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Sample records for care controlling symptoms

  1. Symptom control.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Ingham, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Symptom control has become increasingly recognized as an important goal in patient care. In this article, advances in symptom assessment, and various definitions of symptom improvement are reviewed. Theoretical concepts underlying symptom control and clinically significant change are presented, as well as the role of symptom control as an endpoint in clinical trials. Symptom control is then surveyed in two broad categories for selected symptoms. The first area is therapy related symptoms, secondary to chemotherapy, radiation, hormonal therapy, and surgery. Symptoms reviewed include chemotherapy related mucositis, emesis, fatigue; hot flashes; and radiation related dermatitis, xerostomia, and mucositis. The second area is palliative oncologic approaches to disease-related symptoms. Results in palliative chemotherapy, palliative radiation therapy, cancer pain, and lack of appetite are summarized. Areas requiring further research are noted. Findings are presented in both a clinical and research context to help guide the reader with interpreting symptom control studies.

  2. Quality improvement in cancer symptom assessment and control: the Provincial Palliative Care Integration Project (PPCIP).

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Julie E; Howell, Doris; King, Susan; Sawka, Carol; Hughes, Erin; Angus, Helen; Dudgeon, Deborah

    2012-04-01

    The Provincial Palliative Care Integration Project (PPCIP) was implemented in Ontario, Canada, to enhance the quality of palliative care delivery. The PPCIP promoted collaboration and integration across service sectors to improve screening and assessment, palliative care processes, as well as clinician practice and outcomes for cancer patients. The project involved 1) implementation of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) for symptom screening, 2) use of "rapid-cycle change" quality improvement processes to improve screening and symptom management, and 3) improvements in integration and access to palliative care services. Symptom scores were collected and made accessible to the care team through a web-based tool and kiosk technology, which helped patients enter their ESAS scores at each visit to the regional cancer center or at home with their nurse. Symptom response data were gathered through clinical chart audits. Within one year of implementation, regional cancer centers saw improvements in symptom screening (54% of lung cancer patients), symptom control (69% of patients with pain scores and 31% of patients with dyspnea scores seven or more were reduced to six or less within 72 hours), and functional assessment (23% of all patients and 64% of palliative care clinic patients). ESAS screening rates reached 29%, and functional assessment reached 26% of targeted home care patients. The PPCIP demonstrated that significant strides in symptom screening and response can be achieved within a year using rapid-cycle change and collaborative approaches. It showed that both short- and long-term improvement require ongoing facilitation to embed the changes in system design and change the culture of clinical practice. Copyright © 2012 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Randomized controlled trial of a collaborative care intervention to manage cancer-related symptoms: lessons learned

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Jennifer; Geller, David A; Tsung, Allan; Marsh, J Wallis; Dew, Mary Amanda; Spring, Michael; Grady, Jonathan; Likumahuwa, Sonja; Dunlavy, Andrea; Youssef, Michael; Antoni, Michael; Butterfield, Lisa H; Schulz, Richard; Day, Richard; Helgeson, Vicki; Kim, Kevin H; Gamblin, T Clark

    2012-01-01

    Background Collaborative care interventions to treat depression have begun to be tested in settings outside of primary care. However, few studies have expanded the collaborative care model to other settings and targeted comorbid physical symptoms of depression. Purpose The aims of this report were to: (1) describe the design and methods of a trial testing the efficacy of a stepped collaborative care intervention designed to manage cancer-related symptoms and improve overall quality of life in patients diagnosed with hepatobiliary carcinoma; and (2) share the lessons learned during the design, implementation, and evaluation of the trial. Methods The trial was a phase III randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of a stepped collaborative care intervention to reduce depression, pain, and fatigue in patients diagnosed with advanced cancer. The intervention was compared to an enhanced usual care arm. The primary outcomes included the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale, Brief Pain Inventory, and Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy (FACT)-Fatigue, and the FACT-Hepatobiliary. Sociodemographic and disease-specific characteristics were recorded from the medical record; Natural Killer cells and cytokines that are associated with these symptoms and with disease progression were assayed from serum. Results and Discussion The issues addressed include: (1) development of collaborative care in the context of oncology (e.g., timing of the intervention, tailoring of the intervention, ethical issues regarding randomization of patients, and changes in medical treatment over the course of the study); (2) use of a website by chronically ill populations (e.g., design and access to the website, development of the website and intervention, ethical issues associated with website development, website usage, and unanticipated costs associated with website development); (3) evaluation of the efficacy of intervention (e.g., patient preferences, proxy raters

  4. Person-centred care improves self-efficacy to control symptoms after acute coronary syndrome: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Fors, Andreas; Taft, Charles; Ulin, Kerstin; Ekman, Inger

    2016-04-01

    Person-centred care (PCC) aims to engage patients as active partners in their care and treatment to improve the management of their illness. Self-efficacy is an important concept and outcome in PCC as it refers to a patient's belief in their capability to manage the events that affect their lives. Recovery after acute coronary syndrome (ACS) is demanding and a PCC approach may promote self-efficacy and thereby facilitate recovery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether a PCC intervention was able to improve self-efficacy after hospitalization for ACS. In a randomized controlled trial, patients <75 years of age and hospitalized for ACS were assigned to either a usual care group or a PCC intervention group. Self-efficacy was assessed at baseline and up to six months after discharge using the Swedish Cardiac Self-Efficacy Scale (S-CSES), which consists of three dimensions: control symptoms, control illness and maintain functioning. In total, 177 patients were included in the study: 93 in the usual care group and 84 in the PCC group. At the one-month follow-up the PCC group had improved significantly more (p=0.049) on the control symptoms dimension (mean change 0.81; SD 3.5 versus mean change -0.20; SD 3.0). No difference between groups was seen at the six-month follow-up in any of the S-CSES dimensions. Our results indicate that PCC added to usual care promotes and hastens the development of patients' confidence in their ability to manage symptoms during recovery after ACS. This underlines the importance of initiating and establishing partnerships between patients and health care professionals as early as possible after ACS. © The European Society of Cardiology 2015.

  5. Costs of an Intervention for Primary Care Patients With Medically Unexplained Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Zhehui; Goddeeris, John; Gardiner, Joseph C.; Smith, Robert C.

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study sought to determine whether an intervention for patients with medically unexplained symptoms in primary care reduced total costs, components of cost, and longer-term costs and whether it led to decreased service use outside the health maintenance organization (HMO). Methods A randomized controlled trial involving 206 patients with medically unexplained symptoms was conducted in a staff-model HMO. The protocol emphasized the provider-patient relationship and included cognitive-behavioral therapy and pharmacological management. Cost data for medical treatments were derived from the HMO's electronic database. Patients were interviewed about work days lost and out-of-pocket expenses for medical care outside the HMO. Results The difference in total costs ($1,071) for the 12-month intervention was not significant. The treatment group had significantly higher costs for antidepressants than the usual-care group ($192 higher) during the intervention, and a larger proportion received antidepressants. The intervention group used less medical care outside the HMO and missed one less work day per month on average (1.23 days), indicating a slight improvement in productivity, but the difference was not significant. The between-group difference in estimated total cost was smaller in the year after the intervention (difference of $341) but were not significant. Conclusions The total costs for the intervention group were not significantly different, but the group had greater use of antidepressants. Coupled with findings of improved mental health outcomes for this group in a previous study, the results indicate that the intervention may be cost-effective. The longer-term impact needs to be further studied. PMID:17664519

  6. Understanding the Relationships between Attachment Styles, Locus of Control, School Maladaptation, and Depression Symptoms among Students in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jankowska, Anna M.; Lewandowska-Walter, A.; Chalupa, A. A.; Jonak, Jolanta; Duszynski, Ramzia; Mazurkiewicz, N.

    2015-01-01

    Altered family experiences place children in foster care at risk for school adjustment difficulties. This study focuses on exploring the differences in school adaptation, locus of control, depression symptoms, and attachment styles among children in foster care and children raised by their biological parents. Sixty children completed self-report…

  7. Reducing the time before consulting with symptoms of lung cancer: a randomised controlled trial in primary care.

    PubMed

    Smith, Sarah; Fielding, Shona; Murchie, Peter; Johnston, Marie; Wyke, Sally; Powell, Rachael; Devereux, Graham; Nicolson, Marianne; Macleod, Una; Wilson, Phil; Ritchie, Lewis; Lee, Amanda J; Campbell, Neil C

    2013-01-01

    Most individuals with lung cancer have symptoms for several months before presenting to their GP. Earlier consulting may improve survival. To evaluate whether a theory-based primary care intervention increased timely consulting of individuals with symptoms of lung cancer. Open randomised controlled trial comparing intervention with usual care in two general practices in north-east Scotland. Smokers and ex-smokers aged ≥55 years were randomised to receive a behavioural intervention or usual care. The intervention comprised a single nurse consultation at participants' general practice and a self-help manual. The main outcomes were consultations within target times for individuals with new chest symptoms (≤3 days haemoptysis, ≤3 weeks other symptoms) in the year after the intervention commenced, and intentions about consulting with chest symptoms at 1 and 6 months. Two hundred and twelve participants were randomised and 206 completed the trial. The consultation rate for new chest symptoms in the intervention group was 1.19 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.92 to 1.53; P = 0.18) times higher than in the usual-care group and the proportion of consultations within the target time was 1.11 (95% CI = 0.41 to 3.03; P = 0.83) times higher. One month after the intervention commenced, the intervention group reported intending to consult with chest symptoms 31 days (95% CI = 7 to 54; P = 0.012) earlier than the usual care group, and at 6 months this was 25 days (95% CI = 1.5 to 48; P = 0.037) earlier. Behavioural intervention in primary care shortened the time individuals at high risk of lung disease intended to take before consulting with new chest symptoms (the secondary outcome of the study), but increases in consultation rates and the proportions of consultations within target times were not statistically significant.

  8. Medical yoga for patients with stress-related symptoms and diagnoses in primary health care: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Köhn, Monica; Persson Lundholm, Ulla; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of patients are suffering from stress-related symptoms and diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the medical yoga treatment in patients with stress-related symptoms and diagnoses in primary health care. A randomized controlled study was performed at a primary health care centre in Sweden from March to June, 2011. Patients were randomly allocated to a control group receiving standard care or a yoga group treated with medical yoga for 1 hour, once a week, over a 12-week period in addition to the standard care. A total of 37 men and women, mean age of 53 ± 12 years were included. General stress level (measured using Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)), burnout (Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ)), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), insomnia severity (Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)), pain (visual analogue scale (VAS)), and overall health status (Euro Quality of Life VAS (EQ-VAS)) were measured before and after 12 weeks. Patients assigned to the Yoga group showed significantly greater improvements on measures of general stress level (P < 0.000), anxiety (P < 0.019), and overall health status (P < 0.018) compared to controls. Treatment with medical yoga is effective in reducing levels of stress and anxiety in patients with stress-related symptoms in primary health care.

  9. Medical Yoga for Patients with Stress-Related Symptoms and Diagnoses in Primary Health Care: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Köhn, Monica; Persson Lundholm, Ulla; Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss; Anderzén-Carlsson, Agneta; Westerdahl, Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    An increasing number of patients are suffering from stress-related symptoms and diagnoses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the medical yoga treatment in patients with stress-related symptoms and diagnoses in primary health care. A randomized controlled study was performed at a primary health care centre in Sweden from March to June, 2011. Patients were randomly allocated to a control group receiving standard care or a yoga group treated with medical yoga for 1 hour, once a week, over a 12-week period in addition to the standard care. A total of 37 men and women, mean age of 53 ± 12 years were included. General stress level (measured using Perceived Stress Scale (PSS)), burnout (Shirom-Melamed Burnout Questionnaire (SMBQ)), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)), insomnia severity (Insomnia Severity Index (ISI)), pain (visual analogue scale (VAS)), and overall health status (Euro Quality of Life VAS (EQ-VAS)) were measured before and after 12 weeks. Patients assigned to the Yoga group showed significantly greater improvements on measures of general stress level (P < 0.000), anxiety (P < 0.019), and overall health status (P < 0.018) compared to controls. Treatment with medical yoga is effective in reducing levels of stress and anxiety in patients with stress-related symptoms in primary health care. PMID:23533465

  10. Ketamine-fentanyl-midazolam infusion for the control of symptoms in terminal life care.

    PubMed

    Berger, J M; Ryan, A; Vadivelu, N; Merriam, P; Rever, L; Harrison, P

    2000-01-01

    In this report, we describe nine terminally ill patients with metastatic cancer who were treated with an intravenous infusion consisting of ketamine (2 mg/ml)/fentanyl (5 micrograms/ml)/midazolam (0.1 mg/ml) (K/F/M) to control pain after traditional analgesic therapies were unsuccessful. In addition to pain, all patients exhibited some symptoms of cognitive compromise and agitation. After initiation of the K/F/M infusion, all patients exhibited some degree of qualitative improvement in these symptoms as well as in overall pain control. We feel that these observations warrant reporting of the efficacy of this infusion for the treatment of uncontrolled pain and agitation in terminally ill patients when the traditional methods of pain control are inadequate.

  11. Repurposing Medications for Hospice/Palliative Care Symptom Control Is No Longer Sufficient: A Manifesto for Change.

    PubMed

    Currow, David C; Abernethy, Amy P; Fallon, Marie; Portenoy, Russell K

    2017-03-01

    The World Health Organization essential medications list for hospice/palliative care reflects that, with the judicious use of currently available medications, the majority of symptoms can be lessened, and some controlled completely. Even with optimal use of current medications, symptom control is still unacceptable for many people. Currently available medications offer great benefit to a minority of patients, some benefit to an additional group, and no benefit or harms to others. In symptom control, development of new drugs is advancing at a glacial pace, contrasting to the rapid advances seen in many other disciplines. Specialists in palliative care should agree on several principles consequently: 1) Access to symptom-control drugs codified in the World Health Organization Essential Medicines list deserves the strongest support from national policies and professional guidelines, especially in resource-challenged countries. 2) The optimal use of currently available symptom-control drugs cannot yield acceptably high rates of net benefits. 3) There is a compelling need to identify patient subgroups that are likely to benefit from available medications and provide rigorous empirical support for indications, dosing, and route of administration for clinical practice. 4) New therapies are needed requiring an accelerated effort to investigate further the pathophysiology, neurobiology, and pharmacogenetics of distressing symptoms, and factors contributing to variations in drug response. This development requires a lengthy lead time. 5) Smarter ways to promote new knowledge into practice are needed as no drug will be suitable for all patients. We need to improve clinical characterization and biomarker technology to bring the best drugs to the right patients every time. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Supportive care needs of patients with advanced disease undergoing radiotherapy for symptom control.

    PubMed

    Fitch, Margaret I

    2012-01-01

    Many patients with advanced cancer have numerous medical complications and multiple sites involving metastases that cause distressing symptoms. Radiotherapy is often used for the palliative treatment of these patients, especially those with bone metastases. There is a lack of information about the types of supportive care needs these patients experience, the services that are available for them, and whether people want help with their needs. The main purpose of this cross-sectional, descriptive study was to identify the supportive care needs (physical, emotional, social, spiritual, psychological, and practical) of patients with advanced cancer who attended the Palliative Radiation Therapy Rapid Response Clinic (PRTRRC) at a comprehensive, ambulatory cancer centre. A second purpose was to determine if patients wanted assistance in meeting those needs. A total of 69 patients participated in this study by completing a self-report questionnaire. The data provided a clear indication that a range of supportive care needs remained unmet for this patient group. Lack of energy, pain, and concerns about the worries of those close to them were the most frequently reported needs. Additionally, patients expressed a range of difficulty managing needs and many of these patients desired help to manage the identified needs. However, despite this reality, significant numbers of patients indicated they did not wish to have assistance with some needs. Suggestions for practice and future research are offered to assist oncology nurses in providing supportive care to these patients.

  13. Symptoms of adult chronic and acute leukaemia before diagnosis: large primary care case-control studies using electronic records

    PubMed Central

    Shephard, Elizabeth A; Neal, Richard D; Rose, Peter W; Walter, Fiona M; Hamilton, Willie

    2016-01-01

    Background Leukaemia is the eleventh commonest UK cancer. The four main subtypes have different clinical profiles, particularly between chronic and acute types. Aim To identify the symptom profiles of chronic and acute leukaemia in adults in primary care. Design and setting Matched case-control studies using Clinical Practice Research Datalink records. Method Putative symptoms of leukaemia were identified in the year before diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was used for analysis, and positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated to estimate risk. Results Of cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2009, 4655 were aged ≥40 years (2877 chronic leukaemia (CL), 937 acute leukaemia (AL), 841 unreported subtype). Ten symptoms were independently associated with CL, the three strongest being: lymphadenopathy (odds ratio [OR] 22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 13 to 36), weight loss (OR 3.0, 95% CI = 2.1 to 4.2), and bruising (OR 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6 to 3.2). Thirteen symptoms were independently associated with AL, the three strongest being: nosebleeds and/or bleeding gums (OR 5.7, 95% CI = 3.1 to 10), fever (OR 5.3, 95% CI = 2.7 to 10), and fatigue (OR 4.4, 95% CI = 3.3 to 6.0). No individual symptom or combination of symptoms had a PPV >1%. Conclusion The symptom profiles of CL and AL have both overlapping and distinct features. This presents a dichotomy for GPs: diagnosis, by performing a full blood count, is easy; however, the symptoms of leukaemia are non-specific and of relatively low risk. This explains why many leukaemia diagnoses are unexpected findings. PMID:26917658

  14. Symptoms of adult chronic and acute leukaemia before diagnosis: large primary care case-control studies using electronic records.

    PubMed

    Shephard, Elizabeth A; Neal, Richard D; Rose, Peter W; Walter, Fiona M; Hamilton, Willie

    2016-03-01

    Leukaemia is the eleventh commonest UK cancer. The four main subtypes have different clinical profiles, particularly between chronic and acute types. To identify the symptom profiles of chronic and acute leukaemia in adults in primary care. Matched case-control studies using Clinical Practice Research Datalink records. Putative symptoms of leukaemia were identified in the year before diagnosis. Conditional logistic regression was used for analysis, and positive predictive values (PPVs) were calculated to estimate risk. Of cases diagnosed between 2000 and 2009, 4655 were aged ≥40 years (2877 chronic leukaemia (CL), 937 acute leukaemia (AL), 841 unreported subtype). Ten symptoms were independently associated with CL, the three strongest being: lymphadenopathy (odds ratio [OR] 22, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 13 to 36), weight loss (OR 3.0, 95% CI = 2.1 to 4.2), and bruising (OR 2.3, 95% CI = 1.6 to 3.2). Thirteen symptoms were independently associated with AL, the three strongest being: nosebleeds and/or bleeding gums (OR 5.7, 95% CI = 3.1 to 10), fever (OR 5.3, 95% CI = 2.7 to 10), and fatigue (OR 4.4, 95% CI = 3.3 to 6.0). No individual symptom or combination of symptoms had a PPV >1%. The symptom profiles of CL and AL have both overlapping and distinct features. This presents a dichotomy for GPs: diagnosis, by performing a full blood count, is easy; however, the symptoms of leukaemia are non-specific and of relatively low risk. This explains why many leukaemia diagnoses are unexpected findings. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.

  15. Enhanced depression care for patients with acute coronary syndrome and persistent depressive symptoms: coronary psychosocial evaluation studies randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Davidson, Karina W; Rieckmann, Nina; Clemow, Lynn; Schwartz, Joseph E; Shimbo, Daichi; Medina, Vivian; Albanese, Gabrielle; Kronish, Ian; Hegel, Mark; Burg, Matthew M

    2010-04-12

    Depressive symptoms are an established predictor of mortality and major adverse cardiac events (defined as nonfatal myocardial infarction or hospitalization for unstable angina or urgent/emergency revascularizations) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study was conducted to determine the acceptability and efficacy of enhanced depression treatment in patients with ACS. A 3-month observation period to identify patients with ACS and persistent depressive symptoms was followed by a 6-month randomized controlled trial. From January 1, 2005, through February 29, 2008, 237 patients with ACS from 5 hospitals were enrolled, including 157 persistently depressed patients randomized to intervention (initial patient preference for problem-solving therapy and/or pharmacotherapy, then a stepped-care approach; 80 patients) or usual care (77 patients) and 80 nondepressed patients who underwent observational evaluation. The primary outcome was patient satisfaction with depression care. Secondary outcomes were depressive symptom changes (assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory), major adverse cardiac events, and death. At the end of the trial, the proportion of patients who were satisfied with their depression care was higher in the intervention group (54% of 80) than in the usual care group (19% of 77) (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2-12.9 [P < .001]). The Beck Depression Inventory score decreased significantly more (t(155) = 2.85 [P = .005]) for intervention patients (change, -5.7; 95% CI, -7.6 to -3.8; df = 155) than for usual care patients (change, -1.9; 95% CI, -3.8 to -0.1; df = 155); the depression effect size was 0.59 of the standard deviation. At the end of the trial, 3 intervention patients and 10 usual care patients had experienced major adverse cardiac events (4% and 13%, respectively; log-rank test, chi(2)(1) = 3.93 [P = .047]), as well as 5 nondepressed patients (6%) (for the intervention vs nondepressed cohort, chi(2)(1) = 0

  16. Social characteristics and care needs of older persons with medically unexplained symptoms: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Hanssen, Denise J C; Oude Voshaar, Richard C; Naarding, Paul; Rabeling-Keus, Inge M; Olde Hartman, Tim C; Lucassen, Peter L B J

    2016-12-01

    Research in younger patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) has shown impairments in social functioning, such as loneliness and a reduced quality of the patient-doctor relationship. As far as we know, no studies have been performed on social functioning in older MUS patients; self-reported care needs of older MUS patients remain unknown. To explore social characteristics and care needs of older persons with chronic MUS, when compared to older persons with chronic medically explained symptoms (MES). Patient characteristics of 107 older persons (>60 years) with chronic MUS were compared to 150 older persons with chronic MES in a case-control design. Participants were recruited via advertisements, general practices and a specialized clinic. All participants completed questionnaires on social functioning; the Camberwell Assessment of Need for the Elderly was used to draw up care needs. Linear regression analyses were performed to explore the association between social characteristics and group (MUS/MES), adjusted for demographic and physical determinants. Multiple chi-square tests were performed to detect between-group differences regarding care needs. After adjustments, older MUS patients were slightly but significantly lonelier, reported a somewhat lower quality of their patient-doctor relationship, but reported equal social support levels when compared to MES patients. MUS patients more often reported unmet care needs regarding health and information provision about their health status. Only small differences in social functioning were found between older MUS and MES patients. Possibly, training future doctors in giving acceptable explanations for the patient's complaints could improve the unmet care need of information provision in older MUS patients. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Physical Therapy in Palliative Care: From Symptom Control to Quality of Life: A Critical Review

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Senthil P; Jim, Anand

    2010-01-01

    Physiotherapy is concerned with identifying and maximizing movement potential, within the spheres of promotion, prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. Physical therapists practice in a broad range of inpatient, outpatient, and community-based settings such as hospice and palliative care centers where as part of a multidisciplinary team of care, they address the physical and functional dimensions of the patients’ suffering. Physiotherapy treatment methods like therapeutic exercise, electrical modalities, thermal modalities, actinotherapy, mechanical modalities, manual physical therapy and assistive devices are useful for a range of life-threatening and life-limiting conditions like cancer and cancer-associated conditions; HIV; neurodegenerative disorders like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis; respiratory disorders like idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis; and altered mental states. The professional armamentarium is still expanding with inclusion of other miscellaneous techniques which were also proven to be effective in improving quality of life in these patients. Considering the scope of physiotherapy in India, and in palliative care, professionals in a multidisciplinary palliative care team need to understand and mutually involve toward policy changes to successfully implement physical therapeutic palliative care delivery. PMID:21218003

  18. Depressive symptoms and gestational length among pregnant adolescents: Cluster randomized control trial of CenteringPregnancy® plus group prenatal care.

    PubMed

    Felder, Jennifer N; Epel, Elissa; Lewis, Jessica B; Cunningham, Shayna D; Tobin, Jonathan N; Rising, Sharon Schindler; Thomas, Melanie; Ickovics, Jeannette R

    2017-06-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with preterm birth among adults. Pregnant adolescents have high rates of depressive symptoms and low rates of treatment; however, few interventions have targeted this vulnerable group. Objectives are to: (a) examine impact of CenteringPregnancy® Plus group prenatal care on perinatal depressive symptoms compared to individual prenatal care; and (b) determine effects of depressive symptoms on gestational age and preterm birth among pregnant adolescents. This cluster-randomized controlled trial was conducted in 14 community health centers and hospitals in New York City. Clinical sites were randomized to receive standard individual prenatal care (n = 7) or CenteringPregnancy® Plus group prenatal care (n = 7). Pregnant adolescents (ages 14-21, N = 1,135) completed the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale during pregnancy (second and third trimesters) and postpartum (6 and 12 months). Gestational age was obtained from medical records, based on ultrasound dating. Intention to treat analyses were used to examine objectives. Adolescents at clinical sites randomized to CenteringPregnancy® Plus experienced greater reductions in perinatal depressive symptoms compared to those at clinical sites randomized to individual care (p = .003). Increased depressive symptoms from second to third pregnancy trimester were associated with shorter gestational age at delivery and preterm birth (<37 weeks gestation). Third trimester depressive symptoms were also associated with shorter gestational age and preterm birth. All p < .05. Pregnant adolescents should be screened for depressive symptoms prior to third trimester. Group prenatal care may be an effective nonpharmacological option for reducing depressive symptoms among perinatal adolescents. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. A Pharmacist-Physician Collaboration to Optimize Benzodiazepine Use for Anxiety and Sleep Symptom Control in Primary Care.

    PubMed

    Furbish, Shannon M L; Kroehl, Miranda E; Loeb, Danielle F; Lam, Huong Mindy; Lewis, Carmen L; Nelson, Jennifer; Chow, Zeta; Trinkley, Katy E

    2017-08-01

    Benzodiazepines are prescribed inappropriately in up to 40% of outpatients. The purpose of this study is to describe a collaborative team-based care model in which clinical pharmacists work with primary care providers (PCPs) to improve the safe use of benzodiazepines for anxiety and sleep disorders and to assess the preliminary results of the impact of the clinical service on patient outcomes. Adult patients were eligible if they received care from the academic primary care clinic, were prescribed a benzodiazepine chronically, and were not pregnant or managed by psychiatry. Outcomes included baseline PCP confidence and knowledge of appropriate benzodiazepine use, patient symptom severity, and medication changes. Twenty-five of 57 PCPs responded to the survey. PCPs reported greater confidence in diagnosing and treating generalized anxiety and panic disorders than sleep disorder and had variable knowledge of appropriate benzodiazepine prescribing. Twenty-nine patients had at least 1 visit. Over 44 total patient visits, 59% resulted in the addition or optimization of a nonbenzodiazepine medication and 46% resulted in the discontinuation or optimization of a benzodiazepine. Generalized anxiety symptom severity scores significantly improved (-2.0; 95% confidence interval (CI): -3.57 to -0.43). Collaborative team-based models that include clinical pharmacists in primary care can assist in optimizing high-risk benzodiazepine use. Although these findings suggest improvements in safe medication use and symptoms, additional studies are needed to confirm these preliminary results.

  20. Collaborative care for sick-listed workers with major depressive disorder: a randomised controlled trial from the Netherlands Depression Initiative aimed at return to work and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Vlasveld, Moniek C; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Adèr, Herman J; Anema, Johannes R; Hoedeman, Rob; van Mechelen, Willem; Beekman, Aartjan T F

    2013-04-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is associated with absenteeism. In this study, the effectiveness of collaborative care, with a focus on return to work (RTW), was evaluated in its effect on depressive symptoms and the duration until RTW in sick-listed workers with MDD in the occupational health setting. In this randomised controlled trial, 126 sick-listed workers with MDD were randomised to usual care (N=61) or collaborative care (N=65). Collaborative care was applied by the occupational physician care manager, supported by a web-based tracking system and a consultant psychiatrist. Primary outcome measure was time to response. Secondary outcome measures were time to remission, depressive symptoms as continuous measure and the duration until full RTW. Collaborative care participants had a shorter time to response, with a difference of 2.8 months. However, no difference was found on time to remission or depressive symptoms as continuous measure. With a mean of 190 days in the collaborative care group, and 210 days in the usual care group, the groups did not differ significantly from each other in the duration until full RTW. Adherence to the collaborative care intervention was low. These results do not justify a widespread implementation of collaborative care in occupational healthcare, as it was operationalised in this study. However, since the study might have been underpowered for RTW and because treatment integrity was low, further research, with larger sample sizes, is needed to develop the best fitting (collaborative care) model for addressing RTW in depressed sick-listed workers. : ISRCTN78462860.

  1. Symptom Management and End of Life Care

    PubMed Central

    Rudnicki, Stacy; McVey, April L.; Jackson, Carlayne E.; Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Synopsis The number of available symptomatic treatments has markedly enhanced the care of patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Once thought to be “untreatable”, patients with ALS today clearly benefit from multidisciplinary care. The impact of such care on the disease course, including rate of progression and mortality, has surpassed the treatment effects commonly sought in clinical drug trials. Unfortunately, there are few randomized controlled trials of medications or interventions addressing symptom management which has resulted in the need for physicians to base their selection of specific therapies upon personal experience and anecdotal reports (1 Forshew). In this review, we will provide the level of evidence, when available, for each intervention that is currently considered “standard of care” by consensus opinion. PMID:26515628

  2. Effectiveness of a primary care based complex intervention to promote self-management in patients presenting psychiatric symptoms: study protocol of a cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Anxiety, Depression and Somatoform (ADSom) disorders are highly prevalent in primary care. Managing these disorders is time-consuming and requires strong commitment on behalf of the General Practitioners (GPs). Furthermore, the management of these patients is restricted by the high patient turnover rates in primary care practices, especially in the German health care system. In order to address this problem, we implement a complex, low-threshold intervention by an Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) using a mixture of case management and counseling techniques to promote self-management in these patients. Here we present the protocol of the “Self-Management Support for Anxiety, Depression and Somatoform Disorders in Primary Care” (SMADS)-Study. Methods/Design The study is designed as a cluster-randomized controlled trial, comparing an intervention and a control group of 10 primary care practices in each case. We will compare the effectiveness of the intervention applied by an APN with usual GP-care. A total of 340 participants will be enrolled in the study, 170 in either arm. We use the Patient Health Questionnaire-German version (PHQ-D) as a screening tool for psychiatric symptoms, including patients with a score above 5 on any of the three symptom scales. The primary outcome is self-efficacy, measured by the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), here used as a proxy for self-management. As secondary outcomes we include the PHQ-D symptom load and questionnaires regarding coping with illness and health related quality of life. Outcome assessments will be applied 8 weeks and 12 months after the baseline assessment. Discussion The SMADS-study evaluates a complex, low threshold intervention for ambulatory patients presenting ADSom-symptoms, empowering them to better manage their condition, as well as improving their motivation to engage in self-help and health-seeking behaviour. The benefit of the intervention will be substantiated, when patients can enhance

  3. Home Care Nursing Improves Cancer Symptom Management

    Cancer.gov

    Home care nursing (HCN) improves the management of symptoms in breast and colorectal cancer patients who take the oral chemotherapy drug capecitabine, according to a study published online November 16 in the Journal of Clinical Oncology.

  4. Determinants of delayed care seeking for TB suggestive symptoms in Seru district, Oromiya region, Ethiopia: a community based unmatched case-control study.

    PubMed

    Yirgu, Robel; Lemessa, Firaol; Hirpa, Selamawit; Alemayehu, Abraham; Klinkenberg, Eveline

    2017-04-20

    Early tuberculosis (TB) case finding and adequate chemotherapy are essential for interrupting disease transmission and preventing complications due to delayed care seeking. This study was undertaken in order to provide insights into the magnitude and determinants of patient delay. The study was conducted in rural Seru district, employing a population based unmatched case-control study design. The WHO standardized TB screening tool was used to identify presumptive TB cases among the district population ages > 15 years. Presumptive TB cases who sought care in a health facility more than 14 days after the onset of symptoms were considered cases while those who sought care within the first 14 days were classified as controls. A structured interview questionnaire was used to capture socio demographic characteristics and health care service utilization related data from the study participants. A multiple binary logistic regression model was used to identify any factor associated with patient care seeking delay. A total of 9,782 individuals were screened, of which 980 (10%, 95% CI; 9.4-10.5%) presumptive TB cases were identified. From these cases 358 (76%, 95% CI; 75.6%-76.4%) sought care within the first 14 days of the onset of symptoms with a median patient delay of 15 days, IQR (5-30 days). The most common TB suggestive symptom mentioned by the participants was night sweat 754 (76.4%) while the least common was a history of contact with a confirmed TB case in the past one year 207 (21.1%). Individuals in the 45-54 age range had lower odds of delay (AOR 0.31, 95%CI 0.15, 0.61) as compared to those 15-24 years old. First TB treatment episode (AOR16.2, 95% CI 9.94, 26.26) and limited access to either traditional or modern modes of transportation (AOR 2.62, 95% CI 1.25, 5.49) were independently associated with patient care delay. Increasing community awareness about the risks of delayed care seeking and the importance of accessing health services close to the community can

  5. On-going palliative care enhances perceived control and patient activation and reduces symptom distress in patients with symptomatic heart failure: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Evangelista, Lorraine S; Liao, Solomon; Motie, Marjan; De Michelis, Nathalie; Lombardo, Dawn

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is a paucity of research about the impact of palliative care (PC) on perceived control (i.e. one’s perceived influence over outcomes or events in the environment) and activation (i.e. ability to self-manage) in patients with symptomatic heart failure (HF). Likewise, little is known about the association between perceived control, activation, and symptom distress in this patient population. We hypothesized that patients with advanced HF who received ongoing PC services (i.e. ≥2 PC consultations) vs no access or a single PC consultation would have greater improvements in perceived control and activation and greater reductions in symptom distress three months post-discharge for HF exacerbation. Methods Forty-two patients (average age 53.9±8.0 years; predominantly male (72%), White (61%) and married (69%)) participated in the study. However, only 36 (85.7%) patients completed an outpatient PC consultation of which 29 (69%) patients returned for additional follow-up visits with the PC team. Data on perceived control, activation, and symptom distress were collected at baseline and three months. Parametric statistical models were applied to draw conclusions. Results Findings showed that the patients who received ≥2 PC consultations had greater improvements in perceived control and activation than their counterparts; these increases were associated with greater reductions in symptom distress. Conclusion Our findings suggest that on-going PC interventions enhance perceived control and activation in patients with advanced HF and open up the possibility of planning larger studies to assess the effect of PC on these variables as possible mediators to improvements in self-management and clinical outcomes. PMID:24443421

  6. PALLIATIVE CARE AND SYMPTOM MANAGEMENT IN OLDER CANCER PATIENTS

    PubMed Central

    Alexander, Koshy; Goldberg, Jessica; Korc-Grodzicki, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    SYNOPSIS Older cancer patients are best served by a multidisciplinary approach with Palliative Care (PC) playing an integral role. PC focuses on symptom control irrespective of its cause and should not be associated only with terminal care. It provides an additional layer of support in the care of the cancer patient with an emphasis on quality of life. In this article, we discuss the evaluation and management of pain and other common non-pain symptoms that occur in the elderly cancer patient, as well as end of life care. PMID:26614860

  7. Palliative Care and Symptom Management in Older Patients with Cancer.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Koshy; Goldberg, Jessica; Korc-Grodzicki, Beatriz

    2016-02-01

    Older patients with cancer are best served by a multidisciplinary approach with palliative care (PC) playing an integral role. PC focuses on symptom control irrespective of its cause and should not be associated only with terminal care. It provides an additional layer of support in the care of patients with cancer with an emphasis on quality of life. This article discusses the evaluation and management of pain and other common nonpain symptoms that occur in elderly patients with cancer, as well as end-of-life care.

  8. Does Worrying Mean Caring Too Much? Interpersonal Prototypicality of Dimensional Worry Controlling for Social Anxiety and Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Erickson, Thane M; Newman, Michelle G; Siebert, Erin C; Carlile, Jessica A; Scarsella, Gina M; Abelson, James L

    2016-01-01

    Worry, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms are dimensions that have each been linked to heterogeneous problems in interpersonal functioning. However, the relationships between these symptoms and interpersonal difficulties remain unclear given that most studies have examined diagnostic categories, not accounted for symptoms' shared variability due to general distress, and investigated only interpersonal problems (neglecting interpersonal traits, interpersonal goals, social behavior in daily life, and reports of significant others). To address these issues, students (Study 1; N=282) endorsed symptoms and interpersonal circumplex measures of traits and problems, as well as event-contingent social behaviors during one week of naturalistic daily interactions (N=184; 7,036 records). Additionally, depressed and anxious patients (N=47) reported symptoms and interpersonal goals in a dyadic relationship, and significant others rated patients' interpersonal goals and impact (Study 2). We derived hypotheses about prototypical interpersonal features from theories about the functions of particular symptoms and social behaviors. As expected, worry was uniquely associated with prototypically affiliative tendencies across all self-report measures in both samples, but predicted impacting significant others in unaffiliative ways. As also hypothesized, social anxiety was uniquely and prototypically associated with low dominance across measures, and general distress was associated with cold-submissive tendencies. Findings for depressive symptoms provided less consistent evidence for unique prototypical interpersonal features. Overall, results suggest the importance of multimethod assessment and accounting for general distress in interpersonal models of worry, social anxiety, and depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Effectiveness of steam inhalation and nasal irrigation for chronic or recurrent sinus symptoms in primary care: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Mullee, Mark; Thomas, Tammy; Johnson, Sophie; Leydon, Gerry; Rabago, David; Richards-Hall, Samantha; Williamson, Ian; Yao, Guiqing; Raftery, James; Zhu, Shihua; Moore, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background: Systematic reviews support nasal saline irrigation for chronic or recurrent sinus symptoms, but trials have been small and few in primary care settings. Steam inhalation has also been proposed, but supporting evidence is lacking. We investigated whether brief pragmatic interventions to encourage use of nasal irrigation or steam inhalation would be effective in relieving sinus symptoms. Methods: We conducted a pragmatic randomized controlled trial involving adults (age 18–65 yr) from 72 primary care practices in the United Kingdom who had a history of chronic or recurrent sinusitis and reported a “moderate to severe” impact of sinus symptoms on their quality of life. Participants were recruited between Feb. 11, 2009, and June 30, 2014, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 advice strategies: usual care, daily nasal saline irrigation supported by a demonstration video, daily steam inhalation, or combined treatment with both interventions. The primary outcome measure was the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI). Patients were followed up at 3 and 6 months. We imputed missing data using multiple imputation methods. Results: Of the 961 patients who consented, 871 returned baseline questionnaires (210 usual care, 219 nasal irrigation, 232 steam inhalation and 210 combined treatment). A total of 671 (77.0%) of the 871 participants reported RSDI scores at 3 months. Patients’ RSDI scores improved more with nasal irrigation than without nasal irrigation by 3 months (crude change −7.42 v. −5.23; estimated adjusted mean difference between groups −2.51, 95% confidence interval −4.65 to −0.37). By 6 months, significantly more patients maintained a 10-point clinically important improvement in the RSDI score with nasal irrigation (44.1% v. 36.6%); fewer used over-the-counter medications (59.4% v. 68.0%) or intended to consult a doctor in future episodes. Steam inhalation reduced headache but had no significant effect on other outcomes. The proportion of

  10. Effectiveness of steam inhalation and nasal irrigation for chronic or recurrent sinus symptoms in primary care: a pragmatic randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Little, Paul; Stuart, Beth; Mullee, Mark; Thomas, Tammy; Johnson, Sophie; Leydon, Gerry; Rabago, David; Richards-Hall, Samantha; Williamson, Ian; Yao, Guiqing; Raftery, James; Zhu, Shihua; Moore, Michael

    2016-09-20

    Systematic reviews support nasal saline irrigation for chronic or recurrent sinus symptoms, but trials have been small and few in primary care settings. Steam inhalation has also been proposed, but supporting evidence is lacking. We investigated whether brief pragmatic interventions to encourage use of nasal irrigation or steam inhalation would be effective in relieving sinus symptoms. We conducted a pragmatic randomized controlled trial involving adults (age 18-65 yr) from 72 primary care practices in the United Kingdom who had a history of chronic or recurrent sinusitis and reported a "moderate to severe" impact of sinus symptoms on their quality of life. Participants were recruited between Feb. 11, 2009, and June 30, 2014, and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 advice strategies: usual care, daily nasal saline irrigation supported by a demonstration video, daily steam inhalation, or combined treatment with both interventions. The primary outcome measure was the Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI). Patients were followed up at 3 and 6 months. We imputed missing data using multiple imputation methods. Of the 961 patients who consented, 871 returned baseline questionnaires (210 usual care, 219 nasal irrigation, 232 steam inhalation and 210 combined treatment). A total of 671 (77.0%) of the 871 participants reported RSDI scores at 3 months. Patients' RSDI scores improved more with nasal irrigation than without nasal irrigation by 3 months (crude change -7.42 v. -5.23; estimated adjusted mean difference between groups -2.51, 95% confidence interval -4.65 to -0.37). By 6 months, significantly more patients maintained a 10-point clinically important improvement in the RSDI score with nasal irrigation (44.1% v. 36.6%); fewer used over-the-counter medications (59.4% v. 68.0%) or intended to consult a doctor in future episodes. Steam inhalation reduced headache but had no significant effect on other outcomes. The proportion of participants who had adverse effects was the same

  11. Increasing the acceptance of internet-based mental health interventions in primary care patients with depressive symptoms. A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ebert, D D; Berking, M; Cuijpers, P; Lehr, D; Pörtner, M; Baumeister, H

    2015-05-01

    Internet-based interventions (IBI) are effective in treating depression. However, uptake rates in routine care are still limited. Hence, this study aimed to (1) assess the acceptance of IBIs in primary care patients with depressive symptoms and to (2) examine the effects of a brief acceptance facilitating intervention in the form of an informational video on patients' acceptance of IBIs. Primary care patients (N=128) with Minor or Major Depression were randomly assigned to an intervention (IG) or control group (CG). Patients in the IG were shown a brief informational video about IBIs before receiving a questionnaire that assessed their acceptance of IBIs and other secondary outcomes. Patients of the CG filled out the questionnaire immediately. Baseline acceptance of IBIs in the CG was high for 6.3%, moderate for 53.1% and low for 40.6% of patients. Acceptance of IBIs was significantly higher in the IG when compared to the CG (d=.71, 95%-CI:.09-2.91). Except for social influence and the general attitude towards psychological treatment, all secondary outcomes were also significantly improved (e.g. effort- (d=.40) and performance-expectancy: d=.65; knowledge about Internet interventions d=.35). Depression of the participants was only assessed using a self-report measure (PHQ-9). Primary care patients' acceptance of IBIs for depressive symptoms was low but could be increased significantly using a brief acceptance facilitating intervention on the basis of an informational video. Future studies should further examine the potential of acceptance facilitating interventions for patients and health care providers to exploit the public health impact of IBIs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Reducing menopausal symptoms for women during the menopause transition using group education in a primary health care setting-a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rindner, Lena; Strömme, Gunilla; Nordeman, Lena; Hange, Dominique; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Rembeck, Gun

    2017-04-01

    Women's physical and mental ill-health shows a marked increase during menopause, which usually occurs between 45 and 55 years of age. Mental illness and somatic symptoms are common causes of long-term sick leave. Women suffer from a lack of knowledge about the menopause transition and its associated symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate whether group education for women in primary health care (PHC) about the menopause transition can improve their physical and mental ill-health. This randomized controlled study was conducted in PHC and aimed to evaluate a group education programme for women aged 45-55 years, around the menopause transition. A total of 131 women were randomized to group education or no intervention. The group intervention included two education sessions with topics related to menopause. They answered two questionnaires at baseline and at four-month follow-up: the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Change in MRS and MADRS scores over the four months. The intervention group experienced a slight reduction in symptoms while the control group mostly experienced the opposite. This study showed that it was feasible to implement group education on menopause for women aged 45-55 years. NTC02852811. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Low-intensity internet-delivered treatment for generalized anxiety symptoms in routine care: protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Richards, Derek; Timulak, Ladislav; Doherty, Gavin; Sharry, John; McLoughlin, Orla; Rashleigh, Chuck; Colla, Amy; Joyce, Ciara

    2014-04-27

    Worldwide prevalence of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is considered high; in Europe lifetime prevalence has been estimated at 4.3 to 5.9%. High levels of anxiety disorders have been reported in university students, affecting 25 to 30% of the population. Young adults are some of the most vulnerable for the onset of mental health disorders and any stressors may act as a catalyst for their onset. The absence of resources can often mean that many do not seek treatment. Other factors that impede access to resources include such things as a lack of trained professionals, personal stigma, and waiting lists. Anxiety disorders can be treated successfully; indeed brief forms of cognitive-behavior therapy have been recommended. One potential avenue for research and development is that of delivering low-intensity interventions online for students with GAD. Therefore, the current study seeks to investigate the potential effectiveness for a low-intensity online CBT-based treatment for GAD in a service-based setting; implemented as one step in a stepped-care model. The research is a service-based effectiveness study utilizing a randomized waiting-list controlled design. The active intervention consists of six weekly modules of online CBT. Participants are assigned a supporter who provides weekly post-session feedback on progress and exercises. Participants will complete the GAD-7 as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcomes include pathological worry, depression and measures of well-being. At three-months follow-up data will be collected using the GAD-7, BDI-II, PSWQ, ED-Q5 and WSAS. Post-session data will be collected on significant in-session events in treatment (HAT). A satisfaction with treatment measure will be administered post-treatment (SAT). The study will be a contribution to the potential for a low-intensity internet-delivered program implemented in a service-based setting; implemented as one step in a stepped-care model. The study will be a contribution to

  14. Pain Management and Symptom-Oriented Drug Therapy in Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Carsten; Lang, Ute; Bükki, Johannes; Sittl, Reinhard; Ostgathe, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Summary Patients with advanced life-limiting disease often suffer from symptoms that considerably impair their quality of life and that of their families. Palliative care aims to alleviate these symptoms by a multidimensional approach. Pharmacotherapy is an essential component. The objective of this review is to give an overview of symptom-oriented drug therapy for the most important symptoms in palliative care. Leading symptoms that affect quality of life include pain, dyspnea, nausea and emesis, weakness and disorientation. Careful examination and history taking help to understand the individual mechanisms underlying these symptoms. Specific pharmacotherapy provides an efficient way to achieve symptom control in the context of palliative care. PMID:21547023

  15. Electronic symptom reporting between patient and provider for improved health care service quality: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. part 1: state of the art.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Monika Alise; Henriksen, Eva; Horsch, Alexander; Schuster, Tibor; Berntsen, Gro K Rosvold

    2012-10-03

    Over the last two decades, the number of studies on electronic symptom reporting has increased greatly. However, the field is very heterogeneous: the choices of patient groups, health service innovations, and research targets seem to involve a broad range of foci. To move the field forward, it is necessary to build on work that has been done and direct further research to the areas holding most promise. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on electronic communication between patient and provider to improve health care service quality, presented in two parts. Part 2 investigates the methodological quality and effects of the RCTs, and demonstrates some promising benefits of electronic symptom reporting. To give a comprehensive overview of the most mature part of this emerging field regarding (1) patient groups, (2) health service innovations, and (3) research targets relevant to electronic symptom reporting. We searched Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and IEEE Xplore for original studies presented in English-language articles published from 1990 to November 2011. Inclusion criteria were RCTs of interventions where patients or parents reported health information electronically to the health care system for health care purposes and were given feedback. Of 642 records identified, we included 32 articles representing 29 studies. The included articles were published from 2002, with 24 published during the last 5 years. The following five patient groups were represented: respiratory and lung diseases (12 studies), cancer (6), psychiatry (6), cardiovascular (3), and diabetes (1). In addition to these, 1 study had a mix of three groups. All included studies, except 1, focused on long-term conditions. We identified four categories of health service innovations: consultation support (7 studies), monitoring with clinician support (12), self-management with clinician support (9

  16. Electronic Symptom Reporting Between Patient and Provider for Improved Health Care Service Quality: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Part 1: State of the Art

    PubMed Central

    Henriksen, Eva; Horsch, Alexander; Schuster, Tibor; Berntsen, Gro K Rosvold

    2012-01-01

    Background Over the last two decades, the number of studies on electronic symptom reporting has increased greatly. However, the field is very heterogeneous: the choices of patient groups, health service innovations, and research targets seem to involve a broad range of foci. To move the field forward, it is necessary to build on work that has been done and direct further research to the areas holding most promise. Therefore, we conducted a comprehensive review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on electronic communication between patient and provider to improve health care service quality, presented in two parts. Part 2 investigates the methodological quality and effects of the RCTs, and demonstrates some promising benefits of electronic symptom reporting. Objective To give a comprehensive overview of the most mature part of this emerging field regarding (1) patient groups, (2) health service innovations, and (3) research targets relevant to electronic symptom reporting. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and IEEE Xplore for original studies presented in English-language articles published from 1990 to November 2011. Inclusion criteria were RCTs of interventions where patients or parents reported health information electronically to the health care system for health care purposes and were given feedback. Results Of 642 records identified, we included 32 articles representing 29 studies. The included articles were published from 2002, with 24 published during the last 5 years. The following five patient groups were represented: respiratory and lung diseases (12 studies), cancer (6), psychiatry (6), cardiovascular (3), and diabetes (1). In addition to these, 1 study had a mix of three groups. All included studies, except 1, focused on long-term conditions. We identified four categories of health service innovations: consultation support (7 studies), monitoring with clinician support (12), self

  17. Control, struggle, and emergent masculinities: a qualitative study of men's care-seeking determinants for chronic cough and tuberculosis symptoms in Blantyre, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Chikovore, Jeremiah; Hart, Graham; Kumwenda, Moses; Chipungu, Geoffrey A; Desmond, Nicola; Corbett, Liz

    2014-10-09

    Men's healthcare-seeking delay results in higher mortality while on HIV or tuberculosis (TB) treatment, and implies contribution to ongoing community-level TB transmission before initiating treatment. We investigated masculinity's role in healthcare-seeking delay for men with TB-suggestive symptoms, with a view to developing potential interventions for men. Data were collected during March 2011- March 2012 in three high-density suburbs in urban Blantyre. Ten focus group discussions were carried out of which eight (mixed sex = two; female only = three; male only = three) were with 74 ordinary community members, and two (both mixed sex) were with 20 health workers. Individual interviews were done with 20 TB patients (female =14) and 20 un-investigated chronic coughers (female = eight), and a three-day workshop was held with 27 health stakeholder representatives. An expectation to provide for and lead their families, and to control various aspects of their lives while facing limited employment opportunities and small incomes leaves men feeling inadequate, devoid of control, and anxious about being marginalised as men. Men were fearful about being looked at as less than men, and about their wives engaging in extramarital sex without ability to detect or monitor them. Control was a key defining feature of adequate manhood, and efforts to achieve it also led men into side-lining their health. Articulate and consistent concepts of men's bodily strength or appropriate illness responses were absent from the accounts. Facilitating men to seek care early is an urgent public health imperative, given the contexts of high HIV/AIDS prevalence but increasingly available treatment, and the role of care-seeking delay in TB transmission. Men's struggles trying to achieve ideal images seem to influence their engagement with their health. Ambiguous views regarding some key masculinity representations and the embrace of less harmful masculinities raise questions about some common

  18. (Cost)-effectiveness of case-management by district nurses among primary informal caregivers of older adults with dementia symptoms and the older adults who receive informal care: design of a randomized controlled trial [ISCRTN83135728

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Aaltje PD; van Hout, Hein PJ; van Marwijk, Harm WJ; Nijpels, Giel; de Bruijne, Martine C; Bosmans, Judith E; Pot, Anne-Margriet; Stalman, Wim AB

    2005-01-01

    Background Dementia is an incurable disease with devastating consequences for both patients and their relatives. The objective of this study is to describe the study protocol of a randomized controlled trial with assignment to either usual care or case-management by district nurses, among informal caregivers of older adults with dementia symptoms who live at home and the older adults who receive informal care. Methods/design In this randomized controlled trial, effectiveness as well as cost-effectiveness of case-management is evaluated. It concerns case-management in early-detected patients with dementia symptoms and their primary informal caregivers. Participants are followed up to twelve months after baseline assessment. The main outcome measure of the effect evaluation is the caregiver's sense of competence to care for the older person with dementia symptoms. The economic evaluation is performed from a societal perspective. Discussion This is one of the first trials on case-management that includes an economic evaluation. In addition, it concerns a tailor-made intervention in early-detected patients with dementia symptoms and their caregivers. The results of this randomized controlled trial will provide valuable information for health professionals and policy makers on effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of early tailor-made case-management for patients and their informal caregivers. Moreover, positive effects will challenge current health care systems to move to more pro-active approaches for this group. PMID:16343336

  19. Electronic Symptom Reporting Between Patient and Provider for Improved Health Care Service Quality: A Systematic Review of Randomized Controlled Trials. Part 2: Methodological Quality and Effects

    PubMed Central

    Berntsen, Gro K Rosvold; Schuster, Tibor; Henriksen, Eva; Horsch, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    Background We conducted in two parts a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on electronic symptom reporting between patients and providers to improve health care service quality. Part 1 reviewed the typology of patient groups, health service innovations, and research targets. Four innovation categories were identified: consultation support, monitoring with clinician support, self-management with clinician support, and therapy. Objective To assess the methodological quality of the RCTs, and summarize effects and benefits from the methodologically best studies. Methods We searched Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and IEEE Xplore for original studies presented in English-language articles between 1990 and November 2011. Risk of bias and feasibility were judged according to the Cochrane recommendation, and theoretical evidence and preclinical testing were evaluated according to the Framework for Design and Evaluation of Complex Interventions to Improve Health. Three authors assessed the risk of bias and two authors extracted the effect data independently. Disagreement regarding bias assessment, extraction, and interpretation of results were resolved by consensus discussions. Results Of 642 records identified, we included 32 articles representing 29 studies. No articles fulfilled all quality requirements. All interventions were feasible to implement in a real-life setting, and theoretical evidence was provided for almost all studies. However, preclinical testing was reported in only a third of the articles. We judged three-quarters of the articles to have low risk for random sequence allocation and approximately half of the articles to have low risk for the following biases: allocation concealment, incomplete outcome data, and selective reporting. Slightly more than one fifth of the articles were judged as low risk for blinding of outcome assessment. Only 1 article had low risk of bias for blinding of

  20. Electronic symptom reporting between patient and provider for improved health care service quality: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. part 2: methodological quality and effects.

    PubMed

    Johansen, Monika Alise; Berntsen, Gro K Rosvold; Schuster, Tibor; Henriksen, Eva; Horsch, Alexander

    2012-10-03

    We conducted in two parts a systematic review of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on electronic symptom reporting between patients and providers to improve health care service quality. Part 1 reviewed the typology of patient groups, health service innovations, and research targets. Four innovation categories were identified: consultation support, monitoring with clinician support, self-management with clinician support, and therapy. To assess the methodological quality of the RCTs, and summarize effects and benefits from the methodologically best studies. We searched Medline, EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and IEEE Xplore for original studies presented in English-language articles between 1990 and November 2011. Risk of bias and feasibility were judged according to the Cochrane recommendation, and theoretical evidence and preclinical testing were evaluated according to the Framework for Design and Evaluation of Complex Interventions to Improve Health. Three authors assessed the risk of bias and two authors extracted the effect data independently. Disagreement regarding bias assessment, extraction, and interpretation of results were resolved by consensus discussions. Of 642 records identified, we included 32 articles representing 29 studies. No articles fulfilled all quality requirements. All interventions were feasible to implement in a real-life setting, and theoretical evidence was provided for almost all studies. However, preclinical testing was reported in only a third of the articles. We judged three-quarters of the articles to have low risk for random sequence allocation and approximately half of the articles to have low risk for the following biases: allocation concealment, incomplete outcome data, and selective reporting. Slightly more than one fifth of the articles were judged as low risk for blinding of outcome assessment. Only 1 article had low risk of bias for blinding of participants and personnel. We excluded 12

  1. Cancer treatment, symptom monitoring, and self-care in adults: pilot study.

    PubMed

    Williams, Phoebe Dauz; Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Ducey, Kathleen; Badura, Jody; Boltz, Kristin D; Olberding, Karmen; Wingate, Anita; Williams, Arthur R

    2006-01-01

    A descriptive study was conducted on self-reported symptoms and self-care by 37 adults receiving chemotherapy primarily for leukemia, lymphomas, or breast cancer or radiation therapy for head and neck or lung cancers. The Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist and demographic and interview forms on self-care for identified symptoms were used. Severe symptoms on the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist subscales fatigue, eating, nausea, pain, numbness in fingers/toes, hair loss, and constipation were reported by patients on chemotherapy. Those on radiation therapy reported severe symptoms on the eating, fatigue, skin changes, oropharynx, and constipation subscales.Self-care strategies were in the following categories, using complementary medicine as framework: diet/nutrition/lifestyle change (eg, use of nutritional supplements; modifications of food and of eating habits; naps, sleep, and rest); mind/body control (eg, relaxation methods, prayer, music, attending granddaughter's sports events); biologic treatments (vitamins); herbal treatments (green mint tea); and ethnomedicine (lime juice and garlic). The first category was predominantly used by patients in both treatment types. Medications were prescribed also to help control symptoms (eg, pain and nausea). Symptom monitoring and self-care for symptoms identified may be facilitated by the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist; based on reported symptom severity, care providers may prioritize interventions. A larger study needs to be done on (a) the use of the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist as a clinical tool to assess symptoms that oncology patients experience during therapy; (b) whether care providers, based on patient-reported symptom severity, can prioritize interventions--and how this influences the efficiency of care; (c) the self-care strategies used by patients on chemotherapy or radiation therapy or both; and (d) how useful these strategies are in alleviating symptoms.

  2. Effects of an interactive mHealth innovation for early detection of patient-reported symptom distress with focus on participatory care: protocol for a study based on prospective, randomised, controlled trials in patients with prostate and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Langius-Eklöf, Ann; Crafoord, Marie-Therése; Christiansen, Mats; Fjell, Maria; Sundberg, Kay

    2017-07-04

    Cancer patients are predominantly treated as out-patients and as they often experience difficult symptoms and side effects it is important to facilitate and improve patient-clinician communication to support symptom management and self-care. Although the number of projects within supportive cancer care evaluating mobile health is increasing, few evidence-based interventions are described in the literature and thus there is a need for good quality clinical studies with a randomised design and sufficient power to guide future implementations. An interactive information and communications technology platform, including a smartphone/computer tablet app for reporting symptoms during cancer treatment was created in collaboration with a company specialising in health care management. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the effects of using the platform for patients with breast cancer during neo adjuvant chemotherapy treatment and patients with locally advanced prostate cancer during curative radiotherapy treatment. The main hypothesis is that the use of the platform will improve clinical management, reduce costs, and promote safe and participatory care. The study is a prospective, randomised, controlled trial for each patient group and it is based on repeated measurements. Patients are consecutively included and randomised. The intervention groups report symptoms via the app daily, during treatment and up to three weeks after end of treatment, as a complement to standard care. Patients in the control groups receive standard care alone. Outcomes targeted are symptom burden, quality of life, health literacy (capacity to understand and communicate health needs and promote healthy behaviours), disease progress and health care costs. Data will be collected before and after treatment by questionnaires, registers, medical records and biomarkers. Lastly, participants will be interviewed about participatory and meaningful care. Results will generate knowledge to enhance

  3. Care of vaginal symptoms among HIV-infected women.

    PubMed

    Stein, M D; Cunningham, W E; Nakazono, T; Asch, S; Turner, B J; Crystal, S; Andersen, R M; Zierler, S; Bozzette, S A; Shapiro, M F

    2000-09-01

    Gynecologic disease is common in HIV-infected women. We examine the sociodemographic, clinical, and provider factors associated with the care of women with vaginal symptoms. Women enrolled in the HIV Cost and Services Utilization Study (HCSUS), a nationally representative probability sample of HIV-infected adults, were interviewed between January 1996 and April 1997. Women with vaginal symptoms who sought medical attention were asked, "Did your health care provider examine your vaginal area?" Women were also asked if they received medication for their symptoms. Among 154 women with vaginal symptoms, 127 sought care for their symptoms. Of those who sought care, 48% saw a gynecologist and 52% sought care from nongynecologists, most often their usual HIV care provider. Women who saw a gynecologist for their symptoms were more likely to have received a pelvic examination (92% versus 76%; p =.06) and vaginal fluid collection (98% versus 88%; p =.06) than those who saw their regular HIV provider. Fifteen percent of women received medication for their symptoms without having a pelvic examination; gynecologists were less likely to prescribe without an examination (8% versus 21%; p =.12). Gynecologists are more likely to provide adequate care of vaginal symptoms among HIV-infected women than nongynecologists who were HIV care providers. This specialty difference is consistent with quality of care studies for other medical conditions, but the potential gynecologic complications of inadequate evaluation and treatment warrants further investigation.

  4. Effects of Retirement and Grandchild Care on Depressive Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szinovacz, Maximiliane E.; Davey, Adam

    2006-01-01

    This study explores how grandchild care in conjunction with grandparents' retirement affects depressive symptoms, using data from the Health and Retirement Survey. The findings demonstrate that retirement moderates the influence of grandchild care obligations on well-being, measured by depressive symptoms. For retired men, freedom from grandchild…

  5. Listening to parents: The role of symptom perception in pediatric palliative home care.

    PubMed

    Vollenbroich, René; Borasio, Gian Domenico; Duroux, Ayda; Grasser, Monika; Brandstätter, Monika; Führer, Monika

    2016-02-01

    This study analyzes symptom perception by parents and healthcare professionals and the quality of symptom management in a pediatric palliative home care setting and identifies which factors contribute to a high quality of palliative and end-of-life care for children. In this retrospective, cross-sectional study, parents were surveyed at the earliest three months after their child's death. All children were cared for by a specialized home pediatric palliative care team that provides a 24/7 medical on-call service. Questionnaires assessed symptom prevalence and intensity during the child's last month of life as perceived by parents, symptom perception, and treatment by medical staff. The responses were correlated with essential palliative care outcome measures (e.g., satisfaction with the care provided, quality-of-life of affected children and parents, and peacefulness of the dying phase). Thirty-eight parent dyads participated (return rate 84%; 35% oncological disorders). According to parental report, dyspnea (61%) and pain (58%) were the dominant symptoms with an overall high symptom load (83%). Pain, agitation, and seizures could be treated more successfully than other symptoms. Successful symptom perception was achieved in most cases and predicted the quality of symptom treatment (R 2, 0.612). Concordant assessment of symptom severity between parents and healthcare professionals (HCPs) improved the satisfaction with the care provided (p = 0.037) as well as the parental quality-of-life (p = 0.041). Even in cases with unsuccessful symptom control, parents were very satisfied with the SHPPC team's care (median 10; numeric rating scale 0-10) and rated the child's death as highly peaceful (median 9). Significance of the results: The quality and the concordance of symptom perception between parents and HCPs essentially influence parental quality-of-life as well as parental satisfaction and constitute a predictive factor for the quality of symptom treatment and

  6. Unexplained neuropsychiatric symptoms in intensive care: A Fahr Syndrome case.

    PubMed

    Calili, Duygu Kayar; Mutlu, Nevzat Mehmet; Mutlu Titiz, Ayse Pinar; Akcaboy, Zeynep Nur; Aydin, Eda Macit; Turan, Isil Ozkocak

    2016-08-01

    Fahr Syndrome is a rare disease where calcium and other minerals are stored bilaterally and symmetrically in the basal ganglia, cerebellar dentate nucleus and white matter. Fahr Syndrome is associated with various metabolic disorders, mainly parathyroid disorders. The presented case discusses a 64-year old male patient admitted to the intensive care unit of our hospital diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia and urosepsis. The cranial tomography examination to explain his nonspecific neurological symptoms showed bilateral calcifications in the temporal, parietal, frontal, occipital lobes, basal ganglia, cerebellar hemisphere and medulla oblongata posteriorly. His biochemical test results also indicated parathormone-calcium metabolic abnormalities. Fahr Syndrome must be considered for a definitive diagnosis in patients with nonspecific neuropsychiatric symptoms and accompanying calcium metabolism disorders in order to control serious morbidity and complications because of neurological damage.

  7. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Symptom Management in Cancer Palliative Care

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Vincent C.H.; Wu, Xinyin; Lu, Ping; Hui, Edwin P.; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Anthony L.; Lau, Alexander Y.L.; Zhao, Junkai; Fan, Min; Ziea, Eric T.C.; Ng, Bacon F.L.; Wong, Samuel Y.S.; Wu, Justin C.Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in symptom management for cancer palliative care is very common in Chinese populations but clinical evidence on their effectiveness is yet to be synthesized. To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to summarize results from CHM randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on symptoms that are undertreated in conventional cancer palliative care. Five international and 3 Chinese databases were searched. RCTs evaluating CHM, either in combination with conventional treatments or used alone, in managing cancer-related symptoms were considered eligible. Effectiveness was quantified by using weighted mean difference (WMD) using random effect model meta-analysis. Fourteen RCTs were included. Compared with conventional intervention alone, meta-analysis showed that combined CHM and conventional treatment significantly reduced pain (3 studies, pooled WMD: −0.90, 95% CI: −1.69 to −0.11). Six trials comparing CHM with conventional medications demonstrated similar effect in reducing constipation. One RCT showed significant positive effect of CHM plus chemotherapy for managing fatigue, but not in the remaining 3 RCTs. The additional use of CHM to chemotherapy does not improve anorexia when compared to chemotherapy alone, but the result was concluded from 2 small trials only. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. CHM may be considered as an add-on to conventional care in the management of pain in cancer patients. CHM could also be considered as an alternative to conventional care for reducing constipation. Evidence on the use of CHM for treating anorexia and fatigue in cancer patients is uncertain, warranting further research. PMID:26886628

  8. Managing overactive bladder symptoms in a palliative care setting.

    PubMed

    Walton, Abigail

    2014-01-01

    The combined symptoms of urinary frequency, urgency, nocturia, and incontinence (overactive bladder) are common symptoms within an elderly population but are also seen in palliative care patients and are most often due to detrusor muscle overactivity. These symptoms can lead to a marked reduction in quality of life and pharmacological management is traditionally with anticholinergic drugs. These medications carry a high risk of side effects and are often poorly tolerated by palliative care patients. Other management approaches, however, such as the use of urisheaths may markedly improve quality of life without adding to symptom burden in patients nearing the end of life. This article highlights two cases in palliative care where overactive bladder symptoms prove difficult to manage with anticholinergic drugs. The discussion will give an overview of treatment strategies to help aid the clinician in managing these difficult symptoms in patients with a terminal illness.

  9. Buteyko technique use to control asthma symptoms.

    PubMed

    Austin, Gillian

    The Buteyko breathing technique is recommended in national guidance for control of asthma symptoms. This article explores the evidence base for the technique, outlines its main principles and includes two cases studies.

  10. Orthopedic Health: Joint Health and Care: Prevention, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Past Issues Orthopedic Health Joint Health and Care: Prevention, Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment Past Issues / Spring 2009 Table ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Prevention Regular exercise, a balanced diet, and a healthful ...

  11. Trajectories of Depression Symptoms among Older Youths Exiting Foster Care.

    PubMed

    Munson, Michelle R; McMillen, Curtis

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th birthdays. Depression was assessed with the Depression Outcomes Module and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV. Data best fit a model of three trajectory classes, describing young people (1) maintaining low levels of depressive symptoms (never depressed class, 78%), (2) with increasing symptoms (increasing class, 6%), and (3) with decreasing symptoms (decreasing class, 15%). The increasing depression group was mostly male youths who were working or in school; the decreasing class was mostly highly maltreated female youths exiting the foster care system from residential care, with low levels of employment, and in school. Implications for social work practice are discussed.

