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  1. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... 1 antitrypsin (an-tee-TRIP-sin) deficiency, or AAT deficiency, is a condition that raises your risk ... and other diseases. Some people who have severe AAT deficiency develop emphysema (em-fi-SE-ma)—often ...

  2. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... antitrypsin deficiency as the cause of early onset emphysema , especially when a person does not have obvious ... tested to establish their own risk of developing emphysema and/or liver involvement as well as the ...

  3. What Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Causes Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an inherited disease. "Inherited" means it's ... parents to children through genes. Children who have AAT deficiency inherit two faulty AAT genes, one from ...

  4. How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Treated? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency has no cure, but its related lung ... pulmonary disease). If you have symptoms related to AAT deficiency, your doctor may recommend: Medicines called inhaled ...

  5. Alpha-1 antitrypsin test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ... Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, ...

  6. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2016:chap ... Medicine, Pulmonary, Allergy, and Critical Care, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, ...

  7. Alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy.

    PubMed

    Wewers, Mark D; Crystal, Ronald G

    2013-03-01

    The therapy of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an example of a medical triumph over a common hereditary disease. Based on the understanding of the pathogens of the disease as a deficiency in liver production of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) resulting from inherited genetic variation in both parental AAT genes, the knowledge that A1AT functions primarily to inhibit neutrophil elastase (NE), and the observation that NE instilled into the lung of experimental animals resulted in emphysema, the concept evolved that the pulmonary manifestations of the disease could be halted by intermittent intravenous infusions of AAT purified from pooled human plasma. Following preliminary clinical studies in the academic community, and then pharmaceutical company development of large scale purification of human AAT, the FDA approved the use of weekly AAT augmentation therapy for AATD following a clinical trial which demonstrated that weekly infusions would raise to normal plasma and lung epithelial fluid levels of AAT in AAT-deficient individuals. The therapy is now used worldwide to treat AATD, the only pulmonary genetic disease with effective therapy for all affected individuals.

  8. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Inherited Emphysema)

    MedlinePlus

    ... lung disease, • Physical exam, • Breathing tests and X-rays and • Oxygen levels. Two special blood tests determine the diagnosis of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency. The first test measures the ...

  9. Severe alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dempsey, O J; Godden, D J; Martin, P D; Danielian, P J

    1999-06-01

    This case study describes a successful pregnancy in a 27-yr-old patient with severe emphysema, secondary to alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency, genotype PiZZ. Despite significant respiratory compromise, more severe than previously reported, no complications ensued. Maternal pulmonary function did not deteriorate significantly until the 32nd week of pregnancy, with an elective Caesarean section being performed during the 37th week. This experience suggests that even severe maternal airflow obstruction is, in itself, not an absolute contra-indication to pregnancy. Pre-pregnancy multidisciplinary counselling is likely to be helpful in these patients, including frank discussion on the risks of pregnancy, the prospects of successful completion and the mother's future prognosis in relation to caring for the child.

  10. Who Is at Risk for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency? Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency occurs in all ethnic groups. However, the ... most often in White people of European descent. AAT deficiency is an inherited condition. "Inherited" means the ...

  11. Delivery of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin to Airways.

    PubMed

    Griese, Matthias; Scheuch, Gerhard

    2016-08-01

    Treatment with exogenous alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), a potent serine protease inhibitor, was developed originally for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease associated with AAT deficiency; however, other lung conditions involving neutrophilic inflammation and proteolytic tissue injury related to neutrophil elastase and other serine proteases may also be considered for AAT therapy. These conditions include bronchiectasis caused by primary ciliary dyskinesia, cystic fibrosis, and other diseases associated with an increased free elastase activity in the airways. Inhaled AAT may be a viable option to counteract proteolytic tissue damage. This form of treatment requires efficient drug delivery to the targeted pulmonary compartment. Aerosol technology meeting this requirement is currently available and offers an alternative therapeutic approach to systemic AAT administration. To date, early studies in humans have shown biochemical efficacy and have established the safety of inhaled AAT. However, to bring aerosol AAT therapy to patients, large phase 3 protocols in carefully selected patient populations (i.e., subgroups of patients with AAT deficiency, cystic fibrosis, or other lung diseases with bronchiectasis) will be needed with clinical end points in addition to the measurement of proteolytic activity in the airway. The outcomes likely will have to include lung function, lung structure assessed by computed tomography imaging, disease exacerbations, health status, and mortality.

  12. [Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency - an update].

    PubMed

    Bernhard, Nikolas; Bals, Robert; Fähndrich, Sebastian

    2016-09-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic risk factor for the development of chronic obstructive airway disease (COPD) and liver cirrhosis. The disease is widely underdiagnosed. The hallmarks of therapy are smoking cessation, prevention from environmental dust exposure and augmentation therapy. Findings from the recently published prospective, placebo-controlled and randomized RAPID trial proved effectiveness of AAT augmentation therapy for slowing progression of emphysema, measured by CT lung density. CT lung density may be more sensitive than forced exspiratory volume in one second (FEV1) or monoxid diffusion capacity (DLCO). The data suggest that higher therapeutic serum AAT levels lead to lower decline in lung density.

  13. Interrelationships between the Human Alveolar Macrophage and Alpha-1-Antitrypsin

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Allen B.

    1973-01-01

    Alveolar macrophages lavaged from human lungs contain protease activity at an optimum pH of 3.0 and possibly a lesser peak of activity at pH 5.5. Protease activity measured at pH 4.1 is inhibited by purified alpha-1-antitrypsin. Fluorescent antibody studies of human alveolar macrophages showed that alpha-1-antitrypsin is present in normal alveolar macrophages. In addition, macrophages from a patient with a homozygous deficiency of alpha-1-antitrypsin exhibited less fluorescence when incubated in autologous serum than the same macrophages incubated in normal serum. Macrophages from normal subjects showed maximal fluorescence when removed from the lung and additional incubation with serum did not increase fluorescence. These results implicate the human alveolar macrophage as a possible source of an enzyme that may cause emphysema in patients deficient in alpha-1-antitrypsin. They also show that alpha-1-antitrypsin has access to the alveolus in normal subjects. Images PMID:4201266

  14. Laboratory diagnosis of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ferrarotti, Ilaria; Scabini, Roberta; Campo, Ilaria; Ottaviani, Stefania; Zorzetto, Michele; Gorrini, Marina; Luisetti, Maurizio

    2007-11-01

    The laboratory diagnosis of alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (AATD) has evolved over the last 40 years since the first cases of the disorder were reported. It is currently performed in specialized centers, and it requires a combination of different biochemical methods: nephelometric AAT concentration, isoelectric focusing, genotyping, and sequencing. The availability of matrices such as the dried blood spot have facilitated the implementation of laboratory analyses for AATD, but they have also challenged laboratories to develop more reliable and reproducible techniques starting from dried blood. In this article, we describe the protocols we have optimized for AATD diagnosis from dried blood spot, in an attempt to hopefully provide useful information for physicians and scientists involved in this diagnostic line. We also describe the diagnostic flowchart for AATD detection that we have developed accordingly.

  15. Treatment of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Strange, Charlie; Beiko, Tatsiana

    2015-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a rare genetic disease that creates multiple unique phenotypes of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. While bronchospasm, cough, dyspnea, and sputum production all occur with AATD, the phenotypic differences require a computed tomographic (CT) scan to decipher. The availability of augmentation therapy in the United States since 1989 has generated both controversy and evidence that informs the science of usual chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Because of the predominance of emphysema in AATD, much of the best evidence concerning biomarkers of emphysema progression comes from this population. Imaging measurement of emphysema progression, impact of emphysema phenotypes on hyperinflation and dynamic hyperinflation, and correlation with traditional spirometric measures of COPD progression are required to understand the impact of AAT therapies. These studies are important for better understanding of usual COPD pathogenesis. Significantly, there are no adequately powered research studies to determine if augmentation therapy is helpful for the non-emphysema phenotypes of AATD. Specifically, phenotypes of chronic bronchitis, asthma predominant disease, and bronchiectasis will require targeted research studies to define optimal therapy.

  16. [Detection of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: A study on patients diagnosed with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in primary health care].

    PubMed

    García-Palenzuela, R; Timiraos Carrasco, R; Gómez-Besteiro, M I; Lavia, G; Lago Pose, M; Lara, B

    2016-06-25

    The prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in Spain is 10.2%. Although tobacco is the main aetiological factor, biomass smoke exposure and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) have also been related to its development. AATD is a genetic condition which could be causing 2-3% of COPD cases. The aim of this cross-sectional descriptive study was to exclude the existence of AATD in a population of COPD patients from CS Culleredo, A Coruña. The thick blood drop test on blotting paper, as well as the analysis of the mutations PI*S and PI*Z of the gene SERPINA 1 by the analysis of denaturing gradients after simultaneous amplification related to PCR (polymerase chain reaction). The study population included 80 patients between 40-80 years old, of whom 30% were carriers of a deficient allele (heterozygous), and 80% of them were the allele PiS. Only one PiSZ (1.25%) individual and no PiZZ was detected. This represents an allelic frequency of 3.1% (PiZ), and 13.1% (PiS). The detected allelic frequencies are higher than previously reported in the Spanish population. Severe AATD has been excluded in 98.75% of the study population. The Pi*SZ patient has been diagnosed in an early stage of the disease. We have also achieved one of the quality indicators recommended by GesEPOC. Our area has shown a high PiS and PiZ frequency, thus our study could be used as a reference for further research in the Galician population.

  17. Deficiency Mutations of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin. Effects on Folding, Function, and Polymerization.

    PubMed

    Haq, Imran; Irving, James A; Saleh, Aarash D; Dron, Louis; Regan-Mochrie, Gemma L; Motamedi-Shad, Neda; Hurst, John R; Gooptu, Bibek; Lomas, David A

    2016-01-01

    Misfolding, polymerization, and defective secretion of functional alpha-1 antitrypsin underlies the predisposition to severe liver and lung disease in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. We have identified a novel (Ala336Pro, Baghdad) deficiency variant and characterized it relative to the wild-type (M) and Glu342Lys (Z) alleles. The index case is a homozygous individual of consanguineous parentage, with levels of circulating alpha-1 antitrypsin in the moderate deficiency range, but is a biochemical phenotype that could not be classified by standard methods. The majority of the protein was present as functionally inactive polymer, and the remaining monomer was 37% active relative to the wild-type protein. These factors combined indicate an 85 to 95% functional deficiency, similar to that seen with ZZ homozygotes. Biochemical, biophysical, and computational studies further defined the molecular basis of this deficiency. These studies demonstrated that native Ala336Pro alpha-1 antitrypsin could populate the polymerogenic intermediate-and therefore polymerize-more readily than either wild-type alpha-1 antitrypsin or the Z variant. In contrast, folding was far less impaired in Ala336Pro alpha-1 antitrypsin than in the Z variant. The data are consistent with a disparate contribution by the "breach" region and "shutter" region of strand 5A to folding and polymerization mechanisms. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that, in these variants, folding efficiency does not correlate directly with the tendency to polymerize in vitro or in vivo. They therefore differentiate generalized misfolding from polymerization tendencies in missense variants of alpha-1 antitrypsin. Clinically, they further support the need to quantify loss-of-function in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency to individualize patient care.

  18. Deficiency Mutations of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin. Effects on Folding, Function, and Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Haq, Imran; Saleh, Aarash D.; Dron, Louis; Regan-Mochrie, Gemma L.; Motamedi-Shad, Neda; Hurst, John R.; Gooptu, Bibek

    2016-01-01

    Misfolding, polymerization, and defective secretion of functional alpha-1 antitrypsin underlies the predisposition to severe liver and lung disease in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. We have identified a novel (Ala336Pro, Baghdad) deficiency variant and characterized it relative to the wild-type (M) and Glu342Lys (Z) alleles. The index case is a homozygous individual of consanguineous parentage, with levels of circulating alpha-1 antitrypsin in the moderate deficiency range, but is a biochemical phenotype that could not be classified by standard methods. The majority of the protein was present as functionally inactive polymer, and the remaining monomer was 37% active relative to the wild-type protein. These factors combined indicate an 85 to 95% functional deficiency, similar to that seen with ZZ homozygotes. Biochemical, biophysical, and computational studies further defined the molecular basis of this deficiency. These studies demonstrated that native Ala336Pro alpha-1 antitrypsin could populate the polymerogenic intermediate—and therefore polymerize—more readily than either wild-type alpha-1 antitrypsin or the Z variant. In contrast, folding was far less impaired in Ala336Pro alpha-1 antitrypsin than in the Z variant. The data are consistent with a disparate contribution by the “breach” region and “shutter” region of strand 5A to folding and polymerization mechanisms. Moreover, the findings demonstrate that, in these variants, folding efficiency does not correlate directly with the tendency to polymerize in vitro or in vivo. They therefore differentiate generalized misfolding from polymerization tendencies in missense variants of alpha-1 antitrypsin. Clinically, they further support the need to quantify loss-of-function in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency to individualize patient care. PMID:26091018

  19. Hereditary fructose intolerance and alpha(1) antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hillebrand, G; Schneppenheim, R; Oldigs, H D; Santer, R

    2000-07-01

    A patient with coexisting hereditary fructose intolerance (HFI) and alpha(1) antitrypsin deficiency (alpha(1)ATD) is described. Protease inhibitor typing was not conclusive, presumably because of impaired N-glycosylation secondary to HFI. The case underlines the diagnostic role of molecular genetic techniques in inborn errors of metabolism.

  20. Neutrophil Fates in Bronchiectasis and Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Russell, Derek W; Gaggar, Amit; Solomon, George M

    2016-04-01

    The neutrophil is a powerful cellular defender of the vulnerable interface between the environment and pulmonary tissues. This cell's potent weapons are carefully calibrated in the healthy state to maximize effectiveness in fighting pathogens while minimizing tissue damage and allowing for repair of what damage does occur. The three related chronic airway disorders of cystic fibrosis, non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis, and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency all demonstrate significant derangements of this homeostatic system that result in their respective pathologies. An important shared feature among them is the inefficient resolution of chronic inflammation that serves as a central means for neutrophil-driven lung damage resulting in disease progression. Examining the commonalities and divergences between these diseases in the light of their immunopathology is informative and may help guide us toward future therapeutics designed to modulate the neutrophil's interplay with the pulmonary environment.

  1. Purification of alpha-1-antitrypsin monomer by preparative electrophoresis.

    PubMed Central

    Spada, F; Candiano, G; Sergi, C; Ghiggeri, G M; Callea, F; Gusmano, R

    1994-01-01

    Alfa-1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) was purified by pseudoligand chromatography and preparative electrophoresis from the serum of a patient with alpha 1AT deficiency. The combination of the two techniques yielded a high grade batch of alpha 1AT monomer and this was successfully used to purify the protein from the serum of PiMIM1, PiMIM2, and PiZZ phenotype subjects. This procedure should facilitate structural studies of alpha 1AT variants susceptible to intracellular accumulation. Images PMID:8089226

  2. Deficiency of a alpha-1-antitrypsin influences systemic iron homeostasis

    EPA Science Inventory

    Abstract Background: There is evidence that proteases and anti-proteases participate in the iron homeostasis of cells and living systems. We tested the postulate that alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) polymorphism and the consequent deficiency of this anti-protease in humans are asso...

  3. Alpha 1-antitrypsin Null(isola di procida): an alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency allele caused by deletion of all alpha 1-antitrypsin coding exons.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, H; Crystal, R G

    1990-01-01

    alpha 1-Antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) deficiency, a common hereditary disorder responsible for emphysema in Caucasians of northern European descent, is caused by single base substitutions, deletions, or additions in the seven exons (IA-IC and II-V), of the 12.2-kb alpha 1AT gene located on chromosome 14 at q31-32.3. Of the five known representatives of the "null" group of alpha 1AT-deficiency alleles (alpha 1AT genes incapable of producing alpha 1AT protein detectable in serum) evaluated at the gene level, all result from mutations causing the formation of stop codons in coding exons of the alpha 1AT gene. The present study identifies an alpha 1AT allele (referred to as "Null(isola di procida")) caused by complete deletion of the alpha 1AT coding exons. The Null(isola di procida) allele was identified in an individual with heterozygous inheritance of M(procida) (an allele associated with alpha 1AT deficiency) and a null allele. Although results of karyotypic analysis were normal, quantification of the copies of alpha 1AT genes in this individual revealed that the index case had only half the normal copies of alpha 1AT genes. Cloning and mapping of the Null(isola di procida) gene demonstrated a deletion of a 17-kb fragment that included exons II-V of the alpha 1AT structural gene. As a consequence of the deletion, the normal noncoding exons (IA-IC) were followed by exons II-V of the downstream alpha 1AT-like gene. Sequence analysis of the deletion demonstrated a 7-bp repeat sequence (GAGGACA) both 5' to the deletion and at the 3' end of the deletion, a 4-bp palindromic sequence (ACAG vs. CTGT) bracketing the deletion, and a novel inserted 4-bp sequence (CCTG) at the breakpoint, suggesting that the mechanism of the deletion may have been "slipped mispairing." Images Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1975477

  4. Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency and infantile liver disease.

    PubMed Central

    McPhie, J L; Binnie, S; Brunt, P W

    1976-01-01

    Infantile liver disease with deficiency of serum alpha1-antitrypsin is illustrated by a description of the clinical, biochemical, and pathological findings in two affected families. The simplicity of the diagnostic tests is emphasized. Review of 61 biopsies of liver from children and adolescents provided a further 3 cases. It is prudent to exclude this metabolic defect in children with a history of "neonatal hepatitis". Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:1085610

  5. Structural heterogeneity of faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin shown by immunoblot analysis in patients with Crohn's disease.

    PubMed Central

    Boege, F; Fischbach, W

    1991-01-01

    Faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin was determined in 34 patients with Crohn's disease and in 19 healthy subjects by immune nephelometry. A structural analysis of faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin was carried out using immunoblot analysis under non-reducing conditions. Native serum alpha 1 antitrypsin migrated with an apparent molecular weight of 45 kDa. Proteolytic alpha 1 antitrypsin fragments (5-42 kDa) were specifically immunostained in 13/19 and 22/34 stool samples from control subjects and from patients with Crohn's disease respectively. There was a weak correlation (r = 0.47; p less than 0.02) between the molecular weight of fragmented alpha 1 antitrypsin and the faecal concentration in both groups, indicating that alpha 1 antitrypsin inhibits its own proteolysis by intestinal proteases in a dose dependent way. The incidence of polymeric forms (greater than 45 kDa) was similar in patients (10/34) and control subjects (5/19). In only one case in each group was the native serum form of alpha 1 antitrypsin found in faeces. We conclude that faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin differs structurally from the native serum form. Immunochemical measurements, therefore, reflect rather than represent faecal concentrations of alpha 1 antitrypsin. The controversial results in published reports may be partly explained by these findings. The molecular heterogeneity of faecal alpha 1 antitrypsin is not specifically associated with Crohn's disease. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:2040471

  6. Molecular basis of alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency and emphysema associated with the alpha 1-antitrypsin Mmineral springs allele.

    PubMed Central

    Curiel, D T; Vogelmeier, C; Hubbard, R C; Stier, L E; Crystal, R G

    1990-01-01

    The Mmineral springs alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) allele, causing alpha 1AT deficiency and emphysema, is unique among the alpha 1AT-deficiency alleles in that it was observed in a black family, whereas most mutations causing alpha 1AT deficiency are confined to Caucasian populations of European descent. Immobilized pH gradient analysis of serum demonstrated that alpha 1AT Mmineral springs migrated cathodal to the normal M2 allele. Evaluation of Mmineral springs alpha 1AT as an inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, its natural substrate, demonstrated markedly lower than normal function. Characterization of the alpha 1AT Mmineral springs gene demonstrated that it differed from the common normal M1(Ala213) allele by a single-base substitution causing the amino acid substitution Gly-67 (GGG)----Glu-67 (GAG). Capitalizing on the fact that this mutation creates a polymorphism for the restriction endonuclease AvaII, family analysis demonstrated that the Mmineral springs alpha 1AT allele was transmitted in an autosomal-codominant fashion. Evaluation of genomic DNA showed that the index case was homozygous for the alpha 1AT Mmineral springs allele. Cytoplasmic blot analysis of blood monocytes of the Mmineral springs homozygote demonstrated levels of alpha 1AT mRNA transcripts comparable to those in cells of a normal M1 (Val213) homozygote control. Evaluation of in vitro translation of Mmineral springs alpha 1AT mRNA transcripts demonstrated a normal capacity to direct the translation of alpha 1AT. Evaluation of secretion of alpha 1AT by the blood monocytes by pulse-chase labeling with [35S]methionine, however, demonstrated less secretion by the Mmineral springs cells than normal cells. To characterize the posttranslational events causing the alpha 1AT-secretory defect associated with the alpha 1AT Mmineral springs gene, retroviral gene transfer was used to establish polyclonal populations of murine fibroblasts containing either a normal human M1 alpha 1AT cDNA or an Mmineral

  7. Secretion of alpha 1-antitrypsin by alveolar epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Venembre, P; Boutten, A; Seta, N; Dehoux, M S; Crestani, B; Aubier, M; Durand, G

    1994-06-13

    We have investigated the ability of alveolar epithelial cells (human A549 cell line and rat type-II pneumocytes) to produce alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT). Northern blot analysis demonstrated the presence of an AAT-specific mRNA transcript in A549 cells. Unstimulated A549 cells secreted immunoreactive AAT at a rate of 0.51 +/- 0.04 ng/10(6) cells/h, with a modified glycosylation compared to serum AAT. AAT formed a complex with neutrophil elastase. Rat type-II pneumocytes secreted immunoreactive AAT. Our results suggest that alveolar epithelial cells could participate in antiprotease defense within the lung through local AAT production.

  8. Novel therapeutic uses of alpha-1 antitrypsin: a window to the future.

    PubMed

    Wanner, Adam; Arce, Adriana De; Pardee, Erin

    2012-12-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin, a potent serine protease inhibitor, has been used as augmentation therapy in patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency for many years. Recent research into the diverse anti-inflammatory, immune-modulatory and tissue-protective actions of alpha-1 antitrypsin has raised the possibility of broadening the therapeutic spectrum of alpha-1 antitrypsin to include diseases other than alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. The purpose of the workshop was to summarize the results of basic investigations and, if available, clinical studies in which the effects of alpha-1 antitrypsin were explored in relation to clinical conditions that are not associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Included among these are type 1 diabetes, cell/organ rejection, viral infection, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis/COPD, heart failure, Crohn's disease and connective tissue diseases. Although the therapeutic utility of alpha-1 antitrypsin in these conditions remains to be established, the existing data suggest that this protein eventually will become a treatment option in several diseases some of which are not rare. At present, only human plasma-derived alpha-1 antitrypsin is available for clinical use. Given the limited supply and the potential for extended use of this product, there will be a need for new formulations of alpha-1 antitrypsin in the future. Therefore, the prospect of finding new sources and airway delivery methods of alpha-1 antitrypsin were also discussed. The presentations at the meeting addressed the scientific basis for new clinical applications of alpha-1 antitrypsin and the regulatory requirements needed to bring this therapeutic protein to a wider range of patient populations.

  9. Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1997-01-01

    alpha 1-Antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, also known as alpha 1-antiprotease inhibitor deficiency, is a disease caused by genetically determined AAT deficiency. It occurs as a result of inheritance of two protease inhibitor (PI) deficiency alleles from the AAT gene locus (designated PI) on chromosomal segment 14q32.1. The most common deficiency allele is PI*Z and a large majority of individuals with severe AAT deficiency are PI type ZZ. The disease occurs predominantly in white persons of European origin and its frequency in Europe and North America is comparable to that of cystic fibrosis (1 in 2000 to 1 in 7000.) Persons with AAT deficiency may have no clinical manifestations. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with a high frequency of panacinar emphysema is the most prevalent clinical disorder associated with AAT deficiency and the most frequent cause of disability and death. Tobacco smoking is the major risk factor for developing COPD, which generally begins by the third decade of life, much earlier than "usual" COPD that occurs in AAT-replete individuals. Liver disease, the second most frequent clinical manifestation of AAT deficiency, typically presents as cholestasis in infancy but is usually not severe and generally remits by adolescence. Chronic liver disease develops infrequently, although AAT deficiency is the commonest cause of chronic liver disease in childhood. Cirrhosis and carcinoma of the liver affect at least 25% of AAT-deficient adults over the age of 50 years. AAT deficiency appears to be widely underdiagnosed and based on predicted gene frequencies even in the most intensely studied populations, only a small proportion of those predicted to have AAT deficiency have been diagnosed. Human AAT is available in limited quantity for augmentation therapy. This Memorandum summarizes the discussions and recommendations made by participants at a WHO meeting held in Geneva on 18-20 March 1996 to review existing knowledge about this highly prevalent

  10. Alpha1-antitrypsin inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hanhua; Campbell, Steven C; Nelius, Thomas; Bedford, Dhugal F; Veliceasa, Dorina; Bouck, Noel P; Volpert, Olga V

    2004-12-20

    Disturbances of the ratio between angiogenic inducers and inhibitors in tumor microenvironment are the driving force behind angiogenic switch critical for tumor progression. Angiogenic inhibitors may vary depending on organismal age and the tissue of origin. We showed that alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT), a serine protease inhibitor (serpin) is an inhibitor of angiogenesis, which induced apoptosis and inhibited chemotaxis of endothelial cells. S- and Z-type mutations that cause abnormal folding and defective serpin activity abrogated AAT antiangiogenic activity. Removal of the C-terminal reactive site loop had no effect on its angiostatic activity. Both native AAT and AAT truncated on C-terminus (AATDelta) inhibited neovascularization in the rat cornea and delayed the growth of subcutaneous tumors in mice. Treatment with native AAT and truncated AATDelta, but not control vehicle reduced tumor microvessel density, while increasing apoptosis within tumor endothelium. Comparative analysis of the human tumors and normal tissues of origin showed correlation between reduced local alpha(1)-antitrypsin expression and more aggressive tumor growth.

  11. Challenges and Prospects for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Gene Therapy.

    PubMed

    Wozniak, Joanna; Wandtke, Tomasz; Kopinski, Piotr; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a protease inhibitor belonging to the serpin family. A number of identified mutations in the SERPINA1 gene encoding this protein result in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD). A decrease in AAT serum concentration or reduced biological activity causes considerable risk of chronic respiratory and liver disorders. As a monogenic disease, AATD appears to be an attractive target for gene therapy, particularly for patients with pulmonary dysfunction, where augmentation of functional AAT levels in plasma might slow down respiratory disease development. The short AAT coding sequence and its activity in the extracellular matrix would enable an increase in systemic serum AAT production by cellular secretion. In vitro and in vivo experimental AAT gene transfer with gamma-retroviral, lentiviral, adenoviral, and adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors has resulted in enhanced AAT serum levels and a promising safety profile. Human clinical trials using intramuscular viral transfer with AAV1 and AAV2 vectors of the AAT gene demonstrated its safety, but did not achieve a protective level of AAT >11 μM in serum. This review provides an in-depth critical analysis of current progress in AATD gene therapy based on viral gene transfer. The factors affecting transgene expression levels, such as site of administration, dose and type of vector, and activity of the immune system, are discussed further as crucial variables for optimizing the clinical effectiveness of gene therapy in AATD subjects.

  12. Safety and efficacy of alpha-1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy in the treatment of patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Petrache, Irina; Hajjar, Joud; Campos, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), also known as alpha1-proteinase inhibitor deficiency, is an autosomal co-dominant condition. The genotypes associated with AATD include null, deficient, and dysfunctional alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) variants, which result in low levels of circulating functional A1AT, unbalanced protease activity, and an increased risk of developing lung emphysema, the leading cause of morbidity in these patients. Furthermore, the most common abnormal genotype, Pi*ZZ may also cause trapping of abnormally folded protein polymers in hepatocytes causing liver dysfunction. A major focus of therapy for patients with lung disease due to AATD is to correct the A1AT deficiency state by augmenting serum levels with intravenous infusions of human plasma-derived A1AT. This strategy has been associated with effective elevations of A1AT levels and function in serum and lung epithelial fluid and observational studies suggest that it may lead to attenuation in lung function decline, particularly in patients with moderate impairment of lung function. In addition, an observational study suggests that augmentation therapy is associated with a reduction of mortality in subjects with AATD and moderate to severe lung impairment. More recent randomized placebo-controlled studies utilizing computer scan densitometry suggest that this therapy attenuates lung tissue loss. Augmentation therapy has a relative paucity of side effects, but it is highly expensive. Therefore, this therapy is recommended for patients with AATD who have a high-risk A1AT genotype with plasma A1AT below protective levels (11 μM) and evidence of obstructive lung disease. In this article, we review the published evidence of A1AT augmentation therapy efficacy, side effects, and safety profile. PMID:19707408

  13. Alpha 1-antitrypsin activity is markedly decreased in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed

    Mota, Ali; Sahebghadam Lotfi, Abbas; Jamshidi, Ahmad-Reza; Najavand, Saeed

    2014-04-01

    Alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is the most abundant proteinase inhibitor in plasma and the main inhibitor of Proteinase 3, the target antigen of antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) that predominant in Wegeners' granulomatosis. Α1AT deficiency correlated with ANCA-associated vasculitis. This study explores the trypsin inhibitory capacity (TIC), specific activity, and phenotypic deficiency of Α1AT in Wegener's granulomatosis. Twenty-seven WG patients were studied. ANCA was tested by IIF and ELISA. Serum a1-anti-trypsin levels were quantified in WG patients and healthy controls by immunoturbidimetric assay. Serum TIC was assessed by the enzymatic colorimetric assay. Phenotypes of A1AT were detected by Isoelectric Focusing. A1AT concentration was equivalent in patients and controls; however, serum TIC (P = 0.001) and specific activity of A1AT (P = 0.001) were dramatically lower in WG patients. Five patients had deficient phenotypes of A1AT: MZ (n = 3), MS (n = 1) and SS (n = 1). This was correlated with an increase in the prevalence of deficient phenotypes of A1AT in WG (P = 0.01). Trypsin inhibitory capacity and specific activity of A1AT were decreased in WG patients and may be involve in disease pathogenesis and can worsen the clinical manifestations. This A1AT deficiency probably resulted from oxidative inactivation and/or enzymatic degradation of A1AT. This could result in localized deficiency of A1AT in vessel wall interfaces and lead to severe disease.

  14. The national alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency registry in Poland.

    PubMed

    Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Struniawski, Radoslaw; Sliwinski, Paweł; Wajda, Beata; Czajkowska-Malinowska, Małgorzata

    2015-05-01

    The alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) targeted screening program, together with the National Registry, were established in Poland in 2010 soon after the AATD diagnostics became available. Between 2010 and 2014 a total of 2525 samples were collected from respiratory patients countrywide; 55 patients with severe AAT deficiency or rare mutations were identified and registered, including 36 PiZZ subjects (65%). The majority of AATD patients were diagnosed with COPD (40%) or emphysema (7%), but also with bronchial asthma (16%) and bronchiectasis (13%). Therefore, the registry has proved instrumental in setting-up the AATD-dedicated network of respiratory medical centres in Poland. Since augmentation therapy is not reimbursed in our country, the smoking cessation guidance, optimal pharmacotherapy of respiratory symptoms as well the early detection, and effective treatment of exacerbations is absolutely essential.

  15. Immune-modulating effects of alpha-1 antitrypsin.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, Mario R

    2014-10-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a circulating serine protease inhibitor (serpin) that inhibits neutrophil elastase in the lung, and AAT deficiency is associated with early-onset emphysema. AAT is also a liver-derived acute-phase protein that, in vitro and in vivo, reduces production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, inhibits apoptosis, blocks leukocyte degranulation and migration, and modulates local and systemic inflammatory responses. In monocytes, AAT has been shown to increase intracellular cAMP, regulate expression of CD14, and suppress NFκB nuclear translocation. These effects may be mediated by AAT's serpin activity or by other protein-binding activities. In preclinical models of autoimmunity and transplantation, AAT therapy prevents or reverses autoimmune disease and graft loss, and these effects are accompanied by tolerogenic changes in cytokine and transcriptional profiles and T cell subsets. This review highlights advances in our understanding of the immune-modulating effects of AAT and their potential therapeutic utility.

  16. Gene Therapy for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Lung Disease.

    PubMed

    Chiuchiolo, Maria J; Crystal, Ronald G

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, characterized by low plasma levels of the serine protease inhibitor AAT, is associated with emphysema secondary to insufficient protection of the lung from neutrophil proteases. Although AAT augmentation therapy with purified AAT protein is efficacious, it requires weekly to monthly intravenous infusion of AAT purified from pooled human plasma, has the risk of viral contamination and allergic reactions, and is costly. As an alternative, gene therapy offers the advantage of single administration, eliminating the burden of protein infusion, and reduced risks and costs. The focus of this review is to describe the various strategies for AAT gene therapy for the pulmonary manifestations of AAT deficiency and the state of the art in bringing AAT gene therapy to the bedside.

  17. An ECLIPSE View of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Lomas, David A

    2016-08-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a multicomponent condition that is estimated to become the third leading cause of death in 2020. The ECLIPSE (Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate Endpoints) study, funded by GlaxoSmithKline, is an observational study designed to define outcomes that can be used as endpoints in clinical trials in individuals with COPD. It allowed us to describe the heterogeneity of COPD, the stability of the exacerbation phenotype, and the factors associated with a progressive decline in lung function and the progression of emphysema on computed tomography scans. The cohort was also used to define genetic factors and biomarkers associated with COPD and disease progression. This review considers how the results from ECLIPSE can inform our understanding of the lung disease associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

  18. Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency in Serbian Adults with Lung Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Stankovic, Marija; Divac-Rankov, Aleksandra; Petrovic-Stanojevic, Natasa; Mitic-Milikic, Marija; Nagorni-Obradovic, Ljudmila; Radojkovic, Dragica

    2012-01-01

    Aim: Alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is the main inhibitor of neutrophil elastase, and severe alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is a genetic risk factor for early-onset emphysema. Despite the relatively high prevalence of A1ATD, this condition is frequently underdiagnosed. Our aim was to determine the distribution of the A1ATD phenotypes/alleles in patients with lung diseases as well as in the Serbian population. Methods: The study included the adults with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n=348), asthma (n=71), and bronchiectasis (n=35); the control was 1435 healthy blood donors. The A1ATD variants were identified by isoelectric focusing or polymerase chain reaction-mediated site-directed mutagenesis. Results: PiMZ heterozygotes, PiZZ homozygotes, and Z allele carriers are associated with significantly higher risk of developing COPD than healthy individuals (odds ratios 3.43, 42.42, and 5.49 respectively). The calculated prevalence of PiZZ, PiMZ, and PiSZ was higher in patients with COPD (1:202, 1:8, and 1:1243) than in the Serbian population (1:5519, 1:38, and 1:5519). Conclusion: The high prevalence of A1ATD phenotypes/allele in our population has confirmed the necessity of screening for A1ATD in patients with COPD. On the other hand, on the basis of the estimated number of those with A1ATD among the COPD patients, it is possible to assess the diagnostic efficiency of A1ATD in the Serbian population. PMID:22971141

  19. Alpha1-antitrypsin protects beta-cells from apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Lu, Yuanqing; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Spencer, Terry; Wasserfall, Clive; Atkinson, Mark; Song, Sihong

    2007-05-01

    Beta-cell apoptosis appears to represent a key event in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes. Previous studies have demonstrated that administration of the serine proteinase inhibitor alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) prevents type 1 diabetes development in NOD mice and prolongs islet allograft survival in rodents; yet the mechanisms underlying this therapeutic benefit remain largely unclear. Herein we describe novel findings indicating that AAT significantly reduces cytokine- and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced beta-cell apoptosis. Specifically, strong antiapoptotic activities for AAT (Prolastin, human) were observed when murine insulinoma cells (MIN6) were exposed to tumor necrosis factor-alpha. In a second model system involving STZ-induced beta-cell apoptosis, treatment of MIN6 cells with AAT similarly induced a significant increase in cellular viability and a reduction in apoptosis. Importantly, in both model systems, treatment with AAT completely abolished induced caspase-3 activity. In terms of its activities in vivo, treatment of C57BL/6 mice with AAT prevented STZ-induced diabetes and, in agreement with the in vitro analyses, supported the concept of a mechanism involving the disruption of beta-cell apoptosis. These results propose a novel biological function for this molecule and suggest it may represent an effective candidate for attempts seeking to prevent or reverse type 1 diabetes.

  20. Alpha 1 Antitrypsin Deficiency in Infants with Neonatal Cholestasis

    PubMed Central

    Monajemzadeh, Maryam; Shahsiah, Reza; Vasei, Mohammad; Tanzifi, Parin; Rezaei, Nima; Najafi, Mehri; Soleimanifar, Narjes; Eghbali, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Objective Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) is the most important indication for liver transplantation in children. The gene frequencies vary in different ethnic groups. In the present study, we attempt to determine the frequencies of the most common defective alleles, Z and S, in Iranian children suffering from idiopathic neonatal cholestasis. Eighty-seven infants were typed for Z and S alleles. Methods In a single center study, 87 consecutive liver biopsies from infants with cholestasis were reviewed and patients with neonatal cholestasis enrolled in the study and cases with confirmed biliary tract atresia excluded. Formalin fixed paraffin embedded blocks were used for DNA extraction. AAT genotype was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and amplification of the two most common deficiency variants, S and Z alleles, and then sequencing of PCR products. Findings There were 48 (55.2%) males and 39 (44.8%) females, with a median age of 60 days. Out of 87 of the study subject, 2 (2.2%) were heterozygous for the S allele, and no ZZ, SS or MZ individual was found in the patients. No other polymorphism was found in the sequencing results. Conclusion In comparison to other populations, AAT deficiency seems not to be an important etiologic factor for neonatal cholestatic liver disease in Iran; however, further studies are recommended to estimate the true mutant gene frequencies. PMID:24800007

  1. Active Trafficking of Alpha 1 Antitrypsin across the Lung Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Lockett, Angelia D.; Brown, Mary Beth; Santos-Falcon, Nieves; Rush, Natalia I.; Oueini, Houssam; Oberle, Amber J.; Bolanis, Esther; Fragoso, Miryam A.; Petrusca, Daniela N.; Serban, Karina A.; Schweitzer, Kelly S.; Presson Jr., Robert G.

    2014-01-01

    The homeostatic lung protective effects of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) may require the transport of circulating proteinase inhibitor across an intact lung endothelial barrier. We hypothesized that uninjured pulmonary endothelial cells transport A1AT to lung epithelial cells. Purified human A1AT was rapidly taken up by confluent primary rat pulmonary endothelial cell monolayers, was secreted extracellularly, both apically and basolaterally, and was taken up by adjacent rat lung epithelial cells co-cultured on polarized transwells. Similarly, polarized primary human lung epithelial cells took up basolaterally-, but not apically-supplied A1AT, followed by apical secretion. Evidence of A1AT transcytosis across lung microcirculation was confirmed in vivo by two-photon intravital microscopy in mice. Time-lapse confocal microscopy indicated that A1AT co-localized with Golgi in the endothelium whilst inhibition of the classical secretory pathway with tunicamycin significantly increased intracellular retention of A1AT. However, inhibition of Golgi secretion promoted non-classical A1AT secretion, associated with microparticle release. Polymerized A1AT or A1AT supplied to endothelial cells exposed to soluble cigarette smoke extract had decreased transcytosis. These results suggest previously unappreciated pathways of A1AT bidirectional uptake and secretion from lung endothelial cells towards the alveolar epithelium and airspaces. A1AT trafficking may determine its functional bioavailablity in the lung, which could be impaired in individuals exposed to smoking or in those with A1AT deficiency. PMID:24743137

  2. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency - what are the treatment options?

    PubMed

    Modrykamien, Ariel; Stoller, James K

    2009-11-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an under-recognized genetic condition that predisposes to liver disease and early-onset emphysema. Although AAT is mainly produced in the liver, its main function is to protect the lung against proteolytic damage from neutrophil elastase. The most common mutation responsible for severe AAT deficiency, the so-called Z variant, reduces serum levels by promoting polymerization of the molecule within the hepatocyte, thereby reducing secretion. Serum levels below the putative protective threshold level of 11 micromolar (mumol/L) increase the risk of emphysema. In addition to the usual treatments for emphysema, infusion of purified AAT from pooled human plasma represents a specific therapy for AAT deficiency and raises serum and epithelial lining fluid levels above the protective threshold. Substantial evidence supports the biochemical efficacy of this approach, particularly for the weekly infusion regimen. Definitive evidence of clinical efficacy is still needed, as the two available randomized controlled trials showed non-significant trends towards slowing rates of loss of lung density on lung computerized axial tomography. However, concordant results of prospective cohort studies suggest that augmentation therapy has efficacy in slowing the rate of decline of lung function in patients with moderate airflow obstruction and severe deficiency of AAT. Overall, augmentation therapy is well-tolerated and, despite its failure to satisfy criteria for cost-effectiveness, is recommended because it is the only currently available specific therapy for AAT deficiency.

  3. Role of alpha-1 antitrypsin in human health and disease.

    PubMed

    de Serres, F; Blanco, I

    2014-10-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is an under-recognized hereditary disorder associated with the premature onset of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, liver cirrhosis in children and adults, and less frequently, relapsing panniculitis, systemic vasculitis and other inflammatory, autoimmune and neoplastic diseases. Severe AAT deficiency mainly affects Caucasian individuals and has its highest prevalence (1 : 2000-1 : 5000 individuals) in Northern, Western and Central Europe. In the USA and Canada, the prevalence is 1: 5000-10 000. Prevalence is five times lower in Latin American countries and is rare or nonexistent in African and Asian individuals. The key to successful diagnosis is by measuring serum AAT, followed by the determination of the phenotype or genotype if low concentrations are found. Case detection allows implementation of genetic counselling and, in selected cases, the application of augmentation therapy. Over the past decade, it has been demonstrated that AAT is a broad-spectrum anti-inflammatory, immunomodulatory, anti-infective and tissue-repair molecule. These new capacities are promoting an increasing number of clinical studies, new pharmacological formulations, new patent applications and the search for alternative sources of AAT (including transgenic and recombinant AAT) to meet the expected demand for treating a large number of diseases, inside and outside the context of AAT deficiency.

  4. Alpha1-antitrypsin monotherapy prolongs islet allograft survival in mice.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Eli C; Shapiro, Leland; Bowers, Owen J; Dinarello, Charles A

    2005-08-23

    Islet transplantation for type 1 diabetic patients shows promising results with the use of nondiabetogenic immunosuppressive therapy. However, in addition to compromising the immune system of transplant recipients, long-term studies demonstrate that islet viability is impaired. Here, we demonstrate that, in the absence of immunosuppressive agents, monotherapy with clinical-grade human alpha1-antitrypsin (hAAT), the major serum serine-protease inhibitor, prolongs islet graft survival and normoglycemia in transplanted allogeneic diabetic mice, lasting until the development of anti-hAAT antibodies. Compared to untreated or albumin-control-treated graft recipients, which rejected islets at day 10, AAT-treated mice displayed diminished cellular infiltrates and intact intragraft insulin production throughout treatment. Using peritoneal infiltration models, we demonstrate that AAT decreases allogeneic fibroblast-elicited natural-killer-cell influx by 89%, CD3-positive cell influx by 44%, and thioglycolate-elicited neutrophil emigration by 66%. ATT also extended islet viability in mice after streptozotocin-induced beta cell toxicity. In vitro, several islet responses to IL-1beta/IFNgamma stimulation were examined. In the presence of AAT, islets displayed enhanced viability and inducible insulin secretion. Islets also released 36% less nitric oxide and 82% less macrophage inflammatory protein 1 alpha and expressed 63% fewer surface MHC class II molecules. TNFalpha release from IL-1beta/IFNgamma-stimulated islet cells was reduced by 99%, accompanied by an 8-fold increase in the accumulation of membrane TNFalpha on CD45-positive islet cells. In light of the established safety record and the nondiabetogenic potential of AAT, these data suggest that AAT may be beneficial as adjunctive therapy in patients undergoing islet transplantation.

  5. The prevalence of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in Ireland

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) results from mutations in the SERPINA1 gene and classically presents with early-onset emphysema and liver disease. The most common mutation presenting with clinical evidence is the Z mutation, while the S mutation is associated with a milder plasma deficiency. AATD is an under-diagnosed condition and the World Health Organisation recommends targeted detection programmes for AATD in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), non-responsive asthma, cryptogenic liver disease and first degree relatives of known AATD patients. Methods We present data from the first 3,000 individuals screened following ATS/ERS guidelines as part of the Irish National Targeted Detection Programme (INTDP). We also investigated a DNA collection of 1,100 individuals randomly sampled from the general population. Serum and DNA was collected from both groups and mutations in the SERPINA1 gene detected by phenotyping or genotyping. Results The Irish National Targeted Detection Programme identified 42 ZZ, 44 SZ, 14 SS, 430 MZ, 263 MS, 20 IX and 2 rare mutations. Analysis of 1,100 randomly selected individuals identified 113 MS, 46 MZ, 2 SS and 2 SZ genotypes. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that AATD in Ireland is more prevalent than previously estimated with Z and S allele frequencies among the highest in the world. Furthermore, our targeted detection programme enriched the population of those carrying the Z but not the S allele, suggesting the Z allele is more important in the pathogenesis of those conditions targeted by the detection programme. PMID:21752289

  6. Rationale and Design of the Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis Study. Alpha-1 Protocol.

    PubMed

    Strange, Charlie; Senior, Robert M; Sciurba, Frank; O'Neal, Scott; Morris, Alison; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Bowler, Russell; Hochheiser, Harry S; Becich, Michael J; Zhang, Yingze; Leader, Joseph K; Methé, Barbara A; Kaminski, Naftali; Sandhaus, Robert A

    2015-10-01

    Severe deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin has a highly variable clinical presentation. The Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis α1 Study is a prospective, multicenter, cross-sectional study of adults older than age 35 years with PiZZ or PiMZ alpha-1 antitrypsin genotypes. It is designed to better understand if microbial factors influence this heterogeneity. Clinical symptoms, pulmonary function testing, computed chest tomography, exercise capacity, and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) will be used to define chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) phenotypes that can be studied with an integrated systems biology approach that includes plasma proteomics; mouth, BAL, and stool microbiome and virome analysis; and blood microRNA and blood mononuclear cell RNA and DNA profiling. We will rely on global genome, transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome datasets. Matched cohorts of PiZZ participants on or off alpha-1 antitrypsin augmentation therapy, PiMZ participants not on augmentation therapy, and control participants from the Subpopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study who match on FEV1 and age will be compared. In the primary analysis, we will determine if the PiZZ individuals on augmentation therapy have a difference in lower respiratory tract microbes identified compared with matched PiZZ individuals who are not on augmentation therapy. By characterizing the microbiome in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), we hope to define new phenotypes of COPD that explain some of the diversity of clinical presentations. As a unique genetic cause of COPD, AATD may inform typical COPD pathogenesis, and better understanding of it may illuminate the complex interplay between environment and genetics. Although the biologic approaches are hypothesis generating, the results may lead to development of novel biomarkers, better understanding of COPD phenotypes, and development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic trials in AATD and COPD

  7. Production of glycosylated physiologically "normal" human alpha 1-antitrypsin by mouse fibroblasts modified by insertion of a human alpha 1-antitrypsin cDNA using a retroviral vector.

    PubMed Central

    Garver, R I; Chytil, A; Karlsson, S; Fells, G A; Brantly, M L; Courtney, M; Kantoff, P W; Nienhuis, A W; Anderson, W F; Crystal, R G

    1987-01-01

    Alpha 1-Antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder characterized by reduced serum levels of alpha 1AT, resulting in destruction of the lower respiratory tract by neutrophil elastase. As an approach to augment alpha 1AT levels in this disorder with physiologically normal human alpha 1AT, we have integrated a full-length normal human alpha 1AT cDNA into the genome of mouse fibroblasts. To accomplish this, the retroviral vector N2 was modified by inserting the simian virus 40 early promoter followed by the alpha 1AT cDNA. Southern analysis demonstrated that the intact cDNA was present in the genome of selected clones of the transfected murine fibroblasts psi 2 and infected NIH 3T3. The clones produced three mRNA transcripts (5.8, 4.8, and 2.4 kilobases) containing human alpha 1AT sequences, secreted an alpha 1AT molecule recognized by an anti-human alpha 1AT antibody, with the same molecular mass (52 kDa) as normal human alpha 1AT and that complexed with and inhibited human neutrophil elastase. The psi 2 produced alpha 1AT was glycosylated, and when infused intravenously into mice, it had a serum half-life similar to normal alpha 1AT purified from human plasma and markedly longer than that of nonglycosylated human alpha 1AT cDNA-directed yeast-produced alpha 1AT. These studies demonstrate the feasibility of using a retroviral vector to insert the normal human alpha 1AT cDNA into non-alpha 1AT-producing cells, resulting in the synthesis and secretion of physiologically "normal" human alpha 1AT. Images PMID:3029759

  8. Alpha 1-Antitrypsin Therapy Mitigated Ischemic Stroke Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moldthan, Huong L.; Hirko, Aaron C.; Thinschmidt, Jeffrey S.; Grant, Maria; Li, Zhimin; Peris, Joanna; Lu, Yuanqing; Elshikha, Ahmed; King, Michael A.; Hughes, Jeffrey A.; Song, Sihong

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the only effective therapy for acute ischemic stroke is the thrombolytic agent recombinant tissue plasminogen activator. α1-Antitrypsin, an endogenous inhibitor of serine proteinases and a primary acute phase protein with potent anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, antimicrobial and cytoprotective activities, could be beneficial in stroke.. The goal of this study was to test whether α1-antitrypsin could improve ischemic stroke outcome in an established rat model. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was induced in male rats via intracranial microinjection of endothelin-1. Five to ten minutes following stroke induction rats received either intracranial or intravenous delivery of human α1-antitrypsin. Cylinder and vibrissae tests were used to evaluate sensorimotor function before and 72 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Infarct volumes were examined via either 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride assay or magnetic resonance imaging 72 hours after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Despite equivalent initial strokes, at 72 hours the infarct volumes of the human α1-antitrypsin treatment groups (local and systemic injection) were statistically significantly reduced by 83% and 63% (p<0.0001 and p < 0.05 respectively) compared with control rats. Human α1-antitrypsin significantly limited sensory motor systems deficits. Human α1-antitrypsin could be a potential novel therapeutic drug for the protection against neurodegeneration following ischemic stroke, but more studies are needed to investigate the protective mechanisms and efficacy in other animal models. PMID:24582784

  9. Alpha-1 antitrypsin reduces ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha-1antitrypsin (AAT) is a multifunctional protein with proteinase inhibitor and anti-inflammatory activities. Recent studies showed that AAT has therapeutic effect for diseases associated with inflammation, such as type 1 diabetes and arthritis. Proinflammatory cytokines are primary mediators of...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5130 - Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system. 866.5130 Section 866.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  11. 21 CFR 866.5130 - Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-1-antitrypsin immunological test system. 866.5130 Section 866.5130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  12. Molecular characterization of the new defective P(brescia) alpha1-antitrypsin allele.

    PubMed

    Medicina, Daniela; Montani, Nadia; Fra, Anna M; Tiberio, Laura; Corda, Luciano; Miranda, Elena; Pezzini, Alessandro; Bonetti, Fausta; Ingrassia, Rosaria; Scabini, Roberta; Facchetti, Fabio; Schiaffonati, Luisa

    2009-08-01

    Alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha(1)AT) deficiency is a hereditary disorder associated with reduced alpha(1)AT serum level, predisposing adults to pulmonary emphysema. Among the known mutations of the alpha(1)AT gene (SERPINA1) causing alpha(1)AT deficiency, a few alleles, particularly the Z allele, may also predispose adults to liver disease. We have characterized a new defective alpha(1)AT allele (c.745G>C) coding for a mutant alpha(1)AT (Gly225Arg), named P(brescia). The P(brescia) alpha(1)AT allele was first identified in combination with the rare defective M(würzburg) allele in an 11-year-old boy showing significantly reduced serum alpha(1)AT level. Subsequently, the P(brescia) allele was found in the heterozygous state with the normal M or the defective Z allele in nine and three adults respectively. In cellular models of the disease, we show that the P(brescia) mutant is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum as ordered polymers and is secreted more slowly than the normal M alpha(1)AT. This behaviour recapitulates the abnormal cellular handling and fate of the Z alpha(1)AT and suggests that the mutation present in the P(brescia) alpha(1)AT causes a conformational change of the protein which, by favouring polymer formation, is etiologic to both severe alpha(1)AT deficiency in the plasma and toxic protein-overload in the liver.

  13. Inactivation of synovial fluid alpha 1-antitrypsin by exercise of the inflamed rheumatoid joint.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Z; Farrell, A J; Blake, D R; Chidwick, K; Winyard, P G

    1993-04-26

    alpha 1-Antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) is known to be oxidised by reactive oxygen species both in vitro and in vivo, leading to its inactivation. We report here that synovial fluid (SF) alpha 1AT is inactivated during exercise of the knee-joints of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Sequential SF sampling from exercised RA patients showed a marked decrease in the mean activity of alpha 1AT after exercise with no change in the molecular forms of alpha 1AT. No such inactivation was found in the control (continuously resting) RA patients. We suggest that oxidation may contribute to alpha 1AT inactivation as a consequence of 'hypoxic-reperfusion' injury after exercise of the inflamed joint.

  14. Z-type alpha 1-antitrypsin is less competent than M1-type alpha 1-antitrypsin as an inhibitor of neutrophil elastase.

    PubMed Central

    Ogushi, F; Fells, G A; Hubbard, R C; Straus, S D; Crystal, R G

    1987-01-01

    Alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) deficiency resulting from homozygous inheritance of the Z-type alpha 1AT gene is associated with serum alpha 1AT levels of less than 50 mg/dl and the development of emphysema in the third to fourth decades. Despite the overwhelming evidence that the emphysema of PiZZ individuals develops because of a "deficiency" of alpha 1AT and hence an insufficient antineutrophil elastase defense of the lung, epidemiologic evidence has shown that levels of alpha 1AT of only 80 mg/dl protect the lung from an increased risk of emphysema. With this background, we hypothesized that homozygous inheritance of the Z-type may confer an added risk beyond a simple deficiency of alpha 1AT by virtue of an inability of the Z-type alpha 1AT molecule to inhibit neutrophil elastase as effectively as the common M1-type molecule. To evaluate this hypothesis, the functional status of alpha 1AT from PiZZ individuals (n = 10) was compared with that of alpha 1AT from PiM1M1 individuals (n = 7) for its ability to inhibit neutrophil elastase (percent inhibition) as well as its association rate constant for neutrophil elastase (K association). Plasma alpha 1AT concentration, measured by radial immunodiffusion, was 34 +/- 1 mg/dl in PiZZ patients vs. 237 +/- 14 mg/dl for PiM1M1 plasma, a sevenfold difference. When titrated against neutrophil elastase, the present inhibition of PiZZ plasma was significantly less than Pi M1M1 plasma (ZZ 78 +/- 1% vs. M1M1 95 +/- 1%, P less than 0.001) as was purified Z type alpha 1AT (ZZ, 63 +/- 2% vs. M1M1 86 +/- 2%, P less than 0.001). Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) gel comparisons of the complexes formed with M1-type alpha 1AT and Z-type alpha 1AT with elastase demonstrated the Z alpha 1AT-elastase complexes were less stable than the M1 alpha 1AT-elastase complexes, thus releasing some of the enzyme to continue to function as a protease. Consistent with these observations, the K association of purified Z-type alpha 1AT for neutrophil

  15. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency. High prevalence in the St. Louis area determined by direct population screening.

    PubMed

    Silverman, E K; Miletich, J P; Pierce, J A; Sherman, L A; Endicott, S K; Broze, G J; Campbell, E J

    1989-10-01

    Considerable attention has been focused upon alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency because of the insights into the pathogenesis of human pulmonary emphysema that may derive from study of deficient subjects, and because of evolving therapeutic strategies that may slow the progression of lung disease in affected persons. We have applied an automated immunoassay for alpha-1-antitrypsin to plasma samples from 20,000 blood donors. Seven PI Z antitrypsin-deficient persons were identified and confirmed; this is more than twice the number predicted from previous estimates of the Z allele frequency in the St. Louis area. Five of the subjects were further evaluated. We anticipate that this assay, if utilized to screen large populations, could identify many alpha-1-antitrypsin-deficient persons for study of the natural history of lung and liver disease associated with the deficiency. These subjects would be potential candidates for early intervention strategies to prevent the development of lung disease. The surprisingly high prevalence of deficient persons indicates that direct screening is the best method for prevalence estimation of genetic disorders.

  16. [Neonatal hepatitis with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficit. Apropos of a personal case].

    PubMed

    Michiels, R; Cabanne, F; Nivelon, J L; Justrabo, E; Bastien, H; Knopf, J F; Bordes, M; Izac, M

    1975-01-01

    The authors report a case of neonatal hepatitis with alpha-1-antitrypsin occuring in a child of ZZ phenotype. The anatomopathological study carried out on two liver biopsies showed changes of common cholestatic hepatitis developing into cirrhosis, as well as intrahepatocytary globulins. Moreover, these globulins, P.A.S. positive after treatment by alphaamylase, fix an antialpha-1-antitrypsine antiserum. Ultrastructural analysis shows them to be masses of amorphous material, feebly osmiophilic, outlined by a unitary membrane the moniliform aspect of which recalls the ergastoplasmic membrane. These findings are identical to those already made in cases of cirrhogenous neonatal hepatitis by alpha-1-antitrypsine deficit reported in the literature. They point out the irreversibility of the affection which, after a stage of cholestatic hepatitis with or without inflammatory portal fibrosis, develops into cirrhosis. At this stage cholestasis has regressed or disappeared whereas portal sclerosis, often infiltrated with free elements, surrounds hepatic lobules and biliary neocanaliculi. But the globulins are still present and appear to be the specific feature of this deficit. By their ultrastructural and immuno-histochemical features, these globulins would represent a form of accumulation of alpha-1-antitrypsin in the hepatocytes which normally carry out the synthesis of this antienzyme. Accumulation in the hepatocytes proves excretory disturbance of hypothetical mechanism: structural anomaly, changes in the permeability of the membrane. Its role in the occurrence of hepatitis or cirrhosis lesions is still to be demonstrated but one may think that it consists in absence of inhibition of the enzymatic factors discharged during agressions.

  17. Sequestration of mutated alpha1-antitrypsin into inclusion bodies is a cell-protective mechanism to maintain endoplasmic reticulum function.

    PubMed

    Granell, Susana; Baldini, Giovanna; Mohammad, Sameer; Nicolin, Vanessa; Narducci, Paola; Storrie, Brian; Baldini, Giulia

    2008-02-01

    A variant alpha1-antitrypsin with E342K mutation has a high tendency to form intracellular polymers, and it is associated with liver disease. In the hepatocytes of individuals carrying the mutation, alpha1-antitrypsin localizes both to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and to membrane-surrounded inclusion bodies (IBs). It is unclear whether the IBs contribute to cell toxicity or whether they are protective to the cell. We found that in hepatoma cells, mutated alpha1-antitrypsin exited the ER and accumulated in IBs that were negative for autophagosomal and lysosomal markers, and contained several ER components, but not calnexin. Mutated alpha1-antitrypsin induced IBs also in neuroendocrine cells, showing that formation of these organelles is not cell type specific. In the presence of IBs, ER function was largely maintained. Increased levels of calnexin, but not of protein disulfide isomerase, inhibited formation of IBs and lead to retention of mutated alpha1-antitrypsin in the ER. In hepatoma cells, shift of mutated alpha1-antitrypsin localization to the ER by calnexin overexpression lead to cell shrinkage, ER stress, and impairment of the secretory pathway at the ER level. We conclude that segregation of mutated alpha1-antitrypsin from the ER to the IBs is a protective cell response to maintain a functional secretory pathway.

  18. Augmentation therapy with alpha1-antitrypsin: novel perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sabina, Janciauskiene; Tobias, Welte

    2013-08-01

    SERPINA1, α-antitrypsin (AAT) is an acute phase protein, a member of the serpin (serine protease inhibitor) super family and one of the most abundant protease inhibitors in the circulation. The clinical importance of AAT is emphasized in persons with inherited AAT deficiency who exhibit high risk of developing early onset pulmonary emphysema, neonatal hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, which may appear at any age, and in rare cases panniculitis and vasculitis. The most common and severe AAT deficiency is associated with the Z (Glu342 to Lys) mutation. It is also well established that Z AAT deficiency results from the polymerization and accumulation of the misfolded AAT protein. Consequently, low levels of circulating Z AAT are assumed to be inadequate to neutralize elastolytic activity and to prevent lung tissue damage. Novel studies, however, are expanding the link between AAT and human diseases. Associations are shown between reduced AAT levels and HIV type 1 infection, hepatitis C infection, diabetes mellitus, vasculitis, panniculitis and other diseases. Given the importance of the protease/antiprotease imbalance in causing emphysema, augmentation of circulating AAT is used as a specific therapy for patients with AAT deficiency-related emphysema but not for those with liver diseases. According to the novel findings, therapy with AAT possesses antiinflammatory and immuno-modulatory effects across a broad spectrum of experimental models of systemic and local inflammation. Hence, in this article we will discuss putative new directions for the clinical use of therapy with AAT.

  19. Prevention of polymerization of M and Z alpha1-Antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) with trimethylamine N-oxide. Implications for the treatment of alpha1-at deficiency.

    PubMed

    Devlin, G L; Parfrey, H; Tew, D J; Lomas, D A; Bottomley, S P

    2001-06-01

    alpha1-Antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) is the most abundant circulating proteinase inhibitor. The Z variant results in profound plasma deficiency as the mutant polymerizes within hepatocytes. The retained polymers are associated with cirrhosis, and the lack of circulating protein predisposes to early onset emphysema. We have investigated the role of the naturally occurring solute trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO) in modulating the polymerization of normal M and disease-associated Z alpha1-AT. TMAO stabilized both M and Z alpha1-AT in an active conformation against heat-induced polymerization. Spectroscopic analysis demonstrated that this was due to inhibition of the conversion of the native state to a polymerogenic intermediate. However, TMAO did not aid the refolding of denatured alpha1-AT to a native conformation; instead, it enhanced polymerization. These data show that TMAO can be used to control the conformational transitions of folded alpha1-AT but that it is ineffective in promoting folding of the polypeptide chain within the secretory pathway.

  20. alpha-1-antitrypsin in breast milk of healthy Nigerian mothers.

    PubMed

    Omeme, J A; Lantos, J D; Ihongbe, J C

    1981-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitryspin (x-1-AT) may play a possible role as effector of immunological stasis. This study examines the levels of this glycoprotein in 73 breast milk samples from 60 healthy Nigerian mothers. Levels of x-1-AT were measured by single radial immunodiffusion according to the method of Mancini. Serum protein was measured by Lowry's method, albumin by Doumas' method. Highest mean levels of x-1-AT were found in colostrum (25 mg/dl). The level was significantly higher compared to transitional milk (14.2 mg/dl) or mature milk (165 mg/dl) (p0.001). Breast milk contains substantial amounts of x-1-AT which is not destroyed by pasturization at 56 degrees Centigrade. The immunological protective properties of breast milk are ideal for newborn babies, particularly those who are low birthweight and are thus most susceptible to neonatal necrotizing enterocolitis.

  1. The parallel lives of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency and pulmonary alveolar proteinosis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In 1963, five cases of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency were reported in the scientific literature, as well as an attempt to treat pulmonary alveolar proteinosis by a massive washing of the lung (whole lung lavage). Now, fifty years later, it seems the ideal moment not only to commemorate these publications, but also to point out the influence both papers had in the following decades and how knowledge on these two fascinating rare respiratory disorders progressed over the years. This paper is therefore not aimed at being a comprehensive review for both disorders, but rather at comparing the evolution of alpha1-antitrypsin, a rare disorder, with that of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis, an ultra-rare disease. We wanted to emphasize how all stakeholders might contribute to the dissemination of the awareness of rare diseases, that need to be chaperoned from the ghetto of neglected disorders to the dignity of recognizable and treatable disorders. PMID:24079310

  2. Synergistic anticryptosporidial potential of the combination alpha-1-antitrypsin and paromomycin.

    PubMed Central

    Forney, J R; Yang, S; Healey, M C

    1997-01-01

    The combined effect of the serine protease inhibitor alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) and the aminoglycoside paromomycin on Cryptosporidium parvum infection in vitro was investigated. AAT and paromomycin were mixed with C. parvum oocysts as either single or combined treatments and used to inoculate epithelial cell cultures. Single- and combined-treatment groups had significantly lower (P < 0.01) parasite numbers than untreated controls. The mean fractional inhibitory concentration indices suggested significant synergistic activity. PMID:9303402

  3. Alpha-1-antitrypsin phenotypes in Saudi Arabia: A study in the central province.

    PubMed

    Warsy, A S; El-Hazmi, M A; Sedrani, S H; Kinhal, M

    1991-03-01

    This study was conducted on 204 plasma samples obtained from Saudis living in the central province of Saudi Arabia, to determine the prevalence of alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) phenotypes. The alpha1AT phenotypes were separated by isoelectric focusing on ampholine gels (pH 4-5). The prevalences of PiMM, MS, MZ, SZ, and ZZ were 0.8676, 0.0931, 0.0245, 0.0098, and 0.0049, respectively. The gene frequencies of the alpha1AT variants, i.e.., PiM, PiS, and PiZ, were 0.9265, 0.0515, 0.022, respectively. We describe and compare our results in a Saudi population with those reported for other populations.

  4. Alpha-1-Antitrypsin: A Novel Human High Temperature Requirement Protease A1 (HTRA1) Substrate in Human Placental Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Frochaux, Violette; Hildebrand, Diana; Talke, Anja; Linscheid, Michael W.; Schlüter, Hartmut

    2014-01-01

    The human serine protease high temperature requirement A1 (HTRA1) is highly expressed in the placental tissue, especially in the last trimester of gestation. This suggests that HTRA1 is involved in placental formation and function. With the aim of a better understanding of the role of HTRA1 in the placenta, candidate substrates were screened in a placenta protein extract using a gel-based mass spectrometric approach. Protease inhibitor alpha-1-antitrypsin, actin cytoplasmic 1, tropomyosin beta chain and ten further proteins were identified as candidate substrates of HTRA1. Among the identified candidate substrates, alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT) was considered to be of particular interest because of its important role as protease inhibitor. For investigation of alpha-1-antitrypsin as substrate of HTRA1 synthetic peptides covering parts of the sequence of alpha-1-antitrypsin were incubated with HTRA1. By mass spectrometry a specific cleavage site was identified after met-382 (AIPM382↓383SIPP) within the reactive centre loop of alpha-1-antitrypsin, resulting in a C-terminal peptide comprising 36 amino acids. Proteolytic removal of this peptide from alpha-1-antitrypsin results in a loss of its inhibitor function. Beside placental alpha-1-antitrypsin the circulating form in human plasma was also significantly degraded by HTRA1. Taken together, our data suggest a link between the candidate substrates alpha-1-antitrypsin and the function of HTRA1 in the placenta in the syncytiotrophoblast, the cell layer attending to maternal blood in the villous tree of the human placenta. Data deposition: Mass spectrometry (MS) data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000473. PMID:25329061

  5. Idiopathic hemochromotosis and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency: coexistence in a family with progressive liver disease in the proband.

    PubMed

    Anand, S; Schade, R R; Bendetti, C; Kelly, R; Rabin, B S; Krause, J; Starzl, T E; Iwatsuki, S; Van Thiel, D H

    1983-01-01

    A patient with coexistent hemochromatosis and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency which led to cirrhosis and death despite adequate therapy for hemochromatosis is reported. Evaluation of the family revealed first degree relatives with iron overload and others with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency but none with both conditions. The role of family studies in the early recognition and possible prevention of overt clinical disease in individuals with either of these two genetic diseases is discussed.

  6. Idiopathic Hemochromotosis and Alpha-1-Antitrypsin Deficiency: Coexistence in a Family with Progressive Liver Disease in the Proband

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Suri; Schade, Robert R.; Bendetti, Carlos; Kelly, Robert; Rabin, Bruce S.; Krause, John; Starzl, Thomas E.; Iwatsuki, Shunzaburo; Van Thiel, David H.

    2010-01-01

    A patient with coexistent hemochromatosis and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency which led to cirrhosis and death despite adequate therapy for hemochromatosis is reported. Evaluation of the family revealed first degree relatives with iron overload and others with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency but none with both conditions. The role of family studies in the early recognition and possible prevention of overt clinical disease in individuals with either of these two genetic diseases is discussed. PMID:6604688

  7. C-Terminal Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Peptide: A New Sepsis Biomarker with Immunomodulatory Function.

    PubMed

    Blaurock, Nancy; Schmerler, Diana; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver; Ludewig, Katrin; Baier, Michael; Brunkhorst, Frank Martin; Imhof, Diana; Kiehntopf, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a life threatening condition and the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Although single aspects of pathophysiology have been described in detail, numerous unknown mediators contribute to the progression of this complex disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiological role of CAAP48, a C-terminal alpha-1 antitrypsin fragment, that we found to be elevated in septic patients and to apply this peptide as diagnostic marker for infectious and noninfectious etiologies of SIRS. Incubation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with synthetic CAAP48, the SNP-variant CAAP47, and several control peptides revealed intense neutrophil activation, induction of neutrophil chemotaxis, reduction of neutrophil viability, and release of cytokines. We determined the abundance of CAAP48 in patients with severe sepsis, severe SIRS of noninfectious origin, and viral infection. CAAP48 levels were 3-4-fold higher in patients with sepsis compared to SIRS of noninfectious origin and allowed discrimination of those patients with high sensitivity and specificity. Our results suggest that CAAP48 is a promising discriminatory sepsis biomarker with immunomodulatory functions, particularly on human neutrophils, supporting its important role in the host response and pathophysiology of sepsis.

  8. C-Terminal Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Peptide: A New Sepsis Biomarker with Immunomodulatory Function

    PubMed Central

    Blaurock, Nancy; Schmerler, Diana; Hünniger, Kerstin; Kurzai, Oliver; Ludewig, Katrin; Baier, Michael; Brunkhorst, Frank Martin; Imhof, Diana; Kiehntopf, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a life threatening condition and the leading cause of death in intensive care units. Although single aspects of pathophysiology have been described in detail, numerous unknown mediators contribute to the progression of this complex disease. The aim of this study was to elucidate the pathophysiological role of CAAP48, a C-terminal alpha-1 antitrypsin fragment, that we found to be elevated in septic patients and to apply this peptide as diagnostic marker for infectious and noninfectious etiologies of SIRS. Incubation of human polymorphonuclear neutrophils with synthetic CAAP48, the SNP-variant CAAP47, and several control peptides revealed intense neutrophil activation, induction of neutrophil chemotaxis, reduction of neutrophil viability, and release of cytokines. We determined the abundance of CAAP48 in patients with severe sepsis, severe SIRS of noninfectious origin, and viral infection. CAAP48 levels were 3-4-fold higher in patients with sepsis compared to SIRS of noninfectious origin and allowed discrimination of those patients with high sensitivity and specificity. Our results suggest that CAAP48 is a promising discriminatory sepsis biomarker with immunomodulatory functions, particularly on human neutrophils, supporting its important role in the host response and pathophysiology of sepsis. PMID:27382189

  9. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Presenting with MPO-ANCA Associated Vasculitis and Aortic Dissection

    PubMed Central

    van Schaik, Jan; Crobach, Stijn L. P.; van Rijswijk, Catharina S. P.; Rotmans, Joris I.

    2017-01-01

    The combination of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, ANCA-vasculitis, and aortic aneurysm has been rarely described in literature. We report an eventually fatal case in a 70-year-old patient who initially presented with giant cell arteritis and ANCA associated glomerulonephritis. Several years later, he presented with aortic dissection due to large vessel vasculitis, raising the suspicion of AAT deficiency, as two first-line relatives had chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, while they never smoked. This diagnosis was confirmed by AAT electrophoresis and immunohistochemistry on a temporal artery biopsy. Considering AAT deficiency in these cases might lead to a more timely diagnosis. PMID:28367219

  10. [Alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 2-macroglobulin and reactive protein C in gastric cancer].

    PubMed

    Dumitraşcu, D; Radu, D; Stanciu, L; Ioniţă, A; Petcovici, M

    1989-01-01

    Proteins of acute phase: alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT), alpha 2-macroglobulin (AMG), reactive C protein (RCP) were determined in the serum of 50 patients with gastric cancer. The Mancini, simple radial immunodiffusion method was used (SRID). The concentration of these proteins increased at 32/50 (64%) for AAT; 30/50 (60%) for AMG and 33/50 (66%) for RCP. By cumulative evaluation, the positivity of serum markers increased to 88%. The importance of differential diagnosis with regard to the benign gastric lesions (adenoma, ulcer, segmentary fibrosis, before receiving the bioptic result, is emphasized.

  11. Rapid PCR real-time genotyping of M-Malton alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency alleles by molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Orrù, Germano; Faa, Gavino; Pillai, Sara; Pilloni, Luca; Montaldo, Caterina; Pusceddu, Gesuina; Piras, Vincenzo; Coni, Pierpaolo

    2005-12-01

    Alpha1-Antitrypsin deficiency is an autosomal codominant inherited disorder, with increased risk of developing lung and liver disease. The large majority of subjects affected by alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency carry the PIZZ or PISZ genotypes, which can be easily detected using several molecular methods. Another pathologic allele, the M-Malton variant (also known as Mnichinan and Mcagliari), can mimic the Pi Z clinical phenotype, but this alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency variant is not easily recognizable and, therefore, seems to be more under-recognized than the Z or S alleles. We report the development of a rapid qualitative fluorescent real-time PCR assay designed for the detection of the M-Malton alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency alleles using 2 specific molecular beacons. The assay is able to detect in a single tube the homozygous as well the heterozygous genotypes. The procedure combines the great sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction, the specificity provided by allele-specific molecular beacons, and the throughput of a multi-color fluorescence detection procedure. This technique will be useful for research and molecular diagnostic laboratories involved in the study of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency-related diseases.

