Zaugg, Vincent; Savoldelli, Virginie; Sabatier, Brigitte; Durieux, Pierre
Interventions designed to improve professional practices and healthcare organization are regularly implemented in all health systems. Their effectiveness on quality of care should be properly evaluated prior to their widespread implementation. Intervention studies can be conducted for this purpose according to a rigorous methodology in order to provide results with a good level of evidence. This article describes the main phases of an intervention study, including definition of the intervention, choice of study design, outcomes assessment, and writing of the report. It also addresses methodological issues of intervention studies designed to improve quality of care, such as cluster-randomization or the use of quasi-experimental designs. One of the specific features of these studies is that professionals are the targets, while patients are the beneficiaries of the intervention. A good knowledge of the specific features of studies designed to improve quality of care is essential to conduct research, or to evaluate the quality of the evidence from published studies.
Vantard, N; Ranchon, F; Schwiertz, V; Gourc, C; Gauthier, N; Guedat, M-G; He, S; Kiouris, E; Alloux, C; You, B; Souquet, P-J; Freyer, G; Salles, G; Trillet-Lenoir, V; Rioufol, C
In cancer care, clinical pharmacists contribute to improving prevention and management of drug-related problems (DRPs). The 3-year EPICC study (Evaluation of Pharmaceutical Intervention in Cancer Care) aimed to collect and analyse pharmaceutical interventions (PIs) in oncology. The free online version of the French Society of Clinical Pharmacy (SFPC) coding system, ACT-IP, was used, supplemented by a standardized dedicated cancer-care decision tree. A total of 29,589 medication orders (77,004 anticancer drug preparations) were analysed. Eight hundred and ninety-four PIs were recorded. ACT-IP identified 54·1% of DRPs as concerning over- or underdosage. The standardized dedicated cancer-care decision tree identified the three principal causes of dosage problems: 50·2% due to miscalculation, 20% to omission of dose adjustment and 12% to poor choice of antineoplastic regimen. About 13·8% of DRPs were adverse effects and 3·9% were drug-drug interactions. The decision tree showed that 22% of adverse events could be circumvented by a switch within the same drug family and 72% of drug-drug interactions would have led to increased neoplastic toxicity. Pharmaceutical analysis of prescription forms contributes to medication safety in cancer care, and the present dedicated decision tree highlights additional information about DRPs and PIs. The DRP rate (3% of prescriptions) was consistent with the literature. The pharmacist has a role to play in optimizing the management of patients with cancer in terms of dose adjustment, drug toxicity management, improvement of administration and drug-drug interactions. This study, highlighting PIs in cancer care, is the first of this scale in terms of number of prescriptions analysed (nearly 30 000). Results demonstrated the specificity of DRPs and PIs for patients with cancer and the value of a dedicated coding system in cancer care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Swinnen, Aagje M C
The personhood movement in dementia research has established the theoretical foundation for implementing cultural arts interventions in care practices. The underlying assumption is that professionals from the visual and the performance arts are well equipped to see the person behind the condition and to focus on possibilities for meaningful relationships in the here and now. This article focuses on poetry interventions as one example of cultural arts interventions. The use of poetry might seem counterintuitive, given that people with dementia lose their language abilities and that poetry is regarded to be the most complex literary form. I will argue that expanding on existing research on poetry interventions from a health and science perspective with a humanities approach will help illuminate how poetry works to enhance the exchange with people with dementia. Drawing on participant observations of poetry interventions by Gary Glazner (Alzheimer's Poetry Project, USA) at the New York Memory Center, I will frame poetry interventions as a specific form of oral poetry in which people with dementia are positioned as cocreators of embodied texts and directly benefit from the power of the spoken word.
Benjamin Neelon, S E; Østbye, T; Hales, D; Vaughn, A; Ward, D S
Obesity prevention in young children is a public health priority. In the USA, nearly 10% of children less than 5 years of age are obese, and most attend some form of out-of-home child care. While a number of interventions have been conducted in early care and education settings, few have targeted the youngest children in care or the less formal types of child care like family child care homes. Additionally, only two previous studies provided recommendations to help inform future interventions. This paper presents lessons learned from two distinct intervention studies in early care and education settings to help guide researchers and public health professionals interested in implementing and evaluating similar interventions. We highlight two studies: one targeting children ages 4 to 24 months in child care centres and the other intervening in children 18 months to 4 years in family child care homes. We include lessons from our pilot studies and the ongoing larger trials. To date, our experiences suggest that an intervention should have a firm basis in behaviour change theory; an advisory group should help evaluate intervention materials and plan for delivery; and realistic recruitment goals should recognize economic challenges of the business of child care. A flexible data collection approach and realistic sample size calculations are needed because of high rates of child (and sometimes facility) turnover. An intervention that is relatively easy to implement is more likely to appeal to a wide variety of early care and education providers. Interventions to prevent obesity in early care and education have the potential to reach large numbers of children. It is important to consider the unique features and similarities of centres and family child care homes and take advantage of lessons learned from current studies in order to develop effective, evidence-based interventions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bourgeois, Nicole; Brauer, Paula; Simpson, Janis Randall; Kim, Susie; Haines, Jess
Background: Preventing childhood obesity is a public health priority, and primary care is an important setting for early intervention. Authors of a recent national guideline have identified a need for effective primary care interventions for obesity prevention and that parent perspectives on interventions are notably absent from the literature. Our objective was to determine the perspectives of primary care clinicians and parents of children 2-5 years of age on the implementation of an obesity prevention intervention within team-based primary care to inform intervention implementation. Methods: We conducted focus groups with interprofessional primary care clinicians (n = 40) and interviews with parents (n = 26). Participants were asked about facilitators and barriers to, and recommendations for implementing a prevention program in primary care. Data were recorded and transcribed, and we used directed content analysis to identify major themes. Results: Barriers existed to addressing obesity-related behaviours in this age group and included a gap in well-child primary care between ages 18 months and 4-5 years, lack of time and sensitivity of the topic. Trust and existing relationships with primary care clinicians were facilitators to program implementation. Offering separate programs for parents and children, and addressing both general parenting topics and obesity-related behaviours were identified as desirable. Interpretation: Despite barriers to addressing obesity-related behaviours within well-child primary care, both clinicians and parents expressed interest in interventions in primary care settings. Next steps should include pilot studies to identify feasible strategies for intervention implementation. PMID:27398363
Ílvia Caldeira, S; Timmins, Fiona
This article, the third and final in a series of three, discusses the implementation of spiritual care interventions by nurses. It describes how nurses can use clinical reasoning and the nursing process to implement appropriate spiritual care for patients, and outlines the competencies necessary to identify spiritual distress and meet the spiritual needs of patients. Spiritual care interventions are discussed as part of a multidisciplinary team approach to the provision of holistic care.
Aust, Birgit; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann
Targeting occupational health and safety interventions to different groups of employees and sectors is important. The aim of this study was to explore the environment-intervention fit of a Danish psychosocial work environment intervention program for the residential and home care sector. Focus group interviews with employees and interviews with mangers were conducted at 12 selected workplaces and a questionnaire survey was conducted with managers at all 115 workplaces. The interventions enhanced the probability of employees experiencing more “good” work days, where they could make a difference to the lives of clients. The interventions may therefore be characterized as culturally compelling and having a good fit with the immediate work environment of employees. The interventions furthermore seemed to fit well with the wider organizational environment and with recent changes in the societal and economic context of workplaces. However, some workplaces had difficulties with involving all employees and adapting the interventions to the organization of work. The findings suggest that flexibility and a variety of strategies to involve all employees are important aspects, if interventions are to fit well with the care sector. The focus on employees' conceptualization of a “good” work day may be useful for intervention research in other sectors. PMID:26380356
Vedel, Isabelle; De Stampa, Matthieu; Bergman, Howard; Ankri, Joel; Cassou, Bernard; Blanchard, François; Lapointe, Liette
Background In order to increase the chances of success in new interventions in healthcare, it is generally recommended to tailor the intervention to the target setting and the target professionals. Nonetheless, pre-intervention studies are rarely conducted or are very limited in scope. Moreover, little is known about how to integrate the results of a pre-intervention study into an intervention. As part of a project to develop an intervention aimed at improving care for the elderly in France, a pre-intervention study was conducted to systematically gather data on the current practices, issues, and expectations of healthcare professionals and managers in order to determine the defining features of a successful intervention. Methods A qualitative study was carried out from 2004 to 2006 using a grounded theory approach and involving a purposeful sample of 56 healthcare professionals and managers in Paris, France. Four sources of evidence were used: interviews, focus groups, observation, and documentation. Results The stepwise approach comprised three phases, and each provided specific results. In the first step of the pre-intervention study, we gathered data on practices, perceived issues, and expectations of healthcare professionals and managers. The second step involved holding focus groups in order to define the characteristics of a tailor-made intervention. The third step allowed validation of the findings. Using this approach, we were able to design and develop an intervention in elderly care that met the professionals' and managers' expectations. Conclusion This article reports on an in-depth pre-intervention study that led to the design and development of an intervention in partnership with local healthcare professionals and managers. The stepwise approach represents an innovative strategy for developing tailored interventions, particularly in complex domains such as chronic care. It highlights the usefulness of seeking out the insight of healthcare
Green, Lisa M; Ratcliffe, Desi; Masters, Kathleen; Story, Lachel
The purpose of this study was to determine whether nurses could use a structured intervention to educate patients with wounds about foods that promote healing and whether this educational intervention could be provided in a cost-effective manner. Cross-sectional survey. The study was conducted at an outpatient wound care center located on a hospital campus in the Southern United States; 3 full-time nurses and 2 nurses employed on part-time status delivered the intervention. A nutrition education intervention was developed through collaborative efforts of a registered dietitian and a nurse. A cross-sectional survey design was used to (1) evaluate nurses' perceptions of the intervention and (2) identify barriers to implementation of the intervention. Direct costs related to materials and nursing time required to deliver the intervention were calculated. Participants indicated they were competent to deliver the structured intervention, and all were willing to continue its use. Survey results indicated that nurses believed the intervention was beneficial to their patients and they indicated that patients were responsive to the intervention. The intervention was found to be low cost ($8.00 per teaching session); no barriers to implementation of the intervention were identified. The results of this exploratory study suggest that a structured nutrition education intervention can be provided by nurses in outpatient wound clinics at low cost. Further study is needed to determine the impact of this intervention on nutritional intake and wound healing.
Nyholm, Lena; Steffansson, Erika; Fröjd, Camilla; Enblad, Per
The patients at a neurointensive care unit are frequently cared for in many ways, day and night. The aim of this study was to investigate the amount of secondary insults related to oral care, repositioning, endotracheal suctioning, hygienic measures, and simultaneous interventions at a neurointensive care unit with standardized care and maximum attention on avoiding secondary insults. The definition of a secondary insult was intracranial pressure > 20 mm Hg, cerebral perfusion pressure < 60 mm Hg and systolic blood pressure < 100 mm Hg for 5 minutes or more in a 10-minute period starting from when the nursing intervention began. The insult minutes did not have to be consecutive. The study included 18 patients, seven women and 11 men, aged 36-76 years with different neurosurgical diagnoses. The total number of nursing interventions analyzed was 1,717. The most common kind of secondary insults after a nursing measure was high intracranial pressure (n = 93) followed by low cerebral perfusion pressure (n = 43) and low systolic blood pressure (n = 14). Repositioning (n = 39) and simultaneous interventions (n = 32) were the nursing interventions causing most secondary insults. There were substantial variations between the patients; only one patient had no secondary insult. There were, overall, a limited number of secondary insults related to nursing interventions when a standardized management protocol system was applied to reduce the occurrence of secondary insults. Patients with an increased risk of secondary insults should be recognized, and their care and treatment should be carefully planned and performed to avoid secondary insults.
Cabezas, Carmen; Advani, Mamta; Puente, Diana; Rodriguez-Blanco, Teresa; Martin, Carlos
To evaluate the effectiveness in primary care of a stepped smoking cessation intervention based on the transtheoretical model of change. Cluster randomized trial; unit of randomization: basic care unit (family physician and nurse who care for the same group of patients); and intention-to-treat analysis. All interested basic care units (n = 176) that worked in 82 primary care centres belonging to the Spanish Preventive Services and Health Promotion Research Network in 13 regions of Spain. A total of 2,827 smokers (aged 14-85 years) who consulted a primary care centre for any reason, provided written informed consent and had valid interviews. The outcome variable was the 1-year continuous abstinence rate at the 2-year follow-up. The main variable was the study group (intervention/control). Intervention involved 6-month implementation of recommendations from a Clinical Practice Guideline which included brief motivational interviews for smokers at the precontemplation-contemplation stage, brief intervention for smokers in preparation-action who do not want help, intensive intervention with pharmacotherapy for smokers in preparation-action who want help and reinforcing intervention in the maintenance stage. Control group involved usual care. Among others, characteristics of tobacco use and motivation to quit variables were also collected. The 1-year continuous abstinence rate at the 2-year follow-up was 8.1% in the intervention group and 5.8% in the control group (P = 0.014). In the multivariate logistic regression, the odds of quitting of the intervention versus control group was 1.50 (95% confidence interval = 1.05-2.14). A stepped smoking cessation intervention based on the transtheoretical model significantly increased smoking abstinence at a 2-year follow-up among smokers visiting primary care centres. © 2011 The Authors, Addiction © 2011 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Burns, Robert; Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Graney, Marshall J.; Lummus, Allan
Purpose: This study developed and tested two 24-month primary care interventions to alleviate the psychological distress suffered by the caregivers of those with Alzheimer's disease. The interventions, using targeted educational materials, were patient behavior management only, and patient behavior management plus caregiver stress-coping…
Burns, Robert; Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Graney, Marshall J.; Lummus, Allan
Purpose: This study developed and tested two 24-month primary care interventions to alleviate the psychological distress suffered by the caregivers of those with Alzheimer's disease. The interventions, using targeted educational materials, were patient behavior management only, and patient behavior management plus caregiver stress-coping…
Braus, Nicholas; Campbell, Toby C; Kwekkeboom, Kristine L.; Ferguson, Susan; Harvey, Carrie; Krupp, Anna E.; Lohmeier, Tara; Repplinger, Michael D.; Westergaard, Ryan P.; Jacobs, Elizabeth A.; Roberts, Kate Ford; Ehlenbach, William J.
Purpose To evaluate the effects of a palliative care intervention on clinical and family outcomes, and palliative care processes. Methods Prospective, before-and-after interventional study enrolling patients with high risk of mortality, morbidity, or unmet palliative care needs in a 24-bed academic intensive care unit (ICU). The intervention involved a palliative care clinician interacting with the ICU physicians on daily rounds for high-risk patients. Results 100 patients were enrolled in the usual care phase, and 103 patients were enrolled during the intervention phase. The adjusted likelihood of a family meeting in ICU was 63% higher (RR 1.63, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.07, p=0.01), and time to family meeting was 41% shorter (95% CI 52% to 28% shorter, p<0.001). Adjusted ICU length of stay (LOS) was not significantly different between the two groups (6% shorter, 95% CI 16% shorter to 4% longer, p=0.22). Among those who died in the hospital, ICU LOS was 19% shorter in the intervention (95% CI 33% to 1% shorter, p=0.043). Adjusted hospital LOS was 26% shorter (95% CI 31% to 20% shorter, p < 0.001) with the intervention. PTSD symptoms were present in 9.1% of family respondents during the intervention versus 20.7% prior to the intervention (p=0.09). Mortality, family depressive symptoms, family satisfaction and quality of death and dying did not significantly differ between groups. Conclusions Proactive palliative care involvement on ICU rounds for high-risk patients was associated with more and earlier ICU family meetings and shorter hospital LOS. We did not identify differences in family satisfaction, family psychological symptoms, or family-rated quality of dying, but had limited power to detect such differences. PMID:26556622
Van den Bulcke, Bo; Vyt, Andre; Vanheule, Stijn; Hoste, Eric; Decruyenaere, Johan; Benoit, Dominique
This article describes a study that evaluated the quality of teamwork in a surgical intensive care unit and assessed whether teamwork could be improved significantly through a tailor-made intervention. The quality of teamwork prior to and after the intervention was assessed using the Interprofessional Practice and Education Quality Scales (IPEQS) using the PROSE online diagnostics and documenting system, which assesses three domains of teamwork: organisational factors, care processes, and team members' attitudes and beliefs. Furthermore, team members evaluated strengths and weaknesses of the teamwork through open-ended questions. Information gathered by means of the open questions was used to design a tailor-made 12-week intervention consisting of (1) optimising the existing weekly interdisciplinary meetings with collaborative decision-making and clear communication of goal-oriented actions, including the psychosocial aspects of care; and (2) organising and supporting the effective exchange of information over time between all professions involved. It was found that the intervention had a significant impact on organisational factors and care processes related to interprofessional teamwork for the total group and within all subgroups, despite baseline differences between the subgroups in interprofessional teamwork. In conclusion, teamwork, and more particularly the organisational aspects of interprofessional collaboration and processes of care, can be improved by a tailor-made intervention that takes into account the professional needs of healthcare workers.
Piot, Elise; Leheup, Benoît F; Losson, Séverine; Gédor, Lorène; Domina, Lucie; Béhem, Chantal; Amanzouggarene, Malika
Interventions of mobile palliative care teams in nursing homes have been the subject special consideration, however very little data are available on this subject. To determine the proportion of patients followed and consultations conducted in nursing homes for the dependent elderly by a mobile palliative care team, to describe the patients followed and to analyze the various aspects of this intervention. Retrospective study on the interventions carried out by a mobile palliative care team in nursing homes between January 1st and December 31st, 2012. The interventions in nursing homes targeted, 7.2% of the followed patients and represented 8.7% of the total activity of the mobile team. Intervention requests were made primarily by the family physician. The followed patients were mostly women (63%), with a mean age of 84 years, presenting non-cancerous diseases (78.2%), and had an average of 4.4 consultations. Half of the patients died during follow-up. Three quarters of the patients presented pain, neuro-psychological symptoms and verbal communication disorders. Four out of ten patients met with the occupational therapist and one of ten, the psychologist. The activity of mobile palliative care teams remains marginal, although steadily (on the rise. The collected data illustrate the specificity of geriatric palliative care, while certain characteristics inherent to nursing homes require establishing appropriate therapy proposals. Although quantitatively limited, the activity of mobile palliative care teams in nursing homes appears important as these interventions are likely meet the needs of both patients and staff in addition to enabling patients in palliative care to remain at their current place of residence.
Boyde, Mary; Peters, Robyn; Hwang, Rita; Korczyk, Dariusz; Ha, Tina; New, Nicole
A variety of educational interventions have been implemented to assist patients with heart failure (HF) to maintain their own health, develop self-care behaviors, and decrease readmissions. The most effective approach to education has yet to be established. The aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness of a multimedia educational intervention for patients with HF in reducing hospital readmissions. Secondary outcomes include changes in knowledge and self-care behaviors. A randomized controlled trial in a large tertiary referral hospital in Australia has recruited 200 patients and will follow them for 12 months. Patients diagnosed with HF have been randomly allocated 1:1 to either usual education or a multimedia educational intervention. Framed by the principles of adult learning, this individualized intervention was delivered face to face by a specialized HF nurse, with a targeted educational assessment and subsequent development of an educational plan. The multimedia approach combined viewing a DVD and verbal discussion supported by a written manual. The teach-back strategy at the conclusion of the intervention evaluated the patient's learning through 5 key questions about self-management of HF. Readmissions are assessed at 28 days, 3 months, and 12 months. Knowledge and self-care behavior are assessed at baseline, 3 months, and 12 months. This study evaluates the effectiveness of a targeted multimedia educational intervention. Study results may inform the design of in-hospital education for HF patients.
Duysburgh, Els; Temmerman, Marleen; Yé, Maurice; Williams, Afua; Massawe, Siriel; Williams, John; Mpembeni, Rose; Loukanova, Svetla; Haefeli, Walter E; Blank, Antje
To assess the impact of an intervention consisting of a computer-assisted clinical decision support system and performance-based incentives, aiming at improving quality of antenatal and childbirth care. Intervention study in rural primary healthcare (PHC) facilities in Burkina Faso, Ghana and Tanzania. In each country, six intervention and six non-intervention PHC facilities, located in one intervention and one non-intervention rural districts, were selected. Quality was assessed in each facility by health facility surveys, direct observation of antenatal and childbirth care, exit interviews, and reviews of patient records and maternal and child health registers. Findings of pre- and post-intervention and of intervention and non-intervention health facility quality assessments were analysed and assessed for significant (P < 0.05) quality of care differences. Post-intervention quality scores do not show a clear difference to pre-intervention scores and scores at non-intervention facilities. Only a few variables had a statistically significant better post-intervention quality score and when this is the case this is mostly observed in only one study-arm, being pre-/post-intervention or intervention/non-intervention. Post-intervention care shows similar deficiencies in quality of antenatal and childbirth care and in detection, prevention, and management of obstetric complications as at baseline and non-intervention study facilities. Our intervention study did not show a significant improvement in quality of care during the study period. However, the use of new technology seems acceptable and feasible in rural PHC facilities in resource-constrained settings, creating the opportunity to use this technology to improve quality of care. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Markkanen, Pia; Quinn, Margaret; Galligan, Catherine; Sama, Susan; Brouillette, Natalie; Okyere, Daniel
Home care (HC) aide is the fastest growing occupation, yet job hazards are under-studied. This study documents the context of HC aide work, characterizes occupational safety and health (OSH) hazards, and identifies preventive interventions using qualitative methods. We conducted 12 focus groups among aides and 26 in-depth interviews comprising 15 HC agency, union, and insurance company representatives as well as 11 HC recipients in Massachusetts. All focus groups and interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed, and coded with NVIVO software. Major OSH concerns were musculoskeletal disorders from client care tasks and verbal abuse. Performing tasks beyond specified job duties may be an OSH risk factor. HC aides' safety and clients' safety are closely linked. Client handling devices, client evaluation, care plan development, and training are key interventions for both aides' and clients' safety. Promoting OSH in HC is essential for maintaining a viable workforce. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Rubio-Valera, Maria; Serrano-Blanco, Antoni; Travé, Pere; Peñarrubia-María, M Teresa; Ruiz, Mar; Pujol, Marian March
Background Treatment of depression, the most prevalent and costly mental disorder, needs to be improved. Non-concordance with clinical guidelines and non-adherence can limit the efficacy of pharmacological treatment of depression. Through pharmaceutical care, pharmacists can improve patients' compliance and wellbeing. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a community pharmacist intervention developed to improve adherence and outcomes of primary care patients with depression. Methods/design A randomized controlled trial, with 6-month follow-up, comparing patients receiving a pharmaceutical care support programme in primary care with patients receiving usual care. The total sample comprises 194 patients (aged between 18 and 75) diagnosed with depressive disorder in a primary care health centre in the province of Barcelona (Spain). Subjects will be asked for written informed consent in order to participate in the study. Diagnosis will be confirmed using the SCID-I. The intervention consists of an educational programme focused on improving knowledge about medication, making patients aware of the importance of compliance, reducing stigma, reassuring patients about side-effects and stressing the importance of carrying out general practitioners' advice. Measurements will take place at baseline, and after 3 and 6 months. Main outcome measure is compliance with antidepressants. Secondary outcomes include; clinical severity of depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (STAI-S), health-related quality of life (EuroQol-5D), satisfaction with the treatment received, side-effects, chronic physical conditions and socio-demographics. The use of healthcare and social care services will be assessed with an adapted version of the Client Service Receipt Inventory (CSRI). Discussion This trial will provide valuable information for health professionals and policy makers on the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of a pharmaceutical intervention programme in
Smelt, Antonia FH; van der Weele, Gerda M; Blom, Jeanet W; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Assendelft, Willem JJ
Background Because pragmatic trials are performed to determine if an intervention can improve current practice, they often have a control group receiving ‘usual care’. The behaviour of caregivers and patients in this control group should be influenced by the actions of researchers as little as possible. Guidelines for describing the composition and management of a usual care control group are lacking. Aim To explore the variety of approaches to the usual care concept in pragmatic trials, and evaluate the influence of the study design on the behaviour of caregivers and patients in a usual care control group. Design of study Review of 73 pragmatic trials in primary care with a usual care control group published between January 2005 and December 2009 in the British Medical Journal, the British Journal of General Practice, and Family Practice. Outcome measures were: description of the factors influencing caregiver and patients in a usual care control group related to an individual randomised design versus cluster randomisation. Results In total, 38 individually randomised trials and 35 cluster randomised trials were included. In most trials, caregivers had the freedom to treat control patients according to their own insight; in two studies, treatment options were restricted. Although possible influences on the behaviour of control caregivers and control patients were more often identified in individually randomised trials, these influences were also present in cluster randomised trials. The description of instructions and information provided to the control group was often insufficient, which made evaluation of the trials difficult. Conclusion Researchers in primary care medicine should carefully consider the design of a usual care control group, especially with regard to minimising the risk of study-induced behavioural change. It is recommended that an adequate description of the information is provided to control caregivers and control patients. A proposal is
Archie, Patrick; Bruera, Eduardo; Cohen, Lorenzo
This study aimed to review quantitative literature pertaining to studies of music-based interventions in palliative cancer care and to review the neurobiological literature that may bare relevance to the findings from these studies. A narrative review was performed, with particular emphasis on RCTs, meta-analyses, and systematic reviews. The Cochrane Library, Ovid, PubMed, CINAHL Plus, PsycINFO, and ProQuest were searched for the subject headings music, music therapy, cancer, oncology, palliative care, pain, anxiety, depression, mood, quality of life, prevalence, neuroscience, functional imaging, endogenous opioids, GABA, 5HT, dopamine, and permutations of these same search terms. Data for the review were comprised of articles published between 1970 and 2012. References of all the cited articles were also reviewed. Available evidence suggests that music-based interventions may have a positive impact on pain, anxiety, mood disturbance, and quality of life in cancer patients. Advances in neurobiology may provide insight into the potential mechanisms by which music impacts these outcomes. More research is needed to determine what subpopulation of cancer patients is most likely to respond to music-based interventions, what interventions are most effective for individual outcomes, and what measurement parameters best gauge their effectiveness.
Peinemann, Frank; Tushabe, Doreen Allen; Kleijnen, Jos
A systematic review may evaluate different aspects of a health care intervention. To accommodate the evaluation of various research questions, the inclusion of more than one study design may be necessary. One aim of this study is to find and describe articles on methodological issues concerning the incorporation of multiple types of study designs in systematic reviews on health care interventions. Another aim is to evaluate methods studies that have assessed whether reported effects differ by study types. We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Methodology Register on 31 March 2012 and identified 42 articles that reported on the integration of single or multiple study designs in systematic reviews. We summarized the contents of the articles qualitatively and assessed theoretical and empirical evidence. We found that many examples of reviews incorporating multiple types of studies exist and that every study design can serve a specific purpose. The clinical questions of a systematic review determine the types of design that are necessary or sufficient to provide the best possible answers. In a second independent search, we identified 49 studies, 31 systematic reviews and 18 trials that compared the effect sizes between randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, which were statistically different in 35%, and not different in 53%. Twelve percent of studies reported both, different and non-different effect sizes. Different study designs addressing the same question yielded varying results, with differences in about half of all examples. The risk of presenting uncertain results without knowing for sure the direction and magnitude of the effect holds true for both nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials. The integration of multiple study designs in systematic reviews is required if patients should be informed on the many facets of patient relevant issues of health care interventions.
Peinemann, Frank; Tushabe, Doreen Allen; Kleijnen, Jos
Background A systematic review may evaluate different aspects of a health care intervention. To accommodate the evaluation of various research questions, the inclusion of more than one study design may be necessary. One aim of this study is to find and describe articles on methodological issues concerning the incorporation of multiple types of study designs in systematic reviews on health care interventions. Another aim is to evaluate methods studies that have assessed whether reported effects differ by study types. Methods and Findings We searched PubMed, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Cochrane Methodology Register on 31 March 2012 and identified 42 articles that reported on the integration of single or multiple study designs in systematic reviews. We summarized the contents of the articles qualitatively and assessed theoretical and empirical evidence. We found that many examples of reviews incorporating multiple types of studies exist and that every study design can serve a specific purpose. The clinical questions of a systematic review determine the types of design that are necessary or sufficient to provide the best possible answers. In a second independent search, we identified 49 studies, 31 systematic reviews and 18 trials that compared the effect sizes between randomized and nonrandomized controlled trials, which were statistically different in 35%, and not different in 53%. Twelve percent of studies reported both, different and non-different effect sizes. Conclusions Different study designs addressing the same question yielded varying results, with differences in about half of all examples. The risk of presenting uncertain results without knowing for sure the direction and magnitude of the effect holds true for both nonrandomized and randomized controlled trials. The integration of multiple study designs in systematic reviews is required if patients should be informed on the many facets of patient relevant issues of health care
Ward, Dianne S; Vaughn, Amber E; Burney, Regan V; Østbye, Truls
Critical to the success of any intervention study is successful recruitment. The aim of this paper was to examine the recruitment process of a randomized controlled trial evaluating an intervention conducted with family child care home providers. Specifically, the recruitment challenges, the efforts employed to address the challenges, and their impact on participant recruitment are discussed. The study's original recruitment protocol was employed during waves 1 and 2 (out of 5). However, recruitment tracking showed a failure to meet enrollment targets, particularly in wave 2. Low enrollment prompted an all-day retreat to discuss potential revisions and enhancements to recruitment strategies. Four strategies to enhance the recruitment protocol emerged from the retreat: improving recruitment materials to enhance communication, increasing engagement with community partners, addressing provider concerns about participation and study burden, and facilitating parent engagement. The study successfully recruited 166 family child care home providers across the 5 waves. There was a significant impact on the recruitment of waves 3-5 versus waves 1-2 using the enhanced recruitment protocol. There was a dramatic increase in those who "consented" (43% vs. 60%, respectively) and a corresponding decrease in the percent of "interested and eligible" who then "failed to consent" (57% vs. 40%, respectively). Results of these enhanced recruitment strategies demonstrate the many lessons learned about successful recruitment of a difficult-to-reach population, family child care homes; specifically, the importance of building relationships, communicating clearly, and identifying key motivators.
Bradbury-Jones, Caroline; Clark, Maria; Taylor, Julie
The aim of this study was to report the findings of a qualitative case study that investigated abused women's experiences of an identification and referral intervention and to discuss the implications for nurses, specifically those working in primary and community care. Domestic violence and abuse is a significant public health issue globally but it is a hidden problem that is under-reported. In the UK, Identification and Referral to Improve Safety is a primary care-based intervention that has been found to increase referral rates of abused women to support and safety services. This paper reports on the findings of an evaluation study of two sites in England. Qualitative study with a case study design. In line with case study design, the entire evaluation study employed multiple data collection methods. We report on the qualitative interviews with women referred through the programme. The aim was to elicit their experiences of the three aspects of the intervention: identification; referral; safety. Data collection took place March 2016. Ten women took part. Eight had exited the abusive relationship but two remained with the partner who had perpetrated the abuse. Women were overwhelmingly positive about the programme and irrespective of whether they had remained or exited the relationship all reported perceptions of increased safety and improved health. Nurses have an important role to play in identifying domestic violence and abuse and in referral and safety planning. As part of a portfolio of domestic violence and abuse interventions, those that empower women to take control of their safety (such as Identification and Referral to Improve Safety) are important. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Background Infants exposed to alcohol in the womb are at increased risk of experiencing health problems. However, mixed messages about the consequences of prenatal alcohol consumption have resulted in inconsistent attitudes and practices amongst some healthcare practitioners. Screening and alcohol brief interventions (ABIs) can reduce risky drinking in various clinical settings. Recently, a program of screening and ABIs have been implemented in antenatal care settings in Scotland. However, current evidence suggests that midwives’ involvement in alcohol brief interventions activities is patchy. This study explored midwives’ attitudes and practices regarding alcohol screening and ABIs in order to understand why they are relatively underutilized in antenatal care settings compared to other clinical settings. Methods This was a qualitative study, involving semi-structured interviews with 15 midwives and a focus group with a further six midwifery team leaders (21 participants in total) in Scotland. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic analysis. Results Midwives were positive about their involvement in the screening and ABI program. However, they were not completely convinced about the purpose and value of the screening and ABIs in antenatal care. In the midst of competing priorities, the program was seen as having a low priority in their workload. Midwives felt that the rapport between them and pregnant women was not sufficiently established at the first antenatal appointment to allow them to discuss alcohol issues appropriately. They reported that many women had already given up drinking or were drinking minimal amounts prior to the first antenatal appointment. Conclusions Midwives recognised the important role they could play in alcohol intervention activities in antenatal care. As the majority of women stop consuming alcohol in pregnancy, many will not need an ABI. Those who have not stopped are likely to need an ABI, but midwives were concerned
Colón-Emeric, Cathleen; Toles, Mark; Cary, Michael P; Batchelor-Murphy, Melissa; Yap, Tracey; Song, Yuting; Hall, Rasheeda; Anderson, Amber; Burd, Andrew; Anderson, Ruth A
Little is known about the sustainability of behavioral change interventions in long-term care (LTC). Following a cluster randomized trial of an intervention to improve staff communication (CONNECT), we conducted focus groups of direct care staff and managers to elicit their perceptions of factors that enhance or reduce sustainability in the LTC setting. The overall aim was to generate hypotheses about how to sustain complex interventions in LTC. In eight facilities, we conducted 15 focus groups with 83 staff who had participated in at least one intervention session. Where possible, separate groups were conducted with direct care staff and managers. An interview guide probed for staff perceptions of intervention salience and sustainability. Framework analysis of coded transcripts was used to distill insights about sustainability related to intervention features, organizational context, and external supports. Staff described important factors for intervention sustainability that are particularly challenging in LTC. Because of the tremendous diversity in staff roles and education level, interventions should balance complexity and simplicity, use a variety of delivery methods and venues (e.g., group and individual sessions, role-play/storytelling), and be inclusive of many work positions. Intervention customizability and flexibility was particularly prized in this unpredictable and resource-strapped environment. Contextual features noted to be important include addressing the frequent lack of trust between direct care staff and managers and ensuring that direct care staff directly observe manager participation and support for the program. External supports suggested to be useful for sustainability include formalization of changes into facility routines, using "train the trainer" approaches and refresher sessions. High staff turnover is common in LTC, and providing materials for new staff orientation was reported to be important for sustainability. When designing or
O'Donnell, Amy; Haighton, Catherine; Chappel, David; Shevills, Colin; Kaner, Eileen
Local and national financial incentives were introduced in England between 2008 and 2015 to encourage screening and brief alcohol intervention delivery in primary care. We used routine Read Code data and interviews with General Practitioners (GPs) to assess their impact. A sequential explanatory mixed-methods study was conducted in 16 general practices representing 106,700 patients and 99 GPs across two areas in Northern England. Data were extracted on screening and brief alcohol intervention delivery for 2010-11 and rates were calculated by practice incentive status. Semi-structured interviews with 14 GPs explored which factors influence intervention delivery and recording in routine consultations. Screening and brief alcohol intervention rates were higher in financially incentivised compared to non-incentivised practices. However absolute rates were low across all practices. Rates of short screening test administration ranged from 0.05% (95% CI: 0.03-0.08) in non-incentivised practices to 3.92% (95% CI: 3.70-4.14) in nationally incentivised practices. For the full AUDIT, rates were also highest in nationally incentivised practices (3.68%, 95% CI: 3.47-3.90) and lowest in non-incentivised practices (0.17%, 95% CI: 0.13-0.22). Delivery of alcohol interventions was highest in practices signed up to the national incentive scheme (9.23%, 95% CI: 8.91-9.57) and lowest in non-incentivised practices (4.73%, 95% CI: 4.50-4.96). GP Interviews highlighted a range of influences on alcohol intervention delivery and subsequent recording including: the hierarchy of different financial incentive schemes; mixed belief in the efficacy of alcohol interventions; the difficulty of codifying complex conditions; and GPs' beliefs about patient-centred practice. Financial incentives have had some success in encouraging screening and brief alcohol interventions in England, but levels of recorded activity remain low. To improve performance, future policies must prioritise alcohol
Ruiz, J; Ramirez, P; Gordon, M; Villarreal, E; Frasquet, J; Poveda-Andres, J L; Salavert-Lletí, M; Catellanos, A
Hospital antimicrobial stewardship programmes have achieved savings and a more rational use of antimicrobial treatments in general wards. The purpose of this report is to evaluate the experience of an antimicrobial stewardship programme in an intensive care unit (ICU). Prospective interventional, before-and-after study. 24-bed medical ICU in a tertiary hospital. Prospective audit and feedback antimicrobial stewardship programme. Antimicrobial consumption, antimicrobial related costs, multi-drug resistant microorganisms (MDRM) prevalence, nosocomial infections incidence, ICU length of stay, and ICU mortality rates were compared before and after one-year intervention. A total of 218 antimicrobial episodes of 182 patients were evaluated in 61 team meetings. Antimicrobial stewardship suggestions were accepted in 91.5% of the cases. Total antimicrobial DDD/100 patient-days consumption was reduced from 380.6 to 295.2 (-22.4%; p=0.037). Antimicrobial stewardship programme was associated with a significant decrease in the prescription of penicillins plus b-lactamase inhibitors, linezolid, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides. Overall antimicrobial spending was reduced by €119,636. MDRM isolation and nosocomial infections per 100 patient-days did not change after the intervention period. No changes in length of stay or mortality rate were observed. An ICU antimicrobial stewardship programme significantly reduced antimicrobial use without affecting inpatient mortality and length of stay. Our results further support the implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship programme in critical care units. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Berglund, Helene; Hasson, Henna; Kjellgren, Karin; Wilhelmson, Katarina
The aim of this study was to analyse effects of a comprehensive continuum of care (intervention group) on frail older persons' life satisfaction, as compared to those receiving usual care (control group). The intervention included geriatric assessment, case management, interprofessional collaboration, support for relatives and organising of care-planning meetings in older persons' own homes. Improvements in older persons' subjective well-being have been shown in studies including care planning and coordination by a case manager. However, effects of more complex continuum of care interventions on frail older persons' life satisfaction are not well explored. Randomised controlled study. The validated LiSat-11 scale was used in face-to-face interviews to assess older persons' life satisfaction at baseline and at three, six and 12 months after the baseline. The odds ratio for improving or maintaining satisfaction was compared for intervention and control groups from baseline to three-month, three- to six-month as well as six- to 12-month follow-ups. Older persons who received the intervention were more likely to improve or maintain satisfaction than those who received usual care, between 6 and 12 month follow-ups, for satisfaction regarding functional capacity, psychological health and financial situation. A comprehensive continuum of care intervention comprising several components had a positive effect on frail older persons' satisfaction with functional capacity, psychological health and financial situation. Frail older persons represent a great proportion of the persons in need of support from the health care system. Health care professionals need to consider continuum of care interventions' impact on life satisfaction. As life satisfaction is an essential part of older persons' well-being, we propose that policy makers and managers promote comprehensive continuum of care solutions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Sgandurra, Giuseppina; Bartalena, Laura; Cecchi, Francesca; Cioni, Giovanni; Giampietri, Matteo; Greisen, Gorm; Herskind, Anna; Inguaggiato, Emanuela; Lorentzen, Jakob; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Orlando, Martina; Dario, Paolo
CareToy is an intelligent system, inspired by baby gyms, aimed to provide an intensive, individualized, home-based and family-centred early intervention (EI) program. A pilot study was carried out to explore the feasibility of CareToy intervention in preterm infants, aged 3-9 months of corrected age. Twenty low-risk preterm infants, without brain lesion or other clinical complications (14 allocated to CareToy intervention and 6 to Standard Care) were recruited. The Infant Motor Profile (IMP) was predefined as the primary outcome measure and Alberta Infant Motor Scale and Teller Acuity Cards as secondary measures. Moreover, 202 pre-programmed training scenarios were developed and instructions for the management of CareToy intervention were defined as general guidelines. All infants received 4 weeks of their allocated intervention and were evaluated with the selected tests before and immediately after the 4 weeks. The mean difference changes in IMP total score and Teller Acuity Cards over the intervention period were higher in the CareToy group than in the Standard Care group. CareToy seems a feasible device for providing EI. An adequately powered randomized clinical trial is warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Löffler, Harald; Bruckner, Thomas; Diepgen, Thomas; Effendy, Isaak
Irritant contact dermatitis is a mayor problem in health care employees. Because educational programs have shown convincing success in certain occupations (e.g. in hairdressers), this study investigates the effect of a special training program in health care trainees. 521 trainees from 14 nursing schools in Central Germany were randomly divided in 2 groups, (i) an intervention group with a regular teaching protocol regarding all aspects of primary prevention and (ii) a control group without any further teaching. Morphological changes of the hands, use of hand care creams and knowledge regarding skin care were evaluated regularly during their 3 years lasting training period (1999-2002). In the intervention group, we found at the end of the 3-year training period a significant better skin condition of the hands than in the control group: a 3-year prevalence of morphological skin changes of 66.7% versus 89.3%. The unteached trainees (control group) had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.8 [95% confidential interval (CI): 2.9-7.8] for developing any skin changes on the hands after 3 years. Besides the effect of the teaching, the history of hand dermatitis before the study start was an independent risk factor for development of further hand dermatitis [OR 1.9, 95% CI: 1.0-3.6). Age and sex showed no influence on the skin condition. Atopic constitution had an influence on the development of skin changes only at the evaluation after 18 month. The observed effect in the intervention group may best be explained by different behaviour of the trainees, e.g. the amount of hand washing was reduced, while procedure of hand disinfection remained unchanged compared with the control group. However, the amount of used skin care cream did not differ between the both groups. This study shows that primary prevention of skin disease by regularly teaching during the training period of medical employees can effectively reduce the risk of development of irritant skin changes of the hands. Therefore
Ronaldson, Susan; Hayes, Lillian; Aggar, Christina; Green, Jennifer; Carey, Michele
To investigate spiritual caring by palliative care nurses and to describe their interventions. Spirituality and spiritual caring are recognised as integral components of holistic nursing. Qualitative data captured on a questionnaire were analysed thematically ( Braun and Clarke, 2006 ). The study involved forty-two palliative care registered nurses working across seven palliative care services in Sydney, Australia. The research question was: 'What spiritual caring interventions do palliative care nurses use in their practice?' Nurses completed an open-ended questionnaire to identify and interpret their spiritual caring. Three sub-theme categories and four major concepts of spiritual caring. Categories identified are: humanistic, pragmatic and religious interventions; while concepts of spiritual caring are: 'being with', 'listening to', 'facilitation of' and 'engaging in'. A conceptual understanding of spiritual caring was identified.
Villadsen, Sarah Fredsted; Mortensen, Laust Hvas; Andersen, Anne-Marie Nybo
The increased risk of adverse pregnancy and childbirth outcomes demonstrated for many non-Western migrants in Europe, Australia and North America may be due to inadequate use and suboptimal quality of care. It is indicated that a poor user-provider interaction leads to inequity of pregnancy and delivery care. This review demonstrated that there is no evidence of best practice antenatal care for migrant women. Health system interventions for improved maternal and child health among migrants should be based on thorough needs assessments, contextual understanding and involvement of the target group and health-care providers. We present the Danish MAMAACT study as a strategic perspective on how to move forward, and we describe methodological steps in intervention development. Based on a mixed method needs assessment, the MAMAACT study aimed to enhance the communication between migrant women and midwives during antenatal care regarding warning signs of pregnancy and how to access acute care. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Cretin, Shan; Shortell, Stephen M.; Keeler, Emmett B.
The authors' dual-purpose evaluation assesses the effectiveness of formal collaboratives in stimulating organizational changes to improve chronic illness care (the chronic care model or CCM). Intervention and comparison sites are compared before and after introduction of the CCM. Multiple data sources are used to measure the degree of…
Gold, Jonathan; Reyes-Gastelum, David; Turner, Jane; Davies, H Dele
Despite expert guidelines, gaps persist in quality of care for children with asthma. This study sought to identify barriers and potential interventions to improve compliance to national asthma prevention guidelines at a single academic pediatric primary care clinic. Using the plan-do-check-act (PDCA) quality improvement framework and fishbone analysis, several barriers to consistent asthma processes and possible interventions were identified by a group of key stakeholders. Two interventions were implemented using the electronic medical record (EMR). Physician documentation of asthma quality measures were analyzed before intervention and during 2 subsequent time points over 16 months. Documentation of asthma action plans (core group P < .001, noncore group P = .004) and medication counseling (core group P < .001, noncore group P < .001) improved substantially by the third time point. A systematic approach to quality improvement using PDCA and fishbone analysis in conjunction with embedded EMR tools can improve asthma care in a pediatric primary care setting.
Background Preconception care may be an efficacious tool to reduce risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes that are associated with lifestyles and health status before pregnancy. We conducted a web-based cohort study in Italian women planning a pregnancy to assess whether a tailored web intervention may change knowledge and behaviours associated with risks for adverse pregnancy outcomes. Methods The study was entirely conducted on the web on a cohort of Italian women of childbearing age. Data collected at baseline on health status, lifestyles and knowledge of risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes were used for generating a tailored document including recommendations for folic acid supplementation, obesity and underweight, smoking, alcohol consumption, vaccinations, chronic and genetic diseases, exposure to medications. Prevalence of risk factors and knowledge was assessed 6 months after the intervention. Logistic regression models were used to explore the factors associated with risk factors after the intervention. Results Of the 508 enrolled women, 282 (55.5%) completed the study after 6 months since the delivery of tailored recommendations. At baseline, 48% of the participants took folic acid supplementation (95% CI 43.2; 51.9) and 69% consumed alcohol (95% CI 64.7; 72.9). At the follow up 71% of the participants had a preconception visit with a physician. Moreover we observed a decrease of alcohol consumption (−46.5% 95% CI −53.28; −38.75) and of the proportion of women not taking folic acid supplementation (−23.4% 95% CI −31.0; 15.36). We observed an improvement in knowledge of the information about the preconception behaviours to prevent adverse pregnancy outcomes (20.9% 95% CI 14.6%; 27.1%). Having a preconception visit during follow up was significally associated to an increase in folic acid supplementation (OR 2.53 95% CI 1.40; 4.60). Conclusions Our results suggest that a tailored web intervention may improve general preconception
Bastiaanssen, Inge L. W.; Kroes, Gert; Nijhof, Karin S.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.; Veerman, Jan Willem
Background: By interacting with children, group care workers shape daily living environments to influence treatment. Current literature provides little knowledge about the content of youth residential care. Objective: In this study, a questionnaire called the Group care worker Intervention Checklist was developed. Method: Group care workers…
Ward, Dianne S.; Vaughn, Amber E.; Burney, Regan V.; Østbye, Truls
Objective Critical to the success of any intervention study is successful recruitment. The aim of this paper was to examine the recruitment process of a randomized controlled trial evaluating an intervention conducted with family child care home providers. Specifically, the recruitment challenges, the efforts employed to address the challenges, and their impact on participant recruitment are discussed. Methods The study’s original recruitment protocol was employed during waves 1 and 2 (out of 5). However, recruitment tracking showed a failure to meet enrollment targets, particularly in wave 2. Low enrollment prompted an all-day retreat to discuss potential revisions and enhancements to recruitment strategies. Four strategies to enhance the recruitment protocol emerged from the retreat: improving recruitment materials to enhance communication, increasing engagement with community partners, addressing provider concerns about participation and study burden, and facilitating parent engagement. Results The study successfully recruited 166 family child care home providers across the 5 waves. There was a significant impact on the recruitment of waves 3–5 versus waves 1–2 using the enhanced recruitment protocol. There was a dramatic increase in those who “consented” (43% vs. 60%, respectively) and a corresponding decrease in the percent of “interested and eligible” who then “failed to consent” (57% vs. 40%, respectively). Conclusion Results of these enhanced recruitment strategies demonstrate the many lessons learned about successful recruitment of a difficult-to-reach population, family child care homes; specifically, the importance of building relationships, communicating clearly, and identifying key motivators. PMID:27617326
Husain, Nusrat; Gire, Nadeem; Kelly, James; Duxbury, Joy; McKeown, Mick; Riley, Miv; Taylor, Christopher DJ; Taylor, Peter J; Emsley, Richard; Farooq, Saeed; Caton, Neil; Naeem, Farooq; Kingdon, David; Chaudhry, Imran
Objectives: Technological advances in healthcare have shown promise when delivering interventions for mental health problems such as psychosis. The aim of this project is to develop a mobile phone intervention for people with psychosis and to conduct a feasibility study of the TechCare App. Methods: The TechCare App will assess participant’s symptoms and respond with a personalised guided self-help-based psychological intervention with the aim of exploring feasibility and acceptability. The project will recruit 16 service users and 8–10 health professionals from the Lancashire Care NHS Foundation Trust Early Intervention Service. Results: In strand 1 of the study, we will invite people to discuss their experience of psychosis and give their opinions on the existing evidence-based treatment (cognitive behavioural therapy) and how the mobile app can be developed. In strand 2, we will complete a test run with a small number of participants (n = 4) to refine the mobile intervention (TechCare). Finally, in strand 3 of the study, the TechCare App will be examined in a feasibility study with 12 participants. Conclusion: It has been suggested that there is a need for a rapid increase in the efforts to develop the evidence base for the clinical effectiveness of digital technologies, considering mHealth research can potentially be helpful in addressing the demand on mental health services globally. PMID:27790373
Wang, Tiansheng; Benedict, Neal; Olsen, Keith M; Luan, Rong; Zhu, Xi; Zhou, Ningning; Tang, Huilin; Yan, Yingying; Peng, Yao; Shi, Luwen
Pharmacists are integral members of the multidisciplinary team for critically ill patients. Multiple nonrandomized controlled studies have evaluated the outcomes of pharmacist interventions in the intensive care unit (ICU). This systematic review focuses on controlled clinical trials evaluating the effect of pharmacist intervention on medication errors (MEs) in ICU settings. Two independent reviewers searched Medline, Embase, and Cochrane databases. The inclusion criteria were nonrandomized controlled studies that evaluated the effect of pharmacist services vs no intervention on ME rates in ICU settings. Four studies were included in the meta-analysis. Results suggest that pharmacist intervention has no significant contribution to reducing general MEs, although pharmacist intervention may significantly reduce preventable adverse drug events and prescribing errors. This meta-analysis highlights the need for high-quality studies to examine the effect of the critical care pharmacist.
Cabezas, Carmen; Martin, Carlos; Granollers, Silvia; Morera, Concepció; Ballve, Josep Lluis; Zarza, Elvira; Blade, Jordi; Borras, Margarida; Serra, Antoni; Puente, Diana
There is a considerable body of evidence on the effectiveness of specific interventions in individuals who wish to quit smoking. However, there are no large-scale studies testing the whole range of interventions currently recommended for helping people to give up smoking; specifically those interventions that include motivational interviews for individuals who are not interested in quitting smoking in the immediate to short term. Furthermore, many of the published studies were undertaken in specialized units or by a small group of motivated primary care centres. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a stepped smoking cessation intervention based on a trans-theoretical model of change, applied to an extensive group of Primary Care Centres (PCC). Cluster randomised clinical trial. Unit of randomization: basic unit of care consisting of a family physician and a nurse, both of whom care for the same population (aprox. 2000 people). Intention to treat analysis. Smokers (n = 3024) aged 14 to 75 years consulting for any reason to PCC and who provided written informed consent to participate in the trial. 6-month implementation of recommendations of a Clinical Practice Guideline which includes brief motivational interviews for smokers at the precontemplation - contemplation stage, brief intervention for smokers in preparation-action who do not want help, intensive intervention with pharmacotherapy for smokers in preparation-action who want help, and reinforcing intervention in the maintenance stage. usual care. Self-reported abstinence confirmed by exhaled air carbon monoxide concentration of
Reb, Anne; Ruel, Nora; Fakih, Marwan; Lai, Lily; Salgia, Ravi; Ferrell, Betty; Sampath, Sagus; Kim, Jae Y; Raz, Dan J; Sun, Virginia
This study evaluates the feasibility and acceptability of a Self-Management Survivorship Care Planning (SM-SCP) intervention in colorectal and lung cancer survivors. This is a single-group, pre- and post-mixed methods study of an advance practice nurse-driven survivorship care intervention that integrates a survivorship care plan with self-management skills coaching. Colorectal and lung cancer survivors with stage I-III disease were enrolled at 3-6 months after completing treatments, and the intervention was administered in one in-person or telephone session. Survivor outcome measures included depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, QOL, and satisfaction. Paired t-tests were used for exploratory evaluations of pre-to post-intervention score changes. Content analysis was conducted to analyze the qualitative data to describe survivors' experience with the intervention. Thirty participants (15 colorectal, 15 lung) enrolled and completed the study (73% retention). It took an average of 40 min to complete the TS/CP and 34.2 min to deliver the intervention. Exploratory analysis revealed significant differences from baseline to post-intervention in depression, anxiety, self-efficacy, physical functioning, role limitations-physical, pain, general health, health transition, physical health summary, and total QOL. Three qualitative themes emerged: 1) Feeling empowered about having a plan; 2) Struggling with psychosocial concerns; and 3) Suggestions for intervention content and delivery. The SM-SCP intervention was feasible and acceptable for colorectal and lung cancer survivors after treatment completion. Survivorship care interventions have potential to fulfill the unmet needs of colorectal and lung cancer survivors. Their effectiveness might be greater by integrating conceptually-based models of care, such as self-management skills building. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Backhouse, Amy; Dickens, Chris; Richards, David; McCabe, Rose
Current health and social care systems are providing suboptimal and fragmented care to the growing dementia population. Interventions aiming to coordinate care services for individuals with dementia and their families are already widely used; however, the structure and implementation of these interventions vary. This mixed studies review aims to investigate the key components of effective community-based interventions that focus on coordinating care in dementia. We will search MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase and PsycINFO databases for studies of any design that look at community-based interventions that aim to coordinate dementia care through the allocation of a specified professional responsible for provision of care. Health Management Information Consortium (HMIC), Social Policy and Practice (SPP), ProQuest and International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) databases will be searched for grey literature. Outcomes of interest are health outcome measures that relate to the individual with dementia and/or informal caregiver, measures of resource use or process measures. Two independent reviewers will screen identified papers and extract data from eligible studies. Evidence synthesis will take place in three stages, and methods will be largely dependent on the data available. A sequential review design will be used where the qualitative evidence will be synthesised first, focusing on stakeholder's subjective views of key components. This will drive forward the quantitative stage which will identify key components of effective interventions. The final stage of the review will merge the two strands of evidence through a narrative synthesis. The results from this review will be used to develop a model for a community-based intervention coordinating care in dementia. Furthermore, the findings will help guide future work on intervention development of health and social care services for dementia. PROSPERO CRD42015024618.
