010-01-01

    Background Following near-defibrillation threshold (DFT) shocks from an ICD, the first postshock activation that leads to defibrillation failure arises focally after an isolelectric window (IW). The mechanisms underlying the IW remain incompletely understood. Objective The goal of this study was to provide mechanistic insight into the origins of postshock activations and IW following ICD shocks, and to link shock outcome to the preshock state of the ventricles. We hypothesized that the non-uniform ICD field results in the formation of an intramural excitable area (tunnel) only in the LV free wall, through which both pre-existing and new shock-induced wavefronts propagate during the IW. Methods Simulations were conducted using a realistic 3-D model of defibrillation in the rabbit ventricles. Biphasic ICD shocks of varying strengths were delivered to 27 different fibrillatory states. Results Following near-DFT shocks, regardless of preshock state, the main postshock excitable area was always located within LV free wall, creating an intramural tunnel. Either preexisting fibrillatory or shock-induced wavefronts propagated during the IW (duration of up to 74ms) in this tunnel and emerged as breakthroughs on LV epicardium. Preshock activity within the LV played a significant role in shock outcome: large number of preshock filaments resulted in an IW associated with tunnel propagation of preexisting rather than shock-induced wavefronts. Furthermore, shocks were more likely to succeed if LV excitable area was smaller. Conclusions The LV intramural excitable area is the primary reason for near-DFT failure. Any intervention that decreases the extent of this area will improve the likelihood of defibrillation success. PMID:20348028

  11. Using a Combined Platform of Swarm Intelligence Algorithms and GIS to Provide Land Suitability Maps for Locating Cardiac Rehabilitation Defibrillators

    PubMed Central

    KAFFASH-CHARANDABI, Neda; SADEGHI-NIARAKI, Abolghasem; PARK, Dong-Kyun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiac arrest is a condition in which the heart is completely stopped and is not pumping any blood. Although most cardiac arrest cases are reported from homes or hospitals, about 20% occur in public areas. Therefore, these areas need to be investigated in terms of cardiac arrest incidence so that places of high incidence can be identified and cardiac rehabilitation defibrillators installed there. Methods: In order to investigate a study area in Petersburg, Pennsylvania State, and to determine appropriate places for installing defibrillators with 5-year period data, swarm intelligence algorithms were used. Moreover, the location of the defibrillators was determined based on the following five evaluation criteria: land use, altitude of the area, economic conditions, distance from hospitals and approximate areas of reported cases of cardiac arrest for public places that were created in geospatial information system (GIS). Results: The A-P HADEL algorithm results were more precise about 27.36%. The validation results indicated a wider coverage of real values and the verification results confirmed the faster and more exact optimization of the cost function in the PSO method. Conclusion: The study findings emphasize the necessity of applying optimal optimization methods along with GIS and precise selection of criteria in the selection of optimal locations for installing medical facilities because the selected algorithm and criteria dramatically affect the final responses. Meanwhile, providing land suitability maps for installing facilities across hot and risky spots has the potential to save many lives. PMID:26587471

  12. Wearable Sensors in Syncope Management

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Christian; Carvalho, Paulo; Brinkmeyer, Christoph; Kelm, Malte; Couceiro, Ricardo; Mühlsteff, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Syncope is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of about 40%. Implantable cardiac electronic devices, including implantable loop recorders (ILR) and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD), are well established in syncope management. However, despite the successful use of ILR and ICD, diagnosis and therapy still remain challenging in many patients due to the complex hemodynamic interplay of cardiac and vascular adaptations during impending syncopes. Wearable sensors might overcome some limitations, including misdiagnosis and inappropriate defibrillator shocks, because a variety of physiological measures can now be easily acquired by a single non-invasive device at high signal quality. In neurally-mediated syncope (NMS), which is the most common cause of syncope, advanced signal processing methodologies paved the way to develop devices for early syncope detection. In contrast to the relatively benign NMS, in arrhythmia-related syncopes immediate therapeutical intervention, predominantly by electrical defibrillation, is often mandatory. However, in patients with a transient risk of arrhythmia-related syncope, limitations of ICD therapy might outweigh their potential therapeutic benefits. In this context the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator offers alternative therapeutical options for some high-risk patients. Herein, we review recent evidence demonstrating that wearable sensors might be useful to overcome some limitations of implantable devices in syncope management. PMID:25608536

  13. Wearable sensors in syncope management.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Christian; Carvalho, Paulo; Brinkmeyer, Christoph; Kelm, Malte; Couceiro, Ricardo; Mühlsteff, Jens

    2015-01-22

    Syncope is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of about 40%. Implantable cardiac electronic devices, including implantable loop recorders (ILR) and implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD), are well established in syncope management. However, despite the successful use of ILR and ICD, diagnosis and therapy still remain challenging in many patients due to the complex hemodynamic interplay of cardiac and vascular adaptations during impending syncopes. Wearable sensors might overcome some limitations, including misdiagnosis and inappropriate defibrillator shocks, because a variety of physiological measures can now be easily acquired by a single non-invasive device at high signal quality. In neurally-mediated syncope (NMS), which is the most common cause of syncope, advanced signal processing methodologies paved the way to develop devices for early syncope detection. In contrast to the relatively benign NMS, in arrhythmia-related syncopes immediate therapeutical intervention, predominantly by electrical defibrillation, is often mandatory. However, in patients with a transient risk of arrhythmia-related syncope, limitations of ICD therapy might outweigh their potential therapeutic benefits. In this context the wearable cardioverter-defibrillator offers alternative therapeutical options for some high-risk patients. Herein, we review recent evidence demonstrating that wearable sensors might be useful to overcome some limitations of implantable devices in syncope management.

  14. Chest pain associated with moderator band pacing.

    PubMed

    Goli, Anil K; Kaszala, Karoly; Osman, Mohammed N; Lucke, John; Carrillo, Roger

    2014-10-01

    A 65-year-old man was evaluated for chronic chest pain that had been present for 8 years after placement of a dual-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator to treat inducible ventricular tachycardia. Previous coronary angiography had revealed nonobstructive coronary artery disease and a left ventricular ejection fraction of 0.45 to 0.50, consistent with mild idiopathic nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Evaluation with chest radiography and transthoracic echocardiography showed the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead to be embedded within the right ventricle at the moderator band, which had mild calcification. Treatment included extraction of the dual-coil lead and placement of a new single-coil right ventricular lead at the mid septum. The patient had complete relief of symptoms after the procedure. This case shows that chest pain can be associated with the placement of a right ventricular implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead in the moderator band and that symptomatic relief can occur after percutaneous lead extraction and the implantation of a new right ventricular lead to the mid septal region.

  15. Lithium-manganese dioxide cells for implantable defibrillator devices-Discharge voltage models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Root, Michael J.

    The discharge potential behavior of lithium-manganese dioxide cells designed for implantable cardiac defibrillators was characterized as a function of extent of cell depletion for tests designed to discharge the cells for times between 1 and 7 years. The discharge potential curves may be separated into two segments from 0 ≤ x ≤ ∼0.51 and ∼0.51 ≤ x ≤ 1.00, where x is the dimensionless extent of discharge referenced to the rated cell capacity. The discharge potentials conform to Tafel kinetics in each segment. This behavior allows the discharge potential curves to be predicted for an arbitrary discharge load and long term discharge performance may be predicted from short term test results. The discharge potentials may subsequently be modeled by fitting the discharge curves to empirical functions like polynomials and Padé approximants. A function based on the Nernst equation that includes a term accounting for nonideal interactions between lithium ions and the cathode host material, such as the Redlich-Kister relationship, also may be used to predict discharge behavior.

  16. Cardiac microstructure: implications for electrical propagation and defibrillation in the heart.

    PubMed

    Hooks, Darren A; Tomlinson, Karl A; Marsden, Scott G; LeGrice, Ian J; Smaill, Bruce H; Pullan, Andrew J; Hunter, Peter J

    2002-08-23

    Our understanding of the electrophysiological properties of the heart is incomplete. We have investigated two issues that are fundamental to advancing that understanding. First, there has been widespread debate over the mechanisms by which an externally applied shock can influence a sufficient volume of heart tissue to terminate cardiac fibrillation. Second, it has been uncertain whether cardiac tissue should be viewed as an electrically orthotropic structure, or whether its electrical properties are, in fact, isotropic in the plane orthogonal to myofiber direction. In the present study, a computer model that incorporates a detailed three-dimensional representation of cardiac muscular architecture is used to investigate these issues. We describe a bidomain model of electrical propagation solved in a discontinuous domain that accurately represents the microstructure of a transmural block of rat left ventricle. From analysis of the model results, we conclude that (1) the laminar organization of myocytes determines unique electrical properties in three microstructurally defined directions at any point in the ventricular wall of the heart, and (2) interlaminar clefts between layers of cardiomyocytes provide a substrate for bulk activation of the ventricles during defibrillation.

  17. Cardiac resynchronization therapy in a young patient with Duchenne muscular dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kono, Tamami; Ogimoto, Akiyoshi; Nishimura, Kazuhisa; Yorozuya, Toshihiro; Okura, Takafumi; Higaki, Jitsuo

    2015-01-01

    A 32-year-old man with Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) was admitted to the hospital because of worsening dyspnea and general fatigue. He had received medication therapy for cardiomyopathy with heart failure and home mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure. An electrocardiogram on admission showed intermittent third-degree atrioventricular block. Echocardiography showed global mild left ventricular systolic dysfunction with dyssynchrony (ejection fraction: 45%). He underwent implantation of a cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator. His B-type natriuretic peptide level was improved after cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator implantation, and he remains asymptomatic. The incidence of cardiomyopathy increases with age. By adulthood, 100% of patients have cardiac involvement. PMID:26346252

  18. Traumatic Tension Pneumothorax as a Cause of ICD Failure: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background. Tension pneumothorax can infrequently cause ventricular arrhythmias and increase the threshold of defibrillation. It should be suspected whenever there is difficulty in defibrillation for a ventricular arrhythmia. Purpose. To report a case of traumatic tension pneumothorax leading to ventricular tachycardia and causing defibrillator failure. Case. A 65-year-old African-American female was brought in to our emergency department complaining of dyspnea after being forced down by cops. She had history of mitral valve replacement for severe mitral regurgitation and biventricular implantable cardioverter defibrillator inserted for nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Shortly after arrival, she developed sustained ventricular tachycardia, causing repetitive unsuccessful ICD shocks. She was intubated and ventricular tachycardia resolved with amiodarone. Chest radiograph revealed large left sided tension pneumothorax which was promptly drained. The patient was treated for congestive heart failure; she was extubated on the third day of admission, and the chest tube was removed. Conclusion. Prompt recognition of tension pneumothorax is essential, by maintaining a high index of suspicion in patients with an increased defibrillation threshold causing ineffective defibrillations. PMID:25400953

  19. Traumatic Tension Pneumothorax as a Cause of ICD Failure: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Ul Haq, Ehtesham; Omar, Bassam

    2014-01-01

    Background. Tension pneumothorax can infrequently cause ventricular arrhythmias and increase the threshold of defibrillation. It should be suspected whenever there is difficulty in defibrillation for a ventricular arrhythmia. Purpose. To report a case of traumatic tension pneumothorax leading to ventricular tachycardia and causing defibrillator failure. Case. A 65-year-old African-American female was brought in to our emergency department complaining of dyspnea after being forced down by cops. She had history of mitral valve replacement for severe mitral regurgitation and biventricular implantable cardioverter defibrillator inserted for nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Shortly after arrival, she developed sustained ventricular tachycardia, causing repetitive unsuccessful ICD shocks. She was intubated and ventricular tachycardia resolved with amiodarone. Chest radiograph revealed large left sided tension pneumothorax which was promptly drained. The patient was treated for congestive heart failure; she was extubated on the third day of admission, and the chest tube was removed. Conclusion. Prompt recognition of tension pneumothorax is essential, by maintaining a high index of suspicion in patients with an increased defibrillation threshold causing ineffective defibrillations. PMID:25400953

  20. Cardiac Response to Low Energy Field Pacing Challenges the Standard Theory of Defibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Bryan J.; Trew, Mark L.; Pertsov, Arkady M.