  12. Discovery of an Inhibitor of Z-Alpha1 Antitrypsin Polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Berthelier, Valerie; Harris, Jason Brett; Estenson, Kasey Noel; Baudry, Jerome; Carloni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Polymerization of the Z variant alpha-1-antitrypsin (Z-alpha 1AT) results in the most common and severe form of alpha 1AT deficiency (alpha 1ATD), a debilitating genetic disorder whose clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic to fatal liver and/or lung disease. As the altered conformation of Z-alpha 1AT and its attendant aggregation are responsible for pathogenesis, the polymerization process per se has become a major target for the development of therapeutics. Based on the ability of Z-alpha 1AT to aggregate by recruiting the reactive center loop (RCL) of another Z-alpha 1AT into its s4A cavity, we developed a high-throughput screening assay that uses a modified 6-mer peptide mimicking the RCL to screen for inhibitors of Z-alpha 1AT polymer growth. We used a subset of compounds from the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) with molecular weights ranging from 300 to 700 Da, to evaluate the assay's capabilities. The inhibitor S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioguanosine was identified as a lead compound and its ability to prevent Z-alpha 1AT polymerization confirmed by secondary assays. In order to further investigate the binding location of S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioguanosine, an in silico strategy was pursued and the intermediate alpha 1AT M* state modeled to allow molecular docking simulations and explore various potential binding sites. Docking results predict that S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioguanosine can bind at the s4A cavity and at the edge of beta-sheet A. The former binding site would directly block RCL insertion whereas the latter site would prevent beta-sheet A from expanding between s3A/s5A, and thus indirectly impede RCL insertion. Our investigations have revealed a novel compound that inhibits the formation of Z-alpha 1AT polymers, as well as in vitro and in silico strategies for identifying and characterizing additional blocking molecules of Z-alpha 1AT polymerization.

  13. Discovery of an Inhibitor of Z-Alpha1 Antitrypsin Polymerization

    DOE PAGES

    Berthelier, Valerie; Harris, Jason Brett; Estenson, Kasey Noel; ...

    2015-01-01

    Polymerization of the Z variant alpha-1-antitrypsin (Z-alpha 1AT) results in the most common and severe form of alpha 1AT deficiency (alpha 1ATD), a debilitating genetic disorder whose clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic to fatal liver and/or lung disease. As the altered conformation of Z-alpha 1AT and its attendant aggregation are responsible for pathogenesis, the polymerization process per se has become a major target for the development of therapeutics. Based on the ability of Z-alpha 1AT to aggregate by recruiting the reactive center loop (RCL) of another Z-alpha 1AT into its s4A cavity, we developed a high-throughput screening assay that usesmore » a modified 6-mer peptide mimicking the RCL to screen for inhibitors of Z-alpha 1AT polymer growth. We used a subset of compounds from the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) with molecular weights ranging from 300 to 700 Da, to evaluate the assay's capabilities. The inhibitor S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioguanosine was identified as a lead compound and its ability to prevent Z-alpha 1AT polymerization confirmed by secondary assays. In order to further investigate the binding location of S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioguanosine, an in silico strategy was pursued and the intermediate alpha 1AT M* state modeled to allow molecular docking simulations and explore various potential binding sites. Docking results predict that S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioguanosine can bind at the s4A cavity and at the edge of beta-sheet A. The former binding site would directly block RCL insertion whereas the latter site would prevent beta-sheet A from expanding between s3A/s5A, and thus indirectly impede RCL insertion. Our investigations have revealed a novel compound that inhibits the formation of Z-alpha 1AT polymers, as well as in vitro and in silico strategies for identifying and characterizing additional blocking molecules of Z-alpha 1AT polymerization.« less

  14. Chlorhexidine prevents hypochlorous acid-induced inactivation of alpha1-antitrypsin.

    PubMed

    Montecucco, Fabrizio; Bertolotto, M; Ottonello, L; Pende, A; Dapino, P; Quercioli, A; Mach, F; Dallegri, F

    2009-11-01

    1. Chlorhexidine digluconate has been used as a topical antiseptic in the treatment of acne vulgaris and periodontitis. The acute phase of these diseases involves neutrophilic infiltration. Neutrophil activation and recruitment to inflammatory sites are crucial in both protection against bacterial infection and the induction of hystotoxic damage. Activated neutrophils release several enzymes, including elastase and myeloperoxidase (MPO), which contribute to tissue injury via direct toxic actions, the generation of oxidants and inactivation of protective factors, such as alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT). In the present study, we investigated whether chlorhexidine can modulate neutrophil-mediated histotoxicity. 2. Human primary neutrophils were isolated from healthy donors. Inactivation of alpha1-AT by neutrophils or hypochlorous acid (HOCl) was evaluated by spectrophotometry and sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis of its capacity to complex with porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE). Neutrophil generation of HOCl, superoxide anion and MPO release were assessed spectrophometrically. 3. Chlorhexidine (0, 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 micromol/L) dose-dependently prevented HOCl-induced inactivation of alpha1-AT and reduced HOCl recovery from phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)-treated human neutrophils, but did not inhibit superoxide anion and MPO release. Chlorhexidine directly inhibited HOCl recovery from neutrophils and HOCl-induced inactivation of alpha1-AT in a cell-free assay. Accordingly, chlorhexidine reversed HOCl-mediated inhibition of alpha1-AT capacity to complex with PPE. 4. These data suggest that chlorhexidine prevents neutrophil-induced alpha1-AT inactivation via a direct inhibitory action on HOCl. Although highly speculative, the present study indicates that chlorhexidine may protect inflamed tissues not only through its antimicrobial properties, but also via a direct anti-inflammatory effect on neutrophil toxic products.

  15. Genotyping diagnosis of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency in Saudi adults with liver cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Al-Jameil, Noura; Hassan, Amina A.; Buhairan, Ahlam; Hassanato, Rana; Isac, Sree R.; Al-Otaiby, Maram; Al-Maarik, Basmah; Al-Ajeyan, Iman

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The acute phase protein alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is mainly produced in liver cells. AAT deficiency affects the lungs and liver. We conducted a case-control study to define a valuable method for the proper diagnosis of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), as well as the association of liver cirrhosis with AATD in Saudi adults. Blood samples from 300 liver cirrhosis patients and 400 controls were analyzed according to serum AAT concentration, phenotyping, and genotyping. Nephelometry was used for AAT quantification, isoelectric focusing electrophoresis was used for phenotyping detection, and real-time PCR was used for genotyping to determine the Z and S deficiency alleles. This study highlights the accuracy of using genotyping in addition to AAT quantification, since this technique has proven to be successful in the diagnosis of AATD for 100% of our cases. A significant deviation in AAT genotypes frequencies from the Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium in the adult cirrhosis group occurred due to a higher observed frequency than expected for the Pi ZZ homozygous genotype. Pi ZZ in adults may be considered as the risk factor for liver cirrhosis. However, we could not establish this relationship for heterozygous AATD genotypes (such as Pi MZ and Pi SZ). PMID:28178162

  16. Antisense oligonucleotide treatment ameliorates alpha-1 antitrypsin-related liver disease in mice.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuling; Booten, Sheri L; Aghajan, Mariam; Hung, Gene; Zhao, Chenguang; Blomenkamp, Keith; Gattis, Danielle; Watt, Andrew; Freier, Susan M; Teckman, Jeffery H; McCaleb, Michael L; Monia, Brett P

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a rare genetic disease that results from mutations in the alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) gene. The mutant AAT protein aggregates and accumulates in the liver leading to AATD liver disease, which is only treatable by liver transplant. The PiZ transgenic mouse strain expresses a human AAT (hAAT) transgene that contains the AATD-associated Glu342Lys mutation. PiZ mice exhibit many AATD symptoms, including AAT protein aggregates, increased hepatocyte death, and liver fibrosis. In the present study, we systemically treated PiZ mice with an antisense oligonucleotide targeted against hAAT (AAT-ASO) and found reductions in circulating levels of AAT and both soluble and aggregated AAT protein in the liver. Furthermore, AAT-ASO administration in these animals stopped liver disease progression after short-term treatment, reversed liver disease after long-term treatment, and prevented liver disease in young animals. Additionally, antisense oligonucleotide treatment markedly decreased liver fibrosis in this mouse model. Administration of AAT-ASO in nonhuman primates led to an approximately 80% reduction in levels of circulating normal AAT, demonstrating potential for this approach in higher species. Antisense oligonucleotides thus represent a promising therapy for AATD liver disease.

  17. DNA restriction-site polymorphisms associated with the alpha 1-antitrypsin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, D W; Billingsley, G D; Mansfield, T

    1987-01-01

    Restriction-site variation in and around the alpha 1-antitrypsin gene has been studied using two genomic probes. With use of restriction enzymes SstI, MspI, and AvaII, three polymorphic sites have been described with a 4.6-kb probe in the 5' portion of the gene. With use of a 6.5-kb probe, polymorphisms in the coding and 3' regions of the gene have been detected with AvaII, MaeIII, and TaqI. All of these polymorphisms are of sufficiently high frequency to be useful in genetic mapping studies. The polymorphisms with AvaII and MaeIII (6.5-kb probe) are particularly useful for prenatal diagnosis. PI types and M subtypes tend to be associated with specific DNA haplotypes; there are two different types of DNA haplotypes associated with PI M1. The extent of linkage disequilibrium differs throughout the region of the alpha 1-antitrypsin gene. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:2890296

  18. Alpha-1 proteinase inhibitors for the treatment of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: safety, tolerability, and patient outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Chotirmall, Sanjay H; Al-Alawi, Mazen; McEnery, Thomas; McElvaney, Noel G

    2015-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency remains an underrecognized genetic disease with predominantly pulmonary and hepatic manifestations. AAT is derived primarily from hepatocytes; however, macrophages and neutrophils are secondary sources. As the natural physiological inhibitor of several proteases, most importantly neutrophil elastase (NE), it plays a key role in maintaining pulmonary protease–antiprotease balance. In deficient states, unrestrained NE activity promotes damage to the lung matrix, causing structural defects and impairing host defenses. The commonest form of AAT deficiency results in a mutated Z AAT that is abnormally folded, polymerized, and aggregated in the liver. Consequently, systemic levels are lower, resulting in diminished pulmonary concentrations. Hepatic disease occurs due to liver aggregation of the protein, while lung destruction ensues from unopposed protease-mediated damage. In this review, we will discuss AAT deficiency, its clinical manifestations, and augmentation therapy. We will address the safety and tolerability profiles of AAT replacement in the context of patient outcomes and cost-effectiveness and outline future directions for work in this field. PMID:25673994

  19. [Significance of alpha-1-antitrypsin and alpha-2-pregnancy-associated glycoprotein in the serum of patients with bronchial carcinoma].

    PubMed

    Homolka, J; Voslárová, Z; Malbohan, I

    1987-01-01

    The authors investigated alpha-1-antitrypsin and pregnancy associated alpha-2-glycoprotein at diagnosis and follow-up of patients with bronchogenic carcinoma. Both proteins were determined by single radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini in 60 patients with bronchogenic carcinoma, in 31 patients with nontumorous respiratory diseases, and in 10 patients with tumour metastases in the lungs. The statistical significance of differences was evaluated using Student's t-test. None of the determined proteins was found to be a specific and sensitive marker of bronchogenic carcinoma. The concentration of alpha-1-antitrypsin is increasing with the growth of the tumour, and the values of pregnancy associated alpha-2-glycoproteins are decreasing at the same time. Alpha-1-antitrypsin can be used in follow-up after tumour resection, where recurrent increase of its concentration may indicate a relapse of the tumour.

  20. Isolation and characterization of alpha 1-antitrypsin in PAS-positive hepatic granules from rats with experimental alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bolmer, S; Kleinerman, J

    1986-05-01

    Chronic galactosamine (GalNH2) administration in rats decreases plasma alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) levels to 10-50% of control levels and induces the formation of diastase-resistant, PAS-positive granules, which contain AAT in hepatocytes. This report describes the isolation and purification of hepatic granule AAT by three different methods: solubilization with guanidine hydrochloride followed by gel filtration on Bio-gel A5M, extraction with methylamine and 2-chloroethanol, and solubilization with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) followed by preparative SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All three methods yield a single protein which precipitates with anti-rat plasma AAT antibody, and which has an apparent molecular weight of 45,000 daltons, in contrast to the molecular weight of plasma AAT, 50,000 daltons. Unlike plasma AAT, granule AAT contains no sialic acid, galactose, or fucose. Moreover, granule AAT contains a reduced amount of N-acetylglucosamine and an increased amount of mannose, compared with plasma AAT. The carbohydrate content of granule AAT varies with the isolation procedure used. Granule AAT is susceptible to cleavage by endoglucosaminidase H, which indicates the presence of high-mannose type oligosaccharides. Comparison of the molecular weight, carbohydrate composition, isoelectric point, and endoglucosaminidase H sensitivity of granule AAT isolated from rats with GalNH2-induced AAT deficiency with granule AAT from PiZ humans extends the list of similarities between experimental GalNH2-induced AAT deficiency in rats by and genetically determined AAT deficiency in humans.

  1. Increased outer arm and core fucose residues on the N-glycans of mutated alpha-1 antitrypsin protein from alpha-1 antitrypsin deficient individuals.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Cormac; Saldova, Radka; O'Brien, M Emmet; Bergin, David A; Carroll, Tomás P; Keenan, Joanne; Meleady, Paula; Henry, Michael; Clynes, Martin; Rudd, Pauline M; Reeves, Emer P; McElvaney, Noel G

    2014-02-07

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is the major physiological inhibitor of a range of serine proteases, and in the lung, it maintains a protease-antiprotease balance. AAT deficiency (AATD) is an autosomal co-dominant condition with the Z mutation being the most common cause. Individuals homozygous for Z (PiZZ) have low levels of circulating mutant Z-AAT protein leading to premature emphysematous lung disease. Extensive glycoanalysis has been performed on normal AAT (M-AAT) from healthy individuals and the importance of glycosylation in affecting the immune modulatory roles of AAT is documented. However, no glycoanalysis has been carried out on Z-AAT from deficient individuals to date. In this study, we investigate whether the glycans present on Z-AAT differ to those found on M-AAT from healthy controls. Plasma AAT was purified from 10 individuals: 5 AATD donors with the PiZZ phenotype and 5 PiMM healthy controls. Glycoanalysis was performed employing N-glycan release, exoglycosidase digestion and UPLC analysis. No difference in branched glycans was identified between AATD and healthy controls. However, a significant increase in both outer arm (α1-3) (p = 0.04) and core (α1-6) fucosylated glycans (p < 0.0001) was found on Z-AAT compared to M-AAT. This study has identified increased fucosylation on N-glycans of Z-AAT indicative of ongoing inflammation in AATD individuals with implications for early therapeutic intervention.

  2. Evaluation of "at risk" alpha 1-antitrypsin genotype SZ with synthetic oligonucleotide gene probes.

    PubMed Central

    Nukiwa, T; Brantly, M; Garver, R; Paul, L; Courtney, M; LeCocq, J P; Crystal, R G

    1986-01-01

    Alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT), a 52,000-mol-wt serum glycoprotein produced by hepatocytes and mononuclear phagocytes, functions as the major inhibitor of neutrophil elastase. The alpha 1AT haplotype S is associated with childhood liver disease and/or adult emphysema when inherited with the Z haplotype to give the phenotype SZ. To accurately identify the SZ phenotype at the level of genomic DNA, four 32P-labeled 19-mer synthetic oligonucleotide probes were prepared; two to identify the M and S difference in exon III, and two to identify the M and Z difference in exon V. These probes were hybridized with various cloned DNAs and genomic DNAs cut with the restriction endonucleases BgII and EcoRI; the genomic DNAs represented all six possible phenotype combinations of the M, S, and Z haplotypes (MM, MS, MZ, SS, ZZ, and SZ). Using the four probes to evaluate 42 samples of genomic DNA, the "at risk" SZ and ZZ phenotypes were correctly identified in all cases, as were the "not at risk" phenotypes SS, MS, MM, and MZ, demonstrating that both exon III and exon V directed probes are necessary to properly identify all of the major "at risk" alpha 1AT genes. However, when used to evaluate a very rare family carrying a null allele, these four oligonucleotide probes misidentified the "at risk" null-null and S null phenotypes as "not at risk" MM and SM combinations. These observations indicate that oligonucleotide gene probes yielded reliable and accurate assessment of "at risk" alpha 1AT genotypes in almost all situations, but in the context of prenatal diagnosis and genetic counseling this approach must be used with caution and in combination with family studies so as not to misidentify rare genotypes that may be associated with a risk for disease. Images PMID:3484754

  3. Rare deficiency types of alpha 1-antitrypsin: electrophoretic variation and DNA haplotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Cox, D W; Billingsley, G D

    1989-01-01

    A deficiency of the plasma protease inhibitor alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT), is usually associated with the deficiency allele PI*Z. However, other alleles can also produce a deficiency. Some of these rare deficiency alleles produce a low concentration (3%-15% of normal) of alpha 1AT and include Mmalton, Mduarte, Mheerlen, and Mprocida. Null, or nonproducing, alleles are associated with trace amounts (less than 1%) of plasma alpha 1AT. We have identified, using isoelectric focusing, the deficiency alleles in 222 patients (68 children and 154 adults) with alpha 1AT deficiency. In addition to PI*Z, we found low-producing alleles PI*Mmalton and PI*Mcobalt and four null (PI*QO) alleles. On the basis of a population frequency of .0122 for PI*Z, frequencies for other deficiency alleles are 1.1 x 10(-4) for PI*Mmalton, 2.5 x 10(-5) for PI*Mcobalt (which may be the same as that for PI*Mduarte, and 1.4 x 10(-4) for all null alleles combined. Using 12 polymorphic restriction sites with seven different restriction enzymes, we have obtained DNA haplotypes for each of the rare deficiency types. All of the rare deficiency alleles can be distinguished from PI*Z by their DNA haplotype, and most can be distinguished from each other. DNA haplotypes are useful to indicate the presence of new types of null alleles, to identify genetic compounds for rare deficiency alleles, and to identify the original normal allele from which each deficiency allele is derived. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2786333

  4. Infected tracheal diverticulum: a rare association with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Amaral, Cecília Beatriz Alves; Silva, Sónia; Feijó, Salvato

    2014-01-01

    Tracheal diverticulum, defined as a benign outpouching of the tracheal wall, is rarely diagnosed in clinical practice. It can be congenital or acquired in origin, and most cases are asymptomatic, typically being diagnosed postmortem. We report a case of a 69-year-old woman who was hospitalized after presenting with fever, fatigue, pleuritic chest pain, and a right neck mass complicated by dysphagia. Her medical history was significant: pulmonary emphysema (alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency); bronchiectasis; and thyroidectomy. On physical examination, she presented diminished breath sounds and muffled heart sounds, with a systolic murmur. Laboratory tests revealed elevated inflammatory markers, a CT scan showed an air-filled, multilocular mass in the right tracheal wall, and magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the CT findings. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy failed to reveal any abnormalities. Nevertheless, the patient was diagnosed with tracheal diverticulum. The treatment approach was conservative, consisting mainly of antibiotics. After showing clinical improvement, the patient was discharged.

  5. Functional analysis of novel alpha-1 antitrypsin variants G320R and V321F.

    PubMed

    Ljujic, Mila; Divac Rankov, Aleksandra; Kojic, Snezana; Miranda, Elena; Radojkovic, Dragica

    2014-09-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) gene is highly polymorphic, with a large number of rare variants whose phenotypic consequences often remain inconclusive. Studies addressing functional characteristics of AAT variants are of significant biomedical importance since deficiency and dysfunctionality of AAT are associated with liver and lung diseases. We report the results of the functional analysis of two naturally occurring AAT variants, G320R and V321F, previously identified in patients with lung disease. Neither of variants has been fully functionally characterized. In order to perform their functional analysis both variants were expressed in prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems and their intracellular localization, activity, stability, and polymerization were determined. The results of this study demonstrated that variants G320R and V321F have neither impaired activity against porcine pancreatic elastase nor propensity to form polymers. However, both variants had altered electrophoretic mobility and reduced thermostability when compared to M variant of the protein, indicating a slightly impaired secondary or tertiary structure.

  6. Alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency: current perspective on research, diagnosis, and management

    PubMed Central

    Stolk, Jan; Seersholm, Niels; Kalsheker, Noor

    2006-01-01

    The Alpha One International Registry (AIR), a multinational research program focused on alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, was formed in response to a World Health Organization recommendation. Each of the nearly 20 participating countries maintains a national registry of patients with AAT deficiency and contributes to an international database located in Malmö, Sweden. This database is designed to increase understanding of AAT deficiency. Additionally, AIR members are engaged in active, wide-ranging investigations to improve the diagnosis, monitoring, and treatment of the disease and meet biennially to exchange views and research findings. The fourth biennial meeting was held in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 2–3 June 2005. This review covers the wide range of AAT deficiency-related topics that were addressed encompassing advances in genetic characterization, risk factor identification, clinical epidemiology, inflammatory and signalling processes, therapeutic advances, and lung imaging techniques. PMID:18046892

  7. Normal exocytosis and endocytosis of lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase in a case of alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ullrich, K

    1983-03-15

    Secretion of lysosomal beta-hexosaminidase by cultivated skin fibroblasts and receptor-mediated endocytosis of leucocyte beta-hexosaminidase from a patient by cultivated non-parenchymal rat liver cells and skin fibroblasts were similar to that of a control proband. The results suggest normal oligosaccharide side chains of high mannose type on lysosomal enzymes in alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency.

  8. Normal diffusing capacity in patients with PiZ alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency, severe airflow obstruction, and significant radiographic emphysema.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J S; Galvin, J R

    2000-09-01

    alpha(1)-Antitrypsin deficiency is usually suspected clinically in young adults with irreversible airflow obstruction that is out of proportion to their smoking history. Many patients with alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency receive an initial diagnosis of asthma or chronic bronchitis. Measurement of the diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (DLCO) has been recommended as a way to help distinguish emphysema from asthma and chronic bronchitis. In this article, we describe four patients with severe alpha(1)-antitrypsin deficiency, each of whom had a repeatedly normal DLCO despite having a significant component of fixed airway obstruction and prominent panacinar emphysema on high-resolution CT scan (HRCT). Each patient also demonstrated significant bronchodilator responsiveness, and two patients received an initial diagnosis of asthma. Potential explanations for these findings are discussed. We report these findings to illustrate the limitations of DLCO in this setting. alpha(1)-Antitrypsin deficiency should be considered in patients with fixed airway obstruction that is out of proportion to their age and smoking history, regardless of their diffusing capacity and response to bronchodilators.

  9. Effects of a disease management program in individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Campos, Michael A; Alazemi, Saleh; Zhang, Guoyan; Wanner, Adam; Sandhaus, Robert A

    2009-02-01

    Disease management programs improve outcomes in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but their effect in subjects with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) has not been evaluated. To assess the impact of a disease management program, applicable to subjects with AATD-associated COPD throughout the United States, on exacerbations, healthcare resource utilization and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). The Alpha-1 Disease Management and Prevention Program (ADMAPP) consisted of comprehensive written educational patient-directed material for self-study and treatment plans. Program reinforcement was performed through monthly phone calls by specialized coordinators. Outcomes were collected prospectively for 12 months before, and 12 months after enrollment into the program. Exacerbations and healthcare resource utilization were recorded monthly. HRQoL was measured with the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) every 6 months and the Short Form-36 (SF-36) every 12 months. A total of 878 subjects completed the 2-year study. During the intervention year, there was a significant increase in the use of long-acting bronchodilators, better compliance with oxygen therapy, and more use of steroid courses during exacerbations. Total exacerbation rates, unscheduled physician visits and emergency room visits significantly decreased. There was also a statistically significant slowing in the deterioration of the SGRQ's activity domain, while total SGRQ scores remained stable during the study. Significant improvements were observed in some of the SF-36 domains, particularly in the general health domain. The ADMAPP improved health outcomes in subjects with AATD-associated COPD.

  10. Characterization of the gene and protein of the common alpha 1-antitrypsin normal M2 allele.

    PubMed Central

    Nukiwa, T; Brantly, M L; Ogushi, F; Fells, G A; Crystal, R G

    1988-01-01

    The normal M2 variant of alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) was cloned from a genomic DNA library of an individual homozygous for this allele. Sequencing of all coding exons of the M2 gene revealed it was identical to the common M1(Val213) gene except for two bases (M1(Val213) CGT Arg101, M2 CAT His101; M1(Val213) GAA Glu376 M2 GAC Asp376). Analysis of the sequence of the M1(Val213) and M2 genes around residue 101 revealed the M1 Arg101----M2 His101 caused a loss of the cutting site for the restriction endonuclease RsaI. Using this enzyme, as well as 19-mer oligonucleotides probes centered at residues 101 and 376, evaluation of genomic DNA from 22 M1 alleles and 14 M2 alleles revealed that residue 101 was Arg in all M1 alleles and His in all M2 alleles, while residue 376 was Glu in all M1 alleles and Asp in all M2 alleles. Despite the differences in sequence at two amino acids, the M1(Val213) and M2 proteins function similarly as assessed by quantification of the association rate constant of each for their natural substrate neutrophil elastase. In the context that there are two mutations separating the M1(Val213) and M2 alleles, it is likely that there is another alpha 1AT variant that was an intermediate in the evolution of these genes. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:2901226

  11. High-level expression of biologically active human alpha 1-antitrypsin in the milk of transgenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Archibald, A L; McClenaghan, M; Hornsey, V; Simons, J P; Clark, A J

    1990-01-01

    Reduced circulating levels of alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1 AT) are associated with certain alpha 1 AT genotypes and increased susceptibility to emphysema. Unfortunately, the amounts of alpha 1 AT that would be required for replacement therapy are beyond the capacity of plasma fractionation and mammalian cell culture systems. Thus, we have examined the potential of transgenic animals as an alternative means of producing human alpha 1 AT. A hybrid gene constructed by using sequences from the ovine milk protein gene beta-lactoglobulin fused to an alpha 1 AT "minigene" was used to generate transgenic mice. Of 13 independent transgenic mice and mouse lines, 5 expressed the hybrid gene in the mammary gland, 5 in the salivary glands, and 2 in both these tissues. Human alpha 1 AT was secreted into the milk of each of the 7 mice and mouse lines that expressed the hybrid gene in the mammary gland. Four of these mammary-expressing transgenic mice and mouse lines produced concentrations of at least 0.5 mg of alpha 1 AT per ml in their milk; one line (AATB 35) produced 7 mg of this protein per ml. alpha 1 AT from transgenic mouse milk was similar in size to human plasma-derived alpha 1 AT and showed a similar capacity to inhibit trypsin. Expression at equivalent levels in transgenic sheep or cattle would yield sufficient alpha 1 AT for therapeutic purposes. Images PMID:1695012

  12. How Can We Improve the Detection of Alpha1-Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Maria Teresa; Dresel, Marc; Koczulla, Rembert; Ottaviani, Stefania; Baldo, Raffaele; Gorrini, Marina; Sala, Giorgia; Cavallon, Luana; Welte, Tobias; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Luisetti, Maurizio; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2015-01-01

    The Z deficiency in α1-antitrypsin (A1ATD) is an under-recognized condition. Alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT) is the main protein in the α1-globulin fraction of serum protein electrophoresis (SPE); however, evaluation of the α1-globulin protein fraction has received very little attention. Serum Z-type A1AT manifests in polymeric forms, but their interference with quantitative immunoassays has not been reported. Here, 214 894 samples were evaluated by SPE at the G. Fracastoro Hospital of Verona, Italy. Patients with an A1AT level ≤ 0.92 g/L were recalled to complete A1ATD diagnosis. In parallel, to qualitatively and quantitatively characterize A1AT, sera samples from 10 PiZZ and 10 PiMM subjects obtained at the National Institute of Tuberculosis and Lung Diseases in Warsaw, Poland, were subjected to non-denaturing 7.5% PAGE and 7.5% SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot. Moreover, purified A1AT was heated at 60°C and analyzed by a non-denaturing PAGE and 4–15% gradient SDS-PAGE followed by Western blot as well as by isolelectrofocusing and nephelometry. A total of 966 samples manifested percentages ≤ 2.8 or a double band in the alpha1-zone. According to the nephelometry data, 23 samples were classified as severe (A1AT ≤ 0.49 g/L) and 462 as intermediate (A1AT >0.49≤ 1.0 g/L) A1ATD. Twenty subjects agreed to complete the diagnosis and an additional 21 subjects agreed to family screening. We detected 9 cases with severe and 26 with intermediate A1ATD. Parallel experiments revealed that polymerization of M-type A1AT, when measured by nephelometry or isolelectrofocusing, yields inaccurate results, leading to the erroneous impression that it was Z type and not M-type A1AT. We illustrate the need for confirmation of Z A1AT values by “state of the art” method. Clinicians should consider a more in-depth investigation of A1ATD in patients when they exhibit serum polymers and low α1-globulin protein levels by SPE. PMID:26270547

  13. Approaches to maximizing stable expression of alpha 1-antitrypsin in transformed CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Paterson, T; Innes, J; Moore, S

    1994-01-01

    A variety of approaches to maximizing the production of recombinant human alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells have been investigated. The highly active and inducible human cytomegalovirus immediate early (IE) promoter/enhancer was used to drive transcription of a recombinant AAT gene in transiently transfected and stably transformed CHO cells. The AAT gene was modified to incorporate highly efficient 3'RNA processing signals from the herpes simplex virus type 2 IE gene 5, and optimal translational initiation signals were created by site-directed mutagenesis. The effect of flanking the recombinant gene with matrix attachment regions was investigated. Combinations of these modifications allowed secretion of up to 44 micrograms AAT/ml per day by cell lines growing in serum-rich medium. This could be increased to up to 100 micrograms AAT/ml per day upon chemical induction of expression by propionate, butyrate or hexamethylene bisacetamide. Cell lines adapted to grow in protein-free medium produced less AAT but still responded to chemical induction to secrete up to 14 micrograms/ml per day of readily purified AAT.

  14. Dysfunctional glycogen storage in a mouse model of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Hubner, Ralf H; Leopold, Philip L; Kiuru, Maija; De, Bishnu P; Krause, Anja; Crystal, Ronald G

    2009-02-01

    Autophagy is an intracellular pathway that contributes to the degradation and recycling of unfolded proteins. Based on the knowledge that autophagy affects glycogen metabolism and that alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is associated with an autophagic response in the liver, we hypothesized that the conformational abnormalities of the Z-AAT protein interfere with hepatocyte glycogen storage and/or metabolism. Compared with wild-type mice (WT), the Z-AAT mice had lower liver glycogen stores (P < 0.001) and abnormal activities of glycogen-related enzymes, including acid alpha-glucosidase (P < 0.05) and the total glycogen synthase (P < 0.05). As metabolic consequences, PiZ mice demonstrated lower blood glucose levels (P < 0.05), lower body weights (P < 0.001), and lower fat pad weights (P < 0.001) compared with WT. After the stress of fasting or partial hepatectomy, PiZ mice had further reduced liver glycogen and lower blood glucose levels (both P < 0.05 compared WT). Finally, PiZ mice exhibited decreased survival after partial hepatectomy (P < 0.01 compared with WT), but this was normalized with postoperative dextrose supplementation. In conclusion, these observations are consistent with the general concept that abnormal protein conformation and degradation affects other cellular functions, suggesting that diseases in the liver might benefit from metabolic compensation if glycogen metabolism is affected.

  15. Curative and beta cell regenerative effects of alpha1-antitrypsin treatment in autoimmune diabetic NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Koulmanda, Maria; Bhasin, Manoj; Hoffman, Lauren; Fan, Zhigang; Qipo, Andi; Shi, Hang; Bonner-Weir, Susan; Putheti, Prabhakar; Degauque, Nicolas; Libermann, Towia A; Auchincloss, Hugh; Flier, Jeffrey S; Strom, Terry B

    2008-10-21

    Invasive insulitis is a destructive T cell-dependent autoimmune process directed against insulin-producing beta cells that is central to the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) in humans and the clinically relevant nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model. Few therapies have succeeded in restoring long-term, drug-free euglycemia and immune tolerance to beta cells in overtly diabetic NOD mice, and none have demonstrably enabled enlargement of the functional beta cell mass. Recent studies have emphasized the impact of inflammatory cytokines on the commitment of antigen-activated T cells to various effector or regulatory T cell phenotypes and insulin resistance and defective insulin signaling. Hence, we tested the hypothesis that inflammatory mechanisms trigger insulitis, insulin resistance, faulty insulin signaling, and the loss of immune tolerance to islets. We demonstrate that treatment with alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT), an agent that dampens inflammation, does not directly inhibit T cell activation, ablates invasive insulitis, and restores euglycemia, immune tolerance to beta cells, normal insulin signaling, and insulin responsiveness in NOD mice with recent-onset T1DM through favorable changes in the inflammation milieu. Indeed, the functional mass of beta cells expands in AAT-treated diabetic NOD mice.

  16. Immune protective effect of human alpha-1-antitrypsin gene during β cell transplantation in diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lu; Liao, Yu-Ting; Yang, Xiao-Fei; Reng, Li-Wei; Qi, Hui; Li, Fu-Rong

    2015-05-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic autoimmune disease in which β cells are destroyed. Islet transplantation is the most promising therapeutic treatment for T1D patients. However, allograft rejection and autoimmune reaction have been recognized as primary causes of graft loss after transplantation. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is an important serine protease inhibitor in serum. AAT is characterized by anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis, and induction-specific immunological tolerance. In this study, we successfully established NIT-hAAT cell lines, which are murine islet β cell lines with stable expression of human AAT (hAAT) gene. These NIT-hAAT cells were transplanted under the left kidney capsule of BALB/c diabetic mice. Interestingly, the sustained expression of hAAT in vivo can block the inflammatory cell infiltration and reduce the production of proinflammatory cytokines to effectively prevent nonspecific inflammation. Results showed that hAAT can inhibit the proliferation of lymphocytes, shift the balance between Th17 and Treg, and suppress the maturation of dendritic cells. Therefore, hAAT can serve as a beneficial immunomodulator that limits immune rejection to prolong islet allograft survival and achieve long-term successful transplant outcomes.

  17. Alpha 1-antitrypsin reduces inflammation and enhances mouse pancreatic islet transplant survival.

    PubMed

    Koulmanda, Maria; Bhasin, Manoj; Fan, Zhigang; Hanidziar, Dusan; Goel, Nipun; Putheti, Prabhakar; Movahedi, Babak; Libermann, Towia A; Strom, Terry B

    2012-09-18

    The promise of islet cell transplantation cannot be fully realized in the absence of improvements in engraftment of resilient islets. The marginal mass of islets surviving the serial peritransplant insults may lead to exhaustion and thereby contribute to an unacceptably high rate of intermediate and long-term graft loss. Hence, we have studied the effects of treatment with alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) in a syngeneic nonautoimmune islet graft model. A marginal number of syngeneic mouse islets were transplanted into nonautoimmune diabetic hosts and islet function was analyzed in control and AAT treated hosts. In untreated controls, marginal mass islet transplants did not restore euglycemia. Outcomes were dramatically improved by short-term AAT treatment. Transcriptional profiling identified 1,184 differentially expressed transcripts in AAT-treated hosts at 3 d posttransplantation. Systems-biology-based analysis revealed AAT down-regulated regulatory hubs formed by inflammation-related molecules (e.g., TNF-α, NF-κB). The conclusions yielded by the systems-biology analysis were rigorously confirmed by QRT-PCR and immunohistology. These data suggest that short-term AAT treatment of human islet transplant recipients may be worthy of a clinical trial.

  18. Sustained expression of alpha1-antitrypsin after transplantation of manipulated hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Andrew A; Kwok, Letty W; Hovav, Avi-Hai; Ohle, Sarah J; Little, Frederic F; Fine, Alan; Kotton, Darrell N

    2008-08-01

    Inherited mutations in the human alpha(1)-antitrypsin (AAT) gene lead to deficient circulating levels of AAT protein and a predisposition to developing emphysema. Gene therapy for individuals deficient in AAT is an attractive goal, because transfer of a normal AAT gene into any cell type able to secrete AAT should reverse deficient AAT levels and attenuate progression of lung disease. Here we present an approach for AAT gene transfer based on the transplantation of lentivirally transduced hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs). We develop a novel dual-promoter lentiviral system to transfer normal human AAT cDNA as well as a fluorescent tracking "reporter gene" into murine HSCs. After transplantation of 3,000 transduced HSCs into irradiated mouse recipients, we demonstrate simultaneous and sustained systemic expression of both genes in vivo for at least 31 weeks. The stem cells transduced with this protocol maintain multipotency, self-renewal potential, and the ability to reconstitute the hematopoietic systems of both primary and secondary recipients. This lentiviral-based system may be useful for investigations requiring the systemic secretion of anti-proteases or cytokines relevant to the pathogenesis of a variety of lung diseases.

  19. Alpha-1-antitrypsin for the improvement of autoimmunity and allograft rejection in beta cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jian; Liao, Yu-Ting; Jian, You-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Dan; Wei, Pei; Qi, Hui; Deng, Chun-Yan; Li, Fu-Rong

    2013-02-01

    Islet transplantation offers hope for patients with type 1 diabetes, which is an autoimmune disease. However, islet transplant recipients must overcome two obstacles in both allograft rejection and autoimmune reaction. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (a1-proteinase inhibitor, AAT) possesses anti-inflammatory properties, reduces cytokine-mediated islet damage, and induces specific immune tolerance. In this study, an insulinoma cell line, NIT-1, was transfected with human AAT (hAAT), named NIT-hAAT, and was transplanted to the left renal subcapsular spaces of 7-week-old female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice (n=22). Cyclophosphamide(CY) was administered to synchronize and accelerate the development of diabetes. Thus, the immunosuppressive and cytoprotective activity of hAAT in β-cell transplantation was investigated. NIT-hAAT has immunomodulatory properties, which delay the onset of autoimmune diabetes, reduce diabetes incidence, inhibit insulitis and β-cell apoptosis, and dampen transplant site inflammation. We propose that NIT-hAAT has a dual function by improving islet autoimmunity and protecting transplanted β-cells from allograft rejection. However, the low expression of hAAT in vivo results in the inability of NIT-hAAT to induce long-term specific immune tolerance and to completely block allograft rejection.

  20. Development and results of the Spanish registry of patients with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lara, Beatriz; de la Roza, Cristian; Vilà, Sara; Vidal, Rafael; Miravitlles, Marc

    2007-01-01

    The Spanish registry of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency was founded in 1993 and became a member of the International Registry (AIR) in 1999. We describe the updating process following its incorporation into AIR and compare the data collected in the first period (1993–1999) and the second period (1999–2005), during which time patients were included exclusively by internet. The registry included 301 patients during period 1, 69% males and 46% had a history of smoking. Their mean age was 46 years (SD = 13) and 284 (94%) had the ZZ phenotype, 49% received augmentation therapy. During period 2, 161 new cases were included, 63% of whom were males with a mean age of 44 years (SD = 16). A total of 126 (78%) had the ZZ phenotype. Only 12% received augmentation therapy. A total of 462 different patients were included in both periods. Significant differences were observed in the number of cases with the SZ phenotype and the severity of FEV1 impairment between the two periods. Implementation of an internet-based collection of data did not result in a lower rate of reporting to the registry. However, data from a significant number of patient included in period 1 could not be actualized in the new data base. PMID:18229578

  1. Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency targeted testing and augmentation therapy: A Canadian Thoracic Society clinical practice guideline

    PubMed Central

    Marciniuk, DD; Hernandez, P; Balter, M; Bourbeau, J; Chapman, KR; Ford, GT; Lauzon, JL; Maltais, F; O’Donnell, DE; Goodridge, D; Strange, C; Cave, AJ; Curren, K; Muthuri, S

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) functions primarily to inhibit neutrophil elastase, and deficiency predisposes individuals to the development of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Severe A1AT deficiency occurs in one in 5000 to one in 5500 of the North American population. While the exact prevalence of A1AT deficiency in patients with diagnosed COPD is not known, results from small studies provide estimates of 1% to 5%. The present document updates a previous Canadian Thoracic Society position statement from 2001, and was initiated because of lack of consensus and understanding of appropriate patients suitable for targeted testing for A1AT deficiency, and for the use of A1AT augmentation therapy. Using revised guideline development methodology, the present clinical practice guideline document systematically reviews the published literature and provides an evidence-based update. The evidence supports the practice that targeted testing for A1AT deficiency be considered in individuals with COPD diagnosed before 65 years of age or with a smoking history of <20 pack years. The evidence also supports consideration of A1AT augmentation therapy in nonsmoking or exsmoking patients with COPD (forced expiratory volume in 1 s of 25% to 80% predicted) attributable to emphysema and documented A1AT deficiency (level ≤11 μmol/L) who are receiving optimal pharmacological and nonpharmacological therapies (including comprehensive case management and pulmonary rehabilitation) because of benefits in computed tomography scan lung density and mortality. PMID:22536580

  2. Identification of Compound Heterozygous Mutation in a Korean Patient with Alpha 1-antitrypsin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Dae-Hyun; Chang, Ho Eun; Song, Sang Hoon; Song, Junghan

    2011-01-01

    Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a genetic disorder that primarily affects the lungs and liver. While AAT deficiency is one of the most common genetic disorders in the Caucasian population, it is extremely rare in Asians. Here, we report the case of a 36-year-old Korean woman with AAT deficiency who visited the emergency department of our hospital for the treatment of progressive dyspnea that had begun 10 years ago. She had never smoked. Chest computed tomography revealed panlobular emphysema in both lungs, which suggested AAT deficiency. The serum AAT level was 33 mg/dL (reference interval: 90-200 mg/dL). Four exons of the SERPINA1 gene, which is responsible for AAT deficiency, and their flanking regions were analyzed by PCR-direct sequencing. The patient was found to have 1 missense mutation (c.230C>T, p.Ser77Phe; Siiyama) and 1 frameshift mutation (c.1158dupC, p.Glu387ArgfsX14; QOclayton). This is the first Korean case of AAT deficiency confirmed by genetic analysis and the second case of a compound heterozygote of Siiyama and QOclayton, the first case of which was reported from Japan. PMID:22016686

  3. Delayed diagnosis of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency following post-hepatectomy liver failure: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Benjamin; Denson, Jemimah; Briggs, Christopher; Bowles, Matthew; Stell, David; Aroori, Somaiah

    2016-01-01

    Post-hepatectomy liver failure (PHLF) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality following major liver resection. The development of PHLF is dependent on the volume of the remaining liver tissue and hepatocyte function. Without effective pre-operative assessment, patients with undiagnosed liver disease could be at increased risk of PHLF. We report a case of a 60-year-old male patient with PHLF secondary to undiagnosed alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) following major liver resection. He initially presented with acute large bowel obstruction secondary to a colorectal adenocarcinoma, which had metastasized to the liver. There was no significant past medical history apart from mild chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. After colonic surgery and liver directed neo-adjuvant chemotherapy, he underwent a laparoscopic partially extended right hepatectomy and radio-frequency ablation. Post-operatively he developed PHLF. The cause of PHLF remained unknown, prompting re-analysis of the histology, which showed evidence of AATD. He subsequently developed progressive liver dysfunction, portal hypertension, and eventually an extensive parastomal bleed, which led to his death; this was ultimately due to a combination of AATD and chemotherapy. This case highlights that formal testing for AATD in all patients with a known history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, heavy smoking, or strong family history could help prevent the development of PHLF in patients undergoing major liver resection. PMID:27004008

  4. Development of predictive models for airflow obstruction in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Castaldi, P J; DeMeo, D L; Kent, D M; Campbell, E J; Barker, A F; Brantly, M L; Eden, E; McElvaney, N G; Rennard, S I; Stocks, J M; Stoller, J K; Strange, C; Turino, G; Sandhaus, R A; Griffith, J L; Silverman, E K

    2009-10-15

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency is a genetic condition associated with severe, early-onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there is significant variability in lung function impairment among persons with the protease inhibitor ZZ genotype. Early identification of persons at highest risk of developing lung disease could be beneficial in guiding monitoring and treatment decisions. Using a multicenter, family-based study sample (2002-2005) of 372 persons with the protease inhibitor ZZ genotype, the authors developed prediction models for forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) and the presence of severe COPD using demographic, clinical, and genetic variables. Half of the data sample was used for model development, and the other half was used for model validation. In the training sample, variables found to be predictive of both FEV(1) and severe COPD were age, sex, pack-years of smoking, bronchodilator responsiveness, chronic bronchitis symptoms, and index case status. In the validation sample, the predictive model for FEV(1) explained 50% of the variance in FEV(1), and the model for severe COPD exhibited excellent discrimination (c statistic = 0.88).

  5. Effect of expectoration on inflammation in induced sputum in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Gompertz, Simon; Hill, Adam T; Bayley, Darren L; Stockley, Robert A

    2006-06-01

    It is unclear how chronic expectoration influences airway inflammation in patients with chronic lung disease. The aim of this study was to investigate factors influencing inflammation in induced sputum samples, including, in particular, chronic sputum production. Myeloperoxidase, interleukin-8, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), neutrophil elastase, secretory leukoprotease inhibitor (SLPI) and protein leakage were compared in induced sputum samples from 48 patients (36 with chronic expectoration) with COPD (with and without alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency; AATD), 9 individuals with AATD but without lung disease and 14 healthy controls. There were no differences in inflammation in induced sputum samples from healthy control subjects and from AATD deficient patients with normal lung function but without chronic expectoration (P>0.05). Inflammation in induced sputum from AATD patients with airflow obstruction and chronic sputum expectoration was significantly greater than for similar patients who did not expectorate: Interleukin-8 (P<0.01), elastase activity (P=0.01), and protein leakage (P<0.01). The presence of spontaneous sputum expectoration in AATD patients with airflow obstruction was associated with increased neutrophilic airway inflammation in induced sputum samples. The presence of chronic expectoration in some patients will clearly complicate interpretation of studies employing sputum induction where this feature has not been identified.

  6. [Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Affects U0126-Induced Cytotoxicity in Colon Cancer Cell Line (HCT116)].

    PubMed

    Ljujic, M; Mijatovic, S; Bulatovic, M Z; Mojic, M; Maksimovic-Ivanic, D; Radojkovic, D; Topic, A

    2016-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), an acute phase protein, is the principal circulatory anti-protease. This multifunctional protein is encoded by the SERPINA1 gene. Although AAT was recognised as a potential tumour marker, its role in cancer biology remains unknown. Given that it has been demonstrated that AAT has an anti-apoptotic property against non-malignant cells, we aimed to investigate whether AAT affects apoptosis in a colon cancer cell line (HCT116). The presence of AAT in the HCT116 cell culture antagonized cytotoxicity of blockers of MEK1/2, PI3K/Akt pathways as well as NF-κB. The dominantly recovered cell viability was observed in the co-treatment with MEK1/2 inhibitor U0126. In addition, it was revealed that AAT almost completely abolished U0126-induced apoptosis through maintenance of the autophagy process. Our study revealed for the first time that the observed cyto-protection triggered by AAT was accompanied by sustained autophagy which opposed apoptosis. These results may contribute to understanding of the role of AAT in cancer development and evaluation of efficacy of cancer therapy.

  7. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Prevents the Development of Preeclampsia Through Suppression of Oxidative Stress.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yaling; Xu, Jianjuan; Zhou, Qin; Wang, Rong; Liu, Nin; Wu, Yanqun; Yuan, Hua; Che, Haisha

    2016-01-01

    Preeclampsia (PE) and its complications have become the leading cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in the world. And the development of PE is still barely predictable and thus challenging to prevent and manage clinically. Oxidative stress contributes to the development of the disease. Our previous study demonstrated that exogenous Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) played a cytoprotective role in vascular endothelial cell by suppressing oxidative stress. In this study, we aim to investigate whether AAT contributes to the development of PE, and to identify the mechanism behind these effects. We found that AAT levels were significantly decreased in placenta tissues from women with PE compared that of healthy women. Notably, we demonstrate that AAT injection is able to relieve the high blood pressure and reduce urine protein levels in a dose-dependent manner in PE mice. In addition, our results showed that AAT injection exhibited an anti-oxidative stress role by significantly reducing PE mediated-upregulation of ROS, MMP9 and MDA, and increasing the levels of SOD, eNOS, and GPx with increased dosage of AAT. Furthermore, we found that AAT injection inactivated PE mediated activation of PAK/STAT1/p38 signaling. These findings were confirmed in human samples. In conclusion, our study suggests that exogenous AAT injection increases the antioxidants and suppresses oxidative stress, and subsequent prevention of PE development through inactivation of STAT1/p38 signaling. Thus, AAT would become a potential strategy for PE therapy.

  8. Three missense variants of metabolic syndrome-related genes are associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin levels.

    PubMed

    Setoh, Kazuya; Terao, Chikashi; Muro, Shigeo; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Meiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Yamada, Ryo; Mishima, Michiaki; Matsuda, Fumihiko

    2015-07-15

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) encoded by SERPINA1 is an acute-phase inflammation marker, and AAT deficiency (AATD) is known as one of the common genetic disorders in European populations. However, no genetic determinants to AAT levels apart from the SERPINA gene clusters have been identified to date. Here we perform a genome-wide association study of serum AAT levels followed by a two-staged replication study recruiting a total of 9,359 Japanese community-dwelling population. Three missense variants of metabolic syndrome-related genes, namely, rs671 in ALDH2, rs1169288 in HNF1A and rs1260326 in GCKR, significantly associate with AAT levels (P≤1.5 × 10(-12)). Previous reports have shown the functional relevance of ALDH2 and HNF1A to AAT. We observe a significant interaction of rs671 and alcohol consumption on AAT levels. We confirm the association between AAT and rs2896268 in SERPINA1, which is independent of known causative variants of AATD. These findings would support various AAT functions including metabolic processes.

  9. Historical role of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency in respiratory and hepatic complications.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Li; Pannell, Benjamin K; Zhou, Tingyang; Chuang, Chia-Chen

    2016-09-10

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a heritable disease that is commonly associated with complications in the respiratory and hepatic systems. AAT acts as a regulatory enzyme that primarily inhibits neutrophil elastase activity thus protecting tissues from proteolytic damage after inflammation. This paper provides a historical review of the discovery, classification, phenotypic expression, and treatment of AAT deficiency. While its pattern of inheritance has been long understood, the underlying mechanism between AAT deficiency and related diseases remains to be elucidated. Most commonly, AAT deficiency is associated with the development of emphysema in the lungs as well as various liver injuries. Cigarette smoke has been shown to be particularly detrimental in AAT deficient individuals during the development of lung disease. Therefore, understanding familial history may be beneficial when educating patients regarding lifestyle choices. While numerous AAT deficient phenotypes exist in the human populations, only specific variants have been proven to markedly predispose individuals to lung and liver disorders. The exact relationship between AAT levels and the aforementioned diseases is an essential area of further research. It is imperative that clinicians and researchers alike strive to standardize diagnostic criteria and develop safe and effective therapies for this genetic disease.

  10. Alpha-1 antitrypsin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and functions.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nardo, David; Chen, Mong-Jen; Elshikha, Ahmed S; Ahamed, Rubina; Elsayed, Eslam M; Bigot, Claire; Holliday, Lexie Shannon; Song, Sihong

    2017-03-21

    Osteoporosis is a global public health problem affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. We previously showed that treatment with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), a multifunctional protein with anti-inflammatory properties, mitigated bone loss in an ovariectomized mouse model. However, the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of AAT on bone tissue are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of AAT on osteoclast formation and function in vitro. Our results showed that AAT dose-dependently inhibited the formation of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand) induced osteoclasts derived from mouse bone marrow macrophages/monocyte (BMM) lineage cells and the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. In order to elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying this inhibition, we tested the effect of AAT on the gene expression of cell surface molecules, transcription factors, and cytokines associated with osteoclast formation. We showed that AAT inhibited M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor) induced cell surface RANK expression in osteoclast precursor cells. In addition, AAT inhibited RANKL-induced TNF-α production, cell surface CD9 expression, and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) gene expression. Importantly, AAT treatment significantly inhibited osteoclast-associated mineral resorption. Together, these results uncovered new mechanisms for the protective effects of AAT and strongly support the notion that AAT has therapeutic potential for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  11. Aberrant disulphide bonding contributes to the ER retention of alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency variants.

    PubMed

    Ronzoni, Riccardo; Berardelli, Romina; Medicina, Daniela; Sitia, Roberto; Gooptu, Bibek; Fra, Anna Maria

    2016-02-15

    Mutations in alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) can cause the protein to polymerise and be retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes. The ensuing systemic AAT deficiency leads to pulmonary emphysema, while intracellular polymers are toxic and cause chronic liver disease. The severity of this process varies considerably between individuals, suggesting the involvement of mechanistic co-factors and potential for therapeutically beneficial interventions. We show in Hepa1.6 cells that the mildly polymerogenic I (Arg39Cys) AAT mutant forms aberrant inter- and intra-molecular disulphide bonds involving the acquired Cys39 and the only cysteine residue in the wild-type (M) sequence (Cys232). Substitution of Cys39 to serine partially restores secretion, showing that disulphide bonding contributes to the intracellular retention of I AAT. Covalent homodimers mediated by inter-Cys232 bonding alone are also observed in cells expressing the common Z and other polymerising AAT variants where conformational behaviour is abnormal, but not in those expressing M AAT. Prevention of such disulphide linkage through the introduction of the Cys232Ser mutation or by treatment of cells with reducing agents increases Z AAT secretion. Our results reveal that disulphide interactions enhance intracellular accumulation of AAT mutants and implicate the oxidative ER state as a pathogenic co-factor. Redox modulation, e.g. by anti-oxidant strategies, may therefore be beneficial in AAT deficiency-associated liver disease.

  12. Intrapulmonary vascular remodeling: MSCT-based evaluation in COPD and alpha-1 antitrypsin deficient subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosnier, Adeline; Fetita, Catalin; Thabut, Gabriel; Brillet, Pierre-Yves

    2016-03-01

    Whether COPD is generally known as a small airway disease, recent investigations suggest that vascular remodeling could play a key role in disease progression. This paper develops a specific investigation framework in order to evaluate the remodeling of the intrapulmonary vascular network and its correlation with other image or clinical parameters (emphysema score or FEV1) in patients with smoking- or genetic- (alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency - AATD) related COPD. The developed approach evaluates the vessel caliber distribution per lung or lung region (upper, lower, 10%- and 20%- periphery) in relation with the severity of the disease and computes a remodeling marker given by the area under the caliber distribution curve for radii less than 1.6mm, AUC16. It exploits a medial axis analysis in relation with local caliber information computed in the segmented vascular network, with values normalized with respect to the lung volume (for which a robust segmentation is developed). The first results obtained on a 34-patient database (13 COPD, 13 AATD and 8 controls) showed significant vascular remodeling for COPD and AATD versus controls, with a negative correlation with the emphysema degree for COPD, but not for AATD. Significant vascular remodeling at 20% lung periphery was found both for the severe COPD and AATD patients, but not for the moderate groups. Also the vascular remodeling in AATD did not correlate with the FEV1, nor with DLCO, which might suggest independent mechanisms for bronchial and vascular remodeling in the lung.

  13. Acid Denaturation of alpha1-antitrypsin: characterization of a novel mechanism of serpin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Glyn L; Chow, Michelle K M; Howlett, Geoffrey J; Bottomley, Stephen P

    2002-12-06

    The native serpin architecture is extremely sensitive to mutation and environmental factors. These factors induce the formation of a partially folded species that results in the production of inactive loop-sheet polymers. The deposition of these aggregates in tissue, results in diseases such as liver cirrhosis, thrombosis, angioedema and dementia. In this study, we characterize the kinetics and conformational changes of alpha(1)-antitrypsin polymerization at pH 4 using tryptophan fluorescence, circular dichroism, turbidity changes and thioflavin T binding. These biophysical techniques have demonstrated that polymerization begins with a reversible conformational change that results in partial loss of secondary structure and distortion at the top of beta-sheet A. This is followed by two bimolecular processes. First, protodimers are formed, which can be dissociated by changing the pH back to 8. Then, an irreversible conformational change occurs, resulting in the stabilization of the dimers with a concomitant increase in beta-sheet structure, allowing for subsequent polymer extension. Electron microscopy analysis of the polymers, coupled with the far-UV CD and thioflavin T properties of the pH 4 polymers suggest they do not form via the classical loop-beta-sheet A linkage. However, they more closely resemble those formed by the pathological variant M(malton). Taken together, these data describe a novel kinetic mechanism of serine proteinase inhibitor polymerization.

  14. Bile Duct Ligation Induces ATZ Globule Clearance In a Mouse Model of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Zahida; Yokota, Shinichiro; Ono, Yoshihiro; Bell, Aaron W.; Stolz, Donna B.; Michalopoulos, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Background Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD) can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; however, not all patients are susceptible to severe liver disease. In A1ATD, a toxic gain-of-function mutation generates insoluble ATZ “globules” in hepatocytes, overwhelming protein clearance mechanisms. The relationship between bile acids and hepatocytic autophagy is less clear, but may involve altered gene expression pathways. Based on previous findings that bile duct ligation (BDL) induces autophagy, we hypothesized that retained bile acids may have hepatoprotective effects in PiZZ transgenic mice, which model A1ATD. Methods We performed BDL and partial BDL (pBDL) in PiZZ mice, followed by analysis of liver tissues. Results PiZZ liver subjected to BDL showed up to 50% clearance of ATZ globules, with increased expression of autophagy proteins. Analysis of transcription factors revealed significant changes. Surprisingly nuclear TFEB, a master regulator of autophagy, remained unchanged. pBDL confirmed that ATZ globule clearance was induced by localized stimuli rather than diet or systemic effects. Several genes involved in bile metabolism were over-expressed in globule-devoid hepatocytes, compared to globule-containing cells. Conclusions Retained bile acids led to a dramatic reduction of ATZ globules, with enhanced hepatocyte regeneration and autophagy. These findings support investigation of synthetic bile acids as potential autophagy-enhancing agents. PMID:27938510

  15. SVIP regulates Z variant alpha-1 antitrypsin retro-translocation by inhibiting ubiquitin ligase gp78

    PubMed Central

    Khodayari, Nazli; Wang, Rejean liqun; Marek, George; Krotova, Karina; Kirst, Mariana; Liu, Chen; Rouhani, Farshid; Brantly, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is an inherited disorder characterized by early-onset emphysema and liver disease. The most common disease-causing mutation is a single amino acid substitution (Glu/Lys) at amino acid 342 of the mature protein, resulting in disruption of the 290–342 salt bridge (an electrophoretic abnormality defining the mutation [Z allele, or ZAAT]), protein misfolding, polymerization, and accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes and monocytes. The Z allele causes a toxic gain of function, and the E3 ubiquitin ligase gp78 promotes degradation and increased solubility of endogenous ZAAT. We hypothesized that the accumulation of ZAAT is influenced by modulation of gp78 E3 ligase and SVIP (small VCP-interacting protein) interaction with p97/VCP in ZAAT-expressing hepatocytes. We showed that the SVIP inhibitory effect on ERAD due to overexpression causes the accumulation of ZAAT in a human Z hepatocyte–like cell line (AT01). Overexpression of gp78, as well as SVIP suppression, induces gp78-VCP/p97 interaction in AT01 cells. This interaction leads to retro-translocation of ZAAT and reduction of the SVIP inhibitory role in ERAD. In this context, overexpression of gp78 or SVIP suppression may eliminate the toxic gain of function associated with polymerization of ZAAT, thus providing a potential new therapeutic approach to the treatment of AATD. PMID:28301499

  16. [Relationship between serum levels of C-reactive protein and alpha1-antitrypsin and insulin resistance in obese women].

    PubMed

    Ramírez Alvarado, María Matilde; Sánchez Roitz, César

    2014-09-01

    Adipose tissue produces cytokines involved in insulin resistance (IR) such as IL-6, IL-8, TNF-alpha and proinflammatory molecules such as C reactive protein (CRP). alpha1-antitrypsin is an inflammation-sensitive plasma protein. The objective of this study is to determine the correlation between serum CRP high-sensitivity (CRPhs) and alpha1-antitrypsin levels with IR indices in obese Venezuelan women. The study population consisted of 15 normal weight women (BMI 21.8 +/- 1.9 kg/m2) and 15 obese women (BMI 35.3 +/- 5.3 kg/m2). Obese and lean women underwent a 2 h-75 g oral glucose tolerance test and the following indices were calculated: homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), homeostatic model assessment of beta cell function (HOMA-beta), Matsuda Index and Insulinogenic Index. The relationship between serum CRPhs and alpha1-antitrypsin levels and these indices were determined. Obese women had higher CRPhs levels (p = 0.001) compared with normal weight women. In obese women, serum CRPhs levels were positively correlated with HOMA-IR (r = 0.73, p = 0.0021), HOMA-beta (r = 0.53, p = 0.031) and negatively correlated with the Matsuda Index (r = -0.60, p = 0.017). No correlation between serum levels of alpha1-antitrypsin and IR indices in the obese group and the lean group was observed. There was a relation between serum CRPhs levels and insulin resistance, suggesting a role of subclinical inflammation in IR.

  17. Alpha-1 antitrypsin, retinol binding protein and keratin 10 alterations in patients with psoriasis vulgaris, a proteomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Fattahi, Sadegh; Kazemipour, Nasrin; Hashemi, Mohammad; Sepehrimanesh, Masood

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): Psoriasis is an autoimmune disease that appears on the skin. Although psoriasis is clinically and histologically well characterized, its pathogenesis is unknown in detail. The aims of this study were to evaluate the proteome of psoriatic patients' sera and to compare them with those of normal healthy human to find valuable biomarkers. Materials and Methods: In a case-control study, twenty cases of white patients with psoriasis vulgaris, 10 males and 10 females and sixteen healthy controls, 8 males and 8 females were enrolled in the study. The serum protein expression patterns obtained after depletion of albumin were compared by using two dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) coupled to MALDI/TOF-TOF to identify disease associated proteins. Results: Differential expression of nine protein spots representing four unique proteins including alpha-1 antitrypsin, retinol binding protein, keratin 10 and an unknown protein (with pI 6.47 and molecular weight of 19941 Da), between psoriatic and healthy human serum were found. Furthermore, expression of four new alpha-1 antitrypsin isoforms with different molecular weight and isoelectric point were observed in psoriatic serums in this research for the first time. Conclusion: A unique proteomic profiling with abnormal expression of alpha-1 antitrypsin and presence of keratin 10 in sera of psoriasis patients were observed that may constitute new and useful findings of psoriasis and offer a clue to a better understanding of the inflammatory pathway. PMID:25691940

  18. Gastric clearance of alpha-1-antitrypsin under cimetidine perfusion. New test to detect protein-losing gastropathy

    SciTech Connect

    Florent, C.; Vidon, N.; Flourie, B.; Carmantrand, A.; Zerbani, A.; Maurel, M.; Bernier, J.J.

    1986-01-01

    Gastric losses of plasma are usually measured with radiolabeled macromolecules. This method is expensive and cumbersome. Direct measurement of exudated plasma proteins are ineffective since proteins are denaturated by acidic gastric juice and pepsin. It was recently shown that albumin measurement after immediate neutralization allowed detection of gastric protein losses, but this method is quite complex and time consuming. We studied alpha 1-antitrypsin and 51Cr-labeled protein clearance in gastric juice during normal saline and cimetidine (1.5 mg/kg/hr) infusion in six healthy volunteers and six patients with exudative gastropathy. alpha 1-Antitrypsin was measurable in all samples during cimetidine infusion: alpha 1-AT and 51Cr losses were significantly correlated (P less than 0.001). The upper limit of gastric alpha 1-AT clearance in controls was 0.86 ml/hr (mean + 2 SD). Using this value, there was no overlapping between patients and controls. The upper limit of 51Cr test was 1.87 ml/hr (mean + 2 SD) in controls but gastric clearance of 51Cr was below this value in one patient. This suggests that the measurement of alpha 1-AT gastric clearance during cimetidine perfusion is a good test to detect an exudative gastropathy. This test is inexpensive and lasts only 3 hr.

  19. Reduction of the elastase inhibitory capacity of alpha 1-antitrypsin by peroxides in cigarette smoke: an analysis of brands and filters

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, A.B.; James, H.L.

    1982-07-01

    A procedure for measuring the oxidant content of aqueous condensates of tobacco cigarette smoke is described. The procedure was used in conjunction with analysis of the ability of the smoke solutions to inactivate the elastase inhibitory capacity (EIC) of alpha 1-antitrypsin. The ability of the smoke of a brand to inactivate alpha 1-antitrypsin correlates well with the known tar and nicotine and with the amount of oxidants as measured using o-dianisidine. Filters were found to remove about 73% of the oxidants from smoke. Smoke from a commercial nontobacco cigarette was also found to contain a significant amount of oxidants and to also destroy alpha 1-antitrypsin. Catalase and superoxide dismutase reduce the effect of solutions containing smoke on the EIC of alpha 1-antitrypsin, suggesting that peroxides and superoxide anions in smoke contribute to the oxidant capacity of the smoke. The extent of apparent oxidation by a given quantity of smoke condensate increases for as long as an hour from the time the condensate is collected. The addition of hydrogen peroxide to the smoke solution increases both its oxidant content and its ability to inactivate alpha 1-antitrypsin. These data suggest that occurrence of hydrogen peroxide caused by secretion from macrophages found in the small airways of smokers may contribute to a locally damaging environment for alpha 1-antitrypsin in the presence of cigarette smoke that could promote the development of centrilobular emphysema.

  20. Adenovirus-mediated transfer of a recombinant human alpha 1-antitrypsin cDNA to human endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Lemarchand, P; Jaffe, H A; Danel, C; Cid, M C; Kleinman, H K; Stratford-Perricaudet, L D; Perricaudet, M; Pavirani, A; Lecocq, J P; Crystal, R G

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using a replication-deficient recombinant adenovirus to transfer human genes to the human endothelium, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were infected in vitro with adenovirus vectors containing the lacZ gene or a human alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) cDNA. After in vitro infection with the lacZ adenovirus vector, cultured endothelial cells expressed beta-galactosidase. In parallel studies with the alpha 1AT adenovirus vector, infected cells expressed human alpha 1AT transcripts, as evidenced by in situ hybridization and Northern analysis, and de novo synthesized and secreted glycosylated, functional alpha 1AT within 6 hr of infection, as shown by [35S]methionine labeling and immunoprecipitation. Quantification of the culture supernatants demonstrated 0.3-0.6 micrograms of human alpha 1AT secreted per 10(6) cells in 24 hr, for at least 14 days after adenovirus vector infection. To demonstrate the feasibility of direct transfer of genes into endothelial cells in human blood vessels, lacZ or alpha 1AT adenovirus vectors were placed in the lumen of intact human umbilical veins ex vivo. Histologic evaluation of the veins after 24 hr demonstrated transfer and expression of the lacZ gene specifically to the endothelium. alpha 1AT adenovirus infection resulted both in expression of alpha 1AT transcripts in the endothelium and in de novo synthesis and secretion of alpha 1AT. Quantification of alpha 1AT in the vein perfusates showed average levels of 13 micrograms/ml after 24 hr. These observations strongly support the feasibility of in vivo human gene transfer to the endothelium mediated by replication-deficient adenovirus vectors. Images PMID:1631146

  1. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin, a Diagnostic and Prognostic Marker of Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis

    PubMed Central

    Salman, Khushtar A; Alam, Sana; Siddiqui, Anwar H; Naeem, Syed Shariq; Ahmad, Aquil; Khan, Iqbal M

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A major chunk of ocular allergies in humans involve the conjunctiva, of which Vernal Keratoconjunctivitis (VKC) appears to be more common. VKC, a chronic allergic conjunctivitis, frequently affects young males and is characterized by intense inflammation of the limbal and/or tarsal conjunctiva. The etiology and immuno-pathogenesis of VKC still remain unclear. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), a member of serine proteinase inhibitor (SERPIN) superfamily, is an acute phase protein whose concentration in blood increases in response to inflammation. AAT deficiency is one of the many factors that may be involved in several abnormalities such as liver disease, emphysema, inflammatory joint diseases and inflammatory eye diseases. In the present study, the role played by this protein in VKC was analyzed in a selective case/control study to assess its diagnostic and prognostic value. Materials and Methods: The case control study included 50 patients of VKC reporting to Ophthalmology out patient department (OPD). Age and sex matched 40 healthy subjects served as control. Serum AAT level of both the cases and controls were evaluated and compared. Moreover the serum AAT levels of the patients at presentation were compared with their serum AAT level after three weeks post treatment. Result: Levels of AAT in the serum of VKC patients at presentation (2.80 ± 0.42 mg/ml) were significantly higher as compared to controls (2.31 ± 0.21 mg/ml) whereas no significant difference was observed between the serum level of post treatment VKC patients (2.48 ± 0.26 mg/ml) and controls. Conclusion: AAT is a potent acute phase protein whose concentration rises significantly in VKC, irrespective of the age and sex of the patient. Moreover, the serum level of AAT declined significantly post treatment; therefore it might be used as a prognostic marker. PMID:24995171

  2. Cardiovascular and musculskeletal co-morbidities in patients with alpha 1 antitrypsin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Determining the presence and extent of co-morbidities is fundamental in assessing patients with chronic respiratory disease, where increased cardiovascular risk, presence of osteoporosis and low muscle mass have been recognised in several disease states. We hypothesised that the systemic consequences are evident in a further group of subjects with COPD due to Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (A1ATD), yet are currently under-recognised. Methods We studied 19 patients with PiZZ A1ATD COPD and 20 age, sex and smoking matched controls, all subjects free from known cardiovascular disease. They underwent spirometry, haemodynamic measurements including aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV), an independent predictor or cardiovascular risk, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry to determine body composition and bone mineral density. Results The aPWV was greater in patients: 9.9(2.1) m/s than controls: 8.5(1.6) m/s, p = 0.03, despite similar mean arterial pressure (MAP). The strongest predictors of aPWV were age, FEV1% predicted and MAP (all p < 0.01). Osteoporosis was present in 8/19 patients (2/20 controls) and was previously unsuspected in 7 patients. The fat free mass and bone mineral density were lower in patients than controls (p < 0.001). Conclusions Patients with A1ATD related COPD have increased aortic stiffness suggesting increased risk of cardiovascular disease and evidence of occult musculoskeletal changes, all likely to contribute hugely to overall morbidity and mortality. PMID:21138571

  3. Prevalence of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency and allele frequency in patients with COPD in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Rodrigo; Zillmer, Laura Russo; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; Manzano, Beatriz; Ivanaga, Ivan Teruaki; Fritscher, Leandro; Lundgren, Fernando; Miravitlles, Marc; Gondim, Heicilainy Del Carlos; Santos, Gildo; Alves, Marcela Amorim; Oliveira, Maria Vera; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Sales, Maria Penha Uchoa; Jardim, José Roberto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the prevalence of alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (AATD), as well as allele frequency, in COPD patients in Brazil. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study involving 926 COPD patients 40 years of age or older, from five Brazilian states. All patients underwent determination of AAT levels in dried blood spot (DBS) samples by nephelometry. Those with DBS AAT levels ≤ 2.64 mg/dL underwent determination of serum AAT levels. Those with serum AAT levels of < 113 mg/dL underwent genotyping. In case of conflicting results, SERPINA1 gene sequencing was performed. Results: Of the 926 COPD patients studied, 85 had DBS AAT levels ≤ 2.64 mg/dL, and 24 (2.6% of the study sample) had serum AAT levels of < 113 mg/dL. Genotype distribution in this subset of 24 patients was as follows: PI*MS, in 3 (12.5%); PI*MZ, in 13 (54.2%); PI*SZ, in 1 (4.2%); PI*SS, in 1 (4.2%); and PI*ZZ, in 6 (25.0%). In the sample as a whole, the overall prevalence of AATD was 2.8% and the prevalence of the PI*ZZ genotype (severe AATD) was 0.8% Conclusions: The prevalence of AATD in COPD patients in Brazil is similar to that found in most countries and reinforces the recommendation that AAT levels be measured in all COPD patients. PMID:27812629

  4. Alpha1-Antitrypsin Attenuates Renal Fibrosis by Inhibiting TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jang-Hee; Ryu, Hye-Myung; Oh, Eun-Joo; Yook, Ju-Min; Ahn, Ji-Sun; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Choi, Ji-Young; Park, Sun-Hee; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Kim, Chan-Duck

    2016-01-01

    Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) exerts its anti-inflammatory effect through regulating the activity of serine proteinases. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of AAT against the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) mice and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. C57BL/6 mice with induced UUO were injected intraperitoneally with AAT (80 mg/Kg) or vehicle for 7 days. MDCK cells were treated with TGF-β1 (2 ng/mL) for 48 hours to induce EMT, and co-treated with AAT (10 mg/mL) to inhibit the EMT. Masson’s trichrome and Sirius red staining was used to estimate the extent of renal fibrosis in UUO mice. The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin, fibronectin, collagen I, and E-cadherin in MDCK cells and kidney tissue were evaluated. Masson’s and Sirius red staining revealed that the area of renal fibrosis was significantly smaller in AAT treated UUO group compared with that of UUO and vehicle treated UUO groups. AAT treatment attenuated upregulation of Smad2/3 phosphorylation in UUO mouse model. Co-treatment of MDCK cells with TGF-β1 and AAT significantly attenuated the changes in the expression of α-SMA, vimentin, fibronectin, collagen I, and E-cadherin. AAT also decreased the phosphorylated Smad3 expression and the phosphorylated Smad3/Smad3 ratio in MDCK cells. AAT treatment inhibited EMT induced by TGF-β1 in MDCK cells and attenuated renal fibrosis in the UUO mouse model. The results of this work suggest that AAT could inhibit the process of EMT through the suppression of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling. PMID:27607429

  5. Rapid renal alpha-1 antitrypsin gene induction in experimental and clinical acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Zager, Richard A; Johnson, Ali C M; Frostad, Kirsten B

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a hepatic stress protein with protease inhibitor activity. Recent evidence indicates that ischemic or toxic injury can evoke selective changes within kidney that resemble a hepatic phenotype. Hence, we tested the following: i) Does acute kidney injury (AKI) up-regulate the normally renal silent AAT gene? ii) Does rapid urinary AAT excretion result? And iii) Can AAT's anti-protease/anti-neutrophil elastase (NE) activity protect injured proximal tubule cells? CD-1 mice were subjected to ischemic or nephrotoxic (glycerol, maleate, cisplatin) AKI. Renal functional and biochemical assessments were made 4-72 hrs later. Rapidly following injury, 5-10 fold renal cortical and isolated proximal tubule AAT mRNA and protein increases occurred. These were paralleled by rapid (>100 fold) increases in urinary AAT excretion. AKI also induced marked increases in renal cortical/isolated proximal tubule NE mRNA. However, sharp NE protein levels declines resulted, which strikingly correlated (r, -0.94) with rising AAT protein levels (reflecting NE complexing by AAT/destruction). NE addition to HK-2 cells evoked ∼95% cell death. AAT completely blocked this NE toxicity, as well as Fe induced oxidant HK-2 cell attack. Translational relevance of experimental AAT gene induction was indicated by ∼100-1000 fold urinary AAT increases in 22 AKI patients (matching urine NGAL increases). We conclude: i) AKI rapidly up-regulates the renal cortical/proximal tubule AAT gene; ii) NE gene induction also results; iii) AAT can confer cytoprotection, potentially by blocking/reducing cytotoxic NE accumulation; and iv) marked increases in urinary AAT excretion in AKI patients implies clinical relevance of the AKI- AAT induction pathway.