  12. "Medically unexplained" symptoms and symptom disorders in primary care: prognosis-based recognition and classification.

    PubMed

    Rosendal, Marianne; Olde Hartman, Tim C; Aamland, Aase; van der Horst, Henriette; Lucassen, Peter; Budtz-Lilly, Anna; Burton, Christopher

    2017-02-07

    Many patients consult their GP because they experience bodily symptoms. In a substantial proportion of cases, the clinical picture does not meet the existing diagnostic criteria for diseases or disorders. This may be because symptoms are recent and evolving or because symptoms are persistent but, either by their character or the negative results of clinical investigation cannot be attributed to disease: so-called "medically unexplained symptoms" (MUS). MUS are inconsistently recognised, diagnosed and managed in primary care. The specialist classification systems for MUS pose several problems in a primary care setting. The systems generally require great certainty about presence or absence of physical disease, they tend to be mind-body dualistic, and they view symptoms from a narrow specialty determined perspective. We need a new classification of MUS in primary care; a classification that better supports clinical decision-making, creates clearer communication and provides scientific underpinning of research to ensure effective interventions. We propose a classification of symptoms that places greater emphasis on prognostic factors. Prognosis-based classification aims to categorise the patient's risk of ongoing symptoms, complications, increased healthcare use or disability because of the symptoms. Current evidence suggests several factors which may be used: symptom characteristics such as: number, multi-system pattern, frequency, severity. Other factors are: concurrent mental disorders, psychological features and demographic data. We discuss how these characteristics may be used to classify symptoms into three groups: self-limiting symptoms, recurrent and persistent symptoms, and symptom disorders. The middle group is especially relevant in primary care; as these patients generally have reduced quality of life but often go unrecognised and are at risk of iatrogenic harm. The presented characteristics do not contain immediately obvious cut-points, and the assessment

  13. Trajectories of Depression Symptoms among Older Youths Exiting Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th…

  14. Trajectories of Depression Symptoms among Older Youths Exiting Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munson, Michelle R.; McMillen, Curtis

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the trajectories of depressive symptoms as older youths from the foster care system mature while also examining the correlates of these trajectories. Data came from a longitudinal study of 404 youths from the foster care system in Missouri, who were interviewed nine times between their 17th and 19th…

  15. Postmenopausal Symptoms in Female Veterans with Type 2 Diabetes: Glucose Control and Symptom Severity.

    PubMed

    Rouen, Patricia A; Krein, Sarah L; Reame, Nancy E

    2015-06-01

    While type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common condition of midlife women, few studies have examined its influence on the symptom features of menopause. To explore this relationship, we conducted a study of symptom patterns of diabetic patients using a random sample of female veterans receiving care in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare system. A cross-sectional comparison was conducted with three groups of postmenopausal respondents (ages 45-60 years) to a mailed national survey who also consented to clinical data access: no diabetes (n=90), diabetes with better glucose control (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]≤7%, n=135) and diabetes with worse glucose control (HbA1c>7%, n=102). Respondents, on average, were obese (body mass index: 33.9±0.4 kg/m(2)), 11.30±0.2 years postmenopause, with more than one chronic illness. Despite higher body mass index and increased comorbidities in women with diabetes compared with nondiabetic women, measures of mental health (anxiety, depressed mood, stress) were similar across groups. The pattern of menopause symptoms did not differ by group. Muscle aches/joint pain was the most prevalent symptom (78.6%), followed by vasomotor symptoms (74.4%). Respondents with elevated HbA1c demonstrated higher total menopausal symptom severity scores (DM-HbA1c>7: 15.4±0.8 vs. DM-HbA1c≤7%: 12.2±0.8 vs. No diabetes: 12.3±0.8; p=0.006) than the other two groups. In postmenopausal female veterans with diabetes, glucose control is associated with the severity of those symptoms commonly attributed to menopause. Joint pain is an important part of the postmenopausal symptom complex in this population.

  16. Postmenopausal Symptoms in Female Veterans with Type 2 Diabetes: Glucose Control and Symptom Severity

    PubMed Central

    Krein, Sarah L.; Reame, Nancy E.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: While type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common condition of midlife women, few studies have examined its influence on the symptom features of menopause. To explore this relationship, we conducted a study of symptom patterns of diabetic patients using a random sample of female veterans receiving care in the Veterans Affairs Healthcare system. Methods: A cross-sectional comparison was conducted with three groups of postmenopausal respondents (ages 45–60 years) to a mailed national survey who also consented to clinical data access: no diabetes (n=90), diabetes with better glucose control (hemoglobin A1c [HbA1c]≤7%, n=135) and diabetes with worse glucose control (HbA1c>7%, n=102). Results: Respondents, on average, were obese (body mass index: 33.9±0.4 kg/m2), 11.30±0.2 years postmenopause, with more than one chronic illness. Despite higher body mass index and increased comorbidities in women with diabetes compared with nondiabetic women, measures of mental health (anxiety, depressed mood, stress) were similar across groups. The pattern of menopause symptoms did not differ by group. Muscle aches/joint pain was the most prevalent symptom (78.6%), followed by vasomotor symptoms (74.4%). Respondents with elevated HbA1c demonstrated higher total menopausal symptom severity scores (DM-HbA1c>7: 15.4±0.8 vs. DM-HbA1c≤7%: 12.2±0.8 vs. No diabetes: 12.3±0.8; p=0.006) than the other two groups. Conclusions: In postmenopausal female veterans with diabetes, glucose control is associated with the severity of those symptoms commonly attributed to menopause. Joint pain is an important part of the postmenopausal symptom complex in this population. PMID:25938989

  17. Brief Behavioral Interventions for Symptoms of Depression and Insomnia in University Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funderburk, Jennifer S.; Shepardson, Robyn L.; Krenek, Marketa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how behavioral activation (BA) for depression and stimulus control (SC) for insomnia can be modified to a brief format for use in a university primary care setting, and to evaluate preliminarily their effectiveness in reducing symptoms of depression and insomnia, respectively, using data collected in routine clinical care.…

  18. Brief Behavioral Interventions for Symptoms of Depression and Insomnia in University Primary Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Funderburk, Jennifer S.; Shepardson, Robyn L.; Krenek, Marketa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To describe how behavioral activation (BA) for depression and stimulus control (SC) for insomnia can be modified to a brief format for use in a university primary care setting, and to evaluate preliminarily their effectiveness in reducing symptoms of depression and insomnia, respectively, using data collected in routine clinical care.…

  19. Psychiatric Symptoms and Barriers to Care in HIV-Infected Individuals Who Are Lost to Care.

    PubMed

    McLean, Carmen P; Gay, Natalie G; Metzger, David A; Foa, Edna B

    Past studies of barriers to HIV care have not comprehensively assessed psychiatric symptoms, and few have assessed barriers to care among people living with HIV (PLWH) who are lost to care (LTC). We examined psychiatric symptoms, barriers to HIV care, and immune functioning in PLWH who were retained in care (RIC; n = 21) or LTC (n = 21). Participants completed diagnostic interviews for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and other psychiatric disorders, self-report measures of HIV risk behaviors and psychiatric symptoms, and a blood draw to assess viral load. Compared to RIC participants, LTC participants met criteria for a greater number of psychiatric disorders and reported greater depressive symptoms and more barriers to HIV care. There were no group differences in PTSD severity, risk behaviors, or viral load, suggesting that LTC individuals experience greater psychiatric problems and perceive more barriers to care than RIC participants, but are not less likely to have achieved viral suppression.

  20. Survivorship of severe medically unexplained symptoms in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Justin; Taylor, Keryn; Boughey, Mark

    2017-09-01

    Patients who articulate their psychological distress primarily through physical symptoms (referred to as medically unexplained symptoms (MUS)) pose a challenge to the skills of most clinicians, including palliative care physicians. The philosophical underpinnings of palliative care with a stated focus on symptom management and care of the person in their psychosociospiritual context lend itself to the care of these patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics to improve identification of this patient group within palliative care. Here, we report a case series of 6 patients with severe MUS who were referred to palliative care. We use illustrative case vignettes, examine clinical and demographic characteristics and review the perspectives of the multidisciplinary team to identify the common threads. This case series highlights the complexities and challenges that are inherent in providing assessment and care for patients with MUS that present to palliative care. Characteristics that were identified included the clustering of 'trigger' symptoms, backgrounds of multiple chronic illnesses and relationship dysfunction. Patient outcomes in this group were universally poor, including the death of 2 patients. Knowledge of this patient group is vital given the likely increase in prevalence of MUS as palliative care broadens its focus earlier in the trajectory of illness. The strengths of palliative care, including psychosociospiritual assessment, multidisciplinary input and communication skills holds the potential to accurately identify patients with MUS and allow the opportunity for specialist psychiatric input with the hope of improving outcomes for patients and their families. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Complementary medicine in palliative care and cancer symptom management.

    PubMed

    Mansky, Patrick J; Wallerstedt, Dawn B

    2006-01-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among cancer patients varies according to geographical area, gender, and disease diagnosis. The prevalence of CAM use among cancer patients in the United States has been estimated to be between 7% and 54%. Most cancer patients use CAM with the hope of boosting the immune system, relieving pain, and controlling side effects related to disease or treatment. Only a minority of patients include CAM in the treatment plan with curative intent. This review article focuses on practices belonging to the CAM domains of mind-body medicine, CAM botanicals, manipulative practices, and energy medicine, because they are widely used as complementary approaches to palliative cancer care and cancer symptom management. In the area of cancer symptom management, auricular acupuncture, therapeutic touch, and hypnosis may help to manage cancer pain. Music therapy, massage, and hypnosis may have an effect on anxiety, and both acupuncture and massage may have a therapeutic role in cancer fatigue. Acupuncture and selected botanicals may reduce chemotherapy-induced nausea and emesis, and hypnosis and guided imagery may be beneficial in anticipatory nausea and vomiting. Transcendental meditation and the mindfulness-based stress reduction can play a role in the management of depressed mood and anxiety. Black cohosh and phytoestrogen-rich foods may reduce vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. Most CAM approaches to the treatment of cancer are safe when used by a CAM practitioner experienced in the treatment of cancer patients. The potential for many commonly used botanical to interact with prescription drugs continues to be a concern. Botanicals should be used with caution by cancer patients and only under the guidance of an oncologist knowledgeable in their use.

  2. Symptom monitoring and self-care practices among Filipino cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Williams, Phoebe D; Balabagno, Araceli O; Manahan, Lydia; Piamjariyakul, Ubolrat; Ranallo, Lori; Laurente, Cecilia M; Cajucom, Loyda; Guela, Daisy; Kimbrough, Mercedita; Williams, Arthur R

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess patient-reported symptoms and self-care methods used during cancer treatments, using checklists. A descriptive study was performed at the cancer institute of a national medical center in Manila on 100 patients undergoing combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy, n = 37, or chemotherapy alone, n = 63. Instruments used were (a) 25-item patient-reported Therapy-Related Symptoms Checklist (TRSC), (b) Self-care Methods (with the 25 TRSC items) tool, (c) Karnofsky Scale, (d) Demographic form, and (e) Health form. The TRSC (Philippine version) Cronbach alpha = .83. The TRSC scores inversely, significantly correlated with nurse-rated Karnofsky measure of functional status (r = -0.45; P < .001)-all evidences of internal consistency reliability, construct, and concurrent validity; similar findings were found in Midwestern United States and 2 other Asian settings. Compared with those receiving chemotherapy alone, patients who had combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy reported more symptoms with greater severity on several TRSC subscales. Self-care methods most used were in 2 categories: (a) diet/nutrition/lifestyle change (eg, modify food/eating habits; eat vegetables and fruits (papaya); use nutritional supplements; have naps, rest, sleep) to manage eating, oropharynx, nausea, and fatigue subscale symptoms; and (b) mind/body control (eg, prayer, praying the rosary, music) to relieve fatigue subscale, other symptoms. The TRSC (Philippine version) and Self-care Methods assess patient-reported symptoms and patients' self-care use. Oncology symptom management is enhanced by a valid clinical assessment tool.

  3. Palliative care in the inner city. Patient religious affiliation, underinsurance, and symptom attitude.

    PubMed

    Francoeur, Richard B; Payne, Richard; Raveis, Victoria H; Shim, Hyunjung

    2007-01-15

    Many barriers, including being uninsured or having less than comprehensive health insurance coverage, reduce access to palliative and end-of-life care by inner city minorities. Medicaid or Medicare coverage alone can limit options for pain and symptom management, especially when late referrals make it more difficult to achieve symptom control. Patient affiliation with a religion could offset perceived difficulties with pain medication as well as negative pain and symptom attitudes. Data were analyzed from the most recent assessments of 146 African Americans and Latinos enrolled in an outpatient palliative care unit of an inner city hospital. Fifty-seven percent were receiving palliative care for cancer. Compared with other patients, patients with a religious affiliation did not differ regarding pain medication stress. Uninsured patients with a religious affiliation reported more hopeful pain and symptom attitudes, while patients with a religious affiliation covered only by Medicaid reported less hopeful pain and symptom attitudes. More hopeful pain and symptom attitudes by religious-affiliated, uninsured patients may reveal adequate coping, yet also conceal problem domains. Conversely, less hopeful attitudes by religious-affiliated patients covered only by Medicaid serve as clues to coping difficulties and problem domains. Palliative care programs should carefully consider how to integrate religious support networks as pipelines for program referrals and potential partners for care. Cancer 2007. (c) 2006 American Cancer Society.

  4. Symptoms of acute posttraumatic stress disorder after intensive care.

    PubMed

    Wallen, Karen; Chaboyer, Wendy; Thalib, Lukman; Creedy, Debra K

    2008-11-01

    Admission to intensive care is often a sudden and unexpected event precipitated by a life-threatening condition, 2 determinants thought to influence the development of posttraumatic stress disorder. To identify the frequency of acute symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and to describe factors predictive of these symptoms in patients 1 month after discharge from intensive care. In this prospective cohort study, all patients meeting the inclusion criteria during the study period were invited to participate. Participants completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised, and demographic and clinical data were accessed from an intensive care unit database. During a 9-month period, 114 of 137 patients who met the inclusion criteria consented to participate in the study, and 100 (88%) completed it. The mean total score on the Impact of Event Scale-Revised was 17.8 (SD, 13.4; possible range, 0-88). A total of 13 participants (13%) scored higher than the cutoff score for clinical posttraumatic stress disorder. Neither sex nor length of stay was predictive of acute symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. In multivariate analysis, the only independent predictor of symptoms was age. Patients younger than 65 years were 5.6 times (95% confidence interval, 1.17-26.89) more likely than those 65 years and older to report symptoms. The rate of symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder 1 month after discharge from intensive care was relatively low. Consistent with findings of previous research, being younger than 65 years was the only independent predictor of symptoms.

  5. Depressive Symptoms Effect on Self Care Behavior During the First Month After Myocardial Infarction

    PubMed Central

    Niakan, Maryam; Paryad, Ezzat; Leili, Ehsan Kazemnezhad; Sheikholeslami, Farzane

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To determine the effect of severity of depression symptoms on self care behavior in 15th and 30th day after myocardial infarction (MI). Materials and Methods: Gathering data for this cross sectional study was done by Beck depression and self care behavior questionnaires in a heart especial hospital in Rasht in north of Iran. Sample size was 132 after MI patients and data collected from June 2011 to January 2012. Results: Scores of depression symptoms in 15th and 30th day after MI and score of self care behavior in these days had significant difference (P<0.0001). Spearman test showed self care behavior had significant relationship with depression symptoms (P<0.0001). GEE model also showed with control of socio demographic and illness related factors, depression symptoms can decrease self care behavior scores (P<0.001). Conclusion: Severity of depression symptoms increase in 15th to 30th day after MI. This issue can affect on self care behavior. This issue is emphasized on nurses’ notice to plan suitable self care program for these patients. PMID:25946944

  6. The benefit of minocycline on negative symptoms in early-phase psychosis in addition to standard care - extent and mechanism (BeneMin): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lisiecka, Danuta M; Suckling, John; Barnes, Thomas R E; Chaudhry, Imran B; Dazzan, Paola; Husain, Nusrat; Jones, Peter B; Joyce, Eileen M; Lawrie, Stephen M; Upthegrove, Rachel; Deakin, Bill

    2015-03-02

    Negative symptoms of psychosis do not respond to the traditional therapy with first- or second-generation antipsychotics and are among main causes of a decrease in quality of life observed in individuals suffering from the disorder. Minocycline, a broad-spectrum tetracyclic antibiotic displaying neuroprotective properties has been suggested as a new potential therapy for negative symptoms. In the two previous clinical trials comparing minocycline and placebo, both added to the standard care, patients receiving minocycline showed increased reduction in negative symptoms. Three routes to neuroprotection by minocycline have been identified: neuroprotection against grey matter loss, anti-inflammatory action and stabilisation of glutamate receptors. However, it is not yet certain what the extent of the benefit of minocycline in psychosis is and what its mechanism is. We present a protocol for a multi-centre double-blind randomised placebo-controlled clinical trial entitled The Benefit of Minocycline on Negative Symptoms of Psychosis: Extent and Mechanism (BeneMin). After providing informed consent, 226 participants in the early phase of psychosis will be randomised to receive either 100 mg modified-release capsules of minocycline or similar capsules with placebo for 12 months in addition to standard care. The participants will be tested for outcome variables before and after the intervention period. The extent of benefit will be tested via clinical outcome measures, namely the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale score, social and cognitive functioning scores, antipsychotic medication dose equivalent and level of weight gain. The mechanism of action of minocycline will be tested via blood screening for circulating cytokines and magnetic resonance imaging with three-dimensional T1-weighted rapid gradient-echo, proton density T2-weighted dual echo and T2*-weighted gradient echo planar imaging with N-back task and resting state. Eight research centres in UK and 15 National

  7. An eHealth Diary and Symptom-Tracking Tool Combined With Person-Centered Care for Improving Self-Efficacy After a Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Substudy of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Axel; Fors, Andreas; Ulin, Kerstin; Thorn, Jörgen; Swedberg, Karl; Ekman, Inger

    2016-02-23

    Patients with cardiovascular diseases managed by a person-centered care (PCC) approach have been observed to have better treatment outcomes and satisfaction than with traditional care. eHealth may facilitate the often slow transition to more person-centered health care by increasing patients' beliefs in their own capacities (self-efficacy) to manage their care trajectory. eHealth is being increasingly used, but most studies continue to focus on health care professionals' logic of care. Knowledge is lacking regarding the effects of an eHealth tool on self-efficacy when combined with PCC for patients with chronic heart diseases. The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of an eHealth diary and symptom-tracking tool in combination with PCC for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This was a substudy of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of PCC in patients hospitalized with ACS. In total, 199 patients with ACS aged <75 years were randomly assigned to a PCC intervention (n=94) or standard treatment (control group, n=105) and were followed up for 6 months. Patients in the intervention arm could choose to use a Web-based or mobile-based eHealth tool, or both, for at least 2 months after hospital discharge. The primary end point was a composite score of changes in general self-efficacy, return to work or prior activity level, and rehospitalization or death 6 months after discharge. Of the 94 patients in the intervention arm, 37 (39%) used the eHealth tool at least once after the index hospitalization. Most of these (24/37, 65%) used the mobile app and not the Web-based app as the primary source of daily self-rating input. Patients used the eHealth tool a mean of 38 times during the first 8 weeks (range 1-118, SD 33) and 64 times over a 6-month period (range 1-597, SD 104). Patients who used the eHealth tool in combination with the PCC intervention had a 4-fold improvement in the primary end point compared with the control group

  8. An eHealth Diary and Symptom-Tracking Tool Combined With Person-Centered Care for Improving Self-Efficacy After a Diagnosis of Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Substudy of a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ulin, Kerstin; Thorn, Jörgen; Swedberg, Karl; Ekman, Inger

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with cardiovascular diseases managed by a person-centered care (PCC) approach have been observed to have better treatment outcomes and satisfaction than with traditional care. eHealth may facilitate the often slow transition to more person-centered health care by increasing patients’ beliefs in their own capacities (self-efficacy) to manage their care trajectory. eHealth is being increasingly used, but most studies continue to focus on health care professionals’ logic of care. Knowledge is lacking regarding the effects of an eHealth tool on self-efficacy when combined with PCC for patients with chronic heart diseases. Objective The objective of our study was to investigate the effect of an eHealth diary and symptom-tracking tool in combination with PCC for patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods This was a substudy of a randomized controlled trial investigating the effects of PCC in patients hospitalized with ACS. In total, 199 patients with ACS aged <75 years were randomly assigned to a PCC intervention (n=94) or standard treatment (control group, n=105) and were followed up for 6 months. Patients in the intervention arm could choose to use a Web-based or mobile-based eHealth tool, or both, for at least 2 months after hospital discharge. The primary end point was a composite score of changes in general self-efficacy, return to work or prior activity level, and rehospitalization or death 6 months after discharge. Results Of the 94 patients in the intervention arm, 37 (39%) used the eHealth tool at least once after the index hospitalization. Most of these (24/37, 65%) used the mobile app and not the Web-based app as the primary source of daily self-rating input. Patients used the eHealth tool a mean of 38 times during the first 8 weeks (range 1–118, SD 33) and 64 times over a 6-month period (range 1–597, SD 104). Patients who used the eHealth tool in combination with the PCC intervention had a 4-fold improvement in the

  9. Declines with age in childhood asthma symptoms and health care use. An adjustment for evaluations.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yi-An; Song, Peter X; Clark, Noreen M

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Investigate patterns of natural decline over time with increasing age in asthma symptoms and health care use of children. Develop a statistical procedure that enables adjustment that accounts for expected declines in these outcomes and is useable when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Mixed-effects models with mixture distributions were used to describe the pattern of symptoms and health care use in 3,021 children aged 2 to 15 years in a combined sample from three controlled trials. An adaptive least squares estimation was used to account for overestimation of intervention effects and make adjustments for pre-post only data. Termed "Adjustment for Natural Declines in Asthma Outcomes (ANDAO)," the adjustment method uses bootstrap sampling to create control cohorts comparable to subjects in the intervention study from existing control subjects. ANDAO accounts for expected declines in outcomes and is beneficial when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Children under 10 years of age experienced 18% (95% confidence interval, 15-21%) fewer symptom days and 28% (95% confidence interval, 24-32%) fewer symptom nights with each additional year of age. The decline was less than 10% after age 10 years, depending on baseline asthma severity. Emergency department visits declined regardless of baseline symptom frequency (P = 0.02). The adjustment method corrected estimates to within 2.4% of true effects through simulations using control cohorts. Because of the declines in symptoms and health care use expected with increasing age of children with asthma, pre-post comparisons will greatly overestimate intervention effects. The ANDAO provides means to

  10. Mirtazapine for symptom control in refractory gastroparesis

    PubMed Central

    Malamood, Mark; Roberts, Aaron; Kataria, Rahul; Parkman, Henry P; Schey, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Gastroparesis symptoms can be severe and debilitating. Many patients do not respond to currently available treatments. Mirtazapine has been shown in case reports to reduce symptoms in gastroparesis. Aim To assess the efficacy and safety of mirtazapine in gastroparetic patients. Methods Adults with gastroparesis and poorly controlled symptoms were eligible. Participants were prescribed mirtazapine 15 mg PO qhs. Questionnaires containing the gastrointestinal cardinal symptom index (GCSI) and the clinical patient grading assessment scale (CPGAS) were completed by patients’ pretreatment, at 2 weeks, and at 4 weeks. Primary end point was nausea and vomiting response to mirtazapine using the GCSI. Secondary end point was nausea and vomiting severity assessment using the CPGAS. P-values were calculated using the paired two-tailed Student’s t-test. Intention to treat analysis was used. Results A total of 30 patients aged 19–86 years were enrolled. Of those, 24 patients (80%) completed 4 weeks of therapy. There were statistically significant improvements in nausea, vomiting, retching, and perceived loss of appetite at 2 and 4 weeks (all P-values <0.05) compared with pretreatment. There was a statistically significant improvement in the CPGAS score at week 2 (P=0.003) and week 4 (P<0.001). Of the total patients, 14 (46.7%) experienced adverse effects from mirtazapine and due to this, 6 patients stopped therapy. Conclusion Mirtazapine significantly improved both nausea and vomiting in gastroparetics after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment. Side effects led to treatment self-cessation in a fifth of patients. From these data, we conclude that mirtazapine improves nausea and vomiting, among other symptoms, in patients with gastroparesis and might be useful in select patients. PMID:28408802

  11. Staging Dementia From Symptom Profiles on a Care Partner Website

    PubMed Central

    Richard, Matthew; Leibman, Chris; Mucha, Lisa; Mitnitski, Arnold

    2013-01-01

    Background The World Wide Web allows access to patient/care partner perspectives on the lived experience of dementia. We were interested in how symptoms that care partners target for tracking relate to dementia stage, and whether dementia could be staged using only these online profiles of targeted symptoms. Objectives To use clinical data where the dementia stage is known to develop a model that classifies an individual’s stage of dementia based on their symptom profile and to apply this model to classify dementia stages for subjects from a Web-based dataset. Methods An Artificial Neural Network (ANN) was used to identify the relationships between the dementia stages and individualized profiles of people with dementia obtained from the 60-item SymptomGuide (SG). The clinic-based training dataset (n=320), with known dementia stages, was used to create an ANN model for classifying stages in Web-based users (n=1930). Results The ANN model was trained in 66% of the 320 Memory Clinic patients, with the remaining 34% used to test its accuracy in classification. Training and testing staging distributions were not significantly different. In the 1930 Web-based profiles, 309 people (16%) were classified as having mild cognitive impairment, 36% as mild dementia, 29% as moderate, and 19% as severe. In both the clinical and Web-based symptom profiles, most symptoms became more common as the stage of dementia worsened (eg, mean 5.6 SD 5.9 symptoms in the MCI group versus 11.9 SD 11.3 in the severe). Overall, Web profiles recorded more symptoms (mean 7.1 SD 8.0) than did clinic ones (mean 5.5 SD 1.8). Even so, symptom profiles were relatively similar between the Web-based and clinical datasets. Conclusion Symptoms targeted for online tracking by care partners of people with dementia can be used to stage dementia. Even so, caution is needed to assure the validity of data collected online as the current staging algorithm should be seen as an initial step. PMID:23924608

  12. Predisposing factors for musculoskeletal symptoms in intensive care unit nurses.

    PubMed

    Sezgin, D; Esin, M N

    2015-03-01

    Intensive care unit nurses have more ergonomic risks than nurses working in other units in hospital. Although musculoskeletal disorders are common among intensive care nurses, studies on the prevalence of symptoms, as well as associated factors, are scarce. This is a cross-sectional study to investigate the prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and associated factors in intensive care nurses. The study population comprised 1515 nurses working in the intensive care units of public, private and university hospitals in Turkey. The study sample included 323 nurses selected by stratified random sampling. Data were obtained by a tailored data collection form, a workplace observation form and a Rapid Upper Limb Assessment tool to delineate ergonomic risks. Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 21.0 software was used in the statistical analysis. The highest prevalence for the musculoskeletal symptoms of the nurses was in the legs, lower back and back. Most of the nurses had encountered musculoskeletal pain or discomfort related to the previous month. The risky body movements that were frequently performed by the nurses during a shift were 'turning the patient' and 'bending down'. The final Rapid Upper Limb Assessment score for the patient turning movement was found to be higher than for the bending down movement. Musculoskeletal symptoms, which may occur in any region of the body, are mainly associated with organizational factors, such as type of hospital, type of shift work and frequency of changes in work schedule, rather than with personal factors. Nursing administrators should determine the ergonomic risks of intensive care unit nurses by using Rapid Upper Limb Assessment tool. Health policy makers should develop occupational health teams, and 'ergonomic risk prevention programs' should be implemented throughout the units. © 2014 International Council of Nurses.

  13. Improving Symptom Control in Early Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hauser, Robert A.

    2009-01-01

    Motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease (PD) are caused by a severe loss of pigmented dopamine-producing nigro-striatal neurons. Symptomatic therapies provide benefit for motor features by restoring dopamine receptor stimulation. Studies have demonstrated that delaying the introduction of dopaminergic medical therapy is associated with a rapid decline in quality of life. Nonmotor symptoms, such as depression, are common in early PD and also affect quality of life. Therefore, dopaminergic therapy should typically be initiated at, or shortly following, diagnosis. Monamine oxidase-B inhibitors provide mild symptomatic benefit, have excellent side effect profiles, and may improve long-term outcomes, making them an important first-line treatment option. Dopamine agonists (DAs) provide moderate symptomatic benefit but are associated with more side effects than levodopa. However, they delay the development of motor complications by delaying the need for levodopa. Levodopa (LD) is the most efficacious medication, but its chronic use is associated with the development of motor complications that can be difficult to resolve. Younger patients are more likely to develop levodopa-induced motor complications and they are therefore often treated with a DA before levodopa is added. For older patients, levodopa provides good motor benefit with a relatively low-risk of motor complications. Using levodopa with a dopa-decarboxylase inhibitor lessens adverse effects, and further adding a catechol-O-methyl transferase inhibitor can improve symptom control. PMID:21180628

  14. The Effect of Dexamethasone on Symptoms of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Depression After Cardiac Surgery and Intensive Care Admission: Longitudinal Follow-Up of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Kok, Lotte; Hillegers, Manon H; Veldhuijzen, Dieuwke S; Cornelisse, Sandra; Nierich, Arno P; van der Maaten, Joost M; Rosseel, Peter M; Hofland, Jan; Sep, Milou S; Dieleman, Jan M; Vinkers, Christiaan H; Peelen, Linda M; Joëls, Marian; van Dijk, Diederik

    2016-03-01

    Cardiac surgery and postoperative admission to the ICU may lead to posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Perioperatively administered corticosteroids potentially alter the risk of development of these psychiatric conditions, by affecting the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. However, findings of previous studies are inconsistent. We aimed to assess the effect of a single dose of dexamethasone compared with placebo on symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression and health-related quality of life after cardiac surgery and ICU admission. Follow-up study of a randomized clinical trial. Five Dutch heart centers. Cardiac surgery patients (n = 1,244) who participated in the Dexamethasone for Cardiac Surgery trial. A single intraoperative IV dose of dexamethasone or placebo was administered in a randomized, double-blind way. Symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder, depression, and health-related quality of life were assessed with validated questionnaires 1.5 years after randomization. Data were available for 1,125 patients (90.4%); of which 561 patients received dexamethasone and 564 patients received placebo. Overall, the prevalence of psychopathology was not influenced by dexamethasone. Posttraumatic stress disorder and depression were present in, respectively, 52 patients (9.3%) and 69 patients (12.3%) who received dexamethasone and in 66 patients (11.7%) and 78 patients (13.8%) who received placebo (posttraumatic stress disorder: odds ratio, 0.82; 95% CI, 0.55-1.20; p = 0.30; depression: odds ratio, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.64-1.31; p = 0.63). Subgroup analysis revealed a lower prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (odds ratio, 0.23; 95% CI, 0.07-0.72; p < 0.01) and depression (odds ratio, 0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.77; p < 0.01) in female patients after dexamethasone administration. Health-related quality of life did not differ between groups and was not associated with psychopathology. Overall, our findings suggest that exogenous administration of

  15. Prevalence, self-care behaviors, and self-care activities for peripheral neuropathy symptoms of HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, Patrice K; Voss, Joachim; Wantland, Dean; Lindgren, Teri; Huang, Emily; Holzemer, William L; Cuca, Yvette; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Portillo, Carmen; Willard, Suzanne; Arudo, John; Kirksey, Kenn; Corless, Inge B; Rosa, María E; Robinson, Linda; Hamilton, Mary J; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Human, Sarie; Rivero-Mendez, Marta; Maryland, Mary; Nokes, Kathleen M; Eller, Lucille; Kemppainen, Jeanne; Dawson-Rose, Carol; Brion, John M; Bunch, Elli H; Shannon, Maureen; Nicholas, Thomas P; Viamonte-Ros, Ana; Bain, Catherine A

    2010-03-01

    As part of a larger randomized controlled trial examining the efficacy of an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual (n = 775), this study examined the prevalence of peripheral neuropathy in HIV-infected individuals at 12 sites in the USA, Puerto Rico, and Africa. Neuropathy was reported by 44% of the sample; however, only 29.4% reported initiating self-care behaviors to address the neuropathy symptoms. Antiretroviral therapy was found to increase the frequency of neuropathy symptoms, with an increased mean intensity of 28%. A principal axis factor analysis with Promax rotation was used to assess the relationships in the frequency of use of the 18 self-care activities for neuropathy, revealing three distinct factors: (i) an interactive self-care factor; (ii) a complementary medicine factor; and (iii) a third factor consisting of the negative health items of smoking, alcohol, and street drugs. The study's results suggest that peripheral neuropathy is a common symptom and the presence of neuropathy is associated with self-care behaviors to ameliorate HIV symptoms. The implications for nursing practice include the assessment and evaluation of nursing interventions related to management strategies for neuropathy.

  16. Expanding perspective on music therapy for symptom management in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Potvin, Noah; Bradt, Joke; Kesslick, Amy

    2015-01-01

    Symptom management is a frequently researched treatment topic in music therapy and cancer care. Representations in the literature of music interventions for symptom management, however, have often overlooked the human experiences shaping those symptoms. This may result in music therapy being perceived as a linear intervention process that does not take into account underlying experiences that contribute to symptom experiences. This study explored patient experiences underlying symptoms and symptom management in cancer care, and examined the role of music therapy in that clinical process. This study analyzed semi-structured, open-ended exit interviews obtained from 30 participants during a randomized controlled trial investigating the differential impact of music therapy versus music medicine interventions on symptom management in participants with cancer. Interviews were conducted by a research assistant not involved with the clinical interventions. Exit interview transcripts for 30 participants were analyzed using an inductive, latent, constructivist method of thematic analysis. Three themes-Relaxation, Therapeutic relationship, and Intrapersonal relating-capture elements of the music therapy process that (a) modified participants' experiences of adjustments in their symptoms and (b) highlighted the depth of human experience shaping their symptoms. These underlying human experiences naturally emerged in the therapeutic setting, requiring the music therapist's clinical expertise for appropriate support. Symptom management extends beyond fluctuation in levels and intensity of a surface-level symptom to incorporate deeper lived experiences. The authors provide recommendations for clinical work, entry-level training as related to symptom management, implications for evidence-based practice in music therapy, and methodology for future mixed methods research. © the American Music Therapy Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Declines with Age in Childhood Asthma Symptoms and Health Care Use: An Adjustment for Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Yi-An; Song, Peter X. K.; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Objectives: Investigate patterns of natural decline…

  18. Declines with Age in Childhood Asthma Symptoms and Health Care Use: An Adjustment for Evaluations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Yi-An; Song, Peter X. K.; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Objectives: Investigate patterns of natural decline…

  19. Opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal symptoms in paediatric intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Franck, Linda S; Naughton, Ita; Winter, Ira

    2004-12-01

    The purposes of this prospective repeated measures study were to: (a) describe the occurrence of withdrawal symptoms with the use of a standardised protocol to slowly taper opioids and benzodiazepines; and (b) to test the predictive validity of an opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal assessment scoring tool in critically ill infants and young children after prolonged opioid and benzodiazepine therapy. Fifteen children (6 weeks-28 months of age) with complex congenital heart disease and/or respiratory failure who received opioids and benzodiazepines for 4 days or greater were evaluated for withdrawal symptoms using a standardized assessment tool. Thirteen children showed moderate to severe withdrawal symptoms a median 3 days after commencement of tapering. Symptom intensity was not related to prior opioid or benzodiazepine exposure, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) therapy or length of tapering. Children who received fentanyl in addition to morphine more often exhibited signs of withdrawal. This study demonstrated that significant withdrawal symptoms occur in critically ill children even with the use of a standardised assessment tool and tapering management protocol. The predictive validity and utility of the Opioid and Benzodiazepine Withdrawal Score (OBWS) was adequate for clinical use, but areas for further improvement of the tool were identified. Problems with the clinical withdrawal prevention and management guidelines were also identified. More research is needed to establish the optimal methods for prevention and management of iatrogenic opioid and benzodiazepine withdrawal in paediatric critical care.

  20. Self-care Moderates the Relationship Between Symptoms and Health-Related Quality of Life in Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Auld, Jonathan P; Mudd, James O; Gelow, Jill M; Hiatt, Shirin O; Lee, Christopher S

    2017-09-20

    Physical symptoms and depression in heart failure (HF) are key drivers of health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Heart failure self-care behaviors are believed to influence how symptoms affect HRQOL. The goal of this study was to determine if HF self-care behaviors moderate the relationships between physical and depressive symptoms and HRQOL. In a cohort of adults with moderate to advanced HF, multivariate linear regression was used to evaluate the interaction between self-care behaviors (Self-care of HF index maintenance and management scales) and physical HF symptoms (HF Somatic Perception Scale) on emotional HRQOL (emotional dimension of Minnesota Living With HF Questionnaire). The interaction between self-care behaviors and depression (9-item Patient Health Questionnaire) was evaluated on physical HRQOL (physical dimension of Minnesota Living With HF Questionnaire). The mean age of the sample (N = 202) was 57 ± 13 years, 50% were women, and 61% had New York Heart Association class III or IV HF. Controlling for age, Seattle HF score, functional ability, and comorbidities, self-care maintenance and management moderated the relationship between physical HF symptoms and emotional HRQOL. Only self-care maintenance moderated the relationship between depression and physical HRQOL. In HF, HRQOL is dependent on both the severity of physical and depressive symptoms and the level of engagement in HF self-care behaviors. Future research should consider both self-care behaviors and symptoms when examining patient HRQOL.

  1. The Impact of the Physical Environment on Depressive Symptoms of Older Residents Living in Care Homes: A Mixed Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Potter, Rachel; Sheehan, Bart; Cain, Rebecca; Griffin, James; Jennings, Paul A

    2017-05-23

    Forty percent of residents living in care homes in the United Kingdom have significant depressive symptoms. Care homes can appear to be depressing places, but whether the physical environment of homes directly affects depression in care home residents is unknown. This study explores the relationship between the physical environment and depressive symptoms of older people living in care homes. In a prospective cohort study the physical environment of 50 care homes were measured using the Sheffield Care Environment Assessment Matrix (SCEAM) and depressive symptoms of 510 residents measured using the Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15). The study was supplemented with semi-structured interviews with residents living in the care homes. Quantitative data were analyzed using multi-level modeling, and qualitative data analyzed using a thematic framework approach. The overall physical environment of care homes (overall SCEAM score) did not predict depressive symptoms. Controlling for dependency, social engagement, and home type, having access to outdoor space was the only environmental variable to significantly predict depressive symptoms. Residents interviewed reported that access to outdoor space was restricted in many ways: locked doors, uneven foot paths, steep steps, and needing permission or assistance to go outside. We provide new evidence to suggest that access to outdoor space predicts depressive symptoms in older people living in care home. Interventions aimed at increasing access to outdoor spaces could positively affect depressive symptoms in older people.

  2. Effects of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care on Psychotic Symptoms in Girls

    PubMed Central

    Poulton, Richie; Van Ryzin, Mark J.; Harold, Gordon T.; Chamberlain, Patricia; Fowler, David; Cannon, Mary; Arseneault, Louise; Leve, Leslie D.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Neurodevelopmental theories of psychosis highlight the potential benefits of early intervention, prevention, and/or preemption. How early intervention should take place has not been established, nor if interventions based on social learning principles can have preemptive effects. The objective was to test if a comprehensive psychosocial intervention can significantly alter psychotic symptom trajectories during adolescence – a period of heightened risk for a wide range of psychopathology. Method This study was a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) for delinquent adolescent girls. Assessment of psychotic symptoms took place at baseline and then 6, 12, 18, and 24 months post-baseline using a standardized self-report instrument (Brief Symptom Inventory). A second source of information about psychotic symptoms was obtained at baseline or 12 months, and again at 24 months using a structured diagnostic interview (the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children [DISC]). Results Significant benefits for MTFC over treatment-as-usual for psychosis symptoms were observed over a 24-month period. Findings were replicated across both measures. Effects were independent of substance use and initial symptom severity, and persisted beyond the initial intervention period. Conclusion Ameliorating non-clinical psychotic symptoms trajectories beginning in early adolescence via a multifaceted psychosocial intervention is possible. Developmental research on non-clinical psychotic symptoms and their prognostic value should be complemented by more psychosocial intervention research aimed at modifying these symptom trajectories early in their natural history. PMID:25457926

  3. Trajectories of personal control in cancer patients receiving psychological care.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Lei; Schroevers, Maya J; van der Lee, Marije; Garssen, Bert; Stewart, Roy E; Sanderman, Robbert; Ranchor, Adelita V

    2015-05-01

    This study aimed to (1) identify subgroups of cancer patients with distinct personal control trajectories during psychological care, (2) examine whether socio-demographic, clinical, and psychological care characteristics could distinguish trajectories, and (3) examine differential patterns of psychological symptoms between trajectories. This naturalistic study focused on 241 cancer patients receiving psychological care at psycho-oncology institutions. Data were collected before the initiation of psychological care, and 3 and 9 months thereafter. Latent class growth analysis was applied to identify personal control trajectories. Three personal control trajectories were identified: enduring improvement (41%), temporary improvement (50%), and deterioration (9%). Education and baseline physical symptoms distinguished these trajectories. In the whole group, improvements in personal control were associated with improvements in psychological symptoms. Patients at distinct trajectories reported different levels of psychological symptoms, but did not differ in their courses of psychological symptoms. Patients in the enduring and temporary control improvement groups experienced significant psychological symptoms reductions over time, whereas patients in the control deterioration group maintained high psychological symptoms. Improvements in personal control seem to depend on initial control level: those who start with the highest control levels show subsequent improvements, whereas those with the lowest control levels show subsequent deterioration. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  4. Day Care Infection Control Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle-King County Dept. of Public Health, Seattle, WA.

    This day care infection control manual was assembled to provide technical guidance for the prevention and control of communicable diseases to child day care facilities in Seattle and King County, Washington. For each disease, the manual provides background information, public health control recommendations, and letters that can be used to…

  5. Day Care Infection Control Protocol.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seattle-King County Dept. of Public Health, Seattle, WA.

    This day care infection control manual was assembled to provide technical guidance for the prevention and control of communicable diseases to child day care facilities in Seattle and King County, Washington. For each disease, the manual provides background information, public health control recommendations, and letters that can be used to…

  6. A Toddler Parenting Intervention in Primary Care for Caregivers With Depression Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Rhonda C; Gerdes, Marsha; Rothman, Brooke; Dougherty, Susan L; Localio, Russell; Guevara, James P

    2017-07-21

    Caregiver depression impacts parenting behaviors and has deleterious effects on child behavior. Evidence-based interventions to address parenting have not been adapted for use with depressed caregivers in pediatric primary care settings. Our study examined the feasibility and explored outcomes of an evidence-based parenting program implemented in primary care and adapted for caregivers with depressive symptoms caring for toddlers. We conducted a randomized controlled trial with a wait-list control. Participants were caregivers who screened positive for depressive symptoms in pediatric settings with a toddler. Our study was implemented from July 2011 to June 2012. We adapted the Incredible Years Parents, Babies and Toddlers program with the addition of depression psychoeducation (12 weekly sessions), and assessed caregivers at baseline and immediately post-intervention. We assessed participation rates, depressive symptoms, parenting discipline practices, social support, and parenting stress. Our results revealed that 32 caregivers participating in the intervention group had significantly greater improvement in self-reported parenting discipline practices compared to the 29 wait-list control group caregivers. We found no differences between groups in depressive symptoms, social support, or parenting stress. Our study demonstrated that the average attendance was poor (mean attendance = 3.7 sessions). We adapted an evidence-based parenting intervention for caregivers with depressive symptoms and toddlers in primary care; however, participation was challenging. Alternative intervention strategies are needed to reach and retain low-income caregivers with depression symptoms as they face multiple barriers to participation in groups within center-based services. Trial Registration Clinical Trials.gov identifier NCT01464619.

  7. Symptom assessment in palliative care: a need for international collaboration.

    PubMed

    Kaasa, Stein; Loge, Jon Håvard; Fayers, Peter; Caraceni, Augusto; Strasser, Florian; Hjermstad, Marianne Jensen; Higginson, Irene; Radbruch, Lukas; Haugen, Dagny Faksvåg

    2008-08-10

    This article describes the research strategy for the development of a computerized assessment tool as part of a European Union (EU)-funded project, the European Palliative Care Research Collaborative (EPCRC). The EPCRC is funded through the Sixth Framework Program of the EU with major objectives to develop a computer-based assessment and classification tool for pain, depression, and cachexia. A systematic approach will be applied for the tool development with emphasis on multicultural and multilanguage challenges across Europe. The EPCRC is based on a long lasting collaboration within the European Association for Palliative Care Research Network. The ongoing change in society towards greatly increased use of communication as well as information transfer via digital systems will rapidly change the health care system. Therefore, patient-centered outcome assessment tools applicable for both clinic and research should be developed. Report of symptoms via digital media provides a start for face-to-face communication, treatment decisions, and assessment of treatment effects. The increased use of electronic media for exchange of information may facilitate the development and use of electronic assessment tools and decision-making systems in oncology. In the future, patients may find that a combination of a face-to-face interview plus a transfer of information of subjective symptoms by electronic means will optimize treatment.

  8. Polarity and unity in caring: the healing power of symptoms.

    PubMed

    Freshwater, D

    1999-10-01

    This article explores the idea that suffering is a key aspect of the healing process. Suffering often manifests itself as 'disease' within the body in the form of physical symptoms. It is posited here that this is the psyche's unconscious way of drawing attention to the inner tension of the conflict of opposites. Whilst this tension is often the seat of discomfort, it also holds the key to the individual's own creative potential, including that of healing. Drawing upon the work of contemporary nursing theorists Margaret Newman, Rosemary Parse, depth psychologists Thomas Moore and James Hillman this article argues that caring and suffering are unnecessarily polarized in nursing. A method of working with symptoms is discussed that honours both the poetics of the suffering and the individual's inclination towards health.

  9. The Potential Role of Symptom Questionnaires in Palliative and Supportive Cancer Care Delivery.

    PubMed

    Stover, Angela M; Basch, Ethan M

    2017-02-01

    The American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) palliative care recommendations have been updated into a full guideline. Symptom questionnaires-completed and reviewed with patients during care delivery-are poised to play a large role in this guideline because they provide a more comprehensive understanding of symptoms. This article provides an overview of the guideline and describes how symptom questionnaires can be used to satisfy the guideline. Standardized symptom questionnaires can be used for three purposes in care delivery: symptom management, referral to specialty palliative and supportive care, and to assess high-quality care. Challenges include necessary changes to clinic workflow to collect patient responses and respond to electronic alerts for worsening symptoms. Symptom questionnaires administered as part of routine care delivery are highly informative and worth the time to enhance symptom management in routine care, to increase referrals, and to standardize performance metrics.

  10. Pediatric functional constipation gastrointestinal symptom profile compared with healthy controls

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Patient-reported outcomes are necessary to evaluate the gastrointestinal symptom profile of patients with functional constipation. Study objectives were to compare the gastrointestinal symptom profile of pediatric patients with functional constipation with matched healthy controls with the Pediatric...

  11. The association between symptoms and bladder or renal tract cancer in primary care: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt-Hansen, Mia; Berendse, Sabine; Hamilton, William

    2015-01-01

    Background Appropriate selection for further investigation of patients presenting in primary care with symptoms that may indicate cancer is key to early diagnosis. Aim To quantify the risk of urinary tract cancer in patients presenting in primary care with symptoms that may indicate bladder or renal cancer. Design and setting Systematic review of studies relating to bladder or renal cancer in primary care. Method Databases searched were MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science (SCI and SSCI), and ISI Proceedings from 1980 to August 2014, and PsycINFO (1980–2012) and BioMed Central (inception to 2012) for retrospective, prospective, or case-control diagnostic accuracy studies of symptomatic patients presenting to primary care with one or more symptoms for whom follow-up data were available. The target conditions were bladder or renal cancer. The studies were appraised using the QUADAS-2 tool. Results Eleven studies with 3 451 675 patients were included. The positive predictive value (PPV) from meta-analysis of visible haematuria was 5.1% in adult patients. It increased with age and was higher in males. The PPVs of other single symptoms were very low, with the highest non-haematuria PPV being 1.4% for anaemia in males. Fewer data were available on the PPVs of symptom combinations. Generally, these data showed that, with the exception of symptom combinations including haematuria, these were very low. Conclusion The only high-risk feature of bladder/renal cancer in primary care was visible haematuria, and this clearly warrants investigation. However, not all patients with one of these cancers experience haematuria, so a policy restricting investigation to patients with haematuria will inevitably delay the diagnosis in some patients. PMID:26500325

  12. The association between symptoms and bladder or renal tract cancer in primary care: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schmidt-Hansen, Mia; Berendse, Sabine; Hamilton, William

    2015-11-01

    Appropriate selection for further investigation of patients presenting in primary care with symptoms that may indicate cancer is key to early diagnosis. To quantify the risk of urinary tract cancer in patients presenting in primary care with symptoms that may indicate bladder or renal cancer. Systematic review of studies relating to bladder or renal cancer in primary care. Databases searched were MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science (SCI and SSCI), and ISI Proceedings from 1980 to August 2014, and PsycINFO (1980-2012) and BioMed Central (inception to 2012) for retrospective, prospective, or case-control diagnostic accuracy studies of symptomatic patients presenting to primary care with one or more symptoms for whom follow-up data were available. The target conditions were bladder or renal cancer. The studies were appraised using the QUADAS-2 tool. Eleven studies with 3 451 675 patients were included. The positive predictive value (PPV) from meta-analysis of visible haematuria was 5.1% in adult patients. It increased with age and was higher in males. The PPVs of other single symptoms were very low, with the highest non-haematuria PPV being 1.4% for anaemia in males. Fewer data were available on the PPVs of symptom combinations. Generally, these data showed that, with the exception of symptom combinations including haematuria, these were very low. The only high-risk feature of bladder/renal cancer in primary care was visible haematuria, and this clearly warrants investigation. However, not all patients with one of these cancers experience haematuria, so a policy restricting investigation to patients with haematuria will inevitably delay the diagnosis in some patients. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  13. Patients' substantialization of disease, the hybrid symptom and metaphysical care.

    PubMed

    Pârvan, Alexandra

    2015-06-01

    In the context of current scholarship concerned with facilitating integration between the biomedical and the patient-centred models of care, the article suggests that disease brings about an ontological disruption in patients, which is not directly addressed in either model, and may interfere with treatment and therapy outcomes if not met with a type of care termed here as 'metaphysical'. The receipt of diagnosis and medical care can give patients the sense that they are ontologically diminished, or less of a human, and along with physicians' approaches to and discourses about disease, may prompt them to seek ontological restoration or security in the same way as psychologically traumatized patients sometimes do: by treating the disease and/or the experience of harm associated with it as a thing that exists per se. I call this 'substantialization' of disease (or harm) and draw on Augustine's theory of non-substantial deficiencies (physiological and moral) and on Plato's and Plotinus's different takes on such defects in order to discuss what substantialization can do for patients. Based on literature that examines patients' ways of talking about and living with their disease, I speculate that substantialization can generate a 'hybrid symptom', consisting in patterns of exercising agency which may predispose to non-adherence. Ways in which physicians could provide metaphysical care are proposed, along with an understanding of chronic patients as hybrid ontological and agentic units, which draws on theories of enactive cognition. I opine that metaphysical care may facilitate integration between the depersonalized and personalized models of care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Palliative Care Eases Symptoms, Enhances Lives | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Palliative Care Palliative Care Eases Symptoms, Enhances Lives Past Issues / Spring ... pharmacists, nutritionists, and others. When do I need palliative care? Many adults and children living with serious ...

  15. Declines with age in childhood asthma symptoms and health care use: an adjustment for evaluations.

    PubMed

    Ko, Yi-An; Song, Peter X K; Clark, Noreen M

    2014-10-01

    Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Investigate patterns of natural decline over time with increasing age in asthma symptoms and health care use of children. Develop a statistical procedure that enables adjustment that accounts for expected declines in these outcomes and is useable when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Mixed-effects models with mixture distributions were used to describe the pattern of symptoms and health care use in 3,021 children aged 2 to 15 years in a combined sample from three controlled trials. An adaptive least squares estimation was used to account for overestimation of intervention effects and make adjustments for pre-post only data. Termed "Adjustment for Natural Declines in Asthma Outcomes (ANDAO)," the adjustment method uses bootstrap sampling to create control cohorts comparable to subjects in the intervention study from existing control subjects. ANDAO accounts for expected declines in outcomes and is beneficial when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Children under 10 years of age experienced 18% (95% confidence interval, 15-21%) fewer symptom days and 28% (95% confidence interval, 24-32%) fewer symptom nights with each additional year of age. The decline was less than 10% after age 10 years, depending on baseline asthma severity. Emergency department visits declined regardless of baseline symptom frequency (P = 0.02). The adjustment method corrected estimates to within 2.4% of true effects through simulations using control cohorts. Because of the declines in symptoms and health care use expected with increasing age of children with asthma, pre-post comparisons will greatly overestimate intervention effects. The ANDAO provides means to

  16. Declines with Age in Childhood Asthma Symptoms and Health Care Use. An Adjustment for Evaluations

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yi-An; Clark, Noreen M.

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Asthma is a variable condition with an apparent tendency for a natural decline in asthma symptoms and health care use occurring as children age. As a result, asthma interventions using a pre-post design may overestimate the intervention effect when no proper control group is available. Objectives: Investigate patterns of natural decline over time with increasing age in asthma symptoms and health care use of children. Develop a statistical procedure that enables adjustment that accounts for expected declines in these outcomes and is useable when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Methods: Mixed-effects models with mixture distributions were used to describe the pattern of symptoms and health care use in 3,021 children aged 2 to 15 years in a combined sample from three controlled trials. An adaptive least squares estimation was used to account for overestimation of intervention effects and make adjustments for pre-post only data. Termed “Adjustment for Natural Declines in Asthma Outcomes (ANDAO),” the adjustment method uses bootstrap sampling to create control cohorts comparable to subjects in the intervention study from existing control subjects. ANDAO accounts for expected declines in outcomes and is beneficial when intervention evaluations must rely solely on pre-post data. Measurements and Main Results: Children under 10 years of age experienced 18% (95% confidence interval, 15–21%) fewer symptom days and 28% (95% confidence interval, 24–32%) fewer symptom nights with each additional year of age. The decline was less than 10% after age 10 years, depending on baseline asthma severity. Emergency department visits declined regardless of baseline symptom frequency (P = 0.02). The adjustment method corrected estimates to within 2.4% of true effects through simulations using control cohorts. Conclusions: Because of the declines in symptoms and health care use expected with increasing age of children with asthma, pre

  17. Reducing Maternal Depressive Symptoms through Promotion of Parenting in Pediatric Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Berkule, Samantha B.; Cates, Carolyn Brockmeyer; Dreyer, Benard P.; Huberman, Harris S.; Arevalo, Jenny; Burtchen, Nina; Weisleder, Adriana; Mendelsohn, Alan L.

    2014-01-01

    We studied associations between two pediatrics primary care interventions promoting parental responsiveness and maternal depressive symptoms among low-income mothers. This RCT included two interventions (Video Interaction Project [VIP], Building Blocks [BB]) and a control group. VIP is a relationship-based intervention, using video-recordings of mother-child dyads to reinforce interactional strengths. BB communicates with parents via parenting newsletters, learning materials and questionnaires. At mean (SD) child age 6.9 (1.2) months, depressive symptoms were assessed with the PHQ-9, parental responsiveness was assessed with StimQ-I. 407 dyads were assessed. Rates of mild depressive symptoms were lower for VIP (20.6%) and BB (21.1%) than Controls (32.1%, p=.04). Moderate depressive symptoms were lower for VIP (4.0%) compared to Controls (9.7%, p=.031). Mean PHQ-9 scores differed across 3 groups (F=3.8, p=.02): VIP mothers scored lower than controls (p=.02 by Tukey hsd). Parent-child interactions partially mediated VIP-associated reductions in depressive symptoms (indirect effect −.17, 95% CI −.36, −.03). PMID:24707022

  18. Controlling Health Care Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This article examines issues on health care costs and describes measures taken by public districts to reduce spending. As in most companies in America, health plan designs in public districts are being changed to reflect higher out-of-pocket costs, such as higher deductibles on visits to providers, hospital stays, and prescription drugs. District…

  19. Controlling Health Care Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dessoff, Alan

    2009-01-01

    This article examines issues on health care costs and describes measures taken by public districts to reduce spending. As in most companies in America, health plan designs in public districts are being changed to reflect higher out-of-pocket costs, such as higher deductibles on visits to providers, hospital stays, and prescription drugs. District…

  20. Assessing Secondary Control and Its Association with Youth Depression Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, John R.; Francis, Sarah E.; Bearman, Sarah Kate

    2010-01-01

    Extensive research has linked youth depression symptoms to low levels of perceived control, using measures that reflect "primary control" (i.e., influencing objective conditions to make them fit one's wishes). We hypothesized that depressive symptoms are also linked to low levels of "secondary control" (i.e., influencing the psychological impact…

  1. Factors predicting antibiotic prescription and referral to hospital for children with respiratory symptoms: secondary analysis of a randomised controlled study at out-of-hours services in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Rebnord, Ingrid Keilegavlen; Sandvik, Hogne; Mjelle, Anders Batman; Hunskaar, Steinar

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Acute respiratory infections and fever among children are highly prevalent in primary care. It is challenging to distinguish between viral and bacterial infections. Norway has a relatively low prescription rate of antibiotics, but it is still regarded as too high as the antimicrobial resistance is increasing. The aim of the study was to identify predictors for prescribing antibiotics or referral to hospital among children. Design Secondary analysis of a randomised controlled study. Setting 4 out-of-hours services and 1 paediatric emergency clinic in Norwegian primary care. Participants 401 children aged 0–6 years with respiratory symptoms and/or fever visiting the out-of-hours services. Outcomes 2 main outcome variables were registered: antibiotic prescription and referral to hospital. Results The total prescription rate of antibiotics was 23%, phenoxymethylpenicillin was used in 67% of the cases. Findings on ear examination (OR 4.62; 95% CI 2.35 to 9.10), parents' assessment that the child has a bacterial infection (OR 2.45; 95% CI 1.17 to 5.13) and a C reactive protein (CRP) value >20 mg/L (OR 3.57; 95% CI 1.43 to 8.83) were significantly associated with prescription of antibiotics. Vomiting in the past 24 hours was negatively associated with prescription (OR 0.26; 95% CI 0.13 to 0.53). The main predictors significantly associated with referral to hospital were respiratory rate (OR 1.07; 95% CI 1.03 to 1.12), oxygen saturation <95% (OR 3.39; 95% CI 1.02 to 11.23), signs on auscultation (OR 5.57; 95% CI 1.96 to 15.84) and the parents' assessment before the consultation that the child needs hospitalisation (OR 414; 95% CI 26 to 6624). Conclusions CRP values >20 mg/L, findings on ear examination, use of paracetamol and no vomiting in the past 24 hours were significantly associated with antibiotic prescription. Affected respiration was a predictor for referral to hospital. The parents' assessment was also significantly associated with the

  2. A randomized controlled trial testing the efficacy of an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual.

    PubMed

    Wantland, Dean J; Holzemer, William L; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Willard, Suzanne S; Arudo, John; Kirksey, Kenn M; Portillo, Carmen J; Corless, Inge B; Rosa, María E; Robinson, Linda L; Nicholas, Patrice K; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Sefcik, Elizabeth F; Human, Sarie; Rivero, Marta M; Maryland, Mary; Huang, Emily

    2008-09-01

    This study investigates whether using an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual with self-care strategies for 21 common symptoms, compared to a basic nutrition manual, had an effect on reducing symptom frequency and intensity. A 775-person, repeated measures, randomized controlled trial was conducted over three months in 12 sites from the United States, Puerto Rico, and Africa to assess the relationship between symptom intensity with predictors for differences in initial symptom status and change over time. A mixed model growth analysis showed a significantly greater decline in symptom frequency and intensity for the group using the symptom management manual (intervention) compared to those using the nutrition manual (control) (t=2.36, P=0.018). The models identified three significant predictors for increased initial symptom intensities and in intensity change over time: (1) protease inhibitor-based therapy (increased mean intensity by 28%); (2) having comorbid illness (nearly twice the mean intensity); and (3) being Hispanic receiving care in the United States (increased the mean intensity by 2.5 times). In addition, the symptom manual showed a significantly higher helpfulness rating and was used more often compared to the nutrition manual. The reduction in symptom intensity scores provides evidence of the need for palliation of symptoms in individuals with HIV/AIDS, as well as symptoms and treatment side effects associated with other illnesses. The information from this study may help health care providers become more aware of self-management strategies that are useful to persons with HIV/AIDS and help them to assist patients in making informed choices.

  3. Older Adults' Self-Management of Daily Symptoms: Complementary Therapies, Self-Care, and Medical Care

    PubMed Central

    Arcury, Thomas A.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Lang, Wei; Nguyen, Ha; Altizer, Kathryn; Stoller, Eleanor P.; Bell, Ronny A.; Quandt, Sara A.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To describe older adults' use of complementary therapies, self-care practices, and medical care to treat daily symptoms and to delineate gender, ethnic, age, and education differences. Method A total of 200 African American and White participants (age 65+) selected using a site-based procedure complete a baseline interview and up to six sets of three daily follow-up interviews at monthly intervals. The percent of older adults using a therapy and the frequency with which therapies are used are considered. Results The use of complementary therapies to treat daily symptoms, though important, is substantially less than the use of self-care practices and medical care. Participants differed by age, ethnicity, and education in the use of therapies. Discussion In considering the percentage of individuals who use a therapy and the frequency with which therapies are used, this analysis adds a new dimension to understanding how older adults manage daily symptoms. Older adults are selective in their use of health self-management. PMID:22187091

  4. Computerized patient reported symptom assessment in radiotherapy: a pilot randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Holliday, Emma B.; Nail, Lillian M.; Lyons, Karen S.; Hribar, Michelle R.; Thomas, Charles R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Computer-based, patient-reported symptom survey tools have been described for patients undergoing chemotherapy. We hypothesized that patients undergoing radiotherapy might also benefit, so we developed a computer application to acquire symptom ratings from patients and generate summaries for use at point of care office visits and conducted a randomized-controlled pilot trial to test its feasibility. Methods Subjects were randomized prior to beginning radiotherapy. Both control and intervention group subjects completed the computerized symptom assessment, but only for the intervention group were printed symptom summaries made available before each weekly office visit. Metrics compared included the Global Distress Index (GDI), concordance of patient-reported symptoms and symptoms discussed by the physician and numbers of new and/or adjusted symptom management medications prescribed. Results 112 patients completed the study: 54 in the control and 58 in the intervention arms. There were no differences in GDI over time between the control and intervention groups. In the intervention group, more patient-reported symptoms were actually discussed in radiotherapy office visits: 46/202 vs. 19/230. A sensitivity analysis to account for within-subjects correlation yielded 23.2% vs. 10.3% (p=.03). Medications were started or adjusted at 15.4% (43/280) of control visits compared to 20.4% (65/319) of intervention visits (p=.07). Conclusions This computer application is easy to use and makes extensive patient-reported outcome data available at the point of care. Although no differences were seen in symptom trajectory, patients who had printed symptom summaries had improved communication during office visits and a trend towards more active symptom management during radiotherapy. PMID:26471280

  5. Challenging neurological symptoms in paediatric palliative care: An approach to symptom evaluation and management in children with neurological impairment

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Lisa Ann; Grégoire, Marie-Claude

    2015-01-01

    Neurological symptoms are very common in children with life-limiting conditions and are challenging in terms of burden of illness. Moreover, neurological symptoms can significantly impact the child’s quality of life and contribute to distress among parents, families, caregivers and health care providers. Knowing how to manage and alleviated these symptoms is essential for providing good palliative care. In the present article, the more common neurological symptoms of agitation/irritability, spasticity and dystonia will be reviewed. The aim of the present brief review is to provide a basic approach to both the identification and treatment of these neurological symptoms. A medication table is provided for quick reference. A brief commentary and guidance for the management of pain are also incorporated, with reference to further literature sources. PMID:25914579

  6. Patient Centered Communication During Primary Care Visits for Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, Benjamin P.; Duberstein, Paul R.; Epstein, Ron; Fiscella, Kevin; Kravitz, Richard L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Patient Centered Communication (PCC) is associated with more appropriate treatment of depression in primary care. In part a function of patient presentation, little is known about other influences on PCC. We investigated whether PCC was also influenced by personality dispositions of primary care providers (PCPs), independent of patient presentation. Methods 46 PCPs completed personality scales from the NEO-Personality Inventory, Revised and provided care to 88 Standardized Patients (SPs) presenting with either major depression or adjustment disorder with comorbid musculoskeletal symptoms, either making or not making a medication request. Coders scored each visit using the Measure of Patient Centered Communication, assessing physicians’ ability to explore the patient’s illness experience (component 1), understand the patient’s psychosocial context (component 2), and involve the patient in collaborative discussions of treatment (component 3). Results Adjusting for physician demographics, training, and patient presentation, physicians who were more open to feelings explored the patient’s experience of illness more (p = .05). More dutiful, or rule-bound physicians engaged in greater exploration of the patient’s psychosocial and life circumstances (p = .04), but involved the patient less in treatment discussions (p = .03), as did physicians reporting more anxious vulnerability (p = .03). Physician demographics, training, and patient presentation explained 4-7% of variance in MPCC components, with personality explaining an additional 4-7% of the variance. Conclusion Understanding of personality dispositions which promote or detract from PCC may help medical educators better identify trainees of varying aptitude, addressing individual training needs in a tailored fashion. PMID:18665060

  7. Health-care seeking behaviour for tuberculosis symptoms in Croatia.

    PubMed

    Jurcev-Savicevic, Anamarija; Kardum, Goran

    2012-08-01

    Early detection and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) patients have been key principles of TB control. Therefore, it is important to understand the causes of delay and to estimate their magnitude in order to plan interventions that yield the maximum benefit. A total of 240 subjects aged ≥ 15 year with pulmonary TB were interviewed. Patient delay was defined as the period (in days) from the appearance of any symptoms to the first visit to a medical provider. The median patient delay was 38 days. When using the median as a cut-off to define long patient delay, being an ex-smoker (P = 0.036), current smoker (P = 0.030), coughing (P = 0.021) and losing weight (P = 0.050) were found to be significant. Having high level of education (P = 0.014) was associated with short delay. Being an ex-smoker (P = 0.050, adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.940, 95% CI 1.001-3.759), current smoker (P = 0.029, aOR = 2.077, 95% CI 1.076-4.012) and having a cough (P = 0.022, aOR = 2.032, 95% CI 1.108-3.727), were significant in multivariate logistic regression, while having high level of education remained associated with short delay (P = 0.016, aOR = 0.286, 95% CI 0.103-0.791). The most common reasons for delay were supposed influenza or symptoms improving over time (34.5%) and underestimated symptoms (32.9%). People with smoking habits and health-seeking behaviour that may favour advanced disease and prolonged infectiousness as well as people with the lowest level of education contributed to TB delay. To reduced patient delay, efforts should be made to increase TB knowledge, which has to be adjusted to the less-educated segments of the population.