Soto-Gordoa, Myriam; Arrospide, Arantzazu; Merino Hernández, Marisa; Mora Amengual, Joana; Fullaondo Zabala, Ane; Larrañaga, Igor; de Manuel, Esteban; Mar, Javier
To develop a framework for the management of complex health care interventions within the Deming continuous improvement cycle and to test the framework in the case of an integrated intervention for multimorbid patients in the Basque Country within the CareWell project. Statistical analysis alone, although necessary, may not always represent the practical significance of the intervention. Thus, to ascertain the true economic impact of the intervention, the statistical results can be integrated into the budget impact analysis. The intervention of the case study consisted of a comprehensive approach that integrated new provider roles and new technological infrastructure for multimorbid patients, with the aim of reducing patient decompensations by 10% over 5 years. The study period was 2012 to 2020. Given the aging of the general population, the conventional scenario predicts an increase of 21% in the health care budget for care of multimorbid patients during the study period. With a successful intervention, this figure should drop to 18%. The statistical analysis, however, showed no significant differences in costs either in primary care or in hospital care between 2012 and 2014. The real costs in 2014 were by far closer to those in the conventional scenario than to the reductions expected in the objective scenario. The present implementation should be reappraised, because the present expenditure did not move closer to the objective budget. This work demonstrates the capacity of budget impact analysis to enhance the implementation of complex interventions. Its integration in the context of the continuous improvement cycle is transferable to other contexts in which implementation depth and time are important. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Background Improvement of appropriate bed use and access to intensive care (ICU) beds is essential in optimizing utilization of ICU capacity. The introduction of an intermediate care unit (IMC) integrated in the ICU care may improve this utilization. Method In a before-after prospective intervention study in a university hospital mixed ICU, the impact of introducing a six-bed mixed IMC unit supervised and staffed by ICU physicians was investigated. Changes in ICU utilization (length of stay, frequency of mechanical ventilation use), nursing workload assessed byTISS-28 score, as well as inappropriate bed use, accessibility of the ICU (number of referrals), and clinical outcome indicators (readmission and mortality rates) were measured. Results During 17 months, data of 1027 ICU patients were collected. ICU utilization improved significantly with an increased appropriate use of ICU beds. However, the number of referrals, readmissions to the ICU and mortality rates did not decrease after the IMC was opened. Conclusion The IMC contributed to a more appropriate use of ICU facilities and did result in a significant increase in mean nursing workload at the ICU. PMID:25276092
Ammentorp, Jette; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Laulund, Lone W
This paper is a report of a study of the effects of communication-skills training for healthcare professionals on parents' perceptions of information, care and continuity. As training in communication skills has been more and more integrated into clinical practice it has been subject to an increasing number of studies. However, the majority of studies have been conducted in outpatient clinics, have only targeted physicians, and have not been evaluated from the perspective of patients. This intervention study, conducted from 2005 to 2007, was performed to investigate the effect of a 3-day communication course offered to all healthcare professionals in a department of paediatrics. In a pre-/post-test design, the effect of the intervention was evaluated by the parents using electronic questionnaires filled in on touch-screen computers located centrally in the wards. A total of 895 parents answered the questionnaires before the course (80%) and 1937 answered after the course (72%). For the questions on care and continuity, the proportion of satisfied parents increased statistically significantly for 4 out of 13 questions, e.g. Did you feel that the staff understood you situation? and Did you find that the information given by the different nurses was consistent? For the information questions, no statistically significant differences were found. It is possible to incorporate key communication skills into clinical practice by targeting all healthcare professionals. Communication skills training using interactive methods such as role-play and feedback on video recordings is recommended. © 2010 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Against a background of increasing demands on limited resources, studies that relate benefits of health interventions to the resources they consume will be an important part of any decision-making process in primary care, and an accurate assessment of costs will be an important part of any economic evaluation. Although there is no such thing as a gold standard cost estimate, there are a number of basic costing concepts that underlie any costing study. How costs are derived and combined will depend on the assumptions that have been made in their derivation. It is important to be clear what assumptions have been made and why in order to maintain consistency across comparative studies and prevent inappropriate conclusions being drawn. This paper outlines some costing concepts and principles to enable primary care practitioners and researchers to have a basic understanding of costing exercises and their pitfalls.
de Bruin, Marijn; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Hospers, Harm J; Schaalma, Herman P; Kok, Gerjo
Clinical trials of behavioral interventions seek to enhance evidence-based health care. However, in case the quality of standard care provided to control conditions varies between studies and affects outcomes, intervention effects cannot be directly interpreted or compared. The objective of the present study was to examine whether standard care quality (SCQ) could be reliably assessed, varies between studies of highly active antiretroviral HIV-adherence interventions, and is related to the proportion of patients achieving an undetectable viral load ("success rate"). Databases were searched for relevant articles. Authors of selected studies retrospectively completed a checklist with standard care activities, which were coded to compute SCQ scores. The relationship between SCQ and the success rates was examined using meta-regression. Cronbach's alpha, variability in SCQ, and relation between SCQ and success rate. Reliability of the SCQ instrument was high (Cronbach's alpha = .91). SCQ scores ranged from 3.7 to 27.8 (total range = 0-30) and were highly predictive of success rate (p = .002). Variation in SCQ provided to control groups may substantially influence effect sizes of behavior change interventions. Future trials should therefore assess and report SCQ, and meta-analyses should control for variability in SCQ, thereby producing more accurate estimates of the effectiveness of behavior change interventions. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.
Grant, Liz; Downing, Julia; Luyirika, Emmanuel; Murphy, Mairead; Namukwaya, Liz; Kiyange, Fatia; Atieno, Mackuline; Kemigisha–Ssali, Emilly; Hunt, Jenny; Snell, Kaly; Murray, Scott A; Leng, Mhoira
Background The WHO is calling for the integration of palliative care in all health care settings globally. Methods A 3.5–year program was implemented in 12 government hospitals, three each in Kenya, Rwanda, Uganda and Zambia. A four–pillared approach of advocacy, staff training, service delivery strengthening and international and regional partnership working was utilized. A baseline assessment was undertaken to ascertain needs, and 27 indicators were agreed to guide and evaluate the intervention. Data were also collected through surveys, interviews and focus groups. Results Palliative care was integrated into all 12 hospital settings to various degrees through concurrent interventions of these four approaches. Overall, 218 advocacy activities were undertaken and 4153 community members attended awareness training. 781 staff were equipped with the skills and resources to cascade palliative care through their hospitals and into the community. Patients identified for palliative care increased by a factor of 2.7. All 12 hospitals had oral morphine available and consumption increased by a factor of 2.4 over two years. Twenty–two UK mentors contributed 750 volunteer days to support colleagues in each hospital transfer knowledge and skills. Conclusions Integration of palliative care within different government health services in Africa can be achieved through agreed interventions being delivered concurrently. These include advocacy at Ministry, Provincial and District level, intensive and wide–ranging training, clinical and support services supported by resources, including essential medicines, and an investment in partnerships between hospital, district and community. PMID:28685037
Complex, incrementally changing, context dependent and variable palliative care services are difficult to evaluate. Case study research strategies may have potential to contribute to evaluating such complex interventions, and to develop this field of evaluation research. This paper explores definitions of case study (as a unit of study, a process, and a product) and examines the features of case study research strategies which are thought to confer benefits for the evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care settings. Ten features of case study that are thought to be beneficial in evaluating complex interventions in palliative care are discussed, drawing from exemplars of research in this field. Important features are related to a longitudinal approach, triangulation, purposive instance selection, comprehensive approach, multiple data sources, flexibility, concurrent data collection and analysis, search for proving-disproving evidence, pattern matching techniques and an engaging narrative. The limitations of case study approaches are discussed including the potential for subjectivity and their complex, time consuming and potentially expensive nature. Case study research strategies have great potential in evaluating complex interventions in palliative care settings. Three key features need to be exploited to develop this field: case selection, longitudinal designs, and the use of rival hypotheses. In particular, case study should be used in situations where there is interplay and interdependency between the intervention and its context, such that it is difficult to define or find relevant comparisons.
Casabella Abril, Bartomeu; Trenchs Rodríguez, Marta; Delgado Girón, Sara; Muñoz Gómez, Susana; González García, Fernando; García Ortega, M Dolores
Cavalcanti, Alexandre Biasi; Machado, Flavia; Bozza, Fernando; Ibrain, Jorge; Salluh, Figueira; Campagnucci, Valquiria Pelisser; Guimarães, Helio Penna; Normilio-Silva, Karina; Chiattone, Viviane Caetano; Vendramim, Patricia; Carrara, Fernanda; Lubarino, Juliana; da Silva, Aline Reis; Viana, Grazielle; Damiani, Lucas Petri; Romano, Edson; Teixeira, Cassiano; da Silva, Nilton Brandão; Chang, Chung-Chou H; Angus, Derek C; Berwanger, Otavio
The uptake of evidence-based therapies in the intensive care environment is suboptimal, particularly in limited-resource countries. Checklists, daily goal assessments, and clinician prompts may improve compliance with best practice processes of care and, in turn, improve clinical outcomes. However, the available evidence on the effectiveness of checklists is unreliable and inconclusive, and the mechanisms are poorly understood. We aim to evaluate whether the use of a multifaceted quality improvement intervention, including the use of a checklist and the definition of daily care goals during multidisciplinary daily rounds and clinician prompts, can improve the in-hospital mortality of patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs). Our secondary objectives are to assess the effects of the study intervention on specific processes of care, clinical outcomes, and the safety culture and to determine which factors (the processes of care and/or safety culture) mediate the effect of the study intervention on mortality. This is a cluster randomized trial involving 118 ICUs in Brazil conducted in two phases. In the observational preparatory phase, we collect baseline data on processes of care and clinical outcomes from 60 consecutive patients with lengths of ICU stay longer than 48 h and apply the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire (SAQ) to 75% or more of the health care staff in each ICU. In the randomized phase, we assign ICUs to the experimental or control arm and repeat data collection. Experimental arm ICUs receive the multifaceted quality improvement intervention, including a checklist and definition of daily care goals during daily multidisciplinary rounds, clinician prompting, and feedback on rates of adherence to selected care processes. Control arm ICUs maintain usual care. The primary outcome is in-hospital mortality, truncated at 60 days. Secondary outcomes include the rates of adherence to appropriate care processes, rates of other clinical outcomes, and scores
Teksoz, Emel; Bilgin, Ibrahim; Madzwamuse, Suna Eryigit; Oscakci, Ayse Ferda
Hospitalisation can lead to distress for children. Creative play may reduce the adverse effects of hospitalisation on children, as it could lead to children associating satisfaction and fun with their hospital experience. The aim of the current study is to investigate the impact of a creative play intervention on service-care satisfaction measurements of children and their parents. A mixed-methods design consisting of quantitative pre/post-assessments and qualitative interviews was used within this study. The research was conducted with 30 children (nexperimental group = 15; ncontrol group = 15). Their parents (n = 30) and their nurse practitioners (n = 20) were also contacted in order to capture their reflections of this intervention which included creative activities with unused clean medical materials. Child participants completed the Patient's Nursing Care Perception Tool and their parents completed the PedsQL Health Care Satisfaction Tool. The two groups did not differ in relation to the Patients' Nursing Care Satisfaction Tool (PNCST) (t(28): 0.348, p = .730) and the PedsQL (t(28): -0.189, p = .852) scores at Time 1 before the intervention; however, significant differences were observed at the end at Time 2 (PNCST: t(28): -11.63, p < .001; PedsQL: t(28): -12.416, p < .001). In qualitative interviews, nurses indicated that their play skills with children had been enhanced by this intervention. Family attendants reported that the intervention improved the nurse-child relationship and their satisfaction with care. The results have shown that creative play intervention are a feasible nursing intervention which has a strong potential to be effective on child patients' and their attendants' satisfaction with care services. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
McGilton, Katherine S; Profetto-McGrath, Joanne; Robinson, Angela
This pilot study was conducted in response to the call in 2009 by the International Association of Gerontology and Geriatrics to focus on effective leadership structures in nursing homes and to develop leadership capacity. Few researchers have evaluated interventions aimed at enhancing the leadership ability of registered nurses in long-term care. The aim of the pilot study was to test the feasibility of a three-part supportive supervisory intervention to improve supervisory skills of registered nurses in long-term care. A repeated measures group design was used. Quantitative data were collected from healthcare aides, licensed practical nurses (i.e., supervised staff), and registered nurses (i.e., supervisors). Focus groups with care managers and supervisors examined perceptions of the intervention. There were nonsignificant changes in both the registered nurse supervisors' job satisfaction and the supervised staff's perception of their supervisors' support. Supervised staff scores indicated an increase in the use of research utilization but did not reflect an increase in job satisfaction. Focus group discussions revealed that the supervisors and care managers perceived the workshop to be valuable; however, the weekly self-reflection, coaching, and mentoring components of the intervention were rare and inconsistent. While the primary outcomes were not influenced by the Supportive Supervision Intervention, further effort is required to understand how best to enhance the supportive supervisory skills of RNs. Examples of how to improve the possibility of a successful intervention are advanced. Effective supervisory skills among registered nurses are crucial for improving the quality of care in long-term care homes. Registered nurses are receptive to interventions that will enhance their roles as supervisors. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Mtatifikolo, Ferdinand; Ngoli, Baltazar; Neuner, Bruno; Wernecke, Klaus–Dieter; Spies, Claudia
Introduction Surgical services are increasingly seen to reduce death and disability in Sub-Saharan Africa, where hospital-based mortality remains alarmingly high. This study explores two implementation approaches to improve the quality of perioperative care in a Tanzanian hospital. Effects were compared to a control group of two other hospitals in the region without intervention. Methods All hospitals conducted quality assessments with a Hospital Performance Assessment Tool. Changes in immediate outcome indicators after one and two years were compared to final outcome indicators such as Anaesthetic Complication Rate and Surgical Case Fatality Rate. Results Immediate outcome indicators for Preoperative Care in the intervention hospital improved (52.5% in 2009; 84.2% in 2011, p<0.001). Postoperative Inpatient Care initially improved to then decline again (63.3% in 2009; 70% in 2010; 58.6% in 2011). In the control group, preoperative care declined from 50.8% (2009) to 32.8% (2011, p <0.001), while postoperative care did not significantly change. Anaesthetic Complication Rate in the intervention hospital declined (1.89% before intervention; 0.96% after intervention, p = 0.006). Surgical Case Fatality Rate in the intervention hospital declined from 5.67% before intervention to 2.93% after intervention (p<0.0010). Surgical Case Fatality Rate in the control group was 4% before intervention and 3.8% after intervention (p = 0.411). Anaesthetic Complication Rate in the control group was not available. Discussion Immediate outcome indicators initially improved, while at the same time final outcome declined (Surgical Case Fatality, Anaesthetic Complication Rate). Compared to the control group, final outcome improved more in the intervention hospital, although the effect was not significant over the whole study period. Documentation of final outcome indicators seemed inconsistent. Immediate outcome indicators seem more helpful to steer the Continuous Quality Improvement program
Alvariza, Anette; Årestedt, Kristofer; Boman, Kurt; Brännström, Margareta
Chronic heart failure is a disease with high morbidity and symptom burden for patients, and it also places great demands on family members. Patients with heart failure should have access to palliative care for the purpose of improving quality of life for both patients and their families. In the PREFER randomized controlled intervention, patients with New York Heart Association classes III-IV heart failure received person-centered care with a multidisciplinary approach involving collaboration between specialists in palliative and heart failure care. The aim of the present study was to describe family members' experiences of the intervention, which integrated palliative advanced home and heart failure care. This study had a qualitative descriptive design based on family member interviews. Altogether, 14 family members participated in semistructured interviews for evaluation after intervention completion. The data were analyzed by means of content analysis. Family members expressed gratitude and happiness after witnessing the patient feeling better due to symptom relief and empowerment. They also felt relieved and less worried, as they were reassured that the patient was being cared for properly and that their own responsibility for care was shared with healthcare professionals. However, some family members also felt as though they were living in the shadow of severe illness, without receiving any support for themselves. Several benefits were found for family members from the PREFER intervention, and our results indicate the significance of integrated palliative advanced home and heart failure care. However, in order to improve this intervention, psychosocial professionals should be included on the intervention team and should contribute by paying closer attention and providing targeted support for family members.
Beccaro, M; Gollo, G; Ceccon, S; Giordano, M; Salvini, E; Vignali, S; Costantini, M; Di Leo, Silvia
This study was aimed at piloting a school-based intervention on severe illness, within a project focused on spreading knowledge of palliative care among high school students (phases 0-2 Medical Research Council Framework). The intervention entailed the screening of a topic-related movie, 2 classroom meetings, and the development of a class-based multimedia production. Five classes from 5 high schools participated in this study, and a before-after evaluation was used to assess intervention feasibility and impact. Valid questionnaires were filled in by 84% (before) and 79% (after) of the 89 students. Concerning students' knowledge on palliative care, the after evaluation showed a significantly higher paired proportions of students reporting on "improving patient quality of life" and "life-threatening illness." Intervention components were deemed helpful by students, and positive feedback on the experience was given.
Elliott, Margaret; Harrington, Jane; Moore, Kirsten; Davis, Sarah; Kupeli, Nuriye; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Gola, Anna; Candy, Bridget; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Jones, Louise
In the UK approximately 700,000 people are living with, and a third of people aged over 65 will die with, dementia. People with dementia may receive poor quality care towards the end of life. We applied a realist approach and used mixed methods to develop a complex intervention to improve care for people with advanced dementia and their family carers. Consensus on intervention content was achieved using the RAND UCLA appropriateness method and mapped to sociological theories of process and impact. Core components are: (1) facilitation of integrated care, (2) education, training and support, (3) investment from commissioners and care providers. We present the protocol for an exploratory phase I study to implement components 1 and 2 in order to understand how the intervention operates in practice and to assess feasibility and acceptability. An 'Interdisciplinary Care Leader (ICL)' will work within two care homes, alongside staff and associated professionals to facilitate service integration, encourage structured needs assessment, develop the use of personal and advance care plans and support staff training. We will use qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data for a range of outcome and process measures to detect effects on individual residents, family carers, care home staff, the intervention team, the interdisciplinary team and wider systems. Analysis will include descriptive statistics summarising process and care home level data, individual demographic and clinical characteristics and data on symptom burden, clinical events and quality of care. Qualitative data will be explored using thematic analysis. Findings will inform a future phase II trial. Ethical approval was granted (REC reference 14/LO/0370). We shall publish findings at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals, on the Marie Curie Cancer Care website and prepare reports for dissemination by organisations involved with end-of-life care and dementia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited
Elliott, Margaret; Harrington, Jane; Moore, Kirsten; Davis, Sarah; Kupeli, Nuriye; Vickerstaff, Victoria; Gola, Anna; Candy, Bridget; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Jones, Louise
Introduction In the UK approximately 700 000 people are living with, and a third of people aged over 65 will die with, dementia. People with dementia may receive poor quality care towards the end of life. We applied a realist approach and used mixed methods to develop a complex intervention to improve care for people with advanced dementia and their family carers. Consensus on intervention content was achieved using the RAND UCLA appropriateness method and mapped to sociological theories of process and impact. Core components are: (1) facilitation of integrated care, (2) education, training and support, (3) investment from commissioners and care providers. We present the protocol for an exploratory phase I study to implement components 1 and 2 in order to understand how the intervention operates in practice and to assess feasibility and acceptability. Methods and analysis An ‘Interdisciplinary Care Leader (ICL)’ will work within two care homes, alongside staff and associated professionals to facilitate service integration, encourage structured needs assessment, develop the use of personal and advance care plans and support staff training. We will use qualitative and quantitative methods to collect data for a range of outcome and process measures to detect effects on individual residents, family carers, care home staff, the intervention team, the interdisciplinary team and wider systems. Analysis will include descriptive statistics summarising process and care home level data, individual demographic and clinical characteristics and data on symptom burden, clinical events and quality of care. Qualitative data will be explored using thematic analysis. Findings will inform a future phase II trial. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval was granted (REC reference 14/LO/0370). We shall publish findings at conferences, in peer-reviewed journals, on the Marie Curie Cancer Care website and prepare reports for dissemination by organisations involved with end
Background Racial disparities in blood pressure control have been well documented in the United States. Research suggests that many factors contribute to this disparity, including barriers to care at patient, clinician, healthcare system, and community levels. To date, few interventions aimed at reducing hypertension disparities have addressed factors at all of these levels. This paper describes the design of Project ReD CHiP (Reducing Disparities and Controlling Hypertension in Primary Care), a multi-level system quality improvement project. By intervening on multiple levels, this project aims to reduce disparities in blood pressure control and improve guideline concordant hypertension care. Methods Using a pragmatic trial design, we are implementing three complementary multi-level interventions designed to improve blood pressure measurement, provide patient care management services and offer expanded provider education resources in six primary care clinics in Baltimore, Maryland. We are staggering the introduction of the interventions and will use Statistical Process Control (SPC) charting to determine if there are changes in outcomes at each clinic after implementation of each intervention. The main hypothesis is that each intervention will have an additive effect on improvements in guideline concordant care and reductions in hypertension disparities, but the combination of all three interventions will result in the greatest impact, followed by blood pressure measurement with care management support, blood pressure measurement with provider education, and blood pressure measurement only. This study also examines how organizational functioning and cultural competence affect the success of the interventions. Discussion As a quality improvement project, Project ReD CHiP employs a novel study design that specifically targets multi-level factors known to contribute to hypertension disparities. To facilitate its implementation and improve its sustainability, we have
Seward, Kirsty; Finch, Meghan; Wiggers, John; Wyse, Rebecca; Jones, Jannah; Gillham, Karen; Yoong, Sze Lin
Introduction Interventions to improve child diet are recommended as dietary patterns developed in childhood track into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic disease. For child health, childcare services are required to provide foods to children consistent with nutrition guidelines. Research suggests that foods and beverages provided by services to children are often inconsistent with nutrition guidelines. The primary aim of this study is to assess, relative to a usual care control group, the effectiveness of a multistrategy childcare-based intervention in improving compliance with nutrition guidelines in long day care services. Methods and analysis The study will employ a parallel group randomised controlled trial design. A sample of 58 long day care services that provide all meals (typically includes 1 main and 2 mid-meals) to children while they are in care, in the Hunter New England region of New South Wales, Australia, will be randomly allocated to a 6-month intervention to support implementation of nutrition guidelines or a usual care control group in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention was designed to overcome barriers to the implementation of nutrition guidelines assessed using the theoretical domains framework. Intervention strategies will include the provision of staff training and resources, audit and feedback, ongoing support and securing executive support. The primary outcome of the trial will be the change in the proportion of long day care services that have a 2-week menu compliant with childcare nutrition guidelines, measured by comprehensive menu assessments. As a secondary outcome, child dietary intake while in care will also be assessed. To assess the effectiveness of the intervention, the measures will be undertaken at baseline and ∼6 months postbaseline. Ethics and dissemination The study was approved by the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee. Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications. PMID
Seward, Kirsty; Wolfenden, Luke; Finch, Meghan; Wiggers, John; Wyse, Rebecca; Jones, Jannah; Gillham, Karen; Yoong, Sze Lin
Interventions to improve child diet are recommended as dietary patterns developed in childhood track into adulthood and influence the risk of chronic disease. For child health, childcare services are required to provide foods to children consistent with nutrition guidelines. Research suggests that foods and beverages provided by services to children are often inconsistent with nutrition guidelines. The primary aim of this study is to assess, relative to a usual care control group, the effectiveness of a multistrategy childcare-based intervention in improving compliance with nutrition guidelines in long day care services. The study will employ a parallel group randomised controlled trial design. A sample of 58 long day care services that provide all meals (typically includes 1 main and 2 mid-meals) to children while they are in care, in the Hunter New England region of New South Wales, Australia, will be randomly allocated to a 6-month intervention to support implementation of nutrition guidelines or a usual care control group in a 1:1 ratio. The intervention was designed to overcome barriers to the implementation of nutrition guidelines assessed using the theoretical domains framework. Intervention strategies will include the provision of staff training and resources, audit and feedback, ongoing support and securing executive support. The primary outcome of the trial will be the change in the proportion of long day care services that have a 2-week menu compliant with childcare nutrition guidelines, measured by comprehensive menu assessments. As a secondary outcome, child dietary intake while in care will also be assessed. To assess the effectiveness of the intervention, the measures will be undertaken at baseline and ∼6 months postbaseline. The study was approved by the Hunter New England Human Research Ethics Committee. Study findings will be disseminated widely through peer-reviewed publications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission
Background Back pain is one of the UK's costliest and least understood health problems, whose prevalence still seems to be increasing. Educational interventions for general practitioners on back pain appear to have had little impact on practice, but these did not include quality improvement learning, involve patients in the learning, record costs or document practice activities as well as patient outcomes. Methods We assessed the outcome of providing information about quality improvement techniques and evidence-based practice for back pain using the Clinical Value Compass. This included clinical outcomes (Roland and Morris Disability Questionnaire), functional outcomes, costs of care and patient satisfaction. We provided workshops which used an action learning approach and collected before and after data on routine practice activity from practice electronic databases. In parallel, we studied outcomes in a separate cohort of patients with acute and sub-acute non-specific back pain recruited from the same practices over the same time period. Patient data were analysed as a prospective, split-cohort study with assessments at baseline and eight weeks following the first consultation. Results Data for 1014 patients were recorded in the practice database study, and 101 patients in the prospective cohort study. We found that practice activities, costs and patient outcomes changed little after the intervention. However, the intervention was associated with a small, but statistically significant reduction in disability in female patients. Additionally, baseline disability, downheartedness, self-rated health and leg pain had small but statistically significant effects (p < 0.05) on follow-up disability scores in some subgroups. Conclusions GP education for back pain that both includes health improvement methodologies and involves patients may yield additional benefits for some patients without large changes in patterns of practice activity. The effects in this study were
Byng, Richard; Norman, Ian; Redfern, Sally; Jones, Roger
Background Complex interventions have components which can vary in different contexts. Using the Realistic Evaluation framework, this study investigates how a complex health services intervention led to developments in shared care for people with long-term mental illness. Methods A retrospective qualitative interview study was carried out alongside a randomised controlled trial. The multi-faceted intervention supported by facilitators aimed to develop systems for shared care. The study was set in London. Participants included 46 practitioners and managers from 12 participating primary health care teams and their associated community mental health teams. Interviews focussed on how and why out comes were achieved, and were analysed using a framework incorporating context and intervening mechanisms. Results Thirty-one interviews were completed to create 12 case studies. The enquiry highlighted the importance of the catalysing, doing and reviewing functions of the facilitation process. Other facets of the intervention were less dominant. The intervention catalysed the allocation of link workers and liaison arrangements in nearly all practices. Case discussions between link workers and GPs improved individual care as well as helping link workers become part of the primary care team; but sustained integration into the team depended both on flexibility and experience of the link worker, and upon selection of relevant patients for the case discussions. The doing function of facilitators included advice and, at times, manpower, to help introduce successful systems for reviewing care, however time spent developing IT systems was rarely productive. The reviewing function of the intervention was weak and sometimes failed to solve problems in the development of liaison or recall. Conclusion Case discussions and improved liaison at times of crisis, rather than for proactive recall, were the key functions of shared care contributing to the success of Mental Health Link. This
Stein, Ruth E K; Zitner, Lauren E; Jensen, Peter S
Depression in adolescents is underrecognized and undertreated despite its poor long-term outcomes, including risk for suicide. Primary care settings may be critical venues for the identification of depression, but there is little information about the usefulness of primary care interventions. We sought to examine the evidence for the treatment of depression in primary care settings, focusing on evidence concerning psychosocial, educational, and/or supportive intervention strategies. Available data on brief psychosocial treatments for adolescent depression in primary settings were reviewed. Given the paucity of direct studies, we also drew on related literature to summarize available evidence whether brief, psychosocial support from a member of the primary care team, with or without medication, might improve depression outcomes. We identified 37 studies relevant to treating adolescent depression in primary care settings. Only 4 studies directly examined the impact of primary care-delivered psychosocial interventions for adolescent depression, but they suggest that such interventions can be effective. Indirect evidence from other psychosocial/behavioral interventions, including anticipatory guidance and efforts to enhance treatment adherence, and adult depression studies also show benefits of primary care-delivered interventions as well as the impact of provider training to enhance psychosocial skills. There is potential for successful treatment of adolescent depression in primary care, in view of evidence that brief, psychosocial support, with or without medication, has been shown to improve a range of outcomes, including adolescent depression itself. Given the great public health problem posed by adolescent depression, the likelihood that most depressed adolescents will not receive specialty services, and new guidelines for managing adolescent depression in primary care, clinicians may usefully consider initiation of supportive interventions in their primary care
Cabezas, Carmen; Martin, Carlos; Granollers, Silvia; Morera, Concepció; Ballve, Josep Lluis; Zarza, Elvira; Blade, Jordi; Borras, Margarida; Serra, Antoni; Puente, Diana
Background There is a considerable body of evidence on the effectiveness of specific interventions in individuals who wish to quit smoking. However, there are no large-scale studies testing the whole range of interventions currently recommended for helping people to give up smoking; specifically those interventions that include motivational interviews for individuals who are not interested in quitting smoking in the immediate to short term. Furthermore, many of the published studies were undertaken in specialized units or by a small group of motivated primary care centres. The objective of the study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a stepped smoking cessation intervention based on a trans-theoretical model of change, applied to an extensive group of Primary Care Centres (PCC). Methods/Design Cluster randomised clinical trial. Unit of randomization: basic unit of care consisting of a family physician and a nurse, both of whom care for the same population (aprox. 2000 people). Intention to treat analysis. Study population: Smokers (n = 3024) aged 14 to 75 years consulting for any reason to PCC and who provided written informed consent to participate in the trial. Intervention: 6-month implementation of recommendations of a Clinical Practice Guideline which includes brief motivational interviews for smokers at the precontemplation – contemplation stage, brief intervention for smokers in preparation-action who do not want help, intensive intervention with pharmacotherapy for smokers in preparation-action who want help, and reinforcing intervention in the maintenance stage. Control group: usual care. Outcome measures: Self-reported abstinence confirmed by exhaled air carbon monoxide concentration of ≤ 10 parts per million. Points of assessment: end of intervention period and 1 and 2 years post-intervention; continuous abstinence rate for 1 year; change in smoking cessation stage; health status measured by SF-36. Discussion The application of a stepped
Van Voorhees, Benjamin W; Watson, Natalie; Bridges, John F P; Fogel, Joshua; Galas, Jill; Kramer, Clarke; Connery, Marc; McGill, Ann; Marko, Monika; Cardenas, Alonso; Landsback, Josephine; Dmochowska, Karoline; Kuwabara, Sachiko A; Ellis, Justin; Prochaska, Micah; Bell, Carl
Adolescent depression is both common and burdensome, and while evidence-based strategies have been developed to prevent adolescent depression, participation in such interventions remains extremely low, with less than 3% of at-risk individuals participating. To promote participation in evidence-based preventive strategies, a rigorous marketing strategy is needed to translate research into practice. To develop and pilot a rigorous marketing strategy for engaging at-risk individuals with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention in primary care targeting key attitudes and beliefs. A marketing design group was constituted to develop a marketing strategy based on the principles of targeting, positioning/competitor analysis, decision analysis, and promotion/distribution and incorporating contemporary models of behavior change. We evaluated the formative quality of the intervention and observed the fielding experience for prevention using a pilot study (observational) design. The marketing plan focused on "resiliency building" rather than "depression intervention" and was relayed by office staff and the Internet site. Twelve practices successfully implemented the intervention and recruited a diverse sample of adolescents with > 30% of all those with positive screens and > 80% of those eligible after phone assessment enrolling in the study with a cost of $58 per enrollee. Adolescent motivation for depression prevention (1-10 scale) increased from a baseline mean value of 7.45 (SD = 2.05) to 8.07 poststudy (SD = 1.33) (P = .048). Marketing strategies for preventive interventions for mental disorders can be developed and successfully introduced and marketed in primary care.
Hamilton, Fiona L; Laverty, Anthony A; Huckvale, Kit; Car, Josip; Majeed, Azeem; Millett, Christopher
The Quality and Outcomes Framework (QOF) is a financial incentive scheme that rewards UK general practices for providing evidence-based care, including smoking cessation advice mainly as a secondary prevention intervention. We examined the effects on smoking outcomes and inequalities of a local version of QOF (QOF+), which ran from 2008 to 2011 and extended financial incentives to the provision of cessation advice as a primary prevention intervention. Before-and-after study using data from 28 general practices in Hammersmith & Fulham, London, United Kingdom. We used logistic regression to examine changes in smoking outcomes associated with QOF+ within and between sociodemographic groups. Recording of smoking status increased from 55.5% to 64.3% for men (P < .001) and from 67.9% to 75.8% for women (P < .001). All groups benefitted from the increase, but younger patients remained less likely to be asked about smoking than older patients. White patients were less likely to be asked than those from other ethnic groups. Smoking cessation advice increased from 32.7% to 54.0% for men (P < .001) and from 35.4% to 54.1% for women (P < .01) and there was little variation between groups for this outcome. Recorded smoking prevalence reduced from 25.0% to 20.8% for men (P < .001) and from 16.1% to 12.5% for women (P < .001). White patients and those from more deprived areas remained more likely to be smokers than other groups. The introduction of QOF+ was associated with general improvements in recording of smoking outcomes, but inequalities in ascertainment and smoking prevalence with respect to age, ethnicity, and deprivation persisted. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Brunetti, Piercarlo; Pellegrini, Walter; Masera, Giuliana; Berchialla, Paola; Dal Molin, Alberto
The "Human Caring" model is a philosophy of care based on individual centrality and which, although developed within nursing discipline, could be used by all professionals who take care of individuals. Nurses who work within the field of Mental Health, is subjected to a considerable emotional burden and it is believed that the introduction of this model can have a positive impact. To evaluate the effects of the introduction of the model Human Caring in the Department of Mental Health Asl Cuneo 1, in order to improve health care professionals' well-being and patients' perception with respect to care and assistance. A pre and post intervention design approach with control group where variables were measured before (T0) and after (T1) the implementation of the model of care Human Caring. 80 health care professionals and 125 clients were observed. Results show a non statistically significant difference between the pre and post test both for health care professionals and clients. Human Caring model does not seem to have a positive impact in the short term. However, it is arguably a protective action for health care professionals that further studies should deeply explore with longer period of follow-up.
Barbosa, Ana; Nolan, Mike; Sousa, Liliana; Marques, Alda; Figueiredo, Daniela
This study aimed to assess the effects of a psychoeducational intervention, designed to improve direct care workers' stress, burnout and job satisfaction, and person-centered communicative behavior in people with dementia. A pretest-posttest control group design was conducted in 4 aged-care facilities. Two experimental facilities received a psychoeducational intervention, and 2 control facilities received an education only. Data were gathered from 53 care workers at baseline, immediately, and 6 months after the intervention, through self-administrated instruments and video-recorded morning care sessions. The experimental group showed a significant decrease in care workers' burnout and a significant improvement in several communicative behaviors (e.g., involvement). Stress levels deteriorated at 6 months, and no intervention effects were found for job satisfaction. The findings highlight the importance of providing care workers with both technical competences and tools for stress management, as this might be associated with a reduction in their levels of exhaustion and improved communicative behaviors. © The Author(s) 2015.
Udo, C; Melin-Johansson, C; Henoch, I; Axelsson, B; Danielson, E
This is a randomised controlled pilot study using a mixed methods design. The overall aim was to test an educational intervention on existential issues and to describe surgical nurses' perceived attitudes towards caring for patients dying of cancer. Specific aims were to examine whether the educational intervention consisting of lectures and reflective discussions, affects nurses' perceived confidence in communication and to explore nurses' experiences and reflections on existential issues after participating in the intervention. Forty-two nurses from three surgical wards at one hospital were randomly assigned to an intervention or control group. Nurses in both groups completed a questionnaire at equivalent time intervals: at baseline before the educational intervention, directly after the intervention, and 3 and 6 months later. Eleven face-to-face interviews were conducted with nurses directly after the intervention and 6 months later. Significant short-term and long-term changes were reported. Main results concerned the significant long-term effects regarding nurses' increased confidence and decreased powerlessness in communication, and their increased feelings of value when caring for a dying patient. In addition, nurses described enhanced awareness and increased reflection. Results indicate that an understanding of the patient's situation, derived from enhanced awareness and increased reflection, precedes changes in attitudes towards communication. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
van der Werf, Christian; Hendrix, Anneke; Birnie, Erwin; Bots, Michiel L; Vink, Aryan; Bardai, Abdennasser; Blom, Marieke T; Bosch, Jan; Bruins, Wendy; Das, C Kees; Koster, Rudolph W; Naujocks, Tatjana; Schaap, Balthasar; Tan, Hanno L; de Vos, Ronald; de Vries, Philip; Woonink, Frits; Doevendans, Pieter A; van Weert, Henk C; Wilde, Arthur A M; Mosterd, Arend; van Langen, Irene M
Inherited cardiac diseases play an important role in sudden death (SD) in the young. Autopsy and cardiogenetic evaluation of relatives of young SD victims identifies relatives at risk. We studied the usual care after SD in the young aimed at identifying inherited cardiac disease, and assessed the efficacy of two interventions to improve this usual care. We conducted a community-based intervention study to increase autopsy rates of young SD victims aged 1-44 years and referral of their relatives to cardiogenetic clinics. In the Amsterdam study region, a 24/7 central telephone number and a website were available to inform general practitioners and coroners. In the Utrecht study region, they were informed by a letter and educational meetings. In two control regions usual care was monitored. Autopsy was performed in 169 of 390 registered SD cases (43.3%). Cardiogenetic evaluation of relatives was indicated in 296 of 390 cases (75.9%), but only 25 of 296 families (8.4%) attended a cardiogenetics clinic. Autopsy rates were 38.7% in the Amsterdam study region, 45.5% in the Utrecht study region, and 49.0% in the control regions. The proportion of families evaluated at cardiogenetics clinics in the Amsterdam study region, the Utrecht study region, and the control regions was 7.3, 9.9, and 8.8%, respectively. The autopsy rate in young SD cases in the Netherlands is low and few families undergo cardiogenetic evaluation to detect inherited cardiac diseases. Two different interventions did not improve this suboptimal situation substantially. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2015. For permissions please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Homa, Karen; Schifferdecker, Karen E; Reed, Virginia A
The Internet offers a significant information resource for health professionals. A strategy to improve the use of these resources is for health care providers and staff to receive specific training. The aim of this study was to determine whether those who attended an Internet health care resource training intervention transferred knowledge and skills to others in the practice. Twenty-four primary care practices participated in the study in which 64 providers and staff attended a training intervention and 288 did not. A preintervention questionnaire that assessed knowledge, skill, and Internet usage was compared with a postintervention questionnaire. The main effect of interest in the linear model was the group by time interaction term, to determine whether knowledge and skill improved for both groups. There were 41 attendees and 222 nonattendees that completed both pre- and postintervention questionnaires. There were 9 variables that showed a possible diffusion pattern, in which both attendees and nonattendees improved between pre- and postintervention. Overall, the training intervention seemed to have impacted knowledge and skills of the respondents and also reported improvements in the clinical area of patient education, but frequency of use for most Web resources for medical decision making did not improve. An improvement strategy that depends on a training intervention for a few members in a practice may not necessarily transfer relative to all aspects of patient care.
Reuben, David B.; Roth, Carol P.; Frank, Janet C.; Hirsch, Susan H.; Katz, Diane; McCreath, Heather; Younger, Jon; Murawski, Marta; Edgerly, Elizabeth; Maher, Joanne; Maslow, Katie; Wenger, Neil S.
Objectives To determine whether a practice redesign intervention coupled with referral to local Alzheimer's Association chapters can improve the quality of dementia care. Design Pre-post intervention Setting Two community-based physician practices Participants Five physicians in each practice and their patients age 75 and older with dementia Intervention Adaptation of the Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE)-2 intervention (screening, efficient collection of clinical data, medical record prompts, patient education/empowerment materials, and physician decision support/education). In addition, physicians faxed referral forms to local Alzheimer's Association chapters who assessed patients, provided counseling and education, and faxed information back to the physicians. Measurements Audits of pre- (5 per physician) and post- (10 per physician) intervention medical records using ACOVE-3 quality indicators for dementia to measure the quality of care provided. Results Based on 47 pre- and 90 post-intervention audits, the percentage of quality indicators satisfied rose from 38% to 46% with significant differences on quality indicators measuring the assessment of functional status (20% versus 51%), discussion of risk/benefits of antipsychotics (32% versus 100%), and counseling caregivers (2% versus 30%). Referral of patients to Alzheimer's Association chapters increased from 0 to 17%. Referred patients had higher quality scores (65% versus 41%) and better counseling about driving (50% versus 14%), caregiver counseling (100% versus 15%) and surrogate decision-maker specification (75% versus 44%). However, some quality indicators related to cognitive assessment and examination did not improve. Conclusions This pilot study suggests that a practice-based intervention can increase referral to AA chapters and improve quality of dementia care. PMID:20374405
Lorefält, B; Andersson, A; Wirehn, A B; Wilhelmsson, S
The aim was to study the effect of individualised meals on nutritional status among older people living in municipal residential homes and to compare the results with a control group. An additional aim was to estimate direct health care costs for both groups. Six different municipal residential homes in the south-east of Sweden. Older people living in three residential homes constituted the intervention group n=42 and the rest constituted the control group n=67. A multifaceted intervention design was used. Based on an interview with staff a tailored education programme about nutritional care, including both theoretical and practical issues, was carried through to staff in the intervention group. Nutritional status among the elderly was measured by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA), individualised meals were offered to the residents based on the results of the MNA. Staff in the control group only received education on how to measure MNA and the residents followed the usual meal routines. Nutritional status was measured by MNA at baseline and after 3 months. Cost data on health care visits during 2007 were collected from the Cost Per Patient database. Nutritional status improved and body weight increased after 3 months in the intervention group. Thus, primary health care costs constituted about 80% of the total median cost in the intervention group and about 55% in the control group. With improved knowledge the staff could offer the elderly more individualised meals. One of their future challenges is to recognise and assess nutritional status among this group. If malnutrition could be prevented health care costs should be reduced.
Kisvetrová, Helena; Školoudík, David; Joanovič, Eva; Konečná, Jana; Mikšová, Zdeňka
Providing high-quality end-of-life care is a challenging area in intensive care practice. The aim of the current study was to assess the practice of registered nurses (RNs) with respect to dying care and spiritual support interventions in intensive care units (ICUs) in the Czech Republic (CR) and find correlations between particular factors or conditions and the frequency of NIC interventions usage. A cross-sectional, descriptive study was designed. A questionnaire with Likert scales included the particular activities of dying care and spiritual support interventions and an evaluation of the factors influencing the implementation of the interventions in the ICU. The group of respondents consisted of 277 RNs working in 29 ICUs in four CR regions. The Mann-Whitney U test and Pearson correlation coefficient were used for statistical evaluation. The most and least frequently reported RN activities were "treat individuals with dignity and respect" and "facilitate discussion of funeral arrangements," respectively. The frequencies of the activities in the biological, social, psychological, and spiritual dimensions were negatively correlated with the frequency of providing care to dying patients. A larger number of activities were related to longer lengths of stay in the ICU, higher staffing, more positive opinions of the RNs regarding the importance of education in a palliative care setting, and attending a palliative care education course. The psychosocial and spiritual activities in the care of dying patients are used infrequently by RNs in CR ICUs. The factors limiting the implementation of palliative care interventions and strategies improving implementation warrant further study. Assessment of nursing activities implemented in the care of dying patients in the ICU may help identify issues specific to nursing practice. © 2016 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Background Hypertension is a serious public health problem in China and in other developing countries. Our aim is to conduct a systematic review of studies on the effectiveness of community interventions for hypertension management in China. Methods China National Knowledge Infrastructure, PubMed, and references of retrieved articles were searched to identify randomised or quasi-randomised controlled studies that evaluated community hypertension care in mainland China. One reviewer extracted and a second reviewer checked data from the included studies. Results We included 94 studies, 93 of which were in Chinese language, that evaluated the following interventions: health education, improved monitoring, family-support, self-management, healthcare management changes and training of providers. The study quality was generally poor, with high risk of biased outcome reporting and significant heterogeneity between studies. When reported, the vast majority of the included studies reported statistically significantly improved outcomes in the intervention group. By assuming zero treatment effects for missing outcomes, the weighted reduction in the intervention group was 6∙9 (95% CI: 4∙9 to 8∙9) mm Hg for systolic BP, and 3∙8 (95% CI: 2∙6 to 5∙0) mm Hg for diastolic BP. Exploratory subgroup analyses found no significant differences between different interventions. Conclusions After taking account of possible reporting biases, a wide range of community interventions for hypertension care remain effective. The findings have implications for China and other low and middle income countries facing similar challenges. Because of significant heterogeneity and high risk of bias in the available studies, further well designed studies should be conducted in China to provide high quality evidence to inform policy decisions on hypertension control. PMID:22827968
Henoch, Ingela; Danielson, Ella; Strang, Susann; Browall, Maria; Melin-Johansson, Christina
When a patient receives a cancer diagnosis, existential issues become more compelling. Throughout the illness trajectory, patients with cancer are cared for in oncology wards, by home care teams or in hospices. Nurses working with these patients are sometimes aware of the patients' existential needs but do not feel confident when discussing these issues. To determine the effects of a training intervention, where the focus is on existential issues and nurses' perceived confidence in communication and their attitude toward caring for dying patients. This was a randomized, controlled trial with a training intervention comprising theoretical training in existential issues combined with individual and group reflection. In total, 102 nurses in oncology and hospice wards and in palliative home care teams were randomized to a training or non-training group. Primary outcomes, confidence in communication, and attitude toward the care of dying patients were measured at baseline, immediately after the training, and five to six months later. Confidence in communication improved significantly in the training group from baseline (before the training) to both the first and second follow-up, that is, immediately after the training and five months later. The attitude toward caring for the dying did not improve in the training group. This study shows that short-term training with reflection improves the confidence of health care staff when communicating, which is important for health care managers with limited resources. Further studies are needed to explore how patients experience the communication skills of health care staff after such training. Copyright © 2013 U.S. Cancer Pain Relief Committee. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Shachak, Aviv; Linn, Shai; Brezis, Mayer; Feder-Bubis, Paula; Reis, Shmuel
Background Attitudes and barriers to implementing EBM have been examined extensively, but scant evidence exists regarding the impact of EBM teaching on primary care physicians’ point of care behavior. Objective Gaining insight into behavioral and attitudinal changes of facilitators and participants during a multifaceted EBM educational intervention. Design, setting, and participants A qualitative study on primary care physicians and facilitators from a large HMO selected from the intervention arm of a parallel controlled trial using purposeful sampling. We conducted focus groups with 13 facilitators and 17 physicians and semi-structured interviews with 10 facilitators and 11 physicians. Results Both facilitators and participants believed EBM enhanced the quality of their practice. The intervention affected attitudes and knowledge, but had little impact on physicians’ ability to utilize pre-appraised resources at the point of care. Using EBM resources during consultation was perceived to be a complex task and impractical in a busy setting. Conversely, a positive impact on using medication databases was noted. Medication databases were perceived as easy to use during consultations in which the benefits outweighed the barriers. The intervention prompted physicians to write down clinical questions more frequently and to search for answers at home. Conclusions This study underlines the need not only to enhance EBM skills, but also to improve the ease of use of EBM resources at the point of care. Tasks should be simplified by tailoring evidence-based information retrieval systems to the busy clinical schedule. Participants’ recommendations to establish an HMO decision support service should be considered. PMID:17356963
Garst, J; L'Heveder, R; Siminerio, L M; Motala, A A; Gabbay, R A; Chaney, D; Cavan, D
This study identifies the barriers and enablers for sustainability of interventions in primary and secondary prevention of diabetes. In the context of translational research, sustainability is defined as the continued use of program components and activities for the continued achievement of desirable program and population outcomes. In this study, eleven translational research projects, supported by the BRIDGES program of the International Diabetes Federation, were investigated. By theoretically-informed semi-structured interviews and analyses of project reports, qualitative data was collected on the sustainability outcomes and the barriers and enablers. The sustainability outcomes can be grouped in three main areas: (1) sustainability at the intervention site(s); (2) diffusion to the wider community; and (3) replication of the intervention at other site(s). Each of the outcomes has their own set of enablers and barriers, and thus requires consideration for a different sustainability strategy. This study is the first international study that relates the sustainability outcomes of translational research project to specific barriers and enablers, and develops an evidence-based framework which provides practical advice on how to ensure the sustainability of health interventions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Araújo, Odete; Lage, Isabel; Cabrita, José; Teixeira, Laetitia
This study aims at describing an intervention based on informal caregivers' skills when taking care of older people after a stroke (InCARE). Most informal caregivers feel unprepared to deliver assistance in activities of daily living at home. This lack of preparedness can lead to misconceptions, burden and affect their health, which, consequently, may imply hospital readmissions or early institutionalization of the older adults. A single blinded randomised trial. This study will recruit 198 dyads, comprising old stroke survivors and their caregivers, who will be divided into two groups: intervention and control (protocol approved in May 2013). (informal caregivers) absence of cognitive impairment; resident in the Cávado Region; to return the informed consent (older people) are over 65 years of age; have had a first stroke and; be dependent on at least one of the self-care activities post hospital discharge. informal caregivers' skills. include burden and Health Quality of Life in informal caregivers; functionality, hospital readmission and institutionalization of older people stroke survivors, measured 1 and 3 months after InCARE programme. The InCARE programme will highlight new ways to understand the feasibility of a large trial, which supports caregivers who take care of older people after a stroke. It will be expected that the level of burden decreases, thus helping informal caregivers enhance their quality of life. Also, it is expected that older people's functionality will be improved and that hospital readmission or institutionalization may be avoided. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Background Patients in control of their own haemodialysis report better outcomes than those receiving professional controlled care in a hospital setting, even though home and hospital haemodialysis are largely equivalent from mechanical and physiological perspectives. Shared Haemodialysis Care (SHC) describes an initiative in which hospital haemodialysis patients are supported by dialysis staff to become as involved as they wish in their own care; and can improve patient safety, satisfaction and may reduce costs. We do not understand why interventions to support self-management in other conditions have variable effects or how to optimise the delivery of SHC. The purpose of this study was to identify perceived patient and professional (nurses and healthcare assistants) barriers to the uptake of SHC, and to use these data to identify intervention components to optimise care. Methods Individual semi-structured interviews with patients and professionals were conducted to identify barriers and facilitators. Data were coded to behavioural theory to identify solutions. A national UK learning event with multiple stakeholders (patients, carers, commissioners and professionals) explored the salience of these barriers and the acceptability of solutions. Results A complex intervention strategy was designed to optimise SHC for patients and professionals. Interviews were conducted with patients (n = 15) and professionals (n = 7) in two hospitals and three satellite units piloting SHC. Data from patient and professional interviews could be coded to behavioural theory. Analyses identified key barriers (knowledge, beliefs about capabilities, skills and environmental context and resources). An intervention strategy that focuses on providing, first, patients with information about the shared nature of care, how to read prescriptions and use machines, and second, providing professionals with skills and protected time to teach both professionals/patients, as well as providing
Ghera, Melissa M.; Marshall, Peter J.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.; Smyke, Anna T.; Guthrie, Donald
Background: We examined the effects of a foster care intervention on attention and emotion expression in socially deprived children in Romanian institutions. Methods: Institutionalized children were randomized to enter foster care or to remain under institutional care. Subsequently, the institutionalized and foster care groups, along with a…
Ghera, Melissa M.; Marshall, Peter J.; Fox, Nathan A.; Zeanah, Charles H.; Nelson, Charles A.; Smyke, Anna T.; Guthrie, Donald
Background: We examined the effects of a foster care intervention on attention and emotion expression in socially deprived children in Romanian institutions. Methods: Institutionalized children were randomized to enter foster care or to remain under institutional care. Subsequently, the institutionalized and foster care groups, along with a…
Background Telemonitoring technology offers one of the most promising alternatives for the provision of health care services at the patient's home. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of a primary care-based telemonitoring intervention on the frequency of hospital admissions. Methods/design A primary care-based randomised controlled trial will be carried out to assess the impact of a telemonitoring intervention aimed at home care patients with heart failure (HF) and/or chronic lung disease (CLD). The results will be compared with those obtained with standard health care practice. The duration of the study will be of one year. Sixty patients will be recruited for the study. In-home patients, diagnosed with HF and/or CLD, aged 14 or above and with two or more hospital admissions in the previous year will be eligible. For the intervention group, telemonitoring will consist of daily patient self-measurements of respiratory-rate, heart-rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, weight and body temperature. Additionally, the patients will complete a qualitative symptom questionnaire daily using the telemonitoring system. Routine telephone contacts will be conducted every fortnight and additional telephone contacts will be carried out if the data received at the primary care centre are out of the established limits. The control group will receive usual care. The primary outcome measure is the number of hospital admissions due to any cause that occurred in a period of 12 months post-randomisation. The secondary outcome measures are: duration of hospital stay, hospital admissions due to HF or CLD, mortality rate, use of health care resources, quality of life, cost-effectiveness, compliance and patient and health care professional satisfaction with the new technology. Discussion The results of this study will shed some light on the effects of telemonitoring for the follow-up and management of chronic patients from a primary care setting. The study may
Konno, Rie; Kang, Hee Sun; Makimoto, Kiyoko
To conduct a best-evidence review of non-pharmacological interventions for resistance-to-care behaviours of nursing home residents with dementia in a personal-care context. Resistance to care is a major source of staff burnout in nursing homes and it is also a safety issue for the staff. Best-evidence review. We searched for non-pharmacological intervention studies published from 1990-2012, written in English. The search identified 19 intervention studies that examined the effects of interventions to reduce the resistance-to-care behaviours of nursing home residents with dementia in a personal-care context. These 19 papers met the quality assessment requirements of the critical appraisal criteria for experimental studies, which were published by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Only three studies were RCTs and the rest were quasi-experimental. The sample size ranged from 7-127. Nine music interventions, such as pre-recorded music played to a group or playing a resident's preferred music, during his or her personal care, resulted in significant reductions in resistance-to-care behaviours. Resistance-to-care behaviours also were significantly reduced in three of four bathing interventions that focused on person-centred care. In the ability-focused interventions, only two out of five studies reported significant reductions in resistance-to-care behaviours. Non-pharmacological interventions are options to consider to reduce resistance-to-care behaviours in older people with dementia, even though the evidence level is low, given the lack of alternatives. More randomized controlled trials are recommended to confirm the effects of non-pharmacological interventions during personal care. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Engwall, Marie; Fridh, Isabell; Johansson, Lotta; Bergbom, Ingegerd; Lindahl, Berit
Patients in an intensive care unit (ICU) may risk disruption of their circadian rhythm. In an intervention research project a cycled lighting system was set up in an ICU room to support patients' circadian rhythm. Part I aimed to compare experiences of the lighting environment in two rooms with different lighting environments by lighting experiences questionnaire. The results indicated differences in advantage for the patients in the intervention room (n=48), in perception of daytime brightness (p=0.004). In nighttime, greater lighting variation (p=0.005) was found in the ordinary room (n=52). Part II aimed to describe experiences of lighting in the room equipped with the cycled lighting environment. Patients (n=19) were interviewed and the results were presented in categories: "A dynamic lighting environment", "Impact of lighting on patients' sleep", "The impact of lighting/lights on circadian rhythm" and "The lighting calms". Most had experiences from sleep disorders and half had nightmares/sights and circadian rhythm disruption. Nearly all were pleased with the cycled lighting environment, which together with daylight supported their circadian rhythm. In night's actual lighting levels helped patients and staff to connect which engendered feelings of calm. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Watson, Natalie; Bridges, John F. P.; Fogel, Joshua; Galas, Jill; Kramer, Clarke; Connery, Marc; McGill, Ann; Marko, Monika; Cardenas, Alonso; Landsback, Josephine; Dmochowska, Karoline; Kuwabara, Sachiko A.; Ellis, Justin; Prochaska, Micah; Bell, Carl
Background: Adolescent depression is both common and burdensome, and while evidence-based strategies have been developed to prevent adolescent depression, participation in such interventions remains extremely low, with less than 3% of at-risk individuals participating. To promote participation in evidence-based preventive strategies, a rigorous marketing strategy is needed to translate research into practice. Objective: To develop and pilot a rigorous marketing strategy for engaging at-risk individuals with an Internet-based depression prevention intervention in primary care targeting key attitudes and beliefs. Method: A marketing design group was constituted to develop a marketing strategy based on the principles of targeting, positioning/competitor analysis, decision analysis, and promotion/distribution and incorporating contemporary models of behavior change. We evaluated the formative quality of the intervention and observed the fielding experience for prevention using a pilot study (observational) design. Results: The marketing plan focused on “resiliency building” rather than “depression intervention” and was relayed by office staff and the Internet site. Twelve practices successfully implemented the intervention and recruited a diverse sample of adolescents with > 30% of all those with positive screens and > 80% of those eligible after phone assessment enrolling in the study with a cost of $58 per enrollee. Adolescent motivation for depression prevention (1–10 scale) increased from a baseline mean value of 7.45 (SD = 2.05) to 8.07 poststudy (SD = 1.33) (P = .048). Conclusions: Marketing strategies for preventive interventions for mental disorders can be developed and successfully introduced and marketed in primary care. PMID:20944776
Potter, Julie E; Herkes, Robert G; Perry, Lin; Elliott, Rosalind M; Aneman, Anders; Brieva, Jorge L; Cavazzoni, Elena; Cheng, Andrew T H; O'Leary, Michael J; Seppelt, Ian M; Gebski, Val
Discussing deceased organ donation can be difficult not only for families but for health professionals who initiate and manage the conversations. It is well recognised that the methods of communication and communication skills of health professionals are key influences on decisions made by families regarding organ donation. This multicentre study is being performed in nine intensive care units with follow-up conducted by the Organ and Tissue Donation Service in New South Wales (NSW) Australia. The control condition is pre-intervention usual practice for at least six months before each site implements the intervention. The COMFORT intervention consists of six elements: family conversations regarding offers for organ donation to be led by a "designated requester"; family offers for donation are deferred to the designated requester; the offer of donation is separated from the end-of-life discussion that death is inevitable; it takes place within a structured family donation conversation using a "balanced" approach. Designated requesters may be intensivists, critical care nurses or social workers prepared by attending the three-day national "Family Donation Conversation" workshops, and the half-day NSW Simulation Program. The design is pre-post intervention to compare rates of family consent for organ donation six months before and under the intervention. Each ICU crosses from using the control to intervention condition after the site initiation visit. The primary endpoint is the consent rate for deceased organ donation calculated from 140 eligible next of kin families. Secondary endpoints are health professionals' adherence rates to core elements of the intervention; identification of predictors of family donation decision; and the proportion of families who regret their final donation decision at 90 days. The pragmatic design of this study may identify 'what works' in usual clinical settings when requesting organ donation in critical care areas, both in terms of
Majumdar, S R; Johnson, J A; Bellerose, D; McAlister, F A; Russell, A S; Hanley, D A; Garg, S; Lier, D A; Maksymowych, W P; Morrish, D W; Rowe, B H
Few outpatients with fractures are treated for osteoporosis in the years following fracture. In a randomized pilot study, we found a nurse case-manager could double rates of osteoporosis testing and treatment compared with a proven efficacious quality improvement strategy directed at patients and physicians (57% vs 28% rates of appropriate care). Few patients with fractures are treated for osteoporosis. An intervention directed at wrist fracture patients (education) and physicians (guidelines, reminders) tripled osteoporosis treatment rates compared to controls (22% vs 7% within 6 months of fracture). More effective strategies are needed. We undertook a pilot study that compared a nurse case-manager to the multifaceted intervention using a randomized trial design. The case-manager counseled patients, arranged bone mineral density (BMD) tests, and prescribed treatments. We included controls from our first trial who remained untreated for osteoporosis 1-year post-fracture. Primary outcome was bisphosphonate treatment and secondary outcomes were BMD testing, appropriate care (BMD test-treatment if bone mass low), and costs. Forty six patients untreated 1-year after wrist fracture were randomized to case-manager (n = 21) or multifaceted intervention (n = 25). Median age was 60 years and 68% were female. Six months post-randomization, 9 (43%) case-managed patients were treated with bisphosphonates compared with 3 (12%) multifaceted intervention patients (relative risk [RR] 3.6, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.1-11.5, p = 0.019). Case-managed patients were more likely than multifaceted intervention patients to undergo BMD tests (81% vs 52%, RR 1.6, 95%CI 1.1-2.4, p = 0.042) and receive appropriate care (57% vs 28%, RR 2.0, 95%CI 1.0-4.2, p = 0.048). Case-management cost was $44 (CDN) per patient vs $12 for the multifaceted intervention. A nurse case-manager substantially increased rates of appropriate testing and treatment for osteoporosis in
Harpole, Linda H; Stechuchak, Karen M; Saur, Carol D; Steffens, David C; Unützer, Jürgen; Oddone, Eugene
We describe the daily work activities of 13 Depression Clinical Specialists (DCSs) at 7 national sites who served as care managers in an effective multisite randomized trial of a disease management model for depression in primary care. DCSs carried portable random-reminder beepers for a total of 147 consecutive workdays and recorded 4,030 work activities. Patient care activity comprised the largest percentage of the workday, 49.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], 42.0 to 56.7%), followed by research-related activity, 18.3 % (95% CI, 14.7 to 21.9%), administrative work, 17.9% (95% CI, 12.2 to 23.7%), personal time, 9.4% (95% CI, 5.4 to 13.4%), and time in transit, 5.1% (95% CI, 2.8 to 7.4%). The DCSs delivered 19.2% (95% CI, 14.4 to 24.1%) of direct patient care by telephone. The DCSs spent a significant portion of the day alone 48.7% (95% CI, 43.3 to 54.1%), followed by time spent with patients, 37.5% (95% CI, 31.6 to 43.3%). Less than 10% (7.8%) (95% CI, 5.1 to 10.6%) of their time was spent with local study staff. Less than 4% of their time was spent with other health care providers. Our results demonstrate that the DCSs' time was primarily devoted to clinical care, a significant portion of which was delivered by telephone. They functioned independently, making efficient use of the limited amount of time that they interacted with other health care providers. This information will be helpful to those who may wish to implement this disease management strategy.