  6. Outcomes for recipients of liver transplantation for alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency–related cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Carey, Elizabeth J; Iyer, Vivek N; Nelson, Darlene R; Nguyen, Justin H; Krowka, Michael J

    2013-12-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a rare genetic disease caused by an abnormal production of the serine protease inhibitor AAT. Liver transplantation (LT) cures cirrhosis caused by AAT deficiency and restores the normal production of AAT. There are few reports on the post-LT outcomes of patients with AAT deficiency. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics and outcomes of patients undergoing LT for AAT deficiency at 3 large transplant centers. All patients undergoing LT at these 3 transplant centers from 1987 to 2012 for AAT deficiency (ZZ or SZ phenotype) were included. The most recent 50 patients with the MZ phenotype were also included for comparison. Data were collected retrospectively from internal databases and medical records. Seventy-three patients (50 with the ZZ phenotype and 23 with the SZ phenotype)underwent LT. The mean age was 52.8 years, and the majority of the patients (75.6%) were men. Before LT, serum AAT levels were lower for the ZZ patients versus the SZ patients (28.3 versus 58.0 mg/dL, P < 0.001). More than 40% of the SZ patients had an additional liver disease, whereas 8% in the ZZ group and 90% in the MZ group did. Before LT, there was no significant difference in pulmonary function between the ZZ and SZ groups. Seventeen patients (all with ZZ phenotype)had pulmonary function tests performed before and after LT. The forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) continued to decline for the majority. The 1-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year post-LT survival rates were 86%, 83%, 80%, and 72%, respectively, for the ZZ patients and 91%, 86%, 79%, and 79%, respectively, for the SZ patients. In conclusion, survival after LT for patients with ZZ or SZ AAT deficiency is excellent. Despite the normalization of AAT levels after LT, FEV1 continues to decline unexpectedly after LT in some ZZ and SZ patients.

  7. Alpha1-Antitrypsin Attenuates Renal Fibrosis by Inhibiting TGF-β1-Induced Epithelial Mesenchymal Transition.

    PubMed

    Cho, Jang-Hee; Ryu, Hye-Myung; Oh, Eun-Joo; Yook, Ju-Min; Ahn, Ji-Sun; Jung, Hee-Yeon; Choi, Ji-Young; Park, Sun-Hee; Kim, Yong-Lim; Kwak, Ihm Soo; Kim, Chan-Duck

    2016-01-01

    Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) exerts its anti-inflammatory effect through regulating the activity of serine proteinases. This study evaluated the inhibitory effects of AAT against the transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in unilateral ureter obstruction (UUO) mice and Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cells. C57BL/6 mice with induced UUO were injected intraperitoneally with AAT (80 mg/Kg) or vehicle for 7 days. MDCK cells were treated with TGF-β1 (2 ng/mL) for 48 hours to induce EMT, and co-treated with AAT (10 mg/mL) to inhibit the EMT. Masson's trichrome and Sirius red staining was used to estimate the extent of renal fibrosis in UUO mice. The expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin, fibronectin, collagen I, and E-cadherin in MDCK cells and kidney tissue were evaluated. Masson's and Sirius red staining revealed that the area of renal fibrosis was significantly smaller in AAT treated UUO group compared with that of UUO and vehicle treated UUO groups. AAT treatment attenuated upregulation of Smad2/3 phosphorylation in UUO mouse model. Co-treatment of MDCK cells with TGF-β1 and AAT significantly attenuated the changes in the expression of α-SMA, vimentin, fibronectin, collagen I, and E-cadherin. AAT also decreased the phosphorylated Smad3 expression and the phosphorylated Smad3/Smad3 ratio in MDCK cells. AAT treatment inhibited EMT induced by TGF-β1 in MDCK cells and attenuated renal fibrosis in the UUO mouse model. The results of this work suggest that AAT could inhibit the process of EMT through the suppression of TGF-β/Smad3 signaling.

  8. Does urinary peptide content differ between COPD patients with and without inherited alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency?

    PubMed Central

    Carleo, Alfonso; Chorostowska-Wynimko, Joanna; Koeck, Thomas; Mischak, Harald; Czajkowska-Malinowska, Małgorzata; Rozy, Adriana; Welte, Tobias; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2017-01-01

    Differentiating between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients with normal (PiMM) or deficient (PiZZ) genetic variants of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) is important not only for understanding the pathobiology of disease progression but also for improving personalized therapies. This pilot study aimed to investigate whether urinary peptides reflect the A1AT-related phenotypes of COPD. Urine samples from 19 clinically stable COPD cases (7 PiMM and 12 PiZZ A1AT) were analyzed by capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry. We identified 66 peptides (corresponding to 36 unique proteins) that differed between PiZZ and PiMM COPD. Among these, peptides from the collagen family were the most abundant and divergent. A logistic regression model based on COL1A1 or COL5A3 peptides enabled differentiation between PiMM and PiZZ groups, with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 85.71% for COL1A1 and a sensitivity of 91.67% and specificity of 85.71% for COL5A3. Furthermore, patients with PiZZ presented low levels of urinary peptides involved in lipoproteins/lipids and retinoic acid metabolism, such as apolipoprotein A-I and C4, retinol-binding protein 4 and prostaglandin-H2 D-isomerase. However, peptides of MDS1 and EVII complex locus, gelsolin and hemoglobin alpha were found in the urine of COPD cases with PiZZ, but not with PiMM. These capillary electrophoresis coupled to mass spectrometry-based results provide the first evidence that urinary peptide content differs between PiMM and PiZZ patients with COPD. PMID:28331304

  9. Efficacy of alpha1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy in conditions other than pulmonary emphysema.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Ignacio; Lara, Beatriz; de Serres, Frederick

    2011-04-12

    Up to now alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) augmentation therapy has been approved only for commercial use in selected adults with severe AAT deficiency-related pulmonary emphysema (i.e. PI*ZZ genotypes as well as combinations of Z, rare and null alleles expressing AAT serum concentrations <11 μmol/L). However, the compassionate use of augmentation therapy in recent years has proven outstanding efficacy in small cohorts of patients suffering from uncommon AAT deficiency-related diseases other than pulmonary emphysema, such as fibromyalgia, systemic vasculitis, relapsing panniculitis and bronchial asthma. Moreover, a series of preclinical studies provide evidence of the efficacy of AAT augmentation therapy in several infectious diseases, diabetes mellitus and organ transplant rejection. These facts have generated an expanding number of medical applications and patents with claims for other indications of AAT besides pulmonary emphysema. The aim of the present study is to compile and analyze both clinical and histological features of the aforementioned published case studies and reports where AAT augmentation therapy was used for conditions other than pulmonary emphysema. Particularly, our research refers to ten case reports and two clinical trials on AAT augmentation therapy in patients with both AAT deficiency and, at least, one of the following diseases: fibromyalgia, vasculitis, panniculitis and bronchial asthma. In all the cases, AAT was successfully applied whereas previous maximal conventional therapies had failed. In conclusion, laboratory studies in animals and humans as well as larger clinical trials should be, thus, performed in order to determine both the strong clinical efficacy and security of AAT in the treatment of conditions other than pulmonary emphysema.

  10. Mutant p53 upregulates alpha-1 antitrypsin expression and promotes invasion in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Shakya, R; Tarulli, G A; Sheng, L; Lokman, N A; Ricciardelli, C; Pishas, K I; Selinger, C I; Kohonen-Corish, M R J; Cooper, W A; Turner, A G; Neilsen, P M; Callen, D F

    2017-04-03

    Missense mutations in the TP53 tumor-suppressor gene inactivate its antitumorigenic properties and endow the incipient cells with newly acquired oncogenic properties that drive invasion and metastasis. Although the oncogenic effect of mutant p53 transcriptome has been widely acknowledged, the global influence of mutant p53 on cancer cell proteome remains to be fully elucidated. Here, we show that mutant p53 drives the release of invasive extracellular factors (the ‘secretome’) that facilitates the invasion of lung cancer cell lines. Proteomic characterization of the secretome from mutant p53-inducible H1299 human non-small cell lung cancer cell line discovered that the mutant p53 drives its oncogenic pathways through modulating the gene expression of numerous targets that are subsequently secreted from the cells. Of these genes, alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) was identified as a critical effector of mutant p53 that drives invasion in vitro and in vivo, together with induction of epithelial–mesenchymal transition markers expression. Mutant p53 upregulated A1AT transcriptionally through the involvement with its family member p63. Conditioned medium containing secreted A1AT enhanced cell invasion, while an A1AT-blocking antibody attenuated the mutant p53-driven migration and invasion. Importantly, high A1AT expression correlated with increased tumor stage, elevated p53 staining and shorter overall survival in lung adenocarcinoma patients. Collectively, these findings suggest that A1AT is an indispensable target of mutant p53 with prognostic and therapeutic potential in mutant p53-expressing tumors. Oncogene advance online publication, 3 April 2017; doi:10.1038/onc.2017.66.

  11. Interferon beta 2/interleukin 6 modulates synthesis of alpha 1-antitrypsin in human mononuclear phagocytes and in human hepatoma cells.

    PubMed Central

    Perlmutter, D H; May, L T; Sehgal, P B

    1989-01-01

    The cytokine IFN beta 2/IL-6 has recently been shown to regulate the expression of genes encoding hepatic acute phase plasma proteins. INF beta 2/IL-6 has also been shown to be identical to MGI-2, a protein that induces differentiation of bone marrow precursor cells toward mature granulocytes and monocytes. Accordingly, we have examined the effect of IFN beta 2/IL-6 on expression of the IL-1- and tumor necrosis factor-unresponsive acute phase protein alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1 AT) in human hepatoma-derived hepatocytes and in human mononuclear phagocytes. Purified human fibroblast and recombinant IFN beta 2/IL-6 each mediate a specific increase in steady-state levels of alpha 1 AT mRNA and a corresponding increase in net synthesis of alpha 1 AT in primary cultures of human peripheral blood monocytes as well as in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. Thus, the effect of IFN beta 2/IL-6 on alpha 1 AT gene expression in these cells is primarily due to an increase in accumulation of alpha 1 AT mRNA and can be distinguished from the direct, predominantly translational effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide on expression of this gene in monocytes and macrophages. The results indicate that IFN beta 2/IL-6 regulates acute phase gene expression, specifically alpha 1 AT gene expression, in extrahepatic as well as hepatic cell types. Images PMID:2472425

  12. Faecal alpha-1-antitrypsin and excretion of 111indium granulocytes in assessment of disease activity in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Fischbach, W; Becker, W; Mössner, J; Koch, W; Reiners, C

    1987-01-01

    Intestinal protein loss in chronic inflammatory bowel diseases may be easily determined by measurement of alpha-1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) stool concentration and alpha 1-AT clearance. Both parameters were significantly raised in 36 and 34 patients respectively with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, compared with eight patients with non-inflammatory bowel diseases, or 19 healthy volunteers. There was wide range of overlap between active and inactive inflammatory disease. Contrary to serum alpha 1-AT, faecal excretion and clearance of alpha 1-AT did not correlate with ESR, serum-albumin, orosomucoid, and two indices of disease activity. A comparison of alpha 1-AT faecal excretion and clearance with the faecal excretion of 111In labelled granulocytes in 27 patients with chronic inflammatory bowel diseases, showed no correlation between the intestinal protein loss and this highly specific marker of intestinal inflammation. Enteric protein loss expressed by faecal excretion and clearance of alpha 1-AT does not depend on mucosal inflammation only, but may be influenced by other factors. PMID:3495470

  13. A new allele of human alpha1-antitrypsin: PiNhampton.

    PubMed Central

    Arnaud, P; Galbraith, R M; Galbraith, G M; Allen, R C; Fudenberg, H H

    1978-01-01

    A new allele of alpha1AT is described. By isoelectric focusing, the microheterogeneous pattern of the variant was similar to but more cathodal than that of Pi N. This allele has therefore been tentatively designated PiNhampton(Nham). Further examination revealed that the minor bands of Nham are indistinguishable from the major bands of Z by isoelectric focusing, and a careful family study was necessary to clearly define the proband's phenotype. Pi Nham was found in association with M1, S, and Z, but to date its possession is not apparently related to clinical disorders or reduced serum levels of alpha1AT. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 PMID:311584

  14. Tracking structural features leading to resistance of activated protein C to alpha 1-antitrypsin.

    PubMed

    Shen, L; Dahlbäck, B; Villoutreix, B O

    2000-03-21

    Activated protein C (APC) is a multi-modular anticoagulant serine protease, which degrades factor V/Va and factor VIIIa. Human APC (hAPC) is inhibited by human alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT), while the bovine enzyme (bAPC) is fully resistant to this serpin. Structural features in the catalytic domains between the two species cause this difference, but detailed knowledge about the causal molecular difference is missing. To gain insight into the APC-AAT interaction and to create a human protein C resistant to AAT inhibition, we have used molecular modeling and site-directed mutagenesis. First, a structural model for bAPC based on the Gla-domainless X-ray structure of hAPC was built. Screening the molecular surface of the human and bovine APC enzymes suggested that a hAPC molecule resistant to AAT inhibition could be constructed by substituting only a few amino acids. We thus produced recombinant hAPC molecules with a single mutation (S173E, the numbering follows the chymotrypsinogen nomenclature), two mutations (E60aS/S61R) or a combination of all these substitutions (E60aS/S61R/S173E). Amidolytic and anticoagulant activities of the three mutant APC molecules were similar to those of wild-type hAPC. Inhibition of wild-type hAPC by AAT was characterized by a second-order rate constant (k2) of 2.71 M-1 s-1. The amino acid substitution at position 173 (S173E mutant) led to partial resistance to AAT (k2 = 0.84 M-1 s-1). The E60aS/S61R mutant displayed mild resistance to AAT inhibition (k2 = 1.70 M-1 s-1), whereas the E60aS/S61R/S173E mutant was inefficiently inactivated by AAT (k2 = 0.40 M-1 s-1). Inhibition of recombinant APC molecules by the serpin protein C inhibitor (PCI) in the presence and absence of heparin was also investigated.

  15. Augmentation therapy for alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: towards a personalised approach

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Intravenous augmentation therapy is the only specific treatment available for emphysema associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency. Despite large observational studies and limited interventional studies there remains controversy about the efficacy of this treatment due to the impracticality of conducting adequately powered studies to evaluate the rate of decline in lung function, due to the low prevalence and the slow progression of the disease. However, measurement of lung density by computed tomography is a more specific and sensitive marker of the evolution of emphysema and two small placebo-controlled clinical trials have provided evidence supporting a reduction in the rate of decline in lung density with augmentation therapy. The problem Where augmentation therapy has become available there has been little consideration of a structured approach to therapy which is often introduced on the basis of functional impairment at diagnosis. Data from registries have shown a great variability in the evolution of lung disease according to patient acquisition and the presence of recognised risk factors. Avoidance of risk factors may, in many cases, stabilise the disease. Since augmentation therapy itself will at best preserve the presenting level of lung damage yet require intravenous administration for life with associated costs, identification of patients at risk of continued rapid or long term progression is essential to select those for whom this treatment can be most appropriate and hence generally more cost-effective. This represents a major reconsideration of the current practice in order to develop a consistent approach to management world wide. Purpose of this review The current review assesses the evidence for efficacy of augmentation therapy and considers how the combination of age, physiological impairment, exacerbation history and rate of decline in spirometry and other measures of emphysema may be used to improve therapeutic decision making

  16. Liver function in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficient individuals at 37 to 40 years of age

    PubMed Central

    Mostafavi, Behrouz; Diaz, Sandra; Tanash, Hanan A.; Piitulainen, Eeva

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Severe alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (PiZZ) is a risk factor for liver disease, but the prevalence of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular cancer in PiZZ adults is unknown. The risk of liver disease in adults with moderate AAT deficiency (PiSZ) is also unknown. A cohort of 127 PiZZ, 2 PiZnull, 54 PiSZ, and 1 PiSnull individuals were identified by the Swedish national neonatal AAT screening program between 1972 and 1974, when all 200,000 newborn infants in Sweden were screened for AAT deficiency. The cohort has been followed up since birth. Our aim was to study liver function and signs of liver disease in this cohort at 37 to 40 years of age in comparison with a matched, random sample of control subjects identified from the population registry. Eighty seven PiZZ, 32 PiSZ, and 92 control subjects (PiMM) answered a questionnaire on medication and alcohol consumption and provided blood samples. Liver stiffness was assessed by Acoustic Radiation Force Impulse (ARFI) elastography in 32 PiZZ, 15 PiSZ, and 51 PiMM subjects. The median of liver function tests and procollagen-III-peptide were within the normal range in all Pi subgroups. However, the PiZZ men had significantly higher plasma bilirubin than the PiMM men (P = 0.018). Plasma ɣ-glutamyl transferase (GGT) was significantly higher in the PiZZ men (P = 0.009) and the PiSZ men (P = 0.021) compared with the PiMM men. The median of liver stiffness was significantly higher in the PiZZ men (P = 0.037) and the PiSZ men (P = 0.032) compared with the PiMM men. The PiZZ women taking medication influencing liver enzymes had significantly higher GGT than the PiMM women on the corresponding treatment (P = 0.023). These AAT-deficient individuals identified by neonatal screening have normal plasma levels of liver function tests, and no clinical signs indicating liver disease at the age of 37 to 40 years. However, bilirubin, GGT, and liver stiffness are significantly higher in PiZZ men than Pi

  17. Discovery of an Inhibitor of Z-Alpha1 Antitrypsin Polymerization

    PubMed Central

    Estenson, Kasey Noel; Baudry, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Polymerization of the Z variant alpha-1-antitrypsin (Z-α1AT) results in the most common and severe form of α1AT deficiency (α1ATD), a debilitating genetic disorder whose clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic to fatal liver and/or lung disease. As the altered conformation of Z-α1AT and its attendant aggregation are responsible for pathogenesis, the polymerization process per se has become a major target for the development of therapeutics. Based on the ability of Z-α1AT to aggregate by recruiting the reactive center loop (RCL) of another Z-α1AT into its s4A cavity, we developed a high-throughput screening assay that uses a modified 6-mer peptide mimicking the RCL to screen for inhibitors of Z-α1AT polymer growth. A subset of compounds from the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) with molecular weights ranging from 300 to 700 Da, was used to evaluate the assay’s capabilities. The inhibitor S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioguanosine was identified as a lead compound and its ability to prevent Z-α1AT polymerization confirmed by secondary assays. To further investigate the binding location of S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioguanosine, an in silico strategy was pursued and the intermediate α1AT M* state modeled to allow molecular docking simulations and explore various potential binding sites. Docking results predict that S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioguanosine can bind at the s4A cavity and at the edge of β-sheet A. The former binding site would directly block RCL insertion whereas the latter site would prevent β-sheet A from expanding between s3A/s5A, and thus indirectly impede RCL insertion. Altogether, our investigations have revealed a novel compound that inhibits the formation of Z-α1AT polymers, as well as in vitro and in silico strategies for identifying and characterizing additional blocking molecules of Z-α1AT polymerization. PMID:25961288

  18. Discovery of an inhibitor of Z-alpha1 antitrypsin polymerization.

    PubMed

    Berthelier, Valerie; Harris, Jason Brett; Estenson, Kasey Noel; Baudry, Jerome

    2015-01-01

    Polymerization of the Z variant alpha-1-antitrypsin (Z-α1AT) results in the most common and severe form of α1AT deficiency (α1ATD), a debilitating genetic disorder whose clinical manifestations range from asymptomatic to fatal liver and/or lung disease. As the altered conformation of Z-α1AT and its attendant aggregation are responsible for pathogenesis, the polymerization process per se has become a major target for the development of therapeutics. Based on the ability of Z-α1AT to aggregate by recruiting the reactive center loop (RCL) of another Z-α1AT into its s4A cavity, we developed a high-throughput screening assay that uses a modified 6-mer peptide mimicking the RCL to screen for inhibitors of Z-α1AT polymer growth. A subset of compounds from the Library of Pharmacologically Active Compounds (LOPAC) with molecular weights ranging from 300 to 700 Da, was used to evaluate the assay's capabilities. The inhibitor S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioguanosine was identified as a lead compound and its ability to prevent Z-α1AT polymerization confirmed by secondary assays. To further investigate the binding location of S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioguanosine, an in silico strategy was pursued and the intermediate α1AT M* state modeled to allow molecular docking simulations and explore various potential binding sites. Docking results predict that S-(4-nitrobenzyl)-6-thioguanosine can bind at the s4A cavity and at the edge of β-sheet A. The former binding site would directly block RCL insertion whereas the latter site would prevent β-sheet A from expanding between s3A/s5A, and thus indirectly impede RCL insertion. Altogether, our investigations have revealed a novel compound that inhibits the formation of Z-α1AT polymers, as well as in vitro and in silico strategies for identifying and characterizing additional blocking molecules of Z-α1AT polymerization.

  19. Recombinant adeno-associated virus-mediated alpha-1 antitrypsin gene therapy prevents type I diabetes in NOD mice.

    PubMed

    Song, S; Goudy, K; Campbell-Thompson, M; Wasserfall, C; Scott-Jorgensen, M; Wang, J; Tang, Q; Crawford, J M; Ellis, T M; Atkinson, M A; Flotte, T R

    2004-01-01

    Type I diabetes results from an autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells. Although the exact immunologic processes underlying this disease are unclear, increasing evidence suggests that immunosuppressive, immunoregulatory and anti-inflammatory agents can interrupt the progression of the disease. Alpha 1 antitrypsin (AAT) is a multifunctional serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) that also displays a wide range of anti-inflammatory properties. To test the ability of AAT to modulate the development of type I diabetes, we performed a series of investigations involving recombinant adeno-associated virus vector (rAAV)-mediated gene delivery of human alpha-1 antitrypsin (hAAT) to nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice. Recombinant AAV-expressing hAAT (rAAV2-CB-AT) was administered intramuscularly to 4-week-old female NOD mice (1 x 10(10) i.u./mouse). A single injection of this vector reduced the intensity of insulitis, the levels of insulin autoantibodies, and the frequency of overt type I diabetes (30% (3/10) at 32 weeks of age versus 70% (7/10) in controls). Transgene expression at the injection sites was confirmed by immunostaining. Interestingly, antibodies against hAAT were present in a majority of the vector-injected mice and circulating hAAT was undetectable when assessed 10 weeks postinjection. This study suggests a potential therapeutic role for AAT in preventing type I diabetes as well as the ability of AAV gene therapy-based approaches to ameliorate disease effectively.

  20. Capitalizing on the autophagic response for treatment of liver disease caused by alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency and other genetic diseases.

    PubMed

    Chu, Andrew S; Perlmutter, David H; Wang, Yan

    2014-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) is one of the most common genetic causes of liver disease and is a prototype of liver diseases caused by the pathologic accumulation of aggregated mutant alpha-1-antitrypsin Z (ATZ) within liver cells. In the case of ATD-associated liver disease, the resulting "gain-of-function" toxicity can lead to serious clinical manifestations, including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently, the only definitive therapy for ATD-associated liver disease is liver transplantation, but recent efforts have demonstrated the exciting potential for novel therapies that target disposal of the mutant protein aggregates by harnessing a cellular homeostasis mechanism called autophagy. In this review, we will summarize research advances on autophagy and genetic liver diseases. We will discuss autophagy enhancer strategies for liver disease due to ATD and another genetic liver disease, inherited hypofibrinogenemia, caused by the proteotoxic effects of a misfolded protein. On the basis of recent evidence that autophagy plays a role in cellular lipid degradation, we also speculate about autophagy enhancer strategies for treatment of hepatic lipid storage diseases such as cholesterol ester storage disease.

  1. Fecal excretion of alpha 1-antitrypsin in patients with Crohn's disease. A comparison of nephelometry and radial immunodiffusion.

    PubMed

    López, A; Hinojosa, J; Miralles, A; Primo, J; Bermúdez, J D

    1994-03-01

    A comparison is made of two methods for quantifying fecal alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1ATF): nephelometry (NPL) (the method habitually employed in our laboratory), and radial immunodiffusion (RID). A method is also described for extracting A1ATF from single 24-hr stool samples. The normal A1ATF values were initially established in 25 healthy controls, followed by quantification of the protein in 30 patients with Crohn's disease, with the aim of evaluating the sensitivity and specificity of the test in assaying A1ATF and alpha 1-antitrypsin fecal clearance (CLAT). The precision of the measurement method and its applicability to the A1ATF extraction process are also evaluated. The ranges of normal A1ATF and CLAT values were found to be 0-42.2 mg/24 hr and 0-12.6 ml/24 hr, respectively; sensitivity was in turn 83% and 80% for A1ATF and CLAT, respectively, with a specificity of 100% in both cases. A good correlation was observed between the A1ATF quantifications afforded by RID and NPL in both the controls and patients with Crohn's disease (r = 0.917 and 0.997, respectively). We consider that A1ATF quantification is a rapid, safe, and reproducible method that is well tolerated by the patient.

  2. Prevalence of PI*Z and PI*S alleles of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency in Finland.

    PubMed

    Häggblom, Jan; Kettunen, Kaisa; Karjalainen, Jussi; Heliövaara, Markku; Jousilahti, Pekka; Saarelainen, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of PI*Z and PI*S alleles of SERPINA1 gene related to alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency has previously been estimated to be lower in Finland than in the other countries of Northern Europe. The prevalence of PI*M (Malton) has not been studied in Finland before. We determined alpha-1-antitrypsin PI*Z and PI*S and PI*M (Malton) genotypes from a representative population sample. The number of subjects was 6,354 in the PI*S and PI*M (Malton) genotyping. PI*Z genotyping was performed in a subsample of 2,482 subjects. The allele frequencies were PI*Z 19.7/1,000 and PI*S 10.2/1,000. No PI*M (Malton) was found. The number of carriers of PI*Z and PI*S is significantly higher than previously estimated. The prevalences are in line with the findings in the neighboring countries.

  3. Inactivation of alpha 1-antitrypsin by aqueous coal solutions: Possible relation to the emphysema of coal workers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, X.; Laurent, P.A.; Zalma, R.; Pezerat, H. )

    1993-07-01

    Increasing evidence demonstrates that emphysema in coal workers may be related to their exposure to coal dusts. The hypothesis that emphysema could be related to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by inhaled coal dusts was examined in the present study. Using ESR, we investigated whether the interaction of different coals with dissolved oxygen in aqueous medium could generate ROS. Indeed, we found that one of the five examined French coal samples, Vouters coal, was effective in oxidizing formate anions or ethanol by a radical pathway. Inactivation of alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1-AT) in vitro was then examined for all five coal filtrates. The Vouters coal filtrate, which exhibits oxidative activity, can also inactivate alpha 1-AT. When this coal filtrate was crystallized and redissolved, its oxidative activity was found to be conserved. By use of various analytical techniques, the active component of this coal filtrate was identified to be primarily ferrous sulfate. We confirmed that pure ferrous sulfate can effectively reduce oxygen to produce ROS in aqueous medium in vitro and can also inactivate alpha 1-AT. In this report, the nature of the coal-generated oxidative species, the origin of ferrous sulfate, and the stability of ferrous sulfate in the different coal samples are discussed. These results offer evidence that some inhaled coal dusts are capable of producing ROS, which may play an important role in the development of coal workers' emphysema.

  4. Physical and genetic mapping of the serpin gene cluster at 14q32.1: allelic association and a unique haplotype associated with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Byth, B. C.; Billingsley, G. D.; Cox, D. W.

    1994-01-01

    The alpha 1-antitrypsin (PI) gene is part of a cluster of structurally related serine protease inhibitor genes localized at chromosome 14q32.1, a cluster that includes the alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (AACT), protein C inhibitor (PCI), and corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG) genes and the alpha 1-antitrypsin-like pseudogene (PIL). The order of the genes is refined here by genetic mapping using simple tandem repeat polymorphisms (STRPs) and by physical mapping in YACs. The order of the genes is (centromere)-CBG-PIL-PI-PCI-AACT-(telomere). Analysis of DNA haplotypes comprising STRP and RFLP markers in the serpin genes reveals considerable allelic association throughout the cluster. Furthermore, the common alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency allele, PI*Z, has a unique DNA haplotype at the CBG, PIL, and PI loci, which extends over 60 kb in 97% of cases and in 44% of cases includes the PCI and AACT loci. This unique haplotype will be of use in examining a number of other diseases, particularly those with an inflammatory component, thought to be associated with alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency or partial deficiency. Images Figure 1 Figure 3 PMID:7912884

  5. An approach for producing transgenic cloned cows by nuclear transfer of cells transfected with human alpha 1-antitrypsin gene.

    PubMed

    Jang, Goo; Bhuiyan, M M U; Jeon, Hyun Yong; Ko, Kyeong Hee; Park, Hee Jung; Kim, Min Kyu; Kim, Joung Ju; Kang, Sung Keun; Lee, Byeong Chun; Hwang, Woo Suk

    2006-06-01

    In an attempt to produce transgenic cloned cows secreting alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT) protein into milk, bovine cumulus cells were transfected with a plasmid containing an alpha1-AT gene and green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter gene using Fugene 6 as a lipid carrier. The GFP-expressing cells were selected and transferred into enucleated bovine oocytes. Couplets were fused, chemically activated and cultured. Developmental competence was monitored and the number of inner cell mass (ICM) and trophectoderm (TE) cells in blastocysts were counted after differential staining. The percentage of blastocysts was lower (P < 0.05) in transgenic cloned embryos compared to non-transgenic cloned embryos (23% versus 35%). No difference in the numbers of ICM and TE cells between the two groups of embryos was observed. One or two GFP-expressing blastocysts were transferred into the uterus of each recipient cow. Out of 49 recipient cows, three pregnancies were detected by non-return estrus and rectal palpation. However, the pregnancies failed to maintain to term; two fetuses were aborted at Day 60 and 150, respectively, and one fetus at Day 240. The genomic DNA from the aborted fetus was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to investigate integration of the transgene in the fetus. The expected PCR product was sequenced and was identical to the sequence of alpha1-AT transgene. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that developmental competence of cloned embryos derived from transgenic donor cells was lower than embryos derived from non-transfected donor cells. Although we failed to obtain a viable transgenic cloned calf, integration of alpha1-AT gene into the fetus presents the possibility of producing transgenic cloned cows by somatic cell nuclear transfer.

  6. Ulcerative colitis responsive to smoking and to nicotine chewing gum in a patient with alpha 1 anti-trypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Watson, J P; Lewis, R A

    1995-10-01

    Ulcerative colitis is one of the few diseases in which smoking appears to confer some benefit (1). We report a patient whose ulcerative colitis deteriorated on several occasions on stopping cigarettes, and improved on restarting smoking. As a result, she continued smoking despite developing airflow limitation and severe emphysema. She was subsequently found to have alpha 1 anti-trypsin deficiency. She later noticed that she could get a similar benefit in her colitis with nicotine chewing gum as she had with cigarettes. For patients with smoking-responsive ulcerative colitis, non-tobacco forms of nicotine delivery such as gum or transdermal patches should be considered to avoid the hazards of cigarette smoke.

  7. Severe postoperative wound healing disturbance in a patient with alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency: the impact of augmentation therapy.

    PubMed

    Cathomas, Marionna; Schüller, Alexandra; Candinas, Daniel; Inglin, Roman

    2015-10-01

    Wound healing disturbance is a common complication following surgery, but the underlying cause sometimes remains elusive. A 50-year-old Caucasian male developed an initially misunderstood severe wound healing disturbance following colon and abdominal wall surgery. An untreated alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency in the patient's medical history, known since 20 years and clinically apparent as a mild to moderate chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, was eventually found to be at its origin. Further clinical work-up showed AAT serum levels below 30% of the lower reference value; phenotype testing showed a ZZ phenotype and a biopsy taken from the wound area showed the characteristic, disease-related histological pattern of necrotising panniculitits. Augmentation therapy with plasma AAT was initiated and within a few weeks, rapid and adequate would healing was observed. AAT deficiency is an uncommon but clinically significant, possible cause of wound healing disturbances. An augmentation therapy ought to be considered in affected patients during the perioperative period.

  8. alpha-1-Antitrypsin (Pi) polymorphism in Serbia: deviation of Pi M subtype distribution from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Jelić-Ivanović, Z; Spasojević-Kalimanovska, V; Topić, A; Spasić, S; Petrović, V

    1994-08-01

    The distribution of the alpha 1-antitrypsin (Pi) phenotypes and subtypes was investigated in a population sample of 1060 unrelated individuals from Serbia (Yugoslavia). The allele frequencies estimates were: Pi*M1: 0.702; Pi*M2: 0.183; Pi*M3: 0.088; Pi*Z: 0.013, Pi*S: 0.007; Pi*P: 0.004; Pi*F: 0.003. The observed phenotype frequencies differed very significantly from those expected assuming H.W. equilibrium (chi 2 = 49.51, p < 0.0005). The deviation from equilibrium involved the three Pi*M subtypes: an excess of Pi*M1, Pi*M2 and Pi*M3 homozygotes was found, with the corresponding decreased number of M1M2 and M1M3 heterozygotes. The possible significance of this finding is discussed.

  9. Elevated soluble HLA II protein levels in patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency with or without COPD.

    PubMed

    Li, Liping; Kueppers, Friedrich; Hildebrand, William; Buchli, Rico; Gaughan, John

    2012-08-01

    Elevated levels of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) proteins have been reported in several pathologic conditions that are associated with increased concentrations of white blood cells (e.g., infection, inflammation, and lymphoproliferative disorders). The mechanisms by which HLA proteins are solubilized from cell membranes are insufficiently understood. We hypothesized that HLA proteins may be cleaved from cell membranes by insufficiently inhibited leukocytic elastase, as expected in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD), resulting in elevated plasma levels of soluble HLA (sHLA) proteins. Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we measured sHLA II levels in the peripheral blood of patients with A1ATD with or without co-existing chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), with COPD only, and in a control group. Mean (±SD) sHLA II plasma levels were 110 ± 200 pg/mL in patients with A1ATD and COPD (Group 1), 10 ± 30 pg/mL in patients with COPD without A1ATD (Group 2), 70 ± 90 pg/mL in patients with A1ATD without COPD (Group 3), and 10 ± 30 pg/mL in healthy donors (Group 4). Soluble HLA II plasma levels were significantly higher in Group 1 (P = .001) and Group 3 (P = .002) versus Group 4. Our preliminary results suggest that leukocytic elastase and probably other proteinases solubilize HLA proteins from cell membranes. This mechanism would operate in inflammation with elevated leukocytic elastase levels but more so with inflammation and A1ATD, where elastase would be insufficiently inhibited. If this mechanism is verified, plasma sHLA levels could potentially be used to measure cell damage due to proteinases and, therefore, for monitoring the therapeutic efficacy of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) augmentation therapy.

  10. Proteome Profiling of Urinary Exosomes Identifies Alpha 1-Antitrypsin and H2B1K as Diagnostic and Prognostic Biomarkers for Urothelial Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Yi; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Wu, His-Chin; Lin, Ching-Chan; Chang, Kai-Po; Yang, Chi-Rei; Huang, Chi-Ping; Hsu, Wu-Huei; Chang, Chiz-Tzung; Chen, Chao-Jung

    2016-01-01

    MALDI-TOF spectrometry has not been used for urinary exosome analysis. We used it for determining UC biomarkers. From 2012 to 2015, we enrolled 129 consecutive patients with UC and 62 participants without UC. Exosomes from their urine were isolated, and analyzed through MALDI-TOF spectrometry. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis of another 122 UC and 26 non-UC tissues was conducted to verify the discovered biomarkers. Two peaks at m/z 5593 (fragmented peptide of alpha-1-antitrypsin; sensitivity, 50.4%; specificity, 96.9%) and m/z 5947 (fragmented peptide of histone H2B1K sensitivity, 62.0%; specificity, 92.3%) were identified as UC diagnosis exosome biomarkers. UC patients with detectable histone H2B1K showed 2.29- and 3.11-fold increased risks of recurrence and progression, respectively, compared with those with nondetectable histone H2B1K. Verification results of IHC staining revealed significantly higher expression of alpha 1-antitrypsin (p = 0.038) and H2B1K (p = 0.005) in UC tissues than in normal tissues. The expression of alpha 1-antitrypsin and H2B1K in UC tissues was significantly correlated with UC grades (p < 0.05). Urinary exosome proteins alpha 1-antitrypsin and histone H2B1K, which are identified through MALDI-TOF analysis, could facilitate rapid diagnosis and prognosis of UC. PMID:27686150

  11. Gene transfer of master autophagy regulator TFEB results in clearance of toxic protein and correction of hepatic disease in alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Nunzia; Blomenkamp, Keith; Annunziata, Fabio; Piccolo, Pasquale; Mithbaokar, Pratibha; Maria Sepe, Rosa; Vetrini, Francesco; Palmer, Donna; Ng, Philip; Polishchuk, Elena; Iacobacci, Simona; Polishchuk, Roman; Teckman, Jeffrey; Ballabio, Andrea; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2013-03-01

    Alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency is the most common genetic cause of liver disease in children and liver transplantation is currently the only available treatment. Enhancement of liver autophagy increases degradation of mutant, hepatotoxic alpha-1-anti-trypsin (ATZ). We investigated the therapeutic potential of liver-directed gene transfer of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master gene that regulates lysosomal function and autophagy, in PiZ transgenic mice, recapitulating the human hepatic disease. Hepatocyte TFEB gene transfer resulted in dramatic reduction of hepatic ATZ, liver apoptosis and fibrosis, which are key features of alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency. Correction of the liver phenotype resulted from increased ATZ polymer degradation mediated by enhancement of autophagy flux and reduced ATZ monomer by decreased hepatic NFκB activation and IL-6 that drives ATZ gene expression. In conclusion, TFEB gene transfer is a novel strategy for treatment of liver disease of alpha-1-anti-trypsin deficiency. This study may pave the way towards applications of TFEB gene transfer for treatment of a wide spectrum of human disorders due to intracellular accumulation of toxic proteins.

  12. [Alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency with histologic expression of metabolic disease of carbohydrates].

    PubMed

    de la Oliva Senovilla, P; Díaz Fernández, M C; Hierro Llanillo, L; Larrauri Martínez, J; Jara Vega, P

    1989-02-01

    A two months old male affected by alpha-1-AT PiZZ deficiency with severe transient neonatal cholestasis is presented. Two hepatic biopsies were practiced in neonatal period. There was no evidence of PAS positive globules, but an intense univacuolar steatosis and a rossetoid transformation of hepatocytes were observed. Both findings are identical to those found in the histopathologic study of the liver in certain metabolic diseases such as fructosemia and galactosemia. A third biopsy practiced at an age of two years confirmed diagnosis of alpha-1-AT deficit since presence of PAS positive globules was established. It must be pointed out that histopathological findings show great variability among different patients with alpha-1-AT deficit in the neonatal period, as well as the infrequent presence of PAS positive globules in hepatic biopsies of those c during the first months of life.

  13. Alpha1-antitrypsin polymorphism and systematics of eastern North American wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L. David; Federoff, Nicholas E.

    2002-01-01

    We used data on the polymorphic status of α1-antitrypsin (α1AT) to study the relationship of Minnesota wolves to the gray wolf (Canis lupus), which was thought to have evolved in Eurasia, and to red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans), which putatively evolved in North America. Recent evidence had indicated that Minnesota wolves might be more closely related to red wolves and coyotes. Samples from wild-caught Minnesota wolves and from captive wolves, at least some of which originated in Alaska and western Canada, were similarly polymorphic for α1AT, whereas coyote and red wolf samples were all monomorphic. Our findings, in conjunction with earlier results, are consistent with the Minnesota wolf being a gray wolf of Eurasian origin or possibly a hybrid between the gray wolf of Eurasian origin and the proposed North American wolf.

  14. Hepatic steatosis depresses alpha-1-antitrypsin levels in human and rat acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Du, Jianjun; Yu, Pengfei; Bai, Bin; Zhao, Zhanwei; Wang, Shiqi; Zhu, Junjie; Feng, Quanxin; Gao, Yun; Zhao, Qingchuan; Liu, Chaoxu

    2015-01-01

    Hepatic steatosis (HS) can exacerbate acute pancreatitis (AP). This study aimed to investigate the relation between α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and acute pancreatitis when patients have HS. Using proteomic profiling, we identified 18 differently expressed proteins pots in the serum of rats with or without HS after surgical establishment of AP. AAT was found to be one of the significantly down-regulated proteins. AAT levels were significantly lower in hepatic steatosis acute pancreatitis (HSAP) than in non-HSAP (NHSAP) (P < 0.001). To explore the clinical significance of these observations, we measured the levels of AAT in the serum of 240 patients with HSAP, NHSAP, fatty liver disease (FLD), or no disease. Compared with healthy controls, serum AAT levels in patients with NHSAP were significantly higher (P < 0.01), while in patients with HSAP serum AAT levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Further studies showed that acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE-II) scores were negatively correlated with serum AAT levels (r = −0.85, P < 0.01). In conclusion, low serum levels of AAT in patients with HSAP are correlated with disease severity and AAT may represent a potential target for therapies aiming to improve pancreatitis. PMID:26634430

  15. Hepatic steatosis depresses alpha-1-antitrypsin levels in human and rat acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Du, Jianjun; Yu, Pengfei; Bai, Bin; Zhao, Zhanwei; Wang, Shiqi; Zhu, Junjie; Feng, Quanxin; Gao, Yun; Zhao, Qingchuan; Liu, Chaoxu

    2015-12-04

    Hepatic steatosis (HS) can exacerbate acute pancreatitis (AP). This study aimed to investigate the relation between α1-antitrypsin (AAT) and acute pancreatitis when patients have HS. Using proteomic profiling, we identified 18 differently expressed proteins pots in the serum of rats with or without HS after surgical establishment of AP. AAT was found to be one of the significantly down-regulated proteins. AAT levels were significantly lower in hepatic steatosis acute pancreatitis (HSAP) than in non-HSAP (NHSAP) (P < 0.001). To explore the clinical significance of these observations, we measured the levels of AAT in the serum of 240 patients with HSAP, NHSAP, fatty liver disease (FLD), or no disease. Compared with healthy controls, serum AAT levels in patients with NHSAP were significantly higher (P < 0.01), while in patients with HSAP serum AAT levels were significantly lower (P < 0.01). Further studies showed that acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE-II) scores were negatively correlated with serum AAT levels (r = -0.85, P < 0.01). In conclusion, low serum levels of AAT in patients with HSAP are correlated with disease severity and AAT may represent a potential target for therapies aiming to improve pancreatitis.

  16. Mechanistic evidence in support of alpha1-antitrypsin as a therapeutic approach for type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Fleixo-Lima, Gabriella; Ventura, Hilla; Medini, Michal; Bar, Liliana; Strauss, Pnina; Lewis, Eli C

    2014-11-01

    Utilizing endogenous molecules as a therapeutic approach is almost unequivocally superior to engineered or synthetic molecules. However, one rarely encounters an anti-inflammatory, cytoprotective, immunomodulatory and wound-healing molecule that has been available for use for decades. α1-antitrypsin (AAT), a circulating protein that rises more than 4-fold during acute-phase responses, has been administered for a rare genetic deficiency at large doses, for life. Aside from advances in insulin therapy, medical research in type 1 diabetes (T1D) has predominantly focused on autoimmunity--controlling the adaptive immune response. However, it is now appreciated that one may need to extend therapeutic targets to incorporate immune responses to cellular injury, as well as promote selective control over excessive inflammation and early tissue repair. Recent data suggest that tissue damage related to lung and renal ischemia-reperfusion injury, stroke, and ischemic heart disease is markedly reduced by AAT. AAT was also shown to protect pancreatic islet β cells at multiple levels. Unlike classic immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory approaches, AAT exerts some antiviral and antibacterial activities. Based on these and other reports, AAT is under evaluation for treatment of T1D patients in multiple clinical trials. Initial results suggest that AAT therapy could potentially improve insulin production without adverse effects. Up to 50% of individuals displayed improved islet function. It is a rare occurrence in T1D research that a therapy is offered that holds a safety profile equal or superior to that of insulin alone. While placebo-controlled trials are ongoing, the mechanism(s) behind these favorable activities of AAT are still being explored.

  17. Polymorphism of alpha 1 antitrypsin in North American species of Canis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Federoff, N.E.; Kueppers, F.

    2000-01-01

    a1-Antitrypsin (A1AT) is a major protease inhibitor present in all mammalian sera that have thus far been investigated. A1AT is also highly polymorphic and is therefore a useful genetic marker. Previously reported A1AT polymorphism in domestic dogs consisted of two alleles designated as PiM and PiS which exhibited frequencies of 0.72 and 0.28, respectively, in a group of randomly collected mongrel dogs. North American species of Canis, which included gray wolves (n=29), Mexican wolves (n=20), coyotes (n=24), wolfdog crosses (n=9), and red wolves (n=27) were tested for A1AT polymorphism. A1AT phenotypes were determined by isoelectric focusing, followed by direct immunoblotting using a specific antiserum. A1AT concentrations were determined by radial immunodiffusion. Concentrations of A1AT were similar to those found in domestic dogs (2.26 + 0.3 mg/ml SD) and tended to be higher in females than in males, possibly indicating that A1AT may be hormonally influenced in females. Three phenotypic band patterns were observed (M, MS, S). The allele frequencies for domestic dogs and gray wolves were very similar, 0.72 and 0.69 for PiM and 0.28 and 0.31 for PiS, respectively. The Mexican wolves had a significantly lower frequency of PiS= 0.10. Coyotes and red wolves were all found to be monomorphic for the PiS allele and were indistinguishable from each other in that respect.

  18. Ni(ii) ions cleave and inactivate human alpha-1 antitrypsin hydrolytically, implicating nickel exposure as a contributing factor in pathologies related to antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Wezynfeld, Nina Ewa; Bonna, Arkadiusz; Bal, Wojciech; Frączyk, Tomasz

    2015-04-01

    Human alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is an abundant serum protein present at a concentration of 1.0-1.5 g L(-1). AAT deficiency is a genetic disease that manifests with emphysema and liver cirrhosis due to the accumulation of a misfolded AAT mutant in hepatocytes. Lung AAT amount is inversely correlated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), a serious and often deadly condition, with increasing frequency in the aging population. Exposure to cigarette smoke and products of fossil fuel combustion aggravates AAT deficiency and COPD according to mechanisms that are not fully understood. Taking into account that these fumes contain particles that can release nickel to human airways and skin, we decided to investigate interactions of AAT with Ni(ii) ions within the paradigm of Ni(ii)-dependent peptide bond hydrolysis. We studied AAT protein derived from human blood using HPLC, SDS-PAGE, and mass spectrometry. These studies were aided by spectroscopic experiments on model peptides. As a result, we identified three hydrolysis sites in AAT. Two of them are present in the N-terminal part of the molecule next to each other (before Thr-13 and Ser-14 residues) and effectively form one N-terminal cleavage site. The single C-terminal cleavage site is located before Ser-285. The N-terminal hydrolysis was more efficient than the C-terminal one, but both abolished the ability of AAT to inhibit trypsin in an additive manner. Nickel ions bound to hydrolysis products demonstrated an ability to generate ROS. These results implicate Ni(ii) exposure as a contributing factor in AAT-related pathologies.

  19. Alpha1-antitrypsin gene therapy modulates cellular immunity and efficiently prevents type 1 diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yuanqing; Tang, Mei; Wasserfall, Clive; Kou, Zhongchen; Campbell-Thompson, Martha; Gardemann, Thomas; Crawford, James; Atkinson, Mark; Song, Sihong

    2006-06-01

    An imbalance of the immune-regulatory pathways plays an important role in the development of type 1 diabetes. Therefore, immunoregulatory and antiinflammatory strategies hold great potential for the prevention of this autoimmune disease. Studies have demonstrated that two serine proteinase inhibitors, alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) and elafin, act as potent antiinflammatory agents. In the present study, we sought to develop an efficient gene therapy approach to prevent type 1 diabetes. Cohorts of 4-week-old female nonobese diabetic (NOD) mice were injected intramuscularly with rAAV1-CB-hAAT, rAAV1-CB-hElafin, or saline. AAV1 vector mediated sustained high levels of transgene expression, sufficient to overcome a humoral immune response against hAAT. AAT gene therapy, contrary to elafin and saline, was remarkably effective in preventing type 1 diabetes. T cell receptor spectratyping indicated that AAT gene therapy altered T cell repertoire diversity in splenocytes from NOD mice. Adoptive transfer experiments demonstrated that AAT gene therapy attenuated cellular immunity associated with beta cell destruction. This study demonstrates that AAT gene therapy attenuates cell-mediated autoimmunity, alters the T cell receptor repertoire, and efficiently prevents type 1 diabetes in the NOD mouse model. These results strongly suggest that rAAV1-mediated AAT gene therapy may be useful as a novel approach to prevent type 1 diabetes.

  20. Detection of circulating and endothelial cell polymers of Z and wild type alpha 1-antitrypsin by a monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Janciauskiene, Sabina; Dominaitiene, Ruta; Sternby, Nils H; Piitulainen, Eva; Eriksson, Sten

    2002-07-19

    Globular inclusions of abnormal alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes are a characteristic feature of AAT deficiency of the PiZZ phenotype. Monoclonal antibodies, which contain constant specificity and affinity, are often used for the identification of Z-mutation carriers. A mouse monoclonal antibody (ATZ11) raised against PiZZ hepatocytic AAT was successfully used in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and in identification of Z-related AAT globular inclusions by immunohistochemical techniques. Using electrophoresis, Western blotting, and ELISA procedures, we have shown in the present study that this monoclonal antibody specifically detects a conformation-dependent neoepitope on both polymerized and elastase-complexed molecular forms of AAT. The antibody has no apparent affinity for native, latent, or cleaved forms of AAT. The antibody ATZ11 illustrates the structural resemblance between the polymerized form of AAT and its complex with elastase and provides evidence that Z-homozygotes beyond the native form may have at least one more circulating molecular form of AAT, i.e. its polymerized form. In addition, staining of endothelial cells with ATZ11 antibody in both M- and Z-AAT individuals shows that AAT attached to endothelial cells is in a polymerized form. The antibody can be a powerful tool for the study of the molecular profile of AAT, not only in Z-deficiency cases but also in other (patho)physiological conditions.

  1. Targeted Biomarker Discovery by High Throughput Glycosylation Profiling of Human Plasma Alpha1-Antitrypsin and Immunoglobulin A

    PubMed Central

    Ruhaak, L. Renee; Koeleman, Carolien A. M.; Uh, Hae-Won; Stam, Jord C.; van Heemst, Diana; Maier, Andrea B.; Houwing-Duistermaat, Jeanine J.; Hensbergen, Paul J.; Slagboom, P. Eline; Deelder, André M.; Wuhrer, Manfred

    2013-01-01

    Protein N-glycosylation patterns are known to show vast genetic as well as physiological and pathological variation and represent a large pool of potential biomarkers. Large-scale studies are needed for the identification and validation of biomarkers, and the analytical techniques required have recently been developed. Such methods have up to now mainly been applied to complex mixtures of glycoproteins in biofluids (e.g. plasma). Here, we analyzed N-glycosylation profiles of alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) and immunoglobulin A (IgA) enriched fractions by 96-well microtitration plate based high-throughput immuno-affinity capturing and N-glycan analysis using multiplexed capillary gel electrophoresis with laser-induced fluorescence detection (CGE-LIF). Human plasma samples were from the Leiden Longevity Study comprising 2415 participants of different chronological and biological ages. Glycosylation patterns of AAT enriched fractions were found to be associated with chronological (calendar) age and they differed between females and males. Moreover, several glycans in the AAT enriched fraction were associated with physiological parameters marking cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Pronounced differences were found between males and females in the glycosylation profiles of IgA enriched fractions. Our results demonstrate that large-scale immuno-affinity capturing of proteins from human plasma using a bead-based method combined with high-throughput N-glycan analysis is a powerful tool for the discovery of glycosylation-based biomarker candidates. PMID:24039863

  2. Refractory Classical Hodgkin Lymphoma Presenting with Atypical Cutaneous Involvement and Diagnosis of ZZ Phenotype Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Kraus, Teresa; Cherry, Mohamad

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous Hodgkin lymphoma is a rare condition. Specific neoplastic involvement can be primary (confined to the skin) or secondary to systemic involvement (metastatic). Cutaneous involvement by HL usually occurs late in the course and is associated with poor prognosis; however in some cases it can exhibit indolent behavior. Skin involvement with nonspecific cutaneous findings may represent a paraneoplastic syndrome. We describe a case of 46-year-old white male patient presented with rash and lymphadenopathy which led to the diagnosis of stage IVE mixed cellularity classical Hodgkin lymphoma with skin involvement. His disease was refractory to multiple lines of chemotherapy including (1) AVD (doxorubicin/bleomycin/dacarbazine), (2) brentuximab, and (3) bendamustine, he later achieved complete remission with (4) GCD (gemcitabine/carboplatin/dexamethasone) salvage regimen. Bleomycin was not given secondary to poor pulmonary function tests. His treatment was complicated after AVD with multiple pneumothoraces which unmasked the diagnosis of ZZ phenotype alpha-1 antitrypsin (ATT) deficiency. Simultaneous existence of Hodgkin lymphoma and ATT is rarely reported. PMID:24955265

  3. Real time PCR detection of the PI*Z and PI*S mutations associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bartels, Claudine L; Marchetti, Angela L; Edward Highsmith, W; Tsongalis, Gregory J

    2009-08-10

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT or AAT) is a serine protease inhibitor (PI) which, when present at low levels, can cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and liver disease in both children and adults. Several mutations within the SERPINA1 gene have been found to cause this deficiency. The most common variants are PI*Z and PI*S, each caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). We describe a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the rapid genotyping of these polymorphisms. DNA was extracted from fourteen EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood samples using the Qiagen EZ1 blood extraction kit. SNP genotyping was performed using primer/probe sets purchased from Applied Biosystems. These were evaluated for performance and assay conditions on the Applied Biosystems 7500 FAST System. The genotypes of these samples were compared with their phenotype results from isoelectric focusing assays, which were performed by an independent reference laboratory. In addition, twenty samples that were previously genotyped at another laboratory were obtained for accuracy studies. Thirty-four samples were tested; five genotypes were represented and the assay was able to discriminate these successfully. Only one genotype could not be correlated with its phenotype result, as the phenotype was reported as an "unidentified allele". All other genotyping results were concordant with previously determined genotypes and phenotypes. We describe a rapid real time PCR assay that is suitable for clinical use in genotyping AAT alleles and which can be used as the initial step in A1AT testing algorithms.

  4. Oncostatin M induced alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) gene expression in Hep G2 cells is mediated by a 3' enhancer.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Kevin; Marsters, Peter; Morley, Stephen; van Gent, Diana; Hejazi, Ala; Backx, Matt; Thorpe, Emma R K; Kalsheker, Noor

    2002-07-15

    alpha(1)-Antitrypsin (AAT) is the major serine proteinase inhibitor (SERPIN A1) in human plasma. Its target proteinase is neutrophil elastase and its main physiological function is protection of the lower respiratory tract from the destructive effects of neutrophil elastase during an inflammatory response. Circulating levels of AAT rise 2-3-fold during inflammation and the liver produces most of this increase. The cytokines oncostatin M (OSM) and interleukin-6 have been shown to be mainly responsible for this effect, which is mediated via the interaction of cytokine-inducible transcription factors with regulatory elements within the gene. In the present study, we report for the first time that OSM stimulation of hepatocyte AAT occurs via an interaction between the hepatocyte promoter and an OSM-responsive element at the 3'-end of the AAT gene. This effect is mediated by the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 ('STAT 3') binding to an OSM-responsive element (sequence TTCTCTTAA), and this site is distinct from, but close to, a previously reported interleukin-6-responsive element.

  5. Long-term augmentation therapy with alpha-1 antitrypsin in an MZ-AAT severe persistent asthma.

    PubMed

    Blanco, I; Canto, H; Flóres, J; Camblor, C; Cárcaba, V; de Serres, F J; Janciauskiene, S; Bustillo, E F

    2008-12-01

    A young Caucasian female with severe bronchial asthma and Alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, MZ phenotype, experienced a quick and severe limitation of her physical capacity, which negatively affected her psychological state and social life, though she was under a strong antiasthmatic treatment. Given her declining health status and the significant chronic corticoid administration-related side-effects (including high reduction of muscle mass and bone density), a clinical trial with commercial intravenous AAT was proposed by the patient's doctors, and accepted by the Spanish Ministry of Health, although it this therapy was not approved for MZ phenotypes yet. This new therapy quickly stopped lung function decline rate, dramatically reduced the number of hospital admissions of the patient, suppressed the oral administration of prednisone, reversed the corticosteroid-related health adverse effects, significantly improving her quality of life. Thus, although AAT replacement therapy is not approved nor indicated for the treatment of bronchial asthma in MZ patients, its favourable effects observed in this isolated case support the hypothesis that bronchial asthma could be due to pathogenic mechanisms related to a protease-antiprotease imbalance, what which could open new perspectives for future research on the field.

  6. Distribution and levels of alpha-1-antitrypsin in the lung and plasma in smokers and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Linja-aho, Anna; Mazur, Witold; Toljamo, Tuula; Nieminen, Pentti; Ohlmeier, Steffen; Rönty, Mikko; Kinnula, Vuokko L

    2013-01-01

    Our recent non-biased proteomic screening study revealed elevated SerpinA1 i.e. alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) levels in induced sputum of smokers with Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). This study was designed to further investigate the role of AAT in smokers and subjects with COPD. The expression/distribution of AAT was studied by immunohistochemistry/digital image morphometry in the lung, by Western blot in the lung and sputum, and by ELISA in the plasma at baseline (n = 349) and after a 2-year follow-up (n = 58). AAT was localized mainly in airway and alveolar epithelium and endothelium, especially in smokers and in those with COPD. AAT was elevated in smokers and in subjects with COPD in the lung endothelial cells. Total lung AAT immunoreactivity was elevated in subjects with moderate COPD compared with smokers and with non-smokers. AAT showed elevated tendency in sputum of smokers with COPD compared with 'healthy' smokers. Plasma AAT levels were elevated in smokers with/without COPD compared with non-smokers. In the follow-up, plasma AAT concentrations decreased significantly after quitting smoking. Chronic smoking/COPD leads to AAT elevation especially in the endothelium of the lung periphery; these changes reflect only modestly to the AAT in sputum, while plasma AAT significantly reflects smoking-related systemic manifestations, and decreases after smoking cessation.

  7. Multiple hepatic trans-acting factors are required for in vitro transcription of the human alpha-1-antitrypsin gene.

    PubMed Central

    Li, Y; Shen, R F; Tsai, S Y; Woo, S L

    1988-01-01

    The human alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) gene is expressed in the liver, and its deficiency causes pulmonary emphysema. We have demonstrated that its 5'-flanking region contains cis-acting elements capable of directing proper transcription in the presence of rat liver nuclear extract. The in vitro transcription system is tissue-specific in that the AAT promoter is functional in nuclear extracts prepared from the liver but not from HeLa cells. Experiments in which rat liver and HeLa nuclear extracts were mixed suggested the presence of a specific activator(s) in hepatocytes rather than a repressor(s) in nonproducing cells. Two protected regions were detected in the promoter by DNase I footprinting analysis with rat liver nuclear extracts. Region one spanned -78 to -52 and region two spanned -125 to -100 in the 5'-flanking sequence of the gene. By gel retardation assays with synthetic oligonucleotides, at least two distinct liver nuclear factors were identified, HNF-1 and HNF-2 (hepatocyte nuclear factors), which bound specifically to the first and second region, respectively. We present evidence that HNF-1 and HNF-2 are positively acting, tissue-specific transcription factors that regulate hepatic expression of the human AAT gene. Images PMID:3263567

  8. Accumulation of mutant alpha1-antitrypsin Z in the endoplasmic reticulum activates caspases-4 and -12, NFkappaB, and BAP31 but not the unfolded protein response.

    PubMed

    Hidvegi, Tunda; Schmidt, Bela Z; Hale, Pamela; Perlmutter, David H

    2005-11-25

    In alpha(1)-antitrypsin (alpha1AT) deficiency, a polymerogenic mutant form of the secretory glycoprotein alpha1AT, alpha1ATZ, is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of liver cells. It is not yet known how this results in liver injury in a subgroup of deficient individuals and how the remainder of deficient individuals escapes liver disease. One possible explanation is that the "susceptible" subgroup is unable to mount the appropriate protective cellular responses. Here we examined the effect of mutant alpha1ATZ on several potential protective signaling pathways by using cell lines with inducible expression of mutant alpha1AT as well as liver from transgenic mice with liver-specific inducible expression of mutant alpha1AT. The results show that ER retention of polymerogenic mutant alpha1ATZ does not result in an unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR can be induced in the presence of alpha1ATZ by tunicamycin excluding the possibility that the pathway has been disabled. In striking contrast, ER retention of nonpolymerogenic alpha1AT mutants does induce the UPR. These results indicate that the machinery responsible for activation of the UPR can distinguish the physical characteristics of proteins that accumulate in the ER in such a way that it can respond to misfolded but not relatively ordered polymeric structures. Accumulation of mutant alpha1ATZ does activate specific signaling pathways, including caspase-12 in mouse, caspase-4 in human, NFkappaB, and BAP31, a profile that was distinct from that activated by nonpolymerogenic alpha1AT mutants.

  9. Safety and pharmacokinetics of 120 mg/kg versus 60 mg/kg weekly intravenous infusions of alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, crossover study (SPARK).

    PubMed

    Campos, Michael A; Kueppers, Friedrich; Stocks, James M; Strange, Charlie; Chen, Junliang; Griffin, Rhonda; Wang-Smith, Laurene; Brantly, Mark L

    2013-12-01

    Augmentation therapy with the approved dose of 60 mg/kg weekly intravenous (IV) alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor (alpha1-PI), achieves a trough serum level of 11 μM in individuals with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), yet this is still below the level observed in healthy individuals. This study assessed the safety and pharmacokinetic profile of weekly infusions of a 120 mg/kg dose of alpha1-PI in 30 adults with AATD. Subjects with symptomatic, genetically determined (genotypes PI*ZZ, PI*Z(null), PI*(null)(null) or PI*(Z)Mmalton) AATD were randomly assigned to weekly infusions of 60 or 120 mg/kg alpha1-PI (Prolastin-C®) for 8 weeks before crossing over to the alternate dose for 8 weeks. Adverse events (AEs) (including exacerbations), vital signs, pulmonary function tests, and laboratory assessments were recorded. Pharmacokinetic measurements included AUC0-7days, Cmax, trough, tmax, and t1/2, based on serum alpha1-PI concentrations. In total for both treatments, 112 AEs were reported, with exacerbation of COPD being the most frequent, consistent with the subjects' diagnoses. Mean steady-state serum alpha1-PI concentrations following 120 mg/kg weekly IV alpha1-PI were higher than with the 60 mg/kg dose and mean trough concentrations were 27.7 versus 17.3 μM, respectively. Dose proportionality was demonstrated for AUC0-7days and Cmax, with low inter-subject variability. The 120 mg/kg alpha1-PI weekly dose was considered to be safe and well tolerated, and provided more favorable physiologic alpha1-PI serum levels than the currently recommended 60 mg/kg dose. The effect of this dosing regimen on slowing and/or preventing emphysema progression in subjects with AATD warrants further investigation.

  10. The Anti-inflammatory Effect of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin in Rhinovirus-infected Human Airway Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Di; Berman, Reena; Wu, Qun; Stevenson, Connor; Chu, Hong Wei

    2017-01-01

    Objective Excessive airway inflammation is seen in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients experiencing acute exacerbations, which are often associated with human rhinovirus (HRV) infection. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) has anti-inflammatory function in endothelial cells and monocytes, but its anti-inflammatory effect has not been investigated in COPD airway epithelial cells. We determined A1AT’s anti-inflammatory function in COPD airway epithelial cells and the underlying mechanisms such as the role of caspase-1. Methods Brushed bronchial epithelial cells from COPD and normal subjects were cultured at air-liquid interface and treated with A1AT or bovine serum albumin (BSA, control) two hours prior to whole cigarette smoke (WCS) or air exposure, followed by HRV-16 infection. After 24 hours of viral infection, cell supernatants were collected for measuring IL-8, and cells were examined for caspase-1. The in vivo anti-inflammatory function of A1AT was determined by infecting mice intranasally with HRV-1B followed by aerosolized A1AT or BSA. Results A1AT significantly reduced WCS and HRV-16-induced IL-8 production in normal and COPD airway epithelial cells. COPD cells are less sensitive to A1AT’s anti-inflammatory effect than normal cells. A1AT exerted the anti-inflammatory function in part via reducing caspase-1 in normal cells, but not in COPD cells. In mice, A1AT significantly reduced HRV-1B induced lung neutrophilic inflammation. Conclusions A1AT exerts an anti-inflammatory effect in cigarette smoke-exposed and HRV-infected human airway epithelial cells, which may be related to its inhibitory effect on caspase-1 activity. PMID:28191362

  11. Serum concentration of alpha-1 antitrypsin is significantly higher in colorectal cancer patients than in healthy controls

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The association between alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency and colorectal cancer (CRC) is currently controversial. The present study compares AAT serum concentrations and gene frequencies between a group of CRC patients and a control group of healthy unrelated people (HUP). Methods 267 CRC subjects (63% males, 72 ± 10 years old) were enlisted from a Hospital Clinic setting in Asturias, Spain. The HUP group comprised 327 subjects (67% males, mean age 70 ± 7.5 years old) from the same geographical region. Outcome measures were AAT serum concentrations measured by nephelometry, and AAT phenotyping characterization by isoelectric focusing. Results Significantly higher serum concentrations were found among CRC (208 ± 60) than in HUP individuals (144 ± 20.5) (p = 0.0001). No differences were found in the phenotypic distribution of the Pi*S and Pi*Z allelic frequencies (p = 0.639), although the frequency of Pi*Z was higher in CRC (21%) than in HUP subjects (15%). Conclusions The only statistically significant finding in this study was the markedly higher AAT serum concentrations found in CRC subjects compared with HUP controls, irrespective of whether their Pi* phenotype was normal (Pi*MM) or deficient (Pi*MS, Pi*MZ and Pi*SZ). Although there was a trend towards the more deficient Pi* phenotype the more advanced the tumor, the results were inconclusive due to the small sample size. Consequently, more powerful studies are needed to reach firmer conclusions on this matter. PMID:24886427

  12. Linkage Specific Fucosylation of Alpha-1-Antitrypsin in Liver Cirrhosis and Cancer Patients: Implications for a Biomarker of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Comunale, Mary Ann; Rodemich-Betesh, Lucy; Hafner, Julie; Wang, Mengjun; Norton, Pamela; Di Bisceglie, Adrian M.; Block, Timothy; Mehta, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Background We previously reported increased levels of protein-linked fucosylation with the development of liver cancer and identified many of the proteins containing the altered glycan structures. One such protein is alpha-1-antitrypsin (A1AT). To advance these studies, we performed N-linked glycan analysis on the five major isoforms of A1AT and completed a comprehensive study of the glycosylation of A1AT found in healthy controls, patients with hepatitis C- (HCV) induced liver cirrhosis, and in patients infected with HCV with a diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methodology/Principal Findings Patients with liver cirrhosis and liver cancer had increased levels of triantennary glycan-containing outer arm (α-1,3) fucosylation. Increases in core (α-1,6) fucosylation were observed only on A1AT from patients with cancer. We performed a lectin fluorophore-linked immunosorbent assay using Aleuria Aurantia lectin (AAL), specific for core and outer arm fucosylation in over 400 patients with liver disease. AAL-reactive A1AT was able to detect HCC with a sensitivity of 70% and a specificity of 86%, which was greater than that observed with the current marker of HCC, alpha-fetoprotein. Glycosylation analysis of the false positives was performed; results indicated that these patients had increases in outer arm fucosylation but not in core fucosylation, suggesting that core fucosylation is cancer specific. Conclusions/Significance This report details the stepwise change in the glycosylation of A1AT with the progression from liver cirrhosis to cancer and identifies core fucosylation on A1AT as an HCC specific modification. PMID:20811639

  13. Real time PCR detection of the PI*Z and PI*S mutations associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Claudine L.; Marchetti, Angela L.; Edward Highsmith, W.; Tsongalis, Gregory J.

    2009-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT or AAT) is a serine protease inhibitor (PI) which, when present at low levels, can cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and liver disease in both children and adults. Several mutations within the SERPINA1 gene have been found to cause this deficiency. The most common variants are PI*Z and PI*S, each caused by a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP). We describe a real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the rapid genotyping of these polymorphisms. DNA was extracted from fourteen EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood samples using the Qiagen EZ1 blood extraction kit. SNP genotyping was performed using primer/probe sets purchased from Applied Biosystems. These were evaluated for performance and assay conditions on the Applied Biosystems 7500 FAST System. The genotypes of these samples were compared with their phenotype results from isoelectric focusing assays, which were performed by an independent reference laboratory. In addition, twenty samples that were previously genotyped at another laboratory were obtained for accuracy studies. Thirty-four samples were tested; five genotypes were represented and the assay was able to discriminate these successfully. Only one genotype could not be correlated with its phenotype result, as the phenotype was reported as an “unidentified allele”. All other genotyping results were concordant with previously determined genotypes and phenotypes. We describe a rapid real time PCR assay that is suitable for clinical use in genotyping AAT alleles and which can be used as the initial step in A1AT testing algorithms. PMID:19956452

  14. The Clinical Profile of Subjects Included in the Swedish National Register on Individuals with Severe Alpha 1-Antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Piitulainen, Eeva; Tanash, Hanan A

    2015-05-01

    The Swedish national register of severe alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency was established in 1991. The main aims are to prospectively study the natural history of severe AAT deficiency, and to improve the knowledge of AAT deficiency. The inclusion criteria in the register are age ≥ 18 years, and the PiZ phenotype diagnosed by isoelectric focusing. The register is kept updated by means of repeated questionnaires providing data to allow analysis of the mode of identification, lung and liver function, smoking-habits, respiratory symptoms and diagnoses as reported by physicians. Until February 2014, a total of 1553 PiZZ individuals had been included in the register. The 1102 subjects still alive constituted about 20% of the adult PiZZ individuals in Sweden. Forty-three percent of the subjects had been identified during investigation of respiratory symptoms, 7% by an investigation of liver disease, 26% in an investigation of other pathological conditions, and 24% in a population or family screening. Forty five percent of the subjects had never smoked, 47% were ex-smokers, and 8% current smokers. Twenty-eight percent of the never-smokers, 72% of the ex-smokers, and 61% of the current smokers fulfilled the criteria for COPD with a FEV1/FVC ratio of <0.70. Among the 451 deceased, the most common cause of death was respiratory diseases (55%), followed by liver diseases (13%). We conclude that the detection rate of severe AAT deficiency is relatively high in Sweden. Large numbers of subjects are identified for other reasons than respiratory symptoms, and the majority of these have never smoked.

  15. Rationale and Design of the Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis (GRADS) Study. Sarcoidosis Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Koth, Laura L.; Maier, Lisa A.; Morris, Alison; Drake, Wonder; Rossman, Milton; Leader, Joseph K.; Collman, Ronald G.; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Sweiss, Nadera J.; Zhang, Yingze; O’Neal, Scott; Senior, Robert M.; Becich, Michael; Hochheiser, Harry S.; Kaminski, Naftali; Wisniewski, Stephen R.; Gibson, Kevin F.

    2015-01-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by noncaseating granulomatous inflammation with tremendous clinical heterogeneity and uncertain pathobiology and lacking in clinically useful biomarkers. The Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis (GRADS) study is an observational cohort study designed to explore the role of the lung microbiome and genome in these two diseases. This article describes the design and rationale for the GRADS study sarcoidosis protocol. The study addresses the hypothesis that distinct patterns in the lung microbiome are characteristic of sarcoidosis phenotypes and are reflected in changes in systemic inflammatory responses as measured by peripheral blood changes in gene transcription. The goal is to enroll 400 participants, with a minimum of 35 in each of 9 clinical phenotype subgroups prioritized by their clinical relevance to understanding of the pathobiology and clinical heterogeneity of sarcoidosis. Participants with a confirmed diagnosis of sarcoidosis undergo a baseline visit with self-administered questionnaires, chest computed tomography, pulmonary function tests, and blood and urine testing. A research or clinical bronchoscopy with a research bronchoalveolar lavage will be performed to obtain samples for genomic and microbiome analyses. Comparisons will be made by blood genomic analysis and with clinical phenotypic variables. A 6-month follow-up visit is planned to assess each participant’s clinical course. By the use of an integrative approach to the analysis of the microbiome and genome in selected clinical phenotypes, the GRADS study is powerfully positioned to inform and direct studies on the pathobiology of sarcoidosis, identify diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, and provide novel molecular phenotypes that could lead to improved personalized approaches to therapy for sarcoidosis. PMID:26193069

  16. Rationale and Design of the Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis (GRADS) Study. Sarcoidosis Protocol.