    2015-01-01

    Background The electrical response of myocardial tissue to periodic field stimuli has attracted significant attention as the basis for low-energy anti-fibrillation pacing (LEAP), potentially more effective than traditional single high-energy shocks. In conventional models, an electric field produces a highly non-uniform response of the myocardial wall, with discrete excitations, or “hot spots” (HS), occurring at cathodal tissue surfaces or large coronary vessels. We test this prediction using novel 3D tomographic optical imaging. Methods and Results Experiments were performed in isolated coronary perfused pig ventricular wall preparations stained with near-infrared voltage-sensitive fluorescent dye DI-4-ANBDQBS. The 3D coordinates of HS were determined using alternating transillumination. To relate HS formation with myocardial structures we used ultra-deep confocal imaging (interrogation depths >4 mm). The peak HS distribution is located deep inside the heart wall and the depth is not significantly affected by field polarity. We did not observe the strong co-localization of HS with major coronary vessels anticipated from theory. Yet, we observed considerable lateral displacement of HS with field polarity reversal. Models that deemphasized lateral intracellular coupling and accounted for resistive heterogeneity in the extracellular space showed similar HS distributions to the experimental observations. Conclusions The HS distributions within the myocardial wall and the significant lateral displacements with field polarity reversal are inconsistent with standard theories of defibrillation. Extended theories based around enhanced descriptions of cellular scale electrical mechanisms may be necessary. The considerable lateral displacement of HS with field polarity reversal supports the hypothesis of biphasic stimuli in LEAP being advantageous. PMID:25772543

  1. Percutaneous Transthoracic Computed Tomography-Guided AICD Insertion in a Patient with Extracardiac Fontan Conduit

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Darra T. Moynagh, Michael R.; Walsh, Kevin P.; Noelke, Lars; Murray, John G.

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.

  2. Arrhythmia management after device removal.

    PubMed

    Nishii, Nobuhiro

    2016-08-01

    Arrhythmic management is needed after removal of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs). Patients completely dependent on CIEDs need temporary device back-up until new CIEDs are implanted. Various methods are available for device back-up, and the appropriate management varies among patients. The duration from CIED removal to implantation of a new CIED also differs among patients. Temporary pacing is needed for patients with bradycardia, a wearable cardioverter defibrillator (WCD) or catheter ablation is needed for patients with tachyarrhythmia, and sequential pacing is needed for patients dependent on cardiac resynchronization therapy. The present review focuses on arrhythmic management after CIED removal. PMID:27588151

  3. Efficacy of bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation and out-of-hospital automated external defibrillation as life-saving therapy in commotio cordis.

    PubMed

    Salib, Erik A; Cyran, Stephen E; Cilley, Robert E; Maron, Barry J; Thomas, Neal J

    2005-12-01

    We report a child who sustained commotio cordis after being struck by a baseball, and offer documentation of the advantages of having readily available access to bystander cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and an automated external defibrillator (AED). We suggest that communities and school districts reexamine the need for accessible AEDs and CPR-trained coaches at organized sporting events for children.

  4. Cardiac Sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Birnie, David; Ha, Andrew C T; Gula, Lorne J; Chakrabarti, Santabhanu; Beanlands, Rob S B; Nery, Pablo

    2015-12-01

    Studies suggest clinically manifest cardiac involvement occurs in 5% of patients with pulmonary/systemic sarcoidosis. The principal manifestations of cardiac sarcoidosis (CS) are conduction abnormalities, ventricular arrhythmias, and heart failure. Data indicate that an 20% to 25% of patients with pulmonary/systemic sarcoidosis have asymptomatic (clinically silent) cardiac involvement. An international guideline for the diagnosis and management of CS recommends that patients be screened for cardiac involvement. Most studies suggest a benign prognosis for patients with clinically silent CS. Immunosuppression therapy is advocated for clinically manifest CS. Device therapy, with implantable cardioverter defibrillators, is recommended for some patients.

  5. [Recurrent failed ICD therapy of ventricular tachycardia].

    PubMed

    Hein, W; Ellringmann, U; Vollmann, D; Rostock, T; Schott, P

    2012-11-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) are used as standard therapy to prevent sudden cardiac death in heart failure patients. Today, physicians in emergency and intensive care medicine are often confronted with problems of ICD therapy in these patients. We report a case of a patient suffering from recurrent ventricular tachycardia (VT) requiring antiarrhythmia treatment with amiodarone. With an increasing drug loading, the VT cycle length was progressively prolonged resulting in a slow VT undetectable for the ICD. Subsequently, the patient was scheduled for VT ablation after which the patient became free of arrhythmia recurrences. PMID:23070331

  6. A rare type of ventricular oversensing in ICD therapy--inappropriate ICD shock delivery due to triple counting.

    PubMed

    Guenther, Michael; Rauwolf, Thomas P; Bock, Manja; Strasser, Ruth H; Braun, Martin U

    2010-02-01

    Irregular sensing by triple counting of wide QRS complexes resulted in inappropriate shocks in a patient with a biventricular implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD): A 66-year-old male patient with ischemic cardiomyopathy, left bundle branch block, and impaired left ventricular function received a biventricular ICD for optimal therapy of heart failure (CHF). Two years after implantation, the patient experienced recurrent unexpected ICD shocks without clinical symptoms of malignant tachyarrhythmia, or worsened CHF. The patient's condition rapidly worsened, with progressive cardiogenic shock and electrical-mechanical dissociation. After unsuccessful resuscitation of the patient the interrogation of the ICD showed an initial triple counting of extremely wide and fragmented QRS complexes with inappropriate shocks.

  7. AEDs at your fingertips: automated external defibrillators on college campuses and a novel approach for increasing accessibility.

    PubMed

    Berger, Ryan J; O'Shea, Jesse G

    2014-01-01

    The use of automated external defibrillators (AEDs) increases survival in cardiac arrest events. Due to the success of previous efforts and free, readily available mobile mapping software, the discussion is to emphasize the importance of the use of AEDs to prevent sudden cardiac arrest-related deaths on college campuses and abroad, while suggesting a novel approach to aiding in access and awareness issues. A user-friendly mobile application (a low-cost iOS map) was developed at Florida State University to decrease AED retrieval distance and time. The development of mobile AED maps is feasible for a variety of universities and other entities, with the potential to save lives. Just having AEDs installed is not enough--they need to be easily locatable. Society increasingly relies on phones to provide information, and there are opportunities to use mobile technology to locate and share information about relevant emergency devices; these should be incorporated into the chain of survival. PMID:25116796

  8. Cardiac calmodulin kinase: a potential target for drug design.

    PubMed

    Bányász, T; Szentandrássy, N; Tóth, A; Nánási, P P; Magyar, J; Chen-Izu, Y

    2011-01-01

    Therapeutic strategy for cardiac arrhythmias has undergone a remarkable change during the last decades. Currently implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy is considered to be the most effective therapeutic method to treat malignant arrhythmias. Some even argue that there is no room for antiarrhythmic drug therapy in the age of implantable cardioverter defibrillators. However, in clinical practice, antiarrhythmic drug therapies are frequently needed, because implantable cardioverter defibrillators are not effective in certain types of arrhythmias (i.e. premature ventricular beats or atrial fibrillation). Furthermore, given the staggering cost of device therapy, it is economically imperative to develop alternative effective treatments. Cardiac ion channels are the target of a number of current treatment strategies, but therapies based on ion channel blockers only resulted in moderate success. Furthermore, these drugs are associated with an increased risk of proarrhythmia, systemic toxicity, and increased defibrillation threshold. In many cases, certain ion channel blockers were found to increase mortality. Other drug classes such as ßblockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, aldosterone antagonists, and statins appear to have proven efficacy for reducing cardiac mortality. These facts forced researchers to shift the focus of their research to molecular targets that act upstream of ion channels. One of these potential targets is calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase II (CaMKII). Several lines of evidence converge to suggest that CaMKII inhibition may provide an effective treatment strategy for heart diseases. (1) Recent studies have elucidated that CaMKII plays a key role in modulating cardiac function and regulating hypertrophy development. (2) CaMKII activity has been found elevated in the failing hearts from human patients and animal models. (3) Inhibition of CaMKII activity has been shown to mitigate hypertrophy, prevent functional remodeling and

  9. [Cardiac resynchronisation therapy as a cause of the electrical storm].

    PubMed

    Krupa, Wojciech; Lackowski, Jacek; Sielski, Sławomir; Dobosiewicz, Ryszard; Kubica, Jacek

    2007-11-01

    We report a case of young patient with dilated cardiomyopathy and implanted cardioverter-defibrillator in which resynchronisation therapy (CRT-D) induced an electrical storm. One month after implantation of a cardiac resynchronisation pacemaker (CRT-P) the patient suffered from ventricular tachycardia with poor haemodynamic status and was treated by implantation of a CRT-D with a Y adaptor. After replacement of the CRT-D due to Y adaptor damage (new device without a Y adaptor) we observed an electrical storm during ventricular pacing (biventricular, right and left ventricular pacing respectively). Changing pacing mode from DDDR to AAIR resolved ventricular tachycardias in that patient.

  10. Tachycardiomyopathy with familial predisposition masquerading as peripartum cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Alings, M.; Thornton, A.; Scholten, M.; Jordaens, L.

    2006-01-01

    A 28-year-old pregnant lady presented with cardiomyopathy and atrial tachycardia. The patient had severe heart failure and syncope. Her past medical history was uneventful. Her mother, however, had received an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) after an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest due to idiopathic ventricular fibrillation. The patient was scheduled for programmed stimulation, during which a monomorphic ventricular tachycardia was induced. An ICD was then implanted. Following radiofrequency ablation of the atrial tachycardia, left ventricular function recovered completely. Given the family history, a genetic predisposition to both arrhythmias and tachycardiomyopathy needs to be considered. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:25696647

  11. Non-invasive evaluation of arrhythmic risk in dilated cardiomyopathy: From imaging to electrocardiographic measures

    PubMed Central

    Iacoviello, Massimo; Monitillo, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Malignant ventricular arrhythmias are a major adverse event and worsen the prognosis of patients affected by ischemic and non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy. The main parameter currently used to stratify arrhythmic risk and guide decision making towards the implantation of a cardioverter defibrillator is the evaluation of the left ventricular ejection fraction. However, this strategy is characterized by several limitations and consequently additional parameters have been suggested in order to improve arrhythmic risk stratification. The aim of this review is to critically revise the prognostic significance of non-invasive diagnostic tools in order to better stratify the arrhythmic risk prognosis of dilated cardiomyopathy patients. PMID:25068017

  12. [Chronic heart failure and its consequences on the partner relationship].