Aziz, N A; Norzila, M Z; Hamid, M Z A; Noorlaili, M T
The increasing prevalence of childhood asthma has become a concern among health practitioners. Effective management emphasizes long-term management and inhaled therapy has become the mainstay home management for children. However, proper utilization of medication is pertinent in improving control. Proper asthma education is mandatory in improving skills and confidence amongst parents. To assess the skills of using the metered-dose inhaler (MDI) with a spacer among asthmatic children before and after educational intervention and to analyse any difficulties which may occur amongst the participants in executing the assessment steps. A cross-sectional clinic based study involving 85 parents and children with asthma. A standardized metered-dose inhaler-spacer checklist of eight steps of medication usage and five steps of cleaning the spacer were used as the assessment tools for pre and post intervention. The performance on using the inhaler-spacer and spacer cleaning knowledge pre and two months post intervention was evaluated. One point was given for each correct step and zero points for incorrect answers/steps. The mean score for skills of inhaler technique improved significantly after educational intervention (3.51 to 6.01, p < 0.0001) as did the mean score for parental knowledge of spacer cleaning technique (1.35 to 3.16, p 0.001). Analysis showed only a limited improvement even after an educational session in three steps of inhalation technique: step 5 (23.5%/69.4%), step 6 (28.2%/68.2%) and step 7 (25.9%/61.2%). Parents with asthmatic children had poor skills in utilizing their children's medication. A short-term educational intervention was able to improve overall knowledge and skill but certain skills need more emphasizing and training.
Background Older people usually prefer staying at home rather than going into residential care. The Belgian National Institute for Health and Disability Insurance wishes to invest in home care by financing innovative projects that effectively help older people to stay at home longer. In this study protocol we describe the evaluation of 34 home care projects. These projects are clustered according to the type of their main intervention such as case management, night care, occupational therapy at home and psychological/psychosocial support. The main goal of this study is to identify which types of projects have the most effect in delaying institutionalization of frail older persons. Methods/design This is a longitudinal intervention study based on a quasi-experimental design. Researchers use three comparison strategies to evaluate intervention - comparison among different types of projects, comparisons between older persons in the projects and older persons not benefiting from a project but who are still at home and between older persons in the projects and older persons who are already institutionalized. Projects are asked to include clients who are frail and at risk of institutionalization. In the study we use internationally validated instruments such as the interRAI Home Care instrument, the WHO-QOL-8 and the Zarit Burden Interview-12. These instruments are filled out at baseline, at exit from the project and 6 months after baseline. Additionally, caregivers have to do a follow-up every 6 months until exit from the project. Criteria to exit the cohort will be institutionalization longer than 3 months and death. The main analysis in the study consists of the calculation of incidence rates, cumulative incidence rates and hazard rates of definitive institutionalization through survival analyses for each type of project. Discussion This research will provide knowledge on the functional status of frail older persons who are still living at home. This is important
Belsher, Bradley E; Kuhn, Eric; Maron, David; Prins, Annabel; Cueva, David; Fast, Elsbeth; France, Deborah
This preliminary study sought to evaluate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of a cognitive-behavioral, web-based intervention for posttraumatic stress in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans who are not able to participate, or not eligible to participate, in evidence-based posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatments. The study used an uncontrolled pre-posttest design with a sample of 24 OEF/OIF veterans presenting to a VA PTSD specialty clinic. Participants used the afterdeployment.org, Post-Traumatic Stress (PTS) Workshop, which was supplemented with brief weekly telephone calls. Half of the participants (n = 12) completed at least 5 of the 8 workshop sessions. At posttreatment, 40.0% of completers demonstrated reliable reductions on PTSD symptoms and overall d = 1.04. Treatment satisfaction and acceptability was generally positive based on Likert ratings. This web-based intervention for PTS appears to be a feasible and potentially helpful intervention for veterans who may not otherwise receive psychosocial interventions. Given the minimal resources required and the potential reach, this web-based intervention could be a viable addition to services provided to OEF/OIF veterans seeking PTSD specialty care. Efforts to further develop and more rigorously evaluate this approach are warranted.
McNaughton, Jennifer L.
Abstract OBJECTIVE To assess existing, brief nonpharmacologic interventions that are available for primary care physicians with minimal training in psychotherapy to use in managing depression in adult patients. DATA SOURCES MEDLINE was searched from 1996 to 2007, EMBASE was searched from 1980 to 2007, and EBM Reviews was searched from 1999 to 2007. STUDY SELECTION Several randomized controlled trials were selected using specified criteria. Selected articles were subsequently appraised and qualitatively analyzed. SYNTHESIS Significant improvements on depression scales were found in 6 out of 8 studies (P < .05) using various brief interventions and formal control groups. Successful interventions included bibliotherapy, websites based on cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT), and CBT-based computer programs. Completion rates were highest when interventions were shorter, more structured, and included frequent contact or reminders from study staff. Validity limitations included small sample sizes, non-blinding of studies, and an uncertain degree of generalizability. CONCLUSION Bibliotherapy, CBT-based websites, and CBT-based computer programs might be effective in assisting primary care physicians who have minimal training in psychotherapy in treating adult patients with depression. Health care personnel contact with patients undergoing these interventions might result in increased effectiveness. Future research is warranted in this area, and despite several limitations, findings from this study could help guide efforts in the development and evaluation of such research. PMID:19675262
Coma del Corral, Maria Jesús; Abaigar Luquín, Pedro; Cordero Guevara, José; Olea Movilla, Angel; Torres Torres, Gerardo; Lozano Garcia, Javier
Background UniNet is an Internet-based thematic network for a virtual community of users (VCU). It supports a virtual multidisciplinary community for physicians, focused on the improvement of clinical practice. This is a study of the effects of a thematic network such as UniNet on primary care medicine in a rural area, specifically as a platform of communication between specialists at the hospital and doctors in the rural area. Methods In order to study the effects of a thematic network such as UniNet on primary care medicine in a rural area, we designed an interventional study that included a control group. The measurements included the number of patient displacements due to disease, number of patient hospital stays and the number of prescriptions of drugs of low therapeutic utility and generic drug prescriptions by doctors. These data were analysed and compared with those of the control center. Results Our study showed positive changes in medical practice, reflected in the improvement of the evaluated parameters in the rural health area where the interventional study was carried out, compared with the control area. We discuss the strengths and weaknesses of UniNet as a potential medium to improve the quality of medical care in rural areas. Conclusion The rural doctors had an effective, useful, user-friendly and cheap source of medical information that may have contributed to the improvement observed in the medical quality indices. PMID:16042778
Fortney, Luke; Luchterhand, Charlene; Zakletskaia, Larissa; Zgierska, Aleksandra; Rakel, David
Burnout, attrition, and low work satisfaction of primary care physicians are growing concerns and can have a negative influence on health care. Interventions for clinicians that improve work-life balance are few and poorly understood. We undertook this study as a first step in investigating whether an abbreviated mindfulness intervention could increase job satisfaction, quality of life, and compassion among primary care clinicians. A total of 30 primary care clinicians participated in an abbreviated mindfulness course. We used a single-sample, pre-post design. At 4 points in time (baseline, and 1 day, 8 weeks, and 9 months postintervention), participants completed a set of online measures assessing burnout, anxiety, stress, resilience, and compassion. We used a linear mixed-effects model analysis to assess changes in outcome measures. Participants had improvements compared with baseline at all 3 follow-up time points. At 9 months postintervention, they had significantly better scores (1) on all Maslach Burnout Inventory burnout subscales-Emotional Exhaustion (P =.009), Depersonalization (P = .005), and Personal Accomplishment (P <.001); (2) on the Depression (P =.001), Anxiety (P =.006), and Stress (P = .002) subscales of the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21; and (3) for perceived stress (P = .002) assessed with the Perceived Stress Scale. There were no significant changes on the 14-item Resilience Scale and the Santa Clara Brief Compassion Scale. In this uncontrolled pilot study, participating in an abbreviated mindfulness training course adapted for primary care clinicians was associated with reductions in indicators of job burnout, depression, anxiety, and stress. Modified mindfulness training may be a time-efficient tool to help support clinician health and well-being, which may have implications for patient care.
Brogdon, Rhonda M
The purpose of this pilot study was to improve knowledge of dietary phosphorus control in patients requiring hemodialysis. The evidence-based literature suggests that nonadherence to phosphorous control in diets is a major health concern for patients who require hemodialysis because they have limited kidney function. Phosphorus tends to accumulate rather than be excreted. A self-care educational intervention was used in a pilot study (N = 10) to increase patients' knowledge about low phosphorous diets to promote dietary adherence. The outcome of this study was evaluated by a pre-test/post-test of patients' knowledge about phosphorus in the diet. A positive gain in knowledge was realized related to the intervention.
Cummings, Greta; Mallidou, Anastasia A; Masaoud, Elmabrok; Kumbamu, Ashok; Schalm, Corinne; Spence Laschinger, Heather K; Estabrooks, Carole A
Health care leaders have called for the development of communication and leadership skills to improve manager-employee relationships, employee job satisfaction, quality care, and work environments. The aim of the study reported here was to pilot how a 2-day coaching workshop ("Coaching for Impressive CARE") conducted as a leadership development strategy influenced frontline care managers' coaching practices in residential long-term care (LTC) settings. We had four objectives: (a) to identify managers' perceptions of their role as a coach of employee performance in LTC facilities, (b) to understand managers' intentions to coach employee performance, (c) to examine opportunities and factors that contributed to or challenged implementation of workshop coaching skills in daily leadership/management practice, and (d) to examine managers' reports of using coaching practices and employee responses after the workshop. We used an exploratory/descriptive design involving pre-/post-workshop surveys, e-mail reminders, and focus groups to examine participation of 21 LTC managers in a 2-day coaching workshop and their use of coaching practices in the workplace. Focus group findings provided examples of how participants used their coaching skills in practice (e.g., communicating empathy) and how staff responded. Factors contributing to and challenging implementation of these coaching skills in the workplace were identified. Attitudes and intentions to be a coach increased significantly, and some coaching skills were used more frequently after the workshop, specifically planning for performance change with employees. The coaching workshop was feasible to implement, well received by participants, influenced their willingness to become coaches, and had some noted impact on their use of coaching behaviors in the workplace. Coaching skills by managers to improve staff performance with residents in LTC facilities can be learned.
Murphy, Edel; Froggatt, Katherine; Connolly, Sheelah; O'Shea, Eamon; Sampson, Elizabeth L; Casey, Dympna; Devane, Declan
Dementia is a chronic, progressive and ultimately fatal neurodegenerative disease. Advanced dementia is characterised by profound cognitive impairment, inability to communicate verbally and complete functional dependence. Usual care of people with advanced dementia is not underpinned universally by a palliative approach. Palliative care has focused traditionally on care of people with cancer but for more than a decade, there have been increased calls worldwide to extend palliative care services to include all people with life-limiting illnesses in need of specialist care, including people with dementia. To assess the effect of palliative care interventions in advanced dementia and to report on the range of outcome measures used. We searched ALOIS, the Cochrane Dementia and Cognitive Improvement Group's Specialized Register on 4 February 2016. ALOIS contains records of clinical trials identified from monthly searches of several major healthcare databases, trial registries and grey literature sources. We ran additional searches across MEDLINE (OvidSP), Embase (OvidSP), PsycINFO (OvidSP), CINAHL (EBSCOhost), LILACS (BIREME), Web of Science Core Collection (ISI Web of Science), ClinicalTrials.gov and the World Health Organization ICTRP trial portal to ensure that the searches were as comprehensive and as up-to-date as possible. We searched for randomised (RCT) and non-randomised controlled trials (nRCT), controlled before-and-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time series studies evaluating the impact of palliative care interventions for adults with dementia of any type, staged as advanced dementia by a recognised and validated tool. Participants could be people with advanced dementia, their family members, clinicians or paid care staff. We included clinical interventions and non-clinical interventions. Comparators were usual care or another palliative care intervention. We did not exclude studies on the basis of outcomes measured and recorded all outcomes measured in
Cooper, Lisa A; Ghods Dinoso, Bri K; Ford, Daniel E; Roter, Debra L; Primm, Annelle B; Larson, Susan M; Gill, James M; Noronha, Gary J; Shaya, Elias K; Wang, Nae-Yuh
Objective To compare the effectiveness of standard and patient-centered, culturally tailored collaborative care (CC) interventions for African American patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) over 12 months of follow-up. Data Sources/Study Setting Twenty-seven primary care clinicians and 132 African American patients with MDD in urban community-based practices in Maryland and Delaware. Study Design Cluster randomized trial with patient-level, intent-to-treat analyses. Data Collection/Extraction Methods Patients completed screener and baseline, 6-, 12-, and 18-month interviews to assess depression severity, mental health functioning, health service utilization, and patient ratings of care. Principal Findings Patients in both interventions showed statistically significant improvements over 12 months. Compared with standard, patient-centered CC patients had similar reductions in depression symptom levels (−2.41 points; 95 percent confidence interval (CI), −7.7, 2.9), improvement in mental health functioning scores (+3.0 points; 95 percent CI, −2.2, 8.3), and odds of rating their clinician as participatory (OR, 1.48, 95 percent CI, 0.53, 4.17). Treatment rates increased among standard (OR = 1.8, 95 percent CI 1.0, 3.2), but not patient-centered (OR = 1.0, 95 percent CI 0.6, 1.8) CC patients. However, patient-centered CC patients rated their care manager as more helpful at identifying their concerns (OR, 3.00; 95 percent CI, 1.23, 7.30) and helping them adhere to treatment (OR, 2.60; 95 percent CI, 1.11, 6.08). Conclusions Patient-centered and standard CC approaches to depression care showed similar improvements in clinical outcomes for African Americans with depression; standard CC resulted in higher rates of treatment, and patient-centered CC resulted in better ratings of care. PMID:22716199
Emmons, Karen M; Puleo, Elaine; Greaney, Mary L; Gillman, Matthew W; Bennett, Gary G; Haines, Jess; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Viswanath, K
To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy Directions 2 (HD2) intervention in the primary care setting. HD2 was a cluster randomized trial (conducted 3/09-11/11). The primary sampling unit was provider (n=33), with secondary sampling of patients within provider (n=2440). Study arms included: 1) usual care (UC); 2) HD2--a patient self-guided intervention targeting 5 risk behaviors; and 3) HD2 plus 2 brief telephone coaching calls (HD2+CC). The outcome measure was the proportion of participants with a lower multiple risk behavior (MRB) score by follow-up. At baseline, only 4% of the participants met all behavioral recommendations. Both HD2 and HD2+CC led to improvements in MRB score, relative to UC, with no differences between the two HD2 conditions. Twenty-eight percent of the UC participants had improved MRB scores at 6 months, vs. 39% and 43% in HD2 and HD2+CC, respectively (ps≤.001); results were similar at 18 months (p≤.05). The incremental cost of one risk factor reduction in MRB score was $310 for HD2 and $450 for HD2+CC. Self-guided and coached intervention conditions had equivalent levels of effect in reducing multiple chronic disease risk factors, were relatively low cost, and thus are potentially useful for routine implementation in similar health settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Greaney, Mary L.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Bennett, Gary G.; Haines, Jess; Sprunck-Harrild, Kim; Viswanath, Vish
Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of the Healthy Directions 2 (HD2) intervention in the primary care setting. Methods HD2 was a cluster randomized trial (conducted 3/09 – 11/11). Primary sampling unit was provider (n=33), with secondary sampling of patients within provider (n=2,440). Study arms included: 1) usual care (UC); 2) HD2-- a patient self-guided intervention targeting 5 risk behaviors; or 3) HD2 plus 2 brief telephone coaching calls (HD2+CC). The outcome measure was proportion of participants with a lower multiple risk behavior score (MRB) by follow-up. Results At baseline, only 4% of participants met all behavioral recommendations. Both HD2 and HD2+CC led to improvements in MRB score, relative to UC, with no differences between the two HD2 conditions. Twenty-eight percent of UC participants had improved MRB scores at 6 mo., vs. 39% and 43% in HD2 and HD2+CC respectively (p’s≤.001); results were similar at 18 mo. (p≤.05). The incremental cost of one risk factor reduction in MRB score was $319 in HD2 and $440 for HD2+CC. Conclusions Self-guided and coached intervention conditions had equivalent levels of effect in reducing multiple chronic disease risk factors, were relatively low cost, and thus are potentially useful for routine implementation in similar health settings. PMID:24642140
Koren, Mary Elaine; Purohit, Sonal
The impact of spiritual practices on job satisfaction remains unclear. This integrative literature review assessed the effectiveness of various spiritual interventions and found that mindfulness was the intervention most widely used. The most promising outcome measures were stress, burnout, mindfulness, and self-compassion. Future research recommendation includes longitudinal reinforcement of mindfulness.
Morell, Ferran; Ojanguren, Iñigo; Cordovilla, Rosa; Urrutia, Isabel; Agüero, Ramón; Guerra, Javier; Genover, Teresa; Ramon, Maria Antonia
Asthma control is suboptimal. The objective of this study was to reduce health care requirements and work absenteeism. Multicenter randomized controlled study investigating asthma control, educational parameters, health service use, and absenteeism. After adjusting treatment according to GINA recommendations, control group patients (CG) followed their physician's recommendations, while intervention group (IG) patients additionally underwent a 5-minute educational intervention. This protocol was repeated at 3 months, and a final assessment was carried out at 6 months. 479 patients (mean age 40 (SD 17) years) were recruited from primary care, and 334 completed the study. Comparatively, IG patients showed an improvement at the 3- and 6-month evaluations in the six educational parameters (P<0.001) and required fewer urgent visits to the GP for exacerbations [RR=0.49 (95% CI 0.26-0.90); P<0.04], and before the third evaluation, also in urgent GP visits [RR=0.25 (95% CI 0.12-0.52); P<0.001]. Before this third evaluation, IG had fewer scheduled visits to the GP [RR=0.48 (95% CI 0.28-0.82); P<0.003], and fewer visits to the primary care [RR=0.40 (95% CI 0.18-0.87); P<0.05], and to hospital emergency rooms [RR=0.13 (95% CI 0.04-0.42); P<0.001]. In addition, before the third evaluation, IG patients were less often absent from work [RR=0.22 (95% CI 0.05-0.98); P<0.03] or unable to work at home [RR=0.31 (95% CI 0.12-0.82); P<0.02]. Two short educational interventions improved asthma education and decreased the use of health resources and work absenteeism. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Peimani, Maryam; Rambod, Camelia; Omidvar, Maryam; Larijani, Bagher; Ghodssi-Ghassemabadi, Robabeh; Tootee, Ali; Esfahani, Ensieh Nasli
The objective of the current study is to assess the effectiveness of Mobile Short Message Service (SMS) intervention on education of basic self-care skills in patients with type 2 diabetes. Moreover, we aimed to determine whether delivering individually-tailored educational messages can be more effective than general educational messages. A total of 150 patients with diabetes type 2 were randomized into three groups: tailored SMS group, non-tailored SMS group, and the control group. Biochemical parameters including HbA1c, FBS, lipid profile were evaluated for the three groups at baseline and after 12 weeks. Moreover, self-care Inventory (SCI), Diabetes Management Self-Efficacy Scale (DMSES) and Diabetes Self-Care Barriers assessment scale for Older Adults (DSCB-OA) were completed. In the tailored SMS group, each person received 75% of their messages based on the top two barriers to adherence that they had experienced and reported in their scale. In the non-tailored SMS group, random messages were sent to every patient. After 12 weeks, although HgA1c levels did not significantly change, significant decline was observed in FBS and mean BMI in both intervention groups. Mean SCI-R scores significantly increased and mean DSCB and DMSES scores significantly decreased in both tailored and non-tailored SMS groups. In the control group, mean SCI-R scores decreased and mean DSCB and DMSES scores significantly increased (P<0.001). Sending short text messages as a method of education in conjunction with conventional diabetes treatment can improve glycemic control and positively influence other aspects of diabetes self-care. According to our findings, sending SMS regularly in particular times appears to be as effective as sending individually tailored messages. Copyright © 2015 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Harley, Kim G.; Kogut, Katherine; Madrigal, Daniel S.; Cardenas, Maritza; Vera, Irene A.; Meza-Alfaro, Gonzalo; She, Jianwen; Gavin, Qi; Zahedi, Rana; Bradman, Asa; Eskenazi, Brenda; Parra, Kimberly L.
Background: Personal care products are a source of exposure to potentially endocrine-disrupting chemicals such as phthalates, parabens, triclosan, and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) for adolescent girls. Methods: We enrolled 100 Latina girls in a youth-led, community-based participatory research intervention study to determine whether using personal care products whose labels stated they did not contain these chemicals for 3 days could lower urinary concentrations. Pre- and postintervention urine samples were analyzed for phthalate metabolites, parabens, triclosan, and BP-3 using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. Results: Urinary concentrations of mono-ethyl phthalate (MEP) decreased by 27.4% (95% CI: –39.3, –13.2) on average over the 3-day intervention; no significant changes were seen in urinary concentrations of mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP) and mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP). Methyl and propyl paraben concentrations decreased by 43.9% (95% CI: –61.3, –18.8) and 45.4% (95% CI: –63.7, –17.9), respectively. Unexpectedly, concentrations of ethyl and butyl paraben concentrations increased, although concentrations were low overall and not detected in almost half the samples. Triclosan concentrations decreased by 35.7% (95% CI: –53.3, –11.6), and BP-3 concentrations decreased by 36.0% (95% CI: –51.0, –16.4). Discussion: This study demonstrates that techniques available to consumers, such as choosing personal care products that are labeled to be free of phthalates, parabens, triclosan, and BP-3, can reduce personal exposure to possible endocrine-disrupting chemicals. Involving youth in the design and implementation of the study was key to recruitment, retention, compliance, and acceptability of the intervention. Citation: Harley KG, Kogut K, Madrigal DS, Cardenas M, Vera IA, Meza-Alfaro G, She J, Gavin Q, Zahedi R, Bradman A, Eskenazi B, Parra KL. 2016. Reducing phthalate, paraben, and phenol exposure from personal care
Musa, Ahmad S; Pevalin, David J
This study develops a new instrument, the Spiritual Care Intervention-Provision Scale, and assesses its psychometric properties in an Arab Muslim nurse sample. The Spiritual Care Intervention-Provision Scale was developed to measure the frequency with which nurses provided aspects of spiritual care. Most of the available spiritual care instruments were developed in the West and reflect a predominantly Christian tradition. A review of the literature on spiritual care in nursing revealed that no instrument exists for measuring spiritual care interventions provided by nurses to Arab Muslim patients. A cross-sectional descriptive and correlational design. Following an extensive literature search, review by an expert panel and a pilot study which included patients' views regarding aspects of spiritual care provided by nurses, the final version of the Spiritual Care Intervention-Provision Scale was tested in a convenience sample of 360 Jordanian Arab Muslim nurses. Correlational and factor analysis were used. The internal consistency of the Spiritual Care Intervention-Provision Scale was high, with α coefficient of 0·85. The exploratory factor analysis supported a two-factor structure for the Spiritual Care Intervention-Provision Scale as hypothesised. A significant positive correlation between the Spiritual Care Intervention-Provision Scale and religiosity was in the expected direction though small in magnitude. This study initiates the development of an instrument for the provision of spiritual care intervention by nurses that balances the religious and existential dimensions of spirituality. The Spiritual Care Intervention-Provision Scale exhibited acceptable evidence of internal consistency and validity among Jordanian Arab Muslim nurses. Further work was suggested to firmly establish all aspects of this new scale. This culturally specific instrument contributes to the evaluation of the provision of spiritual care by Jordanian Muslim nurses to their patients, to
Forte, Amanda L; Hill, Malinda; Pazder, Rachel; Feudtner, Chris
Background Despite abundant bereavement care options, consensus is lacking regarding optimal care for bereaved persons. Methods We conducted a systematic review, searching MEDLINE, PsychINFO, CINAHL, EBMR, and other databases using the terms (bereaved or bereavement) and (grief) combined with (intervention or support or counselling or therapy) and (controlled or trial or design). We also searched citations in published reports for additional pertinent studies. Eligible studies had to evaluate whether the treatment of bereaved individuals reduced bereavement-related symptoms. Data from the studies was abstracted independently by two reviewers. Results 74 eligible studies evaluated diverse treatments designed to ameliorate a variety of outcomes associated with bereavement. Among studies utilizing a structured therapeutic relationship, eight featured pharmacotherapy (4 included an untreated control group), 39 featured support groups or counselling (23 included a control group), and 25 studies featured cognitive-behavioural, psychodynamic, psychoanalytical, or interpersonal therapies (17 included a control group). Seven studies employed systems-oriented interventions (all had control groups). Other than efficacy for pharmacological treatment of bereavement-related depression, we could identify no consistent pattern of treatment benefit among the other forms of interventions. Conclusions Due to a paucity of reports on controlled clinical trails, no rigorous evidence-based recommendation regarding the treatment of bereaved persons is currently possible except for the pharmacologic treatment of depression. We postulate the following five factors as impeding scientific progress regarding bereavement care interventions: 1) excessive theoretical heterogeneity, 2) stultifying between-study variation, 3) inadequate reporting of intervention procedures, 4) few published replication studies, and 5) methodological flaws of study design. PMID:15274744
Hall, Alex; Finch, Tracy; Kolehmainen, Niina; James, Deborah
Implementing good-quality health and social care requires empowerment of staff members within organizations delivering care. Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) is an intervention using positive video feedback to empower staff through reflection on practice. This qualitative study explored the implementation of VIG within an autism care organization in England, from the perspective of staff members undergoing training to deliver VIG. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a purposive sample of 7 participants working within the organization (5 staff undergoing training to deliver VIG; 2 senior managers influencing co-ordination of training). Participants were asked about their views of VIG and its implementation. The topic guide was informed by Normalization Process Theory (NPT). Data were analysed inductively and emerging issues were related to NPT. Five broad themes were identified: (1) participants reported that they and other staff did not understand VIG until they became involved, initially believing it would highlight negative rather than positive practice; (2) enthusiastic feedback from staff who had been involved seemed to encourage other staff to become involved; (3) key implementation challenges included demands of daily work and securing managers' support; (4) ideas for future practice arising from empowerment through VIG seemed difficult to realise within an organizational culture reportedly unreceptive to creative ideas from staff; (5) individuals' emotional responses to implementation seemed beyond the reach of NPT, which focused more upon collective processes. Implementation of VIG may require recognition that it is not a 'quick fix'. Peer advocacy may be a fruitful implementation strategy. Senior managers may need to experience VIG to develop their understanding so that they can provide appropriate implementation support. NPT may lack specificity to explain how individual agency weaves with collective processes and social systems to embed
Härter, Martin; Bartsch, Anna-Lena; Egger, Nina; König, Hans-Helmut; Kriston, Levente; Schulz, Holger; Tiemann, Michael; Brütt, Anna Levke; Buchholz, Angela
Tobacco consumption is a preventable risk factor for chronic disease and complicates the treatment of medical conditions. Therefore, the German health insurance company AOK NORDWEST has developed a collaborative smoking cessation intervention for individuals with cardiovascular disease, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and heavy smokers, with the aim of reducing tobacco consumption. The objective of the study ENTER is to evaluate the effectiveness of the collaborative smoking cessation intervention and determine its cost-effectiveness. This study is a cluster-randomized controlled trial conducted with 40 medical practices that are being selected from different geographic regions in Germany. Participating medical practices will be randomly allocated to either the intervention or control group. Within the medical practices, a total of 800 patients will be recruited for participation in the study and blinded to group assignment. Patients are included in the study if they are 18 years or older, insured by AOK, heavy smokers (smoke at least 20 cigarettes per day) and/or suffer from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease or cardiovascular disease. Exclusion criteria are patients who are nonsmokers, who have cognitive impairments or who are illiterate. Physicians from medical practices in the intervention group will motivate patients to participate in a smoking cessation program offered by the health insurance, refer them to the program and ask about their program participation. Physicians from medical practices in the control group will provide usual care. Data collection will take place on the date of study inclusion and after 6 and 12 months. The primary outcome is the amount of cigarettes consumed during the past 30 days, 12 months after the initial medical consultation. Secondary outcomes are abstinence from smoking, health-related quality of life and respiratory complaints. Moreover, a process evaluation and health economic analysis will be performed. The
Bosse, Goetz; Mtatifikolo, Ferdinand; Abels, Wiltrud; Strosing, Christian; Breuer, Jan-Philipp; Spies, Claudia
Outcome assessment is the standard for evaluating the quality of health services worldwide. In this study, outcome has been divided into immediate and final outcome. Aim was to compare an intervention hospital with a Continuous Quality Improvement approach to a control group using benchmark assessments of immediate outcome indicators in surgical care. Results were compared to final outcome indicators. Surgical care quality in six hospitals in Tanzania was assessed from 2006-2011, using the Hospital Performance Assessment Tool. Independent observers assessed structural, process and outcome quality using checklists based on evidence-based guidelines. The number of surgical key procedures over the benchmark of 80% was compared between the intervention hospital and the control group. Results were compared to Case Fatality Rates. In the intervention hospital, in 2006, two of nine key procedures reached the benchmark, one in 2009, and four in 2011. In the control group, one of nine key procedures reached the benchmark in 2006, one in 2009, and none in 2011. Case Fatality Rate for all in-patients in the intervention hospital was 5.5% (n = 12,530) in 2006, 3.5% (n = 21,114) in 2009 and 4.6% (n = 18,840) in 2011. In the control group it was 3.1% (n = 17,827) in 2006, 4.2% (n = 13,632) in 2009 and 3.8% (n = 17,059) in 2011. Results demonstrated that quality assurance improved performance levels in both groups. After the introduction of Continuous Quality Improvement, performance levels improved further in the intervention hospital while quality in the district hospital did not. Immediate outcome indicators appeared to be a better steering tool for quality improvement compared to final outcome indicators. Immediate outcome indicators revealed a need for improvement in pre- and postoperative care. Quality assurance programs based on immediate outcome indicators can be effective if embedded in Continuous Quality Improvement. Nevertheless, final outcome
Bosse, Goetz; Mtatifikolo, Ferdinand; Abels, Wiltrud; Strosing, Christian; Breuer, Jan-Philipp; Spies, Claudia
Introduction Outcome assessment is the standard for evaluating the quality of health services worldwide. In this study, outcome has been divided into immediate and final outcome. Aim was to compare an intervention hospital with a Continuous Quality Improvement approach to a control group using benchmark assessments of immediate outcome indicators in surgical care. Results were compared to final outcome indicators. Method Surgical care quality in six hospitals in Tanzania was assessed from 2006–2011, using the Hospital Performance Assessment Tool. Independent observers assessed structural, process and outcome quality using checklists based on evidence-based guidelines. The number of surgical key procedures over the benchmark of 80% was compared between the intervention hospital and the control group. Results were compared to Case Fatality Rates. Results In the intervention hospital, in 2006, two of nine key procedures reached the benchmark, one in 2009, and four in 2011. In the control group, one of nine key procedures reached the benchmark in 2006, one in 2009, and none in 2011. Case Fatality Rate for all in-patients in the intervention hospital was 5.5% (n = 12,530) in 2006, 3.5% (n = 21,114) in 2009 and 4.6% (n = 18,840) in 2011. In the control group it was 3.1% (n = 17,827) in 2006, 4.2% (n = 13,632) in 2009 and 3.8% (n = 17,059) in 2011. Discussion Results demonstrated that quality assurance improved performance levels in both groups. After the introduction of Continuous Quality Improvement, performance levels improved further in the intervention hospital while quality in the district hospital did not. Immediate outcome indicators appeared to be a better steering tool for quality improvement compared to final outcome indicators. Immediate outcome indicators revealed a need for improvement in pre- and postoperative care. Conclusion Quality assurance programs based on immediate outcome indicators can be effective if embedded in
Background Tailored psychosocial activity-based interventions have been shown to improve mood, behaviour and quality of life for nursing home residents. Occupational therapist delivered activity programs have shown benefits when delivered in home care settings for people with dementia. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of LEAP (Lifestyle Engagement Activity Program) for Life, a training and practice change program on the engagement of home care clients by care workers. Secondary aims are to evaluate the impact of the program on changes in client mood and behaviour. Methods/design The 12 month LEAP program has three components: 1) engaging site management and care staff in the program; 2) employing a LEAP champion one day a week to support program activities; 3) delivering an evidence-based training program to care staff. Specifically, case managers will be trained and supported to set meaningful social or recreational goals with clients and incorporate these into care plans. Care workers will be trained in and encouraged to practise good communication, promote client independence and choice, and tailor meaningful activities using Montessori principles, reminiscence, music, physical activity and play. LEAP Champions will be given information about theories of organisational change and trained in interpersonal skills required for their role. LEAP will be evaluated in five home care sites including two that service ethnic minority groups. A quasi experimental design will be used with evaluation data collected four times: 6-months prior to program commencement; at the start of the program; and then after 6 and 12 months. Mixed effect models will enable comparison of change in outcomes for the periods before and during the program. The primary outcome measure is client engagement. Secondary outcomes for clients are satisfaction with care, dysphoria/depression, loneliness, apathy and agitation; and work satisfaction for care workers. A process
Low, Lee-Fay; Baker, Jess R; Jeon, Yun-Hee; Camp, Cameron; Haertsch, Maggie; Skropeta, Margaret
Tailored psychosocial activity-based interventions have been shown to improve mood, behaviour and quality of life for nursing home residents. Occupational therapist delivered activity programs have shown benefits when delivered in home care settings for people with dementia. The primary aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of LEAP (Lifestyle Engagement Activity Program) for Life, a training and practice change program on the engagement of home care clients by care workers. Secondary aims are to evaluate the impact of the program on changes in client mood and behaviour. The 12 month LEAP program has three components: 1) engaging site management and care staff in the program; 2) employing a LEAP champion one day a week to support program activities; 3) delivering an evidence-based training program to care staff. Specifically, case managers will be trained and supported to set meaningful social or recreational goals with clients and incorporate these into care plans. Care workers will be trained in and encouraged to practise good communication, promote client independence and choice, and tailor meaningful activities using Montessori principles, reminiscence, music, physical activity and play. LEAP Champions will be given information about theories of organisational change and trained in interpersonal skills required for their role. LEAP will be evaluated in five home care sites including two that service ethnic minority groups. A quasi experimental design will be used with evaluation data collected four times: 6-months prior to program commencement; at the start of the program; and then after 6 and 12 months. Mixed effect models will enable comparison of change in outcomes for the periods before and during the program. The primary outcome measure is client engagement. Secondary outcomes for clients are satisfaction with care, dysphoria/depression, loneliness, apathy and agitation; and work satisfaction for care workers. A process evaluation will also be
Guzmán, A; Freeston, M; Rochester, L; Hughes, J C; James, I A
A Psychomotor DANCe Therapy INtervention (DANCIN) using Latin Ballroom (Danzón) in care homes has previously been shown to enhance well-being for both residents with dementia and staff. The aim of this study was to understand the effect of this approach on the mood and behavior of individual people living with mild to moderate dementia. A multiple-baseline single-case study across two care homes and one nursing home with 3-6 weeks baseline, 12-weeks DANCIN (30 minutes/twice-weekly sessions), and 12-weeks follow-up was conducted. Seventeen items from the Dementia Mood Assessment Scale (DMAS) outcome measure were adapted with input from senior staff to match participants' behavior and mood symptoms. Daily monitoring diaries were collected from trained staff on reporting individualized items for ten residents. Data were analyzed, using a non-parametric statistical method known as Percentage of All Non-Overlapping Data (PAND) which provides Phi effect size (ES). Medication use, falls, and life events were registered. Seven residents participated throughout DANCIN whilst three became observers owing to health deterioration. One participant showed adverse effects in three DMAS items. Nine participants, dancers and observers, showed a small to medium magnitude of change (PAND) in 21 DMAS items, indicating a decrease in the frequency of behavior and mood indices which were regarded as problematic; eight items showed no change. Despite methodological challenges, the DANCIN model has the potential to facilitate and sustain behavior change and improve mood (e.g. decrease irritability, increase self-esteem) of the residents living with dementia. The study was conducted in two care homes and one nursing home, strengthening the interventions' validity. Findings suggest DANCIN is appropriate for a larger controlled feasibility study.
Objective We assessed the feasibility and acceptability to patients of a telephone-supported self-care intervention for depression among adults aged 40 years or over with one of six targeted chronic physical illnesses and comorbid depressive symptoms in family practice settings. Methods An open, uncontrolled trial (feasibility study) was conducted among patients treated in Montreal family practices. Eligible patients were aged 40 years or over, had one or more of the targeted chronic physical illnesses for at least 6 months (arthritis, hypertension, diabetes, heart disease, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) and were evaluated as having at least mild depressive symptoms (a score of ≥ 5 on the 9-item Patient Health Questionnaire, PHQ-9). Participants received a package of six self-care tools (information booklet, video, Internet programme, action plan, workbook and mood-monitoring tool) with telephone support by a lay coach for up to 6 months. Results In total, 63 eligible patients provided written consent and completed the baseline interview; 57 (90%) and 55 (87%) patients completed 2-month and 6-month follow-up interviews, respectively. The mean number of telephone calls made by coaches to participants was 10.5 (SD 4.0), and the average length of these calls was 10.6 minutes. At the 6-month follow-up, 83.6% of the participants reported that one or more of the tools were helpful. Clinically significant improvements were seen in depressive symptoms (as assessed by the PHQ-9) at 6 months, with an effect size of 0.88 (95% CI, 0.55, 1.14). Conclusion A telephone-supported self-care intervention for depression was feasible, was acceptable to patients, and was associated with a significant 6-month improvement in depressive symptoms. A randomised trial of this intervention is justified. PMID:24294301
Dutton, Gareth R; Phillips, Janice M; Kukkamalla, Meghana; Cherrington, Andrea L; Safford, Monika M
The purpose of this single-group pilot study was to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability, and initial outcomes of a novel approach to delivering weight loss treatment in primary care using peer coaches and targeting predominantly African American patients with diabetes or prediabetes. Participants (N = 33) were recruited from a family medicine practice for a 6-month lifestyle intervention. Eligible patients were obese adults (body mass index [BMI] ≥30 kg/m(2)) with ≥1 additional cardiometabolic risk factor(s), including (1) elevated hemoglobin A1C or diagnosed diabetes, (2) elevated blood pressure, (3) elevated triglycerides, and/or (4) low high-density lipoprotein. The intervention included a combination of 12 group-based office visits with health professionals plus 12 individual phone contacts with peer coaches. Outcomes included weight loss, program adherence, and program satisfaction. Participants (mean age = 56 ± 10 years; BMI = 42.9 ± 11.0 kg/m(2)) were predominantly female (88%) and African American (85%). Treatment resulted in a significant mean weight loss of -4.5 ± 7.2 kg, and approximately 27% of participants lost ≥5% of their initial body weight. Participants completed approximately 50% of the group visits and 40% of the telephone calls with peer coaches. Participants rated both components of the intervention favorably. Results of this pilot study indicated that a primary care weight management program including group-based visits and peer-delivered telephone contacts achieved significant weight loss among predominantly African American patients with weight-related comorbidities, including diabetes and prediabetes. Additional research is needed to examine the long-term outcomes of this novel approach and to identify program components supporting patients' success. © 2015 The Author(s).
Dykes, Patricia C; Rozenblum, Ronen; Dalal, Anuj; Massaro, Anthony; Chang, Frank; Clements, Marsha; Collins, Sarah; Donze, Jacques; Fagan, Maureen; Gazarian, Priscilla; Hanna, John; Lehmann, Lisa; Leone, Kathleen; Lipsitz, Stuart; McNally, Kelly; Morrison, Conny; Samal, Lipika; Mlaver, Eli; Schnock, Kumiko; Stade, Diana; Williams, Deborah; Yoon, Catherine; Bates, David W
Studies comprehensively assessing interventions to improve team communication and to engage patients and care partners in ICUs are lacking. This study examines the effectiveness of a patient-centered care and engagement program in the medical ICU. Prospective intervention study. Medical ICUs at large tertiary care center. Two thousand one hundred five patient admissions (1,030 before and 1,075 during the intervention) from July 2013 to May 2014 and July 2014 to May 2015. Structured patient-centered care and engagement training program and web-based technology including ICU safety checklist, tools to develop shared care plan, and messaging platform. Patient and care partner access to online portal to view health information, participate in the care plan, and communicate with providers. Primary outcome was aggregate adverse event rate. Secondary outcomes included patient and care partner satisfaction, care plan concordance, and resource utilization. We included 2,105 patient admissions, (1,030 baseline and 1,075 during intervention periods). The aggregate rate of adverse events fell 29%, from 59.0 per 1,000 patient days (95% CI, 51.8-67.2) to 41.9 per 1,000 patient days (95% CI, 36.3-48.3; p < 0.001), during the intervention period. Satisfaction improved markedly from an overall hospital rating of 71.8 (95% CI, 61.1-82.6) to 93.3 (95% CI, 88.2-98.4; p < 0.001) for patients and from 84.3 (95% CI, 81.3-87.3) to 90.0 (95% CI, 88.1-91.9; p < 0.001) for care partners. No change in care plan concordance or resource utilization. Implementation of a structured team communication and patient engagement program in the ICU was associated with a reduction in adverse events and improved patient and care partner satisfaction.
Montero-Marín, Jesús; Prado-Abril, Javier; Botella, Cristina; Mayoral-Cleries, Fermin; Baños, Rosa; Herrera-Mercadal, Paola; Romero-Sanchiz, Pablo; Gili, Margalida; Castro, Adoración; Nogueira, Raquel
Background One-quarter of the world’s population will suffer from depression symptoms at some point in their lives. Mental health services in developed countries are overburdened. Therefore, cost-effective interventions that provide mental health care solutions such as Web-based psychotherapy programs have been proposed. Objective The intent of the study was to identify expectations regarding Web-based psychotherapy for the treatment of depression in primary care among patients and health professionals that might facilitate or hinder its effects. Methods The expectations of untreated patients and health professionals were examined by means of interviews and focus groups. There were 43 participants (20 patients with mild and moderate levels of depression, 11 primary care physicians, and 12 managers; 22 of them for interviews and 21 for groups). A thematic content analysis from the grounded theory for interviews, and an analysis of the discursive positions of participants based on the sociological model for groups were performed. Interpretations were achieved by agreement between three independent analysts. Results All participants showed a good general acceptance of Web-based psychotherapy, appreciating possible advantages and improvements. Patients, physicians, and managers shared the same conceptualization of their expectations, although highlighting different aspects. Patients focused on the need for individualized and personalized interaction, while professionals highlighted the need for the standardization of the program. Physicians were concerned with extra workload, while managers were worried about optimizing cost-effectiveness. Conclusions Expectations of the different participants can conflict with each other. Finding a balanced position among them is needed if we are to harmoniously implement effective Web-based interventions for depression in routine clinical practice. PMID:25757358
Nguyen, Huong Q; Cuyegkeng, Thomas; Phung, Tieu O; Jahn, Karisa; Borneman, Tami; Macias, Mayra; Ruel, Nora; Ferrell, Betty
A notable gap in the evidence base for outpatient palliative care (PC) for cancer is that most trials were conducted in specialized oncology or academic centers with limited translation and further evaluation in "real-world" settings. Health systems are desperate for guidance regarding the most effective and sustainable PC service models. Describe the study protocol to evaluate the dissemination of a previously tested nurse-led PC intervention (PCI) for patients with lung cancer and their family caregiver in community-based settings, lessons learned in adapting and implementing the PCI, and implications for future dissemination-translational efforts Design: Two-group, prospective sequential, quasi-experimental design with Phase 1 (Usual care) followed by Phase 2 (Intervention) setting/subjects. Three Kaiser Permanente Southern California sites. Patients with stage 2-4 nonsmall cell lung cancer and their caregiver. Standard measures of quality of life (QOL; FACT-L, FACIT- SP12, City of Hope Family QOL), symptom burden, distress, and caregiver preparedness and perceived burden. Adaptations were made to the PCI (comprehensive patient/caregiver assessment, interdisciplinary care planning, and patient/caregiver education) to harmonize with existing workflows, minimize burden to patients, caregivers, and the PC team, and maximize chances of sustainability. Implementation facilitators include external competitive pressures, internal readiness, and adaptability of the PCI. Barriers include the changing lung cancer therapeutic landscape and perceived need for PC support by patients and providers, insufficient staffing, and people-dependent processes. Efforts to disseminate and implement previously tested PC models into real-world community practices need to be more realistic and consider the local context.
Holm, Maja; Årestedt, Kristofer; Carlander, Ida; Wengström, Yvonne; Öhlen, Joakim; Alvariza, Anette
Although there has been a steady increase in intervention studies aimed toward supporting family caregivers in palliative cancer care, they often report modest effect sizes and there is a lack of knowledge about possible barriers to intervention effectiveness. The aim of this study is to explore the characteristics of family caregivers who did not benefit from a successful psychoeducational group intervention compared with the characteristics of those who did. A psychoeducational intervention for family caregivers was delivered at 10 palliative settings in Sweden. Questionnaires were used to collect data at baseline and following the intervention. The Preparedness for Caregiving Scale was the main outcome for the study and was used to decide whether or not the family caregiver had benefited from the intervention (Preparedness for Caregiving Scale difference score ≤ 0 vs ≥ 1). A total of 82 family caregivers completed the intervention and follow-up. Caregivers who did not benefit from the intervention had significantly higher ratings of their preparedness and competence for caregiving and their health at baseline compared with the group who benefited. They also experienced lower levels of environmental burden and a trend toward fewer symptoms of depression. Family caregivers who did not benefit from the intervention tended to be less vulnerable at baseline. Hence, the potential to improve their ratings was smaller than for the group who did benefit. Determining family caregivers in cancer and palliative care who are more likely to benefit from an intervention needs to be explored further in research.
Background The aim of the present research is to conduct a fully powered explanatory trial to evaluate the efficacy of a brief self-regulation intervention to increase walking. The intervention will be delivered in primary care by practice nurses (PNs) and Healthcare Assistants (HCAs) to patients for whom increasing physical activity is a particular priority. The intervention has previously demonstrated efficacy with a volunteer population, and subsequently went through an iterative process of refinement in primary care, to maximise acceptability to both providers and recipients. Methods/ Design This two arm cluster randomised controlled trial set in UK general practices will compare two strategies for increasing walking, assessed by pedometer, over six months. Patients attending practices randomised to the self-regulation intervention arm will receive an intervention consisting of behaviour change techniques designed to increase walking self-efficacy (confidence in ability to perform the behaviour), and to help people translate their "good" intentions into behaviour change by making plans. Patients attending practices randomised to the information provision arm will receive written materials promoting walking, and a short unstructured discussion about increasing their walking. The trial will recruit 20 PN/HCAs (10 per arm), who will be trained by the research team to deliver the self-regulation intervention or information provision control intervention, to 400 patients registered at their practices (20 patients per PN/HCA). This will provide 85% power to detect a mean difference of five minutes/day walking between the self-regulation intervention group and the information provision control group. Secondary outcomes include health services costs, and intervention effects in sub-groups defined by age, ethnicity, gender, socio-economic status, and clinical condition. A mediation analysis will investigate the extent to which changes in constructs specified by the
Westerlund, Anna; Garvare, Rickard; Nyström, Monica E; Eurenius, Eva; Lindkvist, Marie; Ivarsson, Anneli
Mental health problems are increasing among children and adolescents worldwide, and parental support programmes have been suggested as one preventive intervention. However, the actual impact and low rates of adoption and sustainability of prevention programmes have proven to be a concern, and thus, further studies on their implementation are needed. This study focused on the initial implementation of the International Child Development Programme (ICDP) in primary care. The aim was to investigate the involved actors' views on factors likely to affect implementation and the strategies used to manage them. A case study design with a mixed-methods approach combining quantitative and qualitative data from questionnaires and interviews was used. Eighty-two professionals at different positions in the involved organisations participated. Directed content analysis was used for analyses, focusing on perceived levels of importance and the manifestation of implementation factors. Interviews and questionnaires provided descriptions of factors influencing the initial ICDP implementation. Uncertainty on how to manage important factors and vague change strategies was reported. Discrepancies in the perceived levels of importance versus manifestation were found regarding several factors, including hands-on support, time and resources, communication and information, a comprehensive plan of action, follow-ups, and external and internal collaborations. Manifested factors were a need for change, motivation and the ICDP's compatibility with existing norms, values and practices. Implementing a parental support programme in a complex setting will benefit from being preceded by a thorough examination of the intervention and the target context and the development of clear implementation strategies based on the results of that examination. This study provides insights into how and by whom knowledge on implementation is applied during the launch of a health promotion programme, and these
Barte, Jeroen C. M.; ter Bogt, Nancy C. W.; Beltman, Frank W.; van der Meer, Klaas; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.
The Groningen Overweight and Lifestyle (GOAL) intervention effectively prevents weight gain. The present study describes a process evaluation in which 214 participants in the intervention group received a structured questionnaire within 7 months (a median of 5 months) after the end of the intervention. The authors investigated the content of the…
Barte, Jeroen C. M.; ter Bogt, Nancy C. W.; Beltman, Frank W.; van der Meer, Klaas; Bemelmans, Wanda J. E.
The Groningen Overweight and Lifestyle (GOAL) intervention effectively prevents weight gain. The present study describes a process evaluation in which 214 participants in the intervention group received a structured questionnaire within 7 months (a median of 5 months) after the end of the intervention. The authors investigated the content of the…
Blane, David N; Mackay, Daniel; Guthrie, Bruce; Mercer, Stewart W
Little is known about how smoking cessation practices in primary care differ for patients with coronary heart disease (CHD) who have different comorbidities. To determine the association between different patterns of comorbidity and smoking rates and smoking cessation interventions in primary care for patients with CHD. Cross-sectional study of 81 456 adults with CHD in primary care in Scotland. Details of eight concordant physical comorbidities, 23 discordant physical comorbidities, and eight mental health comorbidities were extracted from electronic health records between April 2006 and March 2007. Multilevel binary logistic regression models were constructed to determine the association between these patterns of comorbidity and smoking status, smoking cessation advice, and smoking cessation medication (nicotine replacement therapy) prescribed. The most deprived quintile had nearly three times higher odds of being current smokers than the least deprived (odds ratio [OR] 2.76; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.49 to 3.05). People with CHD and two or more mental health comorbidities had more than twice the odds of being current smokers than those with no mental health conditions (OR 2.11; 95% CI = 1.99 to 2.24). Despite this, those with two or more mental health comorbidities (OR 0.77; 95% CI = 0.61 to 0.98) were less likely to receive smoking cessation advice, but absolute differences were small. Patterns of comorbidity are associated with variation in smoking status and the delivery of smoking cessation advice among people with CHD in primary care. Those from the most deprived areas and those with mental health problems are considerably more likely to be current smokers and require additional smoking cessation support. © British Journal of General Practice 2017.