  8. Tuberculosis and AIDS stigma among patients who delay seeking care for tuberculosis symptoms.

    PubMed

    Pungrassami, P; Kipp, A M; Stewart, P W; Chongsuvivatwong, V; Strauss, R P; Van Rie, A

    2010-02-01

    Delay in presentation to a health facility is an important concern for tuberculosis (TB) control. The effect of stigma on delay in seeking care for TB symptoms is not well studied, especially in the context of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) co-epidemic. To estimate the association of TB and acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) stigma on delay in seeking care for TB symptoms. For 480 newly diagnosed patients with TB, time from first TB symptom to the first visit to a qualified provider was calculated. Stigma scales were administered to each patient to obtain a stigma score. Among men, those with higher TB stigma had a small increase in delay times, while women had a small decrease in delay. Among patients presenting with hemoptysis, higher TB stigma was associated with a small increase in delay, while among patients presenting with fever or extra-pulmonary symptoms only, higher TB and AIDS stigma resulted in shorter delay times. In a population with a relatively short median delay (26 days), the impact of TB and AIDS stigma translates into a minimal change in delay time. This suggests that stigma does not have a clinically relevant effect on TB patient delay in southern Thailand.

  9. Randomized controlled trial of nocturnal splinting for active workers with symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Werner, Robert A; Franzblau, Alfred; Gell, Nancy

    2005-01-01

    To determine whether nocturnal splinting of workers identified through active surveillance with symptoms consistent with carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) would improve symptoms and median nerve function as well as impact medical care. Randomized controlled trial. A Midwestern auto assembly plant. Active workers with symptoms suggestive of CTS based on a hand diagram. The treatment group received customized wrist splints, which were worn at night for 6 weeks; the control group received ergonomic education alone. Change in wrist, hand, and/or finger discomfort, carpal tunnel symptom severity index, median sensory nerve function, and the percentage of subjects who had carpal tunnel release surgery. The splinted group, unlike the controls, had a significant reduction in wrist, hand, and/or finger discomfort and a similar trend in the Levine carpal tunnel symptom severity index, which was maintained at 12 months. A secondary analysis showed that more median nerve impairment at baseline was associated with less clinical improvement among controls but not among the splinted group. Workers identified with CTS symptoms in an active symptom surveillance tended to benefit from a 6-week nocturnal splinting trial, and the benefits were still evident at the 1-year follow-up. The splinted group improved in terms of hand discomfort regardless of the degree of median nerve impairment, whereas the controls showed improvement only among subjects with normal median nerve function. Results suggest that a short course of nocturnal splinting may reduce wrist, hand, and/or finger discomfort among active workers with symptoms consistent with CTS.

  10. [The intensive care gallbladder as shock organ: symptoms and therapy].

    PubMed

    Rimkus, C; Kalff, J C

    2013-03-01

    Acute acalculous cholecystitis (AAC) represents a severe disease in critically ill patients. The pathogenesis of acute necroinflammatory gallbladder disease is multifactorial and intensive care unit (ICU) patients show multiple risk factors. In addition AAC is difficult to diagnose because of the vague physical and non-specific technical findings. Only the combination of clinical and technical findings including the challenging physical examination of critically ill patients, laboratory results and ultrasound or computed tomography (CT) scan, will lead to the diagnosis. The condition of AAC has a rapid progress to gallbladder necrosis, gangrene and perforation and these complications are reflected in the high morbidity and mortality rates, therefore, therapy should be promptly initiated. If there are no clinical contraindications for an operative approach cholecystectomy is the definitive treatment and both open and laparoscopic procedures have been used. In unstable, critically ill patients percutaneous cholecystostomy should be immediately performed. In addition, transpapillary endoscopic drainage is also possible if there are contraindications for percutaneous cholecystostomy. Patients who fail to improve or deteriorate following interventional drainage should be reconsidered for cholecystectomy. Due to the fact that more than 90 % of patients treated with percutaneous cholecystostomy showed no recurrence of symptoms during a period of more than 1 year, it is still unclear if percutaneous cholecystostomy is the definitive treatment of AAC for unstable patients or if delayed cholecystectomy is still necessary.

  11. Asthma control and cold weather-related respiratory symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hyrkäs, Henna; Ikäheimo, Tiina M; Jaakkola, Jouni J K; Jaakkola, Maritta S

    2016-04-01

    In the northern hemisphere people are exposed recurrently to cold air and asthmatics experience more respiratory symptoms. We hypothesized that subjects with poor asthma control are more prone to experience cold weather-related respiratory symptoms than those with good asthma control. A population-based cross-sectional study of 1995 adult asthmatics (response rate 40.4%) living in the Northern Finland was conducted using a questionnaire where cold weather-related respiratory symptoms as well as questions related to asthma control were inquired. The Asthma Control Test (ACT) was defined based on five questions (disadvantage and occurrence of asthma symptoms, waking up because of asthma symptoms, use of rescue medication and self-assessment of asthma control during the past 4 weeks), and was divided into quartiles. Cold weather-related respiratory symptoms were more frequent among asthmatics with poorly controlled asthma (ACT Q1 vs. ACT Q4); adjusted prevalence ratio (PR) for shortness of breath (men 1.47, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.77; women 1.18, 1.07-1.30), cough (men 1.10, 0.91-1.34; women 1.18, 1.08-1.30), wheezing (men 1.91, 1.31-2.78; women 1.48, 1.17-1.87), phlegm production (men 1.51, 1.06-2.14; women 1.62, 1.27-2.08) and chest pain (men 4.47, 1.89-10.56; women 2.60, 1.64-4.12). The relations between asthma control and symptom occurrence seemed stronger among smokers than never smokers and subjects with body mass index (BMI) below and above 25-30. Our study provides new evidence that subjects whose asthma is poorly controlled are more prone to experience cold weather-related respiratory symptoms and even a slight worsening of asthma control increases symptom prevalences. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Prenatal care: associations with prenatal depressive symptoms and social support in low-income urban women.

    PubMed

    Sidebottom, Abbey C; Hellerstedt, Wendy L; Harrison, Patricia A; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J

    2017-06-03

    We examined associations of depressive symptoms and social support with late and inadequate prenatal care in a low-income urban population. The sample was prenatal care patients at five community health centers. Measures of depressive symptoms, social support, and covariates were collected at prenatal care entry. Prenatal care entry and adequacy came from birth certificates. We examined outcomes of late prenatal care and less than adequate care in multivariable models. Among 2341 study participants, 16% had elevated depressive symptoms, 70% had moderate/poor social support, 21% had no/low partner support, 37% had late prenatal care, and 29% had less than adequate prenatal care. Women with both no/low partner support and elevated depressive symptoms were at highest risk of late care (AOR 1.85, CI 1.31, 2.60, p < 0.001) compared to women with both good partner support and low depressive symptoms. Those with good partner support and elevated depressive symptoms were less likely to have late care (AOR 0.74, CI 0.54, 1.10, p = 0.051). Women with moderate/high depressive symptoms were less likely to experience less than adequate care compared to women with low symptoms (AOR 0.73, CI 0.56, 0.96, p = 0.022). Social support and partner support were negatively associated with indices of prenatal care use. Partner support was identified as protective for women with depressive symptoms with regard to late care. Study findings support public health initiatives focused on promoting models of care that address preconception and reproductive life planning. Practice-based implications include possible screening for social support and depression in preconception contexts.

  13. Enhanced Depression Care for Patients With Acute Coronary Syndrome and Persistent Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Karina W.; Rieckmann, Nina; Clemow, Lynn; Schwartz, Joseph E.; Shimbo, Daichi; Medina, Vivian; Albanese, Gabrielle; Kronish, Ian; Hegel, Mark; Burg, Matthew M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms are an established predictor of mortality and major adverse cardiac events (defined as nonfatal myocardial infarction or hospitalization for unstable angina or urgent/emergency revascularizations) in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). This study was conducted to determine the acceptability and efficacy of enhanced depression treatment in patients with ACS. Methods A 3-month observation period to identify patients with ACS and persistent depressive symptoms was followed by a 6-month randomized controlled trial. From January 1, 2005, through February 29, 2008, 237 patients with ACS from 5 hospitals were enrolled, including 157 persistently depressed patients randomized to intervention (initial patient preference for problem-solving therapy and/or pharmacotherapy, then a stepped-care approach; 80 patients) or usual care (77 patients) and 80 nondepressed patients who underwent observational evaluation. The primary outcome was patient satisfaction with depression care. Secondary outcomes were depressive symptom changes (assessed with the Beck Depression Inventory), major adverse cardiac events, and death. Results At the end of the trial, the proportion of patients who were satisfied with their depression care was higher in the intervention group (54% of 80) than in the usual care group (19% of 77) (odds ratio, 5.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.2–12.9 [P<.001]). The Beck Depression Inventory score decreased significantly more (t155=2.85 [P=.005]) for intervention patients (change, −5.7; 95% CI, −7.6 to −3.8; df=155) than for usual care patients (change, −1.9; 95% CI, −3.8 to −0.1; df=155); the depression effect size was 0.59 of the standard deviation. At the end of the trial, 3 intervention patients and 10 usual care patients had experienced major adverse cardiac events (4% and 13%, respectively; log-rank test, χ12=3.93 [P=.047]), as well as 5 nondepressed patients (6%) (for the intervention vs nondepressed

  14. Latex allergy symptoms among health care workers: results from a university health and safety surveillance system.

    PubMed

    Epling, Carol; Duncan, Jacqueline; Archibong, Emma; Østbye, Truls; Pompeii, Lisa A; Dement, John

    2011-01-01

    We sought to describe risk factors for latex glove allergy symptoms among health care workers by combining data from an active clinical surveillance program and a comprehensive occupational health surveillance system. A total of 4,584 employers completed a latex allergy questionnaire. Six percent (n = 276) of subjects reported symptoms consistent with latex allergy. Years of latex glove use was a significant risk factor for latex allergy symptoms even after controlling for the effects of atopy, gender, age, race, fruit, and other allergies. Nurses, medical or lab technicians, physician's assistants, other clinical professionals, and housekeepers had the highest prevalence of latex glove allergy symptoms. Forty subjects (0.87%) who were confirmed as having latex sensitization. Sensitizsation may have been underestimated due to use of specific IgE antibody, less sensitive than skin-prick testing, and tiered design leading to laboratory assessment on a subset of the cohort. This surveillance program identified risk factors for latex allergy symptoms. Our findings provide a basis for tailoring future prevention strategies.

  15. Promoting self-care through symptom management: a theory-based approach for nurse practitioners.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Christopher; Kirschner, Michelle; Van Kuiken, Debra; Baas, Linda

    2007-05-01

    To present a theory of illness representation useful in clinical practice along with two case studies as examples of theory implementation. Literature review of relevant theory and associated literature, case studies from clinical practice. An individual asks several questions when experiencing a physical sensation: "Am I sick, stressed, or is this a sign of aging? If I'm sick, is the symptom connected with a disease label?" After asking these questions, the individual develops a cognitive and emotional illness representation that includes the dimensions of identity, cause, consequences, control, and timeline. This representation is guided by personal, cultural, and environmental contexts and determines coping strategies. By assessing the individual's cognitive and emotional representations of the illness, the nurse practitioner (NP) can use the common sense model of illness representation (CSM) to establish interventions and action plans helpful in decreasing distress in the management of symptoms. NPs frequently care for patients who present with very severe symptoms related to their health problem. This becomes a major challenge in effective disease management. Leventhal's CSM can be used as a framework to identify the cognitive and emotional illness representations individuals develop when acute and chronic symptoms are presented. By assessing the individual's cognitive and emotional representations of the illness, the NP will be able to use the CSM to establish interventions and action plans that will be helpful in decreasing the patient's distress in the management of symptoms.

  16. Impact of nasal symptoms on the evaluation of asthma control.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chien-Chia; Chang, Po-Hung; Wu, Pei-Wen; Wang, Chun-Hua; Fu, Chia-Hsiang; Huang, Chi-Che; Tseng, Hsiao-Jung; Lee, Ta-Jen

    2017-02-01

    The united airways concept suggests that patients with asthma typically exhibit parallel inflammation in the upper airway. The resulting nasal symptoms should reduce quality of life and substantially affect the evaluation of asthma control among these patients. This study aimed to assess the association of nasal symptoms with the evaluation of asthma control.Fifty-eight patients with asthma and persistent nasal symptoms were prospectively recruited for evaluations of their sinonasal symptoms and asthma control in a cross-sectional study from August 2013 to June 2016. Participants underwent thorough nasal endoscopy, sinus computed tomography, pulmonary function testing, the asthma control test (ACT), and the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test-22 (SNOT-22) questionnaires to evaluate their asthma control and sinonasal symptoms.There was a significant association between ACT and SNOT-22 scores. Among patients with asthma and chronic rhinosinusitis, ACT scores were closely related to the symptoms of cough, post-nasal discharge, dizziness, waking up at night, absence of a good night's sleep, and waking up tired. Among patients with asthma and chronic rhinitis, the forced expiratory volume in 1 second was closely related to the symptoms of needing to blow nose, runny nose, and cough. Patients with emergency clinic visits during the previous 3 months had relatively high SNOT-22 scores, especially for the symptoms of sneezing, runny nose, nasal blockage, cough, and dizziness.Sinonasal symptom severity was closely associated with measured asthma control status among patients with asthma and persistent nasal symptoms. Therefore, upper and lower airway inflammations should be considered and treated simultaneously.

  17. The association of generalized anxiety disorder and Somatic Symptoms with frequent attendance to health care services: A cross-sectional study from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966.

    PubMed

    Kujanpää, Tero S; Jokelainen, Jari; Auvinen, Juha P; Timonen, Markku J

    2017-03-01

    Objective Generalized anxiety disorder is associated with higher rate of physical comorbities, unexplained symptoms, and health care utilization. However, the role of somatic symptoms in determining health care utilization is unclear. The present study aims to assess the association of frequent attendance of health care services between generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and somatic symptoms. Method This study was conducted cross-sectionally using the material of the 46-year follow-up survey of the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966. Altogether, 5585 cohort members responded to the questionnaires concerning health care utilization, illness history, physical symptoms, and generalized anxiety disorder-7 screening tool. Odds ratios belonging to the highest decile in health care utilization were calculated for generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and all (n = 4) somatic symptoms of Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 controlled for confounding factors. Results Adjusted Odds ratios for being frequent attender of health care services were 2.29 (95% CI 1.58-3.31) for generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and 1.28 (95% CI 0.99-1.64), 1.94 (95% CI 1.46-2.58), 2.33 (95% CI 1.65-3.28), and 3.64 (95% CI 2.15-6.18) for 1, 2, 3, and 4 somatic symptoms, respectively. People with generalized anxiety disorder symptoms had on average a higher number of somatic symptoms (1.8) than other cohort members (0.9). Moreover, 1.6% of people without somatic symptoms tested positive for generalized anxiety disorder, meanwhile 22.6% of people with four somatic symptoms tested positive for generalized anxiety disorder. Conclusions Both generalized anxiety disorder symptoms and somatic symptoms are associated with a higher risk for being a health care frequent attender.

  18. Symptom experiences of family members of intensive care unit patients at high risk for dying.

    PubMed

    McAdam, Jennifer L; Dracup, Kathleen A; White, Douglas B; Fontaine, Dorothy K; Puntillo, Kathleen A

    2010-04-01

    To describe the symptom experiences of family members of patients at high risk for dying in the intensive care unit and to assess risk factors associated with higher symptom burden. Prospective, cross-sectional study. Three intensive care units at a large academic medical center. A sample of 74 family members of 74 intensive care unit patients who had a grave prognosis and were judged to be at high risk for dying. Patients at high risk for dying were identified as having Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II scores >20, an intensive care unit length of stay >72 hrs, and being mechanically ventilated. None. We assessed the degree of symptom burden approximately 4 days after the patient's admission to the intensive care unit in the following domains: traumatic stress, anxiety, and depression. Overall, the prevalence of symptoms was high, with more than half (57%) of family members having moderate to severe levels of traumatic stress, 80% having borderline symptoms of anxiety, and 70% having borderline symptoms of depression. More than 80% of family members had other physical and emotional symptoms, such as fatigue, sadness, and fear, and these were experienced at the moderate to severe levels of distress. Factors independently associated with greater severity of symptoms included younger age, female gender, and non-white race of the family member. The only patient factor significantly associated with symptom severity was younger age. Despite their symptom experience, the majority of the family members were coping at moderate to high levels and functioning at high levels during the intensive care unit experience. We document a high prevalence of psychological and physical symptoms among family members during an intensive care unit admission. These data complement existing data on long-term symptom burden and highlight the need to improve family centered care in intensive care units.

  19. Long-term effectiveness of collaborative depression care in older primary care patients with and without PTSD symptoms.

    PubMed

    Chan, Domin; Fan, Ming-Yu; Unützer, Jürgen

    2011-07-01

    Depressed patients with comorbid post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are more functionally impaired and may take longer to respond to depression treatment than patients without PTSD. This study examined the long-term effects of PTSD on depression severity, treatment response, and health care costs among older adults. Patients were recruited from 18 primary care clinics in five states. A total of 1801 patients aged 60 years or older with major depression or dysthymia were randomized to Improving Mood Promoting Access to Collaborative Treatment (IMPACT) collaborative care or usual care. The study included 191 (10.6%) subjects who screened positive for PTSD. Depression severity, assessed by the Hopkins Depression Symptom Checklist, was used to estimate depression-free days (DFDs) over 24 months. Total health care costs included inpatient, outpatient, and pharmacy costs. Depressed patients with PTSD had higher depression severity than patients without PTSD symptoms at baseline. Over 2 years, intervention patients with PTSD symptoms had relatively the same benefits from collaborative care (99 more DFDs than usual care patients) as patients without PTSD (108 more DFDs than usual care) (p = 0.85). Total health care costs did not differ significantly for depressed patients with and without PTSD symptoms. Depressed older adults with PTSD symptoms were more depressed at baseline, but collaborative care (compared to usual care) produced similar improvements in depression severity in both groups. This reduction of depression symptoms was observed for up to 12 months after the intervention ended, suggesting that long-term improvements in depression are possible with collaborative care in patients with and without PTSD symptoms. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Unhealthy Substance Use Behaviors as Symptom-Related Self-Care in HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Brion, John M.; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K.; Sloane, Rick; Voss, Joachim G.; Corless, Inge B.; Lindgren, Teri G.; Wantland, Dean J.; Kemppainen, Jeanne K.; Sefcik, Elizabeth F.; Nokes, Kathleen M.; Kirksey, Kenn M.; Eller, Lucille Sanzero; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L.; Portillo, Carmen J.; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M.; Moezzi, Shanaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P.; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M.; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of symptoms in HIV disease can be associated with HIV disease itself, comorbid illness, and/or antiretroviral therapy. Unhealthy substance use behaviors, particularly substance-use behaviors including heavy alcohol intake, marijuana use, other illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage disease-related symptoms. This study is a secondary data analysis of baseline data from a larger randomized-controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS Symptom Management Manual. In the present study, the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy substance use behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms are examined. Subjects were recruited from a variety of settings which provide HIV/AIDS care and treatment. The mean age of the sample (n=775) was 42.8 years (SD=9.6) and nearly thirty-nine percent (38.5%) of the sample was female. The racial demographics of the sample were: 28% African American, 28% Hispanic, 21% White/Caucasian, 16% African from Kenya or South Africa, 1% Asian, and 5% self-described as “Other.” The mean number of years living with HIV was reported to be 9.1 years (SD=6.6).Specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were use of marijuana (n= 111; 14.3%), cigarette smoking (n=355; 45.8%), heavy alcohol use (n= 66; 8.5%), and illicit drugs (n= 98; 12.6%). A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance use behaviors including amphetamine and injection drug use in addition to heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. Implications for clinical practice include assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons related to self-management across the trajectory of HIV disease. PMID:21352430

  1. Pain and symptom control. Patient rights and physician responsibilities.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, E J

    1996-02-01

    In considering the care of patients with incurable and terminal diseases, there are three types of interventions: (1) palliative care and symptom management; (2) experimental therapies; and (3) active life-ending interventions. Relief of pain, other symptoms, and suffering should be the basic and standard treatment; the other interventions are meant to supplement, not replace, this intervention. This means the physician's primary obligation is to inform patients about the options for palliative care and to provide quality palliative care. Thus, physicians who care for terminally ill patients have an obligation to keep their knowledge base and skills in palliative care current. In those circumstances in which a patient's needs exceeds the physician's knowledge and skills, physicians have a responsibility to refer the patient to a palliative care specialist. With regard to experimental therapies, physicians must obtain full informed consent, provide especially accurate data on the risks and benefits of experimental therapies, and ensure that the patient understands the aims of the proposed therapy. Regarding active life-ending therapies, physicians have the obligation to withhold or withdraw life-sustaining treatment if the patient so desires and to provide adequate pain medication even if this hastens death. Even if euthanasia or physician-assisted suicide are legalized, there is unlikely to be an obligation to provide this intervention.

  2. What is symptom meaning? A framework analysis of communication in palliative care consultations.

    PubMed

    Estacio, Celina F; Butow, Phyllis N; Lovell, Melanie R; Dong, Skye T; Clayton, Josephine M

    2017-11-01

    There is a limited understanding of symptom meaning and its significance to clinical practice within symptom experience literature. This study aims to qualitatively explore the ways in which symptom meanings are discussed by patients and responded to by palliative care physicians during consultations. Framework analysis was conducted with 40 palliative care consultation transcripts. 55% of consultations discussed symptom meaning. Six themes regarding patients' symptom meanings emerged while four themes conveyed physicians' responses to these utterances. Key symptom meanings included symptoms representing diminished function and uncertainty about symptom cause or future. Physicians usually gave scientific medical responses concerning symptom cause and treatment, versus reassurance or empathy. This study has provided greater insight into the different symptom meanings that exist for palliative care patients. Physicians' responses highlight their reliance on medical information when patients are distressed. Future studies should explore the impact of different responses on patient outcomes, and health practitioners' views about optimal responses. Physicians could explore symptom meanings with their patients, looking out for those identified here. Apart from information-giving and treatment, active listening to these concerns as they present in consultations may help improve the therapeutic relationship and better guide optimal care. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in a Danish population: a prospective follow-up analysis of symptoms, quality of life, and health-care use.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Jane Møller; Wildner-Christensen, Mette; Schaffalitzky de Muckadell, Ove B

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms (GERS) in the population is high; however, data on long-term follow-up and incidence of GERS in the population are sparse. This study describes the long-term natural history of GERS, the related health-care use, and quality of life in a population followed up for 5 years. A total of 10,000 randomly selected inhabitants, 40-65 years old, received, as a part of a controlled trial of Helicobacter pylori screening and treatment (control group), a mailed questionnaire regarding demographic data, gastrointestinal symptoms (the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS)), and quality of life (the Short-Form 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36)) at inclusion and after 5 years. GERS was defined as a mean score > or =2 in the reflux dimension in the GSRS. Information on use of health-care resources was drawn from the questionnaires and registers. In all, 6,781 individuals answered the first questionnaire and 5-year symptom data were complete for 5,578 (82.3%) of them. The mean age at inclusion was 52.4 years, 48% were men. At inclusion, 22% reported GERS. During follow-up, symptoms resolved in 43%, of whom 10% received acid inhibitory treatment at 5-year follow-up. The incidence of GERS was 2.2% per year. Health-care use during follow-up was significantly higher in individuals with GERS at baseline than in individuals without GERS. Quality of life at 5-year follow-up was lower in individuals with GERS at inclusion than in individuals without GERS at inclusion. GERS are prevalent, long lasting, and associated with an impaired quality of life and substantial health-care use.

  4. Chinese Herbal Medicine for Symptom Management in Cancer Palliative Care: Systematic Review And Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Chung, Vincent C H; Wu, Xinyin; Lu, Ping; Hui, Edwin P; Zhang, Yan; Zhang, Anthony L; Lau, Alexander Y L; Zhao, Junkai; Fan, Min; Ziea, Eric T C; Ng, Bacon F L; Wong, Samuel Y S; Wu, Justin C Y

    2016-02-01

    Use of Chinese herbal medicines (CHM) in symptom management for cancer palliative care is very common in Chinese populations but clinical evidence on their effectiveness is yet to be synthesized. To conduct a systematic review with meta-analysis to summarize results from CHM randomized controlled trials (RCTs) focusing on symptoms that are undertreated in conventional cancer palliative care.Five international and 3 Chinese databases were searched. RCTs evaluating CHM, either in combination with conventional treatments or used alone, in managing cancer-related symptoms were considered eligible. Effectiveness was quantified by using weighted mean difference (WMD) using random effect model meta-analysis. Fourteen RCTs were included. Compared with conventional intervention alone, meta-analysis showed that combined CHM and conventional treatment significantly reduced pain (3 studies, pooled WMD: -0.90, 95% CI: -1.69 to -0.11). Six trials comparing CHM with conventional medications demonstrated similar effect in reducing constipation. One RCT showed significant positive effect of CHM plus chemotherapy for managing fatigue, but not in the remaining 3 RCTs. The additional use of CHM to chemotherapy does not improve anorexia when compared to chemotherapy alone, but the result was concluded from 2 small trials only. Adverse events were infrequent and mild. CHM may be considered as an add-on to conventional care in the management of pain in cancer patients. CHM could also be considered as an alternative to conventional care for reducing constipation. Evidence on the use of CHM for treating anorexia and fatigue in cancer patients is uncertain, warranting further research.

  5. Childhood Emotional Abuse and Neglect as Predictors of Psychological and Physical Symptoms in Women Presenting to a Primary Care Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spertus, Ilyse L.; Yehuda, Rachel; Wong, Cheryl M.; Halligan, Sarah; Seremetis, Stephanie V.

    2003-01-01

    Objective: There were two aims to this study: first to examine whether emotional abuse and neglect are significant predictors of psychological and somatic symptoms, and lifetime trauma exposure in women presenting to a primary care practice, and second to examine the strength of these relationships after controlling for the effects of other types…

  6. Mental health care use in medically unexplained and explained physical symptoms: findings from a general population study

    PubMed Central

    van Eck van der Sluijs, Jonna F; ten Have, Margreet; Rijnders, Cees A; van Marwijk, Harm WJ; de Graaf, Ron; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore mental health care utilization patterns in primary and specialized mental health care of people with unexplained or explained physical symptoms. Methods Data were derived from the first wave of the Netherlands Mental Health Survey and Incidence Study-2, a nationally representative face-to-face cohort study among the general population aged 18–64 years. We selected subjects with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) only (MUSonly; n=177), explained physical symptoms only (PHYonly, n=1,952), combined MUS and explained physical symptoms (MUS + PHY, n=209), and controls without physical symptoms (NONE, n=4,168). We studied entry into mental health care and the number of treatment contacts for mental problems, in both primary care and specialized mental health care. Analyses were adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and presence of any 12-month mental disorder assessed with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview 3.0. Results At the primary care level, all three groups of subjects with physical symptoms showed entry into care for mental health problems significantly more often than controls. The adjusted odds ratios were 2.29 (1.33, 3.95) for MUSonly, 1.55 (1.13, 2.12) for PHYonly, and 2.25 (1.41, 3.57) for MUS + PHY. At the specialized mental health care level, this was the case only for MUSonly subjects (adjusted odds ratio 1.65 [1.04, 2.61]). In both the primary and specialized mental health care, there were no significant differences between the four groups in the number of treatment contacts once they entered into treatment. Conclusion All sorts of physical symptoms, unexplained as well as explained, were associated with significant higher entry into primary care for mental problems. In specialized mental health care, this was true only for MUSonly. No differences were found in the number of treatment contacts. This warrants further research aimed at the content of the treatment contacts. PMID

  7. Older Adults’ Use of Care Strategies in Response to General and Upper Respiratory Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Sandberg, Joanne C.; Grzywacz, Joseph G.; Suerken, Cynthia K.; Altizer, Kathryn P.; Quandt, Sara A.; Nguyen, Ha T.; Bell, Ronny A.; Lang, Wei; Arcury, Thomas A.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the use of complementary and medical treatments, both individually and in combination, to address common general and upper respiratory symptoms. Data for the analysis were collected from a series of 18 daily diary questionnaires administered to community-living older African American and white adults living in rural counties in North Carolina. Participants reported symptoms experienced on each diary day and the treatment strategies they used each day in response to the particular symptom(s). Older adults used diverse categories of strategies to treat symptoms; treatment strategies were used inconsistently across symptoms. Use of only complementary strategies, only medical conventional strategies, or both complementary and medical strategies to treat any one symptom rarely corresponded to the use of the same strategy to address other symptoms. Future research would benefit from analyzing how older adults use health care strategies across symptom categories. PMID:24652871

  8. Care Seeking Patterns of STIs-Associated Symptoms in Iran: Findings of a Population-Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Nasirian, Maryam; Karamouzian, Mohammad; Kamali, Kianoush; Nabipour, Amir Reza; Maghsoodi, Ahmad; Nikaeen, Roja; Razzaghi, Ali Reza; Mirzazadeh, Ali; Baneshi, Mohammad Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding the prevalence of symptoms associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and how care is sought for those symptoms are important components of STIs control and prevention. People’s preference between public and private service providers is another important part of developing a well-functioning STIs surveillance system. Methods: This cross-sectional survey was carried out in spring 2011, using a nonrandom quota sample of 1190 participants (52% female) in 4 densely-populated cities of Tehran, Kerman, Shiraz, and Babol. Two predictive logistic regression models were constructed to assess the association between the socio-demographic determinants (independent variables) and the dependent variables of history of STIs-associated symptom and seeking care. Results: Around 57% (677 out of 1190; men: 29.70% and women: 81.80%) had experienced at least one STIs-associated symptom during the previous year. History of experiencing STIs-associated symptoms among men, was negatively significantly associated with older age (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.34, CI 95%: 0.17-0.67). Women who were married, in older ages, and had higher educations were more likely to report a recent (past year) STIs symptom, however all were statistically insignificant in both bivariate and multivariable models. Among those who have had STIs-associated symptoms in the last year, 31.15% did nothing to improve their symptoms, 8.03% attempted self-treatment by over-the-counter (OTC) medications or traditional remedies, and 60.93% sought care in health facilities. In both bivariate and multivariable analyses, care seeking among men was insignificantly associated with any of the collected demographic variables. Care seeking among women was positively significantly associated with being married (AOR = 2.48, 95% CI: 1.60-3.84). Conclusion: The reported prevalence of STIs-associated symptoms among our participants is concerning. A considerable number of participants had

  9. Posttraumatic stress symptoms in palliative care professionals seeking mindfulness training: Prevalence and vulnerability.

    PubMed

    O'Mahony, Sean; Gerhart, James I; Grosse, Johanna; Abrams, Ira; Levy, Mitchell M

    2016-02-01

    Vicarious exposure to trauma is ubiquitous in palliative medicine. Repeated exposure to trauma may contribute to compassion fatigue and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in medical and supportive care professionals such as physicians, nurses, and social workers. These symptoms may be intensified among medical and supportive care professionals who use avoidant or rigid coping strategies. This study aimed to provide an estimate of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in a sample of professionals who work in palliative care settings, and have already been enrolled in mindfulness-based communication training. Palliative care providers provided self-reported ratings of posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, depression, and coping strategies using validated measures including the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire, Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist-Civilian Version. A total of 21 professionals working with palliative care patients completed assessments prior to beginning mindfulness-based communication training. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms were prevalent in this sample of professionals; 42% indicated positive screens for significant posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and 33% indicated probable posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis. Posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms may be common among professionals working in palliative medicine. Professionals prone to avoidant coping and those with more rigid negative thought processes may be at higher risk for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. © The Author(s) 2015.

  10. Physical symptoms of children receiving pediatric hospice care at home during the last week of life.

    PubMed

    Hendricks-Ferguson, Verna

    2008-11-01

    To identify symptoms of greatest parental concern on the last day and during the last week of their children's lives, the five most common symptoms of parental concern, and symptom-management strategies used during the last week of the children's lives. Descriptive, exploratory, and retrospective. A pediatric hospice program in St. Louis, MO. Convenience sampling of 28 bereaved parents. The Krippendorff method for semantical content analysis of data collected from semistructured telephone interviews with parents. Parents' perceptions of their children's symptoms and symptom-management strategies. On the last day of life, change in the children's breathing was the most frequent symptom of concern. During the last week of life, loss of motor function was the most frequent symptom of concern. Physical comfort actions and use of pharmaceutical agents were the strategies perceived as most helpful in managing symptoms. The study is the first to document parents' perceptions of their children's symptoms and of symptom-management strategies during the last week of life while receiving care in the home from staff of the pediatric hospice program. Symptoms experienced by dying children during the last week of life and symptom-management strategies used by pediatric hospice programs to support dying children and their families have not been well described. Additional research is warranted to further identify pediatric symptoms at the end of life and effective symptom-management strategies.

  11. Volunteering and depressive symptoms among residents in a continuing care retirement community.

    PubMed

    Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the relationship between volunteer activities, depressive symptoms, and feelings of usefulness among older adults using path analysis. Survey data was collected via interview from residents of a continuing care retirement community. Neither feelings of usefulness nor volunteering were directly associated with depressive symptoms. Volunteering was directly associated with feelings of usefulness and indirectly associated with depressive symptoms through total physical activity. Age, fear of falling, pain, physical activity, and physical resilience explained 31% of the variance in depressive symptoms. Engaging in volunteer work may be beneficial for increasing feelings of usefulness and indirectly improving depressive symptoms among older adults.

  12. Management of specific symptom complexes in patients receiving palliative care

    PubMed Central

    Bruera, E; Neumann, C M

    1998-01-01

    During the past 10 years there have been major changes in the management of the most common symptoms of terminal cancer. Opioid agonists remain the mainstay in the management of cancer pain. Slow-release preparations are currently available for several of these agents. The increased use of opioids has led to the recognition of opioid-induced neurotoxic effects and to the development of effective adjuvant drugs and other strategies to counteract these side effects. A number of drugs are available for the management of symptoms of cachexia, including corticosteroids and progestational drugs. Prokinetic drugs, either alone or in combination with other agents such as corticosteroids, are highly effective in the treatment of chronic nausea. For patients with asthenia, it should first be determined whether there are any reversible causes; if not, corticosteroids and psychostimulants may diminish the symptoms. Haloperidol, other neuroleptics and benzodiazepines may be required to manage hyperactive delirium. Oxygen and opioids are effective in treating dyspnea, whereas there is limited evidence that benzodiazepines provide any relief of this symptom. More research on the assessment and management of these devastating clinical symptoms of cancer is badly needed. PMID:9676549

  13. Symptoms, unbearability and the nature of suffering in terminal cancer patients dying at home: a prospective primary care study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Primary care physicians provide palliative home care. In cancer patients dying at home in the Netherlands (45% of all cancer patients) euthanasia in about one out of every seven patients indicates unbearable suffering. Symptom prevalence, relationship between intensity of symptoms and unbearable suffering, evolvement of symptoms and unbearability over time and quality of unbearable suffering were studied in end-of-life cancer patients in primary care. Methods 44 general practitioners during three years recruited cancer patients estimated to die within six months. Every two months patients quantified intensity as well as unbearability of 69 symptoms with the State-of-Suffering-V (SOS-V). Also overall unbearable suffering was quantified. The five-point rating scale ranged from 1 (not at all) to 5 (hardly can be worse). For symptoms assessed to be unbearable the nature of the suffering was additionally investigated with open-ended questions. The final interviews were analyzed; for longitudinal evolvement also the pre-final interviews were analyzed. Symptom intensity scores 4 and 5 were defined to indicate high intensity. Symptom unbearability scores 4 and 5 were defined to indicate unbearable suffering. Two raters categorized the qualitative descriptions of unbearable suffering. Results Out of 148 requested patients 51% participated; 64 patients were followed up until death. The SOS-V was administered at least once in 60 patients (on average 30 days before death) and at least twice in 33 patients. Weakness was the most frequent unbearable symptom (57%). Pain was unbearable in 25%. Pain, loss of control over one’s life and fear of future suffering frequently were unbearable (89-92%) when symptom intensity was high. Loss of control over one’s life, vomiting and not being able to do important things frequently were unbearable (52-80%) when symptom intensity was low. Unbearable weakness significantly increased between pre-final and final interview. Physical

  14. [A survey of the depressive symptoms in pregnant women at an urban primary care consultation office].

    PubMed

    Millán, T; Yévenez, R; Gálvez, M; Bahamonde, M I

    1990-11-01

    We studied the frequency of depression as well as biomedical and social features of 179 pregnant women under control at an urban clinic in metropolitan Santiago. The random sample comprised 38% of all controlled pregnancies. A questionnaire adapted and validated by Florenzano et al was used to appraise depression. The Graffar methodology was used to measure socioeconomic level. Frequency of depressive symptoms was 30% and mean age of depressed women was 27.3 years, similar to non depressed ones (26.1%). A significantly higher proportion of depression was found in single women and those having a dystocic last delivery. The high frequency of depression in this vulnerable group suggests the need for integrated obstetric-psychiatric units to provide a more comprehensive medical care to theses patients.

  15. The importance of symptom surveillance during follow-up care of leukemia, bladder, and colorectal cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Kent, Erin E; Mitchell, Sandra A; Oakley-Girvan, Ingrid; Arora, Neeraj K

    2014-01-01

    We examined cancer survivors' experience of bothersome symptoms, association of symptom bother with health-related quality of life (HRQOL), survivors' perception of symptom care, and their symptom-related information needs. Using self-report survey measures, survivors of leukemia, bladder, or colorectal cancer who were 2-5 years post-diagnosis and received follow-up care in the past year (N = 623) provided information about the presence of bothersome symptoms, symptom-related information needs, adequacy of symptom-related care, and their physical and mental HRQOL. Multivariable statistical analyses were conducted to identify correlates of symptom bother, inadequate care, and symptom information needs and to examine the association between symptom bother and HRQOL. Twenty-eight percent of the 606 respondents experienced symptom bother in the past year (46 % of leukemia, 24 % of bladder, and 26 % of colorectal cancer survivors). Younger survivors, those of Hispanic ethnicity, with low income, those with recurrent cancer, and chemotherapy recipients were more likely to report symptom bother (all p < 0.05). Symptom bother was associated with lower physical and mental HRQOL (p < 0.001). While 92 % of survivors with symptoms discussed them with their follow-up care physician, 52 % of these reported receiving inadequate symptom care. Survivors reporting inadequate symptom care were 2.5 times as likely to identify symptom information needs compared to those who received adequate care (p < 0.05). One in four cancer survivors report symptoms 2-5 years post-diagnosis, and only half of these survivors receive adequate care to address those symptoms. Research that refines and tests symptom care interventions for this population is warranted.

  16. Rumination and PTSD symptoms among trauma-exposed Latinos in primary care: Is mindful attention helpful?

    PubMed

    Viana, Andres G; Paulus, Daniel J; Garza, Monica; Lemaire, Chad; Bakhshaie, Jafar; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Ochoa-Perez, Melissa; Valdivieso, Jeanette; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2017-08-19

    The present investigation examined the moderating role of mindful attention in the relation between rumination and posttraumatic stress (PTS) symptoms (i.e., re-experiencing, avoidance, arousal, and total PTSD symptoms) among trauma-exposed Latinos in a primary care medical setting. It was hypothesized that mindful attention would moderate, or lessen, the relation between rumination and all facets of PTS, even after controlling for clinically relevant covariates. Participants included 182 trauma-exposed adult Latinos (89.0% female; Mage = 37.8, SD = 10.6% and 95.1% reported Spanish as their first language) attending a community-based integrated healthcare clinic in the Southwestern United States. Mindful attention was a significant moderator of relations between rumination and all PTS facets. Specifically, rumination and PTSD symptoms were significantly related yet only in the context of low (vs. high) levels of mindful attention. Mindfulness-based skills may offer incremental value to established treatment protocols for traumatic stress, especially when high levels of rumination are present. Rumination may also serve to identify those who are at greatest risk for developing PTSD after trauma exposure and, therefore, most likely to benefit from mindfulness-based strategies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Collaborative care versus screening and follow-up for patients with diabetes and depressive symptoms: results of a primary care-based comparative effectiveness trial.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Jeffrey A; Al Sayah, Fatima; Wozniak, Lisa; Rees, Sandra; Soprovich, Allison; Qiu, Weiyu; Chik, Constance L; Chue, Pierre; Florence, Peter; Jacquier, Jennifer; Lysak, Pauline; Opgenorth, Andrea; Katon, Wayne; Majumdar, Sumit R

    2014-12-01

    Depressive symptoms are common and, when coexisting with diabetes, worsen outcomes and increase health care costs. We evaluated a nurse case-manager-based collaborative primary care team model to improve depressive symptoms in diabetic patients. We conducted a controlled implementation trial in four nonmetropolitan primary care networks. Eligible patients had type 2 diabetes and screened positive for depressive symptoms, based on a Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ) score of ≥10. Patients were allocated using an "on-off" monthly time series. Intervention consisted of case-managers working 1:1 with patients to deliver individualized care. The main outcome was improvement in PHQ scores at 12 months. A concurrent cohort of 71 comparable patients was used as nonscreened usual care control subjects. Of 1,924 patients screened, 476 (25%) had a PHQ score >10. Of these, 95 were allocated to intervention and 62 to active control. There were no baseline differences between groups: mean age was 57.8 years, 55% were women, and the mean PHQ score was 14.5 (SD 3.7). Intervention patients had greater 12-month improvements in PHQ (7.3 [SD 5.6]) compared with active-control subjects (5.2 [SD 5.7], P = 0.015). Recovery of depressive symptoms (i.e., PHQ reduced by 50%) was greater among intervention patients (61% vs. 44%, P = 0.03). Compared with trial patients, nonscreened control subjects had significantly less improvement at 12 months in the PHQ score (3.2 [SD 4.9]) and lower rates of recovery (24%, P < 0.05 for both). In patients with type 2 diabetes who screened positive for depressive symptoms, collaborative care improved depressive symptoms, but physician notification and follow-up was also a clinically effective initial strategy compared with usual care. © 2014 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  18. Subjective symptoms and postural control during a disabled submarine simulation.

    PubMed

    Cymerman, A; Young, A J; Francis, T J R; Wray, D D; Ditzler, D T; Stulz, D; Bovill, M; Muza, S R

    2002-01-01

    To simulate conditions aboard a disabled submarine, 7 submariners were confined for 5 d to a normobaric environment of 16.75% O2, 2.5% CO2, 4 degrees C, and 85% relative humidity (RH). After 2 control days and 1 d of hypoxia, the remaining environmental conditions were imposed for the next 5 d, followed by 1 additional day of just hypoxia. Daily morning symptoms were assessed using the Environmental Symptoms Questionnaire (ESQ). Postural stability was determined on 4 occasions using a computerized balance system: control period, after 2.7 and 4.7 d of steady-state test conditions, and after 5.7 d (with return to normal ambient temp, RH, and CO2). Three balance tests were performed: eyes open, eyes closed, and a dynamic test. Postural stability deteriorated after 2.7 d (87% eyes open, P < 0.001 and 26% eyes closed, P = 0.01). ESQ symptom subsets for acute mountain sickness, exertion, fatigue, alertness, and ear/nose/throat were not significantly different. Cold symptom subsets were increased after 3-7 d (P < 0.001); distress and muscle discomfort subsets after 7 d (P = 0.02). Continued exposure to the combination of cold and hypoxia elicited subjective symptom changes and disturbances in postural stability that are statistically significant. These observations may be of practical importance when tasks aboard a disabled submarine involve balance and mobility.

  19. Depressive symptoms in young adults: the influences of the early home environment and early educational child care.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Andrea E; Campbell, Frances A; Pungello, Elizabeth P; Skinner, Martie

    2007-01-01

    The relationship between depressive symptoms in young adults, the quality of the early home environment, and early educational child care was investigated in young adults randomly assigned to receive early childhood intervention in the Abecedarian study. Of the original 111 infants enrolled (98% African American), 104 participated in an age-21 follow-up. Those who had early treatment reported fewer depressive symptoms. The protective effects of the early childhood program were further supported by a significant home environment by treatment interaction. Negative effects of lower quality home environments on young adult depressive symptoms were almost entirely offset by preschool treatment, whereas depressive symptoms increased as the quality of the early home environment decreased for those in the control group.

  20. Symptom recognition and health care seeking among immigrants and native Swedish patients with heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Hedemalm, Azar; Schaufelberger, Maria; Ekman, Inger

    2008-01-01

    Background It is not known what patient perceptions or beliefs lead to beneficial decisions or response patterns in symptom interpretation among heart failure (HF) patients, especially immigrants. The aim of this study was to explore and compare symptom recognition and health care seeking patterns among immigrants and native Swedes with HF. Methods The study used a qualitative design. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 42 patients with HF, of whom 21 were consecutively selected immigrants and 21 were randomly selected Swedish patients. The interviews were analysed using content analysis. Results A majority of the immigrant patients sought health care for symptoms and signs, such as breathing difficulties, fatigue and swelling. Twice as many immigrants as Swedes were unaware of "what the illness experience entailed" and which symptoms indicated worsening of HF. Conclusion The symptoms that patients sought care for, were similar among immigrants and Swedes. However, when interpreting symptoms more immigrants were unaware of the connection between the symptoms/signs and their HF condition. More tailored educational interventions might improve recognition of worsening symptoms in immigrant patients with chronic heart failure. PMID:18590538

  1. Palliative care and management of troublesome symptoms for people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Maddocks, Matthew; Lovell, Natasha; Booth, Sara; Man, William D-C; Higginson, Irene J

    2017-09-02

    People with advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) have distressing physical and psychological symptoms, often have limited understanding of their disease, and infrequently discuss end-of-life issues in routine clinical care. These are strong indicators for expert multidisciplinary palliative care, which incorporates assessment and management of symptoms and concerns, patient and caregiver education, and sensitive communication to elicit preferences for care towards the end of life. The unpredictable course of COPD and the difficulty of predicting survival are barriers to timely referral and receipt of palliative care. Early integration of palliative care with respiratory, primary care, and rehabilitation services, with referral on the basis of the complexity of symptoms and concerns, rather than prognosis, can improve patient and caregiver outcomes. Models of integrated working in COPD could include: services triggered by troublesome symptoms such as refractory breathlessness; short-term palliative care; and, in settings with limited access to palliative care, consultation only in specific circumstances or for the most complex patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Delay in seeking care for symptoms of acute myocardial infarction: applying a theoretical model.

    PubMed

    Quinn, Jill R

    2005-08-01

    Thirty percent of people who experience symptoms of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) do not seek care until more than 2-6 hours after onset of symptoms, increasing their risk for morbidity and mortality. Using a model based on two frameworks, the common sense model of illness representation (CSM) and goal expectancy, variables associated with delay were examined to identify the most salient predictors of delay in seeking care for AMI. Hierarchical regression analysis revealed that the set of illness representation components from the CSM was a significant predictor of time to seek care, but individually, only recognition of symptoms as being caused by the heart was significant. Providing accurate information on symptoms of AMI may lead to early recognition, reduced delay, and reduced morbidity and mortality. (c) Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Drug therapy for symptoms associated with anxiety in adult palliative care patients.

    PubMed

    Salt, Susan; Mulvaney, Caroline A; Preston, Nancy J

    2017-05-18

    This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2004 (Issue 1) and previously updated in 2012 (Issue 10). Anxiety is common in palliative care patients. It can be a natural response to the complex uncertainty of having a life-limiting illness or impending death, but it may represent a clinically significant issue in its own right. To assess the effectiveness of drug therapy for treating symptoms of anxiety in adults with a progressive life-limiting illness who are thought to be in their last year of life. We ran the searches for this update to May 2016. We searched the CENTRAL, MEDLINE (Ovid), Embase (Ovid), CINAHL (EBSCO), PsychLIT (Silver Platter) and PsycINFO (Ovid). We searched seven trials registers and seven pharmaceutical industry trials registers. We handsearched the conference abstracts of the European Association of Palliative Care. Randomised controlled trials which examined the effect of drug therapy for the treatment of symptoms of anxiety in adult palliative care patients, that is, people with a known progressive life-limiting illness that is no longer responsive to curative treatment, including advanced heart, respiratory and neurological diseases (including dementia). Comparator treatments included placebo; another drug therapy or different dose schedule; or a non-drug intervention such as counselling, cognitive behaviour therapies or relaxation therapies. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts to identify potentially relevant papers for inclusion in the review. We sought full-text reports for all papers retained at this stage and two reviews authors independently assessed these for inclusion in the review. We planned to assess risk of bias and extract data including information on adverse events. We planned to assess the evidence using GRADE and to create a 'Summary of findings' table. In this update, we identified 707 potentially relevant papers and of these we sought the full-text reports of 10 papers. On

  4. Symptom perception and adherence to asthma controller medications.

    PubMed

    Ohm, Ruth; Aaronson, Lauren S

    2006-01-01

    To explore asthma symptom perception and the relationship between asthma symptom perception and adherence to asthma treatment. Adult patients (N=120) of asthma/allergy specialty clinics, taking Advair as a controller medication, were enrolled in this cross-sectional descriptive study. Ninety-seven participants completed 4 weeks of daily diaries to assess subjective symptom perception and measured peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR), both done twice daily. Individual perceptual accuracy scores (PAS) were determined by correlating the subjective symptom perception scores with the PEFRs. Measures included demographic variables, illness identity (personal control and treatment control, consequences, and timeline-cyclical subscales of the IPQ-R), asthma severity (FEV1 percentage) and a single-item indicator of perceived asthma severity. Adherence was measured by the Medication Adherence Report Scale (MARS) and by an Advair dose count (percentage of doses taken as prescribed). Independent t tests comparing adherence rates of good versus poor perceivers were not significant, using either the percentage Advair dose count or the MARS. Multiple regression analyses showed that years with asthma, illness identity, and peak flow variability were all significant explanatory variables for perceptual accuracy. Peak flow variability adds complexity to the relationship between perceptual accuracy and adherence that warrants further investigation.

  5. [Symptom based approaches in point of care laboratory testing].

    PubMed

    Risch, Lorenz; Senn, Oliver

    2015-02-01

    Point of care testing (POCT) allows, among others, for efficient care of patients presenting with acute problems to primary care physicians. A combination of clinical information and laboratory results enables physicians to obtain posttest probabilities for the presence or absence of a specific disease. In order to rule in or rule out a disease, the physician has to know both the pretest probability for a disease in a patient as well as the analytical and diagnostic characteristics of the employed test. Pretest probability can be assessed by scores or by personal judgment of the experienced clinician. This article presents the basics of the Bayes theorem together with its clinical applications in acute scenarios in primary health care. These scenarios comprise the use of D-Dimer testing in ruling out venous thromboembolism, rapid testing of group A streptococci in the setting of acute pharyngitis, troponin testing in patients with thoracic pain, c-reactive protein (CRP) testing in patients presenting with acute cough and fever, as well as urine dipstick testing in suspected urinary tract infection. These examples illustrate, that risk stratification before conducting laboratory analysis is of utmost importance in order to obtain valid results for ruling in or ruling out diseases in POCT-settings.

  6. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Methods Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model. Results In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms. Conclusions Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders. PMID

  7. Seasonality in depressive and anxiety symptoms among primary care patients and in patients with depressive and anxiety disorders; results from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety.

    PubMed

    Winthorst, Wim H; Post, Wendy J; Meesters, Ybe; Penninx, Brenda W H J; Nolen, Willem A

    2011-12-19

    Little is known about seasonality of specific depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in different patient populations. This study aims to assess seasonal variation of depressive and anxiety symptoms in a primary care population and across participants who were classified in diagnostic groups 1) healthy controls 2) patients with a major depressive disorder, 3) patients with any anxiety disorder and 4) patients with a major depression and any anxiety disorder. Data were used from the Netherlands Study of Depression and Anxiety (NESDA). First, in 5549 patients from the NESDA primary care recruitment population the Kessler-10 screening questionnaire was used and data were analyzed across season in a multilevel linear model. Second, in 1090 subjects classified into four groups according to psychiatric status according to the Composite International Diagnostic Interview, overall depressive symptoms and atypical versus melancholic features were assessed with the Inventory of Depressive Symptoms. Anxiety and fear were assessed with the Beck Anxiety Inventory and the Fear questionnaire. Symptom levels across season were analyzed in a linear regression model. In the primary care population the severity of depressive and anxiety symptoms did not show a seasonal pattern. In the diagnostic groups healthy controls and patients with any anxiety disorder, but not patients with a major depressive disorder, showed a small rise in depressive symptoms in winter. Atypical and melancholic symptoms were both elevated in winter. No seasonal pattern for anxiety symptoms was found. There was a small gender related seasonal effect for fear symptoms. Seasonal differences in severity or type of depressive and anxiety symptoms, as measured with a general screening instrument and symptom questionnaires, were absent or small in effect size in a primary care population and in patient populations with a major depressive disorder and anxiety disorders.

  8. Mental health care use in relation to depressive symptoms among pregnant women in the USA.

    PubMed

    Byatt, Nancy; Xiao, Rui S; Dinh, Kate H; Waring, Molly E

    2016-02-01

    We examined mental health care use in relation to depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) ≥ 10) among a nationally representative sample of pregnant women using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2012. Logistic regression models estimated crude and adjusted odds ratios for mental health care use in the past year in relation to depressive symptoms. While 8.2 % (95 % CI 4.6-11.8) of pregnant women were depressed, only 12 % (95 % CI 1.8-22.1) of these women reported mental health care use in the past year.

  9. The Relation Between Depressive Symptoms and Self-Care in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Sopjani, Idriz; Vehapi, Shemsedin; Gorani, Daut; Imeri, Miradije; Vitoja, Sidita; Tahiri, Shqipe

    2016-12-01

    The depression is a significant problem in patients with diabetes. This research is the first of it's kind conducted in the Republic of Kosovo to determine the prevalence of depression diagnosed in people with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) and interrelation between depressive symptoms and behavior of diabetes self-care (glucose monitoring, exercise, diet, and self- health care). Research was conducted in the University Clinical Center of Kosovo (UCCK), in Pristine. The sample consisted of 200 individuals. Data collection was done through structured questionnaires. HANDS (Harvard Department of Psychiatry / National Depression Screening Day Scale) questionnaire was used to assess depressive symptoms and DSMQ (The Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire) was used to assess self-care behavior. Data analysis was run through SSPS program, version 21. The results showed that the prevalence of depression in diabetic patients was 66.5% in Kosovo. Being a woman, a resident of rural areas or with low level of education, there were significant predictors and were associated with increased chance of developing the symptoms of major depression. Significant relations were found between major depression and physical activity (p<0.05). While between major depression and management of blood glucose level, dietary control and self health care, no significant correlation was found. This paper concluded the involvement of psychological aspect in health care plan for diabetics, in order to reduce the number of individuals affected by depression, to diagnose and to treat these individuals for a better quality of life.

  10. Gastrointestinal symptoms in primary care: prevalence and association with depression and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Mussell, Monika; Kroenke, Kurt; Spitzer, Robert L; Williams, Janet B W; Herzog, Wolfgang; Löwe, Bernd

    2008-06-01

    Results from general population studies suggest a relationship between gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, depression, and anxiety. However, no primary care study has investigated this issue. This study investigates the prevalence of GI symptoms in primary care and their association with depression and anxiety. Within a cross-sectional survey, 2091 consecutive patients from 15 primary care clinics in the United States completed self-report questionnaires regarding GI symptoms [15-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-15)], anxiety [seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale (GAD-7)], and depression (PHQ-8). Of those, 965 randomly selected patients additionally underwent a criterion standard diagnostic telephone interview (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV) for the most common anxiety disorders. A total of 380 [18% (95% CI, 16.3% to 19.3%)] patients reported to be substantially bothered by at least one GI symptom in the previous 4 weeks. The prevalence of severe levels of depression (PHQ-8 score > or =15) was nearly fivefold in patients with GI symptoms compared to patients without GI symptoms (19.1% vs. 3.9%; P<.001), and the prevalence of severe levels of anxiety (GAD-7 score > or =15) was nearly fourfold in patients with GI symptoms compared to patients without GI symptoms (19.4% vs. 5.6%; P<.001). Similarly, with each additional GI symptom, the odds for an interview-based diagnosis of specific anxiety disorders increased significantly: For example, compared to patients with no GI symptom, the odds ratio (OR) (95% CI) for generalized anxiety disorder in patients with one GI symptom was 3.7 (2.0 to 6.9); in patients with two GI symptoms, OR=6.5 (3.1 to 13.6); and in patients with three GI symptoms, OR=7.2 (2.7 to 18.8). GI symptoms are associated significantly with depression and anxiety in primary care. It is suggested to screen as a routine for anxiety and depression in patients with GI symptoms and, if indicated, to initiate specific treatment.

  11. Achieving Symptom Control in Patients with Moderate Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Weir, Nargues A.; Levine, Stewart J.

    2012-01-01

    Disease severity in asthma can be classified as mild, moderate or severe based upon the frequency of symptoms or the severity of airflow obstruction. This review will focus on the treatment of youths greater than 12 years of age and adults with moderate persistent asthma. Moderate asthmatics may have daily symptoms that cause some limitation with normal daily activities and require use of a rescue inhaled short-acting beta2-agonist inhaler or experience nocturnal awakenings secondary to asthma that occur more than once per week. Furthermore, spirometry may reveal airflow obstruction with a reduction in FEV1 to between 60% and 80% of predicted. Although inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the primary controller medication used to modify symptoms in moderate asthmatics, additional controller medications, such as inhaled long-acting beta2-agonists (LABA), leukotriene receptor antagonists (LTRA) or theophylline, are often needed to obtain optimal disease control. While the addition of an inhaled LABA to an ICS is very effective at improving disease control in moderate asthma, concerns have arisen over the safety of LABAs, in particular the risk of asthma-related death. Therefore, consideration may be given to initially adding a LTRA, rather than a LABA, to ICS when asthma symptoms are not adequately controlled by ICS alone. Furthermore, individualization of medication regimens, treatment of co-morbid conditions, and patient education are crucial to optimizing compliance with therapy, improving disease control, and reducing the risk of exacerbations. Lastly, the development of new asthma treatments, perhaps based upon personalized medicine, may revolutionize the future treatment of moderate asthma. PMID:22259262

  12. Pilot Testing of Triage Coding System in Home-based Palliative Care Using Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale.

    PubMed

    Dhiliwal, Sunil; Salins, Naveen; Deodhar, Jayitha; Rao, Raghavendra; Muckaden, Mary Ann

    2016-01-01

    Home-based palliative care is an essential model of palliative care that aims to provide continuity of care at patient's own home in an effective and timely manner. This study was a pilot test of triage coding system in home-based palliative care using Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) scale. Objective of the study was to evaluate if the triage coding system in home-based palliative care: (a) Facilitated timely intervention, (b) improved symptom control, and (c) avoided hospital deaths. Homecare services were coded as high (Group 1 - ESAS scores ≥7), medium (Group 2 - ESAS scores 4-6), and low (Group 3 - ESAS scores 0-3) priority based on ESAS scores. In high priority group, patients received home visit in 0-3 working days; medium priority group, patients received home visit in 0-10 working days; and low priority group, patients received home visit in 0-15 working days. The triage duration of home visit was arbitrarily decided based on the previous retrospective audit and consensus of the experts involved in prioritization and triaging in home care. "High priority" patients were visited in 2.63 ± 0.75 days; "medium priority" patients were visited in 7.00 ± 1.5 days, and "low priority" patients were visited in 10.54 ± 2.7 days. High and medium priority groups had a statistically significant improvement in most of the ESAS symptoms following palliative home care intervention. Intergroup comparison showed that improvement in symptoms was the highest in high priority group compared to medium and low priority group. There was an 8.5% increase in home and hospice deaths following the introduction of triage coding system. There was a significant decrease in deaths in the hospital in Group 1 (6.3%) (χ (2) = 27.3, P < 0.001) compared to Group 2 (28.6%) and Group 3 (15.4%). Group 2 had more hospital deaths. Interval duration from triaging to first intervention was a significant predictor of survival with odds ratio 0.75 indicating that time taken for

  13. Are Intensive Care Factors Associated with Depressive Symptoms Six Months after Acute Lung Injury?

    PubMed Central

    Dowdy, David W.; Bienvenu, O. Joseph; Dinglas, Victor D.; Mendez-Tellez, Pedro A.; Sevransky, Jonathan; Shanholtz, Carl; Needham, Dale M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate intensive care-related factors as predictors of depressive symptoms 6 months after acute lung injury (ALI) Design Prospective cohort study Setting Thirteen intensive care units (ICUs) in 4 hospitals in Baltimore, MD Patients Consecutive ALI survivors (n = 160; 71% from medical ICUs) screened for depressive symptoms at six months post-ALI Interventions None Measurements and Main Results We prospectively measured 12 features of critical illness and ICU care and used multivariable regression to evaluate associations with depressive symptoms as measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) depression score. The prevalence of a positive screening for depression (score ≥8) at 6 months post-ALI was 26%. Depressive symptoms were significantly associated with surgical (versus medical or trauma) ICU admission (relative risk [RR] 2.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1 – 4.2), maximum daily Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score of >10 (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 – 3.5), and mean daily ICU benzodiazepine dose of ≥75mg of midazolam-equivalent (RR 2.1, 95% CI 1.1 – 3.5). Conclusions Depressive symptoms at 6 months post-ALI are common and potentially associated with ICU-related factors. Mechanisms by which critical illness and intensive care management associate with depressive symptoms merit further investigation. PMID:19357507

  14. Patients' descriptions of angina symptoms: a qualitative study of primary care patients

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Melvyn M; Somerville, Claire; Feder, Gene; Foster, Gill

    2010-01-01

    Background Initial diagnosis of angina in primary care is based on the history of symptoms as described by the patient in consultation with their GP. Deciphering and categorising often complex symptom narratives, therefore, represents an ongoing challenge in the early diagnosis of angina in primary care. Aim To explore how patients with a preexisting angina diagnosis describe their symptoms. Method Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 64 males and females, identified from general practice records as having received a diagnosis of angina within the previous 5 years. Results While some patients described their angina symptoms in narratives consistent with typical anginal symptoms, others offered more complex descriptions of their angina experiences, which were less easy to classify. The latter was particularly the case for severe coronary artery disease, where some patients tended to downplay chest pain or attribute their experience to other causes. Conclusion Patients with a known diagnosis of angina do not always describe their symptoms in a way that is consistent with Diamond and Forrester’s diagnostic framework for typicality of angina. Early diagnosis of angina in primary care requires that GPs operate with a broad level of awareness of the various ways in which their patients describe their symptoms. PMID:20883622

  15. Care-seeking decisions for worsening symptoms in heart failure: a qualitative metasynthesis.

    PubMed

    Ivynian, S E; DiGiacomo, M; Newton, P J

    2015-11-01

    Over 50 % of heart failure (HF) patients delay seeking help for worsening symptoms until these reach acute levels and require emergency hospitalisation. This metasynthesis aimed to identify and explore factors influencing timely care-seeking in patients with HF. Electronic databases searched were MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL. Studies were included if they were peer-reviewed journal articles, written in English, and reported perspectives of HF patients following qualitative data collection and analysis. Forty articles underwent analysis following the approach of Thomas and Harden. Leventhal's self-regulatory model (SRM) was used to organise the literature. Much of the literature fits within the SRM; however, this model did not account for all factors that influence patients' care-seeking for worsening symptoms. Factors not accounted for included patients' appraisals of previous care-seeking experiences, perceived system and provider barriers to accessing care, and the influence of external appraisals. When added to factors already represented in the model, such as misattribution of symptoms, not identifying with HF diagnosis, cognitive status, lack of understanding information provided, adaptation to symptoms, and emotional responses, a more comprehensive account of patients' decision-making was revealed. This metasynthesis identified factors, as yet unaccounted for, in a prominent model, and has suggested a more comprehensive framework for addressing care-seeking in HF patients. This information can be used to tailor education, communication, and service initiatives to improve HF patients' responses to worsening symptoms and target those most at risk of delay.

  16. Distance therapy to improve symptoms and quality of life: complementing office-based care with telehealth.

    PubMed

    Kroenke, Kurt

    2014-10-01

    Two randomized trials exemplify strategies for administering behavioral interventions through distance therapy-the use of telemedicine or e-health approaches to treating patients outside the conventional in-person office-based visit. In the first trial, telephone-based coping skills training for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was not more effective than an education control in reducing mortality or rehospitalization. However, it was superior in improving psychological and somatic quality of life. In the second trial, a web-based distress management program was not more effective than usual care in postoperative psychological outcomes in patients receiving an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. However, both of these trials raise important methodological issues in designing and interpreting trials testing telehealth delivery of behavioral interventions. Key issues include: 1) selection of the appropriate control group (e.g., when may a usual care or active comparator be preferable to an attention control?); 2) choice of the appropriate outcome (i.e., one most likely to respond to the specific intervention); 3) enrolling only patients who have at least some threshold level of the symptom or risk level for the outcome being targeted by the intervention; 4) focusing on patients likely to participate in telehealth or other distance-administered treatment programs; and 5) optimal timing for the delivery of behavioral interventions that may occur around the time of major events such as hospitalization or procedures. A policy implication is that once distance therapy interventions are proven effective, reimbursement changes will be necessary to enhance the likelihood of uptake by providers and health care systems.

  17. mHealth self-care interventions: managing symptoms following breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Fu, Mei R; Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber A; Rampertaap, Kavita; El-Shammaa, Nardin; Hiotis, Karen; Scagliola, Joan; Yu, Gary; Wang, Yao

    2016-07-01

    Many women suffer from daily distressing symptoms related to lymphedema following breast cancer treatment. Lymphedema, an abnormal accumulation of lymph fluid in the ipsilateral body area or upper limb, remains an ongoing major health problem affecting more than 40% of 3.1 million breast cancer survivors in the United States. Patient-centered care related to lymphedema symptom management is often inadequately addressed in clinical research and practice. mHealth plays a significant role in improving self-care, patient-clinician communication, and access to health information. The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow health IT system (TOLF) is a patient-centered, web-and-mobile-based educational and behavioral mHealth interventions focusing on safe, innovative, and pragmatic electronic assessment and self-care strategies for lymphedema symptom management. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and test of TOLF system. The development of TOLF was guided by the Model of Self-Care for Lymphedema Symptom Management and designed based on principles fostering accessibility, convenience, and efficiency of mHealth system to enhance training and motivating assessment of and self-care for lymphedema symptoms. Test of TOLF was accomplished by conducting a psychometric study to evaluate reliability, validity, and efficiency of the electronic version of Breast Cancer and Lymphedema Symptom Experience Index (BCLE-SEI), a usability testing and a pilot feasibility testing of mHealth self-care interventions. Findings from the psychometric study with 355 breast cancer survivors demonstrated high internal consistency of the electronic version of the instrument: a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.959 for the total scale, 0.919 for symptom occurrence, and 0.946 for symptom distress. Discriminant validity of the instrument was supported by a significant difference in symptom occurrence (z=-6.938, P<0.000), symptom distress (z=-5.894, P<0.000), and total scale (z=-6.547, P<0.000) between

  18. mHealth self-care interventions: managing symptoms following breast cancer treatment

    PubMed Central

    Axelrod, Deborah; Guth, Amber A.; Rampertaap, Kavita; El-Shammaa, Nardin; Hiotis, Karen; Scagliola, Joan; Yu, Gary; Wang, Yao

    2016-01-01

    Background Many women suffer from daily distressing symptoms related to lymphedema following breast cancer treatment. Lymphedema, an abnormal accumulation of lymph fluid in the ipsilateral body area or upper limb, remains an ongoing major health problem affecting more than 40% of 3.1 million breast cancer survivors in the United States. Patient-centered care related to lymphedema symptom management is often inadequately addressed in clinical research and practice. mHealth plays a significant role in improving self-care, patient-clinician communication, and access to health information. The-Optimal-Lymph-Flow health IT system (TOLF) is a patient-centered, web-and-mobile-based educational and behavioral mHealth interventions focusing on safe, innovative, and pragmatic electronic assessment and self-care strategies for lymphedema symptom management. The purpose of this paper is to describe the development and test of TOLF system. Methods The development of TOLF was guided by the Model of Self-Care for Lymphedema Symptom Management and designed based on principles fostering accessibility, convenience, and efficiency of mHealth system to enhance training and motivating assessment of and self-care for lymphedema symptoms. Test of TOLF was accomplished by conducting a psychometric study to evaluate reliability, validity, and efficiency of the electronic version of Breast Cancer and Lymphedema Symptom Experience Index (BCLE-SEI), a usability testing and a pilot feasibility testing of mHealth self-care interventions. Results Findings from the psychometric study with 355 breast cancer survivors demonstrated high internal consistency of the electronic version of the instrument: a Cronbach’s alpha coefficient of 0.959 for the total scale, 0.919 for symptom occurrence, and 0.946 for symptom distress. Discriminant validity of the instrument was supported by a significant difference in symptom occurrence (z=–6.938, P<0.000), symptom distress (z=–5.894, P<0.000), and total

  19. Impact of Collaborative Care for Underserved Patients with PTSD in Primary Care: a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Lisa S; Eisenman, David P; Han, Bing; Green, Bonnie L; Kaltman, Stacey; Wong, Eunice C; Sorbero, Melony; Vaughan, Christine; Cassells, Andrea; Zatzick, Douglas; Diaz, Claudia; Hickey, Scot; Kurz, Jeremy R; Tobin, Jonathan N

    2016-05-01

    The effectiveness of collaborative care of mental health problems is clear for depression and growing but mixed for anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We know little about whether collaborative care can be effective in settings that serve low-income patients such as Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHCs). We compared the effectiveness of minimally enhanced usual care (MEU) versus collaborative care for PTSD with a care manager (PCM). This was a multi-site patient randomized controlled trial of PTSD care improvement over 1 year. We recruited and enrolled 404 patients in six FQHCs from June 2010 to October 2012. Patients were eligible if they had a primary care appointment, no obvious physical or cognitive obstacles to participation, were age 18-65 years, planned to continue care at the study location for 1 year, and met criteria for a past month diagnosis of PTSD. The main outcomes were PTSD diagnosis and symptom severity (range, 0-136) based on the Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS). Secondary outcomes were medication and counseling for mental health problems, and health-related quality of life assessed at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. Patients in both conditions improved similarly over the 1-year evaluation period. At 12 months, PTSD diagnoses had an absolute decrease of 56.7% for PCM patients and 60.6% for MEU patients. PTSD symptoms decreased by 26.8 and 24.2 points, respectively. MEU and PCM patients also did not differ in process of care outcomes or health-related quality of life. Patients who actually engaged in care management had mental health care visits that were 14% higher (p < 0.01) and mental health medication prescription rates that were 15.2% higher (p < 0.01) than patients with no engagement. A minimally enhanced usual care intervention was similarly effective as collaborative care for patients in FQHCs.