    PubMed

    Moller, David R; Koth, Laura L; Maier, Lisa A; Morris, Alison; Drake, Wonder; Rossman, Milton; Leader, Joseph K; Collman, Ronald G; Hamzeh, Nabeel; Sweiss, Nadera J; Zhang, Yingze; O'Neal, Scott; Senior, Robert M; Becich, Michael; Hochheiser, Harry S; Kaminski, Naftali; Wisniewski, Stephen R; Gibson, Kevin F

    2015-10-01

    Sarcoidosis is a systemic disease characterized by noncaseating granulomatous inflammation with tremendous clinical heterogeneity and uncertain pathobiology and lacking in clinically useful biomarkers. The Genomic Research in Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency and Sarcoidosis (GRADS) study is an observational cohort study designed to explore the role of the lung microbiome and genome in these two diseases. This article describes the design and rationale for the GRADS study sarcoidosis protocol. The study addresses the hypothesis that distinct patterns in the lung microbiome are characteristic of sarcoidosis phenotypes and are reflected in changes in systemic inflammatory responses as measured by peripheral blood changes in gene transcription. The goal is to enroll 400 participants, with a minimum of 35 in each of 9 clinical phenotype subgroups prioritized by their clinical relevance to understanding of the pathobiology and clinical heterogeneity of sarcoidosis. Participants with a confirmed diagnosis of sarcoidosis undergo a baseline visit with self-administered questionnaires, chest computed tomography, pulmonary function tests, and blood and urine testing. A research or clinical bronchoscopy with a research bronchoalveolar lavage will be performed to obtain samples for genomic and microbiome analyses. Comparisons will be made by blood genomic analysis and with clinical phenotypic variables. A 6-month follow-up visit is planned to assess each participant's clinical course. By the use of an integrative approach to the analysis of the microbiome and genome in selected clinical phenotypes, the GRADS study is powerfully positioned to inform and direct studies on the pathobiology of sarcoidosis, identify diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers, and provide novel molecular phenotypes that could lead to improved personalized approaches to therapy for sarcoidosis.

  17. Alpha-1 antitrypsin Pi*Z gene frequency and Pi*ZZ genotype numbers worldwide: an update

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Ignacio; Bueno, Patricia; Diego, Isidro; Pérez-Holanda, Sergio; Casas-Maldonado, Francisco; Esquinas, Cristina; Miravitlles, Marc

    2017-01-01

    In alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), the Z allele is present in 98% of cases with severe disease, and knowledge of the frequency of this allele is essential from a public health perspective. However, there is a remarkable lack of epidemiological data on AATD worldwide, and many of the data currently used are outdated. Therefore, the objective of this study was to update the knowledge of the frequency of the Z allele to achieve accurate estimates of the prevalence and number of Pi*ZZ genotypes worldwide based on studies performed according to the following criteria: 1) samples representative of the general population, 2) AAT phenotyping characterized by adequate methods, and 3) measurements performed using a coefficient of variation calculated from the sample size and 95% confidence intervals. Studies fulfilling these criteria were used to develop maps with an inverse distance weighted (IDW)-interpolation method, providing numerical and graphical information of Pi*Z distribution worldwide. A total of 224 cohorts from 65 countries were included in the study. With the data provided by these cohorts, a total of 253,404 Pi*ZZ were estimated worldwide: 119,594 in Europe, 91,490 in America and Caribbean, 3,824 in Africa, 32,154 in Asia, 4,126 in Australia, and 2,216 in New Zealand. In addition, the IDW-interpolation maps predicted Pi*Z frequencies throughout the world even in some areas that lack real data. In conclusion, the inclusion of new well-designed studies and the exclusion of the low-quality ones have significantly improved the reliability of results, which may be useful to plan strategies for future research and diagnosis and to rationalize the therapeutic resources available. PMID:28243076

  18. Ubiquitin ligase gp78 increases solubility and facilitates degradation of the Z variant of {alpha}-1-antitrypsin

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Yuxian; Ballar, Petek; Fang, Shengyun . E-mail: fangs@umbi.umd.edu

    2006-11-03

    Deficiency of circulating {alpha}-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is the most widely recognized abnormality of a proteinase inhibitor that causes lung disease. AAT-deficiency is caused by mutations of the AAT gene that lead to AAT protein retention in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Moreover, the mutant AAT accumulated in the ER predisposes the homozygote to severe liver injuries, such as neonatal hepatitis, juvenile cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite the fact that mutant AAT protein is subject to ER-associated degradation (ERAD), yeast genetic studies have determined that the ubiquitination machinery, Hrd1/Der3p-cue1p-Ubc7/6p, which plays a prominent role in ERAD, is not involved in degradation of mutant AAT. Here we report that gp78, a ubiquitin ligase (E3) pairing with mammalian Ubc7 for ERAD, ubiquitinates and facilitates degradation of ATZ, the classic deficiency variant of AAT having a Z mutation (Glu 342 Lys). Unexpectedly, gp78 over-expression also significantly increases ATZ solubility. p97/VCP, an AAA ATPase essential for retrotranslocation of misfolded proteins from the ER during ERAD, is involved in gp78-mediated degradation of ATZ. Surprisingly, unlike other ERAD substrates that cause ER stress leading to apoptosis when accumulated in the ER, ATZ, in fact, increases cell proliferation when over-expressed in cells. This effect can be partially inhibited by gp78 over-expression. These data indicate that gp78 assumes multiple unique quality control roles over ATZ, including the facilitation of degradation and inhibition of aggregation of ATZ.

  19. Application of a diagnostic algorithm for the rare deficient variant Mmalton of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency: a new approach

    PubMed Central

    Belmonte, Irene; Barrecheguren, Miriam; López-Martínez, Rosa M; Esquinas, Cristina; Rodríguez, Esther; Miravitlles, Marc; Rodríguez-Frías, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is associated with a high risk for the development of early-onset emphysema and liver disease. A large majority of subjects with severe AATD carry the ZZ genotype, which can be easily detected. Another rare pathologic variant, the Mmalton allele, causes a deficiency similar to that of the Z variant, but it is not easily recognizable and its detection seems to be underestimated. Therefore, we have included a rapid allele-specific genotyping assay for the detection of the Mmalton variant in the diagnostic algorithm of AATD used in our laboratory. The objective of this study was to test the usefulness of this new algorithm for Mmalton detection. Materials and methods We performed a retrospective revision of all AATD determinations carried out in our laboratory over 2 years using the new diagnostic algorithm. Samples with a phenotype showing one or two M alleles and AAT levels discordant with that phenotype were analyzed using the Mmalton allele-specific genotyping assay. Results We detected 49 samples with discordant AAT levels; 44 had the MM and five the MS phenotype. In nine of these samples, a single rare Mmalton variant was detected. During the study period, two family screenings were performed and four additional Mmalton variants were identified. Conclusion The incorporation of the Mmalton allele-specific genotyping assay in the diagnostic algorithm of AATD resulted in a faster and cheaper method to detect this allele and avoided a significant delay in diagnosis when a sequencing assay was required. This methodology can be adapted to other rare variants. Standardized algorithms are required to obtain conclusive data of the real incidence of rare AAT alleles in each region. PMID:27877030

  20. Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency in the Cape Verde islands (Northwest Africa): High prevalence in a sub-Saharan population.

    PubMed

    Spínola, Carla; Brehm, António; Spínola, Hélder

    2010-07-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency results from mutations on the Protease Inhibitor (PI) locus located in chromosome 14 and has been associated with pulmonary early-onset emphysema and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). African populations show a lower prevalence of AAT deficiency compared to Europeans. Two hundred and two (202) unrelated samples from the Cape Verde archipelago (Northwest Africa) were genotyped for the two most common AAT deficiency alleles, PI*S and PI*Z, using PCR - Mediated Site-Directed Mutagenesis. PI*S mutation in Cape Verde (3.2%) presents one of the highest frequencies in sub-Saharans, similar to South Africa (3.3%) but lower than Angolans (18.8%), Namibians (14.7%), Nigerians (6.4%) and Botswains (4.5%). The PI*Z mutation shows lower values (0.2%) than other sub-Saharan populations, namely Somalia (1.15%), Mali (0.98%)or Nigeria (0.36%). However, many other sub-Saharan populations, like Botswana, Congo, Cameroon, Angola, Gambia, South Africa, Mozambique and Namibia, lack the PI*Z mutation. The frequency of all the AAT deficiency genotypes in the Cape Verde archipelago (PI*ZZ, PI*SS, and PI*SZ) was estimated to be one of the highest in sub-Saharans (15 per 1000), only lower than Angola (54 per 1000) and Namibia (22 per 1000). The results obtained show a high prevalence of the AAT deficiency in Cape Verdeans when compared to other sub-Saharans a condition that can be explained by a heavy European genetic influence, characteristic of that population.

  1. Corticosteroid-binding globulin cleavage is paradoxically reduced in alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency: Implications for cortisol homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Nenke, Marni A; Holmes, Mark; Rankin, Wayne; Lewis, John G; Torpy, David J

    2016-01-15

    High-affinity corticosteroid-binding globulin (haCBG) is cleaved by neutrophil elastase (NE) resulting in permanent transition to the low cortisol-binding affinity form (laCBG), thereby increasing cortisol availability at inflammatory sites. Alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is the major inhibitor of NE. AAT deficiency (AATD) predisposes patients to early-onset emphysema due to increased proteolytic destruction from the inherent proteinase-antiproteinase imbalance. We hypothesized that AATD may result in increased CBG cleavage in vivo. We collected demographic data and blood samples from 10 patients with AATD and 28 healthy controls measuring total CBG and haCBG levels by parallel in-house ELISAs, as well as AAT, total and free cortisol levels. haCBG was higher (median [range]); 329 [210-551] vs. 250 [175-365] nmol/L; P<0.005, and laCBG lower; 174 [68-229] vs. 220 [119-348] nmol/L; P=0.016 in the AATD group, compared with controls. The ratio of haCBG:total CBG was also higher in AATD; 72 [53-83] vs. 54 [41-72] %; P=0.0001). There was a negative correlation between haCBG:total CBG and AAT levels (P<0.05, R=-0.64). Paradoxically, proteolytic cleavage of CBG was reduced in AATD, despite the recognized increase in NE activity. This implies that NE activity is not the mechanism for systemic CBG cleavage in basal, low inflammatory conditions. Relatively low levels of laCBG may have implications for cortisol action in AATD.

  2. Relevance of classic anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (C-ANCA)-mediated inhibition of proteinase 3-alpha 1-antitrypsin complexation to disease activity in Wegener's granulomatosis.

    PubMed Central

    Dolman, K M; Stegeman, C A; van de Wiel, B A; Hack, C E; von dem Borne, A E; Kallenberg, C G; Goldschmeding, R

    1993-01-01

    In the sera of patients with Wegener's granulomatosis (WG), C-ANCA can be detected that are directed against proteinase 3 (PR3). We have previously observed that C-ANCA interfere with PR3 proteolytic activity and with complexation of PR3 with its major physiologic inhibitor, alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT). In the present study we investigated whether this inhibitory effect of C-ANCA on PR3-alpha 1AT complexation correlates with clinical activity of WG. Serial serum samples of eight consecutive patients with histologically proven relapses of WG were tested. At the moment of relapse all sera revealed inhibitory activity towards PR3-alpha 1AT complexation (median 22%, range 10-59%). Disease activity score (r = 0.87, P < 0.02) and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels (r = 0.66, P < 0.1) correlated with C-ANCA inhibition of PR3-alpha 1AT complexation, while they did not correlate with the C-ANCA titre detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) nor with IgG anti-PR3 antibody level measured by ELISA. The inhibitory effect of C-ANCA on PR3-alpha 1AT complexation had risen significantly at the moment of relapse compared with values 3 months (P < 0.05) and 6 months (P < 0.01) before relapse. Eight patients with established WG and positive for C-ANCA but without clinical evidence of relapse served as controls. In this group no inhibitory effect of C-ANCA on PR3-alpha 1AT complexation was observed in 7/8 patients sera. Sera of one control patient contained moderate C-ANCA inhibitory activity towards PR3-alpha 1AT complexation, which remained at a constant level during the 6 months period of observation. Thus, disease activity in WG appears to be more closely related to C-ANCA inhibitory activity towards PR3-alpha 1AT complexation. PMID:8370167

  3. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Month Personal Story - David Roncori Liver Disease - The Big Picture 13 Ways to a Healthy Liver In the Field Call to Action - Change Tomorrow, Give Today Liver Lowdown Sept 2013 Recovery Month Path to Wellness 5 Facts About Recovery Patient Story In the Field ...

  4. Encapsulation of Alpha-1 antitrypsin in PLGA nanoparticles: In Vitro characterization as an effective aerosol formulation in pulmonary diseases

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Alpha 1- antitrypsin (α1AT) belongs to the superfamily of serpins and inhibits different proteases. α1AT protects the lung from cellular inflammatory enzymes. In the absence of α1AT, the degradation of lung tissue results to pulmonary complications. The pulmonary route is a potent noninvasive route for systemic and local delivery. The aerosolized α1AT not only affects locally its main site of action but also avoids remaining in circulation for a long period of time in peripheral blood. Poly (D, L lactide-co glycolide) (PLGA) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer approved for sustained controlled release of peptides and proteins. The aim of this work was to prepare a wide range of particle size as a carrier of protein-loaded nanoparticles to deposit in different parts of the respiratory system especially in the deep lung. Various lactide to glycolide ratio of the copolymer was used to obtain different release profile of the drug which covers extended and rapid drug release in one formulation. Results Nonaqueous and double emulsion techniques were applied for the synthesis of nanoparticles. Nanoparticles were characterized in terms of surface morphology, size distribution, powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release, FTIR spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). To evaluate the nanoparticles cytotoxicity, cell cytotoxicity test was carried out on the Cor L105 human epithelial lung cancer cell line. Nanoparticles were spherical with an average size in the range of 100 nm to 1μ. The encapsulation efficiency was found to be higher when the double emulsion technique was applied. XRD and DSC results indicated that α1AT encapsulated in the nanoparticles existed in an amorphous or disordered-crystalline status in the polymer matrix. The lactic acid to glycolic acid ratio affects the release profile of α1AT. Hence, PLGA with a 50:50 ratios exhibited the ability to release %60 of the drug within 8

  5. Causal and Synthetic Associations of Variants in the SERPINA Gene Cluster with Alpha1-antitrypsin Serum Levels

    PubMed Central

    Thun, Gian Andri; Kumar, Ashish; Obeidat, Ma'en; Zorzetto, Michele; Haun, Margot; Curjuric, Ivan; Couto Alves, Alexessander; Jackson, Victoria E.; Albrecht, Eva; Ried, Janina S.; Teumer, Alexander; Lopez, Lorna M.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Enroth, Stefan; Bossé, Yohan; Hao, Ke; Timens, Wim; Gyllensten, Ulf; Polasek, Ozren; Wilson, James F.; Rudan, Igor; Hayward, Caroline; Sandford, Andrew J.; Deary, Ian J.; Koch, Beate; Reischl, Eva; Schulz, Holger; Hui, Jennie; James, Alan L.; Rochat, Thierry; Russi, Erich W.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Strachan, David P.; Hall, Ian P.; Tobin, Martin D.; Dahl, Morten; Fallgaard Nielsen, Sune; Nordestgaard, Børge G.; Kronenberg, Florian; Luisetti, Maurizio; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M.

    2013-01-01

    Several infrequent genetic polymorphisms in the SERPINA1 gene are known to substantially reduce concentration of alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) in the blood. Since low AAT serum levels fail to protect pulmonary tissue from enzymatic degradation, these polymorphisms also increase the risk for early onset chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The role of more common SERPINA1 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in respiratory health remains poorly understood. We present here an agnostic investigation of genetic determinants of circulating AAT levels in a general population sample by performing a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 1392 individuals of the SAPALDIA cohort. Five common SNPs, defined by showing minor allele frequencies (MAFs) >5%, reached genome-wide significance, all located in the SERPINA gene cluster at 14q32.13. The top-ranking genotyped SNP rs4905179 was associated with an estimated effect of β = −0.068 g/L per minor allele (P = 1.20*10−12). But denser SERPINA1 locus genotyping in 5569 participants with subsequent stepwise conditional analysis, as well as exon-sequencing in a subsample (N = 410), suggested that AAT serum level is causally determined at this locus by rare (MAF<1%) and low-frequent (MAF 1–5%) variants only, in particular by the well-documented protein inhibitor S and Z (PI S, PI Z) variants. Replication of the association of rs4905179 with AAT serum levels in the Copenhagen City Heart Study (N = 8273) was successful (P<0.0001), as was the replication of its synthetic nature (the effect disappeared after adjusting for PI S and Z, P = 0.57). Extending the analysis to lung function revealed a more complex situation. Only in individuals with severely compromised pulmonary health (N = 397), associations of common SNPs at this locus with lung function were driven by rarer PI S or Z variants. Overall, our meta-analysis of lung function in ever-smokers does not support a functional role of common SNPs in

  6. Human Alpha-1-Antitrypsin (hAAT) therapy reduces renal dysfunction and acute tubular necrosis in a murine model of bilateral kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Maicas, Nuria; van der Vlag, Johan; Bublitz, Janin; Florquin, Sandrine; Bakker-van Bebber, Marinka; Dinarello, Charles A.; Verweij, Vivienne; Masereeuw, Roos; Joosten, Leo A.

    2017-01-01

    Several lines of evidence have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), the major serum serine protease inhibitor. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of human AAT (hAAT) monotherapy during the early and recovery phase of ischemia-induced acute kidney injury. Mild renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury was induced in male C57Bl/6 mice by bilateral clamping of the renal artery and vein for 20 min. hAAT (80 mg/kg, Prolastin®) was administered daily intraperitoneally (i.p.) from day -1 until day 7 after surgery. Control animals received the same amount of human serum albumin (hAlb). Plasma, urine and kidneys were collected at 2h, 1, 2, 3, 8 and 15 days after reperfusion for histological and biochemical analysis. hAAT partially preserved renal function and tubular integrity after induction of bilateral kidney I/R injury, which was accompanied with reduced renal influx of macrophages and a significant decrease of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) protein levels in urine and plasma. During the recovery phase, hAAT significantly decreased kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) protein levels in urine but showed no significant effect on renal fibrosis. Although the observed effect size of hAAT administration was limited and therefore the clinical relevance of our findings should be evaluated carefully, these data support the potential of this natural protein to ameliorate ischemic and inflammatory conditions. PMID:28235038

  7. Physical mapping of four serpin genes: alpha 1-antitrypsin, alpha 1-antichymotrypsin, corticosteroid-binding globulin, and protein C inhibitor, within a 280-kb region on chromosome I4q32.1.

    PubMed Central

    Billingsley, G D; Walter, M A; Hammond, G L; Cox, D W

    1993-01-01

    Alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT; protease inhibitor [PI] locus), alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (alpha 1ACT; AACT locus), corticosteroid-binding globulin (CBG; CBG locus), and protein C inhibitor (PCI; PCI locus) are members of the serine protease inhibitor (serpin) superfamily. A noncoding PI-like (PIL) gene has been located 12 kb 3' of the PI gene. The PI, PIL, and AACT loci have been localized to 14q32.1, the CBG locus has been localized to 14q31-14q32.1, and PCI has been mapped to chromosome 14. Genetic linkage analysis suggests tight linkage between PI and AACT. We have used pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to generate a physical map linking these five serpin genes. The order of the genetic loci is AACT/PCI-PI-PIL-CBG, with a maximum distance of about 220 kb between the AACT/PCI and PI genes. These genes form a PI cluster at 14q32.1, similar to that of the homologous genes on murine chromosome l2. The close proximity of these genes has implications for disease-association studies. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8381582

  8. A study of common Mendelian disease carriers across ageing British cohorts: meta-analyses reveal heterozygosity for alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency increases respiratory capacity and height

    PubMed Central

    North, Teri-Louise; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Cooper, Cyrus; Deary, Ian J; Gallacher, John; Kivimaki, Mika; Kumari, Meena; Martin, Richard M; Pattie, Alison; Sayer, Avan Aihie; Starr, John M; Wong, Andrew; Kuh, Diana; Rodriguez, Santiago; Day, Ian N M

    2016-01-01

    Background Several recessive Mendelian disorders are common in Europeans, including cystic fibrosis (CFTR), medium-chain-acyl-Co-A-dehydrogenase deficiency (ACADM), phenylketonuria (PAH) and alpha 1-antitrypsin deficiency (SERPINA1). Methods In a multicohort study of >19 000 older individuals, we investigated the relevant phenotypes in heterozygotes for these genes: lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC)) for CFTR and SERPINA1; cognitive measures for ACADM and PAH; and physical capability for ACADM, PAH and SERPINA1. Results Findings were mostly negative but lung function in SERPINA1 (protease inhibitor (PI) Z allele, rs28929474) showed enhanced FEV1 and FVC (0.13 z-score increase in FEV1 (p=1.7×10−5) and 0.16 z-score increase in FVC (p=5.2×10−8)) in PI-MZ individuals. Height adjustment (a known, strong correlate of FEV1 and FVC) revealed strong positive height associations of the Z allele (1.50 cm increase in height (p=3.6×10−10)). Conclusions The PI-MZ rare (2%) SNP effect is nearly four times greater than the ‘top’ common height SNP in HMGA2. However, height only partially attenuates the SERPINA1-FEV1 or FVC association (around 50%) and vice versa. Height SNP variants have recently been shown to be positively selected collectively in North versus South Europeans, while the Z allele high frequency is localised to North Europe. Although PI-ZZ is clinically disadvantageous to lung function, PI-MZ increases both height and respiratory function; potentially a balanced polymorphism. Partial blockade of PI could conceivably form part of a future poly-therapeutic approach in very short children. The notion that elastase inhibition should benefit patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease may also merit re-evaluation. PI is already a therapeutic target: our findings invite a reconsideration of the optimum level in respiratory care and novel pathway potential for development of agents for the

  9. Features of the milk whey protein partitioning in polyethyleneglycol-sodium citrate aqueous two-phase systems with the goal of isolating human alpha-1 antitrypsin expressed in bovine milk.

    PubMed

    Boaglio, Andrea; Bassani, Georgina; Picó, Guillermo; Nerli, Bibiana

    2006-06-06

    Partitioning behaviour of the bovine whey proteins (bovine serum albumin, alpha-lactoalbumin and beta-lactoglobulin) and human alpha-1 antitrypsin in aqueous two-phase systems prepared with polyethyleneglycol (molecular masses: 1000, 1450 and 3350)-sodium citrate was analysed at pH 5.2, 6.2 and 8.2. Alpha lactoalbumin concentrated in the polyethyleneglycol rich-phase, while beta-lactoglobulin, bovine serum albumin and alpha-1 antitrypsin showed affinity for the citrate rich-phase. In aqueous two-phase systems of high medium pH and high polyethyleneglycol molecular mass the protein partitioning equilibrium is displaced to the citrate rich-phase. The polyethyleneglycol 1450-pH 5.2 system with a top/bottom phase-volume ratio of 3 showed to have the best capability of recovering the alpha-1 antitrypsin from a mixture prepared with natural milk whey and human alpha-1 antitrypsin. The recovery of this protein in the bottom phase was of 90% and the purity of the obtained product was of 98%. The method appears to be suitable as a starting point to isolate other human proteins expressed in transgenic bovine milk.

  10. Evaluation of Alpha 1-Antitrypsin and the Levels of mRNA Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase 7, Urokinase Type Plasminogen Activator Receptor and COX-2 for the Diagnosis of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bujanda, Luis; Sarasqueta, Cristina; Cosme, Angel; Hijona, Elizabeth; Enríquez-Navascués, José M.; Placer, Carlos; Villarreal, Eloisa; Herreros-Villanueva, Marta; Giraldez, María D.; Gironella, Meritxell; Balaguer, Francesc; Castells, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second most common cause of death from cancer in both men and women in the majority of developed countries. Molecular tests of blood could potentially provide this ideal screening tool. Aim Our objective was to assess the usefulness of serum markers and mRNA expression levels in the diagnosis of CRC. Methods In a prospective study, we measured mRNA expression levels of 13 markers (carbonic anhydrase, guanylyl cyclase C, plasminogen activator inhibitor, matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7), urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR), urokinase-type plasminogen activator, survivin, tetranectin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), cytokeratin 20, thymidylate synthase, cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), and CD44) and three proteins in serum (alpha 1 antitrypsin, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and activated C3 in 42 patients with CRC and 33 with normal colonoscopy results. Results Alpha 1-antitrypsin was the serum marker that was most useful for CRC diagnosis (1.79±0.25 in the CRC group vs 1.27±0.25 in the control group, P<0.0005). The area under the ROC curve for alpha 1-antitrypsin was 0.88 (0.79–0.96). The mRNA expression levels of five markers were statistically different between CRC cases and controls: those for which the ROC area was over 75% were MMP7 (0.81) and tetranectin (0.80), COX-2 (0.78), uPAR (0.78) and carbonic anhydrase (0.77). The markers which identified early stage CRC (Stages I and II) were alpha 1-antitrypsin, uPAR, COX-2 and MMP7. Conclusions Serum alpha 1-antitrypsin and the levels of mRNA expression of MMP7, COX-2 and uPAR have good diagnostic accuracy for CRC, even in the early stages. PMID:23300952

  11. Classifying married adults diagnosed with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency based on spousal communication patterns using latent class analysis: insights for intervention.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel A; Wienke, Sara E; Baker, Michelle K

    2014-06-01

    Married adults are increasingly exposed to test results that indicate an increased genetic risk for adult-onset conditions. For example, a SERPINA1 mutation, associated with alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), predisposes affected individuals to diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and cancer, which are often detected in adulthood. Married adults are likely to discuss genetic test results with their spouses, and interpersonal research suggests that spouses' communication patterns differ. Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of spousal communication patterns about AATD results from a sample of married adults in the Alpha-1 Research Registry (N = 130). A five-class model was identified, and the subgroups were consistent with existing spousal-communication typologies. This study also showed that genetic beliefs (e.g., genetic stigma), emotions, and experiences (e.g., insurance difficulties) covaried with membership in particular subgroups. Understanding these differences can serve as the foundation for the creation of effective, targeted communications interventions to address the specific needs and conversational patterns of different kinds of couples.

  12. Understanding Lung Deposition of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin in Acute Experimental Mouse Lung Injury Model Using Fluorescence Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yutian; Chen, Jianqing; Rong, Haojing; O'Neil, Shawn P.; Ghosh, Brahma; Nguyen, Vuong; Li, Xianfeng

    2016-01-01

    Human plasma-derived α1-antitrypsin (AAT) delivered by intravenous infusion is used as augmentation therapy in patients with emphysema who have a genetic mutation resulting in deficiency of AAT. Inhalation is an alternative route of administration that can potentially increase the efficacy and convenience of treatment. This study was conducted to determine whether delivery to the lungs, initially via the intratracheal (IT) route of administration, would deliver efficacious levels of a recombinant AAT (rAAT) to the site of action in the lungs in mice. 125I-radiolabeled rAAT, fluorophore-conjugated rAAT (rAAT-Alexa488), and NE680 (neutrophil elastase 680, a silent fluorescent substrate of neutrophil elastase which fluoresces in the near-infrared range upon activation by neutrophil elastase) were used to characterize the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution profile, distribution of rAAT within the lung, and efficacy of rAAT to inhibit neutrophil elastase at the site of action, respectively. The study has demonstrated that rAAT was able to gain access to locations where neutrophil elastase was localized. The histochemical quantification of rAAT activity relative to dose at the site of action provided here will improve confidence in predicting the human dose via the inhalation route. PMID:28050284

  13. Relationship between frequency, length, and treatment outcome of exacerbations to baseline lung function and lung density in alpha-1 antitrypsin-deficient COPD

    PubMed Central

    Vijayasaratha, Kesavaperumal; Stockley, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Background Diary cards are useful for analyzing exacerbations in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), although factors influencing the length and frequency of each episode are poorly understood. This study investigated factors that influence the features of exacerbations in patients with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (PiZ phenotype) and COPD. Methods Daily diary cards were collected over 2 years. Patients had emphysema visualized and quantified by computed tomography scan, and had at least one documented exacerbation in the previous year. Results The patients (n = 23) had a mean age of 52.5 years, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) of 1.2 L (38.4% predicted), corrected gas transfer (KCO) of 0.90 mmol/min/kPa/L (59.7% predicted), and 15th percentile lung density of 44.55 g/L. Two hundred and sixty-three exacerbations (164 treated) were identified. The frequency of treated exacerbations correlated negatively with KCO% predicted (r = −0.432; P = 0.022). Exacerbation length (determined for 17 of the patients for whom diary card data through the episode were available) correlated negatively with baseline 15th percentile lung density (r = −0.361; P = 0.003), and increased the longer treatment was delayed (r = 0.503; P < 0.001). Treatment delay was shorter with higher day 1 symptom score, lower baseline FEV1, FEV1/forced vital capacity, and lower 15th percentile lung density (r = −0.368, 0.272, 0.461, and 0.786; P = 0.004, 0.036, <0.001, and <0.001, respectively). Time to resolution of exacerbation after treatment initiation was not affected by treatment delay, but correlated negatively with KCO% predicted (r = −0.647; P = 0.007). Conclusion In alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency, the frequency and length of resolution of exacerbation were related to baseline gas transfer. Treatment delay adversely affected exacerbation length, and lung density was the best independent predictor of delay in starting treatment. PMID:23226015

  14. Rapid DNA extraction protocol for detection of alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency from dried blood spots by real-time PCR.

    PubMed

    Struniawski, R; Szpechcinski, A; Poplawska, B; Skronski, M; Chorostowska-Wynimko, J

    2013-01-01

    The dried blood spot (DBS) specimens have been successfully employed for the large-scale diagnostics of α1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency as an easy to collect and transport alternative to plasma/serum. In the present study we propose a fast, efficient, and cost effective protocol of DNA extraction from dried blood spot (DBS) samples that provides sufficient quantity and quality of DNA and effectively eliminates any natural PCR inhibitors, allowing for successful AAT genotyping by real-time PCR and direct sequencing. DNA extracted from 84 DBS samples from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients was genotyped for AAT deficiency variants by real-time PCR. The results of DBS AAT genotyping were validated by serum IEF phenotyping and AAT concentration measurement. The proposed protocol allowed successful DNA extraction from all analyzed DBS samples. Both quantity and quality of DNA were sufficient for further real-time PCR and, if necessary, for genetic sequence analysis. A 100% concordance between AAT DBS genotypes and serum phenotypes in positive detection of two major deficiency S- and Z- alleles was achieved. Both assays, DBS AAT genotyping by real-time PCR and serum AAT phenotyping by IEF, positively identified PI*S and PI*Z allele in 8 out of the 84 (9.5%) and 16 out of 84 (19.0%) patients, respectively. In conclusion, the proposed protocol noticeably reduces the costs and the hand-on-time of DBS samples preparation providing genomic DNA of sufficient quantity and quality for further real-time PCR or genetic sequence analysis. Consequently, it is ideally suited for large-scale AAT deficiency screening programs and should be method of choice.

  15. Expression of human alpha1-antitrypsin in mice and dogs following AAV6 vector-mediated gene transfer to the lungs.

    PubMed

    Halbert, Christine L; Madtes, David K; Vaughan, Andrew E; Wang, Zejing; Storb, Rainer; Tapscott, Stephen J; Miller, A Dusty

    2010-06-01

    We evaluated the potential of lung-directed gene therapy for alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency using an adeno-associated virus type 6 (AAV6) vector containing a human AAT (hAAT) complementary DNA (cDNA) delivered to the lungs of mice and dogs. The results in normal and immune-deficient mice showed that hAAT concentrations were much higher in lung fluid than in plasma, and therapeutic levels were obtained even in normal mice. However, in normal mice an immune response against the vector and/or transgene limited long-term gene expression. An AAV6 vector expressing a marker protein verified that AAV6 vectors efficiently transduced lung cells in dogs. Delivery of AAV6-hAAT resulted in low levels of hAAT in dog serum but therapeutic levels in the lung that persisted for at least 58 days to 4 months in three immunosuppressed dogs. Expression in the serum was not detectable after 45 days in one nonimmune suppressed dog. A lymphoproliferative response to AAV capsid but not to hAAT was detected even after immunosuppression. These results in mice and dogs show the feasibility of expression of therapeutic levels of AAT in the lungs after AAV vector delivery, and advocate for approaches to prevent cellular immune responses to AAV capsid proteins for persistence of gene expression in humans.

  16. Comparison between the thermodynamic features of alpha1-antitrypsin and human albumin partitioning in aqueous two-phase systems of polyethyleneglycol-dextran.

    PubMed

    Di Nucci, H; Nerli, B; Picó, G

    2001-02-15

    The partitioning features of human serum albumin and alpha1-antitrypsin in aqueous two-phase systems of dextran and polyethyleneglycol were studied. The effect of factors that affect the electrostatic term of Albertsson equation such as pH, ionic strength, presence of neutral salts as well as those which affect the non-electrostatic term such as polyethyleneglycol mol. wt. and temperature were assayed. At room temperature, the positive entropy and enthalpy changes associated to the partition may be due to a release of part of the structured water in the domain of proteins caused by H-bonds rupture when the proteins are transferred to the upper phase. This behaviour may be explained on the basis of a preferential hydration of the proteins in presence of dextran (bottom phase) and a preferential interaction of polyethyleneglycols with the protein domain (top phase). The electrostatic interactions were similar for both proteins due to the proximity of their isoelectric point and similar dissociation profiles of their prototropic groups.

  17. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) anomalies are associated with lung disease due to rapidly growing mycobacteria and AAT inhibits Mycobacterium abscessus infection of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chan, Edward D; Kaminska, Aleksandra M; Gill, Wendy; Chmura, Kathryn; Feldman, Nicole E; Bai, Xiyuan; Floyd, Corinne M; Fulton, Kayte E; Huitt, Gwen A; Strand, Matthew J; Iseman, Michael D; Shapiro, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are ubiquitous in the environment but cause lung disease in only a fraction of exposed individuals. This variable susceptibility to disease implies vulnerability to RGM infection due to weakness in host defense. Since most persons who contract RGM lung disease have no known host defense defect, it is likely that uncharacterized host deficiencies exist that predispose to RGM infection. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a host factor that may protect individuals from respiratory infections. Therefore, we assessed AAT protein anomalies as a risk factor for RGM lung disease. In a cohort of 100 patients with RGM lung disease, Mycobacterium (M.) abscessus was the most prevalent organism, isolated in 64 (64%) subjects. Anomalous AAT proteins were present in 27% of the cohort, which is 1.6 times the estimated prevalence of anomalous AAT proteins in the United States population (p=0.008). In in vitro studies, both AAT and a synthetic inhibitor of serine proteases suppressed M. abscessus infection of monocyte-derived macrophages by up to 65% (p<0.01). AAT may be an anti-RGM host-defense factor, and anomalous AAT phenotypes or AAT deficiency may constitute risk factors for pulmonary disease due to RGM.

  18. Validation and development of an immunonephelometric assay for the determination of alpha-1 antitrypsin levels in dried blood spots from patients with COPD*

    PubMed Central

    Zillmer, Laura Russo; Russo, Rodrigo; Manzano, Beatriz Martins; Ivanaga, Ivan; Nascimento, Oliver Augusto; de Souza, Altay Alves Lino; Santos, Gildo; Rodriguez, Francisco; Miravitlles, Marc; Jardim, José Roberto

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To validate and develop an immunonephelometric assay for the determination of alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) levels in dried blood spots from COPD patients in Brazil. METHODS: We determined AAT levels in serum samples and dried blood spots from 192 COPD patients. For the preparation of dried blood spots, a disk (diameter, 6 mm) was placed into a tube, eluted with 200 µL of PBS, and stored overnight at 4ºC. All of the samples were analyzed by immunonephelometry in duplicate. We used the bootstrap resampling method in order to determine a cut-off point for AAT levels in dried blood spots. RESULTS: The correlation coefficient between the AAT levels in serum samples and those in dried blood spots was r = 0.45. For dried blood spots, the cut-off value was 2.02 mg/dL (97% CI: 1.45-2.64 mg/dL), with a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of 100%, 95.7%, 27.2%, and 100%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: This method for the determination of AAT levels in dried blood spots appears to be a reliable screening tool for patients with AAT deficiency. PMID:24310627

  19. Emergence of a Stage-Dependent Human Liver Disease Signature with Directed Differentiation of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin-Deficient iPS Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Andrew A.; Ying, Lei; Liesa, Marc; Segeritz, Charis-Patricia; Mills, Jason A.; Shen, Steven S.; Jean, Jyhchang; Lonza, Geordie C.; Liberti, Derek C.; Lang, Alex H.; Nazaire, Jean; Gower, Adam C.; Müeller, Franz-Josef; Mehta, Pankaj; Ordóñez, Adriana; Lomas, David A.; Vallier, Ludovic; Murphy, George J.; Mostoslavsky, Gustavo; Spira, Avrum; Shirihai, Orian S.; Ramirez, Maria I.; Gadue, Paul; Kotton, Darrell N.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) provide an inexhaustible source of cells for modeling disease and testing drugs. Here we develop a bioinformatic approach to detect differences between the genomic programs of iPSCs derived from diseased versus normal human cohorts as they emerge during in vitro directed differentiation. Using iPSCs generated from a cohort carrying mutations (PiZZ) in the gene responsible for alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency, we find that the global transcriptomes of PiZZ iPSCs diverge from normal controls upon differentiation to hepatic cells. Expression of 135 genes distinguishes PiZZ iPSC-hepatic cells, providing potential clues to liver disease pathogenesis. The disease-specific cells display intracellular accumulation of mutant AAT protein, resulting in increased autophagic flux. Furthermore, we detect beneficial responses to the drug carbamazepine, which further augments autophagic flux, but adverse responses to known hepatotoxic drugs. Our findings support the utility of iPSCs as tools for drug development or prediction of toxicity. PMID:25843048

  20. Engineering of alpha1-antitrypsin variants selective for subtilisin-like proprotein convertases PACE4 and PC6: importance of the P2' residue in stable complex formation of the serpin with proprotein convertase.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Kanie, Hiroki; Makise, Hirotaka; Yuasa, Keizo; Nagahama, Masami; Matsuda, Yoshiko

    2007-04-01

    Furin and PACE4, members of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family, have been implicated in the metastatic progression of certain tumors in addition to the activation of viral coat proteins and bacterial toxins, indicating that these enzymes are potential targets for therapeutic agents. Alpha1-Antitrypsin Portland is an engineered alpha1-antitrypsin designed as a furin-specific inhibitor and has been used as a tool in the functional analysis of furin. In this work, we engineered rat alpha1-antitrypsin to create a PACE4-specific inhibitor. Substituting Arg-Arg-Arg-Arg for Ala-Val-Pro-Met(352) at P4-P1 and Ala for Leu(354) at P2' created a potent PACE4- and PC6-specific inhibitor. This variant (RRRRSA) formed an SDS- and heat-stable serpin/proteinase complex with PACE4 or PC6 and inhibited both enzyme activities. The RRRRSA variant was efficiently cleaved by furin without formation of the stable complex. This is the first report of a highly selective protein-based inhibitor of PACE4 and PC6. This inhibitor will be useful in delineating the roles of PACE4 and PC6 localized in the extracellular matrix.

  1. Salivary levels of secretary IgA, C5a and alpha 1-antitrypsin in sulfur mustard exposed patients 20 years after the exposure, Sardasht-Iran Cohort Study (SICS).

    PubMed

    Yarmohammadi, Mohammad Ebrahim; Hassan, Zuhair Mohammad; Mostafaie, Ali; Ebtekar, Massoumeh; Yaraee, Roya; Pourfarzam, Shahryar; Jalali-Nadoushan, Mohammadreza; Faghihzadeh, Soghrat; Vaez-Mahdavi, Mohammad-Reza; Soroush, Mohammad-Reza; Khamesipour, Ali; Faghihzadeh, Elham; Sharifnia, Zarin; Naghizadeh, Mohammad-Mehdi; Ghazanfari, Tooba

    2013-11-01

    Sulfur mustard (SM) is a strong toxic agent that causes acute and chronic health effects on a myriad of organs following exposure. Although the primary targets of inhaled mustard gas are the epithelia of the upper respiratory tract, the lower respiratory tract is the focus of the current study, and upper tract complications remain obscure. To our knowledge there is no study addressing the secretory IgA (S-IgA), C5a, alpha 1 antitrypsin (A1AT) in the saliva of SM-exposed victims. In this study, as many as 500 volunteers, including 372 SM-exposed cases and 128 control volunteers were recruited. A 3 ml sample of saliva was collected from each volunteer, and the level of secretory IgA, C5a, and alpha 1 antitrypsin in the samples were compared between the two groups. The SM-exposed group showed a significantly higher amount of salivary alpha 1 antitrypsin and secretary IgA compared to the control group (p<.006 and p<.018 respectively). The two groups showed no significant difference (p=0.192) in the level of C5a. The results also showed that the level of salivary A1AT is more than that of IgA in severely injured cases. The findings presented here provide valuable insight for both researchers and practitioners dealing with victims of the chemical warfare agent, sulfur mustard. This research indicates that certain branches of the inflammatory processes mandate serious attention in therapeutic interventions.

  2. Unusually difficult clinical presentation of an infant suffering from congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection combined with alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Potočnjak, Ines; Tešović, Goran; Kuna, Andrea Tešija; Štefanović, Mario; Žaja, Orjena

    2014-01-01

    Congenital Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection and alpha 1-antitrypsin (A1AT) deficiency are separately well described entities, but their simultaneous occurrence can pose a special challenge to a clinician, especially dealing with optimal diagnostic as well as therapeutic approach. Congenital CMV infection is the most common vertically transmitted infection in developed countries. In 85–95% of newborns it runs asymptomatic, while in others it is presented with jaundice, petechias, hepatosplenomegaly and central nervous system damage. A1AT deficiency is on the other hand, the most common genetic liver disease in children, and the clinical spectrum varies from the accidentally detected increased levels of transaminases through to the severe infant cholestasis that can progress to cirrhosis. The following case report describes a two-month old male with severe clinical presentation of congenital CMV infection probably exacerbated due to A1AT deficiency comorbidity. The clinical manifestations and unusually difficult clinical signs this infant presented lead to assumption that the additional liver damage exists. Extensive laboratory analyses were performed, including PCR for CMV DNA, A1AT serum concentration, A1AT genotyping, followed and confirmed with phenotyping. Patient was treated parenteral with ganciclovir, what continued with oral valganciclovir and supportive therapy. Intensive and thorough supportive treatment of the infant resulted in satisfactory progress and excellent outcome. Patient was followed-up till the age of 18 months. The presented case provides excellent example about successful overcoming obstacles in differential diagnosis of A1AT in neonates and infants. Medical charts analysis was the methodology used in making this report. PMID:25351359

  3. Additional N-glycosylation in the N-terminal region of recombinant human alpha-1 antitrypsin enhances the circulatory half-life in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Chung, Hye-Shin; Kim, Ji-Sun; Lee, Sang Mee; Park, Soon Jae

    2016-04-01

    Glycosylation affects the circulatory half-lives of therapeutic proteins. However, the effects of an additional N-glycosylation in the unstructured region or the loop region of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) on the circulatory half-life of the protein are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the role of an additional N-glycosylation site (Q4N/D6T, Q9N, D12N/S14T, A70N, G148T, R178N, or V212N) to the three naturally occurring N-glycosylation sites in human A1AT. A single-dose (445 μg/kg) pharmacokinetic study using male Sprague-Dawley rats showed that, among the seven recombinant A1AT (rA1AT) mutants, Q9N and D12N/S14T showed the highest serum concentration and area under the curve values, as well as similar circulatory half-lives that were 2.2-fold higher than plasma-derived A1AT and 1.7-fold higher than wild-type rA1AT. We further characterized the Q9N mutant regarding the N-glycan profile, sialic acid content, protease inhibitory activity, and protein stability. The results indicate that an additional N-glycosylation in the flexible N-terminal region increases the circulatory half-life of rA1AT without altering its protease inhibitory activity. Our study provides novel insight into the use of rA1AT for the treatment of emphysema with an increased injection interval relative to the clinically used plasma-derived A1AT.

  4. Alpha 1-antitrypsin activates lung cancer cell survival by acting on cap-dependent protein translation, vesicle-mediated transport, and metastasis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Seung-Hee; Cho, Kyung-Cho; Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Hong, Seong-Ho; Park, Sungjin; Lee, Ah Young; Kim, Sanghwa; Lee, Somin; Kang, Jeong Won; Chae, Chanhee; Park, Jongsun; Kim, Kwang Pyo; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2016-07-19

    Lung cancer remains the leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Although elevated expression levels of alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) have been reported in lung cancer patients, the precise role of AAT in lung cancer progression and prevention has not yet been fully elucidated. We have explored the mechanisms by which AAT stimulates in lung cancer progression. Here, we used proteomic analyses to compare protein levels following AAT overexpression in normal lung L132 cells containing fundamentally low level of AAT. Overexpression of AAT increased levels of proteins involved in transcription and translation, such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 5B (STAT5B) and eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1-alpha 2 (EEF1A2). Furthermore, dual luciferase activity for cap-dependent protein translation increased a 53% at 24 h and 45% at 48 h in AAT-overexpressing cells compared with control. Overexpression of AAT also increased levels of the vesicular transport protein, GOPC, which inhibited the expression of the autophagy protein, BECN1, thereby possibly increasing cell survival. In addition, overexpression of AAT promoted angiogenesis and cell adhesion through increasing expression of the metastatic protein, thrombospondin 1 (THBS1). In contrast, down-regulation of AAT by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) suppressed cell proliferation, metastasis, and adhesion in human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells and in the lung tissue of K-rasLA1 lung cancer model mice. These findings strongly suggest that AAT regulation shows promise as an alternative avenue for lung cancer treatment and prevention.

  5. The role and importance of glycosylation of acute phase proteins with focus on alpha-1 antitrypsin in acute and chronic inflammatory conditions.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Cormac; Saldova, Radka; Wormald, Mark R; Rudd, Pauline M; McElvaney, Noel G; Reeves, Emer P

    2014-07-03

    Acute phase proteins (APPs) are a group of circulating plasma proteins which undergo changes quantitatively or qualitatively at the time of inflammation. Many of these APPs are glycosylated, and it has been shown that alterations in glycosylation may occur in inflammatory and malignant conditions. Changes in glycosylation have been studied as potential biomarkers in cancer and also in chronic inflammatory conditions and have been shown to correlate with disease severity in certain conditions. Serine protease inhibitors (serpins), many of which are also APPs, are proteins involved in the control of proteases in numerous pathways. Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (AAT) is the most abundant serpin within the circulation and is an APP which has been shown to increase in response to inflammation. The primary role of AAT is maintaining the protease/antiprotease balance in the lung, but it also possesses important anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. Several glycoforms of AAT exist, and they possess differing properties in regard to plasma half-life and stability. Glycosylation may also be important in determining the immune modulatory properties of AAT. The review will focus on the role and importance of glycosylation in acute phase proteins with particular attention to AAT and its use as a biomarker of disease. The review describes the processes involved in glycosylation, how glycosylation changes in differing disease states, and the alterations that occur to glycans of APPs with disease and inflammation. Finally, the review explores the importance of changes in glycosylation of AAT at times of inflammation and in malignant conditions and how this may impact upon the functions of AAT.

  6. The role of autophagy in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency: a specific cellular response in genetic diseases associated with aggregation-prone proteins.

    PubMed

    Perlmutter, David H

    2006-01-01

    In the classical form of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AT) deficiency a point mutation renders aggregation-prone properties on a hepatic secretory protein. The mutant ATZ protein in retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of liver cells rather than secreted into the blood and body fluids where it ordinarily functions as an inhibitor of neutrophil proteases. A loss-of-function mechanism allows the neutrophil proteases to slowly destroy the connective tissue matrix of the lung, resulting in premature development of pulmonary emphysema as early as the third decade of life. A gain-of-toxic function mechanism is responsible for liver inflammation and carcinogenesis. Indeed this deficiency is the most common genetic cause of liver disease in children in the US. It also causes chronic liver inflammation and carcinoma that manifests itself later in life. However, the majority of affected homozygotes apparently escape liver disease. This last observation has led to the concept that genetic and/or environmental modifiers affect the disposal of mutant ATZ within the ER or affect the protective cellular responses activated by accumulation of ATZ in the ER and, in turn, these modifiers determine which homozygotes develop liver inflammation and carcinoma. In this article I review a series of studies published over the last six years showing that autophagy is specifically activated by ER accumulation of ATZ and that it plays a critical role in the disposal of this mutant protein. Indeed, the most recent studies suggest that there is specialization of the autophagic pathway in that it is specifically activated by, and designed for disposal of, the aggregated forms of ATZ while the proteasome is specialized for disposal of soluble forms of ATZ. Together, these studies provide further evidence for the importance of autophagy in the cellular adaptive response to aggregated proteins in general.

  7. Pancreatic islet xenograft survival in mice is extended by a combination of alpha-1-antitrypsin and single-dose anti-CD4/CD8 therapy.

    PubMed

    Ashkenazi, Efrat; Baranovski, Boris M; Shahaf, Galit; Lewis, Eli C

    2013-01-01

    Clinical pancreatic islet transplantation is under evaluation for the treatment of autoimmune diabetes, yet several limitations preclude widespread use. For example, there is a critical shortage of human pancreas donors. Xenotransplantation may solve this problem, yet it evokes a rigorous immune response which can lead to graft rejection. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT), a clinically available and safe circulating anti-inflammatory and tissue protective glycoprotein, facilitates islet alloimmune-tolerance and protects from inflammation in several models. Here, we examine whether human AAT (hAAT), alone or in combination with clinically relevant approaches, achieves long-term islet xenograft survival. Rat-to-mouse islet transplantation was examined in the following groups: untreated (n = 6), hAAT (n = 6, 60-240 mg/kg every 3 days from day -10), low-dose co-stimulation blockade (anti-CD154/LFA-1) and single-dose anti-CD4/CD8 (n = 5-7), either as mono- or combination therapies. Islet grafting was accompanied by blood glucose follow-up. In addition, skin xenografting was performed in order to depict responses that occur in draining lymph nodes. According to our results hAAT monotherapy and hAAT/anti-CD154/LFA-1 combined therapy, did not delay rejection day (11-24 days untreated vs. 10-22 day treated). However, host and donor intragraft inflammatory gene expression was diminished by hAAT therapy in both setups. Single dose T-cell depletion using anti-CD4/CD8 depleting antibodies, which provided 14-15 days of reduced circulating T-cells, significantly delayed rejection day (28-52 days) but did not achieve graft acceptance. In contrast, in combination with hAAT, the group displayed significantly extended rejection days and a high rate of graft acceptance (59, 61, >90, >90, >90). In examination of graft explants, marginal mononuclear-cell infiltration containing regulatory T-cells predominated surviving xenografts. We suggest that temporal T-cell depletion, as in the

  8. Alpha-1-antitrypsin suppresses oxidative stress in preeclampsia by inhibiting the p38MAPK signaling pathway: An in vivo and in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jian; Yuan, Hua; Yang, Lan; Xu, Jian-Juan; Hu, Ling-Qin

    2017-01-01

    This present study was designed to investigate the effects of alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) on oxidative stress in preeclampsia (PE) by regulating p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) signaling pathway. HTR8/SVneo cells were randomly assigned into normal, hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R), HR + AAT and HR + siRNA-AAT groups. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and Western blotting were used to detect the mRNA and protein expressions of p-p38MAPK, AAT, signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) and activating transcription factor2 (ATF2). Flow cytometry, scratch test, cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and the 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiazol (-z-y1)-3,5-di- phenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay were conducted to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cell apoptosis, cell migration, proliferation and cytotoxicity, respectively. Mouse models in PE were established, which were divided into normal pregnancy (NP), PE and PE + AAT groups with blood pressure and urine protein measured. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) were conducted to detect the activity of oxidative stress-related kinases and expressions of inflammatory cytokines and coagulation-related factors in cells and mice placenta. Immunohistochemistry, Western blotting and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay were performed to detect AAT and p38MAPK expressions, apoptosis-related protein expressions, and apoptosis rate in mice placenta. Compared with the normal group, the H/R group had decreased expression of AAT, activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and GSH-Px, cell proliferation and migration, but increased p38MAPK, STAT1, ATF2, MDA, H2O2, inflammatory cytokines, coagulation-related factors, cell cytotoxicity, ROS, apoptotic factors and apoptosis rate. Compared with the H/R group, the HR + ATT group had increased expressions of AAT, activity of SOD and GSH-Px, cell proliferation and

  9. Health status and lung function in the Swedish alpha 1-antitrypsin deficient cohort, identified by neonatal screening, at the age of 37–40 years

    PubMed Central

    Piitulainen, Eeva; Mostafavi, Behrouz; Tanash, Hanan A

    2017-01-01

    Background Severe alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency (genotype PiZZ) is a well-known risk factor for COPD. A cohort of PiZZ and PiSZ individuals was identified by the Swedish national neonatal AAT screening program in 1972–1974 and followed up regularly since birth. Our aim was to study the lung function, respiratory symptoms and health status at the age of 38 years in comparison with a random sample of control subjects selected from the population registry. Methods The study group included 120 PiZZ, 46 PiSZ and 164 control subjects (PiMM), who answered a questionnaire on smoking habits and symptoms and the Saint George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) on quality of life. A total of 89 PiZZ, 33 PiSZ and 92 PiMM subjects underwent spirometry. Results Four percent of the PiZZ, 2% of the PiSZ and 12% of the control subjects were current smokers (P=0.008), and 17% of the PiZZ, 9% of the PiSZ and 21% of the control subjects had stopped smoking. The PiZZ current smokers had a significantly higher (ie, poorer) median activity score according to the SGRQ than the PiZZ never-smokers (P=0.032). The PiMM current smokers had significantly higher activity score (P<0.001), symptom score (P<0.001), and total score (P=0.001) according to the SGRQ than the PiMM never-smokers. The PiZZ current smokers had a significantly lower postbronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1)% of predicted value (P=0.019) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) ratio (P=0.032) than the PiZZ never-smokers. The proportion of subjects with a FEV1/FVC ratio of <0.70, indicating COPD, was significantly higher in the PiZZ current smokers than in the PiZZ never-smokers (P=0.001). Among the PiSZ and PiMM subjects, the differences in lung function between the smoking subgroups were insignificant. Conclusion PiZZ current smokers were found to have signs of COPD before 40 years of age. Smoking is less common among the AAT-deficient subjects identified by neonatal screening than among their peers

  10. Deposition of alpha 1-antitrypsin and loss of glycoconjugate carrying Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I binding sites in the glomerular sclerotic process. Phenomena common to chronic pyelonephritis and chronic diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis.

    PubMed

    Yonezawa, S; Irisa, S; Nakamura, T; Uemura, S; Otsuji, Y; Ohi, Y; Sato, E

    1983-01-01

    Sclerotic processes of glomeruli in chronic pyelonephritis (CPN) and chronic diffuse proliferative glomerulonephritis (CDPGN) were investigated in a lectin binding study in connection with an immunofluorescent examination of protease inhibitor deposition. Ulex europaeus agglutinin-I (UEA-I), which is specific to a certain terminal alpha-L-fucosyl residue of glycoconjugates, specifically labelled intact endothelia of glomerular capillaries, peritubular capillaries and blood vessels in human kidneys. Segmental or global loss of the UEA-I binding with glomerular capillaries was observed in the sclerotic areas where alpha 1-antitrypsin (alpha 1AT) deposits were always detected in the glomeruli with segmental or global sclerosis of CPN. This high correlation between loss of UEA-I binding and alpha 1AT deposition was also observed in the affected glomeruli of CDPGN. In considering glomerular sclerosis, it is significant that loss of UEA-I binding and alpha 1AT deposition are common to both CPN and CDPGN, although their original etiologies are quite different.

  11. Development of selectivity of alpha1-antitrypsin variant by mutagenesis in its reactive site loop against proprotein convertase. A crucial role of the P4 arginine in PACE4 inhibition.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Akihiko; Ikoma, Takayuki; Hashimoto, Emi; Matsuda, Yoshiko

    2002-02-01

    PACE4, furin and PC6 are Ca2+-dependent serine endoproteases that belong to the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family. Recent reports have supported the involvement of these enzymes in processing of growth/differentiation factors, viral replication, activation of bacterial toxins and tumorigenesis, indicating that these enzymes are a fascinating target for therapeutic agents. In this work, we evaluated the sensitivity and selectivity of three rat alpha1-antitrypsin variants which contained RVPR352, AVRR352 and RVRR352, respectively, within their reactive site loop using both inhibition of enzyme activity toward a fluorogenic substrate in vitro and formation of a SDS-stable protease/inhibitor complex ex vivo. The RVPR variant showed relatively broad selectivity, whereas the AVRR and RVRR variants were more selective than the RVPR variant. The AVRR variant inhibited furin and PC6 but not PACE4. This selectivity was further confirmed by complex formation and inhibition of pro-complement C3 processing. On the other hand, although the RVRR variant inhibited both PACE4 and furin effectively, it needed a 600-fold higher concentration than the RVPR variant to inhibit PC6 in vitro. These inhibitors will be useful tools in helping us to understand the roles of PACE4, furin and PC6.

  12. Low Serum Levels of Alpha1 Anti-trypsin (α1-AT) and Risk of Airflow Obstruction in Non-Primary α1-AT-Deficient Patients with Compensated Chronic Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Romero, Elizabeth; Suárez-Cuenca, Juan Antonio; Elizalde-Barrera, César Iván; Mondragón-Terán, Paul; Martínez-Hernández, José Enrique; Gómez-Cortés, Eduardo; de Vaca, Rebeca Pérez-Cabeza; Hernández-Muñoz, Rolando E.; Melchor-López, Alberto; Jiménez-Saab, Nayeli Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Background Alpha1 anti-trypsin (α1-AT), a serine protease inhibitor synthesized in the liver, is a major circulating antiprotease that provides defense against proteolytic damage in several tissues. Its deficiency is associated with airflow obstruction. The present study aimed to explore the role of α1-AT as a biomarker of airflow performance in chronic liver disease (CLD). Material/Methods Serum α1-AT levels and lung function (spirometry) were evaluated in non-primary α1-AT-deficient, alcoholic CLD patients without evident respiratory limitations. Results Thirty-four patients with airflow obstruction (n=11), airflow restriction (n=12), and normal airflow (n=11, age-matched controls) were eligible. α1-AT was decreased in the airflow obstruction group. ROC-cutoff α1-AT=24 mg/dL effectively discriminated airflow obstruction (AUC=0.687) and was associated with a 10-fold higher risk (p=0.0007). Conclusions Lower α1-AT increased the risk of airflow obstruction in CLD patients without primary α1-AT deficiency. PMID:25913248

  13. Alpha-1-antitrypsin inhibits nitric oxide production.

    PubMed

    Chan, Edward D; Pott, Gregory B; Silkoff, Philip E; Ralston, Annemarie H; Bryan, Courtney L; Shapiro, Leland

    2012-12-01

    NO is an endogenously produced gas that regulates inflammation, vascular tone, neurotransmission, and immunity. NO production can be increased by exposing cells to several endogenous and exogenous proinflammatory mediators, including IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and LPS. As AAT has been shown to inhibit cell activation and suppress cytokine production associated with proinflammatory stimulation, we examined AAT for NO-suppressive function. In RAW 264.7 murine macrophagic cells, physiological AAT concentrations significantly inhibited combined LPS- and IFN-γ-induced NO synthesis, and NO synthesis inhibition was associated with decreased expression of iNOS, suppressed NF-κB activation, and reduced translocation of extracellular AAT into the interior of RAW 264.7 cells. CE-2072, a synthetic inhibitor of serine proteases, also suppressed NO production, iNOS expression, and NF-κB activation. However, AAT did not alter activation of intracellular MAPKs. In subjects with genetic AAT deficiency, exhaled NO was increased significantly compared with exhaled NO in healthy controls. These in vitro and in vivo studies suggest that AAT is an endogenous inhibitor of NO production. Administering AAT or AAT-like molecules may have use as a treatment for diseases associated with excessive NO production.

  14. Living with Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... information about the benefits of physical activity. Reduce Stress Learning how to manage stress, relax, and cope with problems can improve your ... and muscle relaxation—can help you cope with stress. Emotional Issues and Support Living with AAT deficiency ...

  15. Learning about Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (AATD)

    MedlinePlus

    Skip Navigation National Human Genome Research Institute Enter word(s) to search Español Research Funding An Overview Bioinformatics Current Grants Education and Training Funding Extramural Research ...

  16. Genetics Home Reference: alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... rapid heartbeat upon standing. Affected individuals often develop emphysema, which is a lung disease caused by damage ... sacs in the lungs (alveoli). Characteristic features of emphysema include difficulty breathing, a hacking cough, and a ...

  17. How Is Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... or symptoms of a serious lung condition, especially emphysema , without any obvious cause. He or she also may suspect AAT deficiency if you develop emphysema when you're 45 years old or younger. ...

  18. Astute, Assertive, and Alpha-1: Quantifying Empowerment in a Rare Genetic Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finn, Symma

    2008-01-01

    We investigated empowerment in the Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency (Alpha-1) community, a rare, genetic disease network in the United States. The research was motivated by nine years of observations in the community. After observing what seemed to be a heightened amount of activism among Alpha-1 community members, I had hypothesized that this…

  19. How Can Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency Be Prevented?

    MedlinePlus

    ... ask your doctor whether you might benefit from augmentation therapy. This is a treatment in which you receive infusions of AAT protein. Augmentation therapy raises the level of AAT protein in your ...

  20. Effect of cigarette smoke on human serum trypsin inhibitory capacity and antitrypsin concentration

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, P.; Bone, R.C.; Louria, D.B.; Rayford, P.L.

    1982-07-01

    Investigation of the effect of cigarette smoke on the serum trypsin inhibitory capacity (TIC) and antitrypsin content in 89 smokers compared with 37 nonsmokers revealed that cigarette smoking is associated with a significantly lower level of TIC. No alteration in serum antitrypsin content was found because of cigarette smoking. Further analysis of the data indicated a correlation between the magnitude of smoking and the reduction in serum TIC. The reduction of TIC in cigarette smokers is consistent with the recent findings of decreased alpha 1-antitrypsin activity in rat lung and the reduced elastase inhibitory capacity per mg of alpha 1-antitrypsin found in the serum of smokers. The decrease in TIC in the serum of smokers, in addition to the reported decrease in elastolytic activity, may be useful in explaining the pathogenesis of emphysema frequently found in smokers.

  1. α1-Antitrypsin deficiency · 6: New and emerging treatments for α1-antitrypsin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sandhaus, R

    2004-01-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency is a genetic condition that increases the risk of developing lung and liver disease, as well as other associated conditions. Most treatment of affected individuals is not specifically directed at AAT deficiency but focuses on the resultant disease state. The only currently available specific therapeutic agent—namely, intravenous augmentation with plasma derived AAT protein—is marketed in a limited number of countries. Treatments aimed at correcting the underlying genetic abnormality, supplementing or modifying the gene product, and halting or reversing organ injury are now beginning to emerge. These innovative approaches may prove effective at modifying or eliminating diseases association with AAT deficiency. PMID:15454659

  2. 1H, 15N and 13C backbone resonance assignments of the archetypal serpin α1-antitrypsin.

    PubMed

    Nyon, Mun Peak; Kirkpatrick, John; Cabrita, Lisa D; Christodoulou, John; Gooptu, Bibek

    2012-10-01

    Alpha(1)-antitrypsin is a 45-kDa (394-residue) serine protease inhibitor synthesized by hepatocytes, which is released into the circulatory system and protects the lung from the actions of neutrophil elastase via a conformational transition within a dynamic inhibitory mechanism. Relatively common point mutations subvert this transition, causing polymerisation of α(1)-antitrypsin and deficiency of the circulating protein, predisposing carriers to severe lung and liver disease. We have assigned the backbone resonances of α(1)-antitrypsin using multidimensional heteronuclear NMR spectroscopy. These assignments provide the starting point for a detailed solution state characterization of the structural properties of this highly dynamic protein via NMR methods.

  3. Appropriateness of Newborn Screening for α1-Antitrypsin Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Teckman, Jeffrey; Pardee, Erin; Howell, R. Rodney; Mannino, David; Sharp, Richard R.; Brantly, Mark; Wanner, Adam; Lamson, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: The Alpha-1 Foundation convened a workshop to consider the appropriateness of newborn screening for α-1-antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency. Methods: A review of natural history and technical data was conducted. Results: Homozygous ZZ AAT deficiency is a common genetic disease occurring in 1 in 2000 to 3500 births; however, it is underrecognized and most patients are undiagnosed. AAT deficiency can cause chronic liver disease, cirrhosis, and liver failure in children and adults, and lung disease in adults. The clinical course is highly variable. Some neonates present with cholestatic hepatitis and some children require liver transplantation, but many patients remain well into adulthood. Some adults develop emphysema. There is no treatment for AAT liver disease, other than supportive care and liver transplant. There are no data on the effect of early diagnosis on liver disease. Avoidance of smoking is of proven benefit to reduce future lung disease, as is protein replacement therapy. Justifying newborn screening with the aim of reducing smoking and reducing adult lung disease-years in the future would be a significant paradigm shift for the screening field. Recent passage of the Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) and the Affordable Care Act may have a major effect on reducing the psychosocial and financial risks of newborn screening because many asymptomatic children would be identified. Data on the risk–benefit ratio of screening in the new legal climate are lacking. Conclusions: Workshop participants recommended a series of pilot studies focused on generating new data on the risks and benefits of newborn screening. PMID:24121147

  4. Retinoid treatment of Emphysema in Patients on the Alpha-1 International Registry. The REPAIR study: study design, methodology and quality control of study assessments.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Jan; Cooper, Brendan G; Stoel, Berend; Rames, Alexis; Rutman, Olga; Soliman, Sherif; Stockley, Robert

    2010-12-01

    Emphysema is characterized by the destruction of alveolar wall and enlargement of alveolar airspaces, resulting in a reduction of the total lung gas exchange area, loss of lung elastic recoil and hyperinflation. The REPAIR study (Retinoid treatment of Emphysema in Patients on the Alpha-1 International Registry) is the first proof-of-concept study of a new potential disease-modifying drug, Palovarotene©, an orally active, gamma selective retinoid agonist in patients with emphysema secondary to alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) as a model population for the general smoke-induced emphysema population. This article describes the study design as well as the effectiveness of the quality control that was implemented on the key efficacy endpoints, based on data derived from the placebo-treated subjects. In this multicentre, multinational study the implementation of standardized procedures included: careful site selection, use of trained staff, regular monitoring and machine calibration, use of biological controls and regular feedback to sites by an independent quality control centre. All of these procedures resulted in high-quality measurements of lung density, spirometry, static lung volumes and gas transfer. It was also confirmed that CT lung density was the most sensitive endpoint followed by TLco, FEV(1) and RV measured by body box.

  5. Alpha-1 antitrypsin gene therapy prevented bone loss in ovariectomy induced osteoporosis mouse model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare burden affecting mostly postmenopausal women characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Although pathogenesis of this disease is complex, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production is clearly involved in bone loss at meno...

  6. What Are the Signs and Symptoms of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin Deficiency?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Some people who have severe AAT deficiency develop emphysema (em-fi-SE-ma)—often when they're ... their forties or fifties. Signs and symptoms of emphysema include problems breathing, wheezing, and a chronic (ongoing) ...

  7. Antisense oligonucleotide treatment ameliorates alpha-1 antitrypsin–related liver disease in mice

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuling; Booten, Sheri L.; Aghajan, Mariam; Hung, Gene; Zhao, Chenguang; Blomenkamp, Keith; Gattis, Danielle; Watt, Andrew; Freier, Susan M.; Teckman, Jeffery H.; McCaleb, Michael L.; Monia, Brett P.

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) is a rare genetic disease that results from mutations in the alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT) gene. The mutant AAT protein aggregates and accumulates in the liver leading to AATD liver disease, which is only treatable by liver transplant. The PiZ transgenic mouse strain expresses a human AAT (hAAT) transgene that contains the AATD-associated Glu342Lys mutation. PiZ mice exhibit many AATD symptoms, including AAT protein aggregates, increased hepatocyte death, and liver fibrosis. In the present study, we systemically treated PiZ mice with an antisense oligonucleotide targeted against hAAT (AAT-ASO) and found reductions in circulating levels of AAT and both soluble and aggregated AAT protein in the liver. Furthermore, AAT-ASO administration in these animals stopped liver disease progression after short-term treatment, reversed liver disease after long-term treatment, and prevented liver disease in young animals. Additionally, antisense oligonucleotide treatment markedly decreased liver fibrosis in this mouse model. Administration of AAT-ASO in nonhuman primates led to an approximately 80% reduction in levels of circulating normal AAT, demonstrating potential for this approach in higher species. Antisense oligonucleotides thus represent a promising therapy for AATD liver disease. PMID:24355919

  8. The Alpha-1 Association Genetic Counseling Program: an innovative approach to service.

    PubMed

    McGee, Dawn; Strange, Charlie; McClure, Rebecca; Schwarz, Laura; Erven, Marlene

    2011-08-01

    In an era of specialty medicine, genetic counselors are becoming increasingly focused in their service provision. The Alpha-1 Association Genetic Counseling Program, established in September 2007, specializes in confidential toll-free genetic counseling provided by a certified genetic counselor for Alpha-1 Antitrypsin deficiency, a co-dominant condition associated with lung and/or liver disease. The program received more than 600 callers in its first 2 years. Sixty-seven percent of new callers were family members, carriers, or health professionals. The number of callers increased between the first 2 years, with the greatest increases being family members and health professionals. Testing options and explanation of results encompassed 60% of initial reasons for calls. Seventy-two percent of referrals came from family and friends, test result letters, and the Alpha-1 Association. Between year 1 and 2 family member referrals showed the largest increase. This disease-specific genetic counseling program provides a model that may be useful for other rare disease communities.

  9. Alpha-1 couples: interpersonal and intrapersonal predictors of spousal communication and stress.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel A; Wienke, Sara; Coffman, Donna L

    2014-04-01

    Couples often discuss genetic test results, and then manage their implications together. This interdependence can lead to common, shared experiences, similar intrapersonal processes to manage shared stressors, or interpersonal influences between spouses, leading to different outcomes. This study sought to reveal the intracouple, intrapersonal, and interpersonal influences of genetic stigma and negative feelings on spousal communication and perceived stress with 50 couples in which one spouse is a member of a genetic disease registry. The results were analyzed with dyadic analysis, including multilevel modeling. The findings showed that registered members and their spouses were not statistically different in their mean levels of perceived genetic stigma, negative feelings about alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD), conversations with each other about the AATD test results, and their perceived stress. The findings also showed that their intracouple consistencies were not high, and their intrapersonal and interpersonal influences on communication and stress differed. The social implications of genetic research at the interpersonal level are discussed.

  10. Initial experience with the Sophono Alpha 1 osseointegrated implant.

    PubMed

    Escorihuela-García, Vicente; Llópez-Carratalá, Ignacio; Pitarch-Ribas, Ignacia; Latorre-Monteagudo, Emilia; Marco-Algarra, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    In the last several years, bone anchored hearing aids have proven to be useful in treating conductive and mixed unilateral or bilateral hearing loss, as well as for sensorineural unilateral hearing loss. The Sophono Alpha 1 model has the advantage of not requiring an abutment, with it being coupled by magnetism instead. We report the cases of 3 infants with congenital malformations of external and middle ear. Audiometry showed conductive hearing loss. All 3 patients were implanted with Alpha 1 model (Sophono). Patients evolved satisfactorily. After 30 days we applied the processor and the control audiometry showed a marked improvement of hearing thresholds, although without a complete closure of the gap. With minimal care, the skin over the implant remained in excellent condition, with a very satisfactory cosmetic outcome.

  11. α1-Antitrypsin deficiency • 4: Molecular pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Lomas, D; Parfrey, H

    2004-01-01

    The molecular basis of α1-antitrypsin deficiency is reviewed and is shown to be due to the accumulation of mutant protein as ordered polymers within the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes. The current goals are to determine the cellular response to polymeric α1-antitrypsin and to develop therapeutic strategies to block polymerisation in vivo. PMID:15170041

  12. Phenylpiperazinylalkylamino substituted pyridazinones as potent alpha(1) adrenoceptor antagonists.

    PubMed

    Barlocco, D; Cignarella, G; Piaz, V D; Giovannoni, M P; De Benedetti, P G; Fanelli, F; Montesano, F; Poggesi, E; Leonardi, A

    2001-07-19

    QSAR models have been used for designing a series of compounds characterized by a N-phenylpiperazinylalkylamino moiety linked to substituted pyridazinones, which have been synthesized. Measurements of the binding affinities of the new compounds toward the alpha(1a)-, alpha(1b)-, and alpha(1d)-AR cloned subtypes as well as the 5-HT(1A) receptor have been done validating, at least in part, the estimations of the theoretical models. This study provides insight into the structure activity relationships of the alpha(1)-ARs ligands and their alpha(1)-AR/5-HT(1A) selectivity.

  13. Ozone inactivation of human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, D.A.

    1980-06-01

    Ozone decreased the trypsin, chymotrypsin, and elastase inhibitory activities of human alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor both in plasma and in solutions of the pure inhibitor. The total loss of porcine elastase inhibitory activity required 18 mol of ozone/mol of pure alpha 1-PI and approximately 850 mol of ozone/mol of alpha 1-PI in plasma. A corresponding loss of the ability to inhibit human leukocyte elastase was observed. Inactivated alpha 1-PI contains four residues of methionine sulfoxide, in addition to oxidized tryosine and tryptophan. Electrophoretic analysis demonstrated that the ozone-inactivated alpha 1-PI did not form normal complexes with serine proteinases. These findings suggest that the inhalation of ozone could inactivate alpha 1-PI on the airspace side of the lung to create a localized alpha 1-PI deficiency, which might contribute to the development of emphysema.

  14. Isolation, characterization, and cDNA sequencing of alpha-1-antiproteinase-like protein from rainbow trout seminal plasma.