    PubMed

    Sztajzel, Juan

    2015-12-01

    There are presently few data on chronic heart failure (CHF) and its consequences on the partner relationship. The aim of our study was to assess how patients with severe CHF and their female partners were affected in their relationship. First, there was a need to address the issue of sexuality with the doctor because of fear of the occurrence of a cardiac event or an implantable cardioverter defibrillator shock. Second, there was often a significant decrease in libido and erectile dysfunction associated with general depressive symptoms. Finally, the female partners in several couples developed an overprotective behavior leading to resentment and frustration in patients towards them. PMID:26790235

  13. Validation of the 2014 European Society of Cardiology Sudden Cardiac Death Risk Prediction Model in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in a Reference Center in South America.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Adrián; Quiroga, Alejandro; Ochoa, Juan Pablo; Mysuta, Mauricio; Casabé, José Horacio; Biagetti, Marcelo; Guevara, Eduardo; Favaloro, Liliana E; Fava, Agostina M; Galizio, Néstor

    2016-07-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is a common cause of death in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC). Our aim was to conduct an external and independent validation in South America of the 2014 European Society of Cardiology (ESC) SCD risk prediction model to identify patients requiring an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. This study included 502 consecutive patients with HC followed from March, 1993 to December, 2014. A combined end point of SCD or appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy was assessed. For the quantitative estimation of individual 5-year SCD risk, we used the formula: 1 - 0.998(exp(Prognostic index)). Our database also included the abnormal blood pressure response to exercise as a risk marker. We analyzed the 3 categories of 5-year risk proposed by the ESC: low risk (LR) <4%; intermediate risk (IR) ≥4% to <6%, and high risk (HR) ≥6%. The LR group included 387 patients (77%); the IR group 39 (8%); and the HR group 76 (15%). Fourteen patients (3%) had SCD/appropriate implantable cardioverter defibrillator therapy (LR: 0%; IR: 2 of 39 [5%]; and HR: 12 of 76 [16%]). In a receiver-operating characteristic curve, the new model proved to be an excellent predictor because the area under the curve for the estimated risk is 0.925 (statistical C: 0.925; 95% CI 0.8884 to 0.9539, p <0.0001). In conclusion, the SCD risk prediction model in HC proposed by the 2014 ESC guidelines was validated in our population and represents an improvement compared with previous approaches. A larger multicenter, independent and external validation of the model with long-term follow-up would be advisable.

  14. Potential value of automated daily screening of cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillator diagnostics for prediction of major cardiovascular events: results from Home-CARE (Home Monitoring in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy) study

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Stefan; Wende, Christian Michael; Nägele, Herbert; Katz, Amos; Bauer, Wolfgang Rudolf; Barr, Craig Scott; Malinowski, Klaus; Schwacke, Harald; Leyva, Francisco; Proff, Jochen; Berdyshev, Sergey; Paul, Vincent

    2011-01-01

    Aim To investigate whether diagnostic data from implanted cardiac resynchronization therapy defibrillators (CRT-Ds) retrieved automatically at 24 h intervals via a Home Monitoring function can enable dynamic prediction of cardiovascular hospitalization and death. Methods and results Three hundred and seventy-seven heart failure patients received CRT-Ds with Home Monitoring option. Data on all deaths and hospitalizations due to cardiovascular reasons and Home Monitoring data were collected prospectively during 1-year follow-up to develop a predictive algorithm with a predefined specificity of 99.5%. Seven parameters were included in the algorithm: mean heart rate over 24 h, heart rate at rest, patient activity, frequency of ventricular extrasystoles, atrial–atrial intervals (heart rate variability), right ventricular pacing impedance, and painless shock impedance. The algorithm was developed using a 25-day monitoring window ending 3 days before hospitalization or death. While the retrospective sensitivities of the individual parameters ranged from 23.6 to 50.0%, the combination of all parameters was 65.4% sensitive in detecting cardiovascular hospitalizations and deaths with 99.5% specificity (corresponding to 1.83 false-positive detections per patient-year of follow-up). The estimated relative risk of an event was 7.15-fold higher after a positive predictor finding than after a negative predictor finding. Conclusion We developed an automated algorithm for dynamic prediction of cardiovascular events in patients treated with CRT-D devices capable of daily transmission of their diagnostic data via Home Monitoring. This tool may increase patients’ quality of life and reduce morbidity, mortality, and health economic burden, it now warrants prospective studies. ClinicalTrials.gov  NCT00376116. PMID:21852311

  15. Symbolic Dynamics Analysis of Short Data Sets: an Application to Heart Rate Variability from Implantable Defibrillator Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zebrowski, Jan J.; Baranowski, Rafal; Przybylski, Andrzej

    2003-07-01

    A method is described for the assessment of the complexity of short data sets by nonlinear dynamics. The method was devised for and tested on human heart rate recordings approximately 2000 to 9000 RR intervals long which were extracted from the memory of implantable defibrillator devices (ICD). It is, however, applicable in a more general context. The ICDs are meant to control life-threatening episodes of ventricular tachycardia and/or ventricular fibrillation by applying a electric shock to the heart through intracardiac electrodes. It is well known that conventional ICD algorithms yield approximately 20--30 % of spurious interventions. The main aim of this work is to look for nonlinear dynamics methods to enhance the appropriateness of the ICD intervention. We first showed that nonlinear dynamics methods first applied to 24-hour heart rate variability analysis were able to detect the need for the ICD intervention. To be applicable to future ICD use, the methods must also be low in computational requirements. Methods to analyse the complexity of the short and non-stationary sets were devised. We calculated the Shannon entropy of symbolic words obtained in a sliding 50 beat window and analysed the dependence of this complexity measure on the time. Precursors were found extending much earlier time than the time the standard ICD algorithms span.

  16. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners' Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ku Hyun; Song, Keun Jeong; Lee, Chang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background. Basic life support (BLS) training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min), level 2 (80 min), level 3 (120 min), and level 4 (180 min). Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions (p < 0.001) and average chest compression depth (p = 0.003). All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, p < 0.001). Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs. PMID:27529066

  17. The Effect of the Duration of Basic Life Support Training on the Learners' Cardiopulmonary and Automated External Defibrillator Skills.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin Hyuck; Cho, Youngsuk; Kang, Ku Hyun; Cho, Gyu Chong; Song, Keun Jeong; Lee, Chang Hee

    2016-01-01

    Background. Basic life support (BLS) training with hands-on practice can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest, although the optimal duration for BLS training is unknown. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of various BLS training durations for acquiring cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) and automated external defibrillator (AED) skills. Methods. We randomised 485 South Korean nonmedical college students into four levels of BLS training: level 1 (40 min), level 2 (80 min), level 3 (120 min), and level 4 (180 min). Before and after each level, the participants completed questionnaires regarding their willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs, and their psychomotor skills for CPR and AED use were assessed using a manikin with Skill-Reporter™ software. Results. There were no significant differences between levels 1 and 2, although levels 3 and 4 exhibited significant differences in the proportion of overall adequate chest compressions (p < 0.001) and average chest compression depth (p = 0.003). All levels exhibited a greater posttest willingness to perform CPR and use AEDs (all, p < 0.001). Conclusions. Brief BLS training provided a moderate level of skill for performing CPR and using AEDs. However, high-quality skills for CPR required longer and hands-on training, particularly hands-on training with AEDs. PMID:27529066

  18. Holter ECG for pacemaker/defibrillator carriers: what is its role in the era of remote monitoring?

    PubMed

    Diemberger, Igor; Gardini, Beatrice; Martignani, Cristian; Ziacchi, Matteo; Corzani, Alessandro; Biffi, Mauro; Boriani, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Nowadays several diagnostic tools are available to investigate cardiovascular symptoms like palpitations, dizziness and syncope: ECG Holter (or ambulatory ECG, AECG), external and implantable event/loop recorders. Despite this technological burden, many diagnoses are still missed. In the meantime, we are facing an increasing use of implantable devices for cardiac pacing/defibrillation (CIED), which have rapidly evolved from simple pacing/shock boxes to devices including several diagnostic features. However, these functions are not adequately exploited in current clinical practice and several redundant diagnostic tests, like AECG, are still prescribed to CIED carriers, leading to an increase of costs and a delay in final diagnosis. This review is aimed at identifying the current role of AECG in CIED carriers in view of this technological improvement. First, we will briefly present the indications for AECG according to current guidelines. We will then provide a direct comparison of the different diagnostic features provided by AECG (and event/loop recorders) versus automatic diagnostic CIED to highlight the respective pros and cons. This will serve to carefully discuss these indications in view of the results of recent studies on CIED carriers, highlighting the need for proper implantation and follow-up. Eventually, we will provide useful hints to properly analyse AECG in CIED carriers, considering the different behaviours according to the implemented algorithms. We will conclude by suggesting updated indications for AECG.

  19. [Treatment of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and prevention of sudden cardiac death: commentary on the 2016 ESC guideline].

    PubMed

    Eckardt, Lars; Köbe, Julia; Wasmer, Kristina

    2016-08-01

    The 2016 ESC guideline on prevention and therapy of ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden cardiac death present an excellent recommendation and summary for all forms of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in patients with and without structural or electrical heart disease. This includes cardiomyopathies as well as conditions such as proarrhythmia, neurologic/psychaitric disorders, or pregnancy. Some aspects are novel; (1) the guideline emphasizes for the first time genetic work-up in sudden cardiac death victims; (2) for prevention of sudden cardiac death systematic re-evaluation 6-12 weeks after myocardial infarction is recommended; (3) subcutaneous ICD as well as the wearable cardioverter/defibrillator are for the first time included in the guidelines; (4) automatic external defibrillators are recommended for public places; (5) for patients with recurrent ventricular tachyarrhythmias the role of catheter ablation has been upgraded. PMID:27509343

  20. Long QT syndrome with mutations in three genes: A rare case.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Marina; Martins Ribeiro, Sílvia; Sanfins, Victor; Lourenço, António

    2015-05-01

    Congenital long QT syndrome (LQTS) is a rare hereditary disease, with an incidence of 1 in 2000, characterized by prolonged ventricular repolarization and malignant ventricular tachyarrhythmias. We report the case of a 30-year-old woman, previously diagnosed with neurocardiogenic syncope, in whom LQTS was identified. The patient received an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator due to polymorphic ventricular tachycardia under beta-blocker therapy. Molecular genetic testing identified three mutations in heterozygosity in the KCNH2, KCNQ1 and SCN5A genes, which is a rare finding and is associated with worse prognosis.

  1. Impedance rise, only clue to severe insulation damage in a transvenous single-lead AICD-system.

    PubMed

    Schibgilla, V; Diem, B; Mahmout, O; Janssen, G; van der Emde, J; Bachmann, K

    1998-06-01

    We report a case of severe insulation damage 10 months after implantation of a fourth-generation single-lead implantable cardioverter defibrillator in a 45-year-old patient with dilative cardiomyopathy. The measured impedance was > 2000 Ohm and decreased to < 100 Ohm after slight pressure was applied to the device. All other parameters including intracardiac ECGs and markers were normal. Despite this delicate finding operative exploration revealed severe insulation damage of the pace-sense arm of the plug and insulation loss proximal to the distal coil of the lead.

  2. Why We Have to Use Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy-Pacemaker More.

    PubMed

    Daubert, Jean-Claude; Martins, Raphaël; Leclercq, Christophe

    2015-12-01

    Both cardiac resynchronization therapy with a pacemaker (CRT-P) and with a biventricular implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (CRT-D) are electrical treatment modalities validated for the management of chronic heart failure. There is no strong scientific evidence that a CRT-D must be offered to all candidates. Common sense should limit the prescription of these costly and complicated devices. The choice of CRT-P is currently acceptable. A direction to explore could be to downgrade from CRT-D to CRT-P at the time of battery depletion in patients with large reverse remodeling and no ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation detected. PMID:26596813

  3. Catheter ablation of a monofocal premature ventricular complex triggering idiopathic ventricular fibrillation.

    PubMed

    Takatsuki, S; Mitamura, H; Ogawa, S

    2001-07-01

    A 62 year old man was admitted for evaluation of recurrent episodes of syncope. A surface ECG showed frequent repetitive premature ventricular complexes of right ventricular outflow tract origin. Ventricular fibrillation was inducible by programmed electrical stimulation but otherwise cardiac evaluation was unremarkable. A diagnosis of idiopathic ventricular fibrillation was made and an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) was installed. However, spontaneous ventricular fibrillation recurred, requiring repeated ICD discharges. The ventricular fibrillation was reproducibly triggered by a single premature ventricular complex with a specific QRS morphology. Radiofrequency catheter ablation was carried out to eradicate this complex. No ventricular fibrillation has developed after this procedure, and the patient does not require drug treatment.