  20. Efficacy of Exercise for Menopausal Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Sternfeld, Barbara; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Larson, Joseph C.; Dunn, Andrea L.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Seguin, Rebecca A.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Newton, Katherine M.; Reed, Susan D.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Cohen, Lee S.; Joffe, Hadine; Roberts, Melanie; Caan, Bette J.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine efficacy of exercise training for alleviating vasomotor and other menopausal symptoms. METHODS Late-peri and post-menopausal, sedentary women with frequent vasomotor symptoms (VMS) participated in a randomized controlled trial conducted at three sites: 106 to exercise and 142 to usual activity. The exercise intervention consisted of individual, facility-based aerobic exercise training 3 times/week for 12 weeks. VMS frequency and bother were recorded on daily diaries at baseline and weeks 6 and 12. Intent to treat analyses compared between group differences in changes in VMS frequency and bother, sleep symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index) and mood (Patient Health Questionnaire-8 and Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7 questionnaire). RESULTS At the end of week 12, changes in VMS frequency in the exercise group (mean change of −2.4/day, 95% CI −3.0, −1.7) and VMS bother (mean change of −0.5 on a 4 point scale, 95% CI −0.6, −0.4) were not significantly different from those in the control group (−2.6 VMS/day, 95% CI −3.2, −2.0, p=0.43; −0.5 points, 95% CI −0.6, −0.4, p=0.75). The exercise group reported greater improvement in insomnia symptoms (p=0.03), subjective sleep quality (p=0.01), and depressive symptoms (p=0.04), but differences were small and not statistically significant when p values were adjusted for multiple comparisons. Results were similar when considering treatment-adherent women only. CONCLUSION These findings provide strong evidence that 12-weeks of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise does not alleviate VMS but may result in small improvements in sleep quality, insomnia and depression in midlife, sedentary women. PMID:23899828

  1. Design and rationale for a randomized controlled trial to reduce readmissions among patients with depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Suzanne E; Martin, Jessica M; Krizman, Katherine; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Culpepper, Larry; Stewart, Sabrina K; Brown, Jennifer Rose; Jack, Brian W

    2015-11-01

    The Re-Engineered Discharge (Project RED) reduces 30-day readmission rates by 30%. However, our data indicates that for patients displaying depressive symptoms during hospitalization, Project RED is less effective in preventing unplanned readmission. We aim to examine the effectiveness of RED-D, a modified brief Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol delivered as a post-discharge extension of the Re-Engineered Discharge, in reducing 30-day readmissions rates and emergency department (ED) use as well as depressive symptoms for medical patients with comorbid depressive symptoms. This paper details the study design and implementation of an ongoing, federally funded randomized controlled trial of our post-discharge mental health intervention, RED-D, compared to the RED plus usual care. This research has two primary objectives: (1) to determine whether RED-D delivered telephonically by a mental health professional immediately following discharge is effective in reducing hospital readmission and emergency department use for patients displaying depressive symptoms during their inpatient stay, and (2) to examine whether this approach yields a clinically significant reduction in depressive symptoms. We intend to recruit 1200 participants randomized to our intervention, RED-D (n=600), and to RED plus usual care (n=600). Hospitalized patients with depressive symptoms are at increased risk for 30-day readmission. We aim to conduct a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of RED-D, our post-discharge modified brief CBT intervention compared to RED alone in reducing readmissions and depressive symptoms for this at-risk population. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Design and Rationale for a Randomized Controlled Trial to Reduce Readmissions among Patients with Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Suzanne E.; Martin, Jessica M.; Krizman, Katherine; Sadikova, Ekaterina; Culpepper, Larry; Stewart, Sabrina K.; Brown, Jennifer Rose; Jack, Brian W.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Re-Engineered Discharge (Project RED) reduces 30-day readmission rates by 30 percent. However, our data indicates that for patients displaying depressive symptoms during hospitalization, Project RED is less effective in preventing unplanned readmission. We aim to examine the effectiveness of RED-D, a modified brief Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) protocol delivered as a post-discharge extension of the Re-Engineered Discharge, in reducing 30-day readmissions rates and emergency department (ED) use as well as depressive symptoms for medical patients with comorbid depressive symptoms. Methods This paper details the study design and implementation of an ongoing, federally funded randomized controlled trial of our post-discharge mental health intervention, RED-D, compared to the RED plus usual care. This research has two primary objectives: (1) to determine whether RED-D delivered telephonically by a mental health professional immediately following discharge is effective in reducing hospital readmission and emergency department use for patients displaying depressive symptoms during their inpatient stay, and (2) to examine whether this approach yields a clinically significant reduction in depressive symptoms. We intend to recruit 1200 participants randomized to our intervention, RED-D (n=600), and to RED plus usual care (n=600). Conclusions Hospitalized patients with depressive symptoms are at increased risk for 30-day readmission. We aim to conduct a randomized clinical trial to evaluate the comparative effectiveness of RED-D, our post-discharge modified brief CBT intervention compared to RED alone in reducing readmissions and depressive symptoms for this at-risk population. PMID:26343332

  3. Efficacy of Oral Risperidone, Haloperidol, or Placebo for Symptoms of Delirium Among Patients in Palliative Care: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Agar, Meera R; Lawlor, Peter G; Quinn, Stephen; Draper, Brian; Caplan, Gideon A; Rowett, Debra; Sanderson, Christine; Hardy, Janet; Le, Brian; Eckermann, Simon; McCaffrey, Nicola; Devilee, Linda; Fazekas, Belinda; Hill, Mark; Currow, David C

    2017-01-01

    Antipsychotics are widely used for distressing symptoms of delirium, but efficacy has not been established in placebo-controlled trials in palliative care. To determine efficacy of risperidone or haloperidol relative to placebo in relieving target symptoms of delirium associated with distress among patients receiving palliative care. A double-blind, parallel-arm, dose-titrated randomized clinical trial was conducted at 11 Australian inpatient hospice or hospital palliative care services between August 13, 2008, and April 2, 2014, among participants with life-limiting illness, delirium, and a delirium symptoms score (sum of Nursing Delirium Screening Scale behavioral, communication, and perceptual items) of 1 or more. Age-adjusted titrated doses of oral risperidone, haloperidol, or placebo solution were administered every 12 hours for 72 hours, based on symptoms of delirium. Patients also received supportive care, individualized treatment of delirium precipitants, and subcutaneous midazolam hydrochloride as required for severe distress or safety. Improvement in mean group difference of delirium symptom score (severity range, 0-6) between baseline and day 3. Five a priori secondary outcomes: delirium severity, midazolam use, extrapyramidal effects, sedation, and survival. Two hundred forty-seven participants (mean [SD] age, 74.9 [9.8] years; 85 women [34.4%]; 218 with cancer [88.3%]) were included in intention-to-treat analysis (82 receiving risperidone, 81 receiving haloperidol, and 84 receiving placebo). In the primary intention-to-treat analysis, participants in the risperidone arm had delirium symptom scores that were significantly higher than those among participants in the placebo arm (on average 0.48 Units higher; 95% CI, 0.09-0.86; P = .02) at study end. Similarly, for those in the haloperidol arm, delirium symptom scores were on average 0.24 Units higher (95% CI, 0.06-0.42; P = .009) than in the placebo arm. Compared with placebo, patients in both

  4. Key elements of successful care process of patients with heart symptoms in an emergency care - could an ERP system help?

    PubMed

    Kontio, Elina; Korvenranta, Heikki; Lundgren-Laine, Heljä; Salanterä, Sanna

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify key elements of successful care process of patients with heart symptoms from the nursing management viewpoint in an emergency care. Through these descriptions, we aimed at identifying possibilities for using enterprise resource planning (ERP) systems to support decision making in emergency care. Hospitals are increasingly moving to process-based workings and at the same time new information system in healthcare are developed and therefore it is essential to understand the strengths and weaknesses of current processes better. A qualitative descriptive design using critical incident technique was employed. Critical Incidents were collected with an open-ended questionnaire. The sample (n=50), 13 head nurses and 37 registered nurses, was purposeful selected from three acute hospitals in southern Finland. The process of patients with heart symptoms in emergency care was described. We identified three competence categories where special focus should be placed to achieve successful process of patients with heart symptoms: process-oriented competencies, personal/management competencies and logistics oriented competencies. Improvement of decision making requires that the care processes are defined and modeled. The research showed that there are several happenings in emergency care where an ERP system could help and support decision making. These happenings can be categorized in two groups: 1) administrative related happenings and 2) patient processes related happenings.

  5. TOPPITS: Trial Of Proton Pump Inhibitors in Throat Symptoms. Study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Watson, Gillian; O'Hara, James; Carding, Paul; Lecouturier, Jan; Stocken, Deborah; Fouweather, Tony; Wilson, Janet

    2016-04-01

    Persistent throat symptoms and Extra Oesophageal Reflux (EOR) are among the commonest reasons for attendance at a secondary care throat or voice clinic. There is a growing trend to treat throat symptom patients with proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) to suppress stomach acid, but most controlled studies fail to demonstrate a significant benefit of PPI over placebo. In addition, patient views on PPI use vary widely. A UK multi-centre, randomised, controlled trial for adults with persistent throat symptoms to compare the effectiveness of treatment with the proton pump inhibitor (PPI) lansoprazole versus placebo. The trial includes a six-month internal pilot, during which three sites will recruit 30 participants in total, to assess the practicality of the trial and assess the study procedures and willingness of the patient population to participate. If the pilot is successful, three additional sites will be opened to recruitment, and a further 302 participants recruited across the six main trial sites. Further trial sites may be opened, as necessary. The main trial will continue for a further 18 months. Participants will be followed up for 12 months from randomisation, throughout which both primary and secondary outcome data will be collected. The primary outcome is change in Reflux Symptom Index (RSI) score, the 'area standard' for this type of assessment, after 16 weeks (four months) of treatment. Secondary outcomes are RSI changes at 12 months after randomisation, Quality of Life assessment at four and 12 months, laryngeal mucosal changes, assessments of compliance and side effects, and patient-reported satisfaction. TOPPITS is designed to evaluate the relative effectiveness of treatment with a proton pump inhibitor versus placebo in patients with persistent throat symptoms. This will provide valuable information to clinicians and GPs regarding the treatment and management of care for these patients, on changes in symptoms, and in Quality of Life, over time. ISRCTN

  6. Association of Adolescent Depressive Symptoms With Health Care Utilization and Payer-Incurred Expenditures.

    PubMed

    Wright, Davene R; Katon, Wayne J; Ludman, Evette; McCauley, Elizabeth; Oliver, Malia; Lindenbaum, Jeffrey; Richardson, Laura P

    2016-01-01

    Screening adolescents for depression is recommended by the US Preventive Services Task Force. We sought to evaluate the impact of positive depression screens in an adolescent population on health care utilization and costs from a payer perspective. We conducted depression screening among 13- to 17-year-old adolescents enrolled in a large integrated care system using the 2- and 9-item Patient Health Questionnaires (PHQ). Health care utilization and cost data were obtained from administrative records. Chi-square, Wilcoxon rank sum, and t tests were used to test for statistical differences in outcomes between adolescents on the basis of screening status. Of the 4010 adolescents who completed depression screening, 3707 (92.4%) screened negative (PHQ-2 <2 or PHQ-9 <10), 186 (3.9%) screened positive for mild depression (PHQ-9 10-14), and 95 (2.4%) screened positive for moderate to severe depression (PHQ-9 ≥15). In the 12 months after screening, screen-positive adolescents were more likely than screen-negative adolescents to receive any emergency department visit or inpatient hospitalization, and they had significantly higher utilization of outpatient medical (mean ± SD, 8.3 ± 1.5 vs 3.5 ± 5.1) and mental health (3.8 ± 9.3 vs 0.7 ± 3.5) visits. Total health care system costs for screen-positive adolescents ($5083 ± $10,489) were more than twice as high as those of screen-negative adolescents ($2357 ± $7621). Adolescent depressive symptoms, even when mild, are associated with increased health care utilization and costs. Only a minority of the increased costs is attributable to mental health care. Implementing depression screening and evidence-based mental health services may help to better control health care costs among screen-positive adolescents. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Integrating Palliative Care Services in Ambulatory Oncology: An Application of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System.

    PubMed

    Rauenzahn, Sherri L; Schmidt, Susanne; Aduba, Ifeoma O; Jones, Jessica T; Ali, Nazneen; Tenner, Laura L

    2017-04-01

    Research in palliative care demonstrates improvements in overall survival, quality of life, symptom management, and reductions in the cost of care. Despite the American Society of Clinical Oncology recommendation for early concurrent palliative care in patients with advanced cancer and high symptom burden, integrating palliative services is challenging. Our aims were to quantitatively describe the palliative referral rates and symptom burden in a South Texas cancer center and establish a palliative referral system by implementing the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (ESAS). As part of our Plan-Do-Study-Act process, all staff received an educational overview of the ESAS tool and consultation ordering process. The ESAS form was then implemented across five ambulatory oncology clinics to assess symptom burden and changes therein longitudinally. Referral rates and symptom assessment scores were tracked as metrics for quality improvement. On average, one patient per month was referred before implementation of the intervention compared with 10 patients per month after implementation across all clinics. In five sample clinics, 607 patients completed the initial assessment, and 430 follow-up forms were collected over 5 months, resulting in a total of 1,037 scores collected in REDCap. The mean ESAS score for initial patient visits was 20.0 (standard deviation, 18.1), and referred patients had an initial mean score of 39.0 (standard deviation, 19.0). This project highlights the low palliative care consultation rate, high symptom burden of oncology patients, and underuse of services by oncologists despite improvements with the introduction of a symptom assessment form and referral system.

  8. Conceptual Model of Symptom-Focused Diabetes Care for African Americans

    PubMed Central

    Skelly, Anne H.; Leeman, Jennifer; Carlson, John; Soward, April CM; Burns, Dorothy

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Diabetes is a growing problem worldwide. Rates of diabetes are much higher in certain high-risk populations. Thus, a need exists for effective interventions that can be tailored to the needs and preferences of different populations. Diabetes is often a special concern for older African American women who have symptoms daily and must draw appropriate inferences from them. Symptoms are more than mere indicators of an underlying disease process. They indicate ways of knowing and understanding illness and can be effective guides or signals to implement appropriate self-care. Conceptual Model We developed a symptom-focused model for type 2 diabetes for older African American women based on the UCSF symptom management model. Key concepts in this model are symptom experience, symptom management, and health outcomes. Methods The Development of a conceptual model is described along with how it was used to guide the content and format of a community-based teaching and counseling intervention designed to improve self-care practices, perceptions of quality of life, and metabolic outcomes in older African American women with type 2 diabetes residing in rural areas of the Southeast in the United States. Conclusions The symptom-focused conceptual model is an innovative approach to tailoring care to a distinct population and to engaging participants in their own self-care. Clinical Relevance: Diabetes is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in African Americans; and diabetes self-management is the cornerstone of care. To better meet the distinct needs of diverse populations and positively affect health outcomes, new tailored approaches should be developed that are culturally culturally sensitive and acceptable. PMID:18840210

  9. Daily temporal self-care responses to osteoarthritis symptoms by older African Americans and whites

    PubMed Central

    Silverman, Myrna; Nutini, Jean; Musa, Donald; King, Jennifer; Albert, Steve

    2008-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent form of arthritis and is among the most prevalent chronic conditions in the United States. Because there is no known cure for OA, treatment is directed towards the alleviation of pain, improving function, and limiting disability. The major burden of care falls on the individual, who tailors personal systems of care to alleviate troublesome symptoms. To date, little has been known about the temporal variations in self-care that older patients with OA develop, nor has it been known to what extent self-care patterns vary with ethnicity and disease severity. This study was designed to demonstrate the self-care strategies used by older African Americans and whites to alleviate the symptoms of OA on a typical day and during specific segments of a typical day over the past 30 days. A sample of 551 older adults participated in in-depth interviews, and the authors clustered their responses into six categories. Findings showed that the frequency of particular behaviors varied by time of day, disease severity, and race. Overall, patterns of self-care behaviors were similar between African-Americans and whites, but African-Americans used them in different proportions than whites and in response to disease severity. Knowledge of what strategies persons with OA use to lessen their symptoms at various times of the day may enable practitioners and their patients to improve management of OA symptoms. Recognition that people may choose their strategies to ameliorate their symptoms by race and disease severity may further enable tailored symptom relief. PMID:18841454

  10. Bidirectional linkages between psychological symptoms and sexual activities among African American adolescent girls in psychiatric care.

    PubMed

    Starr, Lisa R; Donenberg, Geri R; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding has not been examined among African American youth or in clinical samples. African American girls in psychiatric treatment suffer disparities in HIV/AIDS vulnerability, and understanding the context of girls' risk-taking (and how psychological symptoms contribute) may aid prevention efforts. Two-hundred-sixty-five African American girls seeking psychiatric care were assessed for mental health symptoms and light and heavy sexual behaviors. Participants completed a 6-month follow-up. Baseline light sexual activity predicted increased internalizing and externalizing symptoms and substance use at follow-up. Internalizing and externalizing symptoms predicted increased heavy sexual behaviors over time, including HIV-risk behaviors. Results support the association between romantic involvement and depression. Psychological symptoms may play a key role in the emergence of risky sexual behaviors among African American adolescent girls in psychiatric care and should be considered in prevention program development.

  11. [Trauma and posttraumatic stress symptoms in patients in German primary care settings].

    PubMed

    Kuwert, P; Hornung, S; Freyberger, H; Glaesmer, H; Klauer, T

    2015-07-01

    Primary care settings have an important gatekeeping function to detect mental diseases, including trauma and posttraumatic stress disorders. To assess the prevalence of trauma and posttraumatic symptoms in a first sample of northeast German primary care patients and to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the general practitioners. Traumatic experiences and posttraumatic stress disorders (PTSD) were assessed with self-rating questionnaires in a sample of N = 400 patients from 3 primary care facilities. Additionally, knowledge and diagnostic accuracy of the general practitioners were evaluated. According to the results of the patient health questionnaire (PHQ-15) data from all patients, the majority of patients questioned showed slight to moderate stress from somatic symptoms. Of the patients with complete data 7 % (n = 25) had a complete PTSD according to the results of the questionnaire, which was also identified in the medical assessment with a sensitivity of 40 %. The stress resulting from posttraumatic symptoms was closely associated with the extent of somatic complaints. Patients with a history of trauma and posttraumatic symptoms are prevalent in primary care settings. An early diagnosis by the general practitioner can help patients to receive adequate treatment. Patients with somatoform disorders in particular should be screened for trauma and posttraumatic symptoms.

  12. Tablet-Based Screening of Depressive Symptoms in Quito, Ecuador: Efficiency in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Grunauer, Michelle; Schrock, David; Jimenez, Gabriela; Miller, Aimee; Lai, Zongshan; Kilbourne, Amy; McInnis, Melvin G.

    2014-01-01

    Depression is a frequent yet overlooked occurrence in primary health care clinics worldwide. Depression and related health screening instruments are available but are rarely used consistently. The availability of technologically based instruments in the assessments offers novel approaches for gathering, storing, and assessing data that includes self-reported symptom severity from the patients themselves as well as clinician recorded information. In a suburban primary health care clinic in Quito, Ecuador, we tested the feasibility and utility of computer tablet-based assessments to evaluate clinic attendees for depression symptoms with the goal of developing effective screening and monitoring tools in the primary care clinics. We assessed individuals using the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, the Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptoms-Self-Report, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, the Clinical Global Impression Severity, and a DSM-IV checklist of symptoms. We found that 20% of individuals had a PHQ9 of 8 or greater. There was good correlation between the symptom severity assessments. We conclude that the tablet-based PHQ9 is an excellent and efficient method of screening for depression in attendees at primary health care clinics and that one in five people should be assessed further for depressive illness and possible intervention. PMID:24693425

  13. Alcohol Control and Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Markowitz, Sara; Cuellar, Alison; Conrad, Ryan M.; Grossman, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Parental alcohol consumption is often associated with an increased likelihood of child abuse. As consumption is related to price, the purpose of this paper is to investigate the propensity for increases in the full price of alcohol to influence entry rates and the length of time spent in foster care. Using alcoholic beverage prices and a measure of availability in combination with data on foster care cases, we find that higher alcohol prices are not effective in reducing foster care entry rates; however, once in foster care, the duration of stay may be shortened by higher prices and reduced availability. PMID:25506296

  14. Memorial symptom assessment scale.

    PubMed

    Chang, Victor T; Hwang, Shirley S; Thaler, Howard T; Kasimis, Basil S; Portenoy, Russell K

    2004-04-01

    Patients with advanced illnesses often have multiple symptoms. As interest in palliative care and interventions for symptom control increase, the ability to assess multiple symptoms has become more important. A number of instruments have been developed to meet this need in cancer patients. This article reviews the development and applications of a multidimensional instrument, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has 32 symptoms and three dimensions of frequency, severity, and distress. Shorter versions - The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale Short Form (32 symptoms with one dimension) and the Condensed Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (14 symptoms with one dimension), and a version for children aged 7-12 years, have also been developed. A distinctive feature is the summary subscales for physical distress, psychological distress, and The Global Distress Index. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has proven useful in description of symptom epidemiology, the role of symptoms in pain, fatigue, and spirituality; as a predictor of survival, and in proxy assessments of pain. The Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale has been used in studies of cancer and AIDS patients, and patients with advanced medical illnesses. Possible future roles of instruments such as the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale include use in clinical trials, for pharmacoeconomic analyses, definition of symptom clusters and symptom burden, the development of symptom outcome measures, symptom monitoring, and improving care for patients. Continued research is needed for the versions of the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale and other symptom instruments in different populations and applications.

  15. Somatic awareness in the clinical care of patients with body distress symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bakal, Donald; Coll, Patrick; Schaefer, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide primary care physicians and medical specialists with an experiential psychosomatic framework for understanding patients with body distress symptoms. The framework relies on somatic awareness, a normal part of consciousness, to resolve the dualism inherent in conventional multidisciplinary approaches. Somatic awareness represents a guiding healing heuristic which acknowledges the validity of the patient's physical symptoms and uses body sensations to identify the psychological, physiological, and social factors needed for symptom self-regulation. The experiential approach is based on psychobiologic concepts which include bodily distress disorder, central sensitization, dysfunctional breathing, and contextual nature of mood. PMID:18291028

  16. Bypassing the middleman: a grounded theory of women's self-care for vaginal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Theroux, Rosemary

    2002-01-01

    Increasing numbers of women use self-diagnosis and self-treatment in response to vaginal symptoms. I used the grounded theory method to generate theory on women's self-care. Data collection consisted of interviews with 11 women and 3 pharmacists and content analysis of text from consumer literature and advertisements for vaginal antifungal products. The basic problem experienced by women was the need for rapid and convenient relief of symptoms. To accomplish this, women used the four-stage process of "bypassing the middleman," which enabled them to resolve the problem in a timely manner. Media, economics, and social networks were primary influences on women's self-care.

  17. Power law relationships between health care utilization and symptom assessment among people with panic attacks.

    PubMed

    Katerndahl, David

    2010-06-01

    Although people with panic attacks are high utilizers of health care, the role of symptom assessment in care-seeking is unclear. Previous studies suggest that symptom perceptions are linearly related to utilization but panic appraisal is not. The purpose of this study was to determine whether the relationships between symptom assessment and utilization are non-linear, displaying power law distributions. This community-based study of 97 subjects with panic attacks assessed utilization of family doctor offices, total ambulatory utilization, and hospitalizations as well as symptom perceptions and panic appraisals. Matrices of symptom assessment versus utilization were created, and log-log plots were constructed. To minimize the risk of overestimation of power law distributions, linear, quadratic and cubic regression models were computed. None of the utilization versus symptom perceptions displayed power law distributions. However, all three measures of utilization showed power law relationships with panic appraisals, but in unique patterns. Although power law relationships were not found between symptom perceptions and utilization, unique patterns of power laws were identified between panic appraisals and all three measures of utilization.

  18. Detection of infectious symptoms from VA emergency department and primary care clinical documentation.

    PubMed

    Matheny, Michael E; Fitzhenry, Fern; Speroff, Theodore; Green, Jennifer K; Griffith, Michelle L; Vasilevskis, Eduard E; Fielstein, Elliot M; Elkin, Peter L; Brown, Steven H

    2012-03-01

    The majority of clinical symptoms are stored as free text in the clinical record, and this information can inform clinical decision support and automated surveillance efforts if it can be accurately processed into computer interpretable data. We developed rule-based algorithms and evaluated a natural language processing (NLP) system for infectious symptom detection using clinical narratives. Training (60) and testing (444) documents were randomly selected from VA emergency department, urgent care, and primary care records. Each document was processed with NLP and independently manually reviewed by two clinicians with adjudication by referee. Infectious symptom detection rules were developed in the training set using keywords and SNOMED-CT concepts, and subsequently evaluated using the testing set. Overall symptom detection performance was measured with a precision of 0.91, a recall of 0.84, and an F measure of 0.87. Overall symptom detection with assertion performance was measured with a precision of 0.67, a recall of 0.62, and an F measure of 0.64. Among those instances in which the automated system matched the reference set determination for symptom, the system correctly detected 84.7% of positive assertions, 75.1% of negative assertions, and 0.7% of uncertain assertions. This work demonstrates how processed text could enable detection of non-specific symptom clusters for use in automated surveillance activities. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. Mental health of Chinese primary care patients with lower urinary tract symptoms.

    PubMed

    Choi, Edmond P H; Lam, Cindy L K; Chin, Weng Yee

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mental health of Chinese primary care patients with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). This was a cross-sectional observational study. Five hundred and nineteen subjects with LUTS completed a structured questionnaire containing the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale-Short Form, the International Prostate Symptom Score, the adapted International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form and questions about socio-demographics. Overall, 17.7% of subjects reported depressive symptoms, 24.3% anxiety symptoms and 9.6% stress symptoms. In males, demographic factors associated with poorer mental health included being not married; clinical factors included higher LUTS severity, weak stream, straining and mixed urinary incontinence. In females, demographic factors associated with poorer mental health included being younger, not married and lower household income; clinical factors included higher LUTS severity, incomplete bladder emptying, urgency and weak stream. Chinese primary care patients with LUTS appear to be an at-risk group for poorer mental health with increased prevalence of anxiety and depressive symptoms and may require routine screening to identify those who may require more tailored interventions to address both their urinary symptoms and psychological distress.

  20. A Telemedicine-Based Intervention Reduces the Frequency and Severity of COPD Exacerbation Symptoms: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Cordova, Francis C.; Ciccolella, David; Grabianowski, Carla; Gaughan, John; Brennan, Kathleen; Goldstein, Frederick; Criner, Gerard J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) may not recognize worsening symptoms that require intensification of therapy. They may also be reluctant to contact a healthcare provider for minor worsening of symptoms. A telemedicine application for daily symptom reporting may reduce these barriers and improve patient outcomes. Materials and Methods: Patients hospitalized for a COPD exacerbation within the past year or using supplemental O2 were approached for participation. Patients received optimal COPD care and were given a telecommunication device for symptom reporting. Initial symptom scores were obtained while patients were in their usual state of health. Patients were randomly assigned to an intervention group or a control group (usual medical care). The control group patients were instructed to seek medical care if their condition worsened. The intervention group symptom scores were assessed by a computer algorithm and compared with initial values. Scores 1 or more points above the initial score generated an “alert,” and patients were reviewed by a nurse and referred to a physician who prescribed treatment. Results: Eighty-six patients were screened; 79 met entry criteria and were randomized (intervention group, n=39; control group, n=40). Twelve patients submitted five or fewer symptom reports (5 intervention; 7 control) and were excluded from the analysis. Daily peak flow and dyspnea scores improved only in the intervention group. There were no differences in hospitalization and mortality rates between groups. No serious adverse events were reported. Conclusions: A telemedicine-based symptom reporting program facilitated early treatment of symptoms and improved lung function and functional status. PMID:26259074

  1. Does community violence exposure predict trauma symptoms in a sample of maltreated youth in foster care?

    PubMed

    Garrido, Edward F; Culhane, Sara E; Raviv, Tali; Taussig, Heather N

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies find that childhood exposure to family and community violence is associated with trauma symptoms. Few studies, however, have explored whether community violence exposure (CVE) predicts trauma symptoms after controlling for the effects associated with family violence exposure (FVE). In the current study, CVE and FVE were examined in a sample of 179 youth with a recent history of maltreatment. CVE was associated with trauma symptoms after controlling for FVE, but FVE was not associated with trauma symptoms after controlling for CVE. In addition, negative coping strategies (e.g., self-harm, interpersonal aggression) partially mediated the association between CVE and trauma symptoms. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for interventions aimed at addressing the needs of children exposed to violence.

  2. Does Community Violence Exposure Predict Trauma Symptoms in a Sample of Maltreated Youth in Foster Care?

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Edward F.; Culhane, Sara E.; Raviv, Tali; Taussig, Heather N.

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies find that childhood exposure to family and community violence is associated with trauma symptoms. Few studies, however, have explored whether community violence exposure (CVE) predicts trauma symptoms after controlling for the effects associated with family violence exposure (FVE). In the current study, CVE and FVE were examined in a sample of 179 youth with a recent history of maltreatment. CVE was associated with trauma symptoms after controlling for FVE, but FVE was not associated with trauma symptoms after controlling for CVE. In addition, negative coping strategies (e.g., self-harm, interpersonal aggression) partially mediated the association between CVE and trauma symptoms. These findings are discussed in terms of their implications for interventions aimed at addressing the needs of children exposed to violence. PMID:21287965

  3. [The Relationship Between Burnout Symptoms and Work Satisfaction Among Child Welfare Workers in Residential Care].

    PubMed

    Steinlin, Célia; Dölitzsch, Claudia; Fischer, Sophia; Schmeck, Klaus; Fegert, Jörg M; Schmid, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Working in residential care is associated with high demands and high stress. As a result, employees may develop symptoms of burnout. These symptoms lead to absence from work and have a negative effect on the continuity and quality of the residential care. Until now, little is known about burnout risks in child welfare workers, although children and adolescents are especially dependent on continuous relationships and healthy caregivers. A better understanding of the relationship between burnout symptoms and work satisfaction may help to identify starting points for prevention and intervention. The present study assessed symptoms of burnout in a sample of 319 social education workers in residential care in Switzerland using the burnout-screening-scales (BOSS). Work satisfaction was assessed with a newly developed questionnaire based on concepts of trauma-sensitive care. The questionnaire was tested for reliability and factorial validity in the present study. In order to estimate the relationship between burnout symptoms and work satisfaction, correlations and relative risks were calculated. Almost one fifth (18 %) of the sample showed a risk of burnout. The principal component analysis of the questionnaire on work satisfaction revealed four factors: support by superiors, participation and transparency; communication and support within the team; gratification in the work; and institutional structures and resources. All four factors as well as the total score showed significant correlations with burnout symptoms. Among employees with a comparably lower work satisfaction, the risk of burnout was 5.4 times higher than among employees with a comparably higher work satisfaction. It is discussed how work satisfaction could be promoted and how, as a result, the quality and continuity of care for the children and adolescents could be improved.

  4. Habitual physical activity and menopausal symptoms: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Sternfeld, B; Quesenberry, C P; Husson, G

    1999-01-01

    A case-control study design was used to examine whether habitual physical activity prior to the final menstrual period (FMP) was associated with reduced risk of vasomotor and other symptoms during the perimenopausal period. Both cases and controls were identified through a screening interview with randomly selected women members, ages 48-52, of a large health maintenance organization. Cases (n = 82) were defined as women 3-12 months past their FMP who reported regularly having hot flashes or night sweats at least once a day or night during the 3 months following their FMP. Controls (n = 89) were of the same biologic age with respect to the FMP but reported vasomotor symptoms less than once a week during the reference time period. Neither cases nor controls had a history of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), hysterectomy, or bilateral oophorectomy. Case-control status, habitual physical activity (including recreational, housework, child care, and occupational activity), and psychological and somatic symptoms were assessed by self-report. Participation in vigorous recreational activity during the year prior to the FMP was not associated with reduced risk of frequent vasomotor symptoms after the FMP (odds ratio [OR] = 1.03 for a 50-unit increase in activity score, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97-1.1). This lack of relationship was observed in all domains of activity. Factors that were associated with decreased risk included higher body mass index (BMI) (weight in kg/(height in meters)2) (OR = 0.95 per 1 unit increase in BMI, 95% CI = 0.90-1.00) and higher education (having a college degree relative to less education) (OR = 0.56, 95% CI = 0.40-0.80). Physical activity was also unassociated with reduced risk of psychologic distress, depressive feelings, or somatic symptoms, but, relative to controls, having vasomotor symptoms (being a case) was strongly associated with increased risk of experiencing those symptoms (OR ranging from 1.83 for psychologic distress to 2

  5. [Fatigue symptoms and workplace related factors of long-term care workers employed in facilities].

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Sachiyo; Yamada, Kazuko; Morioka, Ikuharu

    2015-01-01

    "Regular visiting/on-demand response type long-term care" has recently been established. This will lead to a decrease in the burden on the family, but an increase in the burden of the care personnel who provide this kind of long-term care. The objectives of this study were to clarify the fatigue symptoms of long-term care workers in facilities that provide this kind of long-term care, and examine the related factors in the workplace. An anonymous questionnaire survey was conducted with 96 workers engaged in long-term care in facilities. The questionnaire was composed of cumulative fatigue symptoms index, work situation, supports in the workplace, and the attributes. The subjects were divided into two groups: those who had night shift between PM 6 to AM 8 with or without day shift (night shift group), and those who had only day shift (day shift group). The relationships between the fatigue symptom levels and work situation etc. were compared between the two groups. The night shift group consisted of 47 workers, whose mean age was 42.3 years and whose mean working experience was 6.0 years. The median number of persons they had visited in the previous month was 9. The day shift group consisted of 49 workers, whose mean age was 44.6 years and whose mean working experience was 5.9 years. The median number of persons they visited in the previous month was 9.5. Age and sex distributions showed no difference between the two groups. There was no difference in the work situations and the supports in the workplace, except for working time and the details of care the subjects were providing. The fatigue symptom levels were high in both groups, but in the night shift group the level of physical disorders was higher than in the day shift group. Satisfaction with work, education and training for mental health and consideration for traffic safety when making home visits were negatively related to fatigue symptom levels in both groups. Learning care during the previous year, and

  6. Health care utilization of mexican patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez González, Azucena Maribel; Ramírez Aranda, José Manuel; de Los Santos Reséndiz, Homero; Lara Duarte, María Yolanda; Pazaran Zanella, Santiago Oscar; Méndez López, Jafet Felipe; Gil Alfaro, Issa; Islas Ruz, Félix Gilberto; Navarrete Floriano, Gloria; Guillen Salomón, Edith; Texon Fernández, Obdulia; Cruz Duarte, Silvia; Romo Salazar, Juan Carlos; Pérez Ruiz, Claudia Elsa; López Salas, Sara de Jesús; Benítez Amaya, Lizbeth; Zapata Gallardo, Javier Nahum

    2016-09-30

    To determine the prevalence of medically unexplained physical symptoms and the characteristics and use of health services in a group of patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms and a group of patients with other illnesses. This was a cross-sectional, retrospective and multicenter study. We included 1,043 patients over 18 years of age from 30 primary care units of a government health institution, in 11 states of Mexico, attended by 39 family physicians. The prevalence of medically unexplained physical symptoms was determined and both groups with or without symptoms were compared with regard to drug use, laboratory and other studies, leaves of absence, and referrals in the last six months. The group with medically unexplained physical symptoms was diagnosed using the Patient Health Questionnaire and the diagnostic criteria of Reid et al. Emergency or terminal illnesses were excluded. The chi square test was used with a statistical significance of p < 0.05. Medically unexplained physical symptoms was diagnosed in 73 patients (7.0%). The majority were women (91.8%); their predominant symptom was from the gastrointestinal system in 56 (76.7%). This group had a greater use of clinical studies and referrals to other services (mean 1.1 vs. 0.5; p <0.0001 and 0.6 vs. 0.8; p < 0.01, respectively). The prevalence of medically unexplained physical symptoms was low, but with a greater impact on some health services. This could represent an overload in medical costs.

  7. Reasons for Seeking Clinical Care for Lower Urinary Tract Symptoms: A Mixed-Methods Study.

    PubMed

    Griffith, James W; Messersmith, Emily E; Gillespie, Brenda W; Wiseman, Jonathan B; Flynn, Kathryn E; Kirkali, Ziya; Kusek, John W; Bavendam, Tamara; Cella, David; Kreder, Karl J; Nero, Jasmine J; Corona, Maria E; Bradley, Catherine S; Kenton, Kimberly S; Helfand, Brian T; Merion, Robert M; Weinfurt, Kevin P

    2017-07-19

    The primary objective of this study was to evaluate reasons for seeking care among men and women with lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS). Participants were recruited from urology and urogynecology clinics, and the community. The sample was enriched with persons expected to have abnormal or diminished bladder sensations (e.g., participants with lower back surgery, participants aged 65+). In-person interviews were conducted, beginning with an open-ended assessment of urinary symptoms and associated bother, followed by more directed questions, including reasons for seeking or not seeking treatment. We also examined the relationship between symptom frequency and bother using the LUTS Tool. A total of 88 participants (38 men, 50 women) with mean [standard deviation] age=52.2 [14.3] years provided information about their urinary symptoms, including a range of quality-of-life consequences and coping behaviors. They sought treatment mostly because of new, continuing, or bothersome symptoms. Factors associated with not seeking treatment included low symptom severity and concerns about the costs versus benefits of treatment (e.g., side effects of medication). Symptom frequency and bother were associated with each other across symptoms assessed by the LUTS Tool. In this large qualitative study, we obtained useful insights into the impact of LUTS from the perspective of the person with the symptoms. Removing barriers and misconceptions about treatment of LUTS may increase the number of people who seek clinical care and improve the clinical course of men and women who experience LUTS. Copyright © 2017 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differences in psychiatric symptoms and barriers to mental health care between volunteer and career firefighters.

    PubMed

    Stanley, Ian H; Boffa, Joseph W; Hom, Melanie A; Kimbrel, Nathan A; Joiner, Thomas E

    2017-01-01

    Firefighters are at increased risk for mental health problems. However, little is known about differences in psychiatric symptoms between volunteer and career firefighters. This study aimed to (1) describe differences in psychiatric symptoms and barriers to mental health care between U.S. firefighters in volunteer-only and career-only departments; and (2) determine if greater self-reported structural barriers to mental health care (e.g., cost, availability of resources) explain the differences in psychiatric symptom levels. Overall, 525 current U.S. firefighters participated. Analyses of covariance and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate group differences between volunteer (n=204) and career (n=321) firefighters, adjusting for demographic and occupational characteristics. Volunteer firefighters reported significantly elevated levels of depression, posttraumatic stress, and suicidal symptoms compared to career firefighters. Career firefighters reported relatively elevated levels of problematic alcohol use. Volunteer firefighters additionally reported greater structural barriers to mental health care (e.g., cost, availability of resources), and these barriers accounted for the differences in mental health variables between volunteer and career firefighters. Findings suggest that volunteer firefighters report elevated psychiatric symptoms compared to career firefighters and greater structural barriers to mental health treatment may explain this link. Increased efforts are needed to develop firefighter-specific interventions and bolster mental health service utilization.

  9. A Web-based Collaborative Care Intervention to Manage Cancer-Related Symptoms in the Palliative Care Setting

    PubMed Central

    Steel, Jennifer L; Geller, David A; Kim, Kevin H; Butterfield, Lisa H; Spring, Michael; Grady, Jonathan; Sun, Weiing; Marsh, Wallis; Antoni, Michael; Dew, Mary Amanda; Helgeson, Vicki; Schulz, Richard; Tsung, Allan

    2016-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to examine the efficacy of a collaborative care intervention to reduce depression, pain and fatigue and improve quality of life. Participants A total of 261 patients with advanced cancer and 179 family caregivers were randomized to a web-based collaborative care intervention or enhanced usual care. The intervention included (1) a website with written and audiovisual self-management strategies, bulletin board, and other resources; (2) visits with a care coordinator during physician appointment every two months; and (3) telephone follow up every two weeks. Primary patient outcomes included measures of depression, pain, fatigue, and health related quality of life. Secondary outcomes included Interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8, Natural Killer (NK) cell numbers, and caregiver stress and depression. Results At baseline, 51% of patients reported one or more symptoms in the clinical range. For patients who presented with clinical levels of symptoms, and were randomized to the intervention, reductions in depression (Cohen’s d=0.71), pain (Cohen’s d=0.62), and fatigue (Cohen’s d=0.26) and improvements in quality of life (Cohen’s d =0.99) were observed when compared to the enhanced usual care arm at 6-months. Reductions in IL-6 (phi=0.18), IL-1β (phi=0.35); IL-1α (phi=0.19); IL-8 (phi=15) and increases in NK cell numbers (phi=0.23) were observed when compared to enhanced usual care arm at 6-months. Reductions in caregiver stress (Cohen’s d=0.75) and depression (Cohen’s d=0.37) were observed at 6-months for caregivers whose loved one was randomized to the intervention arm. Conclusions Integration of screening and symptom management into cancer care is recommended. PMID:26970434

  10. Correlation between diagnosis of depression and symptoms present in primary care patients.

    PubMed

    Olivan-Blázquez, Bárbara; Rubio-Aranda, Encarnación; García-Sanz, Olga; Magallón-Botaya, Rosa

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a chronic disease with a high prevalence that normally is episodic and an average episodic duration of 16 weeks. No analyses that evaluate the correlation between the evolution of the episode and its appearance have been found. The aim of this study is to analyze the correlation between symptomatic progression (appearance, maintenance, remission of different symptoms) and the evolution of the diagnosis of depression (onset, maintenance, and remission) in a cohort of patients diagnosed with and without major depression. A prospective cohort study was performed with a one year follow-up in which a random sample of 741 subjects attending primary care was interviewed. Diagnosis of depression was made according to DSM-IV criteria and symptoms presented were analyzed. These subjects were reevaluated at 6 months and 12 months. Depressed mood state, decreased interest or anhedonia and symptoms related to sleep (insomnia or hypersomnia), agitation, feeling of guilt, fatigue or energy loss, are consistent with the diagnosis. The rest of the symptoms display an evolution independent of the diagnostic trends. In Primary Care, it is important to know which are the key symptoms in the evolution of the diagnosis in order to achieve full remission of depression and avoid maintenance of residual symptoms that can become prodromal.

  11. Patient characteristics, menopause symptoms, and care provided at an interdisciplinary menopause clinic: retrospective chart review.

    PubMed

    Sydora, Beate C; Yuksel, Nese; Veltri, Nicole L; Marillier, Justin; Sydora, Christoph P; Yaskina, Maryna; Battochio, Lori; Shandro, Tami M L; Ross, Sue

    2017-07-10

    The goal of this study was to describe the characteristics, menopause symptoms, and treatment progressions in women cared for at an interdisciplinary menopause clinic. We conducted a retrospective review of patient charts from women attending a multidisciplinary menopause clinic. Data collected from the charts included patient demographics, menopause symptoms, other concurrent medical conditions, and treatment recommendations. Data were entered into Research Electronic Data Capture database and analyzed descriptively. Generic symptom severity questionnaires were used to compare severity scores from initial to follow-up visits. Among the 198 women (mean age 52.1 y [±SD 6.3], 63.6% postmenopausal), the most common moderate/severe menopause symptoms were as follows: difficulty staying asleep or waking frequently (76.3%), tiredness (73.7%), and lack of interest in sex (60.1%). Women tended to have complex chronic medical conditions, with 54.5% suffering from four or more concurrent medical conditions. The majority of women (70.2%) were recommended various forms of hormone therapy. Women with a follow-up visit at 3 to 4 months reported a reduction in symptom severity. Our study addresses a gap in published information on patient characteristics and treatment in menopause-specific interdisciplinary clinics. The chart review highlights the variety of symptom experience and complexity of care faced in a menopausal clinic. Rigorous prospective studies including standardized data collection and follow-up are needed to help guide clinicians in managing complex menopause patients.

  12. Child Care and Mothers' Mental Health: Is High-Quality Care Associated with Fewer Depressive Symptoms?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Rachel A.; Usdansky, Margaret L.; Wang, Xue; Gluzman, Anna

    2011-01-01

    Finding high-quality child care may pose financial and logistical challenges and create ongoing emotional strains for some mothers. We use the Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development to ask (a) are child-care settings that mothers select on the basis of their own perceptions of quality rated more highly by independent observers (and more…

  13. Which early ‘red flag’ symptoms identify children with meningococcal disease in primary care?

    PubMed Central

    Haj-Hassan, Tanya Ali; Thompson, Matthew J; Mayon-White, Richard T; Ninis, Nelly; Harnden, Anthony; Smith, Lindsay FP; Perera, Rafael; Mant, David C

    2011-01-01

    Background Symptoms are part of the initial evaluation of children with acute illness, and are often used to help identify those who may have serious infections. Meningococcal disease is a rapidly progressive infection that needs to be recognised early among children presenting to primary care. Aim To determine the diagnostic value of presenting symptoms in primary care for meningococcal disease. Design of study Data on a series of presenting symptoms were collected using a parental symptoms checklist at point of care for children presenting to a GP with acute infection. Symptom frequencies were compared with existing data on the pre-hospital features of 345 children with meningococcal disease. Setting UK primary care. Method The study recruited a total of 1212 children aged under 16 years presenting to their GP with an acute illness, of whom 924 had an acute self-limiting infection, including 407 who were reported by parents to be febrile. Symptom frequencies were compared with those reported by parents of 345 children with meningococcal disease. Main outcome measures were diagnostic characteristics of individual symptoms for meningococcal disease. Results Five symptoms have clinically useful positive likelihood ratios (LR+) for meningococcal disease: confusion (LR+ = 24.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.5 to 51.3), leg pain (LR+ = 7.6, 95% CI = 4.9 to 11.9), photophobia (LR+ = 6.5, 95% CI = 3.8 to 11.0), rash (LR+ = 5.5, 95% CI = 4.3 to 7.1), and neck pain/stiffness (LR+ = 5.3, 95% CI = 3.5 to 8.3). Cold hands and feet had limited diagnostic value (LR+ = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.9 to 3.0), while headache (LR+ = 1.0, 95% CI = 0.8 to 1.3), and pale colour (LR+ = 0.3, 95% CI = 0.2 to 0.5) did not discriminate meningococcal disease in children. Conclusion This study confirms the diagnostic value of classic ‘red flag’ symptoms of neck stiffness, rash, and photophobia, but also suggests that the presence of confusion or leg pain in a child with an unexplained acute

  14. Perceived social support mediates anxiety and depressive symptom changes following primary care intervention.

    PubMed

    Dour, Halina J; Wiley, Joshua F; Roy-Byrne, Peter; Stein, Murray B; Sullivan, Greer; Sherbourne, Cathy D; Bystritsky, Alexander; Rose, Raphael D; Craske, Michelle G

    2014-05-01

    The current study tested whether perceived social support serves as a mediator of anxiety and depressive symptom change following evidence-based anxiety treatment in the primary care setting. Gender, age, and race were tested as moderators. Data were obtained from 1004 adult patients (age M = 43, SD = 13; 71% female; 56% White, 20% Hispanic, 12% Black) who participated in a randomized effectiveness trial (coordinated anxiety learning and management [CALM] study) comparing evidence-based intervention (cognitive-behavioral therapy and/or psychopharmacology) to usual care in the primary care setting. Patients were assessed with a battery of questionnaires at baseline, as well as at 6, 12, and 18 months following baseline. Measures utilized in the mediation analyses included the Abbreviated Medical Outcomes (MOS) Social Support Survey, the Brief Symptom Index (BSI)-Somatic and Anxiety subscales, and the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). There was a mediating effect over time of perceived social support on symptom change following treatment, with stronger effects for 18-month depression than anxiety. None of the mediating pathways were moderated by gender, age, or race. Perceived social support may be central to anxiety and depressive symptom changes over time with evidence-based intervention in the primary care setting. These findings possibly have important implications for development of anxiety interventions. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  16. Bidirectional Linkages between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Lisa R.; Donenberg, Geri R.; Emerson, Erin

    2012-01-01

    The current study examines longitudinal associations between light and heavy sexual experiences and psychiatric symptoms in African American adolescent girls receiving mental health care. Research supports bidirectional associations between adolescent romantic and sexual behaviors and depression and other mental health problems, but this finding…

  17. [Characterization of the physical symptoms of stress in the emergency health care team].

    PubMed

    Farias, Sílvia Maria de Carvalho; Teixeira, Olga Lúcia de Carvalho; Moreira, Walter; Oliveira, Márcia Aparecida Ferreira de; Pereira, Maria Odete

    2011-06-01

    Nursing professionals working in Emergency Care suffer from the physical symptoms of stress in their everyday activity. The objective of this study was to characterize these symptoms using the Occupational Stress Indicator, a semi-structured instrument. To do this, the authors created open questions that were applied in interviews that were recorded and analyzed. The researchers listed the following physical symptoms: headache, a sensation of fatigue, leg pain, and tachycardia. According to reports form the workers, pain always resulted from emotional stress or appeared after providing emergency care, which suggests the workers find it very difficult to differentiate physical from mental stress. The investigation found that there is a need for measures to follow workers in their working activity. A manual was created, containing basic suggestions to improve the quality of life of the health team.

  18. The relationship between somatization and posttraumatic symptoms among immigrants receiving primary care services.

    PubMed

    Aragona, Massimiliano; Catino, Elena; Pucci, Daniela; Carrer, Sara; Colosimo, Francesco; Lafuente, Montserrat; Mazzetti, Marco; Maisano, Bianca; Geraci, Salvatore

    2010-10-01

    Traumatic experiences and somatization are related in studies on complex trauma, though this relation is rarely studied in immigrants. The relationship between somatization and self-reported traumatic experiences and posttraumatic symptoms in patients attending a primary care service for immigrants was studied. The sample consisted of 101 patients attending a primary healthcare service dedicated to immigrants. Participants completed two self-assessment questionnaires specifically designed for use in transcultural research: the Bradford Somatic Inventory and the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire. Both were translated and back-translated into eight languages. Somatization was significantly related to traumatic events and posttraumatic symptoms. In primary care centers for immigrants, physicians should give particular attention to somatization as a possible sign of unreported posttraumatic symptoms.

  19. Early pathogenic care and the development of ADHD-like symptoms.

    PubMed

    Dahmen, Brigitte; Pütz, Vanessa; Herpertz-Dahlmann, Beate; Konrad, Kerstin

    2012-09-01

    Early pathogenic care that is characterised by disregard for the child's basic emotional needs can lead to severe global psychosocial and cognitive dysfunction and deviant developmental trajectories of brain maturation. Reactive attachment disorder (RAD) is a developmental disorder associated with early pathogenic care that is characterised by markedly disturbed ways of relating socially in most contexts. In addition to other severe emotional dysfunctions, children suffering from RAD often display a high number of comorbid attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms such as inattention, impulsivity and hyperactivity. It is not yet clear whether ADHD-like symptoms in children exposed to pathogenic care represent a true comorbidity of ADHD or similarities in behavioural dysfunction with a different neurodevelopmental pathway in terms of a phenocopy. In this review, we summarise the findings on the neurobiological consequences of early pathogenic care. Pathogenic care is considered a form of care by a primary caretaker involving a lack or a loss of expectable care, e.g., by early separation, frequent change in caregivers, institutionalisation or neglect. The reviewed studies suggest that a primary dysfunction of limbic brain circuits after early pathogenic care might lead to an interference by motivational or emotional cues impinging on prefrontal executive functions resulting in behavioural similarities with ADHD. Thus, the complex phenotype observed after early pathogenic care might be best described by a dimensional approach with behavioural and neurobiological similarities to ADHD coinciding to a certain degree as a function of early experience. Based on this evidence, suggestions for the treatment of ADHD-like symptoms in children after adverse early life experiences are provided.

  20. Feasibility, acceptability, and tolerability of RGN107 in the palliative wound care management of chronic wound symptoms.

    PubMed

    Madisetti, M; Kelechi, T J; Mueller, M; Amella, E J; Prentice, M A

    2017-01-02

    To assess the feasibility, acceptability and tolerability of RGN107 use, a natural powder blend of Arnica Montana, Calendula Officinalis, Mentha Arvensis and Santalum Album, among hospice patients and their wound caregivers in the palliative wound care management of chronic wound symptoms at end-of-life. Data were collected between May 2013 and November 2015. A pilot trial conducted among 50 hospice patients with symptomatic (pain, odour, or exudate) chronic wounds. Caregivers received initial RGN107 protocol training, actively applied the powder to patient wounds for 4-weeks, and completed an 8-week retrospective survey. Feasibility was assessed by measuring process outcomes, including the number and proportion of participants referred, screened eligible, enrolled, withdrawn and successfully completed. Acceptability measures included: a protocol training evaluation, caregiver pre and post self-efficacy ratings, retrospective usability, symptom control management and comparative technique caregiver ratings, and recorded open-ended comments. Tolerability was assessed through a 12-week cumulative review of the study adverse event profile. Feasibility, tolerability and acceptability of use of the RGN107 powder for chronic wounds were established. Recruitment goals were achieved and 92 % of the patients successfully completed the study. 95 % of wound caregivers would recommend the powder for use in this population. This study supports the feasibility, acceptability and tolerability of a wound care powder that espouses a multi-symptom palliative comfort care approach for hospice patients with chronic wounds at end-of-life. Further research is needed to establish the efficacy of the powder.

  1. Patients with persistent medically unexplained symptoms in general practice: characteristics and quality of care

    PubMed Central

    Dirkzwager, Anja JE; Verhaak, Peter FM

    2007-01-01

    Background Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are common in general practice (GP), and are even more problematic as they become persistent. The present study examines the relationship between persistent MUPS in general practice on the one hand and quality of life, social conditions, and coping on the other hand. Additionally, it is examined how patients with persistent MUPS evaluate the quality of GP-care. Methods Data were used from a representative survey of morbidity in Dutch general practice, in which data from the electronic medical records were extracted. A random sample of patients participated in an extensive health interview and completed self-reported measures on social isolation, coping and the quality of GP-care. Patients with persistent MUPS (N = 192) were compared with general practice patients not meeting the criteria for persistent MUPS (N = 7.314), and with a group of patients that visited the GP in comparable rates for medical diagnoses (N = 2.265). Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to control for relevant socio-demographic variables and chronic diseases. Results After adjustment for demographics and chronic diseases, patients with persistent MUPS reported more psychological distress, more functional impairment, more social isolation, and they evaluated the quality of GP-care less positive than the other two patient groups. Although the majority of MUPS patients were positive about the quality of GP-care, they more often felt that they were not taken seriously or not involved in treatment decisions, and more often reported that the GP did not take sufficient time. The three groups did not differ with respect to the statement that the GP unnecessarily explains physical problems as psychological ones. Conclusion Strengthening MUPS patients' social network and encouraging social activities may be a meaningful intervention in which the GP may play a stimulating role. To further improve MUPS patients' satisfaction with GP-care

  2. Prevalence of Bipolar Disorder symptoms in Primary Care (ProBiD-PC)

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, John F.; Chokka, Pratap R.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To describe the prevalence of patients who screen positive for symptoms of bipolar disorder in primary care practice using the validated Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ). Design Prevalence survey. Setting Fifty-four primary care practices across Canada. Participants Adult patients presenting to their primary care practitioners for any cause and reporting, during the course of their visits, current or previous symptoms of depression, anxiety, substance use disorders, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Main outcome measures Subjects were screened for symptoms suggestive of bipolar disorder using the MDQ. Health-related quality of life, functional impairment, and work productivity were evaluated using the 12-Item Short-Form Health Survey and Sheehan Disability Scale. Results A total of 1416 patients were approached to participate in this study, and 1304 completed the survey. Of these, 27.9% screened positive for symptoms of bipolar disorder. All 13 items of the MDQ were significantly associated with screening positive for bipolar disorder (P < .05). Patients screening positive were significantly more likely to report depression, anxiety, substance use, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, family history of bipolar disorder, or suicide attempts than patients screening negative were (P < .001). Health-related quality of life, work or school productivity, and social and family functioning were all significantly worse in patients who screened positive (P < .001). Conclusion This prevalence survey suggests that more than a quarter of patients presenting to primary care with past or current psychiatric indices are at risk of bipolar disorder. Patients exhibiting a cluster of these symptoms should be further questioned on family history of bipolar disorder and suicide attempts, and selectively screened for symptoms suggestive of bipolar disorder using the quick and high-yielding MDQ. PMID:21642707

  3. The Diabetes Symptom Self-Care Inventory: Development and Psychometric Testing with Mexican Americans

    PubMed Central

    García, Alexandra A.

    2010-01-01

    Context Type 2 diabetes is prevalent throughout the world. In previous studies of Mexican Americans with type 2 diabetes, 95-97% of those sampled reported having symptoms they believe were caused by diabetes and most self-treated their symptoms. To more accurately capture Mexican Americans’ symptom prevalence and their self-treatments, the Diabetes Symptom Self-Care Instrument (DSSCI) was adapted from the Diabetes Self-Care Instrument. Objectives This paper describes the modification process used to perfect the DSSCI for use in improving self-care among people with Type 2 diabetes. Methods This instrumentation study used qualitative and quantitative methods. The study was completed in four phases that used focus groups, cognitive interviews, and survey administration. Four convenience samples were drawn from community-based Mexican American adults, aged 25-75, with type 2 diabetes in an urban area and a rural location in Texas. Results Phase I: Seven focus groups (n=45) generated data for revising items. Phase II: Cognitive interviews with 16 participants were used to evaluate four revisions of the questionnaire. Phase III: Surveys were administered to 81 participants. Total number of symptoms on the DSSCI correlated with scores on the Centers for Epidemiological Studies-Depression scale (r=.65, p < .001), Illness Perception Questionnaire-Revised Diabetes symptom subscale (r=.57, p < .001), and Audit of Diabetes-Dependent Quality of Life scale (r= -.42, p < .001). Minor revisions followed. Phase IV: Test-retest stability was demonstrated (n = 44). Conclusion The DSSCI is a culturally-relevant, sound measure of Mexican Americans’ diabetes symptoms and the actions they take to address them. PMID:21276705

  4. Multimodal examination of distress tolerance and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in acute-care psychiatric inpatients.

    PubMed

    Vujanovic, Anka A; Dutcher, Christina D; Berenz, Erin C

    2016-09-01

    Distress tolerance (DT), the actual or perceived capacity to withstand negative internal states, has received increasing scholarly attention due to its theoretical and clinical relevance to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Past studies have indicated that lower self-reported - but not behaviorally observed - DT is associated with greater PTSD symptoms; however, studies in racially and socioeconomically diverse clinical samples are lacking. The current study evaluated associations between multiple measures of DT (self-report and behavioral) and PTSD symptoms in an urban, racially and socioeconomically diverse, acute-care psychiatric inpatient sample. It was hypothesized that lower self-reported DT (Distress Tolerance Scale [DTS]), but not behavioral DT (breath-holding task [BH]; mirror-tracing persistence task [MT]), would be associated with greater PTSD symptoms, above and beyond the variance contributed by trauma load, substance use, gender, race/ethnicity, and subjective social status. Participants were 103 (41.7% women, Mage=33.5) acute-care psychiatric inpatients who endorsed exposure to potentially traumatic events consistent with DSM-5 PTSD Criterion A. Results of hierarchical regression analyses indicated that DTS was negatively associated with PTSD symptom severity (PCL-5 Total) as well as with each of the four DSM-5 PTSD symptom clusters (p's<0.001), contributing between 5.0%-11.1% of unique variance in PTSD symptoms across models. BH duration was positively associated with PTSD arousal symptom severity (p<0.05). Covariates contributed between 21.3%-40.0% of significant variance to the models. Associations between DT and PTSD in this sample of acute-care psychiatric inpatients are largely consistent with those observed in community samples.

  5. A randomized controlled trial of a smartphone app for posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Eric; Kanuri, Nitya; Hoffman, Julia E; Garvert, Donn W; Ruzek, Josef I; Taylor, C Barr

    2017-03-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is highly prevalent in the population, but relatively few affected individuals receive treatment for it. Smartphone applications (apps) could help address this unmet need by offering sound psychoeducational information and evidence-based cognitive behavioral coping tools. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to assess the efficacy of a free, publicly available smartphone app (PTSD Coach) for self-management of PTSD symptoms. One hundred 20 participants who were an average of 39 years old, mostly women (69.2%) and White (66.7%), recruited primarily through online advertisements, were randomized to either a PTSD Coach (n = 62) or a waitlist condition (n = 58) for 3 months. Web-administered self-report measures of PTSD, PTSD symptom coping self-efficacy, depression, and psychosocial functioning were conducted at baseline, posttreatment, and 3 months following treatment. Following the intent-to-treat principle, repeated-measures analyses of variance (ANOVAs) revealed that at posttreatment, PTSD Coach participants had significantly greater improvements in PTSD symptoms (p = .035), depression symptoms (p = .005), and psychosocial functioning (p = .007) than did waitlist participants; however, at posttreatment, there were no significant mean differences in outcomes between conditions. A greater proportion of PTSD Coach participants achieved clinically significant PTSD symptom improvement (p = .018) than waitlist participants. PTSD Coach use resulted in significantly greater improvements in PTSD symptoms and other outcomes relative to a waitlist condition. Given the ubiquity of smartphones, PTSD Coach may provide a wide-reaching, convenient public health intervention for individuals with PTSD symptoms who are not receiving care. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Stepped care treatment for depression and anxiety in primary care. a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Seekles, Wike; van Straten, Annemieke; Beekman, Aartjan; van Marwijk, Harm; Cuijpers, Pim

    2011-07-07

    Depressive and anxiety disorders are common in general practice but not always treated adequately. Introducing stepped care might improve this. In this randomized trial we examined the effectiveness of such a stepped care model. The study population consisted of primary care attendees aged 18-65 years with minor or major DSM-IV depressive and/or anxiety disorders, recruited through screening. We randomized 120 patients to either stepped care or care as usual. The stepped care program consisted of (1) watchful waiting, (2) guided self-help, (3) short face-to-face problem solving treatment and (4) pharmacotherapy and/or specialized mental health care. Patients were assessed at baseline and after 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Symptoms of depression and anxiety decreased significantly over time for both groups. However, there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups (IDS: P = 0.35 and HADS: P = 0.64). The largest, but not significant, effect (d = -0.21) was found for anxiety on T3. In both groups approximately 48% of the patients were recovered from their DSM-IV diagnosis at the final 6 months assessment. In summary we could not demonstrate that stepped care for depression and anxiety in general practice was more effective than care as usual. Possible reasons are discussed. Current Controlled Trails: ISRCTN17831610.

  7. Biofield therapies for symptom management in palliative and end-of-life care.

    PubMed

    Henneghan, Ashley M; Schnyer, Rosa N

    2015-02-01

    Terminally ill patients experience negative symptoms at end of life (EOL) that hinder well-being and quality of life (QOL). Current intervention strategies are not always effective or feasible. A focused literature review to evaluate the use of biofield therapies (ie, Therapeutic Touch, Healing Touch, and Reiki) to manage the symptoms in EOL revealed no studies on the use these therapies, specifically in this population. Evidence from studies on relevant populations (patients with cancer, elderly patients, and patients experiencing chronic pain), which addressed the outcomes relevant to palliative and EOL care (EOLC; pain levels, changes in psychological symptoms, well-being, and QOL), supports the use of biofield therapies in relieving pain, improving QOL and well-being, and reducing psychological symptoms of stress. Further research to assess the use of biofield therapies in EOLC is clearly needed.

  8. Symptoms, self-care, and quality of life of Chinese American patients with cancer.

    PubMed

    Chou, Fang-Yu; Dodd, Marylin; Abrams, Donald; Padilla, Geraldine

    2007-11-01

    To explore the cancer symptom experience, self-care strategies, and quality of life (QOL) among Chinese Americans during outpatient chemotherapy. Descriptive, exploratory cohort study. An outpatient infusion unit at a public urban county medical center. 25 Chinese-speaking patients with cancer completed the study. Participants were first-generation immigrants with low levels of acculturation; 88% could not read English; 64% had an annual household income of less than $20,000. Participants completed a basic demographics data sheet, the Suinn-Lew Acculturation Scale, the Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale and Self-Care Diary weekly for three weeks, and the Multidimensional QOL Scale-Cancer and Short-Form 36 Health Survey at the start and end of one chemotherapy cycle. Study instruments were translated into Chinese. Symptoms, self-care, QOL, and acculturation. Participants reported experiencing about 14 symptoms weekly. Lack of energy, hair loss, dry mouth, sleep difficulty, and loss of appetite were reported most frequently. On average, about two self-care strategies per symptom were reported and were low to moderate in effectiveness. About 20% of the sample listed Chinese medicine as part of their self-care strategies. A moderate level of QOL was reported. Using translated standardized questionnaires can be a feasible method of data collection in studies with non-English-speaking patients. However, having well-trained, bilingual data collectors is important. More attention to long-term cancer self-management in minority patients with cancer is needed. Further research is needed with larger samples, more efficient community-based recruitment strategies, and the development and testing of culturally sensitive interventions.