    PubMed

    Mak, Monika; Mak, Paweł; Olczak, Mariusz; Szalewicz, Agata; Glogowski, Jan; Dubin, Adam; Watorek, Wiesław; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2004-03-17

    Seminal plasma of teleost fish contains serine proteinase inhibitors related to those present in blood. These inhibitors can be bound to Q-Sepharose and sequentially eluted with a NaCl gradient. In the present study, using a two-step procedure, we purified (73-fold to homogeneity) and characterized the inhibitor eluted as the second fraction of antitrypsin activity (inhibitor II) from Q-Sepharose. The molecular weight of this inhibitor was estimated to be 56 kDa with an isoelectric point of 5.4. It effectively inhibited trypsin and chymotrypsin but was less effective against elastase. It formed SDS-stable complexes with cod and bovine trypsin. Inhibitor II appeared to be a glycoprotein. Carbohydrate content was determined to be 16%. N-terminal Edman sequencing allowed identification of the first 30 N-terminal amino acids HDGDHAGHTEDHHHHLHHIAGEAHPQHSHG and 25 amino acids within the reactive loop IMPMSLPDTIMLNRPFLLFILEDST. The N-terminal sequence did not match any known sequence, however, the sequence within the reactive loop was significantly similar to carp and mammalian alpha1-antiproteinases. Both sequences were used to construct primers and obtain a cDNA sequence from liver. The mRNA coding the protein is 1675 nt in length including a single open reading frame of 1281 nt that encodes 426 amino acid residues. Analysis of this sequence indicated the presence of putative conserved serpin domains and confirmed the similarity to carp alpha1-antiproteinase and mammalian alpha1-antiproteinase. Our results indicate that inhibitor II belongs to the serpin superfamily and is similar to alpha1-antiproteinase.

  15. The Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor in the Rabbit Heart

    PubMed Central

    Myagmar, Bat-Erdene; Swigart, Philip M.; Baker, Anthony J.; Simpson, Paul C.

    2016-01-01

    The alpha-1A-adrenergic receptor (AR) subtype is associated with cardioprotective signaling in the mouse and human heart. The rabbit is useful for cardiac disease modeling, but data on the alpha-1A in the rabbit heart are limited. Our objective was to test for expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart. By quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qPCR) on mRNA from ventricular myocardium of adult male New Zealand White rabbits, the alpha-1B was 99% of total alpha-1-AR mRNA, with <1% alpha-1A and alpha-1D, whereas alpha-1A mRNA was over 50% of total in brain and liver. Saturation radioligand binding identified ~4 fmol total alpha-1-ARs per mg myocardial protein, with 17% alpha-1A by competition with the selective antagonist 5-methylurapidil. The alpha-1D was not detected by competition with BMY-7378, indicating that 83% of alpha-1-ARs were alpha-1B. In isolated left ventricle and right ventricle, the selective alpha-1A agonist A61603 stimulated a negative inotropic effect, versus a positive inotropic effect with the nonselective alpha-1-agonist phenylephrine and the beta-agonist isoproterenol. Blood pressure assay in conscious rabbits using an indwelling aortic telemeter showed that A61603 by bolus intravenous dosing increased mean arterial pressure by 20 mm Hg at 0.14 μg/kg, 10-fold lower than norepinephrine, and chronic A61603 infusion by iPRECIO programmable micro Infusion pump did not increase BP at 22 μg/kg/d. A myocardial slice model useful in human myocardium and an anthracycline cardiotoxicity model useful in mouse were both problematic in rabbit. We conclude that alpha-1A mRNA is very low in rabbit heart, but the receptor is present by binding and mediates a negative inotropic response. Expression and function of the alpha-1A in rabbit heart differ from mouse and human, but the vasopressor response is similar to mouse. PMID:27258143

  16. New potential uroselective NO-donor alpha1-antagonists.

    PubMed

    Boschi, Donatella; Tron, Gian Cesare; Di Stilo, Antonella; Fruttero, Roberta; Gasco, Alberto; Poggesi, Elena; Motta, Gianni; Leonardi, Amedeo

    2003-08-14

    A recent uroselective alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonist, REC15/2739, has been joined with nitrooxy and furoxan NO-donor moieties to give new NO-donor alpha(1)-antagonists. All the compounds studied proved to be potent and selective ligands of human cloned alpha(1a)-receptor subtype. Derivatives 6 and 7 were able to relax the prostatic portion of rat vas deferens contracted by (-)-noradrenaline because of both their alpha(1A)-antagonist and their NO-donor properties.

  17. Pharmacological profiles of a novel alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist, PNO-49B, at alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes.

    PubMed

    Muramatsu, I; Ohmura, T; Kigoshi, S

    1995-01-01

    The effects of a newly synthesized compound, PNO-49B, (R)-(-)-3'-(2-amino-1-hydroxyethyl)-4'-fluoromethanesulfonanilide hydrochloride, on alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes were examined in various tissues in which the following distribution of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes has been suggested: dog carotid artery (alpha 1B), dog mesenteric artery (alpha 1N), rabbit thoracic aorta (alpha 1B + alpha 1L), rat liver (alpha 1B), rat vas deferens (alpha 1A + alpha 1L), rat cerebral cortex (alpha 1A + alpha 1B) and rat thoracic aorta (controversial subtype). PNO-49B (0.1-100 microM) produced concentration-dependent contractions in dog mesenteric artery, rabbit thoracic aorta, rat thoracic aorta and rat vas deferens; and the maximal amplitudes of contraction were almost the same as or slightly less than those of noradrenaline. By contrast, the maximal response to PNO-49B in dog carotid artery was markedly smaller than the response to noradrenaline. In rabbit thoracic aorta, the contractile response to PNO-49B was not affected by inactivation of the alpha 1B subtype with chloroethylclonidine (CEC), although the response to noradrenaline was attenuated by that treatment. The dissociation constants (KA) of PNO-49B were not different among the rat thoracic aorta, dog carotid and mesenteric arteries and rabbit thoracic aorta (CEC-pretreated). The contractile responses to PNO-49B were inhibited competitively by prazosin, HV723 (alpha-ethyl-3,4,5-trimethoxy-alpha-(3-((2-(2-methoxyphenoxy)-ethyl)- amino(propyl)benzeneacetonitrile fumarate) and by WB4101 (2-(2,6-dimethoxyphenoxyethyl)-aminomethyl-1,4- benzodioxane).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Impaired alpha1-adrenergic responses in aged rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Montagne, Olivier; Le Corvoisier, Philippe; Guenoun, Thierry; Laplace, Monique; Crozatier, Bertrand

    2005-06-01

    To determine age-related changes in the cardiac effect of alpha1-adrenergic stimulation, both cardiomyocyte Ca2+-transient and cardiac protein kinase C (PKC) activity were measured in 3-month- (3MO) and 24-month- (24MO) old Wistar rats. Ca2+ transients obtained under 1 Hz pacing by microfluorimetry of cardiomyocyte loaded with indo-1 (405/480 nm fluorescence ratio) were compared in control conditions (Kreb's solution alone) and after alpha1-adrenergic stimulation (phenylephrine or cirazoline, an alpha1-specific agonist). PKC activity and PKC translocation index (particulate/total activity) were also assayed before and after alpha1-adrenergic stimulation. In 3MO, cirazoline induced a significant increase in Ca2+ transient for a 10(-9) M concentration which returned to control values for larger concentrations. In contrast, in 24MO, we observed a constant negative effect of cirazoline on the Ca2+ transient with a significant decrease at 10(-6) M compared with both baseline and Kreb's solution. Preliminary experiments showed that, in a dose-response curve to phenylephrine, the response of Ca2+ transient was maximal at 10(-7) M. This concentration induced a significant increase in Ca2+ transient in 3MO and a significant decrease in 24MO. The same concentration was chosen to perform PKC activity measurements under alpha1-adrenergic stimulation. In the basal state, PKC particulate activity was higher in 24MO than that in 3MO but was not different in cytosolic fractions; so that the translocation index was higher in 24MO (P < 0.01). After phenylephrine, a translocation of PKC toward the particulate fraction was observed in 3MO but not in 24MO. In conclusion, cardiac alpha1-adrenoceptor response was found to be impaired in aged hearts. The negative effect of alpha1-adrenergic stimulation on Ca2+ transient in cardiomyocytes obtained from old rats can be related to an absence of alpha1-adrenergic-induced PKC translocation.

  19. Identification and DNA sequence analysis of 15 new {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin variants, including two PI*QO alleles and one deficient PI*M allele

    SciTech Connect

    Faber, J.P.; Kirchgesser, M.; Schwaab, R.; Bidlingmaier, F.; Poller, W.; Weidinger, S.; Olek, K. |

    1994-12-01

    The authors have investigated the molecular basis of 15 new {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin ({alpha}1AT) variants. Phenotyping by isoelectric focusing (IEF) was used as a screening method to detect {alpha}1AT variants at the protein level. Genotyping was then performed by sequence analysis of all coding exons, exon-intron junctions, and the hepatocyte-specific promotor region including exon Ic. Three of these rare variants are alleles of clinical relevance, associated with undetectable or very low serum levels of {alpha}1AT: the PI*Q0saarbruecken allele generated by a 1-bp C-nucleotide insertion within a stretch of seven cytosines spanning residues 360-362, resulting in a 3{prime} frameshift and the acquisition of a stop codon at residue 376; a point mutation in the PI*Q0lisbon allele, resulting in a single amino acid substitution Thr{sup 68}(ACC){yields}Ile(ATC); and an in-frame trinucleotide deletion {Delta}Phe{sup 51} (TTC) in the highly deficient PI*Mpalermo allele. The remaining 12 alleles are associated with normal {alpha}1AT serum levels and are characterized by point mutations causing single amino acid substitutions in all but one case. This exception is a silent mutation, which does not affect the amino acid sequence. The limitation of IEF compared with DNA sequence analysis, for identification of new variants, their generation by mutagenesis, and the clinical relevance of the three deficiency alleles are discussed.

  20. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system....5420 Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-glycoproteins... alpha-1-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-1 group when subjected...

  1. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system....5420 Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. (a) Identification. An alpha-1-glycoproteins... alpha-1-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-1 group when subjected...

  2. The nonpsychotropic cannabinoid cannabidiol modulates and directly activates alpha-1 and alpha-1-Beta glycine receptor function.

    PubMed

    Ahrens, Jörg; Demir, Reyhan; Leuwer, Martin; de la Roche, Jeanne; Krampfl, Klaus; Foadi, Nilufar; Karst, Matthias; Haeseler, Gertrud

    2009-01-01

    Loss of inhibitory synaptic transmission within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord plays a key role in the development of chronic pain following inflammation or nerve injury. Inhibitory postsynaptic transmission in the adult spinal cord involves mainly glycine. Cannabidiol is a nonpsychotropic plant constituent of Cannabis sativa. As we hypothesized that non-CB receptor mechanisms of cannabidiol might contribute to its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects, we investigated the interaction of cannabidiol with strychnine-sensitive alpha(1 )and alpha(1)beta glycine receptors by using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Cannabidiol showed a positive allosteric modulating effect in a low micromolar concentration range (EC(50) values: alpha(1) = 12.3 +/- 3.8 micromol/l and alpha(1)beta = 18.1 +/- 6.2 micromol/l). Direct activation of glycine receptors was observed at higher concentrations above 100 micromol/l (EC(50) values: alpha(1) = 132.4 +/- 12.3 micromol/l and alpha(1)beta = 144.3 +/- 22.7 micromol/l). These in vitro results suggest that strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors may be a target for cannabidiol mediating some of its anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties.

  3. [Place of genotyping in addition to the phenotype and the assay of serum α-1 antitrypsin].

    PubMed

    Joly, Philippe; Francina, Alain; Lacan, Philippe; Heraut, Jessica; Chapuis-Cellier, Colette

    2011-01-01

    The diagnosis of deficiency of alpha-1 antitrypsin (A1AT) is based on isoelectric focusing of serum proteins and the extent of serum. However, the focusing is technically difficult and a greatly reduced concentration in abnormal A1AT tapeless does not differentiate an unstable variant of a variant called 'null' (that is to say without any phenotypic expression) to 'heterozygous' state. In this study, we compared the results of the assay, the phenotype and genotype of A1AT in 50 patients. Normal A1AT alleles (Pi*M1 to Pi*M4) or loss of the most common (Pi*S and Pi*Z) were clearly identified in phenotyping. However, genotyping was necessary to characterize: (i) certain alleles rarer A1AT (S-Munich, X-Christchurch); (ii) a null allele and; (iii) two new alleles A1AT not yet described in the literature. In conclusion, although the A1AT genotyping is generally not necessary, it is necessary to resolve complex cases and to obtain witnesses validated for isoelectric focusing.

  4. Characteristics of Alpha-1 Antitrypsin–Deficient Individuals in the Long-term Oxygen Treatment Trial and Comparison with Other Subjects with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Aboussouan, Loutfi S.; Kanner, Richard E.; Wilson, Laura A.; Diaz, Phil; Wise, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency (AATD) predisposes to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, but is underrecognized. Oxygenation and exercise desaturation in individuals with AATD-associated chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has been sparsely studied. The Long-term Oxygen Treatment Trial (LOTT) permits comparing these features of individuals with AATD with alpha-1 antitrypsin–replete (called “usual chronic obstructive pulmonary disease”) LOTT participants. Objectives: Compare demographic, clinical, baseline oxygenation, and exercise desaturation features in participating AATD subjects with those of other LOTT subjects. Methods: LOTT is a multicenter randomized controlled trial comparing use of supplemental oxygen versus not in subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and moderate hypoxemia (resting oxygen saturation as measured by pulse oximetry, 89–93%) or normal oxygen saturation at rest and significant exercise desaturation. Measurement and Main Results: Among the 597 LOTT participants with nonmissing alpha-1 antitrypsin levels, 11 (1.8%) had severe AATD and 44 (7.4%) had mild/moderate AATD. Comparison of the 11 severely AAT-deficient individuals with the 542 LOTT participants with usual chronic obstructive pulmonary disease showed that the AATD subjects were younger and despite less smoking, had lower FEV1/FVC (mean post-bronchodilator FEV1/FVC, 0.38 ± 0.06 vs. 0.46 ± 0.13; P = 0.002). Comparison with 27 age-, sex-, and FEV1-matched alpha-1 antitrypsin–normal LOTT participants showed no baseline difference in resting room air pulse oximetry saturation (AATD, 93.6% ± 2.3% vs. 92.7% ± 2.2%; P = 0.64). Exercise-related desaturation was more severe in the individuals with AATD based on desaturation to 88% or less sooner during a 6-minute-walk test, having a higher percentage of desaturation points (e.g., <90%) during exercise, and having a higher distance-saturation product (defined as the distance

  5. Enlarged prostate - after care

    MedlinePlus

    BPH - self-care; Benign prostatic hypertrophy - self-care; Benign prostatic hyperplasia - self-care ... Your health care provider may have you take a medicine called alpha-1- blocker. Most people find that these drugs help ...

  6. The alpha1-fetoprotein locus is activated by a nuclear receptor of the Drosophila FTZ-F1 family.

    PubMed

    Galarneau, L; Paré, J F; Allard, D; Hamel, D; Levesque, L; Tugwood, J D; Green, S; Bélanger, L

    1996-07-01

    The alpha1-fetoprotein (AFP) gene is located between the albumin and alpha-albumin genes and is activated by transcription factor FTF (fetoprotein transcription factor), presumed to transduce early developmental signals to the albumin gene cluster. We have identified FTF as an orphan nuclear receptor of the Drosophila FTZ-F1 family. FTF recognizes the DNA sequence 5'-TCAAGGTCA-3', the canonical recognition motif for FTZ-F1 receptors. cDNA sequence homologies indicate that rat FTF is the ortholog of mouse LRH-1 and Xenopus xFF1rA. Rodent FTF is encoded by a single-copy gene, related to the gene encoding steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1). The 5.2-kb FTF transcript is translated from several in-frame initiator codons into FTF isoforms (54 to 64 kDa) which appear to bind DNA as monomers, with no need for a specific ligand, similar KdS (approximately equal 3 x 10(-10) M), and similar transcriptional effects. FTF activates the AFP promoter without the use of an amino-terminal activation domain; carboxy-terminus-truncated FTF exerts strong dominant negative effects. In the AFP promoter, FTF recruits an accessory trans-activator which imparts glucocorticoid reactivity upon the AFP gene. FTF binding sites are found in the promoters of other liver-expressed genes, some encoding liver transcription factors; FTF, liver alpha1-antitrypsin promoter factor LFB2, and HNF-3beta promoter factor UF2-H3beta are probably the same factor. FTF is also abundantly expressed in the pancreas and may exert differentiation functions in endodermal sublineages, similar to SF-1 in steroidogenic tissues. HepG2 hepatoma cells seem to express a mutated form of FTF.

  7. The alpha1-fetoprotein locus is activated by a nuclear receptor of the Drosophila FTZ-F1 family.

    PubMed Central

    Galarneau, L; Paré, J F; Allard, D; Hamel, D; Levesque, L; Tugwood, J D; Green, S; Bélanger, L

    1996-01-01

    The alpha1-fetoprotein (AFP) gene is located between the albumin and alpha-albumin genes and is activated by transcription factor FTF (fetoprotein transcription factor), presumed to transduce early developmental signals to the albumin gene cluster. We have identified FTF as an orphan nuclear receptor of the Drosophila FTZ-F1 family. FTF recognizes the DNA sequence 5'-TCAAGGTCA-3', the canonical recognition motif for FTZ-F1 receptors. cDNA sequence homologies indicate that rat FTF is the ortholog of mouse LRH-1 and Xenopus xFF1rA. Rodent FTF is encoded by a single-copy gene, related to the gene encoding steroidogenic factor 1 (SF-1). The 5.2-kb FTF transcript is translated from several in-frame initiator codons into FTF isoforms (54 to 64 kDa) which appear to bind DNA as monomers, with no need for a specific ligand, similar KdS (approximately equal 3 x 10(-10) M), and similar transcriptional effects. FTF activates the AFP promoter without the use of an amino-terminal activation domain; carboxy-terminus-truncated FTF exerts strong dominant negative effects. In the AFP promoter, FTF recruits an accessory trans-activator which imparts glucocorticoid reactivity upon the AFP gene. FTF binding sites are found in the promoters of other liver-expressed genes, some encoding liver transcription factors; FTF, liver alpha1-antitrypsin promoter factor LFB2, and HNF-3beta promoter factor UF2-H3beta are probably the same factor. FTF is also abundantly expressed in the pancreas and may exert differentiation functions in endodermal sublineages, similar to SF-1 in steroidogenic tissues. HepG2 hepatoma cells seem to express a mutated form of FTF. PMID:8668203

  8. Automated docking of {alpha}-(1,4)- and {alpha}-(1,6)-linked glucosyl trisaccharides in the glucoamylase active site

    SciTech Connect

    Countinho, P.M.; Reilly, P.J.; Dowd, M.K.

    1998-06-01

    Low-energy conformers of five {alpha}-(1,4)- and {alpha}-(1,6)-linked glucosyl trisaccharides were flexibly docked into the glucoamylase active site using AutoDock 2.2. To ensure that all significant conformational space was searched, the starting trisaccharide conformers for docking were all possible combinations of the corresponding disaccharide low-energy conformers. All docked trisaccharides occupied subsites {minus}1 and +1 in very similar modes to those of corresponding nonreducing-end disaccharides. For linear substrates, full binding at subsite +2 occurred only when the substrate reducing end was {alpha}-(1,4)-linked, with hydrogen-bonding with the hydroxy-methyl group being the only polar interaction there. Given the absence of other important interactions at this subsite, multiple substrate conformations are allowed. For the one docked branched substrate, steric hindrance in the {alpha}-(1,6)-glycosidic oxygen suggests that the active-site residues have to change position for hydrolysis to occur. Subsite +1 of the glucoamylase active site allows flexibility in binding but, at least in Aspergillus glucoamylases, subsite +2 selectively binds substrates {alpha}-(1,4)-linked between subsites +1 and +2. Enzyme engineering to limit substrate flexibility at subsite +2 could improve glucoamylase industrial properties.

  9. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... immunochemical techniques alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (a protein) in serum, other body fluids, and tissues. Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin helps protect tissues against proteolytic (protein-splitting) enzymes released during...

  10. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alpha-1-glycoproteins (a group of plasma proteins found in the alpha-1 group when subjected to... diagnosis of collagen (connective tissue) disorders, tuberculosis, infections, extensive malignancy,...

  11. Molecular characterization of alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Harrison, J K; Pearson, W R; Lynch, K R

    1991-02-01

    Three 'alpha 1-adrenoceptors' and three 'alpha 2-adrenoceptors' have now been cloned. How closely do these receptors match the native receptors that have been identified pharmacologically? What are the properties of these receptors, and how do they relate to other members of the cationic amine receptor family? Kevin Lynch and his colleagues discuss these questions in this review.

  12. Internal duplication in human alpha 1 and beta 1 interferons.

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, B W; May, L T; Sehgal, P B

    1984-01-01

    Metric analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the intron-free human interferon beta 1 (IFN-beta 1) gene by using the Sellers TT algorithm revealed that this gene contains two major repeated segments, which span the entire coding region. These repeats are each approximately 300 nucleotides in length and have 45% identical aligned nucleotides (common bases). When these metrically aligned DNA repeats were translated into amino acids, 9 (19%) of the 47 in-phase amino acid residues were identical (common acids). This internal duplication was also apparent on visual inspection of the amino acid sequence of IFN-beta 1. In addition, metric analysis of the nucleotide sequence of the intron-free IFN-alpha 1 gene showed that this gene also contains two repeats, each approximately 300 nucleotides long, having 47% common bases and 19% common acids. Since the IFN-alpha 1 and -beta 1 genes are known to be related (by the present metric analysis they contain 53% common bases and 45% common acids), a consensus DNA sequence was derived from all four of these repeats. Manual alignment of the separate metric alignments corresponding to the two halves of the IFN-alpha 1 and -beta 1 genes provided a composite alignment with 58% of the alignment positions having the same nucleotide in at least three of the four repeats. When this composite nucleotide alignment was translated to define a composite alignment of the four protein segments, 10 (31%) of the 32 in-phase amino acid residues contained the same amino acid in at least three of the four segments. These sequences relationships provide insight into the origin of the IFN-alpha 1 and -beta 1 genes and furnish an additional basis for comparing them with other related genes. PMID:6594689

  13. Mechanisms of alpha 1-adrenergic vascular desensitization in conscious dogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiuchi, K.; Vatner, D. E.; Uemura, N.; Bigaud, M.; Hasebe, N.; Hempel, D. M.; Graham, R. M.; Vatner, S. F.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the mechanisms of alpha 1-adrenergic vascular desensitization, osmotic minipumps containing either saline (n = 9) or amidephrine mesylate (AMD) (n = 9), a selective alpha 1-adrenergic receptor agonist, were implanted subcutaneously in dogs with chronically implanted arterial and right atrial pressure catheters and aortic flow probes. After chronic alpha 1-adrenergic receptor stimulation, significant physiological desensitization to acute AMD challenges was observed, i.e., pressor and vasoconstrictor responses to the alpha 1-adrenergic agonist were significantly depressed (p < 0.01) compared with responses in the same dogs studied in the conscious state before pump implantation. However, physiological desensitization to acute challenges of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine (NE) (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) in the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade was not observed for either mean arterial pressure (MAP) (30 +/- 7 versus 28 +/- 5 mm Hg) or total peripheral resistance (TPR) (29.8 +/- 4.9 versus 28.9 +/- 7.3 mm Hg/l per minute). In the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor plus ganglionic blockade after AMD pump implantation, physiological desensitization to NE was unmasked since the control responses to NE (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) before the AMD pumps were now greater (p < 0.01) than after chronic AMD administration for both MAP (66 +/- 5 versus 32 +/- 2 mm Hg) and TPR (42.6 +/- 10.3 versus 23.9 +/- 4.4 mm Hg/l per minute). In the presence of beta-adrenergic receptor, ganglionic, plus NE-uptake blockade after AMD pump implantation, desensitization was even more apparent, since NE (0.1 micrograms/kg per minute) induced even greater differences in MAP (33 +/- 5 versus 109 +/- 6 mm Hg) and TPR (28.1 +/- 1.8 versus 111.8 +/- 14.7 mm Hg/l per minute). The maximal force of contraction induced by NE in the presence or absence of endothelium was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) in vitro in mesenteric artery rings from AMD pump dogs

  14. The alpha(1D)-adrenergic receptor directly regulates arterial blood pressure via vasoconstriction.

    PubMed

    Tanoue, Akito; Nasa, Yoshihisa; Koshimizu, Takaaki; Shinoura, Hitomi; Oshikawa, Sayuri; Kawai, Takayuki; Sunada, Sachie; Takeo, Satoshi; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

    2002-03-01

    To investigate the physiological role of the alpha(1D)-adrenergic receptor (alpha(1D)-AR) subtype, we created mice lacking the alpha(1D)-AR (alpha(1D)(-/-)) by gene targeting and characterized their cardiovascular function. In alpha(1D)-/- mice, the RT-PCR did not detect any transcript of the alpha(1D)-AR in any tissue examined, and there was no apparent upregulation of other alpha(1)-AR subtypes. Radioligand binding studies showed that alpha(1)-AR binding capacity in the aorta was lost, while that in the heart was unaltered in alpha(1D)-/- mice. Non-anesthetized alpha(1D)-/- mice maintained significantly lower basal systolic and mean arterial blood pressure conditions, relative to wild-type mice, and they showed no significant change in heart rate or in cardiac function, as assessed by echocardiogram. Besides hypotension, the pressor responses to phenylephrine and norepinephrine were decreased by 30-40% in alpha(1D)-/- mice. Furthermore, the contractile response of the aorta and the pressor response of isolated perfused mesenteric arterial beds to alpha(1)-AR stimulation were markedly reduced in alpha(1D)-/- mice. We conclude that the alpha(1D)-AR participates directly in sympathetic regulation of systemic blood pressure by vasoconstriction.

  15. Preventing serpin aggregation: The molecular mechanism of citrate action upon antitrypsin unfolding

    SciTech Connect

    Pearce, Mary C.; Morton, Craig J.; Feil, Susanne C.; Hansen, Guido; Adams, Julian J.; Parker, Michael W.; Bottomley, Stephen P.

    2008-11-21

    The aggregation of antitrypsin into polymers is one of the causes of neonatal hepatitis, cirrhosis, and emphysema. A similar reaction resulting in disease can occur in other human serpins, and collectively they are known as the serpinopathies. One possible therapeutic strategy involves inhibiting the conformational changes involved in antitrypsin aggregation. The citrate ion has previously been shown to prevent antitrypsin aggregation and maintain the protein in an active conformation; its mechanism of action, however, is unknown. Here we demonstrate that the citrate ion prevents the initial misfolding of the native state to a polymerogenic intermediate in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we have solved the crystal structure of citrate bound to antitrypsin and show that a single citrate molecule binds in a pocket between the A and B beta-sheets, a region known to be important in maintaining antitrypsin stability.

  16. Isolation and characterization of fibronectin-alpha 1-microglobulin complex in rat plasma.

    PubMed Central

    Falkenberg, C; Enghild, J J; Thøgersen, I B; Salvesen, G; Akerström, B

    1994-01-01

    Molecules containing the 28 kDa immunoregulatory protein alpha 1-microglobulin (alpha 1-m), also known as protein HC, were isolated from rat plasma or serum by immunoaffinity chromatography. Three molecular species were distinguished on the basis of nondenaturing PAGE. Two of these have been described previously: uncomplexed alpha 1-m, and the complex of alpha 1-m with alpha 1-inhibitor-3. The third species was analysed by denaturing PAGE, immunoblotting, proteinase digestion and N-terminal-sequence analyses, and shown to consist of a complex between alpha 1-m and fibronectin. This complex, with a mass of about 560 kDa, was resistant to dissociation in the presence of denaturants, but not in the presence of reducing agents in combination with denaturants, and we conclude that the two components are linked by disulphide bonds. About 60% of the total detectable plasma alpha 1-m exists as high-molecular-mass complexes distributed approximately evenly between fibronectin and alpha 1-inhibitor-3. Immunochemical analyses were used to determine the proportion of the total plasma pools of fibronectin and alpha 1-inhibitor-3 that circulate in complex with alpha 1-m. About 3-7% of the total plasma fibronectin from three different rat strains contained alpha 1-m, whereas 0.3-0.8% of the total plasma alpha 1-inhibitor-3 contained alpha 1-m. Complexes were found at similar levels in plasma and serum, indicating that coagulation is not responsible for complex formation. Moreover, immunochemical analyses of human plasma revealed small amounts of alpha 1-m in complex with fibronectin and alpha 2-macroglobulin (an alpha 1-inhibitor-3 homologue). The existence of a complex between alpha 1-m and fibronectin in rats and humans suggests a mechanism for the incorporation of the immunoregulatory molecule alpha 1-m into the extracellular matrix. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:7519849

  17. 21 CFR 866.5580 - Alpha-1-lipoprotein immuno-logical test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the alpha-1-lipoprotein (high-density lipoprotein) in serum and plasma. Measurement of alpha-1-lipoprotein may aid in the diagnosis of Tangier disease (a hereditary disorder of fat metabolism)....

  18. Characterising the association of latency with α(1)-antitrypsin polymerisation using a novel monoclonal antibody.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lu; Perez, Juan; Mela, Marianna; Miranda, Elena; Burling, Keith A; Rouhani, Farshid N; DeMeo, Dawn L; Haq, Imran; Irving, James A; Ordóñez, Adriana; Dickens, Jennifer A; Brantly, Mark; Marciniak, Stefan J; Alexander, Graeme J M; Gooptu, Bibek; Lomas, David A

    2015-01-01

    α1-Antitrypsin is primarily synthesised in the liver, circulates to the lung and protects pulmonary tissues from proteolytic damage. The Z mutant (Glu342Lys) undergoes inactivating conformational change and polymerises. Polymers are retained within the hepatocyte endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in homozygous (PiZZ) individuals, predisposing the individuals to hepatic cirrhosis and emphysema. Latency is an analogous process of inactivating, intra-molecular conformational change and may co-occur with polymerisation. However, the relationship between latency and polymerisation remained unexplored in the absence of a suitable probe. We have developed a novel monoclonal antibody specific for latent α1-antitrypsin and used it in combination with a polymer-specific antibody, to assess the association of both conformers in vitro, in disease and during augmentation therapy. In vitro kinetics analysis showed polymerisation dominated the pathway but latency could be promoted by stabilising monomeric α1-antitrypsin. Polymers were extensively produced in hepatocytes and a cell line expressing Z α1-antitrypsin but the latent protein was not detected despite manipulation of the secretory pathway. However, α1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy contains latent α1-antitrypsin, as did the plasma of 63/274 PiZZ individuals treated with augmentation therapy but 0/264 who were not receiving this medication (p<10(-14)). We conclude that latent α1-antitrypsin is a by-product of the polymerisation pathway, that the intracellular folding environment is resistant to formation of the latent conformer but that augmentation therapy introduces latent α1-antitrypsin into the circulation. A suite of monoclonal antibodies and methodologies developed in this study can characterise α1-antitrypsin folding and conformational transitions, and screen methods to improve augmentation therapy.

  19. Characterising the association of latency with α1-antitrypsin polymerisation using a novel monoclonal antibody

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Lu; Perez, Juan; Mela, Marianna; Miranda, Elena; Burling, Keith A; Rouhani, Farshid N; DeMeo, Dawn L; Haq, Imran; Irving, James A; Ordóñez, Adriana; Dickens, Jennifer A; Brantly, Mark; Marciniak, Stefan J; Alexander, Graeme J M; Gooptu, Bibek; Lomas, David A

    2015-01-01

    α1-Antitrypsin is primarily synthesised in the liver, circulates to the lung and protects pulmonary tissues from proteolytic damage. The Z mutant (Glu342Lys) undergoes inactivating conformational change and polymerises. Polymers are retained within the hepatocyte endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in homozygous (PiZZ) individuals, predisposing the individuals to hepatic cirrhosis and emphysema. Latency is an analogous process of inactivating, intra-molecular conformational change and may co-occur with polymerisation. However, the relationship between latency and polymerisation remained unexplored in the absence of a suitable probe. We have developed a novel monoclonal antibody specific for latent α1-antitrypsin and used it in combination with a polymer-specific antibody, to assess the association of both conformers in vitro, in disease and during augmentation therapy. In vitro kinetics analysis showed polymerisation dominated the pathway but latency could be promoted by stabilising monomeric α1-antitrypsin. Polymers were extensively produced in hepatocytes and a cell line expressing Z α1-antitrypsin but the latent protein was not detected despite manipulation of the secretory pathway. However, α1-antitrypsin augmentation therapy contains latent α1-antitrypsin, as did the plasma of 63/274 PiZZ individuals treated with augmentation therapy but 0/264 who were not receiving this medication (p < 10−14). We conclude that latent α1-antitrypsin is a by-product of the polymerisation pathway, that the intracellular folding environment is resistant to formation of the latent conformer but that augmentation therapy introduces latent α1-antitrypsin into the circulation. A suite of monoclonal antibodies and methodologies developed in this study can characterise α1-antitrypsin folding and conformational transitions, and screen methods to improve augmentation therapy. PMID:25462157

  20. The Association Between α1-Antitrypsin and Coronary Artery Ectasia.

    PubMed

    Turhan Caglar, Fatma Nihan; Ksanski, Vusal; Polat, Veli; Ungan, Ismail; Kural, Alev; Ciftci, Serkan; Demir, Bulent; Ugurlucan, Murat; Akturk, Faruk; Karakaya, Osman

    2016-03-07

    Coronary artery ectasia (CAE) is associated with coronary artery disease (CAD). The underlying pathophysiology of CAE is not fully understood. α1-antitrypsin (A1AT) plays a role in the tissue protease system, and AAT-1 deficiency (A1ATD) has been shown to be related to CAD. We compared A1AT serum levels in patients with and without CAE to determine the association between A1AT levels and the extent of ectasia using the Markis score. We included 50 patients (38 males) with isolated CAE and 46 patients (28 males) with normal coronary arteries after coronary angiography. The levels of A1AT were measured by nephelometry. The median A1AT levels were lower in patients with isolated CAE than in the control group (1.27 ng/mL [range: 1.07-1.37 ng/mL] vs 1.43 ng/mL [range: 1.27-1.59 ng/mL]; P < .001). According to the Markis classification, the extent of CAE was not correlated with A1AT levels (P = .41). Our results demonstrate an inverse relationship between serum A1AT levels and CAE. α1-antitrypsin is fundamental for the stability and integrity of the arterial wall. Lack of elastase inhibition in cases of A1ATD may contribute to ectasia formation by facilitating proteolysis and weakening the arterial wall.

  1. Inhibition of neutrophil activation by alpha1-acid glycoprotein.

    PubMed Central

    Costello, M J; Gewurz, H; Siegel, J N

    1984-01-01

    We report that alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AAG), a naturally occurring human plasma protein and acute phase reactant of uncertain biological function, inhibits human neutrophil aggregation and superoxide anion generation induced by a variety of stimuli including zymosan treated serum, formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine and phorbol myristate acetate. Inhibition was transient, directly proportional to the glycoprotein concentration and inversely proportional to the concentration of the stimulus added. Desialyzation, resulting in the removal of a substantial portion of the molecule's negative charge, did not alter the effectiveness of AAG. Removal of the penultimate galactose residues from desialyzed AAG resulted in a slight but significant reversal of inhibition, suggesting that the heteropolysaccharide units of AAG may be important for inhibition of cellular function. We therefore suggest that the acute phase glycoprotein AAG may be a significant modulator of neutrophil as well as platelet and lymphocyte function during inflammation. PMID:6321072

  2. Cardiac Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors: Novel Aspects of Expression, Signaling Mechanisms, Physiologic Function, and Clinical Importance

    PubMed Central

    O’Connell, Timothy D.; Jensen, Brian C.; Baker, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Adrenergic receptors (AR) are G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) that have a crucial role in cardiac physiology in health and disease. Alpha1-ARs signal through Gαq, and signaling through Gq, for example, by endothelin and angiotensin receptors, is thought to be detrimental to the heart. In contrast, cardiac alpha1-ARs mediate important protective and adaptive functions in the heart, although alpha1-ARs are only a minor fraction of total cardiac ARs. Cardiac alpha1-ARs activate pleiotropic downstream signaling to prevent pathologic remodeling in heart failure. Mechanisms defined in animal and cell models include activation of adaptive hypertrophy, prevention of cardiac myocyte death, augmentation of contractility, and induction of ischemic preconditioning. Surprisingly, at the molecular level, alpha1-ARs localize to and signal at the nucleus in cardiac myocytes, and, unlike most GPCRs, activate “inside-out” signaling to cause cardioprotection. Contrary to past opinion, human cardiac alpha1-AR expression is similar to that in the mouse, where alpha1-AR effects are seen most convincingly in knockout models. Human clinical studies show that alpha1-blockade worsens heart failure in hypertension and does not improve outcomes in heart failure, implying a cardioprotective role for human alpha1-ARs. In summary, these findings identify novel functional and mechanistic aspects of cardiac alpha1-AR function and suggest that activation of cardiac alpha1-AR might be a viable therapeutic strategy in heart failure. PMID:24368739

  3. Cell wall alpha1-3glucans induce the aggregation of germinating conidia of Aspergillus fumigatus.

    PubMed

    Fontaine, Thierry; Beauvais, Anne; Loussert, Céline; Thevenard, Benoît; Fulgsang, Claus C; Ohno, Naohito; Clavaud, Cécile; Prevost, Marie-Christine; Latgé, Jean-Paul

    2010-08-01

    The germination of Aspergillus fumigatus conidia can be divided into four stages: breaking of dormancy, isotropic swelling, establishment of cell polarity, and formation of a germ tube. Swelling of conidia is associated in liquid medium with a multi-cellular aggregation that produced large clumps of conidia. Conidial aggregation can be specifically prevented by the addition of alpha1-3glucanase. Swollen conidia specifically adhere to insoluble alpha1-3glucan chains. Electron microscopy studies showed that cell wall alpha1-3glucan chains became exposed at the cell surface during the swelling. These results demonstrate that cell wall alpha1-3glucans play an essential role in the aggregation between swollen conidia. Experiments with alpha1-3glucan coated latex beads show that alpha1-3glucan chains interacted between them without the requirement of any other cell wall component suggesting that biophysical properties of alpha1-3glucans are solely responsible for conidial aggregation.

  4. Separation of basic drug enantiomers by capillary electrophoresis using chicken alpha1-acid glycoprotein: insight into chiral recognition mechanism.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, Hisami; Sadakane, Yutaka; Haginaka, Jun

    2003-08-01

    Recombinant chicken alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (alpha(1)-AGP) was prepared by the Escherichia coli expression system and completely deglycosylated alpha(1)-AGP (cd-alpha(1)-AGP) was obtained by treatments of native alpha(1)-AGP with a mixture of endoglycosidase and N-glycosidase. The average molecular masses of chicken alpha(1)-AGP, cd-alpha(1)-AGP and recombinant alpha(1)-AGP were estimated to be about 29 200, 21 700 and 20 700, respectively, by matrix-assisted laser desorption-time of flight-mass spectrometry. We compared the chiral recognition ability of chicken alpha(1)-AGP, cd-alpha(1)-AGP and recombinant alpha(1)-AGP using them as chiral selectors in capillary electrophoresis. The chicken alpha(1)-AGP showed higher resolution for eperisone, pindolol and tolperisone than cd-alpha(1)-AGP or recombinant alpha(1)-AGP. Recombinant alpha(1)-AGP still showed chiral recognition for three basic drugs tested. By addition of propranolol as a competitor in the separation solution in CE, no enantioseparations of three basic drugs were observed with chicken alpha(1)-AGP, cd-alpha(1)-AGP or recombinant alpha(1)-AGP. These results reveal that the protein domain of the chicken alpha(1)-AGP is responsible for the chiral recognition ability, and that the chiral recognition site(s) for basic drugs exists on the protein domain.

  5. A Novel Antiapoptotic Role for α1-Antitrypsin in the Prevention of Pulmonary Emphysema

    PubMed Central

    Petrache, Irina; Fijalkowska, Iwona; Zhen, Lijie; Medler, Terry R.; Brown, Emile; Cruz, Pedro; Choe, Kang-Hyeon; Taraseviciene-Stewart, Laimute; Scerbavicius, Robertas; Shapiro, Lee; Zhang, Bing; Song, Sihong; Hicklin, Dan; Voelkel, Norbert F.; Flotte, Terence; Tuder, Rubin M.

    2006-01-01

    Rationale: There is growing evidence that alveolar cell apoptosis plays an important role in emphysema pathogenesis, a chronic inflammatory lung disease characterized by alveolar destruction. The association of α1-antitrypsin deficiency with the development of emphysema has supported the concept that protease/antiprotease imbalance mediates cigarette smoke–induced emphysema. Objectives: We propose that, in addition to its antielastolytic effects, α1-antitrypsin may have broader biological effects in the lung, preventing emphysema through inhibition of alveolar cells apoptosis. Methods, Measurements, and Main Results: Transduction of human α1-antitrypsin via replication-deficient adeno-associated virus attenuated airspace enlargement and emphysema caused by inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptors with SU5416 in mice, a model of apoptosis-dependent emphysema lacking neutrophilic inflammation. The overexpressed human serine protease inhibitor accumulated in lung cells and suppressed caspase-3 activation and oxidative stress in lungs treated with the VEGF blocker or with VEGF receptor-1 and -2 antibodies. Similar results were obtained in SU5416-treated rats given human α1-antitrypsin intravenously. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that inhibition of structural alveolar cell apoptosis by α1-antitrypsin represents a novel protective mechanism of the serpin against emphysema. Further elucidation of this mechanism may extend the therapeutic options for emphysema caused by reduced level or loss of function of α1-antitrypsin. PMID:16514110

  6. Characterization of microsomal and cytosolic alpha-1,2-mannosidases from mung bean hypocotyls.

    PubMed

    Forsee, W T

    1985-10-01

    Microsomal and cytosolic alpha-mannosidase activities, which hydrolyze alpha-1,2-mannosyl-mannose linkages in the Man5GlcNAc2 oligosaccharide, have been isolated from homogenates of mung bean hypocotyls. The alpha-1,2-mannosidase activities were readily distinguished from previously described aryl alpha-mannosidases by several criteria. They were optimally active in the presence of Ca2+ between pH 5.5 and 6, they were inhibited by Zn2+, and they had essentially no activity with p-nitrophenyl-alpha-mannoside. The microsomal and cytosolic alpha-1,2-mannosidases demonstrated specificity for oligosaccharides with terminal nonreducing alpha-1,2-mannosyl linkages, and they were inhibited by mannosyl-mannose disaccharides, with the inhibition decreasing in the order of alpha-1,2-greater than alpha-1,3-greater than alpha-1,6-mannosyl-mannose. The cytosolic alpha-1,2-mannosidase activity, which was present in the 100,000 g supernatant, was separated from the aryl alpha-mannosidase by ammonium sulfate precipitation. The microsomal alpha-1,2-mannosidase, which was tightly associated with the particulate fraction, was solubilized with Triton X-100 and 0.2 M KCl. The two alpha-1,2-mannosidase activities were readily differentiated by gel-filtration chromatography. The solubilized microsomal enzyme chromatographed in approximately the same position as a Mr 460,000 globular protein whereas the cytosolic enzyme was eluted in a retarded position, indicating a much smaller protein.

  7. Oxidative inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by alveolar epithelial type II cells.

    PubMed

    Wallaert, B; Aerts, C; Gressier, B; Gosset, P; Voisin, C

    1993-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of guinea pig alveolar epithelial type II cells to generate significant amounts of reactive oxygen species to inactivate alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1-PI). Inactivation of alpha 1-PI was evaluated by its inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic elastase and was expressed as a percentage. The same experiments were performed in parallel with alveolar macrophages (AM) obtained from the same animals and with MRC-5 fibroblasts. Both type II cells and AM released significant amounts of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide, whereas the fibroblasts did not. Unstimulated type II cells (0.5 +/- 2%), AM (1.2 +/- 1.5%), and fibroblasts (0.5 +/- 0.5%) were unable to inactivate alpha 1-PI. Addition of phorbol myristate acetate did not increase their ability to inactivate alpha 1-PI. In contrast, type II cells (79.7 +/- 7%) and AM (80.1 +/- 8%) dramatically inactivated alpha 1-PI in the presence of myeloperoxidase (25 mU/ml), whereas fibroblasts did not. Addition of catalase to the reaction significantly prevented the inactivation of alpha 1-PI. Western blot analysis of alpha 1-PI did not reveal a significant proteolysis of alpha 1-PI, which supports the hypothesis that, in the presence of neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase, type II cells may oxidatively inactivate alpha 1-PI.

  8. Novel alpha1-adrenergic receptor signaling pathways: secreted factors and interactions with the extracellular matrix.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ting; Duan, Zhong-Hui; Papay, Robert; Pluskota, Elzbieta; Gaivin, Robert J; de la Motte, Carol A; Plow, Edward F; Perez, Dianne M

    2006-07-01

    alpha1-Adrenergic receptor (alpha1-ARs) subtypes (alpha1A, alpha1B, and alpha1D) regulate multiple signal pathways, such as phospholipase C, protein kinase C (PKC), and mitogen-activated protein kinases. We employed oligonucleotide microarray technology to explore the effects of both short- (1 h) and long-term (18 h) activation of the alpha1A-AR to enable RNA changes to occur downstream of earlier well characterized signaling pathways, promoting novel couplings. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies confirmed that PKC was a critical regulator of alpha1A-AR-mediated gene expression, and secreted interleukin (IL)-6 also contributed to gene expression alterations. We next focused on two novel signaling pathways that might be mediated through alpha1A-AR stimulation because of the clustering of gene expression changes for cell adhesion/motility (syndecan-4 and tenascin-C) and hyaluronan (HA) signaling. We confirmed that alpha1-ARs induced adhesion in three cell types to vitronectin, an interaction that was also integrin-, FGF7-, and PKC-dependent. alpha1-AR activation also inhibited cell migration, which was integrin- and PKC-independent but still required secretion of FGF7. alpha1-AR activation also increased the expression and deposition of HA, a glycosaminoglycan, which displayed two distinct structures: pericellular coats and long cable structures, as well as increasing expression of the HA receptor, CD44. Long cable structures of HA can bind leukocytes, which this suggests that alpha1-ARs may be involved in proinflammatory responses. Our results indicate alpha1-ARs induce the secretion of factors that interact with the extracellular matrix to regulate cell adhesion, motility and proinflammatory responses through novel signaling pathways.

  9. '1-Antitrypsin polymorphism and systematics of eastern North American wolves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Federoff, N.E.

    2002-01-01

    We used data on the polymorphic status of '1-antitrypsin ('1AT) to study the relationship of Minnesota wolves to the gray wolf (Canis lupus), which was thought to have evolved in Eurasia, and to red wolves (Canis rufus) and coyotes (Canis latrans), which putatively evolved in North America. Recent evidence had indicated that Minnesota wolves might be more closely related to red wolves and coyotes. Samples from wild-caught Minnesota wolves and from captive wolves, at least some of which originated in Alaska and western Canada, were similarly polymorphic for '1AT, whereas coyote and red wolf samples were all monomorphic. Our findings, in conjunction with earlier results, are consistent with the Minnesota wolf being a gray wolf of Eurasian origin or possibly a hybrid between the gray wolf of Eurasian origin and the proposed North American wolf.

  10. Identification and characterization of the Trichoderma harzianum gene encoding alpha-1,3-glucanase involved in streptococcal mutan degradation.

    PubMed

    Wiater, Adrian; Janczarek, Monika; Pleszczyńska, Małgorzata; Szczodrak, Janusz

    2011-01-01

    alpha-1,3-Glucanases (mutanases) are currently of great interest due to their potential use in the field of dental care. These enzymes have been reported in several bacteria, yeasts and fungi, but up to now, characterization of this family of proteins has been relatively poor. In this study, we identify and characterize a mutanase gene from Trichoderma harzianum CCM F-340. Sequence analysis, on the nucleotide and amino acid levels reveals that this alpha-1,3-glucanase is highly homologous to alpha-1,3-glucanases from T harzianum isolate CBS 243.71 and T asperellum CECT 20539. T. harzianum CCM F-340 mutanase is a 634-aa residue protein with a calculated molecular mass of 67.65 kDa, composed of two distinct, highly conserved domains (a long N-terminal catalytic domain and a short C-terminal polysaccharide-binding domain) separated by a less conserved Pro-Ser-Thr-rich linker region. The mutanase gene was expressed in an E. coli BL21 (DE3) host, under the transcriptional control of T7 promoter. The purified enzyme migrated as a band of about 68 kDa after SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, which coincided with the predicted size based on the amino acid sequence. Our data indicate that this enzyme is highly conserved in Trichoderma and can be produced in active form in such heterologous expression system.

  11. Recent advances in the molecular pharmacology of the alpha 1-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Guarino, R D; Perez, D M; Piascik, M T

    1996-08-01

    This review is intended to discuss recent developments in the molecular pharmacology of the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor (alpha 1-AR) subtypes. After a brief historical development, we will focus on the more contemporary issues having to do with this receptor family. Emphasis will be put on recent data regarding the cloning, nomenclature, signalling mechanisms, and genomic organization of the alpha 1-AR subtypes. We will also highlight recent mutational studies that identify key amino acid residues involved in ligand binding, as well as the role of the alpha 1-AR subtypes in regulating physiologic processes.

  12. Different pathways of ( sup 3 H)inositol phosphate formation mediated by. alpha. 1a- and. alpha. 1b-adrenergic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, K.M.; Minneman, K.P. )

    1990-10-15

    The types of inositol phosphates (InsPs) formed in response to activation of alpha 1-adrenergic receptor subtypes were determined in collagenase-dispersed renal cells and hepatocytes by high pressure liquid chromatography separation. In hepatocytes, which contain only the alpha 1b subtype, norepinephrine stimulated rapid (10-s) formation of (3H)Ins(1,4,5)P3 and (3H)Ins(1,3,4)P3 and slower (5-min) formation of Ins(1,4)P2 and Ins(1)P. Selective inactivation of alpha 1b receptors by chloroethylclonidine almost completely blocked the effects of norepinephrine in hepatocytes. In renal cells, which contain both alpha 1a and alpha 1b receptors in a 60:40 ratio, norepinephrine did not significantly increase the size of any peaks until 5 min after agonist activation. At this time, only a peak eluting with Ins(1)P and one eluting shortly after Ins(1,4)P2 were significantly elevated. Incubation with norepinephrine for 2 h caused small but significant increases in peaks co-eluting with Ins(1)P and Ins(1,4,5)P3 in renal cells; however, only the increase in Ins(1)P was inhibited by chloroethylclonidine pretreatment. Extraction under neutral conditions suggested that cyclic InsPs may be the primary compounds formed in response to norepinephrine in renal cells. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ caused a 60% reduction in the InsP response to norepinephrine in renal cells but had no effect in hepatocytes. These results suggest that activation of alpha 1a and alpha 1b receptor subtypes results in formation of different InsPs and that the response to alpha 1a activation may require influx of extracellular Ca2+.

  13. Comparison of guinea-pig, bovine and rat alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes.

    PubMed Central

    Büscher, R.; Heeks, C.; Taguchi, K.; Michel, M. C.

    1996-01-01

    1. To elucidate a possible role of species differences in the classification of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes, we have characterized the alpha 1-adrenoceptors in guinea-pig spleen, kidney and cerebral cortex and in bovine cerebral cortex using concentration-dependent alkylation by chloroethylclonidine and competitive binding with 5-methlurapidil, methoxamine, (+)-niguldipine, noradrenaline, oxymetazoline, phentolamine, SDZ NVI-085, tamsulosin and (+)-tamsulosin. Rat liver alpha 1B-adrenoceptors were studied for comparison. Chloroethylclonidine-sensitivity and (+)-niguldipine affinity were also compared at cloned rat and bovine alpha 1a-adrenoceptors. 2. Chloroethylclonidine concentration-dependently inactivated alpha 1-adrenoceptors in all five tissues. While chloroethylclonidine inactivated almost all alpha 1-adrenoceptors in rat liver and guinea-pig kidney and brain, 20-30% of alpha 1-adrenoceptors in guinea-pig spleen and bovine brain were resistant to alkylation by 10 microM chloroethylclonidine. With regard to concentration-dependency guinea-pig kidney and brain were approximately 10 fold less sensitive than guinea-pig spleen or rat liver. 3. In rat liver, all drugs tested competed for [3H]-prazosin binding with steep and monophasic curves. Drug affinities were relatively low and resembled most closely those of cloned rat alpha 1b-adrenoceptors. 4. In guinea-pig spleen, all drugs tested competed for [3H]-prazosin binding with steep and monophasic curves. Drug affinities were relatively low and resembled most closely those of cloned rat alpha 1b-adrenoceptors. 5. In guinea-pig kidney most drugs tested competed for [3H]-prazosin binding with steep and monophasic curves and had relatively low drug affinities close to those of cloned rat alpha 1b- and alpha 1d-adrenoceptors. However, noradrenaline and tamsulosin had consistently biphasic competition curves recognizing 36-39% high and 61-64% low affinity sites. 6. In guinea-pig cerebral cortex, all drugs tested

  14. GFR alpha-1 is expressed in parvalbumin GABAergic neurons in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Sarabi, A; Hoffer, B J; Olson, L; Morales, M

    2000-09-22

    Glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is a potent survival factor for several types of neurons. GDNF binds with high affinity to GDNF-family receptor alpha-1 (GFR alpha-1). This receptor is expressed in different areas of the brain, including the hippocampus and dentate gyrus. By using in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, we found that 19% to 37% of glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD) expressing neurons co-expressed GFR alpha-1 in the hippocampus. GFR alpha-1/GAD co-expression was found mainly in the stratum (s) pyramidale (29-37%) and s. oriens (20-25%). Further characterization of GFR alpha-1 expressing interneurons, based on their calcium-binding protein immunoreactivity, demonstrated that many parvalbumin (PV) immunoreactive neurons express GFR alpha-1 in the s. pyramidale of CA1 (72%), CA2 (70%) and CA3 (70%) subfields of the hippocampus. GFR alpha-1/PV double labeled neurons were also detected in the s. oriens of CA1 (52%), CA2 (27%) and CA3 (36%) subfields. The expression of GFR alpha-1 in principal neurons and in a specific sub-population of GABAergic neurons (PV-containing neurons) suggest that GDNF might modulate, in a selective manner, functions of the entire adult hippocampus.

  15. Antagonism of Lateral Amygdala Alpha1-Adrenergic Receptors Facilitates Fear Conditioning and Long-Term Potentiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lazzaro, Stephanie C.; Hou, Mian; Cunha, Catarina; LeDoux, Joseph E.; Cain, Christopher K.

    2010-01-01

    Norepinephrine receptors have been studied in emotion, memory, and attention. However, the role of alpha1-adrenergic receptors in fear conditioning, a major model of emotional learning, is poorly understood. We examined the effect of terazosin, an alpha1-adrenergic receptor antagonist, on cued fear conditioning. Systemic or intra-lateral amygdala…

  16. Overexpression of the alpha1B-adrenergic receptor causes apoptotic neurodegeneration: multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Zuscik, M J; Sands, S; Ross, S A; Waugh, D J; Gaivin, R J; Morilak, D; Perez, D M

    2000-12-01

    Progress toward elucidating the function of alpha1B-adrenergic receptors (alpha1BARs) in the central nervous system has been constrained by a lack of agonists and antagonists with adequate alpha1B-specificity. We have obviated this constraint by generating transgenic mice engineered to overexpress either wild-type or constitutively active alpha1BARs in tissues that normally express the receptor, including the brain. All transgenic lines showed granulovacular neurodegeneration, beginning in alpha1B-expressing domains of the brain and progressing with age to encompass all areas. The degeneration was apoptotic and did not occur in non-transgenic mice. Correspondingly, transgenic mice showed an age-progressive hindlimb disorder that was parkinsonian-like, as demonstrated by rescue of the dysfunction by 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine and considerable dopaminergic-neuronal degeneration in the substantia nigra. Transgenic mice also had a grand mal seizure disorder accompanied by a corresponding dysplasia and neurodegeneration of the cerebral cortex. Both behavioral phenotypes (locomotor impairment and seizure) could be partially rescued with the alpha1AR antagonist terazosin, indicating that alpha1AR signaling participated directly in the pathology. Our results indicate that overstimulation of alpha1BAR leads to apoptotic neurodegeneration with a corresponding multiple system atrophy indicative of Shy-Drager syndrome, a disease whose etiology is unknown.

  17. Immobility from administration of the alpha1-adrenergic antagonist, terazosin, in the IVth ventricle in rats.

    PubMed

    Stone, Eric A; Lin, Yan; Quartermain, David

    2003-12-26

    Brain alpha1-adrenoceptors have been shown to be essential for motor activity and movement in mice using intraventricular injection of alpha1-antagonists. To facilitate subsequent neuroanatomical mapping of these receptors, the present study was undertaken to replicate these effects in the rat. Rats were administered the alpha1-antagonist, terazosin, in the absence and presence of the alpha1-agonist, phenylephrine, in the IVth ventricle and were tested for their motor activity responses to an environmental change. Terazosin was found to produce a dose-dependent, virtually complete cessation of behavioral activity that was reversed by coinfusion of phenylephrine. The results could not be explained by sedation. It is concluded that central alpha1-adrenoceptors are essential for behavioral activation in rats as in mice.

  18. Protein domain of chicken alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein is responsible for chiral recognition.

    PubMed

    Sadakane, Yutaka; Matsunaga, Hisami; Nakagomi, Kazuya; Hatanaka, Yasumaru; Haginaka, Jun

    2002-07-19

    Ovoglycoprotein from chicken egg whites (OGCHI) has been used as a chiral selector to separate drug enantiomers. However, neither the amino acid sequence of OGCHI nor the responsible part for the chiral recognition (protein domain or sugar moiety) has yet to be determined. First, we isolated a cDNA clone encoding OGCHI, and clarified the amino acid sequence of OGCHI, which consists of 203 amino acids including a predictable signal peptide of 20 amino acids. The mature OGCHI shows 31-32% identities to rabbit and human alpha(1)-acid glycoproteins (alpha(1)-AGPs). Thus, OGCHI should be the chicken alpha(1)-AGP. Second, the recombinant chicken alpha(1)-AGP was prepared by the Escherichia coli expression system, and its chiral recognition ability was confirmed by capillary electrophoresis. Since proteins expressed in E. coli are not modified by any sugar moieties, this result shows that the protein domain of the chicken alpha(1)-AGP is responsible for the chiral recognition.

  19. Prevalence of α-1-Antitrypsin Gene Mutations in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Aljarallah, Badr; Ali, Ahmed; Dowaidar, Moataz; Settin, Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim: α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) deficiency results from mutations of the protease inhibitor (PI). The AAT gene is mapped on chromosome 14 and has been associated with chronic liver disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objective: To determine the frequency of AAT mutations on S and Z carrier alleles in healthy Saudi individuals from Qassim Province in Saudi Arabia. Patients and Methods: A total of 158 healthy, unrelated participants from Qassim Province were recruited. They were genotyped for the two AAT-deficiency alleles, PI*S and PI*Z, using polymerase chain reaction, with primers designed throughout to mediate site-directed mutagenesis. Results: Of the 158 subjects, 11.39% were carriers for the S mutation (i.e., had the MS genotype), whereas 2.53% were carriers for the Z mutation (i.e., had the MZ genotype). The SZ genotype was present in 3.8% of subjects, while the homozygous genotype SS was present in 1.9% of subjects. No subjects showed the ZZ mutant genotype. Accordingly, frequency of the mutant S and Z alleles of AAT gene was 9.49% and 3.19%, respectively. Conclusion: The results obtained showed a high prevalence of the AAT deficiency allele in the Saudi population. This probably warrants adoption of a screening program for at-risk individuals, so that they might initiate adequate prophylactic measures. PMID:21727732

  20. Subunit regulation of the neuronal alpha 1A Ca2+ channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed Central

    De Waard, M; Campbell, K P

    1995-01-01

    1. Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels are multi-protein complexes composed of at least three subunits: alpha 1, alpha 2 delta and beta. Ba2+ currents were recorded in Xenopus oocytes expressing the neuronal alpha 1A Ca2+ channel, using the two-electrode voltage-clamp technique. Various subunit combinations were studied: alpha 1A, alpha 1A alpha 2 delta b, alpha 1A beta or alpha 1A alpha 2 delta b beta. 2. The alpha 1A subunit alone directs the expression of functional Ca2+ channels. It carries all the properties of the channel: gating, permeability, voltage dependence of activation and inactivation, and pharmacology. The alpha 1A channel is activated by low voltages when physiological concentrations of the permeant cation are used. Both ancillary subunits alpha 2 delta and beta induced considerable changes in the biophysical properties of the alpha 1A current. The subunit specificity of the changes in current properties was analysed for all four beta gene products by coexpressing beta 1b, beta 2a, beta 3 and beta 4. 3. All beta subunits induce a stimulation in the current amplitude, a change in inactivation kinetics, and two hyperpolarizing shifts--one in the voltage dependence of activation and a second in the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation. The most significant difference in regulation among beta subunits is the induction of variable rate constants of current inactivation. Rates of inactivation were induced in the following order (fastest to slowest): beta 3 > beta 1b = beta 4 > beta 2a. 4. The alpha 2 delta b subunit does not modify the properties of alpha 1A Ca2+ channels in the absence of beta subunits. However, this subunit increases the beta-induced stimulation in current amplitude and also regulates the beta-induced change in inactivation kinetics. 5. Of all the subunit combinations tested, Ca2+ channels that included a beta subunit were the most prone to decrease in activity. It is concluded that beta subunits are the primary target for the

  1. Two alpha1-adrenergic receptor subtypes regulating the vasopressor response have differential roles in blood pressure regulation.

    PubMed

    Hosoda, Chihiro; Koshimizu, Taka-Aki; Tanoue, Akito; Nasa, Yoshihisa; Oikawa, Ryo; Tomabechi, Takashi; Fukuda, Shinya; Shinoura, Hitomi; Oshikawa, Sayuri; Takeo, Satoshi; Kitamura, Tadaichi; Cotecchia, Susanna; Tsujimoto, Gozoh

    2005-03-01

    To study the functional role of individual alpha1-adrenergic (AR) subtypes in blood pressure (BP) regulation, we used mice lacking the alpha1B-AR and/or alpha1D-AR with the same genetic background and further studied their hemodynamic and vasoconstrictive responses. Both the alpha1D-AR knockout and alpha1B-/alpha1D-AR double knockout mice, but not the alpha1B-AR knockout mice, had significantly (p < 0.05) lower levels of basal systolic and mean arterial BP than wild-type mice in nonanesthetized condition, and they showed no significant change in heart rate or in cardiac function, as assessed by echocardiogram. All mutants showed a significantly (p < 0.05) reduced catecholamine-induced pressor and vasoconstriction responses. It is noteworthy that the infusion of norepinephrine did not elicit any pressor response at all in alpha1B-/alpha1D-AR double knockout mice. In an attempt to further examine alpha1-AR subtype, which is involved in the genesis or maintenance of hypertension, BP after salt loading was monitored by tail-cuff readings and confirmed at the endpoint by direct intra-arterial recording. After salt loading, alpha1B-AR knockout mice developed a comparable level of hypertension to wild-type mice, whereas mice lacking alpha1D-AR had significantly (p < 0.05) attenuated BP and lower levels of circulating catecholamines. Our data indicated that alpha1B- and alpha1D-AR subtypes participate cooperatively in BP regulation; however, the deletion of the functional alpha1D-AR, not alpha1B-AR, leads to an antihypertensive effect. The study shows differential contributions of alpha1B- and alpha1D-ARs in BP regulation.

  2. The tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline, nortriptyline and imipramine are weak antagonists of human and rat alpha1B-adrenoceptors.

    PubMed

    Nojimoto, F D; Mueller, A; Hebeler-Barbosa, F; Akinaga, J; Lima, V; Kiguti, L R de A; Pupo, A S

    2010-01-01

    Although it is long known that the tricyclic antidepressants amitriptyline, nortriptyline and imipramine inhibit the noradrenaline transporter and alpha(1)-adrenoceptors with similar affinities, which may lead to self-cancelling actions, the selectivity of these drugs for alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtypes is unknown. The present study investigates the selectivity of amitriptyline, nortriptyline and imipramine for human recombinant and rat native alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtypes. The selectivity of amitriptyline, nortriptyline and imipramine was investigated in HEK-293 cells expressing each of the human alpha(1)-subtypes and in rat native receptors from the vas deferens (alpha(1A)), spleen (alpha(1B)) and aorta (alpha(1D)) through [(3)H]prazosin binding, and noradrenaline-induced intracellular Ca(2+) increases and contraction assays. Amitriptyline, nortriptyline and imipramine showed considerably higher affinities for alpha(1A)- (approximately 25- to 80-fold) and alpha(1D)-adrenoceptors (approximately 10- to 25-fold) than for alpha(1B)-adrenoceptors in both contraction and [(3)H]prazosin binding assays with rat native and human receptors, respectively. In addition, amitriptyline, nortriptyline and imipramine were substantially more potent in the inhibition of noradrenaline-induced intracellular Ca(2+) increases in HEK-293 cells expressing alpha(1A)- or a truncated version of alpha(1D)-adrenoceptors which traffics more efficiently towards the cell membrane than in cells expressing alpha(1B)-adrenoceptors. Amitriptyline, nortriptyline and imipramine are much weaker antagonists of rat and human alpha(1B)-adrenoceptors than of alpha(1A)- and alpha(1D)-adrenoceptors. The differential affinities for these receptors indicate that the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtype which activation is most increased by the augmented noradrenaline availability resultant from the blockade of neuronal reuptake is the alpha(1B)-adrenoceptor. This may be important for the behavioural effects of these

  3. Lower-zone emphysema in young patients without α1-antitrypsin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Martelli, Nestor A.; Goldman, Ernesto; Roncoroni, Aquiles J.

    1974-01-01

    Martelli, N. A., Goldman, E., and Roncoroni, A. J. (1974).Thorax, 29, 237-244. Lowerzone emphysema in young patients without α1-antitrypsin deficiency. Three young patients with radiographic pulmonary emphysema predominantly in the lower zones are reported. The clinical and physiological features were those observed in severe pulmonary emphysema. Predominance of the main lesions in the lower zones was confirmed in two cases by selective pulmonary angiography. One of the patients died and extensive panlobular emphysema was found at necropsy. Although the similarities between our patients and those with emphysema and α1-antitrypsin deficiency were remarkable, the latter condition was ruled out. Images PMID:4545502

  4. Interaction between calcofluor white and carbohydrates of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Albani, J R; Plancke, Y D

    1999-05-31

    Interactions between the fluorescent probe, calcofluor white, and human serum albumin (HSA) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) are compared. The two proteins have comparable isoelectric points, but alpha 1-acid glycoprotein is highly glycosylated (40% of glycans by weight), while the serum albumin is not. Binding of calcofluor to the proteins induces an increase in both the fluorescence anisotropy and the fluorescence intensity of the fluorophore. Also, we found that the calcofluor exhibits a fluorescence emission with a maximum located at 432, 415 or 445 nm, respectively, in the absence of proteins, in the presence of HSA, and in the presence of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. The stoichiometries of the calcofluor-serum albumin and calcofluor-alpha 1-acid glycoprotein complexes are 2:1 and 1:1, respectively. The association constants are 0.04 and 0.15 microM-1, respectively. The calcofluor does not interact with Lens culinaris agglutinin (LCA), although the protein has a hydrophobic site. Nevertheless, one cannot exclude that the binding of the fluorophore to the HSA is nonspecific. Our results, when compared with those obtained with calcofluor dissolved in the hydrophobic solvent isobutanol, and with the fluorescent probe, potassium 6-(p-toluidino)-2-naphthalenesulfonate (TNS), bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, indicate that the emission of calcofluor bound to HSA occurs from a hydrophobic state, while that of calcofluor bound to alpha 1-acid glycoprotein occurs from a hydrophilic state. The fluorescence intensity of calcofluor decreases in the presence of carbohydrates isolated from alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, while it increases in the presence of alpha 1-cellulose. Thus, calcofluor interacts mainly with the glycan moiety of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein, and its fluorescence is sensitive to the secondary structure of the glycans.

  5. Expanding the Clinical Indications for α1-Antitrypsin Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Eli C

    2012-01-01

    α1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is a 52-kDa circulating serine protease inhibitor. Production of AAT by the liver maintains 0.9–1.75 mg/mL circulating levels. During acute-phase responses, circulating AAT levels increase more than fourfold. In individuals with one of several inherited mutations in AAT, low circulating levels increase the risk for lung, liver and pancreatic destructive diseases, particularly emphysema. These individuals are treated with lifelong weekly infusions of human plasma–derived AAT. An increasing amount of evidence appears to suggest that AAT possesses not only the ability to inhibit serine proteases, such as elastase and proteinase-3 (PR-3), but also to exert antiinflammatory and tissue-protective effects independent of protease inhibition. AAT modifies dendritic cell maturation and promotes T regulatory cell differentiation, induces interleukin (IL)-1 receptor antagonist and IL-10 release, protects various cell types from cell death, inhibits caspases-1 and -3 activity and inhibits IL-1 production and activity. Importantly, unlike classic immunosuppressants, AAT allows undeterred isolated T-lymphocyte responses. On the basis of preclinical and clinical studies, AAT therapy for nondeficient individuals may interfere with disease progression in type 1 and type 2 diabetes, acute myocardial infarction, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, cystic fibrosis, transplant rejection, graft versus host disease and multiple sclerosis. AAT also appears to be antibacterial and an inhibitor of viral infections, such as influenza and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and is currently evaluated in clinical trials for type 1 diabetes, cystic fibrosis and graft versus host disease. Thus, AAT therapy appears to have advanced from replacement therapy, to a safe and potential treatment for a broad spectrum of inflammatory and immune-mediated diseases. PMID:22634722

  6. Alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists potentiate responses mediated by alpha 1-adrenoceptors in the cat nictitating membrane.

    PubMed Central

    Shepperson, N. B.

    1984-01-01

    Alpha 1 but not alpha 2-adrenoceptors mediate contractions of the cat nictitating membrane. The contractions of this tissue evoked by alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists, but not those evoked by angiotensin II, are potentiated by pre-dosing with alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists. This potentiation is reversed by the alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, WY 26392. Pressor responses evoked by alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists or angiotensin II were not affected by alpha 2-adrenoceptor agonists. Contractions of the nictitating membrane evoked by noradrenaline were reduced by pretreatment with WY 26392. These results suggest that in some tissues the role of alpha 2-adrenoceptors may be to modulate responses to alpha 1-adrenoceptors, rather than to evoke a discrete response themselves. PMID:6148985

  7. Bioisosteric phentolamine analogs as selective human alpha(2)- versus alpha(1)-adrenoceptor ligands.

    PubMed

    Bavadekar, Supriya A; Hong, Seoung-Soo; Lee, Sang-Ii; Miller, Duane D; Feller, Dennis R

    2008-08-20

    Phentolamine is known to act as a competitive, non-subtype-selective alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist. In an attempt to improve alpha(2)- versus alpha(1)-adrenoceptor selectivity and alpha(2)-adrenoceptor subtype-selectivity, two new chemical series of bioisosteric phentolamine analogs were prepared and evaluated. These compounds were evaluated for binding affinities on alpha(1)- (alpha(1A)-, alpha(1B)-, alpha(1D)-) and alpha(2)- (alpha(2A)-, alpha(2B)-, alpha(2C)-) adrenoceptor subtypes that had been stably expressed in human embryonic kidney and Chinese hamster ovary cell lines, respectively. Methylation of the phenolic hydroxy group and replacement of the 4-methyl group of phentolamine with varying lipophilic substituents yielded bioisosteric analogs selective for the alpha(2)- versus alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. Within the alpha(2)-adrenoceptors, these analogs bound with higher affinity at the alpha(2A)- and alpha(2C)-subtypes as compared to the alpha(2B)-subtype. In particular, the t-butyl analog was found to be the most selective, its binding at the alpha(2C)-adrenoceptor (Ki=3.6 nM) being 37- to 173-fold higher than that at the alpha(1)-adrenoceptors, and around 2- and 19-fold higher than at the alpha(2A)- and alpha(2B)-adrenoceptors, respectively. Data from luciferase reporter gene assays confirmed the functional antagonist activities of selected compounds from the bioisosteric series on human alpha(1A)- and alpha(2C)-adrenoceptors. Thus, the results with these bioisosteric analogs of phentolamine provide a lead to the rational design of potent and selective alpha(2)-adrenoceptor ligands that may be useful in improving the therapeutic profile of this drug class for human disorders.

  8. Estrogen alters the diurnal rhythm of alpha 1-adrenergic receptor densities in selected brain regions

    SciTech Connect

    Weiland, N.G.; Wise, P.M.

    1987-11-01

    Norepinephrine regulates the proestrous and estradiol-induced LH surge by binding to alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. The density of alpha 1-receptors may be regulated by estradiol, photoperiod, and noradrenergic neuronal activity. We wished to determine whether alpha 1-receptors exhibit a diurnal rhythm in ovariectomized and/or estradiol-treated female rats, whether estradiol regulates alpha 1-receptors in those areas of brain involved with LH secretion and/or sexual behavior, and whether the concentrations of alpha-receptors vary inversely relative to previously reported norepinephrine turnover patterns. Young female rats, maintained on a 14:10 light-dark cycle were ovariectomized. One week later, half of them were outfitted sc with Silastic capsules containing estradiol. Groups of animals were decapitated 2 days later at 0300, 1000, 1300, 1500, 1800, and 2300 h. Brains were removed, frozen, and sectioned at 20 micron. Sections were incubated with (/sup 3/H)prazosin in Tris-HCl buffer, washed, dried, and exposed to LKB Ultrofilm. The densities of alpha 1-receptors were quantitated using a computerized image analysis system. In ovariectomized rats, the density of alpha 1-receptors exhibited a diurnal rhythm in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), medial preoptic nucleus (MPN), and pineal gland. In SCN and MPN, receptor concentrations were lowest during the middle of the day and rose to peak levels at 1800 h. In the pineal gland, the density of alpha 1-receptors was lowest at middark phase, rose to peak levels before lights on, and remained elevated during the day. Estradiol suppressed the density of alpha 1 binding sites in the SCN, MPN, median eminence, ventromedial nucleus, and the pineal gland but had no effect on the lateral septum. Estrogen treatment altered the rhythm of receptor densities in MPN, median eminence, and the pineal gland.

  9. An Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor Agonist Prevents Acute Doxorubicin Cardiomyopathy in Male Mice

    PubMed Central

    Montgomery, Megan D.; Chan, Trevor; Swigart, Philip M.; Myagmar, Bat-erdene; Dash, Rajesh; Simpson, Paul C.