Linzer, Mark; Poplau, Sara; Brown, Roger; Grossman, Ellie; Varkey, Anita; Yale, Steven; Williams, Eric S; Hicks, Lanis; Wallock, Jill; Kohnhorst, Diane; Barbouche, Michael
While primary care work conditions are associated with adverse clinician outcomes, little is known about the effect of work condition interventions on quality or safety. A cluster randomized controlled trial of 34 clinics in the upper Midwest and New York City. Primary care clinicians and their diabetic and hypertensive patients. Quality improvement projects to improve communication between providers, workflow design, and chronic disease management. Intervention clinics received brief summaries of their clinician and patient outcome data at baseline. We measured work conditions and clinician and patient outcomes both at baseline and 6-12 months post-intervention. Multilevel regression analyses assessed the impact of work condition changes on outcomes. Subgroup analyses assessed impact by intervention category. There were no significant differences in error reduction (19 % vs. 11 %, OR of improvement 1.84, 95 % CI 0.70, 4.82, p = 0.21) or quality of care improvement (19 % improved vs. 44 %, OR 0.62, 95 % CI 0.58, 1.21, p = 0.42) between intervention and control clinics. The conceptual model linking work conditions, provider outcomes, and error reduction showed significant relationships between work conditions and provider outcomes (p ≤ 0.001) and a trend toward a reduced error rate in providers with lower burnout (OR 1.44, 95 % CI 0.94, 2.23, p = 0.09). Few quality metrics, short time span, fewer clinicians recruited than anticipated. Work-life interventions improving clinician satisfaction and well-being do not necessarily reduce errors or improve quality. Longer, more focused interventions may be needed to produce meaningful improvements in patient care. ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT02542995.
Matson Koffman, Dyann; Granade, Sharon A; Anwuri, Victoria V
Policy, environmental, and systems-level interventions are part of a comprehensive approach to managing high blood pressure and high cholesterol, which are key risk factors for heart disease and stroke. In this qualitative case study, we identified clinical practices in health care organizations that used policy, environmental, or systems-level interventions to improve patient outcomes for these conditions. Our 4 objectives were to describe 1) policy, environmental, and systems-level interventions; 2) enabling factors and barriers that affected implementation; 3) methods for evaluating the success of the intervention; and 4) lessons learned from the health care practices that implemented these interventions. Through literature review and expert guidance, we identified 34 health care practices that used policy, environmental, and systems-level interventions to manage high blood pressure and high cholesterol. In 2003, we conducted case study interviews with key informants for 9 health care practices that 1) demonstrated improved patient outcomes for blood pressure or cholesterol; 2) implemented the interventions for at least 1 year; and 3) remained committed to sustaining or institutionalizing interventions. We taped and transcribed the interviews and used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention EZ-Text software (www.cdc.gov/hiv/software/ez-text.htm) to code, categorize, and analyze the responses. The health care practices we studied implemented specialized lipid clinics, disease management programs, physician reminder systems, and participation in the Health Resources and Services Administration's Bureau of Primary Care Health Disparities Collaboratives. All practices used comprehensive systems for patient care that were well-defined, measurable, and linked to desirable patient outcomes. Most relied on data systems to identify patients targeted for the interventions and practice areas that needed improvement, and to track the progress of patients and
Andersen, Gunn Robstad; Westgaard, Rolf H
Ergonomic and work stress interventions rarely show long-term positive effect. The municipality participating in this study received orders from the Norwegian Labour Inspectorate due to an identified unhealthy level of time pressure, and responded by effectuating several work environment interventions. The study aim is to identify critical factors in the interaction between work environment interventions and independent rationalization measures in order to understand a potential negative interfering effect from concurrent rationalizations on a comprehensive work environment intervention. The study, using a historic prospective mixed-method design, comprised 6 home care units in a municipality in Norway (138 respondents, response rate 76.2%; 17 informants). The study included quantitative estimations, register data of sick leave, a time line of significant events and changes, and qualitative descriptions of employee appraisals of their work situation gathered through semi-structured interviews and open survey responses. The work environment interventions were in general regarded as positive by the home care workers. However, all units were simultaneously subjected to substantial contextual instability, involving new work programs, new technology, restructurings, unit mergers, and management replacements, perceived by the home care workers to be major sources of stress. Findings suggest that concurrent changes induced through rationalization resulted in negative exposure effects that negated positive work environment intervention effects, causing an overall deteriorated work situation for the home care workers. Establishment and active utilization of communication channels from workers to managers are recommended in order to increase awareness of putative harmful and interruptive effects of rationalization measures.
Tanner, Amanda E; Reboussin, Beth A; Mann, Lilli; Ma, Alice; Song, Eunyoung; Alonzo, Jorge; Rhodes, Scott D
Little is known about immigrant Latino sexual minorities’ health seeking behaviors. This study examined factors associated with perceptions of access and actual care behaviors among this population in North Carolina. A community-based participatory research partnership recruited 180 Latino sexual minority men and transgender individuals within preexisting social networks to participate in a sexual health intervention. Mixed-effects logistic regression models and GIS mapping examined factors influencing health care access perceptions and use of services (HIV testing and routine check-ups). Results indicate that perceptions of access and actual care behaviors are low and affected by individual and structural factors, including: years living in NC, reported poor general health, perceptions of discrimination, micro-, meso-, and macro-level barriers, and residence in a Medically Underserved Area. To improve Latino sexual minority health, focus must be placed on multiple levels, including: individual characteristics (e.g., demographics), clinic factors (e.g., provider competence and clinic environment), and structural factors (e.g., discrimination).
Tanner, AE; Reboussin, BA; Mann, L; Ma, A; Song, E; Alonzo, J; Rhodes, SD
Little is known about immigrant Latino sexual minorities' health seeking behaviors. This study examined factors associated with perceptions of access and actual care behaviors among this population in North Carolina. Methods A community-based participatory research partnership recruited 180 Latino sexual minority men and transgender individuals within preexisting social networks to participate in a sexual health intervention. Mixed-effects logistic regression models examined factors influencing health care access perceptions and use of services (HIV testing and routine check-ups). Results Results indicate that perceptions of access and actual care behaviors are low and affected by individual and structural factors, including: years living in NC, reported poor general health, perceptions of discrimination, micro-, meso-, and macro-level barriers, and residence in a Medically Underserved Area. Discussion To improve Latino sexual minority health, focus must be placed on multiple levels, individual characteristics (e.g., demographics), clinic factors (e.g., provider competence and clinic environment), and structural factors (e.g., discrimination). PMID:25418235
Degefie, Tedbabe; Amare, Yared; Mulligan, Brian
Despite a substantial decrease in child mortality in Ethiopia over the past decade, neonatal mortality remains unchanged (37/1000 live-births). This paper describes a qualitative study on beliefs and practices on immediate newborn and postnatal care in four rural communities of Ethiopia conducted to inform development of a package of community-based interventions targeting newborns. The study team conducted eight key informant interviews (KII) with grandmothers, 27 in-depth interviews (IDI) with mothers; seven IDI with traditional birth attendants (TBA) and 15IDI with fathers, from four purposively selected communities located in Sidama Zone of Southern Nationalities, Nations, and Peoples (SNNP) Region and in East Shewa and West Arsi Zones of Oromia Region. In the study communities deliveries occurred at home. After cutting the umbilical cord, the baby is put to the side of the mother, not uncommonly with no cloth covering. This is largely due to attendants focusing on delivery of the placenta which is reinforced by the belief that the placenta is the 'house' or 'blanket' of the baby and that any "harm" caused to the placenta will transfer to the newborn. Applying butter or ointment to the cord "to speed drying" is common practice. Initiation of breastfeeding is often delayed and women commonly report discarding colostrum before initiating breastfeeding. Sub-optimal breastfeeding practices continue, due to perceived inadequate maternal nutrition and breast milk often leading to the provision of herbal drinks. Poor thermal care is also demonstrated through lack of continued skin-to-skin contact, exposure of newborns to smoke, frequent bathing-often with cold water baths for low-birth weight or small babies; and, poor hygienic practices are reported, particularly hand washing prior to contact with the newborn. Cultural beliefs and newborn care practices do not conform to recommended standards. Local perspectives related to newborn care practices should inform
Gil-Guillén, Vicente; Hermida, Enrique; Pita-Fernandez, Salvador; Palazon-Bru, Antonio; Durazo-Arvizu, Ramon; Pallares-Carratala, Vicente; Orozco-Beltran, Domingo; Carratala-Munuera, Concepcion; Lopez-Pineda, Adriana; Navarro, Jorge
Background Routine general practice data collection can help identify patients at risk of cardiovascular disease. Aim To determine whether a training programme for primary care professionals improves the recording of cardiovascular disease risk factors in electronic health records. Design and setting A quasi-experimental study without random assignment of professionals. This was an educational intervention study, consisting of an online-classroom 1-year training programme, and carried out in the Valencian community in Spain. Method The prevalence rates of recording of cardiovascular factors (recorded every 6 months over a 4-year period) were compared between intervention and control group. Clinical relevance was calculated by absolute risk reduction (ARR), relative risk reduction (RRR), and number of patients needed-to-attend (NNA), to avoid under-recording, with their 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Linear regression models were used for each of the variables. Results Of the 941 professionals initially registered, 78.1% completed the programme. The ARR ranged from 1.87% (95% CI = 1.79 to 1.94) in the diagnosis of diabetes to 15.27% (95% CI = 15.14 to 15.40) in the recording of basal blood glucose. The NNA ranged from 7 in blood pressure, cholesterol, and blood glucose recording to 54 in the diagnosis of diabetes. The RRR ranged from 26.7% in the diagnosis of diabetes to 177.1% in the recording of the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE). The rates of change were greater in the intervention group and the differences were significant for recording of cholesterol (P<0.001), basal blood glucose (P<0.001), smoking (P<0.001), alcohol (P<0.001), microalbuminuria (P = 0.001), abdominal circumference (P<0.001), and SCORE (P<0.001). Conclusion The education programme had a beneficial effect at the end of the follow-up that was significant and clinically relevant. PMID:25548314
Kennedy, Courtney C; Ioannidis, George; Giangregorio, Lora M; Adachi, Jonathan D; Thabane, Lehana; Morin, Suzanne N; Crilly, Richard G; Marr, Sharon; Josse, Robert G; Lohfeld, Lynne; Pickard, Laura E; King, Susanne; van der Horst, Mary-Lou; Campbell, Glenda; Stroud, Jackie; Dolovich, Lisa; Sawka, Anna M; Jain, Ravi; Nash, Lynn; Papaioannou, Alexandra
Knowledge translation (KT) research in long-term care (LTC) is still in its early stages. This protocol describes the evaluation of a multifaceted, interdisciplinary KT intervention aimed at integrating evidence-based osteoporosis and fracture prevention strategies into LTC care processes. The Vitamin D and Osteoporosis Study (ViDOS) is underway in 40 LTC homes (n = 19 intervention, n = 21 control) across Ontario, Canada. The primary objectives of this study are to assess the feasibility of delivering the KT intervention, and clinically, to increase the percent of LTC residents prescribed ≥800 IU of vitamin D daily. Eligibility criteria are LTC homes that are serviced by our partner pharmacy provider and have more than one prescribing physician. The target audience within each LTC home is the Professional Advisory Committee (PAC), an interdisciplinary team who meets quarterly. The key elements of the intervention are three interactive educational sessions led by an expert opinion leader, action planning using a quality improvement cycle, audit and feedback reports, nominated internal champions, and reminders/point-of-care tools. Control homes do not receive any intervention, however both intervention and control homes received educational materials as part of the Ontario Osteoporosis Strategy. Primary outcomes are feasibility measures (recruitment, retention, attendance at educational sessions, action plan items identified and initiated, internal champions identified, performance reports provided and reviewed), and vitamin D (≥800 IU/daily) prescribing at 6 and 12 months. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of residents prescribed calcium supplements and osteoporosis medications, and falls and fractures. Qualitative methods will examine the experience of the LTC team with the KT intervention. Homes are centrally randomized to intervention and control groups in blocks of variable size using a computer generated allocation sequence. Randomization is
Lamet, Ann R; Sonshine, Rosanne; Walsh, Sandra M; Molnar, David; Rafalko, Sharon
Although numbers of older people are increasing, nursing students have negative attitudes towards older people and do not plan to care for them following graduation. Multiple strategies have been implemented to reverse students' attitudes with mixed results. The purpose of this pilot quasi-experimental study was to test a Creative-Bonding Intervention (CBI) with students implementing art activities with older people to promote students' willingness to take care of them. Using a self-transcendence conceptual framework, control (n = 56) and experimental (n = 14) student groups were pre- and post-tested on attitudes toward older people, self-transcendence, and willingness to serve. The CBI improved attitudes towards older people with negative attitudes significantly changed (P = .008) but with no significant differences on self-transcendence and willingness to serve. However, willingness to serve results approached significance (P = .08). The willingness measure (one question) should be expanded. Curricula changes that incorporate creative activities such as the CBI with larger and equal numbers in student groups and longitudinal follow up to determine long-term results after graduation are suggested.
Lamet, Ann R.; Sonshine, Rosanne; Walsh, Sandra M.; Molnar, David; Rafalko, Sharon
Although numbers of older people are increasing, nursing students have negative attitudes towards older people and do not plan to care for them following graduation. Multiple strategies have been implemented to reverse students' attitudes with mixed results. The purpose of this pilot quasi-experimental study was to test a Creative-Bonding Intervention (CBI) with students implementing art activities with older people to promote students' willingness to take care of them. Using a self-transcendence conceptual framework, control (n = 56) and experimental (n = 14) student groups were pre- and post-tested on attitudes toward older people, self-transcendence, and willingness to serve. The CBI improved attitudes towards older people with negative attitudes significantly changed (P = .008) but with no significant differences on self-transcendence and willingness to serve. However, willingness to serve results approached significance (P = .08). The willingness measure (one question) should be expanded. Curricula changes that incorporate creative activities such as the CBI with larger and equal numbers in student groups and longitudinal follow up to determine long-term results after graduation are suggested. PMID:21994833
providing direct care to a growing population of older Albertans. The project’s reach extends to both supportive living and long-term care settings. Furthermore, START has the potential to introduce and sustain a broad range of innovations in various care areas, such as dementia care, wound care, and pain management – domains where the uptake and sustainability of innovations also encounter significant challenges. By identifying the optimal frequency and intensity of knowledge translation interventions, we hope to enable continuing care organizations to efficiently integrate care innovations into the day-to-day care of residents. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01746459 PMID:24160483
Coffin, Phillip O; Behar, Emily; Rowe, Christopher; Santos, Glenn-Milo; Coffa, Diana; Bald, Matthew; Vittinghoff, Eric
Unintentional overdose involving opioid analgesics is a leading cause of injury-related death in the United States. To evaluate the feasibility and effect of implementing naloxone prescription to patients prescribed opioids for chronic pain. 2-year nonrandomized intervention study. 6 safety-net primary care clinics in San Francisco, California. 1985 adults receiving long-term opioid therapy for pain. Providers and clinic staff were trained and supported in naloxone prescribing. Outcomes were proportion of patients prescribed naloxone, opioid-related emergency department (ED) visits, and prescribed opioid dose based on chart review. 38.2% of 1985 patients receiving long-term opioids were prescribed naloxone. Patients prescribed higher doses of opioids and with an opioid-related ED visit in the past 12 months were independently more likely to be prescribed naloxone. Patients who received a naloxone prescription had 47% fewer opioid-related ED visits per month in the 6 months after receipt of the prescription (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.53 [95% CI, 0.34 to 0.83]; P = 0.005) and 63% fewer visits after 1 year (IRR, 0.37 [CI, 0.22 to 0.64]; P < 0.001) compared with patients who did not receive naloxone. There was no net change over time in opioid dose among those who received naloxone and those who did not (IRR, 1.03 [CI, 0.91 to 1.27]; P = 0.61). Results are observational and may not be generalizable beyond safety-net settings. Naloxone can be coprescribed to primary care patients prescribed opioids for pain. When advised to offer naloxone to all patients receiving opioids, providers may prioritize those with established risk factors. Providing naloxone in primary care settings may have ancillary benefits, such as reducing opioid-related adverse events. National Institutes of Health.
Connor, Martin J; Springford, Laurie Rigueros; Giuliani, Stefano
Introduction Anorectal malformations (ARMs) are a complex collection of congenital disorders of the anus, rectum, and genitourinary system with possible active morbidities beyond adolescence. Aims To create the first evidence-based inclusive transition risk assessment score (TRAS) to stratify health care needs and interventions in teenagers with ARM transitioning to adult health care. Method MEDLINE, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Library were searched electronically for original articles containing published scoring systems evaluating children with ARM from January 1, 1990 to December 31, 2013. Current published scoring systems identified were weighted to create a novel score (TRAS) to objectively assess the most common active problems present in teenagers with ARM: fecal, urinary, and sexual functions; quality of life; and psychosocial well-being. The TRAS was applied to patients visiting our tertiary anorectal clinic in the period from January 2014 to March 2016. Patients were rescored on each visit to the clinic. Results Total 21 separate scoring systems were identified in the literature, with 3 scoring systems incorporated into the TRAS. The score divided patients into "low" (0-4), "medium" (5-10), and "high" (11-35) risk categories. The TRAS was used to assess 14 adolescents with ARMs during the study period; 14 patients had a single TRAS, 7 had two TRAS, and 3 had three TRAS assessments. At first visit 14 patients with a median age of 13 were assessed with TRAS ranging from 2 to 13 (M = 5, SD 3.33, 95% CI 3.08-7.68). At second visit seven patients with a median age of 15 were assessed with TRAS ranging from 2 to 12 (M = 6.43, SD 3.51, 95% CI 3.19-9.67). At third visit three patients with a median age of 16 were assessed with TRAS ranging from 6 to 12 (M = 8.33, SD 3.21, 95% CI 0.35-16.32). There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between a patient's TRAS at different visits. Conclusion Preliminary data suggest that the TRAS is a
Huq, Nafisa Lira; Ahmed, Anisuddin; Haque, Nafis Al; Hossaine, Moyazzam; Uddin, Jamal; Ahmed, Faisal; Quaiyum, M A
An integrated maternal health intervention in a rural sub district of Bangladesh focused on the training and deployment of a required number of Community Based Skilled Birth Attendants (CSBAs). The aim of the study was to assess the effect of the intervention on use of skilled provider care during pregnancy, delivery and after delivery. The effect compared the skilled providers care in low performing areas with high and medium performing areas through pre-and post-intervention surveys. The post-intervention survey was conducted two years after the completion of the intervention. Village clusters, with populations of approximately 3000, were randomly assigned to the surveys. Mothers who had delivered within the 6 months prior to the surveys, were recruited for the structured interviews. Logistic regression was conducted to compare the effect. Majority of mothers in the low performing areas belonged to a poor economic quintile. The level of skilled attendance for 4+ Antenatal Care (ANC) and delivery increased sharply from baseline to endline survey in low performing areas (ANC: 1.6% to 15.3%, p < 0.0001; skilled birth attendant at delivery: 12.6% to 38.3%, p < 0.0001). Less than 1% of the women received Post Natal Care (PNC) from a skilled provider prior to the intervention, and this proportion increased to 20% at the end of the intervention. Adjusted odds showed that the intervention had an effect on the individual performing area on use of skilled provider care during ANC, delivery and PNC. The increase of 4+ ANC from skilled providers and skilled birth attendants during delivery in the low performing areas due to the integrated maternal health intervention was significant relative to the increase in the high performing areas [4+ ANC from skilled providers - OR: 3.8 (1.9-7.6); skilled birth attendants - OR: 2.8 (2.1-3.8)]. An integrated maternal health care intervention focused on deployment of a required number of CSBAs increased the opportunity for
Feldman, Candace H; Bermas, Bonnie L; Zibit, Melanie; Fraser, Patricia; Todd, Derrick J; Fortin, Paul R; Massarotti, Elena; Costenbader, Karen H
Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus) disproportionately affects women, racial/ethnic minorities and low-income populations. We held focus groups for women from medically underserved communities to discuss interventions to improve care. Methods From our Lupus Registry, we invited 282 women, > 18 years, residing in urban, medically underserved areas. Hospital-based clinics and support groups also recruited participants. Women were randomly assigned to 3 focus groups. 75-minute sessions were recorded, transcribed and coded thematically using interpretative phenomenologic analysis and single counting methods. We categorized interventions by benefits, limitations, target populations and implementation questions. Results 29 women with lupus participated in 3 focus groups, (n=9, 9, 11). 80% were African American and 83% were from medically underserved zip codes. Themes included the desire for lupus education, isolation at the time of diagnosis, emotional and physical barriers to care, and the need for assistance navigating the healthcare system. 20 of 29 participants (69%) favored a peer support intervention; 17 (59%) also supported a lupus health passport. Newly diagnosed women were optimal intervention targets. Improvements in quality of life and mental health were proposed outcome measures. Conclusion Women with lupus from medically underserved areas have unique needs best addressed with an intervention designed through collaboration between community members and researchers. PMID:23087258
Deutsch, Alan; Siegel, Emma; Cations, Monica; Wright, Clive; Naganathan, Vasi; Brodaty, Henry
This 10 weeks feasibility study investigated whether residential care nurses with 12 hours advanced oral health training in assessments and saliva testing could formulate, implement and monitor individualised oral care plans of early dementia residents. Four trained lead advocate nurses using SXI-D, OHIP14, oral health assessment tool (OHAT) assessments and a modified saliva test formulated nurse scheduled comprehensive oral care plans (NSCOCPs) by selecting and scheduling preventive products and procedures multiple times throughout the day to alkalise the mouth of 8 residents as an adjunct to assisted brushing and high-fluoride toothpaste. Nurse assessments, saliva tests and care plans were validated against oral health therapist (OHT) findings. Care plan agreement between Nurse and OHT intervention selection and scheduling was high (75%-88%). Untrained nurse compliance was very high, 86%-99% for the 4930 scheduled interventions. Untrained nurses delivered multiple scheduled interventions by following NSCOCPs despite initially not understanding the reason for each of 9 interventions categories. NSCOCPs could track and monitor whether a recommended intervention had been completed by general nursing staff over 3 nursing shifts. The role of nurses may have to be expanded beyond traditional roles to meet the growth and changes in oral health needs in residential facilities. Intensive training of a few lead advocate nurses to assess risk and formulate individualised NSCOCPs provides a method to transfer knowledge to untrained staff and deliver multicomponent preventive interventions soon after entry into residential care where timely visits by dental professionals to examine residents and prescribe preventive interventions are infrequent or unlikely. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Quanjel, Tessa C C; Spreeuwenberg, Marieke D; Struijs, Jeroen N; Baan, Caroline A; Ruwaard, Dirk
In an attempt to deal with the pressures on the health-care system and to guarantee sustainability, changes are needed. This study focuses on a cardiology primary care plus intervention. Primary care plus (PC+) is a new health-care delivery model focused on substitution of specialist care in the hospital setting with specialist care in the primary care setting. The intervention consists of a cardiology PC+ centre in which cardiologists, supported by other health-care professionals, provide consultations in a primary care setting. The PC+ centre aims to improve the health of the population and quality of care as experienced by patients, and reduce the number of referrals to hospital-based outpatient specialist care in order to reduce health-care costs. These aims reflect the Triple Aim principle. Hence, the objectives of the study are to evaluate the cardiology PC+ centre in terms of the Triple Aim outcomes and to evaluate the process of the introduction of PC+. The study is a practice-based, quantitative study with a longitudinal observational design, and an additional qualitative study to supplement, interpret and improve the quantitative study. The study population of the quantitative part will consist of adult patients (≥18 years) with non-acute and low-complexity cardiology-related health complaints, who will be referred to the cardiology PC+ centre (intervention group) or hospital-based outpatient cardiology care (control group). All eligible patients will be asked to complete questionnaires at three different time points consisting of questions about their demographics, health status and experience of care. Additionally, quantitative data will be collected about health-care utilization and related health-care costs at the PC+ centre and the hospital. The qualitative part, consisting of semi-structured interviews, focus groups, and observations, is designed to evaluate the process as well as to amplify, clarify and explain quantitative results. This study
Blomberg, Karin; Griffiths, Peter; Wengström, Yvonne; May, Carl; Bridges, Jackie
Compassion has been identified as an essential element of nursing and is increasingly under public scrutiny in the context of demands for high quality health care. While primary research on effectiveness of interventions to support compassionate nursing care has been reported, no rigorous critical overview exists. To systematically identify, describe and analyse research studies that evaluate interventions for compassionate nursing care; assess the descriptions of the interventions for compassionate care, including design and delivery of the intervention and theoretical framework; and to evaluate evidence for the effectiveness of interventions. Published international literature written in English up to June 2015 was identified from CINAHL, Medline and Cochrane Library databases. Primary research studies comparing outcomes of interventions to promote compassionate nursing care with a control condition were included. Studies were graded according to relative strength of methods and quality of description of intervention. Narrative description and analysis was undertaken supported by tabulation of key study data including study design, outcomes, intervention type and results. 25 interventions reported in 24 studies were included in the review. Intervention types included staff training (n=10), care model (n=9) and staff support (n=6). Intervention description was generally weak, especially in relation to describing participants and facilitators, and the proposed mechanisms for change were often unclear. Most interventions were associated with improvements in patient-based, nurse-based and/or quality of care outcomes. However, overall methodological quality was low with most studies (n=16) conducted as uncontrolled before and after studies. The few higher quality studies were less likely to report positive results. No interventions were tested more than once. None of the studies reviewed reported intervention description in sufficient detail or presented sufficiently
Pichala, Priyanka Tejashwani; Kumar, Bharani Mukkillapati; Zachariah, Seeba; Thomas, Dixon; Saunchez, Laura; Gerardo, Alvarez-Uria
Background: Intensive care unit is a potential area for drug-related problems. As many of the patients treated are complex patients, clinical pharmacy intervention could find drug therapy problems. Materials and Methods: Drug information liaisons daily attended ward rounds with intensivists and screened the patient for drug therapy assessment using the American Society for Health-System Pharmacists clinical skills competition DTA format. This was a prospective study done for 6 months from August 2012 to January 2013. Simple statistics were used to tabulate the drug-related problems assessed. Results: A total of 72 patients were screened for drug therapy problems, for which 947 drug doses were prescribed in the study period. The total number of prescriptions was 148. The average number of drugs per prescription was 6.39 and the average number of drugs per patient was 13.15. A total of 243 problems were identified; on an average, 1.67 problems were present per prescription. The total number of drug interactions identified was N = 192 (78.2%); majority of them (61.4%) were of type C (not serious). So, 55.73% of them were monitored and not stopped or substituted. The second type of problem was a correlation between drug therapy and medical problem (7.4%). Appropriate drug selection and drug regimen was the third problem, and the adverse drug reactions and therapeutic duplications accounted for approximately 2% of the drug-related problems identified. Conclusion: Drug interactions constituted the major problem of ICUs, but not many were serious or significant. Consensus in assessment of drug-related problems and convincing intensivists with good quality evidences are required for better acceptance of interventions. PMID:24808673
Chandra, Ankit; Sarkar, Sonali; Adinarayanan, S; Balajee, Karthik Laksham
Background and Objective: The only way to provide palliative care to a huge number of people in need in India is through community participation, which can be achieved by improving the awareness of the people about palliative care. We conducted a study to assess the impact of health awareness campaign in improving the awareness of people about palliative care. Materials and Methods: This was a pre- and post-intervention study conducted in Kadaperikuppam village of Vanur Taluk in Villupuram district, Tamil Nadu. One respondent each from 145 households in the village was interviewed regarding the knowledge and attitude on palliative care before and after the health awareness campaign using a pretested questionnaire. Health awareness campaign consisted of skit, pamphlet distribution, poster presentation, giving door-to-door information, and general interaction with palliative team in the village. Results: The awareness regarding palliative care during the preintervention was nil. After the intervention, it increased to 62.8%. However, there was a decline in the attitude and the interest of the people toward palliative care. Interpretation and Conclusions: Health awareness campaigns can increase the awareness of people in the rural parts of the country about palliative care. However, to improve the attitude of the community about delivery of palliative care services, more sustained efforts are required to make them believe that palliative care can be provided by community volunteers also and not necessarily only by professionals. PMID:27803570
Golder, Su; Loke, Yoon K; Wright, Kath; Norman, Gill
We performed a systematic review to assess whether we can quantify the underreporting of adverse events (AEs) in the published medical literature documenting the results of clinical trials as compared with other nonpublished sources, and whether we can measure the impact this underreporting has on systematic reviews of adverse events. Studies were identified from 15 databases (including MEDLINE and Embase) and by handsearching, reference checking, internet searches, and contacting experts. The last database searches were conducted in July 2016. There were 28 methodological evaluations that met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 9 studies compared the proportion of trials reporting adverse events by publication status. The median percentage of published documents with adverse events information was 46% compared to 95% in the corresponding unpublished documents. There was a similar pattern with unmatched studies, for which 43% of published studies contained adverse events information compared to 83% of unpublished studies. A total of 11 studies compared the numbers of adverse events in matched published and unpublished documents. The percentage of adverse events that would have been missed had each analysis relied only on the published versions varied between 43% and 100%, with a median of 64%. Within these 11 studies, 24 comparisons of named adverse events such as death, suicide, or respiratory adverse events were undertaken. In 18 of the 24 comparisons, the number of named adverse events was higher in unpublished than published documents. Additionally, 2 other studies demonstrated that there are substantially more types of adverse events reported in matched unpublished than published documents. There were 20 meta-analyses that reported the odds ratios (ORs) and/or risk ratios (RRs) for adverse events with and without unpublished data. Inclusion of unpublished data increased the precision of the pooled estimates (narrower 95% confidence intervals) in 15 of the 20
Golder, Su; Wright, Kath
Background We performed a systematic review to assess whether we can quantify the underreporting of adverse events (AEs) in the published medical literature documenting the results of clinical trials as compared with other nonpublished sources, and whether we can measure the impact this underreporting has on systematic reviews of adverse events. Methods and Findings Studies were identified from 15 databases (including MEDLINE and Embase) and by handsearching, reference checking, internet searches, and contacting experts. The last database searches were conducted in July 2016. There were 28 methodological evaluations that met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 9 studies compared the proportion of trials reporting adverse events by publication status. The median percentage of published documents with adverse events information was 46% compared to 95% in the corresponding unpublished documents. There was a similar pattern with unmatched studies, for which 43% of published studies contained adverse events information compared to 83% of unpublished studies. A total of 11 studies compared the numbers of adverse events in matched published and unpublished documents. The percentage of adverse events that would have been missed had each analysis relied only on the published versions varied between 43% and 100%, with a median of 64%. Within these 11 studies, 24 comparisons of named adverse events such as death, suicide, or respiratory adverse events were undertaken. In 18 of the 24 comparisons, the number of named adverse events was higher in unpublished than published documents. Additionally, 2 other studies demonstrated that there are substantially more types of adverse events reported in matched unpublished than published documents. There were 20 meta-analyses that reported the odds ratios (ORs) and/or risk ratios (RRs) for adverse events with and without unpublished data. Inclusion of unpublished data increased the precision of the pooled estimates (narrower 95
Leiva-Fernández, José; Vázquez-Alarcón, Rubén L; Aguiar-Leiva, Virginia; Lobnig-Becerra, Mireya; Leiva-Fernández, Francisca; Barnestein-Fonseca, Pilar
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) accounts for 10-12 % of primary care consultations, 7 % of hospital admissions and 35 % of chronic incapacity related to productivity. The misuse of inhalers is a significant problem in COPD because it is associated with reduced therapeutic drug effects leading to lack of control of both symptoms and disease. Despite all advice, health care professionals' practice management of inhalation treatments is usually deficient. Interventions to improve inhaler technique by health care professionals are limited, especially among primary care professionals, who provide the most care to patients with COPD. The aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of an educational intervention to train general practitioners (GPs) in the right inhalation technique for the most commonly used inhalers. We are conducting a pragmatic cluster randomised controlled trial. The sample population is composed of 267 patients diagnosed with COPD using inhalation therapy selected from among those in 20 general practices, divided into two groups (control and intervention) by block randomisation at 8 primary care centres. The sample has two levels. The first level is patients with COPD who agree to participate in the trial and receive the educational intervention from their GPs. The second level is GPs who are primary health care professionals and receive the educational intervention. The intervention is one session of the educational intervention with a monitor given to GPs for training in the right inhalation technique. The primary outcome is correct inhalation technique in patients. Secondary outcomes are functional status (spirometry) and quality of life. The follow-up period will be 1 year. GPs will have two visits (baseline and at the 1-year follow-up visit. Patients will have four visits (at baseline and 3, 6 and 12 months). Analysis will be done on an intention-to-treat basis. We carried out three previous clinical trials in patients with COPD
Courtney, P M; Melnic, C M; Gutsche, J; Hume, E L; Lee, G-C
Older patients with multiple medical co-morbidities are increasingly being offered and undergoing total joint arthroplasty (TJA). These patients are more likely to require intensive care support, following surgery. We prospectively evaluated the need for intensive care admission and intervention in a consecutive series of 738 patients undergoing elective hip and knee arthroplasty procedures. The mean age was 60.6 years (18 to 91; 440 women, 298 men. Risk factors, correlating with the need for critical care intervention, according to published guidelines, were analysed to identify high-risk patients who would benefit from post-operative critical care monitoring. A total of 50 patients (6.7%) in our series required critical care level interventions during their hospital stay. Six independent multivariate clinical predictors were identified (p < 0.001) including a history of congestive heart failure (odds ratio (OR) 24.26, 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.51 to 61.91), estimated blood loss > 1000 mL (OR 17.36, 95% CI 5.36 to 56.19), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (13.90, 95% CI 4.78 to 40.36), intra-operative use of vasopressors (OR 8.10, 95% CI 3.23 to 20.27), revision hip arthroplasty (OR 2.71, 95% CI 1.04 to 7.04) and body mass index > 35 kg/m(2) (OR 2.70, 95% CI 123 to 5.94). The model was then validated against an independent, previously published data set of 1594 consecutive patients. The use of this risk stratification model can be helpful in predicting which high-risk patients would benefit from a higher level of monitoring and care after elective TJA and aid hospitals in allocating precious critical care resources.
Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann
Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…
Josyula, Lakshmi; Lyle, Roseann
Purpose: To examine the feasibility and impact of a health care provider’s (HCP) physical activity (PA) prescription on the PA of patients on preventive care visits. Methods: Consenting adult patients completed health and PA questionnaires and were sequentially assigned to intervention groups. HCPs prescribed PA using a written prescription only…
Background Despite a substantial decrease in child mortality in Ethiopia over the past decade, neonatal mortality remains unchanged (37/1000 live-births). This paper describes a qualitative study on beliefs and practices on immediate newborn and postnatal care in four rural communities of Ethiopia conducted to inform development of a package of community-based interventions targeting newborns. Methods The study team conducted eight key informant interviews (KII) with grandmothers, 27 in-depth interviews (IDI) with mothers; seven IDI with traditional birth attendants (TBA) and 15IDI with fathers, from four purposively selected communities located in Sidama Zone of Southern Nationalities, Nations, and Peoples (SNNP) Region and in East Shewa and West Arsi Zones of Oromia Region. Results In the study communities deliveries occurred at home. After cutting the umbilical cord, the baby is put to the side of the mother, not uncommonly with no cloth covering. This is largely due to attendants focusing on delivery of the placenta which is reinforced by the belief that the placenta is the ‘house’ or ‘blanket’ of the baby and that any “harm” caused to the placenta will transfer to the newborn. Applying butter or ointment to the cord “to speed drying” is common practice. Initiation of breastfeeding is often delayed and women commonly report discarding colostrum before initiating breastfeeding. Sub-optimal breastfeeding practices continue, due to perceived inadequate maternal nutrition and breast milk often leading to the provision of herbal drinks. Poor thermal care is also demonstrated through lack of continued skin-to-skin contact, exposure of newborns to smoke, frequent bathing—often with cold water baths for low-birth weight or small babies; and, poor hygienic practices are reported, particularly hand washing prior to contact with the newborn. Conclusion Cultural beliefs and newborn care practices do not conform to recommended standards. Local perspectives
Background In the UK around 22% of men and 24% of women are obese, and there are varying but worrying levels in other European countries. Obesity is a chronic condition that carries an important health risk. National guidelines, for use in England, on the management of people who are overweight or obese have been published by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE, 2006). NICE recommendations for primary care teams are: determine the degree of overweight and obesity; assess lifestyle, comorbidities and willingness to change; offer multicomponent management of overweight and obesity; referral to external services when appropriate. This study investigates a tailored intervention to improve the implementation of these recommendations by primary care teams. Methods/Design The study is a cluster randomised controlled trial. Primary care teams will be recruited from the East Midlands of England, and randomised into two study arms: 1) the study group, in which primary care teams are offered a set of tailored interventions to help implement the NICE guidelines for overweight and obesity; or 2) the control group in which primary care teams continue to practice usual care. The primary outcome is the proportion of overweight or obese patients for whom the primary care team adheres to the NICE guidelines. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients with a record of lifestyle assessment, referral to external weight loss services, the proportion of obese patients who lose weight during the intervention period, and the mean weight change over the same period. Discussion Although often recommended, the methods of tailoring implementation interventions to account for the determinants of practice are not well developed. This study is part of a programme of studies seeking to develop the methods of tailored implementation. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN07457585. Registered 09/08/2013. Randomisation commenced 30/08/2013. PMID
Krause, Jane; Agarwal, Shona; Bodicoat, Danielle H; Ring, Arne; Shepherd, David; Rogers, Stephen; Wensing, Michel; Baker, Richard
In the UK around 22% of men and 24% of women are obese, and there are varying but worrying levels in other European countries. Obesity is a chronic condition that carries an important health risk. National guidelines, for use in England, on the management of people who are overweight or obese have been published by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE, 2006). NICE recommendations for primary care teams are: determine the degree of overweight and obesity; assess lifestyle, comorbidities and willingness to change; offer multicomponent management of overweight and obesity; referral to external services when appropriate. This study investigates a tailored intervention to improve the implementation of these recommendations by primary care teams. The study is a cluster randomised controlled trial. Primary care teams will be recruited from the East Midlands of England, and randomised into two study arms: 1) the study group, in which primary care teams are offered a set of tailored interventions to help implement the NICE guidelines for overweight and obesity; or 2) the control group in which primary care teams continue to practice usual care. The primary outcome is the proportion of overweight or obese patients for whom the primary care team adheres to the NICE guidelines. Secondary outcomes include the proportion of patients with a record of lifestyle assessment, referral to external weight loss services, the proportion of obese patients who lose weight during the intervention period, and the mean weight change over the same period. Although often recommended, the methods of tailoring implementation interventions to account for the determinants of practice are not well developed. This study is part of a programme of studies seeking to develop the methods of tailored implementation. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN07457585. Registered 09/08/2013. Randomisation commenced 30/08/2013.
Siriwardhana, Chesmal; Adikari, Anushka; Van Bortel, Tine; McCrone, Paul; Sumathipala, Athula
Inadequacy in mental health care in low and middle income countries has been an important contributor to the rising global burden of disease. The treatment gap is salient in resource-poor settings, especially when providing care for conflict-affected forced migrant populations. Primary care is often the only available service option for the majority of forced migrants, and integration of mental health into primary care is a difficult task. The proposed pilot study aims to explore the feasibility of integrating mental health care into primary care by providing training to primary care practitioners serving displaced populations, in order to improve identification, treatment, and referral of patients with common mental disorders via the World Health Organization Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP). This pilot randomized controlled trial will recruit 86 primary care practitioners (PCP) serving in the Puttalam and Mannar districts of Sri Lanka (with displaced and returning conflict-affected populations). The intervention arm will receive a structured training program based on the mhGAP intervention guide. Primary outcomes will be rates of correct identification, adequate management based on set criteria, and correct referrals of common mental disorders. A qualitative study exploring the attitudes, views, and perspectives of PCP on integrating mental health and primary care will be nested within the pilot study. An economic evaluation will be carried out by gathering service utilization information. In post-conflict Sri Lanka, an important need exists to provide adequate mental health care to conflict-affected internally displaced persons who are returning to their areas of origin after prolonged displacement. The proposed study will act as a local demonstration project, exploring the feasibility of formulating a larger-scale intervention study in the future, and is envisaged to provide information on engaging PCP, and data on training and evaluation including
Bastiaanssen, Inge L. W.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; Geijsen, Luuk; Kroes, Gert; Veerman, Jan W.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Background: The work of group care workers in residential youth care is often described as professional parenting. Pedagogical interventions of group care workers influence the quality of care for looked-after children. Objective: The aim of the current study was to observe the pedagogical interventions of group care workers within residential…
Bastiaanssen, Inge L. W.; Delsing, Marc J. M. H.; Geijsen, Luuk; Kroes, Gert; Veerman, Jan W.; Engels, Rutger C. M. E.
Background: The work of group care workers in residential youth care is often described as professional parenting. Pedagogical interventions of group care workers influence the quality of care for looked-after children. Objective: The aim of the current study was to observe the pedagogical interventions of group care workers within residential…
Background The objectives of this smoking cessation study among hospitalized smokers are to: 1) determine provider and patient receptivity, barriers, and facilitators to implementing the nurse-administered, inpatient Tobacco Tactics intervention versus usual care using face-to-face feedback and surveys; 2) compare the effectiveness of the nurse-administered, inpatient Tobacco Tactics intervention versus usual care across hospitals, units, and patient characteristics using thirty-day point prevalence abstinence at thirty days and six months (primary outcome) post-recruitment; and 3) determine the cost-effectiveness of the nurse-administered, inpatient Tobacco Tactics intervention relative to usual care including cost per quitter, cost per life-year saved, and cost per quality-adjusted life-year saved. Methods/Design This effectiveness study will be a quasi-experimental design of six Michigan community hospitals of which three will get the nurse-administered Tobacco Tactics intervention and three will provide their usual care. In both the intervention and usual care sites, research assistants will collect data from patients on their smoking habits and related variables while in the hospital and at thirty days and six months post-recruitment. The intervention will be integrated into the experimental sites by a research nurse who will train Master Trainers at each intervention site. The Master Trainers, in turn, will teach the intervention to all staff nurses. Research nurses will also conduct formative evaluation with nurses to identify barriers and facilitators to dissemination. Descriptive statistics will be used to summarize the results of surveys administered to nurses, nurses’ participation rates, smokers’ receipt of specific cessation services, and satisfaction with services. General estimating equation analyses will be used to determine differences between intervention groups on satisfaction and quit rates, respectively, with adjustment for the clustering
Llor, Carles; Cots, Josep Maria; Hernández, Silvia; Ortega, Jesús; Arranz, Javier; Monedero, María José; Alcántara, Juan de Dios; Pérez, Carolina; García, Guillermo; Gómez, Manuel; Guerra, Gloria; Cid, Marina; Cigüenza, María Luisa; Pineda, Vicenta; Paredes, José; Burgazzoli, Juan Luis; Munck, Anders; Cordoba-Currea, Gloria; Bjerrum, Lars
To evaluate the effectiveness of two types of intervention in reducing antibiotic prescribing in respiratory tract infections (RTI). Before-after audit-based study. Primary Care centres in Spain. General practitioners (GPs) registered all patients with RTIs for 15 days in winter 2008 (pre-intervention), and again in winter 2009 (post-intervention). Intervention activities included meetings, with the presentation and discussion of the results, and several training meetings on RTI guidelines, information brochures for patients, workshops on point-of-care tests - rapid antigen detection tests and C-reactive protein rapid test - and provision of these tests in the clinic. All GPs, with the exception of those in Catalonia, made up the full intervention group (FIG); conversely, Catalan doctors underwent the same intervention, except for the workshop on rapid tests (partial intervention group, PIG). Multilevel logistic regression was performed taking the prescription of antibiotics as the dependent variable. Out of a total of 309 GPs involved in the first register, 281 completed the intervention and the second register (90.9%), of which 210 were assigned to the FIG, and 71 to the PIG. The odds ratio of antibiotic prescribing after the intervention was 0.99 (95% CI: 0.89-1.10) among GPs assigned to PIG, and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.44-0.57, p<0.001) among those who were allocated to FIG. The reduction in antibiotic prescribing in FIG was more marked in flu infection, common cold, acute pharyngitis, acute tonsillitis, and acute bronchitis. Active participation of GPs with the performance of point-of-care tests in the clinic is accompanied by a drastic reduction of antibiotic use in RTIs, primarily in infections considered as mainly viral. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Brüggemann, A Jelmer; Swahnberg, Katarina; Wijma, Barbro
Efforts to counteract abuse in health care, defined as patient-experienced abuse, have mainly focused on interventions among caregivers. This study is the first to test an online intervention focusing on how patients can counteract such abuse. The intervention aimed at increasing patients' intention and perceived ability to act in future situations where they risk experiencing abuse. Participants were recruited through a nephrology clinic in Sweden. The intervention consisted of an online program that aimed to stimulate patients to think of possible actions in situations in which they risk experiencing abuse. The program comprised stories and exercises in text and comic form. The participants filled out a questionnaire immediately before and after going through the program, as well as during follow-up four to eight weeks later. Forty-eight patients (39 %) participated in the study and spent, on average, 41 min responding to questions and going through the program. Both men and women, of various ages and educational backgrounds, participated. An increase in participants' self-reported ability to identify opportunities to act in a given situation was seen immediately afterwards, as well as during follow up. The current study suggests that it is feasible and most likely useful to a variety of patients to work with the provided material that has the aim of counteracting abuse in health care. It would be of interest to further develop ways of using comics and to test similar interventions in other health care settings.
Ettner, Susan L; Xu, Haiyong; Duru, O Kenrik; Ang, Alfonso; Tseng, Chi-Hong; Tallen, Louise; Barnes, Andrew; Mirkin, Michelle; Ransohoff, Kurt; Moore, Alison A
The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness of a patient-provider educational intervention in reducing at-risk drinking among older adults. This was a cluster-randomized controlled trial of 31 primary care providers and their patients ages 60 years and older at a community-based practice with seven clinics. Recruitment occurred from July 2005 to August 2007. Eligibility was determined by telephone and a baseline mailed survey. A total of 1,186 at-risk drinkers were identified by the Comorbidity Alcohol Risk Evaluation Tool. Follow-up patient surveys were administered at 3, 6, and 12 months after baseline. Study physicians and their patients were randomly assigned to usual care (n = 640 patients) versus the Project SHARE (Senior Health and Alcohol Risk Education) intervention (n = 546 patients), which included personalized reports, educational materials, drinking diaries, physician advice during office visits, and telephone counseling delivered by a health educator. Main outcomes were alcohol consumption, at-risk drinking (overall and by type), alcohol discussions with physicians, health care utilization, and screening and intervention costs. At 12 months, the intervention was significantly associated with an increase in alcohol-related discussions with physicians (23% vs. 13%; p ≤ .01) and reductions in at-risk drinking (56% vs. 67%; p ≤ .01), alcohol consumption (-2.19 drinks per week; p ≤ .01), physician visits (-1.14 visits; p = .03), emergency department visits (16% vs. 25%; p ≤ .01), and nonprofessional caregiving visits (12% vs. 17%; p ≤ .01). Average variable costs per patient were $31 for screening and $79 for intervention. The intervention reduced alcohol consumption and at-risk drinking among older adults. Effects were sustained over a year and may have been associated with lower health care utilization, offsetting screening and intervention costs.
Phelan, Elizabeth A.; Herbert, Julia; Fahrenbruch, Carol; Stubbs, Benjamin A.; Meischke, Hendrika
Falls account for a substantial portion of 9-1-1 calls, but few studies have examined the potential for an emergency medical system role in fall prevention. We tested the feasibility and effectiveness of an emergency medical technician (EMT)-delivered, at-scene intervention to link elders calling 9-1-1 for a fall with a multifactorial fall prevention program in their community. The intervention was conducted in a single fire department in King County, Washington and consisted of a brief public health message about the preventability of falls and written fall prevention program information left at scene. Data sources included 9-1-1 reports, telephone interviews with intervention department fallers and sociodemographically comparable fallers from three other fire departments in the same county, and in-person discussions with intervention department EMTs. Interviews elicited faller recall and perceptions of the intervention, EMT perceptions of intervention feasibility, and resultant referrals. Sixteen percent of all 9-1-1 calls during the intervention period were for falls. The intervention was delivered to 49% of fallers, the majority of whom (75%) were left at scene. Their mean age (N = 92) was 80 ± 8 years; 78% were women, 39% had annual incomes under $20K, and 34% lived alone. Thirty-five percent reported that an EMT had discussed falls and fall prevention (vs. 8% of comparison group, P < 0.01); 84% reported that the information was useful. Six percent reported having made an appointment with a fall prevention program (vs. 3% of comparison group). EMTs reported that the intervention was worthwhile and did not add substantially to their workload. A brief, at-scene intervention is feasible and acceptable to fallers and EMTs. Although it activates only a small percent to seek out fall prevention programs, the public health impact of this low-cost strategy may be substantial. PMID:27990416
Background Ergonomic and work stress interventions rarely show long-term positive effect. The municipality participating in this study received orders from the Norwegian Labour Inspectorate due to an identified unhealthy level of time pressure, and responded by effectuating several work environment interventions. The study aim is to identify critical factors in the interaction between work environment interventions and independent rationalization measures in order to understand a potential negative interfering effect from concurrent rationalizations on a comprehensive work environment intervention. Methods The study, using a historic prospective mixed-method design, comprised 6 home care units in a municipality in Norway (138 respondents, response rate 76.2%; 17 informants). The study included quantitative estimations, register data of sick leave, a time line of significant events and changes, and qualitative descriptions of employee appraisals of their work situation gathered through semi-structured interviews and open survey responses. Results The work environment interventions were in general regarded as positive by the home care workers. However, all units were simultaneously subjected to substantial contextual instability, involving new work programs, new technology, restructurings, unit mergers, and management replacements, perceived by the home care workers to be major sources of stress. Findings suggest that concurrent changes induced through rationalization resulted in negative exposure effects that negated positive work environment intervention effects, causing an overall deteriorated work situation for the home care workers. Conclusions Establishment and active utilization of communication channels from workers to managers are recommended in order to increase awareness of putative harmful and interruptive effects of rationalization measures. PMID:24238560
Collings, Sunny; Mathieson, Fiona; Dowell, Anthony; Stanley, James; Hatcher, Simon; Goodyear-Smith, Felicity; Lane, Brigitte; Munsterman, Amy
Although mild to moderate mental health problems are common and often debilitating, treatment options in primary care settings in New Zealand are often severely limited for patients with these conditions. Previously, we developed an ultra-brief intervention (UBI) to address mild to moderate psychological concerns, designed to be delivered by primary care clinicians. Recent feasibility testing, including an adaptation for Māori individuals (the indigenous people of New Zealand), showed that the brief intervention was feasible and acceptable to both clinicians and their patients. This protocol describes a large pragmatic randomized controlled trial of our UBI in primary care settings across the greater Wellington region, compared with practice as usual. We are using a two-arm cluster randomized controlled trial, with primary care practices randomized to exclusively deliver either the UBI or practice as usual to all their recruited participants. The structured, guided self-help UBI is delivered in three brief general practitioner (GP) appointments over a five week period. Participants are invited into the study based on partner primary health organization access criteria (youth, people with low income, or people with Māori or Pacific Island heritage). Improvements in mental health from baseline to post-treatment will be compared between the intervention and control groups using a mixed-models application of analysis of covariance. Data analysis will be on an intention-to-treat basis, to increase the real-world relevance of UBI and to meet the study's objective of releasing UBI to primary care clinicians nationwide. The UBI is a first-line intervention tool for GPs that models the stepped care approach advocated in New Zealand, against a background of limited access to treatments for often-overlooked patient groups. It is proposed to be accessible to clinicians and patients alike, with the potential to be relevant to primary care clinicians across New Zealand
Hunter, Sarah B; Schwartz, Robert P; Friedmann, Peter D
National efforts are underway to integrate medical care and behavioral health treatment. This special issue of the Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment presents 13 papers that examine the integration of substance use interventions and medical care. In this introduction, the guest editors first describe the need to examine the integration of substance use treatment into medical care settings. Next, an overview of the emerging field of implementation science and its applicability to substance use intervention integration is presented. Preview summaries of each of the articles included in this special issue are given. Articles include empirical studies of various integration models, study protocol papers that describe currently funded implementation research, and one review/commentary piece that discusses federal research priorities, integration support activities and remaining research gaps. These articles provide important information about how to guide future health system integration efforts to treat the millions of medical patients with substance use problems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jakicic, John M.; Tate, Deborah F.; Lang, Wei; Davis, Kelli K.; Polzien, Kristen; Rickman, Amy D.; Erickson, Karen; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Finkelstein, Eric A.
Context Given the obesity epidemic, effective but resource efficient weight loss treatments are needed. Stepped treatment approaches customize interventions based on milestone completion and can be more effective while costing less to administer than conventional treatment paradigms. Objective We hypothesized that compared to a standard behavioral weight loss intervention (SBWI), a stepped-care weight loss intervention (STEP) would result in greater weight loss. Design Randomized trial with participants enrolled between May 2008 and February 2010. Data collection was completed by September 2011. Setting 2 universities affiliated with academic medical centers. Participants Participants were 363 overweight and obese adults (BMI: 25 to <40 kg/m2; age: 18–55 years; 33% non-white, 83% female) who were randomized to SBWI or STEP interventions. Interventions All participants were placed on a low calorie diet, prescribed increases in physical activity and had group counseling sessions ranging from weekly to monthly during an 18-month time period. SBWI participants were assigned to a fixed program. Among STEP participants, counseling frequency, type, and weight loss strategies could be modified every 3 months in response to observed weight loss as it related to weight loss goals. Main Outcome Measure Mean change in weight over 18 months. Additional outcomes include resting heart rate and blood pressure, waist girth, body composition, fitness, physical activity, dietary intake, and costs. Results Of the 363 participants randomized, 260 participants (71.6%) provided a measure of mean change in weight over 18 months. The 18 month intervention resulted in weight decreasing from 93.1 kg (95% CI: 91.0, 95.2) to 85.6 kg (95% CI: 83.4, 88.0) (p<0.01) in SBWI and from 92.7 kg (95% CI: 90.8, 94.6) to 86.4 kg (95% CI: 84.5, 88.4) in STEP (p<0.01). Percent weight change from baseline to 18 months was −8.1% (95% CI: −9.4, −6.9) in SBWI (p<0.01) and −6.9% (95% CI: −8.0, −5
O’Donnell, Amy; Kaner, Eileen
Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness, the adoption of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBI) in routine primary care remains inconsistent. Financial incentive schemes were introduced in England between 2008 and 2015 to encourage their delivery. We used Normalisation Process Theory-informed interviews to understand the barriers and facilitators experienced by 14 general practitioners (GPs) as they implemented ASBI during this period. We found multiple factors shaped provision. GPs were broadly cognisant and supportive of preventative alcohol interventions (coherence) but this did not necessarily translate into personal investment in their delivery (cognitive participation). This lack of investment shaped how GPs operationalised such “work” in day-to-day practice (collective action), with ASBI mostly delegated to nurses, and GPs reverting to “business as usual” in their management and treatment of problem drinking (reflexive monitoring). We conclude there has been limited progress towards the goal of an effectively embedded preventative alcohol care pathway in English primary care. Future policy should consider screening strategies that prioritise patients with conditions with a recognised link with excessive alcohol consumption, and which promote more efficient identification of the most problematic drinkers. Improved GP training to build skills and awareness of evidence-based ASBI tools could also help embed best practice over time. PMID:28350364
O'Donnell, Amy; Kaner, Eileen
Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness, the adoption of alcohol screening and brief interventions (ASBI) in routine primary care remains inconsistent. Financial incentive schemes were introduced in England between 2008 and 2015 to encourage their delivery. We used Normalisation Process Theory-informed interviews to understand the barriers and facilitators experienced by 14 general practitioners (GPs) as they implemented ASBI during this period. We found multiple factors shaped provision. GPs were broadly cognisant and supportive of preventative alcohol interventions (coherence) but this did not necessarily translate into personal investment in their delivery (cognitive participation). This lack of investment shaped how GPs operationalised such "work" in day-to-day practice (collective action), with ASBI mostly delegated to nurses, and GPs reverting to "business as usual" in their management and treatment of problem drinking (reflexive monitoring). We conclude there has been limited progress towards the goal of an effectively embedded preventative alcohol care pathway in English primary care. Future policy should consider screening strategies that prioritise patients with conditions with a recognised link with excessive alcohol consumption, and which promote more efficient identification of the most problematic drinkers. Improved GP training to build skills and awareness of evidence-based ASBI tools could also help embed best practice over time.