  9. Clinical effectiveness of collaborative care for depression in UK primary care (CADET): cluster randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Richards, David A; Hill, Jacqueline J; Gask, Linda; Lovell, Karina; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Bower, Peter; Cape, John; Pilling, Stephen; Araya, Ricardo; Kessler, David; Bland, J Martin; Green, Colin; Gilbody, Simon; Lewis, Glyn; Manning, Chris; Hughes-Morley, Adwoa; Barkham, Michael

    2013-08-19

    To compare the clinical effectiveness of collaborative care with usual care in the management of patients with moderate to severe depression. Cluster randomised controlled trial. 51 primary care practices in three primary care districts in the United Kingdom. 581 adults aged 18 years and older who met ICD-10 (international classification of diseases, 10th revision) criteria for a depressive episode on the revised Clinical Interview Schedule. We excluded acutely suicidal patients and those with psychosis, or with type I or type II bipolar disorder; patients whose low mood was associated with bereavement or whose primary presenting problem was alcohol or drug abuse; and patients receiving psychological treatment for their depression by specialist mental health services. We identified potentially eligible participants by searching computerised case records in general practices for patients with depression. Collaborative care, including depression education, drug management, behavioural activation, relapse prevention, and primary care liaison, was delivered by care managers. Collaborative care involved six to 12 contacts with participants over 14 weeks, supervised by mental health specialists. Usual care was family doctors' standard clinical practice. Depression symptoms (patient health questionnaire 9; PHQ-9), anxiety (generalised anxiety disorder 7; GAD-7), and quality of life (short form 36 questionnaire; SF-36) at four and 12 months; satisfaction with service quality (client satisfaction questionnaire; CSQ-8) at four months. 276 participants were allocated to collaborative care and 305 allocated to usual care. At four months, mean depression score was 11.1 (standard deviation 7.3) for the collaborative care group and 12.7 (6.8) for the usual care group. After adjustment for baseline depression, mean depression score was 1.33 PHQ-9 points lower (95% confidence interval 0.35 to 2.31, P=0.009) in participants receiving collaborative care than in those receiving usual

  10. Six-month trajectories of self-reported depressive symptoms in long-term care.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Vu, Minh; Belzile, Eric; Bai, Chun

    2016-01-01

    Depression is a common problem in long-term care (LTC) settings. We sought to characterize depression symptom trajectories over six months among older residents, and to identify resident characteristics at baseline that predict symptom trajectory. This study was a secondary analysis of data from a six-month prospective, observational, and multi-site study. Severity of depressive symptoms was assessed with the 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) at baseline and with up to six monthly follow-up assessments. Participants were 130 residents with a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 15 or more at baseline and of at least two of the six monthly follow-up assessments. Individual resident GDS trajectories were grouped using hierarchical clustering. The baseline predictors of a more severe trajectory were identified using the Proportional Odds Model. Three clusters of depression symptom trajectory were found that described "lower," "intermediate," and "higher" levels of depressive symptoms over time (mean GDS scores for three clusters at baseline were 2.2, 4.9, and 9.0 respectively). The GDS scores in all groups were generally stable over time. Baseline predictors of a more severe trajectory were as follows: Initial GDS score of 7 or more, female sex, LTC residence for less than 12 months, and corrected visual impairment. The six-month course of depressive symptoms in LTC is generally stable. Most residents who experience a more severe symptom trajectory can be identified at baseline.

  11. A systematic review of the effectiveness of problem-solving approaches towards symptom management in cancer care.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yun-Hsiang; Chiou, Piao-Yi; Chang, Pi-Hua; Hayter, Mark

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the evidence of problem-solving approach interventions on symptom management in cancer care. Symptom-related problems are a common challenge in cancer care. The problem-solving approach is one strategy of cognitive behavioural therapy used to help patients with cancer self-manage their symptoms. However, no systematic review has investigated the effectiveness of this approach. Systematic review. A systematic search for intervention studies using randomised controlled designs, controlled clinical trial and quasi-experimental studies designs was conducted using the following electronic databases: EBSCO host, CINAHL (1991-2008), Medline (1975-2009), Electronic Periodical Services (Chinese) and Electronic Theses and Dissertations System (Taiwan). Seven studies published in English between 1975-2009 were included in this systematic review. All studies were randomly assigned and almost all studies demonstrated the positive effects of a problem-solving approach in reducing symptomatic problems in the target participants. Varying protocols and qualities of methodological design (14% good, 43% fair and 43% poor) were found in this review. This systematic review highlighted the potential of a problem-solving approach in the management of symptom problems in patients with cancer. However, more rigourous studies are needed and a better evaluation of the most effective problem-solving approach protocols is required. Cancer care nurses should explore the use of problem-solving approach interventions in their practice as the evidence base suggests the value of this approach--but caution is needed in regard to the precise structure of the problem-solving approach protocol. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Web-based collaborative care intervention to manage cancer-related symptoms in the palliative care setting.

    PubMed

    Steel, Jennifer L; Geller, David A; Kim, Kevin H; Butterfield, Lisa H; Spring, Michael; Grady, Jonathan; Sun, Weiing; Marsh, Wallis; Antoni, Michael; Dew, Mary Amanda; Helgeson, Vicki; Schulz, Richard; Tsung, Allan

    2016-04-15

    The aim of this study was to examine the efficacy of a collaborative care intervention in reducing depression, pain, and fatigue and improve quality of life. A total of 261 patients with advanced cancer and 179 family caregivers were randomized to a web-based collaborative care intervention or enhanced usual care. The intervention included the following: 1) a web site with written and audiovisual self-management strategies, a bulletin board, and other resources; 2) visits with a care coordinator during a physician's appointment every 2 months; and 3) telephone follow-up every 2 weeks. Primary patient outcomes included measures of depression, pain, fatigue, and health-related quality of life. Secondary outcomes included Interleukin (IL)-1α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 levels, Natural Killer (NK) cell numbers, and caregiver stress and depression. At the baseline, 51% of the patients reported 1 or more symptoms in the clinical range. For patients who presented with clinical levels of symptoms and were randomized to the intervention, reductions in depression (Cohen's d = 0.71), pain (Cohen's d = 0.62), and fatigue (Cohen's d = 0.26) and improvements in quality of life (Cohen's d = 0.99) were observed when compared to those in the enhanced usual car arm at 6 months. Reductions in IL-6 (φ = 0.18), IL-1β (φ = 0.35), IL-1α (φ = 0.19), and IL-8 (φ = 0.15) and increases in NK cell numbers (φ = 0.23) were observed in comparison with enhanced usual care arm at 6 months. Reductions in caregiver stress (Cohen's d = 0.75) and depression (Cohen's d = 0.37) were observed at 6 months for caregivers whose loved ones were randomized to the intervention arm. The integration of screening and symptom management into cancer care is recommended. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  13. Symptoms as the main problem: a cross- sectional study of patient experience in primary care.

    PubMed

    Rosendal, Marianne; Carlsen, Anders Helles; Rask, Mette Troellund

    2016-03-10

    Symptoms are common in primary care. Besides providing thorough assessment of possible severe disease, the general practitioner (GP) must ensure good health care to all patients, irrespective of diagnoses. We aimed to explore patient satisfaction with the provided care and how well expectations in patients were met when no diagnosis was made during the consultation. Cross-sectional study based on a questionnaire survey conducted in 2008-2009 among 377 GPs and their patients in the Central Denmark Region. A total of 2286 patients completed a questionnaire after the consultation (response rate: 54 %). The questionnaire included four satisfaction items from the EUROPEP instrument and a question about unmet expectations. For each patient, the GP answered a one-page registration form including information about the main problem in the consultation, chronic disorders and assessment of prognosis. Statistical analyses were adjusted for patient characteristics and GP clustering. A higher proportion of patients reported illness worry (20 vs. 17 %, p-value: 0.005), unmet expectations (17 vs. 13 %, p-value: 0.019) and dissatisfaction with their GP after the consultation when no diagnosis was made. Dissatisfaction was primarily related to the medical examination (adjusted OR 1.30; 95 % CI: 1.06-1.60) and GP explanations (adjusted OR 1.40; 95 % CI: 1.14-1.71). Exploratory analyses revealed an association between dissatisfaction with examination and the GP assessment that symptoms were unrelated to biomedical disease. This association was found both in patients with 'symptoms only' and patients given a specific diagnosis. GPs are challenged by patients presenting symptoms that do not fit the patterns of biomedical diagnoses. The current study demonstrates more illness worry, unmet expectations and dissatisfaction with the consultation in these patients compared to patients receiving a diagnosis. This trend is true for all patients assessed as having 'symptoms only' at the end of

  14. Maternal depressive symptoms and children's emotional problems: can early child care help children of depressed mothers?

    PubMed

    Herba, Catherine M; Tremblay, Richard E; Boivin, Michel; Liu, Xuecheng; Mongeau, Chantal; Séguin, Jean R; Côté, Sylvana M

    2013-08-01

    Maternal depression is a major risk factor for the development of children's mental health problems. No population-based study to date has examined whether early child care spanning the full preschool period from infancy onward is protective for children of depressed mothers. To examine whether early child care moderates associations between maternal depressive symptoms (MDSs) and child internalizing problems (emotional problems [EPs], separation anxiety symptoms, and social withdrawal symptoms [SWSs]) during the preschool period. Population-based prospective cohort study within the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development. Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development participants (n = 1759) assessed repeatedly between ages 5 and 60 months. High-level trajectories of EPs, SWSs, and separation anxiety symptoms between ages 17 and 60 months. Child care age at entry moderated associations between MDSs and child internalizing problems. Among children of mothers with elevated MDSs, reduced odds ratios for EPs and SWSs were found for those entering child care early (0.24; 95% CI, 0.09-0.66 for EPs and 0.29; 95% CI, 0.09-0.92 for SWSs) or late (0.29; 95% CI, 0.11-0.77 for EPs and 0.21; 95% CI, 0.07-0.65 for SWSs) compared with those remaining in maternal care. Child care type moderated the association between MDSs and child EPs; children of mothers with elevated MDSs who received group-based child care had lower odds ratios for EPs than those who remained in maternal care (0.21; 95% CI, 0.09-0.48) or those who were cared for by a relative or babysitter (0.40; 95% CI, 0.17-0.94). Regulated early child care services reduced the risks for internalizing problems for children of mothers with elevated MDSs. Regulated child care services may be used as a public health intervention to buffer the negative effect of maternal depression on children's internalizing problems.

  15. The Relation Between Depressive Symptoms and Self-Care in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Type 2 in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Sopjani, Idriz; Vehapi, Shemsedin; Gorani, Daut; Imeri, Miradije; Vitoja, Sidita; Tahiri, Shqipe

    2016-01-01

    Background: The depression is a significant problem in patients with diabetes. This research is the first of it’s kind conducted in the Republic of Kosovo to determine the prevalence of depression diagnosed in people with diabetes mellitus type 2 (DMT2) and interrelation between depressive symptoms and behavior of diabetes self-care (glucose monitoring, exercise, diet, and self- health care). Methods: Research was conducted in the University Clinical Center of Kosovo (UCCK), in Pristine. The sample consisted of 200 individuals. Data collection was done through structured questionnaires. HANDS (Harvard Department of Psychiatry / National Depression Screening Day Scale) questionnaire was used to assess depressive symptoms and DSMQ (The Diabetes Self-Management Questionnaire) was used to assess self-care behavior. Data analysis was run through SSPS program, version 21. Results: The results showed that the prevalence of depression in diabetic patients was 66.5% in Kosovo. Being a woman, a resident of rural areas or with low level of education, there were significant predictors and were associated with increased chance of developing the symptoms of major depression. Significant relations were found between major depression and physical activity (p<0.05). While between major depression and management of blood glucose level, dietary control and self health care, no significant correlation was found. Conclusion: This paper concluded the involvement of psychological aspect in health care plan for diabetics, in order to reduce the number of individuals affected by depression, to diagnose and to treat these individuals for a better quality of life. PMID:28210013

  16. Symptom clusters on primary care medical service trips in five regions in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Dainton, Christopher; Chu, Charlene

    2015-09-01

    Short-term primary care medical service trips organized by the North American non-governmental organizations (NGOs) serve many communities in Latin America that are poorly served by the national health system. This descriptive study contributes to the understanding of the epidemiology of patients seen on such low-resource trips. An analysis was conducted on epidemiologic data collected from anonymized electronic medical records on patients seen during 34 short-term medical service trips in five regions in Ecuador, Guatemala, and the Dominican Republic between April 2013 and April 2014. A total of 22,977 patients were assessed by North American clinicians (physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants) on primary care, low-resource medical service trips. The majority of patients were female (67.1%), and their average age was 36. The most common presenting symptoms in all regions were general pain, upper respiratory tract symptoms, skin disorders, eye irritation, dyspepsia, and nonspecific abdominal complaints; 71-78% of primary care complaints were easily aggregated into well-defined symptom clusters. The results suggest that guideline development for clinicians involved in these types of medical service trips should focus on management of the high-yield symptom clusters described by these data. Copyright © 2015 Ministry of Health, Saudi Arabia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Cancer patients' function, symptoms and supportive care needs: a latent class analysis across cultures.

    PubMed

    Reese, Jennifer Barsky; Blackford, Amanda; Sussman, Jonathan; Okuyama, Toru; Akechi, Tatsuo; Bainbridge, Daryl; Howell, Doris; Snyder, Claire F

    2015-01-01

    Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) are an umbrella term covering a range of outcomes, including symptoms, functioning, health-related quality of life, and supportive care needs. Research regarding the appropriate PRO questionnaires to use is informative. A previously published latent class analysis (LCA) examined patterns of function, symptoms, and supportive care needs in a sample of US cancer patients. The current analysis investigated whether the findings from the original study were replicated in new samples from different countries and whether a larger sample combining all the data would affect the classes identified. This secondary analysis of data from 408 Japanese and 189 Canadian cancer patients replicated the methods used in the original LCA using data from 117 US cancer patients. In all samples, subjects completed the EORTC-QLQ-C30 and Supportive Care Needs Survey Short Form-34 (SCNS-SF34). We first dichotomized individual function, symptom, and need domain scores. We then performed LCA to investigate the patterns of domains for each of the outcomes, both in the individual country samples and then combining the data from all three samples. Across all analyses, class assignment was made by level of function, symptoms, or needs. In individual samples, only two-class models ("high" vs. "low") were generally identifiable while in the combined sample, three-class models ("high" vs. "moderate" vs. "low") best fit the data for all outcomes. In this analysis, the level of burden experienced by patients was the key factor in defining classes.

  18. Symptom burden, survival and palliative care in advanced soft tissue sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Gough, Nicholas J; Smith, Clare; Ross, Joy R; Riley, Julia; Judson, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Introduction. The symptom burden and role of palliative care (PC) in patients with advanced soft tissue sarcoma (STS) are not well defined. Methods. This study retrospectively reviewed both symptoms and PC involvement in patients known to an STS referral centre who died in one calendar year. Results. 81 patients met inclusion criteria of which 27% had locally advanced disease and 73% metastases at initial referral. The median number of symptoms was slowly progressive ranging from 2 (range 0-5) before first-line chemotherapy (n = 50) to 3 (range 1-6) at the time of best supportive care (BSC) decision (n = 48). Pain and dyspnoea were the commonest symptoms. Median overall survival from BSC decision was 3.4 weeks. 88% had PC involvement (either hospital, community, or both) with median time from first PC referral to death of 16 (range 0-110) weeks. Conclusions. Patients with metastatic STS have a significant symptom burden which justifies early PC referral. Pain, including neuropathic pain, is a significant problem. Dyspnoea is common, progressive and appears to be undertreated. Time from BSC decision to death is short, and prospective studies are required to determine whether this is due to overtreatment or very rapid terminal disease progression.

  19. Collaborative care for pain results in both symptom improvement and sustained reduction of pain and depression

    PubMed Central

    Thielke, Stephen; Corson, Kathryn; Dobscha, Steven K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Traditional analytic approaches may oversimplify the mechanisms by which interventions effect change. Transition probability models can quantify both symptom improvement and sustained reduction in symptoms. We sought to quantify transition probabilities between higher and lower states for four outcome variables, and to compare two treatment arms with respect to these transitions. Method Secondary analysis of a year-long collaborative care intervention for chronic musculoskeletal pain in veterans. Forty-two clinicians were randomized to intervention or treatment as usual (TAU), with 401 patients nested within clinician. The outcome variables, pain intensity, pain interference, depression, and disability scores, were dichotomized (lower/higher). Probabilities of symptom improvement (transitioning from higher to lower) or sustained reduction (remaining lower) were compared between intervention and TAU groups at 0–3, 3–6 and 6–12 month intervals. General estimating equations quantified the effect of the intervention on transitions. Results In adjusted models, the intervention group showed about 1.5 times greater odds of both symptom improvement and sustained reduction compared to TAU, for all the outcomes except disability. Conclusions Despite no formal relapse prevention program, intervention patients were more likely than TAU patients to experience continued relief from depression and pain. Collaborative care interventions may provide benefits beyond just symptom reduction. PMID:25554014

  20. Efficacy of Yoga for Vasomotor Symptoms: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Newton, Katherine M.; Reed, Susan D.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Sherman, Karen J.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Caan, Bette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Carpenter, Janet S.; Learman, Lee A.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Cohen, Lee S.; Joffe, Hadine; Anderson, Garnet L.; Larson, Joseph C.; Hunt, Julie R.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; LaCroix, Andrea Z.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the efficacy of yoga in alleviating VMS frequency and bother. Methods Three by two factorial design, randomized, controlled. Eligible women were randomized to yoga (n=107), exercise (n=106), or usual activity (n=142), and were simultaneously randomized to double-blind comparison of omega-3 fatty acid (n=177) or placebo (n=178) capsules. Yoga intervention was twelve, weekly, 90-minute yoga classes with daily home practice. Primary outcomes were VMS frequency and bother assessed by daily diaries at baseline, 6, and 12 weeks. Secondary outcomes included insomnia symptoms (Insomnia Severity Index) at baseline and 12 weeks. Results Among 249 randomized women, 237 (95%) completed 12-week assessments. Mean baseline VMS frequency was 7.4/day (95% CI 6.6, 8.1) in the yoga group and 8.0/day (95% CI 7.3, 8.7) in the usual activity group. Intent-to-treat analyses included all participants with response data (n=237). There was no difference between intervention groups in change in VMS frequency from baseline to 6 and 12 weeks (mean difference (yoga – usual activity) from baseline −0.3 (95% CI −1.1, 0.5) at 6 weeks and −0.3 (95% CI −1.2, 0.6) at 12 weeks (p=0.119 across both time points). Results were similar for VMS bother. At week 12, yoga was associated with an improvement in insomnia symptoms (mean difference [yoga-usual activity] in change –Insomnia Severity Index, 1.3 [95% CI −2.5, −0.1][p=0.007]). Conclusion Among healthy women, 12 weeks of yoga class plus home practice compared with usual activity did not improve VMS frequency or bother, but reduced insomnia symptoms. PMID:24045673

  1. Self-reported assessment of symptoms and self-care within a cohort of U.S. veterans during outpatient care for cancer.

    PubMed

    Williams, Arthur R; Mowlazadeh, Behzad; Sisler, Lorine; Williams, Phoebe D

    2015-10-01

    This study was undertaken as part of a feasibility study of the use of a symptom checklist and self-care assessment of veterans receiving oncology outpatient treatment within the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs system. The study aimed to examine (a) symptom occurrence and severity as self-reported on the Therapy-Related Symptom Checklist (TRSC) by veterans at a cancer clinic, (b) symptom alleviation strategies and use of self-care, and (c) the relationship between symptom occurrence and severity and functional status and quality of life. Veterans (N = 100) undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy participated in a cross-sectional study. Tools used, including TRSC, Symptom Alleviation. Thirteen symptoms were reported by more than 35% of patients. Top-ranked symptoms by percentage occurrence and severity were feeling sluggish, taste changes, nausea, pain, constipation, loss of appetite, numbness of fingers and toes, difficulty sleeping, weight loss, hair loss, difficulty concentrating, shortness of breath, and decreased interest in sexual activity. Occurrence and severity of symptoms had significant negative correlations with functional status and with overall quality of life. Self-care (symptom alleviation) strategies that helped were medicines, diet and nutrition, and lifestyle change. Checklist use (TRSC) facilitated patient-report of symptoms during cancer treatments; self-care strategies helped relieve symptoms.

  2. Citalopram controls phobic symptoms in patients with panic disorder: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    Leinonen, E; Lepola, U; Koponen, H; Turtonen, J; Wade, A; Lehto, H

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of long-term treatment with citalopram or clomipramine on subjective phobic symptoms in patients with panic disorder. DESIGN: Double-blind, parallel-group, five-arm study. PATIENTS: Patients aged 18 to 65 years with panic disorder (DMS-III-R diagnosis) and with no major depressive symptoms. INTERVENTIONS: Four hundred and seventy-five patients were randomized to 8 weeks of treatment with either citalopram (10 to 15 mg per day; 20 to 30 mg per day; or 40 to 60 mg per day), clomipramine (60 to 90 mg per day) or placebo. Two hundred and seventy-nine patients continued treatment after the 8-week acute phase. OUTCOME MEASURES: Phobic symptoms were assessed using the Phobia Scale and the Symptom Checklist's (SCL-90) phobia-related factors. RESULTS: At all dosages, citalopram was more efficacious than placebo, with 20 to 30 mg generally being the most effective dosage. Citalopram (20 to 30 mg) generally decreased phobic symptoms significantly more than placebo after Month 3. Interpersonal sensitivity decreased when measured on the respective SCL-90 sub-scale. Alleviation of phobic symptoms generally continued to increase towards the end of the treatment. The effect of clomipramine was not as consistent. CONCLUSIONS: All active treatment groups, especially the group receiving 20 to 30 mg per day of citalopram, effectively controlled phobic symptoms in patients with panic disorder. Long-term treatment with citalopram further decreased phobic symptoms. PMID:10721681

  3. Effects of foot massage applied 2 different methods on symptom control in colorectal cancer patients: Randomized control trial.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Neşe; Kutlutürkan, Sevinç; Uğur, Işıl

    2017-02-07

    This randomized controlled clinical study aimed to determine the effect of 2 foot massage methods on symptom control in people with colorectal cancer who received chemoradiotherapy. Data were collected between June 16, 2015, and February 10, 2016, in the Department of Radiation Oncology of an oncology training and research hospital. The sample comprised 60 participants. Data were collected using an introductory information form, common terminology criteria for adverse events and European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaires C30 and CR29. Participants were randomly allocated to 3 groups: classical foot massage, reflexology, and standard care control. The classical massage group received foot massage using classical massage techniques, and the reflexology group received foot reflexology focusing on symptom-oriented reflexes twice a week during a 5-week chemoradiotherapy treatment schedule. The control group received neither classical massage nor reflexology. All patients were provided with the same clinic routine care. The classical massage was effective in reducing pain level and distension incidence while foot reflexology was effective in reducing pain and fatigue level, lowering incidence of distension and urinary frequency and improving life quality.

  4. Finding Medical Care for Colorectal Cancer Symptoms: Experiences Among Those Facing Financial Barriers

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Maria D.; Siminoff, Laura A.

    2015-01-01

    Financial barriers can substantially delay medical care seeking. Using patient narratives provided by 252 colorectal cancer patients, we explored the experience of financial barriers to care seeking. Of the 252 patients interviewed, 84 identified financial barriers as a significant hurdle to obtaining health care for their colorectal cancer symptoms. Using verbatim transcripts of the narratives collected from patients between 2008 and 2010, three themes were identified: insurance status as a barrier (discussed by n = 84; 100% of subsample), finding medical care (discussed by n = 30; 36% of subsample) and, insurance companies as barriers (discussed by n = 7; 8% of subsample). Our analysis revealed that insurance status is more nuanced than the categories insured/uninsured and differentially affects how patients attempt to secure health care. While barriers to medical care for the uninsured have been well documented, the experiences of those who are underinsured are less well understood. To improve outcomes in these patients it is critical to understand how financial barriers to medical care are manifested. Even with anticipated changes of the Affordable Care Act, it remains important to understand how perceived financial barriers may be influencing patient behaviors, particularly those who have limited health care options due to insufficient health insurance coverage. PMID:25394821

  5. Finding medical care for colorectal cancer symptoms: experiences among those facing financial barriers.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Maria D; Siminoff, Laura A

    2015-02-01

    Financial barriers can substantially delay medical care seeking. Using patient narratives provided by 252 colorectal cancer patients, we explored the experience of financial barriers to care seeking. Of the 252 patients interviewed, 84 identified financial barriers as a significant hurdle to obtaining health care for their colorectal cancer symptoms. Using verbatim transcripts of the narratives collected from patients between 2008 and 2010, three themes were identified: insurance status as a barrier (discussed by n = 84; 100% of subsample), finding medical care (discussed by n = 30; 36% of subsample) and, insurance companies as barriers (discussed by n = 7; 8% of subsample). Our analysis revealed that insurance status is more nuanced than the categories insured/uninsured and differentially affects how patients attempt to secure health care. While barriers to medical care for the uninsured have been well documented, the experiences of those who are underinsured are less well understood. To improve outcomes in these patients it is critical to understand how financial barriers to medical care are manifested. Even with anticipated changes of the Affordable Care Act, it remains important to understand how perceived financial barriers may be influencing patient behaviors, particularly those who have limited health care options due to insufficient health insurance coverage. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  6. Psychiatric nurse practitioners' experiences of working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms.

    PubMed

    Ngako, Kgalabi J; Van Rensburg, Elsie S J; Mataboge, Sanah M L

    2012-05-30

    Psychiatric nurse practitioners (PNPs) working with mental health care users presenting with acute symptoms work in a complex environment. This environment is characterised by mental health care users who may present with a history of violence, sexual assault and substance misuse. The objectives of this study were twofold: firstly, to explore and describe the experiences of PNPs working with mental health care users (MHCUs) presenting with acute symptoms; and secondly, to make recommendations for the advanced PNPs to facilitate promotion of the mental health of PNPs with reference to nursing practice, research and education. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual design was used. The target population was PNPs working with MHCUs presenting with acute symptoms in a public mental health care institution in Gauteng. Data were collected by means of four focus group interviews involving 21 PNPs. The researcher made use of drawings, naïve sketches and field notes for the purpose of data triangulation. Data were analysed in accordance with Tesch's method of open coding. The three themes that emerged were: PNPs experienced working with these MHCUs as entering an unsafe world where care became a burden; they experienced negative emotional reactions and attitudes towards these MHCUs that compromised quality nursing care; and they made a plea for a nurturing environment that would enhance quality nursing care. The PNPs suggest skills and competency development, organisational support, and a need for external resources. Creation of a positive environment and mobilisation of resources as well as the identification and bridging of obstacles are essential in the promotion of the overall wellbeing and mental health of PNPs.

  7. Homeopathic practice in Intensive Care Units: objective semiology, symptom selection and a series of sepsis cases.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M Z; Leal, S M; Ceschin, V M F A

    2008-10-01

    Homeopathy has been used for more than two hundred years to treat chronic disease using various approaches in a wide range of diseases. However, for acute disease and critical illness, application has been limited by inadequate training of homeopathic physicians and the small number of pertinent clinical studies. In view of the difficulty of practising homeopathy in Intensive Care Units (ICU), a protocol was developed to facilitate description of objective homeopathic symptoms with a ranking of symptoms appropriate for these situations (Protocol for Objective Homeopathic Semiology). Examples of favorable results with individualized homeopathic treatments for a series of cases of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (sepsis) are described.

  8. Working life and stress symptoms among caregivers in elderly care with formal and no formal competence.

    PubMed

    Engström, Maria; Skytt, Bernice; Nilsson, Annika

    2011-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe and compare caregivers with formal and no formal competence on job satisfaction, psychosomatic health, structural and psychological empowerment and perceptions of care quality. A further aim was to study relationships among study variables. A convenience sample of 572 caregivers in elderly care participated. Caregivers with no formal competence perceived higher workload, more communication obstacles, less competence, poorer sleep and more stress symptoms than did their colleagues. Linear regression analyses revealed that the factor self-determination was an explanatory variable of stress levels among caregivers with no formal competence, and self-determination and impact among caregivers with formal competence. Linear regression analysis revealed that different dimensions in structural and psychological empowerment explained the variance in staff job satisfaction, perceived stress symptoms and quality of care. No formal competence seems to be a risk factor for psychosomatic health problems. Managers need to have a strategic plan for how to create a working environment for caregivers with no formal competence. Caregivers' self-determination seems to be important for stress symptoms. Meaning, self-determination, impact and opportunities appear to be important for job satisfaction and competence, opportunities, resources and formal power for quality of care. 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. The Effects of a Self-Care Program on the Severity of Symptoms and Quality of Life of Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Ghorbani, Mojtaba; Zakerimoghadam, Masoumeh; Purfarzad, Zahra; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2016-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic disease that needs special self-care strategies. The current study aimed at determining the effects of a self-care program on the severity of symptoms and quality of life of patients with IBS. In this randomized controlled clinical trial, 119 patients were randomly assigned to the experimental (n = 60) and control (n = 59) groups. Patients in both groups received the usual treatment of IBS by a gastroenterologist. The control group did not receive any intervention, whereas the experimental group was trained in the self-care program. The process of implementing the self-care program included designing and determining the content validity of the self-care training package, individual training, the first follow-up call, group training, and the second follow-up call. The instruments for collecting data were IBS-Quality of Life and IBS-Symptom Severity Scale. Two sets of evaluations (before and 2 months after the intervention) were done for both groups. The data were analyzed using SPSS software, Version 16. The results showed that there was not a significant difference between the two groups in the severity of symptoms and quality of life before the intervention (p > .05); however, the 2 groups were significantly different after the intervention (p < .0001). Implementation of the self-care program resulted in the improvement of quality of life and reduction in the symptom severity in the experimental group after the intervention (p < .0001), whereas no significant changes were observed in the control group (p > .05). Hence, the data supports that self-care program was effective in improving the quality of life and reducing the severity of symptoms in patients with IBS.

  10. The impact of depressive symptoms on patient-provider communication in HIV care.

    PubMed

    Jonassaint, Charles R; Haywood, Carlton; Korthuis, Philip Todd; Cooper, Lisa A; Saha, Somnath; Sharp, Victoria; Cohn, Jonathon; Moore, Richard D; Beach, Mary Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Persons with HIV who develop depression have worse medical adherence and outcomes. Poor patient-provider communication may play a role in these outcomes. This cross-sectional study evaluated the influence of patient depression on the quality of patient-provider communication. Patient-provider visits (n=406) at four HIV care sites were audio-recorded and coded with the Roter Interaction Analysis System (RIAS). Negative binomial and linear regressions using generalized estimating equations tested the association of depressive symptoms, as measured by the Center for Epidemiology Studies Depression scale (CES-D), with RIAS measures and postvisit patient-rated quality of care and provider-reported regard for his or her patient. The patients, averaged 45 years of age (range =20-77), were predominately male (n=286, 68.5%), of black race (n=250, 60%), and on antiretroviral medications (n=334, 80%). Women had greater mean CES-D depression scores (12.0) than men (10.6; p=0.03). There were no age, race, or education differences in depression scores. Visits with patients reporting severe depressive symptoms compared to those reporting none/mild depressive symptoms were longer and speech speed was slower. Patients with severe depressive symptoms did more emotional rapport building but less social rapport building, and their providers did more data gathering/counseling (ps<0.05). In postvisit questionnaires, providers reported lower levels of positive regard for, and rated more negatively patients reporting more depressive symptoms (p<0.01). In turn, patients reporting more depressive symptoms felt less respected and were less likely to report that their provider knows them as a person than none/mild depressive symptoms patients (ps<0.05). Greater psychosocial needs of patients presenting with depressive symptoms and limited time/resources to address these needs may partially contribute to providers' negative attitudes regarding their patients with depressive symptoms. These

  11. Precipitating and Predisposing Events and Symptoms For Admission to Assisted Living or Nursing Home Care

    PubMed Central

    Rockwood, James KH; Richard, Matthew; Garden, Kathryn; Hominick, Kathryn; Mitnitski, Arnold; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    Background In Canada, the rise of private-pay assisted living facilities is changing the long-term care landscape. Even so, few clinical implications of having these facilities in the spectrum of care have been studied. Our objective was to compare events and symptoms that might predispose and precipitate a move of older adults to assisted living or to a nursing home. Methods Cross-sectional, descriptive Nova Scotia survey of residents and family members on admission. Health-care use and dementia diagnosis were recorded from the admission record. Dementia was staged using the Global Deterioration Scale and the Dependence Scale. The SymptomGuide, a standardized dementia symptom inventory, was used to assay which symptoms were most influential in the decision to seek long term care. Caregiver stress was elicited by a self-report questionnaire. Results Of 353 people admitted during the enrolment period, 174 (49%) took part in the survey. Most (97; 55.7%) were involved in a move from the community to a nursing home, 54 (31.0%) from the community to assisted living, and 23 (13.2%) from assisted living to a nursing home. In each setting, dementia was the commonest predisposing factor (seen in >90%) with a precipitating event seen in 120 (69%) people. The precipitating events included a medical illness (n = 97; 55%) or caregiver illness, death or move (33; 19%). Dependence was associated with place of care, with more severely impaired people more commonly represented in people who moved to nursing homes. Conclusions People move from the community chiefly due to dementia, and often with a precipitant. Compared with a move to assisted living, moving to nursing homes generally indicates greater dependence, and typically worse dementia severity. Even so, assisted-living facilities are not just for the “worried well”, but are used by people with dementia, caregiver stress, and recent hospitalization. PMID:24596590

  12. Precipitating and predisposing events and symptoms for admission to assisted living or nursing home care.

    PubMed

    Rockwood, James Kh; Richard, Matthew; Garden, Kathryn; Hominick, Kathryn; Mitnitski, Arnold; Rockwood, Kenneth

    2014-03-01

    In Canada, the rise of private-pay assisted living facilities is changing the long-term care landscape. Even so, few clinical implications of having these facilities in the spectrum of care have been studied. Our objective was to compare events and symptoms that might predispose and precipitate a move of older adults to assisted living or to a nursing home. Cross-sectional, descriptive Nova Scotia survey of residents and family members on admission. Health-care use and dementia diagnosis were recorded from the admission record. Dementia was staged using the Global Deterioration Scale and the Dependence Scale. The SymptomGuide, a standardized dementia symptom inventory, was used to assay which symptoms were most influential in the decision to seek long term care. Caregiver stress was elicited by a self-report questionnaire. Of 353 people admitted during the enrolment period, 174 (49%) took part in the survey. Most (97; 55.7%) were involved in a move from the community to a nursing home, 54 (31.0%) from the community to assisted living, and 23 (13.2%) from assisted living to a nursing home. In each setting, dementia was the commonest predisposing factor (seen in >90%) with a precipitating event seen in 120 (69%) people. The precipitating events included a medical illness (n = 97; 55%) or caregiver illness, death or move (33; 19%). Dependence was associated with place of care, with more severely impaired people more commonly represented in people who moved to nursing homes. People move from the community chiefly due to dementia, and often with a precipitant. Compared with a move to assisted living, moving to nursing homes generally indicates greater dependence, and typically worse dementia severity. Even so, assisted-living facilities are not just for the "worried well", but are used by people with dementia, caregiver stress, and recent hospitalization.

  13. Sources and types of information on self-care symptom management strategies for HIV and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Marie Modeste, Regis R; Majeke, Sisana J

    2014-04-03

    It has been reported that South Africa has the highest number of people living with HIV worldwide, with more women being infected than men. Women living with HIV have been documented as experiencing various symptoms related to HIV and use various strategies to manage these symptoms. The objective of this study was to explore the sources and types of information regarding self-care symptom management strategies received by women living with HIV. The study was conducted at an HIV clinic in an urban area of KwaZulu-Natal. Individual in-depth interviews were completed with 11 women who were living with HIV,exploring the sources of information received on how they manage the HIV- (and/or AIDS-) related symptoms they experienced as well as the types of information received. The collecteddata were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The participants identified various sources, which mainly included groups of people who provided them with information on how to manage their HIV-related symptoms, namely healthcare providers, their personal networks and the community. The different sources offered different types of information, including the use of medication, complementary treatments and self-comforting activities. The study highlights that participants used multiple sources to get information about how to manage the experienced symptoms related to HIV, namely, healthcare providers, family and friends as well as themselves. It is to be noted that each source provided a preferred type of information.

  14. Child's symptom burden and depressive symptoms among caregivers of children with cancers: an argument for early integration of pediatric palliative care.

    PubMed

    Olagunju, Andrew Toyin; Sarimiye, Foluke Oladele; Olagunju, Tinuke Oluwasefunmi; Habeebu, Muhammad Yaqub Murtazha; Aina, Olatunji Francis

    2016-07-01

    Childhood cancers evoke various emotional reactions in caregivers which can impair their well-being and roles. Little is known about caregiving and which cancer-associated factors are related to caregiver's depression in resource-restricted settings. We sought to investigate if child's symptom burden is related to depressive symptoms in caregivers. Seventy-two caregivers and children with cancers were administered questionnaires to elicit socio-demographic and disease-related data. Subsequently, the child's symptoms were profiled with Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale (MSAS 7-12); while screening for depressive symptoms in caregivers was done using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale-Revised (CES-DR). All the caregivers were parents, and largely mothers (83.7%). The mean ages of caregivers and children were 39±2 and 10±2 years respectively. Majority of caregivers (90.3%) were either ignorant or attributed spiritual causation to the cancers. The common symptoms with prevalence >50% in the children included pain, nausea, worry, and lack of energy (LE); symptoms' prevalence ranged from LE (68%) to itching (32%). Approximately, one-third each of the children reported hair and weight loss which were considered 'unusual' in the design of MSAS 7-12. The symptoms showed variability in distress, frequency and intensity. In particular, pain, lack of appetite (LA) and feeling sad (FS) were reported as most burdensome in >50% of the children. More than one-third of caregivers (38.2%) screened positive for significant depressive symptoms. The global symptom burden (r=0.58) and individual symptom correlated positively with depressive symptoms in caregivers (P<0.05). Our findings suggest the need for improved awareness creation on childhood cancers to obviate late presentations and poor access to care. Again, early integration of pediatric palliative care in childhood cancer care to ensure symptom management as well as its extended benefits on caregivers

  15. [Experience of a care pathway for psychological and behavioral symptoms of dementia].

    PubMed

    Delphin-Combe, Floriane; Martin-Gaujard, Géraldine; Roubaud, Caroline; Fortin, Marie-Eve; Husson, Françoise; Rouch, Isabelle; Krolak-Salmon, Pierre

    2013-12-01

    Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are present in more than eighty percent of patients, resulting in a significant decrease of quality of life of patients and caregivers. To provide the most appropriate and early response to behavioral disorders, a specific care pathway, unique in France, has been created within the Memory Center at the Hospices Civils of Lyon. It includes a consultation "Behavior" aimed to intervention and guidance, a Cognitive-Behavioral Unit for pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions in a comprehensive care of the patient during 3 to 4 weeks, and an Alzheimer's disease mobile team, which can assess the BPSD in the patient's living environment at home or in nursing homes, appraise drug treatments and environment, and give training for caregivers. This care pathway is aimed to provide individualized and early care for behavioral crises secondary prevention, taking into account the psychological, neuropsychological and somatic context of the behavioral disorders occurrence.

  16. Health care utilization of mexican patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez Aranda, José Manuel; de los Santos Reséndiz, Homero; Lara Duarte, María Yolanda; Pazaran Zanella, Santiago Oscar; Méndez López, Jafet Felipe; Gil Alfaro, Issa; Islas Ruz, Félix Gilberto; Navarrete Floriano, Gloria; Guillen Salomón, Edith; Texon Fernández, Obdulia; Cruz Duarte, Silvia; Romo Salazar, Juan Carlos; Pérez Ruiz, Claudia Elsa; López Salas, Sara de Jesús; Benítez Amaya, Lizbeth; Zapata Gallardo, Javier Nahum

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of medically unexplained physical symptoms and the characteristics and use of health services in a group of patients with medically unexplained physical symptoms and a group of patients with other illnesses. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, retrospective and multicenter study. We included 1,043 patients over 18 years of age from 30 primary care units of a government health institution, in 11 states of Mexico, attended by 39 family physicians. The prevalence of medically unexplained physical symptoms was determined and both groups with or without symptoms were compared with regard to drug use, laboratory and other studies, leaves of absence, and referrals in the last six months. The group with medically unexplained physical symptoms was diagnosed using the Patient Health Questionnaire and the diagnostic criteria of Reid et al. Emergency or terminal illnesses were excluded. The chi square test was used with a statistical significance of p < 0.05. Results: Medically unexplained physical symptoms was diagnosed in 73 patients (7.0%). The majority were women (91.8%); their predominant symptom was from the gastrointestinal system in 56 (76.7%). This group had a greater use of clinical studies and referrals to other services (mean 1.1 vs. 0.5; p <0.0001 and 0.6 vs. 0.8; p < 0.01, respectively). Conclusions: The prevalence of medically unexplained physical symptoms was low, but with a greater impact on some health services. This could represent an overload in medical costs. PMID:27821895

  17. Consultations in primary care for symptoms attributed to electromagnetic fields – a survey among general practitioners

    PubMed Central

    Huss, Anke; Röösli, Martin

    2006-01-01

    Background Five percent of the Swiss population attribute symptoms to electromagnetic fields (EMF). General practitioners (GPs) might play a key role in recognising an emerging health risk, since they are the first to observe and follow up persons who attribute symptoms to EMF. It is unclear to what extent EMFs have become an issue in general practice and which experiences GPs report from the consultations. Methods We conducted telephone interviews in a random sample of GPs in Switzerland in order to assess the frequency of consultations in primary care due to EMF and the GPs' experience with these patients. Results 342 general practitioners were interviewed, corresponding to a response rate of 28.2%. 69% of the GPs reported at least one consultation due to EMF, but GPs with a certificate in complementary medicine were much more likely to report EMF consultations. The median of EMF consultation numbers within one year was three. An overview of the most recent EMF-related consultation per GP yielded sleep disorders, headaches and fatigue as the most often reported symptoms and mobile phone base stations, power lines and the own use of mobile phones as the main EMF sources suspected to be associated to symptoms. GPs judged the association between EMF and the symptoms to be plausible in 54% of the cases. There was no combination of symptoms and EMF sources that was remarkably and consistently judged to be a plausible cause of the symptoms. Conclusion In our survey, GPs often judged the association between the health problems and the suspected exposure to be plausible. This plausibility assessment seems to be based on grounds of preventive positions in a situation of scientific uncertainty. More research effort is needed to obtain more insight on a potential association between long term EMF exposure and unspecific symptoms. PMID:17074080

  18. Screening for Generalized Anxiety Disorder Symptoms in the Wake of Terrorist Attacks: A Study in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    Ghafoori, Bita; Neria, Yuval; Gameroff, Marc J.; Olfson, Mark; Lantigua, Rafael; Shea, Steven; Weissman, Myrna M.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about the mental health impact of terrorism beyond posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depression. The associations between exposure to the September 11, 2001 (9/11) attacks in New York City and generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) symptoms were examined in a sample of 929 primary care patients. After controlling for PTSD, depression, panic and substance use disorders, and pre-9/11 trauma, patients who screened positive (vs. negative) for GAD symptoms were roughly twice as likely to report having a loved one at the 9/11 disaster site, twice as likely to know someone who was killed by the attacks, and twice as likely to know someone who was involved with the rescue/recovery efforts after the disaster. Implications for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:19475656

  19. The transition of care from fertility specialists to obstetricians: maternal adjustment and postpartum depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Darwiche, Joëlle; Maillard, Florine; Germond, Marc; Favez, Nicolas; Lancastle, Deborah; de Roten, Yves; Guex, Patrice; Despland, Jean-Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the transition from fertility to obstetrical care of women who conceived through IVF. 33 women filled out questionnaires before IVF, during pregnancy and after birth on infertility stress, maternal adjustment and depressive symptoms. During pregnancy, they participated in an interview about their emotional experiences regarding the transition. Responses were sorted into three categories: Autonomy, Dependence and Avoidance. Exploratory results show that 51.5% of women had no difficulties making the transition (Autonomy), 21.2% had become dependent (Dependence) and 27.3% had distanced themselves from the specialists (Avoidance). Women who became dependent had more trouble adjusting to motherhood and more depressive symptoms. Difficulty making the transition may be linked to decreased ability to adjust to motherhood and more postpartum depressive symptoms.

  20. Open Trial of Integrated Primary Care Consultation for Medically Unexplained Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hubley, Sam; Uebelacker, Lisa A; Nash, Justin; Eaton, Charles B

    2016-08-16

    Within primary care settings, patients with medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) are common, often present with comorbid psychopathology, and have high rates of healthcare utilization. Despite increased healthcare utilization, these patients often have poor outcomes that frustrate patients and providers alike. A behavioral consultation intervention for primary care patients with MUS (n = 10) was developed and assessed. All participants completed all intervention and assessment sessions and rated the intervention favorably. Participants self-report scores revealed statistically significant improvements from baseline to 3-month follow-up on physical functioning, mental functioning, and physical symptoms. Notwithstanding the limitations of open trial designs, these findings demonstrate high feasibility for a behavioral health consultation treatment model for patients with MUS and highlight the need for further research.

  1. [Screening for bipolar disorder in primary care patients with psychological symptoms].

    PubMed

    Aragonès, Enric; López-Rodríguez, Juan A; Escobar-Rabadán, Francisco; Téllez-Lapeira, Juan; Mínguez, José; Párraga, Ignacio; Suárez-Hernández, Tatiana; Piñero, María José; Guzón, Marta-Magdalena

    2015-03-01

    To estimate the proportion of positive results in the screening of bipolar disorder (BD) among primary care patients presenting with psychological symptoms, and to analyze their characteristics. Multicenter cross-sectional study. Nineteen Primary Care clinics in different Spanish regions. A total of 360 consecutive primary care patients aged 18 to 70, presenting with psychological symptoms. Screening for BP was performed by means of the Mood Disorders Questionnaire. Data on quality of life (EuroQol-5D) and functional impairment (Sheehan Disability Inventory) were obtained. Data on psychiatric comorbidity and data on the use of psychotropic medication were acquired by review of medical records. Of the patients screened, 11.9% were positive (95%CI: 8.8%-15.7%). Only two patients had a diagnosis of BP in their clinical records and, although more than half received treatment with antidepressants, only two received treatment with mood stabilizers. Positive screening is associated with work, social and family dysfunction, greater perceived stress and poor quality of life. BD screening in primary care patients with psychological problems leads to a striking proportion of positive results, indicating that there may be a significant prevalence of BP patients, most of them undiagnosed and untreated. Further research is needed to determine the role that Primary Care can or should assume in the screening, diagnosis and management of this disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment regimens and health care utilization in children with persistent asthma symptoms.

    PubMed

    Yoos, H Lorrie; Kitzman, Harriet; Halterman, Jill S; Henderson, Charles; Sidora-Arcoleo, Kimberly; McMullen, Ann

    2006-01-01

    This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory medication regimens in children with persistent asthma, determined their health care utilization patterns, and evaluated factors associated with failure to seek and/or receive appropriate treatment. Parents of 68% of children who qualified for anti-inflammatory medications by National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) guidelines reported their use. However, only 14% received an optimal regimen (mild intermittent symptoms), while 55% were still symptomatic despite reported medications (suboptimal regimen). Nearly half of symptomatic children did not have a health care visit; of those who did, 61% had no corrective action documented. Factors contributing to variations in regimen and utilization are discussed.

  3. How to improve accrual to clinical trials of symptom control 1: recruitment strategies

    PubMed Central

    Vickers, Andrew J.

    2008-01-01

    Inadequate patient accrual remains the primary problem for clinical trials of integrative therapies for symptom control. Many difficulties can be predicted and avoided if a careful, evidence-based approach to trial design is taken: trialists should attempt to get as much data as possible on the study population by querying institutional databases, examining case notes, following in-patient rounds and conducting “dry runs” by asking doctors for referrals. Trials require aggressive recruitment strategies, including advertising, writing to patients at home, scanning clinic lists and identifying critical points during clinical care at which patients can be approached. The information given to patients during any initial contact should be as simple and general as possible: presenting too much information too soon can be overwhelming and off-putting. PMID:17309812

  4. General health, symptom occurrence, and self-efficacy in adult survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a cross-sectional comparison between hospital care and home care.

    PubMed

    Bergkvist, Karin; Winterling, Jeanette; Johansson, Eva; Johansson, Unn-Britt; Svahn, Britt-Marie; Remberger, Mats; Mattsson, Jonas; Larsen, Joacim

    2015-05-01

    Earlier studies have shown that home care during the neutropenic phase after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT) is medically safe, with positive outcomes. However, there have been few results on long-term outcomes after home care. The aims of this study were to compare general health, symptom occurrence, and self-efficacy in adult survivors who received either home care or hospital care during the early neutropenic phase after allo-HSCT and to investigate whether demographic or medical variables were associated with general health or symptom occurrence in this patient population. In a cross-sectional survey, 117 patients (hospital care: n = 78; home care: n = 39) rated their general health (SF-36), symptom occurrence (SFID-SCT, HADS), and self-efficacy (GSE) at a median of 5 (1-11) years post-HSCT. No differences were found regarding general health, symptom occurrence, or self-efficacy between groups. The majority of patients in both hospital care (77 %) and home care (78 %) rated their general health as "good" with a median of 14 (0-36) current symptoms. Symptoms of fatigue and sexual problems were among the most common. Poor general health was associated with acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), low self-efficacy, and cord blood stem cells. A high symptom occurrence was associated with female gender, acute GVHD, and low self-efficacy. No long-term differences in general health and symptom occurrence were observed between home care and hospital care. Thus, home care is an alternative treatment method for patients who for various reasons prefer this treatment option. We therefore encourage other centers to offer home care to patients.

  5. Recognizing and Treating the Physical Symptoms of Depression in Primary Care

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    This Academic Highlights section of The Primary Care Companion to The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry presents the highlights from the teleconference “Recognizing the Physical Symptoms of Depression,” which was held March 16, 2004. The teleconference and this ACADEMIC HIGHLIGHTS were independently developed pursuant to an unrestricted educational grant from Eli Lilly and Company. This report was prepared by Physicians Postgraduate Press, Inc. PMID:15361920

  6. The devil's choice: re-thinking law, ethics, and symptom relief in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Magnusson, Roger S

    2006-01-01

    Health professionals do not always have the luxury of making "right" choices. This article introduces the "devil's choice" as a metaphor to describe medical choices that arise in circumstances where all the available options are both unwanted and perverse. Using the devil's choice, the paper criticizes the principle of double effect and provides a re-interpretation of the conventional legal and ethical account of symptom relief in palliative care.

  7. Presenting symptoms and signs in children referred for palliative care in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Lavy, Vicky

    2007-06-01

    A study of 95 children referred for palliative care was carried out at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital in southern Malawi, to determine the prevalence of different symptoms and signs. Seventy-seven percent of the children had HIV, 17% had cancer and 6% had a variety of other diagnoses. The commonest symptoms spontaneously presented by patients and carers were pain (27%) cough (22%) and diarrhoea (18%). Pain was significantly more common among children with cancer than those with HIV/AIDS. Cough, diarrhoea and mouth sores were significantly more common in those with HIV/AIDS. Many symptoms were not volunteered initially, but were revealed on direct questioning. This uncovered that 84% had a history of weight loss, 56% had fever and 51% had mouth sores. The commonest physical signs were wasting (76%), lymphadenopathy (40%) and oral candida (40%). Forty-seven percent of children with HIV had either lost their mother or had a mother who was sick. The wide range of physical symptoms and frequency of sickness or death in the children's mothers demonstrates the need for palliative care to be holistic, addressing the manifold physical, emotional and social problems associated with chronic and terminal illness.

  8. Relationship between asthma control status, the Asthma Control Test™ and urgent health-care utilization in Asia.

    PubMed

    Lai, Christopher K W; Ko, Fanny W S; Bhome, Arvind; DE Guia, Teresita S; Wong, Gary W K; Zainudin, Bin M Z; Nang, An N; Boonsawat, Watchara; Cho, Sang H; Gunasekera, Kirthi D; Hong, Jian G; Hsu, Jeng-Yuan; Viet, Nhung N; Yunus, Faisal; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya

    2011-05-01

    Accurate assessment of control is an integral part of asthma management. We investigated the relationship between control status derived from the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA), the Asthma Control Test (ACT) and urgent health-care utilization. Asthma Insights and Reality in Asia-Pacific Phase 2 (AIRIAP 2) was a cross-sectional, community-based survey of 4805 subjects with asthma from urban centres across Asia. A symptom control index was derived from the AIRIAP 2 questionnaire using the GINA control criteria for day- and night-time symptoms, need for rescue medication, activity limitation and exacerbations; lung function was excluded. The main outcomes were asthma control, based on these GINA criteria and the ACT, and the relationship between control and self-reported urgent health-care utilization (hospitalization, emergency room visits or other unscheduled urgent visits) related to asthma over the previous 12months. Each of the symptom criteria was significantly associated with urgent health-care utilization, with odds ratios (ORs) ranging from 2.25 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.94-2.61) for daytime symptoms to 2.57 (95% CI: 2.29-2.90) for nocturnal awakening. Similarly, control status was significantly associated with urgent health-care utilization, with ORs of 0.19 (95% CI: 0.13-0.28), 0.70 (95% CI: 0.65-0.76) and 1.00 for controlled, partly controlled and uncontrolled, respectively. The optimal ACT cut-off score for identifying uncontrolled asthma was ≤19 for subjects aged ≥12years. Urgent health-care utilization was reported by 57.2% versus 28.7% of patients scoring ≤19 versus >19 (P<0.001). The GINA control classification and the ACT are valid symptom-based measures that are significantly associated with urgent health-care utilization. © 2011 The Authors; Respirology © 2011 Asian Pacific Society of Respirology.

  9. Unhealthy substance-use behaviors as symptom-related self-care in persons with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Brion, John M; Rose, Carol Dawson; Nicholas, Patrice K; Sloane, Rick; Corless, Inge B; Lindgren, Teri G; Wantland, Dean J; Kemppainen, Jeanne K; Sefcik, Elizabeth F; Nokes, Kathleen M; Kirksey, Kenn M; Eller, Lucille; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Holzemer, William L; Portillo, Carmen J; Mendez, Marta Rivero; Robinson, Linda M; Moezzi, Shahnaz; Rosa, Maria; Human, Sarie; Maryland, Mary; Arudo, John; Ros, Ana Viamonte; Nicholas, Thomas P; Cuca, Yvette; Huang, Emily; Bain, Catherine; Tyer-Viola, Lynda; Zang, Sheryl M; Shannon, Maureen; Peters-Lewis, Angelleen; Willard, Suzanne

    2011-03-01

    Unhealthy substance-use behaviors, including a heavy alcohol intake, illicit drug use, and cigarette smoking, are engaged in by many HIV-positive individuals, often as a way to manage their disease-related symptoms. This study, based on data from a larger randomized controlled trial of an HIV/AIDS symptom management manual, examines the prevalence and characteristics of unhealthy behaviors in relation to HIV/AIDS symptoms. The mean age of the sample (n = 775) was 42.8 years and 38.5% of the sample was female. The mean number of years living with HIV was 9.1 years. The specific self-reported unhealthy substance-use behaviors were the use of marijuana, cigarettes, a large amount of alcohol, and illicit drugs. A subset of individuals who identified high levels of specific symptoms also reported significantly higher substance-use behaviors, including amphetamine and injection drug use, heavy alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and marijuana use. The implications for clinical practice include the assessment of self-care behaviors, screening for substance abuse, and education of persons regarding the self-management of HIV.

  10. Depressive symptoms are associated with physical inactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. The DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study.

    PubMed

    Koopmans, Berber; Pouwer, François; de Bie, Robert A; van Rooij, Elisabeth S; Leusink, Geraline L; Pop, Victor J

    2009-06-01

    Depression is a common complication of type 2 diabetes, associated with poor disease outcomes such as impaired glycaemic control, cardiovascular disease and increased mortality. The mechanisms behind these associations are unclear. Depression might contribute to poor disease outcomes through decreased physical activity. To test whether type 2 diabetes patients with elevated depression scores are more often physically inactive. Demographic features, clinical factors, level of physical inactivity and depressive symptoms were assessed in 2646 primary care patients with type 2 diabetes. Sequential multiple logistic regression analyses [odds ratio, 95% confidence interval (CI)] were performed to test the association between depressive symptoms and physical inactivity. About 48% of the respondents were physically inactive. Elevated depressive symptoms were found in 14% of the respondents. After adjustment for potential confounders, the odds for being physically inactive were almost doubled in depressed patients with type 2 diabetes 1.74 (95% CI 1.32-2.31). Presence of depressive symptoms almost doubles the likelihood of physical inactivity in patients with type 2 diabetes. Longitudinal studies are needed to investigate whether physical inactivity forms the link between depression and poor disease outcomes.

  11. Posttraumatic stress disorder in primary care: prevalence and relationships with physical symptoms and medical utilization.

    PubMed

    Gillock, Karen L; Zayfert, Claudia; Hegel, Mark T; Ferguson, Robert J

    2005-01-01

    This study estimates the prevalence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and describes the relationships among PTSD status and health indices in a civilian primary care patient sample. Participants (N = 232) completed a paper-and-pencil survey of life events, PTSD symptoms, physical symptoms and health functioning. Utilization was assessed from medical records. Nine percent of the participants met the criteria for full PTSD (based on Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria) and another 25% were defined as partial PTSD. The full-PTSD group evidenced higher rates of medical utilization, more intense physical symptoms and poorer health functioning than the no-PTSD group. The partial-PTSD group more closely resembled the full-PTSD group. This study, although limited by sample size and diagnosis by questionnaire vs. diagnostic interview, suggests research directions for enhancing our understanding of PTSD among civilian primary care patients and for developing appropriate interventions that can be conducted in the primary care setting.

  12. Psychosocial functioning and depressive symptoms among HIV-positive persons receiving care and treatment in Kenya, Namibia, and Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Seth, Puja; Kidder, Daniel; Pals, Sherri; Parent, Julie; Mbatia, Redempta; Chesang, Kipruto; Mbilinyi, Deogratius; Koech, Emily; Nkingwa, Mathias; Katuta, Frieda; Ng'ang'a, Anne; Bachanas, Pamela

    2014-06-01

    In sub-Saharan Africa, the prevalence of depressive symptoms among people living with HIV (PLHIV) is considerably greater than that among members of the general population. It is particularly important to treat depressive symptoms among PLHIV because they have been associated with poorer HIV care-related outcomes. This study describes overall psychosocial functioning and factors associated with depressive symptoms among PLHIV attending HIV care and treatment clinics in Kenya, Namibia, and Tanzania. Eighteen HIV care and treatment clinics (six per country) enrolled approximately 200 HIV-positive patients (for a total of 3,538 participants) and collected data on patients' physical and mental well-being, medical/health status, and psychosocial functioning. Although the majority of participants did not report clinically significant depressive symptoms (72 %), 28 % reported mild to severe depressive symptoms, with 12 % reporting severe depressive symptoms. Regression models indicated that greater levels of depressive symptoms were associated with: (1) being female, (2) younger age, (3) not being completely adherent to HIV medications, (4) likely dependence on alcohol, (5) disclosure to three or more people (versus one person), (6) experiences of recent violence, (7) less social support, and (8) poorer physical functioning. Participants from Kenya and Namibia reported greater depressive symptoms than those from Tanzania. Approximately 28 % of PLHIV reported clinically significant depressive symptoms. The scale-up of care and treatment services in sub-Saharan Africa provides an opportunity to address psychosocial and mental health needs for PLHIV as part of comprehensive care.

  13. Stability of Asthma Symptom Control in a Longitudinal Study of Mild-Moderate Asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Kate M; FitzGerald, J Mark; Tavakoli, Hamid; Chen, Wenjia; Sadatsafavi, Mohsen

    2017-05-09

    Achieving and maintaining symptom control is a primary goal of asthma management. Although factors associated with the likelihood of achieving symptom control have been studied, there are unanswered questions on the stability of symptom control, that is, the tendency of individuals to remain at a given symptom control level over time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the stability of symptom control using a longitudinal cohort of mild-moderate asthmatics. Participants reported symptom control using the Global Initiative for Asthma criteria at 5 assessments during the 1-year follow-up period. We described variability in the stability of symptom control between individuals, and used a random-effects logistic regression model to evaluate the impact of a suite of factors on the stability of symptom control. A total of 429 individuals (67% female, mean age 51.6) contributed 2141 study visits. Individuals varied from completely stable in symptom control (18% remained at the same control level in all 5 visits) to completely unstable (12% changed the control level between all subsequent visits). Only 4% of between-individual variation in the stability of symptom control was explained by the included exposures, and a secondary analysis indicated that the history of symptom control stability was the best predictor of current stability. The tendency to remain at a given control level varies significantly among patients with asthma. Only a small fraction of this variability is explained by observable characteristics. In the absence of predictors, a previous history of symptom control stability is the best indicator of future stability and should be considered when monitoring symptom control. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Dying with dementia: symptom burden, quality of care, and place of death.

    PubMed

    Pinzon, Luis Carlos Escobar; Claus, Matthias; Perrar, Klaus Maria; Zepf, Kirsten Isabel; Letzel, Stephan; Weber, Martin

    2013-03-01

    No detailed information has been available until now about the care setting, circumstances and place of death, symptom burden, and quality of care of persons with end-stage dementia in Germany. This cross-sectional study is based on a random sample of 5000 persons who died in the period from 25 May to 24 August 2008 in the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Their surviving relatives were contacted and asked to participate in a questionnaire survey. Data were obtained in this way for 310 persons with dementia and 931 persons without dementia. 42.4% of the persons with dementia died at home. Most patients and their relatives preferred death at home to death anywhere else (94.8% of patients, 77.5% of relatives). Persons living with at least one relative were more likely to die at home (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 4.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.71-8.11). According to information supplied by the relatives, the overwhelming majority of patients suffered, two days before death, from moderate to severe weakness (94.9%), fatigue (94.4%), disorientation/confusion (86.9%), and appetite loss (86.4%). Other common symptoms were anxiety (61.0%), tension (59.9%), dyspnea (56.7%), and pain (52.5%). The relatives were critical of the quality of care on standard hospital wards, citing the limited temporal availability of staff and limited emotional support. These data indicate the high symptom burden of persons with dementia in Germany at the end of their lives. They underscore the need for proper palliative care in all of the settings where persons with dementia die. Specialized in- and outpatient palliative care should not be offered only to patients with cancer, but should rather be made available to all who need it.

  15. [Functional decline and presence of symptoms in palliative care: Cause or consequence?

    PubMed

    Zamora-Mur, Alfredo; Nabal-Vicuña, María; Zamora-Catevilla, Aranzazu; García-Foncillas, Rafael; Calderero-Aragón, Verónica; Aubí-Catevilla, Óscar; Lostalé-Latorre, Fernando

    Several publications have related functional decline to the appearance of symptoms, especially psychiatric or psychological ones, such as anxiety and depression. Moreover, an initial depressive disorder or prior to functional decline usually worsens it. It was decided to investigate the relationship between the presence of functional decline, measured by a decrease in the Barthel index (BI), and the presence of symptoms. A prospective analytical study conducted on patients referred to a Home Care Support Team (HCST). The study included 638 cases, of which 53.9% (N=344) were male, 56% (N=357) with cancer and 44% (N=281) geriatric. The mean age was 79.64 years+- 10.8. Significant differences (P<.001) were found in functional decline measured by mean decline in the BI between cancer (34.4) and non-cancer patients (12.12). Significant differences (P<.001) were also found in all recorded symptoms (pain, dyspnoea, anorexia, nausea, anxiety, depression, and insomnia), more frequently in cancer patients, except psychomotor agitation. A higher presence of symptoms was detected in patients with greater functional decline, with decreases in BI above 20 points. There were no differences in previous treatments, except in certain analgesics. Differences were found in the different treatments prescribed by HCST. The presence of functional decline and its level may be related to the appearance of symptoms, especially in cancer patients. Copyright © 2016 SEGG. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  16. Symptom Levels in Care-Seeking Bangladeshi and Nepalese Adults With Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ferdousy, Tahmina; Paudel, Bishnu D.; Nahar, Shamsun; Dowla, Rumana; Adibuzzaman, Mohammad; Ahsan, Golam Mushih Tanimul; Uddin, Miftah; Salim, Reza; Ahamed, Sheikh Iqbal

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Three-fourths of patients with advanced cancer are reported to suffer from pain. A primary barrier to provision of adequate symptom treatment is failure to appreciate the intensity of the symptoms patients are experiencing. Because data on Bangladeshi and Nepalese patients’ perceptions of their symptomatic status are limited, we sought such information using a cell phone questionnaire. Methods At tertiary care centers in Dhaka and Kathmandu, we recruited 640 and 383 adult patients, respectively, with incurable malignancy presenting for outpatient visits and instructed them for that single visit on one-time completion of a cell phone platform 15-item survey of questions about common cancer-associated symptoms and their magnitudes using Likert scales of 0 to 10. The questions were taken from the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System and the Brief Pain Inventory instruments. Results All but two Bangladeshi patients recruited agreed to study participation. Two-thirds of Bangladeshi patients reported usual pain levels ≥ 5, and 50% of Nepalese patients reported usual pain levels ≥ 4 (population differences significant at P < .001). Conclusion Bangladeshi and Nepalese adults with advanced cancer are comfortable with cell phone questionnaires about their symptoms and report high levels of pain. Greater attention to the suffering of these patients is warranted. PMID:28717768

  17. Symptoms of Depression in a Hispanic Primary Care Population With and Without Chronic Medical Illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Reinschmidt, Kerstin M.; Moreno, Francisco A.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To describe somatic and psychiatric symptoms reported by Hispanic primary care patients with and without depression and/or chronic medical illnesses. Method: Adult Hispanic patients (n = 104) in a Mobile Health Program in underserved southern Arizona participated in a survey conducted between September 2006 and February 2007 to obtain information about the somatic and psychiatric symptoms that they were experiencing. They were asked to rate the severity of their symptoms listed in the depression screen Personal Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9), the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), and 5 new symptoms described by patients in focus groups conducted in the first phase of the project. Patients were categorized as depressed if their PHQ-9 scores were 10 or above, and they were further categorized as having or not having chronic illnesses based on self-report. Analyses of variance were conducted for each SCL-90-R symptom dimension to compare across the 4 groups (group 1: not depressed and not medically ill; group 2: medically ill but not depressed; group 3: depressed but not medically ill; and group 4: depressed and medically ill). Results: Patients with chronic medical illnesses comorbid with depression were found to report significantly more somatic symptoms than those with only chronic medical illnesses or depression alone (P ≤ .001). They also reported significantly more psychopathology than patients with depression alone (P ≤ .05 or better). Conclusions: Patients with medical illnesses comorbid with depression are more likely to exhibit psychopathology than patients with medical illnesses or depression alone. PMID:20944771

  18. Individual music therapy for managing neuropsychiatric symptoms for people with dementia and their carers: a cluster randomised controlled feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ming Hung; Flowerdew, Rosamund; Parker, Michael; Fachner, Jörg; Odell-Miller, Helen

    2015-07-18

    Previous research highlights the importance of staff involvement in psychosocial interventions targeting neuropsychiatric symptoms of dementia. Music therapy has shown potential effects, but it is not clear how this intervention can be programmed to involve care staff within the delivery of patients' care. This study reports initial feasibility and outcomes from a five month music therapy programme including weekly individual active music therapy for people with dementia and weekly post-therapy video presentations for their carers in care homes. 17 care home residents and 10 care staff were randomised to the music therapy intervention group or standard care control group. The cluster randomised, controlled trial included baseline, 3-month, 5-month and post-intervention 7-month measures of residents' symptoms and well-being. Carer-resident interactions were also assessed. Feasibility was based on carers' feedback through semi-structured interviews, programme evaluations and track records of the study. The music therapy programme appeared to be a practicable and acceptable intervention for care home residents and staff in managing dementia symptoms. Recruitment and retention data indicated feasibility but also challenges. Preliminary outcomes indicated differences in symptoms (13.42, 95 % CI: [4.78 to 22.07; p = 0.006]) and in levels of wellbeing (-0.74, 95 % CI: [-1.15 to -0.33; p = 0.003]) between the two groups, indicating that residents receiving music therapy improved. Staff in the intervention group reported enhanced caregiving techniques as a result of the programme. The data supports the value of developing a music therapy programme involving weekly active individual music therapy sessions and music therapist-carer communication. The intervention is feasible with modifications in a more rigorous evaluation of a larger sample size. Clinicaltrials.gov, number NCT01744600.