    2017-01-01

    Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors mediate adaptive effects in the heart and cardiac myocytes, and a myocyte survival pathway involving the alpha-1A receptor subtype and ERK activation exists in vitro. However, data in vivo are limited. Here we tested A61603 (N-[5-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl]methanesulfonamide), a selective imidazoline agonist for the alpha-1A. A61603 was the most potent alpha-1-agonist in activating ERK in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. A61603 activated ERK in adult mouse ventricular myocytes and protected the cells from death caused by the anthracycline doxorubicin. A low dose of A61603 (10 ng/kg/d) activated ERK in the mouse heart in vivo, but did not change blood pressure. In male mice, concurrent subcutaneous A61603 infusion at 10 ng/kg/d for 7 days after a single intraperitoneal dose of doxorubicin (25 mg/kg) increased survival, improved cardiac function, heart rate, and cardiac output by echocardiography, and reduced cardiac cell necrosis and apoptosis and myocardial fibrosis. All protective effects were lost in alpha-1A-knockout mice. In female mice, doxorubicin at doses higher than in males (35–40 mg/kg) caused less cardiac toxicity than in males. We conclude that the alpha-1A-selective agonist A61603, via the alpha-1A adrenergic receptor, prevents doxorubicin cardiomyopathy in male mice, supporting the theory that alpha-1A adrenergic receptor agonists have potential as novel heart failure therapies. PMID:28081170

  10. A single-chain variable fragment intrabody prevents intracellular polymerization of Z α1-antitrypsin while allowing its antiproteinase activity

    PubMed Central

    Ordóñez, Adriana; Pérez, Juan; Tan, Lu; Dickens, Jennifer A.; Motamedi-Shad, Neda; Irving, James A.; Haq, Imran; Ekeowa, Ugo; Marciniak, Stefan J.; Miranda, Elena; Lomas, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Mutant Z α1-antitrypsin (E342K) accumulates as polymers within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes predisposing to liver disease, whereas low levels of circulating Z α1-antitrypsin lead to emphysema by loss of inhibition of neutrophil elastase. The ideal therapy should prevent polymer formation while preserving inhibitory activity. Here we used mAb technology to identify interactors with Z α1-antitrypsin that comply with both requirements. We report the generation of an mAb (4B12) that blocked α1-antitrypsin polymerization in vitro at a 1:1 molar ratio, causing a small increase of the stoichiometry of inhibition for neutrophil elastase. A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) intrabody was generated based on the sequence of mAb4B12. The expression of scFv4B12 within the ER (scFv4B12KDEL) and along the secretory pathway (scFv4B12) reduced the intracellular polymerization of Z α1-antitrypsin by 60%. The scFv4B12 intrabody also increased the secretion of Z α1-antitrypsin that retained inhibitory activity against neutrophil elastase. MAb4B12 recognized a discontinuous epitope probably located in the region of helices A/C/G/H/I and seems to act by altering protein dynamics rather than binding preferentially to the native state. This novel approach could reveal new target sites for small-molecule intervention that may block the transition to aberrant polymers without compromising the inhibitory activity of Z α1-antitrypsin.—Ordóñez, A., Pérez, J., Tan, L., Dickens, J. A., Motamedi-Shad, N., Irving, J. A., Haq, I., Ekeowa, U., Marciniak, S. J., Miranda, E., Lomas, D. A. A single-chain variable fragment intrabody prevents intracellular polymerization of Z α1-antitrypsin while allowing its antiproteinase activity. PMID:25757566

  11. Posttranscriptional regulation of collagen alpha1(I) mRNA in hepatic stellate cells.

    PubMed Central

    Stefanovic, B; Hellerbrand, C; Holcik, M; Briendl, M; Aliebhaber, S; Brenner, D A

    1997-01-01

    The hepatic stellate cell (HSC) is the primary cell responsible for the dramatic increase in the synthesis of type I collagen in the cirrhotic liver. Quiescent HSCs contain a low level of collagen alpha1(I) mRNA, while activated HSCs contain about 60- to 70-fold more of this mRNA. The transcription rate of the collagen alpha1(I) gene is only two fold higher in activated HSCs than in quiescent HSCs. In assays using actinomycin D or 5,6-dichlorobenzimidazole riboside collagen alpha1(I) mRNA has estimated half-lives of 1.5 h in quiescent HSCs and 24 h in activated HSCs. Thus, this 16-fold change in mRNA stability is primarily responsible for the increase in collagen alpha1(I) mRNA steady-state level in activated HSCs. We have identified a novel RNA-protein interaction targeted to the C-rich sequence in the collagen alpha1(I) mRNA 3' untranslated region (UTR). This sequence is localized 24 nucleotides 3' to the stop codon. In transient transfection experiments, mutation of this sequence diminished accumulation of an mRNA transcribed from a collagen alpha1(I) minigene and in stable transfections decreased the half-life of collagen alpha1(I) minigene mRNA. Binding to the collagen alpha1(I) 3' UTR is present in cytoplasmic extracts of activated but not quiescent HSCs. It contains as a subunit alphaCP, which is also found in the complex involved in stabilization of alpha-globin mRNA. The auxiliary factors necessary to promote binding of alphaCP to the collagen 3' UTR are distinct from the factors necessary for binding to the alpha-globin sequence. Since alphaCP is expressed in both quiescent and activated HSCs, these auxiliary factors are responsible for the differentially expressed RNA-protein interaction at the collagen alpha1(I) mRNA 3' UTR. PMID:9271398

  12. Functional analysis of alpha 1 beta 1 integrin in human natural killer cells.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Villar, J J; Melero, I; Gismondi, A; Santoni, A; López-Botet, M

    1996-09-01

    Upon activation with interleukin (IL)-2 human natural killer (NK) cells acquire on their surface the alpha 1 beta 1 and alpha 2 beta 1 integrins and down-regulate the expression of alpha 6 beta 1. By employing alpha 1 beta 1-specific monoclonal antibody (mAb) HP-2B6, characterized in our laboratory, we examined the functional role of the alpha 1 beta 1 integrin in NK cells. Treatment with HP-2B6 mAb partially interfered with attachment of cultured NK cells to type I collagen, and combined with an anti-alpha 2 beta 1 (TEA 1/41) mAb, it completely abrogated cell adhesion to this extracelular matrix protein. In contrast, NK cell attachment to laminin was completely blocked by the anti-beta 1 LIA 1/2 mAb, but was unaffected by alpha 1 and alpha 2-specific mAb; as alpha 3 beta 1 and alpha 6 beta 1 were undetectable, the data indicate that the alpha 1 beta 1 integrin binding sites for type I collagen and laminin are different. Incubation with anti-alpha 1 HP-2B6 or its F(ab')2 fragments specifically induced a rapid homotypic aggregation of NK cells that was dependent on active metabolism, an intact cytoskeleton and the presence of divalent cations (Ca2+ and Mg2+); homotypic cell adhesion was selectively blocked by anti-CD18, CD11a or CD54 mAb. In addition, stimulation of cultured NK cells with the anti-alpha 1 HP-2B6 enhanced TNF-alpha production and induced tyrosine phosphorylation of a 110-kDa protein. Pretreatment with specific inhibitors of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) activity (tyrphostin 25 and herbimycin A) completely abrogated the functional effects induced by the anti-alpha 1 HP-2B6 mAb. Our data show that ligation of the alpha 1 beta 1 integrin positively modulates IL-2-activated NK cell function via a PTK-dependent pathway.

  13. Identification of alpha1-adrenergic receptors and their involvement in phosphoinositide hydrolysis in the frog heart.

    PubMed

    Lazou, Antigone; Gaitanaki, Catherine; Vaxevanellis, Spiros; Pehtelidou, Anastasia

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors in frog heart and to examine their related signal transduction pathway. alpha(1)-Adrenergic binding sites were studied in purified heart membranes using the specific alpha(1)-adrenergic antagonist [(3)H]prazosin. Analysis of the binding data indicated one class of binding sites displaying a K(d) of 4.19 +/- 0.56 nM and a B(max) of 14.66 +/- 1.61 fmol/mg original wet weight. Adrenaline, noradrenaline, or phenylephrine, in the presence of propranolol, competed with [(3)H]prazosin binding with a similar potency and a K(i) value of about 10 microM. The kinetics of adrenaline binding was closely related to its biological effect. Adrenaline concentration dependently increased the production of inositol phosphates in the heart in the presence or absence of propranolol. Maximal stimulation was about 8.5-fold, and the half-maximum effective concentration was 30 and 21 microM in the absence and presence of propranolol, respectively. These data clearly show that alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors are coupled to the phosphoinositide hydrolysis in frog heart. To our knowledge, this is the first direct evidence supporting the presence of functional alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors in the frog heart.

  14. Alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in canine lower genitourinary tissues: insight into development and function

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, E.; Lepor, H.

    1987-10-01

    Radioligand receptor binding methods were used to characterize the alpha 1-adrenergic receptor in the bladder body, bladder base, prostate and urethra of the male dog. Saturation experiments were performed in tissue homogenates using (/sup 125/iodine)-Heat, an alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist of high specific activity (2,200 Ci. per mmol.). The equilibrium dissociation constant Kd for (/sup 125/iodine)-Heat binding in the bladder body (0.56 pM.), bladder base (0.81 +/- 0.11 pM.), prostate (0.86 +/- 0.19 pM.) and urethra (0.55 pM.) was similar, suggesting homogeneity of alpha 1-adrenergic binding sites in lower genitourinary tissues. The receptor density in the bladder body, bladder base, prostate and urethra, expressed as fmol. per mg. wet weight, was 0.22 +/- 0.02, 0.82 +/- 0.09, 0.55 +/- 0.06 and 0.27 +/- 0.06, respectively (mean +/- standard error of mean). Competitive binding experiments with (/sup 125/iodine)-Heat and unlabeled prazosin and clonidine confirmed the selectivity of Heat for alpha 1-adrenergic binding sites. Anatomical dissections have revealed that a major component of the smooth muscle of the bladder base and prostate originates from the ureter, whereas a major component of the smooth muscle of the urethra originates from the bladder. The measured alpha 1-adrenergic receptor densities support these developmental theories.

  15. DNA elements regulating alpha1-tubulin gene induction during regeneration of eukaryotic flagella.

    PubMed

    Periz, G; Keller, L R

    1997-07-01

    Eukaryotic flagella are complex organelles composed of more than 200 polypeptides. Little is known about the regulatory mechanisms governing synthesis of the flagellar protein subunits and their assembly into this complex organelle. The unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is the premier experimental model system for studying such cellular processes. When acid shocked, C. reinhardtii excises its flagella, rapidly and coordinately activates transcription of a set of flagellar genes, and ultimately regenerates a new flagellar pair. To define functionally the regulatory sequences that govern induction of the set of genes after acid shock, we analyzed the alpha1-tubulin gene promoter. To simplify transcriptional analysis in vivo, we inserted the selectable marker gene ARG7 on the same plasmid with a tagged alpha1-tubulin gene and stably introduced it into C. reinhardtii cells. By deletion of various sequences, two promoter regions (-176 to -122 and -85 to -16) were identified as important for induction of the tagged alpha1-tubulin gene. Deleting the region between -176 and -122 from the transcription start site resulted in an induction level which was only 45 to 70% of that of the resident gene. Deleting the region upstream of -56 resulted in a complete loss of inducibility without affecting basal expression. The alpha1-tubulin promoter region from -85 to -16 conferred partial acid shock inducibility to an arylsulfatase (ARS) reporter gene. These results show that induction of the alpha1-tubulin gene after acid shock is a complex response that requires diverse sequence elements.

  16. Proteomic Identification of IPSE/alpha-1 as a Major Hepatotoxin Secreted by Schistosoma mansoni Eggs

    PubMed Central

    Abdulla, Maha-Hamadien; Lim, Kee-Chong; McKerrow, James H.; Caffrey, Conor R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Eggs deposited in the liver of the mammalian host by the blood fluke parasite, Schistosoma mansoni, normally drive a T-helper-2 (Th2)-mediated granulomatous response in immune-competent mice. By contrast, in mice deprived of T-cells and incapable of producing granulomata, egg-secreted proteins (ESP) induce acute hepatic injury and death. Previous work has shown that one such ESP, the T2 ribonuclease known as omega-1, is hepatotoxic in vivo in that specific antisera to omega-1 prevent hepatocyte damage. Methodology/Principal Findings Using an in vitro culture system employing mouse primary hepatocytes and alanine transaminase (ALT) activity as a marker of heptocyte injury, we demonstrated that S. mansoni eggs, egg-secreted proteins (ESP), soluble-egg antigen (SEA), and omega-1 are directly hepatotoxic and in a dose-dependent manner. Depletion of omega-1 using a monoclonal antibody abolished the toxicity of pure omega-1 and diminished the toxicity in ESP and SEA by 47 and 33%, respectively. Anion exchange chromatography of ESP yielded one predominant hepatotoxic fraction. Proteomics of that fraction identified the presence of IPSE/alpha-1 (IL-4 inducing principle from S. mansoni eggs), a known activator of basophils and inducer of Th2-type responses. Pure recombinant IPSE/alpha-1 also displayed a dose-dependent hepatotoxicity in vitro. Monoclonal antibody depletion of IPSE/alpha-1 abolished the latter's toxicity and diminished the total toxicity of ESP and SEA by 32 and 35%, respectively. Combined depletion of omega-1 and IPSE/alpha-1 diminished hepatotoxicity of ESP and SEA by 60 and 58% respectively. Conclusions We identified IPSE/alpha-1 as a novel hepatotoxin and conclude that both IPSE/alpha-1 and omega-1 account for the majority of the hepatotoxicity secreted by S. mansoni eggs. PMID:22039561

  17. Five different profiles of dihydropyridines in blocking T-type Ca(2+) channel subtypes (Ca(v)3.1 (alpha(1G)), Ca(v)3.2 (alpha(1H)), and Ca(v)3.3 (alpha(1I))) expressed in Xenopus oocytes.

    PubMed

    Furukawa, Taiji; Nukada, Toshihide; Namiki, Yoshiko; Miyashita, Yoriko; Hatsuno, Kento; Ueno, Yasunari; Yamakawa, Takeshi; Isshiki, Takaaki

    2009-06-24

    1,4-dihydropyridine (DHP) Ca(2+) antagonists have recently been shown to block T-type Ca(2+) channels, which may render favorable actions on cardiovascular systems. However, this evaluation remains to be done systematically for each T-type Ca(2+) channel subtype except for the Ca(v)3.1 (alpha(1G)) subtype. To address this issue at the molecular level, blocking effects of 14 kinds of DHPs (amlodipine, aranidipine, azelnidipine, barnidipine, benidipine, cilnidipine, efonidipine, felodipine, manidipine, nicardipine, nifedipine, nilvadipine, nimodipine, nitrendipine), which are clinically used for treatments of hypertension, on 3 subtypes of T-type Ca(2+) channels [Ca(v)3.2 (alpha(1H)), Ca(v)3.3 (alpha(1I)), and Ca(v)3.1 (alpha(1G))] were investigated in the Xenopus oocyte expression system using the two-microelectrode voltage-clamp technique. These 3 kinds (alpha(1H), alpha(1I) and alpha(1G)) of T-type channels were blocked by amlodipine, manidipine and nicardipine. On the other hand, azelnidipine, barnidipine, benidipine and efonidipine significantly blocked alpha(1H) and alpha(1G), but not alpha(1I) channels, while nilvadipine and nimodipine apparently blocked alpha(1H) and alpha(1I), but not alpha(1G) channels. Moreover, aranidipine blocked only alpha(1H) channels. By contrast, cilnidipine, felodipine, nifedipine and nitrendipine had little effects on these subtypes of T-type channels. The result indicates that the blockade of T-type Ca(2+) channels by derivatives of DHP Ca(2+) antagonist was selective for the channel subtype. Therefore, these selectivities of DHPs in blocking T-type Ca(2+) channel subtypes would provide useful pharmacological and clinical information on the mode of action of the drugs including side-effects and adverse effects.

  18. Autoradiographic analysis of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors in the human brain postmortem. Effect of suicide

    SciTech Connect

    Gross-Isseroff, R.; Dillon, K.A.; Fieldust, S.J.; Biegon, A. )

    1990-11-01

    In vitro quantitative autoradiography of alpha 1-noradrenergic receptors, using tritiated prazosin as a ligand, was performed on 24 human brains postmortem. Twelve brains were obtained from suicide victims and 12 from matched controls. We found significant lower binding to alpha 1 receptors in several brain regions of the suicide group as compared with matched controls. This decrease in receptor density was evident in portions of the prefrontal cortex, as well as the temporal cortex and in the caudate nucleus. Age, sex, presence of alcohol, and time of death to autopsy did not affect prazosin binding, in our sample, as measured by autoradiography.

  19. Oxidative inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by alveolar macrophages from healthy smokers requires the presence of myeloperoxidase.

    PubMed

    Wallaert, B; Gressier, B; Aerts, C; Mizon, C; Voisin, C; Mizon, J

    1991-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the ability of human alveolar macrophages (AM) of 10 healthy smokers to inactivate alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor (alpha 1PI). Purified alpha 1PI was incubated for 45 min, with human alveolar macrophages before and after stimulation by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) or opsonized zymosan. As a positive control, the same experiments were performed in parallel with blood human neutrophils (PMN). Results are expressed as percentage of inactivation of alpha 1PI as evaluated from its inhibitory activity against porcine pancreatic elastase. A strong correlation (r = 0.99) was shown when inhibitory activity of alpha 1PI was evaluated against porcine pancreatic elastase or human neutrophil elastase. Unstimulated AM (1.57 +/- 0.9%) as well as stimulated AM (PMA: 1 +/- 0.4%; zymosan: 3 +/- 0.6%) were unable to inactivate alpha 1PI. Gel electrophoresis of alpha 1PI demonstrated that AM before or after stimulation induced a slight proteolysis of alpha 1PI, whereas both cleaved and complexed alpha 1PI were found when alpha 1PI was incubated with activated PMN. Both unstimulated (22 +/- 2.6%) and activated PMN (PMA: 91.7 +/- 4.7%; zymosan: 90 +/- 5.5%) were responsible for a significant inactivation of alpha 1PI. Catalase, in contrast to superoxide dismutase, was responsible for a near complete protection of alpha 1PI inactivation by PMN. To better determine the role of PMN secretory products, especially myeloperoxidase (MPO), we also investigated the effect of zymosan-activated PMN supernatants or of purified MPO on the alpha 1PI-AM reaction. MPO assay in PMN supernatants demonstrated that activated neutrophils released significant amounts of MPO (16.8 +/- 4.1 U/ml), whereas MPO was undetectable in activated AM supernatants.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Expression of human. alpha. sub 1 -antitrypsin in dogs after autologous transplantation of retroviral transduced hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, M.A.; Baley, P.; Rothenberg, S.; Leland, F; Fleming, L.; Ponder, K.P.; Liu, Tajen; Finegold, M.; Darlington, G.; Pokorny, W.; Woo, S.L.C. )

    1992-01-01

    The liver represents an excellent organ for gene therapy since many genetic disorders result from the deficiency of liver-specific gene products. The authors have previously demonstrated that transgenic mouse hepatocytes can be heterologously transplanted into congenic recipients where they survived indefinitely and continued to function as hepatocytes. Here they demonstrate the autologous transplantation of retrovirally transduced canine hepatocytes. In two animals they have transplanted hepatocytes transduced with a retroviral vector containing the human {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin cDNA under transcriptional control of the cytomegalovirus promotor. Both animals had significant human {alpha}{sub 1}-antitrypsin in the serum for 1 month. The results suggest that gene therapy of hepatic deficiencies may be achieved by hepatocellular transplantation after genetic reconstruction with the use of promoters of cellular genes that are active in the normal liver.

  1. Framework for Interpretation of Trypsin–antitrypsin Imbalance and Genetic Heterogeneity in Pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Kun; Gao, Feng; Chen, Qingquan; Liu, Qicai; Chen, Shu

    2015-01-01

    Early intracellular premature trypsinogen activation was interpreted as the key initiator of pancreatitis. When the balance in the homeostasis of trypsin and antitrypsin system is disequilibrated, elevated aggressive enzymes directly attack the pancreatic tissue, which leads to pancreatic destruction and inflammation. However, trypsin alone is not enough to cause complications in pancreatitis, which may play a crucial role in modulating signaling events in the initial phase of the disease. NFκB activation is the major inflammatory pathway involved in the occurrence and development of pancreatitis and it can be induced by intrapancreatic activation of trypsinogen. Synthesis of trypsinogen occurs in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and ER stress is an important early acinar cell event. Components of ER stress response are known to be able to trigger cell death as well as NFκB signaling cascade. The strongest evidence supporting the trypsin-centered theory is that gene mutations, which lead to the generation of more trypsin, or reduce the activity of trypsin inhibitors or trypsin degradation, are associated with pancreatitis. Thus, trypsin–antitrypsin imbalance may be the first step leading to pancreatic autodigestion and inducing other pathways. Continued experimental studies are necessary to determine the specific relationships between trypsin–antitrypsin imbalance and genetic heterogeneity in pancreatitis. In this article, we review the latest advances that contributed to the understanding of the basic mechanisms behind the occurrence and development of pancreatitis with a focus on the interpretation of trypsin–antitrypsin imbalance and their relationships with other inflammation pathways. We additionally highlight genetic predispositions to pancreatitis and possible mechanisms associated with them. PMID:26228362

  2. Performance of the BODE index in patients with α1-antitrypsin deficiency-related COPD.

    PubMed

    Thabut, Gabriel; Mornex, Jean-François; Pison, Christophe; Cuvelier, Antoine; Balduyck, Malika; Pujazon, Marie-Christine; Fournier, Michel; AitIlalne, Brahim; Porcher, Raphaël

    2014-07-01

    The BODE (body mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnoea and exercise capacity) index is used to decide on referral and transplantation of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The BODE index has not been validated in patients with α1-antitrypsin deficiency, who account for 15% of COPD patients undergoing lung transplantation. We sought to validate the BODE index in α1-antitrypsin deficiency-related COPD. We assessed the prognostic value of the BODE index in 191 patients followed from 2006 to 2012 in a French prospective cohort of patients with α1-antitrypsin deficiency. 20 patients died during follow-up and 22 underwent lung transplantation. Survival (95% CI) was 93.0% (91.7-94.3%) at 3 years and 76.0% (72.9-79.1%) at 5 years. The 3-year survival was 97.4% (96.6-98.2%), 98.0% (96.7-99.3%), 87.7% (84.5-90.9%) and 75.3% (66.0-84.6%) for patients with BODE index 0-2, 3-4, 5-6 and 7-10, respectively. Survival discrimination of the BODE index was better than with both forced expiratory volume in 1 s and Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease classification. Regarding calibration, expected survival by BODE index was noticeably lower than observed survival. The BODE index showed very good survival discrimination in patients with α1-antitrypsin deficiency-related COPD. Larger studies are needed to support its use to drive patient referral for lung transplantation.

  3. Completion of the amino acid sequence of the alpha 1 chain from type I calf skin collagen. Amino acid sequence of alpha 1(I)B8.

    PubMed Central

    Glanville, R W; Breitkreutz, D; Meitinger, M; Fietzek, P P

    1983-01-01

    The complete amino acid sequence of the 279-residue CNBr peptide CB8 from the alpha 1 chain of type I calf skin collagen is presented. It was determined by sequencing overlapping fragments of CB8 produced by Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteinase, trypsin, Endoproteinase Arg-C and hydroxylamine. Tryptic cleavages were also made specific for lysine by blocking arginine residues with cyclohexane-1,2-dione. This completes the amino acid sequence analysis of the 1054-residues-long alpha (I) chain of calf skin collagen. PMID:6354180

  4. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptor: Binding and phosphoinositide breakdown in human myometrium

    SciTech Connect

    Breuiller-Fouche, M.; Doualla-Bell Kotto Maka, F.; Geny, B.; Ferre, F. )

    1991-07-01

    Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors were examined in both inner and outer layers of human pregnant myometrium using radioligand binding of (3H)prazosin. (3H)prazosin bound rapidly and reversibly to a single class of high affinity binding sites in myometrial membrane preparations. Scatchard analysis gave similar values of equilibrium dissociation constants in both myometrial layers. In contrast, more alpha-1 adrenergic receptors were detected in the outer layer than in the inner layer. Antagonist inhibited (3H)prazosin binding with an order of potency of prazosin greater than phentolamine greater than idazoxan. Competition experiments have also revealed that a stable guanine nucleotide decreases the apparent affinity of norepinephrine for myometrial (3H)prazosin binding sites. The functional status of these alpha-1 adrenergic receptors was also assessed by measuring the norepinephrine-induced accumulation of inositol phosphates in myometrial tissue. Norepinephrine produced a concentration-dependent accumulation of inositol phosphates in both myometrial layers. However, norepinephrine-induced increases in inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate were only observed in the outer layer. These results indicate that alpha-1 adrenergic receptors in human myometrium at the end of pregnancy are linked to phosphoinositide hydrolysis and that this response occurs mainly in the outer layer.

  5. Regulation of factor XIa activity by platelets and alpha 1-protease inhibitor.

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, P N; Sinha, D; Kueppers, F; Seaman, F S; Blankstein, K B

    1987-01-01

    We have studied the complex interrelationships between platelets, Factor XIa, alpha 1-protease inhibitor and Factor IX activation. Platelets were shown to secrete an inhibitor of Factor XIa, and to protect Factor XIa from inactivation in the presence of alpha 1-protease inhibitor and the secreted platelet inhibitor. This protection of Factor XIa did not arise from the binding of Factor XIa to platelets, the presence of high molecular weight kininogen, or the inactivation of alpha 1-protease inhibitor by platelets. The formation of a complex between alpha 1-protease inhibitor and the active-site-containing light chain of Factor XIa was inhibited by activated platelets and by platelet releasates, but not by high molecular weight kininogen. These results support the hypothesis that platelets can regulate Factor XIa-catalyzed Factor IX activation by secreting an inhibitor of Factor XIa that may act primarily outside the platelet microenvironment and by protecting Factor XIa from inhibition, thereby localizing Factor IX activation to the platelet plug. Images PMID:3500185

  6. [Incidence of varying factors on the immunochemical behavior of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein].

    PubMed

    Biou, D; Durand, G; Feger, J; Agneray, J

    1980-02-01

    Electroimmunodiffusion methods of Laurell and radial immunodiffusion method of Mancini are compared for the qualitative and quantitative analysis of native and desialylated alpha 1-acid glycoprotein. Samples are incubated under different conditions at decreasing pH (3.5 to 0.5 pH units), with increasing ionic strength and with neuraminidase during different time intervals. Results show a pronounced decrease in electrophoretic mobility of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein treated either with acidic reagents or with neuraminidase (ionic strength has no effect). Such a procedure might involve chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis by which sialyl residues are removed. This hydrolysis implicates lower results in the estimation of the desialylated glycoprotein by electroimmunodiffusion. On the other hand, the amounts of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein evaluated by radial immunodiffusion are not modified after incubation. This is expected since diffusion and antigenic properties are not related to the sialic acid content. The data suggest that radial immunodiffusion, less accurate and sensitive than electroimmunodiffusion, is nevertheless more adequate for estimating native and desialylated alpha 1-acid glycoprotein.

  7. Alpha(1)-adrenergic receptor subtypes: non-identical triplets with different dancing partners?

    PubMed

    Hague, Chris; Chen, Zhongjian; Uberti, Michelle; Minneman, Kenneth P

    2003-12-12

    Alpha(1)-adrenergic receptors are one of the three subfamilies of G protein coupled receptors activated by epinephrine and norepinephrine to control important functions in many target organs. Three human subtypes (alpha(1A), alpha(1B), alpha(1D)) are derived from separate genes and are highly homologous in their transmembrane domains but not in their amino or carboxyl termini. Recent advances in our understanding of these "non-identical triplets" include development of knockout mice lacking single or multiple subtypes, new insights into subcellular localization and trafficking, identification of allosteric modulators, and increasing evidence for an important role in brain function. Although all three subtypes activate the same G(q/11) signaling pathway, they also appear to interact with different protein binding partners. Recent evidence suggests they may also form dimers, and may initiate independent signals through pathways yet to be clearly elucidated. Thus, this subfamily represents a common phenomenon of a group of similar but non-identical receptor subtypes activated by the same neurotransmitter, whose individual functional roles remain to be clearly established.

  8. Pharmacological tolerance to alpha 1-adrenergic receptor antagonism mediated by terazosin in humans.

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, J; Dachman, W; Blaschke, T F; Hoffman, B B

    1992-01-01

    Chronic administration of alpha 1-receptor antagonists is associated with loss of clinical efficacy, especially in congestive heart failure, although the mechanism is uncertain. To evaluate changes in venous alpha 1-adrenoceptor responsiveness during chronic alpha 1-adrenoceptor blockade, dose-response curves to phenylephrine and angiotensin II were constructed in 10 healthy subjects before, during, and after administration of terazosin 1 mg orally for 28 d. Terazosin initially shifted the dose-response curve of phenylephrine to the right, with a significant increase in ED50 for phenylephrine from a control value of 102 to 759 ng/min on day 1 of terazosin (P < 0.001). However, by day 28, the dose-response curve had shifted back towards baseline with an ED50 of 112 ng/min. After discontinuing terazosin, the ED50 for phenylephrine remained near the baseline value, indicating no evidence of supersensitivity to phenylephrine. There was no change in responsiveness to angiotensin II during the course of treatment with terazosin. Plasma terazosin concentrations were stable throughout the period of drug administration. The mean Kd of terazosin was estimated as 11 +/- 15 nM in the first few days of treatment. This study demonstrates that pharmacological tolerance to the alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocking action of terazosin occurs in man and may be responsible for loss in efficacy with chronic therapy. PMID:1358918

  9. Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein has immunomodulatory effects in neonatal swine adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) is the most abundant protein in serum of neonatal swine. This protein functions as an immunomodulator in the pig. Recent work has demonstrated that adipose tissue can express AGP mRNA, as well as numerous cytokine mRNA. The present study was designed to determine i...

  10. Regulation of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein synthesis by porcine hepatocytes in monolayer culture

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP, ORM-1) is a highly glycosylated mammalian acute phase protein, which is synthesized primarily in the liver and represents the major serum protein in newborn pigs. Recent data have suggested that the pig is unique in that AGP is a negative acute phase protein in this ...

  11. Progesterone binding to the tryptophan residues of human alpha1-acid glycoprotein.

    PubMed

    Albani, J R

    2006-11-06

    Binding studies between progesterone and alpha1-acid glycoprotein allowed us to demonstrate that the binding site of progesterone contains one hydrophobic tryptophan residue and that the structure of the protein is not altered upon binding. The data obtained at saturated concentrations of progesterone clearly reveal the type of interaction at physiological levels.

  12. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  13. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  14. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  15. 21 CFR 866.5420 - Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-1-glycoproteins immunological test system. 866.5420 Section 866.5420 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  16. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  17. 21 CFR 866.5080 - Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Alpha-1-antichymotrypsin immunological test system. 866.5080 Section 866.5080 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Immunological Test Systems §...

  18. A single-chain variable fragment intrabody prevents intracellular polymerization of Z α1-antitrypsin while allowing its antiproteinase activity.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez, Adriana; Pérez, Juan; Tan, Lu; Dickens, Jennifer A; Motamedi-Shad, Neda; Irving, James A; Haq, Imran; Ekeowa, Ugo; Marciniak, Stefan J; Miranda, Elena; Lomas, David A

    2015-06-01

    Mutant Z α1-antitrypsin (E342K) accumulates as polymers within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes predisposing to liver disease, whereas low levels of circulating Z α1-antitrypsin lead to emphysema by loss of inhibition of neutrophil elastase. The ideal therapy should prevent polymer formation while preserving inhibitory activity. Here we used mAb technology to identify interactors with Z α1-antitrypsin that comply with both requirements. We report the generation of an mAb (4B12) that blocked α1-antitrypsin polymerization in vitro at a 1:1 molar ratio, causing a small increase of the stoichiometry of inhibition for neutrophil elastase. A single-chain variable fragment (scFv) intrabody was generated based on the sequence of mAb4B12. The expression of scFv4B12 within the ER (scFv4B12KDEL) and along the secretory pathway (scFv4B12) reduced the intracellular polymerization of Z α1-antitrypsin by 60%. The scFv4B12 intrabody also increased the secretion of Z α1-antitrypsin that retained inhibitory activity against neutrophil elastase. MAb4B12 recognized a discontinuous epitope probably located in the region of helices A/C/G/H/I and seems to act by altering protein dynamics rather than binding preferentially to the native state. This novel approach could reveal new target sites for small-molecule intervention that may block the transition to aberrant polymers without compromising the inhibitory activity of Z α1-antitrypsin.

  19. Involvement of central alpha1-adrenoceptors on renal responses to central moxonidine and alpha-methylnoradrenaline.

    PubMed

    de Andrade, Carina A F; de Andrade, Glaucia M F; De Paula, Patricia M; De Luca, Laurival A; Menani, José V

    2009-04-01

    Moxonidine (alpha2-adrenoceptor/imidazoline receptor agonist) injected into the lateral ventricle induces diuresis, natriuresis and renal vasodilation. Moxonidine-induced diuresis and natriuresis depend on central imidazoline receptors, while central alpha1-adrenoceptors are involved in renal vasodilation. However, the involvement of central alpha1-adrenoceptors on diuresis and natriuresis to central moxonidine was not investigated yet. In the present study, the effects of moxonidine, alpha-methylnoradrenaline (alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist) or phenylephrine (alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist) alone or combined with previous injections of prazosin (alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonist), yohimbine or RX 821002 (alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonists) intracerebroventricularly (i.c.v.) on urinary sodium, potassium and volume were investigated. Male Holtzman rats (n = 5-18/group) with stainless steel cannula implanted into the lateral ventricle and submitted to gastric water load (10% of body weight) were used. Injections of moxonidine (20 nmol) or alpha-methylnoradrenaline (80 nmol) i.c.v. induced natriuresis (196 +/- 25 and 171 +/- 30, respectively, vs. vehicle: 101 +/- 9 microEq/2 h) and diuresis (9.0 +/- 0.4 and 12.3 +/- 1.6, respectively, vs. vehicle: 5.2 +/- 0.5 ml/2 h). Pre-treatment with prazosin (320 nmol) i.c.v. abolished the natriuresis (23 +/- 4 and 76 +/- 11 microEq/2 h, respectively) and diuresis (5 +/- 1 and 7.6 +/- 0.8 ml/2 h, respectively) produced by i.c.v. moxonidine or alpha-methylnoradrenaline. RX 821002 (320 nmol) i.c.v. abolished the natriuretic effect of alpha-methylnoradrenaline, however, yohimbine (320 nmol) did not change renal responses to moxonidine. Phenylephrine (80 nmol) i.c.v. induced natriuresis and kaliuresis that were blocked by prazosin. Therefore, the present data suggest that moxonidine and alpha-methylnoradrenaline acting on central imidazoline receptors and alpha2-adrenoceptors, respectively, activate central alpha1-adrenergic mechanisms to

  20. Cervical mucins carry alpha(1,2)fucosylated glycans that partly protect from experimental vaginal candidiasis.

    PubMed

    Domino, Steven E; Hurd, Elizabeth A; Thomsson, Kristina A; Karnak, David M; Holmén Larsson, Jessica M; Thomsson, Elisabeth; Bäckström, Malin; Hansson, Gunnar C

    2009-12-01

    Cervical mucins are glycosylated proteins that form a protective cervical mucus. To understand the role of mucin glycans in Candida albicans infection, oligosaccharides from mouse cervical mucins were analyzed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cervical mucins carry multiple alpha(1-2)fucosylated glycans, but alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase Fut2-null mice are devoid of these epitopes. Epithelial cells in vaginal lavages from Fut2-null mice lacked Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 (UEA-I) staining for alpha(1-2)fucosylated glycans. Hysterectomy to remove cervical mucus eliminated UEA-I and acid mucin staining in vaginal epithelial cells from wild type mice indicating the cervix as the source of UEA-I positive epithelial cells. To assess binding of alpha(1-2) fucosylated glycans on C. albicans infection, an in vitro adhesion assay was performed with vaginal epithelial cells from wild type and Fut2-null mice. Vaginal epithelial cells from Fut2-null mice were found to bind increased numbers of C. albicans compared to vaginal epithelial cells obtained from wild type mice. Hysterectomy lessened the difference between Fut2-null and wild type mice in binding of C. ablicans in vitro and susceptibility to experimental C. albicans vaginitis in vivo. We generated a recombinant fucosylated MUC1 glycanpolymer to test whether the relative protection of wild type mice compared to Fut2-null mice could be mimicked with exogenous mucin. While a small portion of the recombinant MUC1 epitopes displayed alpha(1-2)fucosylated glycans, the predominant epitopes were sialylated due to endogenous sialyltransferases in the cultured cells. Intravaginal instillation of recombinant MUC1 glycanpolymer partially reduced experimental yeast vaginitis suggesting that a large glycanpolymer, with different glycan epitopes, may affect fungal burden.

  1. Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors in heart failure: the adaptive arm of the cardiac response to chronic catecholamine stimulation.

    PubMed

    Jensen, Brian C; OʼConnell, Timothy D; Simpson, Paul C

    2014-04-01

    Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors (ARs) are G protein-coupled receptors activated by catecholamines. The alpha-1A and alpha-1B subtypes are expressed in mouse and human myocardium, whereas the alpha-1D protein is found only in coronary arteries. There are far fewer alpha-1-ARs than beta-ARs in the nonfailing heart, but their abundance is maintained or increased in the setting of heart failure, which is characterized by pronounced chronic elevation of catecholamines and beta-AR dysfunction. Decades of evidence from gain and loss-of-function studies in isolated cardiac myocytes and numerous animal models demonstrate important adaptive functions for cardiac alpha-1-ARs to include physiological hypertrophy, positive inotropy, ischemic preconditioning, and protection from cell death. Clinical trial data indicate that blocking alpha-1-ARs is associated with incident heart failure in patients with hypertension. Collectively, these findings suggest that alpha-1-AR activation might mitigate the well-recognized toxic effects of beta-ARs in the hyperadrenergic setting of chronic heart failure. Thus, exogenous cardioselective activation of alpha-1-ARs might represent a novel and viable approach to the treatment of heart failure.

  2. Alpha-1-Adrenergic Receptors in Heart Failure: The Adaptive Arm of the Cardiac Response to Chronic Catecholamine Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Brian C.; O'Connell, Timothy D.; Simpson, Paul C.

    2013-01-01

    Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors are G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs) activated by catecholamines. The alpha-1A and alpha-1B subtypes are expressed in mouse and human myocardium, whereas the alpha-1D protein is found only in coronary arteries. There are far fewer alpha-1-ARs than beta-ARs in the non-failing heart, but their abundance is maintained or increased in the setting of heart failure, which is characterized by pronounced chronic elevation of catecholamines and b□eta-AR dysfunction. Decades of evidence from gain- and loss-of-function studies in isolated cardiac myocytes and numerous animal models demonstrate important adaptive functions for cardiac alpha-1-ARs, to include physiological hypertrophy, positive inotropy, ischemic preconditioning, and protection from cell death. Clinical trial data indicate that blocking alpha-1-ARs is associated with incident heart failure in patients with hypertension. Collectively, these findings suggest that alpha-1-AR activation might mitigate the well-recognized toxic effects of beta-ARs in the hyperadrenergic setting of chronic heart failure. Thus, exogenous cardioselective activation of alpha-1-ARs might represent a novel and viable approach to the treatment of heart failure. PMID:24145181

  3. Automated docking of alpha-(1-->4)- and alpha-(1-->6)-linked glucosyl trisaccharides and maltopentaose into the soybean beta-amylase active site.

    PubMed

    Rockey, W M; Laederach, A; Reilly, P J

    2000-08-01

    The Lamarckian genetic algorithm of AutoDock 3.0 was used to dock alpha-maltotriose, methyl alpha-panoside, methyl alpha-isopanoside, methyl alpha-isomaltotrioside, methyl alpha-(6(1)-alpha-glucopyranosyl)-maltoside, and alpha-maltopentaose into the closed and, except for alpha-maltopentaose, into the open conformation of the soybean beta-amylase active site. In the closed conformation, the hinged flap at the mouth of the active site closes over the substrate. The nonreducing end of alpha-maltotriose docks preferentially to subsites -2 or +1, the latter yielding nonproductive binding. Some ligands dock into less optimal conformations with the nonreducing end at subsite -1. The reducing-end glucosyl residue of nonproductively-bound alpha-maltotriose is close to residue Gln194, which likely contributes to binding to subsite +3. In the open conformation, the substrate hydrogen-bonds with several residues of the open flap. When the flap closes, the substrate productively docks if the nonreducing end is near subsites -2 or -1. Trisaccharides with alpha-(1-->6) bonds do not successfully dock except for methyl alpha-isopanoside, whose first and second glucosyl rings dock exceptionally well into subsites -2 and -1. The alpha-(1-->6) bond between the second and third glucosyl units causes the latter to be improperly positioned into subsite +1; the fact that isopanose is not a substrate of beta-amylase indicates that binding to this subsite is critical for hydrolysis.

  4. Knockout of the alpha 1A/C-adrenergic receptor subtype: the alpha 1A/C is expressed in resistance arteries and is required to maintain arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Rokosh, D Gregg; Simpson, Paul C

    2002-07-09

    alpha 1-adrenergic receptors (ARs) play a major role in blood pressure regulation. The three alpha 1-AR subtypes (A/C, B, and D) stimulate contraction of isolated arteries, but it is uncertain how different subtypes contribute to blood pressure regulation in the intact animal. We studied the role of the alpha 1A/C subtype by using gene knockout. alpha 1A/C knockout (KO) mice were viable and overtly normal. The LacZ reporter gene replaced alpha 1A/C coding sequence in the KO, and beta-galactosidase staining was present in resistance arteries and arterioles, but not in the thoracic aorta or its main branches. By tail cuff manometer and arterial catheter in conscious mice, alpha 1A/C KO mice were hypotensive at rest, with an 8-12% reduction of blood pressure dependent on alpha 1A/C gene copy number. A61603, an alpha 1A/C-selective agonist, caused a pressor response that was lost in the KO and reduced but significant in heterozygous mice with a single copy of the alpha 1A/C. A subtype-nonselective agonist [phenylephrine (PE)] caused a pressor response in KO mice, but the final arterial pressure was only 85% of wild type. The baroreflex was reset in the KO, and heart rate variability was decreased. After baroreflex blockade with atropine, PE increased blood pressure but did not change heart rate. Cardiac and vascular responses to the beta-AR agonist isoproterenol were unchanged, and the arterial lumen area was not altered. We conclude that the alpha 1A/C-AR subtype is a vasopressor expressed in resistance arteries and is required for normal arterial blood pressure regulation. alpha 1A/C-selective antagonists might be desirable antihypertensive agents.

  5. The endoplasmic reticulum remains functionally connected by vesicular transport after its fragmentation in cells expressing Z-α1-antitrypsin

    PubMed Central

    Dickens, Jennifer A.; Ordóñez, Adriana; Chambers, Joseph E.; Beckett, Alison J.; Patel, Vruti; Malzer, Elke; Dominicus, Caia S.; Bradley, Jayson; Peden, Andrew A.; Prior, Ian A.; Lomas, David A.; Marciniak, Stefan J.

    2016-01-01

    α1-Antitrypsin is a serine protease inhibitor produced in the liver that is responsible for the regulation of pulmonary inflammation. The commonest pathogenic gene mutation yields Z-α1-antitrypsin, which has a propensity to self-associate forming polymers that become trapped in inclusions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER). It is unclear whether these inclusions are connected to the main ER network in Z-α1-antitrypsin-expressing cells. Using live cell imaging, we found that despite inclusions containing an immobile matrix of polymeric α1-antitrypsin, small ER resident proteins can diffuse freely within them. Inclusions have many features to suggest they represent fragmented ER, and some are physically separated from the tubular ER network, yet we observed cargo to be transported between them in a cytosol-dependent fashion that is sensitive to N-ethylmaleimide and dependent on Sar1 and sec22B. We conclude that protein recycling occurs between ER inclusions despite their physical separation.—Dickens, J. A., Ordóñez, A., Chambers, J. E., Beckett, A. J., Patel, V., Malzer, E., Dominicus, C. S., Bradley, J., Peden, A. A., Prior, I. A., Lomas, D. A., Marciniak, S. J. The endoplasmic reticulum remains functionally connected by vesicular transport after its fragmentation in cells expressing Z-α1-antitrypsin. PMID:27601439

  6. Molecular cloning, genomic structure, polymorphism analysis and recombinant expression of a α1-antitrypsin like gene from swamp eel, Monopterus albus.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wang, Quanhe; Li, Shaobin; Jiang, Ao; Sun, Wenxiu

    2017-03-01

    Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a highly polymorphic glycoprotein antiprotease, involved in the regulation of human immune response. Beyond some genomic characterization and a few protein characterizations, the function of teleost AAT remains uncertain. In this study we cloned an AAT-like gene from a swamp eel liver identifying four exons and three introns, and the full-length cDNA. The elucidated swamp eel AAT amino acid sequence showed high homology with known AATs from other teleosts. The swamp eel AAT was examined both in ten healthy tissues and in four bacterially-stimulated tissues resulting in up-regulation of swamp eel AAT at different times. Swamp eel AAT transcripts were ubiquitously but unevenly expressed in ten tissues. Further, the mature peptide sequence of swamp eel AAT was subcloned and transformed into E. coli with the recombinant proteins successfully inhibiting bovine trypsin activity. Analysis of recombinant AAT showed equimolar formation of irreversible complexes with proteinases, high stability at pH 7.0-10.0 and temperatures below 55 °C. Serum AAT protein level significantly increased in response to inflammation with AAT anti-sera, and, NF-κB, apolipoprotein A1 and transferrin gene expression were dramatically decreased over 72 h post recombinant AAT injection. Lastly, examination of swamp eel AAT allelic polymorphism identified all alleles in both healthy and diseased stock except allele*g, found only in diseased stock, but without statistical difference between the distribution frequency of allele*g in the two stocks. These results are crucial to our ongoing study of the role of teleost AAT in the innate immune system.

  7. Phase I trial of intramuscular injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 alphal-antitrypsin (AAT) vector in AAT-deficient adults.

    PubMed

    Brantly, Mark L; Spencer, L Terry; Humphries, Margaret; Conlon, Thomas J; Spencer, Carolyn T; Poirier, Amy; Garlington, Wendy; Baker, Dawn; Song, Sihong; Berns, Kenneth I; Muzyczka, Nicholas; Snyder, Richard O; Byrne, Barry J; Flotte, Terence R

    2006-12-01

    A phase I trial of intramuscular injection of a recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 (rAAV2) alpha1-antitrypsin (AAT) vector was performed in 12 AAT-deficient adults, 10 of whom were male. All subjects were either homozygous for the most common AAT mutation (a missense mutation designated PI*Z) or compound heterozygous for PI*Z and another mutation known to cause disease. There were four dose cohorts, ranging from 2.1 x 10(12) vector genomes (VG) to 6.9 x 10(13) VG, with three subjects per cohort. Subjects were injected sequentially in a dose-escalating fashion with a minimum of 14 days between patients. Subjects who had been receiving AAT protein replacement discontinued that therapy 28 days before vector administration. There were no vector-related serious adverse events in any of the 12 participants. Vector DNA sequences were detected in the blood between 1 and 3 days after injection in nearly all patients receiving doses of 6.9 x 10(12) VG or higher. Anti-AAV2 capsid antibodies were present and rose after vector injection, but no other immune responses were detected. One subject who had not been receiving protein replacement exhibited low-level expression of wild-type M-AAT in the serum (82 nM), which was detectable 30 days after receiving an injection of 2.1 x 10(13) VG. Unfortunately, residual but declining M-AAT levels from the washout of the protein replacement elevated background levels sufficiently to obscure any possible vector expression in that range in most of the other individuals in the higher dose cohorts.

  8. Mediation of noradrenaline-induced contractions of rat aorta by the alpha 1B-adrenoceptor subtype.

    PubMed Central

    Testa, R; Guarneri, L; Poggesi, E; Simonazzi, I; Taddei, C; Leonardi, A

    1995-01-01

    1. The subtypes of alpha 1-adrenoceptor mediating contractions to exogenous noradrenaline (NA) in rat aorta have been examined in both biochemical and functional studies. 2. Incubation of rat aortic membranes with the irreversible alpha 1B-adrenoceptor antagonist, chloroethylclonidine (CEC: 10 microM) did not change the KD of [3H]-prazosin binding in comparison to untreated membranes, but reduced by 88% the total number of binding sites (Bmax). 3. Contractions of rat aortic strips to NA after CEC (50 microM for 30 min) incubation followed by repetitive washing, showed a marked shift in the potency of NA and a partial reduction in the maximum response. The residual contractions to NA after CEC incubation were not affected by prazosin (10 nM). 4. The competitive antagonists prazosin, terazosin, (R)-YM-12617, phentolamine, 5-methylurapidil and spiperone inhibited contractions to NA with estimated pA2 values of 9.85, 8.54, 9.34, 7.71, 7.64 and 8.41, respectively. 5. The affinity of the same antagonists for the alpha 1A- and alpha 1B- adrenoceptors was evaluated by utilizing membranes from rat hippocampus pretreated with CEC, and rat liver, respectively. 5-Methylurapidil and phentolamine were confirmed as selective for the alpha 1A-adrenoceptors, whereas spiperone was alpha 1B-selective. 6. A significant correlation was found between the pA2 values of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists tested and their affinity for the alpha 1B-adrenoceptor subtype, but not for the alpha 1A-subtype. 7. In conclusion, these findings indicate that in rat aorta most of the contraction is mediated by alpha 1B-adrenoceptors, and that the potency (pA2) of an antagonist in this tissue should be related to its antagonistic effect on this subtype of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor population. PMID:7773533

  9. Attenuation of cardiac contractility in Na,K-ATPase alpha1 isoform-deficient hearts under reduced calcium conditions.

    PubMed

    Moseley, Amy E; Cougnon, Marc H; Grupp, Ingrid L; El Schultz, Jo; Lingrel, Jerry B

    2004-11-01

    We have previously reported that genetic reduction of the Na,K-ATPase alpha1 isoform (alpha1(+/-)) results in a hypocontractile cardiac phenotype. This observation was surprising and unexpected. In order to determine if calcium overload contributes to the depressed phenotype, cardiac performance was examined by perfusing the hearts with buffer containing 2 or 1.5 mM calcium. At 2 mM calcium, +dP/dt for the alpha1(+/-) hearts (1374 +/- 180) was significantly less than that of wild-type (2656 +/- 75, P < 0.05). At 1.5 mM calcium, a larger decrease in +dP/dt occurred (vs. 2 mM calcium) for the alpha1(+/-) hearts (517 +/- 92) compared to wild-type (2238 +/- 157). At 2 mM calcium, -dP/dt was 50% lower in alpha1(+/-) hearts (-1903 +/- 141) than wild-type (-982 +/- 143). At 1.5 mM calcium relaxation was further reduced in alpha1(+/-) compared to wild-type (-443 +/- 56 vs. - 1691 +/- 109). We also tested whether the compensatory upregulation of the Na,K-ATPase alpha2 isoform in the alpha1(+/-) hearts contributes to the hypocontractile phenotype. At 8 x 10(-6) M ouabain, that would completely inhibit the alpha2 isoform, a 30% increase in contractility was obtained in alpha1(+/-) hearts compared to no ouabain treatment, while a 63% faster time-to-peak (TTP) and 67% faster half-time-to-relaxation (RT(1/2)) were observed in alpha1(+/-) hearts treated with ouabain. These results suggest that upregulation of the alpha2 isoform may play a role in slower TTP and RT(1/2) in the alpha1(+/-) hearts. Furthermore, lowering extracellular calcium in the perfusate did not alleviate the depressed contractile phenotype in the alpha1(+/-) hearts and resulted in further depressed cardiac contractility suggesting that these hearts are not calcium overloaded.

  10. alpha-1-Microglobulin: epidemiological indicator for tubular dysfunction induced by cadmium?

    PubMed Central

    Pless-Mulloli, T.; Boettcher, M.; Steiner, M.; Berger, J.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the suitability of alpha-1-microglobulin as a marker for cadmium induced renal dysfunction. METHODS: alpha-1- Microglobulin was studied in a cross sectional survey in relation to the body burden of cadmium. Concentrations of alpha-1-microglobulin in 24 h urine of 831 people aged 2-87 years were analysed in association with urinary cadmium excretion, cadmium blood concentration, age, sex, occupational and smoking history, and estimated creatinine clearance. Participants came from a population residentially exposed to cadmium and from two control populations matched for socioeconomic status. RESULTS: The excretion of alpha-1-microglobulin/24 h ranged from 0.1 mg to 176.3 mg and 44.4% of samples showed concentrations near the detection limit. Ordinal logistic regression analysis of people of all ages identified a high risk only for males compared with females (odds ratio (OR) 2.14; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.56 to 2.94), age group, and duration of living on contaminated soil (OR 1.03/year; 95% CI 1.02 to 1.04), but not urinary cadmium excretion (OR 1.30; 95% CI 0.96 to 1.77) as significant predictors. For people < or = 50 years of age a weaker effect of sex (OR 1.76; 95% CI 1.13 to 2.73) and age group and an effect of similar magnitude for the duration of soil exposure (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.01 to 1.04) were found. Also, the urinary cadmium excretion (OR 2.26; 95% CI 1.38 to 3.70) and occupational exposure (OR 1.71; 95% CI 1.03 to 2.83) were found to be significant in this younger age group. The estimated creatinine clearance had no significant impact on the alpha-1-microglobulin excretion. CONCLUSION: alpha-1- Microglobulin is a suitable marker for early tubular changes only for people < or = 50 years. It may not be sufficiently specific for cadmium, and therefore not a suitable surrogate for cadmium exposure in epidemiological studies.   PMID:9816376

  11. Inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by Cu(II) and hydrogen peroxide.

    PubMed

    Kwon, N S; Chan, P C; Kesner, L

    1990-03-01

    When alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor was treated with 1-5 microM CuSO4 in the presence of H2O2 (250-1000 microM), its elastase inhibitory capacity was markedly decreased. Several other metal ions tested had either very little or no effect. The Cu(II)-catalyzed decreased in the inhibition of elastase activity can also be demonstrated in dialyzed plasma. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that in several pathological conditions in which extracellular copper levels are elevated, Cu(II)-catalyzed peroxidation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor may occur at sites of inflammation where H2O2 is secreted as a major product by activated phagocytes.

  12. Altered hepatic vasopressin and alpha 1-adrenergic receptors after chronic endotoxin infusion

    SciTech Connect

    Roth, B.L.; Spitzer, J.A.

    1987-05-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are complicated by a number of hemodynamic and metabolic aberrations. These include catecholamine refractoriness and altered glucose metabolism. Recently, a nonshock rat model of continuous endotoxin infusion via an implanted osmotic pump was developed that reproduces some of the metabolic and cardiovascular findings of human sepsis. By using this model, we have found a decreased number of hepatic plasma membrane alpha 1-adrenergic and (Arg8)vasopressin receptors in rats continuously infused with endotoxin. There was a significant decrease in (/sup 3/H)prazosin (35 +/- 7%) and (/sup 3/H) (Arg8)vasopressin (43 +/- 8%) receptors after 30 h of continuous endotoxin infusion with no change in affinity. The ability of norepinephrine to form the high-affinity complex with alpha 1-adrenergic receptors was not altered after chronic endotoxin infusion. The results are consistent with the concept that alterations in receptor number might underlie certain of the metabolic consequences of chronic sepsis.

  13. Localization of type II collagen, long form alpha 1(IX) collagen, and short form alpha 1(IX) collagen transcripts in the developing chick notochord and axial skeleton.

    PubMed

    Swiderski, R E; Solursh, M

    1992-06-01

    In this study we compare, by in situ hybridization, the spatial and temporal expression patterns of transcripts of avian type II collagen and the long and short forms of the (alpha 1) chain of type IX collagen during the development of the notochord and axial skeleton. We observed type II collagen and short form type IX collagen transcripts in the developing (stage 25-28) nonchondrogenic notochord. Conversely, long form type IX transcripts were not detectable in the notochord or perinotochordal sheath. Interestingly, all three transcripts colocalized in the developing chondrogenic vertebrae of the axial skeleton as well as in the chondrocranium and Meckel's cartilage. The expression of the short form of type IX collagen in these regions was more restricted than that of the long form. This report provides additional support for a complex regulatory pathway of cartilage marker gene expression in chondrogenic vs. nonchondrogenic tissues during avian embryogenesis.

  14. Estrogen modulates alpha(1)/beta-adrenoceptor- induced signaling and melatonin production in female rat pinealocytes.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Díaz, F J; Sánchez, J J; Abreu, P; López-Coviella, I; Tabares, L; Prieto, L; Alonso, R

    2001-02-01

    Nocturnal rise in pineal melatonin output is due to the night-induced acceleration of noradrenergic transmission and alpha(1)- and beta-adrenoceptor activation. In addition, in female animals, cyclic oscillations in circulating levels of sex steroid hormones are accompanied by changes in the rate of pineal melatonin secretion. To investigate whether estrogen directly affects pineal adrenoceptor responsiveness, pinealocytes from 21-day-old ovariectomized rats were exposed to physiological concentrations of 17beta-estradiol (17beta-E(2)) and treated with noradrenergic agonists. Direct exposure to 17beta-E(2) reduced alpha(1)/beta-adrenoceptor-induced stimulation of melatonin synthesis and release. This effect was mediated by an estrogen-dependent inhibition of both beta-adrenoceptor-induced accumulation of cAMP and alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-induced phosphoinositide hydrolysis. Furthermore, estrogen reduced transient Ca(2+) signals elicited in single pinealocytes by alpha(1)-adrenoceptor activation or by potassium-induced depolarization. In the case of beta-adrenoceptor responsiveness, neither forskolin- nor cholera toxin-induced accumulation of cAMP were affected by previous exposure to 17beta-E(2). This indicates that estrogen effects must be exerted upstream from adenylylcyclase activation, and independent of modifications in G protein expression, therefore suggesting changes in either adrenoceptor expression or receptor-effector coupling mechanisms. Since estrogen effects upon adrenoceptor responsiveness in pineal cells was not mimicked by 17beta-E(2) coupled to bovine serum albumin and showed a latency of 48 h, this effect could be compatible with a genomic action mechanism. This is also consistent with the presence of two estrogen receptor proteins, alpha- and beta-subtypes, in female rat pinealocytes under the present experimental conditions.

  15. Alpha 1-adrenergic agonists selectively suppress voltage-dependent K+ current in rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Apkon, M; Nerbonne, J M

    1988-01-01

    The effects of alpha 1-adrenergic agonists on the waveforms of action potentials and voltage-gated ionic currents were examined in isolated adult rat ventricular myocytes by the whole-cell patch-clamp recording technique. After "puffer" applications of either of two alpha 1 agonists, phenylephrine and methoxamine, action-potential durations were increased. In voltage-clamped cells, phenylephrine (5-20 microM) or methoxamine (5-10 microM) reduced the amplitudes of Ca2+-independent voltage-activated outward K+ currents (Iout); neither the kinetics nor the voltage-dependent properties of Iout were significantly affected. The effects of phenylephrine or methoxamine on Iout were larger and longer-lasting at higher concentrations and after prolonged or repeated exposures; in all experiments, however, Iout recovered completely when puffer applications were discontinued. The suppression of Iout is attributed to the activation of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors, as neither beta- nor alpha 2-adrenergic agonists had measurable effects on Iout; in addition, the effect of phenylephrine was attenuated in the presence of the alpha antagonist phentolamine (10 microM), but not in the presence of the beta antagonist propranolol (10 microM). Voltage-gated Ca2+ currents, in contrast, were not altered measurably by phenylephrine or methoxamine and no currents were activated directly by these agents. Suppression of Iout was also observed during puffer applications of either of two protein kinase C activators, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (10 nM-1 microM) and 1-oleoyl-2-acetylglycerol (60 microM). We conclude that the activation of alpha 1-adrenergic receptors in adult rat ventricular myocytes leads to action-potential prolongation as a result of the specific suppression of Iout and that this effect may be mediated by activation of protein kinase C. PMID:2903506

  16. Characterization of alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes in tension response of human prostate to electrical field stimulation.

    PubMed Central

    Guh, J. H.; Chueh, S. C.; Ko, F. N.; Teng, C. M.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of various alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonists and nifedipine on tension responses of human prostate to electrical field stimulation were evaluated in this study. 2. Prazosin (3 x 10(-10) to 10(-8) M) and 5-methyl-urapidil (10(-9) to 3 x 10(-8) M) blocked concentration-dependently the tension responses to electrical field stimulation and completely abolished them in the maximal concentrations (10(-8) M and 3 x 10(-8) M, respectively); in contrast, chloroethylclonidine (CEC), in the maximal concentration of 100 microM, blocked these effects by only 50%. 3. The contractile responses of rat vas deferens and spleen to exogenously-applied alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonists were competitively inhibited by prazosin and 5-methyl-urapidil; in addition, the pA2 values were calculated and the relative potencies with reference to prazosin were obtained. The relative potency of 5-methyl-urapidil in human prostate (0.105) was close to that in rat vas deferens (0.257), which contains primarily putative alpha 1A-adrenoceptors. However, it was much more than that in rat spleen (0.011), which contains primarily putative alpha 1B-adrenoceptors. 4. Nifedipine (10(-8) to 10(-6) M) inhibited concentration-dependently the contractile responses to electrical field stimulation in human prostate; in addition, the inhibition percentages were similar to those to exogenously-applied noradrenaline in rat vas deferens. In contrast, CEC (10 microM), which almost flattened the concentration-response curve of the rat spleen to phenylephrine, only partially inhibited (by 33.1%) the nerve-mediated contraction of human prostate. 5. The involvement of prejunctional alpha 2-adrenoceptors situated on the sympathetic nerve terminals of human prostate was also examined.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7647968

  17. Modification of certain pharmacological effects of ethanol by lipophilic alpha-1 adrenergic agonists

    SciTech Connect

    Menon, M.K.; Dinovo, E.C.; Haddox, V.G.

    1987-09-28

    The influence of four centrally-acting alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonists, namely, 2(2-chloro-5-trifluoromethylphenylimino) imidazolidine (St 587), cirazoline, (-) 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-8-methoxy-5-methylthio-2-naphthalenamine ((-)SKF 89748A) and 2-(2-methylindazol-4-imino)imidazolidine (Sgd 101/75) on the pharmacological effects of ethanol was investigated. All four drugs reduced the duration of ethanol-induced hypnosis in C57B1/6 mice, this effect being proportional to their relative potencies to exert central alpha-1 agonism. In prazosin-pretreated mice, St 587 failed to reduce the hypnotic effect of ethanol, which provided strong evidence for the role of alpha-1 agonism for the hypnosis reducing effect of St 587. Hyperactivity induced in C57B1/6 mice by a subhypnotic dose of ethanol and St 587 was reported earlier. In the present study, St 587, cirazoline and (-)SKF 89748A produced similar response, but no correlation between this effect and ethanol hypnosis blockade could be established. 19 references, 8 figures, 2 tables.

  18. Issues in pharmaceutical development of thymosin alpha1 from preclinical studies through marketing.

    PubMed

    Tuthill, Cynthia

    2007-09-01

    SciClone Pharmaceuticals licensed the commercial and patent rights to thymosin alpha1, for geographical regions of the world excluding the United States and Europe, in the early 1990s. With this license, SciClone embarked on global drug development, and the issues encountered for thymosin alpha1 are reflective of the roller coaster of modern approval of pharmaceuticals. Most of the required toxicology studies had been completed prior to licensure, but some newer studies had to be conducted to obtain approvals in certain countries. The recent development of the "International Conference on Harmonisation of Technical Requirements for Registration of Pharmaceuticals for Human Use" (ICH) guidelines allows for a clearer definition of the required battery of toxicology studies, although some countries still have not adopted these guidelines, and the local regulations have had to be understood and followed. Other hurdles include the complications that manufacturing requirements can differ between countries, and certain countries require local clinical experience trials in addition to SciClone's cumulative clinical data. A further obstacle was the pleiotropic nature of the mechanism of action of thymosin alpha1, with the resulting difficulty in the unraveling of its pharmacologic effects. With close attention to these regulatory details, SciClone has obtained approvals in more than 30 countries and has successfully begun commercial sales.

  19. Alternative nonallelic deletion is constitutive of ruminant alpha(s1)-casein.

    PubMed

    Ferranti, P; Lilla, S; Chianese, L; Addeo, F

    1999-07-01

    Multiple forms of alpha(s1)-casein were identified in the four major ruminant species by structural characterization of the protein fraction. While alpha(s1)-casein phenotypes were constituted by a mixture of at least seven molecular forms in ovine and caprine species, there were only two forms in bovine and water buffalo species. In ovine and caprine forms the main component corresponded to the 199-residue-long form, and the deleted proteins differed from the complete one by the absence of peptides 141-148, 110-117, or Gln78, or a combination of such deletions. The deleted segments corresponded to the sequence regions encoded by exons 13 and 16, and by the first triplet of exon 11 (CAG), suggesting that the occurrence of the short protein forms is due to alternative skipping, as previously demonstrated for some caprine and ovine phenotypes. The alternative deletion of Gln78 in alpha(s1)-casein, the only form common to the milk of all the species examined and located in a sequence region joining the polar phosphorylation cluster and the hydrophobic C-terminal domain of the protein, may play a functional role in the stabilization of the milk micelle structure.

  20. Upregulation of the alpha1-adrenoceptor-induced phosphoinositide and inotropic response in hypothyroid rat heart.

    PubMed

    Jalali, Shahrzad; Durston, Melanie; Panagia, Vincenzo; Mesaeli, Nasrin

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we examined changes in the biochemical and inotropic events of the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor signaling pathway in hypothyroid rat hearts. Hypothyroidism was induced by treating experimental animals with 0.05% 6-n-propyl-2-thiouracil (PTU) in drinking water for 7 weeks. A significant decrease of beta- and an increase in alpha(1)-adrenoceptor density as well as an increase in the basal activity of the phosphoinositide (4,5) bisphosphate hydrolyzing phospholipase C was observed in sarcolemmal membranes purified from hypothyroid hearts as compared to age-matched euthyroid controls. Following stimulation with 10 microM phenylephrine (in the presence of 10 microM atenolol), the increase of contractile parameters over baseline values was significantly higher in hypo- than euthyroid hearts, while the opposite occurred under beta-stimulation with 0.1 microM isoproterenol. Interestingly, the increase in phenylephrine-mediated positive inotropy was accompanied by a significant increase in the sarcolemmal phospholipase C activity and in the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate content in hypothyroid as compared to euthyroid controls. Our results suggest that cardiac alpha(1)-adrenoceptor and its associated phosphoinositide signaling pathway may act as a reserve for catecholamine inotropic response in hypothyroidism, where the beta-adrenoceptors are compromised.

  1. Lack of positive allosteric modulation of mutated alpha(1)S267I glycine receptors by cannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Foadi, Nilufar; Leuwer, Martin; Demir, Reyhan; Dengler, Reinhard; Buchholz, Vanessa; de la Roche, Jeanne; Karst, Matthias; Haeseler, Gertrud; Ahrens, Jörg

    2010-05-01

    Loss of inhibitory synaptic transmission within the dorsal horn of the spinal cord plays a key role in the development of chronic pain following inflammation or nerve injury. Inhibitory postsynaptic transmission in the adult spinal cord involves mainly glycine. Ajulemic acid and HU210 are non-psychotropic, synthetic cannabinoids. Cannabidiol is a non-psychotropic plant constituent of cannabis sativa. There are hints that non-cannabinoid receptor mechanisms of these cannabinoids might be mediated via glycine receptors. In this study, we investigated the impact of the amino acid residue serine at position 267 on the glycine-modulatory effects of ajulemic acid, cannabidiol and HU210. Mutated alpha(1)S267I glycine receptors transiently expressed in HEK293 cells were studied by utilising the whole-cell clamp technique. The mutation of the alpha(1) subunit TM2 serine residue to isoleucine abolished the co-activation and the direct activation of the glycine receptor by the investigated cannabinoids. The nature of the TM2 (267) residue of the glycine alpha(1) subunit is crucial for the glycine-modulatory effect of ajulemic acid, cannabidiol and HU210. An investigation of the impact of such mutations on the in vivo interaction of cannabinoids with glycine receptors should permit a better understanding of the molecular determinants of action of cannabinoids.

  2. Human GABAA receptor alpha 1 and alpha 3 subunits genes and alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Parsian, A; Cloninger, C R

    1997-05-01

    gamma-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain. GABA effects are largely mediated by binding to the postsynaptic GABAA receptor, causing the opening of an integral chloride-ion channel. The GABAA antagonists picrotoxin and bicuculline reduce some ethanol-induced behaviors, such as motor impairment, sedation, and hypnosis. The role of this receptor in alcoholism is further supported by effective alleviation of alcohol withdrawal symptoms by GABAA agonists. To determine the role of the GABAA receptor (GABR) genes in the development of alcoholism, we have used alpha 1 and alpha 3 simple sequence repeat polymorphisms in a sample of unrelated alcoholics, alcoholic probands with both parents, and psychiatrically normal controls. For the GABR alpha 1 gene, the differences between allele frequencies, when all alleles were compared together, were not significant between total alcoholics, subtypes of alcoholics, and normal controls. However, for GABR alpha 3, the differences between total alcoholics and normal controls were significant when all alleles were compared together. The differences between subtypes of alcoholics and normal controls were not significant. The results of haplotype relative risk analysis for both genes, GABR alpha 1 and GABR alpha 3, were also negative. It is possible that the sample size in the haplotype relative risk is too small to have power to detect the differences in transmitted versus nontransmitted alleles. There is a need for a replication study in a large family sample that will allow haplotype relative risk or affected sib-pair analysis.

  3. The mechanism of noradrenergic alpha 1 excitatory modulation of pontine reticular formation neurons.

    PubMed

    Stevens, D R; McCarley, R W; Greene, R W

    1994-11-01

    The alpha 1 adrenergic receptor occurs in all major divisions of the CNS and is thought to play a role in all behaviors influenced by norepinephrine (NE). In the medial pontine reticular formation (mPRF), the proposed site of adrenergic enhancement of startle responses (Davis, 1984), alpha 1 agonists excite most neurons (Gerber et al., 1990). We here report that alpha 1 excitation results from a reduction of a voltage- and calcium-dependent potassium current, not previously recognized as ligand-modulated. The calcium sensitivity is suggested by its antagonism with Mg2+, Cd2+, Ba2+, low concentrations of tetraethylammonium, and charybdotoxin. The voltage sensitivity of this conductance falls within the membrane potential range critical to action potential generation. Based on this voltage sensitivity, the change in repetitive firing characteristics may be predicted according to a mathematical model of the mPRF neuronal electrophysiology. The predicted response to a 50% decrease in the phenylephrine (PE)-sensitive conductance is similar to the observed responses, with respect to both the current response under voltage-clamp conditions and alterations of the AHP and frequency/current curve. In contrast, modeling a reduction of a voltage-insensitive leak current predicts none of these changes. Thus, the noradrenergic reduction of this current depolarizes the membrane, increases the likelihood of an initial response to depolarizing input, and increases firing rate during sustained depolarization in a manner consistent with an NE role as an excitatory neuromodulator of the mPRF.

  4. Mysteries of α1-antitrypsin deficiency: emerging therapeutic strategies for a challenging disease

    PubMed Central

    Ghouse, Raafe; Chu, Andrew; Wang, Yan; Perlmutter, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The classical form of α1-antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) is an autosomal co-dominant disorder that affects ~1 in 3000 live births and is an important genetic cause of lung and liver disease. The protein affected, α1-antitrypsin (AT), is predominantly derived from the liver and has the function of inhibiting neutrophil elastase and several other destructive neutrophil proteinases. The genetic defect is a point mutation that leads to misfolding of the mutant protein, which is referred to as α1-antitrypsin Z (ATZ). Because of its misfolding, ATZ is unable to efficiently traverse the secretory pathway. Accumulation of ATZ in the endoplasmic reticulum of liver cells has a gain-of-function proteotoxic effect on the liver, resulting in fibrosis, cirrhosis and/or hepatocellular carcinoma in some individuals. Moreover, because of reduced secretion, there is a lack of anti-proteinase activity in the lung, which allows neutrophil proteases to destroy the connective tissue matrix and cause chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by loss of function. Wide variation in the incidence and severity of liver and lung disease among individuals with ATD has made this disease one of the most challenging of the rare genetic disorders to diagnose and treat. Other than cigarette smoking, which worsens COPD in ATD, genetic and environmental modifiers that determine this phenotypic variability are unknown. A limited number of therapeutic strategies are currently available, and liver transplantation is the only treatment for severe liver disease. Although replacement therapy with purified AT corrects the loss of anti-proteinase function, COPD progresses in a substantial number of individuals with ATD and some undergo lung transplantation. Nevertheless, advances in understanding the variability in clinical phenotype and in developing novel therapeutic concepts is beginning to address the major clinical challenges of this mysterious disorder. PMID:24719116

  5. Secretomic Analysis Identifies Alpha-1 Antitrypsin (A1AT) as a Required Protein in Cancer Cell Migration, Invasion, and Pericellular Fibronectin Assembly for Facilitating Lung Colonization of Lung Adenocarcinoma Cells*

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ying-Hua; Lee, Shu-Hui; Liao, I-Chuang; Huang, Shin-Huei; Cheng, Hung-Chi; Liao, Pao-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Metastasis is a major obstacle that must be overcome for the successful treatment of lung cancer. Proteins secreted by cancer cells may facilitate the progression of metastasis, particularly within the phases of migration and invasion. To discover metastasis-promoting secretory proteins within cancer cells, we used the label-free quantitative proteomics approach and compared the secretomes from the lung adenocarcinoma cell lines CL1-0 and CL1-5, which exhibit low and high metastatic properties, respectively. By employing quantitative analyses, we identified 660 proteins, 68 of which were considered to be expressed at different levels between the two cell lines. High levels of A1AT were secreted by CL1-5, and the roles of A1AT in the influence of lung adenocarcinoma metastasis were investigated. Molecular and pathological confirmation demonstrated that altered expression of A1AT correlates with the metastatic potential of lung adenocarcinoma. The migration and invasion properties of CL1-5 cells were significantly diminished by reducing the expression and secretion of their A1AT proteins. Conversely, the migration and invasion properties of CL1-0 cells were significantly increased through the overexpression and secretion of A1AT proteins. Furthermore, the assembly levels of the metastasis-promoting pericellular fibronectin (FN1), which facilitates colonization of lung capillary endothelia by adhering to the cell surface receptor dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV), were higher on the surfaces of suspended CL1-5 cells than on those of the CL1-0 cells. This discovery reflects previous findings in breast cancer. In line with this finding, FN1 assembly and the lung colonization of suspended CL1-5 cells were inhibited when endogenous A1AT protein was knocked down using siRNA. The major thrust of this study is to demonstrate the effects of coupling the label-free proteomics strategy with the secretomes of cancer cells that differentially exhibit invasive and metastatic properties. This provides a new opportunity for the effective identification of metastasis-associated proteins that are secreted by cancer cells and promote experimental metastasis. PMID:22896658

  6. Alpha1 and Alpha2 Integrins Mediate Invasive Activity of Mouse Mammary Carcinoma Cells through Regulation of Stromelysin-1 Expression

    SciTech Connect

    Lochter, Andre; Navre, Marc; Werb, Zena; Bissell, Mina J

    1998-06-29

    Tumor cell invasion relies on cell migration and extracellular matrix proteolysis. We investigated the contribution of different integrins to the invasive activity of mouse mammary carcinoma cells. Antibodies against integrin subunits {alpha}6 and {beta}1, but not against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, inhibited cell locomotion on a reconstituted basement membrane in two-dimensional cell migration assays, whereas antibodies against {beta}1, but not against a6 or {alpha}2, interfered with cell adhesion to basement membrane constituents. Blocking antibodies against {alpha}1 integrins impaired only cell adhesion to type IV collagen. Antibodies against {alpha}1, {alpha}2, {alpha}6, and {beta}1, but not {alpha}5, integrin subunits reduced invasion of a reconstituted basement membrane. Integrins {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, which contributed only marginally to motility and adhesion, regulated proteinase production. Antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2, but not {alpha}6 and {beta}1, integrin subunits inhibited both transcription and protein expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin-1. Inhibition of tumor cell invasion by antibodies against {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 was reversed by addition of recombinant stromelysin-1. In contrast, stromelysin-1 could not rescue invasion inhibited by anti-{alpha}6 antibodies. Our data indicate that {alpha}1 and {alpha}2 integrins confer invasive behavior by regulating stromelysin-1 expression, whereas {alpha}6 integrins regulate cell motility. These results provide new insights into the specific functions of integrins during tumor cell invasion.