  4. Outer insulation failure in a multilumen ICD lead.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yuxing; Zhou, Ying; Xu, Geng

    2013-08-01

    Insulation defects in the leads are a common complication in implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs). Although the new multilumen leads have significantly reduced the incidence of insulation defects, they have introduced the new and rare problem of outer-insulation abrasions. In this report, we present the case of a 53-year-old man with dilated cardiomyopathy who was found to have an outer-insulation abrasion on fluoroscopy 3 years after the implantation of an ICD. Several electrical storms experienced by the patient were considered to be responsible for the abrasions; results of routine evaluations were normal. A CRT-D device was finally implanted.

  5. Short QT Syndrome – Review of Diagnosis and Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Schimpf, Rainer; Borggrefe, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Short QT syndrome (SQTS) is an inherited cardiac channelopathy characterised by an abnormally short QT interval and increased risk for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Diagnosis is based on the evaluation of symptoms (syncope or cardiac arrest), family history and electrocardiogram (ECG) findings. Mutations of cardiac ion channels responsible for the repolarisation orchestrate electrical heterogeneity during the action potential and provide substrate for triggering and maintaining of tachyarrhythmias. Due to the malignant natural history of SQTS, implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is the first-line therapy in affected patients. This review summarises current data and addresses the genetic basis and clinical features of SQTS. PMID:26835070

  6. Alternative approach for management of an electrical storm in Brugada syndrome:Importance of primary ablation within a narrow time window.

    PubMed

    Talib, Ahmed Karim; Yui, Yoshiaki; Kaneshiro, Takashi; Sekiguchi, Yukio; Nogami, Akihiko; Aonuma, Kazutaka

    2016-06-01

    Placement of an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is the only powerful treatment modality for Brugada syndrome in patients presenting with ventricular fibrillation (VF). For those whose first presentation is an electrical storm, pharmacologic therapy is typically used to control VF followed by ICD implantation. We report an alternative approach whereby, before ICD implantation, emergency catheter ablation of the VF-triggering premature ventricular contraction (PVC) resulted in long-term VF-free survival. The results suggest that, because VF triggers appear in a narrow time window, ablation of the culprit PVCs that initiate VF before the index PVCs subside is a reasonable alternative approach.

  7. Relevance of guideline-based ICD indications to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Al-Jefairi, Nora; Burri, Haran

    2014-01-01

    The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) has established itself as life-saving therapy in patients at risk for sudden cardiac death. Remarkable technological advances have made ICDs easier and safer to implant, with improved therapeutic and diagnostic functions and reduced morbidity. Guidelines on ICD indications have been proposed by American and European scientific societies since a number of years, based upon trials and expert opinion. In the context of variable economic and political constraints, it is questionable whether these guidelines may be applied to all settings. This review discusses the guideline-based indications, critically examines their applicability to clinical practice, and discusses alternatives to ICD therapy.

  8. Radiofrequency ablation for benign thyroid nodules.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, S; Stacul, F; Zecchin, M; Dobrinja, C; Zanconati, F; Fabris, B

    2016-09-01

    Benign thyroid nodules are an extremely common occurrence. Radiofrequency ablation (RFA) is gaining ground as an effective technique for their treatment, in case they become symptomatic. Here we review what are the current indications to RFA, its outcomes in terms of efficacy, tolerability, and cost, and also how it compares to the other conventional and experimental treatment modalities for benign thyroid nodules. Moreover, we will also address the issue of treating with this technique patients with cardiac pacemakers (PM) or implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICD), as it is a rather frequent occurrence that has never been addressed in detail in the literature.

  9. [Biventricular resynchronization in the management of severe cardiac insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Chine, Samira; Kammoun, Ikram; Ben Halima, Afef; Lefi, Abdelatif; Chaabène, Olfa; Zouaoui, Walid; Essmatt, Wajih; Marrakchi, Sonia; Gargouri, Sami; Keskes, Hend; Kachboura, Salem

    2004-01-01

    Heart failure is a major problem of public health, it represents a frequent status among patients with heart disease, and its implications in term of mortality and cost are high. Non Pharmacological treatment of heart failure most commonly designed as cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has demonstrate efficacy to improve functional class, exertion capacity, left ventricular ejection fraction, reduction of mitral regurgitation, and probably mortality at midterm. The most recent studies emphasize on the role of implantable cardioverter defibrillate or (ICD) combined with CRT to reduce mortality. More trials are needed to valid this concept.

  10. Comparing Drools and ontology reasoning approaches for telecardiology decision support.

    PubMed

    Van Hille, Pascal; Jacques, Julie; Taillard, Julien; Rosier, Arnaud; Delerue, David; Burgun, Anita; Dameron, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillators can generate numerous alerts. Automatically classifying these alerts according to their severity hinges on the CHA2DS2VASc score. It requires some reasoning capabilities for interpreting the patient's data. We compared two approaches for implementing the reasoning module. One is based on the Drools engine, and the other is based on semantic web formalisms. Both were valid approaches with correct performances. For a broader domain, their limitations are the number and complexity of Drools rules and the performances of ontology-based reasoning, which suggests using the ontology for automatically generating a part of the Drools rules.

  11. Firing of an Implantable Cardiac Defibrillator: An Unusual Presentation of Celiac Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Katz, Jeffry; Liu, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Celiac crisis, an atypical presentation of celiac disease, is characterized by acute diarrhea and severe metabolic derangements. This diagnosis is often missed in the differential of acute diarrheal illness. Our patient is a 69-year-old man who presented with ICD firing and was found to have profound metabolic derangements. Further evaluation revealed undiagnosed celiac disease and his symptoms resolved with a gluten-free diet. Celiac crisis should be considered in all patients presenting with acute diarrhea, metabolic acidosis, and severe electrolyte abnormalities as management can be life-saving. PMID:27761475

  12. Optimizing Survival Outcomes For Adult Patients With Nontraumatic Cardiac Arrest.

    PubMed

    Jung, Julianna

    2016-10-01

    Patient survival after cardiac arrest can be improved significantly with prompt and effective resuscitative care. This systematic review analyzes the basic life support factors that improve survival outcome, including chest compression technique and rapid defibrillation of shockable rhythms. For patients who are successfully resuscitated, comprehensive postresuscitation care is essential. Targeted temperature management is recommended for all patients who remain comatose, in addition to careful monitoring of oxygenation, hemodynamics, and cardiac rhythm. Management of cardiac arrest in circumstances such as pregnancy, pulmonary embolism, opioid overdose and other toxicologic causes, hypothermia, and coronary ischemia are also reviewed.

  13. Anaesthesia Application for Cardiac Denervation in a Patient with Long QT Syndrome and Cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Karadeniz, Ümit; Demir, Aslı; Koçulu, Rabia

    2016-01-01

    Long QT syndrome is a congenital disorder that is characterized by a prolongation of the QT interval on electrocardiograms and a propensity to ventricular tachyarrhythmias, which may lead to syncope, cardiac arrest or sudden death. Cardiomyopathy and pulmonary hypertension diseases have additional risks in anaesthesia management. In this study, we emphasize on one lung ventilation, pacemaker-implantable cardioverter–defibrillator and the anaesthesia management process in a patient with long QT syndrome, cardiomyopathy and pulmonary hypertension who underwent thoracic sympathectomy. PMID:27366557

  14. Where are lifesaving automated external defibrillators located and how hard is it to find them in a large urban city?

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Alison C.; Asch, David A.; Lozada, Kirkland N.; Saynisch, Olivia B.; Asch, Jeremy M.; Becker, Nora; Griffis, Heather M.; Shofer, Frances; Hershey, John C.; Hill, Shawndra; Branas, Charles C.; Nichol, Graham; Becker, Lance B.; Merchant, Raina M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Automated external defibrillators (AEDs) are lifesaving, but little is known about where they are located or how to find them. We sought to locate AEDs in high employment areas of Philadelphia and characterize the process of door-to-door surveying to identify these devices. Methods Block groups representing approximately the top 3rd of total primary jobs in Philadelphia were identified using the US Census Local Employment Dynamics database. All buildings within these block groups were surveyed during regular working hours over six weeks during July-August 2011. Buildings were characterized as publically accessible or inaccessible. For accessible buildings, address, location type, and AED presence were collected. Total devices, location description and prior use were gathered in locations with AEDs. Process information (total people contacted, survey duration) was collected for all buildings. Results Of 1420 buildings in 17 block groups, 949 (67%) were accessible, but most 834 (88%) did not have an AED. 283 AEDs were reported in 115 buildings (12%). 81 (29%) were validated through visualization and 68 (24%) through photo because employees often refused access. In buildings with AEDs, several employees (median 2; range 1–8) were contacted to ascertain information, which required several minutes (mean 4; range 1–55). Conclusions Door-to-door surveying is a feasible, but time-consuming method for identifying AEDs in high employment areas. Few buildings reported having AEDs and few permitted visualization, which raises concerns about AED access. To improve cardiac arrest outcomes, efforts are needed to improve the availability of AEDs, awareness of their location and access to them. PMID:23357702

  15. Nonparametric inference for time-dependent incremental cost-effectiveness ratios.

    PubMed

    Yee, Laura M; Gary Chan, Kwun Chuen

    2015-12-30

    As the costs of medical care increase, more studies are evaluating cost in addition to effectiveness of treatments. Cost-effectiveness analyses in randomized clinical trials have typically been conducted only at the end of follow-up. However, cost-effectiveness may change over time. We therefore propose a nonparametric estimator to assess the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio over time. We also derive the asymptotic variance of our estimator and present formulation of Fieller-based simultaneous confidence bands. Simulation studies demonstrate the performance of our point estimators, variance estimators, and confidence bands. We also illustrate our methods using data from a randomized clinical trial, the second Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial. This trial studied the effects of implantable cardioverter-defibrillators on patients at high risk for cardiac arrhythmia. Results show that our estimator performs well in large samples, indicating promising future directions in the field of cost-effectiveness. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. A case of premature ventricular contractions, ventricular tachycardia, and arrhythmic storm induced by right ventricular pacing during cardiac resynchronization therapy: Electrophysiological mechanism and catheter ablation

    PubMed Central

    Pedretti, Stefano; Vargiu, Sara; Paolucci, Marco; Lunati, Maurizio

    2015-01-01

    A 77-year-old man with ischemic cardiomyopathy and a cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) device came to our attention due to incessant ventricular tachycardia and multiple implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) shocks. An electrocardiogram showed non-sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardias (NSVTs) constantly occurring after each biventricular stimulation. During an electrophysiological study, NSVTs reproducibly recurred only after right ventricular (RV) pacing; LV pacing did not induce any NSVTs. The activation map was consistent with a localized reentry at the interventricular septum, and a double exit; at the LV exit site, a single radiofrequency energy application immediately interrupted the occurrence of the NSVTs. Current evidence supports LV pacing to be pro-arrhythmogenic in few CRT patients. This unusual case shows that RV pacing during CRT could produce frequent ventricular arrhythmias and arrhythmic storm. Catheter ablation can be considered an effective therapeutic option, especially when CRT maintenance is highly advisable. PMID:26702324

  17. Insulation failure with externalized conductor of a Linox SD lead: a case report.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Joseph A; Smithgall, Steven M; Kircher, Charles M; Lollis, Mary A

    2014-04-01

    A 53-year-old man with a dual-chamber implantable cardioverter-defibrillator presented to the electrophysiology (EP) lab for an EP study in evaluation of supraventricular tachycardia despite medical therapy. Fluoroscopic imaging during placement of diagnostic catheters demonstrated insulation failure with an externalized conductor on the right ventricular defibrillator lead just distal to the proximal defibrillator coil. Device interrogation revealed normal pacing, and shock impedances, normal sensing, and stable pacing thresholds.