  19. Infection control in equine critical care settings.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Brandy A; Morley, Paul S

    2014-08-01

    There is a recognizable standard of practice for infection control in veterinary medicine. Effort must be given to control and prevention of infectious disease transmission within a facility and among animal populations. In the critical care setting, patients typically have a high degree of systemic illness and immune compromise, are commonly subjected to invasive procedures and placement of indwelling devices, and frequently receive antimicrobials and gastric protectants. Every equine critical care unit is distinctive in its physical and operational features and the types of patients that are managed. Infection control programs must therefore be tailored to each facility's needs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. How frequently do young people with potential cancer symptoms present in primary care?

    PubMed Central

    Fern, Lorna A; Campbell, Christine; Eden, Tim OB; Grant, Robert; Lewis, Ian; Macleod, Una; Weller, David; Whelan, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Background Although uncommon in teenagers and young adults, cancer is the leading cause of non-accidental death in those aged 15–24 years. A prolonged period to cancer diagnosis in this cohort is reported and thought to be a consequence of the rarity of cancer in this age group, together with the complexity of presenting symptoms. Although diagnostic delay is perceived to be a problem for teenagers and young adults with cancer, little research has focused on their use of primary care services. Aim To determine how often teenagers and young adults consult, their reasons for doing so, and how often potential oncological symptoms (‘alert’ symptoms) appear. Design and setting Retrospective audit of consultations over 1 year. Three general medical practices in Scotland. Method Medical records were examined for 2326 teenagers and young adults. Date of birth, sex, and free-text relating to the consultation were recorded and coded according to an agreed coding system; symptoms of potential oncological significance were coded as alert symptoms. Results A total of 1659 teenagers and young adults (71.3% of registered patients) attended their GP at least once. Females attended more frequently than males (P<0.001), and older females more frequently than younger females (P<0.001). Males exhibited no association between consultation frequency and age. The main reasons for consultation were pregnancy/contraception (15.8%) and infection (15.7%). Alert symptoms were uncommon, (reported in 4.0% of all consultations; 276 alert symptoms in 179 patients), and were not associated with age or sex. The most common alert symptoms were unexplained pain (34.8%), unexplained fatigue (14.5%), and lumps (13.4%). Two benign tumours were detected. Conclusion A high proportion of teenagers and young adults consult their GP. Alert symptoms are uncommon and generally occur in isolation. More research is required to confirm these findings in a larger cohort and to examine how GPs respond to such

  1. A randomised controlled trial of four management strategies for dyspepsia: relationships between symptom subgroups and strategy outcome.

    PubMed Central

    Lewin van den Broek, N T; Numans, M E; Buskens, E; Verheij, T J; de Wit, N J; Smout, A J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The first step in the management of uncomplicated dyspepsia in primary care often consists of prescribing empirical therapy, but in certain cases prompt endoscopy might be preferred. Any decision is usually based on the patient's symptoms and the presumed underlying pathology that causes these symptoms. AIM: To assess the relationship between symptom subgroups and the effect of management strategies on primary care patients with dyspepsia. DESIGN OF STUDY: Randomised controlled trial. SETTING: All patients presenting successively with a new episode of dyspepsia between January 1995 and November 1997. METHOD: The results of four management strategies in dyspeptic primary care patients were compared and the value of subgrouping within this trial was estimated. Patients were allocated to one of either (a) empirical treatment in which therapy was based on the presented symptoms, or empirical treatment with (b) omeprazole or (c) cisapride regardless of the presented symptoms, or (d) prompt endoscopy followed by the appropriate treatment. Patients were retrospectively classified into the subgroups for each strategy using baseline data. The yield of each strategy was measured by counting the number of strategy failures in the first year. RESULTS: Of the 349 included patients, 326 were analysed. No statistically significant difference could be demonstrated between the strategies or between the symptom subgroups. However, patients in the reflux-like subgroup showed a trend towards a better outcome in all empirical strategies. Ulcer-like dyspepsia seemed to benefit from omeprazole. The non-specific subgroup seemed to benefit from cisapride but also had the highest proportion of strategy failure. Prompt endoscopy did not appear especially useful in any subgroup. CONCLUSION: Although this study has relatively low power, we conclude that the use of symptom subgroups seems to be a sensible approach when choosing empirical therapy in dyspepsia. Patients with reflux

  2. Patients' bowel symptom experiences and self-care strategies following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Landers, Margaret; McCarthy, Geraldine; Livingstone, Vicki; Savage, Eileen

    2014-08-01

    To investigate patients' bowel symptom experiences and self-care strategies following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer and the relationship between bowel symptom experiences and the self-care strategies used. Earlier diagnosis of rectal cancer allows for less invasive surgical treatments such as sphincter-saving procedures to be performed. Although a permanent stoma is generally not required, patients experience changes in bowel function following this surgery. However, limited research exists on patients' bowel symptom experiences and the self-care strategies used to manage symptoms following sphincter-saving surgery of rectal cancer. Quantitative descriptive correlational. A convenience sample of 143 patients aged 30 to over 70 years was used. Data were collected (April 2010-December 2010) using the Illness Perception Questionnaires, the Difficulties of Life Scale and a researcher developed Self-care Strategy Measure. The research was underpinned by the Symptom Management Theory. Relating to the four most effective self-care strategies used respondents reporting more bowel symptom were more likely to use the self-care strategy proximity/knowing the location of a toilet at all times. Females, respondents with high timeline cyclical scores and respondents with high physiological responses scores were more likely to use protective clothing. Respondents reporting more bowel symptom and with high social responses scores were more likely to use bowel medication. Females were more likely to wear incontinence pads. This research provides insights into the daily bowel symptom experiences of patients following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. It demonstrates the range of self-care strategies that individuals use to manage their bowel symptoms and the self-care-strategies that were most effective for them. Patients should be encouraged to report on-going bowel problems following sphincter-saving surgery for rectal cancer. Supportive care for patients

  3. Impact of Symptoms and Care Practices on Nursing Home Residents at the End of Life: A Rating by Front-line Care Providers.

    PubMed

    Hoben, Matthias; Chamberlain, Stephanie A; Knopp-Sihota, Jennifer A; Poss, Jeffrey W; Thompson, Genevieve N; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2016-02-01

    Burdensome symptoms and potentially inappropriate care practices are common at the end of life for nursing home residents. Appropriately managing symptoms and limiting aggressive care practices is key to high-quality end-of-life care. Little research is available, however, on the opinions of nursing home care providers about the impact of symptoms and practices for both residents and care facilities. Our objectives were to (1) identify common burdensome symptoms and potentially inappropriate practices at the end of life for nursing home residents, (2) develop and assess the feasibility of a procedure to have various groups of nursing home care providers rate impact of symptoms and practices, and (3) generate recommendations for action and further research, with key policy and decision makers. Proof-of-concept study. Partnered research by researchers, health professionals, and decision makers to identify and explore the impact of burdensome symptoms and potentially inappropriate care practices for nursing home residents at the end of life. Thirty-six nursing homes from Alberta, Manitoba, and Saskatchewan. A total of 6007 residents (prevalence rating); 4 medical directors, 5 directors of care, 4 nurse practitioners, 4 registered nurses, 5 licensed practical nurses, 5 care aides (impact rating); and 13 key policy or decision makers from Alberta, British Columbia, and Manitoba (expert panel). Based on a literature search and data in the Resident Assessment Instrument-Minimum Data Set (RAI-MDS) 2.0, we generated lists of burdensome symptoms and potentially inappropriate care practices for nursing home residents at the end of life. We rated prevalence of those symptoms and practices in the last quarter before death as high, medium, or low. Care providers rated the burden of symptoms and inappropriateness of practices as high, medium, or low. Directors of care rated the unnecessary cost of those symptoms and practices to a nursing home as high, medium, or low. We ranked

  4. The hidden harm of home-based care: pulmonary tuberculosis symptoms among children providing home medical care to HIV/AIDS-affected adults in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Cluver, Lucie; Orkin, Mark; Moshabela, Mosa; Kuo, Caroline; Boyes, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Millions of children in sub-Saharan Africa undertake personal and medical care for family members who are unwell with AIDS. To date, no research has investigated whether such care provision places children at heightened risk for pulmonary tuberculosis. This study aimed to address this gap by identifying risk factors for paediatric pulmonary tuberculosis symptomatology. In 2009-2011, 6002 children aged 10-17 years were surveyed using door-to-door household sampling of census enumeration areas. These were randomly sampled from six urban and rural sites with over 30% HIV prevalence, within South Africa's three highest tuberculosis-burden provinces. Validated scales and clinical tuberculosis symptom checklists were modelled in multivariate logistic regressions, controlling for socio-demographic co-factors. Findings showed that, among children, severe pulmonary tuberculosis symptomatology was predicted by primary caregiver HIV/AIDS-illness [odds ratio (OR): 1.63, confidence interval (CI): 1.23-2.15, p<0.001], and AIDS-orphanhood (OR: 1.44, CI: 1.04-2.00, p<0.029). Three-fold increases in severe tuberculosis symptoms were predicted by the child's exposure to body fluids through providing personal or medical care to an ill adult (OR: 3.12, CI: 1.96-4.95, p<0.001). Symptoms were also predicted by socio-economic factors of food insecurity (OR: 1.52, CI: 1.15-2.02, p<0.003) and household overcrowding (OR: 1.35, CI: 1.06-1.72, p<0.017). Percentage probability of severe tuberculosis symptoms rose from 1.4% amongst least-exposed children, to 18.1% amongst those exposed to all above-stated risk factors, independent of biological relationship of primary caregiver-child and other socio-demographics. Amongst symptomatic children, 75% had never been tested for tuberculosis. These findings identify the risk of tuberculosis among children providing home medical care to their unwell caregivers, and suggest that there are gaps in the health system to screen and detect these cases of

  5. Depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and seronegative control subjects in Cameroon: Effect of age, education and gender

    PubMed Central

    Kanmogne, Georgette D.; Qiu, Fang; Ntone, Félicien E.; Fonsah, Julius Y.; Njamnshi, Dora M.; Kuate, Callixte T.; Doh, Roland F.; Kengne, Anne M.; Tagny, Claude T.; Nchindap, Emilienne; Kenmogne, Léopoldine; Mbanya, Dora; Cherner, Mariana; Heaton, Robert K.; Njamnshi, Alfred K.

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a leading cause of HIV/AIDS disease burden; it worsens health outcomes and quality of life. Addressing this problem requires accurate quantification of the extra burden of depression to HIV/AIDS in a given population, and knowledge of the baseline depression prevalence in the general population. There has been no previous study of depression in the general Cameroonian population. The current study attempts to address that important need. We used the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms in 270 HIV-infected and seronegative Cameroonians. Univariate analyses showed a trend toward higher depressive symptoms among cases, compared to controls (p = 0.055), and among older subjects (>40 years), compared to younger subjects (≤40 years) (p = 0.059). Analysis of depression severity showed that 33.73% of cases had moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms, compared to 19.8% of controls (p<0.01). However, multivariable negative binomial regression analyses showed no effect of age, HIV status, CD4 levels, viral loads, ART, or opportunistic infections on the risk of depressive symptoms. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed significantly higher risk of depressive symptoms among females compared to males; this was significant for both female controls and female cases. Female cases had significantly higher CD4 cell counts and lower viral loads, compared to males. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that lower education (≤10 years) was associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. This study shows a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among seronegative controls and HIV-infected Cameroonians. Integrating care for mental disorders such as depression into primary health care and existing HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Cameroon may improve the wellbeing of the general population and could lower the HIV/AIDS burden. PMID:28231258

  6. Depressive symptoms in HIV-infected and seronegative control subjects in Cameroon: Effect of age, education and gender.

    PubMed

    Kanmogne, Georgette D; Qiu, Fang; Ntone, Félicien E; Fonsah, Julius Y; Njamnshi, Dora M; Kuate, Callixte T; Doh, Roland F; Kengne, Anne M; Tagny, Claude T; Nchindap, Emilienne; Kenmogne, Léopoldine; Mbanya, Dora; Cherner, Mariana; Heaton, Robert K; Njamnshi, Alfred K

    2017-01-01

    Depression is a leading cause of HIV/AIDS disease burden; it worsens health outcomes and quality of life. Addressing this problem requires accurate quantification of the extra burden of depression to HIV/AIDS in a given population, and knowledge of the baseline depression prevalence in the general population. There has been no previous study of depression in the general Cameroonian population. The current study attempts to address that important need. We used the Beck Depression Inventory-II to assess the prevalence and severity of depressive symptoms in 270 HIV-infected and seronegative Cameroonians. Univariate analyses showed a trend toward higher depressive symptoms among cases, compared to controls (p = 0.055), and among older subjects (>40 years), compared to younger subjects (≤40 years) (p = 0.059). Analysis of depression severity showed that 33.73% of cases had moderate-to-severe depressive symptoms, compared to 19.8% of controls (p<0.01). However, multivariable negative binomial regression analyses showed no effect of age, HIV status, CD4 levels, viral loads, ART, or opportunistic infections on the risk of depressive symptoms. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed significantly higher risk of depressive symptoms among females compared to males; this was significant for both female controls and female cases. Female cases had significantly higher CD4 cell counts and lower viral loads, compared to males. Both univariate and multivariable regression analyses showed that lower education (≤10 years) was associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. This study shows a high prevalence of depressive symptoms among seronegative controls and HIV-infected Cameroonians. Integrating care for mental disorders such as depression into primary health care and existing HIV/AIDS treatment programs in Cameroon may improve the wellbeing of the general population and could lower the HIV/AIDS burden.

  7. Juvenile Justice Girls’ Depressive Symptoms and Suicidal Ideation Nine Years After Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, David C. R.; DeGarmo, David S.; Leve, Leslie D.; Chamberlain, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Objective Multidimensional Treatment Foster Care (MTFC) has been found to reduce delinquency among girls in juvenile justice through 2-year follow-up. Given that such girls are at elevated risk for suicide and depression into adulthood, we tested MTFC effects on long term trajectories of suicidal ideation and depressive symptoms. Method Girls [n =166; mean (SD) age = 15.3 (1.2) years; 68 % Caucasian] with a recent criminal referral who were mandated to out-of-home care were enrolled in two sequential cohorts. Girls were randomized to receive MTFC (n =81) or group care (GC) treatment as usual (TAU; n =85); the second MTFC cohort also received modules targeting substance use and risky sexual behavior. Depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation were assessed repeatedly through early adulthood [mean (SD) follow-up = 8.8 (2.9) years]. Suicide attempt history was assessed in early adulthood. Results Girls assigned to MTFC showed significantly greater decreases in depressive symptoms across the long-term follow-up than GC girls (π = −.86, p < .05). Decreases in suicidal ideation rates were slightly stronger in MTFC than in GC as indicated by a marginal main effect [odds ratio (OR) = .92, p < .10] and a significant interaction that favored MTFC in the second cohort relative to the first [OR = .88, p < .01]. There were no significant MTFC effects on suicide attempt. Conclusions MTFC decreased depressive symptoms and suicidal thinking beyond the decreases attributable to time and TAU. Thus, MTFC has further impact on girls’ lives than originally anticipated. PMID:24731234

  8. Signs and symptoms for diagnosis of serious infections in children: a prospective study in primary care.

    PubMed

    Van den Bruel, Ann; Aertgeerts, Bert; Bruyninckx, Rudi; Aerts, Marc; Buntinx, Frank

    2007-07-01

    Serious infections in children (sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, osteomyelitis, and cellulitis) are associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. In children with an acute illness, the primary care physician uses signs and symptoms to assess the probability of a serious infection and decide on further management. To analyse the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms, and to create a multivariable triage instrument. A prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Primary care in Belgium. Children aged 0-16 years with an acute illness for a maximum of 5 days were included consecutively. Signs and symptoms were recorded and compared to the final outcome of these children (a serious infection for which hospitalisation was necessary). Accuracy was analysed bivariably. Multivariable triage instruments were constructed using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. A total of 3981 children were included in the study, of which 31 were admitted to hospital with a serious infection (0.78%). Accuracy of signs and symptoms was fairly low. Classical textbook signs (meningeal irritation impaired peripheral circulation) had high specificity. The primary classification tree consisted of five knots and had sensitivity of 96.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 83.3 to 99.9), specificity 88.5% (95% CI = 87.5 to 89.5), positive predictive value 6.2% (95% CI = 4.2 to 8.7), and negative predictive value 100.0% (95% CI = 99.8 to 100.0), by which a serious infection can be excluded in children testing negative on the tree. The sign paramount in all trees was the physician's statement 'something is wrong'. Some individual signs have high specificity. A serious infection can be excluded based on a limited number of signs and symptoms.

  9. Signs and symptoms for diagnosis of serious infections in children: a prospective study in primary care

    PubMed Central

    Van den Bruel, Ann; Aertgeerts, Bert; Bruyninckx, Rudi; Aerts, Marc; Buntinx, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Background Serious infections in children (sepsis, meningitis, pneumonia, pyelonephritis, osteomyelitis, and cellulitis) are associated with considerable mortality and morbidity. In children with an acute illness, the primary care physician uses signs and symptoms to assess the probability of a serious infection and decide on further management. Aim To analyse the diagnostic accuracy of signs and symptoms, and to create a multivariable triage instrument. Design of study A prospective diagnostic accuracy study. Setting Primary care in Belgium. Method Children aged 0–16 years with an acute illness for a maximum of 5 days were included consecutively. Signs and symptoms were recorded and compared to the final outcome of these children (a serious infection for which hospitalisation was necessary). Accuracy was analysed bivariably. Multivariable triage instruments were constructed using classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. Results A total of 3981 children were included in the study, of which 31 were admitted to hospital with a serious infection (0.78%). Accuracy of signs and symptoms was fairly low. Classical textbook signs (meningeal irritation impaired peripheral circulation) had high specificity. The primary classification tree consisted of five knots and had sensitivity of 96.8% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 83.3 to 99.9), specificity 88.5% (95% CI = 87.5 to 89.5), positive predictive value 6.2% (95% CI = 4.2 to 8.7), and negative predictive value 100.0% (95% CI = 99.8 to 100.0), by which a serious infection can be excluded in children testing negative on the tree. The sign paramount in all trees was the physician's statement ‘something is wrong’. Conclusion Some individual signs have high specificity. A serious infection can be excluded based on a limited number of signs and symptoms. PMID:17727746

  10. Prevalence of chest symptoms amongst brick kiln migrant workers and care seeking behaviour: a study from South India.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Beena E; Charles, Niruparani; Watson, Basilea; Chandrasekaran, V; Senthil Kumar, R; Dhanalakshmi, A; Wares, Fraser; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2015-12-01

    Early detection and treatment of tuberculosis (TB) have been key principles of TB control. However, this can be a challenge with 'hard to reach' populations such as migrants. Brick kiln workers are one such group of migrants who are exposed to smoke, heat and dust from brick kilns which are one of the major causes of respiratory illnesses. A cross-sectional community based study was carried out in Thiruvallur, Tamil Nadu, South India, from August 2011 to June 2012. A total of 4002 individuals from 55 brick kiln chambers were interviewed to determine the prevalence of chest symptoms and care seeking behaviour patterns. Three hundred and seventy-seven (9.4%) chest symptomatics were identified. The most significant variables associated with chest symptoms were illiteracy, alcohol abuse and heavy smoking. Of the chest symptomatics identified, 50.4% took action to get relief from their symptoms. The duration of over 6-month stay in the chamber was significantly associated with taking action (OR, 5.5, 95% CI: 2.3, 13.3). The TB control programme needs to further explore how to extend its services to such 'hard to reach' groups. Active case finding to ensure early diagnosis and treatment initiation amongst such groups needs consideration. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Symptom management and self-care for peripheral neuropathy in HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nicholas, P K; Kemppainen, J K; Canaval, G E; Corless, I B; Sefcik, E F; Nokes, K M; Bain, C A; Kirksey, K M; Eller, L Sanzero; Dole, P J; Hamilton, M J; Coleman, C L; Holzemer, W L; Reynolds, N R; Portillo, C J; Bunch, E H; Wantland, D J; Voss, J; Phillips, R; Tsai, Y-F; Mendez, M Rivero; Lindgren, T G; Davis, S M; Gallagher, D M

    2007-02-01

    Peripheral neuropathy is the most common neurological complication in HIV and is often associated with antiretroviral therapy. As part of a larger study on self-care for symptoms in HIV disease, this study analyzed the prevalence and characteristics of peripheral neuropathy in HIV disease, sociodemographic and disease-related correlates and self-care strategies. A convenience sample of 1,217 respondents was recruited from data collection sites in several US cities, Puerto Rico, Colombia and Taiwan. Results of the study indicated that respondents with peripheral neuropathy (n=450) identified 20 self-care behaviors including complementary therapies, use of medications, exercise and rest and/or elevation of extremities. Ratings of frequency and effectiveness were also included. An activities checklist summarized into five categories of self-care behaviors including activities/thoughts, exercise, medications, complementary therapies and substance was used to determine self-care behaviors. Taking a hot bath was the most frequent strategy used by those with peripheral neuropathy (n=292) and received the highest overall rating of effectiveness of any self-management strategies included in this study at 8.1 (scale 1-10). Other self-care strategies to manage this symptom included: staying off the feet (n=258), rubbing the feet with cream (n=177), elevating the feet (n=236), walking (n=262), prescribed anti-epileptic agent (n=80), prescribed analgesics (n=84), over-the-counter medications (n=123), vitamin B (n=122), calcium supplements (n=72), magnesium (n=48), massage (n=156), acupuncture (n=43), reflexology (n=23) and meditation (n=80). Several behaviors that are often deemed unhealthy were included among the strategies reported to alleviate peripheral neuropathy including use of marijuana (n=67), cigarette smoking (n=139), drinking alcohol (n=81) and street drugs (n=30).

  12. Caregiver financial distress, depressive symptoms and limited social capital as barriers to children's dental care in a mid-western county in the United States.

    PubMed

    Kruger, J S; Kodjebacheva, G D; Kunkel, L; Smith, K D; Kruger, D J

    2015-12-01

    To identify barriers to children's access to dental care. A cross-sectional health survey. All residential census tracts in Genesee County, Michigan, USA. 498 adults who reported having children in their households, extracted from 2,932 randomly selected adult participants in the 2009 and 2011 surveys. Stepwise logistic regression was used to predict two dependent variables: children's lack of any visits to dentists' offices and unmet dental care needs (defined as needing dental care but not receiving it due to cost) in the previous year as reported by the adults. Independent variables included gender, age, education, race/ethnicity, financial planning, financial distress, fear of crime, stress, depressive symptoms, experiences of discrimination, and neighbourhood social capital. Of the 498 adults, 29.9% reported that they had children who had not visited a dentist in the past 12 months and 13% reported that they had household children with unmet dental care needs in the past year. Adults who reported higher depressive symptoms, lower neighbourhood social capital, greater financial distress, and who were younger were more likely to have household children who did not visit a dentist in the past year. Financial distress was the only significant predictor when controlling for other variables to predict unmet dental care needs. Factors beyond financial distress affect children's dental care; these include parental depressive symptoms and lower neighbourhood social capital. Interventions promoting parental mental health and social integration may increase dental care among children.

  13. Depression Symptoms, Acculturation, Needing Care, and Receiving Care: A Study of Adolescents Living in California

    PubMed Central

    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad; Bazargan, Mohsen; Shaheen, Magda; Teklehaimanot, Senait; Ahmadi, Alireza; Cooper, Joan Smith; Teruya, Stacey

    2016-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study are 1) to depict the prevalence of moderate depressive symptoms (MDS) in adolescents living in California, 2) to examine the role of acculturation in reported MDS, and 3) to identify any relationship between acculturation, “needing emotional help,” and “receiving psychological or emotional counseling,” as reported by adolescents with MDS. Methods We analyzed data from a cross-sectional population-based telephone survey for adolescents who completed the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) in 2007, 2009, and 2011-2012. The primary predictor variable was level of acculturation. Outcome variables were 1) the presence of MDS, 2) whether participants needed help with emotional problems, and 3) whether they had received psychological or emotional counseling. Results Of the sample (n = 9816), 6.0% had MDS; 50% of these reported needing help for emotional problems, and 30% reported receiving psychological/emotional counseling. Multivariate analysis that included the interaction effects of race/ethnicity and acculturation showed that the latter was not associated with any of the outcome variables. However, Latino adolescent with MDS and moderate acculturation were less likely to report needing help for psychological/emotional problems, compared to their White counterparts with higher acculturation. Conclusion Our findings suggest disparities in reporting depression symptoms and receiving psychological/emotional help are not driven by adolescents’ acculturation levels. However, more studies are needed to clarify what cultural factors facilitate or inhibit moderately acculturated Latino adolescents from reporting needing help for psychological/emotional problems. PMID:28540140

  14. Best supportive care in clinical trials: review of the inconsistency in control arm design.

    PubMed

    Nipp, R D; Currow, D C; Cherny, N I; Strasser, F; Abernethy, A P; Zafar, S Y

    2015-06-30

    Best supportive care (BSC) as a control arm in clinical trials is poorly defined. We conducted a review to evaluate clinical trials' concordance with published, consensus-based framework for BSC delivery in trials. A consensus-based Delphi panel previously identified four key domains of BSC delivery in trials: multidisciplinary care; supportive care documentation; symptom assessment; and symptom management. We reviewed trials including BSC control arms from 2002 to 2014 to assess concordance to BSC standards and to selected items from the CONSORT 2010 guidelines. Of 408 articles retrieved, we retained 18 after applying exclusion criteria. Overall, trials conformed to the CONSORT guidelines better than the BSC standards (28% vs 16%). One-third of articles offered a detailed description of BSC, 61% reported regular symptom assessment, and 44% reported using validated symptom assessment measures. One-third reported symptom assessment at identical intervals in both arms. None documented evidence-based symptom management. No studies reported educating patients about symptom management or goals of therapy. No studies reported offering access to palliative care specialists. Reporting of BSC in trials is incomplete, resulting in uncertain internal and external validity. Such studies risk systematically over-estimating the net clinical effect of the comparator arms.

  15. Best supportive care in clinical trials: review of the inconsistency in control arm design

    PubMed Central

    Nipp, R D; Currow, D C; Cherny, N I; Strasser, F; Abernethy, A P; Zafar, S Y

    2015-01-01

    Background: Best supportive care (BSC) as a control arm in clinical trials is poorly defined. We conducted a review to evaluate clinical trials' concordance with published, consensus-based framework for BSC delivery in trials. Methods: A consensus-based Delphi panel previously identified four key domains of BSC delivery in trials: multidisciplinary care; supportive care documentation; symptom assessment; and symptom management. We reviewed trials including BSC control arms from 2002 to 2014 to assess concordance to BSC standards and to selected items from the CONSORT 2010 guidelines. Results: Of 408 articles retrieved, we retained 18 after applying exclusion criteria. Overall, trials conformed to the CONSORT guidelines better than the BSC standards (28% vs 16%). One-third of articles offered a detailed description of BSC, 61% reported regular symptom assessment, and 44% reported using validated symptom assessment measures. One-third reported symptom assessment at identical intervals in both arms. None documented evidence-based symptom management. No studies reported educating patients about symptom management or goals of therapy. No studies reported offering access to palliative care specialists. Conclusions: Reporting of BSC in trials is incomplete, resulting in uncertain internal and external validity. Such studies risk systematically over-estimating the net clinical effect of the comparator arms. PMID:26068397

  16. Evaluation of two instruments of perceived symptom intensity in palliative care patients in an outpatient clinic.

    PubMed

    Saetra, Pia; Fossum, Mariann; Svensson, Elisabeth; Cohen, Marlene Z

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate the test-retest stability in assessments of perceived symptom intensity on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised and the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 Palliative. The possible interchangeability between the instruments and the patients' experiences of completing the instruments were also studied. The two instruments assess the same symptoms, but the symptom intensity is assessed on 11-point numerical scales on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised and on four-point verbal descriptive scales on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 Palliative. Both instruments are commonly used; however, uncertainty exists about which instrument should be recommended and about the interchangeability of the instruments. This study used a test-retest design with inter-scale comparisons. Data from 54 patients with cancer who were receiving palliative care in an oncology outpatient clinic were self-reported by the patients in the clinic, at home and when patients returned to the clinic. The assessments on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 Palliative verbal rating scales showed a higher level of test-retest stability than the assessments on the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System-revised numerical scoring scales, indicating higher reliability. The correspondence between the verbal categories and the numerical scores of symptom intensity were low because different verbal categories were used by patients who assessed the same numerical score. The test-retest stability in the assessments was higher on the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer, Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 Palliative and the results show that assessments on the two instruments could not be used interchangeably. Therefore, the symptom instrument chosen must be specified

  17. Alarm symptoms and identification of non-cancer diagnoses in primary care: cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Charlton, Judith; Latinovic, Radoslav; Gulliford, Martin C

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the predictive value of alarm symptoms for specified non-cancer diagnoses and cancer diagnoses in primary care. Design Cohort study using the general practice research database. Setting 128 general practices in the UK contributing data, 1994-2000. Participants 762 325 patients aged 15 or older. Main outcome measures Up to 15 pre-specified, non-cancer diagnoses associated with four alarm symptoms (haematuria, haemoptysis, dysphagia, rectal bleeding) at 90 days and three years after the first recorded alarm symptom. For each outcome analyses were implemented separately in a time to event framework. Data were censored if patients died, left the practice, or reached the end of the study period. Results We analysed data on first episodes of haematuria (11 108), haemoptysis (4812), dysphagia (5999), or rectal bleeding (15 289). Non-cancer diagnoses were common in patients who presented with alarm symptoms. The proportion diagnosed with either cancer or non-cancer diagnoses generally increased with age. In patients presenting with haematuria, the proportions diagnosed with either cancer or non-cancer diagnoses within 90 days were 17.5% (95% confidence interval 16.4% to 18.6%) in women and 18.3% (17.4% to 19.3%) in men. For the other symptoms the proportions were 25.7% (23.8% to 27.8%) and 24% (22.5% to 25.6%) for haemoptysis, 17.2% (16% to 18.5%) and 22.6% (21% to 24.3%) for dysphagia, and 14.5% (13.7% to 15.3%) and 16.7% (15.8% to 17.5%) for rectal bleeding. Conclusion Clinically relevant diagnoses are made in a high proportion of patients presenting with alarm symptoms. For every four to seven patients evaluated for haematuria, haemoptysis, dysphagia, or rectal bleeding, relevant diagnoses will be identified in one patient within 90 days. PMID:19679615

  18. Tuberculosis related stigma and delay in seeking care after the onset of symptoms associated with tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kurspahić-Mujčić, Amira; Hasanović, Aida; Sivić, Suad

    2013-08-01

    To determine association between tuberculosis (TB) related stigma and delay in seeking a treatment after the onset of symptoms associated with tuberculosis. This prospective study was carried out in the "Podhrastovi" University Clinic of Lung Diseases and Tuberculosis and Health facilities for lung diseases and tuberculosis in the Sarajevo area. The sample consisted of 300 tuberculosis patients. Between patients who consider TB a stigmatizing disease and patients who did not consider TB a stigmatizing disease distribution of patient delay was compared. Of the total of 300 patients 79 (26.3%) considered TB a socially stigmatizing disease. Among them 43 (54.4%) were females and 36 (45.6%) males. Among patients in the age group 18-24 years, nine (50%) considered TB a socially stigmatizing disease compared to seven (12.3%) among patients in the age group 65-75 years. Among patients with university degree, nine (64.3%) and among patients that had no education, one (9.1%) declared TB as a socially stigmatizing disease. The average time interval from the appearance of first symptoms of tuberculosis until the first visit to a health care facility for those who consider TB a stigmatizing disease was 6.41 weeks and for those who did not consider it a stigmatizing disease the average time interval was 4.99 weeks. Study results revealed high stigma-generating attitudes towards tuberculosis. Perceived TB related stigma had no strong impact on patient delay in seeking care for TB symptoms.

  19. Impulse control disorders are associated with multiple psychiatric symptoms in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Jaakkola, Elina; Kaasinen, Valtteri; Siri, Chiara; Martikainen, Kirsti; Cilia, Roberto; Niemelä, Solja; Joutsa, Juho

    2014-01-01

    Impulse control disorders can have serious adverse consequences to the life of a patient with Parkinson's disease. Although impulse control disorders are common, a possible psychiatric comorbidity has not been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate the psychiatric symptoms exhibited by Parkinson's disease patients with impulse control disorders. The study was conducted as a postal survey to patients in the registry of the Finnish Parkinson Association. A total of 290 Parkinson's disease patients were evaluated for impulse control disorders using the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease. Psychiatric symptoms were systematically screened using the Symptom Checklist 90. We found that 108 of the evaluated patients had one or more impulse control disorders. Patients with impulse control disorders had markedly higher scores for symptoms of psychoticism (Bonferroni corrected p < 0.001), interpersonal sensitivity (p < 0.001), obsessive-compulsive disorder (p < 0.001), and depression (p = 0.01) when compared with patients without impulse control disorders. Impulse control disorders were shown to be independently associated with these symptoms. Patients with multiple impulse control disorders had higher scores for depression and obsessive-compulsive symptoms when compared with patients that exhibited only one impulse control disorder. COUNCLUSIONS: Our results confirm the previous observations that impulse control disorders in Parkinson's disease are linked with multiple psychiatric symptoms, including psychoticism, interpersonal sensitivity, obsessive-compulsive symptoms and depression. Clinicians treating these patients should acknowledge the concomitant psychiatric symptoms.

  20. The moderating role of father's care on the onset of binge eating symptoms among female late adolescents with insecure attachment.

    PubMed

    Pace, Ugo; Cacioppo, Marco; Schimmenti, Adriano

    2012-04-01

    The present study examined the association between quality of attachment, perception of the father's bond, and binge eating symptoms in a sample of female late adolescents. In total, 233 female students aged between 18 and 20 years completed measures on binge eating, quality of attachment and parent-child relationship. Data showed that respondents with binge symptoms reported lower scores on secure attachment and father's care, and higher scores on preoccupied and fearful attachment. Binge eating symptoms were associated with father's care, but not with father's overprotection. Also, binge symptoms were negatively associated with secure attachment styles, and positively with preoccupied and fearful attachment. The data, finally, provided evidence that at higher levels of preoccupied attachment, the impact of binge symptoms tended to be lower when father's care was high.

  1. Neurological symptoms in hospitalised patients: do we assess hyponatraemia with sufficient care?

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, M Jose; Alcaraz, Andrés; Solana, Maria Jose; García, Ana

    2014-01-01

    To review the incidence of hyponatraemic encephalopathy in children treated in a tertiary care centre hospital, together with the clinical setting and clinical management of these cases. Retrospective descriptive study by chart review of patients admitted to hospital during 2000-2010. Patients older than 1 month were included who had severe hyponatraemia (sodium concentration <125 mmol/L) on admission or during their hospital stay and co-incidental neurological symptoms. Epidemiological, clinical, laboratory and therapeutic data were collected. We analysed 41 cases of severe hypotonic hyponatraemia and neurological symptoms compatible with hyponatraemic encephalopathy. Boys accounted for 56.1% patients, and the median age was 1 year. Hyponatraemia was acquired in hospital by 61% of the patients, and 88% of those patients were receiving intravenous hypotonic fluids. The most frequent neurological symptom was seizures. The most common therapeutic strategy was sodium supplementation and antiepileptic drugs. Hypertonic fluids were only used in the initial treatment of 16 patients. There were two deaths related to hyponatraemic encephalopathy. Hyponatraemia should always be considered a cause of neurological symptoms in hospitalised patients. Treatment should be prompt to prevent neurological sequelae and death. Current recommendations for fluid management in hospitalised children should be reviewed. ©2013 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal symptoms among women working in geriatric care.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsdottir, Holmfridur K; Rafnsdottir, Gudbjoerg L; Helgadottir, Berglind; Tomasson, Kristinn

    2003-12-01

    Nursing is a stressful, physically demanding occupation and a rush setting for musculoskeletal problems. The aim of this study is to explore the extent of the association between psychosocial work characteristics and musculoskeletal symptoms among women working in geriatric care. The participants were female employees of all geriatric nursing homes and geriatric hospital wards in Iceland having a staff of 10 or more. A total of 1,886 questionnaires were distributed. The response rate was 80%. Finding the job mentally difficult, mental exhaustion after one's shift, dissatisfaction with supervisors or the flow of information, insufficient influence at work, dissatisfaction with the hierarchy, intense time pressure, lack of solidarity, dissatisfaction with the job, harassment, violence or threats at work; all of the aforementioned gave crude odds ratios (OR) two or above for one or more musculoskeletal symptoms. Mental exhaustion and harassment, violence, and threats were the factors connected with symptoms from all the body regions studied. The extent of the association of work-related psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal symptoms among the geriatric female nursing staff is substantial and needs to be taken into account by occupational health services and others involved in preventive work. Am. J. Ind. Med. 44:679-684, 2003. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  3. Effects of group music intervention on behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with dementia: a pilot-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ae-Na; Lee, Myeong Soo; Cheong, Kwang-Jo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with dementia. Twenty patients were nonrandomly allocated to either a music-intervention group, or an usual care group. The music-intervention group received 50 minutes of music intervention 3 times per week for 5 consecutive weeks. After 15 sessions, the music-intervention group showed significant in improvement with regard to agitation, and the total scores of both patients and caregivers were lower, compared with the control group. These findings suggest that music can improve behavioral and psychological symptoms, especially in patients with dementia and their caregivers.

  4. Interaction between perceived maternal care, anxiety symptoms, and the neurobehavioral response to palatable foods in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Machado, Tania Diniz; Dalle Molle, Roberta; Reis, Roberta Sena; Rodrigues, Danitsa Marcos; Mucellini, Amanda Brondani; Minuzzi, Luciano; Franco, Alexandre Rosa; Buchweitz, Augusto; Toazza, Rudineia; Ergang, Bárbara Cristina; Cunha, Ana Carla de Araújo; Salum, Giovanni Abrahão; Manfro, Gisele Gus; Silveira, Patrícia Pelufo

    2016-05-01

    Studies in rodents have shown that early life trauma leads to anxiety, increased stress responses to threatening situations, and modifies food intake in a new environment. However, these associations are still to be tested in humans. This study aimed to verify complex interactions among anxiety diagnosis, maternal care, and baseline cortisol on food intake in a new environment in humans. A community sample of 32 adolescents and young adults was evaluated for: psychiatric diagnosis using standardized interviews, maternal care using the Parental Bonding Inventory (PBI), caloric consumption in a new environment (meal choice at a snack bar), and salivary cortisol. They also performed a brain fMRI task including the visualization of palatable foods vs. neutral items. The study found a three-way interaction between anxiety diagnosis, maternal care, and baseline cortisol levels on the total calories consumed (snacks) in a new environment. This interaction means that for those with high maternal care, there were no significant associations between cortisol levels and food intake in a new environment. However, for those with low maternal care and who have an anxiety disorder (affected), cortisol was associated with higher food intake; whereas for those with low maternal care and who did not have an anxiety disorder (resilient), cortisol was negatively associated with lower food intake. In addition, higher anxiety symptoms were associated with decreased activation in the superior and middle frontal gyrus when visualizing palatable vs. neutral items in those reporting high maternal care. These results in humans mimic experimental research findings and demonstrate that a combination of anxiety diagnosis and maternal care moderate the relationship between the HPA axis functioning, anxiety, and feeding behavior in adolescents and young adults.

  5. Contact lens care solutions: a pilot study of ethnic differences in clinical signs and symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng C; Yuen, Jenny; Graham, Andrew D

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether Asian and white subjects differ in clinical signs or subjective symptoms in response to the use of different biguanide-preserved contact lens care solutions. Forty-two subjects (15 Asian and 27 white) wearing lotrafilcon B silicone hydrogel contact lenses used a preservative-free lens care solution bilaterally for 2 weeks, then used two biguanide-preserved solutions (solution 1: ReNu MPS; solution 2: AQuify MPS) contralaterally in randomly assigned eyes for 4 weeks. Comprehensive ocular surface examinations were performed and symptomatology questionnaires were administered every 2 weeks. Investigators were masked as to solution assignment during examinations, whereas subjects were not to avoid potential difficulties in compliance with the protocol. With solution 1, most Asian and white subjects had grade 2 or greater corneal staining after 2 weeks (67% and 59%, respectively) and 4 weeks (60% and 67%, respectively). With solution 2, grade 2 or greater corneal staining occurred in 40% of Asians after 2 weeks and in 13% after 4 weeks, but in only 4% of whites after 2 weeks and 0% after 4 weeks. Whites reported significantly better average comfort (P=0.046) and less dryness (P<0.001) than did Asians. Asians and whites differ in both ocular response to the use of contact lens care solutions and in reporting subjective symptoms. Racial and ethnic differences should be considered when evaluating and treating contact lens patients in a clinical setting.

  6. Depressive symptom reversal for women in a primary care setting: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Beeber, L S; Charlie, M L

    1998-10-01

    Cognizant that only 20% of depressed individuals seek treatment, Healthy People 2000 has recommended a goal of increasing this figure to 45%. This flows from a recognition of depression as a serious and costly problem, with women carrying twice the risk of men. Primary care settings are the first contact a depressed woman may make with the health care system. This study piloted a collaborative model in which a Psychiatric Mental Health Advanced Practice Nurse (PMH-APN) was available on site to assist providers to recognize women with depressive symptoms and to provide intervention. Thirty three women were identified by primary care providers and referred for screening to the PMH-APN. Assessment and intervention based on the interpersonal theory of Peplau were accomplished in an average of eight sessions with the PMH-APN. Pre and postintervention descriptive data on the primary outcome (depressive symptoms) and three theoretically congruent mediating variables (performance and social self-esteem and satisfaction with interpersonal relations) were consistent with the expected outcomes of the intervention.

  7. Religion and beliefs about treating medically unexplained symptoms: a survey of primary care physicians and psychiatrists.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Ryan E; Rasinski, Kenneth A; Yoon, John D; Curlin, Farr A

    2013-01-01

    Historical evidence and prior research suggest that psychiatry is biased against religion, and religious physicians are biased against the mental health professions. Here we examine whether religious and non-religious physicians differ in their treatment recommendations for a patient with medically unexplained symptoms. We conducted a national survey of primary care physicians and psychiatrists. We presented a vignette of a patient with medically unexplained symptoms, and experimentally varied whether the patient was religiously observant. We asked whether physicians would recommend six interventions: antidepressant medication, in-office counseling, referral to a psychiatrist, referral to a psychologist or licensed counselor, participation in meaningful relationships and activities, and involvement in religious community. Predictors included the physician's specialty and the physician's attendance at religious services. The response rate was 63% (896 of 1427) primary care physicians and 64% (312 of 487) psychiatrists. We did not find evidence that religious physicians were less likely to recommend mental health resources, nor did we find evidence that psychiatrists were less likely to recommend religious involvement. Primary care physicians (but not psychiatrists) were more likely to recommend that the patient get more involved in their religious community when the patient was more religiously observant, and when the physician more frequently attended services. We did not find evidence that mental health professionals are biased against religion, nor that religious physicians are biased against mental health professionals. Historical tensions are potentially being replaced by collaboration.

  8. Children in chronic pain: promoting pediatric patients' symptom accounts in tertiary care.

    PubMed

    Clemente, Ignasi; Lee, Seung-Hee; Heritage, John

    2008-03-01

    This paper examines how clinicians promote pediatric patients' symptom accounts at the beginning of visits in three pediatric tertiary care clinics at a university hospital in the United States: pain, gastroenterology and neurology. Quantitative and qualitative data were collected for 69 patient-parent pairs, including videotaped intake visits. Two forms of child account promotion, together with their corresponding distribution across clinics, were identified: (1) Epistemic prefaces were used to upgrade the patient's epistemic status and to establish the child as primary informant; and, (2) non-focused questioning was used to permit children latitude in the formulation of symptoms and experiences. In general, epistemic prefaces were characteristic of the gastroenterology and neurology visits, while non-focused questioning was found overwhelmingly in the pain encounters.

  9. Control of COPD Symptoms: Addressing an Unmet Need.

    PubMed

    Brown, Randall

    2016-12-01

    This first issue in the Hot Topics in COPD and Asthma Management series (issue 1) with Dr. Brown focuses on unmet needs in COPD symptom assessment and management and discusses practical approaches for addressing these unmet needs.

  10. Detecting psychogeriatric problems in primary care: factors related to psychiatric symptoms in older community patients.

    PubMed

    Olivera, Javier; Benabarre, Sergio; Lorente, Teófilo; Rodriguez, Mariano; Barros, Alfonso; Quintana, Carmen; Pelegrina, Virtudes; Aldea, Carmen

    2011-03-01

    Objective The aim was to determine the relationship and influence of different variables on the psychiatric symptomatology of older people who reside in the community, as detected by family practitioners.Design A cross-sectional and multi-centre study.Setting Twenty-eight general practices and two psychiatric practices in Huesca, Spain, from 19 primary care health centres.Subjects A sample of 324 patients aged over 65 years, representative of the older people who reside in the community in the province of Huesca.Main outcome measures Symptoms of depression (Yesavage GDS), cognitive impairment (MMSE), anxiety (GADS), psychotic symptoms, obsessive symptoms and hypochondriacal ideas (GMS) were measured by family practitioner and were detected following specific questions from the Geriatric Mental State (GMS-B) examination, following DSM-IV criteria, being defined as 'concern and fear of suffering, or the idea of having a serious disease based on the interpretation of somatic symptoms'. Sociodemographic, physical and somatic, functional and social data were evaluated. Analysis was carried out in three phases: univariate, bivariate and multivariate with logistic regression.Results At the time of the study, 46.1% of the older people studied suffered from some psychiatric symptom; 16.4% had cognitive impairment, 15.7% anxiety, 14.3% depression, 6.1% hallucinations and delusions, 7.2% hypochondriacal ideas and 4.4% obsessive symptoms. Female gender was significantly associated with depression (prevalence ration (PR) 3.3) and anxiety (PR 3.9). Age was a factor associated with cognitive impairment (PR 4.4). Depression was significantly related to severity of the physical illness (PR 61.7 in extremely severe impairment). Isolation (PR 16.3) and being single (PR 13.4) were factors which were strongly associated with anxiety; living in a nursing home was associated with psychotic symptoms (PR 7.6).Conclusions Severity of physical illness, isolation, living in a nursing home and

  11. Critical incidents and important information in the care processes of patients with cardiac symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kontio, Elina; Lundgren-Laine, Heljä; Kontio, Juha; Korvenranta, Heikki; Salanterä, Sanna

    2011-03-01

    To describe important information in the care processes of patients with cardiac symptoms. Process-based work-flow models are increasingly being used in healthcare. At the same time, developments in information systems offer the possibility of supporting improvements in process and information management in healthcare. To better utilize these possibilities we need to understand more about important information content and flow during treatment processes. A qualitative approach involving the critical incident technique was used. Critical incidents were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire (50 respondents) and interviews (n=10). Three incident categories of important information were identified: (1) process-related incidents, (2) managerial incidents and (3) clinical incidents. Process-related incidents focused on agreed-care practices and the importance of the care environment. Managerial incidents focused on human and material resources. Clinical incidents focused on medical and nursing care and the importance of patient education. Information content, information flow and the timing of such information should be modelled further in order to improve the management of care processes. Increasing knowledge about essential points of information as part of nursing management is important. © 2011 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Symptoms and treatment when death is expected in dementia patients in long-term care facilities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Although dementia at the end of life is increasingly being studied, we lack prospective observational data on dying patients. In this study symptoms were observed in patients with dementia in the last days of life. Methods When the elderly care physicians in two Dutch nursing homes expected death within one week, symptoms of (dis)comfort, pain and suffering were observed twice daily. For this the Pain Assessment in Advanced Dementia (PAINAD; range 0–10), Discomfort Scale-Dementia of Alzheimer Type (DS-DAT; range 0–27), End-Of-Life in Dementia-Comfort Assessment in Dying (EOLD-CAD; range 14–42) and an adapted version of the Mini-Suffering State Examination (MSSE; range 0–9), were used. Information on care, medical treatment and treatment decisions were also collected. Results Twenty-four participants (median age 91 years; 23 females), were observed several times (mean of 4.3 observations (SD 2.6)), until they died. Most participants (n = 15) died from dehydration/cachexia and passed away quietly (n = 22). The mean PAINAD score was 1.0 (SD 1.7), DS-DAT 7.0 (SD 2.1), EOLD-CAD 35.1 (SD 1.7), and MSSE 2.0 (SD 1.7). All participants received morphine, six received antibiotics, and rehydration was prescribed once. Conclusion In these patients with dementia and expected death, a low symptom burden was observed with validated instruments, also in dehydrated patients without aggressive treatment. A good death is possible, but might be enhanced if the symptom burden is regularly assessed with validated instruments. The use of observation tools may have influenced the physicians to make treatment decisions. PMID:25181947

  13. Cross-sectional relationship between glycaemic control, hyperglycaemic symptoms and quality of life in type 2 diabetes (ZODIAC-2).

    PubMed

    Kleefstra, N; Ubink-Veltmaat, L J; Houweling, S T; Groenier, K H; Meyboom-de Jong, B; Bilo, H J G

    2005-06-01

    To describe the relationship between glycaemic control, hyperglycaemic symptoms and quality of life (HRQOL) in type 2 diabetic patients. In a shared-care diabetes project HRQOL was assessed. A total of 1664 patients with type 2 diabetes were identified in 32 primary healthcare practices. Of these patients, 1149 were included. HRQOL was measured using a generic questionnaire (Rand-36), completed by 1006 of the 1149 participants. The number of hyperglycaemic symptoms was higher in women (1.88) compared with men (1.64), without differences in mean haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (7.5%)-Univariate analyses showed negative relationships between all dimensions of the Rand-36 and hyperglycaemic symptoms (p<0.001), but between only one dimension and HbA1c (p=0.005). Multivariate analyses showed no association between any of the dimensions of the Rand-36 and HbA1c, but the relationship between hyperglycaemic symptoms persisted in all dimensions (p<0.001). Notwithstanding these results, the presence of hyperglycaemic symptoms was related to higher HbA1c. In type 2 diabetic patients, as assessed by a generic questionnaire, there is an evident relationship between hyperglycaemic symptoms and HRQOL and not between HbA1c and HRQOL. Subjective hyperglycaemic symptoms are, independent of HbA1c, important for HRQOL in type 2 diabetic patients, and should therefore not be neglected in the management of diabetes.

  14. Psychometric Evaluation of the Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS) Short Forms with Out-of-Home Care Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duppong Hurley, Kristin; Lambert, Matthew C.; Epstein, Michael H.; Stevens, Amy L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a need for brief progress monitoring measures of behavioral and emotional symptoms for youth in out-of-home care. The Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS; Bickman et al. in Manual of the peabody treatment progress battery. Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 2010) is one measure that has clinician and youth short forms…

  15. Loratadine provides early symptom control in seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kaiser, Harold B; Gopalan, Gokul; Chung, Weiyuan

    2008-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) affects approximately 500 million people worldwide, and prevalence is increasing. Second-generation nonsedating antihistamines are first-line treatments for seasonal AR (SAR). This study was performed to evaluate early SAR symptom relief with second-generation antihistamines through a retrospective analysis of previously published data. In this study, 835 subjects aged 12-60 years with a > or = 2-year history of SAR were randomized to receive loratadine, 10 mg, once daily; fexofenadine, 60 mg, twice daily; or placebo for 7 days. Each subject recorded the severity of five symptoms of SAR on a scale of 0-3. This primary post hoc efficacy analysis was the mean change from baseline in daily average A.M./P.M. reflective and instantaneous total symptom score (TSS) on days 2 and 3. Significantly greater mean reductions from baseline were shown with loratadine compared with fexofenadine in average A.M./P.M. reflective TSS on days 2 (-3.51 versus -2.84, respectively; p < 0.002) and 3 (-3.80 versus -3.19, respectively; p = 0.007) and in average A.M./P.M. instantaneous TSS on day 3 (-3.68 versus -3.15, respectively; p = 0.022). Similar results were noted in average A.M./P.M. reflective and instantaneous total nasal symptom scores and for 10 of 20 individual symptom time points (p < 0.05). Loratadine was significantly more effective than placebo for all time points (p < 0.001). Early, sustained symptom relief was seen with loratadine, suggesting that it may be more effective for treating SAR symptoms.

  16. Do blacks and whites differ in their use of health care for symptoms of coronary heart disease?

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, S L; McGraw, S A; Smith, K W; McKinlay, J B; Pierson, J E

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to identify the role of race in seeking and receipt of care for symptoms of coronary heart disease. METHODS. Data on medical care, sociodemographic characteristics, symptoms, risk factors, income, and insurance were collected in a telephone interview for a random sample of 2030 Black and White adults in inner-city Boston. Rates of care-seeking for symptoms, amounts of delay in seeking care, and rates of receipt of care were compared for Blacks and Whites after adjustment for other characteristics. RESULTS. Before and after adjustment for other factors, Blacks and Whites were equally likely to seek care. Average delay time was shorter for Blacks, particularly Black women. With the exception of a lower rate of referral to cardiologists among Blacks, receipt of care was similar for Blacks and Whites who sought medical attention for symptoms. CONCLUSIONS. In an urban population of Blacks and Whites who were similar in socioeconomic status and access to medical care, there were few racial differences in coronary heart disease-related care patterns. PMID:8203693

  17. Characteristics of Prison Hospice Patients: Medical History, Hospice Care, and End-of-Life Symptom Prevalence.

    PubMed

    Cloyes, Kristin G; Berry, Patricia H; Martz, Kim; Supiano, Katherine

    2015-07-01

    Increasing numbers of prisoners in the United States are dying from age-related and chronic illnesses while incarcerated. This study is among the first to document characteristics of a population of prison hospice patients. Retrospective review of medical records for all patients admitted to the Louisiana State Penitentiary prison hospice program between January 1, 2004, and May 31, 2012 (N = 79) examined demographics, medical history, hospice diagnosis, length of stay, and end-of-life symptom prevalence on admission and during final 72 hours before death. Resulting data were contrasted with community-based end-of-life care study data, demonstrating a unique clinical profile of this group. As prisons consider adopting programs to meet the growing need for inmate end-of-life care, more research concerning the particular characteristics and unique needs of prison hospice patients will inform these efforts.

  18. Effects of Home-Based Supportive Care on Improvements in Physical Function and Depressive Symptoms in Patients With Stroke: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hui-Chuan; Huang, Yi-Chieh; Lin, Mei-Feng; Hou, Wen-Hsuan; Shyu, Meei-Ling; Chiu, Hsiao-Yean; Chang, Hsiu-Ju

    2017-08-01

    To examine the effects of home-based supportive care on improvements in physical function and depressive symptoms in home-dwelling patients after stroke. Seven electronic databases (eg, MEDLINE, PubMed, CINAL, EMBASE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ProQuest, and Google Scholar) and 4 Chinese databases (eg, WANFANG MED ONLINE, Chinese Electronic Periodical Services, China Academic Journals Full-text Database, and National Central Library) were fully searched for all relevant articles up to June 25, 2016. Randomized controlled trials examining the effects of home-based supportive care on physical function and depressive symptoms in home-dwelling patients after stroke were included. Finally, 16 articles in Chinese (n=4) and English (n=12) met the inclusion criteria. Data on patient characteristics, study characteristics, intervention details, and outcome were extracted. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. Home-based supportive care had a small size effect on physical function (Hedges' g=.17; 95% confidence interval, .09-.26) and a moderate size effect on depressive symptoms (Hedges' g=-.44; 95% confidence interval, -.83 to -.05) in home-dwelling patients after stroke. The moderator analysis revealed that some components of study participants and intervention programs improved the effects on physical function and depressive symptoms; however, no significant moderators were further identified to have superiorly improved physical function and depressive symptoms. Regular performance of home-based supportive interventions should be considered for inclusion as routine care for managing and improving physical function and depressive symptoms in home-dwelling patients after stroke. The present findings provide further evidence with which to design appropriate supportive interventions for home-dwelling stroke survivors. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation

  19. Cancer Care Professionals' Attitudes Toward Systematic Standardized Symptom Assessment and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System After Large-Scale Population-Based Implementation in Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José L; Chasen, Martin R; Molloy, Sean; Amernic, Heidi; Brundage, Michael D; Green, Esther; Kurkjian, Serena; Krzyzanowska, Monika K; Mahase, Wenonah; Shabestari, Omid; Tabing, Reena; Klinger, Christopher A

    2016-04-01

    Cancer patients experience a high symptom burden throughout their illness. Despite this, patients' symptoms and needs are often not adequately screened for, assessed, and managed. This study investigated the attitudes of cancer care professionals toward standardized systematic symptom assessment and the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS) and their self-reported use of the instrument in daily practice in a large healthcare jurisdiction where this is routine. A 21-item electronic survey, eliciting both closed and open-ended anonymous responses, was distributed to all 2806 cancer care professionals from four major provider groups: physicians, nurses, radiotherapists, and psychosocial oncology (PSO) staff at the 14 Regional Cancer Centres across Ontario, Canada. A total of 1065 questionnaires were returned (response rate: 38%); 960 were eligible for analysis. Most respondents (88%) considered symptom management to be within their scope of practice. Sixty-six percent of physicians considered the use of standardized tools to screen for symptoms as "best practice," compared to 81% and 93% of nurses and PSO staff, respectively. Sixty-seven percent of physicians and 85% of nurses found the ESAS to be a useful starting point to assess patients' symptoms. Seventy-nine percent of physicians looked at their patient's ESAS scores at visits either "always" or "often," compared to 29%, 66%, and 89% of radiotherapists, PSO staff, and nurses, respectively. Several areas for improvement of ESAS use and symptom screening were identified. Findings show significant albeit variable uptake across disciplines in the use of the ESAS since program initiation. Several barriers to using the ESAS in daily practice were identified. These need to be addressed. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Self-care behaviour for minor symptoms: can Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use help us to understand it?

    PubMed

    Porteous, Terry; Wyke, Sally; Hannaford, Philip; Bond, Christine

    2015-02-01

    To explore whether Andersen's Behavioral Model of Health Services Use can aid understanding of self-care behaviour and inform development of interventions to promote self-care for minor illness. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 24 Scottish participants about their experience and management of minor symptoms normally associated with analgesic use. Synthesised data from the interviews were mapped onto the Behavioral Model. All factors identified as influencing decisions about how to manage the symptoms discussed, mapped onto at least one domain of Andersen's model. Individual characteristics including beliefs, need factors and available resources were associated with health behaviour, including self-care. Outcomes such as perceived health status and consumer satisfaction from previous experience of managing symptoms also appeared to feed back into health behaviour. The Behavioral Model seems relevant to self-care as well as formal health services. Additional work is needed to explore applicability of the Behavioral Model to different types of symptoms, different modalities of self-care and in countries with different health care systems. Future quantitative studies should establish the relative importance of factors influencing the actions people take to manage minor symptoms to inform future interventions aimed at optimising self-care behaviour. © 2014 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  1. Contact Lens Care Solutions: A Pilot Study of Ethnic Differences in Clinical Signs and Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Meng C.; Yuen, Jenny; Graham, Andrew D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine whether Asian and Caucasian subjects differ in clinical signs or subjective symptoms in response to use of different biguanide-preserved contact lens care solutions. Methods Forty-two subjects (15 Asian, 27 Caucasian) wearing lotrafilcon B silicone hydrogel contact lenses used a preservative-free lens care solution (Clear Care®, CIBA VISION, Atlanta, GA, USA) bilaterally for 2 weeks, then used 2 biguanide-preserved solutions (Solution 1: ReNu MPS®, Bausch & Lomb, Rochester, NY, USA; Solution 2: AQuify MPS®, CIBA VISION, Atlanta, GA, USA) contralaterally in randomly assigned eyes for 4 weeks. Comprehensive ocular surface exams were performed and symptomatology questionnaires were administered every 2 weeks. Investigators were masked as to solution assignment during examinations, while subjects were not in order to avoid potential difficulties in compliance with the protocol. Results With Solution 1, the majority of both Asian and Caucasian subjects had grade 2 or greater corneal staining after 2 weeks (67% and 59%, respectively) and 4 weeks (60% and 67%, respectively). With Solution 2, grade 2 or greater corneal staining occurred in 40% of Asians after 2 weeks and in 13% after 4 weeks, but in only 4% of Caucasians after 2 weeks and 0% after 4 weeks. Caucasians reported significantly better average comfort (p = 0.046) and less dryness (p < 0.001) than did Asians. Conclusions Asians and Caucasians differ in both ocular response to use of contact lens care solutions and in reporting of subjective symptoms. Racial and ethnic differences should be considered when evaluating and treating contact lens patients in a clinical setting. PMID:24887209

  2. Caring for medically unexplained physical symptoms after toxic environmental exposures: effects of contested causation.

    PubMed Central

    Engel, Charles C; Adkins, Joyce A; Cowan, David N

    2002-01-01

    Medically unexplained physical symptoms (MUPS) are persistent idiopathic symptoms that drive patients to seek medical care. MUPS syndromes include chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia syndrome, and multiple chemical sensitivities. When MUPS occur after an environmental exposure or injury, an adversarial social context that we call "contested causation" may ensue. Contested causation may occur publicly and involve media controversy, scientific disagreement, political debate, and legal struggles. This adversarial social context may diminish the effectiveness of the provider-patient relationship. Contested causation also may occur privately, when disagreement over the causes of MUPS takes place in the patient-provider context. These patient-provider disagreements over causation often occur because of the enigmatic nature of MUPS. We suggest that a context of contested causation may have serious negative effects on healthcare for individuals with MUPS. Context plays a larger role in MUPS care than it does for most medical care because of the uncertain nature of MUPS, the reliance of standard MUPS therapies on a potentially tenuous patient-provider partnership, and the clinical need to rely routinely on subjective MUPS assessments that often yield discordant patient and provider conclusions. Contested causation may erode patient-provider trust, test the provider's self-assurance and capacity to share power with the patient, and raise problematic issues of compensation, reparation, and blame. These issues may distract patients and providers from therapeutic goals. In occupational and military settings, the adverse impact of contested causation on the patient-provider partnership may diminish therapeutic effectiveness to a greater degree than it does in other medical settings. Contested causation therefore raises questions regarding generalizability of standard therapies for MUPS and related syndromes to these settings. Future research is needed to learn whether

  3. Links between depressive symptoms and unmet health and social care needs among older prisoners

    PubMed Central

    O'Hara, Kate; Forsyth, Katrina; Webb, Roger; Senior, Jane; Hayes, Adrian Jonathan; Challis, David; Fazel, Seena; Shaw, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    Background: absolute numbers of older prisoners and their proportion of the total prison population are increasing. They have multiple health and social care needs that are prominent on entry into prison. No previous studies have identified older prisoners' health and social care needs at this crucial point. Objective: to examine unmet health and social care needs among older men entering prison and their links with depressive symptoms. Methods: a cross-sectional survey across nine prisons in the North of England was completed. One hundred male prisoners aged between 60 and 81 were interviewed, using the Camberwell Assessment of Need—Forensic short version (CANFOR-S) and Geriatric Depression Scale—Short Form (GDS-15). Descriptive statistics were generated and χ2 tests performed. Results: participants reported high levels of unmet needs as measured with the CANFOR-S, notably in the domains of knowledge about their condition and treatment (38%); psychological distress (34%); daytime activities (29%); benefits (28%); food (22%) and physical health (21%). The mean total number of unmet needs was 2.74, with a median of 2.0. More than half the sample (56%, 95% CI 45–66%) exhibited clinical signs of depression. A significant association between depressive symptomology and an unmet physical health need, as measured by the CANFOR-S, was detected (χ2 = 6.76, df = 1, P < 0.01). Conclusions: high levels of depressive symptoms were experienced by older prisoners on entry into prison. Personalised health and social care needs assessment and discrete depression screening are required on prison entry to facilitate effective management of unmet needs. PMID:26764402

  4. Links between depressive symptoms and unmet health and social care needs among older prisoners.

    PubMed

    O'Hara, Kate; Forsyth, Katrina; Webb, Roger; Senior, Jane; Hayes, Adrian Jonathan; Challis, David; Fazel, Seena; Shaw, Jenny

    2016-01-01

    absolute numbers of older prisoners and their proportion of the total prison population are increasing. They have multiple health and social care needs that are prominent on entry into prison. No previous studies have identified older prisoners' health and social care needs at this crucial point. to examine unmet health and social care needs among older men entering prison and their links with depressive symptoms. a cross-sectional survey across nine prisons in the North of England was completed. One hundred male prisoners aged between 60 and 81 were interviewed, using the Camberwell Assessment of Need-Forensic short version (CANFOR-S) and Geriatric Depression Scale-Short Form (GDS-15). Descriptive statistics were generated and χ(2) tests performed. participants reported high levels of unmet needs as measured with the CANFOR-S, notably in the domains of knowledge about their condition and treatment (38%); psychological distress (34%); daytime activities (29%); benefits (28%); food (22%) and physical health (21%). The mean total number of unmet needs was 2.74, with a median of 2.0. More than half the sample (56%, 95% CI 45-66%) exhibited clinical signs of depression. A significant association between depressive symptomology and an unmet physical health need, as measured by the CANFOR-S, was detected (χ(2) = 6.76, df = 1, P < 0.01). high levels of depressive symptoms were experienced by older prisoners on entry into prison. Personalised health and social care needs assessment and discrete depression screening are required on prison entry to facilitate effective management of unmet needs. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Geriatrics Society.

  5. Evaluating a computer aid for assessing stomach symptoms (ECASS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moore, Helen J; Nixon, Catherine; Tariq, Anisah; Emery, Jon; Hamilton, Willie; Hoare, Zoë; Kershenbaum, Anne; Neal, Richard D; Ukoumunne, Obioha C; Usher-Smith, Juliet; Walter, Fiona M; Whyte, Sophie; Rubin, Greg

    2016-04-04

    For most cancers, only a minority of patients have symptoms meeting the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence guidance for urgent referral. For gastro-oesophageal cancers, the 'alarm' symptoms of dysphagia and weight loss are reported by only 32 and 8 % of patients, respectively, and their presence correlates with advanced-stage disease. Electronic clinical decision-support tools that integrate with clinical computer systems have been developed for general practice, although uncertainty remains concerning their effectiveness. The objectives of this trial are to optimise the intervention and establish the acceptability of both the intervention and randomisation, confirm the suitability and selection of outcome measures, finalise the design for the phase III definitive trial, and obtain preliminary estimates of the intervention effect. This is a two-arm, multi-centre, cluster-randomised, controlled phase II trial design, which will extend over a 16-month period, across 60 general practices within the North East and North Cumbria and the Eastern Local Clinical Research Network areas. Practices will be randomised to receive either the intervention (the electronic clinical decision-support tool) or to act as a control (usual care). From these practices, we will recruit 3000 adults who meet the trial eligibility criteria and present to their GP with symptoms suggestive of gastro-oesophageal cancer. The main measures are the process data, which include the practitioner outcomes, service outcomes, diagnostic intervals, health economic outcomes, and patient outcomes. One-on-one interviews in a sub-sample of 30 patient-GP dyads will be undertaken to understand the impact of the use or non-use of the electronic clinical decision-support tool in the consultation. A further 10-15 GPs will be interviewed to identify and gain an understanding of the facilitators and constraints influencing implementation of the electronic clinical decision-support tool in practice

  6. Medically unexplained symptoms: the need for effective communication and an integrated care strategy.

    PubMed

    Gormley, Kevin J

    2014-02-01

    Much is already known about medically unexplained symptoms (MUS) in terms of incidence, presentation and current treatment. What needs to be urgently addressed is a strategy for dealing with patients and their conditions, particularly when they do not fall neatly into medical frameworks or pathologies where the syndrome can be easily explained. This article will consider the provision of health and social care support for patients with MUS within an interprofessional education context. The author will contend that a sensitive and valued service for this large client group is dependent upon services without professional boundaries and practitioners with a clinical interest that can work together and agree an appropriate way forward in terms of care, support and strategic service provision. The article will support the idea that clear guidelines through the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence can offer clear clinical direction for practitioners working in primary and secondary care settings to work together interprofessionally to ensure a seamless and sensitive service for people with this condition.