  7. Regulation of alpha 1 proteinase inhibitor function by rabbit alveolar macrophages. Evidence for proteolytic rather than oxidative inactivation.

    PubMed Central

    Banda, M J; Clark, E J; Werb, Z

    1985-01-01

    Rabbit alveolar macrophages were cultured in an environment conducive to the secretion of both reactive oxygen and proteinases, so that the relative importance of proteolytic and oxidative inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by alveolar macrophages could be evaluated. The inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor was proportional to its proteolysis, and there was no detectable inactivation in the absence of proteolysis. Although the live macrophages were capable of secreting reactive oxygen, they did not inactivate alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by oxidation. The inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor by proteolysis was proportional to the secretion of elastinolytic activity by the alveolar macrophages. The inability of the alveolar macrophages to oxidize alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor was attributed to the methionine in the macrophages, in secreted proteins, and in the culture medium competing for oxidants. The data suggest that proteolytic inactivation of alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor may be important in vivo and that the methionine concentration in vivo may protect alpha 1-proteinase inhibitor from significant oxidative inactivation. Images PMID:2989330

  8. Alpha1A-adrenoceptors predominate in the control of blood pressure in mouse mesenteric vascular bed.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Salas, S G; Campos-Peralta, J M; Pares-Hipolito, J; Gallardo-Ortíz, I A; Ibarra, M; Villalobos-Molina, R

    2007-07-01

    1 The pressor action of the alpha1A-adrenoceptor agonist, A61603 (N-[5-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-yl)-2-hydroxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydronaphthalen-1-yl] methanesulfonamide) or the alpha1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine, and their blockade by selective alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists in the mouse isolated mesenteric vascular bed were evaluated. 2 A61603 showed a approximately 235-fold higher potency in elevating perfusion pressure in mesenteric bed compared to phenylephrine. 3 The alpha1A-adrenoceptor selective antagonist RS 100329 (5-methyl-3-[3-[4-[2-(2,2,2,-trifluoroethoxy) phenyl]-1-piperazinyl] propyl]-2,4-(1H)-pyrimidinedione), displaced with high affinity agonist concentration-response curves to the right in a concentration-dependent manner. 4 The alpha1D-adrenoceptor selective antagonist BMY 7378 (8-[2-[4-(2-methoxyphenyl)-1-piperazinyl]ethyl]-8-azaspiro[4.5] decane-7,9-dione), did not displace A61603 nor did it block the phenylephrine-induced pressor response. 5 The alpha1B/D-adrenoceptor alkylating antagonist chloroethylclonidine (CEC), caused a rightward shift of the phenylephrine concentration-response curve and reduced its maximum response; however, CEC only slightly modified A61603 evoked contraction. 6 The results indicate that the isolated mouse mesenteric vascular bed expresses alpha1A-adrenoceptors and suggest a very discrete role for 1B-adrenoceptors.

  9. Identification of sequence elements that confer cell-type-specific control of MF alpha 1 expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Inokuchi, K; Nakayama, A; Hishinuma, F

    1987-01-01

    The MF alpha 1 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a major structural gene for mating pheromone alpha factor, is an alpha-specific gene whose expression is regulated by the mating-type locus. To study the role of sequences upstream of MF alpha 1 in its expression and regulation, we generated two sets of promoter deletions: upstream deletions and internal deletions. By analyzing these deletions, we have identified a TATA box and two closely related, tandemly arranged upstream activation sites as necessary elements for MF alpha 1 expression. Two upstream activation sites were located ca. 300 and 250 base pairs upstream of the MF alpha 1 transcription start points, which were also determined in this study. Each site contained a homologous 22-base-pair sequence, and both sites were required for maximum transcription level. The distance between the upstream activation sites and the transcription start points could be altered without causing loss of transcription efficiency, and the sites were active in either orientation with respect to the coding region. These elements conferred cell type-specific expression on a heterologous promoter. Analysis with host mating-type locus mutants indicates that these sequences are the sites through which the MAT alpha 1 product exerts its action to activate the MF alpha 1 gene. Homologous sequences with these elements were found in other alpha-specific genes, MF alpha 2 and STE3, and may mediate activation of this set of genes by MAT alpha 1. Images PMID:2959859

  10. Drug-binding properties of rat alpha 1-foetoprotein. Binding of warfarin, phenylbutazone, azapropazone, diazepam, digitoxin and cholic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Hervé, F; Rajkowski, K; Martin, M T; Dessen, P; Cittanova, N

    1984-01-01

    As part of an investigation into whether alpha 1-foetoprotein (alpha 1-FP) plays the same transport role in foetal serum as albumin does in the adult, the binding properties of both proteins were compared with respect to the binding of a series of compounds known to be bound by albumin's specific drug-binding sites. The binding of warfarin, phenylbutazone, azapropazone, diazepam, digitoxin and cholic acid by rat alpha 1-FP and serum albumin was studied by equilibrium dialysis at 4 degrees C. Rat alpha 1-FP was shown to have neither albumin's high-affinity site II (diazepam as marker) nor its site III (digitoxin and cholic acid as markers). High-affinity binding by alpha 1-FP was found for the specific markers (warfarin, phenylbutazone, azapropazone) of albumin's drug-binding site I. However, instead of albumin's one high-affinity site/molecule, a mean value of 0.5 site/molecule was obtained with rat alpha 1-FP. Charcoal treatment at neutral pH of rat serum albumin did not affect its measured binding properties, but treatment of the alpha 1-FP led to an increased affinity for warfarin, phenylbutazone and azapropazone without a change in the measured number of sites, indicating competition for binding at this site by (an) endogenous ligand(s). These results are discussed in terms of the structures of the two proteins and with respect to the physiological implications of the differences found. PMID:6206846

  11. Diaphragm arterioles are less responsive to alpha1- adrenergic constriction than gastrocnemius arterioles.

    PubMed

    Aaker, Aaron; Laughlin, M H

    2002-05-01

    The sympathetic nervous system has greater influence on vascular resistance in low-oxidative, fast-twitch skeletal muscle than in high-oxidative skeletal muscle (17). The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that arterioles isolated from low-oxidative, fast-twitch skeletal muscle [the white portion of gastrocnemius (WG)] possess greater responsiveness to adrenergic constriction than arterioles isolated from high-oxidative skeletal muscle [red portion of the gastrocnemius muscle (RG) and diaphragm (Dia)]. Second-order arterioles (2As) were isolated from WG, RG, and Dia of rats and reactivity examined in vitro. Results reveal that Dia 2As constrict less to norepinephrine (NE) (10(-9) to 10 (-4) M) than 2As from RG and WG, which exhibited similar NE-induced constrictions. This difference was not endothelium dependent, because responses of denuded 2As were similar to those of intact arterioles. The blunted NE-induced constrictor response of Dia 2As appears to be the result of differences in alpha1-receptor effects because 1) arterioles from Dia also responded less to selective alpha1-receptor stimulation with phenylephrine than RG and WG arterioles; 2) arterioles from Dia, RG, and WG dilated similarly to isoproterenol (10(-9) to 10(-4) M) and did not respond to selective alpha2-receptor stimulation with UK-14304; and 3) endothelin-1 produced similar constriction in 2As from Dia, RG, and WG. We conclude that differences in oxidative capacity and/or fiber type composition of muscle tissue do not explain different NE responsiveness of Dia 2As compared with 2As from gastrocnemius muscle. Differences in alpha1-adrenergic constrictor responsiveness among arterioles in skeletal muscle may contribute to nonuniform muscle blood flow responses observed during exercise and serve to maintain blood flow to Dia during exercise-induced increases in sympathetic nerve activity.

  12. Oral phentolamine: an alpha-1, alpha-2 adrenergic antagonist for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, I

    2000-03-01

    Phentolamine mesylate is an alpha-1 and alpha-2 selective adrenergic receptor antagonist which has undergone clinical trials for erectile dysfunction treatment. Biochemical and physiological studies in human erectile tissue have revealed a high affinity of phentolamine for alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenergic receptors. Based on pharmacokinetic studies, it is suggested that 30-40 min following oral ingestion of 40 or 80 mg of phentolamine (Vasomax), the mean plasma phentolamine concentrations are sufficient to occupy the alpha-1 and -2 adrenergic receptors in erectile tissue and thereby result in inhibition of adrenergic-mediated physiologic activity. In large multi-center, placebo-controlled pivotal phase III clinical trials, the mean change in the erectile function domain of the International Index of Erectile Function scores (Questions 1-5 and 15) from screening to the end of treatment was significantly higher following use of active drug (40 mg and 80 mg) compared to placebo. Three to four times as many patients receiving phentolamine reported being satisfied or very satisfied compared with those receiving placebo. At doses of 40 mg and 80 mg respectively, 55% and 59% of men were able to achieve vaginal penetration with 51% and 53% achieving penetration on 75% of attempts. The correction of erectile dysfunction or improvement to a less severe category of dysfunction was experienced by 53% of men with the 80 mg dose and 40% with the 40 mg dose of phentolamine. All trends of response were the same regardless of any concomitant medication. There were no severe adverse events. At 40 mg, 7.7% experienced rhinitis and fewer than 3.1% experienced any other side effect of treatment. Phentolamine is safe, well tolerated and efficacious for the treatment of erectile dysfunction.

  13. Role of Na+, K+-ATPase alpha1 subunit in the intracellular accumulation of cisplatin.

    PubMed

    Kishimoto, Shuichi; Kawazoe, Yuji; Ikeno, Mako; Saitoh, Mizuha; Nakano, Yukari; Nishi, Yuko; Fukushima, Shoji; Takeuchi, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to identify what regulates intracellular cisplatin (CDDP) accumulation and what changes in membrane fraction of CDDDP-resistant cell line. The CDDP-resistant rat hepatoma cell line, H4-II-E/CDDP, shows a significant decrease in intracellular platinum accumulation compared with parental H4-II-E cells, although there was no difference in the efflux of CDDP between these two cell lines. In this study, we examined the contribution of functional change in active transport to the CDDP resistance of H4-II-E/CDDP cells. Compared with the resistant cells, platinum accumulation in the parental cells was clearly decreased by low temperature or ATP depletion. In addition, the Na+, K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain and the K+ channel inhibitor tetraethylammonium decreased platinum accumulation in parental cells but did not change the accumulation in resistant cells. Amphotericin B, an antifungal agent, increased the intracellular platinum accumulation in resistant cells to the same level as in parent cells. Western blot analysis demonstrated that the Na+, K+-ATPase alpha1 subunit was reduced in resistant cells compared with the parental cells, although there was no difference in the expression of the beta1 subunit between the two cell lines. Furthermore, the Na+, K+-ATPase alpha1 subunit of H4-II-E was decreased following a 24-h exposure to CDDP. These results suggest that Na+, K+-ATPase-dependent active transport of CDDP does not occur in resistant cells, and, furthermore, our findings provide the first evidence that the Na+, K+-ATPase alpha1 subunit plays an important role in the transport of CDDP.

  14. Hemopressin: a novel bioactive peptide derived from the alpha1-chain of hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Dale, Camila Squarzoni; Pagano, Rosana de Lima; Rioli, Vanessa

    2005-03-01

    Hemopressin (PVNFKFLSH), a novel bioactive peptide derived from the alpha1-chain of hemoglobin, was originally isolated from rat brain homogenates. Hemopressin causes hypotension in anesthetized rats and is metabolized in vivo and in vitro by endopeptidase 24.15 (EP24.15), neurolysin (EP24.16), and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Hemopressin also exerts an antinociceptive action in experimental inflammatory hyperalgesia induced by carrageenin or bradykinin via a mechanism that is independent of opioids. These findings suggest that this peptide may have important regulatory physiological actions in vivo.

  15. Targeting intracellular degradation pathways for treatment of liver disease caused by α1-antitrypsin deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Perlmutter, David H.

    2014-01-01

    The classic form of α1-antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) is a well-known genetic cause of severe liver disease in childhood. A point mutation alters the folding of a hepatic secretory glycoprotein such that the protein is prone to misfolding and polymerization. Liver injury, characterized predominantly by fibrosis/cirrhosis and carcinogenesis, is caused by the proteotoxic effect of polymerized mutant α1-antitrypsin Z (ATZ), which accumulates in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes. Several intracellular pathways have been shown to be responsible for disposal of ATZ after it accumulates in the ER, but autophagy appears to be specialized for disposal of insoluble ATZ polymers. Recently, we have found that drugs that enhance the activity of the autophagic pathway reduce the cellular load of mutant ATZ and reverse hepatic fibrosis in a mouse model of ATD. Because several of these autophagy enhancers have been used safely in humans for other reasons, we have been able to initiate a clinical trial of one of these drugs, carbamazepine, to determine its efficacy in severe liver disease due to ATD. In this review, we discuss the autophagy enhancer drugs as a new therapeutic strategy that targets cell biological mechanisms integral to the pathogenesis of liver disease due to ATD. PMID:24226634

  16. Autophagy master regulator TFEB induces clearance of toxic SERPINA1/α-1-antitrypsin polymers.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Nunzia; Ballabio, Andrea; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2013-07-01

    Deficiency of SERPINA1/AAT [serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade A (α-1 antiproteinase, antitrypsin), member 1/α 1-antitrypsin] results in polymerization and aggregation of mutant SERPINA1 molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum of hepatocytes, triggering liver injury. SERPINA1 deficiency is the most common genetic cause of hepatic disease in children and is frequently responsible for chronic liver disease in adults. Liver transplantation is currently the only available treatment for the severe form of the disease. We found that liver-directed gene transfer of transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis, results in marked reduction of toxic mutant SERPINA1 polymer, apoptosis and fibrosis in the liver of a mouse model of SERPINA1 deficiency. TFEB-mediated correction of hepatic disease is dependent upon increased degradation of SERPINA1 polymer in autolysosomes and decreased expression of SERPINA1 monomer. In conclusion, TFEB gene transfer is a novel strategy for treatment of liver disease in SERPINA1 deficiency. Moreover, this study suggests that TFEB-mediated cellular clearance may have broad applications for therapy of human disorders due to intracellular accumulation of toxic proteins.

  17. Engineering of α1-antitrypsin variants with improved specificity for the proprotein convertase furin using site-directed random mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Hada, Koichiro; Isshiki, Kinuka; Matsuda, Shinya; Yuasa, Keizo; Tsuji, Akihiko

    2013-02-01

    Furin, PACE4, PC5/6 and PC7 are members of the subtilisin-like proprotein convertase (SPC) family. Although these enzymes are known to play critical roles in various physiological and pathological events including cell differentiation, tumor growth, virus replication and the activation of bacterial toxins, their distinct functions are yet to be fully delineated. α1-PDX is an engineered α1-antitrypsin variant carrying the RXXR consensus motif for furin within its reactive site loop. However, α1-PDX inhibits other SPCs in addition to furin. In this work, we prepared various rat α1-antitrypsin variants containing Arg at the P1 site within the reactive site loop, and examined their respective selectivity. The novel α1-antitrypsin variant AVNR (AVPM(352)/AVNR) was identified as a highly selective inhibitor of furin. This variant formed a sodium dodecyl sulfate- and heat-stable furin/α1-antitrypsin complex and inhibited furin activity ex vivo and in vitro. Other SPC members including PACE4, PC5/6 and PC7 were not inhibited by the AVNR variant. Furin-mediated maturation of bone morphogenetic protein-4 was completely inhibited by ectopic expression of the AVNR variant. The AVNR variant should prove to be a useful inhibitor in identifying the specific role of furin.

  18. A role of the thymus and thymosin-alpha1 in brain NGF levels and NGF receptor expression.

    PubMed

    Turrini, P; Tirassa, P; Vigneti, E; Aloe, L

    1998-02-01

    Using neonatal rats we investigated the role of the thymus and thymosin-alpha1 (T-alpha1) in brain NGF levels, NGF receptor (p75NGFr) expression, as well as the activity of choline acetyl-transferase, a cholinergic enzyme regulated by NGF. It is shown that early postnatal thymectomy causes a decrease in NGF in the hippocampus and cortex and p75NGFr distribution in the basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (FBCN). Intracerebral T-alpha1 injection in thymectomized animals induces a recovery, albeit not complete, of both NGF and p75NGFr. These findings indicate that thymectomy affects both the brain NGF producing and responding cells and that T-alpha1 may be one of the thymic hormones involved in the regulation of cerebral NGF synthesis.

  19. A feedback regulatory pathway between LDL and alpha-1 proteinase inhibitor in chronic inflammation and infection.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Cynthia L; Modarresi, Rozbeh; Babayeva, Mariya A; LaBrunda, Michelle; Mukhtarzad, Roya; Trucy, Maylis; Franklin, Aaron; Reeves, Rudy E R; Long, Allegra; Mullen, Michael P; Cortes, Jose; Winston, Ronald

    2013-11-01

    Dietary lipids are transported via lymph to the liver and transformed to lipoproteins which bind to members of the low density lipoprotein receptor family (LDL-RFMs). Certain LDL-RFMs, e.g., very low density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR), are also bound by inactivated proteinase inhibitors, the most abundant being α1proteinase inhibitor (α1PI, α1antitrypsin). Inflammation/infection, including HIV-1 infection, is accompanied by low levels of CD4+ T cells and active α1PI and high levels of inactivated α1PI. By inducing LDL-RFMs-mediated cellular locomotion, active α1PI regulates the number of CD4+ T cells. We sought to investigate whether CD4+ T cells and α1PI directly impact lipoprotein levels. At the cellular level, we show that active α1PI is required for VLDLR-mediated uptake of receptor-associated cargo, specifically CD4-bound HIV-1. We show that active α1PI levels linearly correlate with LDL levels in HIV-1 infected individuals (P<0.001) and that therapeutic, weekly infusions of active α1PI elevate the number of CD4+ T cells and HDL levels while lowering LDL levels in patients on antiretroviral therapy with controlled HIV-1. Based on the unusual combination of lipodystrophy and low levels of α1PI and CD4+ T cells in HIV-1 disease, we reveal that LDL and α1PI participate in a feedback regulatory pathway. We demonstrate integral roles for sequentially acting active and inactive α1PI in the uptake and recycling of receptors and cargo aggregated with VLDLR including CD4 and chemokine receptors. Evidence supports a role for α1PI as a primary sentinel to deploy the immune system as a consequence of its role in lipoprotein transport.

  20. Functional analysis of {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferase VI in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Qiya; Guo, Bin; Wang, Yingming; Wu, Jun; Jiang, Wenjun; Zhao, Shenan; Qiao, Shouyi; Wu, Yanhua

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Human FUT6 is up-regulated in HCC tissues. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of FUT6 promotes G0/G1-S transition and cell growth. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 confers a growth advantage in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FUT6 suppresses p21 expression through modulating PI3K/Akt signaling. -- Abstract: The {alpha}1,3/4-fucosyltransferases (FUT) subfamily are key enzymes in cell surface antigen synthesis during various biological processes. A novel role of FUTs in tumorigenesis has been discovered recently, however, the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we characterized FUT6, a member of {alpha}1,3/4-FUT subfamily, in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In HCC tissues, the expression levels of FUT6 and its catalytic product SLe{sup x} were significantly up-regulated. Overexpression of FUT6 in HCC cells enhanced S-phase cell population, promoted cell growth and colony formation ability. Moreover, subcutaneously injection of FUT6-overexpressing cells in nude mice promoted cell growth in vivo. In addition, elevating FUT6 expression markedly induced intracellular Akt phosphorylation, and suppressed the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinases inhibitor p21. Bath application of the PI3K inhibitor blocked FUT6-induced Akt phosphorylation, p21 suppression and cell proliferation. Our results suggest that FUT6 plays an important role in HCC growth by regulating the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  1. Epithelial repair is inhibited by an alpha(1,6)-fucose binding lectin.

    PubMed

    Adam, Elizabeth C; Holgate, Stephen T; Lackie, Peter M

    2007-02-01

    The effective repair of damage to the airway epithelium is essential to maintain the ability to exclude airborne particulates and protect against potential pathogens. Carbohydrates on the cell surface have an important role in cell-cell and cell substrate interactions. Using a model of repair with airway epithelial-derived cells of the 16HBE 14o(-) cell line, we have examined the effect of the Aleuria aurantia lectin (AAL), which binds very selectively to alpha(1,6)-linked fucose residues. Addition of unconjugated or FITC-labeled AAL reduced the rate of epithelial repair to approximately one-third of control values as measured by image analysis while cell viability was maintained. Pulse labeling with AAL-FITC for 30 min followed by incubation in AAL-free medium caused similar inhibition of repair but could be reversed by addition of fucose up to 7 h after AAL removal. By confocal microscopy, AAL binding was found to be on the apical, but not basolateral, surfaces of cells, and internalization of the labeled lectin was seen. Preincubation of the lectin with fucose prevented this effect. Ulex europeaus I lectin, which is also fucose specific, resulted in similar binding to the cells and internalization, but it did not affect the speed of the repair process. We conclude that alpha(1,6)-fucose binding sites play an important role in epithelial repair. Better understanding of this process will provide a deeper insight into the crucial mechanisms of epithelial repair.

  2. Method of using alpha-1 acid glycoprotein on T-cells as a marker for alzheimer's disease

    SciTech Connect

    Fudenberg, H.H.

    1989-01-31

    A method is described of diagnosing a dementia of the Alzheimer's type characterized by a change in the percentage of T-cells bearing surface membrane alpha-1 acid glycoprotein which comprises providing T-cells from a subject, determining the percentage of those T cells which bear surface membrane alpha-1 acid glycoprotein, and comparing that percentage of the percentage of T cells which bear the glycoprotein in a control, whereby the dementia is diagnosed.

  3. Modulation of the hepatic alpha 1-adrenoceptor responsiveness by colchicine: dissociation of free cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent and independent responses.

    PubMed Central

    Butta, N.; Martin-Requero, A.; Urcelay, E.; Parrilla, R.; Ayuso, M. S.

    1996-01-01

    1. The cytoskeletal depolymerizing agent, colchicine, prevents the hepatic alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated stimulation of respiration, H+ and Ca2+ release to the effluent perfusate, intracellular alkalosis, and glycogenolysis. Unlike the other parameters, colchicine does not perturb the alpha 1-agonist-induced stimulation of gluconeogenesis or phosphorylase 'a' activation, and enhances the increase in portal pressure response. The lack of effect of colchicine on the hepatic alpha 2-adrenoceptor-mediated effects indicates that its actions are alpha 1-specific. 2. Colchicine enhances the acute alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and prevents the activation of protein kinase C. This differential effect on the two branches of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor signalling pathway is a distinctive feature of the colchicine action. 3. The lack of effect of colchicine in altering the alpha 1-adrenoceptor ligand binding affinity suggests that it might interact with some receptor-coupled regulatory element(s). 4. The acuteness of the colchicine effect and the ability of its isomer beta-lumicolchicine to prevent all the alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated responses but the increase in vascular resistance, indicate that its action cannot be merely ascribed to its effects in depolymerizing tubulin. 5. Colchicine perturbs the hepatic responses to vasoactive peptides. It enhances the vasopressin-induced rise of cytosolic free Ca2+ in isolated hepatocytes and prevents the sustained decrease of Ca2+ in the effluent perfusate. It also inhibits the stimulation of glycogenolysis, without altering the stimulation of gluconeogenesis. 6. It is concluded that there are at least two major alpha 1-adrenoceptor signalling pathways. One is colchicine-sensitive, independent of variations in free cytosolic Ca2+, and protein kinase C-dependent; the other one is colchicine-insensitive, dependent on variations in free cytosolic Ca2+, and protein kinase C-independent. PMID:8842446

  4. Tertiary structure of human alpha1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid). Straightforward fluorescence experiments revealing the presence of a binding pocket.

    PubMed

    Albani, Jihad R

    2004-02-25

    Binding of hemin to alpha1-acid glycoprotein has been investigated. Hemin binds to the hydrophobic pocket of hemoproteins. The fluorescent probe 2-(p-toluidino)-6-naphthalenesulfonate (TNS) binds to a hydrophobic domain in alpha1-acid glycoprotein with a dissociation constant equal to 60 microM. Addition of hemin to an alpha1-acid glycoprotein-TNS complex induces the displacement of TNS from its binding site. At saturation (1 hemin for 1 protein) all the TNS has been displaced from its binding site. The dissociation constant of hemin-alpha1-acid glycoprotein was found equal to 2 microM. Thus, TNS and hemin bind to the same hydrophobic site: the pocket of alpha1-acid glycoprotein. Energy-transfer studies performed between the Trp residues of alpha1-acid glycoprotein and hemin indicated that efficiency (E) of Trp fluorescence quenching was equal to 80% and the Förster distance, R0 at which the efficiency of energy transfer is 50% was calculated to be 26 A, revealing a very high energy transfer.

  5. Structural analysis of oligosaccharide-alditols released by reductive beta-elimination from oviducal mucins of Bufo bufo: characterization of the carbohydrate sequence Gal(alpha1-3)GalNAc(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal.

    PubMed

    Morelle, W; Strecker, G

    1997-09-01

    Several tri- to hexasaccharide-alditols of the jelly coat surrounding the eggs of Bufo bufo were studied by methylation analysis, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. As observed for six other amphibian species, these carbohydrate chains are highly species-specific. The main characteristics of the species Bufo bufo consists in the presence of the new carbohydrate sequence Gal(alpha1-3)GalNAc(alpha1-3)[Fuc(alpha1-2)]Gal, in which a blood group A determinant is substituted with an external alpha1-3 linked galactose unit. Since the role of carbohydrates appears more and more apparent during the fertilization processes, the species-specificity of these carbohydrate moieties should be relevant to the species-specific gamete recognition which characterizes most amphibians.

  6. Modulation of hematopoiesis via alpha 1-adrenergic receptors on bone marrow cells.

    PubMed

    Maestroni, G J; Conti, A

    1994-03-01

    We have recently demonstrated that adrenergic agents can affect hematopoiesis after syngeneic bone marrow transplantation in mice. In particular, chemical sympathectomy by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) and/or administration of the alpha 1-adrenergic antagonist prazosin were shown to increase the concentration of blood granulocytes, platelets, and bone marrow colony-forming units-granulocyte/macrophage (CFU-GM), and to induce a granulocytic hyperplasia of the spleen. Here we show that prazosin can also enhance myelopoiesis and platelet formation in normal mice. Furthermore, noradrenaline and the alpha 1-adrenergic agonist methoxamine could directly inhibit the in vitro growth of GM-CFU. The effect of noradrenaline was counteracted by prazosin and by other alpha-adrenergic antagonists such as phentolamine and yohimbine, in the following order of potency: prazosin > phentolamine > yohimbine. In line with these results, we were able to demonstrate that 3H-prazosin binds specifically to both bone marrow cell membranes and intact bone marrow cells. Scatchard analysis of the binding to intact cells revealed the presence of two binding sites. A kd of 0.98 +/- 0.32 nM and a B max of 5 +/- 2.9 fM/2 x 10(6) cells characterized the higher affinity site, while the lower affinity site displayed a kd of 55.9 +/- 8.2 nM and a B max of 44 +/- 7.7 fM/mg protein. These saturation studies, together with competition experiments to evaluate the ability of various adrenergic compounds to displace 3H-prazosin binding, classified the higher affinity site as an alpha 1-adrenergic receptor. The remaining low affinity binding site remains to be characterized. Furthermore, separation of bone marrow cells by counterflow centrifugal elutriation (CCE) showed that the high-affinity binding is due to a lymphoid/stem cell fraction with no blasts and no GM-CFU progenitors. The low-affinity site was apparent on the rotor-off fraction, which was enriched with GM-CFU progenitor cells. These findings

  7. Identification and characterization of alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in the canine prostate using (/sup 125/I)-Heat

    SciTech Connect

    Lepor, H.; Baumann, M.; Shapiro, E.

    1987-11-01

    We have recently utilized radioligand receptor binding methods to characterize muscarinic cholinergic and alpha adrenergic receptors in human prostate adenomas. The primary advantages of radioligand receptor binding methods are that neurotransmitter receptor density is quantitated, the affinity of unlabelled drugs for receptor sites is determined, and receptors can be localized using autoradiography on slide-mounted tissue sections. Recently, (/sup 125/I)-Heat, a selective and high affinity ligand with high specific activity (2200 Ci/mmole) has been used to characterize alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in the brain. In this study alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in the dog prostate were characterized using (/sup 125/I)-Heat. The Scatchard plots were linear indicating homogeneity of (/sup 125/I)-Heat binding sites. The mean alpha 1 adrenergic receptor density determined from these Scatchard plots was 0.61 +/- 0.07 fmol/mg. wet wt. +/- S.E.M. The binding of (/sup 125/I)-Heat to canine prostate alpha 1 adrenergic binding sites was of high affinity (Kd = 86 +/- 19 pM). Steady state conditions were reached following an incubation interval of 30 minutes and specific binding and tissue concentration were linear within the range of tissue concentrations assayed. The specificity of (/sup 125/I)-Heat for alpha 1 adrenergic binding sites was confirmed by competitive displacement assays using unlabelled clonidine and prazosin. Retrospective analysis of the saturation experiments demonstrated that Bmax can be accurately calculated by determining specific (/sup 125/I)-Heat binding at a single ligand concentration. (/sup 125/I)-Heat is an ideal ligand for studying alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in the prostate and its favorable properties should facilitate the autoradiographic localization of alpha 1 adrenergic receptors in the prostate.

  8. A complete alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase gene is present in the human genome and partially transcribed.

    PubMed

    Lantéri, Marion; Giordanengo, Valérie; Vidal, Frédérique; Gaudray, Patrick; Lefebvre, Jean-Claude

    2002-12-01

    The synthesis of Galalpha1-3Gal-terminated oligosaccharides (alpha-Gal) epitopes has been interrupted during the course of evolution, starting with Old World primates. Partial sequences similar to the alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase (alpha1,3GalT) gene, which governs the synthesis of alpha-Gal epitopes, have been detected in the human genome and were found to correspond to pseudogenes. We completed the sequence of the human alpha1,3GalT pseudogene present on chromosome 9 and found it to be organized like the murine alpha1,3GalT gene. In human cell lines and several normal and tumor tissues we detected truncated transcripts corresponding to this pseudogene. Considering these mRNAs, translation of an open reading frame containing the first four translated exons but missing the two catalytic exons could predict a truncated alpha1,3GalT polypeptide that should be enzymatically inactive. We show that transcription of human alpha1,3GalT is prematurely terminated at the level of a strong transcriptional stop signal in the middle of intron VII. We were able to reproduce this effect in vitro by subcloning the implicated DNA region upstream from a reporter cDNA. The premature transcriptional arrest of human alpha1,3-GalT gene leads to an ectopic splicing event and to the connection of a short intronic sequence downstream from translated exons. Finally, we show that these truncated transcripts are overexpressed in cell lines with modifications of O-glycans.

  9. Influence of residual milk-clotting enzyme on alpha(s1) casein hydrolysis during ripening of Reggianito Argentino cheese.

    PubMed

    Hynes, E R; Aparo, L; Candioti, M C

    2004-03-01

    Milk-clotting enzyme is considered largely denatured after the cooking step in hard cheeses. Nevertheless, typical hydrolysis products derived from rennet action on alpha(s1)-casein have been detected during the ripening of hard cheeses. The aim of the present work was to investigate the influence of residual milk-clotting enzyme on alpha(s1)-casein hydrolysis in Reggianito cheeses. For that purpose, we studied the influence of cooking temperature (45, 52, and 60 degrees C) on milk-clotting enzyme residual activity and alpha(s1)-casein hydrolysis during ripening. Milk-clotting enzyme residual activity in cheeses was assessed using a chromatographic method, and the hydrolysis of alpha(s1)-casein was determined by electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography. Milk-clotting enzyme activity was very low or undetectable in 60 degrees C- and 52 degrees C-cooked cheeses at the beginning of the ripening, but it increased afterwards, particularly in 52 degrees C-cooked cheeses. Cheese curds that were cooked at 45 degrees C had higher initial milk clotting activity, but also in this case, there was a later increase. Hydrolysis of alpha(s1)-casein was detected early in cheeses made at 45 degrees C, and later in those made at higher temperatures. The peptide alpha(s1)-I was not detected in 60 degrees C-cooked cheeses. The results suggest that residual milk-clotting enzyme can contribute to proteolysis during ripening of hard cheeses, because it probably renatures partially after the cooking step. Consequently, the production of peptides derived from alpha(s1)-casein in hard cheeses may be at least, partially due to this proteolytic agent.

  10. Construction of a cDNA clone corresponding to mouse alpha 1(IV) procollagen.

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, C L; Villa, L L; Sonohara, S; Brentani, R R

    1984-01-01

    A new procedure for the synthesis of double stranded cDNA, based upon release of mRNA by "in vitro" translation, was used to clone type IV collagen. Collagen synthesizing polysomes selectively isolated from a mouse parietal yolk sac carcinoma (PYS-2) were used for translation in an heterologous cell-free system. Translation products were collagenase-sensitive and displayed an electrophoretic mobility correspondent to type IV collagen. Translation released mRNA was employed to construct a 100 base pairs long cDNA clone which hybridized to a 7,800 nucleotides long mRNA. Peptides synthesized by "in vitro" translation of hybrid selected mRNA displayed an electrophoretic mobility compatible with that of alpha 1 (IV) collagen, were sensitive to collagenase and were immunoprecipitated by anti-type IV collagen antibody. Images PMID:6546618

  11. Collagen type II, alpha 1 protein: a bioactive component of shark cartilage.

    PubMed

    Merly, Liza; Smith, Sylvia L

    2013-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that extracts of shark cartilage induce a cytokine response in human leukocytes, but the nature of the bioactive component(s) is unknown. Extracts treated with proteases lost 80% of their cytokine-inducing property, suggesting that the active component(s) was likely a complex protein. The aim of the present study was to determine the nature of the bioactive molecule(s). Solid phase extraction followed by ion exchange chromatography and electrophoretic separation were used to partially purify a bioactive preparation from commercial shark cartilage that has been identified as a small glycoprotein. LC-MS analysis yielded peptides with 100% molecular identity with collagen type II, alpha I protein from the lesser spotted catshark, Scyliorhinus canicula. The implications for the consumption of shark cartilage as a dietary supplement are discussed given the presence of collagen type II, alpha 1 protein in extracts.

  12. Radiation dosimetry of iodine-123 HEAT, an alpha-1 receptor imaging agent

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, K.D.; Greer, D.M.; Couch, M.W.; Williams, C.M.

    1987-11-01

    Biologic distribution data in the rat were obtained for the alpha-1 adrenoceptor imaging agent (+/-) 2-(beta-(iodo-4-hydroxyphenyl)ethylaminomethyl)tetralone (HEAT) labeled with (/sup 123/I). The major excretory routes were through the liver (67%) and the kidney (33%). Internal radiation absorbed dose estimates to nine source organs, total body, the GI tract, gonads, and red bone marrow were calculated for the human using the physical decay data for (/sup 123/I). The critical organ was found to be the lower large intestine, receiving 1.1 rad per mCi of (/sup 123/I)HEAT administered. The total-body dose was found to be 58 mrad per mCi.

  13. Down-regulatory effect of alpha 1-acid glycoprotein on bovine neutrophil degranulation.

    PubMed

    Miranda-Ribera, Alba; Lecchi, Cristina; Bronzo, Valerio; Scaccabarozzi, Licia; Sartorelli, Paola; Franciosi, Federica; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2010-07-01

    In this paper, the possible involvement of the acute phase protein alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP) in the local immunomodulation of inflammation was investigated. The dose response of bovine neutrophils to AGP as to mobilization of primary and secondary granules was studied. It was found that AGP fulfils a protective role against spontaneous exocytosis of secondary, but not primary, granules. This downregulatory effect is much more evident when degranulation is challenged with Zymosan activated serum (ZAS). AGP activity is dose-dependent, the acute phase concentration being more active than the physiological one. Carbohydrate moiety of AGP was found to be critical, since experimentally desialylated protein does not maintain its exocytosis-modulatory activity. The fact that AGP may modulate the degranulation of neutrophils confirms the hypothesis that AGP is heavily involved in the fine tuning of neutrophil activity in the inflammatory environment.

  14. The concentration of alpha-1-antichymotrypsin in blood serum of women in labour.

    PubMed

    Wasiluk, A; Dabrowska, M; Jaworski, S; Prokopowicz, J

    1999-01-01

    Concentration of alpha-1-antichymotrypsin (A-1-ACT) in blood serum of parturient women was determined. The investigation was conducted in 33 women bearing eutrophic newborns and 36 women bearing hypotrophic newborns. The control group consisted of 30 healthy non-pregnant women in reproductive age. Concentrations of A-1-ACT were determined using the radial immunodiffusion method according to Mancini et al. Maximal concentration of A-1-ACT determined in group I was three times higher than minimal concentration. Maximal concentration of A-1-ACT determined in group II was two times higher than minimal concentration. In the control group, the difference between minimal and maximal concentrations of A-1-ACT was inconsiderable. The lack of statistically significant differences between these three groups suggests that labour stress does not influence serum concentrations of this inhibitor. The importance of A-1-ACT in the placental tissue may be connected with immunological mechanisms that assure development and maintenance of pregnancy.

  15. Renal vasodilatation by dopexamine and fenoldopam due to alpha 1-adrenoceptor blockade.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, S. W.; Broadley, K. J.

    1995-01-01

    1. The renal vascular responses of the rat isolated perfused kidney to the dopamine D1-receptor agonists, dopexamine and fenoldopam, were examined. 2. Both kidneys were perfused in situ at constant flow rate (11 ml min-1) with Krebs-bicarbonate solution at 37 degrees C. The perfusion pressure was monitored and to enable vasodilator responses to be measured, the resting perfusion pressure was raised by infusing noradrenaline (6 x 10(-9) M). 3. Dose-related vasodilator responses to bolus doses of dopexamine and fenoldopam were obtained. However, these were not antagonized by the D1-receptor antagonist, SCH 23390, indicating that D1-receptors were not involved. 4. Bolus doses of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prazosin, caused similar dose-related vasodilator responses indicating the possibility that alpha 1-adrenoceptor blocking properties of dopexamine and fenoldopam were responsible for the vasodilatation. 5. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade by dopexamine and fenoldopam was confirmed by the parallel displacement of dose-response curves for the vasopressor responses to noradrenaline. pA2 values were determined by Schild analysis for dopexamine, fenoldopam and prazosin antagonism of noradrenaline in the presence of neuronal (cocaine, 10(-5) M) and extraneuronal uptake blockade (metanephrine, 10(-5) M). The values were 6.23, 6.02 and 8.91, respectively. Schild plot slopes of unity were obtained for dopexamine and fenoldopam indicating competitive antagonism. A slope of greater than unity for prazosin may be explained by the lack of equilibrium conditions associated with bolus doses of noradrenaline, the responses of which are affected more by the high affinity antagonist, prazosin, than the two lower affinity antagonists.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7670737

  16. Central alpha 1- and alpha 2-adrenoceptors and brain cholinergic stimulation in sinoaortic denervated rats.

    PubMed

    Taira, C A; Enero, M A

    1994-12-12

    The central alpha-adrenoceptor role in cardiovascular responses to intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of neostigmine, a tertiary anticholinesterase, was studied in conscious sham-operated and sinoaortic-denervated rats. Neostigmine (0.1-1 micrograms i.c.v.) showed dose-dependent pressor and bradycardiac effects in vehicle-pretreated sham-operated rats but only an increased pressor effect in sinoaortic-denervated animals. The pretreatment with the catecholaminergic neurotoxin, 6-hydroxydopamine (250 micrograms i.c.v.), given 72 h previous to the corresponding operation, blunted the cardiovascular effects of neostigmine in both groups of rats. Prazosin (10 and 30 micrograms i.c.v.), an alpha 1-adrenoceptor antagonist, prevented the pressor response to neostigmine (0.3 micrograms i.c.v.) in sham-operated and sinoaortic-denervated rats. Yohimbine, a alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist (10 and 30 micrograms i.c.v.), only prevented the bradycardia induced by neostigmine (0.3 micrograms i.c.v.) in the sham-operated rats. 6-Hydroxydopamine pretreatment lowered the norepinephrine content in hypothalamus, midbrain, medulla oblongata and spinal cord, but did not modify it in the pons, in sham-operated rats and sinoaortic-denervated animals. The present results suggested that brain alpha 1-adrenoceptors would mediate the pressor response to neostigmine (i.c.v.) in sham-operated and sinoaortic-denervated rats and central alpha 2-adrenoceptors mediate the bradycardia in sham-operated rats. This work lends support to the view that cardiovascular responses to brain cholinergic stimulation in sham-operated and sinoaortic-denervated rats could be mediated by a central catecholaminergic activation.

  17. Alpha 1,3 fucosyltransferases are master regulators of prostate cancer cell trafficking.

    PubMed

    Barthel, Steven R; Wiese, Georg K; Cho, Jaehyung; Opperman, Matthew J; Hays, Danielle L; Siddiqui, Javed; Pienta, Kenneth J; Furie, Bruce; Dimitroff, Charles J

    2009-11-17

    How cancer cells bind to vascular surfaces and extravasate into target organs is an underappreciated, yet essential step in metastasis. We postulate that the metastatic process involves discrete adhesive interactions between circulating cancer cells and microvascular endothelial cells. Sialyl Lewis X (sLe(X)) on prostate cancer (PCa) cells is thought to promote metastasis by mediating PCa cell binding to microvascular endothelial (E)-selectin. Yet, regulation of sLe(X) and related E-selectin ligand expression in PCa cells is a poorly understood factor in PCa metastasis. Here, we describe a glycobiological mechanism regulating E-selectin-mediated adhesion and metastatic potential of PCa cells. We demonstrate that alpha1,3 fucosyltransferases (FT) 3, 6, and 7 are markedly elevated in bone- and liver-metastatic PCa and dictate synthesis of sLe(X) and E-selectin ligands on metastatic PCa cells. Upregulated FT3, FT6, or FT7 expression induced robust PCa PC-3 cell adhesion to bone marrow (BM) endothelium and to inflamed postcapillary venules in an E-selectin-dependent manner. Membrane proteins, CD44, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), podocalyxin-like protein (PCLP), and melanoma cell adhesion molecule (MCAM) were major scaffolds presenting E-selectin-binding determinants on FT-upregulated PC-3 cells. Furthermore, elevated FT7 expression promoted PC-3 cell trafficking to and retention in BM through an E-selectin dependent event. These results indicate that alpha1,3 FTs could enhance metastatic efficiency of PCa by triggering an E-selectin-dependent trafficking mechanism.

  18. α-Linoleic Acid Enhances the Capacity of α1-Antitrypsin to Inhibit Lipopolysaccharide-Induced IL-1β in Human Blood Neutrophils

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Nupur; Korenbaum, Elena; Mahadeva, Ravi; Immenschuh, Stephan; Grau, Veronika; Dinarello, Charles A; Welte, Tobias; Janciauskiene, Sabina

    2016-01-01

    Alpha1-antitrypsin (A1AT, SERPINA1), a major circulating inhibitor of neutrophil elastase (NE) and proteinase-3 (PR3), has been proposed to reduce the processing and release of IL-1β. Since the antiinflammatory properties of A1AT are influenced by the presence of polyunsaturated fatty acids, we compared the effects of fatty acid–free (A1AT-0) and α-linoleic acid (LA)–bound (A1AT-LA) forms of A1AT) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced synthesis of the IL-1β precursor and the release of IL-1β from human blood neutrophils. The presence of A1AT-LA or A1AT-0 significantly reduced LPS-induced release of mature IL-1β. However, only A1AT-LA reduced both steady-state mRNA levels of IL-1β and the secretion of mature IL-1β. In LPS-stimulated neutrophils, mRNA levels of TLR2/4, NFKBIA, P2RX7, NLRP3, and CASP1 decreased significantly in the presence of A1AT-LA but not A1AT-0. A1AT-0 and A1AT-LA did not inhibit the direct enzymatic activity of caspase-1, but we observed complexes of either form of A1AT with NE and PR3. Consistent with the effect on TLR and IL-1β gene expression, only A1AT-LA inhibited LPS-induced gene expression of NE and PR3. Increased gene expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ was observed in A1AT-LA–treated neutrophils without LPS stimulation, and the selective PPAR-γ antagonist (GW9662) prevented a reduction in IL-1β by A1AT-LA. We conclude from our data that the ability of A1AT to reduce TLR and IL-1β gene expression depends on its association with LA. Moreover, the antiinflammatory properties of A1AT-LA are likely to be mediated by activation of PPARγ. PMID:27452044

  19. Blockade of Ba2+ current through human alpha1E channels by two steroid analogs, (+)-ACN and (+)-ECN.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Y M; Pereverzev, A; Schneider, T; Covey, D F; Lingle, C J

    1999-06-01

    Previous work suggests that different neuroactive steroids may exhibit some selectivity in their blocking effects on different high-voltage activated (HVA) Ca2+ currents. At least some of these effects appear to involve direct blocking actions on Ca2+ channels. Thus, direct investigation of the effects of various steroids on cloned Ca2+ channel variants may lead to the development of potent and selective small-molecular weight Ca2+ channel blockers. Here we examine the effects of two steroids on a cloned human alpha1E Ca2+ channel both with and without a beta3 subunit, when expressed in HEK293 cells. One compound, (+)-ACN, has been previously shown to block N-, Q-, and R-subtypes of HVA current without affecting L- and P-type current. The second compound, (+)-ECN, weakly blocks total HVA current in hippocampal neurons. (+)-ECN differs from (+)-ACN in lacking effects on GABA receptors, but shares with (+)-ACN an ability to partially inhibit T current in DRG neurons (Todorovic, S.M., Prakriya, M., Nakashima, Y.M. et al., 1998. Enantioselective blockade of T-type Ca2+ current in adult rat sensory neurons by a steroid lacking GABA-mimetic activity. Mol. Pharmacol. 54, 918-927). (+)-ACN can block 100% of Ba2+ current in HEK cells arising either from the alpha1E subunit (IC50 approximate to 10 microM) or the alpha1Ebeta3 combination (IC50 approximate to 5 microM), while (+)-ECN maximally blocks only about 80% of the alpha1E (10 microM) or alpha1Ebeta3 (16 microM) current. Blockade by (+)-ACN exhibits several differences from blockade by (+)-ECN. (+)-ACN increases the apparent rate of onset of inactivation, particularly for the alpha1E variant, slows recovery from inactivation, and more profoundly shifts the voltage-dependence of current availability for both alpha1E and alpha1Ebeta3 variants than does (+)-ECN. Although the complexity of the normal inactivation kinetics of alpha1E variants makes interpretation of the (+)-ACN-induced kinetic alterations difficult, the

  20. Targeted gene correction of α1-antitrypsin deficiency in induced pluripotent stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Yusa, Kosuke; Rashid, S. Tamir; Strick-Marchand, Helene; Varela, Ignacio; Liu, Pei-Qi; Paschon, David E.; Miranda, Elena; Ordóñez, Adriana; Hannan, Nick; Rouhani, Foad Jafari; Darche, Sylvie; Alexander, Graeme; Marciniak, Stefan J.; Fusaki, Noemi; Hasegawa, Mamoru; Holmes, Michael C.; Di Santo, James P.; Lomas, David A.; Bradley, Allan; Vallier, Ludovic

    2011-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (hIPSCs) represent a unique opportunity for regenerative medicine since they offer the prospect of generating unlimited quantities of cells for autologous transplantation as a novel treatment for a broad range of disorders1,2,3,4. However, the use of hIPSCs in the context of genetically inherited human disease will require correction of disease-causing mutations in a manner that is fully compatible with clinical applications3,5. The methods currently available, such as homologous recombination, lack the necessary efficiency and also leave residual sequences in the targeted genome6. Therefore, the development of new approaches to edit the mammalian genome is a prerequisite to delivering the clinical promise of hIPSCs. Here, we show that a combination of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs)7 and piggyBac8,9 technology in hIPSCs can achieve bi-allelic correction of a point mutation (Glu342Lys) in the α1-antitrypsin (A1AT, also called SERPINA1) gene that is responsible for α1-antitrypsin deficiency (A1ATD). Genetic correction of hIPSCs restored the structure and function of A1AT in subsequently derived liver cells in vitro and in vivo. This approach is significantly more efficient than any other gene targeting technology that is currently available and crucially prevents contamination of the host genome with residual non-human sequences. Our results provide the first proof of principle for the potential of combining hIPSCs with genetic correction to generate clinically relevant cells for autologous cell-based therapies. PMID:21993621

  1. Helicobacter hepaticus Hh0072 gene encodes a novel alpha1-3-fucosyltransferase belonging to CAZy GT11 family.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Lau, Kam; Cheng, Jiansong; Yu, Hai; Li, Yanhong; Sugiarto, Go; Huang, Shengshu; Ding, Li; Thon, Vireak; Wang, Peng G; Chen, Xi

    2010-09-01

    Lewis x (Le(x)) and sialyl Lewis x (SLe(x))-containing glycans play important roles in numerous physiological and pathological processes. The key enzyme for the final step formation of these Lewis antigens is alpha1-3-fucosyltransferase. Here we report molecular cloning and functional expression of a novel Helicobacter hepaticus alpha1-3-fucosyltransferase (HhFT1) which shows activity towards both non-sialylated and sialylated Type II oligosaccharide acceptor substrates. It is a promising catalyst for enzymatic and chemoenzymatic synthesis of Le(x), sialyl Le(x) and their derivatives. Unlike all other alpha1-3/4-fucosyltransferases characterized so far which belong to Carbohydrate Active Enzyme (CAZy, http://www.cazy.org/) glycosyltransferase family GT10, the HhFT1 shares protein sequence homology with alpha1-2-fucosyltransferases and belongs to CAZy glycosyltransferase family GT11. The HhFT1 is thus the first alpha1-3-fucosyltransferase identified in the GT11 family.

  2. Effects of wortmannin on alpha-1/alpha-2 adrenergic receptor-mediated contractile responses in rabbit vascular tissues.

    PubMed

    Waen-Safranchik, V I; Deth, R C

    1994-06-01

    The inhibitory effect of wortmannin (WO), a fungus-derived protein kinase inhibitor, was assessed on contractile responses elicited by phenylephrine-induced alpha 1-(alpha 1 R) and UK 14304-induced alpha 2-adrenergic receptor (alpha 2R) stimulation in the rabbit aorta and saphenous vein, respectively. In agonist dose-response studies, WO caused a noncompetitive inhibition of both alpha 1R and alpha 2R responses, but was more potent against alpha 2R. Maximally effective single-dose responses at both receptors were less sensitive to WO. The initial alpha 1R contractile response, associated with intracellular Ca2+ release and myosin light chain kinase activation, was relatively insensitive to WO, while the Ca2+ influx-dependent tonic contraction was more sensitive. Contractions induced by high K+ buffer were relatively insensitive to WO in both the aorta and saphenous vein. These results indicate that WO inhibits receptor-initiated Ca2+ influx-dependent contractile responses such as those caused by alpha 2R stimulation and the sustained phase of alpha 1R stimulation more readily than Ca2+ release-dependent responses.

  3. Polyethylene glycol-modified interleukin-2 and thymosin alpha 1 in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, R; Katzenstein, D A; Winters, M A; Kundu, S K; Merigan, T C

    1996-04-01

    The safety and antiviral effects of polyethylene glycolated interleukin-2 (PEG-IL-2) and thymosin alpha 1 in addition to zidovudine were studied in 12 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected subjects with 50-250 CD4 T cells/mm3. PEG-IL-2 was administered by intravenous infusions every 2 weeks at 10(6) IU/m2 for 20 weeks. Thymosin alpha 1 was administered subcutaneously at 400 microgram/m2 after four doses of PEG-IL-2, escalating to 1600 microgram/m2 weekly for an additional 2 months. Significant elevations of CD4 T cell numbers of 30%-40% were seen after PEG-IL-2 infusions, but no additional increase in CD4 cell count was observed with thymosin alpha 1. Virologic monitoring by polymerase chain reaction quantitation of proviral DNA and plasma RNA and p24 antigen assays showed no evidence of increased HIV activation during PEG-IL-2 or thymosin alpha 1 therapy. Patients tolerated both PEG-IL-2 and thymosin alpha 1 without significant toxicities.

  4. Alpha1beta1 integrin is crucial for accumulation of epidermal T cells and the development of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Curdin; Boyman, Onur; Tonel, Giulia; Tun-Kyi, Adrian; Laggner, Ute; de Fougerolles, Antonin; Kotelianski, Victor; Gardner, Humphrey; Nestle, Frank O

    2007-07-01

    Psoriasis is a common T cell-mediated autoimmune inflammatory disease. We show that blocking the interaction of alpha1beta1 integrin (VLA-1) with collagen prevented accumulation of epidermal T cells and immunopathology of psoriasis. Alpha1beta1 integrin, a major collagen-binding surface receptor, was exclusively expressed by epidermal but not dermal T cells. Alpha1beta1-positive T cells showed characteristic surface markers of effector memory cells and contained high levels of interferon-gamma but not interleukin-4. Blockade of alpha1beta1 inhibited migration of T cells into the epidermis in a clinically relevant xenotransplantation model. This was paralleled by a complete inhibition of psoriasis development, comparable to that caused by tumor necrosis factor-alpha blockers. These results define a crucial role for alpha1beta1 in controlling the accumulation of epidermal type 1 polarized effector memory T cells in a common human immunopathology and provide the basis for new strategies in psoriasis treatment focusing on T cell-extracellular matrix interactions.

  5. Dietary fatty acids regulate cholesterol induction of liver CYP7alpha1 expression and bile acid production.

    PubMed

    Li, Yan; Hou, Meng Jun; Ma, Jing; Tang, Zhi Hong; Zhu, Hui Lian; Ling, Wen Hua

    2005-05-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of dietary fats containing predominantly PUFA, monounsaturated FA (MUFA), or saturated FA (SFA) on lipid profile and liver cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7alpha1) mRNA expression and bile acid production in C57BL/6J mice. The animals (n = 75) were randomly divided into five groups and fed a basic chow diet (AIN-93G) (BC diet), a chow diet with 1 g/100 g of cholesterol (Chol diet), a chow diet with 1 g/100 g of cholesterol and 14 g/100 g of safflower oil (Chol + PUFA diet), a chow diet with 1 g/100 g of cholesterol and olive oil (Chol + MUFA diet), or a chow diet with 1 g/100 g of cholesterol and myristic acid (Chol + SFA diet) for 6 wk. The results showed that the Chol + SFA diet decreased CYP7alpha1 gene expression and bile acid pool size, resulting in increased blood and liver cholesterol levels. Addition of PUFA and MUFA to a 1% cholesterol diet increased the bile acid pool production or bile acid excretion and simultaneously decreased liver cholesterol accumulation despite decreased CYP7alpha1 mRNA expression. The results indicate that the decreased bile acid pool size induced by the SFA diet is related to inhibition of the liver CYP7alpha1 gene expression, but an increased bile acid pool size and improved cholesterol homeostasis are disassociated from the liver CYP7alpha1 gene expression.

  6. Dexmedetomidine Inhibits Phenylephrine-induced Contractions via Alpha-1 Adrenoceptor Blockade and Nitric Oxide Release in Isolated Rat Aortae

    PubMed Central

    Byon, Hyo-Jin; Ok, Seong-Ho; Lee, Soo Hee; Kang, Sebin; Cho, Youngil; Han, Jeong Yeol; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2017-01-01

    The goal of this in vitro study was to examine the effect of the alpha-2 adrenoceptor agonist dexmedetomidine on phenylephrine (alpha-1 adrenoceptor agonist)-induced contraction in isolated rat aortae and to elucidate the associated cellular mechanisms, with a particular focus on alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonism. Dexmedetomidine dose-response curves were generated in isolated endothelium-intact and endothelium-denuded rat aortae precontracted with phenylephrine or 5-hydroxytryptamine. Endothelium-denuded aortic rings were pretreated with either dexmedetomidine or the reversible alpha-1 adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine, followed by post-treatment with the irreversible alpha-1 adrenoceptor blocker phenoxybenzamine. Control rings were treated with phenoxybenzamine alone. All rings were repeatedly washed with Krebs solution to remove all pretreatment drugs, including phenoxybenzamine, phentolamine and dexmedetomidine. Phenylephrine dose-response curves were then generated. The effect of rauwolscine on the dexmedetomidine-mediated change in phenylephrine-induced endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) phosphorylation in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was examined using western blotting. The magnitude of the dexmedetomidine-mediated inhibition of phenylephrine-induced contraction was higher in endothelium-intact aortae than in endothelium-denuded aortae or endothelium-intact aortae treated with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester. However, dexmedetomidine did not significantly alter 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced contraction. In further experiments, prazosin attenuated dexmedetomidine-induced contraction. Additionally, pretreatment with either dexmedetomidine plus phenoxybenzamine or phentolamine plus phenoxybenzamine produced greater phenylephrine-induced contraction than phenoxybenzamine alone, suggesting that dexmedetomidine protects aortae from the alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockade induced by phenoxybenzamine. Rauwolscine attenuated the dexmedetomidine

  7. Effects of different alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockers on proximal urethral function using in vivo isovolumetric pressure changes.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takanori; Nagano, Masashi; Osada, Yukio

    2005-10-01

    The effects of different alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockers on the urethra and the cardiovascular system were evaluated using an in vivo isovolumetric intra-urethral pressure model in New Zealand white rabbits. The urethra of anesthetized male rabbits was cannulated through the bladder and secured at the vesico-urethral junction. The distal side of urethra under the pubic bone was also closed to allow measurement of the intra-urethral pressure. Both the intra-urethral pressure and the femoral arterial pressure were monitored. The effects of five different alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockers on the increases in both the intra-urethral pressure and blood pressure induced by phenylephrine were then examined. The inhibition rate of the alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockers prazosin, bunazosin, terazosin, alfuzosin and tamsulosin on the increase in intra-urethral pressure caused as a result of contraction by phenylephrine was 87.5 +/- 4.5% (mean +/- S.E.), 88.0 +/- 7.2%, 86.2 +/- 6.2%, 81.4 +/- 4.8% and 92.5 +/- 5.0% respectively. The potency ranking of these alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockers was tamsulosin > bunazosin > prazosin > terazosin > alfuzosin. Their inhibition rate of the arterial pressure increase induced by phenylephrine was 81.9 +/- 5.0%, 86.2 +/- 5.9%, 76.0 +/- 6.0%, 63.6 +/- 5.7% and 58.0 +/- 5.2% respectively, with a potency ranking of bunazosin > prazosin > terazosin > alfuzosin > tamsulosin. We therefore conclude that the alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockers bunazosin and prazosin have a more potent action on both the urethra and the vascular system. However, tamsulosin and alfuzosin displayed a marked blockade of the increased urethral pressure induced by phenylephrine, with much less of a blockade of arterial pressure. In the present study, tamsulosin has been shown to be the most sensitive and powerful of the alpha-1 adrenoceptor blockers on urethral smooth muscle.

  8. A possible structural determinant of selectivity of boldine and derivatives for the alpha 1A-adrenoceptor subtype.

    PubMed Central

    Madrero, Y.; Elorriaga, M.; Martinez, S.; Noguera, M. A.; Cassels, B. K.; D'Ocon, P.; Ivorra, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    1. The selectivity of action of boldine and the related aporphine alkaloids, predicentrine (9-O-methylboldine) and glaucine (2,9-O-dimethylboldine) and alpha 1-adrenoceptor subtypes was studied by examining [3H]-prazosin competition binding in rat cerebral cortex. WB 4101 and benoxathian were used as selective alpha 1A-adrenoceptor antagonists. 2. In the competition experiments [3H]-prazosin (0.2 nM) binding was inhibited by WB 4101 and benoxathian. The inhibition curves displayed shallow slopes which could be subdivided into high and low affinity components (pKi = 9.92 and 8.29 for WB 4101, 9.35 and 7.94 for benoxathian). The two antagonists recognized approximately 37% of the sites with high affinity from among the total [3H]-prazosin specific binding sites. 3. Boldine, predicentrine and glaucine also competed for [3H]-prazosin (0.2 nM) binding with shallow and biphasic curves recognizing 30-40% of the sites with high affinity. Drug affinities (pKi) at the high and low affinity sites were, 8.31 and 6.50, respectively, for boldine, 8.13 and 6.39 for predicentrine, and 7.12 and 5.92 for glaucine. The relative order of selectivity for alpha 1A-adrenoceptors was boldine (70 fold alpha 1A-selective) = predicentrine (60 fold, alpha 1A-selective) > glaucine (15 fold, alpha 1A-selective). 4. Pretreatment of rat cerebral cortex membranes with chloroethylclonidine (CEC, 10 microM) for 30 min at 37 degrees C followed by thorough washing out reduced specific [3H]-prazosin binding by approximately 70%. The CEC-insensitive [3H]-prazosin binding was inhibited by boldine monophasically (Hill slope = 0.93) with a single pKi value (7.76). 5. These results suggest that whereas the aporphine structure shared by these alkaloids is responsible for their selectively of action for the alpha 1A-adrenoceptor subtype in rat cerebral cortex, defined functional groups, namely the 2-hydroxy function, induces a significant increase in alpha 1A-subtype selectivity and affinity. PMID:8982502

  9. Distinct expression patterns of alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains in cylindroma and malignant cylindroma.

    PubMed

    Quatresooz, Pascale; Piérard, Gérald E

    2005-01-01

    Cutaneous cylindromas are considered to derive from cells of the sweat gland apparatus. The composition of the thick hyaline eosinophilic basement membrane (BM)-like zone surrounding epithelial aggregates in cylindromas is similar to that of the dermo-epidermal junction. The presence of type IV collagen has been documented, but the distribution of the different constitutive a chains of collagen IV has not been studied so far. Alterations in the expression of these alpha chains have been described in some other conditions including basal cell carcinomas, testes with spermatogenic dysfunction and colorectal carcinomas. The aim was to study the distribution of the alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains in cylindromas and malignant cylindroma, and to compare it with the BM of sweat glands. Seven cylindromas and one malignant cylindroma were studied. They were formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded before processing for immunohistochemistry. Immunostaining was assessed using the avidin-biotin-peroxidase technique with antibodies directed to the alpha1 (IV) and alpha5 (IV) collagen chains. In all cylindromas, a thin continuous and sharply limited immunolabelling for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain was abutted to the tumoral cell aggregates. A speckled immunoreactivity was found in the rest of the hyaline sheath. Globular structures encased in the cell aggregates also exhibited a thin peripheral rim positive for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain. The immunoreactivity was faint and granular in the center of the globules. With the antibody directed against the alpha5 (IV) collagen chain, 3 cylindromas did not show any staining, 2 cases presented discrete focal positivity in the mid-part of the BM-like zone, and 2 cases exhibited a positive staining pattern similar to that observed for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain, but with a focal and more discrete intensity. The malignant cylindroma showed a linear immunoreactivity for the alpha1 (IV) collagen chain undistinguishable from

  10. Confirmation of mutant alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase gene and transcript in Dahl salt-sensitive/JR rats.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Opazo, N; Barany, F; Hirayama, K; Herrera, V L

    1994-09-01

    As the sole renal Na,K-ATPase isozyme, the alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase accounts for all active transport of Na+ throughout the nephron. This role in renal Na+ reabsorption and the primacy of the kidney in hypertension pathogenesis make it a logical candidate gene for salt-sensitive genetic hypertension. An adenine (A)1079-->thymine (T) transversion, resulting in the substitution of glutamine276 with leucine and associated with decreased net 86Rb+ (K+) influx, was identified in Dahl salt-sensitive/JR rat kidney alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase cDNA. However, because a Taq polymerase chain reaction amplification-based reanalysis did not detect the mutant T1079 but rather only the wild-type A1079 alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase allele in Dahl salt-sensitive rat genomic DNA, we reexamined alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase sequences using Taq polymerase error-independent amplification-based analyses of genomic DNA (by polymerase allele-specific amplification and ligase chain reaction analysis) and kidney RNA (by mRNA-specific thermostable reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analysis). We also performed modified 3' mismatched correction analysis of genomic DNA using an exonuclease-positive thermostable DNA polymerase. All the confirmatory test results were concordant, confirming the A1079-->T transversion in the Dahl salt-sensitive alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase allele and its transcript, as well as the wild-type A1079 sequence in the Dahl salt-resistant alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase allele and its transcript. Documentation of a consistent Taq polymerase error that selectively substituted A at T1079 (sense strand) was obtained from Taq polymerase chain reaction amplification and subsequent cycle sequencing of reconfirmed known Dahl salt-sensitive/JR rat mutant T1079 alpha 1 cDNA M13 subclones. This Taq polymerase error results in the reversion of mutant sequence back to the wild-type alpha 1 Na,K-ATPase sequence. This identifies a site- and nucleotide-specific Taq polymerase misincorporation, suggesting that a structural

  11. Comparison of relaxation responses of cavernous and trigonal smooth muscles from rabbits by alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists; prazosin, terazosin, doxazosin, and tamsulosin.

    PubMed Central

    Seo, K. K.; Lee, M. Y.; Lim, S. W.; Kim, S. C.

    1999-01-01

    Alpha1a-adrenergic receptor (AR) primarily mediates the contraction of the prostatic and cavernous smooth muscles. Among clinically available alpha1-AR antagonists for the medical management of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), tamsulosin has a modest selectivity for alpha1A- and alpha1D- over alpha1B-ARs. To compare the effects of various alpha1-AR antagonists on relaxation responses of cavernous and trigonal smooth muscles, isometric tension studies with relatively selective (tamsulosin) and non-selective (prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin) alpha1A-AR antagonists, were conducted in the cavernous and trigonal muscle strips of rabbits (n=10 each). Tamsulosin had the strongest inhibitory effect on contraction of trigonal smooth muscle among the various alpha1-AR antagonists, and the inhibitory activities of prazosin, doxazosin, and terazosin were not statistically different. All alpha1-AR antagonists caused concentration-dependent relaxation of the cavernous muscle strips. Tamsulosin was shown to have greater potency than prazosin (more than 100-fold), doxazosin (more than 1000-fold), and terazosin (more than 1000-fold), in relaxation of cavernous smooth muscle. In conclusion, tamsulosin might be the most effective drug among the four commonly used alpha1-AR antagonists for the medical management of BPH. Tamsulosin might be a potential substitute for phentolamine in combination with vasoactive agents as an intracavernous injection therapy for patients with erectile dysfunction. PMID:10102527

  12. Prediction of alpha1-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate from plasma concentrations of silodosin, tamsulosin and terazosin to treat urinary obstruction in benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shizuo; Kato, Yasuhiro; Okura, Takashi; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki; Kawabe, Kazuki

    2007-07-01

    Alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists are clinically useful for the improvement of urinary obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), and their therapeutic effects are mediated through the blockade of prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptors. The present study was undertaken to predict the magnitude and duration of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate after oral alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists. Prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding parameters of silodosin were estimated by measuring specific [(3)H]prazosin binding in rat prostate after oral administration of this drug. The plasma concentration of silodosin after oral administration in rats and healthy volunteers was measured using a high-performance liquid chromatographic method. The alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding affinities (K(i)) of silodosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin in the human prostate and plasma concentrations of tamsulosin and terazosin were obtained from the literature. Using the alpha(1)-adrenoceptor binding parameters of silodosin in rat prostate, alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate was estimated to be around 60-70% at 1-6 h after oral administration of silodosin at doses of 3.0, 8.1, and 16.1 micromol. Thereafter, the receptor occupancy was periodically decreased, to 24% (8.1 micromol) and 54% (16.1 micromol) 24 h later. A similar magnitude and time course of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy by silodosin in the human prostate were estimated using alpha(1)-adrenoceptor-binding affinities (K(i)) in the human prostate. Despite about two orders of differences in the plasma unbound concentrations after clinically effective oral dosages of silodosin, tamsulosin, and terazosin, there was a comparable magnitude of prostatic alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy by these drugs. In conclusion, the prediction of alpha(1)-adrenoceptor occupancy in the human prostate by alpha(1)-adrenoceptor antagonists may provide the rationale for the optimum dosage regimen of these drugs in the

  13. c-Jun transcriptionally regulates alpha 1, 2-fucosyltransferase 1 (FUT1) in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Na; Liu, Juanjuan; Liu, Dawo; Hao, Yingying; Yan, Limei; Ma, Yanan; Zhuang, Huiyu; Hu, Zhenhua; Gao, Jian; Yang, Zhihai; Shi, Hong; Lin, Bei

    2014-12-01

    Alpha 1, 2-fucosyltransferase (FUT 1/2) is a rate-limiting enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of Lewis y, a cell membrane-associated carbohydrate antigen. In human ovarian cancer, the upregulated expression of FUT1 and Lewis y is associated with advanced pathological stages and involved in cell proliferation, migration and invasion. However, the mechanism underlying the upregulation of FUT1 is largely unknown. Here, we identify an AP-1 binding site in FUT1 promoter in ovarian cancer cells. c-Jun promotes FUT1 expression, thereby enhancing Lewis y biosynthesis in various ovarian cancer cell lines. Moreover, EMSA, luciferase activity and ChIP assays demonstrate c-Jun directly interacts with FUT1 promoter. Furthermore, FUT1 mediates c-Jun-induced cell proliferation in ovarian cancer cells. In human ovarian cancer samples, c-Jun overexpression is linked to malignant degree and positively correlated to FUT1 and Lewis y expression. Taken together, c-Jun could transcriptionally modulate FUT1 expression in ovarian cancer, implicating the potential application of c-Jun inhibitors for human ovarian cancer therapy.

  14. Alpha (1,2)-fucosyltransferase M307A polymorphism improves piglet survival.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyungtae; Nguyen, Dinh Truong; Choi, Minkyung; Kim, Jin-Hoi; Seo, Han Geuk; Dadi, Hailu; Cha, Se-Yeoun; Seo, Kunho; Lee, Yun-Mi; Kim, Jong-Joo; Park, Chankyu

    2013-01-01

    To confirm the beneficial effects of alpha (1,2)-fucosyltransferase (FUT1) M307 (A) on piglet survival on commercial farms, we performed PCR-RFLP analysis of FUT1 M307 in successfully marketed (n = 245) and disease affected/deceased pigs during weaning (n = 252) at a commercial farm. We also evaluated the FUT1 genotypes of 190 healthy pigs from three different genetic backgrounds. The distribution of genotypes differed between the successfully marketed and disease affected/deceased pig groups. The frequency of the A allele, associated with resistance to edema and post-weaning diarrhea, was higher in the post-weaning survival group (0.21) than in the non-survival group (0.16, P < 0.05). The odds ratio for piglet survival between AA and GG genotypes was 1.98; thus, piglet survival for individuals with the AA genotype was almost two-fold greater than for GG individuals. The FUT1 gene polymorphism can be used as an effective marker for selection programs to improve post-weaning piglet survival.

  15. Correlation between phosphatidylinositol labeling and contraction in rabbit aorta: effect of alpha-1 adrenergic activation

    SciTech Connect

    Villalobos-Molina, R.; Uc, M.; Hong, E.; Garcia-Sainz, J.A.

    1982-07-01

    Activation of rabbit aortic strips with alpha adrenergic agonists increased the labeling (with (/sup 32/P)Pi) of phosphatidylinositol (PI) and phosphatidic acid and contracted the vascular preparations in dose-related fashion. Epinephrine, norepinephrine and methoxamine produced maximal effects, whereas clonidine behaved as partial agonist and B-HT 933 (2-amino-6-ethyl-4,5,7,8-tetrahydro-6H-oxazole-(5,4-d) azepin dihydrochloride) was almost without activity in the two experimental models used. Phenylephrine was a full agonist in producing contraction, but failed to elicit the maximal increase in PI labeling. The EC50 values to produce contraction of aortic strips were lower for all agonists than those required to increase the incorporation of radioactive phosphate into PI, but there was a good correlation between the two sets of data. The increased PI labeling and contraction of aortic strips induced by epinephrine were antagonized by prazosin and yohimbine in dose-related fashion, but the first alpha blocker was about three orders of magnitude more potent than the second in antagonizing the two effects. The present results indicate that both stimulation of PI labeling and contraction are mediated through activation of alpha-1 adrenoceptors in rabbit aorta.