  18. The Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support (OPALS) Study: rationale and methodology for cardiac arrest patients.

    PubMed

    Stiell, I G; Wells, G A; Spaite, D W; Lyver, M B; Munkley, D P; Field, B J; Dagnone, E; Maloney, J P; Jones, G R; Luinstra, L G; Jermyn, B D; Ward, R; DeMaio, V J

    1998-08-01

    The Ontario Prehospital Advanced Life Support Study represents the largest prehospital study yet conducted, worldwide. This study will involve more than 25,000 cardiac arrest, trauma, and critically ill patients over an 8-year period. The study will evaluate the incremental benefit of rapid defibrillation and prehospital Advanced Cardiac Life Support measures for cardiac arrest survival and the benefit of Advanced Life Support for patients with traumatic injuries and other critically ill prehospital patients. This article describes the OPALS study with regard to the rationale and methodology for cardiac arrest patients.

  19. Anger and ventricular arrhythmias

    PubMed Central

    Lampert, Rachel

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of review Although anecdotal evidence has long suggested links between emotion and ventricular arrhythmia, more recent studies have prospectively demonstrated the arrhythmogenic effects of anger, as well as mechanisms underlying these effects. Recent findings Epidemiological studies reveal that psychological stress increases sudden death, as well as arrhythmias, in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators, in populations during emotionally devastating disasters such as earthquake or war. Diary-based studies confirm that anger and other negative emotions can trigger potentially lethal ventricular arrhythmias. Anger alters electrophysiological properties of the myocardium, including T-wave alternans, a measure of heterogeneity of repolarization, suggesting one mechanistic link between emotion and arrhythmia. Pilot studies of behavioral interventions have shown promise in decreasing arrhythmias in patients with implantable cardioverter-defibrillators. Summary Anger and other strong emotions can trigger polymorphic, potentially life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias in vulnerable patients. Through autonomic changes including increased sympathetic activity and vagal withdrawal, anger leads to increases in heterogeneity of repolarization as measured by T-wave alternans, known to be associated with arrhythmogenesis, as well as increasing inducibility of arrhythmia. Further delineation of mechanisms linking anger and arrhythmia, and of approaches to decrease the detrimental effects of anger and other negative emotions on arrhythmogenesis, are important areas of future investigation. PMID:19864944

  20. A non-randomized comparison of e-learning and classroom delivery of basic life support with automated external defibrillator use: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Moule, Pam; Albarran, John W; Bessant, Elizabeth; Brownfield, Chris; Pollock, Jon

    2008-12-01

    This pilot study investigated whether computer-based learning package followed by practical instruction and traditional classroom methods were comparable in developing knowledge and skills in basic life support with automated external defibrillator. Eighty-three mental health care professionals were allocated to one of two groups. Twenty-eight completed an e-learning package, and the remaining 55 received delivery of content in a classroom. Using standardized assessment methods, comparisons of participant knowledge gain and performance in resuscitation were made. Significant increases in knowledge followed training. No differences were found with basic resuscitation skills or in the time taken to the first shock; however, both groups were inaccurate with electrode pad placement. E-learners performed slightly better in 21 of the 30 observed skills. Overall group performance did not differ suggesting computer-based education has the potential to prepare learners in resuscitation knowledge and skills to comparable levels of classroom courses. PMID:19126070

  1. The Role of I-123 Metaiodobenzylguanidine Imaging in Management of Patients With Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Wolinsky, David; Hendel, Robert; Cerqueira, Manuel; Gold, Michael; Narula, Jagat; Singh, Jagmeet; Shaw, Leslee; Thomas, Gregory; Wazni, Oussama; Farnum, Carolyn

    2015-10-15

    Despite advances in evidence-based treatments, the morbidity and mortality of congestive heart failure remain exceedingly high. In addition, the costs associated with recurrent hospitalizations and advanced therapies, such as implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs), left ventricular assist devices, and heart transplantation, place a substantial financial burden on the health care system. The present criteria for risk stratification in patients with heart failure are inadequate and often prevent the allocation of appropriate treatment. Patients who have received ICDs as primary prevention for sudden cardiac death often receive no device therapy in their lifetime, whereas other patients with left ventricular dysfunction die suddenly without meeting criteria for ICD implantation.

  2. The role of pharmacotherapy in the prevention of sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Weeks, Phillip A; Sieg, Adam; Gass, Jennifer Ann; Rajapreyar, Indranee

    2016-07-01

    Sudden cardiac death remains a significant threat to the survival of patients with heart failure. Long-term cardiac remodeling predisposes these patients to develop malignant ventricular arrhythmias. Permanent implantable and temporary external defibrillators remain a mainstay for the prevention of sudden cardiac death in this population. For decades, researchers have attempted to identify reliable drug therapies to avoid such arrhythmias; however, to date, success has been inconsistent. This review aims to explore the evidence defining the role of drug therapies for direct and indirect suppression of arrhythmias that may cause sudden cardiac death in patients with heart failure. PMID:27003591

  3. Pacemakers and Implantable Defibrillators

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart rate or rhythm. It means that your heart beats too quickly, too slowly, or with an irregular ... rhythms. It uses electrical pulses to prompt the heart to beat at a normal rate. It can speed up ...

  4. A Case of Arterial and Venous Tear during Single Lead Extraction.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael S; Wu, Daniel; Patel, Vishal; Tariq, Rayhan

    2016-01-01

    Transcutaneous lead extraction can be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The risk of causing concomitant arterial and venous injury is rare. We report a case of marginal artery rupture with coronary sinus rupture after a CS lead extraction. A 71-year-old male was admitted for extraction of a 6-year-old implantable cardioverter-defibrillator lead due to fracture from insulation break. During the lead extraction, blood pressure fell precipitously and echocardiographic findings were consistent with pericardial effusion. After unsuccessful pericardiocentesis, open chest sternotomy and evacuation of hematoma was performed. Subsequent surgical repair of several injuries was completed including the distal coronary sinus, a large degloving injury of posterior portion of the heart, and first obtuse marginal branch bleed. This case demonstrates that when performing transcutaneous lead extraction (TLE) with laser sheath, a degloving injury can cause arterial rupture with concomitant coronary sinus injury. A multidisciplinary team-based approach can ensure patient safety. Learning Objective. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator leads will falter over time. With the advancement of new technology for extraction more frequent and serious complications will occur. Active fixation CS leads present unique challenges. In the presence of hemodynamic changes during extraction the occurrence of both an arterial and venous injury must be considered. PMID:27195154

  5. Surgical Management of the Patient with an Implanted Cardiac Device

    PubMed Central

    Madigan, John D.; Choudhri, Asim F.; Chen, Jonathan; Spotnitz, Henry M.; Oz, Mehmet C.; Edwards, Niloo

    1999-01-01

    Objective To identify the sources of electromagnetic interference (EMI) that may alter the performance of implanted cardiac devices and develop strategies to minimize their effects on patient hemodynamic status. Summary Background Data Since the development of the sensing demand pacemaker, EMI in the clinical setting has concerned physicians treating patients with such devices. Implanted cardiovertor defibrillators (ICDs) and ventricular assist devices (VADs) can also be affected by EMI. Methods All known sources of interference to pacemakers, ICDs, and VADs were evaluated and preventative strategies were devised. Results All devices should be thoroughly evaluated before and after surgery to make sure that its function has not been permanently damaged or changed. If electrocautery is to be used, pacemakers should be placed in a triggered or asynchronous mode; ICDs should have arrhythmia detection suspended before surgery. If defibrillation is to be used, the current flow between the paddles should be kept as far away from and perpendicular to the lead system as possible. Both pacemakers and ICDs should be properly shielded if magnetic resonance imaging, positron emission tomography, or radiation therapy is to be used. The effect of EMI on VADs depends on the model. Magnetic resonance imaging adversely affects all VADs except the Abiomed VAD, and therefore its use should be avoided in this population of patients. Conclusions The patient with an implanted cardiac device can safely undergo surgery as long as certain precautions are taken. PMID:10561087

  6. Stratification of the Risk of Sudden Death in Nonischemic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Pimentel, Maurício; Zimerman, Leandro Ioschpe; Rohde, Luis Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Despite significant therapeutic advancements, heart failure remains a highly prevalent clinical condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In 30%-40% patients, the etiology of heart failure is nonischemic. The implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is capable of preventing sudden death and decreasing total mortality in patients with nonischemic heart failure. However, a significant number of patients receiving ICD do not receive any kind of therapy during follow-up. Moreover, considering the situation in Brazil and several other countries, ICD cannot be implanted in all patients with nonischemic heart failure. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify patients at an increased risk of sudden death because these would benefit more than patients at a lower risk, despite the presence of heart failure in both risk groups. In this study, the authors review the primary available methods for the stratification of the risk of sudden death in patients with nonischemic heart failure. PMID:25352509

  7. Sudden cardiac death markers in non-ischemic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Pimentel, Mauricio; Rohde, Luis Eduardo; Zimerman, André; Zimerman, Leandro Ioschpe

    2016-01-01

    Heart failure is an increasingly prevalent disease associated with high morbidity and mortality. In 30-40% of patients, the etiology is non-ischemic. In this group of patients, the implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) prevents sudden death and decreases total mortality. However, due to burden of cost, the fact that many ICD patients will never need any therapy, and possible complications involved in implant and follow-up, the device should not be implanted in every patient with non-ischemic heart failure. There is an urgent need to adequately identify patients with highest sudden death risk, in whom the implant is most cost-effective. In the present paper, the authors discuss current available tests for risk stratification of sudden cardiac death in patients with non-ischemic heart failure. PMID:27016256

  8. [Indications for the procedure for transvenous removing of electrodes based on the guidelines of U.S. societies].