  7. Palliative care nurses' perceptions of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale: a pilot survey.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Sharon; McKinnon, Sandra; Macmillan, Karen; Hanson, John

    2006-03-01

    to evaluate, at a pilot level, palliative care nurses' perceptions of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale's (ESAS's) feasibility and usefulness. all nurses working within the Edmonton Palliative Care Programme were provided with a one-page document containing five statements about the benefits and feasibility of the ESAS, and invited to rate each statement on a five-point Likert scale (1=strongly agree; 5=strongly disagree). of the 74 nursing staff employed in the programme, 48 (64.9%) chose to participate in this study. Perceptions of the ESAS were most favourable among the 22 registered nurses: 21 (95.4%) believed the ESAS helped staff care for patients; and 17 (77.3%) believed patients benefited from implementation of the instrument. Most registered nurses found that the ESAS took little time and effort to complete. Licensed practical nurses and nursing attendants had a less favourable perception of the ESAS. the results of this pilot study demonstrate that palliative care nurses' perceptions of the ESAS are favourable generally, although they vary according to level of professional training. A full-scale study will be necessary to attain a more in-depth evaluation.

  8. Yoga breathing for cancer chemotherapy-associated symptoms and quality of life: results of a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dhruva, Anand; Miaskowski, Christine; Abrams, Donald; Acree, Michael; Cooper, Bruce; Goodman, Steffanie; Hecht, Frederick M

    2012-05-01

    Many debilitating symptoms arise from cancer and its treatment that are often unrelieved by established methods. Pranayama, a series of yogic breathing techniques, may improve cancer-related symptoms and quality of life, but it has not been studied for this purpose. A pilot study was performed to evaluate feasibility and to test the effects of pranayama on cancer-associated symptoms and quality of life. This was a randomized controlled clinical trial comparing pranayama to usual care. The study was conducted at a university medical center. Patients receiving cancer chemotherapy were randomized to receive pranayama immediately or after a waiting period (control group). The pranayama intervention consisted of four breathing techniques taught in weekly classes and practiced at home. The treatment group received pranayama during two consecutive cycles of chemotherapy. The control group received usual care during their first cycle, and received pranayama during their second cycle of chemotherapy. Feasibility, cancer-associated symptoms (fatigue, sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression, stress), and quality of life were the outcomes. Class attendance was nearly 100% in both groups. Sixteen (16) participants were included in the final intent-to-treat analyses. The repeated-measures analyses demonstrated that any increase in pranayama dose, with dose measured in the number of hours practiced in class or at home, resulted in improved symptom and quality-of-life scores. Several of these associations--sleep disturbance (p=0.04), anxiety (p=0.04), and mental quality of life (p=0.05)--reached or approached statistical significance. Yoga breathing was a feasible intervention among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Pranayama may improve sleep disturbance, anxiety, and mental quality of life. A dose-response relationship was found between pranayama use and improvements in chemotherapy-associated symptoms and quality of life. These findings need to be confirmed in a

  9. Yoga Breathing for Cancer Chemotherapy–Associated Symptoms and Quality of Life: Results of a Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Miaskowski, Christine; Abrams, Donald; Acree, Michael; Cooper, Bruce; Goodman, Steffanie; Hecht, Frederick M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Many debilitating symptoms arise from cancer and its treatment that are often unrelieved by established methods. Pranayama, a series of yogic breathing techniques, may improve cancer-related symptoms and quality of life, but it has not been studied for this purpose. Objectives A pilot study was performed to evaluate feasibility and to test the effects of pranayama on cancer-associated symptoms and quality of life. Design This was a randomized controlled clinical trial comparing pranayama to usual care. Setting The study was conducted at a university medical center. Subjects Patients receiving cancer chemotherapy were randomized to receive pranayama immediately or after a waiting period (control group). Interventions The pranayama intervention consisted of four breathing techniques taught in weekly classes and practiced at home. The treatment group received pranayama during two consecutive cycles of chemotherapy. The control group received usual care during their first cycle, and received pranayama during their second cycle of chemotherapy. Outcome measures Feasibility, cancer-associated symptoms (fatigue, sleep disturbance, anxiety, depression, stress), and quality of life were the outcomes. Results Class attendance was nearly 100% in both groups. Sixteen (16) participants were included in the final intent-to-treat analyses. The repeated-measures analyses demonstrated that any increase in pranayama dose, with dose measured in the number of hours practiced in class or at home, resulted in improved symptom and quality-of-life scores. Several of these associations—sleep disturbance (p=0.04), anxiety (p=0.04), and mental quality of life (p=0.05)—reached or approached statistical significance. Conclusions Yoga breathing was a feasible intervention among patients with cancer receiving chemotherapy. Pranayama may improve sleep disturbance, anxiety, and mental quality of life. A dose–response relationship was found between pranayama use and

  10. Considerations for management of migraine symptoms in the primary care setting.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Stephen D

    2016-06-01

    Migraine is a common disabling brain disorder that affects one in seven US citizens annually. The burden of migraine is substantial, both in economic terms and for individual patients and their close family members. Initial medical consultations for migraine are usually with a primary care physician (PCP), and it is predominantly managed in a primary care setting; therefore, PCPs need a thorough understanding of migraine and the treatment options. This review provides an overview of the prevalence, symptoms, burden, and diagnosis of migraine with a focus on adults. Important aspects of migraine management, such as medication overuse and chronic migraine, are highlighted and insight is provided into factors for consideration when prescribing acute/abortive treatment for migraine to ensure that individual patients receive optimal pharmaceutical management. The effects of associated symptoms, e.g. nausea/vomiting, on treatment efficacy are pertinent in migraine; however, many therapy options, including alternative delivery systems, are available, thus facilitating the selection of optimal treatment for an individual patient.

  11. Computer-based assessment of symptoms and mobility in palliative care: feasibility and challenges.

    PubMed

    Fyllingen, Even Hovig; Oldervoll, Line M; Loge, Jon Håvard; Hjermstad, Marianne Jensen; Haugen, Dagny Faksvåg; Sigurdardottir, Katrin Ruth; Paulsen, Ornulf; Kaasa, Stein

    2009-12-01

    The aims of the study were to explore the ability of cancer patients who are primarily receiving palliative care to use a touchscreen computer for assessment of symptoms and mobility and to investigate which factors predicted the need for assistance during the assessment. Before the main data collection, a pilot study was conducted to explore the preferences of these patients toward using such a computerized assessment tool. Patients were recruited from nine different inpatient and outpatient palliative care and general cancer clinics in Norway. The patients responded to 60 items on symptoms and mobility directly on the computer. In the pilot study (n=20), 11 patients (55.0%) preferred computerized assessment over paper and pencil, whereas five (25.0%) had no preference. In the main data collection, 370 patients (52.7% men with mean age 62 years and mean Karnofsky Performance Status score of 70) completed the assessment. Eighty-six patients (23.2%) required assistance. Patients requiring assistance were significantly older, had worse performance status, and poorer cognitive function than those not requiring assistance. Predictors for requiring assistance were age (P<0.001) and performance status (P<0.001). Because higher age and worse performance status resulted in more need of assistance, assessment tools should be short and user-friendly to ensure good compliance in frail patients.

  12. Maternal Psychological Control, Use of Supportive Parenting, and Childhood Depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Frazer, Andrew L; Fite, Paula J

    2016-06-01

    The current study, operating from a stress-process framework, examined the interactive effects of supportive parenting practices (i.e., mothers' use of positive communication, positive parenting, and parental involvement) and maternal psychological control on mother- and child-reported child depressive symptoms in a community-recruited sample of 9-12 year-olds. Discrepancies between reports of depressive symptoms were also examined. Maternal psychological control was uniquely associated with child-, not mother-, reported depressive symptoms. Parental involvement was uniquely associated with mother-, not child-, reported depressive symptoms. Positive parent-child communication was associated with both reports of child depressive symptoms at the bivariate level, but not when unique associations were examined. Positive parenting was unrelated to either report of depressive symptoms. No interaction effects were detected. The current findings highlight the differential importance of parenting practices on child depressive symptoms, and also indicate the necessity of gathering both parent and child reports of symptomatology and family functioning.

  13. Depressive symptoms and associated factors in caregivers of newborn infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Alvarado Socarrás, Jorge L; Gamboa-Delgado, Edna M; Trujillo Cáceres, Silvia; Rodríguez Forero, Sandra

    2017-04-01

    A high prevalence of depressive symptoms has been reported in family members of newborn infants hospitalized in neonatal intensive care units. This causes a high negative impact on the newborn infant-family bond. To establish the prevalence of depressive symptoms and their associated factors in caregivers of newborn infants hospitalized in a neonatal intensive care unit in Colombia. Cross-sectional, analytical study conducted at a tertiary care health facility specialized in cardiovascular disease. The Beck Depression Inventory-II was administered upon admission to the NICU and on Day 8. Depressive symptoms were considered present if caregivers had intermittent, moderate, severe, or extreme depression. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done using binomial regression models. A total of 107 children and their caregivers were studied. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was 20.56% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 12.77-28.34) at baseline and 12.86% (95% CI: 4.1-20.89) on Day 8. Male caregivers and caregivers older than 30 years old had a lower risk of having depressive symptoms whereas being the head of the household, having completed primary education or no education at all, and having a baby with an Apgar score at birth of 1-6 were risk factors for developing depressive symptoms. The prevalence of depressive symptoms was high. Being the head of the household, having a low level of education, and an Apgar score at birth of 1-6 were associated with depressive symptoms among caregivers.

  14. Comprehensive behavioral-motivational nutrition education improves depressive symptoms following bariatric surgery: a randomized, controlled trial of obese Hispanic Americans.

    PubMed

    Petasne Nijamkin, Monica; Campa, Adriana; Samiri Nijamkin, Shani; Sosa, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of 2 post-bariatric support interventions on depressive symptoms of Hispanic Americans treated with gastric bypass for morbid or severe obesity. Prospective randomized, controlled trial conducted in a laparoscopic institution. During the Phase 1 clinical trial (from preoperative evaluation to 6 months after surgery), all participants received standard care. During Phase 2 (6-12 months after surgery), participants were randomly assigned to receive either standard care (n = 72) or comprehensive support (n = 72). Comprehensive group participants received 6 educational sessions focused on behavior change strategies and motivation with nutrition counseling. Depression scores and weight change over time. Independent samples t tests and regression analysis assessed relationships among depression scores and excess weight loss. Participants receiving behavioral-motivational intervention scored significantly lower on Beck's Depression Inventory questionnaire scores than those receiving standard care. For those with depressive symptoms at randomization, 24% of participants who received the comprehensive intervention reported no depressive symptoms at 12 months after surgery, compared with 6% of those who received standard care (P < .001). Patients' depressive mood improvement was significantly and positively associated with excess weight loss and attendance at educational sessions (P < .001). Findings support the importance of post-bariatric comprehensive behavioral-motivational nutrition education for decreasing risk for depression and improving weight loss. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Behavioral Weight Control Intervention on Binge Eating Symptoms among Overweight Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlenbeck, Robyn S.; Jelalian, Elissa; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Hart, Chantelle N.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined change in binge eating symptoms reported by moderately overweight adolescents following participation in a behavioral weight control intervention. A total of 194 adolescents across two randomized controlled trials participated. Adolescents in both study samples endorsed a mild level of binge eating symptoms at baseline. Results…

  16. Effects of Behavioral Weight Control Intervention on Binge Eating Symptoms among Overweight Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehlenbeck, Robyn S.; Jelalian, Elissa; Lloyd-Richardson, Elizabeth E.; Hart, Chantelle N.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined change in binge eating symptoms reported by moderately overweight adolescents following participation in a behavioral weight control intervention. A total of 194 adolescents across two randomized controlled trials participated. Adolescents in both study samples endorsed a mild level of binge eating symptoms at baseline. Results…

  17. Symptom Monitoring With Patient-Reported Outcomes During Routine Cancer Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Deal, Allison M.; Kris, Mark G.; Scher, Howard I.; Hudis, Clifford A.; Sabbatini, Paul; Rogak, Lauren; Bennett, Antonia V.; Dueck, Amylou C.; Atkinson, Thomas M.; Chou, Joanne F.; Dulko, Dorothy; Sit, Laura; Barz, Allison; Novotny, Paul; Fruscione, Michael; Sloan, Jeff A.; Schrag, Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There is growing interest to enhance symptom monitoring during routine cancer care using patient-reported outcomes, but evidence of impact on clinical outcomes is limited. Methods We randomly assigned patients receiving routine outpatient chemotherapy for advanced solid tumors at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center to report 12 common symptoms via tablet computers or to receive usual care consisting of symptom monitoring at the discretion of clinicians. Those with home computers received weekly e-mail prompts to report between visits. Treating physicians received symptom printouts at visits, and nurses received e-mail alerts when participants reported severe or worsening symptoms. The primary outcome was change in health-related quality of life (HRQL) at 6 months compared with baseline, measured by the EuroQol EQ-5D Index. Secondary endpoints included emergency room (ER) visits, hospitalizations, and survival. Results Among 766 patients allocated, HRQL improved among more participants in the intervention group than usual care (34% v 18%) and worsened among fewer (38% v 53%; P < .001). Overall, mean HRQL declined by less in the intervention group than usual care (1.4- v 7.1-point drop; P < .001). Patients receiving intervention were less frequently admitted to the ER (34% v 41%; P = .02) or hospitalized (45% v 49%; P = .08) and remained on chemotherapy longer (mean, 8.2 v 6.3 months; P = .002). Although 75% of the intervention group was alive at 1 year, 69% with usual care survived the year (P = .05), with differences also seen in quality-adjusted survival (mean of 8.7 v. 8.0 months; P = .004). Benefits were greater for participants lacking prior computer experience. Most patients receiving intervention (63%) reported severe symptoms during the study. Nurses frequently initiated clinical actions in response to e-mail alerts. Conclusion Clinical benefits were associated with symptom self-reporting during cancer care. PMID:26644527

  18. Symptom Monitoring With Patient-Reported Outcomes During Routine Cancer Treatment: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Basch, Ethan; Deal, Allison M; Kris, Mark G; Scher, Howard I; Hudis, Clifford A; Sabbatini, Paul; Rogak, Lauren; Bennett, Antonia V; Dueck, Amylou C; Atkinson, Thomas M; Chou, Joanne F; Dulko, Dorothy; Sit, Laura; Barz, Allison; Novotny, Paul; Fruscione, Michael; Sloan, Jeff A; Schrag, Deborah

    2016-02-20

    There is growing interest to enhance symptom monitoring during routine cancer care using patient-reported outcomes, but evidence of impact on clinical outcomes is limited. We randomly assigned patients receiving routine outpatient chemotherapy for advanced solid tumors at Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center to report 12 common symptoms via tablet computers or to receive usual care consisting of symptom monitoring at the discretion of clinicians. Those with home computers received weekly e-mail prompts to report between visits. Treating physicians received symptom printouts at visits, and nurses received e-mail alerts when participants reported severe or worsening symptoms. The primary outcome was change in health-related quality of life (HRQL) at 6 months compared with baseline, measured by the EuroQol EQ-5D Index. Secondary endpoints included emergency room (ER) visits, hospitalizations, and survival. Among 766 patients allocated, HRQL improved among more participants in the intervention group than usual care (34% v 18%) and worsened among fewer (38% v 53%; P < .001). Overall, mean HRQL declined by less in the intervention group than usual care (1.4- v 7.1-point drop; P < .001). Patients receiving intervention were less frequently admitted to the ER (34% v 41%; P = .02) or hospitalized (45% v 49%; P = .08) and remained on chemotherapy longer (mean, 8.2 v 6.3 months; P = .002). Although 75% of the intervention group was alive at 1 year, 69% with usual care survived the year (P = .05), with differences also seen in quality-adjusted survival (mean of 8.7 v. 8.0 months; P = .004). Benefits were greater for participants lacking prior computer experience. Most patients receiving intervention (63%) reported severe symptoms during the study. Nurses frequently initiated clinical actions in response to e-mail alerts. Clinical benefits were associated with symptom self-reporting during cancer care. © 2015 by American Society of Clinical Oncology.

  19. The journey from self-care to GP care: a qualitative interview study of women presenting with symptoms of urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Leydon, Geraldine M; Turner, Sheila; Smith, Helen; Little, Paul

    2009-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the commonest acute infections presenting to primary care. Little is known of women's experiences of UTI; self-care strategies and key triggers for their consulting behaviour are also little known. To explore women's experiences of self-care and their journey to GP care, when faced with symptoms of a UTI. Qualitative semi-structured interview study with women recruited to a larger UK trial of different management strategies for UTI. General practices across four counties in southern England. Twenty-one women were interviewed about the experiences they had prior to their GP visit, self-care strategies, and triggers for help seeking. Interviews were analysed thematically, using principles of analytic induction. Women reported a process of evaluation, monitoring, re-evaluation, and, finally, consulting in order to meet their needs. Four key triggers for consulting were identified: failure to alleviate symptoms through self-care; symptom duration and escalation; impeding normal functioning and the fulfilment of social roles; and concern that it may be or become a serious illness. Although UTI is often self-limiting, when taking patient histories and formulating their management strategies clinicians need to take into account women's often painful experience, their efforts to resolve symptoms prior to consulting, and their fears that the symptoms may indicate something more serious than a UTI.

  20. Exploring experience and perspectives of foreign-born direct care workers in dementia care: Accounts of Korean American personal care aides caring for older Korean Americans with dementia symptoms.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang E; Casado, Banghwa Lee; Hong, Michin

    2016-05-06

    This focus group study explored experience of Korean American personal care aides caring for older Korean Americans with dementia symptoms. Personal care aides described dementia caregiving as challenging, demanding and stressful, yet they cared for their clients with love and affection, particularly with jeong (i.e., a Korean cultural concept of love, affection, sympathy, and bondage). They learned about dementia mostly through their caregiving experience and expressed their need and strong desire to learn more about dementia. They felt for family struggle and observed family conflict and filial obligation. They advocated the value of personal care aides' involvement in dementia care. This study revealed a pressing need for dementia training for personal care aides and called for an outreach effort to recruit and train direct care workers with potential of providing culturally competent care for traditionally underserved ethnic minorities. © The Author(s) 2016.

  1. Nurse-led delivery of specialist supportive care for bipolar disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Crowe, M; Inder, M; Carlyle, D; Wilson, L; Whitehead, L; Panckhurst, A; O'Brien, T; Frampton, C; Joyce, P

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the study is (1) to assess the feasibility of delivering nurse-led specialist supportive care as an adjunct to usual care in the clinical setting; (2) to examine the relationship between the delivery of specialist supportive care and improved self-efficacy and functioning and reduced depressive symptoms. A randomized controlled trial of the clinical effectiveness of specialist supportive care as an adjunct to usual care was conducted in community mental health services at one site. Participants were randomized to either usual care or usual care and the adjunctive intervention. Self-report measures of depression, general functioning and self-efficacy were completed by participants in both groups at baseline and 9 months. The intervention was delivered parallel to usual treatment arrangements. While recruitment numbers were sufficient, a low rate of engagement meant we were unable to show significant differences in depressive symptoms or self-efficacy between the usual care group and the specialist supportive care plus usual care group. This study demonstrated that it was difficult to engage patients with bipolar disorder in specialist supportive care when they were currently in a mood episode and under the care of community mental health services.

  2. Collaborative care for depression symptoms in an outpatient cardiology setting: A randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Carney, Robert M; Freedland, Kenneth E; Steinmeyer, Brian C; Rubin, Eugene H; Ewald, Gregory

    2016-09-15

    Depression is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary heart disease. Finding effective methods for identifying and treating depression in these patients is a high priority. The purpose of this study was to determine whether collaborative care (CC) for patients who screen positive for depression during an outpatient cardiology visit results in greater improvement in depression symptoms and better medical outcomes than seen in patients who screen positive for depression but receive only usual care (UC). Two hundred-one patients seen in an outpatient cardiology clinic who screened positive for depression during an outpatient visit were randomized to receive either CC or UC. Recommendations for depression treatment and ongoing support and monitoring of depression symptoms were provided to CC patients and their primary care physicians (PCPs) for up to 6months. There were no differences between the arms in mean Beck Depression Inventory-II scores(CC, 15.9; UC, 17.4; p=.45) or in depression remission rates(CC, 32.5%; UC, 26.2%; p=0.34) after 6months, or in the number of hospitalizations after 12months (p=0.73). There were fewer deaths among the CC (1/100) than UC patients (8/101) (p=0.03). This trial did not show that CC produces better depression outcomes than UC. Screening led to a higher rate of depression treatment than was expected in the UC group, and delays in obtaining depression treatment from PCPs may have reduced treatment effectiveness for the CC patients. A different strategy for depression treatment following screening in outpatient cardiology services is needed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Anxiety Symptoms in Adolescents with Type 1 Diabetes: Association with Blood Glucose Monitoring and Glycemic Control

    PubMed Central

    Herzer, Michele

    2010-01-01

    Objective To examine the prevalence of anxiety symptoms and their association with blood glucose monitoring (BGM) and glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. Methods 276 adolescents and their caregivers completed measures of anxiety symptoms. Adolescents completed a measure of depressive symptoms. Demographic and family characteristics were obtained from caregiver report. Diabetes duration, regimen type, BGM frequency, and glycemic control were also collected. Results Trait anxiety symptoms that suggest further clinical assessment is needed were present in 17% of adolescents; the rate was 13% for state anxiety symptoms. Higher levels of state anxiety symptoms were associated with less frequent BGM F(14, 261) = 6.35, p < .0001, R2 = .25, and suboptimal glycemic control, F(15, 260) = 7.97, p < .0001, R2 = .32. State anxiety symptoms were correlates of BGM frequency and glycemic control independent of depressive symptoms. Conclusions State anxiety symptoms are associated with less frequent BGM and suboptimal glycemic control in adolescents with type 1 diabetes. PMID:19684117

  4. [Impairment of oxygenation of patients in surgical intensive care : Early symptom of severe sepsis].

    PubMed

    Hückstädt, M; Hofmann, G O; Mendel, T; Stuttmann, R; Hilbert-Carius, P

    2016-11-01

    Sepsis and septic shock are major contributors to morbidity and mortality in intensive care patients. Early identification and adequate therapy are of utmost importance to reduce the still high mortality in patients with severe sepsis. Many of the pathophysiologic changes are nonspecific. Thus, a combination of symptoms and laboratory results are necessary to confirm the diagnosis. Impairment of the Horovitz index is identified as being a primal prognostic criterion for early diagnosis in serious progression of sepsis, after exclusion of a few differential diagnoses. Based on this fact, the prevalence of this symptom compared to other sepsis parameters is of specific interest. In a retrospective study 33 cases of serious sepsis were analysed during the patient's course of intensive care treatment focusing on oxygenation. The deterioration of oxygenation, meaning a drop in the Horovitz index below 200 mm Hg (25.7 kPa) or a decrease in paO2 by 67.5 mm Hg (9 kPa) in spontaneously breathing patients with sepsis was the mean inclusion criteria. We compared the sequence of occurrence of known sepsis markers (e. g. PCT, WBC, CRP) with the deterioration in oxygenation to answer the question whether impairment of oxygenation could be an early symptom of severe sepsis. The Mann Whitney U‑test and a discriminant analysis were performed to verify differences of the variables investigated between surviving and deceased patients. Furthermore a regression analysis was performed to confirm the results of the discriminant analysis. The mean drop in the Horovitz index was 90 ± 24 mm Hg (12 ± 3.2 kPa) within 4.5 h respectively. This was highly significant (p < 0.001). In all patients impairment of oxygenation indicated an individual onset and further progression of a serious sepsis. In more than ¾ of all cases this symptom occurred in an earlier stage than other organ dysfunctions. In 79 % of cases, patients showed an impairment of oxygenation before

  5. Reduction of Behavioral Psychological Symptoms of Dementia by Multimodal Comprehensive Care for Vulnerable Geriatric Patients in an Acute Care Hospital: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Honda, Miwako; Ito, Mio; Ishikawa, Shogo; Takebayashi, Yoichi; Tierney, Lawrence

    2016-01-01

    Management of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia (BPSD) is a key challenge in geriatric dementia care. A multimodal comprehensive care methodology, Humanitude, with eye contact, verbal communication, and touch as its elements, was provided to three geriatric dementia patients for whom conventional nursing care failed in an acute care hospital. Each episode was evaluated by video analysis. All patients had advanced dementia with BPSD. Failure of care was identified by patient's shouting, screaming, or abrupt movements of limbs. In this case series, conventional care failed for all three patients. Each element of care communication was much shorter than in Humanitude care, which was accepted by the patients. The average of the elements performed during the care was eye contact 0.6%, verbal communication 15.7%, and touch 0.1% in conventional care and 12.5%, 54.8%, and 44.5% in Humanitude care, respectively. The duration of aggressive behavior of each patient during care was 25.0%, 25.4%, and 66.3% in conventional care and 0%, 0%, and 0.3% in Humanitude, respectively. In our case series, conventional care was provided by less eye contact, verbal communication, and touch. The multimodal comprehensive care approach, Humanitude, decreased BPSD and showed success by patients' acceptance of care. PMID:27069478

  6. [Evaluation of the symptoms, adherence and satisfaction after pharmaceutical care at asthma clinic for outpatient].

    PubMed

    Yamada, Shinnosuke; Kuwahara, Hiroki; Asai, Reina; Kotani, Haruka; Kishi, Rina; Hirabayashi, Aya; Mizuno, Tomohiro; Hasegawa, Masaya; Mouri, Akihiro; Kume, Hiroaki; Ito, Satoru; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Noda, Yukihiro

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether counseling at an outpatient asthma clinic improved asthma symptoms, adherence and patient satisfaction: The asthma control test (ACT) and asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) were used to assess subjective symptoms, 10-item version of the drug attitude inventory (DAI-10) was used to determine medication adherence, and 8-item Japanese version of the client satisfaction questionnaire (CSQ-8J) was used to ascertain patient satisfaction. All scores of inhalation technique, PEF (peak expiratory flow) value/predicted PEF value (%), ACT, ACQ and DAI-10 in 26 patients with asthma increased after counseling at the outpatient asthma clinic compared to those before counseling. The average CSQ-8J score of 28 points (highest possible score: 32 points) indicated that the patients were satisfied with services provided by this clinic. These results indicate that counseling provided by pharmacists at the outpatient clinic is a valuable way improving subjective symptoms, lung function and medication adherence. These results also indicate that counseling at the asthma clinic by pharmacists improves the quality of life of patients with asthma.

  7. Comparing the Health Care Experiences of Medicare Beneficiaries with and without Depressive Symptoms in Medicare Managed Care versus Fee-for-Service.

    PubMed

    Martino, Steven C; Elliott, Marc N; Haviland, Amelia M; Saliba, Debra; Burkhart, Q; Kanouse, David E

    2016-06-01

    To compare patient experiences and disparities for older adults with depressive symptoms in managed care (Medicare Advantage [MA]) versus Medicare Fee-for-Service (FFS). Data came from the 2010 Medicare CAHPS survey, to which 220,040 MA and 135,874 FFS enrollees aged 65 and older responded. Multivariate linear regression was used to test whether case-mix-adjusted associations between depressive symptoms and patient experience differed for beneficiaries in MA versus FFS. Dependent measures included four measures of beneficiaries' experiences with doctors (e.g., reports of doctor communication) and seven measures of beneficiaries' experiences with plans (e.g., customer service). Beneficiaries with depressive symptoms reported worse experiences than those without depressive symptoms regardless of coverage type. For measures assessing interactions with the plan (but not for measures assessing interactions with doctors), the disadvantage for beneficiaries with versus without depressive symptoms was larger in MA than in FFS. Disparities in care experienced by older Medicare beneficiaries with depressive symptoms tend to be more negative in managed care than in FFS. Efforts are needed to identify and address the barriers these beneficiaries encounter to help them better traverse the managed care environment. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  8. The Cost Effectiveness of Docetaxel and Active Symptom Control versus Active Symptom Control Alone for Refractory Oesophagogastric Adenocarcinoma: Economic Analysis of the COUGAR-02 Trial.

    PubMed

    Meads, David M; Marshall, Andrea; Hulme, Claire T; Dunn, Janet A; Ford, Hugo E R

    2016-01-01

    The COUGAR-02 trial recently showed survival and quality-of-life benefits of docetaxel and active symptom control (DXL + ASC) over active symptom control (ASC) alone in patients with refractory oesophagogastric adenocarcinoma. The aim of this study was to conduct an economic evaluation conforming to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) technology appraisal guidance to evaluate the cost effectiveness of DXL + ASC versus ASC from the perspective of the English National Health Service (NHS). Cost-utility analyses were conducted using trial data. Utility values were captured using the EQ-5D completed by patients at 3- and 6-weekly intervals, while resource use was captured using nurse-completed report forms and patient reports. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated and the main outcome was cost per incremental quality-adjusted life-year (QALY). Nonparametric bootstrapping was conducted to capture sampling uncertainty and to generate a cost-effectiveness acceptability curve (CEAC). The analysis horizon was the trial period (median follow-up 12 months) and no modelling or discounting of future costs and benefits was conducted. Average costs were £9352 and £6218 for DXL + ASC and ASC, respectively, and average QALYs were 0.302 and 0.186, respectively. This yielded an ICER of £27,180 for DXL + ASC. DXL + ASC had a 24 % chance of being cost effective at a £20,000 QALY threshold (lambda) and a mean net monetary benefit of -£821; this rose to 59 % and £332 when the threshold was raised to £30,000. If NICE end-of-life criteria are applied, the probability of cost effectiveness increases to 90 % (at lambda = £50,000). Results were robust to sensitivity analyses. DXL + ASC is likely to be cost effective if an end-of-life premium is applied. Further research should determine the impact of different utility measurement strategies and different chemotherapy delivery modes on estimates of cost effectiveness.

  9. Symptoms and self-care following pancreaticoduodenectomy: Perspectives from patients and healthcare professionals - Foundation for an interactive ICT application.

    PubMed

    Gustavell, Tina; Sundberg, Kay; Frank, Catharina; Wengström, Yvonne; Browall, Maria; Segersvärd, Ralf; Langius-Eklöf, Ann

    2017-02-01

    Poor prognosis and a problematic recovery period after pancreaticoduodenectomy means that patients may benefit from early detection of symptoms and support for self-management. Interactive Information and Communication Technology tools can be used for this purpose, but the content needs to be relevant to patients as well as healthcare professionals. To facilitate development of the content of an application for this purpose, the aim of this study was to explore common symptoms and self-care in the first six months after pancreaticoduodenectomy, as identified by patients and healthcare professionals. Data were collected through individual interviews with patients (n = 14), along with two focus group interviews and one individual interview with healthcare professionals (n = 10). Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Common symptoms after surgery were those related to eating, bowel function and emotional wellbeing, along with fatigue and pain. Some self-care activities and advice were mentioned in the interviews. The patients often experienced a lack of advice on self-care at discharge. The results render knowledge of the symptoms it is important to be aware of and to assess regularly after pancreaticoduodenectomy. The results also contribute to knowledge about specific self-care related to these symptoms, even though it was not extensively described, and further research is needed to define evidence-based self-care advice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Improving Management of Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Acute Care: Evidence and Lessons Learned From Across the Care Spectrum.

    PubMed

    McConnell, Eleanor S; Karel, Michele J

    2016-01-01

    As the prevalence of Alzheimer disease and related dementias increases, dementia-related behavioral symptoms present growing threats to care quality and safety of older adults across care settings. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) such as agitation, aggression, and resistance to care occur in nearly all individuals over the course of their illness. In inpatient care settings, if not appropriately treated, BPSD can result in care complications, increased length of stay, dissatisfaction with care, and caregiver stress and injury. Although evidence-based, nonpharmacological approaches to treating BPSD exist, their implementation into acute care has been thwarted by limited nursing staff expertise in behavioral health, and a lack of consistent approaches to integrate behavioral health expertise into medically focused inpatient care settings. This article describes the core components of one evidence-based approach to integrating behavioral health expertise into dementia care. This approach, called STAR-VA, was implemented in Veterans' Health Administration community living centers (nursing homes). It has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing the severity and frequency of BPSD, while improving staff knowledge and skills in caring for people with dementia. The potential for adapting this approach in acute care settings is discussed, along with key lessons learned regarding opportunities for nursing leadership to ensure consistent implementation and sustainability.

  11. Exercise augmentation compared with usual care for post-traumatic stress disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rosenbaum, S; Sherrington, C; Tiedemann, A

    2015-05-01

    To investigate the impact of a 12-week exercise programme in addition to usual care for post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). An assessor-blinded randomized controlled trial was conducted among 81 participants with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of primary PTSD. Participants were recruited after admission to an in-patient programme at a private hospital. Participants were randomized to receive either usual care (n=42), or exercise in addition to usual care (n=39). The exercise intervention involved three, 30-min resistance-training sessions/week and a pedometer-based walking programme. Usual care involved psychotherapy, pharmaceutical interventions, and group therapy. Primary outcome was PTSD symptoms assessed via the PTSD checklist-civilian version (PCL-C). Secondary outcomes included symptoms of depression, anthropometry, physical activity, mobility, strength, and sleep quality. Participants had a mean (SD) age of 47.8 years (12.1), 84% male. PTSD symptoms in the intervention group significantly reduced compared with the usual care group (mean difference=-5.4, 95% CI -10.5 to -0.3, P=0.04, n=58). There were significant between-group differences at follow-up for depressive symptoms, waist circumference, sleep quality, and sedentary time. This study provides the first evidence that an exercise intervention is associated with reduced PTSD and depressive symptoms, reduced waist circumference, and improved sleep quality. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Anxiety and psychosomatic symptoms in palliative care: from neuro-psychobiological response to stress, to symptoms' management with clinical hypnosis and meditative states.

    PubMed

    Satsangi, Anirudh Kumar; Brugnoli, Maria Paola

    2017-08-09

    Psychosomatic disorder is a condition in which psychological stresses adversely affect physiological (somatic) functioning to the point of distress. It is a condition of dysfunction or structural damage in physical organs through inappropriate activation of the involuntary nervous system and the biochemical response. In this framework, this review will consider anxiety disorders, from the perspective of the psychobiological mechanisms of vulnerability to extreme stress in severe chronic illnesses. Psychosomatic medicine is a field of behavioral medicine and a part of the practice of consultation-liaison psychiatry. Psychosomatic medicine in palliative care, integrates interdisciplinary evaluation and management involving diverse clinical specialties including psychiatry, psychology, neurology, internal medicine, allergy, dermatology, psychoneuroimmunology, psychosocial oncology and spiritual care. Clinical conditions where psychological processes act as a major factor affecting medical outcomes are areas where psychosomatic medicine has competence. Thus, the psychosomatic symptom develops as a physiological connected of an emotional state. In a state of rage or fear, for example, the stressed person's blood pressure is likely to be elevated and his pulse and respiratory rate to be increased. When the fear passes, the heightened physiologic processes usually subside. If the person has a persistent fear (chronic anxiety), however, which he is unable to express overtly, the emotional state remains unchanged, though unexpressed in the overt behavior, and the physiological symptoms associated with the anxiety state persist. This paper wants highlight how clinical hypnosis and meditative states can be important psychosocial and spiritual care, for the symptom management on neuro-psychobiological response to stress.

  13. An Intervention to Control Vasomotor Symptoms for Advanced PC Patients on Hormone Therapy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    Symptoms for Advanced PC Patients on Hormone Therapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Michael A. Diefenbach, Ph.D. CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION...Control Vasomotor Symptoms for Advanced PC Patients on Hormone Therapy 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0604 5c...NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Vasomotor Symptom (Hot Flashes) is a common side-effect of hormone therapy for prostate cancer survivors who experience a rising

  14. Impact of a disease-management program on symptom burden and health-related quality of life in patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and their care partners.

    PubMed

    Lindell, Kathleen Oare; Olshansky, Ellen; Song, Mi-Kyung; Zullo, Thomas G; Gibson, Kevin F; Kaminski, Naftali; Hoffman, Leslie A

    2010-01-01

    Patients were recruited from the Dorothy P. and Richard P. Simmons Center for Interstitial Lung Disease, located within the University of Pittsburgh Medical Center. Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis results in scarring of the lung and respiratory failure, and has a median survival of 3 to 5 years from the time of diagnosis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and their care partners could be more optimally managed by a disease-management intervention entitled "Program to Reduce Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Symptoms and Improve Management," which nurses delivered using the format of a support group. We hypothesized that participation would improve perceptions of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and decrease symptom burden. Subjects were 42 participants randomized to an experimental (10 patient/care partner dyads) or control (11 patient/care partner dyads) group. Experimental group participants attended the 6-week program, and controls received usual care. Before and after the program, all participants completed questionnaires designed to assess symptom burden and HRQoL. Patients and care partners in the intervention group were also interviewed in their home to elicit information on their experience after participating in the Program to Reduce Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis Symptoms and Improve Management. After the intervention, experimental group patients rated their HRQoL less positively (P = .038) and tended to report more anxiety (P = .077) compared with controls. Care partners rated their stress at a lower level (P = .018) compared with controls. Course evaluations were uniformly positive. Post-study qualitative interviews with experimental group participants suggested benefits not exemplified by these scores. Patient participants felt less isolated, were able to put their disease into perspective, and valued participating in research and helping others. Further exploration of the impact of disease

  15. Care-seeking behaviour among individuals with TB symptoms in Jogjakarta Province, Indonesia: a community-based study.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Riris A; Richardus, Jan H; de Vlas, Sake J

    2013-03-01

    Care-seeking behaviour of individuals with TB symptoms is a critical factor in early detection and treatment. Thorough understanding of determinants of the care-seeking process helps TB programme managers to improve TB case finding. The aim of this study was to assess determinants of care-seeking behaviour among patients with suspected TB at the population level. A cross-sectional survey was conducted among adults with cough for >2 weeks. Data on sociodemographics, onset of TB symptoms, TB knowledge, health facility visited and duration of each visit were collected. Of the 746 respondents interviewed, approximately 10% had not yet sought care. Of those who sought care, less than one-half presented directly to medical healthcare providers. Being female and having multiple symptoms were associated with care-seeking action. The duration of patient delay (i.e. time between onset of symptoms and visiting a health provider) was relatively short, which may be due to the availability of an extended network of healthcare providers in Jogjakarta Province. Being male, a student or self-employed were associated with longer delay in presentation. Patient delay was relatively short. Efforts need to be focused on encouraging individuals with suspected TB to seek appropriate services through health education and quality improvement of health providers.

  16. Cost of detecting malignant lesions by endoscopy in 2741 primary care dyspeptic patients without alarm symptoms.

    PubMed

    Vakil, Nimish; Talley, Nicholas; van Zanten, Sander Veldhuyzen; Flook, Nigel; Persson, Tore; Björck, Ewa; Lind, Tore; Bolling-Sternevald, Elisabeth

    2009-07-01

    Current guidelines recommend empirical, noninvasive approaches to manage dyspeptic patients without alarm symptoms, but concerns about missed lesions persist; the cost savings afforded by noninvasive approaches must be weighed against treatment delays. We investigated the prevalence of malignancies and other serious abnormalities in patients with dyspepsia and the cost of detecting these by endoscopy. We studied 2741 primary-care outpatients, 18-70 years in age, who met Rome II criteria for dyspepsia. Patients with alarm features (dysphagia, bleeding, weight loss, etc) were excluded. All patients underwent endoscopy. The cost and diagnostic yield of an early endoscopy strategy in all patients were compared with those of endoscopy limited to age-defined cohorts. Costs were calculated for a low, intermediate, and high cost environment. Endoscopies detected abnormalities in 635 patients (23%). The most common findings were reflux esophagitis with erosions (15%), gastric ulcers (2.7%), and duodenal ulcers (2.3%). The prevalence of upper gastrointestinal malignancy was 0.22%. If all dyspeptic patients 50 years or older underwent endoscopy, 1 esophageal cancer and no gastric cancers would have been missed. If the age threshold for endoscopy were set at 50 years, at a cost of $500/endoscopy, it would cost $82,900 (95% CI, $35,714-$250,000) to detect each case of cancer. Primary care dyspeptic patients without alarm symptoms rarely have serious underlying conditions at endoscopy. The costs associated with diagnosing an occult malignancy are large, but an age cut-off of 50 years for early endoscopy provides the best assurance that an occult malignancy will not be missed.

  17. Should Controls With Respiratory Symptoms Be Excluded From Case-Control Studies of Pneumonia Etiology? Reflections From the PERCH Study.

    PubMed

    Higdon, Melissa M; Hammitt, Laura L; Deloria Knoll, Maria; Baggett, Henry C; Brooks, W Abdullah; Howie, Stephen R C; Kotloff, Karen L; Levine, Orin S; Madhi, Shabir A; Murdoch, David R; Scott, J Anthony G; Thea, Donald M; Driscoll, Amanda J; Karron, Ruth A; Park, Daniel E; Prosperi, Christine; Zeger, Scott L; O'Brien, Katherine L; Feikin, Daniel R

    2017-06-15

    Many pneumonia etiology case-control studies exclude controls with respiratory illness from enrollment or analyses. Herein we argue that selecting controls regardless of respiratory symptoms provides the least biased estimates of pneumonia etiology. We review 3 reasons investigators may choose to exclude controls with respiratory symptoms in light of epidemiologic principles of control selection and present data from the Pneumonia Etiology Research for Child Health (PERCH) study where relevant to assess their validity. We conclude that exclusion of controls with respiratory symptoms will result in biased estimates of etiology. Randomly selected community controls, with or without respiratory symptoms, as long as they do not meet the criteria for case-defining pneumonia, are most representative of the general population from which cases arose and the least subject to selection bias. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  18. Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms: observations from a tertiary care institution.

    PubMed

    Sasidharanpillai, Sarita; Riyaz, Najeeba; Rajan, Uma; Binitha, Manikoth P; Khader, Anza; Mariyath, Olasseri K Reena; John, Rajiv; Puravoor, Jayasree

    2014-01-01

    Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) is a severe drug reaction which can mimic a viral infection, an autoimmune disease or a neoplastic disease. To study the clinical and epidemiological aspects of DRESS and to identify the precipitating drugs. All patients admitted to the dermatology ward of our tertiary care hospital from 1 st October 2010 to 30 th September 2013 with probable or definite DRESS as per the RegiSCAR scoring system were included in this prospective study. The clinical manifestations observed in the study population were studied and the common offending drugs were identified. During the 3 year study period, 26 patients fulfilled criteria for probable or definite DRESS. In more than 50% of cases, the culprit drug was phenytoin. Most common symptoms observed were fever, rash and facial edema. Liver was the most common internal organ affected. Most of the patients responded to withdrawal of the drug and administration of steroids for 3-6 weeks. One patient with dapsone-induced DRESS died. Intense facial erythema and edema and an elevated eosinophil count were not found to be bad prognostic factors. In most instances the flare ups during the course of the disease could be managed with a slower tapering of steroids. More prospective studies on DRESS are required to assess the prognostic factors and to formulate better diagnostic criteria.

  19. Persistence of symptoms in primary somatoform vertigo and dizziness: a disorder "lost" in health care?

    PubMed

    Tschan, Regine; Best, Christoph; Wiltink, Jörg; Beutel, Manfred E; Dieterich, Marianne; Eckhardt-Henn, Annegret

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a 3-year follow-up of primary somatoform vertigo and dizziness (SVD) regarding health care use and treatment. Ninety-two patients with dizziness underwent detailed vestibular neurophysiological testing and a Structured Clinical Interview for Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. Psychometric assessments comprised the Vertigo Symptom Scale, the Vertigo Handicap Questionnaire, the SCL-90-R, and the Short-Form-36 Health Survey. At the 3-year follow-up, 65 patients with primary SVD (anxiety, n = 29; depression, n = 14; somatoform disorders, n = 22) were reassessed (70.7% response). The patients improved in symptom severity (p < 0.05), handicap (p < 0.01), and physical quality of life (QoL; p < 0.05) but showed no change in emotional distress. A total of 63.1% (of n = 65) had ongoing SVD. A total of 69.2% (of n = 65) received different forms of treatments. A total of 46.1% (of n = 65) searched redundant medical diagnostic procedures. The patients with decreased coping capacity over time obtained the best prognosis. Primary SVD is an ineffectively treated disorder. Recommendations for specific complaint-oriented psychotherapy programs were given.

  20. Pneumocystis pneumonia in patients treated with long-term steroid therapy for symptom palliation: a neglected infection in palliative care.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Takashi; Nagai, Yuki; Morita, Tatsuya; Kiuchi, Daisuke; Matsumoto, Mina; Hisahara, Ko; Hisanaga, Takayuki

    2014-12-01

    We report 3 cases of pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) in patients with advanced cancer who received palliative care. All patients received long-term steroid therapy for symptom management. A diagnosis of PCP was based on clinical symptoms and a positive Pneumocystis jiroveci polymerase chain reaction test from induced sputum specimens. Despite appropriate treatment, only 1 patient recovered from PCP. Long-term steroid, often prescribed in palliative care settings, is the most common risk factor for PCP in non-HIV patients. Pneumocystis pneumonia may cause distressing symptoms such as severe dyspnea, and the mortality rate is high. Therefore, it is important to consider PCP prophylaxis for high-risk patients and to diagnose PCP early and provide appropriate treatment to alleviate PCP-related symptoms and avert unnecessary shortening of a patient's life expectancy.

  1. Reduced Trauma Symptoms and Perceived Stress in Male Prison Inmates through the Transcendental Meditation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Nidich, Sanford; O'connor, Tom; Rutledge, Thomas; Duncan, Jeff; Compton, Blaze; Seng, Angela; Nidich, Randi

    2016-01-01

    Trauma events are four times more prevalent in inmates than in the general public and are associated with increased recidivism and other mental and physical health issues. To evaluate the effects of Transcendental Meditation (TM) on trauma symptoms in male inmates. One hundred eighty-one inmates with a moderate- to high-risk criminal profile were randomly assigned to either the TM program or to a usual care control group. The Trauma Symptom Checklist and the Perceived Stress Scale were administered at baseline and four-month posttest. Significant reductions in total trauma symptoms, anxiety, depression, dissociation, and sleep disturbance subscales, and perceived stress in the TM group were found compared with controls (all p values < 0.001). The high-trauma subgroup analysis further showed a higher magnitude of effects in the TM group compared with controls on all outcomes, with Cohen effect sizes ranging from 0.67 to 0.89. Results are consistent with those of prior studies of the TM program in other populations and its effects on trauma symptoms and perceived stress.

  2. Reduced Trauma Symptoms and Perceived Stress in Male Prison Inmates through the Transcendental Meditation Program: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Nidich, Sanford; O’Connor, Tom; Rutledge, Thomas; Duncan, Jeff; Compton, Blaze; Seng, Angela; Nidich, Randi

    2016-01-01

    Context Trauma events are four times more prevalent in inmates than in the general public and are associated with increased recidivism and other mental and physical health issues. Objective To evaluate the effects of Transcendental Meditationa (TM) on trauma symptoms in male inmates. Design One hundred eighty-one inmates with a moderate- to high-risk criminal profile were randomly assigned to either the TM program or to a usual care control group. Main Outcome Measures The Trauma Symptom Checklist and the Perceived Stress Scale were administered at baseline and four-month posttest. Results Significant reductions in total trauma symptoms, anxiety, depression, dissociation, and sleep disturbance subscales, and perceived stress in the TM group were found compared with controls (all p values < 0.001). The high-trauma subgroup analysis further showed a higher magnitude of effects in the TM group compared with controls on all outcomes, with Cohen effect sizes ranging from 0.67 to 0.89. Conclusion Results are consistent with those of prior studies of the TM program in other populations and its effects on trauma symptoms and perceived stress. PMID:27723444

  3. Use of nurse-observed symptoms of delirium in long-term care: effects on prevalence and outcomes of delirium.

    PubMed

    McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Vu, Minh; Belzile, Eric

    2011-05-01

    Previous studies have reported that nurse detection of delirium has low sensitivity compared to a research diagnosis. As yet, no study has examined the use of nurse-observed delirium symptoms combined with research-observed delirium symptoms to diagnose delirium. Our specific aims were: (1) to describe the effect of using nurse-observed symptoms on the prevalence of delirium symptoms and diagnoses in long-term care (LTC) facilities, and (2) to compare the predictive validity of delirium diagnoses based on the use of research-observed symptoms alone with those based on research-observed and nurse-observed symptoms. Residents aged 65 years and over of seven LTC facilities were recruited into a prospective study. Using the Confusion Assessment Method (CAM), research assistants (RAs) interviewed residents and nurses to assess delirium symptoms. Delirium symptoms were also abstracted independently from nursing notes. Outcomes measured at five month follow-up were: death, the Hierarchic Dementia Scale (HDS), the Barthel ADL scale, and a composite outcome measure (death, or a 10-point decline in either the HDS or the ADL score). The prevalence of delirium among 235 LTC residents increased from 14.0% (using research-observed symptoms only) to 24.7% (using research- and nurse-observed symptoms). The relative risks (and 95% confidence intervals) for prediction of the composite outcome, after adjustment for covariates, were: 1.43 (0.88, 1.96) for delirium using research-observed symptoms only; 1.77 (1.13, 2.28) for delirium using research- and nurse-observed symptoms, in comparison with no delirium. The inclusion of delirium symptoms observed by nurses not only increases the detection of delirium in LTC facilities but improves the prediction of outcomes.

  4. INSIGHT potentially prevents and treats depressive and anxiety symptoms in black women caring for chronic hemodialysis recipients.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Mona N; Bolden, Lois; Mynatt, Sarah; Rice, Muriel Curry; Acchiardo, Sergio R

    2007-01-01

    End stage renal disease (ESRD) unduly affects black families in the U.S., including black women who are the family caregivers of affected patients. Nephrology nurses who support chronic hemodialysis recipients may be the first to recognize depressive and anxiety symptoms in this understudied caregiver population. This article describes the risk factors for depression in black women who care for persons receiving chronic hemodialysis therapy and INSIGHT therapy as a potential intervention to reduce depressive symptoms.

  5. Social Reactions to Sexual Assault Disclosure, Coping, Perceived Control and PTSD Symptoms in Sexual Assault Victims

    PubMed Central

    Ullman, Sarah E.; Peter-Hagene, Liana

    2013-01-01

    The social reactions that sexual assault victims receive when they disclose their assault have been found to relate to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms. Using path analysis and a large sample of sexual assault survivors (N = 1863), we tested whether perceived control, maladaptive coping, and social and individual adaptive coping strategies mediated the relationships between social reactions to disclosure and PTSD symptoms. We found that positive social reactions to assault disclosure predicted greater perceived control over recovery, which in turn was related to less PTSD symptoms. Positive social reactions to assault disclosure were also associated with more adaptive social and individual coping; however, only adaptive social coping predicted PTSD symptoms. Negative social reactions to assault disclosure were related to greater PTSD symptoms both directly and indirectly through maladaptive coping and marginally through lower perceived control over recovery. PMID:24910478

  6. Presentation of respiratory symptoms prior to diagnosis in general practice: a case–control study examining free text and morbidity codes

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, Richard A; Chen, Ying; Croft, Peter; Jordan, Kelvin P

    2015-01-01

    Objective General practitioners can record patients’ presenting symptoms by using a code or free text. We compared breathlessness and wheeze symptom codes and free text recorded prior to diagnosis of ischaemic heart disease (IHD), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and asthma. Design A case–control study. Setting 11 general practices in North Staffordshire, UK, contributing to the Consultations in Primary Care Archive consultation database. Participants Cases with an incident diagnosis of IHD, COPD or asthma in 2010 were matched to controls (four per case) with no such diagnosis. All prior consultations with codes for breathlessness or wheeze symptoms between 2004 and 2010 were identified. Free text of cases and controls were also searched for mention of these symptoms. Results 592 cases were identified, 194 (33%) with IHD, 182 (31%) with COPD and 216 (37%) with asthma. 148 (25%) cases and 125 (5%) controls had a prior coded consultation for breathlessness. Prevalence of a prior coded symptom of breathlessness or wheeze was 30% in cases, 6% in controls. Median time from first coded symptom to diagnosis among cases was 57 weeks. After adding symptoms recorded in text, prevalence rose to 62% in cases and 25% in controls. Median time from first recorded symptom increased to 144 weeks. The associations between diagnosis of cases and prior symptom codes was strong IHD relative risk ratio (RRR) 3.21 (2.15 to 4.79); COPD RRR 9.56 (6.74 to 13.60); asthma RRR 10.30 (7.17 to 14.90). Conclusions There is an association between IHD, COPD and asthma diagnosis and earlier consultation for respiratory symptoms. Symptoms are often noted in free text by GPs long before they are coded. Free text searching may aid investigation of early presentation of long-term conditions using GP databases, and may be an important direction for future research. PMID:26070795

  7. Effectiveness of active self-care complementary and integrative medicine therapies: options for the management of chronic pain symptoms.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Cindy; Lee, Courtney; Freilich, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    Chronic pain management typically consists of prescription medications or provider-based, behavioral, or interventional procedures that are often ineffective, may be costly, and can be associated with undesirable side effects. Because chronic pain affects the whole person (body, mind, and spirit), patient-centered complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) therapies that acknowledge the patients' roles in their own healing processes have the potential to provide more efficient and comprehensive chronic pain management. Active self-care CIM (ACT-CIM) therapies allow for a more diverse, patient-centered treatment of complex symptoms, promote self-management, and are relatively safe and cost-effective. To date, there are no systematic reviews examining the full range of ACT-CIM used for chronic pain symptom management. A systematic review was conducted, using Samueli Institute's Rapid Evidence Assessment of the Literature methodology, to rigorously assess both the quality of the research on ACT-CIM modalities and the evidence for their efficacy and effectiveness in treating chronic pain symptoms. A working group of subject matter experts was also convened to evaluate the overall literature pool and develop recommendations for the use and implementation of these modalities. Following key database searches, 146 randomized controlled trials were included in the review, 18 of which directly compared ACT-CIM approaches with one another. This article summarizes the current evidence, quality, effectiveness, and safety of these modalities. Recommendations and next steps to move this field of research forward are also discussed. The entire scope of the review is detailed throughout the current Pain Medicine supplement. Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Caregiver perspective on pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: medication satisfaction and symptom control.

    PubMed

    Fridman, Moshe; Banaschewski, Tobias; Sikirica, Vanja; Quintero, Javier; Erder, M Haim; Chen, Kristina S

    2017-01-01

    The caregiver perspective on pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) study (CAPPA) was a web-based, cross-sectional survey of caregivers of children and adolescents (6-17 years of age) with ADHD and was conducted in 10 European countries. CAPPA included caregiver assessments of global medication satisfaction, global symptom control, and satisfaction with ADHD medication attributes. Overall, 2,326 caregiver responses indicated that their child or adolescent was currently receiving ADHD medication and completed the "off medication" assessment required for inclusion in the present analyses. Responses to the single-item global medication satisfaction question indicated that 88% were satisfied (moderately satisfied to very satisfied) with current medication and 18% were "very satisfied" on the single-item question. Responses to the single-item global symptom control question indicated that 47% and 19% of caregivers considered their child or adolescent's symptoms to be "controlled" or "very well controlled", respectively. Significant variations in response to the questions of medication satisfaction and symptom control were observed between countries. The correlation between the global medication satisfaction and global symptom control questions was 0.677 (P<0.001). Global medication satisfaction was significantly correlated (P<0.001) with all assessed medication attributes, with the highest correlations observed for symptom control (r=0.601) and effect duration (r=0.449). Correlations of medication attributes with global symptom control were generally lower than with global medication satisfaction but were all statistically significant (P<0.001). CAPPA medication satisfaction and symptom control were also significantly correlated (P<0.001) with symptom control as based on the ADHD-Rating Scale-IV symptom score and the number of bad days per month when on medication. In conclusion, caregiver responses in this European sample suggest that current

  9. Yoga and meditation for menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors-A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Holger; Rabsilber, Sybille; Lauche, Romy; Kümmel, Sherko; Dobos, Gustav

    2015-07-01

    Breast cancer survivors have only very limited treatment options for menopausal symptoms. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week traditional Hatha yoga and meditation intervention on menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors. Patients were randomly assigned either to a 12-week yoga and meditation intervention or to usual care. The primary outcome measure was total menopausal symptoms (Menopause Rating Scale [MRS] total score). Secondary outcome measures included MRS subscales, quality of life (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Breast), fatigue (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue), depression, and anxiety (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Outcomes were assessed at week 12 and week 24 after randomization. In total, 40 women (mean age ± standard deviation, 49.2 ± 5.9 years) were randomized to yoga (n = 19) or to usual care (n = 21). Women in the yoga group reported significantly lower total menopausal symptoms compared with the usual care group at week 12 (mean difference, -5.6; 95% confidence interval, -9.2 to -1.9; P = .004) and at week 24 (mean difference, -4.5; 95% confidence interval, -8.3 to -0.7; P = .023). At week 12, the yoga group reported less somatovegetative, psychological, and urogenital menopausal symptoms; less fatigue; and improved quality of life (all P < .05). At week 24, all effects persisted except for psychological menopausal symptoms. Short-term effects on menopausal symptoms remained significant when only women who were receiving antiestrogen medication (n = 36) were analyzed. Six minor adverse events occurred in each group. Yoga combined with meditation can be considered a safe and effective complementary intervention for menopausal symptoms in breast cancer survivors. The effects seem to persist for at least 3 months. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  10. Stressful Life Events and Depressive Symptoms: Social Support and Sense of Control as Mediators or Moderators?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Kee-Lee; Chi, Iris

    2001-01-01

    Examined the impact of a series of common stressful life events (SLEs) on change in depressive symptoms among the elderly of the Hong Kong Chinese Society. Using multiple regression models, it was found that sense of control acted as a mediator in the linkage between the number of SLEs and depressive symptoms. Findings suggest that sense of…

  11. Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: Longitudinal Links with Maternal Empathy and Psychological Control.

    PubMed

    Werner, Lente L A A; der Graaff, Jolien Van; Meeus, Wim H J; Branje, Susan J T

    2016-08-01

    Building on self-determination theory (Deci and Ryan in Psychological Inquiry, 11, 227-268. doi: 10.1207/S15327965PLI1104_01 , 2000), the aim of the current study was to examine the role of maternal affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, through mothers' psychological control use. Less empathic mothers may be less sensitive to adolescents' need for psychological autonomy, and thus prone to violating this need using psychological control, which may in turn predict adolescents' depressive symptoms. Moreover, according to interpersonal theory of depression (Coyne in Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 85, 186-193. doi: 10.1037/0021-843x.85.2.186 , 1976), adolescents' depressive symptoms may elicit rejecting responses, such as mothers' psychological control. For six waves, 497 adolescents (57 % boys, M age T1 = 13.03) annually completed questionnaires on depressive symptoms and maternal psychological control, while mothers reported on their empathy. Cross-lagged path analyses showed that throughout adolescence, both mothers' affective and cognitive empathy indirectly predicted boys' and girls' depressive symptoms, through psychological control. Additionally, depressive symptoms predicted psychological control for boys, and early adolescent girls. These results highlight the importance of (1) mothers' affective and cognitive empathy in predicting adolescents' depressive symptoms, and (2) taking gender into account when examining adolescent-effects.

  12. Validation of the symptoms and functioning severity scale in residential group care.

    PubMed

    Lambert, Matthew C; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Gross, Thomas J; Epstein, Michael H; Stevens, Amy L

    2015-05-01

    Tests that measure the emotional and behavioral problems of children and youth are typically not normed and standardized on youth diagnosed with disruptive behavior, particularly those youth in residential care. Yet professional standards mandate that before instruments are used with a specific population the psychometric properties need to be studied and re-established: specifically, psychometric properties, including validity, need to be evaluated (AERA, APA, and NCME, The standards for educational and psychological testing. AERA, Washington, DC, 1999). The purpose of the present study was to assess the validity characteristics of the Symptoms and Functioning Severity Scale (SFSS; Bickman et al., Manual of the Peabody Treatment Progress Battery, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 2010), a widely used test developed for use in outpatient clinics, with youth in a residential care program. The convergent validity of the SFSS was established with the large correlations (0.78-0.86) with the CBCL. Several binary classification analyses including specificity, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and the Youden Index supported the validity of the SFSS. However, the sensitivity index was somewhat low indicating the test may produce a high level of false negatives. Limitations, future research and implications are discussed.

  13. Hematopoietic Cell Transplant and Use of Massage for Improved Symptom Management: Results from a Pilot Randomized Control Trial

    PubMed Central

    Mehling, Wolf E.; Lown, E. Anne; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Cowan, Morton J.; Horn, Biljana N.; Dunn, Elizabeth A.; Acree, Michael; Abrams, Donald I.; Hecht, Frederick M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Pediatric hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) is a lifesaving treatment that often results in physical and psychological discomfort. An acupressure-massage intervention may improve symptom management in this setting. Methods. This randomized controlled pilot trial compared a combined massage-acupressure intervention to usual care. Children were offered three practitioner-provided sessions per week throughout hospitalization. Parents were trained to provide additional acupressure as needed. Symptoms were assessed using nurses' reports and two questionnaires, the behavioral affective and somatic experiences scale and the Peds quality of life cancer module. Results. We enrolled 23 children, ages 5 to 18. Children receiving the intervention reported fewer days of mucositis (Hedges' g effect size ES = 0.63), lower overall symptom burden (ES = 0.26), feeling less tired and run-down (ES = 0.86), having fewer moderate/severe symptoms of pain, nausea, and fatigue (ES = 0.62), and less pain (ES = 0.42). The intervention group showed trends toward increasing contentness/serenity (ES = +0.50) and decreasing depression (ES = −0.45), but not decreased anxiety (ES = +0.42). Differences were not statistically significant. Discussion. Feasibility of studying massage-acupressure was established in children undergoing HCT. Larger studies are needed to test the efficacy of such interventions in reducing HCT-associated symptoms in children. PMID:22454665

  14. Prevalence, symptom patterns and comorbidity of anxiety and depressive disorders in primary care in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Bener, Abdulbari; Ghuloum, Suhaila; Abou-Saleh, Mohammed T

    2012-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of anxiety and depressive disorders in a Qatari population who attend the primary health care settings and examine their symptom patterns and comorbidity. This is a prospective cross-sectional study conducted during the period from July 2009 to December 2009. Primary Health Care Center and the Supreme Council of Health in the State of Qatar. A total of 2,080 Qatari subjects aged 18-65 years were approached and 1,660 (79.8%) patients participated in this study. The study was based on a face-to-face interview with a designed diagnostic screening questionnaire, which consisted of 14 items for anxiety and depression disorders. Socio-demographic characteristics, comorbidity factors, and medical history of patients were collected. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression Rating Scale (HADS), which consisted of seven items for anxiety (HADS-A) and seven for depression (HADS-D), was used. The items are scored on a 4-point scale from zero (not present) to 3 (considerable). The HADS-A had an optimal cut-off ≥ 8 (sensitivity 0.87 and specificity 0.78), and the HADS-D had an optimal cut-off ≥ 8 (sensitivity 0.82 and specificity 0.86). The HADS scales generally used the cut-off score ≥ 8 to identify respondents with the possible presence of anxiety or depression. Of the studied Qatari subjects, 46.2% were males and 53.8% were females. The mean HADS-A anxiety symptom scores were 4.1 ± 3.6 for males and 4.9 ± 3.7 for females (p = 0.048) and with a prevalence of 18.7% among males and 24.6% among females (p = 0.017). The mean HADS-D depressive symptom scores were 8.0 ± 6.3 for males and 10.8 ± 7.5 for females (p = 0.041) and with a prevalence of 26.6% among males and 30.1% among females (p = 0.219). Qatari women were at higher risk for depression (53.1 vs. 46.9%) and anxiety disorder (56.7 vs. 43.3%) as compared to men. More than half of the sufferers with anxiety (56.7%) and depression (53.1%) were Qatari women with a higher

  15. The Role of Anxiety Control and Treatment Implications of Informant Agreement on Child PTSD Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Humphreys, Kathryn L.; Weems, Carl F.; Scheeringa, Michael S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine parent and child agreement of child posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms pre- and posttreatment, as well as potential moderators of agreement including treatment responder status, child anxiety control, and parent self-reported PTSD symptoms. Method We examined child self-reported and parent-reported child PTSD symptoms from the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for Children. Of the 141 parent–child pairs, the mean age of children was 12.72 (SD = 3.40), 53 percent were female, and 54 percent were Black. A subsample of participants (n = 47) was assessed after completion of a cognitive behavioral therapy treatment for PTSD. Results Moderate levels of agreement were found at baseline, though Criterion D (increased arousal) symptoms had lower levels of agreement than the other symptom clusters. Symptom agreement was lower at posttreatment. Treatment responders had higher levels of baseline informant agreement than treatment non-responders. Child perceived anxiety control significantly moderated informant agreement, such that pairs with children who had high levels of perceived control of their anxiety had lower PTSD symptom agreement where children reported lower symptoms relative to their parents. Contrary to expectations, parent self-reported PTSD did not moderate parent–child symptom agreement. Conclusion Factors associated with higher parent–child agreement of child PTSD symptoms were being a PTSD treatment responder and children with lower perceived anxiety control. These findings have potential implications for determining those who may benefit from greater symptom monitoring over the course of intervention and potential alternative intervention approaches. PMID:26645622

  16. Exploring the contribution of general self-efficacy to the use of self-care symptom management strategies by people living with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Corless, Inge B; Wantland, Dean; Kirksey, Kenn M; Nicholas, Patrice K; Human, Sarie; Arudo, John; Rosa, Maria; Cuca, Yvette; Willard, Sue; Hamilton, Mary Jane; Portillo, Carmen; Sefcik, Elizabeth; Robinson, Linda; Bain, Cathy; Moezzi, Shanaz; Maryland, Mary; Huang, Emily; Holzemer, William L

    2012-06-01

    General self-efficacy (GSE), the expectation that one is able to perform a behavior successfully, may differentiate those who are able to successfully utilize self-care symptom management strategies (SCSMS). This subanalysis (n=569) of an international 12 site longitudinal randomized controlled trial (RCT) (n=775), investigated GSE as an important factor determining symptom burden, SCSMS, engagement with the provider, and medication adherence over time, and identified differences in those with high and low GSE ratings concerning these variables. Parametric and nonparametric repeated-measures tests were employed to assess GSE and the perceived effectiveness of SCSMS for anxiety, depression, diarrhea, fatigue, nausea, and neuropathy. Symptom burden, engagement with the provider, and antiretroviral adherence were analyzed with regard to GSE. Our data indicated that there were differences in the perceived symptom burden over time of HIV infected individuals by GSE. Those individuals with higher GSE had fewer symptoms and these symptoms were perceived to be less intense than those experienced by the low GSE group. There were few meaningful differences in the SCSMS used by those with high versus low GSE other than the use of illicit substances in the low GSE group. The low GSE group was also significantly (p= < 0.001) less engaged with their healthcare providers. Given the difference in substance use by perceived GSE, and the importance of engagement with the healthcare provider, more attention to the resolution of the concerns of those with low GSE by healthcare providers is warranted.