  16. Role of NonO-histone interaction in TNFalpha-suppressed prolyl-4-hydroxylase alpha1.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Ming-Xiang; Shen, Ying H; Burks, Jared K; Li, Xiao-Nan; LeMaire, Scott A; Yoshimura, Koichi; Aoki, Hiroki; Matsuzaki, Masunori; An, Feng-Shuang; Engler, David A; Matsunami, Risë K; Coselli, Joseph S; Zhang, Yun; Wang, Xing Li

    2008-08-01

    Inflammation is a key process in cardiovascular diseases. The extracellular matrix (ECM) of the vasculature is a major target of inflammatory cytokines, and TNFalpha regulates ECM metabolism by affecting collagen production. In this study, we have examined the pathways mediating TNFalpha-induced suppression of prolyl-4 hydroxylase alpha1 (P4Halpha1), the rate-limiting isoform of P4H responsible for procollagen hydroxylation, maturation, and organization. Using human aortic smooth muscle cells, we found that TNFalpha activated the MKK4-JNK1 pathway, which induced histone (H) 4 lysine 12 acetylation within the TNFalpha response element in the P4Halpha1 promoter. The acetylated-H4 then recruited a transcription factor, NonO, which, in turn, recruited HDACs and induced H3 lysine 9 deacetylation, thereby inhibiting transcription of the P4Halpha1 promoter. Furthermore, we found that TNFalpha oxidized DJ-1, which may be essential for the NonO-P4Halpha1 interaction because treatment with gene specific siRNA to knockout DJ-1 eliminated the TNFalpha-induced NonO-P4Halpha1 interaction and its suppression. Our findings may be relevant to aortic aneurysm and dissection and the stability of the fibrous cap of atherosclerotic plaque in which collagen metabolism is important in arterial remodeling. Defining this cytokine-mediated regulatory pathway may provide novel molecular targets for therapeutic intervention in preventing plaque rupture and acute coronary occlusion.

  17. Immunohistochemical localization of collagen type XI alpha1 and alpha2 chains in human colon tissue.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kara B; Reimers, Aaron P; Luman, Sarah; Kronz, Joseph D; Fyffe, William E; Oxford, Julia Thom

    2008-03-01

    In previous studies, collagen XI mRNA has been detected in colon cancer, but its location in human colon tissue has not been determined. The heterotrimeric collagen XI consists of three alpha chains. While it is known that collagen XI plays a regulatory role in collagen fibril formation, its function in the colon is unknown. The characterization of normal human colon tissue will allow a better understanding of the variance of collagen XI in abnormal tissues. Grossly normal and malignant human colon tissue was obtained from pathology archives. Immunohistochemical staining with a 58K Golgi marker and alpha1(XI) and alpha2(XI) antisera was used to specifically locate their presence in normal colon tissue. A comparative bright field microscopic analysis showed the presence of collagen XI in human colon. The juxtanuclear, dot-like collagen XI staining in the Golgi apparatus of goblet cells in normal tissue paralleled the staining of the 58K Golgi marker. Ultra light microscopy verified these results. Staining was also confirmed in malignant colon tissue. This study is the first to show that collagen XI is present in the Golgi apparatus of normal human colon goblet cells and localizes collagen XI in both normal and malignant tissue. Although the function of collagen XI in the colon is unknown, our immunohistochemical characterization provides the foundation for future immunohistopathology studies of the colon.

  18. Thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 follows a cooperative CRM1/calreticulin-mediated nuclear export pathway.

    PubMed

    Grespin, Matthew E; Bonamy, Ghislain M C; Roggero, Vincent R; Cameron, Nicole G; Adam, Lindsay E; Atchison, Andrew P; Fratto, Victoria M; Allison, Lizabeth A

    2008-09-12

    The thyroid hormone receptor alpha1 (TRalpha) exhibits a dual role as an activator or repressor of its target genes in response to thyroid hormone (T(3)). Previously, we have shown that TRalpha, formerly thought to reside solely in the nucleus bound to DNA, actually shuttles rapidly between the nucleus and cytoplasm. An important aspect of the shuttling activity of TRalpha is its ability to exit the nucleus through the nuclear pore complex. TRalpha export is not sensitive to treatment with the CRM1-specific inhibitor leptomycin B (LMB) in heterokaryon assays, suggesting a role for an export receptor other than CRM1. Here, we have used a combined approach of in vivo fluorescence recovery after photobleaching experiments, in vitro permeabilized cell nuclear export assays, and glutathione S-transferase pull-down assays to investigate the export pathway used by TRalpha. We show that, in addition to shuttling in heterokaryons, TRalpha shuttles rapidly in an unfused monokaryon system as well. Furthermore, our data show that TRalpha directly interacts with calreticulin, and point to the intriguing possibility that TRalpha follows a cooperative export pathway in which both calreticulin and CRM1 play a role in facilitating efficient translocation of TRalpha from the nucleus to cytoplasm.

  19. Molecular cloning and functional expression of a novel Helicobacter pylori alpha-1,4 fucosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Rabbani, Said; Miksa, Viktoria; Wipf, Beat; Ernst, Beat

    2005-11-01

    Helicobacter pylori is an important human pathogen which causes both gastric and duodenal ulcers and is associated with gastric cancer and lymphoma. This microorganism synthesizes fucosylated oligosaccharides, predominantly the Galb-1,4GlcNAc (Type II) blood group antigens Lewis X and Y, whereas a small population also expresses the Galb-1,3GlcNAc (Type I) blood group antigens Lewis A and B. These carbohydrate structures are known to mimic host cell antigens and permit the bacteria to escape from the host immune response. Here, we report the cloning and characterization of a novel H. pylori alpha-1,4 fucosyltransferase (FucT). In contrast to the family members characterized to date, this enzyme shows exclusively Type I acceptor substrate specificity. The enzyme consisting of 432 amino acids (MW 50,502 Da) was cloned using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based approach. It exhibits a high degree of identity (75-87%) and similar structural features, for example, in the heptamer repeat pattern, with other H. pylori FucTs. The kinetic characterization revealed a very efficient transferase (k(cat)/Km = 229 mM(-1) s(-1)) for the Type I acceptor substrate (Gal)-1,3 GlcNAc-Lem (1). Additionally, the enzyme possesses a broad tolerance toward nonnatural Type I acceptor substrate analogs and therefore represents a valuable tool for the chemoenzymatic synthesis of Lewis A, sialyl Lewis A as well as mimetics thereof.

  20. Cerebral artery alpha-1 AR subtypes: high altitude long-term acclimatization responses.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ravi; Goyal, Dipali; Chu, Nina; Van Wickle, Jonathan; Longo, Lawrence D

    2014-01-01

    In response to hypoxia and other stress, the sympathetic (adrenergic) nervous system regulates arterial contractility and blood flow, partly through differential activities of the alpha1 (α1) - adrenergic receptor (AR) subtypes (α1A-, α1B-, and α1D-AR). Thus, we tested the hypothesis that with acclimatization to long-term hypoxia (LTH), contractility of middle cerebral arteries (MCA) is regulated by changes in expression and activation of the specific α1-AR subtypes. We conducted experiments in MCA from adult normoxic sheep maintained near sea level (300 m) and those exposed to LTH (110 days at 3801 m). Following acclimatization to LTH, ovine MCA showed a 20% reduction (n = 5; P<0.05) in the maximum tension achieved by 10-5 M phenylephrine (PHE). LTH-acclimatized cerebral arteries also demonstrated a statistically significant (P<0.05) inhibition of PHE-induced contractility in the presence of specific α1-AR subtype antagonists. Importantly, compared to normoxic vessels, there was significantly greater (P<0.05) α1B-AR subtype mRNA and protein levels in LTH acclimatized MCA. Also, our results demonstrate that extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2)-mediated negative feedback regulation of PHE-induced contractility is modulated by α1B-AR subtype. Overall, in ovine MCA, LTH produces profound effects on α1-AR subtype expression and function.

  1. Alpha-1 adrenergic receptors gate rapid orientation-specific reduction in visual discrimination.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Mario; Frey, Sebastian; Köhr, Georg

    2012-11-01

    Prolonged imbalance in sensory experience leads to dramatic readjustments in cortical representation. Neuromodulatory systems play a critical role in habilitating experience-induced plasticity and regulate memory processes in vivo. Here, we show that a brief period of intense patterned visual stimulation combined with systemic activation of alpha-1 adrenergic neuromodulator receptors (α(1)-ARs) leads to a rapid, reversible, and NMDAR-dependent depression of AMPAR-mediated transmission from ascending inputs to layer II/III pyramidal cells in the visual cortex of young and adult mice. The magnitude of this form of α(1)-AR long-term depression (LTD), measured ex vivo with miniature EPSC recordings, is graded by the number of orientations used during visual experience. Moreover, behavioral tests of visual function following the induction of α(1)-AR LTD reveal that discrimination accuracy of sinusoidal drifting gratings is selectively reduced at high spatial frequencies in a reversible, orientation-specific, and NMDAR-dependent manner. Thus, α(1)-ARs enable rapid cortical synaptic depression which correlates with an orientation-specific decrease in visual discrimination. These findings contribute to our understanding of how adrenergic receptors interact with neuronal networks in response to changes in active sensory experience to produce adaptive behavior.

  2. Mutation in collagen II alpha 1 isoforms delineates Stickler and Wagner syndrome phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Tran-Viet, Khanh-Nhat; Soler, Vincent; Quiette, Valencia; Powell, Caldwell; Yanovitch, Tammy; Metlapally, Ravikanth; Luo, Xiaoyan; Katsanis, Nicholas; Nading, Erica

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Stickler syndrome is an arthro-ophthalmopathy with phenotypic overlap with Wagner syndrome. The common Stickler syndrome type I is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait, with causal mutations in collagen type II alpha 1 (COL2A1). Wagner syndrome is associated with mutations in versican (VCAN), which encodes for a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan. A three-generation Caucasian family variably diagnosed with either syndrome was screened for sequence variants in the COL2A1 and VCAN genes. Methods Genomic DNA samples derived from saliva were collected from all family members (six affected and four unaffected individuals). Complete sequencing of COL2A1 and VCAN was performed on two affected individuals. Direct sequencing of remaining family members was conducted if the discovered variants followed segregation. Results A base-pair substitution (c.258C>A) in exon 2 of COL2A1 cosegregated with familial disease status. This known mutation occurs in a highly conserved site that causes a premature stop codon (p.C86X). The mutation was not seen in 1,142 ethnically matched control DNA samples. Conclusions Premature stop codons in COL2A1 exon 2 lead to a Stickler syndrome type I ocular-only phenotype with few or no systemic manifestations. Mutation screening of COL2A1 exon 2 in families with autosomal dominant vitreoretinopathy is important for accurate clinical diagnosis. PMID:23592912

  3. Postjunctional regulation by angiotensin II of alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated pressor responses in the rat.

    PubMed

    Marano, G; Argiolas, L

    1994-08-11

    The effects of angiotensin II on the vasopressor responses to the selective alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist, phenylephrine, in intact and sympathectomized rats were investigated. Infusion of angiotensin II at subpressor doses significantly enhanced the pressor effects of phenylephrine in intact rats. We also found that in the chemically sympathectomized rat, where prejunctional sympathetic function is impaired, the effects of angiotensin II infusion on the pressor effects of phenylephrine were similar to those obtained in intact rats. Furthermore, pretreatment with valsartan ((S)-N-valeryl-N-([2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]-methyl)-val ine), a new selective angiotensin AT1 receptor antagonist, antagonized the effects of angiotensin II on phenylephrine-mediated pressor responses, whereas the administration of the selective angiotensin AT2 receptor antagonist, PD 123319 (1-[[4-(dimethylamino)-3-methylphenyl]-methyl]-5-(diphenylacetyl)- 4,5,6,7-tetrahydro-1H-imidazo[4,5-c]-pyridine-6-carboxylic acid, ditriflouroacetate, monohydrate), injected in bolus doses of 100 micrograms/kg, did not antagonize the enhancing effect of angiotensin II. Collectively, these data suggest that angiotensin II modulates the response to phenylephrine primarily at a postjunctional level through the activation of angiotensin AT1 receptors and that the suggested prejunctional facilitation mediated by angiotensin receptors is quantitatively much less important in the intact animal.

  4. Collagen Type XI Alpha 1 Expression in Intraductal Papillomas Predicts Malignant Recurrence

    PubMed Central

    Freire, Javier; García-Berbel, Lucia; García-Berbel, Pilar; Pereda, Saray; Azueta, Ainara; García-Arranz, Pilar; De Juan, Ana; Vega, Alfonso; Hens, Ángela; Enguita, Ana; Muñoz-Cacho, Pedro; Gómez-Román, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Despite the progress achieved in the treatment of breast cancer, there are still many unsolved clinical issues, being the diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment of papillary diseases, one of the highest challenges. Because of its unpredictable clinical behavior, treatment of intraductal papilloma has generated a great controversy. Even though considered as a benign lesion, it presents high rate of malignant recurrence. This is the reason why there are clinicians supporting a complete excision of the lesion, while others support an only expectant follow-up. Previous results of our group suggested that procollagen 11 alpha 1 (pro-COL11A1) expression correlates with infiltrating phenotype in breast lesions. We analyzed the correlation between expression of pro-COL11A1 in intraductal papilloma and their risk of malignant recurrence. Immunohistochemistry of pro-COL11A1 was performed in 62 samples of intraductal papilloma. Ten out 11 cases relapsed as carcinoma presents positive staining for COL11A1, while just 17 out of 51 cases with benign behaviour present immunostaining. There were significant differences (P < 0.0001) when comparing patients with malignant recurrence versus nonmalignant relapse patients. These data suggest that pro-COL11A1 expression is a highly sensitive biomarker to predict malignant relapse of intraductal papilloma and it can be used as indicative factor for prevention programs. PMID:26448946

  5. Cerebral Artery Alpha-1 AR Subtypes: High Altitude Long-Term Acclimatization Responses

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Ravi; Goyal, Dipali; Chu, Nina; Van Wickle, Jonathan; Longo, Lawrence D.

    2014-01-01

    In response to hypoxia and other stress, the sympathetic (adrenergic) nervous system regulates arterial contractility and blood flow, partly through differential activities of the alpha1 (α1) - adrenergic receptor (AR) subtypes (α1A-, α1B-, and α1D-AR). Thus, we tested the hypothesis that with acclimatization to long-term hypoxia (LTH), contractility of middle cerebral arteries (MCA) is regulated by changes in expression and activation of the specific α1-AR subtypes. We conducted experiments in MCA from adult normoxic sheep maintained near sea level (300 m) and those exposed to LTH (110 days at 3801 m). Following acclimatization to LTH, ovine MCA showed a 20% reduction (n = 5; P<0.05) in the maximum tension achieved by 10−5 M phenylephrine (PHE). LTH-acclimatized cerebral arteries also demonstrated a statistically significant (P<0.05) inhibition of PHE-induced contractility in the presence of specific α1-AR subtype antagonists. Importantly, compared to normoxic vessels, there was significantly greater (P<0.05) α1B-AR subtype mRNA and protein levels in LTH acclimatized MCA. Also, our results demonstrate that extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2)-mediated negative feedback regulation of PHE-induced contractility is modulated by α1B-AR subtype. Overall, in ovine MCA, LTH produces profound effects on α1-AR subtype expression and function. PMID:25393740

  6. Serum alpha 1-antichymotrypsin level as a marker for Alzheimer-type dementia.

    PubMed

    Lieberman, J; Schleissner, L; Tachiki, K H; Kling, A S

    1995-01-01

    Excessive alpha 1-antichymotrypsin (ACT) in brain has been postulated to play a role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We measured serum ACT by radial immunodiffusion in 57 patients with presumed AD, 110 healthy controls (24 children; 86 adults), 67 non-AD patients from a geriatric private practice and a VA nursing home, and 136 asthmatics (56 adults; 80 children) as an inflammatory disease control group. Serum ACT was significantly higher in AD (73.1 +/- 22 mg/dl) than in healthy controls (47.9 +/- 8.1 mg/dl) or non-AD patients (61.8 +/- 23.9 mg/dl). A level of 60 mg/dl best separated AD patients from controls or non-AD patients. Serial measurements served to distinguish elevations of ACT level in AD from non-AD inflammatory conditions; the ACT level in the latter returned to normal with therapy or time, but the levels in AD remained elevated. A measure of serum ACT by radial immunodiffusion can be used to support a diagnosis of AD disease but not necessarily as a screening test due to the potentially large number of false positives (26% in the population studied) should malignancy or inflammatory disease be concurrent.

  7. [Effects of alpha-1-blocking agent in the treatment of detrusor sphincter dyssynergia].

    PubMed

    Gotoh, M; Yoshikawa, Y; Otani, T; Kato, T; Kobayashi, M; Kato, K; Saito, M; Kondo, A; Miyake, K

    1990-12-01

    Effects of adrenergic alpha-1-blocking agent, prazosin, in the treatment of detrusor external-sphincter dyssynergia (DSD) were evaluated in both experimental and clinical aspects. Experimentally, in the urethral pressure profile in dogs, the maximum urethral closing pressure was depressed after intravenous injection of 1 mg prazosin. When experimental DSD was obtained in dogs by stimulating electrically the unilateral 2nd sacral root, intra-venous injection of 1 mg prazosin inhibited contraction of the external urethral sphincter. Clinically, 74 patients with DSD based on neurogenic bladder from cerebral vascular attack (CVA) (13 cases) and spinal cord injury (61 cases) were retrospectively surveyed in terms of therapeutical effects of prazosin for DSD. Spinal cord injury was subdivided to 4 groups for clinical evaluation; cervical cord injury (C) with complete paralysis, thoracic cord injury (Th) with complete paralysis, lumbar cord injury (L) with complete paralysis and spinal cord injury with incomplete paralysis. Patients with CVA and spinal cord injury with incomplete paralysis showed good response rates in subjective improvement, 69% and 60% respectively. However, those with spinal cord injury with complete paralysis showed a poor response (28% for C, 23% for Th and 14% for L). The amount of residual urine significantly decreased after treatment, in all the groups except that of lumbar cord injury with complete paralysis. In all the groups, however, even after the drug treatment the amount of residual urine ranged from 80 to 170 ml and the rates of needing clean intermittent catheterization unchanged.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Alpha-1 Adrenergic Receptors Gate Rapid Orientation-Specific Reduction in Visual Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Frey, Sebastian; Köhr, Georg

    2012-01-01

    Prolonged imbalance in sensory experience leads to dramatic readjustments in cortical representation. Neuromodulatory systems play a critical role in habilitating experience-induced plasticity and regulate memory processes in vivo. Here, we show that a brief period of intense patterned visual stimulation combined with systemic activation of alpha-1 adrenergic neuromodulator receptors (α1-ARs) leads to a rapid, reversible, and NMDAR-dependent depression of AMPAR-mediated transmission from ascending inputs to layer II/III pyramidal cells in the visual cortex of young and adult mice. The magnitude of this form of α1-AR long-term depression (LTD), measured ex vivo with miniature EPSC recordings, is graded by the number of orientations used during visual experience. Moreover, behavioral tests of visual function following the induction of α1-AR LTD reveal that discrimination accuracy of sinusoidal drifting gratings is selectively reduced at high spatial frequencies in a reversible, orientation-specific, and NMDAR-dependent manner. Thus, α1-ARs enable rapid cortical synaptic depression which correlates with an orientation-specific decrease in visual discrimination. These findings contribute to our understanding of how adrenergic receptors interact with neuronal networks in response to changes in active sensory experience to produce adaptive behavior. PMID:22120418

  9. A Tumor-Penetrating Peptide Modification Enhances the Antitumor Activity of Thymosin Alpha 1

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiao; Zheng, Heng

    2013-01-01

    A serious limitation of numerous antitumor drugs is the incapacity to penetrate solid tumors. However, addition of an RGD fragment to peptide drugs might solve this problem. In this study, we explored whether the introduction of a permeability-enhancing sequence, such as iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC) fragments, would enhance the activity of thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1). The modified Tα1 (Tα1-iRGD) was successfully expressed and purified, and the in vitro assay showed that Tα1-iRGD presented a similar activity as Tα1 in promoting proliferation of mouse splenocytes. Meanwhile, cell adhesion analysis revealed that Tα1-iRGD exhibited more specific and greater binding with tumor cells compared with Tα1. Furthermore, the iRGD fragment evidently enhanced the basal ability of Tα1 to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in vitro, particularly of mouse melanoma cell line B16F10 and human lung cancer cell line H460. Our findings indicated that the addition of an iRGD fragment increased the anti-proliferative activity of Tα1 against cancer cells by improving the ability of Tα1 to penetrate the tumor cells. This study highlighted the important roles of an iRGD sequence in the therapeutic strategy of Tα1-iRGD. Thus, Tα1-iRGD could be a novel drug candidate for cancer treatment. PMID:23977262

  10. A tumor-penetrating peptide modification enhances the antitumor activity of thymosin alpha 1.

    PubMed

    Lao, Xingzhen; Liu, Meng; Chen, Jiao; Zheng, Heng

    2013-01-01

    A serious limitation of numerous antitumor drugs is the incapacity to penetrate solid tumors. However, addition of an RGD fragment to peptide drugs might solve this problem. In this study, we explored whether the introduction of a permeability-enhancing sequence, such as iRGD (CRGDK/RGPD/EC) fragments, would enhance the activity of thymosin alpha 1 (Tα1). The modified Tα1 (Tα1-iRGD) was successfully expressed and purified, and the in vitro assay showed that Tα1-iRGD presented a similar activity as Tα1 in promoting proliferation of mouse splenocytes. Meanwhile, cell adhesion analysis revealed that Tα1-iRGD exhibited more specific and greater binding with tumor cells compared with Tα1. Furthermore, the iRGD fragment evidently enhanced the basal ability of Tα1 to inhibit proliferation of cancer cells in vitro, particularly of mouse melanoma cell line B16F10 and human lung cancer cell line H460. Our findings indicated that the addition of an iRGD fragment increased the anti-proliferative activity of Tα1 against cancer cells by improving the ability of Tα1 to penetrate the tumor cells. This study highlighted the important roles of an iRGD sequence in the therapeutic strategy of Tα1-iRGD. Thus, Tα1-iRGD could be a novel drug candidate for cancer treatment.

  11. Enhanced Noradrenergic Activity Potentiates Fear Memory Consolidation and Reconsolidation by Differentially Recruiting alpha1- and beta-Adrenergic Receptors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gazarini, Lucas; Stern, Cristina A. Jark; Carobrez, Antonio P.; Bertoglio, Leandro J.

    2013-01-01

    Consolidation and reconsolidation are phases of memory stabilization that diverge slightly. Noradrenaline is known to influence both processes, but the relative contribution of alpha1- and beta-adrenoceptors is unclear. The present study sought to investigate this matter by comparing their recruitment to consolidate and/or reconsolidate a…

  12. Carbohydrate binding properties of banana (Musa acuminata) lectin I. Novel recognition of internal alpha1,3-linked glucosyl residues.

    PubMed

    Mo, H; Winter, H C; Van Damme, E J; Peumans, W J; Misaki, A; Goldstein, I J

    2001-05-01

    Examination of lectins of banana (Musa acuminata) and the closely related plantain (Musa spp.) by the techniques of quantitative precipitation, hapten inhibition of precipitation, and isothermal titration calorimetry showed that they are mannose/glucose binding proteins with a preference for the alpha-anomeric form of these sugars. Both generate precipitin curves with branched chain alpha-mannans (yeast mannans) and alpha-glucans (glycogens, dextrans, and starches), but not with linear alpha-glucans containing only alpha1,4- and alpha1,6-glucosidic bonds (isolichenan and pullulan). The novel observation was made that banana and plantain lectins recognize internal alpha1,3-linked glucosyl residues, which occur in the linear polysaccharides elsinan and nigeran. Concanavalin A and lectins from pea and lentil, also mannose/glucose binding lectins, did not precipitate with any of these linear alpha-glucans. This is, the authors believe, the first report of the recognition of internal alpha1,3-glucosidic bonds by a plant lectin. It is possible that these lectins are present in the pulp of their respective fruit, complexed with starch.

  13. Calcium channel beta subunit promotes voltage-dependent modulation of alpha 1 B by G beta gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Meir, A; Bell, D C; Stephens, G J; Page, K M; Dolphin, A C

    2000-01-01

    Voltage-dependent calcium channels (VDCCs) are heteromultimers composed of a pore-forming alpha1 subunit and auxiliary subunits, including the intracellular beta subunit, which has a strong influence on the channel properties. Voltage-dependent inhibitory modulation of neuronal VDCCs occurs primarily by activation of G-proteins and elevation of the free G beta gamma dimer concentration. Here we have examined the interaction between the regulation of N-type (alpha 1 B) channels by their beta subunits and by G beta gamma dimers, heterologously expressed in COS-7 cells. In contrast to previous studies suggesting antagonism of G protein inhibition by the VDCC beta subunit, we found a significantly larger G beta gamma-dependent inhibition of alpha 1 B channel activation when the VDCC alpha 1 B and beta subunits were coexpressed. In the absence of coexpressed VDCC beta subunit, the G beta gamma dimers, either expressed tonically or elevated via receptor activation, did not produce the expected features of voltage-dependent G protein modulation of N-type channels, including slowed activation and prepulse facilitation, while VDCC beta subunit coexpression restored all of the hallmarks of G beta gamma modulation. These results suggest that the VDCC beta subunit must be present for G beta gamma to induce voltage-dependent modulation of N-type calcium channels. PMID:10920007

  14. Repression of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A receptor alpha1 polypeptide biosynthesis requires chronic agonist exposure.

    PubMed

    Miranda, J D; Barnes, E M

    1997-06-27

    Although it is well established that the number of gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors declines in cortical neurons exposed to GABAA receptor agonists, the mechanisms responsible for this use-dependent down-regulation remain unclear. Two hypotheses have been proposed: (i) agonist-evoked sequestration and degradation of surface GABAA receptors and (ii) repression of receptor subunit biosynthesis. We have addressed this problem using [35S]Met/Cys pulse-chase labeling of chick cortical neurons in culture and immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting with an antibody (RP4) directed against a GABAA receptor alpha1-(331-381) fusion protein. Exposure of the cells to GABA or isoguvacine for 2 h to 4 days had no effect on the initial rate of 35S incorporation into the GABAA receptor 51-kDa alpha1 polypeptide, but this rate declined by 33% after a 7-day treatment. This is consistent with a previous report (Baumgartner, B. J., Harvey, R. J., Darlison, M. G., and Barnes, E. M. (1994) Mol. Brain Res. 26, 9-17) that a 7-day GABA treatment of this preparation produced a 45% reduction in the alpha1 subunit mRNA level, while a 4-day exposure had no detectable effect. On the other hand, after a 4-day exposure to these agonists, a 30% reduction in the level of the alpha1 polypeptide was observed on immunoblots, similar to that found previously for down-regulation of GABAA receptor ligand-binding sites. Thus, the de novo synthesis of GABAA receptor alpha1 subunits is subject to a delayed use-dependent repression that was observed after, rather than before, the decline in neuronal levels of the polypeptide. Pulse-chase experiments showed a monophasic degradation of the GABAA receptor 35S-alpha1 subunit with a t1/2 = 7.7 h, a process that was unaffected by the addition of GABA to neurons during the chase period. These nascent 35S-labeled polypeptides are presumably diluted into the neuronal pool of unlabeled unassembled alpha1 subunits, which was found to exceed by a 4:1 molar

  15. α1-antitrypsin Deficiency: A Misfolded Secretory Protein Variant with Unique Effects on the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Perlmutter, David H

    2016-01-01

    In the classical form of α1-antitrypsin deficiency (ATD) a point mutation leads to accumulation of a misfolded secretory glycoprotein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of liver cells and so ATD has come to be considered a prototypical ER storage disease. It is associated with two major types of clinical disorders, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) by loss-of-function mechanisms and hepatic cirrhosis and carcinogenesis by gain-of-function mechanisms. The lung disease predominantly results from proteolytic damage to the pulmonary connective tissue matrix because of reduced levels of protease inhibitor activity of α1-anitrypsin (AT) in the circulating blood and body fluids. Cigarette smoking is a powerful disease-promoting modifier but other modifiers are known to exist because variation in the lung disease phenotype is still found in smoking and non-smoking homozygotes. The liver disease is highly likely to be caused by the proteotoxic effects of intracellular misfolded protein accumulation and a high degree of variation in the hepatic phenotype among affected homozygotes has been hypothetically attributed to genetic and environmental modifiers that alter proteostasis responses. Liver biopsies of homozygotes show intrahepatocytic inclusions with dilation and expansion of the ER and recent studies of iPS-derived hepatocyte-like cells from individuals with ATD indicate that the changes in the ER directly vary with the hepatic phenotype i.e there is much lesser alteration in the ER in cells derived from homozygotes that do not have clinically significant liver disease. From a signaling perspective, studies in mammalian cell line and animal models expressing the classical α1-antitrypsin Z variant (ATZ) have found that ER signaling is perturbed in a relatively unique way with powerful activation of autophagy and the NFκB pathway but relatively limited, if any, UPR signaling. It is still not known how much these unique structural and functional changes and

  16. The sarcolemmal calcium pump, alpha-1 syntrophin, and neuronal nitric-oxide synthase are parts of a macromolecular protein complex.

    PubMed

    Williams, Judith C; Armesilla, Angel L; Mohamed, Tamer M A; Hagarty, Cassandra L; McIntyre, Fiona H; Schomburg, Sybille; Zaki, Aly O; Oceandy, Delvac; Cartwright, Elizabeth J; Buch, Mamta H; Emerson, Michael; Neyses, Ludwig

    2006-08-18

    The main role of the plasma membrane Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent ATPase (PMCA) is in the removal of Ca2+ from the cytosol. Recently, we and others have suggested a new function for PMCA as a modulator of signal transduction pathways. This paper shows the physical interaction between PMCA (isoforms 1 and 4) and alpha-1 syntrophin and proposes a ternary complex of interaction between endogenous PMCA, alpha-1 syntrophin, and NOS-1 in cardiac cells. We have identified that the linker region between the pleckstrin homology 2 (PH2) and the syntrophin unique (SU) domains, corresponding to amino acids 399-447 of alpha-1 syntrophin, is crucial for interaction with PMCA1 and -4. The PH2 and the SU domains alone failed to interact with PMCA. The functionality of the interaction was demonstrated by investigating the inhibition of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase-1 (NOS-1); PMCA is a negative regulator of NOS-1-dependent NO production, and overexpression of alpha-1 syntrophin and PMCA4 resulted in strongly increased inhibition of NO production. Analysis of the expression levels of alpha-1 syntrophin protein in the heart, skeletal muscle, brain, uterus, kidney, or liver of PMCA4-/- mice, did not reveal any differences when compared with those found in the same tissues of wild-type mice. These results suggest that PMCA4 is tethered to the syntrophin complex as a regulator of NOS-1, but its absence does not cause collapse of the complex, contrary to what has been reported for other proteins within the complex, such as dystrophin. In conclusion, the present data demonstrate for the first time the localization of PMCA1b and -4b to the syntrophin.dystrophin complex in the heart and provide a specific molecular mechanism of interaction as well as functionality.

  17. Induction by endogenous noradrenaline of an alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated positive inotropic effect in rabbit papillary muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Hattori, Y.; Takeda, Y.; Nakaya, H.; Kanno, M.

    1993-01-01

    1. The possible involvement of alpha 1-adrenoceptors in the inotropic and electrophysiological responses to endogenous noradrenaline released by tyramine was examined in rabbit papillary muscles. 2. A concentration-dependent positive inotropic effect was produced by tyramine. This effect of tyramine was not observed in muscles from rabbits pretreated with reserpine. 3. The positive inotropic effect of tyramine was greatly inhibited by propranolol, but not altered by prazosin. However, when beta-adrenoceptors were blocked by pretreatment with propranolol, tyramine still produced a positive inotropic effect, an effect which was antagonized by prazosin. 4. Tyramine caused a decrease in action potential duration (APD) and an increase in action potential amplitude in a concentration-dependent manner. Isoprenaline also produced the same electrophysiological effects. These electrophysiological effects of both agents were inhibited by propranolol. 5. When beta-adrenoceptors were blocked by propranolol, the observed prazosin-sensitive positive inotropic effect of tyramine was not accompanied by any change in APD. In contrast, APD was markedly prolonged by alpha 1-adrenoceptor stimulation with phenylephrine in the presence of propranolol, in association with the positive inotropic effect. 6. It is concluded that in rabbit papillary muscles, endogenous noradrenaline causes a positive inotropic effect predominantly mediated by beta-adrenoceptors, but can still evoke a positive inotropic effect through alpha 1-adrenoceptors when beta-adrenoceptor stimulation is eliminated. This suggests that the alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated positive intropic mechanism(s) may be masked by simultaneous activation of beta-adrenoceptors. In addition, this study indicates that APD prolongation is not involved in the alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated inotropic responses to endogenous noradrenaline. PMID:8401934

  18. Stress-induced decrease of uterine blood flow in sheep is mediated by alpha 1-adrenergic receptors.

    PubMed

    Dreiling, Michelle; Bischoff, Sabine; Schiffner, Rene; Rupprecht, Sven; Kiehntopf, Michael; Schubert, Harald; Witte, Otto W; Nathanielsz, Peter W; Schwab, Matthias; Rakers, Florian

    2016-09-01

    Prenatal maternal stress can be transferred to the fetus via a catecholamine-dependent decrease of uterine blood flow (UBF). However, it is unclear which group of adrenergic receptors mediates this mechanism of maternal-fetal stress transfer. We hypothesized that in sheep, alpha 1-adrenergic receptors may play a key role in catecholamine mediated UBF decrease, as these receptors are mainly involved in peripheral vasoconstriction and are present in significant number in the uterine vasculature. After chronic instrumentation at 125 ± 1 days of gestation (dGA; term 150 dGA), nine pregnant sheep were exposed at 130 ± 1 dGA to acute isolation stress for one hour without visual, tactile, or auditory contact with their flockmates. UBF, blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), stress hormones, and blood gases were determined before and during this isolation challenge. Twenty-four hours later, experiments were repeated during alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blockage induced by a continuous intravenous infusion of urapidil. In both experiments, ewes reacted to isolation with an increase in serum norepinephrine, cortisol, BP, and HR as typical signs of activation of sympatho-adrenal and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. Stress-induced UBF decrease was prevented by alpha 1-adrenergic receptor blockage. We conclude that UBF decrease induced by maternal stress in sheep is mediated by alpha 1-adrenergic receptors. Future studies investigating prevention strategies of impact of prenatal maternal stress on fetal health should consider selective blockage of alpha 1-receptors to interrupt maternal-fetal stress transfer mediated by utero-placental malperfusion.

  19. Suppression of human prostate cancer cell growth by alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists doxazosin and terazosin via induction of apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Kyprianou, N; Benning, C M

    2000-08-15

    Recent evidence from our laboratory has demonstrated that alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists doxazosin and terazosin induced apoptosis in prostate epithelial and smooth muscle cells in patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH; J. Urol., 159: 1810-1815, 1998; J. Urol., 161: 2002-2007, 1999). In this study, we investigated the biological action of three alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists, doxazosin, terazosin, and tamsulosin, against prostate cancer cell growth. The antigrowth effect of the three alpha1-adrenoceptor antagonists was examined in two human prostate cancer cell lines, PC-3 and DU-145, and a prostate smooth muscle cell primary culture, SMC-1, on the basis of: (a) cell viability assay; (b) rate of DNA synthesis; and (c) induction of apoptosis. Our results indicate that treatment of prostate cancer cells with doxazosin or terazosin results in a significant loss of cell viability, via induction of apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, whereas tamsulosin had no effect on prostate cell growth. Neither doxazosin nor terazosin exerted a significant effect on the rate of cell proliferation in prostate cancer cells. Exposure to phenoxybenzamine, an irreversible inhibitor of alpha1-adrenoceptors, does not abrogate the apoptotic effect of doxazosin or terazosin against human prostate cancer or smooth muscle cells. This suggests that the apoptotic activity of doxazosin and terazosin against prostate cells is independent of their capacity to antagonize alpha1-adrenoceptors. Furthermore, an in vivo efficacy trial demonstrated that doxazosin administration (at tolerated pharmacologically relevant doses) in SCID mice bearing PC-3 prostate cancer xenografts resulted in a significant inhibition of tumor growth. These findings demonstrate the ability of doxazosin and terazosin (but not tamsulosin) to suppress prostate cancer cell growth in vitro and in vivo by inducing apoptosis without affecting cell proliferation. This evidence provides the rationale for targeting both

  20. Relation between the secondary structure of carbohydrate residues of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) and the fluorescence of the protein.

    PubMed

    Albani, Jihad R

    2003-05-01

    We studied in this work the relation that exists between the secondary structure of the glycans of alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein and the fluorescence of the Trp residues of the protein. We calculated for that the efficiency of quenching and the radiative and non-radiative constants. Our results indicate that the glycans display a spatial structure that is modified upon asialylation. The asialylated conformation is closer to the protein matrix than the sialylated form, inducing by that a decrease in the fluorescence parameters of the Trp residues. In fact, the mean quantum yield of Trp residues in sialylated and asialylated alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein are 0.0645 and 0.0385, respectively. Analysis of the fluorescence emission of alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein as the result of two contributions (surface and hydrophobic domains) indicates that quantum yields of both classes of Trp residues are lower when the protein is in the asialylated form. Also, the mean fluorescence lifetime of Trp residues decreases from 2.285 ns in the sialylated protein to 1.948 ns in the asialylated one. The radiative rate constant k(r) of the Trp residues in the sialylated alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein is higher than that in the asialylated protein. Thus, the carbohydrate residues are closer to the Trp residues in the absence of sialic acid. The modification of the spatial conformation of the glycans upon asialylation is confirmed by the decrease of the fluorescence lifetimes of Calcofluor, a fluorophore that binds to the carbohydrate residues. Finally, thermal intensity quenching of Calcofluor bound to alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein shows that the carbohydrate residues have slower residual motions in the absence of sialic acid residues.

  1. Evidence for two concentration-dependent processes for beta-subunit effects on alpha1B calcium channels.

    PubMed Central

    Cantí, C; Davies, A; Berrow, N S; Butcher, A J; Page, K M; Dolphin, A C

    2001-01-01

    beta-Subunits of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels regulate both their expression and biophysical properties. We have injected a range of concentrations of beta3-cDNA into Xenopus oocytes, with a fixed concentration of alpha1B (Ca(V)2.2) cDNA, and have quantified the corresponding linear increase of beta3 protein. The concentration dependence of a number of beta3-dependent processes has been studied. First, the dependence of the a1B maximum conductance on beta3-protein occurs with a midpoint around the endogenous concentration of beta3 (approximately 17 nM). This may represent the interaction of the beta-subunit, responsible for trafficking, with the I-II linker of the nascent channel. Second, the effect of beta3-subunits on the voltage dependence of steady-state inactivation provides evidence for two channel populations, interpreted as representing alpha1B without or with a beta3-subunit, bound with a lower affinity of 120 nM. Third, the effect of beta3 on the facilitation rate of G-protein-modulated alpha1B currents during a depolarizing prepulse to +100 mV provides evidence for the same two populations, with the rapid facilitation rate being attributed to Gbetagamma dissociation from the beta-subunit-bound alpha1B channels. The data are discussed in terms of two hypotheses, either binding of two beta-subunits to the alpha1B channel or a state-dependent alteration in affinity of the channel for the beta-subunit. PMID:11509358

  2. Distribution of primaquine in human blood: Drug-binding to alpha 1-glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, E.; Frischer, H. )

    1990-12-01

    To clarify the distribution of the antimalarial primaquine in human blood, we measured the drug separately in the liquid, cellular, and ultrafiltrate phases. Washed red cells resuspended at a hematocrit of 0.4 were exposed to a submaximal therapeutic level of 250 ng/ml of carbon 14-labeled primaquine. The tracer was recovered quantitatively in separated plasma and red cells. Over 75% of the total labeled drug was found in red cells suspended in saline solution, but only 10% to 30% in red cells suspended in plasma. The plasma effect was not mediated by albumin. Studies with alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AGP), tris(2-butoxyethyl)phosphate, an agent that displaces AGP-bound drugs, and cord blood known to have decreased AGP established that primaquine binds to physiologic amounts of the glycoprotein in plasma. Red cell primaquine concentration increased linearly as AGP level fell and as the free drug fraction rose. We suggest that clinical blood levels of primaquine include the red cell fraction or whole blood level because (1) erythrocytic primaquine is a sizable and highly variable component of the total drug in blood; (2) this component reflects directly the free drug in plasma, and inversely the extent of binding to AGP; (3) the amount of free primaquine may influence drug transport into specific tissues in vivo; and (4) fluctuations of AGP, an acute-phase reactant that increases greatly in patients with malaria and other infections, markedly affect the partition of primaquine in blood. Because AGP binds many basic drugs, unrecognized primaquine-drug interactions may exist.

  3. Regulation of alpha-1 acid glycoprotein synthesis by porcine hepatocytes in monolayer culture.

    PubMed

    Caperna, T J; Shannon, A E; Stoll, M; Blomberg, L A; Ramsay, T G

    2015-07-01

    Alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP, orosomucoid, ORM-1) is a highly glycosylated mammalian acute-phase protein, which is synthesized primarily in the liver and represents the major serum protein in newborn pigs. Recent data have suggested that the pig is unique in that AGP is a negative acute-phase protein in this species, and its circulating concentration appears to be associated with growth rate. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the regulation of AGP synthesis in hepatocytes prepared from suckling piglets and to provide a framework to compare its regulation with that of haptoglobin (HP), a positive acute-phase protein. Hepatocytes were isolated from preweaned piglets and maintained in serum-free monolayer culture for up to 72 h. The influences of hormones, cytokines, and redox modifiers on the expression and secretion of AGP and HP were determined by relative polymerase chain reaction and by measuring the concentration of each protein secreted into culture medium. The messenger RNA abundance and/or secretion of AGP protein was enhanced by interleukin (IL)-17a, IL-1, and resveratrol and inhibited by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF), oncostatin M, and thyroid hormone (P < 0.05). HP expression and synthesis were upregulated by oncostatin M, IL-6, and dexamethasone and downregulated by TNF (P < 0.01). The overall messenger RNA expression at 24 h was in agreement with the secreted protein patterns confirming that control of these proteins in hepatocytes is largely transcriptional. Moreover, these data support the consideration that AGP is a negative acute-phase reactant and appears to be regulated by cytokines (with the exception of TNF) and hormones primarily in a manner opposite to that of the positive acute-phase protein, HP.

  4. Alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein is contained in bovine neutrophil granules and released after activation.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mizanur M D; Miranda-Ribera, Alba; Lecchi, Cristina; Bronzo, Valerio; Sartorelli, Paola; Franciosi, Federica; Ceciliani, Fabrizio

    2008-09-15

    The present study was designed to investigate the capability of bovine neutrophil granulocytes to produce the minor acute phase protein alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein (AGP, Orososmucoid). Bovine neutrophils contain a high MW (50-60kDa) AGP isoform (PMN-AGP), as determined by Western blotting and confirmed by fluorescence microscopy. The presence of AGP in bovine neutrophils has been confirmed by fluorescence immunocytometry. In addition, bovine neutrophils contain also a 42-45kDa isoform, which has the same MW as plasma-, liver-delivered, AGP. cDNA sequence of plasma- and PMN-AGP revealed that (i) the two proteins are products of the same gene; (ii) the differences in molecular weight are due do different post-translational modifications. This result was confirmed by deglycosylation of the two glycoforms. Exocytosis studies showed that isolated neutrophils exposed to several challengers, including Zymosan activated serum (ZAS) and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), which mimic the inflammatory activation, released PMN-AGP as early as 15min. AGP's mRNA is physiologically expressed by mature resting neutrophils. Real-time PCR on LPS, ZAS and PMA challenged cells revealed that the level of expression apparently does not increase after inflammatory activation. Collectively, the findings reported in this paper proved that PMN-AGP: (i) is a hyperglycosylated glycoform of plasma AGP, (ii) is stored in granules, and (iii) is released by neutrophils in response to activation. Due to its anti-inflammatory activity, PMN-AGP may work as a fine tuning of the neutrophils functions in the inflammatory focus, i.e. it can reduce the damages caused by an excess of inflammatory response.

  5. C-reactive protein and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein levels in dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis.

    PubMed Central

    Rikihisa, Y; Yamamoto, S; Kwak, I; Iqbal, Z; Kociba, G; Mott, J; Chichanasiriwithaya, W

    1994-01-01

    To elucidate whether acute-phase protein responses occur in dogs infected with Ehrlichia canis, C-reactive protein (CRP) and alpha 1-acid glycoprotein (AAG) levels were serially measured in the plasma of five dogs experimentally inoculated with E. canis and 10 sham-inoculated or noninoculated control dogs. The CRP concentration was measured by a canine-specific capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the AAG concentration was measured by a canine-specific radial immunodiffusion method. In all E. canis-inoculated dogs, a 3.3- to 6.5-fold increase in the plasma CRP concentration and a 1.9- to 8.6-fold increase in the plasma AAG concentration over the preinoculation level occurred at days 4 to 6 postexposure. Despite the persistence of E. canis and high antibody titers, both CRP and AAG concentrations gradually declined to preexposure levels by day 34 postexposure. E. canis-infected dogs had mild and transient clinical signs which resolved without treatment by day 14 postexposure. The CRP and AAG concentrations in control inoculated or nontreated dogs remained within the normal range throughout the experimental period. Of 12 dogs naturally infected with E. canis, 75% had greater than 50 micrograms of CRP per ml and 83% had greater than 500 micrograms of AAG per ml. All of these 12 dogs had chronic and severe clinical signs of canine ehrlichiosis. Thus, elevations in the levels of acute-phase proteins occur in both acute and chronic canine ehrlichiosis. Determination of CRP and AAG concentrations may help in assessing the severity of inflammatory damage in dogs with E. canis infections. PMID:8027343

  6. Alpha-1-adrenergic modulation of K and Cl transport in bovine retinal pigment epithelium

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    Intracellular microelectrode techniques were used to characterize the electrical responses of the bovine retinal pigment epithelium (RPE)- choroid to epinephrine (EP) and several other catecholamines that are putative paracrine signals between the neural retina and the RPE. Nanomolar amounts of EP or norepinephrine (NEP), added to the apical bath, caused a series of conductance and voltage changes, first at the basolateral or choroid-facing membrane and then at the apical or retina- facing membrane. The relative potency of several adrenergic agonists and antagonists indicates that EP modulation of RPE transport begins with the activation of apical alpha-1-adrenergic receptors. The membrane-permeable calcium (Ca2+) buffer, amyl-BAPTA (1,2-bis(o- aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N' tetraacetic acid) inhibited the EP- induced voltage and conductance changes by approximately 50-80%, implicating [Ca2+]i as a second messenger. This conclusion is supported by experiments using the Ca2+ ionophore A23187, which mimics the effects of EP. The basolateral membrane voltage response to EP was blocked by lowering cell Cl, by the presence of DIDS (4,4'- diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid) in the basal bath, and by current clamping VB to the Cl equilibrium potential. In the latter experiments the EP-induced conductance changes were unaltered, indicating that EP increases basolateral membrane Cl conductance independent of voltage. The EP-induced change in basolateral Cl conductance was followed by a secondary decrease in apical membrane K conductance (approximately 50%) as measured by delta [K]o-induced diffusion potentials. Decreasing apical K from 5 to 2 mM in the presence of EP mimicked the effect of light on RPE apical and basolateral membrane voltage. These results indicate that EP may be an important paracrine signal that provides exquisite control of RPE physiology. PMID:1319462

  7. ALPHA-1 ADRENORECEPTORS MODULATE GABA RELEASE ONTO VENTRAL TEGMENTAL AREA DOPAMINE NEURONS

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez-Martínez, M.C.; Vázquez-Torres, R.; Rojas, L.V.; Sanabria, P.; Jiménez-Rivera, C.A.

    2014-01-01

    The ventral tegmental area (VTA) plays an important role in reward and motivational processes involved in drug addiction. Previous studies have shown that alpha1-adrenoreceptors (α1-AR) are primarily found presynaptically at this area. We hypothesized that GABA released onto VTA-dopamine (DA) cells is modulated by presynaptic α1-AR. Recordings were obtained from putative VTA-DA cells of male Sprague-Dawley rats (28–50 days postnatal) using whole-cell voltage clamp technique. Phenylephrine (10µM; α1-AR agonist) decreased the amplitude of GABAA receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) evoked by electrical stimulation of afferent fibers (n=7; p<0.05). Prazosin (1µM, α1-AR antagonist), blocked this effect. Paired-pulse ratios were increased by phenylephrine application (n=13; p<0.05) indicating a presynaptic site of action. Spontaneous IPSCs frequency but not amplitude, were decreased in the presence of phenylephrine (n=7; p<0.05). However, frequency or amplitude of miniature IPSCs were not changed (n=9; p>0.05). Phenylephrine in low Ca2+ (1mM) medium decreased IPSC amplitude (n=7; p<0.05). Chelerythrine (a protein kinase C inhibitor) blocked the α1-AR action on IPSC amplitude (n=6; p<0.05). Phenylephrine failed to decrease IPSCs amplitude in the presence of paxilline, a BK channel blocker (n=7; p<0.05). Taken together, these results demonstrate that α1-ARs at presynaptic terminals can modulate GABA release onto VTA-DA cells. Drug-induced changes in α1-AR could contribute to the modifications occurring in the VTA during the addiction process. PMID:25261018

  8. Histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)-mediated correction of α1-antitrypsin deficiency.

    PubMed

    Bouchecareilh, Marion; Hutt, Darren M; Szajner, Patricia; Flotte, Terence R; Balch, William E

    2012-11-02

    α1-Antitrypsin (α1AT) deficiency (α1ATD) is a consequence of defective folding, trafficking, and secretion of α1AT in response to a defect in its interaction with the endoplasmic reticulum proteostasis machineries. The most common and severe form of α1ATD is caused by the Z-variant and is characterized by the accumulation of α1AT polymers in the endoplasmic reticulum of the liver leading to a severe reduction (>85%) of α1AT in the serum and its anti-protease activity in the lung. In this organ α1AT is critical for ensuring tissue integrity by inhibiting neutrophil elastase, a protease that degrades elastin. Given the limited therapeutic options in α1ATD, a more detailed understanding of the folding and trafficking biology governing α1AT biogenesis and its response to small molecule regulators is required. Herein we report the correction of Z-α1AT secretion in response to treatment with the histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), acting in part through HDAC7 silencing and involving a calnexin-sensitive mechanism. SAHA-mediated correction restores Z-α1AT secretion and serpin activity to a level 50% that observed for wild-type α1AT. These data suggest that HDAC activity can influence Z-α1AT protein traffic and that SAHA may represent a potential therapeutic approach for α1ATD and other protein misfolding diseases.

  9. Altered native stability is the dominant basis for susceptibility of α1-antitrypsin mutants to polymerization.

    PubMed

    Irving, James A; Haq, Imran; Dickens, Jennifer A; Faull, Sarah V; Lomas, David A

    2014-05-15

    Serpins are protease inhibitors whose most stable state is achieved upon transition of a central 5-stranded β-sheet to a 6-stranded form. Mutations, low pH, denaturants and elevated temperatures promote this transition, which can result in a growing polymer chain of inactive molecules. Different types of polymer are possible, but, experimentally only heat has been shown to generate polymers in vitro consistent with ex vivo pathological specimens. Many mutations that alter the rate of heat-induced polymerization have been described, but interpretation is problematic because discrimination is lacking between the effect of global changes in native stability and specific effects on structural mechanism. We show that the temperature midpoint (Tm) of thermal denaturation reflects the transition of α1-antitrypsin to the polymerization intermediate, and determine the relationship with fixed-temperature polymerization half-times (t0.5) in the presence of stabilizing additives [TMAO (trimethylamine N-oxide), sucrose and sodium sulfate], point mutations and disulfide bonds. Combined with a retrospective analysis of 31 mutants characterized in the literature, the results of the present study show that global changes to native state stability are the predominant basis for the effects of mutations and osmolytes on heat-induced polymerization, summarized by the equation: ln(t0.5,mutant/t0.5,wild-type)=0.34×ΔTm. It is deviations from this relationship that hold key information about the polymerization process.

  10. Z α-1 antitrypsin deficiency and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Catherine M; McElvaney, Noel G

    2010-01-01

    The serine proteinase inhibitor α-1 antitrypsin (AAT) is produced principally by the liver at the rate of 2 g/d. It is secreted into the circulation and provides an antiprotease protective screen throughout the body but most importantly in the lung, where it can neutralise the activity of the serine protease neutrophil elastase. Mutations leading to deficiency in AAT are associated with liver and lung disease. The most notable is the Z AAT mutation, which encodes a misfolded variant of the AAT protein in which the glutamic acid at position 342 is replaced by a lysine. More than 95% of all individuals with AAT deficiency carry at least one Z allele. ZAAT protein is not secreted effectively and accumulates intracellularly in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of hepatocytes and other AAT-producing cells. This results in a loss of function associated with decreased circulating and intrapulmonary levels of AAT. However, the misfolded protein acquires a toxic gain of function that impacts on the ER. A major function of the ER is to ensure correct protein folding. ZAAT interferes with this function and promotes ER stress responses and inflammation. Here the signalling pathways activated during ER stress in response to accumulation of ZAAT are described and therapeutic strategies that can potentially relieve ER stress are discussed. PMID:21577302

  11. α-1 Antitrypsin Inhibits Caspase-3 Activity, Preventing Lung Endothelial Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Petrache, Irina; Fijalkowska, Iwona; Medler, Terry R.; Skirball, Jarrett; Cruz, Pedro; Zhen, Lijie; Petrache, Horia I.; Flotte, Terence R.; Tuder, Rubin M.

    2006-01-01

    α-1 Antitrypsin (A1AT) is an abundant circulating serpin with a postulated function in the lung of potently inhibiting neutrophil-derived proteases. Emphysema attributable to A1AT deficiency led to the concept that a protease/anti-protease imbalance mediates cigarette smoke-induced emphysema. We hypothesized that A1AT has other pathobiological relevant functions in addition to elastase inhibition. We demonstrate a direct prosurvival effect of A1AT through inhibition of lung alveolar endothelial cell apoptosis. Primary pulmonary endothelial cells internalized human A1AT, which co-localized with and inhibited staurosporine-induced caspase-3 activation. In cell-free studies, native A1AT, but not conformers lacking an intact reactive center loop, inhibited the interaction of recombinant active caspase-3 with its specific substrate. Furthermore, overexpression of human A1AT via replication-deficient adeno-associated virus markedly attenuated alveolar wall destruction and oxidative stress caused by caspase-3 instillation in a mouse model of apoptosis-dependent emphysema. Our findings suggest that direct inhibition of active caspase-3 by A1AT may represent a novel anti-apoptotic mechanism relevant to disease processes characterized by excessive structural cell apoptosis, oxidative stress, and inflammation, such as pulmonary emphysema. PMID:17003475

  12. Fecal calprotectin and α1-antitrypsin dynamics in gastrointestinal GvHD.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, A; Kapel, N; Xhaard, A; Sicre de Fontbrune, F; Manéné, D; Dhedin, N; de Latour, R P; Socié, G; Robin, M

    2015-08-01

    In a previous study, the fecal biomarkers calprotectin and α1-antitrypsin (α1-AT) at symptom onset were reported to be significantly associated with the response to steroids in gastrointestinal GvHD (GI-GvHD). The purpose of this trial was to evaluate the dynamics of the fecal biomarkers calprotectin and α1-AT throughout the course of GvHD. Patients who were refractory to steroids had initially higher biomarker levels and in the course of GvHD demonstrated a continuous increase in fecal biomarkers. In contrast, the dynamics of calprotectin and α1-AT demonstrated low and decreasing levels in cortico-sensitive GvHD. In steroid-refractory patients who received a second line of treatment, the biomarker levels at the beginning of second-line treatment did not predict the subsequent response. Nevertheless, calprotectin levels progressively decreased in subsequent responders, whereas non-responders demonstrated continuously high levels of calprotectin. α1-AT values correlated to a lesser extent with the response to second-line treatment and remained elevated in both non-responders and responders. In conclusion, calprotectin monitoring can be of use in the management of immunosuppressive treatment in GI-GvHD.

  13. T Helper Subsets, Peripheral Plasticity, and the Acute Phase Protein, α1-Antitrypsin

    PubMed Central

    Baranovski, Boris M.; Freixo-Lima, Gabriella S.; Lewis, Eli C.; Rider, Peleg

    2015-01-01

    The traditional model of T helper differentiation describes the naïve T cell as choosing one of several subsets upon stimulation and an added reciprocal inhibition aimed at maintaining the chosen subset. However, to date, evidence is mounting to support the presence of subset plasticity. This is, presumably, aimed at fine-tuning adaptive immune responses according to local signals. Reprograming of cell phenotype is made possible by changes in activation of master transcription factors, employing epigenetic modifications that preserve a flexible mode, permitting a shift between activation and silencing of genes. The acute phase response represents an example of peripheral changes that are critical in modulating T cell responses. α1-antitrypsin (AAT) belongs to the acute phase responses and has recently surfaced as a tolerogenic agent in the context of adaptive immune responses. Nonetheless, AAT does not inhibit T cell responses, nor does it shutdown inflammation per se; rather, it appears that AAT targets non-T cell immunocytes towards changing the cytokine environment of T cells, thus promoting a regulatory T cell profile. The present review focuses on this intriguing two-way communication between innate and adaptive entities, a crosstalk that holds important implications on potential therapies for a multitude of immune disorders. PMID:26583093

  14. Response of Steroid-Refractory Acute GVHD to α1-Antitrypsin.

    PubMed

    Marcondes, A Mario; Hockenbery, David; Lesnikova, Marina; Dinarello, Charles A; Woolfrey, Ann; Gernsheimer, Terry; Loghman-Adham, Mahmoud; Gelmont, David; Storer, Barry; Hansen, John A; Deeg, H Joachim

    2016-09-01

    α1-Antitrypsin (AAT) is a serine protease inhibitor with anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic, and immunomodulatory properties. It has therapeutic efficacy in animal models of autoimmune diseases, inflammatory disorders, and transplantation. In a phase I/II open-label single-center study, we administered AAT (Glassia; Baxalta/Kamada, New Ziona, Israel) as salvage therapy to 12 patients with steroid-refractory acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). AAT was given i.v. at 2 dose levels over a 15-day course. All patients had grades III or IV GVHD with stage 4 gut involvement. After treatment, plasma AAT levels increased in both cohorts and remained within 2 to 4 mg/mL for the duration of treatment. No clinically relevant toxicities attributable to AAT were observed. GVHD manifestations improved in 8 of 12 patients, and 4 responses were complete. Six patients (50%) were alive at last follow-up (>104 to >820 days). These findings show that AAT is well tolerated and has efficacy in the treatment of steroid-refractory severe acute GVHD. Further studies are warranted.

  15. α-1 Antitrypsin Enhances Islet Engraftment by Suppression of Instant Blood-Mediated Inflammatory Reaction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jingjing; Sun, Zhen; Gou, Wenyu; Adams, David B; Cui, Wanxing; Morgan, Katherine A; Strange, Charlie; Wang, Hongjun

    2017-04-01

    Islet cell transplantation has limited effectiveness because of an instant blood-mediated inflammatory reaction (IBMIR) that occurs immediately after cell infusion and leads to dramatic β-cell death. In intraportal islet transplantation models using mouse and human islets, we demonstrated that α-1 antitrypsin (AAT; Prolastin-C), a serine protease inhibitor used for the treatment of AAT deficiency, inhibits IBMIR and cytokine-induced inflammation in islets. In mice, more diabetic recipients reached normoglycemia after intraportal islet transplantation when they were treated with AAT compared with mice treated with saline. AAT suppressed blood-mediated coagulation pathways by diminishing tissue factor production, reducing plasma thrombin-antithrombin complex levels and fibrinogen deposition on islet grafts, which correlated with less graft damage and apoptosis. AAT-treated mice showed reduced serum tumor necrosis factor-α levels, decreased lymphocytic infiltration, and decreased nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation compared with controls. The potent anti-inflammatory effect of AAT is possibly mediated by suppression of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Blocking JNK activation failed to further reduce cytokine-induced apoptosis in β-cells. Taken together, AAT significantly improves islet graft survival after intraportal islet transplantation by mitigation of coagulation in IBMIR and suppression of cytokine-induced JNK and NF-κB activation. AAT-based therapy has the potential to improve graft survival in human islet transplantation and other cellular therapies on the horizon.

  16. Directing membrane chromatography to manufacture α1-antitrypsin from human plasma fraction IV.

    PubMed

    Fan, Jinxin; Luo, Jianquan; Song, Weijie; Chen, Xiangrong; Wan, Yinhua

    2015-12-04

    The surging demand for plasma proteins, mainly driven by the growing market and the development of new therapeutic indications, is promoting manufacturers to improve the throughput of plasma proteins. Due to the inherent convective mass transfer, membrane chromatography has been proved to be an efficient approach for extracting a small amount of target proteins from large-volume feed. In this study, α1-antitrypsin (AAT) was extracted from human plasma fraction IV by a two-step membrane chromatography. An anion-exchange membrane chromatography (AEMC) was used to capture the plasma proteins in bind/elute mode, and the obtained effluent was further polished by a hydrophobic interaction membrane chromatography (HIMC) in flow-through mode. Under optimal conditions, the recovery and purity of AAT achieved 87.0% and 0.58 AAT/protein (g/g) by AEMC, respectively. After the precise polishing by HIMC, the purity of AAT was 1.22 AAT/protein (g/g). The comparison results showed that membrane chromatography outperformed column chromatography in both steps because of its high throughput. This two-step membrane chromatography could obtain an AAT recovery of 83.3% and an activity recovery of 91.4%. The outcome of this work not only offers an alternative process for protein purification from plasma, but also provides guidelines for manufacturing product from a large-volume feed with multi-components by membrane chromatography.

  17. Immunoreactivity to neurofilaments in the rodent anterior pituitary is associated with the expression of alpha 1A protein subunits of voltage-gated Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Fiordelisio, T; Jiménez, N; Baba, S; Shiba, K; Hernández-Cruz, A

    2007-11-01

    We recently reported that rodent anterior pituitary (AP) cells (with the exception of corticotrophs and melanotrophs) express neuronal markers, including 68-kDa neurofilaments (NF68) in an oestrogen-dependent manner. The functional significance of neurofilament (NF) expression in the AP is unknown, but recent data in myelinated nerve fibres from NF-null mice suggest that NFs can regulate ion channel function. Because Ca(2+) influx through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels is required for hormone secretion in AP cells, and oestrogen regulates the expression of Ca(2+) channels in AP cells, the present study examined the expression of alpha1 subunits of voltage gated Ca(2+) channels in relation to that of NF68. Using quantitative immunofluorescence, we demonstrate that alpha 1C and alpha 1D subunits are abundantly expressed in female AP cells, alpha 1A subunits are moderately expressed, and alpha 1G and alpha 1B subunits are expressed at the lowest levels. Double-immunostaining showed that NF68 expression is not correlated with that of alpha 1C, alpha 1D or alpha 1B. Expression of alpha 1G and NF68 appear to be mutually exclusive from each other. Moreover, alpha 1A subunit and NF68 expression are significantly correlated and alpha 1A immunoreactivity is sexually dimorphic (i.e. low in males and high in females) and its levels of expression vary during the oestrous cycle, similar to NF68. Finally, omega-agatoxin IVA, a specific blocker of P/Q type Ca(2+) currents that are a result of the activity of alpha 1A subunits, inhibited to a greater extent spontaneous [Ca(2+)](i) fluctuations in AP cells from females in oestrous and dioestrous, whereas cells from females in pro-oestrous and males were less affected by this toxin. These results suggest a preferential participation of P/Q-type Ca(2+) channels and hence alpha 1A subunits, in regulating spontaneous Ca(2+) transients in AP cells under conditions where the proportion of NF68-expressing cells is high. It remains to be

  18. Structures of NodZ [alpha]1,6-fucosyltransferase in complex with GDP and GDP-fucose

    SciTech Connect

    Brzezinski, Krzysztof; Dauter, Zbigniew; Jaskolski, Mariusz

    2012-03-26

    Rhizobial NodZ {alpha}1,6-fucosyltransferase ({alpha}1,6-FucT) catalyzes the transfer of the fucose (Fuc) moiety from guanosine 5'-diphosphate-{beta}-L-fucose to the reducing end of the chitin oligosaccharide core during Nod-factor (NF) biosynthesis. NF is a key signaling molecule required for successful symbiosis with a legume host for atmospheric nitrogen fixation. To date, only two {alpha}1,6-FucT structures have been determined, both without any donor or acceptor molecule that could highlight the structural background of the catalytic mechanism. Here, the first crystal structures of {alpha}1,6-FucT in complex with its substrate GDP-Fuc and with GDP, which is a byproduct of the enzymatic reaction, are presented. The crystal of the complex with GDP-Fuc was obtained through soaking of native NodZ crystals with the ligand and its structure has been determined at 2.35 {angstrom} resolution. The fucose residue is exposed to solvent and is disordered. The enzyme-product complex crystal was obtained by cocrystallization with GDP and an acceptor molecule, penta-N-acetyl-L-glucosamine (penta-NAG). The structure has been determined at 1.98 {angstrom} resolution, showing that only the GDP molecule is present in the complex. In both structures the ligands are located in a cleft formed between the two domains of NodZ and extend towards the C-terminal domain, but their conformations differ significantly. The structures revealed that residues in three regions of the C-terminal domain, which are conserved among {alpha}1,2-, {alpha}1,6- and protein O-fucosyltransferases, are involved in interactions with the sugar-donor molecule. There is also an interaction with the side chain of Tyr45 in the N-terminal domain, which is very unusual for a GT-B-type glycosyltransferase. Only minor conformational changes of the protein backbone are observed upon ligand binding. The only exception is a movement of the loop located between strand {beta}C2 and helix {alpha}C3. In addition, there is

  19. Interaction between carbohydrate residues of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) and saturating concentrations of Calcofluor White. A fluorescence study.

    PubMed

    Albani, J R; Sillen, A; Plancke, Y D; Coddeville, B; Engelborghs, Y

    2000-07-24

    Calcofluor White is a fluorescent probe that interacts with polysaccharides and is commonly used in clinical studies. Interaction between Calcofluor White and carbohydrate residues of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (orosomucoid) was previously followed by fluorescence titration of the Trp residues of the protein. A stoichiometry of one Calcofluor for one protein has been found [J.R. Albani and Y.D. Plancke, Carbohydr. Res., 318 (1999) 193-200]. Alpha1-acid glycoprotein contains 40% carbohydrate by weight and has up to 16 sialic acid residues. Since binding of Calcofluor to alpha1-acid glycoprotein occurs mainly on the carbohydrate residues, we studied in the present work the interaction between Calcofluor and the protein by following the fluorescence change of the fluorophore. In order to establish the role of the sialic acid residues in the interaction, the experiments were performed with the sialylated and asialylated protein. Interaction of Calcofluor with sialylated alpha1-acid glycoprotein induces a red shift of the emission maximum of the fluorophore from 438 to 450 nm at saturation (one Calcofluor for one sialic acid) and an increase in the fluorescence intensity. At saturation the fluorescence intensity increase levels off. Binding of Calcofluor to asialylated acid glycoprotein does not change the position of the emission maximum of the fluorophore and induces a decrease in its fluorescence intensity. Saturation occurs when 10 molecules of Calcofluor are bound to 1 mol of alpha1-acid glycoprotein. Since the protein contains five heteropolysaccharide groups, we have 2 mol of Calcofluor for each group. Addition of free sialic acid to Calcofluor induces a continuous decrease in the fluorescence intensity of the fluorophore but does not change the position of the emission maximum. Our results confirm the presence of a defined spatial conformation of the sialic acid residues, a conformation that disappears when they are free in solution. Dynamics studies on Calcofluor

  20. Activation of human alpha1 and alpha2 homomeric glycine receptors by taurine and GABA.

    PubMed

    De Saint Jan, D; David-Watine, B; Korn, H; Bregestovski, P

    2001-09-15

    1. Two ligand binding alpha subunits, alpha1 and alpha2, of the human (H) glycine receptor (GlyR) are involved at inhibitory synapses in the adult and neonatal spinal cord, respectively. The ability of homomeric alphaH1 and alphaH2 GlyRs to be activated by glycine, taurine and GABA was studied in Xenopus oocytes or in the human embryonic kidney HEK-293 cell line. 2. In outside-out patches from HEK cells, glycine, taurine and GABA activated both GlyRs with the same main unitary conductance, i.e. 85 +/- 3 pS (n = 6) for alphaH1, and 95 +/- 5 pS (n = 4) for alphaH2. 3. The sensitivity of both alphaH1 and alphaH2 GlyRs to glycine was highly variable. In Xenopus oocytes the EC50 for glycine (EC50gly) was between 25 and 280 microM for alphaH1 (n = 44) and between 46 and 541 microM for alphaH2 (n = 52). For both receptors, the highest EC50gly values were found on cells with low maximal glycine responses. 4. The actions of taurine and GABA were dependent on the EC50gly: (i) their EC50 values were linearly correlated to EC50gly, with EC50tau approximately 10 EC50gly and EC50GABA approximately 500-800 EC50gly; (ii) they could act either as full or weak agonists depending on the EC50gly. 5. The Hill coefficient (n(H)) of glycine remained stable regardless of the EC50gly whereas n(H) for taurine decreased with increasing EC50tau. 6. The degree of desensitization, evaluated by fast application of saturating concentrations of agonist on outside-out patches from Xenopus oocytes, was similar for glycine and taurine on both GlyRs and did not exceed 50 %. 7. Our data concerning the variations of EC50gly and the subsequent behaviour of taurine and GABA could be qualitatively described by the simple del Castillo-Katz scheme, assuming that the agonist gating constant varies whereas the binding constants are stable. However, the stability of the Hill coefficient for glycine was not explained by this model, suggesting that other mechanisms are involved in the modulation of EC50.

  1. Alpha-1 adrenoceptors in brown adipose tissue of lean and ob/ob mice

    SciTech Connect

    Behrens-Zaror, G.; Himms-Hagen, J.

    1986-03-01

    Obese (ob/ob) mice have a low capacity to increase thyroxine 5'-deiodinase (T4 5'-D) in brown adipose tissue (BAT) when exposed to cold. This effect is mediated by alpha-1 (A-1) adrenoceptors. The authors objective was to find out whether BAT of the ob/ob mouse has normal A-1 receptors. Saturation analysis of binding of (3H)-WB4101 at 0.05 nM to 10 ..mu..M to crude membrane preparations (100,000 g pellets from Polytron homogenates) using the LIGAND program of Munson and Rodbard, showed two populations of binding sites in BAT of lean (+/+, 11-15 wk old) mice. Acute exposure (12 h, 14/sup 0/C) or acclimation to cold (3 wk, 14/sup 0/C) did not alter affinity or concentration of sites. Displacement with yohimbine and prazosin indicated binding of WB4101 to A-1 receptors. Very young (5 wk) lean (+/.) and obese mice had similar affinity constants (lean 0.13 +/- 0.043 and 34.2 +/- 14.9; obese, 0.12 +/- 0.028 and 20.9 +/- 5.48 nM) and concentrations (lean 22.4 +/- 3.8 and 647 +/- 137; obese, 28.6 +/- 4.6 and 547 +/- 105 fmol/mg protein) of sites. Old (1 yr) mice had high affinity sites similar to those in younger animals (KD lean 0.19 +/- 0.028, obese, 0.25 +/- 0.075; Bmax lean, 60.2 +/- 12.1; obese, 63.1 +/- 13.5 fmol/mg protein). The authors conclude that the ob/ob mouse has normal high affinity A-1 receptors in BAT. Anomalous properties of low affinity binding in old ob/ob mice could not be characterized because of high nonspecific binding. BAT of the ob/ob mouse does not lack A-1 receptors but may have a post-receptor alteration in the A-1 adrenoceptor-mediated response.

  2. Short communication: Carora cattle show high variability in alpha(s1)-casein.

    PubMed

    Caroli, A; Chessa, S; Chiatti, F; Rignanese, D; Meléndez, B; Rizzi, R; Ceriotti, G

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the genetic variability of milk proteins of the Carora, a shorthorned Bos taurus cattle breed in Venezuela and in other Southern American countries that is primarily used for milk production. A total of 184 individual milk samples were collected from Carora cattle in 5 herds in Venezuela. The milk protein genes alpha(s1)-casein (CN) (CSN1S1), beta-CN (CSN2), kappa-CN (CSN3), and beta-lactoglobulin (LGB) were typed at the protein level by isoelectrofocusing. It was necessary to further analyze CSN1S1 at the DNA level by a PCR-based method to distinguish CSN1S1*G from B. Increased variation was found in particular at the CSN1S1 gene, where 4 variants were identified. The predominant variant was CSN1S1*B (frequency = 0.8). The second most common CSN1S1 variant was CSN1S1*G (0.101), followed by CSN1S1*C (0.082). Moreover, a new isoelectrofocusing pattern was identified, which may result from a novel CSN1S1 variant, named CSN1S1*I, migrating at an intermediate position between CSN1S1*B and CSN1S1*C. Six cows carried the variant at the heterozygous condition. For the other loci, predominance of CSN2*A2 (0.764), CSN3*B (0.609), and LGB*B (0.592) was observed. Haplotype frequencies (AF) at the CSN1S1-CSN2-CSN3 complex were also estimated by taking association into account. Only 7 haplotypes showed AF values >0.05, accounting for a cumulative frequency of 0.944. The predominant haplotype was B-A2-B (frequency = 0.418), followed by B-A2-A (0.213). The occurrence of the G variant is at a rather high frequency, which is of interest for selection within the Carora breed because of the negative association of this variant with the synthesis of the specific protein. From a cheese-making point of view, this variant is associated with improved milk-clotting parameters but is negatively associated