    PubMed

    Lelakowski, Jacek

    2010-03-01

    The number of implanted the cardiovascular implantable electronic device(s) (CIED(s))--pacemakers (PM) and implantable cardioverters defibrillators (ICD)--increases each year. The number of CIED(s) exchange procedures as well as changes in models of stimulation (upgrade to dual chamber pacemakers or three chamber cardiac resynchronization therapy devices) also grows. Also increases the inactive electrode left in the cardiovascular system. The risk of infection is higher during the exchange of devices than with their implantation. Treatments for patients with multiple electrode systems are becoming a potential source of infection. The incidence of damage defibrillator is greater than pacemaker leads. Intracardiac electrodes causes the growth of connective tissue, fibrosis in the venous system and may cause obstruction subclavian vein or brachiocephalic preventing implantation needed a new electrode. Damaged and broken electrodes may migrate to the cavities of the heart. This increases the risk of thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, tricuspid valve dysfunction and serious arrhythmias. All these facts presented lead to the conclusion that the growing need to remove the electrodes (both infected and inactive) pacemaker or cardioverter defibrillator. There are two classes of indications to remove the electrodes. Procedures for removing the benefits must outweigh the risks. Should be considered for each patient individually and take into account the experience of the operator and its results. Class I indications are: lead dependent endocarditis, sepsis, arrhythmias or embolism secondary to the presence of lead, venous occlusion prevents the implantation of new electrodes, interference between the electrodes, an implantable device infection box. Class II includes: chronic pain in the area and inactive pacemaker electrodes in young people. After removal must be individually examined whether there is a need to implant the new layout. It should not be implanted in a place that

  9. Effectiveness of teaching automated external defibrillators use using a traditional classroom instruction versus self-instruction video in non-critical care nurses

    PubMed Central

    Saiboon, Ismail M.; Qamruddin, Reza M.; BAO, MBBch; Jaafar, Johar M.; Bakar, Afliza A.; Hamzah, Faizal A.; Eng, Ho S.; Robertson, Colin E.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness and retention of learning automated external defibrillator (AED) usage taught through a traditional classroom instruction (TCI) method versus a novel self instructed video (SIV) technique in non-critical care nurses (NCCN). Methods: A prospective single-blind randomized study was conducted over 7 months (April-October 2014) at the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Center, Kuala Lampur, Malaysia. Eighty nurses were randomized into either TCI or SIV instructional techniques. We assessed knowledge, skill and confidence level at baseline, immediate and 6-months post-intervention. Knowledge and confidence were assessed via questionnaire; skill was assessed by a calibrated and blinded independent assessor using an objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) method. Results: Pre-test mean scores for knowledge in the TCI group was 10.87 ± 2.34, and for the SIV group was 10.37 ± 1.85 (maximum achievable score 20.00); 4.05 ± 2.87 in the TCI and 3.71 ± 2.66 in the SIV (maximum score 11.00) in the OSCE evaluation and 9.54 ± 3.65 in the TCI and 8.56 ± 3.47 in the SIV (maximum score 25.00) in the individual’s personal confidence level. Both methods increased the mean scores significantly during immediate post-intervention (0-month). At 6-months, the TCI group scored lower than the SIV group in all aspects 11.13 ± 2.70 versus 12.95 ± 2.26 (p=0.03) in knowledge, 7.27 ± 1.62 versus 7.68 ± 1.73 (p=0.47) in the OSCE, and 16.40 ± 2.72 versus 18.82 ± 3.40 (p=0.03) in confidence level. Conclusion: In NCCN’s, SIV is as good as TCI in providing the knowledge, competency, and confidence in performing AED defibrillation. PMID:27052286

  10. T Wave Alternans And Ventricular Tachyarrhythmia Risk Stratification: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Takagi, Masahiko; Yoshikawa, Junichi

    2003-01-01

    Sudden cardiac death (SCD) is one of the leading causes of mortality in industrialized countries. Thus, identifying patients at high risk of SCD is an important goal. T wave alternans (TWA) is a new method for identifying patients with lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmias, and is dependent on heart rate. The maximal predictive accuracy is achieved at heart rates between 100 and 120 bpm, so that TWA is usually measured during exercise, phamacological stress, or atrial pacing. It has been shown that TWA has high sensitivity and negative predictive value for predicting SCD after myocardial infarction and is also useful for predicting SCD in patients with nonischemic cardiomyopathy. Although the implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) is now the primary therapy for preventing SCD, it is difficult to identify those patients who are susceptible to lethal ventricular tachyarrhythmias for primary prevention. In the prediction of SCD, TWA can be used as a screening test of appropriate patients for further electrophysiological examination and therapy. PMID:16943959

  11. Long-term Outcomes of Ventricular Tachycardia Ablation in Different Types of Structural Heart Disease

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Jackson J; Santangeli, Pasquale; Callans, David J

    2015-01-01

    Ventricular tachycardia (VT) often occurs in the setting of structural heart disease and can affect patients with ischaemic or nonischaemic cardiomyopathies. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillators (ICDs) provide mortality benefit and are therefore indicated for secondary prevention in patients with sustained VT, but they do not reduce arrhythmia burden. ICD shocks are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, and antiarrhythmic medications are often used to prevent recurrent episodes. Catheter ablation is an effective treatment option for patients with VT in the setting of structural heart disease and, when successful, can reduce the number of ICD shocks. However, whether VT ablation results in a mortality benefit remains unclear. We aim to review the long-term outcomes in patients with different types of structural heart disease treated with VT ablation. PMID:26835122

  12. Cardiac or Other Implantable Electronic Devices and Sleep-disordered Breathing – Implications for Diagnosis and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bitter, Thomas; Gutleben, Klaus-Jürgen; Horstkotte, Dieter; Oldenburg, Olaf

    2014-01-01

    Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is of growing interest in cardiology because SDB is a highly prevalent comorbidity in patients with a variety of cardiovascular diseases. The prevalence of SDB is particularly high in patients with cardiac dysrhythmias and/or heart failure. In this setting, many patients now have implantable cardiac devices, such as pacemakers, implantable cardioverter-defibrillators or implanted cardiac resynchronisation therapy devices (CRT). Treatment of SDB using implantable cardiac devices has been studied previously, with atrial pacing and CRT being shown not to bring about satisfactory results in SDB care. The latest generations of these devices have the capacity to determine transthoracic impedance, to detect and quantify breathing efforts and to identify SDB. The capability of implantable cardiac devices to detect SDB is of potential importance for patients with cardiovascular disease, allowing screening for SDB, monitoring of the course of SDB in relation to cardiac status, and documenting of the effects of treatment. PMID:26835077

  13. Giant cell myocarditis: a life-threatening disorder heralded by orbital myositis.

    PubMed

    Ali, Muhammad Sajawal; Mba, Benjamin I; Husain, Aliya Noor; Ciftci, Farah Diba

    2016-01-01

    A 40-year-old man with a history of orbital myositis (OM) presented to the emergency department with ventricular tachycardia requiring electrical cardioversion. Postcardioversion ECG showed right bundle branch block, while an echocardiogram revealed an ejection fraction of 20% and a dilated right ventricle. Cardiac MRI produced suboptimal images because the patient was having frequent arrhythmias. The rest of the work up, including coronary angiography, was unremarkable. Given the dilated right ventricle, we suspected arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and discharged the patient with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator. 1 week later, he was readmitted with cardiogenic shock; endomyocardial biopsy revealed giant cell myocarditis (GCM). To the best of our knowledge, this is the seventh case report of GCM described in a patient with OM. We recommend that clinicians maintain a high degree of suspicion for GCM in patients with OM presenting with cardiac problems. PMID:27009192

  14. Exercise Rehabilitation for Chronic Heart Failure Patients with Cardiac Device Implants

    PubMed Central

    Haennel, Robert G.

    2012-01-01

    In the past decade a significant development in the management and rehabilitation of people with chronic heart failure (CHF) has been the utilization of cardiac devices. The use of biventricular pacemakers, referred to as Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy (CRT) can yield improvements in functional abilities for a select group of CHF patients and the inclusion of implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) may reduce the risk of sudden death. This review provides physical therapists with a basic understanding of how to prescribe exercise for people with CHF who have these device implants. PMID:22993499

  15. Improve the prevention of sudden cardiac arrest in emerging countries: the Improve SCA clinical study design

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Shu; Singh, Balbir; Rodriguez, Diego A.; Chasnoits, Alexandr Robertovich; Hussin, Azlan; Ching, Chi-Keong; Huang, Dejia; Liu, Yen-Bin; Cerkvenik, Jeffrey; Willey, Sarah; Kim, Young-Hoon

    2015-01-01

    Aims This study aims to demonstrate that primary prevention (PP) patients with one or more additional risk factors are at a similar risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias when compared with secondary prevention (SP) patients, and would receive similar benefit from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD), or cardiac resynchronization therapy-defibrillator (CRT-D) implant. The study evaluates the benefits of therapy for high-risk patients in countries where defibrillation therapy for PP of SCA is underutilized. Methods Enrolment will consist of 4800 ICD-eligible patients from Asia, Latin America, Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. Upon enrolment, patients will be categorized as SP or PP. Primary prevention patients will be assessed for additional risk factors: syncope/pre-syncope, non-sustained ventricular tachycardia, frequent premature ventricular contractions, and low left ventricular ejection fraction. Those PP patients with one or more risk factors will be categorized as ‘1.5’ patients. Implant of an ICD/CRT-D will be left to the patient and/or physician's discretion. The primary endpoint will compare the appropriate ICD therapy rate between SP and 1.5 patients. The secondary endpoint compares mortality between 1.5 implanted and non-implanted patients. Conclusion The Improve SCA study will investigate a subset of PP patients, believed to be at similar risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias as SP patients. Results may help clinicians identify and refer the highest risk PP patients for ICDs, help local societies expand guidelines to include PP of SCA utilizing ICDs, and provide additional geographical-relevant evidence to allow patients to make an informed decision whether to receive an ICD. Trial registration NCT02099721. PMID:26037794

  16. T wave pacing inducing electrical storm and multiple shocks in an ICD-recipient: a novel complication of the automatic gain control function.

    PubMed

    Jaoudé, Simon Abou; Salamé, Elie; Azar, Rabih; Kassab, Roland

    2003-12-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) is highly effective in treating life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, but it can also have proarrhythmic effect in some cases. We report the case of a 72 years old patient with an ischemic cardiomyopathy in whom an ICD was implanted for a poorly tolerated ventricular tachycardia (Profiles MD-Ventritex). Forty-eight hours after implantation, the patient suddenly received 15 successive shocks. ECG tracings and intracardiac EGM showed the presence of several VT episodes, all induced by the antibradycardia pacing of the ICD: the automatic gain control function of the device failed to detect ventricular premature beats in this patient, leading to a bradycardia pacing falling on the T wave and inducing multiple VTs and shocks.

  17. Holter Monitoring and Loop Recorders: From Research to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Francesco; Lombardi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Holter monitors are tools of proven efficacy in diagnosing and monitoring cardiac arrhythmias. Despite the fact their use is widely prescribed by general practitioners, little is known about their evolving role in the management of patients with cryptogenic stroke, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, unexplained recurrent syncope and risk stratification in implantable cardioverter defibrillator or pacemaker candidates. New Holter monitoring technologies and loop recorders allow prolonged monitoring of heart rhythm for periods from a few days to several months, making it possible to detect infrequent arrhythmias in patients of all ages. This review discusses the advances in this area of arrhythmology and how Holter monitors have improved the clinical management of patients with suspected cardiac rhythm diseases.

  18. Holter Monitoring and Loop Recorders: From Research to Clinical Practice

    PubMed Central

    Ambrosini, Francesco; Lombardi, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Holter monitors are tools of proven efficacy in diagnosing and monitoring cardiac arrhythmias. Despite the fact their use is widely prescribed by general practitioners, little is known about their evolving role in the management of patients with cryptogenic stroke, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, unexplained recurrent syncope and risk stratification in implantable cardioverter defibrillator or pacemaker candidates. New Holter monitoring technologies and loop recorders allow prolonged monitoring of heart rhythm for periods from a few days to several months, making it possible to detect infrequent arrhythmias in patients of all ages. This review discusses the advances in this area of arrhythmology and how Holter monitors have improved the clinical management of patients with suspected cardiac rhythm diseases. PMID:27617093

  19. Holter Monitoring and Loop Recorders: From Research to Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Galli, Alessio; Ambrosini, Francesco; Lombardi, Federico

    2016-08-01

    Holter monitors are tools of proven efficacy in diagnosing and monitoring cardiac arrhythmias. Despite the fact their use is widely prescribed by general practitioners, little is known about their evolving role in the management of patients with cryptogenic stroke, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, unexplained recurrent syncope and risk stratification in implantable cardioverter defibrillator or pacemaker candidates. New Holter monitoring technologies and loop recorders allow prolonged monitoring of heart rhythm for periods from a few days to several months, making it possible to detect infrequent arrhythmias in patients of all ages. This review discusses the advances in this area of arrhythmology and how Holter monitors have improved the clinical management of patients with suspected cardiac rhythm diseases.