Wangchuk, Dukpa; Virdi, Navkiran Kaur; Garg, Renu; Mendis, Shanthi; Nair, Nani; Wangchuk, Dorji; Kumar, Rajesh
A World Health Organization (WHO) package of essential noncommunicable (PEN) disease interventions was piloted in two districts of Bhutan by non-physician health workers. They conducted risk assessment among patients aged over 40 years who visited the outpatient department of health institutions. Blood glucose was also measured among those who were overweight/ obese (body mass index ≥23 kg/m2) or had a high waist circumference (>80 cm in women and >90 cm in men). Appropriate counselling, treatment and referral were provided to the patients. The performance of the PEN project in detecting and managing noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) and their risk factors was assessed. All health institutions of Paro (one district hospital and three basic health units [BHUs]) and Bumthang districts (one district hospital and four BHUs), were included in the PEN pilot assessment study. All patients who had presented to the clinics in the pilot districts from 1 June to 31 August 2012 constituted the study population. The data were collected from the clinical form, supervisor's report and monthly report of the PEN project. The characteristics of patients with an NCD at registration and at the third follow-up visit were compared in a before-after analysis. Absolute changes in the characteristics of patients were computed for those who had completed the required followups during a 3-month assessment period. In a 3-month period, 39 079 patients had attended clinics in the pilot districts. About 10% of the clinic attendees (3818/39 079) were aged over 40 years; of these, 22.6% (864/3818) had a high blood pressure, and 49.7% (1896/3818) were overweight/obese or had a high waist circumference. Screening of overweight/ obese/high waist circumference cases revealed that 26.1% (494/1896) had high blood sugar levels. Out of the 896 patients who were registered on PEN protocols, 13% had >20% risk of developing cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in next 10 years as per the WHO/International Society
Kennedy, Courtney C.; Thabane, Lehana; Ioannidis, George; Adachi, Jonathan D.; Papaioannou, Alexandra
Objectives To evaluate the feasibility of implementing an interdisciplinary, multifaceted knowledge translation intervention within long-term care (LTC) and to identify any challenges that should be considered in designing future studies. Design Cluster randomized controlled trial. Setting Forty LTC homes across the province of Ontario, Canada. Participants LTC teams composed of physicians, nurses, pharmacists, and other staff. Measurements Cluster-level feasibility measures, including recruitment, retention, data completion, and participation in the intervention. A process evaluation was completed by directors of care indicating which process/policy changes had been implemented. Results Recruitment and retention rates were 22% and 63%, respectively. Good fidelity with the intervention was achieved, including attendance at educational meetings. After ViDOS, 7 process indicators were being newly implemented by more than 50% of active intervention homes. Conclusion Despite recruitment and retention challenges, the multifaceted intervention produced a number of policy/process changes and had good intervention fidelity. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01398527. PMID:24953541
Harwick, Robin; Tyre, Ashli; Beisse, Kay; Thomas, Cathy
This article will focus on students with disabilities in foster care to help school psychologists identify effective school-based interventions for these students. We will report our findings from three independent studies and then apply the findings to suggest targeted interventions for these students that are intended to improve educational and…
Background The primary behavioural risks for the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in developed countries are tobacco smoking, poor nutrition, risky alcohol use, and physical inactivity. Evidence, guidelines and policies support routine clinician delivery of care to prevent these risks within primary care settings. Despite the potential afforded by community health services for the delivery of such preventive care, the limited evidence available suggests it is provided at suboptimal levels. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic practice change intervention in increasing clinician's routine provision of preventive care across a network of community health services. Methods/Design A multiple baseline study will be conducted involving all 56 community health facilities in a single health district in New South Wales, Australia. The facilities will be allocated to one of three administratively-defined groups. A 12 month practice change intervention will be implemented in all facilities in each group to facilitate clinician risk assessment of eligible clients, and clinician provision of brief advice and referral to those identified as being 'at risk'. The intervention will be implemented in a non-random sequence across the three facility groups. Repeated, cross-sectional measurement of clinician provision of preventive care for four individual risks (smoking, poor nutrition, risky alcohol use, and physical inactivity) will occur continuously for all three facility groups for 54 months via telephone interviews. The interviews will be conducted with randomly selected clients who have visited a community health facility in the last two weeks. Data collection will commence 12 months prior to the implementation of the intervention in the first group, and continue for six months following the completion of the intervention in the last group. As a secondary source of data, telephone interviews will be undertaken prior to and following the
McElwaine, Kathleen M; Freund, Megan; Campbell, Elizabeth M; Knight, Jenny; Slattery, Carolyn; Doherty, Emma L; McElduff, Patrick; Wolfenden, Luke; Bowman, Jennifer A; Wye, Paula M; Gillham, Karen E; Wiggers, John H
The primary behavioural risks for the most common causes of mortality and morbidity in developed countries are tobacco smoking, poor nutrition, risky alcohol use, and physical inactivity. Evidence, guidelines and policies support routine clinician delivery of care to prevent these risks within primary care settings. Despite the potential afforded by community health services for the delivery of such preventive care, the limited evidence available suggests it is provided at suboptimal levels. This study aims to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic practice change intervention in increasing clinician's routine provision of preventive care across a network of community health services. A multiple baseline study will be conducted involving all 56 community health facilities in a single health district in New South Wales, Australia. The facilities will be allocated to one of three administratively-defined groups. A 12 month practice change intervention will be implemented in all facilities in each group to facilitate clinician risk assessment of eligible clients, and clinician provision of brief advice and referral to those identified as being 'at risk'. The intervention will be implemented in a non-random sequence across the three facility groups. Repeated, cross-sectional measurement of clinician provision of preventive care for four individual risks (smoking, poor nutrition, risky alcohol use, and physical inactivity) will occur continuously for all three facility groups for 54 months via telephone interviews. The interviews will be conducted with randomly selected clients who have visited a community health facility in the last two weeks. Data collection will commence 12 months prior to the implementation of the intervention in the first group, and continue for six months following the completion of the intervention in the last group. As a secondary source of data, telephone interviews will be undertaken prior to and following the intervention with randomly
Introduction There is increasingly a double burden of under-nutrition and obesity in women of reproductive age. Preconception underweight or overweight, short stature and micronutrient deficiencies all contribute to excess maternal and fetal complications during pregnancy. Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis of the evidence was conducted to ascertain the possible impact of preconception care for adolescents, women and couples of reproductive age on maternal, newborn and child health (MNCH) outcomes. A comprehensive strategy was used to search electronic reference libraries, and both observational and clinical controlled trials were included. Cross-referencing and a separate search strategy for each preconception risk and intervention ensured wider study capture. Results Maternal pre-pregnancy weight is a significant factor in the preconception period with underweight contributing to a 32% higher risk of preterm birth, and obesity more than doubling the risk for preeclampsia, gestational diabetes. Overweight women are more likely to undergo a Cesarean delivery, and their newborns have higher chances of being born with a neural tube or congenital heart defect. Among nutrition-specific interventions, preconception folic acid supplementation has the strongest evidence of effect, preventing 69% of recurrent neural tube defects. Multiple micronutrient supplementation shows promise to reduce the rates of congenital anomalies and risk of preeclampsia. Although over 40% of women worldwide are anemic in the preconception period, only one study has shown a risk for low birth weight. Conclusion All women, but especially those who become pregnant in adolescence or have closely-spaced pregnancies (inter-pregnancy interval less than six months), require nutritional assessment and appropriate intervention in the preconception period with an emphasis on optimizing maternal body mass index and micronutrient reserves. Increasing coverage of nutrition-specific and nutrition
Amano, Koji; Morita, Tatsuya; Tatara, Ryohei; Katayama, Hirofumi; Aiki, Sayo; Kitada, Namiki; Fumimoto, Hiromi; Sato, Emi
Our objective was to explore the effectiveness of a palliative care team (PCT) by investigating potential differences in opioid prescription between patients who had had PCT involvement before admission to an inpatient hospice and those who had not. A total of 221 patients met the criteria; they were divided into an intervention group (n = 140) and a control group (n = 81). The daily dose of opioid before admission to the hospice was significantly higher in the intervention group (P < .001). The difference between the maximum opioid dose and the initial dose, the rate of increase in opioids until death, and the length of stay in the hospice were not significantly different between the groups. A PCT contributes to more appropriate use of opioids before admission to a hospice. © The Author(s) 2014.
Gupta, Samir; Moosa, Dilshad; MacPherson, Ana; Allen, Christopher; Tamari, Itamar E
Asthma is among the most common chronic diseases in adults. International guidelines have emphasized the importance of regular spirometry for asthma control evaluation. However, spirometry use in primary care remains low across jurisdictions. We sought to design and evaluate a knowledge translation intervention to address both the poor quality of spirometry and the underuse of spirometry in primary care. We designed a 1-year intervention consisting of initial interactive education and hands-on training followed by unstructured peer expert mentoring (through an online portal, email, telephone, videoconference, fax, and/or in-person). We recruited physician and allied health mentees from across primary care sites in Ontario, Canada. We compared spirometry-related knowledge immediately before and after the 1-year intervention period and the quality of spirometry testing and the usage of spirometry in patients with asthma in the year before and the year of the intervention. Seven of 10 (70 %) invited sites participated, including 25/90 (28 %) invited allied health mentees and 23/68 (34 %) invited physician mentees. We recruited 7 physician mentors and 4 allied health mentors to form 3 mentor-mentee pods. Spirometry knowledge scores increased from 21.4 +/- 3.1 pre- to 27.3 +/- 3.5 (out of 35) (p < 0.01) post-intervention. Spirometry acceptability and repeatability criteria were met by 59/191 (30.9 %) spirometries and 86/193 (44.6 %) spirometries [odds ratio 1.7 (1.0, 3.0)], in the pre-intervention and intervention periods, respectively. Spirometry was ordered in 75/512 (14.6 %) and 129/336 (38.4 %) respiratory visits (p < 0.01), and in 20/3490 (0.6 %) and 36/2649 (1.4 %) non-respiratory visits (p < 0.01), in the pre-intervention and intervention periods, respectively. A mentorship-based intervention involving physicians and allied health team members can enhance knowledge, quality, and actual use of spirometry in real world primary care settings. A
Patient participation in postoperative care activities in patients undergoing total knee replacement surgery: Multimedia Intervention for Managing patient Experience (MIME). Study protocol for a cluster randomised crossover trial.
McDonall, Jo; de Steiger, Richard; Reynolds, John; Redley, Bernice; Livingston, Patricia; Botti, Mari
Patient participation is an important indicator of quality care. Currently, there is little evidence to support the belief that participation in care is possible for patients during the acute postoperative period. Previous work indicates that there is very little opportunity for patients to participate in care in the acute context. Patients require both capability, in terms of having the required knowledge and understanding of how they can be involved in their care, and the opportunity, facilitated by clinicians, to engage in their acute postoperative care. This cluster randomised crossover trial aims to test whether a multimedia intervention improves patient participation in the acute postoperative context, as determined by pain intensity and recovery outcomes. A total of 240 patients admitted for primary total knee replacement surgery will be invited to participate in a cluster randomised, crossover trial and concurrent process evaluation in at least two wards at a major non-profit private hospital in Melbourne, Australia. Patients admitted to the intervention ward will receive the multimedia intervention daily from Day 1 to Day 5 (or day of discharge, if prior). The intervention will be delivered by nurses via an iPad™, comprising information on the goals of care for each day following surgery. Patients admitted to the control ward will receive usual care as determined by care pathways currently in use across the organization. The primary endpoint is the "worst pain experienced in the past 24 h" on Day 3 following TKR surgery. Pain intensity will be measured using the numerical rating scale. Secondary outcomes are interference of pain on activities of daily living, length of stay in hospital, function and pain following TKR surgery, overall satisfaction with hospitalisation, postoperative complications and hospital readmission. The results of this study will contribute to our understanding of the effectiveness of interventions that provide knowledge and
Cadilhac, Dominique A; Andrew, Nadine E; Stroil Salama, Enna; Hill, Kelvin; Middleton, Sandy; Horton, Eleanor; Meade, Ian; Kuhle, Sarah; Nelson, Mark R; Grimley, Rohan
Provision of a discharge care plan and prevention therapies is often suboptimal. Our objective was to design and pilot test an interdisciplinary, organisational intervention to improve discharge care using stroke as the case study using a mixed-methods, controlled before-after observational study design. Acute care public hospitals in Queensland, Australia (n=15). The 15 hospitals were ranked against a benchmark based on a composite outcome of three discharge care processes. Clinicians from a 'top-ranked' hospital participated in a focus group to elicit their success factors. Two pilot hospitals then participated in the organisational intervention that was designed with experts and consumers. Hospital clinicians involved in discharge care for stroke and patients admitted with acute stroke or transient ischaemic attack. A four-stage, multifaceted organisational intervention that included data reviews, education and facilitated action planning. Three discharge processes collected in Queensland hospitals within the Australian Stroke Clinical Registry were used to select study hospitals: (1) discharge care plan; (2) antihypertensive medication prescription and (3) antiplatelet medication prescription (ischaemic events only). Primary measure: composite outcome. Secondary measures: individual adherence changes for each discharge process; sensitivity analyses. The performance outcomes were compared 3 months before the intervention (preintervention), 3 months postintervention and at 12 months (sustainability). Data from 1289 episodes of care from the two pilot hospitals were analysed. Improvements from preintervention adherence were: antiplatelet therapy (88%vs96%, p=0.02); antihypertensive prescription (61%vs79%, p<0.001); discharge planning (72%vs94%, p<0.001); composite outcome (73%vs89%, p<0.001). There was an insignificant decay effect over the 12-month sustainability period (composite outcome: 89% postintervention vs 85% sustainability period, p=0
Padilha, Katia Grillo; Sousa, Regina M Cardoso; Kimura, Miako; Miyadahira, Ana Maria Kazue; da Cruz, Diná Almeida Lopes Monteiro; Vattimo, Maria de Fátima; Fusco, Solange Regina Giglioli; de Campos, Maria Emília Ferraz; Mendes, Edoíla Maria Teixeira; Mayor, Eliana Rodrigues Carlessi
The Therapeutic Intervention Scoring System-28 (TISS-28) is an instrument that has been used to measure severity of illness and nursing workload in intensive care units (ICUs). To characterize the severity of illness and nursing workload using the TISS-28 in 11 ICUs of a university hospital in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. In a prospective study, data were collected from 271 patients admitted to the ICUs in December 2000 and the patients were followed up for 1 week. Most of the patients were males (60.0%) and their mean age was 51(+20.6) years. Surgical treatment (66.8%) and admissions from the operating room were predominant. The mortality rate was 25.0% and the average length of stay was 7.7 (+10.4) days. The mean TISS-28 score was 23 (range: 14-32 points). The lowest mean score was observed for patients from the Burn ICU and the highest mean score was obtained for patients from the Liver Transplant ICU. A change in TISS-28 scores was observed in the same ICU over the 7-day study period. Units differed in terms of severity of illness and nursing workload. Patients who died received a higher TISS-28 score than patients who survived (p=0.00). As the nursing staff are the largest economic investment in an ICU, so measuring nursing workload in different ICUs from different centres can contribute to the estimation of nursing staff required according to the specific demands of the units.
Fernández, Daniel; Rodríguez, Magdalena; Rodríguez, Dolores; Gómez, Dolores; Estrella, Pilar; Liz, Mercedes
The aim of the study was to describe and analyze the nursing interventions NIC developed in the clinical practice by specialized nurses in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). Descriptive study in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of University Complex Hospital of León. The study population included all the neonates admitted in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit from 1 march to 30 november of 2011. Database was created with the statistical program Epi Info where NIC interventions were collected between the selected by the panel of experts. We collected a sum of 283 records of 44 neonates admitted with an average weight of 1705.5 gr and 14.3 days of age. Nurses have performed a total of 8861 NIC interventions. The highest percentage of interventions (47,1%) belong to the complex physiological domain, followed by the basic physiological (17,7%). We found 40,1%; 30,6% and 29,1% interventions in the early, late and night shifts. The highest percentage of interventions belong to the complex physiological domain although we can conclude that in the nursing clinical practice the solution of problems not only depend of interventions in that area but other areas such as family key intervention in the neonatal care. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
Cheng, Jennifer; Vollenweider, Daniela; Galusca, Dragos; Smith, Thomas J.; Pronovost, Peter J.
Abstract Background: Over the last 20 years, multiple interventions to better integrate palliative care and intensive care unit (ICU) care have been evaluated. This systematic review summarizes these studies and their outcomes. Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), the Cochrane Library, and the Web of Science; performed a search of articles published by opinion leaders in the field; and reviewed hand-search articles as of August 13, 2012. The terms “palliative care” and “intensive care unit” were mapped to MeSH subject headings and “exploded.” We included trials of adult patients that evaluated an ICU intervention and addressed Robert Wood Johnson group-identified domains of high-quality end-of-life care in the ICU. We excluded case series, editorials, and review articles. We compared two types of interventions, integrative and consultative, focusing on the outcomes of patient and family satisfaction, mortality, and ICU and hospital length of stay (LOS), because these were most prevalent among studies. Results: Our search strategy yielded 3328 references, of which we included 37 publications detailing 30 unique interventions. Interventions and outcome measures were heterogeneous, and many studies were underpowered and/or subject to multiple biases. Most of the interventions resulted in a decrease in hospital and ICU LOS. Few interventions significantly affected satisfaction. With one exception, the interventions decreased or had no effect on mortality. There was no evidence of harm from any intervention. Conclusions: Heterogeneity of interventions made comparison of ICU-based palliative care interventions difficult. However, existing evidence suggests proactive palliative care in the ICU, using either consultative or integrative palliative care interventions, decrease hospital and ICU LOS, do not affect satisfaction, and either decrease or do not affect mortality. PMID:24517300
Mantell, J E; Cooper, D; Exner, T M; Moodley, J; Hoffman, S; Myer, L; Leu, C-S; Bai, D; Kelvin, E A; Jennings, K; Stein, Z A; Constant, D; Zweigenthal, V; Cishe, N; Nywagi, N
Integration of sexual and reproductive health within HIV care services is a promising strategy for increasing access to family planning and STI services and reducing unwanted pregnancies, perinatal HIV transmission and maternal and infant mortality among people living with HIV and their partners. We conducted a Phase II randomized futility trial of a multi-level intervention to increase adherence to safer sex guidelines among those wishing to avoid pregnancy and adherence to safer conception guidelines among those seeking conception in newly-diagnosed HIV-positive persons in four public-sector HIV clinics in Cape Town. Clinics were pair-matched and the two clinics within each pair were randomized to either a three-session provider-delivered enhanced intervention (EI) (onsite contraceptive services and brief milieu intervention for staff) or standard-of-care (SOC) provider-delivered intervention. The futility analysis showed that we cannot rule out the possibility that the EI intervention has a 10 % point or greater success rate in improving adherence to safer sex/safer conception guidelines than does SOC (p = 0.573), indicating that the intervention holds merit, and a larger-scale confirmatory study showing whether the EI is superior to SOC has merit.
Barte, Jeroen C M; ter Bogt, Nancy C W; Beltman, Frank W; van der Meer, Klaas; Bemelmans, Wanda J E
The Groningen Overweight and Lifestyle (GOAL) intervention effectively prevents weight gain. The present study describes a process evaluation in which 214 participants in the intervention group received a structured questionnaire within 7 months (a median of 5 months) after the end of the intervention. The authors investigated the content of the intervention (on basis of the participants' recall), the participants' satisfaction of the intervention, the participants' satisfaction with the nurse practitioners (NPs), and the determinants of the participants' satisfaction. In general, the results show that the content corresponded well with the protocol for the intervention, except for the number of telephone calls and the percentage of participants with individualized goals for a healthy lifestyle. The overall satisfaction of the participants was high, and success and perceived success and a low educational level were important determinants for a higher overall satisfaction grade. Furthermore, the NP was considered to be an expert and motivational to learning and keeping up a healthy lifestyle. The authors therefore conclude that the GOAL study is feasible and indicates that the NP is well equipped to treat these patients. However, it is recommended to reinforce the advice given and the lifestyle goals after the first contact sessions.
Cordova, David; Bauermeister, Jose A; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Nelson, Annabelle; Nurenberg, Rachel; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Salas-Wright, Christopher P
Despite ongoing prevention efforts, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) and drug use remain public health concerns. Urban adolescents, many of whom are underserved and racial minorities, are disproportionately affected. Recent changes in policy, including the Affordable Care Act, and advances in technology provide HIV/STI and drug abuse prevention scientists with unique opportunities to deliver mobile health (mHealth) preventive interventions in primary care. The purpose of this community-engaged study was to develop an mHealth version of the Storytelling for Empowerment preventive intervention for primary care (hereinafter referred to as "S4E"). A total of 29 adolescents were recruited from a youth-centered primary care clinic in Southeast, Michigan, to participate in qualitative interviews. Participants were predominantly African American (n=19, 65.5%) and female (n=21, 72.4%) with a mean age of 16.23 (SD 2.09). The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), in conjunction with agile software development and the recommended core prevention principles of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were employed during S4E development. CBPR principles are aimed at improving the effectiveness of research by addressing locally relevant health problems, working with community strengths, and translating basic science into applied research. Complementing this approach, the NIDA prevention principles are derived from decades of drug abuse prevention research aimed at increasing the effectiveness and uptake of programs, through the development of culturally specific interventions and ensuring the structure, content, and delivery of the intervention fit the needs of the community. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. A total of 5 themes emerged from the data: (1) acceptability of the mHealth app to adolescents in primary care, (2) inclusion of a risk assessment to improve clinician-adolescent HIV/STI and drug use communication
Edwards, Samuel T; Peterson, Kim; Chan, Brian; Anderson, Johanna; Helfand, Mark
Multicomponent, interdisciplinary intensive primary care programs target complex patients with the goal of preventing hospitalizations, but programs vary, and their effectiveness is not clear. In this study, we systematically reviewed the impact of intensive primary care programs on all-cause mortality, hospitalization, and emergency department use. We searched PubMed, CINAHL, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and the Cochrane Database of Reviews of Effects from inception to March 2017. Additional studies were identified from reference lists, hand searching, and consultation with content experts. We included systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials (RCTs), and observational studies of multicomponent, interdisciplinary intensive primary care programs targeting complex patients at high risk of hospitalization or death, with a comparison to usual primary care. Two investigators identified studies and abstracted data using a predefined protocol. Study quality was assessed using the Cochrane risk of bias tool. A total of 18 studies (379,745 participants) were included. Three major intensive primary care program types were identified: primary care replacement (home-based; three RCTs, one observational study, N = 367,681), primary care replacement (clinic-based; three RCTs, two observational studies, N = 9561), and primary care augmentation, in which an interdisciplinary team was added to existing primary care (five RCTs, three observational studies, N = 2503). Most studies showed no impact of intensive primary care on mortality or emergency department use, and the effectiveness in reducing hospitalizations varied. There were no adverse effects reported. Intensive primary care interventions demonstrated varying effectiveness in reducing hospitalizations, and there was limited evidence that these interventions were associated with changes in mortality. While interventions could be grouped into categories, there was still substantial overlap
Background Almost 90% of residents living in long-term care facilities have limited mobility which is associated with a loss of ability in activities of daily living, falls, increased risk of serious medical problems such as pressure ulcers, incontinence and a significant decline in health-related quality of life. For health workers caring for residents it may also increase the risk of injury. The effectiveness of rehabilitation to facilitate mobility has been studied with dedicated research assistants or extensively trained staff caregivers; however, few investigators have examined the effectiveness of techniques to encourage mobility by usual caregivers in long-term care facilities. Methods/Design This longitudinal, quasi-experimental study is designed to demonstrate the effect of the sit-to-stand activity carried out by residents in the context of daily care with health care aides. In three intervention facilities health care aides will prompt residents to repeat the sit-to-stand action on two separate occasions during each day and each evening shift as part of daily care routines. In three control facilities residents will receive usual care. Intervention and control facilities are matched on the ownership model (public, private for-profit, voluntary not-for-profit) and facility size. The dose of the mobility intervention is assessed through the use of daily documentation flowsheets in the health record. Resident outcome measures include: 1) the 30-second sit-to-stand test; 2) the Functional Independence Measure; 3) the Health Utilities Index Mark 2 and 3; and, 4) the Quality of Life - Alzheimer's Disease. Discussion There are several compelling reasons for this study: the widespread prevalence of limited mobility in this population; the rapid decline in mobility after admission to a long-term care facility; the importance of mobility to quality of life; the increased time (and therefore cost) required to care for residents with limited mobility; and, the
A cluster randomized trial of standard quality improvement versus patient-centered interventions to enhance depression care for African Americans in the primary care setting: study protocol NCT00243425
Background Several studies document disparities in access to care and quality of care for depression for African Americans. Research suggests that patient attitudes and clinician communication behaviors may contribute to these disparities. Evidence links patient-centered care to improvements in mental health outcomes; therefore, quality improvement interventions that enhance this dimension of care are promising strategies to improve treatment and outcomes of depression among African Americans. This paper describes the design of the BRIDGE (Blacks Receiving Interventions for Depression and Gaining Empowerment) Study. The goal of the study is to compare the effectiveness of two interventions for African-American patients with depression--a standard quality improvement program and a patient-centered quality improvement program. The main hypothesis is that patients in the patient-centered group will have a greater reduction in their depression symptoms, higher rates of depression remission, and greater improvements in mental health functioning at six, twelve, and eighteen months than patients in the standard group. The study also examines patient ratings of care and receipt of guideline-concordant treatment for depression. Methods/Design A total of 36 primary care clinicians and 132 of their African-American patients with major depressive disorder were recruited into a cluster randomized trial. The study uses intent-to-treat analyses to compare the effectiveness of standard quality improvement interventions (academic detailing about depression guidelines for clinicians and disease-oriented care management for their patients) and patient-centered quality improvement interventions (communication skills training to enhance participatory decision-making for clinicians and care management focused on explanatory models, socio-cultural barriers, and treatment preferences for their patients) for improving outcomes over 12 months of follow-up. Discussion The BRIDGE Study
Background Anxiety, Depression and Somatoform (ADSom) disorders are highly prevalent in primary care. Managing these disorders is time-consuming and requires strong commitment on behalf of the General Practitioners (GPs). Furthermore, the management of these patients is restricted by the high patient turnover rates in primary care practices, especially in the German health care system. In order to address this problem, we implement a complex, low-threshold intervention by an Advanced Practice Nurse (APN) using a mixture of case management and counseling techniques to promote self-management in these patients. Here we present the protocol of the “Self-Management Support for Anxiety, Depression and Somatoform Disorders in Primary Care” (SMADS)-Study. Methods/Design The study is designed as a cluster-randomized controlled trial, comparing an intervention and a control group of 10 primary care practices in each case. We will compare the effectiveness of the intervention applied by an APN with usual GP-care. A total of 340 participants will be enrolled in the study, 170 in either arm. We use the Patient Health Questionnaire-German version (PHQ-D) as a screening tool for psychiatric symptoms, including patients with a score above 5 on any of the three symptom scales. The primary outcome is self-efficacy, measured by the General Self-Efficacy Scale (GSE), here used as a proxy for self-management. As secondary outcomes we include the PHQ-D symptom load and questionnaires regarding coping with illness and health related quality of life. Outcome assessments will be applied 8 weeks and 12 months after the baseline assessment. Discussion The SMADS-study evaluates a complex, low threshold intervention for ambulatory patients presenting ADSom-symptoms, empowering them to better manage their condition, as well as improving their motivation to engage in self-help and health-seeking behaviour. The benefit of the intervention will be substantiated, when patients can enhance
Marks, Jennifer; Barnett, Lisa M; Foulkes, Chad; Hawe, Penelope; Allender, Steven
Interest has grown in how systems thinking could be used in obesity prevention. Relationships between key actors, represented by social networks, are an important focus for considering intervention in systems. Two long day care centers were selected in which previous obesity prevention programs had been implemented. Measures showed ways in which physical activity and dietary policy are conversations and actions transacted through social networks (interrelationships) within centers, via an eight item closed-ended social network questionnaire. Questionnaire data were collected from (17/20; response rate 85%) long day care center staff. Social network density and centrality statistics were calculated, using UCINET social network software, to examine the role of networks in obesity prevention. "Degree" (influence) and "betweeness" (gatekeeper) centrality measures of staff inter-relationships about physical activity, dietary, and policy information identified key players in each center. Network density was similar and high on some relationship networks in both centers but markedly different in others, suggesting that the network tool identified unique center social dynamics. These differences could potentially be the focus of future team capacity building. Social network analysis is a feasible and useful method to identify existing obesity prevention networks and key personnel in long day care centers.
Background Very little research has been conducted in the area of depression among older home care clients using personal support services. These older adults are particularly vulnerable to depression because of decreased cognition, comorbid chronic conditions, functional limitations, lack of social support, and reduced access to health services. To date, research has focused on collaborative, nurse-led depression care programs among older adults in primary care settings. Optimal management of depression among older home care clients is not currently known. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility, acceptability and effectiveness of a 6-month nurse-led, interprofessional mental health promotion intervention aimed at older home care clients with depressive symptoms using personal support services. Methods/Design This one-group pre-test post-test study aims to recruit a total of 250 long-stay (> 60 days) home care clients, 70 years or older, with depressive symptoms who are receiving personal support services through a home care program in Ontario, Canada. The nurse-led intervention is a multi-faceted 6-month program led by a Registered Nurse that involves regular home visits, monthly case conferences, and evidence-based assessment and management of depression using an interprofessional approach. The primary outcome is the change in severity of depressive symptoms from baseline to 6 months using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies in Depression Scale. Secondary outcomes include changes in the prevalence of depressive symptoms and anxiety, health-related quality of life, cognitive function, and the rate and appropriateness of depression treatment from baseline to 12 months. Changes in the costs of use of health services will be assessed from a societal perspective. Descriptive and qualitative data will be collected to examine the feasibility and acceptability of the intervention and identify barriers and facilitators to implementation. Discussion
Fossum, Mariann; Ehnfors, Margareta; Svensson, Elisabeth; Hansen, Linda M; Ehrenberg, Anna
Nursing documentation is essential for facilitating the flow of information to guarantee continuity, quality and safety in care. High-quality nursing documentation is frequently lacking; the implementation of computerized decision support systems is expected to improve clinical practice and nursing documentation. The present study aimed at investigate the effects of a computerized decision support system and an educational program as intervention strategies for improved nursing documentation practice on pressure ulcers and malnutrition in nursing homes. An intervention study with two intervention groups and one control group was used. Fifteen nursing homes in southern Norway were included. A convenience sample of electronic healthcare records from 46 units was included. Inclusion criteria were records with presence of pressure ulcers and/or malnutrition. The residents were assessed before and after an intervention of a computerized decision support system in the electronic healthcare records. Data were collected through a review of 150 records before (2007) and 141 records after the intervention (2009). The nurses in intervention group 1 were offered educational sessions and were trained to use the computerized decision support system, which they used for eight months in 2008 and 2009. The nurses in intervention group 2 were offered the same educational program but did not use the computerized decision support system. The nurses in the control group were not subject to any intervention. The resident records were examined for the completeness and comprehensiveness of the documentation of pressure ulcers and malnutrition with three data collection forms and the data were analyzed with non-parametric statistics. The implementation of the computerized decision support system and the educational program resulted in a more complete and comprehensive documentation of pressure ulcer- and malnutrition-related nursing assessments and nursing interventions. This study
Tucker, Joseph D; Tso, Lai Sze; Hall, Brian; Ma, Qingyan; Beanland, Rachel; Best, John; Li, Haochu; Lackey, Mellanye; Marley, Gifty; Rich, Zachary C; Sou, Ka-Lon; Doherty, Meg
Although HIV services are expanding, few have reached the scale necessary to support universal viral suppression of individuals living with HIV. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the qualitative evidence evaluating public health HIV interventions to enhance linkage to care, antiretroviral drug (ARV) adherence, and retention in care. We searched 19 databases without language restrictions. The review collated data from three separate qualitative evidence reviews addressing each of the three outcomes along the care continuum. 21,738 citations were identified and 24 studies were included in the evidence review. Among low and middle-income countries in Africa, men living with HIV had decreased engagement in interventions compared to women and this lack of engagement among men also influenced the willingness of their partners to engage in services. Four structural issues (poverty, unstable housing, food insecurity, lack of transportation) mediated the feasibility and acceptability of public health HIV interventions. Individuals living with HIV identified unmet mental health needs that interfered with their ability to access HIV services. Persistent social and cultural factors contribute to disparities in HIV outcomes across the continuum of care, shaping the context of service delivery among important subpopulations.
Niemann, Dorothee; Bertsche, Astrid; Meyrath, David; Koepf, Ellen D; Traiser, Carolin; Seebald, Katja; Schmitt, Claus P; Hoffmann, Georg F; Haefeli, Walter E; Bertsche, Thilo
To prevent medication errors in drug handling in a paediatric ward. One in five preventable adverse drug events in hospitalised children is caused by medication errors. Errors in drug prescription have been studied frequently, but data regarding drug handling, including drug preparation and administration, are scarce. A three-step intervention study including monitoring procedure was used to detect and prevent medication errors in drug handling. After approval by the ethics committee, pharmacists monitored drug handling by nurses on an 18-bed paediatric ward in a university hospital prior to and following each intervention step. They also conducted a questionnaire survey aimed at identifying knowledge deficits. Each intervention step targeted different causes of errors. The handout mainly addressed knowledge deficits, the training course addressed errors caused by rule violations and slips, and the reference book addressed knowledge-, memory- and rule-based errors. The number of patients who were subjected to at least one medication error in drug handling decreased from 38/43 (88%) to 25/51 (49%) following the third intervention, and the overall frequency of errors decreased from 527 errors in 581 processes (91%) to 116/441 (26%). The issue of the handout reduced medication errors caused by knowledge deficits regarding, for instance, the correct 'volume of solvent for IV drugs' from 49-25%. Paediatric drug handling is prone to errors. A three-step intervention effectively decreased the high frequency of medication errors by addressing the diversity of their causes. Worldwide, nurses are in charge of drug handling, which constitutes an error-prone but often-neglected step in drug therapy. Detection and prevention of errors in daily routine is necessary for a safe and effective drug therapy. Our three-step intervention reduced errors and is suitable to be tested in other wards and settings. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Chang, Larry W; Njie-Carr, Veronica; Kalenge, Sheila; Kelly, Jack F; Bollinger, Robert C; Alamo-Talisuna, Stella
Mobile technologies for health (mHealth) represents a growing array of tools being applied in diverse health care settings. mHealth interventions for improving HIV/AIDS care is a promising strategy, but its evidence base is limited. We conducted a formative research evaluation to inform the development of novel mHealth HIV/AIDS care interventions to be used by community health workers (CHWs) in Kampala, Uganda. A mixed methods formative research approach was utilized. Qualitative methods included 20 in-depth interviews (IDIs) and six focus groups with CHWs, clinic staff, and patients. Thematic analysis was performed and selected quotations used to illustrate themes. Quantitative methods consisted of a survey administered to CHWs and clinic staff, using categorical and Likert scale questions regarding current mobile phone and internet access and perceptions on the potential use of smartphones by CHWs. Qualitative results included themes on significant current care challenges, multiple perceived mHealth benefits, and general intervention acceptability. Key mHealth features desired included tools to verify CHWs' task completions, clinical decision support tools, and simple access to voice calling. Inhibiting factors identified included concerns about CHWs' job security and unrealistic expectations of mHealth capabilities. Quantitative results from 27 staff participants found that 26 (96%) did not have internet access at home, yet only 2 (7.4%) did not own a mobile phone. Likert scale survey responses (1-5, 1 = Strongly Disagree, 5 = Strongly Agree) indicated general agreement that smartphones would improve efficiency (Mean = 4.35) and patient care (4.31) but might be harmful to patient confidentiality (3.88) and training was needed (4.63). Qualitative and quantitative results were generally consistent, and, overall, there was enthusiasm for mHealth technology. However, a number of potential inhibiting factors were also discovered. Findings from this study may help
Marley, Julia V; Atkinson, David; Kitaura, Tracey; Nelson, Carmel; Gray, Dennis; Metcalf, Sue; Maguire, Graeme P
Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples (Indigenous Australians) smoke at much higher rates than non-Indigenous people and smoking is an important contributor to increased disease, hospital admissions and deaths in Indigenous Australian populations. Smoking cessation programs in Australia have not had the same impact on Indigenous smokers as on non-Indigenous smokers. This paper describes the outcome of a study that aimed to test the efficacy of a locally-tailored, intensive, multidimensional smoking cessation program. A randomised controlled trial of Aboriginal researcher delivered tailored smoking cessation counselling during face-to-face visits, aiming for weekly for the first four weeks, monthly to six months and two monthly to 12 months. The control ("usual care") group received routine care relating to smoking cessation at their local primary health care service. Data collection occurred at enrolment, six and 12 months. The primary outcome was self-reported smoking cessation with urinary cotinine confirmation at final follow-up (median 13 (interquartile range 12-15) months after enrolment). Participants in the intervention (n = 55) and usual care (n = 108) groups were similar in baseline characteristics, except the intervention group was slightly older. At final follow-up the smoking cessation rate for participants assigned to the intervention group (n = 6; 11%), while not statistically significant, was double that of usual care (n = 5; 5%; p = 0.131). A meta-analysis of these findings and a similarly underpowered but comparable study of pregnant Indigenous Australian women showed that Indigenous Australian participants assigned to the intervention groups were 2.4 times (95% CI, 1.01-5.5) as likely to quit as participants assigned to usual care. Culturally appropriate, multi-dimensional Indigenous quit smoking programs can be successfully implemented in remote primary health care. Intensive one-on-one interventions with
Resnick, Barbara; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L; Galik, Elizabeth; Pretzer-Aboff, Ingrid; Russ, Karin; Hebel, J Richard; Zimmerman, Sheryl
The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of a 12-month restorative care (Res-Care) intervention on the beliefs related to Res-Care, knowledge of Res-Care, observed performance of Res-Care with residents, and job satisfaction among nursing assistants (NAs) in nursing home (NH) settings. This was a randomized controlled trial including 12 sites and used a repeated measure design with follow-up testing done at 4 and 12 months. An intention-to-treat principle was followed in all analyses, and generalized estimating equations were used to perform repeated measures. A total of 556 NAs consented to participate and completed baseline assessments (265 in treatment and 258 in control sites), 427 completed 4-month follow-up (218 in treatment and 195 in control sites), and 357 completed 12-month follow-up (168 in treatment and 158 in control sites). There was a statistically significant increase in the treatment group participants' outcome expectations related to Res-Care activities (p = .04) and performance of Res-Care (p < .001) at 4 months, and an increase in knowledge of Res-Care (p < .001) and job satisfaction (p < .001) at 12 months. There was no difference between the groups with regard to self-efficacy expectations. This study provides an important step in understanding the implementation of a Res-Care philosophy in NH settings and the benefit this can have for NAs.
Sumalinog, Rafael; Harrington, Katy; Dosani, Naheed; Hwang, Stephen W
Homeless individuals have a high prevalence of multiple chronic comorbidities and early mortality compared to the general population. They also experience significant barriers to access and stigmatization in the healthcare system. Providing advance care planning, palliative care, and end-of-life care for this underserved population is an important health issue. To summarize and evaluate the evidence surrounding advance care planning, palliative care, and end-of-life care interventions for homeless persons. A systematic review based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement. Articles from MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Social Work Abstracts, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and PubMed databases were searched through 13 June 2015. Peer-reviewed studies that implemented advance care planning, palliative care, and end-of-life care interventions for homeless populations were included. Data from studies were independently extracted by two investigators using pre-specified criteria, and quality was assessed using modified Cochrane and Critical Appraisal Skills Programme tools. Six articles met inclusion criteria. Two studies were randomized controlled trials involving advance directive completion. Two cohort studies investigated the costs of a shelter-based palliative care intervention and predictors for completing advance directives. These studies were rated low to fair quality. Two qualitative studies explored the interface between harm-reduction services and end-of-life care and the conditions for providing palliative care for homeless persons in a support home. The effectiveness of advance care planning, palliative care, and end-of-life care interventions for homeless individuals is uncertain. High-quality studies of interventions that reflect the unique and complex circumstances of homeless populations and investigate patient-related outcomes, caregiver burden, and cost-effectiveness are needed.
Reed, Elizabeth; Todd, Jennifer; Lawton, Sally; Grant, Robert; Sadler, Clair; Berg, Jane; Lucas, Caroline; Watson, Max
Education has been highlighted as fundamental in equipping healthcare professionals with essential knowledge and skills to provide good end-of-life care. Multiprofessional educational programmes have a positive influence on knowledge, attitude and confidence but few have sought to understand the longer term impact on care delivery. The European Certificate in Essential Palliative Care is an 8-week home-study-based programme for healthcare professionals and is currently run in nine centres. Successful candidates have undertaken the course from their own countries around the world. This article describes the evaluation of the European Certificate in Essential Palliative Care which has been evolving over 15 years. To evaluate the impact an educational intervention has on participants' confidence in palliative care, to determine whether this is sustained over time and explore participants' perception of the influence of the course on confidence. A mixed-method longitudinal approach. A survey using a self-efficacy scale was emailed to 342 candidates who received an educational intervention and semi-structured interviews to a sub-sample of 15 candidates at baseline, 3 and 6 months. At 3 months, candidates had almost 20 times higher odds of being above any given level of confidence than at baseline which was sustained at 6 months. Qualitative analysis identified examples of increased competence and confidence improving palliative care delivery. Findings suggest that the European Certificate in Essential Palliative Care improves confidence in palliative care and that this is sustained over time with evidence of confidence in symptom control, communication and a holistic approach in clinical practice.
Cowell, Alexander J; Dowd, William N; Landwehr, Justin; Barbosa, Carolina; Bray, Jeremy W
Screening and brief intervention for harmful substance use in medical settings is being promoted heavily in the United States. To justify service provision fiscally, the field needs accurate estimates of the number and type of staff required to provide services, and thus the time taken to perform activities used to deliver services. This study analyzed the time spent in activities for the component services of the substance misuse Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) program implemented in emergency departments, in-patient units and ambulatory clinics. Observers timed activities according to 18 distinct codes among SBIRT practitioners. Twenty-six US sites within four grantees. Five hundred and one practitioner-patient interactions; 63 SBIRT practitioners. Timing of practitioner activities. Delivery of component services of SBIRT. The mean (standard error) time to deliver services was 1:19 (0:06) for a pre-screen (n = 210), 4:28 (0:24) for a screen (n = 97) and 6:51 (0:38) for a brief intervention (n = 66). Estimates of service duration varied by setting. Overall, practitioners spent 40% of their time supporting SBIRT delivery to patients and 13% of their time delivering services. In the United States, support activities (e.g. reviewing the patient's chart, locating the patient, writing case-notes) for substance abuse Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment require more staff time than delivery of services. Support time for screens and brief interventions in the emergency department/trauma setting was high compared with the out-patient setting. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Pham, B; Krahn, M
Background The annual cost of providing care for patients in their last year of life is estimated to account for approximately 9% of the Ontario health care budget. Access to integrated, comprehensive support and pain/symptom management appears to be inadequate and inequitable. Objective To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of end-of-life (EoL) care interventions included in the EoL care mega-analysis. Data Sources Multiple sources were used, including systematic reviews, linked health administration databases, survey data, planning documents, expert input, and additional literature searches. Review Methods We conducted a literature review of cost-effectiveness studies to inform the primary economic analysis. We conducted the primary economic analysis and budget impact analysis for an Ontario cohort of decedents and their families and included interventions pertaining to team-based models of care, patient care planning discussions, educational interventions for patients and caregivers, and supportive interventions for informal caregivers. The time horizon was the last year of life. Costs were in 2013 Canadian dollars. Effectiveness measures included days at home, percentage dying at home, and quality-adjusted life-days. We developed a Markov model; model inputs were obtained from a cohort of Ontario decedents assembled from Institute for Clinical Evaluative Sciences databases and published literature. Results In-home palliative team care was cost-effective; it increased the chance of dying at home by 10%, increased the average number of days at home (6 days) and quality-adjusted life-days (0.5 days), and it reduced costs by approximately $4,400 per patient. Expanding in-home palliative team care to those currently not receiving such services (approximately 45,000 per year, at an annual cost of $76–108 million) is likely to improve quality of life, reduce the use of acute care resources, and save $191–$385 million in health care costs. Results for the other
Hazzan, Afeez Abiola; Humphrey, Janis; Kilgour-Walsh, Laurie; Moros, Katherine L.; Murray, Carmen; Stanners, Shannon; Montemuro, Maureen; Giangregorio, Aidan; Papaioannou, Alexandra
Background Engaging with art can be valuable for persons living with dementia. ‘Artful Moments’ was a collaborative project undertaken by the Art Gallery of Hamilton and the Behavioural Health Program at Hamilton Health Sciences that sought to develop and implement a program of arts-based activities for persons in the middle-to-late stages of dementia who exhibit behavioural symptoms and for their accompanying care partners. Methods This pilot study employed a qualitative descriptive design. Eight participants were observed during multiple art sessions to evaluate their level of engagement in the program. Care partners also completed a questionnaire describing their experience. Qualitative content analysis was used to identify themes. Results For program participants, factors that promoted continued interest and engagement in art included: care partner involvement, group activities, opportunities to share opinions, validation of their personhood, and increased engagement over time. Care partners observed improvements in participants’ creativity, communication, relationship forming, and task accomplishment, and some reported reduced stress. Conclusions ‘Artful Moments’ promoted engagement and expression in persons in the middle-to-late stages of dementia, as well as having benefits for their care partners. Limitations of the study included a small convenience sample drawn from one hospital setting. PMID:27403209
Greene, Elizabeth; Pack, Allison; Stanton, Jill; Shelus, Victoria; Tolley, Elizabeth E; Taylor, Jamilah; El Sadr, Wafaa M; Branson, Bernard M; Leider, Jason; Rakhmanina, Natella; Gamble, Theresa
HPTN 065 (TLC-Plus) evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of providing quarterly $70 gift card financial incentives to HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) to encourage ART adherence and viral suppression, and represents the largest study to-date of a financial incentive intervention for HIV viral suppression. A post-trial qualitative substudy was undertaken to examine acceptability of the financial incentives among those receiving and implementing the intervention. Between July and October 2013, semi-structured interviews were conducted with 72 patients and 12 investigators from 14 sites; three focus groups were conducted with 12 staff from 10 sites. Qualitative data collection elicited experiences with and attitudes about the intervention, including philosophical viewpoints and implementation experiences. Transcripts were analyzed in NVivo 10. Memos and matrices were developed to explore themes from different participant group perspectives. Patients, investigators, and staff found the intervention highly acceptable, primarily due to the emotional benefits gained through giving or receiving the incentive. Feeling rewarded or cared for was a main value perceived by patients; this was closely tied to the financial benefit for some. Other factors influencing acceptability for all included perceived effectiveness and health-related benefits, philosophical concerns about the use of incentives for health behavior change, and implementation issues. The termination of the incentive at the end of the study was disappointing to participants and unexpected by some, but generally accepted. Positive experiences with the financial incentive intervention and strategies used to facilitate implementation led to high acceptability of the intervention, despite some reluctance in principle to the use of incentives. The findings of this analysis provide encouraging evidence in support of the acceptability of a large-scale financial incentive intervention for HIV
Aubin, Michèle; Vézina, Lucie; Verreault, René; Simard, Sébastien; Desbiens, Jean-François; Tremblay, Lise; Dumont, Serge; Fillion, Lise; Dogba, Maman Joyce; Gagnon, Pierre
Family caregivers (FC) often experience higher distress levels than their relative with cancer. Many cancer centers have implemented distress screening programs, but most of them concentrate their efforts on patients, with little attention to their FC. To fill this gap, a pragmatic intervention has been designed to improve supportive care for FC of patients with lung cancer. This article describes the study protocol of a single-center randomized controlled trial to assess its effectiveness. A total of 120 lung cancer patients and their FC are randomly assigned to the experimental group (exposed to intervention, N = 60) or to the control group (usual care, N = 60). The intervention includes: (1) systematic FC distress screening and problem assessment near their relative's cancer diagnosis, and every 2 months, (2) privileged contact with an oncology nurse (ON) away from the patient to address FC problems and (3) liaison by the ON with the family physician of FC reporting high distress (thermometer score ≥5/10), or problems relying on FP expertise. In both groups, FC, patient and process-of-care outcomes are measured at baseline and every 3 months, up to 9 months. The primary endpoint is FC distress measured by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and the Psychological Distress Index used in the Quebec Health Survey (PDQHS). Individual interviews with 10 FC and a focus group with the oncology team will be conducted at the study end to further document the effectiveness of the intervention and its impact on quality of life (for FC) and practice organization (for the oncology team). This trial will assess the effectiveness of an innovative intervention based on interprofessional collaboration between primary care and oncology care. It targets a population in great need, yet often neglected, and has the potential to clearly improve patient and caregiver experience of cancer care, and reduce the burden of disease. ClinicalTrials.gov, ID: NCT
The Treatment of cardiovascular Risk in Primary care using Electronic Decision suppOrt (TORPEDO) study: intervention development and protocol for a cluster randomised, controlled trial of an electronic decision support and quality improvement intervention in Australian primary healthcare
Peiris, David; Usherwood, Tim; Panaretto, Katie; Harris, Mark; Hunt, Jenny; Patel, Bindu; Zwar, Nicholas; Redfern, Julie; MacMahon, Stephen; Colagiuri, Stephen; Hayman, Noel; Patel, Anushka
Background Large gaps exist in the implementation of guideline recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management. Electronic decision support (EDS) systems are promising interventions to close these gaps but few have undergone clinical trial evaluation in Australia. We have developed HealthTracker, a multifaceted EDS and quality improvement intervention to improve the management of CVD risk. Methods/design It is hypothesised that the use of HealthTracker over a 12-month period will result in: (1) an increased proportion of patients receiving guideline-indicated measurements of CVD risk factors and (2) an increased proportion of patients at high risk will receive guideline-indicated prescriptions for lowering their CVD risk. Sixty health services (40 general practices and 20 Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) will be randomised in a 1:1 allocation to receive either the intervention package or continue with usual care, stratified by service type, size and participation in existing quality improvement initiatives. The intervention consists of point-of-care decision support; a risk communication interface; a clinical audit tool to assess performance on CVD-related indicators; a quality improvement component comprising peer-ranked data feedback and support to develop strategies to improve performance. The control arm will continue with usual care without access to these intervention components. Quantitative data will be derived from cross-sectional samples at baseline and end of study via automated data extraction. Detailed process and economic evaluations will also be conducted. Ethics and dissemination The general practice component of the study is approved by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) and the ACCHS component is approved by the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council HREC. Formal agreements with each of the participating sites have been signed. In addition to the usual scientific forums
Berteotti, Carol R.; And Others
Using an evaluation of a hospital-based hospice as a case study, this paper analyzes problematic issues surrounding health care teams (HCTs) in light of findings revealed in the literature concerning HCT structures and processes. The factors of coordination and role definitions in HCTs and their manifestations in a particular hospice HCT in terms…
Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebis, Hatice
Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a…
Akar, Serife Zehra; Bebis, Hatice
Testicular cancer (TC) is the most common malignancy among men aged 15-35 years. Testicular self-examination (TSE) is an important tool for preventing late-stage TC diagnoses. This study aimed to assess health beliefs and knowledge related to TC and TSE and the effectiveness of TC and TSE training for patient care staff in a hospital. This was a…
Chesler, Jessica; McLaren, Suzanne; Klein, Britt; Watson, Shaun
The proportion of people aged 65 or older is the fastest growing age group worldwide. Older adults in aged care facilities have higher levels of depression, and lower levels of social support and sense of belonging compared with older adults living in the community. Research has begun to assess the effectiveness of interventions to improve the mental health of residents and has found both cognitive and physical benefits of video game playing. The benefits of playing these games in a group may also lead to greater social interaction and decreased loneliness. The current study aims to investigate an intervention program designed to foster relationships among older adults in care based on shared interests. Residents will be assessed on the effectiveness of a 6 week program of playing Wii bowling in comparison to a control group. Participants will be allocated to the intervention (Wii bowling) or the control group based on their place of residence. Participants in the intervention group will be invited to participate in Wii bowling twice weekly, with up to three other residents for a period of 6 weeks. Residents in both conditions will be assessed for depression, social support, sense of belonging, and current self-rated mood at pre-intervention (0 weeks), post-intervention (6 weeks), and at 2-month follow up (14 weeks). Qualitative data on social interaction between group members will also be collected at weeks 1, 3, and 6. Both groups will receive a Wii console after week 6 to establish if residents and staff engage with the Wii without intervention. The Wii provides a user friendly platform for older adults to use video games, and it incorporates both social and competitive aspects in the game play. Existing research has not extensively investigated the social aspects of using this type of technology with older adults. If found to be effective, incorporating Wii games into an activity schedule may benefit the mental health of older adults living in care by
Gerards, Sanne M P L; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Jansen, Maria W J; De Vries, Nanne K; Kremers, Stef P J
The recruitment of participants for childhood overweight and obesity prevention interventions can be challenging. The goal of this study was to identify barriers that Dutch youth health care (YHC) professionals perceive when referring parents of overweight children to an obesity prevention intervention. Sixteen YHC professionals (nurses, physicians and management staff) from eleven child health clinics participated in semi-structured interviews. An intervention implementation model was used as the framework for conducting, analyzing and interpreting the interviews. All YHC professionals were concerned about childhood obesity and perceived prevention of overweight and obesity as an important task of the YHC organization. In terms of frequency and perceived impact, the most important impeding factors for referring parents of overweight children to an intervention were denial of the overweight problem by parents and their resistance towards discussing weight issues. A few YHC professionals indicated that their communication skills in discussing weight issues could be improved, and some professionals mentioned that they had low self-efficacy in raising this topic. We consider it important that YHC professionals receive more training to increase their self-efficacy and skills in motivating parents of overweight children to participate in obesity prevention interventions. Furthermore, parental awareness towards their child's overweight should be addressed in future studies.
Background The use of telemedicine technologies in health care has increased substantially, together with a growing interest in participatory design methods when developing telemedicine approaches. Objective We present lessons learned from a case study involving patients with heart disease and health care professionals in the development of a personalized Web-based health care intervention. Methods We used a participatory design approach inspired by the method for feasibility studies in software development. We collected qualitative data using multiple methods in 3 workshops and analyzed the data using thematic analysis. Participants were 7 patients with diagnosis of heart disease, 2 nurses, 1 physician, 2 systems architects, 3 moderators, and 3 observers. Results We present findings in 2 parts. (1) Outcomes of the participatory design process: users gave valuable feedback on ease of use of the platforms’ tracking tools, platform design, terminology, and insights into patients’ monitoring needs, information and communication technologies skills, and preferences for self-management tools. (2) Experiences from the participatory design process: patients and health care professionals contributed different perspectives, with the patients using an experience-based approach and the health care professionals using a more attitude-based approach. Conclusions The essential lessons learned concern planning and organization of workshops, including the finding that patients engaged actively and willingly in a participatory design process, whereas it was more challenging to include and engage health care professionals. PMID:28526674
Noergaard, Birgitte; Sandvei, Marianne; Rottmann, Nina; Johannessen, Helle; Wiil, Uffe; Schmidt, Thomas; Pedersen, Susanne S
The use of telemedicine technologies in health care has increased substantially, together with a growing interest in participatory design methods when developing telemedicine approaches. We present lessons learned from a case study involving patients with heart disease and health care professionals in the development of a personalized Web-based health care intervention. We used a participatory design approach inspired by the method for feasibility studies in software development. We collected qualitative data using multiple methods in 3 workshops and analyzed the data using thematic analysis. Participants were 7 patients with diagnosis of heart disease, 2 nurses, 1 physician, 2 systems architects, 3 moderators, and 3 observers. We present findings in 2 parts. (1) Outcomes of the participatory design process: users gave valuable feedback on ease of use of the platforms' tracking tools, platform design, terminology, and insights into patients' monitoring needs, information and communication technologies skills, and preferences for self-management tools. (2) Experiences from the participatory design process: patients and health care professionals contributed different perspectives, with the patients using an experience-based approach and the health care professionals using a more attitude-based approach. The essential lessons learned concern planning and organization of workshops, including the finding that patients engaged actively and willingly in a participatory design process, whereas it was more challenging to include and engage health care professionals.