  17. COPD symptom burden: impact on health care resource utilization, and work and activity impairment

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Bo; Small, Mark; Bergström, Gina; Holmgren, Ulf

    2017-01-01

    Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) can greatly impact the quality of life by limiting patients’ activities. However, data on impact of symptomatic burden on the health care resource utilization (HCRU) and employment in COPD are lacking. We examined the association between COPD Assessment Test (CAT) score and direct/indirect costs associated with HCRU and work productivity. Methods Data from >2,100 patients with COPD consulting for routine care were derived from respiratory disease-specific programs in Europe, the USA and China. Questionnaires, including CAT and Work Productivity and Activity Impairment (WPAI), were used to collect the past and current disease status data and HCRU characteristics from physicians (general practitioners/specialists) and patients. A regression approach was used to quantify the association of CAT with HCRU and WPAI variables. CAT score was modeled as a continuous independent variable (range: 0–40). Results Ninety percent of patients with COPD had a CAT score ≥10. Short-acting therapy and maintenance bronchodilator monotherapy, respectively, were currently prescribed to patients with CAT scores of 10–19 (5.8% and 27.6%), 20–29 (5.1% and 13.1%) and 30–40 (2.8% and 6.6%). Prescribing of maintenance bronchodilator dual therapy was low across the CAT score groups (0–9, 7.8%; 10–19, 6.4%; 20–29, 5.9%; 30–40, 4.4%), whereas maintenance triple combination therapy was prescribed more commonly in patients with higher CAT scores (0–9, 16.1%; 10–19, 23.2%; 20–29, 25.9%; 30–40, 35.5%). Increasing CAT scores were significantly associated with a higher frequency of primary care physician visits (P<0.001), pulmonologist visits (P=0.007), exacerbations requiring hospitalization (P<0.001) and WPAI scores (P<0.001). Conclusion Most patients with COPD presented with high symptom levels, despite being treated for COPD. Increasing symptom burden was associated with increasing HCRU and had a detrimental impact

  18. The Project ENABLE II Randomized Controlled Trial to Improve Palliative Care for Patients with Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bakitas, Marie; Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Hegel, Mark T.; Balan, Stefan; Brokaw, Frances C.; Seville, Janette; Hull, Jay G.; Li, Zhongze; Tosteson, Tor; Byock, Ira R.; Ahles, Tim A.

    2013-01-01

    Context There are few randomized controlled trials of the effectiveness of palliative care. Objective To determine the effect of a palliative care intervention on quality of life (QOL), symptom intensity, mood, and resource utilization. Design, Setting, and Participants Randomized controlled trial (November 2003-May 2008) of 322 patients with advanced cancer and an identified caregiver in a rural, NCI-designated comprehensive cancer center (the Norris Cotton Cancer Center, Lebanon, NH) and affiliated outreach clinics and Veteran’s Affairs Medical Center (White River Junction, VT). Intervention A multi-component, psycho-educational, palliative care intervention (Project ENABLE) conducted by an advanced practice nurse consisting of 4 weekly educational sessions and monthly follow-up until death or study completion. Main Outcome Measures (1) The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative (range: 0 to 184; higher scores indicate better QOL), (2) Edmonton Symptom Assessment Scale (range: 0 to 900; higher scores indicate greater symptom intensity), (3) Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression (range: 0 to 60; higher scores indicate more depressive symptoms), completed at baseline, 1 month and every 3 months until death or study completion, (4) days in hospital, intensive care unit (ICU), and emergency department visits recorded in the medical record. Results 322 participants with gastrointestinal (41%), lung (36%), genitourinary (12%), and breast (10%) cancer were randomized. Estimated treatment effects (intervention minus usual care) for all subjects were 4.6 (P = .02) for QOL, −27.8 (P = .06) for symptom intensity, and −1.8 (P = .02) for depressed mood. Estimated average treatment effects in the sample of participants who died during the study were 8.6 (P = .02) for QOL, −24.2 (P = .24) for symptom intensity, and −2.7 (P = .03) for depressed mood. Days in hospital, intensive care unit, and emergency department visits were not different

  19. Symptoms in Response to Controlled Diesel Exhaust More Closely Reflect Exposure Perception Than True Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Carlsten, Chris; Oron, Assaf P.; Curtiss, Heidi; Jarvis, Sara; Daniell, William; Kaufman, Joel D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Diesel exhaust (DE) exposures are very common, yet exposure-related symptoms haven’t been rigorously examined. Objective Describe symptomatic responses to freshly generated and diluted DE and filtered air (FA) in a controlled human exposure setting; assess whether such responses are altered by perception of exposure. Methods 43 subjects participated within three double-blind crossover experiments to order-randomized DE exposure levels (FA and DE calibrated at 100 and/or 200 micrograms/m3 particulate matter of diameter less than 2.5 microns), and completed questionnaires regarding symptoms and dose perception. Results For a given symptom cluster, the majority of those exposed to moderate concentrations of diesel exhaust do not report such symptoms. The most commonly reported symptom cluster was of the nose (29%). Blinding to exposure is generally effective. Perceived exposure, rather than true exposure, is the dominant modifier of symptom reporting. Conclusion Controlled human exposure to moderate-dose diesel exhaust is associated with a range of mild symptoms, though the majority of individuals will not experience any given symptom. Blinding to DE exposure is generally effective. Perceived DE exposure, rather than true DE exposure, is the dominant modifier of symptom reporting. PMID:24358296

  20. Gender differences in symptoms and care delivery for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Carlos H; Raparla, Swetha; Plauschinat, Craig A; Giardino, Nicholas D; Rogers, Barbara; Beresford, Julien; Bentkover, Judith D; Schachtner-Appel, Amy; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Martinez, Fernando J; Han, MeiLan K

    2012-12-01

    Morbidity and mortality for women with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are increasing, and little is known about gender differences in perception of COPD care. Surveys were administered to a convenience sample of COPD patients to evaluate perceptions about symptoms, barriers to care, and sources of information about COPD. Data on 295 female and 273 male participants were analyzed. With similar frequencies, women and men reported dyspnea and rated their health as poor/very poor. Although more women than men reported annual household income <$30,000, no significant gender differences in frequency of health insurance, physician visits, or ever having had spirometry were detected. In adjusted models (1) women were more likely to report COPD diagnostic delay (odds ratio [OR] 1.66, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.13-2.45, p=0.01), although anxiety (OR 1.83, 95% CI 1.10-3.06, p=0.02) and history of exacerbations (OR 1.60, 95% CI 1.08-2.37, p=0.01) were also significant predictors, (2) female gender was associated with difficulty reaching one's physician (OR 2.54, 95% CI 1.33-4.86, p=0.004), as was prior history of exacerbations (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.21-4.20, p=0.01), and (3) female gender (OR 2.15, 95% CI 1.10-4.21, p=0.02) was the only significant predictor for finding time spent with their physician as insufficient. Significant gender-related differences in the perception of COPD healthcare delivery exist, revealing an opportunity to better understand what influences these attitudes and to improve care for both men and women.

  1. Caregiver perspective on pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: medication satisfaction and symptom control

    PubMed Central

    Fridman, Moshe; Banaschewski, Tobias; Sikirica, Vanja; Quintero, Javier; Erder, M Haim; Chen, Kristina S

    2017-01-01

    The caregiver perspective on pediatric attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) study (CAPPA) was a web-based, cross-sectional survey of caregivers of children and adolescents (6–17 years of age) with ADHD and was conducted in 10 European countries. CAPPA included caregiver assessments of global medication satisfaction, global symptom control, and satisfaction with ADHD medication attributes. Overall, 2,326 caregiver responses indicated that their child or adolescent was currently receiving ADHD medication and completed the “off medication” assessment required for inclusion in the present analyses. Responses to the single-item global medication satisfaction question indicated that 88% were satisfied (moderately satisfied to very satisfied) with current medication and 18% were “very satisfied” on the single-item question. Responses to the single-item global symptom control question indicated that 47% and 19% of caregivers considered their child or adolescent’s symptoms to be “controlled” or “very well controlled”, respectively. Significant variations in response to the questions of medication satisfaction and symptom control were observed between countries. The correlation between the global medication satisfaction and global symptom control questions was 0.677 (P<0.001). Global medication satisfaction was significantly correlated (P<0.001) with all assessed medication attributes, with the highest correlations observed for symptom control (r=0.601) and effect duration (r=0.449). Correlations of medication attributes with global symptom control were generally lower than with global medication satisfaction but were all statistically significant (P<0.001). CAPPA medication satisfaction and symptom control were also significantly correlated (P<0.001) with symptom control as based on the ADHD-Rating Scale-IV symptom score and the number of bad days per month when on medication. In conclusion, caregiver responses in this European sample suggest

  2. Cultural Meaning of Perceived Control: A Meta-Analysis of Locus of Control and Psychological Symptoms across 18 Cultural Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Cecilia; Cheung, Shu-fai; Chio, Jasmine Hin-man; Chan, Man-pui Sally

    2013-01-01

    Integrating more than 40 years of studies on locus of control (LOC), this meta-analysis investigated whether (a) the magnitude of the relationship between LOC and psychological symptoms differed among cultures with distinct individualist orientations and (b) depression and anxiety symptoms yielded different patterns of cultural findings with LOC.…

  3. Cultural Meaning of Perceived Control: A Meta-Analysis of Locus of Control and Psychological Symptoms across 18 Cultural Regions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Cecilia; Cheung, Shu-fai; Chio, Jasmine Hin-man; Chan, Man-pui Sally

    2013-01-01

    Integrating more than 40 years of studies on locus of control (LOC), this meta-analysis investigated whether (a) the magnitude of the relationship between LOC and psychological symptoms differed among cultures with distinct individualist orientations and (b) depression and anxiety symptoms yielded different patterns of cultural findings with LOC.…

  4. Types of Dental Fear as Barriers to Dental Care among African American Adults with Oral Health Symptoms in Harlem

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Karolynn; Schrimshaw, Eric W.; Kunzel, Carol; Wolfson, Natalie H.; Moon-Howard, Joyce; Moats, Harmon L.; Mitchell, Dennis A.

    2013-01-01

    To examine the types of dental fear experienced by African American adults and the role of these fears in the utilization of dental care, in-depth interviews were conducted with a street-intercept sample of 118 African Americans living in Harlem, New York City, who had experienced at least one oral health symptom in the past six months. Despite their oral symptoms, participants delayed or avoided dental care (often for years) due to a variety of dental fears, including fears of: 1) pain from needles; 2) the dental drill; 3) having teeth extracted; 4) contracting an illness (e.g., HIV/AIDS) from unsanitary instruments; 5) X-rays; 6) receiving poor quality care or mistreatment. These findings provide insights into the situations that provoke fears about dental treatment among African Americans and suggest strategies to address these fears in order to remove these barriers and increase the utilization of dental care by African American adults. PMID:24212175

  5. Effortful Control Moderates Bidirectional Effects Between Children’s Externalizing Behavior and their Mothers’ Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Daniel Ewon; Olson, Sheryl L.; Sameroff, Arnold J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined bidirectional associations between mothers’ depressive symptoms and children’s externalizing behavior and whether they were moderated by preschool-age effortful control and gender. Mothers and teachers reported on 224 primarily White, middle-class children at ages 3, 5, and 10. Effortful control was assessed via behavioral battery and mother ratings. Structural equation modeling indicated that maternal depressive symptoms at child age 3 predicted more externalizing behavior at age 10 among children with low effortful control and among boys. Externalizing behavior at age 3 predicted fewer depressive symptoms at the age 10 assessments among mothers of children with high effortful control. Boys with suboptimal self-regulation exposed to high levels of maternal depressive symptoms were at greatest risk for school-age behavioral problems. PMID:23668713

  6. The effect of qigong on depressive and anxiety symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Ho, Rainbow T H; Tsang, Hector W H; Chan, Celia Hoi Yan; Ng, Siu-Man

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate clinical trial evidence of the effectiveness of qigong exercise on depressive and anxiety symptoms. Methods. Thirteen databases were searched from their respective inception through December 2012. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Effects of qigong across trials were pooled. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated for the pooled effects. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I (2) test. Study quality was evaluated using the Wayne Checklist. Results. Twelve RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The results of meta-analyses suggested a beneficial effect of qigong exercise on depressive symptoms when compared to waiting-list controls or usual care only (SMD = -0.75; 95% CI, -1.44 to -0.06), group newspaper reading (SMD = -1.24; 95% CI, -1.64 to -0.84), and walking or conventional exercise (SMD = -0.52; 95% CI, -0.85 to -0.19), which might be comparable to that of cognitive-behavioral therapy (P = 0.54). Available evidence did not suggest a beneficial effect of qigong exercise on anxiety symptoms. Conclusion. Qigong may be potentially beneficial for management of depressive symptoms, but the results should be interpreted with caution due to the limited number of RCTs and associated methodological weaknesses. Further rigorously designed RCTs are warranted.

  7. Tai-chi for residential patients with schizophrenia on movement coordination, negative symptoms, and functioning: a pilot randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ho, Rainbow T H; Au Yeung, Friendly S W; Lo, Phyllis H Y; Law, Kit Ying; Wong, Kelvin O K; Cheung, Irene K M; Ng, Siu Man

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Patients with schizophrenia residing at institutions often suffer from negative symptoms, motor, and functional impairments more severe than their noninstitutionalized counterparts. Tai-chi emphasizes body relaxation, alertness, and movement coordination with benefits to balance, focus, and stress relief. This pilot study explored the efficacy of Tai-chi on movement coordination, negative symptoms, and functioning disabilities towards schizophrenia. Methods. A randomized waitlist control design was adopted, where participants were randomized to receive either the 6-week Tai-chi program and standard residential care or only the latter. 30 Chinese patients with schizophrenia were recruited from a rehabilitation residency. All were assessed on movement coordination, negative symptoms, and functional disabilities at baseline, following intervention and 6 weeks after intervention. Results. Tai-chi buffered from deteriorations in movement coordination and interpersonal functioning, the latter with sustained effectiveness 6 weeks after the class was ended. Controls showed marked deteriorations in those areas. The Tai-chi group also experienced fewer disruptions to life activities at the 6-week maintenance. There was no significant improvement in negative symptoms after Tai-chi. Conclusions. This study demonstrated encouraging benefits of Tai-chi in preventing deteriorations in movement coordination and interpersonal functioning for residential patients with schizophrenia. The ease of implementation facilitates promotion at institutional psychiatric services.

  8. Tai-Chi for Residential Patients with Schizophrenia on Movement Coordination, Negative Symptoms, and Functioning: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Rainbow T. H.; Au Yeung, Friendly S. W.; Lo, Phyllis H. Y.; Law, Kit Ying; Wong, Kelvin O. K.; Cheung, Irene K. M.; Ng, Siu Man

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Patients with schizophrenia residing at institutions often suffer from negative symptoms, motor, and functional impairments more severe than their noninstitutionalized counterparts. Tai-chi emphasizes body relaxation, alertness, and movement coordination with benefits to balance, focus, and stress relief. This pilot study explored the efficacy of Tai-chi on movement coordination, negative symptoms, and functioning disabilities towards schizophrenia. Methods. A randomized waitlist control design was adopted, where participants were randomized to receive either the 6-week Tai-chi program and standard residential care or only the latter. 30 Chinese patients with schizophrenia were recruited from a rehabilitation residency. All were assessed on movement coordination, negative symptoms, and functional disabilities at baseline, following intervention and 6 weeks after intervention. Results. Tai-chi buffered from deteriorations in movement coordination and interpersonal functioning, the latter with sustained effectiveness 6 weeks after the class was ended. Controls showed marked deteriorations in those areas. The Tai-chi group also experienced fewer disruptions to life activities at the 6-week maintenance. There was no significant improvement in negative symptoms after Tai-chi. Conclusions. This study demonstrated encouraging benefits of Tai-chi in preventing deteriorations in movement coordination and interpersonal functioning for residential patients with schizophrenia. The ease of implementation facilitates promotion at institutional psychiatric services. PMID:23304224

  9. The Effect of Qigong on Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Ho, Rainbow T. H.; Tsang, Hector W. H.; Chan, Celia Hoi Yan; Ng, Siu-Man

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate clinical trial evidence of the effectiveness of qigong exercise on depressive and anxiety symptoms. Methods. Thirteen databases were searched from their respective inception through December 2012. Relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included. Effects of qigong across trials were pooled. Standardized mean differences (SMDs) were calculated for the pooled effects. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test. Study quality was evaluated using the Wayne Checklist. Results. Twelve RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The results of meta-analyses suggested a beneficial effect of qigong exercise on depressive symptoms when compared to waiting-list controls or usual care only (SMD = −0.75; 95% CI, −1.44 to −0.06), group newspaper reading (SMD = −1.24; 95% CI, −1.64 to −0.84), and walking or conventional exercise (SMD = −0.52; 95% CI, −0.85 to −0.19), which might be comparable to that of cognitive-behavioral therapy (P = 0.54). Available evidence did not suggest a beneficial effect of qigong exercise on anxiety symptoms. Conclusion. Qigong may be potentially beneficial for management of depressive symptoms, but the results should be interpreted with caution due to the limited number of RCTs and associated methodological weaknesses. Further rigorously designed RCTs are warranted. PMID:23762156

  10. Advancing infection control in dental care settings

    PubMed Central

    Cleveland, Jennifer L.; Bonito, Arthur J.; Corley, Tammy J.; Foster, Misty; Barker, Laurie; Brown, G. Gordon; Lenfestey, Nancy; Lux, Linda

    2015-01-01

    Background and Overview The authors set out to identify factors associated with implementation by U.S. dentists of four practices first recommended in the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Guidelines for Infection Control in Dental Health-Care Settings—2003. Methods In 2008, the authors surveyed a stratified random sample of 6,825 U.S. dentists. The response rate was 49 percent. The authors gathered data regarding dentists’ demographic and practice characteristics, attitudes toward infection control, sources of instruction regarding the guidelines and knowledge about the need to use sterile water for surgical procedures. Then they assessed the impact of those factors on the implementation of four recommendations: having an infection control coordinator, maintaining dental unit water quality, documenting percutaneous injuries and using safer medical devices, such as safer syringes and scalpels. The authors conducted bivariate analyses and proportional odds modeling. Results Responding dentists in 34 percent of practices had implemented none or one of the four recommendations, 40 percent had implemented two of the recommendations and 26 percent had implemented three or four of the recommendations. The likelihood of implementation was higher among dentists who acknowledged the importance of infection control, had practiced dentistry for less than 30 years, had received more continuing dental education credits in infection control, correctly identified more surgical procedures that require the use of sterile water, worked in larger practices and had at least three sources of instruction regarding the guidelines. Dentists with practices in the South Atlantic, Middle Atlantic or East South Central U.S. Census divisions were less likely to have complied. Conclusions Implementation of the four recommendations varied among U.S. dentists. Strategies targeted at raising awareness of the importance of infection control, increasing continuing education

  11. Symptoms of sexually transmitted infections and care-seeking behaviors of male clients of female sex workers in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Anisuddin; Reichenbach, Laura J; Alam, Nazmul

    2012-12-01

    In Bangladesh, male clients (MCs) of female sex workers (FSWs) represent diverse occupational categories from different socioeconomic strata, and they are considered a bridging group to transmit sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to their spousal and nonspousal female partners. This study aimed to better understand sexual behaviors, STI symptoms, and care-seeking behaviors among MCs of FSWs in Bangladesh. A cross-sectional study was conducted among MCs from November 2005 to July 2006 in 3 types of sex trade settings in Bangladesh. Of 1565 MCs included in this study, 531 were from brothels, 515 from hotels, and 519 from street-based settings. Among the MCs, 32.2% reported having had STI symptoms within the last 1 year before the interview and 81.5% sought care for those symptoms. Among those who reported symptoms, 44.5% received treatment from pharmacies, 37.4% received treatment from qualified medical professionals, 8.6%, received treatment from nongovernment organization clinics, and 7.8% went to herbal providers. Male clients who had only 1 to 4 years of schooling were 2.4 times more likely to have STI symptoms (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.5-3.8) compared with the MCs having 10 or more years of schooling. The MCs who had sex with more than 3 nonmarital sexual partners in the last month were 2 times more likely to have STI symptoms (adjusted OR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4-2.8). The MCs who used condoms consistently in their non-marital sexual contacts were significantly less likely (adjusted OR, 0.4; 95% CI, 0.3-0.6) to have STI symptoms. Reported risk behaviors, STI symptoms and care-seeking behavior suggest that MCs are a potential risk group for transmission of HIV and STIs. The study findings underscore the need to target HIV/STI prevention intervention for MCs, which are predominantly geared toward FSWs.

  12. Informal care for people with chronic psychotic symptoms: four case studies in a San community in South Africa.

    PubMed

    den Hertog, Thijs N; Gilmoor, Andrew R

    2017-03-01

    Despite the internationally recognised importance of informal care, especially in settings with limited services, few studies focus on the informal care for people with mental health problems in low- and middle-income countries. Making informal care visible is important for understanding the challenges and identifying the needs to be addressed. This ethnographic case study explored the dynamics of informal care for people with chronic psychotic symptoms in a group of San living in poor socioeconomic circumstances in a township near Kimberley, Northern Cape, South Africa. Data were collected in 2013 and 2014 and included semi-structured interviews, informal conversations and observations. Using local terminology, four individuals with chronic psychotic symptoms were identified and selected during the research process. A total of 33 semi-structured interviews took place with their caregivers. Data were analysed using descriptive, interpretive and pattern coding to identify core themes and interrelations across the four cases. Results indicate that informal care is characterised by shared and fragmented care structures. Care was shared among family members from various households and unrelated community members. This allowed for an adaptive process that responded to local dynamics and the care recipients' needs. However, informal care was fragmented as it was generally uncoordinated, which increased the recipients' vulnerability as caregivers could redirect care-giving responsibility and withdraw care. Specific challenges for providing care were related to poverty and care resistance. To improve the living conditions of people suffering from psychosis-related mental health problems, community-based mental healthcare should broaden its scope and incorporate local strengths and challenges.

  13. Symptom Burden of Chronic Lung Disease Compared with Lung Cancer at Time of Referral for Palliative Care Consultation.

    PubMed

    Wysham, Nicholas G; Cox, Christopher E; Wolf, Steven P; Kamal, Arif H

    2015-09-01

    A growing evidence base supports provision of palliative care services alongside life-prolonging care. Whereas palliative care processes have been implemented widely in the care of patients with lung cancer, the same is not true for patients with chronic, progressive lung disease. To compare the symptom burden of chronic lung disease with that of lung cancer at the time of initial palliative care consultation. Data were abstracted from the Carolinas Palliative Care Consortium's Quality Data Collection Tool, an electronic database used by seven academic and community palliative care practices in multiple states for quality improvement purposes. We analyzed data derived from first palliative care encounters collected during a 2-year period, including the primary diagnosis of chronic lung disease or lung cancer, unresolved symptoms, setting of initial palliative care encounter, Palliative Performance Scale status, and on that basis we estimated prognosis for survival. We compared key clinical variables between chronic lung disease and lung cancer using Kruskal-Wallis and χ(2) tests. We identified 152 patients with lung cancer and 86 patients with chronic lung disease. Of the total sample, 53% were women and 87% were white. Patients with chronic lung disease were more likely than those with lung cancer to have the initial palliative care encounter occur in the intensive care unit (17% vs. 6%; P = 0.005) and less likely as an outpatient (20% vs. 56%; P < 0.0001). Patients with chronic lung disease were also less likely to have a high Palliative Performance Scale status (14% vs. 30%; P = 0.009) but more likely to have an estimated prognosis for survival longer than 6 months (51% vs. 28%; P = 0.002). The most prevalent symptoms were dyspnea (55% vs. 42%) and pain (40% vs. 52%), neither of which differed between groups (P = 0.08). Patients with chronic lung disease have symptom burdens similar to those of patients with lung cancer at the time of first

  14. Stepped care for depression and anxiety: from primary care to specialized mental health care: a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of a stepped care program among primary care patients with mood or anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Seekles, Wike; van Straten, Annemieke; Beekman, Aartjan; van Marwijk, Harm; Cuijpers, Pim

    2009-01-01

    Background Mood and anxiety disorders are highly prevalent and have a large impact on the lives of the affected individuals. Therefore, optimal treatment of these disorders is highly important. In this study we will examine the effectiveness of a stepped care program for primary care patients with mood and anxiety disorders. A stepped care program is characterized by different treatment steps that are arranged in order of increasing intensity. Methods This study is a randomised controlled trial with two conditions: stepped care and care as usual, whereby the latter forms the control group. The stepped care program consists of four evidence based interventions: (1) Watchful waiting, (2) Guided self-help, (3) Problem Solving Treatment and (4) Medication and/or specialized mental health care. The study population consists of primary care attendees aged 18–65 years. Screeners are sent to all patients of the participating general practitioners. Individuals with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM) diagnosis of major depression, dysthymia, panic disorder (with or without agoraphobia), generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia are included as well as individuals with minor depression and anxiety disorders. Primary focus is the reduction of depressive and anxiety symptoms. Both conditions are monitored at 8, 16 and 24 weeks. Discussion This study evaluates the effectiveness of a stepped care program for patients with depressive and anxiety disorder. If effective, a stepped care program can form a worthwhile alternative for care as usual. Strengths and limitations of this study are discussed. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trails: ISRCTN17831610. PMID:19500346

  15. Assessing medically unexplained symptoms: evaluation of a shortened version of the SOMS for use in primary care

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background To investigate the validity and stability of a Portuguese version for the Screening for Somatoform Symptoms-2 (SOMS-2) in primary care (PC) settings. Methods An adapted version of the SOMS-2 was filled in by persons attending a PC unit. All medically unexplained symptoms were further ascertained in a clinical interview and by contacting the patient's physicians and examining medical records, attaining a final clinical symptom evaluation (FCSE). An interview yielded the diagnosis of Clinical Somatization (CS) and the diagnosis of current depressive and anxiety disorders. Results From the eligible subjects, 167 agreed to participate and 34.1% of them were diagnosed with somatization. The correlation between the number of self-reported and FCSE symptoms was 0.63. After excluding symptoms with low frequency, low discriminative power and not correlated with the overall scale, 29 were retained in the final version. A cut-off of 4 symptoms gave a sensitivity of 86.0% and a specificity of 95.5% on the FCSE and 56.1% and 93.6% at self-report. Stability in the number of symptoms after 6 months was good (k = 0.57). Conclusions The 29 symptoms version of the SOMS-2 with a cut-off of 4 showed a high specificity and sensitivity, being reliable as a referral tool for further specialized diagnosis. PMID:20478053

  16. Disability and Psychiatric Symptoms in Men Referred for Treatment with Work-Related Problems to Primary Mental Health Care.

    PubMed

    Bailey, S Kathleen; Mushquash, Christopher J; Haggarty, John M

    2017-03-24

    The relationship between male sex and employment as barriers to accessing mental health care is unclear. The aim of this research was to examine (1) whether the clinical features of men referred to a shared mental health care (SMHC) service through primary care differed when symptoms were affecting them in the work domain; and (2) empirically re-evaluate the effectiveness of a SMHC model for work-related disability using a pre-post chart review of N = 3960 referrals to SMHC. ANOVA and logistic regression were performed to examine symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ) and disability (World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, WHODAS 2) at entry and discharge. Men were RR (relative risk) = 1.8 (95% C.I.: 1.60-2.05) times more likely to be referred to SMHC with work problems than women. Having greater disability and more severe somatic symptoms increased the likelihood of a work-related referral. There were no significant differences after treatment. Problems in the work domain may play an important role in men's treatment seeking and clinicians' recognition of a mental health care need. This study is relevant because men are underrepresented in mental health (MH) treatment and primary care is the main gateway to accessing MH care. Asking men about functioning in the work domain may increase access to helpful psychiatric services.

  17. Minimally adequate mental health care and latent classes of PTSD symptoms in female Iraq and Afghanistan veterans.

    PubMed

    Hebenstreit, Claire L; Madden, Erin; Koo, Kelly H; Maguen, Shira

    2015-11-30

    Female veterans of Operations Enduring and Iraqi Freedom, and Operation New Dawn (OEF/OIF/OND) represent a growing segment of Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) health care users. A retrospective analysis used national VA medical records to identify factors associated with female OEF/OIF/OND veterans' completion of minimally adequate care (MAC) for PTSD, defined as the completion of at least nine mental health outpatient visits within a 15-week period or at least twelve consecutive weeks of medication use. The sample included female OEF/OIF/OND veterans with PTSD who initiated VA health care between 2007-2013, and were seen in outpatient mental health (N=2183). Multivariable logistic regression models examined factors associated with completing MAC for PTSD, including PTSD symptom expression (represented by latent class analysis), sociodemographic, military, clinical, and VA access factors. Within one year of initiating mental health care, 48.3% of female veterans completed MAC. Race/ethnicity, age, PTSD symptom class, additional psychiatric diagnoses, and VA primary care use were significantly associated with completion of MAC for PTSD. Results suggest that veterans presenting for PTSD treatment should be comprehensively evaluated to identify factors associated with inadequate completion of care. Treatments that are tailored to PTSD symptom class may help to address potential barriers. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  18. Maladaptive perfectionism as mediator among psychological control, eating disorders, and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

    PubMed

    Costa, Sebastiano; Hausenblas, Heather A; Oliva, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-03-01

    Background and aims The current study examined the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism among parental psychological control, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms by gender in habitual exercisers. Methods Participants were 348 Italian exercisers (n = 178 men and n = 170 women; M age = 20.57, SD = 1.13) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing their parental psychological control, maladaptive perfectionism, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms. Results Results of the present study confirmed the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism for eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms for the male and female exercisers in the maternal data. In the paternal data, maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationships between paternal psychological control and eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms as full mediator for female participants and as partial mediator for male participants. Discussion Findings of the present study suggest that it may be beneficial to consider dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism and parental psychological control when studying eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser.

  19. Maladaptive perfectionism as mediator among psychological control, eating disorders, and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Sebastiano; Hausenblas, Heather A.; Oliva, Patrizia; Cuzzocrea, Francesca; Larcan, Rosalba

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims The current study examined the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism among parental psychological control, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms by gender in habitual exercisers. Methods Participants were 348 Italian exercisers (n = 178 men and n = 170 women; M age = 20.57, SD = 1.13) who completed self-report questionnaires assessing their parental psychological control, maladaptive perfectionism, eating disorder symptoms, and exercise dependence symptoms. Results Results of the present study confirmed the mediating role of maladaptive perfectionism for eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms for the male and female exercisers in the maternal data. In the paternal data, maladaptive perfectionism mediated the relationships between paternal psychological control and eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms as full mediator for female participants and as partial mediator for male participants. Discussion Findings of the present study suggest that it may be beneficial to consider dimensions of maladaptive perfectionism and parental psychological control when studying eating disorder and exercise dependence symptoms in habitual exerciser. PMID:28092194

  20. Improving Care for Patients with Dry Eye Symptoms: See What the Experts Say.

    PubMed

    Lin, Meng C; Polse, Kenneth A

    2015-09-01

    A panel of experts was invited to discuss the following questions: Why does the prevalence of dry eye disease (DED) appear to be increasing? Are you satisfied with the current definition and classification of DED-aqueous deficiency versus evaporative dry eye? Beyond the innate human factors (e.g., genetics), what external factors might contribute to DED? What areas related to DED need to be more fully understood? In examining a patient complaining of dry eye, what is your strategy (e.g., tests, questionnaire)? What is your strategy in unraveling the root cause of a patient's dry eye symptoms that may be shared by many anterior segment diseases? What are the two or three most common errors made by clinicians in diagnosing DED? Why do contact lens (CL) patients complain of dry eye while wearing lenses but not when not wearing lenses? What areas related to CL discomfort need to be more fully understood? What is your most effective strategy for minimizing CL discomfort? With current advances in biotechnology in dry eye diagnostics and management tools, do you think our clinicians are better prepared to diagnose and treat this chronic condition than they were 5 or 10 years ago? Do you foresee any of these new point-of-care tests becoming standard clinical tests in ocular surface evaluation? What treatments are effective for obstructed Meibomian glands secondary to lid margin keratinization? What level of DED would prevent you from recommending an elected ophthalmic surgery? What strategy do you use to help your patients comply with the recommended home therapies? How do you best manage patients whose severity of dry eye symptoms does not necessarily match clinical test results, especially in cases of ocular surface neuropathy? Where do you see dry eye diagnosis and treatment in 10 years or more?

  1. The role of perceived control over anxiety in prospective symptom reports across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Jennifer N; Rohan, Kelly J; Nillni, Yael I; Zvolensky, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    The present investigation tested the role of psychological vulnerabilities to anxiety in reported menstrual symptom severity. Specifically, the current study tested the incremental validity of perceived control over anxiety-related events in predicting menstrual symptom severity, controlling for the effect of anxiety sensitivity, a documented contributor to menstrual distress. It was expected that women with lower perceived control over anxiety-related events would report greater menstrual symptom severity, particularly in the premenstrual phase. A sample of 49 normally menstruating women, aged 18-47 years, each prospectively tracked their menstrual symptoms for one cycle and completed the Anxiety Control Questionnaire (Rapee, Craske, Brown, & Barlow Behav Ther 27:279-293. doi: 10.1016/S0005-7894(96)80018-9 , 1996) in their follicular and premenstrual phases. A mixed model analysis revealed perceived control over anxiety-related events was a more prominent predictor of menstrual symptom severity than anxiety sensitivity, regardless of the current cycle phase. This finding provides preliminary evidence that perceived control over anxiety-related events is associated with the perceived intensity of menstrual symptoms. This finding highlights the role of psychological vulnerabilities in menstrual distress. Future research should examine whether psychological interventions that target cognitive vulnerabilities to anxiety may help reduce severe menstrual distress.

  2. Vulnerability to stress, anxiety and depressive symptoms and metabolic control in Type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Vulnerability to stress has been associated to distress, emotional distress symptoms and metabolic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients as well. Furthermore some conflicting results were noticed. We aimed to evaluate the effect over metabolic control in what concerns vulnerability to stress beyond depressive and anxiety symptoms. Findings This cross-sectional study assessed 273 T2DM patients with depressive and anxiety symptoms using the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale (HADS) and the 23 Questions to assess Vulnerability to Stress (23QVS), along with demographic and clinical diabetes-related variables. Hierarchical logistic regression models were used to investigate predictors of poor glycemic control. The results showed an association of depressive symptoms (odds ratio = 1.12, 95%CI = 1.01-1.24, P = 0.030) with increased risk of poor glycemic control. Anxiety symptoms and vulnerability to stress on their own were not predictive of metabolic control, respectively (odds ratio = 0.92, 95%CI = 0.84-1.00, P = 0.187 and odds ratio = 0.98, 95%CI = 0.95-1.01, P = 0.282). Conclusions Our data suggested that vulnerability to stress was not predictive of poor glycemic control in T2DM, but depressive symptoms were. PMID:22676426

  3. Palliative Care: The Relief You Need When You're Experiencing Symptoms of Serious Illness

    MedlinePlus

    ... quality of life. Palliative care is different from hospice care. Palliative care is available to you at any ... include: • Will I have to give up my primary health care provider? • What do I say if ...

  4. [Symptom prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome in health-care providers in central Sivas].

    PubMed

    Doğan, Omer Tamer; Berk, Serdar; Ozşahin, Sefa Levent; Arslan, Sülhattin; Düzenli, Hasan; Akkurt, Ibrahim

    2008-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) is the most common sleep disorder that can lead to serious complications. Polysomnography (PSG) is the gold standard for the diagnosis of OSAHS. Unfortunately, PSG studies are expensive, time-consuming, requiring special team and equipment. Therefore, it is possible to determine the cases likely to have OSAHS requiring at least PSG by type A studies. There isn't enough data about the prevalence of OSAHS in Turkey. The aim of this study was to estimate the symptom prevalence of OSAHS in health-care providers in central Sivas. The questionnaire asking demographic features, additional diseases, habits, the symptoms related with OSAHS was performed in total of 1202 health care providers. We also performed Epworth sleepiness scale (ESS) to determine excessive daytime sleepiness. Snoring was detected in 267 participants. Snoring rates were 38% and 10.9% in men and in women, respectively. The rate of witnessed sleep apnea in all cases was 4.4% (n=53). Witnessed sleep apnea was reported by 42 of men (8.4%) and 11 of women (1.6%). A total of 338 participants had excessive daytime sleepiness. There was a significant relation between three major symptoms of OSAHS and excessive sleepiness while driving. All three major symptoms were detected in 22 cases (1.8%), of which 21 were males. This study suggested that OSAHS symptom prevalence is quite high helth-care provides in our region and, therefore expanded usage of PSG studies is required.

  5. Screening or Symptoms? How Do We Detect Colorectal Cancer in an Equal Access Health Care System?

    PubMed

    Hatch, Quinton M; Kniery, Kevin R; Johnson, Eric K; Flores, Shelly A; Moeil, David L; Thompson, John J; Maykel, Justin A; Steele, Scott R

    2016-02-01

    Detection of colorectal cancer ideally occurs at an early stage through proper screening. We sought to establish methods by which colorectal cancers are diagnosed within an equal access military health care population and evaluate the correlation between TNM stage at colorectal cancer diagnosis and diagnostic modality (i.e., symptomatic detection vs screen detection). A retrospective chart review of all newly diagnosed colorectal cancer patients from January 2007 to August 2014 was conducted at the authors' equal access military institution. We evaluated TNM stage relative to diagnosis by screen detection (fecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, CT colonography, colonoscopy) or symptomatic evaluation (diagnostic colonoscopy or surgery). Of 197 colorectal cancers diagnosed (59 % male; mean age 62 years), 50 (25 %) had stage I, 47 (24 %) had stage II, 70 (36 %) had stage III, and 30 (15 %) had stage IV disease. Twenty-five percent of colorectal cancers were detected via screen detection (3 % by fecal occult blood testing (FOBT), 0.5 % by screening CT colonography, 17 % by screening colonoscopy, and 5 % by surveillance colonoscopy). One hundred forty-eight (75 %) were diagnosed after onset of signs or symptoms. The preponderance of these was advanced-stage disease (stages III-IV), although >50 % of stage I-II disease also had signs or symptoms at diagnosis. The most common symptoms were rectal bleeding (45 %), abdominal pain (35 %), and change in stool caliber (27 %). The most common overall sign was anemia (60 %). Screening FOBT (odds ratio (OR) 8.7, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.0-78.3; P = 0.05) independently predicted early diagnosis with stage I-II disease. Patient gender and ethnicity were not associated with cancer stage at diagnosis. Despite equal access to colorectal cancer screening, diagnosis after development of symptomatic cancer remains more common. Fecal occult blood screen detection is associated with early stage at

  6. Patterns of symptom reporting during pregnancy comparing opioid maintained and control women.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Andrea L; Lopatko, Olga V; Stacey, Helen; Pearson, Vicki; Woods, Anna; Fisk, Ann; White, Jason M

    2012-12-01

    To characterize the range of symptoms experienced by pregnant methadone-maintained (MM) and buprenorphine-maintained (BM) women to determine whether these differ from those experienced by a control group of nonopioid exposed pregnant women. Opioid-maintained (OM) patients report high rates of symptoms related to direct opioid effects and withdrawal. Pregnancy is associated with a range of symptoms, some overlapping with opioid effects and withdrawal. Prospective, nonrandomized, open-label comparison study undertaken in a large teaching maternity hospital in South Australia. Pregnant BM (n = 25), MM (n = 25) and nonopioid exposed controls (n = 25) were recruited and matched for age, parity, gravidity, alcohol consumption, and smoking status. Symptom report patterns, maternal withdrawal, and additional substance use were assessed. MM women reported 10 and BM women reported 2 symptoms throughout pregnancy at rates greater than controls. Methadone-maintained women reported significantly (P < 0.05) more symptoms than BM women compared to controls throughout pregnancy. Methadone-maintained women reported 8 and BM women reported 3 symptoms in the third trimester at rates greater than controls. Methadone-maintained women reported greater opioid withdrawal than controls; this did not occur in BM women. Additional substance use was comparable between BM and MM women but greater than controls. Patterns of symptom reports may have clinical implications for maternal and fetal health during pregnancy for OM women including optimization of opioid dosing regimens, education regarding maternal nutritional intake and preventing postnatal depression, thereby ensuring maternal health and fetal development during pregnancy and enhancing mother-infant bonding and healthy child development postnatally.

  7. Symptoms and quality of life in patients with suspected angina undergoing CT coronary angiography: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Amanda; Shah, Anoop; Assi, Valentina; Lewis, Stephanie; Mangion, Kenneth; Berry, Colin; Boon, Nicholas A; Clark, Elizabeth; Flather, Marcus; Forbes, John; McLean, Scott; Roditi, Giles; van Beek, Edwin JR; Timmis, Adam D; Newby, David E

    2017-01-01

    Background In patients with suspected angina pectoris, CT coronary angiography (CTCA) clarifies the diagnosis, directs appropriate investigations and therapies, and reduces clinical events. The effect on patient symptoms is currently unknown. Methods In a prospective open-label parallel group multicentre randomised controlled trial, 4146 patients with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease were randomised 1:1 to receive standard care or standard care plus CTCA. Symptoms and quality of life were assessed over 6 months using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire and Short Form 12. Results Baseline scores indicated mild physical limitation (74±0.4), moderate angina stability (44±0.4), modest angina frequency (68±0.4), excellent treatment satisfaction (92±0.2) and moderate impairment of quality of life (55±0.3). Compared with standard care alone, CTCA was associated with less marked improvements in physical limitation (difference −1.74 (95% CIs, −3.34 to −0.14), p=0.0329), angina frequency (difference −1.55 (−2.85 to −0.25), p=0.0198) and quality of life (difference −3.48 (−4.95 to −2.01), p<0.0001) at 6 months. For patients undergoing CTCA, improvements in symptoms were greatest in those diagnosed with normal coronary arteries or who had their preventative therapy discontinued, and least in those with moderate non-obstructive disease or had a new prescription of preventative therapy (p<0.001 for all). Conclusions While improving diagnosis, treatment and outcome, CTCA is associated with a small attenuation of the improvements in symptoms and quality of life due to the detection of moderate non-obstructive coronary artery disease. Trial registration number: NCT01149590. PMID:28246175

  8. Symptoms and quality of life in patients with suspected angina undergoing CT coronary angiography: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Williams, Michelle C; Hunter, Amanda; Shah, Anoop; Assi, Valentina; Lewis, Stephanie; Mangion, Kenneth; Berry, Colin; Boon, Nicholas A; Clark, Elizabeth; Flather, Marcus; Forbes, John; McLean, Scott; Roditi, Giles; van Beek, Edwin Jr; Timmis, Adam D; Newby, David E

    2017-07-01

    In patients with suspected angina pectoris, CT coronary angiography (CTCA) clarifies the diagnosis, directs appropriate investigations and therapies, and reduces clinical events. The effect on patient symptoms is currently unknown. In a prospective open-label parallel group multicentre randomised controlled trial, 4146 patients with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease were randomised 1:1 to receive standard care or standard care plus CTCA. Symptoms and quality of life were assessed over 6 months using the Seattle Angina Questionnaire and Short Form 12. Baseline scores indicated mild physical limitation (74±0.4), moderate angina stability (44±0.4), modest angina frequency (68±0.4), excellent treatment satisfaction (92±0.2) and moderate impairment of quality of life (55±0.3). Compared with standard care alone, CTCA was associated with less marked improvements in physical limitation (difference -1.74 (95% CIs, -3.34 to -0.14), p=0.0329), angina frequency (difference -1.55 (-2.85 to -0.25), p=0.0198) and quality of life (difference -3.48 (-4.95 to -2.01), p<0.0001) at 6 months. For patients undergoing CTCA, improvements in symptoms were greatest in those diagnosed with normal coronary arteries or who had their preventative therapy discontinued, and least in those with moderate non-obstructive disease or had a new prescription of preventative therapy (p<0.001 for all). While improving diagnosis, treatment and outcome, CTCA is associated with a small attenuation of the improvements in symptoms and quality of life due to the detection of moderate non-obstructive coronary artery disease. NCT01149590. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. [Impact of an open waste disposal site on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms and on health care costs of children].

    PubMed

    Girón, Sandra Lorena; Mateus, Julio César; Méndez, Fabián

    2009-09-01

    Exposure to contaminants of waste disposal sites potentially has negative health effects on population living in close vicinity. However, the impact to the community in terms of illness and health care costs have not been documented in Colombia. To determine the effects of an open waste disposal site on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms in children 1-5 year old and on associated household care costs in Cali, Colombia. A cohort of 863 1-5 year old children was assembled-409 exposed to the site and 454 living more distant. Over a 6-month period, measurement of respiratory symptoms and estimates of associated costs were undertaken once a month by interviewing the mother or another adult responsible of child health. A longitudinal logistical analysis was used to determine the independent effect of the disposal site on the occurrence of respiratory symptoms. Differences in average costs between families of exposed and unexposed children were estimated by non-parametric bootstrap techniques. Exposure to the disposal site was associated with a larger probability of respiratory symptoms (odds ratio=1.37, 95%CI 1.17-1.60) and with higher household medical costs due to respiratory symptoms were on the average US$ 10.19 higher (95% US$ 2.63 - 16,82). Living in neighborhoods close to garbage disposal sites has negative effects on the respiratory health of children and results in increased family costs related to treatment of associated respiratory symptoms.

  10. The combination of health anxiety and somatic symptoms: Specificity to anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns among patients in primary care.

    PubMed

    Fergus, Thomas A; Kelley, Lance P; Griggs, Jackson O

    2016-05-30

    Prior research has found that health anxiety is related to poor patient outcomes in primary care settings. Health anxiety is characterized by at least two presentations: with either severe or no/mild somatic symptoms. Preliminary data indicate that anxiety sensitivity may be important for understanding the presentation of health anxiety with severe somatic symptoms. We further examined whether the combination of health anxiety and somatic symptoms was related to anxiety sensitivity. Participants were adults presenting for treatment at a community health center (N=538). As predicted, the interactive effect between health anxiety and somatic symptoms was associated with anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns. Health anxiety shared a stronger association with anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns when coupled with severe, relative to mild, somatic symptoms. Contrary to predictions, the interactive effect was not associated with the other dimensions of anxiety sensitivity. We discuss the potential relevancy of anxiety sensitivity cognitive concerns to the combined presentation of health anxiety and severe somatic symptoms, as well as how this dimension of anxiety sensitivity could be treated in primary care settings.

  11. The Longitudinal Relationship between the Use of Long-Term Care and Depressive Symptoms in Older Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pot, Anne Margriet; Deeg, Dorly J.H.; Twisk, Jos W.R.; Beekman, Aartjan T.F.; Zarit, Steven H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to estimate the longitudinal relationship between transitions in the use of long-term care and older adults' depressive symptoms and to investigate whether this relationship could be explained by markers of older adults' underlying health, or other variables including demographics, personality, and partner…

  12. Cumulative Risk Exposure and Mental Health Symptoms among Maltreated Youth Placed in Out-of-Home Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raviv, Tali; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Garrido, Edward F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Maltreated children placed in out-of-home care are at high risk for exhibiting symptoms of psychopathology by virtue of their exposure to numerous risk factors. Research examining cumulative risk has consistently found that the accumulation of risk factors increases the likelihood of mental health problems. The goal of the current study…

  13. Screening for Bipolar Disorder Symptoms in Depressed Primary Care Attenders: Comparison between Mood Disorder Questionnaire and Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32).

    PubMed

    Sasdelli, Anna; Lia, Loredana; Luciano, C Claudia; Nespeca, Claudia; Berardi, Domenico; Menchetti, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To describe the prevalence of patients who screen positive for bipolar disorder (BD) symptoms in primary care comparing two screening instruments: Mood Disorders Questionnaire (MDQ) and Hypomania Checklist (HCL-32). Participants. Adult patients presenting to their primary care practitioners for any cause and reporting current depression symptoms or a depressive episode in the last 6 months. Methods. Subjects completed MDQ and HCL-32, and clinical diagnosis was assessed by a psychiatrist following DSM-IV criteria. Depressive symptoms were evaluated in a subgroup with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9). Results. A total of 94 patients were approached to participate and 93 completed the survey. Among these, 8.9% screened positive with MDQ and 43.0% with HCL-32. MDQ positive had more likely features associated with BD: panic disorder and smoking habit (P < .05). The best test accuracy was performed by cut-off 5 for MDQ (sensitivity = .91; specificity = .67) and 15 for HCL-32 (sensitivity = .64; specificity = .57). Higher total score of PHQ-9 was related to higher total scores at the screening tests (P < .001). Conclusion. There is a significant prevalence of bipolar symptoms in primary care depressed patients. MDQ seems to have better accuracy and feasibility than HCL-32, features that fit well in the busy setting of primary care.

  14. Cumulative Risk Exposure and Mental Health Symptoms among Maltreated Youth Placed in Out-of-Home Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raviv, Tali; Taussig, Heather N.; Culhane, Sara E.; Garrido, Edward F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: Maltreated children placed in out-of-home care are at high risk for exhibiting symptoms of psychopathology by virtue of their exposure to numerous risk factors. Research examining cumulative risk has consistently found that the accumulation of risk factors increases the likelihood of mental health problems. The goal of the current study…

  15. An interprofessional nurse-led mental health promotion intervention for older home care clients with depressive symptoms

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Depressive symptoms in older home care clients are common but poorly recognized and treated, resulting in adverse health outcomes, premature institutionalization, and costly use of health services. The objectives of this study were to examine the feasibility and acceptability of a new six-month interprofessional (IP) nurse-led mental health promotion intervention, and to explore its effects on reducing depressive symptoms in older home care clients (≥ 70 years) using personal support services. Methods A prospective one-group pre-test/post-test study design was used. The intervention was a six-month evidence-based depression care management strategy led by a registered nurse that used an IP approach. Of 142 eligible consenting participants, 98 (69%) completed the six-month and 87 (61%) completed the one-year follow-up. Outcomes included depressive symptoms, anxiety, health-related quality of life (HRQoL), and the costs of use of all types of health services at baseline and six-month and one-year follow-up. An interpretive descriptive design was used to explore clients’, nurses’, and personal support workers’ perceptions about the intervention’s appropriateness, benefits, and barriers and facilitators to implementation. Results Of the 142 participants, 56% had clinically significant depressive symptoms, with 38% having moderate to severe symptoms. The intervention was feasible and acceptable to older home care clients with depressive symptoms. It was effective in reducing depressive symptoms and improving HRQoL at six-month follow-up, with small additional improvements six months after the intervention. The intervention also reduced anxiety at one year follow-up. Significant reductions were observed in the use of hospitalization, ambulance services, and emergency room visits over the study period. Conclusions Our findings provide initial evidence for the feasibility, acceptability, and sustained effects of the nurse-led mental health promotion

  16. Beyond utilization control: managing care with customers.

    PubMed

    Morath, J

    1998-01-01

    Allina Health System embarked on a rigorous process to better understand the customer's perception of care and service. The milestone for quality is the participation of the patient, member, and family in the health care system to determine care and service quality. The challenge for those in health care is to understand and manage the complex cultural changes this inclusion implies.

  17. Investigation of anxiety and depression symptom co-morbidity in a community sample with type 2 diabetes: Associations with indicators of self-care.

    PubMed

    Smith, Kimberley J; Pedneault, Maxime; Schmitz, Norbert

    2016-03-16

    Ascertain the association of elevated co-occurring anxiety and depression symptoms, elevated anxiety symptoms alone or elevated depression symptoms alone with indicators of self-care behaviours in people with type 2 diabetes. Data from a community sample of 1,990 people diagnosed with type 2 diabetes for less than 10 years were assessed. All participants took part in a telephone interview. Questionnaires examined depression, anxiety, health, and indicators of self-care (physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, diet and smoking). Data were assessed with cross tabulations, ANOVA and logistic regression. Groups who met criteria for elevated co-occurring anxiety and depression symptoms, elevated anxiety symptoms and elevated depression symptoms were more likely to report poor eating habits. Meeting criteria for either elevated depression symptoms (with and without anxiety) was also associated with an increased likelihood of not meeting physical activity recommendations. Those people with elevated depression and anxiety scores were more likely to be a current smoker. Those people who meet criteria for elevated anxiety and/or depression symptoms are less likely to report adhering to self-care recommendations. These associations are particularly marked in those people with elevated depression symptoms with or without co-occurring anxiety symptoms. There is a lot of evidence emphasising the importance of monitoring depressive symptoms in people with diabetes. Our results add to this, indicating that adherence to self-care recommendations should be carefully monitored in people with depression and anxiety symptoms.

  18. Examining Depressive Symptoms and Their Predictors in Malaysia: Stress, Locus of Control, and Occupation

    PubMed Central

    Yeoh, Si H.; Tam, Cai L.; Wong, Chee P.; Bonn, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The 2015 National Health and Morbidity Survey estimated that over 29% of the adult population of Malaysia suffers from mental distress, a nearly 3-fold increase from the 10.7% estimated by the NHMS in 1996 pointing to the potential beginnings of a public health crisis. This study aimed to better understand this trend by assessing depressive symptoms and their correlates in a cross-section of Malaysians. Specifically, it assesses stress, perceived locus of control, and various socio-demographic variables as possible predictors of depressive symptoms in the Malaysian context. A total of 728 adults from three Malaysian states (Selangor, Penang, Terengganu) completed Beck’s depression inventory as well as several other measures: 10% of respondents reported experiencing severe levels of depressive symptoms, 11% reported moderate and 15% reported mild depressive symptoms indicating that Malaysians are experiencing high levels of emotional distress. When controlling for the influence of other variables, depressive symptoms were predictably related to higher levels of stress and lower levels of internal locus of control. Ethnic Chinese Malaysians, housewives and those engaged in professional-type occupations reported less depressive symptoms. Business owners reported more depressive symptoms. Further research should look more into Malaysians’ subjective experience of stress and depression as well as explore environmental factors that may be contributing to mental health issues. It is argued that future policies can be designed to better balance individual mental health needs with economic growth. PMID:28878710

  19. Examining Depressive Symptoms and Their Predictors in Malaysia: Stress, Locus of Control, and Occupation.

    PubMed

    Yeoh, Si H; Tam, Cai L; Wong, Chee P; Bonn, Gregory

    2017-01-01

    The 2015 National Health and Morbidity Survey estimated that over 29% of the adult population of Malaysia suffers from mental distress, a nearly 3-fold increase from the 10.7% estimated by the NHMS in 1996 pointing to the potential beginnings of a public health crisis. This study aimed to better understand this trend by assessing depressive symptoms and their correlates in a cross-section of Malaysians. Specifically, it assesses stress, perceived locus of control, and various socio-demographic variables as possible predictors of depressive symptoms in the Malaysian context. A total of 728 adults from three Malaysian states (Selangor, Penang, Terengganu) completed Beck's depression inventory as well as several other measures: 10% of respondents reported experiencing severe levels of depressive symptoms, 11% reported moderate and 15% reported mild depressive symptoms indicating that Malaysians are experiencing high levels of emotional distress. When controlling for the influence of other variables, depressive symptoms were predictably related to higher levels of stress and lower levels of internal locus of control. Ethnic Chinese Malaysians, housewives and those engaged in professional-type occupations reported less depressive symptoms. Business owners reported more depressive symptoms. Further research should look more into Malaysians' subjective experience of stress and depression as well as explore environmental factors that may be contributing to mental health issues. It is argued that future policies can be designed to better balance individual mental health needs with economic growth.

  20. Posttraumatic Psychological Symptoms are Associated with Reduced Inhibitory Control, not General Executive Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    DeGutis, Joseph; Esterman, Michael; McCulloch, Bay; Rosenblatt, Andrew; Milberg, William; McGlinchey, Regina

    2015-05-01

    Although there is mounting evidence that greater PTSD symptoms are associated with reduced executive functioning, it is not fully understood whether this association is more global or specific to certain executive function subdomains, such as inhibitory control. We investigated the generality of the association between PTSD symptoms and executive function by administering a broad battery of sensitive executive functioning tasks to a cohort of returning Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans with varying PTSD symptoms. Only tasks related to inhibitory control explained significant variance in PTSD symptoms as well as symptoms of depression, while measures of working memory, measures of switching, and measures simultaneously assessing multiple executive function subdomains did not. Notably, the two inhibitory control measures that showed the highest correlation with PTSD and depressive symptoms, measures of response inhibition and distractor suppression, explained independent variance. These findings suggest that greater posttraumatic psychological symptoms are not associated with a general decline in executive functioning but rather are more specifically related to stopping automatic responses and resisting internal and external distractions.

  1. Trajectory Pathways for Depressive Symptoms and Their Associated Factors in a Chinese Primary Care Cohort by Growth Mixture Modelling

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background The naturalistic course for patients suffering from depressive disorders can be quite varied. Whilst some remit with little or no intervention, others may suffer a more prolonged course of symptoms. The aim of this study was to identify trajectory patterns for depressive symptoms in a Chinese primary care cohort and their associated factors. Methods and Results A 12-month cohort study was conducted. Patients recruited from 59 primary care clinics across Hong Kong were screened for depressive symptoms using the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) and monitored over 12 months using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 items (PHQ-9) administered at 12, 26 and 52 weeks. 721 subjects were included for growth mixture modelling analysis. Using Akaike Information Criterion, Bayesian Information Criterion, Entropy and Lo-Mendell-Rubin adjusted likelihood ratio test, a seven-class trajectory path model was identified. Over 12 months, three trajectory groups showed improvement in depressive symptoms, three remained static, whilst one deteriorated. A mild severity of depressive symptoms with gradual improvement was the most prevalent trajectory identified. Multivariate, multinomial regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with each trajectory. Risk factors associated with chronicity included: female gender; not married; not in active employment; presence of multiple chronic disease co-morbidities; poor self-rated general health; and infrequent health service use. Conclusions Whilst many primary care patients may initially present with a similar severity of depressive symptoms, their course over 12 months can be quite heterogeneous. Although most primary care patients improve naturalistically over 12 months, many do not remit and it is important for doctors to be able to identify those who are at risk of chronicity. Regular follow-up and greater treatment attention is recommended for patients at risk of chronicity. PMID:26829330

  2. Violence at work and depressive symptoms in primary health care teams: a cross-sectional study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Andréa Tenório Correia; Peres, Maria Fernanda Tourinho; Lopes, Claudia de Souza; Schraiber, Lilia Blima; Susser, Ezra; Menezes, Paulo Rossi

    2015-09-01

    Implementation of primary care has long been a priority in low- and middle-income countries. Violence at work may hamper progress in this field. Hence, we examined the associations between violence at work and depressive symptoms/major depression in primary care teams (physicians, nurses, nursing assistants, and community health workers). A cross-sectional study was undertaken in the city of Sao Paulo, Brazil. We assessed a random sample of Family Health Program teams. We investigated depressive symptoms and major depression using the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9), and exposure to violence at work in the previous 12 months using a standardized questionnaire. Associations between exposure to violence and depressive symptoms/major depression were analyzed using multinomial logistic regression. Of 3141 eligible workers, 2940 (93 %) completed the interview. Of these, 36.3 % (95 % CI 34.6-38.1) presented intermediate depressive symptoms, and 16 % (95 % CI 14.6-17.2), probable major depression. The frequencies of exposure to the different types of violence at work were: insults (44.9 %), threats (24.8 %), physical aggression (2.3 %), and witnessing violence (29.5 %). These exposures were strongly and progressively associated with depressive symptoms (adjusted odds ratio 1.67 for exposure to one type of violence; and 5.10 for all four types), and probable major depression (adjusted odds ratio 1.84 for one type; and 14.34 for all four types). Primary care workers presenting depressive symptoms and those who have experienced violence at work should be assisted. Policy makers should prioritize strategies to prevent these problems, since they can threaten primary care sustainability.

  3. A trajectory-based approach to understand the factors associated with persistent depressive symptoms in primary care.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Jane; Elliott, Peter; Densley, Konstancja; Middleton, Aves; Ambresin, Gilles; Dowrick, Christopher; Herrman, Helen; Hegarty, Kelsey; Gilchrist, Gail; Griffiths, Frances

    2013-06-01

    Depression screening in primary care yields high numbers. Knowledge of how depressive symptoms change over time is limited, making decisions about type, intensity, frequency and length of treatment and follow-up difficult. This study is aimed to identify depressive symptom trajectories and associated socio-demographic, co-morbidity, health service use and treatment factors to inform clinical care. 789 people scoring 16 or more on the CES-D recruited from 30 randomly selected Australian family practices. Depressive symptoms are measured using PHQ-9 at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Growth mixture modelling identified a five-class trajectory model as the best fitting (lowest Bayesian Information Criterion): three groups were static (mild (n=532), moderate (n=138) and severe (n=69)) and two were dynamic (decreasing severity (n=32) and increasing severity (n=18)). The mild symptom trajectory was the most common (n=532). The severe symptom trajectory group (n=69) differed significantly from the mild symptom trajectory group on most variables. The severe and moderate groups were characterised by high levels of disadvantage, abuse, morbidity and disability. Decreasing and increasing severity trajectory classes were similar on most variables. Adult only cohort, self-report measures. Most symptom trajectories remained static, suggesting that depression, as it presents in primary care, is not always an episodic disorder. The findings indicate future directions for building prognostic models to distinguish those who are likely to have a mild course from those who are likely to follow more severe trajectories. Determining appropriate clinical responses based upon a likely depression course requires further research. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Health care providers' use and knowledge of the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS): is there a need to improve information and training?

    PubMed

    Carli Buttenschoen, Daniela; Stephan, Jarad; Watanabe, Sharon; Nekolaichuk, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    The ESAS is a clinical symptom assessment tool developed for patients receiving palliative care for pain and symptom control. Recent studies have indicated that patients have difficulty understanding terminology and correct use of the ESAS, and that they appreciate the presence of a health care provider (HCP) to assist with ESAS completion. As appropriate assessment translates into effective treatment, it is important that HCPs have a good understanding of the tool. The purpose of this study was to assess HCPs' use, knowledge, and training needs of the ESAS. One hundred ninety-three HCPs in palliative care and chronic pain, who used the ESAS, were invited to participate in a survey. The response rate was 43 % (n = 83), with 62 % nurses, 26 % physicians, and 12 % other specialties. Most participants were palliative care specialists (79 %). The majority (77 %) had a good understanding of the ESAS terms. Knowledge problems included distinguishing tiredness and drowsiness (25 %), interpreting shortness of breath as a combination of subjective and objective symptoms (19 %), not indicating current symptom level (14 %), and reverse scoring of well-being (13 %) and appetite (9 %). Reported challenges were misinterpretation of some ESAS terms, assessing patients with impaired communication, and lack of time and reliability of caregiver assessments. Participants offered suggestions regarding how their knowledge and use of the ESAS could be improved. Suggestions for improving ESAS administration and training were to include term definitions and examples of how to ask about terms that might be challenging for patients. Furthermore, initial and ongoing training sessions might help to clarify issues with the tool.

  5. Screening for impulse control symptoms in patients with de novo Parkinson disease

    PubMed Central

    Papay, Kimberly; Siderowf, Andrew

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To determine the frequency and correlates of impulse control and related behavior symptoms in patients with de novo, untreated Parkinson disease (PD) and healthy controls (HCs). Methods: The Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative is an international, multisite, case-control clinical study conducted at 21 academic movement disorders centers. Participants were recently diagnosed, untreated PD patients (n = 168) and HCs (n = 143). The outcome measures were presence of current impulse control and related behavior symptoms based on recommended cutoff points for the Questionnaire for Impulsive-Compulsive Disorders in Parkinson's Disease (QUIP)-Short Form. Results: There were 311 participants with complete QUIP data. Frequencies of impulse control and related behavior symptoms for patients with PD vs HCs were as follows: gambling (1.2% vs 0.7%), buying (3.0% vs 2.1%), sexual behavior (4.2% vs 3.5%), eating (7.1% vs 10.5%), punding (4.8% vs 2.1%), hobbyism (5.4% vs 11.9%), walkabout (0.6% vs 0.7%), and any impulse control or related behavior (18.5% vs 20.3%). In multivariable models, a diagnosis of PD was not associated with symptoms of any impulse control or related behavior (p ≥ 0.10 in all cases). Conclusions: PD itself does not seem to confer an increased risk for development of impulse control or related behavior symptoms, which further reinforces the reported association between PD medications and impulse control disorders in PD. Given that approximately 20% of patients with newly diagnosed PD report some impulse control or related behavior symptoms, long-term follow-up is needed to determine whether such patients are at increased risk for impulse control disorder development once PD medications are initiated. PMID:23296128

  6. A pilot trial of acceptance and commitment therapy for symptoms of depression and anxiety in older adults residing in long-term care facilities.

    PubMed

    Davison, Tanya E; Eppingstall, Barbara; Runci, Susannah; O'Connor, Daniel W

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and acceptability of a psychological intervention based on acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) to improve symptoms of depression and anxiety among older adults living in long-term care. Forty one residents aged between 63 and 97 years (M = 85.3 years) participated in this study. Residents were allocated to receive either a 12 session ACT intervention implemented by trainee psychology therapists or a wait-list control group. Measures of depression and anxiety were collected at baseline and 8 week post-intervention, and residents who received the intervention were tracked for three months. A treatment satisfaction questionnaire was administered to residents who received the intervention and a sample of 10 facility staff members. Using an intention to treat approach and controlling for baseline scores, scores on depression measures were significantly lower after the ACT intervention than after the wait-list control. These outcomes were maintained at three-month follow-up. Treatment satisfaction was rated highly by both residents and their care staff. This preliminary trial suggests that ACT shows promise as a therapeutic approach to address symptoms of depression in long-term care.

  7. Prevalence of symptoms at the end of life in an acute care hospital: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Kobewka, Daniel; Ronksley, Paul; McIsaac, Dan; Mulpuru, Sunita; Forster, Alan

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is currently debate over the benefits and harms of physician-assisted death. One of the factors influencing this debate is concern about symptoms in the days before death. The objective of this study was to describe the frequency of symptoms before death and determine patient characteristics associated with these symptoms. Methods: We reviewed the medical record of every patient who died at a multisite academic teaching hospital over a 3-month period. We determined the number of episodes of pain, dyspnea, agitation and nausea during the final 48 hours of life and assessed the patient and encounter characteristics associated with 2 or more episodes of symptoms. Results: A total of 480 patients died during the study period. Of these patients, 29.2% (140/480) had 2 or more symptoms in the final 48 hours of life. Higher Elixhauser comorbidity scores (relative risk [RR] 1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.23-1.49), having a family doctor (RR 2.33, 95% CI 1.02-5.38), being admitted to the medical oncology service (RR 1.51, 95% CI 1.11-2.05) and having a documented order for no resuscitation written early during the stay in hospital (RR 1.38, 95% CI 1.01-1.89) were independently associated with symptoms. Admission to intensive care was associated with fewer symptoms (RR 0.39, CI 95% 0.19-0.80). Interpretation: Symptoms are common in the final 48 hours of life, particularly in patients with multimorbidity who want limitations on the aggressiveness of their care. An integrated palliative approach is needed for select at-risk patients. PMID:28401138

  8. Clinical Use of Cannabinoids for Symptom Control in Multiple Sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Notcutt, William G

    2015-10-01

    The endocannabinoid system was discovered in 1988 but has received little attention for its potential therapeutic possibilities. That has started to change, and since 2000, a significant number of clinical trials of cannabinoids, principally for the control of spasticity in multiple sclerosis, have been undertaken. These studies have been difficult because of the nature of the disease and have involved patients for whom other therapies have failed or proved inadequate. This paper outlines the background to the use of cannabinoids available and discusses the principles of practice associated with their safe use. The focus has been on nabiximols, being the most studied and the only cannabinoid that has been both adequately researched for use in multiple sclerosis and granted a license by the regulators. However, what has emerged is that the effect for many patients can be much wider than just control of spasticity. Within and outside of neurology there seems to be an expanding range of possibilities for the therapeutic use of cannabinoids.