  20. Amiodarone for the treatment and prevention of ventricular fibrillation and ventricular tachycardia

    PubMed Central

    Van Herendael, Hugo; Dorian, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Amiodarone has emerged as the leading antiarrhythmic therapy for termination and prevention of ventricular arrhythmia in different clinical settings because of its proven efficacy and safety. In patients with shock refractory out-of-hospital cardiac arrest and hemodynamically destabilizing ventricular arrhythmia, amiodarone is the most effective drug available to assist in resuscitation. Although the superiority of the transvenous implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) over amiodarone has been well established in the preventive treatment of patients at high risk of life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias, amiodarone (if used with a beta-blocker) is the most effective antiarrhythmic drug to prevent ICD shocks and treat electrical storm. Both the pharmacokinetics and the electrophysiologic profile of amiodarone are complex, and its optimal and safe use requires careful patient surveillance with respect to potential adverse effects. PMID:20730062

  1. Holter Monitoring and Loop Recorders: From Research to Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Galli, Alessio; Ambrosini, Francesco; Lombardi, Federico

    2016-08-01

    Holter monitors are tools of proven efficacy in diagnosing and monitoring cardiac arrhythmias. Despite the fact their use is widely prescribed by general practitioners, little is known about their evolving role in the management of patients with cryptogenic stroke, paroxysmal atrial fibrillation, unexplained recurrent syncope and risk stratification in implantable cardioverter defibrillator or pacemaker candidates. New Holter monitoring technologies and loop recorders allow prolonged monitoring of heart rhythm for periods from a few days to several months, making it possible to detect infrequent arrhythmias in patients of all ages. This review discusses the advances in this area of arrhythmology and how Holter monitors have improved the clinical management of patients with suspected cardiac rhythm diseases. PMID:27617093

  2. Is it safe to program a long tachycardia detection interval?

    PubMed

    Kühlkamp, Volker; Dörnberger, Volker; Bosch, Ralph R; Kettering, Klaus; Mewis, Christian

    2002-11-01

    Implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) therapy is used frequently in patients with "slow" ventricular tachycardia (VT). Hence, the tachycardia detection interval is programmed within the range of the physiologic heart rate, but this may cause serious problems. If a fast VT is converted to sinus tachycardia with a cycle length shorter than the tachycardia detection interval, the episode is not terminated and the success counter is not reset. If this happens repeatedly, therapies will be exhausted without termination of the episode. If VT recurs within such an episode, it will not be treated. This report describes a patient who died suddenly in a scenario similar to the one described. Although all documented VT/ventricular fibrillation episodes were terminated by the device, the episode was not terminated because of the ongoing supraventricular tachycardia. Therefore, no further therapies were available and the patient probably died of fast untreated VT. Programming of a long tachycardia detection interval is dangerous in currently available ICDs.

  3. Role of 123I-Iobenguane Myocardial Scintigraphy in Predicting Short-term Left Ventricular Functional Recovery: An Interesting Image

    PubMed Central

    Feola, Mauro; Chauvie, Stephane; Biggi, Alberto; Testa, Marzia

    2015-01-01

    123I-iobenguane myocardial scintigraphy (MIBG) has been shown to be a predictor of sudden cardiac mortality in patients with heart failure. One patient with recent anterior myocardial infarction (MI) treated with coronary angioplasty and having left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of 30% underwent early MIBG myocardial scintigraphy/tetrofosmin single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in order to help evaluate his eligibility for implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD). The late heart/mediastinum (H/M) ratio was calculated to be 1.32% and the washout rate was 1%. At 40-day follow-up after angioplasty, LVEF proved to be 32%, New York Heart Association (NYHA) class was still II–III, and an ICD was placed in order to reduce mortality from ventricular arrhythmias. MIBG myocardial scintigraphy might be a promising method for evaluating left ventricular recovery in post-MI patients. PMID:26664773

  4. [Venous thrombosis of atypical location in patients with cancer].

    PubMed

    Campos Balea, Begoña; Sáenz de Miera Rodríguez, Andrea; Antolín Novoa, Silvia; Quindós Varela, María; Barón Duarte, Francisco; López López, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a complication that frequently occurs in patients with neoplastic diseases. Several models have therefore been developed to identify patient subgroups diagnosed with cancer who are at increased risk of developing VTE. The most common forms of thromboembolic episodes are deep vein thrombosis in the lower limbs and pulmonary thromboembolism. However, venous thrombosis is also diagnosed in atypical locations. There are few revisions of unusual cases of venous thrombosis. In most cases, VTE occurs in the upper limbs and in the presence of central venous catheters, pacemakers and defibrillators. We present the case of a patient diagnosed with breast cancer and treated with surgery, chemotherapy and radiation therapy who developed a thrombosis in the upper limbs (brachial and axillary).

  5. Calibrated single-plunge bipolar electrode array for mapping myocardial vector fields in three dimensions during high-voltage transthoracic defibrillation.

    PubMed

    Deale, O C; Ng, K T; Kim-Van Housen, E J; Lerman, B B

    2001-08-01

    Mapping of the myocardial scalar electric potential during defibrillation is normally performed with unipolar electrodes connected to voltage dividers and a global potential reference. Unfortunately, vector potential gradients that are calculated from these data tend to exhibit a high sensitivity to measurement errors. This paper presents a calibrated single-plunge bipolar electrode array (EA) that avoids the error sensitivity of unipolar electrodes. The EA is triaxial, uses a local potential reference, and simultaneously measures all three components of the myocardial electric field vector. An electrode spacing of approximately 500 microm allows the EA to be direct-coupled to high-input-impedance, isolated, differential amplifiers and eliminates the need for voltage dividers. Calibration is performed with an electrolytic tank in which an accurately measured, uniform electric field is produced. For each EA, unique calibration matrices are determined which transform potential difference readings from the EA to orthogonal components of the electric field vector. Elements of the matrices are evaluated by least squares multiple regression analysis of data recorded during rotation of the electric field. The design of the electrolytic tank and electrode holder allows the electric field vector to be rotated globally with respect to the electrode axes. The calibration technique corrects for both field perturbation by the plunge electrode body and deviations from orthogonality of the electrode axes. A unique feature of this technique is that it eliminates the need for mechanical measurement of the electrode spacing. During calibration, only angular settings and voltages are recorded. For this study, ten EAs were calibrated and their root-mean-square (rms) errors evaluated. The mean of the vector magnitude rms errors over the set of ten EAs was 0.40% and the standard deviation 0.07%. Calibrated EAs were also tested for multisite mapping in four dogs during high

  6. Predictors of Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence in Hyperthyroid and Euthyroid Patients

    PubMed Central

    Gürdoğan, Muhammet; Ari, Hasan; Tenekecioğlu, Erhan; Arı, Selma; Bozat, Tahsin; Koca, Vedat; Melek, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Background Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia in adults, and is encountered in 10-15% of the patients with hyperthyroidism. Unless euthyroidism is restored, pharmacological or electrical cardioversion is controversial in patients with AF who remain hyperthyroid. Objective The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of electrical cardioversion and predictors of AF recurrence in hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients. Methods The study included 33 hyperthyroid (21 males) and 48 euthyroid (17 males) patients with persistent AF. The patients were sedated with intravenous midazolam before undergoing electrical cardioversion delivered by synchronized biphasic shocks. Rates of AF recurrence were recorded. Results Mean follow-up was 23.63 ± 3.74 months in the hyperthyroid group and 22.78 ± 3.15 months in the euthyroid group (p = 0.51). AF recurred in 14 (43.8%) and 21 (44.7%) patients in each group, respectively (p = 0.93). Multivariate regression analysis in each group showed that AF duration was the only predictor of AF recurrence, with odds ratios of 1.38 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 - 1.82, p = 0.02) in the hyperthyroid group and 1.42 (95% CI = 1.05 - 1.91, p= 0.02) in the euthyroid group. Conclusion Rates of long-term AF recurrence were similar in successfully cardioverted hyperthyroid and euthyroid patients. The only predictor of AF recurrence in both groups was AF duration. PMID:26815460

  7. Cost–consequence analysis of daily continuous remote monitoring of implantable cardiac defibrillator and resynchronization devices in the UK

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Haran; Sticherling, Christian; Wright, David; Makino, Koji; Smala, Antje; Tilden, Dominic

    2013-01-01

    Aims The need for ongoing and lifelong follow-up (FU) of patients with cardiac implantable electric devices (CIED) requires significant resources. Remote CIED management has been established as a safe alternative to conventional periodical in-office FU (CFU). An economic model compares the long-term cost and consequences of using daily Home Monitoring® (HM) instead of CFU. Methods and results A cost–consequence evaluation comparing HM vs. CFU was performed using a Markov cohort model and data relating to events and costs identified via a systematic review of the literature. The model is conservative, without assuming a reduction of cardiovascular events by HM such as decompensated heart failure or mortality, or considering cost savings such as for transportation. Also cost savings due to an improved timing of elective device replacement, and fewer FU visits needed in patients near device replacement are not considered. Over 10 years, HM is predicted to be cost neutral at about GBP 11 500 per patient in either treatment arm, with all costs for the initial investment into HM and fees for ongoing remote monitoring included. Fewer inappropriate shocks (−51%) reduce the need for replacing devices for battery exhaustion (−7%); the number of FU visits is predicted to be halved by HM. Conclusion From a UK National Health Service perspective, HM is cost neutral over 10 years. This is mainly accomplished by reducing the number of battery charges and inappropriate shocks, resulting in fewer device replacements, and by reducing the number of in-clinic FU visits. PMID:23599169

  8. Automatic implantable cardiac defibrillator implantation may precipitate effort-induced thrombosis in young athletes: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wadhawan, Abhishek; Laage Gaupp, Fabian M; Sista, Akhilesh K

    2014-01-01

    Upper extremity deep vein thrombosis (DVT) is a common finding after implantation of an automatic implantable cardiac defrillator (AICD). We describe the case of a patient who developed a left upper extremity DVT 4.5 months after implantation of an AICD and was found to have a lead-induced stenosis with possible underlying Paget-Schroetter syndrome (PSS) in the midbrachiocephalic vein on venography. While his symptoms resolved after the combination of pharmacomechanical thrombolysis, angioplasty, and anticoagulation, his long-term management is complicated by the presence of both PSS and lead-induced stenosis. Herein, we discuss his presentation, treatment, and future management options.

  9. Congenital left ventricular apical aneurysm presenting as ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Amado, José; Marques, Nuno; Candeias, Rui; Gago, Paula; de Jesus, Ilídio

    2016-10-01

    The authors present the case of a 34-year-old male patient seen in our department due to palpitations. On the electrocardiogram monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT) was documented, treated successfully with amiodarone. The subsequent study revealed a normal echocardiogram and an apical aneurysm of the left ventricle on magnetic resonance imaging, confirmed by computed tomography coronary angiography that also excluded coronary disease. He underwent an electrophysiological study to determine the origin of the VT and to perform catheter ablation using electroanatomical mapping. VT was induced and radiofrequency applications were performed in the left ventricular aneurysm area. VT was no longer inducible, with acute success. Despite this it was decided to implant a subcutaneous implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD). Eight months after the ablation the patient was admitted again due to VT, treated by the ICD.

  10. Prevention of inappropriate ICD shocks due to lead insulation failure by continuous monitoring and automatic alert.

    PubMed

    Gelder, Robert N; Gunderson, Bruce D

    2012-06-01

    Patients with implantable cardioverter defibrillator lead insulation failures may present with oversensing and/or abnormal impedance. The Lead Integrity Alert (LIA) monitors right ventricular pace/sense leads using both continuous oversensing and daily impedance measurementd. Oversensing consists of isolated short R-R intervals and nonsustained runs of short R-R intervals. The LIA algorithm has been studied for Sprint Fidelis conductor fractures, but not for lead insulation failures. We report on a patient with a failed St. Jude Riata™ ST lead (St. Jude Medical, St. Paul, MN, USA) connected to a Medtronic Virtuoso DR (Medtronic Inc., Minneapolis, MN, USA) with the LIA. Oversensing triggered the LIA, while the impedance trend was normal.