Jacobsen, Frode F; Mekki, Tone Elin; Førland, Oddvar; Folkestad, Bjarte; Kirkevold, Øyvind; Skår, Randi; Tveit, Eva Marie; Øye, Christine
People living with dementia in nursing homes are most likely to be restrained. The primary aim of this mixed-method education intervention study was to investigate which factors hindered or facilitated staff awareness related to confidence building initiatives based on person-centred care, as an alternative to restraint in residents with dementia in nursing homes. The education intervention, consisting of a two-day seminar and monthly coaching sessions for six months, targeted nursing staff in 24 nursing homes in Western Norway. The present article reports on staff-related data from the study. We employed a mixed-method design combining quantitative and qualitative methods. The P-CAT (Person-centred Care Assessment Tool) and QPS-Nordic (The General Nordic questionnaire for psychological and social factors at work) instruments were used to measure staff effects in terms of person-centred care and perception of leadership. The qualitative data were collected through ethnographic fieldwork, qualitative interviews and analysis of 84 reflection notes from eight persons in the four teams who facilitated the intervention. The PARIHS (Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services) theoretical framework informed the study design and the data analysis. Six nursing homes were selected for ethnographic study post-intervention. Qualitative data indicated increased staff awareness related to using restraint - or not- in the context of person-centered care. A slight increase in P-CAT supported these findings. Thirteen percent of the P-CAT variation was explained by institutional belonging. Qualitative data indicated that whether shared decisions of alternative measures to restraint were applied was a function of dynamic interplay between facilitation and contextual elements. In this connection, the role of the nursing home leaders appeared to be a pivotal element promoting or hindering person-centered care. However, leadership-staff relations varied substantially
Tulloch, Olivia; Theobald, Sally; Morishita, Fukushi; Datiko, Daniel G; Asnake, Girum; Tesema, Tadesse; Jamal, Habiba; Markos, Paulos; Cuevas, Luis E; Yassin, Mohammed A
The Ethiopian TB control programme relies on passive case finding of TB cases. The predominantly rural-based population in Ethiopia has limited access to health facilities creating barriers to TB services. An intervention package aimed to bring TB diagnosis and treatment services closer to communities has been implemented through partnership with health extension workers (HEWs). They undertook advocacy, communication and social mobilization (ACSM) activities, identified symptomatic individuals, collected sputum, prepared smears and fixed slides at community level. Field supervisors supported HEWs by delivering smeared slides to the laboratory, feeding back results to the HEWs and following up smear-negative cases. Patients diagnosed with TB initiated treatment in the community, they were supported by supervisors and HEWs through the local health post. Case notification increased from 64 to 127/100,000 population/year. This qualitative study assessed community members' treatment seeking behaviour and their perceptions of the intervention. In-depth interviews (n=36) were undertaken with participants in six districts. Participants were clients of the community-based intervention, currently on TB treatment or those screened negative for TB. Transcripts were translated to English and a thematic analytical framework was developed guided by the different steps symptomatic individuals take within the intervention package. Coding was done and queries run using NVivo software. Prior to the intervention many patients with chronic cough did not access TB services. Participants described difficulties they faced in accessing district level health facilities that required travel outside their communities. Giving sputum samples and receiving results from within their home communities was appreciated by all participants. The intervention had a high level of acceptability; particularly clear benefits emerged for poor women and men and those too weak to travel. Some participants
McCarthy, Lisa; Su, Xinru Wendy; Crown, Natalie; Turple, Jennifer; Brown, Thomas E R; Walsh, Kate; John, Jessica; Rochon, Paula
The published literature on medication reconciliation (MR) interventions, outcomes, and facilitators in ambulatory care settings is reviewed. A scoping review was conducted to characterize ambulatory care-based MR research in terms of study design, elements of interventions, and outcomes examined. English-language articles on comparative studies of MR programs targeting adults in ambulatory care settings were identified using data sources including MEDLINE, PreMEDLINE, EMBASE, and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts. For each study, steps undertaken in the MR process were extracted. The Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) taxonomy was used to classify types of interventions; taxonomies for reported outcomes and factors facilitating implementation of MR initiatives were developed by the authors. From among 2062 publications screened, 15 were included in the review. In 13 studies, multiple data sources were used to compile a "best possible medication history" (BPMH); however, the BPMH was shared with external healthcare providers in only 4 studies and with patients in only 5 studies. Most reported MR interventions were classified into two EPOC domains: professional (predominantly educational outreach visits and patient reminders) and organizational (predominantly provider-oriented interventions). Process outcomes were reported in 12 studies, with correct performance of MR being the most commonly evaluated process outcome, and 9 studies identified factors that facilitated MR implementation. Few studies have examined clinical outcomes of MR in ambulatory care settings, with the majority of pertinent reports focusing instead on process outcomes. Facilitators of successful MR interventions have been identified at the patient, staff, and clinic setting levels. Copyright © 2016 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Saronga, Happiness Pius; Duysburgh, Els; Massawe, Siriel; Dalaba, Maxwell Ayindenaba; Wangwe, Peter; Sukums, Felix; Leshabari, Melkizedeck; Blank, Antje; Sauerborn, Rainer; Loukanova, Svetla
QUALMAT project aimed at improving quality of maternal and newborn care in selected health care facilities in three African countries. An electronic clinical decision support system was implemented to support providers comply with established standards in antenatal and childbirth care. Given that health care resources are limited and interventions differ in their potential impact on health and costs (efficiency), this study aimed at assessing cost-effectiveness of the system in Tanzania. This was a quantitative pre- and post- intervention study involving 6 health centres in rural Tanzania. Cost information was collected from health provider's perspective. Outcome information was collected through observation of the process of maternal care. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for antenatal and childbirth care were calculated with testing of four models where the system was compared to the conventional paper-based approach to care. One-way sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine whether changes in process quality score and cost would impact on cost-effectiveness ratios. Economic cost of implementation was 167,318 USD, equivalent to 27,886 USD per health center and 43 USD per contact. The system improved antenatal process quality by 4.5% and childbirth care process quality by 23.3% however these improvements were not statistically significant. Base-case incremental cost-effectiveness ratios of the system were 2469 USD and 338 USD per 1% change in process quality for antenatal and childbirth care respectively. Cost-effectiveness of the system was sensitive to assumptions made on costs and outcomes. Although the system managed to marginally improve individual process quality variables, it did not have significant improvement effect on the overall process quality of care in the short-term. A longer duration of usage of the electronic clinical decision support system and retention of staff are critical to the efficiency of the system and can reduce the invested
Aléx, Jonas; Karlsson, Stig; Björnstig, Ulf; Saveman, Britt-Inger
Background The ambulance milieu does not offer good thermal comfort to patients during the cold Swedish winters. Patients’ exposure to cold temperatures combined with a cold ambulance mattress seems to be the major factor leading to an overall sensation of discomfort. There is little research on the effect of active heat delivered from underneath in ambulance care. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an electrically heated ambulance mattress-prototype on thermal comfort and patients’ temperatures in the prehospital emergency care. Methods A quantitative intervention study on ambulance care was conducted in the north of Sweden. The ambulance used for the intervention group (n=30) was equipped with an electrically heated mattress on the regular ambulance stretcher whereas for the control group (n=30) no active heat was provided on the stretcher. Outcome variables were measured as thermal comfort on the Cold Discomfort Scale (CDS), subjective comments on cold experiences, and finger, ear and air temperatures. Results Thermal comfort, measured by CDS, improved during the ambulance transport to the emergency department in the intervention group (p=0.001) but decreased in the control group (p=0.014). A significant higher proportion (57%) of the control group rated the stretcher as cold to lie down compared to the intervention group (3%, p<0.001). At arrival, finger, ear and compartment air temperature showed no statistical significant difference between groups. Mean transport time was approximately 15 minutes. Conclusions The use of active heat from underneath increases the patients’ thermal comfort and may prevent the negative consequences of cold stress. PMID:26374468
Lee, Albert; Ho, Mandy; Keung, Vera M W; Kwong, Amy C M
Home and school environments conducive for unhealthy eating and physical inactivity are precursors of obesity. The aim of this study is evaluation of the effectiveness of a multi-component school-based weight management programme for overweight and obese primary school children via a home-school joint venture. This study made use of variety of behavioural modification strategies integrating into the Health Promoting School approach to promote healthy lifestyles. The participants were overweight and obese students aged between 8 and 12 from six participating schools. The interventions involved students attending ten 75 minutes after-school sessions and one 3-hour week-end session of practical interactive and fun activities on healthy eating and exercise, and meal plan together with parents and printed tailor-made management advices. Parents received an introductory seminar with 2 sets of specially designed exercise for their overweight children. The tools to measure bodyweight and fat percentage and standing height were bio-impedance body fat scale and a portable stadiometer. Self-administered questionnaire was used to measure knowledge, attitudes and behaviours. McNemar test was utilized to compare the proportions of behaviour changes within the same group to assess for the trends of changes. BMI z-score and body fat percentage of intervention participants at baseline, 4 month and 8 month were compared pair-wisely using tests of within subject contrasts in repeated measures ANOVA to assess for programme sustainability. Those students in the intervention group reduced their BMI z-score (-0.21, 95% CI -0.34 to -0.07, P = 0.003) and body fat (-2.67%, 95% CI -5.12 to -0.22, P = 0.033) compared to wait list control group with statistical significant, and the intervention group also had a significant reduction in BMI z-score (-0.06, 95% CI -0.11, -0.007, P = 0.028) and body fat (-1.71%, 95% CI, -3.44 to 0.02, P = 0.052) after a 4 month maintenance period. Improvement of
Background An estimated 285 million people worldwide have diabetes and its prevalence is predicted to increase to 439 million by 2030. For the year 2010, it is estimated that 3.96 million excess deaths in the age group 20-79 years are attributable to diabetes around the world. Self-management is recognised as an integral part of diabetes care. This paper describes the protocol of a randomised controlled trial of an automated interactive telephone system aiming to improve the uptake and maintenance of essential diabetes self-management behaviours. Methods/Design A total of 340 individuals with type 2 diabetes will be randomised, either to the routine care arm, or to the intervention arm in which participants receive the Telephone-Linked Care (TLC) Diabetes program in addition to their routine care. The intervention requires the participants to telephone the TLC Diabetes phone system weekly for 6 months. They receive the study handbook and a glucose meter linked to a data uploading device. The TLC system consists of a computer with software designed to provide monitoring, tailored feedback and education on key aspects of diabetes self-management, based on answers voiced or entered during the current or previous conversations. Data collection is conducted at baseline (Time 1), 6-month follow-up (Time 2), and 12-month follow-up (Time 3). The primary outcomes are glycaemic control (HbA1c) and quality of life (Short Form-36 Health Survey version 2). Secondary outcomes include anthropometric measures, blood pressure, blood lipid profile, psychosocial measures as well as measures of diet, physical activity, blood glucose monitoring, foot care and medication taking. Information on utilisation of healthcare services including hospital admissions, medication use and costs is collected. An economic evaluation is also planned. Discussion Outcomes will provide evidence concerning the efficacy of a telephone-linked care intervention for self-management of diabetes. Furthermore
Howell, Joel D.; Krupinski, Elizabeth A.; Harms, Kathryn M.; Bashshur, Noura; Doarn, Charles R.
Abstract Introduction: This article presents the scientific evidence for the merits of telemedicine interventions in primary care. Although there is no uniform and consistent definition of primary care, most agree that it occupies a central role in the healthcare system as first contact for patients seeking care, as well as gatekeeper and coordinator of care. It enables and supports patient-centered care, the medical home, managed care, accountable care, and population health. Increasing concerns about sustainability and the anticipated shortages of primary care physicians have sparked interest in exploring the potential of telemedicine in addressing many of the challenges facing primary care in the United States and the world. Materials and Methods: The findings are based on a systematic review of scientific studies published from 2005 through 2015. The initial search yielded 2,308 articles, with 86 meeting the inclusion criteria. Evidence is organized and evaluated according to feasibility/acceptance, intermediate outcomes, health outcomes, and cost. Results: The majority of studies support the feasibility/acceptance of telemedicine for use in primary care, although it varies significantly by demographic variables, such as gender, age, and socioeconomic status, and telemedicine has often been found more acceptable by patients than healthcare providers. Outcomes data are limited but overall suggest that telemedicine interventions are generally at least as effective as traditional care. Cost analyses vary, but telemedicine in primary care is increasingly demonstrated to be cost-effective. Conclusions: Telemedicine has significant potential to address many of the challenges facing primary care in today's healthcare environment. Challenges still remain in validating its impact on clinical outcomes with scientific rigor, as well as in standardizing methods to assess cost, but patient and provider acceptance is increasingly making telemedicine a viable and integral
Slater, Helen; Davies, Stephanie Joy; Parsons, Richard; Quintner, John Louis; Schug, Stephan Alexander
Background Persistent non-specific low back pain (nsLBP) is poorly understood by the general community, by educators, researchers and health professionals, making effective care problematic. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a policy-into-practice intervention developed for primary care physicians (PCPs). Methods To encourage PCPs to adopt practical evidence-based approaches and facilitate time-efficient, integrated management of patients with nsLBP, we developed an interdisciplinary evidence-based, practical pain education program (gPEP) based on a contemporary biopsychosocial framework. One hundred and twenty six PCPs from primary care settings in Western Australia were recruited. PCPs participated in a 6.5-hour gPEP. Self-report measures recorded at baseline and at 2 months post-intervention included PCPs' attitudes, beliefs (modified Health Care Providers Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS), evidence-based clinical practices (knowledge and skills regarding nsLBP management: 5-point Likert scale with 1 = nil and 5 = excellent) and practice behaviours (recommendations based on a patient vignette; 5-point Likert scale). Results Ninety one PCPs participated (attendance rate of 72%; post-intervention response rate 88%). PCP-responders adopted more positive, guideline-consistent beliefs, evidenced by clinically significant HC-PAIRS score differences (mean change = −5.6±8.2, p<0.0001; 95% confidence interval: −7.6 to −3.6) and significant positive shifts on all measures of clinical knowledge and skills (p<0.0001 for all questions). Self management strategies were recommended more frequently post-intervention. The majority of responders who were guideline-inconsistent for work and bed rest recommendations (82% and 62% respectively) at pre-intervention, gave guideline-consistent responses at post-intervention. Conclusion An interprofessional pain education program set within a framework that aligns health policy and practice
Slater, Helen; Davies, Stephanie Joy; Parsons, Richard; Quintner, John Louis; Schug, Stephan Alexander
Persistent non-specific low back pain (nsLBP) is poorly understood by the general community, by educators, researchers and health professionals, making effective care problematic. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a policy-into-practice intervention developed for primary care physicians (PCPs). To encourage PCPs to adopt practical evidence-based approaches and facilitate time-efficient, integrated management of patients with nsLBP, we developed an interdisciplinary evidence-based, practical pain education program (gPEP) based on a contemporary biopsychosocial framework. One hundred and twenty six PCPs from primary care settings in Western Australia were recruited. PCPs participated in a 6.5-hour gPEP. Self-report measures recorded at baseline and at 2 months post-intervention included PCPs' attitudes, beliefs (modified Health Care Providers Pain and Impairment Relationship Scale (HC-PAIRS), evidence-based clinical practices (knowledge and skills regarding nsLBP management: 5-point Likert scale with 1 = nil and 5 = excellent) and practice behaviours (recommendations based on a patient vignette; 5-point Likert scale). Ninety one PCPs participated (attendance rate of 72%; post-intervention response rate 88%). PCP-responders adopted more positive, guideline-consistent beliefs, evidenced by clinically significant HC-PAIRS score differences (mean change = -5.6±8.2, p<0.0001; 95% confidence interval: -7.6 to -3.6) and significant positive shifts on all measures of clinical knowledge and skills (p<0.0001 for all questions). Self management strategies were recommended more frequently post-intervention. The majority of responders who were guideline-inconsistent for work and bed rest recommendations (82% and 62% respectively) at pre-intervention, gave guideline-consistent responses at post-intervention. An interprofessional pain education program set within a framework that aligns health policy and practice, encourages PCPs to adopt more self
Strong, R.; Miller, R. A.; Nelson, J.; Javors, M.; Sharp, Z. D.; Peralba, J. M.; Harrison, D. E.
The field of biogerontology has made great strides towards understanding the biological processes underlying aging, and the time is ripe to look towards applying this knowledge to the pursuit of aging interventions. Identification of safe, inexpensive, and non-invasive interventions that slow the aging process and promote healthy aging could have a significant impact on quality of life and health care expenditures for the aged. While there is a plethora of supplements and interventions on the market that purport to slow aging, the evidence to validate such claims is generally lacking. Here we describe the development of an aging interventions testing program funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) to test candidate interventions in a model system. The development of this program highlights the challenges of long-term intervention studies and provides approaches to cope with the stringent requirements of a multi-site testing program. PMID:19424842
Nadon, N L; Strong, R; Miller, R A; Nelson, J; Javors, M; Sharp, Z D; Peralba, J M; Harrison, D E
The field of biogerontology has made great strides towards understanding the biological processes underlying aging, and the time is ripe to look towards applying this knowledge to the pursuit of aging interventions. Identification of safe, inexpensive, and non-invasive interventions that slow the aging process and promote healthy aging could have a significant impact on quality of life and health care expenditures for the aged. While there is a plethora of supplements and interventions on the market that purport to slow aging, the evidence to validate such claims is generally lacking. Here we describe the development of an aging interventions testing program funded by the National Institute on Aging (NIA) to test candidate interventions in a model system. The development of this program highlights the challenges of long-term intervention studies and provides approaches to cope with the stringent requirements of a multi-site testing program.
Tomasone, Jennifer R; Brouwers, Melissa C; Vukmirovic, Marija; Grunfeld, Eva; O'Brien, Mary Ann; Urquhart, Robin; Walker, Melanie; Webster, Fiona; Fitch, Margaret
Coordination of patient care between primary care and oncology care providers is vital to care quality and outcomes across the cancer continuum, yet it is known to be challenging. We conducted a systematic review to evaluate current or new models of care and/or interventions aimed at improving coordination between primary care and oncology care providers for patients with adult breast and/or colorectal cancer. MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Library Database of Systematic Reviews, and the Centre for Reviews and Dissemination were searched for existing English language studies published between January 2000 and 15 May 2015. Systematic reviews, meta-analyses, randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non-randomised studies were included if they evaluated a specific model/intervention that was designed to improve care coordination between primary care and oncology care providers, for any stage of the cancer continuum, for patients with adult breast and/or colorectal cancer. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias. Twenty-two studies (5 systematic reviews, 6 RCTs and 11 non-randomised studies) were included and varied with respect to the targeted phase of the cancer continuum, type of model or intervention tested, and outcome measures. The majority of studies showed no statistically significant changes in any patient, provider or system outcomes. Owing to conceptual and methodological limitations in this field, the review is unable to provide specific conclusions about the most effective or preferred model/intervention to improve care coordination. Imprecise results that lack generalisability and definitiveness provide limited evidence to base the development of future interventions and policies. Trial registration number CRD42015025006. PMID:27843639
Mora, Kathlyen; Dorrejo, Xiomara M; Carreon, Kimberly Mae; Butt, Sadia
Chronically ill patients 65 and above have an increased risk of preventable readmission within 30 days of discharge from the hospital. The Transitional Care Model (TCM) introduced by Naylor and colleagues was implemented to improve the transition between hospital and home while decreasing readmissions. This article examines whether nurse practitioner (NP)- led TCM interventions as compared to standard care decrease hospital readmission rates in older adults. A literature review was conducted from June 2016 to March 2017 using Cochrane Library, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Health Literature (CINAHL) PLUS, Joanna Briggs Institute, and ProQuest Central to seek out the highest level of evidence. Search results were refined to focus on randomized control trials (RTCs) containing NP-led TCM interventions with older adults. Synthesis of three RTCs, one meta-analysis, and four nonrandomized studies reviewed TCM interventions that included these interventions: follow-up phone calls post discharge, home visits, and handoff of information to the patient's primary care provider. These interventions, although not exclusively led by NPs, decreased hospital readmission rates. NP-led TCM interventions have the potential to decrease readmissions, but the level of evidence is insufficiently high to allow for generalizability, warranting further study. ©2017 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Ghosh, Abhijeet; McCarthy, Sandra; Halcomb, Elizabeth
Technological advances in clinical data capturing and storage systems have led to recent attempts at disease surveillance and region specific population health planning through regularly collected primary care administrative clinical data. However the accuracy and comprehensiveness of primary care health records remain questionable. We aimed to explore the perceptions and experiences of general practice staff in maintaining accurate patient health data within clinical software used in primary care settings of regional NSW. Focus groups were conducted with general practitioners, practice nurses and practice administrative staff from 17 practices in the Illawarra-Shoalhaven region of the state of New South Wales (NSW) in Australia that had participated in the Sentinel Practices Data Sourcing (SPDS) project - a general practice based chronic disease surveillance and data quality improvement study. A total of 25 respondents that included 12 general practitioners (GPs) and 13 practice staff participated in the 6 focus groups. Focus groups were audio-recorded and transcribed verbatim. Thematic analysis of the data was undertaken. Five key themes emerged from the data. Firstly, the theme of resourcing data management raised issues of time constraints, the lack of a dedicated data management role and the importance of multidisciplinary involvement, including a data champion. The need for incentives was identified as being important to motivate ongoing commitment to maintaining data quality. However, quality of software packages, including coding issues and software limitations and information technology skills were seen as key barriers. The final theme provided insight into the lessons learnt from the project and the increased awareness of the importance of data quality amongst practice staff. The move towards electronic methods of maintaining general practice patient records offers significant potential benefits in terms of both patient care and monitoring of health
Fleet, Richard; Tounkara, Fatoumata Korika; Ouimet, Mathieu; Dupuis, Gilles; Poitras, Julien; Tanguay, Alain; Fortin, Jean Paul; Trottier, Jean-Guy; Ouellet, Jean; Lortie, Gilles; Plant, Jeff; Morris, Judy; Chauny, Jean Marc; Lauzier, François; Légaré, France
Introduction Trauma remains the primary cause of death in individuals under 40 years of age in Canada. In Quebec, the Trauma Care Continuum (TCC) has been demonstrated to be effective in decreasing the mortality rate among trauma victims. Although rural citizens are at greater risk for trauma and trauma death, no empirical data concerning the effectiveness of the TCC for the rural population in Quebec are available. The emergency departments (EDs) are important safety nets for rural citizens. However, our data indicate that access to diagnostic support services, such as intensive care units and CT is limited in rural areas. The objectives are to (1) draw a portrait of trauma services in rural EDs; (2) explore geographical variations in trauma care in Quebec; (3) identify adaptable factors that could reduce variation; and (4) establish consensus solutions for improving the quality of care. Methods and analysis The study will take place from November 2015 to November 2018. A mixed methodology (qualitative and quantitative) will be used. We will include data (2009–2013) from all trauma victims treated in the 26 rural EDs and tertiary/secondary care centres in Quebec. To meet objectives 1 and 2, data will be gathered from the Ministry's Database of the Quebec Trauma Registry Information System. For objectives 3 and 4, the project will use the Delphi method to develop consensus solutions for improving the quality of trauma care in rural areas. Data will be analysed using a Poisson regression to compare mortality rate during hospital stay or death on ED arrival (objectives 1 and 2). Average scores and 95% CI will be calculated for the Delphi questionnaire (objectives 3 and 4). Ethics and dissemination This protocol has been approved by CSSS Alphonse-Desjardins research ethics committee (Project MP-HDL-2016-003). The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals. PMID:27098826
Hamze, Fernanda Luiza; de Souza, Cristiane Chaves; Chianca, Tânia Couto Machado
Objective: to identify care interventions, performed by the health team, and their influence on the continuity of sleep of patients hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit. Method: descriptive study with a sample of 12 patients. A filming technique was used for the data collection. The awakenings from sleep were measured using the actigraphy method. The analysis of the data was descriptive, processed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. Results: 529 care interventions were identified, grouped into 28 different types, of which 12 (42.8%) caused awakening from sleep for the patients. A mean of 44.1 interventions/patient/day was observed, with 1.8 interventions/patient/hour. The administration of oral medicine and food were the interventions that caused higher frequencies of awakenings in the patients. Conclusion: it was identified that the health care interventions can harm the sleep of ICU patients. It is recommended that health professionals rethink the planning of interventions according to the individual demand of the patients, with the diversification of schedules and introduction of new practices to improve the quality of sleep of Intensive Care Unit patients. PMID:26487127
Today, healthcare professionals are faced with the challenge of implementing research results in an optimal way. It is therefore important to create a climate that is conducive to research and development (R&D). For this reason, new strategies are required to enhance healthcare professionals' interest in innovative thinking and R&D. Strategic communication with roots in sociology, psychology and political science was employed as a means of achieving long-term behavioural change. The aim of this study was to describe, follow up and evaluate a primary care intervention based on strategic communication intended to increase healthcare professionals' interest in R&D over time. An interventional cohort study comprising all staff members (N = 1276) in a Swedish primary care area was initiated in 1997 and continued for 12 years. The intention to engage in R&D was measured on two occasions; at 7 and 12 years. Both descriptive statistics and bivariate analyses were employed. The results demonstrated that the positive attitude to R&D increased over time, representing a first step towards new thinking and willingness to change work practices for the benefit of the patient. Strategic communication has not been previously employed as a scientific tool to create a long-term interest in R&D within primary care.
Grimshaw, J M; Winkens, R A G; Shirran, L; Cunningham, C; Mayhew, A; Thomas, R; Fraser, C
The primary care specialist interface is a key organisational feature of many health care systems. Patients are referred to specialist care when investigation or therapeutic options are exhausted in primary care and more specialised care is needed. Referral has considerable implications for patients, the health care system and health care costs. There is considerable evidence that the referral processes can be improved. To estimate the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions to change outpatient referral rates or improve outpatient referral appropriateness. We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) group specialised register (developed through extensive searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Healthstar and the Cochrane Library) (February 2002) and the National Research Register. Randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series of interventions to change or improve outpatient referrals. Participants were primary care physicians. The outcomes were objectively measured provider performance or health outcomes. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Seventeen studies involving 23 separate comparisons were included. Nine studies (14 comparisons) evaluated professional educational interventions. Ineffective strategies included: passive dissemination of local referral guidelines (two studies), feedback of referral rates (one study) and discussion with an independent medical adviser (one study). Generally effective strategies included dissemination of guidelines with structured referral sheets (four out of five studies) and involvement of consultants in educational activities (two out of three studies). Three studies evaluated organisational interventions (patient management by family physicians compared to general internists, attachment of a physiotherapist to general practices and requiring a second 'in
Bauermeister, Jose A; Fessler, Kathryn; Delva, Jorge; Nelson, Annabelle; Nurenberg, Rachel; Mendoza Lua, Frania; Alers-Rojas, Francheska; Salas-Wright, Christopher P
Background Despite ongoing prevention efforts, HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (HIV/STIs) and drug use remain public health concerns. Urban adolescents, many of whom are underserved and racial minorities, are disproportionately affected. Recent changes in policy, including the Affordable Care Act, and advances in technology provide HIV/STI and drug abuse prevention scientists with unique opportunities to deliver mobile health (mHealth) preventive interventions in primary care. Objectives The purpose of this community-engaged study was to develop an mHealth version of the Storytelling for Empowerment preventive intervention for primary care (hereinafter referred to as “S4E”). Methods A total of 29 adolescents were recruited from a youth-centered primary care clinic in Southeast, Michigan, to participate in qualitative interviews. Participants were predominantly African American (n=19, 65.5%) and female (n=21, 72.4%) with a mean age of 16.23 (SD 2.09). The principles of community-based participatory research (CBPR), in conjunction with agile software development and the recommended core prevention principles of the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) were employed during S4E development. CBPR principles are aimed at improving the effectiveness of research by addressing locally relevant health problems, working with community strengths, and translating basic science into applied research. Complementing this approach, the NIDA prevention principles are derived from decades of drug abuse prevention research aimed at increasing the effectiveness and uptake of programs, through the development of culturally specific interventions and ensuring the structure, content, and delivery of the intervention fit the needs of the community. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Results A total of 5 themes emerged from the data: (1) acceptability of the mHealth app to adolescents in primary care, (2) inclusion of a risk assessment to improve clinician
Gooding, Lori; Swezey, Shane; Zwischenberger, Joseph B
Anxiety and pain are common responses to surgery, and both can negatively affect patient outcomes. Music interventions have been suggested as a nonpharmacological intervention to alleviate pain and anxiety during surgical treatment. Although the data are somewhat mixed, the research suggests that music-based interventions are effective in reducing anxiety, pain perception, and sedative intake. The majority of studies have focused on interventions during the postoperative period and address pain reduction, with preoperative use of music targeting anxiety reduction the second most commonly cited objective. Most of the studies found in the literature involve passive music listening via headphones. The data suggest that researcher-selected music is most effective in reducing anxiety, primarily because it incorporates evidence-based parameters such as consistent tempo and dynamics, stable rhythms, and smooth melodic lines. Finally, the literature suggests that music therapists can serve as experts to help medical personnel identify effective implementation strategies.
"Act on Threes" Paradigm for Treatment Intensification of Type 2 Diabetes in Managed Care: Results of a Randomized Controlled Study with an Educational Intervention Targeting Improved Glycemic Control.
Bieszk, Nella; Reynolds, Shannon L; Wei, Wenhui; Davis, Cralen; Kamble, Pravin; Uribe, Claudia
Clinical inertia, which has been defined as the recognition of a problem with a patient's management but failing to act, is a concern in type 2 diabetes (T2D) because it places the patient at risk of diabetes-related complications. Despite managed care organizations making significant investment in this area, little is known about the impact of educational programs aimed at aligning patients and their physicians with diabetes guidelines and thus overcoming clinical inertia. To assess the impact of an educational intervention specifically designed to align patients and their physicians with 2012 American Diabetes Association (ADA) guidelines on glycated hemoglobin (A1c) testing frequency and insulin initiation. The "Act on Threes" educational intervention was a 12-month, randomized controlled prospective study that included Medicare Advantage patients aged 18-85 years with T2D, who received ≥ 3 oral antidiabetes drugs (OADs) and/or had A1c not at goal and/or had no recent A1c evaluation over 12 months, as identified through the analysis of administrative claims data (May 1, 2011-April 30, 2013) from the Humana database. Identified patients were randomized 3:1 to receive the Act on Threes educational intervention in conjunction with standard care (intervention group) or standard care alone (control group). For the educational intervention, patients and physicians were simultaneously mailed general and targeted information aimed at aligning them to 3 vital aspects of A1c control: timely measurement of A1c every 3 months; timely treatment intensification to meet A1c goals with treatment intensification every 3 months if A1c is not at goal; and insulin initiation when appropriate, including patients receiving ≥ 3 OADs with A1c not at goal. Control patients were only enrolled if the treating physician was not involved in the care of any patients in the intervention group. The primary outcome measures were A1c testing frequency based on the ADA standard for compliance
Background The way in which maternity care is provided affects perinatal outcomes for pregnant adolescents; including the likelihood of preterm birth. The study purpose was to assess the feasibility of recruiting pregnant adolescents into a randomised controlled trial, in order to inform the design of an adequately powered trial which could test the effect of caseload midwifery on preterm birth for pregnant adolescents. Methods We recruited pregnant adolescents into a feasibility study of a prospective, un-blinded, two-arm, randomised controlled trial of caseload midwifery compared to standard care. We recorded and analysed recruitment data in order to provide estimates to be used in the design of a larger study. Results The proportion of women aged 15–17 years who were eligible for the study was 34% (n=10), however the proportion who agreed to be randomised was only 11% (n = 1). Barriers to recruitment were restrictive eligibility criteria, unwillingness of hospital staff to assist with recruitment, and unwillingness of pregnant adolescents to have their choice of maternity carer removed through randomisation. Conclusions A randomised controlled trial of caseload midwifery care for pregnant adolescents would not be feasible in this setting without modifications to the research protocol. The recruitment plan should maximise opportunities for participation by increasing the upper age limit and enabling women to be recruited at a later gestation. Strategies to engage the support of hospital-employed staff are essential and would require substantial, and ongoing, work. A Zelen method of post-randomisation consent, monetary incentives and ‘peer recruiters’ could also be considered. PMID:24225138
Rosen, Rochelle K.; Batts-Turner, Marian; Bereolos, Nicole; House, Meaghan; Held, Rachel Forster; Nu'usolia, Ofeira; Tuitele, John; Goldstein, Michael G.; McGarvey, Stephen T.
Translation of research advances into clinical practice for at-risk communities is important to eliminate disease disparities. Adult type 2 diabetes prevalence in the US territory of American Samoa is 21.5%, but little intervention research has been carried out there. We discuss our experience with cultural translation, drawing on an emerging implementation science, which aims to build a knowledge base on adapting interventions to real-world settings. We offer examples from our behavioral intervention study, Diabetes Care in American Samoa, which was adapted from Project Sugar 2, a nurse and community health worker intervention to support diabetes self-management among urban African Americans. The challenges we experienced and solutions we used may inform adaptations of interventions in other settings. PMID:20864729
Yu, Dongmei; Ma, Yuqin; Sun, Qingwen; Lu, Gendi; Xu, Ping
We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a nursing care classification system for re-assessing nurse workload and determining staffing needs. Adequate bed-nurse ratios help manage hospital cost-efficiency, quality of care and patient safety. A prospective pre-post intervention study was conducted from January 2010 to December 2012 in 16 medical-surgical units of a tertiary teaching hospital. Nursing tasks were classified into four grades of care reflecting actual workload. Units were re-staffed accordingly and bed-nurse ratios compared with government-authorized bed-nurse ratios. Patient satisfaction, hospital stays and mortality were evaluated pre- and poststaffing changes. Average bed-nurse ratio (1:0.41) exceeded the national standard (1:0.40) in 16 units, but was inadequate in five units. Re-staffing increased average bed-nurse ratio from 1:0.41 to 1:0.48. Patients' satisfaction increased from 96.9% to 97.6%, and hospital stays decreased significantly. Nursing care classification effectively distributes nurse staffing to match patients' care levels, improving patient outcomes. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Background There is growing evidence suggesting that prolonged sitting has negative effects on people’s weight, chronic diseases and mortality. Interventions to reduce sedentary time can be an effective strategy to increase daily energy expenditure. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a six-month primary care intervention to reduce daily of sitting time in overweight and mild obese sedentary patients. Method/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT). Professionals from thirteen primary health care centers (PHC) will randomly invite to participate mild obese or overweight patients of both gender, aged between 25 and 65 years old, who spend 6 hours at least daily sitting. A total of 232 subjects will be randomly allocated to an intervention (IG) and control group (CG) (116 individuals each group). In addition, 50 subjects with fibromyalgia will be included. Primary outcome is: (1) sitting time using the activPAL device and the Marshall questionnaire. The following parameters will be also assessed: (2) sitting time in work place (Occupational Sitting and Physical Activity Questionnaire), (3) health-related quality of life (EQ-5D), (4) evolution of stage of change (Prochaska and DiClemente's Stages of Change Model), (5) physical inactivity (catalan version of Brief Physical Activity Assessment Tool), (6) number of steps walked (pedometer and activPAL), (7) control based on analysis (triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, glycemia and, glycated haemoglobin in diabetic patients) and (8) blood pressure and anthropometric variables. All parameters will be assessed pre and post intervention and there will be a follow up three, six and twelve months after the intervention. A descriptive analysis of all variables and a multivariate analysis to assess differences among groups will be undertaken. Multivariate analysis will be carried out to assess time changes of dependent variables. All the analysis will be done under the
Christopoulos, Katerina A; Riley, Elise D; Tulsky, Jacqueline; Carrico, Adam W; Moskowitz, Judith T; Wilson, Leslie; Coffin, Lara S; Falahati, Veesta; Akerley, Jordan; Hilton, Joan F
Few data exist on the use of text messaging as a tool to promote retention in HIV care and virologic suppression at the clinic level in the United States. We describe the protocol for a study designed to investigate whether a text messaging intervention that supports healthy behaviors, encourages consistent engagement with care, and promotes antiretroviral persistence can improve retention in care and virologic suppression among patients in an urban safety-net HIV clinic in San Francisco. Connect4Care (C4C) is a single-site, randomized year-long study of text message appointment reminders vs. text message appointment reminders plus thrice-weekly supportive, informational, and motivational text messages. Eligible consenting patients are allocated 1:1 to the two arms within strata defined by HIV diagnosis within the past 12 months (i.e. "newly diagnosed") vs. earlier. Study participants must receive primary care at the San Francisco General Hospital HIV clinic, speak English, possess a cell phone and be willing to send/receive up to 25 text messages per month, a have viral load >200 copies/μL, and be either new to the clinic or have a history of poor retention. The primary efficacy outcome is virologic suppression at 12 months and the key secondary outcome, which will also be examined as a mediator of the primary outcome, is retention in HIV care, as operationalized by kept and missed primary care visits. Process outcomes include text message response rate and percent of time in study without cell phone service. Generalized estimating equation log-binomial models will be used for intent to treat, per protocol, and mediation analyses. An assessment of the cost and cost-effectiveness of the intervention is planned along with a qualitative evaluation of the intervention. Findings from this study will provide valuable information about the use of behavioral-theory based text messaging to promote retention in HIV care and virologic suppression, further elucidate the
Klopotowska, Joanna E; Kuiper, Rob; van Kan, Hendrikus J; de Pont, Anne-Cornelie; Dijkgraaf, Marcel G; Lie-A-Huen, Loraine; Vroom, Margreeth B; Smorenburg, Susanne M
Patients admitted to an intensive care unit (ICU) are at high risk for prescribing errors and related adverse drug events (ADEs). An effective intervention to decrease this risk, based on studies conducted mainly in North America, is on-ward participation of a clinical pharmacist in an ICU team. As the Dutch Healthcare System is organized differently and the on-ward role of hospital pharmacists in Dutch ICU teams is not well established, we conducted an intervention study to investigate whether participation of a hospital pharmacist can also be an effective approach in reducing prescribing errors and related patient harm (preventable ADEs) in this specific setting. A prospective study compared a baseline period with an intervention period. During the intervention period, an ICU hospital pharmacist reviewed medication orders for patients admitted to the ICU, noted issues related to prescribing, formulated recommendations and discussed those during patient review meetings with the attending ICU physicians. Prescribing issues were scored as prescribing errors when consensus was reached between the ICU hospital pharmacist and ICU physicians. During the 8.5-month study period, medication orders for 1,173 patients were reviewed. The ICU hospital pharmacist made a total of 659 recommendations. During the intervention period, the rate of consensus between the ICU hospital pharmacist and ICU physicians was 74%. The incidence of prescribing errors during the intervention period was significantly lower than during the baseline period: 62.5 per 1,000 monitored patient-days versus 190.5 per 1,000 monitored patient-days, respectively (P < 0.001). Preventable ADEs (patient harm, National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention severity categories E and F) were reduced from 4.0 per 1,000 monitored patient-days during the baseline period to 1.0 per 1,000 monitored patient-days during the intervention period (P = 0.25). Per monitored patient-day, the
Watzke, Birgit; Haller, Elisa; Steinmann, Maya; Heddaeus, Daniela; Härter, Martin; König, Hans-Helmut; Wegscheider, Karl; Rosemann, Thomas
Despite the availability of evidence-based treatments for depression, a large proportion of patients remains untreated or adequate treatment is initiated with delay. This situation is particularly critical in primary care, where not only most individuals first seek help for their mental health problems, but also depressive disorders - particularly mild to moderate levels of severity - are highly prevalent given the high comorbidity of chronic somatic conditions and depression. Improving the access for evidence-based treatment, especially in primary care, is hence a priority challenge in the mental health care agenda. Telephone usage is widespread and has the potential of overcoming many barriers that individuals suffering from mental health problems are facing: Its implementation for treatment delivery presents an option for optimisation of treatment pathways and outcomes. This paper details the study protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of a telephone-administered short-term cognitive-behavioural therapy (T-CBT) for depression as compared to treatment as usual (TAU) in the Swiss primary care setting. The study aims at randomising a total of 216 mildly to moderately depressed patients, which are either identified by their General Practitioners (GPs) or who self-refer to the study programme in consultation with their GP. The trial will examine whether telephone-delivered, manualised treatment leads to clinically significant reduction in depression at follow-up. It will further investigate the cost-effectiveness and acceptability of the intervention in the primary care setting. Conducting a low-intensity treatment on the telephone allows for greater flexibility for both patient and therapist, can grant more anonymity and can thus lead to less hesitation in the patient about whether to attempt treatment or not. In order to benefit from this approach, large-scale studies need to prove superior effectiveness and cost
Lonner, Thomas; And Others
This report presents information on infants and toddlers with disabilities and special health care needs enrolled in Washington State early intervention services. Enrollment numbers, rates, and patterns are discussed. Out of a total of 264,410 children ages 36 months and under, 4,324 were enrolled in an early intervention service plan as of…
Fleet, Richard; Tounkara, Fatoumata Korika; Ouimet, Mathieu; Dupuis, Gilles; Poitras, Julien; Tanguay, Alain; Fortin, Jean Paul; Trottier, Jean-Guy; Ouellet, Jean; Lortie, Gilles; Plant, Jeff; Morris, Judy; Chauny, Jean Marc; Lauzier, François; Légaré, France
Trauma remains the primary cause of death in individuals under 40 years of age in Canada. In Quebec, the Trauma Care Continuum (TCC) has been demonstrated to be effective in decreasing the mortality rate among trauma victims. Although rural citizens are at greater risk for trauma and trauma death, no empirical data concerning the effectiveness of the TCC for the rural population in Quebec are available. The emergency departments (EDs) are important safety nets for rural citizens. However, our data indicate that access to diagnostic support services, such as intensive care units and CT is limited in rural areas. The objectives are to (1) draw a portrait of trauma services in rural EDs; (2) explore geographical variations in trauma care in Quebec; (3) identify adaptable factors that could reduce variation; and (4) establish consensus solutions for improving the quality of care. The study will take place from November 2015 to November 2018. A mixed methodology (qualitative and quantitative) will be used. We will include data (2009-2013) from all trauma victims treated in the 26 rural EDs and tertiary/secondary care centres in Quebec. To meet objectives 1 and 2, data will be gathered from the Ministry's Database of the Quebec Trauma Registry Information System. For objectives 3 and 4, the project will use the Delphi method to develop consensus solutions for improving the quality of trauma care in rural areas. Data will be analysed using a Poisson regression to compare mortality rate during hospital stay or death on ED arrival (objectives 1 and 2). Average scores and 95% CI will be calculated for the Delphi questionnaire (objectives 3 and 4). This protocol has been approved by CSSS Alphonse-Desjardins research ethics committee (Project MP-HDL-2016-003). The results will be published in peer-reviewed journals. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Leung, Patricia; Chiu, Chun Hung; Ho, Ka Man; Gomersall, Charles David; Underwood, Malcolm John
Introduction Patients and their families are understandably anxious about the risk of complications and unfamiliar experiences following cardiac surgery. Providing information about postoperative care in the intensive care unit (ICU) to patients and families may lead to lower anxiety levels, and increased satisfaction with healthcare. The objectives of this study are to evaluate the effectiveness of preoperative patient education provided for patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Methods and analysis 100 patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass graft, with or without valve replacement surgery, will be recruited into a 2-group, parallel, superiority, double-blinded randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomised to either preoperative patient education comprising of a video and ICU tour with standard care (intervention) or standard education (control). The primary outcome measures are the satisfaction levels of patients and family members with ICU care and decision-making in the ICU. The secondary outcome measures are patient anxiety and depression levels before and after surgery. Ethics and dissemination Ethical approval has been obtained from the Joint Chinese University of Hong Kong—New Territories East Cluster Clinical Research Ethics Committee (reference number CREC 2015.308). The findings will be presented at conferences and published in peer-reviewed journals. Study participants will receive a 1-page plain language summary of results. Trial registration number ChiCTR-IOR-15006971. PMID:27334883
Stuebe, Alison; Barnett, Josephine; Labbok, Miriam H.; Fletcher, Jason; Bernstein, Peter S.
Objectives. We determined the effectiveness of primary care–based, and pre- and postnatal interventions to increase breastfeeding. Methods. We conducted 2 trials at obstetrics and gynecology practices in the Bronx, New York, from 2008 to 2011. The Provider Approaches to Improved Rates of Infant Nutrition & Growth Study (PAIRINGS) had 2 arms: usual care versus pre- and postnatal visits with a lactation consultant (LC) and electronically prompted guidance from prenatal care providers (EP). The Best Infant Nutrition for Good Outcomes (BINGO) study had 4 arms: usual care, LC alone, EP alone, or LC+EP. Results. In BINGO at 3 months, high intensity was greater for the LC+EP (odds ratio [OR] = 2.72; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 6.84) and LC (OR = 3.22; 95% CI = 1.14, 9.09) groups versus usual care, but not for the EP group alone. In PAIRINGS at 3 months, intervention rates exceeded usual care (OR = 2.86; 95% CI = 1.21, 6.76); the number needed to treat to prevent 1 dyad from nonexclusive breastfeeding at 3 months was 10.3 (95% CI = 5.6, 50.7). Conclusions. LCs integrated into routine care alone and combined with EP guidance from prenatal care providers increased breastfeeding intensity at 3 months postpartum. PMID:24354834
Simmons, Sandra F.; Ouslander, Joseph G.
Purpose: This study evaluated whether the satisfaction levels of long-term-care residents and their family members concerning incontinence and mobility care were sensitive to an improvement intervention. Design and Methods: A randomized, controlled intervention trial with incontinent long-term-care residents was conducted wherein research staff…
Askew, Deborah A; Jackson, Claire L; Ware, Robert S; Russell, Anthony
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most disabling chronic conditions worldwide, resulting in significant human, social and economic costs and placing huge demands on health care systems. The Inala Chronic Disease Management Service aims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of care for patients with type 2 diabetes who have been referred by their general practitioner to a specialist diabetes outpatient clinic. Care is provided by a multidisciplinary, integrated team consisting of an endocrinologist, diabetes nurse educators, General Practitioner Clinical Fellows (general practitioners who have undertaken focussed post-graduate training in complex diabetes care), and allied health personnel (a dietitian, podiatrist and psychologist). Using a geographical control, this evaluation study tests the impact of this model of diabetes care provided by the service on patient outcomes compared to usual care provided at the specialist diabetes outpatient clinic. Data collection at baseline, 6 and 12-months will compare the primary outcome (glycaemic control) and secondary outcomes (serum lipid profile, blood pressure, physical activity, smoking status, quality of life, diabetes self-efficacy and cost-effectiveness). This model of diabetes care combines the patient focus and holistic care valued by the primary care sector with the specialised knowledge and skills of hospital diabetes care. Our study will provide empirical evidence about the clinical effectiveness of this model of care. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000010392.
Background Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is one of the most disabling chronic conditions worldwide, resulting in significant human, social and economic costs and placing huge demands on health care systems. The Inala Chronic Disease Management Service aims to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of care for patients with type 2 diabetes who have been referred by their general practitioner to a specialist diabetes outpatient clinic. Care is provided by a multidisciplinary, integrated team consisting of an endocrinologist, diabetes nurse educators, General Practitioner Clinical Fellows (general practitioners who have undertaken focussed post-graduate training in complex diabetes care), and allied health personnel (a dietitian, podiatrist and psychologist). Methods/Design Using a geographical control, this evaluation study tests the impact of this model of diabetes care provided by the service on patient outcomes compared to usual care provided at the specialist diabetes outpatient clinic. Data collection at baseline, 6 and 12-months will compare the primary outcome (glycaemic control) and secondary outcomes (serum lipid profile, blood pressure, physical activity, smoking status, quality of life, diabetes self-efficacy and cost-effectiveness). Discussion This model of diabetes care combines the patient focus and holistic care valued by the primary care sector with the specialised knowledge and skills of hospital diabetes care. Our study will provide empirical evidence about the clinical effectiveness of this model of care. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000010392. PMID:20492731
Background Recognizing the burden of maternal mortality in urban slums, in 2007 BRAC (formally known as Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) has established a woman-focused development intervention, Manoshi (the Bangla abbreviation of mother, neonate and child), in urban slums of Bangladesh. The intervention emphasizes strengthening the continuum of maternal, newborn and child care through community, delivery centre (DC) and timely referral of the obstetric complications to the emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities. This study aimed to assess whether Manoshi DCs reduces delays in accessing EmOC. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted during October 2008 to January 2009 in the slums of Dhaka city among 450 obstetric complicated cases referred either from DCs of Manoshi or from their home to the EmOC facilities. Trained female interviewers interviewed at their homestead with structured questionnaire. Pearson's chi-square test, t-test and Mann-Whitney test were performed. Results The median time for making the decision to seek care was significantly longer among women who were referred from home than referred from DCs (9.7 hours vs. 5.0 hours, p < 0.001). The median time to reach a facility and to receive treatment was found to be similar in both groups. Time taken to decide to seek care was significantly shorter in the case of life-threatening complications among those who were referred from DC than home (0.9 hours vs.2.3 hours, p = 0.002). Financial assistance from Manoshi significantly reduced the first delay in accessing EmOC services for life-threatening complications referred from DC (p = 0.006). Reasons for first delay include fear of medical intervention, inability to judge maternal condition, traditional beliefs and financial constraints. Role of gender was found to be an important issue in decision making. First delay was significantly higher among elderly women, multiparity, non life-threatening complications and who were not involved in
Nahar, Shamsun; Banu, Morsheda; Nasreen, Hashima E
Recognizing the burden of maternal mortality in urban slums, in 2007 BRAC (formally known as Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee) has established a woman-focused development intervention, Manoshi (the Bangla abbreviation of mother, neonate and child), in urban slums of Bangladesh. The intervention emphasizes strengthening the continuum of maternal, newborn and child care through community, delivery centre (DC) and timely referral of the obstetric complications to the emergency obstetric care (EmOC) facilities. This study aimed to assess whether Manoshi DCs reduces delays in accessing EmOC. This cross-sectional study was conducted during October 2008 to January 2009 in the slums of Dhaka city among 450 obstetric complicated cases referred either from DCs of Manoshi or from their home to the EmOC facilities. Trained female interviewers interviewed at their homestead with structured questionnaire. Pearson's chi-square test, t-test and Mann-Whitney test were performed. The median time for making the decision to seek care was significantly longer among women who were referred from home than referred from DCs (9.7 hours vs. 5.0 hours, p < 0.001). The median time to reach a facility and to receive treatment was found to be similar in both groups. Time taken to decide to seek care was significantly shorter in the case of life-threatening complications among those who were referred from DC than home (0.9 hours vs.2.3 hours, p = 0.002). Financial assistance from Manoshi significantly reduced the first delay in accessing EmOC services for life-threatening complications referred from DC (p = 0.006). Reasons for first delay include fear of medical intervention, inability to judge maternal condition, traditional beliefs and financial constraints. Role of gender was found to be an important issue in decision making. First delay was significantly higher among elderly women, multiparity, non life-threatening complications and who were not involved in income-generating activities
Background A significant number of individuals suffer from plantar heel pain (PHP) and many go on to have chronic symptoms and continued disability. Persistence of symptoms adds to the economic burden of PHP and cost-effective solutions are needed. Currently, there is a wide variation in treatment, cost, and outcomes of care for PHP with limited information on the cost-effectiveness and comparisons of common treatment approaches. Two practice guidelines and recent evidence of effective physical therapy intervention are available to direct treatment but the timing and influence of physical therapy intervention in the multidisciplinary management of PHP is unclear. The purpose of this investigation is to compare the outcomes and costs associated with early physical therapy intervention (ePT) following initial presentation to podiatry versus usual podiatric care (uPOD) in individuals with PHP. Methods A parallel-group, block-randomized clinical trial will compare ePT and uPOD. Both groups will be seen initially by a podiatrist before allocation to a group that will receive physical therapy intervention consisting primarily of manual therapy, exercise, and modalities, or podiatric care consisting primarily of a stretching handout, medication, injections, and orthotics. Treatment in each group will be directed by practice guidelines and a procedural manual, yet the specific intervention for each participant will be selected by the treating provider. Between-group differences in the Foot and Ankle Ability Measure 6 months following the initial visit will be the primary outcome collected by an independent investigator. In addition, differences in the European Quality of Life – Five Dimensions, Numeric Pain Rating Scale, Global Rating of Change (GROC), health-related costs, and cost-effectiveness at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year will be compared between groups. The association between successful outcomes based on GROC score and participant expectations of recovery
Byrne, Eilish; Garber, June
This article presents the elements of the Intervention section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy interventions presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these interventions is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…
Byrne, Eilish; Garber, June
This article presents the elements of the Intervention section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy interventions presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these interventions is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert…
Storm, Marianne; Groene, Oliver; Testad, Ingelin; Dyrstad, Dagrunn N; Heskestad, Randi N; Aase, Karina
Introduction Transitional care and patient handover are important areas to ensure quality and safety in elderly healthcare services. Previous studies showed that healthcare professionals have little knowledge of the setting they are transferring patients to and a limited understanding of roles and functions; these constitute barriers to effective communication and shared care responsibilities across levels of care. Aim The main objective is to implement a cross-level education-based intervention programme with healthcare professionals aimed at (1) increasing professionals’ awareness and competencies about quality and safety in the transitional care of the elderly; (2) creating a discussion platform for knowledge exchange and learning across levels and units of care and (3) improving patient safety culture, in particular, in transitional care. Methods and analysis A quasi-experimental control group study design with an intervention group and a control group; this includes a pretest, post-test and 1-year follow-up test assessment of patient safety culture. Qualitative data will be collected during the intervention programme and between the measurements. The study design will be beneficial for addressing the effects of the cross-level educational intervention programme on reports of patient safety culture and for addressing the feasibility of the intervention measures. Ethics and dissemination The study has been approved by the Regional Committees for Medical and Health Research Ethics in Norway, Ref. No. 2011/1978. The study is based on informed written consent; informants can withdraw from the study at any point in time. The results will be disseminated at research conferences, in peer review journals and through public presentations outside the scientific community. PMID:25082425
Aboagye, Emmanuel; Karlsson, Malin Lohela; Hagberg, Jan; Jensen, Irene
To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of medical yoga as an early intervention compared with evidence-based exercise therapy and self-care advice for non-specific low back pain. Randomized controlled trial with a cost-effectiveness analysis. A total of 159 participants randomized into the medical yoga group (n = 52), the exercise therapy group (n = 52) and the self-care advice group (n = 55). The health outcome measure EQ-5D was applied to measure quality of life data combined with cost data collected from treatment groups from baseline to 12 months follow-up. Outcome measure was health-related quality of life (HRQL). Incremental cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) was also calculated. Cost-effectiveness analysis was conducted primarily from the societal and employer perspectives. Medical yoga is cost-effective compared with self-care advice if an employer considers the significant improvement in the HRQL of an employee with low back pain justifies the additional cost of treatment (i.e. in this study EUR 150). From a societal perspective, medical yoga is a cost-effective treatment compared with exercise therapy and self-care advice if an additional QALY is worth EUR 11,500. Sensitivity analysis suggests that medical yoga is more cost-effective than its alternatives. Six weeks of uninterrupted medical yoga thera-py is a cost-effective early intervention for non-specific low back pain, when treatment recommendations are adhered to.