  11. The role of antiarrhythmic therapy in the management of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia.

    PubMed

    Gomes, J A

    1999-11-01

    The incidence of nonsustained ventricular tachycardia (NSVT) after myocardial infarction (MI), has decreased significantly in the thrombolytic era and may not have a high enough power to predict sudden cardiac death or all-cause mortality post-MI. Nonetheless, noninvasive algorithms that utilize the combination of NSVT with left ventricular dysfunction, abnormal signal-averaged electrocardiogram, and heart rate variability can be used for better risk assessment. Recent multicenter studies have provided strong evidence for the use of an implantable cardioverter defibrillator in patients with NSVT and inducible sustained ventricual tachycardia. On the other hand anti-arrhythmic drugs have no role and most are harmful in asymptomatic patients post-MI with NSVT. PMID:10980857

  12. Philosophy of antiarrhythmic approaches to ventricular tachyarrhythmias close to the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Breithardt, G; Haverkamp, W; Böcker, D; Borggrefe, M

    1998-12-01

    The scientific basis and the reasoning underlying the changes in antiarrhythmic approaches to ventricular arrhythmias during recent decades are discussed. The early enthusiasm in the use of antiarrhythmic drugs in patients after myocardial infarction to prevent sudden cardiac death was severely affected by the results of the Cardiac Arrhythmia Suppression Trial (CAST) which show an increased mortality of patients on sodium-channel antagonist antiarrhythmic drugs. A transient euphoria for drugs that prolong repolarization received criticism after premature termination of the Survival With Oral D-sotalol-trial (SWORD). Recently, attention has focused on the use of the implantable cardioverter defibrillator in both secondary and primary prevention of sudden death. In contrast, catheter ablation, although very useful in supraventricular tachycardia, still plays a limited role in the management of ventricular tachyarrhythmias in the presence of organic heart disease. PMID:9973859

  13. Sudden cardiac arrest as a presentation of Brugada syndrome unmasked by thyroid storm.

    PubMed

    Korte, Anna K M; Derde, Lennie; van Wijk, Jeroen; Tjan, David H

    2015-01-01

    An 18-year-old man suffered a sudden cardiac arrest with ventricular fibrillation and was successfully resuscitated. He had neither a medical nor family history of cardiac disease/sudden death, but was known to have Graves' disease, for which he was treated with radioactive iodine. Recently, block-and-replacement therapy had been discontinued to evaluate thyroid functioning. On admission, thyroid hormone levels were markedly elevated, suggesting thyroid storm due to residual Graves' disease. The patient was treated with propylthiouracil, hydrocortisone and Lugol solution. ECG showed repolarisation patterns suggestive of an underlying type 1 Brugada syndrome (BS). These findings were confirmed by an additional ajmaline test. An implantable cardioverter defibrillator was implanted to prevent future arrhythmias. The patient underwent total thyroidectomy 9 months later and recovered completely. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a sudden cardiac arrest as a presentation of BS unmasked by thyroid storm. PMID:26718704

  14. Management of cardiac arrest in a parturient with Eisenmenger's syndrome and complete atrioventricular block during Cesarean section: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gaab Soo; Yang, Mikyung; Chang, Choo Hoon; Lee, Eun Kyung; Choi, Jeong Yeon

    2015-12-01

    A 26-year-old parturient with Eisenmenger's syndrome and complete atrioventricular block was presented for emergency Cesarean section due to preterm labor. Ventricular tachycardia (VT), which progressed to ventricular fibrillation (VF), started immediately after the incision. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation with electric shocks was given by anesthesiologists while the obstetrician delivered the baby between the shocks. A cardiac surgeon was ready for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation institution in case of emergency but spontaneous circulation of the patient returned after the 3rd shock and the delivery of the baby. The newborn's Apgar score was 4 at 1 minute and 8 at 5 minutes. An implantable cardioverter-defibrillator was inserted before the discharge because the patient had recurrent episodes of VT and VF postoperatively. PMID:26634088

  15. Congenital and drug-induced long-QT syndrome: an update

    PubMed Central

    Wehrens, X.H.T.; Doevendans, P.A.

    2004-01-01

    The congenital long-QT syndrome is a potentially life-threatening condition characterised clinically by prolonged QT intervals, syncope and sudden cardiac death. The abnormally prolonged repolarisation is the result of mutations in genes encoding cardiac ion channels. The diagnosis of long-QT syndrome is based on clinical, electrocardiographic, and genetic criteria. Beta-blocking therapy is important in the treatment of long-QT syndrome, although pacemakers and implantable cardioverter defibrillators (ICD) are useful in certain categories of patients. In the near future, mutation-specific treatment will probably become a novel approach to this potentially lethal syndrome. Drug-induced long-QT syndrome has been associated with silent mutations and common polymorphisms in potassium and sodium channel genes associated with congenital long-QT syndrome. Genetic screening for such mutations and polymorphisms may become an important instrument in preventing drug-induced 'torsades de pointes' arrhythmias in otherwise asymptomatic patients. PMID:25696318

  16. Arrhythmias in patients with congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Edward P

    2002-12-01

    Improved surgical outcome for patients with congenital heart disease (CHD) has created a rapidly expanding population of adolescents and young adult survivors. Cardiac arrhythmias are a common late sequelae of this form of heart disease. Effective treatment requires clear understanding of the underlying anatomic defect as well as the specific surgical interventions. Intraatrial reentrant tachycardia (IART) is the most common and difficult arrhythmia encountered in these patients. Traditional IART treatment with medication has been largely unsuccessful, but radiofrequency ablation has emerged in recent years as a promising option for many patients. The availability of three-dimensional mapping systems and irrigated-tip ablation catheters has improved acute success rates for IART to better than 90%. Postablation recurrence of IART still remains problematic for patients who have undergone the Fontan operation, in which case atrial maze surgery may be considered. Ventricular tachycardia (VT) is seen in a smaller number of CHD patients, most notably those with tetralogy of Fallot or aortic stenosis. The adoption of implantable defibrillator (ICD) therapy for these patients has improved outcome. Owing to their complex anatomy, the CHD population presents unique challenges during both catheterization and device implant. Multicenter study of this unique patient group is needed in order to develop more objective treatment guidelines.

  17. Implant healing in experimental animal models of diabetes.

    PubMed

    Le, Nga N; Rose, Michael B; Levinson, Howard; Klitzman, Bruce

    2011-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is becoming increasingly prevalent worldwide. Additionally, there is an increasing number of patients receiving implantable devices such as glucose sensors and orthopedic implants. Thus, it is likely that the number of diabetic patients receiving these devices will also increase. Even though implantable medical devices are considered biocompatible by the Food and Drug Administration, the adverse tissue healing that occurs adjacent to these foreign objects is a leading cause of their failure. This foreign body response leads to fibrosis, encapsulation of the device, and a reduction or cessation of device performance. A second adverse event is microbial infection of implanted devices, which can lead to persistent local and systemic infections and also exacerbates the fibrotic response. Nearly half of all nosocomial infections are associated with the presence of an indwelling medical device. Events associated with both the foreign body response and implant infection can necessitate device removal and may lead to amputation, which is associated with significant morbidity and cost. Diabetes mellitus is generally indicated as a risk factor for the infection of a variety of implants such as prosthetic joints, pacemakers, implantable cardioverter defibrillators, penile implants, and urinary catheters. Implant infection rates in diabetic patients vary depending upon the implant and the microorganism, however, for example, diabetes was found to be a significant variable associated with a nearly 7.2% infection rate for implantable cardioverter defibrillators by the microorganism Candida albicans. While research has elucidated many of the altered mechanisms of diabetic cutaneous wound healing, the internal healing adjacent to indwelling medical devices in a diabetic model has rarely been studied. Understanding this healing process is crucial to facilitating improved device design. The purpose of this article is to summarize the physiologic factors that

  18. Ventricular arrhythmias in congestive heart failure: clinical significance and management.

    PubMed Central

    Khoshnevis, G R; Massumi, A

    1999-01-01

    The benefit of defibrillator therapy has been well established for patients with LV dysfunction (ejection fraction less than 35%), coronary artery disease, NSVT, and inducible and nonsuppressible ventricular tachycardia. Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator therapy is also indicated for all CHF patients in NYHA functional classes I, II, and III who present with aborted sudden cardiac death, or ventricular fibrillation, or hemodynamically unstable ventricular tachycardia--and also in patients with syncope with no documented ventricular tachycardia but with inducible ventricular tachycardia at electrophysiology study. The ongoing MADIT II trial was designed to evaluate the benefit of prophylactic ICD implantation in these patients (ejection fraction less than 30%, coronary artery disease, and NSVT) without prior risk stratification by PES. The CABG Patch trial concluded that prophylactic placement of an ICD during coronary artery bypass grafting in patients with low ejection fraction and abnormal SAECG is not justifiable. Except for the indications described above, ICD implantation has not been proved to be beneficial as primary or secondary therapy. Until more data are available, patients should be encouraged to enroll in the ongoing clinical trials. PMID:10217470

  19. Does the change of the polarity of electrodes influence the results of transoesophageal bidirectional DC cardioversion?

    PubMed

    Poleszak, K; Kutarski, A; Koziara, D; Baszak, J; Oleszczak, K

    1998-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the bidirectional transoesophageal DC cardioversion (BOC) with unidirectional transoesophageal DC cardioversion (UOC) and to evaluate, if the reversion of the polarity of electrodes alters the effectiveness and the amount of energy during BOC. UOC was attempted in 300 patients (pts) with atrial fibrillation (AF) and BOC in 241 pts with AF. In UOC mode shocks were delivered between the 4-ring oesophageal electrode (cathode) and the chest pad (anode) positioned in the precordial region. In BOC shocks were delivered between the same oesophageal electrode and two chest pads joined with each other, positioned on both sides of the sternum. First 147 pts were cardioverted with the oesophageal electrode as a cathode, next 94 with an anode in oesophageal position. The effectiveness of both modes (UOC and BOC) was very high, however in pts with chronic AF success rate was better in BOC approach (82% vs 100%). BOC, compared with UOC, allowed to decrease the threshold defibrillation significantly: in pts with recent onset of AF from 61.5 J to 33.3 J and in pts with chronic AF from 99.8 J to 75.2 J. In pts with long standing AF the reduction of the defibrillation threshold was statistically not significant (from 68.6 J to 50.6 J). The effectiveness of BOC was also very high independently of the polarity of electrodes. The change of the polarity did not affect the minimal and total successful energy of shocks, too. In pts with oesophageal electrode as a cathode defibrillation threshold was 48.4 J and in pts with the anodal electrode 43.7 J. In conclusions we found BOC as a very effective method in pts with AF. Defibrillation threshold in BOC is lower than in UOC and the polarity of electrodes does not influence the success rate and successful energy. PMID:9474668

  20. Insulation failure and externalized conductor of a single-coil Kentrox lead: an ongoing story?

    PubMed

    Bogossian, Harilaos; Mijic, Dejan; Frommeyer, Gerrit; Winter, Joachim

    2015-02-01

    Conductor externalization is a frequent complication with the St. Jude Medical Riata lead. Single case reports also reported externalization of conductors for dual-coil Biotronik leads. Up to now, conductor externalization has not yet been reported for any single coil leads. We report for the first time an externalization of conductors in a Biotronik Kentrox single-coil implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD) lead.