Liberati, Alessandro; Altman, Douglas G.; Tetzlaff, Jennifer; Mulrow, Cynthia; Gøtzsche, Peter C.; Ioannidis, John P. A.; Clarke, Mike; Devereaux, P. J.; Kleijnen, Jos; Moher, David
Systematic reviews and meta-analyses are essential to summarize evidence relating to efficacy and safety of health care interventions accurately and reliably. The clarity and transparency of these reports, however, is not optimal. Poor reporting of systematic reviews diminishes their value to clinicians, policy makers, and other users. Since the development of the QUOROM (QUality Of Reporting Of Meta-analysis) Statement—a reporting guideline published in 1999—there have been several conceptual, methodological, and practical advances regarding the conduct and reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. Also, reviews of published systematic reviews have found that key information about these studies is often poorly reported. Realizing these issues, an international group that included experienced authors and methodologists developed PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses) as an evolution of the original QUOROM guideline for systematic reviews and meta-analyses of evaluations of health care interventions. The PRISMA Statement consists of a 27-item checklist and a four-phase flow diagram. The checklist includes items deemed essential for transparent reporting of a systematic review. In this Explanation and Elaboration document, we explain the meaning and rationale for each checklist item. For each item, we include an example of good reporting and, where possible, references to relevant empirical studies and methodological literature. The PRISMA Statement, this document, and the associated Web site (http://www.prisma-statement.org/) should be helpful resources to improve reporting of systematic reviews and meta-analyses. PMID:19621070
Background Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is common, especially in the active population. In defining the problem of ACL rehabilitation, this study draws from the knowledge that improved self-care, strength, and fitness are associated with better outcomes. Traditional rehabilitation involves regular physiotherapy, but it is not clear what the optimal way for delivering rehabilitation is, and it varies widely across the world. Evidence for treatments are discussed in the literature, however standard length of rehabilitation and frequency of appointments are unknown. Additionally, current rehabilitation models in the National Health Service (NHS) struggle with catering to large volumes of patients and the lengthy time span over which rehabilitation is delivered. The use of eHealth (the Internet in health care) has been successful at delivering behavior change to a number of diverse patient groups. In physiotherapy, problems such as exercise compliance, exercise technique, and managing a broad program of rehabilitation and advice can be challenging. An eHealth intervention called Taxonomy for the Rehabilitation of Knee Conditions (TRAK) to support self-management and behavior change has been developed by patients and clinicians, and acceptability studies have yielded positive results. TRAK is not an exercise rehabilitation protocol; it is a tool to support ACL rehabilitation with personalized plans, prompts, and logs to help adherence and videos and instructions to improve quality and address queries. The patients have their own log-ins and can email their physiotherapist through the website. This novel platform is directly in line with current NHS England, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, and NHS Improvement agendas that call for rehabilitation initiatives using both technology and supported self-management for patients. This study forms part of a research platform to identify a best practice model of ACL care from the literature
Bogner, Hillary R; Bruce, Martha L; Reynolds, Charles F; Mulsant, Benoit H; Cary, Mark S; Morales, Knashawn; Alexopoulos, George S
To describe the influence of domains of cognition on remission and response of depression in an intervention trial among older primary care patients. Twenty primary care practices were randomly assigned to Usual Care or to an Intervention consisting of a depression care manager offering algorithm-based care for depression. In all, 599 adults 60 years and older with a depression diagnosis were included in these analyses. Depression severity and remission of depression were assessed by the 24-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) was our global measure of cognitive function. Verbal memory was assessed with the memory subscale of the Dementia Rating Scale. Attention was measured with the digit span from the Weschler Adult Intelligence Test. Response inhibition, one of the executive functions, was assessed with the Stroop Color-Word test. The intervention was associated with improved remission and response rates regardless of cognitive impairment. Response inhibition as measured by the Stroop Color-Word test appeared to significantly modify the intervention versus usual care difference in remission and response at 4 months. Patients in the poorest performance quartile at baseline on the Stroop Color-Word test in the Intervention Condition were more likely to achieve remission of depression at 4 months than comparable patients in Usual Care [odds ratio (OR) = 17.76, 95% Confidence Interval (CI), 3.06, 103.1]. Depressed older adults in primary care with executive dysfunction have low remission and response rates when receiving usual care but benefit from depression care management.
Background There is growing interest in applying lean thinking in healthcare, yet, there is still limited knowledge of how and why lean interventions succeed (or fail). To address this gap, this in-depth case study examines a lean-inspired intervention in a Swedish pediatric Accident and Emergency department. Methods We used a mixed methods explanatory single case study design. Hospital performance data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and statistical process control techniques to assess changes in performance one year before and two years after the intervention. We collected qualitative data through non-participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and internal documents to describe the process and content of the lean intervention. We then analyzed empirical findings using four theoretical lean principles (Spear and Bowen 1999) to understand how and why the intervention worked in its local context as well as to identify its strengths and weaknesses. Results Improvements in waiting and lead times (19-24%) were achieved and sustained in the two years following lean-inspired changes to employee roles, staffing and scheduling, communication and coordination, expertise, workspace layout, and problem solving. These changes resulted in improvement because they: (a) standardized work and reduced ambiguity, (b) connected people who were dependent on one another, (c) enhanced seamless, uninterrupted flow through the process, and (d) empowered staff to investigate problems and to develop countermeasures using a "scientific method". Contextual factors that may explain why not even greater improvement was achieved included: a mismatch between job tasks, licensing constraints, and competence; a perception of being monitored, and discomfort with inter-professional collaboration. Conclusions Drawing on Spear and Bowen's theoretical propositions, this study explains how a package of lean-like changes translated into better care process management. It adds
Mazzocato, Pamela; Holden, Richard J; Brommels, Mats; Aronsson, Håkan; Bäckman, Ulrika; Elg, Mattias; Thor, Johan
There is growing interest in applying lean thinking in healthcare, yet, there is still limited knowledge of how and why lean interventions succeed (or fail). To address this gap, this in-depth case study examines a lean-inspired intervention in a Swedish pediatric Accident and Emergency department. We used a mixed methods explanatory single case study design. Hospital performance data were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and statistical process control techniques to assess changes in performance one year before and two years after the intervention. We collected qualitative data through non-participant observations, semi-structured interviews, and internal documents to describe the process and content of the lean intervention. We then analyzed empirical findings using four theoretical lean principles (Spear and Bowen 1999) to understand how and why the intervention worked in its local context as well as to identify its strengths and weaknesses. Improvements in waiting and lead times (19-24%) were achieved and sustained in the two years following lean-inspired changes to employee roles, staffing and scheduling, communication and coordination, expertise, workspace layout, and problem solving. These changes resulted in improvement because they: (a) standardized work and reduced ambiguity, (b) connected people who were dependent on one another, (c) enhanced seamless, uninterrupted flow through the process, and (d) empowered staff to investigate problems and to develop countermeasures using a "scientific method". Contextual factors that may explain why not even greater improvement was achieved included: a mismatch between job tasks, licensing constraints, and competence; a perception of being monitored, and discomfort with inter-professional collaboration. Drawing on Spear and Bowen's theoretical propositions, this study explains how a package of lean-like changes translated into better care process management. It adds new knowledge regarding how lean
Hall, Sue; Kolliakou, Anna; Petkova, Hristina; Froggatt, Katherine; Higginson, Irene J
Residents of nursing care homes for older people are highly likely to die there, making these places where palliative care is needed. The primary objective was to determine effectiveness of multi-component palliative care service delivery interventions for residents of care homes for older people. The secondary objective was to describe the range and quality of outcome measures. The grey literature and the following electronic databases were searched: Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (all issue 1, 2010); MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, British Nursing Index, (1806 to February 2010), Science Citation Index Expanded & AMED (all to February 2010). Key journals were hand searched and a PubMed related articles link search was conducted on the final list of articles. We planned to include Randomised Clinical Trials (RCTs), Controlled Clinical Trials (CCTs), controlled before-and-after studies and interrupted time series studies of multi-component palliative care service delivery interventions for residents of care homes for older people. These usually include the assessment and management of physical, psychological and spiritual symptoms and advance care planning. We did not include individual components of palliative care, such as advance care planning. Two review authors independently assessed studies for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed quality and risk of bias. Meta analysis was not conducted due to heterogeneity of studies. The analysis comprised a structured narrative synthesis. Outcomes for residents and process of care measures were reported separately. Two RCTs and one controlled before-and-after study were included (735 participants). All were conducted in the USA and had several potential sources of bias. Few outcomes for residents were assessed. One study reported higher satisfaction with care and the other found lower observed discomfort in residents
Kime, Nicola; McKenna, Jim; Webster, Liz
The poor outcomes of young people with chronic health conditions indicate that current services and self-care programmes are not meeting the needs of young people. How young people self-manage their condition impacts on long-term health outcomes, but there is little published evidence that details the development of self-care programmes and their…
Kime, Nicola; McKenna, Jim; Webster, Liz
The poor outcomes of young people with chronic health conditions indicate that current services and self-care programmes are not meeting the needs of young people. How young people self-manage their condition impacts on long-term health outcomes, but there is little published evidence that details the development of self-care programmes and their…
Effectiveness of an intervention for improving drug prescription in primary care patients with multimorbidity and polypharmacy: study protocol of a cluster randomized clinical trial (Multi-PAP project).
Prados-Torres, Alexandra; Del Cura-González, Isabel; Prados-Torres, Daniel; López-Rodríguez, Juan A; Leiva-Fernández, Francisca; Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; López-Verde, Fernando; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis A; Escortell-Mayor, Esperanza; Pico-Soler, Victoria; Sanz-Cuesta, Teresa; Bujalance-Zafra, Mª Josefa; Morey-Montalvo, Mariel; Boxó-Cifuentes, José Ramón; Poblador-Plou, Beatriz; Fernández-Arquero, José Manuel; González-Rubio, Francisca; Ramiro-González, María D; Coscollar-Santaliestra, Carlos; Martín-Fernández, Jesús; Barnestein-Fonseca, Mª Pilar; Valderas-Martínez, José María; Marengoni, Alessandra; Muth, Christiane
Multimorbidity is associated with negative effects both on people's health and on healthcare systems. A key problem linked to multimorbidity is polypharmacy, which in turn is associated with increased risk of partly preventable adverse effects, including mortality. The Ariadne principles describe a model of care based on a thorough assessment of diseases, treatments (and potential interactions), clinical status, context and preferences of patients with multimorbidity, with the aim of prioritizing and sharing realistic treatment goals that guide an individualized management. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a complex intervention that implements the Ariadne principles in a population of young-old patients with multimorbidity and polypharmacy. The intervention seeks to improve the appropriateness of prescribing in primary care (PC), as measured by the medication appropriateness index (MAI) score at 6 and 12 months, as compared with usual care. Design: pragmatic cluster randomized clinical trial. Unit of randomization: family physician (FP). Unit of analysis: patient. PC health centres in three autonomous communities: Aragon, Madrid, and Andalusia (Spain). patients aged 65-74 years with multimorbidity (≥3 chronic diseases) and polypharmacy (≥5 drugs prescribed in ≥3 months). n = 400 (200 per study arm). complex intervention based on the implementation of the Ariadne principles with two components: (1) FP training and (2) FP-patient interview. MAI score, health services use, quality of life (Euroqol 5D-5L), pharmacotherapy and adherence to treatment (Morisky-Green, Haynes-Sackett), and clinical and socio-demographic variables. primary outcome is the difference in MAI score between T0 and T1 and corresponding 95% confidence interval. Adjustment for confounding factors will be performed by multilevel analysis. All analyses will be carried out in accordance with the intention-to-treat principle. It is essential to provide evidence
Background Increases in the proportion of facility-based deliveries have been marginal in many low-income countries in the African region. Preliminary clinical and anthropological evidence suggests that one major factor inhibiting pregnant women from delivering at facility is disrespectful and abusive treatment by health care providers in maternity units. Despite acknowledgement of this behavior by policy makers, program staff, civil society groups and community members, the problem appears to be widespread but prevalence is not well documented. Formative research will be undertaken to test the reliability and validity of a disrespect and abuse (D&A) construct and to then measure the prevalence of disrespect and abuse suffered by clinic clients and the general population. Methods/design A quasi-experimental design will be followed with surveys at twelve health facilities in four districts and one large maternity hospital in Nairobi and areas before and after the introduction of disrespect and abuse (D&A) interventions. The design is aimed to control for potential time dependent confounding on observed factors. Discussion This study seeks to conduct implementation research aimed at designing, testing, and evaluating an approach to significantly reduce disrespectful and abusive (D&A) care of women during labor and delivery in facilities. Specifically the proposed study aims to: (i) determine the manifestations, types and prevalence of D&A in childbirth (ii) develop and validate tools for assessing D&A (iii) identify and explore the potential drivers of D&A (iv) design, implement, monitor and evaluate the impact of one or more interventions to reduce D&A and (v) document and assess the dynamics of implementing interventions to reduce D&A and generate lessons for replication at scale. PMID:23347548
Smith, Margaret Coulter; O'May, Fiona; Tropea, Savina; Berg, Jackie
To investigate healthcare staff's views and experiences of caring for older hospitalised adults (aged 60+) with osteoporosis focusing on moving and handling. Specific objectives were to explore the composition of manual handling risk assessments and interventions in osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is a skeletal disease that reduces bone density and causes increased fracture risk. Incidence rises with age and osteoporotic fractures cause increased morbidity and mortality. It is a major global health problem. In the UK older hospitalised adults are normally screened for falls risk but not necessarily for osteoporosis. As presentation of osteoporosis is normally silent until fractures are evident, it is frequently undiagnosed. Healthcare staff's knowledge of osteoporosis is often suboptimal and specific manual handling implications are under-researched. An exploratory qualitative content analysis research design informed by critical realism. The purposive sample comprised 26 nursing and allied health professionals. Semi-structured interviews addressed topics including knowledge of osteoporosis, implications for acute care, moving and handling and clinical guidelines. Qualitative content data analysis was used. Awareness of osteoporosis prevalence in older populations varies and implications for nursing are indistinct to nonspecialists. In-hospital fractures potentially linked to suboptimal moving and handling seemed rare, but prospective studies are needed. Categories of 'Understanding moving and handling as routine care or as a healthcare intervention', with further categories 'healthcare practitioners' capacities and capabilities for dealing with people with osteoporosis' and 'the structural and organisational context for moving and handling' are reported alongside safety, frailty and dependency dimensions. This study informs moving and handling in higher risk groups such as osteoporosis. Clinical knowledge/expertise is required when adapting generic manual handling
Alonso-Pérez, Fernando; Alonso-Cardeñoso, Carmen; García-González, Jesús Vicente; Fraile-Cobos, José Miguel; Lobo-Llorente, Natalia; Secades-Villa, Roberto
To evaluate the effectiveness of a multicomponent program applied by nurses in primary care. A non-experimental pre-post study was carried out in 145 smokers from Area V of Asturias (Spain). The intervention consisted of a multicomponent group treatment program, applied for 7 weeks by primary care nurses. The mean age was 52 years. Men accounted for 39.73% of the study population. The abstinence rate at post-treatment was 51.1% (95% CI: 42.4 to 59.6). At 12 months, the abstinence rate was 41.1% (95% CI: 32.6 to 49.6). The change between the end of the intervention and follow-up at 6 and 12 months was statistically significant at both time points (p = 0.035 and p = 0.013, respectively). Among participants who had stopped smoking, there was a statistically significant decline in daily cigarette consumption. Factors that were statistically significantly associated with continued smoking at 12 months were heavier smoking before the intervention, higher scores on the Fagerström test, and a lower number of sessions attended. The multicomponent treatment program was highly effective. The results suggest the desirability of specific training for health professionals to implement this type of intervention in primary care as an alternative to medical advice for smokers who need it. Copyright © 2013 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Soeprono, Thomas; Markman, Jesse; Grodesky, Michael; Cowley, Deborah
In the modern training environment, some question whether trainees have the opportunity to develop ownership of patient care, which includes concepts such as advocacy, autonomy, commitment, communication, follow-through, knowledge about the patient, responsibility, and teamwork. Despite descriptions of what ownership is, there is little discussion of how to foster ownership during residency. The objective of this study was to solicit psychiatry resident and faculty perspectives on ways to enhance resident ownership in training. Twenty-nine of 74 (39.2%) residents and 31 of 68 (45.6%) faculty members surveyed provided narrative responses to a voluntary, anonymous, electronic survey asking two structured, open-ended questions about what factors make it more or less likely that a resident will take "ownership" of patient care. The coding process produced four overarching categories of themes (attending, resident, educational program, and environment) that reflect domains for possible interventions to increase ownership, with conceptual guidance from the Theory of Planned Behavior. From these factors, the authors propose a number of practical yet theory-based interventions which include setting expectations, modeling, promoting autonomy, countertransference supervision, changing residency culture, and longer rotations. These interventions address subjective norms, attitudes, perceived ability and control, environment, and actual resident abilities, all of which, according to the Theory of Planned Behavior, would be likely to influence patient care ownership. Future studies could develop curricula and examine the effectiveness of the interventions proposed here in reinforcing or developing ownership in physicians.
Ong, Katherine S; Kelaher, Margaret; Anderson, Ian; Carter, Rob
Background Efficiency and equity are both important policy objectives in resource allocation. The discipline of health economics has traditionally focused on maximising efficiency, however addressing inequities in health also requires consideration. Methods to incorporate equity within economic evaluation techniques range from qualitative judgements to quantitative outcomes-based equity weights. Yet, due to definitional uncertainties and other inherent limitations, no method has been universally adopted to date. This paper proposes an alternative cost-based equity weight for use in the economic evaluation of interventions delivered from primary health care services. Methods Equity is defined in terms of 'access' to health services, with the vertical equity objective to achieve 'equitable access for unequal need'. Using the Australian Indigenous population as an illustrative case study, the magnitude of the equity weight is constructed using the ratio of the costs of providing specific interventions via Indigenous primary health care services compared with the costs of the same interventions delivered via mainstream services. Applying this weight to the costs of subsequent interventions deflates the costs of provision via Indigenous health services, and thus makes comparisons with mainstream more equitable when applied during economic evaluation. Results Based on achieving 'equitable access', existing measures of health inequity are suitable for establishing 'need', however the magnitude of health inequity is not necessarily proportional to the magnitude of resources required to redress it. Rather, equitable access may be better measured using appropriate methods of health service delivery for the target group. 'Equity of access' also suggests a focus on the processes of providing equitable health care rather than on outcomes, and therefore supports application of equity weights to the cost side rather than the outcomes side of the economic equation. Conclusion Cost
Stoll, Shelley C.; Lara, Marielena; Ramos-Valencia, Gilberto; Stephens, Tyra Bryant; Persky, Victoria; Uyeda, Kimberly; Lesch, Julie Kennedy; Malveaux, Floyd J.
Adaptation of evidence-based interventions upon implementation into new practice settings is universal, yet poorly understood. During a cross-site evaluation of the implementation of a proven intervention for pediatric asthma care coordination into 4 resource-challenged settings, we conducted in-depth interviews with site representatives, who reported how and why they modified intervention components. Interview notes were coded for themes. We focused on a single theme from a respondent who described the adaptation process as “backing” the intervention into ongoing services; we found evidence of a similar process at other sites. We labeled this process “retrofitting” to signify adaptation that consists of altering existing services to align with intervention components, rather than modifying the intervention to fit a new setting. Advantages of retrofitting may include allowing organizations to keep what works, capitalizing on existing support for program activities, elevating the role of local knowledge, and potentially promoting the sustainability of effective innovations. PMID:27560722
Palmas, Walter; Findley, Sally E; Mejia, Miriam; Batista, Milagros; Teresi, Jeanne; Kong, Jian; Silver, Stephanie; Fleck, Elaine M; Luchsinger, Jose A; Carrasquillo, Olveen
OBJECTIVE The Northern Manhattan Diabetes Community Outreach Project evaluated whether a community health worker (CHW) intervention improved clinically relevant markers of diabetes care in adult Hispanics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were adult Hispanics, ages 35-70 years, with recent hemoglobin A1c (A1C) ≥8% (≥64 mmol/mol), from a university-affiliated network of primary care practices in northern Manhattan (New York City, NY). They were randomized to a 12-month CHW intervention (n = 181), or enhanced usual care (educational materials mailed at 4-month intervals, preceded by phone calls, n = 179). The primary outcome was A1C at 12 months; the secondary outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol levels. RESULTS There was a nonsignificant trend toward improvement in A1C levels in the intervention group (from unadjusted mean A1C of 8.77 to 8.40%), as compared with usual care (from 8.58 to 8.53%) (P = 0.131). There was also a nonsignificant trend toward an increase in SBP and LDL cholesterol in the intervention arm. Intervention fidelity, measured as the number of contacts in the intervention arm (visits, phone contacts, group support, and nutritional education), showed a borderline association with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.054). When assessed separately, phone contacts were associated with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS The trend toward A1C reduction with the CHW intervention failed to achieve statistical significance. Greater intervention fidelity may achieve better glycemic control, and more accessible treatment models, such as phone-based interventions, may be more efficacious in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations.
Palmas, Walter; Findley, Sally E.; Mejia, Miriam; Batista, Milagros; Teresi, Jeanne; Kong, Jian; Silver, Stephanie; Fleck, Elaine M.; Luchsinger, Jose A.; Carrasquillo, Olveen
OBJECTIVE The Northern Manhattan Diabetes Community Outreach Project evaluated whether a community health worker (CHW) intervention improved clinically relevant markers of diabetes care in adult Hispanics. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Participants were adult Hispanics, ages 35–70 years, with recent hemoglobin A1c (A1C) ≥8% (≥64 mmol/mol), from a university-affiliated network of primary care practices in northern Manhattan (New York City, NY). They were randomized to a 12-month CHW intervention (n = 181), or enhanced usual care (educational materials mailed at 4-month intervals, preceded by phone calls, n = 179). The primary outcome was A1C at 12 months; the secondary outcomes were systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure, and LDL-cholesterol levels. RESULTS There was a nonsignificant trend toward improvement in A1C levels in the intervention group (from unadjusted mean A1C of 8.77 to 8.40%), as compared with usual care (from 8.58 to 8.53%) (P = 0.131). There was also a nonsignificant trend toward an increase in SBP and LDL cholesterol in the intervention arm. Intervention fidelity, measured as the number of contacts in the intervention arm (visits, phone contacts, group support, and nutritional education), showed a borderline association with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.054). When assessed separately, phone contacts were associated with greater A1C reduction (P = 0.04). CONCLUSIONS The trend toward A1C reduction with the CHW intervention failed to achieve statistical significance. Greater intervention fidelity may achieve better glycemic control, and more accessible treatment models, such as phone-based interventions, may be more efficacious in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. PMID:24496805
Pallitto, Christina; García-Moreno, Claudia; Stöeckl, Heidi; Hatcher, Abigail; MacPhail, Catherine; Mokoatle, Keneoue; Woollett, Nataly
Intimate partner violence (IPV) during or before pregnancy is associated with many adverse health outcomes. Pregnancy-related complications or poor infant health outcomes can arise from direct trauma as well as physiological effects of stress, both of which impact maternal health and fetal growth and development. Antenatal care can be a key entry point within the health system for many women, particularly in low-resource settings. Interventions to identify violence during pregnancy and offer women support and counselling may reduce the occurrence of violence and mitigate its consequences. Following a formative research phase, a randomized controlled trial will be conducted to test a nurse-led empowerment counselling intervention, originally developed for high-income settings and adapted for urban South Africa. The primary outcome is reduction of partner violence, and secondary outcomes include improvement in women's mental health, safety and self-efficacy. The study aims to recruit 504 pregnant women from three antenatal clinics in Johannesburg who will be randomized to the nurse-led empowerment arm (two 30-min counselling sessions) or enhanced control condition (a referral list) to determine whether participants in the intervention arm have better outcomes as compared to the those in the control arm. This research will provide much needed evidence on whether a short counselling intervention delivered by nurses is efficacious and feasible in low resource settings that have high prevalence of IPV and HIV. The study was registered in the South African Clinical Trials Registry (DOH-27-0414-4720) on 11 August 2014 and in the ISRCTN Registry ( ISRCTN35969343 ) on 23 May 2016).
Maidment, Ian D; Shaw, Rachel L; Killick, Kirsty; Damery, Sarah; Hilton, Andrea; Wilcock, Jane; Barnes, Nigel; Brown, Graeme; Gillespie, Sarah; Fox, Chris; Barton, Garry; Iliffe, Steve; Seare, Nichola
The inappropriate use of antipsychotics in people with dementia for behaviour that challenges is associated with an estimated 1800 deaths annually. However, solely focusing on antipsychotics may transfer prescribing to other equally dangerous psychotropics. Little is known about the role of pharmacists in the management of psychotropics used to treat behaviours that challenge. This research aims to determine whether it is feasible to implement and measure the effectiveness of a combined pharmacy-health psychology intervention incorporating a medication review and staff training package to limit the prescription of psychotropics to manage behaviour that challenges in care home residents with dementia. 6 care homes within the West Midlands will be recruited. People with dementia receiving medication for behaviour that challenges, or their personal consultee, will be approached regarding participation. Medication used to treat behaviour that challenges will be reviewed by the pharmacist, in collaboration with the general practitioner (GP), person with dementia and carer. The behavioural intervention consists of a training package for care home staff and GPs promoting person-centred care and treating behaviours that challenge as an expression of unmet need. The primary outcome measure is the Neuropsychiatric Inventory-Nursing Home version (NPI-NH). Other outcomes include quality of life (EQ-5D and DEMQoL), cognition (sMMSE), health economic (CSRI) and prescribed medication including whether recommendations were implemented. Outcome data will be collected at 6 weeks, and 3 and 6 months. Pretraining and post-training interviews will explore stakeholders' expectations and experiences of the intervention. Data will be used to estimate the sample size for a definitive study. The project has received a favourable opinion from the East Midlands REC (15/EM/3014). If potential participants lack capacity, a personal consultee will be consulted regarding participation in line
Background There is scientific evidence that preventive physical exercise is effective even in high age. In contrast, there are few opportunities of preventive exercise for highly aged people endangered by or actually in need of care. For example, they would not be able to easily go to training facilities; standard exercises may be too intensive and therefore be harmful to them; orientation disorders like dementia would exacerbate individuals and groups in following instructions and keeping exercises going. In order to develop appropriate interventions, these and other issues were assigned to different levels: the individual-social level (ISL), the organisational-institutional level (OIL) and the political-cultural level (PCL). Consequently, this conceptional framework was utilised for development, implementation and evaluation of a new strength and balance exercise programme for old people endangered by or actually in need of daily care. The present paper contains the development of this programme labeled "fit for 100", and a study protocol of an interventional single-arm multi-centre trial. Methods The intervention consisted of (a) two group training sessions every week over one year, mainly resistance exercises, accompanied by sensorimotor and communicative group exercises and games (ISL), (b) a sustainable implementation concept, starting new groups by instructors belonging to the project, followed by training and supervision of local staff, who stepwise take over the group (OIL), (c) informing and convincing activities in professional, administrative and governmental contexts, public relation activities, and establishing an advisory council with renowned experts and public figures (PCL). Participating institutions of geriatric care were selected through several steps of quality criteria assessment. Primary outcome measures were continuous documentation of individual participation (ISL), number of groups continued without external financial support (at the end
Kinsey, Debbie; Schlösser, Annette
Foster care is a complex setting in which to provide therapeutic interventions due to the high rates of difficulty, poor outcomes and high numbers of professionals and carers involved. This systematic review aims to examine interventions that have been empirically assessed in foster care. Thirty papers describing 20 interventions were included. It was found that there was good support for wraparound services and relational interventions, but little support for widely used carer training programmes. A need was identified to further research and implement wraparound services within the UK, and to empirically test interventions which may be efficacious with a foster care population.
Byrne, Eilish; Garber, June
This article presents the elements of the Intervention section of the Infant Care Path for Physical Therapy in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The types of physical therapy interventions presented in this path are evidence-based and the suggested timing of these interventions is primarily based on practice knowledge from expert therapists, with supporting evidence cited. Physical therapy intervention in the NICU is infant-driven and focuses on providing family-centered care. In this context, interventions to facilitate a calm behavioral state and motor organization in the infant, address positioning and handling of the infant, and provide movement therapy are presented.
The aim of the study was to investigate the behavior, beliefs and attitudes of Polish primary care physicians concerning the use of placebo interventions. A total of 220 Polish primary care physicians (internists, specialists in family medicine and pediatricians) were asked to participate in a questionnaire survey and 171 agreed to do so. The questionnaire was a self-report of the behavior, beliefs and attitudes of physicians concerning the use of placebo interventions in clinical practice. The percentages are based on the actual number of respondents to each question. Of 169 respondents, 135 (80%) declared that they used or prescribed placebo interventions, with 20/169 (12%) doing so almost every day, 51/169 (30%) once a week and 44/169 (26%) once a month. The most common placebos used were vitamins (86/135, 66%) and homeopathy (73/135, 56%). Among the participants, 114/129 (84%) reported that the placebos were effective, with only 10/129 (8%) considering them rarely effective; 75/139 (54%) of the physicians considered placebo interventions to be effective only in patients with subjective symptoms, 116/139 (73%) indicated that individual traits of patients were decisive factors in the effectiveness of placebo interventions, and 103/159 (65%) thought that the expectations of patients were of importance. A total of 128/170 (75%) respondents thought that the mechanism of placebo effects was purely psychological. The use and prescription of placebo interventions seemed to be very common among Polish primary care physicians studied and they generally had positive attitudes towards their use and effectiveness. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Treatment outcomes in palliative care: the TOPCare study. A mixed methods phase III randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of a nurse-led palliative care intervention for HIV positive patients on antiretroviral therapy
Background Patients with HIV/AIDS on Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) suffer from physical, psychological and spiritual problems. Despite international policy explicitly stating that a multidimensional approach such as palliative care should be delivered throughout the disease trajectory and alongside treatment, the effectiveness of this approach has not been tested in ART-experienced populations. Methods/design This mixed methods study uses a Randomised Controlled Trial (RCT) to test the null hypothesis that receipt of palliative care in addition to standard HIV care does not affect pain compared to standard care alone. An additional qualitative component will explore the mechanism of action and participant experience. The sample size is designed to detect a statistically significant decrease in reported pain, determined by a two tailed test and a p value of ≤0.05. Recruited patients will be adults on ART for more than one month, who report significant pain or symptoms which have lasted for more than two weeks (as measured by the African Palliative Care Association (APCA) African Palliative Outcome Scale (POS)). The intervention under trial is palliative care delivered by an existing HIV facility nurse trained to a set standard. Following an initial pilot the study will be delivered in two African countries, using two parallel independent Phase III clinical RCTs. Qualitative data will be collected from semi structured interviews and documentation from clinical encounters, to explore the experience of receiving palliative care in this context. Discussion The data provided by this study will provide evidence to inform the improvement of outcomes for people living with HIV and on ART in Africa. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01608802 PMID:23130740
Project Kiddum functions in nine Mother and Child Health Care Centers in culturally deprived areas of Jerusalem. The project integrates a large scale infant intervention program into ongoing primary preventive mother and child health care. (Author/GC)
Dotterud, Christian Kvikne; Storrø, Ola; Simpson, Melanie Rae; Johnsen, Roar; Øien, Torbjørn
Environmental factors such as tobacco exposure, indoor climate and diet are known to be involved in the development of allergy related diseases. The aim was to determine the impact of altered exposure to these factors during pregnancy and infancy on the incidence of allergy related diseases at 2 years of age. Children from a non-selected population of mothers were recruited to a controlled, multicenter intervention study in primary health care. The interventions were an increased maternal and infant intake of n-3 PUFAs and oily fish, reduced parental smoking, and reduced indoor dampness during pregnancy and the children's first 2 years of life. Questionnaires on baseline data and exposures, and health were collected at 2 years of age. The prevalence of smoking amongst the mothers and fathers was approximately halved at 2 years of age in the intervention cohort compared to the control cohort. The intake of n-3 PUFA supplement and oily fish among the children in the intervention cohort was increased. There was no significant change for indoor dampness. The odds ratio for the incidence of asthma was 0.72 (95% CI, 0.55-0.93; NNTb 53), and 0.75 for the use of asthma medication (95% CI, 0.58-0.96). The odds ratio for asthma among girls was 0.41 (95% CI 0.24-0.70; NNTb 32), and for boys 0.93 (95% CI 0.68-1.26). There were no significant change for wheeze and atopic dermatitis. Reduced tobacco exposure and increased intake of oily fish during pregnancy and early childhood may be effective in reducing the incidence of asthma at 2 years of age. The differential impact in boys and girls indicates that the pathophysiology of asthma may depend on the sex of the children. Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN28090297.
Alldred, David P; Raynor, David K; Hughes, Carmel; Barber, Nick; Chen, Timothy F; Spoor, Pat
There is a substantial body of evidence that prescribing for care home residents is suboptimal and requires improvement. Consequently, there is a need to identify effective interventions to optimise prescribing and resident outcomes in this context. The objective of the review was to determine the effect of interventions to optimise prescribing for older people living in care homes. We searched the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) Group Specialised Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), The Cochrane Library (Issue 11, 2012); Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, The Cochrane Library (Issue 11, 2012); MEDLINE OvidSP (1980 on); EMBASE, OvidSP (1980 on); Ageline, EBSCO (1966 on); CINAHL, EBSCO (1980 on); International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, OvidSP (1980 on); PsycINFO, OvidSP (1980 on); conference proceedings in Web of Science, Conference Proceedings Citation Index - SSH & Science, ISI Web of Knowledge (1990 on); grey literature sources and trial registries; and contacted authors of relevant studies. We also reviewed the references lists of included studies and related reviews (search period November 2012). We included randomised controlled trials evaluating interventions aimed at optimising prescribing for older people (aged 65 years or older) living in institutionalised care facilities. Studies were included if they measured one or more of the following primary outcomes, adverse drug events; hospital admissions;mortality; or secondary outcomes, quality of life (using validated instrument); medication-related problems; medication appropriateness (using validated instrument); medicine costs. Two authors independently screened titles and abstracts, assessed studies for eligibility, assessed risk of bias and extracted data. A narrative summary of results was presented. The eight included studies involved 7653 residents in 262 (range 1 to 85) care homes in six countries. Six studies were cluster
Katon, W; Robinson, P; Von Korff, M; Lin, E; Bush, T; Ludman, E; Simon, G; Walker, E
This research study evaluates the effectiveness of a multifaceted intervention program to improve the management of depression in primary care. One hundred fifty-three primary care patients with current depression were entered into a randomized controlled trial. Intervention patients received a structured depression treatment program in the primary care setting that included both behavioral treatment to increase use of adaptive coping strategies and counseling to improve medication adherence. Control patients received "usual" care by their primary care physicians. Outcome measures included adherence to antidepressant medication, satisfaction with care of depression and with antidepressant treatment, and reduction of depressive symptoms over time. At 4-month follow-up, significantly more intervention patients with major and minor depression than usual care patients adhered to antidepressant medication and rated the quality of care they received for depression as good to excellent. Intervention patients with major depression demonstrated a significantly greater decrease in depression severity over time compared with usual care patients on all 4 outcome analyses. Intervention patients with minor depression were found to have a significant decrease over time in depression severity on only 1 of 4 study outcome analyses compared with usual care patients. A multifaceted primary care intervention improved adherence to antidepressant regimens and satisfaction with care in patients with major and minor depression. The intervention consistently resulted in more favorable depression outcomes among patients with major depression, while outcome effects were ambiguous among patients with minor depression.
Wehby, George L; Castilla, Eduardo E; Goco, Norman; Rittler, Monica; Cosentino, Viviana; Javois, Lorette; McCarthy, Ann Marie; Bobashev, Georgiy; Litavecz, Stephen; Mariona, Alejandra; Dutra, Graca; López-Camelo, Jorge S; Orioli, Iêda M; Murray, Jeffrey C
Background The contribution of birth defects, including cleft lip and palate, to neonatal and infant mortality and morbidity is substantial. As other mortality and morbidity causes including infections, hygiene, prematurity, and nutrition are eradicated in less developed countries, the burden of birth defects will increase proportionally. Methods/Design We are using cleft lip and palate as a sentinel birth defect to evaluate its burden on neonatal and infant health and to assess the effectiveness of systematic pediatric care during the first month and first two years of life in decreasing this burden. The neonatal intervention, consisting of weekly pediatric evaluation and referral to appropriate care, is delivered to about 696 infants born with cleft lip and/or palate in 47 hospitals in South America. Neonatal mortality in this group will be compared to that in a retrospective control group of about 464 infants born with cleft lip and/or palate in the same hospitals. The subgroup of infants with isolated clefts of both the lip and palate (about 264) is also randomized into two groups, intervened and non-intervened, and further followed up over 2 years. Intervened cases are evaluated by pediatricians every three months and referred for appropriate care. The intervened and non-intervened cases will be compared over study outcomes to evaluate the intervention effectiveness. Non-intervened cases are matched and compared to healthy controls to assess the burden of cleft lip and palate. Outcomes include child's neurological and physical development and family social and economic conditions. Discussion Large-scale clinical trials to improve infant health in developing countries are commonly suggested, making it important to share the methods used in ongoing studies with other investigators implementing similar research. We describe here the content of our ongoing pediatric care study in South America. We hope that this may help researchers targeting this area to plan
Cavendish, Roberta; Konecny, Lynda; Mitzeliotis, Claudia; Russo, Donna; Luise, Barbara; Lanza, Melissa; Medefindt, Judith; Bajo, Mary Ann McPartlan
To describe the spiritual care activities of nurses as subsequently identified in the Nursing Interventions Classification (NIC) labels. Data were taken from a larger study that used a multiple triangulation research design to describe spiritual perspectives, interventions, and attitudes of 1,000 Sigma Theta Tau International members. Data analysis included descriptive and multivariate statistics for quantitative items, and content analysis for responses to questions. 97 respondents reported providing 32 spiritual care activities. Ten NIC labels actually mapped the nurses' spiritual care activities. Spiritual care activities involve a broad spectrum of interventions that may be unique to each patient. The 32 spiritual care activities described by the nurses provide new knowledge regarding core spiritual care activities. The use of NIC labels can facilitate documentation of spiritual care activities in diverse practice settings. This study supports greater specificity in describing spiritual care interventions to a level that allows replication and advancement of knowledge.
Barley, Elizabeth A.; Walters, Paul; Haddad, Mark; Phillips, Rachel; Achilla, Evanthia; McCrone, Paul; Van Marwijk, Harm; Mann, Anthony; Tylee, Andre
Background Depression is common in people with coronary heart disease (CHD) and associated with worse outcome. This study explored the acceptability and feasibility of procedures for a trial and for an intervention, including its potential costs, to inform a definitive randomized controlled trial (RCT) of a nurse-led personalised care intervention for primary care CHD patients with current chest pain and probable depression. Methods Multi-centre, outcome assessor-blinded, randomized parallel group study. CHD patients reporting chest pain and scoring 8 or more on the HADS were randomized to personalized care (PC) or treatment as usual (TAU) for 6 months and followed for 1 year. Primary outcome was acceptability and feasibility of procedures; secondary outcomes included mood, chest pain, functional status, well being and psychological process variables. Result 1001 people from 17 General Practice CHD registers in South London consented to be contacted; out of 126 who were potentially eligible, 81 (35% female, mean age = 65 SD11 years) were randomized. PC participants (n = 41) identified wide ranging problems to work on with nurse-case managers. Good acceptability and feasibility was indicated by low attrition (9%), high engagement and minimal nurse time used (mean/SD = 78/19 mins assessment, 125/91 mins telephone follow up). Both groups improved on all outcomes. The largest between group difference was in the proportion no longer reporting chest pain (PC 37% vs TAU 18%; mixed effects model OR 2.21 95% CI 0.69, 7.03). Some evidence was seen that self efficacy (mean scale increase of 2.5 vs 0.9) and illness perceptions (mean scale increase of 7.8 vs 2.5) had improved in PC vs TAU participants at 1 year. PC appeared to be more cost effective up to a QALY threshold of approximately £3,000. Conclusions Trial and intervention procedures appeared to be feasible and acceptable. PC allowed patients to work on unaddressed problems and appears cheaper than TAU
Naing, Soe; Clouse, Emily; Thu, Kaung Htet; Mon, Sandra Hsu Hnin; Tun, Zin Min; Baral, Stefan; Paing, Aung Zayar; Beyrer, Chris
Background Efforts to improve HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation among people living with HIV and reduce onward transmission of HIV rely on innovative interventions along multiple steps of the HIV care continuum. These innovative methods are particularly important for key populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW). The HIV epidemic in Myanmar is concentrated among key populations, and national efforts now focus on reducing stigma and improving engagement of MSM and TW in HIV prevention and care. Objective This study aims to test the use of several innovations to address losses in the HIV care continuum: (1) use of respondent-driven sampling (RDS) to reach and engage MSM and TW in HIV testing, (2) HIV self-testing (HIVST) to increase HIV testing uptake and aid early diagnosis of infection, (3) community-based CD4 point-of-care (POC) technology to rapidly stage HIV disease for those who are HIV infected, and (4) peer navigation support to increase successful health system navigation for HIV-infected MSM and TW in need of ART or HIV engagement in care. Methods To assess the effect of HIVST, we will implement a randomized trial in which MSM and TW adults in the greater Yangon metropolitan area who are HIV uninfected will be recruited via RDS (N=366). Participants will complete a baseline socio-behavioral survey and will be randomized to standard, voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) or to HIVST. Biologic specimens will be collected during this baseline visit for confirmatory testing using dried blood spots. Participants will be asked to return to the study office to complete a second study visit in which they will report their HIV test result and answer questions on the acceptability of the assigned testing method. Aim 1 participants with confirmed HIV infection and who are not engaged in care (N=49) will be offered direct enrollment into Aims 2 and 3, which include immediate CD4 POC and the option for
Forbes, Andrew B; Akram, Muhammad; Pilcher, David; Cooper, Jamie; Bellomo, Rinaldo
Cluster randomised crossover trials have been utilised in recent years in the health and social sciences. Methods for analysis have been proposed; however, for binary outcomes, these have received little assessment of their appropriateness. In addition, methods for determination of sample size are currently limited to balanced cluster sizes both between clusters and between periods within clusters. This article aims to extend this work to unbalanced situations and to evaluate the properties of a variety of methods for analysis of binary data, with a particular focus on the setting of potential trials of near-universal interventions in intensive care to reduce in-hospital mortality. We derive a formula for sample size estimation for unbalanced cluster sizes, and apply it to the intensive care setting to demonstrate the utility of the cluster crossover design. We conduct a numerical simulation of the design in the intensive care setting and for more general configurations, and we assess the performance of three cluster summary estimators and an individual-data estimator based on binomial-identity-link regression. For settings similar to the intensive care scenario involving large cluster sizes and small intra-cluster correlations, the sample size formulae developed and analysis methods investigated are found to be appropriate, with the unweighted cluster summary method performing well relative to the more optimal but more complex inverse-variance weighted method. More generally, we find that the unweighted and cluster-size-weighted summary methods perform well, with the relative efficiency of each largely determined systematically from the study design parameters. Performance of individual-data regression is adequate with small cluster sizes but becomes inefficient for large, unbalanced cluster sizes. When outcome prevalences are 6% or less and the within-cluster-within-period correlation is 0.05 or larger, all methods display sub-nominal confidence interval coverage
Advancing patient-centered care for structurally vulnerable drug-using populations: a qualitative study of the perspectives of people who use drugs regarding the potential integration of harm reduction interventions into hospitals.
McNeil, Ryan; Kerr, Thomas; Pauly, Bernie; Wood, Evan; Small, Will
To explore the perspectives of structurally vulnerable people who use drugs (PWUD) regarding: (1) the potential integration of harm reduction interventions (e.g. supervised drug consumption services, opioid-assisted treatment) into hospitals; and (2) the implications of these interventions for patient-centered care, hospital outcomes and drug-related risks and harms. Semi-structured qualitative interviews. Vancouver, Canada. Thirty structurally vulnerable PWUD who had been discharged from hospital against medical advice within the past 2 years, and hospitalized multiple times over the past 5 years. Semi-structured interview guide including questions to elicit perspectives on hospital-based harm reduction interventions. Participant accounts highlighted that hospital-based harm reduction interventions would promote patient-centered care by: (1) prioritizing hospital care access and risk reduction over the enforcement of abstinence-based drug policies; (2) increasing responsiveness to subjective health needs (e.g. pain and withdrawal symptoms); and (3) fostering 'culturally safe' care. Hospital-based harm reduction interventions for people who use drugs, such as supervised drug consumption services and opioid-assisted treatment, can potentially improve hospital care retention, promote patient-centered care and reduce adverse health outcomes among people who use drugs. © 2015 Society for the Study of Addiction.
Hyon, Choe Suk; Nam, Kim Yong; Sun, Han Chae; Garg, Renu; Shrestha, Suraj Man; Ok, Kim Un; Kumar, Rajesh
The prevention and control of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) is a priority for the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. Mortality due to NCDs in people aged over 30 years was 1239 per 100 000 in 2009 and the 2014-2020 national strategy includes population-level goals for health promotion and disease prevention. This paper reports a pilot study on the feasibility of implementing components of the World Health Organization (WHO) Package of essential noncommunicable disease (PEN) interventions for primary health care in low-resource settings (WHO PEN) to enable early detection and management of cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus at the level of primary care. WHO PEN protocols were adapted for local use by household doctors, who provide ambulatory care in polyclinics in the mornings and household visits in the afternoons. The pilot project was implemented in two polyclinics in Pyongyang, covering a population of 32 000. After training, and during routine household visits in June 2014, 70 household doctors screened all adults aged over 35 years (18 340) for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus, and their risk factors. A total of 2319 patients with cardiovascular disease or diabetes, and those with high-risk factors, were referred to the polyclinics for three quarterly visits for testing and management. Final household screening of the population was done in June 2015. This pilot project demonstrated the feasibility of integrating screening and management into the standard primary health-care system in the Democratic People's Republic of Korea. The household doctors were able to detect and manage risks for cardiovascular disease and diabetes by using the protocols based on WHO PEN. Among 18 340 individuals aged over 35 years, implementation of WHO PEN interventions led to a significant reduction in the number of people with a 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease ≥20% (from 1748 [9.5%] to 543 [3.0%]) over a 1-year period. Involvement of household
LaRocco-Cockburn, Anna; Reed, Susan D.; Melville, Jennifer; Croicu, Carmen; Russo, Joan; Inspektor, Michal; Edmondson, Eddie; Katon, Wayne
Background Women have higher rates of depression and often experience depression symptoms during critical reproductive periods, including adolescence, pregnancy, postpartum, and menopause. Collaborative care intervention models for mood disorders in patients receiving care in an OB-GYN clinic setting have not been evaluated. Study design and methodology for a randomized, controlled trial of collaborative care depression management versus usual care in OB-GYN clinics and the details of the adapted collaborative care intervention and model implementation are described in this paper. Methods Women over age 18 years with clinically significant symptoms of depression, as measured by a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score ≥10 and a clinical diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia, were randomized to the study intervention or to usual care and were followed for 18 months. The primary outcome assessed was change over time in the SCL-20 depression scale between baseline and 12 months. Baseline Results 205 women were randomized: 57% white, 20% African American, 9% Asian or Pacific Islander, 7% Hispanic, and 6% Native American. Mean age was 39 years. 4.6% were pregnant and 7.5% were within 12 months postpartum. The majority were single, (52%), and 95% had at least the equivalent of a high school diploma. Almost all patients met DSM IV criteria for major depression (99%) and approximately 33% met criteria for dysthymia. Conclusions An OB-GYN collaborative care team including a social worker, psychiatrist and OB-GYN physician who met weekly and used an electronic tracking system for patients were essential elements of the proposed depression care treatment model described here. Further study of models that improve quality of depression care that are adapted to the unique OB-GYN setting are needed. PMID:23939510
LaRocco-Cockburn, Anna; Reed, Susan D; Melville, Jennifer; Croicu, Carmen; Russo, Joan E; Inspektor, Michal; Edmondson, Eddie; Katon, Wayne
Women have higher rates of depression and often experience depression symptoms during critical reproductive periods, including adolescence, pregnancy, postpartum, and menopause. Collaborative care intervention models for mood disorders in patients receiving care in an OB-GYN clinic setting have not been evaluated. Study design and methodology for a randomized controlled trial of collaborative care depression management versus usual care in OB-GYN clinics and the details of the adapted collaborative care intervention and model implementation are described in this paper. Women over age 18 years with clinically significant symptoms of depression, as measured by a Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) score ≥10 and a clinical diagnosis of major depression or dysthymia, were randomized to the study intervention or to usual care and were followed for 18 months. The primary outcome assessed was change over time in the SCL-20 depression scale between baseline and 12 months. Two hundred five women were randomized: 57% white, 20% African American, 9% Asian or Pacific Islander, 7% Hispanic, and 6% Native American. Mean age was 39 years. 4.6% were pregnant and 7.5% were within 12 months postpartum. The majority were single (52%), and 95% had at least the equivalent of a high school diploma. Almost all patients met DSM IV criteria for major depression (99%) and approximately 33% met criteria for dysthymia. An OB-GYN collaborative care team, including a social worker, a psychiatrist, and an OB-GYN physician, who met weekly and used an electronic tracking system for patients was the essential element of the proposed depression care treatment model described here. Further study of models that improve quality of depression care that are adapted to the unique OB-GYN setting is needed. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jeffries, Mark; Phipps, Denham; Howard, Rachel L; Avery, Anthony; Rodgers, Sarah; Ashcroft, Darren
Using strong structuration theory, we aimed to understand the adoption and implementation of an electronic clinical audit and feedback tool to support medicine optimisation for patients in primary care. This is a qualitative study informed by strong structuration theory. The analysis was thematic, using a template approach. An a priori set of thematic codes, based on strong structuration theory, was developed from the literature and applied to the transcripts. The coding template was then modified through successive readings of the data. Clinical commissioning group in the south of England. Four focus groups and five semi-structured interviews were conducted with 18 participants purposively sampled from a range of stakeholder groups (general practitioners, pharmacists, patients and commissioners). Using the system could lead to improved medication safety, but use was determined by broad institutional contexts; by the perceptions, dispositions and skills of users; and by the structures embedded within the technology. These included perceptions of the system as new and requiring technical competence and skill; the adoption of the system for information gathering; and interactions and relationships that involved individual, shared or collective use. The dynamics between these external, internal and technological structures affected the adoption and implementation of the system. Successful implementation of information technology interventions for medicine optimisation will depend on a combination of the infrastructure within primary care, social structures embedded in the technology and the conventions, norms and dispositions of those utilising it. Future interventions, using electronic audit and feedback tools to improve medication safety, should consider the complexity of the social and organisational contexts and how internal and external structures can affect the use of the technology in order to support effective implementation. © Article author(s) (or their
Fennell, Mary L.; Devers, Kelly J.
To increase access and improve system quality and efficiency, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with sweeping changes to the nation’s health-care system. Although not intended to be specific to cancer, the act's implementation will profoundly impact cancer care. Its components will influence multiple levels of the health-care environment including states, communities, health-care organizations, and individuals seeking care. To illustrate these influences, two reforms are considered: 1) accountable care organizations and 2) insurance-based reforms to gather evidence about effectiveness. We discuss these reforms using three facets of multilevel interventions: 1) their intended and unintended consequences, 2) the importance of timing, and 3) their implications for cancer. The success of complex health reforms requires understanding the scientific basis and evidence for carrying out such multilevel interventions. Conversely and equally important, successful implementation of multilevel interventions depends on understanding the political setting and goals of health-care reform. PMID:22623600
Flood, Ann B; Fennell, Mary L; Devers, Kelly J
To increase access and improve system quality and efficiency, President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act with sweeping changes to the nation's health-care system. Although not intended to be specific to cancer, the act's implementation will profoundly impact cancer care. Its components will influence multiple levels of the health-care environment including states, communities, health-care organizations, and individuals seeking care. To illustrate these influences, two reforms are considered: 1) accountable care organizations and 2) insurance-based reforms to gather evidence about effectiveness. We discuss these reforms using three facets of multilevel interventions: 1) their intended and unintended consequences, 2) the importance of timing, and 3) their implications for cancer. The success of complex health reforms requires understanding the scientific basis and evidence for carrying out such multilevel interventions. Conversely and equally important, successful implementation of multilevel interventions depends on understanding the political setting and goals of health-care reform.
Kilgore, Rachel V; Langford, Rae W
Few studies in the literature have examined the outcomes of health care interdisciplinary teams. Most existing studies have measured attributes of health care teams; however, none have implemented and examined outcomes of a team development intervention. This study was conducted to determine whether a development intervention used with an existing interdisciplinary team would reduce the length of stay for patients in an acute care setting. A quasi-experimental single-subject time series design was conducted with multiple measures of length of stay collected across baseline, intervention, and reversal phases of the study. Bronstein's Model for Interdisciplinary Collaboration provided the framework for this study. The components of this model were used to guide a team development intervention comprised of 4 consecutive weeks of classroom development sessions and 4 consecutive weeks of booster messaging. Length of stay (LOS) data were collected for each of the study phases to examine preintervention LOS and compare these data with LOS during the intervention and reversal phases. The results of this study revealed that the interdisciplinary team development intervention had no positive effect on the length of stay data. Baseline mean LOS across 12 baseline months was 4.83 days (SD=0.65) with monthly means ranging from 4.1 to 6.3 days. The mean LOS was 5.1 and 4.6 days for the intervention months of May and June and 6.0, 6.5, 5.7, and 5.4 days for the reversal months of July to October, respectively. All means in the intervention and reversal phases were higher than comparable months in the baseline phase. The pattern of the graphed trend was closely aligned with the seasonal variations seen during the baseline months. Although these results showed that the team development intervention provided for this interdisciplinary team had no positive effect on the LOS, there are many factors that may have influenced the results and may provide insights useful for future
Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes: protocol for an open pilot study and external pilot clustered randomised controlled trial to assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity of a multifaceted behavioural intervention targeting physical activity in primary care
Background Physical activity (PA) and nutrition are the cornerstones of diabetes management. Several reviews and meta-analyses report that PA independently produces clinically important improvements in glucose control in people with Type 2 diabetes. However, it remains unclear what the optimal strategies are to increase PA behaviour in people with Type 2 diabetes in routine primary care. Methods This study will determine whether an evidence-informed multifaceted behaviour change intervention (Movement as Medicine for Type 2 Diabetes) targeting both consultation behaviour of primary healthcare professionals and PA behaviour in adults with Type 2 diabetes is both acceptable and feasible in the primary care setting. An open pilot study conducted in two primary care practices (phase one) will assess acceptability, feasibility and fidelity. Ongoing feedback from participating primary healthcare professionals and patients will provide opportunities for systematic adaptation and refinement of the intervention and study procedures. A two-arm parallel group clustered pilot randomised controlled trial with patients from participating primary care practices in North East England will assess acceptability, feasibility, and fidelity of the intervention (versus usual clinical care) and trial processes over a 12-month period. Consultation behaviour involving fidelity of intervention delivery, diabetes and PA related knowledge, attitudes/beliefs, intentions and self-efficacy for delivering a behaviour change intervention targeting PA behaviour will be assessed in primary healthcare professionals. We will rehearse the collection of outcome data (with the focus on data yield and quality) for a future definitive trial, through outcome assessment at baseline, one, six and twelve months. An embedded qualitative process evaluation and treatment fidelity assessment will explore issues around intervention implementation and assess whether intervention components can be reliably and
Background When clinically indicated, common obstetric interventions can greatly improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, variation in intervention rates suggests that obstetric practice may not be solely driven by case criteria. Methods Differences in obstetric intervention rates by private and public status in Ireland were examined using nationally representative hospital discharge data. A retrospective cohort study was performed on childbirth hospitalisations occurring between 2005 and 2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with correction for the relative risk was conducted to determine the risk of obstetric intervention (caesarean delivery, operative vaginal delivery, induction of labour or episiotomy) by private or public status while adjusting for obstetric risk factors. Results 403,642 childbirth hospitalisations were reviewed; approximately one-third of maternities (30.2%) were booked privately. After controlling for relevant obstetric risk factors, women with private coverage were more likely to have an elective caesarean delivery (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.45-1.51), an emergency caesarean delivery (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.12-1.16) and an operative vaginal delivery (RR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.22-1.27). Compared to women with public coverage who had a vaginal delivery, women with private coverage were 40% more likely to have an episiotomy (RR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.38-1.43). Conclusions Irrespective of obstetric risk factors, women who opted for private maternity care were significantly more likely to have an obstetric intervention. To better understand both clinical and non-clinical dynamics, future studies of examining health care coverage status and obstetric intervention would ideally apply mixed-method techniques. PMID:24418254
Lutomski, Jennifer E; Murphy, Michael; Devane, Declan; Meaney, Sarah; Greene, Richard A
When clinically indicated, common obstetric interventions can greatly improve maternal and neonatal outcomes. However, variation in intervention rates suggests that obstetric practice may not be solely driven by case criteria. Differences in obstetric intervention rates by private and public status in Ireland were examined using nationally representative hospital discharge data. A retrospective cohort study was performed on childbirth hospitalisations occurring between 2005 and 2010. Multivariate logistic regression analysis with correction for the relative risk was conducted to determine the risk of obstetric intervention (caesarean delivery, operative vaginal delivery, induction of labour or episiotomy) by private or public status while adjusting for obstetric risk factors. 403,642 childbirth hospitalisations were reviewed; approximately one-third of maternities (30.2%) were booked privately. After controlling for relevant obstetric risk factors, women with private coverage were more likely to have an elective caesarean delivery (RR: 1.48; 95% CI: 1.45-1.51), an emergency caesarean delivery (RR: 1.13; 95% CI: 1.12-1.16) and an operative vaginal delivery (RR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.22-1.27). Compared to women with public coverage who had a vaginal delivery, women with private coverage were 40% more likely to have an episiotomy (RR: 1.40; 95% CI: 1.38-1.43). Irrespective of obstetric risk factors, women who opted for private maternity care were significantly more likely to have an obstetric intervention. To better understand both clinical and non-clinical dynamics, future studies of examining health care coverage status and obstetric intervention would ideally apply mixed-method techniques.
Screening and Brief Interventions for Alcohol and Other Drug Use Among Pregnant Women Attending Midwife Obstetric Units in Cape Town, South Africa: A Qualitative Study of the Views of Health Care Professionals.
Petersen Williams, Petal; Petersen, Zaino; Sorsdahl, Katherine; Mathews, Catherine; Everett-Murphy, Katherine; Parry, Charles D H
Despite the negative consequences of alcohol and other drug use during pregnancy, few interventions for pregnant women are implemented, and little is known about their feasibility and acceptability in primary health care settings in South Africa. As part of the formative phase of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for substance use among women presenting for antenatal care, the present study explored health care workers' attitudes and perceptions about screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment among this population. Forty-three health care providers at 2 public sector midwife obstetric units in Cape Town, South Africa, were interviewed using an open-ended, semistructured interview schedule designed to identify factors that hinder or support the implementation of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for substance use in these settings. Transcribed interviews were analyzed using the framework approach. Health care providers agreed that there is a substantial need for screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for substance use among pregnant women and believe such services potentially could be integrated into routine care. Several women-, staff-, and clinic-level barriers were identified that could hinder the successful implementation in antenatal services. These barriers included the nondisclosure of alcohol and other drug use, the intervention being considered as an add-on service or additional work, negative staff attitudes toward implementation of an intervention, poor staff communication styles such as berating women for their behavior, lack of interest from staff, time constraints, staff shortages, overburdened workloads, and language barriers. The utility of screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment for addressing substance use among pregnant women in public health midwife obstetric units was supported, but consideration will need to be given to addressing a variety of
El-Gamal, Seham; de Beer, Jennifer; Sunari, Dalia
Background: Patient safety has become a priority and prerequisite for the provision for effective quality care. Simulation is seen as one method to ensure patient safety as this method allows for the attainment of skills and promotes the transference of these skills into safe clinical practice. Method: A pretest-posttest research design was used.…
Process evaluation of the Data-driven Quality Improvement in Primary Care (DQIP) trial: case study evaluation of adoption and maintenance of a complex intervention to reduce high-risk primary care prescribing
Dreischulte, Tobias; Guthrie, Bruce
Objective To explore how different practices responded to the Data-driven Quality Improvement in Primary Care (DQIP) intervention in terms of their adoption of the work, reorganisation to deliver the intended change in care to patients, and whether implementation was sustained over time. Design Mixed-methods parallel process evaluation of a cluster trial, reporting the comparative case study of purposively selected practices. Setting Ten (30%) primary care practices participating in the trial from Scotland, UK. Results Four practices were sampled because they had large rapid reductions in targeted prescribing. They all had internal agreement that the topic mattered, made early plans to implement including assigning responsibility for work and regularly evaluated progress. However, how they internally organised the work varied. Six practices were sampled because they had initial implementation failure. Implementation failure occurred at different stages depending on practice context, including internal disagreement about whether the work was worthwhile, and intention but lack of capacity to implement or sustain implementation due to unfilled posts or sickness. Practice context was not fixed, and most practices with initial failed implementation adapted to deliver at least some elements. All interviewed participants valued the intervention because it was an innovative way to address on an important aspect of safety (although one of the non-interviewed general practitioners in one practice disagreed with this). Participants felt that reviewing existing prescribing did influence their future initiation of targeted drugs, but raised concerns about sustainability. Conclusions Variation in implementation and effectiveness was associated with differences in how practices valued, engaged with and sustained the work required. Initial implementation failure varied with practice context, but was not static, with most practices at least partially implementing by the end of the
Pyne, Jeffrey M; Rost, Kathryn M; Zhang, Mingliang; Williams, D Keith; Smith, Jeffrey; Fortney, John
OBJECTIVE To determine the incremental cost-effectiveness of a quality improvement depression intervention (enhanced care) in primary care settings relative to usual care. DESIGN Following stratification, we randomized 12 primary care practices to enhanced or usual care conditions and followed patients for 12 months. SETTING Primary care practices located in 10 states across the United States. PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS Two hundred eleven patients beginning a new treatment episode for major depression. INTERVENTIONS Training the primary care team to assess, educate, and monitor depressed patients during the acute and continuation stages of their depression treatment episode over 1 year. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS Cost-effectiveness was measured by calculating incremental (enhanced minus usual care) costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) derived from SF-36 data. The mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratio in the main analysis was $15,463 per QALY. The mean incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for the sensitivity analyses ranged from $11,341 (using geographic block variables to control for pre-intervention service utilization) to $19,976 (increasing the cost estimates by 50%) per QALY. CONCLUSIONS This quality improvement depression intervention was cost-effective relative to usual care compared to cost-effectiveness ratios for common primary care interventions and commonly cited cost-effectiveness ratio thresholds for intervention implementation. PMID:12823650
Afiyanti, Yati; Rachmawati, Imami Nur; Milanti, Ariesta
Objective: This study aims to describe the factors affecting successful nursing care intervention on sexuality. Methods: A one-group pre- and post-test design was used. Fifty-three cervical cancer survivors and their spouses were administered with nursing care intervention on sexuality in three sessions and evaluated after 6 weeks. Results: Sexual intervention reduced dyspareunia symptoms, improved vaginal lubrication, improved sexual satisfaction, and enhanced sexual arousal, sexual desire, and orgasm among cancer survivors and their spouses. The other influencing factors also simultaneously contributed to the success of nursing care intervention. Conclusions: Nursing care intervention on sexuality could be a part of supportive nursing care and an important aspect in standard nursing care for cancer patients in Indonesia. PMID:27981170
Yawn, Barbara P; Rank, Matthew A; Bertram, Susan L; Wollan, Peter C
Background: Asthma prevalence, severity and outcomes are associated with various patient characteristics and lifestyle choices. Aims: To identify potentially modifiable factors associated with poor asthma outcomes among US primary care patients. Methods: Using baseline data from the Asthma Tools Study, we calculated cross-sectional frequencies of activity levels, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and the presence of obesity, as well as rates of out-of-control asthma and asthma exacerbations. Frequencies were stratified by sex, and into three age groups: 5–11 years, 12–18 years and 19 years and older. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with each of the asthma outcomes. Results: In the 901 individuals enrolled in this asthma study, tobacco smoke exposure, obesity, low activity levels, poverty, inadequately controlled asthma and high asthma-related health-care utilisation were common. Across all age groups, obesity was associated with poorer asthma outcomes: either poor asthma control (odds ratio (OR)=2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1–4.7 in 5- to 11-year-olds and OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.2 in adults) or asthma exacerbations (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6–5.1 in 12- to 18-year-olds and OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.5 in adults). Among adults, smoking was associated with both measures of poorer asthma outcomes; inadequate asthma control (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.5–3.5), and asthma exacerbations (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1–2.6), and low physical activity were associated with poor asthma control (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.1–2.2). Conclusions: Obesity, low levels of physical activity and smoking are common, and they are associated with poor asthma outcomes in a sample of primary care patients, suggesting important targets for intervention. PMID:26426429
Yawn, Barbara P; Rank, Matthew A; Bertram, Susan L; Wollan, Peter C
Asthma prevalence, severity and outcomes are associated with various patient characteristics and lifestyle choices. To identify potentially modifiable factors associated with poor asthma outcomes among US primary care patients. Using baseline data from the Asthma Tools Study, we calculated cross-sectional frequencies of activity levels, smoking, secondhand smoke exposure and the presence of obesity, as well as rates of out-of-control asthma and asthma exacerbations. Frequencies were stratified by sex, and into three age groups: 5-11 years, 12-18 years and 19 years and older. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with each of the asthma outcomes. In the 901 individuals enrolled in this asthma study, tobacco smoke exposure, obesity, low activity levels, poverty, inadequately controlled asthma and high asthma-related health-care utilisation were common. Across all age groups, obesity was associated with poorer asthma outcomes: either poor asthma control (odds ratio (OR)=2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-4.7 in 5- to 11-year-olds and OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.2 in adults) or asthma exacerbations (OR 2.9, 95% CI 1.6-5.1 in 12- to 18-year-olds and OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.5 in adults). Among adults, smoking was associated with both measures of poorer asthma outcomes; inadequate asthma control (OR=2.3, 95% CI 1.5-3.5), and asthma exacerbations (OR 1.7, 95% CI 1.1-2.6), and low physical activity were associated with poor asthma control (OR=1.5, 95% CI 1.1-2.2). Obesity, low levels of physical activity and smoking are common, and they are associated with poor asthma outcomes in a sample of primary care patients, suggesting important targets for intervention.
Mannix, Catherine Marie; Bartholomay, Marian Mahin; Doherty, Carol S; Lewis, Maryellen; Bilodeau, Mary-Liz Connors
Current evidence for the management of radiation skin toxicities demonstrates equivocal outcomes using a variety of interventions, leaving substantial gaps in knowledge. Skin toxicities can lead to treatment delays, infection, pain, and increased costs for the patient. Patients with head and neck cancers receiving chemoradiation (N = 100), a population particularly vulnerable to disruptions in skin integrity, were enrolled into a prospective, descriptive study. Data collection was conducted and photographs were taken at baseline and weekly throughout treatment. Patients received skin care kits, instructions, and a diary to record adherence. Skin toxicity was measured and validated by at least three observers using serial photographs with 100% interrater agreement. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, graphs, and bivariate analysis. Adherence to both washing and moisturizing was consistently high. Although a correlation existed between the radiation dose and skin toxicity at week 6, no correlation existed between skin toxicity and adherence. Given the rate of grade 3 toxicities at week 6 and product costs, this proved to be an affordable regimen to which patients could easily adhere. Positive patient outcomes can be promoted through teaching and reinforcement of self-care measures to reduce skin toxicity.
Eckert, K; Lange, M
Exercise programs do not belong to standard treatment within disease management programmes for diabetes mellitus type 2, up to now. For these reason the effects of a 10-week behaviour-oriented exercise programme have been evaluated focusing on change in activity behaviour and health-related qualitiy of life. 202 patients took part in the investigation. There were significant inbetween group differences in some aspects of the outcome parameters. The study presents useful information on how to modify existing DMPs successfully for improving patient treatment. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
Vaajoki, Anne; Pietilä, Anna-Maija; Kankkunen, Päivi; Vehviläinen-Julkunen, Katri
Evidence-based nursing requires carefully designed interventions. This paper discusses methodological issues and explores practical solutions in the use of music intervention in pain management among adults after major abdominal surgery. There is a need to study nursing interventions that develop and test the effects of interventions to advanced clinical nursing knowledge and practice. There are challenges in carrying out intervention studies in clinical settings because of several interacting components and the length and complexity of the causal chains linking intervention with outcome. Intervention study is time-consuming and requires both researchers and participants' commitment to the study. Interdisciplinary and multiprofessional collaboration is also paramount. In this study, patients were allocated into the music group, in which patients listened to music 30 minutes at a time, or the control group, in which patients did not listen to any music during the same period.
Akbari, Ayub; Mayhew, Alain; Al-Alawi, Manal Alawi; Grimshaw, Jeremy; Winkens, Ron; Glidewell, Elizabeth; Pritchard, Chanie; Thomas, Ruth; Fraser, Cynthia
The primary care specialist interface is a key organisational feature of many health care systems. Patients are referred to specialist care when investigation or therapeutic options are exhausted in primary care and more specialised care is needed. Referral has considerable implications for patients, the health care system and health care costs. There is considerable evidence that the referral processes can be improved. To estimate the effectiveness and efficiency of interventions to change outpatient referral rates or improve outpatient referral appropriateness. We conducted electronic searches of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care (EPOC) group specialised register (developed through extensive searches of MEDLINE, EMBASE, Healthstar and the Cochrane Library) (February 2002) and the National Research Register. Updated searches were conducted in MEDLINE and the EPOC specialised register up to October 2007. Randomised controlled trials, controlled clinical trials, controlled before and after studies and interrupted time series of interventions to change or improve outpatient referrals. Participants were primary care physicians. The outcomes were objectively measured provider performance or health outcomes. A minimum of two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality. Seventeen studies involving 23 separate comparisons were included. Nine studies (14 comparisons) evaluated professional educational interventions. Ineffective strategies included: passive dissemination of local referral guidelines (two studies), feedback of referral rates (one study) and discussion with an independent medical adviser (one study). Generally effective strategies included dissemination of guidelines with structured referral sheets (four out of five studies) and involvement of consultants in educational activities (two out of three studies). Four studies evaluated organisational interventions (patient management by family physicians compared to
Introduction A quality-improvement project was conducted to reduce severe pain and stress-related events while moving ICU-patients. Methods The Plan-Do-Check-Adjust cycle was studied during four one-month phases, separated by five-month interphases. All consecutive patients staying more than 24 hours were evaluated every morning while being moved for nursing care (bathing, massage, sheet-change, repositioning). Phase 1 was considered as the baseline. Implemented and adjusted quality-interventions were assessed at phases 2 and 3, respectively. An independent post-intervention control-audit was performed at Phase 4. Primary-endpoints were the incidence of severe pain defined by a behavioral pain scale > 5 or a 0 to 10 visual numeric rating scale > 6, and the incidence of serious adverse events (SAE): cardiac arrest, arrhythmias, tachycardia, bradycardia, hypertension, hypotension, desaturation, bradypnea or ventilatory distress. Pain, SAE, patients' characteristics and analgesia were compared among the phases by a multivariate mixed-effects model for repeated-measurements, adjusted on severity index, age, admission type (medical/surgical), intubation and sedation status. Results During the four studied phases, 630 care procedures were analyzed in 53, 47, 43 and 50 patients, respectively. Incidence of severe pain decreased significantly from 16% (baseline) to 6% in Phase 3 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.33 (0.11; 0.98), P = 0.04) and 2% in Phase 4 (OR = 0.30 (0.12; 0.95), P = 0.02). Incidence of SAE decreased significantly from 37% (baseline) to 17% in Phase 3 and 21% in Phase 4. In multivariate analysis, SAE were independently associated with Phase 3 (OR = 0.40 (0.23; 0.72), P < 0.01), Phase 4 (OR = 0.53 (0.30; 0.92), P = 0.03), intubation status (OR = 1.91 (1.28; 2.85), P < 0.01) and severe pain (OR = 2.74 (1.54; 4.89), P < 0.001). Conclusions Severe pain and serious adverse events are common and strongly associated while moving ICU patients for nursing procedures. Quality
de Jong, Audrey; Molinari, Nicolas; de Lattre, Sylvie; Gniadek, Claudine; Carr, Julie; Conseil, Mathieu; Susbielles, Marie-Pierre; Jung, Boris; Jaber, Samir; Chanques, Gérald
A quality-improvement project was conducted to reduce severe pain and stress-related events while moving ICU-patients. The Plan-Do-Check-Adjust cycle was studied during four one-month phases, separated by five-month interphases. All consecutive patients staying more than 24 hours were evaluated every morning while being moved for nursing care (bathing, massage, sheet-change, repositioning). Phase 1 was considered as the baseline. Implemented and adjusted quality-interventions were assessed at phases 2 and 3, respectively. An independent post-intervention control-audit was performed at Phase 4. Primary-endpoints were the incidence of severe pain defined by a behavioral pain scale > 5 or a 0 to 10 visual numeric rating scale > 6, and the incidence of serious adverse events (SAE): cardiac arrest, arrhythmias, tachycardia, bradycardia, hypertension, hypotension, desaturation, bradypnea or ventilatory distress. Pain, SAE, patients' characteristics and analgesia were compared among the phases by a multivariate mixed-effects model for repeated-measurements, adjusted on severity index, age, admission type (medical/surgical), intubation and sedation status. During the four studied phases, 630 care procedures were analyzed in 53, 47, 43 and 50 patients, respectively. Incidence of severe pain decreased significantly from 16% (baseline) to 6% in Phase 3 (odds ratio (OR) = 0.33 (0.11; 0.98), P = 0.04) and 2% in Phase 4 (OR = 0.30 (0.12; 0.95), P = 0.02). Incidence of SAE decreased significantly from 37% (baseline) to 17% in Phase 3 and 21% in Phase 4. In multivariate analysis, SAE were independently associated with Phase 3 (OR = 0.40 (0.23; 0.72), P < 0.01), Phase 4 (OR = 0.53 (0.30; 0.92), P = 0.03), intubation status (OR = 1.91 (1.28; 2.85), P < 0.01) and severe pain (OR = 2.74 (1.54; 4.89), P < 0.001). Severe pain and serious adverse events are common and strongly associated while moving ICU patients for nursing procedures. Quality improvement of pain management is
Cox, Anna; Arber, Anne; Bailey, Fiona; Dargan, Sue; Gannon, Craig; Lisk, Radcliffe; Quinn, Barry; Samarasinghe, Jane; Wrigley, Martha; Gallagher, Ann
Aim To develop, implement and evaluate a collaborative intervention in care homes seeking to increase the confidence and competence of staff in end of life care and enable more people to receive end of life care in their usual place of residence. Method A two-phase exploratory mixed methods design was used, evaluating the effect of an end of life care toolkit and associated training in care homes, facilitated by a specialist palliative care team. Six care homes in England were recruited to the intervention; 24 staff participated in discussion groups; 54 staff attended at least one training session; and pre- and post-intervention questionnaires were completed by 78 and 103 staff respectively. Results Staff confidence in receiving emotional and clinical support and managing end of life care symptoms increased post-intervention, but confidence in discussing death and dying with residents and relatives decreased. Audit data indicate greater reduction in the number of residents from participating care homes dying in hospital than those from comparison homes. Conclusion Collaborative end of life care interventions support care home staff to manage end of life and may enable residents to have choice about their place of death.
Varghese, Beena; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Correia, Blaze; Panigrahi, Ruchika; Washington, Maryann; Ponnuswamy, Vinotha; Mony, Prem
ABSTRACT Objective: The majority of the maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable through improved emergency obstetric and newborn care at facilities. However, the quality of such care in India has significant gaps in terms of provider skills and in their preparedness to handle emergencies. We tested the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a “skills and drills” intervention, implemented between July 2013 and September 2014, to improve emergency obstetric and newborn care in the state of Karnataka, India. Methods: Emergency drills through role play, conducted every 2 months, combined with supportive supervision and a 2-day skills refresher session were delivered across 4 sub-district, secondary-level government facilities by an external team of obstetric and pediatric specialists and nurses. We evaluated the intervention through a quasi-experimental design with 4 intervention and 4 comparison facilities, using delivery case sheet reviews, pre- and post-knowledge tests among providers, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and qualitative in-depth interviews. Primary outcomes consisted of improved diagnosis and management of selected maternal and newborn complications (postpartum hemorrhage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and birth asphyxia). Secondary outcomes included knowledge and skill levels of providers and acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Results: Knowledge scores among providers improved significantly in the intervention facilities; in obstetrics, average scores between the pre- and post-test increased from 49% to 57% (P=.006) and in newborn care, scores increased from 48% to 56% (P=.03). Knowledge scores in the comparison facilities were similar but did not improve significantly over time. Skill levels were significantly higher among providers in intervention facilities than comparison facilities (mean objective structured clinical examination scores for obstetric skills: 55% vs. 46%, respectively; for
Varghese, Beena; Krishnamurthy, Jayanna; Correia, Blaze; Panigrahi, Ruchika; Washington, Maryann; Ponnuswamy, Vinotha; Mony, Prem
The majority of the maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable through improved emergency obstetric and newborn care at facilities. However, the quality of such care in India has significant gaps in terms of provider skills and in their preparedness to handle emergencies. We tested the feasibility, acceptability, and effectiveness of a "skills and drills" intervention, implemented between July 2013 and September 2014, to improve emergency obstetric and newborn care in the state of Karnataka, India. Emergency drills through role play, conducted every 2 months, combined with supportive supervision and a 2-day skills refresher session were delivered across 4 sub-district, secondary-level government facilities by an external team of obstetric and pediatric specialists and nurses. We evaluated the intervention through a quasi-experimental design with 4 intervention and 4 comparison facilities, using delivery case sheet reviews, pre- and post-knowledge tests among providers, objective structured clinical examinations (OSCEs), and qualitative in-depth interviews. Primary outcomes consisted of improved diagnosis and management of selected maternal and newborn complications (postpartum hemorrhage, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and birth asphyxia). Secondary outcomes included knowledge and skill levels of providers and acceptability and feasibility of the intervention. Knowledge scores among providers improved significantly in the intervention facilities; in obstetrics, average scores between the pre- and post-test increased from 49% to 57% (P=.006) and in newborn care, scores increased from 48% to 56% (P=.03). Knowledge scores in the comparison facilities were similar but did not improve significantly over time. Skill levels were significantly higher among providers in intervention facilities than comparison facilities (mean objective structured clinical examination scores for obstetric skills: 55% vs. 46%, respectively; for newborn skills: 58% vs. 48%, respectively; P
Bentsen, Signe Berit; Sunde, Synnøve; Steinshamn, Sigurd
Background Implementation of the COPD-Home integrated disease management (IDM) intervention at discharge after hospitalizations for acute exacerbations of COPD (AECOPD) led to reduced hospital utilization during the following 24 months compared to the year prior to study start. Aims To analyze the impact of the COPD-Home IDM intervention on health related quality of life, symptoms of anxiety and depression, and the degree of patient activation during 24 months of follow-up and to assess the association between these outcomes. Methods A single center, prospective, open, controlled clinical study. Changes in The St. George Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ), the Hospital anxiety (HADS-A) and depression (HADS-D) and the patient activation measure (PAM) scores were compared between the patients in the integrated care group (ICG) and the usual care group (UCG) 6, 12 and 24 months after enrolment. Results The questionnaire response rate was 80–96%. There were no statistically significant differences in the change of the SGRQ scores between the groups during follow up. After 12 months of follow-up there was a trend towards a reduction in the mean HADS–A score in the ICG compared to the UCG. The HADS-D scores remained stable in the ICG compared with an increasing trend in the UCG. Clinically significant difference in the PAM score was achieved only in the ICG, 6.7 (CI95% 0.7 to 7.5) compared to 3.6 (CI95% -1.4 to 8.6) in the UCG. In a logistic regression model a higher HADS-D score and current smoking significantly increased the odds for a low PAM score. Conclusion The COPD–Home IDM intervention did not result in any statistically significant changes in mean SGRQ, HADS-A, HADS- D or PAM scores during the 24 months of follow-up. Trial registration The ID number for the study in the Clinical.Trials.gov registration system is 17417. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT 00702078 PMID:28060921
Background As in clinical practice resources may be limited compared to experimental settings, translation of evidence-based lifestyle interventions into daily life settings is challenging. In this study we therefore evaluated the implementation of the APHRODITE lifestyle intervention for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in Dutch primary care. Based on this evaluation we discuss opportunities for refining intervention delivery. Methods A 2.5-year intervention was performed in 14 general practices in the Netherlands among individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes (FINDRISC-score ≥ 13) (n = 479) and was compared to usual care (n = 446). Intervention consisted of individual lifestyle counselling by nurse practitioners (n = 24) and GPs (n = 48) and group-consultations. Drop-out and attendance were registered during the programme. After the intervention, satisfaction with the programme and perceived implementation barriers were assessed with questionnaires. Results Drop-out was modest (intervention: 14.6 %; usual care: 13.2 %) and attendance at individual consultations was high (intervention: 80-97 %; usual care: 86-94 %). Providers were confident about diabetes prevention by lifestyle intervention in primary care. Participants were more satisfied with counselling from nurse practitioners than from GPs. A major part of the GPs reported low self-efficacy regarding dietary guidance. Lack of counselling time (60 %), participant motivation (12 %), and financial reimbursement (11 %) were regarded by providers as important barriers for intervention implementation. Conclusions High participant compliance and a positive attitude of providers make primary care a suitable setting for diabetes prevention by lifestyle counselling. Results support a role for the nurse practitioner as the key player in guiding lifestyle modification. Further research is needed on strategies that could increase cost-effectiveness, such as more stringent criteria
Vermunt, Paulina W A; Milder, Ivon E J; Wielaard, Frits; Baan, Caroline A; Schelfhout, Jos D M; Westert, Gert P; van Oers, Hans A M
As in clinical practice resources may be limited compared to experimental settings, translation of evidence-based lifestyle interventions into daily life settings is challenging. In this study we therefore evaluated the implementation of the APHRODITE lifestyle intervention for the prevention of type 2 diabetes in Dutch primary care. Based on this evaluation we discuss opportunities for refining intervention delivery. A 2.5-year intervention was performed in 14 general practices in the Netherlands among individuals at high risk for type 2 diabetes (FINDRISC-score ≥ 13) (n = 479) and was compared to usual care (n = 446). Intervention consisted of individual lifestyle counselling by nurse practitioners (n = 24) and GPs (n = 48) and group-consultations. Drop-out and attendance were registered during the programme. After the intervention, satisfaction with the programme and perceived implementation barriers were assessed with questionnaires. Drop-out was modest (intervention: 14.6 %; usual care: 13.2 %) and attendance at individual consultations was high (intervention: 80-97 %; usual care: 86-94 %). Providers were confident about diabetes prevention by lifestyle intervention in primary care. Participants were more satisfied with counselling from nurse practitioners than from GPs. A major part of the GPs reported low self-efficacy regarding dietary guidance. Lack of counselling time (60 %), participant motivation (12 %), and financial reimbursement (11 %) were regarded by providers as important barriers for intervention implementation. High participant compliance and a positive attitude of providers make primary care a suitable setting for diabetes prevention by lifestyle counselling. Results support a role for the nurse practitioner as the key player in guiding lifestyle modification. Further research is needed on strategies that could increase cost-effectiveness, such as more stringent criteria for participant inclusion, group
Valaker, Irene; Norekvål, Tone M; Råholm, Maj-Britt; Nordrehaug, Jan Erik; Rotevatn, Svein; Fridlund, Bengt
Although patients may experience a quick recovery followed by rapid discharge after percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs), continuity of care from hospital to home can be particularly challenging. Despite this fact, little is known about the experiences of care across the interface between secondary and primary healthcare systems in patients undergoing PCI. To explore how patients undergoing PCI experience continuity of care between secondary and primary care settings after early discharge. The study used an inductive exploratory design by performing in-depth interviews of 22 patients at 6-8 weeks after PCI. Nine were women and 13 were men; 13 were older than 67 years of age. Eight lived remotely from the PCI centre. Patients were purposively recruited from the Norwegian Registry for Invasive Cardiology. Interviews were analysed by qualitative content analysis. Patients undergoing PCI were satisfied with the technical treatment. However, patients experienced an unplanned patient journey across care boundaries. They were not receiving adequate instruction and information on how to integrate health information. Patients also needed help to facilitate connections to community-based resources and to schedule clear follow-up appointments. As high-technology treatment dramatically expands, healthcare organisations need to be concerned about all dimensions of continuity. Patients are witnessing their own processes of healthcare delivery and therefore their voices should be taken into greater account when discussing continuity of care. Nurse-led initiatives to improve continuity of care involve a range of interventions at different levels of the healthcare system.
Blank, Lindsay; Baxter, Susan; Woods, Helen Buckley; Goyder, Elizabeth; Lee, Andrew; Payne, Nick; Rimmer, Melanie
Background Demand management defines any method used to monitor, direct, or regulate patient referrals. Strategies have been developed to manage the referral of patients to secondary care, with interventions that target primary care, specialist services, or infrastructure. Aim To review the international evidence on interventions to manage referral from primary to specialist care. Design and setting Systematic review. Method Iterative, systematic searches of published and unpublished sources public health, health management, management, and grey literature databases from health care and other industries were undertaken to identify recent, relevant studies. A narrative synthesis of the data was completed to structure the evidence into groups of similar interventions. Results The searches generated 8327 unique results, of which 140 studies were included. Interventions were grouped into four intervention categories: GP education (n = 50); process change (n = 49); system change (n = 38); and patient-focused (n = 3). It is clear that there is no ‘magic bullet’ to managing demand for secondary care services: although some groups of interventions may have greater potential for development, given the existing evidence that they can be effective in specific contexts. Conclusions To tackle demand management of primary care services, the focus cannot be on primary care alone; a whole-systems approach is needed because the introduction of interventions in primary care is often just the starting point of the referral process. In addition, more research is needed to develop and evaluate interventions that acknowledge the role of the patient in the referral decision. PMID:25452541
Evaluating the effectiveness of a clinical practice change intervention in increasing clinician provision of preventive care in a network of community-based mental health services: a study protocol of a non-randomized, multiple baseline trial.
Bartlem, Kate; Bowman, Jennifer; Freund, Megan; Wye, Paula; McElwaine, Kathleen; Knight, Jenny; McElduff, Patrick; Gillham, Karen; Wiggers, John
People with a mental illness experience substantial disparities in health, including increased rates of morbidity and mortality caused by potentially preventable chronic diseases. One contributing factor to such disparity is a higher prevalence of modifiable health risk behaviors, such as smoking, inadequate fruit and vegetable intake, harmful alcohol consumption, and inadequate physical activity. Evidence supports the effectiveness of preventive care in reducing such risks, and guidelines recommend that preventive care addressing such risks be incorporated into routine clinical care. Although community-based mental health services represent an important potential setting for ensuring that people with a mental illness receive such care, research suggests its delivery is currently sub-optimal. A study will be undertaken to evaluate the effectiveness of a clinical practice change intervention in increasing the routine provision of preventive care by clinicians in community mental health settings. A two-group multiple baseline design will be utilized to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic intervention implemented over 12 months in increasing clinician provision of preventive care. The intervention will be implemented sequentially across the two groups of community mental health services to increase provision of client assessment, brief advice, and referral for four health risk behaviors (smoking, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, harmful alcohol consumption, and inadequate physical activity). Outcome measures of interest will be collected via repeated cross-sectional computer-assisted telephone interviews undertaken on a weekly basis for 36 months with community mental health clients. This study is the first to assess the effectiveness of a multi-strategic clinical practice change intervention in increasing routine clinician provision of preventive care for chronic disease behavioral risk factors within a network of community mental health services
Teixeira, Melissa Ribeiro; Couto, Maria Cristina Ventura; Delgado, Pedro Gabriel Godinho
Considering the care gap in child and youth psychosocial care, the articulation of the intra-sectoral network is an important strategy to promote less fragmented care flows. The study analyzes facilitators and obstacles to collaborative care between the Family Health Strategy (ESF) and a Child and Youth Psychosocial Care Center (CAPSi) in Rio de Janeiro/RJ. This is an exploratory study with a qualitative approach, which main methodological tools were focus and intervention groups. From the proposed thematic axes, we identified that the perception of child and adolescent mental health problems by ESF workers was named by the behavioral changes located in a context of vulnerability. The main obstacles to implementing actions were lack of knowledge about how to provide care, work process-related issues and network disarticulation. Even if ESF professionals are able to identify mental health problems of children and adolescents, care actions are fragile and network articulation is practically nonexistent. Collaborative care was recognized as a strategy to validate child psychosocial care.
Enders, Dirk; Ohlmeier, Christoph; Garbe, Edeltraut
Evaluating the potential of the high-dimensional propensity score (HDPS) to control for residual confounding in studies analyzing quality of care based on administrative health insurance data. Secondary data from 2004 to 2009 from three German statutory health insurance providers. We conducted a retrospective cohort study in patients with elective percutaneous coronary interventions (PCIs) and compared the mortality risk between the in- and outpatient setting using Cox regression. Adjustment for predefined confounders was performed using conventional propensity score (PS) techniques. Further, an HDPS was calculated based on predefined and empirically selected confounders from the database. Conventional PS methods showed a decreased mortality risk for outpatient compared to inpatient PCIs, while trimming of patients with nonoverlap in the HDPS distribution and weighting resulted in a comparable risk. Most comorbidities were less prevalent in the HDPS-trimmed population compared to the original one. The HDPS methodology may reduce residual confounding by rendering the studied cohort more comparable through restriction. However, results cannot be generalized for the entire study population. To provide unbiased results, full assessment of all unmeasured confounders from proxy information in the database would be necessary. © Health Research and Educational Trust.
Mehlhorn, Juliane; Freytag, Antje; Schmidt, Konrad; Brunkhorst, Frank M; Graf, Juergen; Troitzsch, Ute; Schlattmann, Peter; Wensing, Michel; Gensichen, Jochen
An increasing number of ICU patients survive and develop mental, cognitive, or physical impairments. Various interventions support recovery from this postintensive care syndrome. Physicians in charge of post-ICU patients need to know which interventions are effective. Systematic literature search in databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane CENTRAL, PsycInfo, CINAHL; 1991-2012), reference lists, and hand search. We included comparative studies of rehabilitation interventions in adult post-ICU patients if they considered health-related quality of life, frequency/severity of postintensive care syndrome symptoms, functional recovery, need for care, autonomy in activities of daily living, mortality, or hospital readmissions. Two reviewers extracted data and assessed risk of bias independently. From 4,761 publications, 18 studies with 2,510 patients were included. Studies addressed 20 outcomes, using 45 measures, covering inpatient (n = 4 trials), outpatient (n = 9), and mixed (n = 5) healthcare settings. Eight controlled trials with moderate to high quality were considered for evaluation of effectiveness. They investigated inpatient geriatric rehabilitation, ICU follow-up clinic, outpatient rehabilitation, disease management, and ICU diaries. Five of these trials assessed posttraumatic stress disorder, with four trials showing positive effects: first, ICU diaries reduced new-onset posttraumatic stress disorder (5% vs 13%, p = 0.02) after 3 months and second showed a lower mean Impact of Event Scale-Revised score (21.0 vs 32.1, p = 0.03) after 12 months. Third, aftercare by ICU follow-up clinic reduced Impact of Event Scale for women (20 vs 31; p < 0.01). Fourth, a self-help manual led to fewer patients scoring high in the Impact of Event Scale after 8 weeks (p = 0.026) but not after 6 months. For none of the other outcomes did more than one study report positive impacts. Interventions which have substantial effects in post-ICU patients are rare. Positive effects were seen
Juvé-Udina, Maria-Eulàlia; Pérez, Esperanza Zuriguel; Padrés, Núria Fabrellas; Samartino, Maribel Gonzalez; García, Marta Romero; Creus, Mònica Castellà; Batllori, Núria Vila; Calvo, Cristina Matud
This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of psychosocial aspects of basic nursing care, as e-charted by nurses, when using an interface terminology. An observational, multicentre study was conducted in acute wards. The main outcome measure was the frequency of use of the psychosocial interventions in the electronic nursing care plans, analysed over a 12 month retrospective review. Overall, 150,494 electronic care plans were studied. Most of the intervention concepts from the interface terminology were used by registered nurses to illustrate the psychosocial aspects of fundamentals of care in the electronic care plans. The results presented help to demonstrate that the interventions of this interface terminology may be useful to inform psychosocial aspects of basic and advanced nursing care. The identification of psychosocial elements of basic nursing care in the nursing documentation may lead to obtain a deeper understanding of those caring interventions nurses consider essential to represent nurse-patient interactions. The frequency of psychosocial interventions may contribute to delineate basic and advanced nursing care. © 2013 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Husso, Marita; Virkki, Tuija; Notko, Marianne; Holma, Juha; Laitila, Aarno; Mäntysaari, Mikko
Intervening in domestic violence in the health care and social service settings is a complex and contested issue. In this qualitative, multidisciplinary study, the barriers to but also the possibilities for health care professionals in encountering victims of violence were scrutinised. The focus was on omissions in service structure and practices. The data consisted of six focus group interviews with nurses, physicians, social workers and psychologists in specialist health care (n = 30) conducted in Finland in 2009. The aim was to explore professionals' processes of making sense of violence interventions and the organisational practices of violence interventions. Four types of framing of the domestic violence issue were identified: (i) practical frame, (ii) medical frame, (iii) individualistic frame and (iv) psychological frame. Each frame consisted of particular features relating to explaining, structuring or dismissing the question of domestic violence in health care settings. The main themes included the division of responsibilities and feasibility of treatment. All four frames underlie the tendency for healthcare professionals to arrive at sense-making practices where it is possible to focus on fixing the injuries and consequences of domestic violence and bypassing the issue of violence as the cause of symptoms and injuries. The results indicate that developing successful practices both in identifying survivors of domestic violence and in preventing further victimisation requires a broad understanding of the effects of domestic violence and the challenges for health care professionals in dealing with it. New perspectives are needed in creating adequate practices both for victims of violence seeking help and for professionals working with this issue. Strong support at the organisational level and established practices throughout the fields of health and social care are the key elements in building a responsible approach to domestic violence.
Siedner, Mark J; Santorino, Data; Lankowski, Alexander J; Kanyesigye, Michael; Bwana, Mwebesa B; Haberer, Jessica E; Bangsberg, David R
Up to 50 % of HIV-infected persons in sub-Saharan Africa are lost from care between HIV diagnosis and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Structural barriers, including cost of transportation to clinic and poor communication systems, are major contributors. We conducted a prospective, pragmatic, before-and-after clinical trial to evaluate a combination mobile health and transportation reimbursement intervention to improve care at a publicly operated HIV clinic in Uganda. Patients undergoing CD4 count testing were enrolled, and clinicians selected a result threshold that would prompt early return for ART initiation or further care. Participants enrolled in the pre-intervention period (January - August 2012) served as a control group. Participants in the intervention period (September 2012 - November 2013) were randomized to receive daily short message service (SMS) messages for up to seven days in one of three formats: 1) messages reporting an abnormal result directly, 2) personal identification number-protected messages reporting an abnormal result, or 3) messages reading "ABCDEFG" to confidentially convey an abnormal result. Participants returning within seven days of their first message received transportation reimbursements (about $6USD). Our primary outcomes of interest were time to return to clinic and time to ART initiation. There were 45 participants in the pre-intervention period and 138 participants in the intervention period (46, 49, and 43 in the direct, PIN, and coded groups, respectively) with low CD4 count results. Median time to clinic return was 33 days (IQR 11-49) in the pre-intervention period and 6 days (IQR 3-16) in the intervention period (P < 0.001); and median time to ART initiation was 47 days (IQR 11-75) versus 12 days (IQR 5-19), (P < 0.001). In multivariable models, participants in the intervention period had earlier return to clinic (AHR 2.32, 95 %CI 1.53 to 3.51) and earlier time to ART initiation (AHR 2.27, 95 %CI 1.38 to 3
Manias, Elizabeth; Kinney, Sharon; Cranswick, Noel; Williams, Allison; Borrott, Narelle
To systematically examine the research literature to identify which interventions reduce medication errors in pediatric intensive care units. Databases were searched from inception to April 2014. Studies were included if they involved the conduct of an intervention with the intent of reducing medication errors. In all, 34 relevant articles were identified. Apart from 1 study, all involved single-arm, before-and-after designs without a comparative, concurrent control group. A total of 6 types of interventions were utilized: computerized physician order entry (CPOE), intravenous systems (ISs), modes of education (MEs), protocols and guidelines (PGs), pharmacist involvement (PI), and support systems for clinical decision making (SSCDs). Statistically significant reductions in medication errors were achieved in 7/8 studies for CPOE, 2/5 studies for ISs, 9/11 studies for MEs, 1/2 studies for PGs, 2/3 studies for PI, and 3/5 studies for SSCDs. The test for subgroup differences showed that there was no statistically significant difference among the 6 subgroups of interventions, χ(2)(5) = 1.88, P = 0.87. The following risk ratio results for meta-analysis were obtained: CPOE: 0.47 (95% CI = 0.28, 0.79); IS: 0.37 (95% CI = 0.19, 0.73); ME: 0.36 (95% CI = 0.22, 0.58); PG: 0.82 (95% CI = 0.21, 3.25); PI: 0.39 (95% CI = 0.10, 1.51), and SSCD: 0.49 (95% CI = 0.23, 1.03). Available evidence suggests some aspects of CPOE with decision support, ME, and IS may help in reducing medication errors. Good quality, prospective, observational studies are needed for institutions to determine the most effective interventions. © The Author(s) 2014.
Billings, J Andrew; Bernacki, Rachelle
Strategically selecting patients for discussions and documentation about limiting life-sustaining treatments-choosing the right time along the end-of-life trajectory for such an intervention and identifying patients at high risk of facing end-of-life decisions-can have a profound impact on the value of advance care planning (ACP) efforts. Timing is important because the completion of an advance directive (AD) too far from or too close to the time of death can lead to end-of-life decisions that do not optimally reflect the patient's values, goals, and preferences: a poorly chosen target patient population that is unlikely to need an AD in the near future may lead to patients making unrealistic, hypothetical choices, while assessing preferences in the emergency department or hospital in the face of a calamity is notoriously inadequate. Because much of the currently studied ACP efforts have led to a disappointingly small proportion of patients eventually benefitting from an AD, careful targeting of the intervention should also improve the efficacy of such projects. A key to optimal timing and strategic selection of target patients for an ACP program is prognostication, and we briefly highlight prognostication tools and studies that may point us toward high-value AD interventions.
Jablonski-Jaudon, Rita A; Kolanowski, Ann M; Winstead, Vicki; Jones-Townsend, Corteza; Azuero, Andres
The purpose of the current article is to describe a personalized practice originally conceived as a way to prevent and minimize care-resistant behavior to provide mouth care to older adults with dementia. The original intervention, Managing Oral Hygiene Using Threat Reduction Strategies (MOUTh), matured during the clinical trial study into a relationship-centered intervention, with emphasis on developing strategies that support residents' behavioral health and staff involved in care. Relationships that were initially pragmatic (i.e., focused on the task of completing mouth care) developed into more personal and responsive relationships that involved deeper engagement between mouth care providers and nursing home (NH) residents. Mouth care was accomplished and completed in a manner enjoyable to NH residents and mouth care providers. The MOUTh intervention may also concurrently affirm the dignity and personhood of the care recipient because of its emphasis on connecting with older adults. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.
Tra, Joppe; van der Wulp, Ineke; de Bruijne, Martine C; Wagner, Cordula
A short delay between diagnosis and treatment for patients diagnosed with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) is vital to prevent cardiac damage and mortality. The objective of this study was to explore the treatment delay and associated factors in the management of patients diagnosed with STEMI going for percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In a cross-sectional multicenter study, the treatment delay (time between first electrocardiogram and start of PCI procedure) of STEMI patients in seven PCI centers in the Netherlands was measured. Data were analyzed by means of multivariable generalized linear models, accounting for a non-normally distributed outcome and clustering of patients within centers. In total, 1017 patient charts were included. The majority of the patients (78.7%) were treated within the guideline recommended time target of 90 min. Overall, the median treatment delay was 64 min (interquartile range 47-82). A significantly prolonged delay was found among patients of whom their first electrocardiogram was performed at a general practitioner's practice (+23.9 min; 95% confidence interval 9.9-40.8) or in-hospital (+9.5 min; 95% confidence interval 2.5-17.3), patients requiring interhospital transfer (+14.6 min; 95% confidence interval 7.6-22.4) or presenting with acute heart failure on admission (+17.6 min; 95% confidence interval 7.9-28.7). Despite a short median delay between first electrocardiogram and PCI, the time targets are occasionally exceeded for patients diagnosed with STEMI. To further improve the process of care, PCI centers should focus on improving regional STEMI care networks, involving general practitioners, emergency departments and referring hospitals.
Farquhar, Morag C; Ewing, Gail; Booth, Sara
there is increasing interest in combining qualitative and quantitative research methods to provide comprehensiveness and greater knowledge yield. Mixed methods are valuable in the development and evaluation of complex interventions. They are therefore particularly valuable in palliative care research where the majority of interventions are complex, and the identification of outcomes particularly challenging. this paper aims to introduce the role of mixed methods in the development and evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care, and how they may be used in palliative care research. the paper defines mixed methods and outlines why and how mixed methods are used to develop and evaluate complex interventions, with a pragmatic focus on design and data collection issues and data analysis. Useful texts are signposted and illustrative examples provided of mixed method studies in palliative care, including a detailed worked example of the development and evaluation of a complex intervention in palliative care for breathlessness. Key challenges to conducting mixed methods in palliative care research are identified in relation to data collection, data integration in analysis, costs and dissemination and how these might be addressed. the development and evaluation of complex interventions in palliative care benefit from the application of mixed methods. Mixed methods enable better understanding of whether and how an intervention works (or does not work) and inform the design of subsequent studies. However, they can be challenging: mixed method studies in palliative care will benefit from working with agreed protocols, multidisciplinary teams and engaging staff with appropriate skill sets.
Vermunt, Paulina W A; Milder, Ivon E J; Wielaard, Frits; Baan, Caroline A; Schelfhout, Jos D M; Westert, Gert P; van Oers, Hans A M
Despite the favorable effects of behavior change interventions on diabetes risk, lifestyle modification is a complicated process. In this study we therefore investigated opportunities for refining a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention, based on participant perceptions of behavior change progress. A 30 month intervention was performed in Dutch primary care among high-risk individuals (FINDRISC-score ≥ 13) and was compared to usual care. Participant perceptions of behavior change progress for losing weight, dietary modification, and increasing physical activity were assessed after18 months with questionnaires. Based on the response, participants were categorized as 'planners', 'initiators' or 'achievers' and frequencies were evaluated in both study groups. Furthermore, participants reported on barriers for lifestyle change. In both groups, around 80% of all participants (intervention: N = 370; usual care: N = 322) planned change. Except for reducing fat intake (p = 0.08), the number of initiators was significantly higher in the intervention group than in usual care. The percentage of achievers was high for the dietary and exercise objectives (intervention: 81-95%; usual care: 83-93%), but was lower for losing weight (intervention: 67%; usual care: 62%). Important motivational barriers were 'I already meet the standards' and 'I'm satisfied with my current behavior'. Temptation to snack, product taste and lack of time were important volitional barriers. The results suggest that the intervention supports participants to bridge the gap between motivation and action. Several opportunities for intervention refinement are however revealed, including more stringent criteria for participant inclusion, tools for (self)-monitoring of health, emphasis on the 'small-step-approach', and more attention for stimulus control. Netherlands Trial Register: NTR1082.
Background Despite the favorable effects of behavior change interventions on diabetes risk, lifestyle modification is a complicated process. In this study we therefore investigated opportunities for refining a lifestyle intervention for type 2 diabetes prevention, based on participant perceptions of behavior change progress. Methods A 30 month intervention was performed in Dutch primary care among high-risk individuals (FINDRISC-score ≥ 13) and was compared to usual care. Participant perceptions of behavior change progress for losing weight, dietary modification, and increasing physical activity were assessed after18 months with questionnaires. Based on the response, participants were categorized as ‘planners’, ‘initiators’ or ‘achievers’ and frequencies were evaluated in both study groups. Furthermore, participants reported on barriers for lifestyle change. Results In both groups, around 80% of all participants (intervention: N = 370; usual care: N = 322) planned change. Except for reducing fat intake (p = 0.08), the number of initiators was significantly higher in the intervention group than in usual care. The percentage of achievers was high for the dietary and exercise objectives (intervention: 81–95%; usual care: 83–93%), but was lower for losing weight (intervention: 67%; usual care: 62%). Important motivational barriers were ‘I already meet the standards’ and ‘I’m satisfied with my current behavior’. Temptation to snack, product taste and lack of time were important volitional barriers. Conclusions The results suggest that the intervention supports participants to bridge the gap between motivation and action. Several opportunities for intervention refinement are however revealed, including more stringent criteria for participant inclusion, tools for (self)-monitoring of health, emphasis on the ‘small-step-approach’, and more attention for stimulus control. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register: NTR1082
Berggren, Erika; Ödlund Olin, Ann; Orrevall, Ylva; Strang, Peter; Johansson, Sven-Erik; Törnkvist, Lena
Teamwork is important in early palliative home care, and interprofessional education is required to achieve teamwork. It is thus crucial to ensure that interprofessional education works well for the members of all participating professions because levels of knowledge and educational needs may vary. To evaluate, by profession, the effectiveness of an interprofessional educational intervention for district nurses and general practitioners on three areas of nutritional care for patients in a palliative phase. A quasi-experimental study that used a computer-based, study-specific questionnaire to evaluate the effectiveness of the intervention. The continuing education in primary health care (ConPrim(®)) model was used to create the intervention. ConPrim includes a web-based program, a practical exercise and a case seminar, all with interprofessional training. Primary health care centers in Stockholm County, Sweden. Intervention group (n = 87; 48 district nurses, 39 general practitioners); control group (n = 53; 36 district nurses, 17 general practitioners). The total intervention effect was significant in all three areas, p = 0.000-0.004. The intervention effects were similar and significant for both professions in areas 1 and 2. In area 3, the intervention effects were significant for general practitioners but not for district nurses. The intervention seems promising, as it may create better prerequisites for teamwork and caring for patients living at home. However, it needs to be optimized to better increase district nurses' level of knowledge (area 3).
Musa, Ahmad S
This study explored the frequency of providing aspects of spiritual care intervention and its association with nurses' own spiritual well-being in a convenience sample of 355 Jordanian Arab Muslim nurses. The nurses were recruited from different hospitals, representing both public and private health care sectors in northern and central Jordan. A cross-sectional descriptive and correlational design was used. Results indicated that Jordanian Muslim nurses provided religious aspects of spiritual care intervention to their Muslim patients infrequently and that their own spiritual well-being was positively associated with the frequency of provision of spiritual care interventions. The study concluded that Jordanian Muslim nurses most frequently provided spiritual care interventions that were existential, not overtly religious, were commonly used, were more traditional, and did not require direct nurse involvement. Moreover, the findings revealed that spiritual well-being was important to those nurses, which has implications for improving the provision of spiritual care intervention. The study provides information that enables nurses, nursing managers, and nursing educators to evaluate the nurses' provision of various aspects of spiritual care to their Muslim patients, and to identify aspects of spiritual care intervention where nurses might receive training to become competent in providing this care.
Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Getch, Yvette Q.
Limited information exists about management of asthma in child care settings and primary school classrooms. The goal of this study was to evaluate a brief asthma management intervention for child care providers and primary school teachers. Child care providers and primary school teachers were recruited to participate in two 3-h workshops on asthma…
Neuharth-Pritchett, Stacey; Getch, Yvette Q.
Limited information exists about management of asthma in child care settings and primary school classrooms. The goal of this study was to evaluate a brief asthma management intervention for child care providers and primary school teachers. Child care providers and primary school teachers were recruited to participate in two 3-h workshops on asthma…
Choko, Augustine Talumba; Kumwenda, Moses Kelly; Johnson, Cheryl Case; Sakala, Doreen Wongera; Chikalipo, Maria Chifuniro; Fielding, Katherine; Chikovore, Jeremiah; Desmond, Nicola; Corbett, Elizabeth Lucy
Abstract Introduction: In the era of ambitious HIV targets, novel HIV testing models are required for hard-to-reach groups such as men, who remain underserved by existing services. Pregnancy presents a unique opportunity for partners to test for HIV, as many pregnant women will attend antenatal care (ANC). We describe the views of pregnant women and their male partners on HIV self-test kits that are woman-delivered, alone or with an additional intervention. Methods: A formative qualitative study to inform the design of a multi-arm multi-stage cluster-randomized trial, comprised of six focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews, was conducted. ANC attendees were purposively sampled on the day of initial clinic visit, while men were recruited after obtaining their contact information from their female partners. Data were analysed using content analysis, and our interpretation is hypothetical as participants were not offered self-test kits. Results: Providing HIV self-test kits to pregnant women to deliver to their male partners was highly acceptable to both women and men. Men preferred this approach compared with standard facility-based testing, as self-testing fits into their lifestyles which were characterized by extreme day-to-day economic pressures, including the need to raise money for food for their household daily. Men and women emphasized the need for careful communication before and after collection of the self-test kits in order to minimize the potential for intimate partner violence although physical violence was perceived as less likely to occur. Most men stated a preference to first self-test alone, followed by testing as a couple. Regarding interventions for optimizing linkage following self-testing, both men and women felt that a fixed financial incentive of approximately USD$2 would increase linkage. However, there were concerns that financial incentives of greater value may lead to multiple pregnancies and lack of child spacing. In this low
Background In the year 2020, depression will cause the second highest amount of disability worldwide. One quarter of the population will suffer from depression symptoms at some point in their lives. Mental health services in Western countries are overburdened. Therefore, cost-effective interventions that do not involve mental health services, such as online psychotherapy programs, have been proposed. These programs demonstrate satisfactory outcomes, but the completion rate for patients is low. Health professionals’ attitudes towards this type of psychotherapy are more negative than the attitudes of depressed patients themselves. The aim of this study is to describe the profile of depressed patients who would benefit most from online psychotherapy and to identify expectations, experiences, and attitudes about online psychotherapy among both patients and health professionals that can facilitate or hinder its effects. Methods A parallel qualitative design will be used in a randomised controlled trial on the efficiency of online psychotherapeutic treatment for depression. Through interviews and focus groups, the experiences of treated patients, their reasons for abandoning the program, the expectations of untreated patients, and the attitudes of health professionals will be examined. Questions will be asked about training in new technologies, opinions of online psychotherapy, adjustment to therapy within the daily routine, the virtual and anonymous relationship with the therapist, the process of online communication, information necessary to make progress in therapy, process of working with the program, motivations and attitudes about treatment, expected consequences, normalisation of this type of therapy in primary care, changes in the physician-patient relationship, and resources and risks. A thematic content analysis from the grounded theory for interviews and an analysis of the discursive positions of participants based on the sociological model for focus groups
People who are homeless encounter barriers to primary care despite having greater needs for health care, on average, than people who are not homeless. We evaluated the effectiveness of interventions to improve access to primary care for people who are homeless. We performed a systematic review to identify studies in English published between January 1, 1995, and July 8, 2015, comparing interventions to improve access to a primary care provider with usual care among people who are homeless. The outcome of interest was access to a primary care provider. The risk of bias in the studies was evaluated, and the quality of the evidence was assessed according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria. From a total of 4,047 citations, we identified five eligible studies (one randomized controlled trial and four observational studies). With the exception of the randomized trial, the risk of bias was considered high in the remaining studies. In the randomized trial, people who were homeless, without serious mental illness, and who received either an outreach intervention plus clinic orientation or clinic orientation alone, had improved access to a primary care provider compared with those receiving usual care. An observational study that compared integration of primary care and other services for people who are homeless with usual care did not observe any difference in access to a primary care provider between the two groups. A small observational study showed improvement among participants with a primary care provider after receiving an intervention consisting of housing and supportive services compared with the period before the intervention. The quality of the evidence was considered moderate for both the outreach plus clinic orientation and clinic orientation alone, and low to very low for the other interventions. Despite limitations, the literature identified reports of interventions developed to overcome
Background People who are homeless encounter barriers to primary care despite having greater needs for health care, on average, than people who are not homeless. We evaluated the effectiveness of interventions to improve access to primary care for people who are homeless. Methods We performed a systematic review to identify studies in English published between January 1, 1995, and July 8, 2015, comparing interventions to improve access to a primary care provider with usual care among people who are homeless. The outcome of interest was access to a primary care provider. The risk of bias in the studies was evaluated, and the quality of the evidence was assessed according to the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) Working Group criteria. Results From a total of 4,047 citations, we identified five eligible studies (one randomized controlled trial and four observational studies). With the exception of the randomized trial, the risk of bias was considered high in the remaining studies. In the randomized trial, people who were homeless, without serious mental illness, and who received either an outreach intervention plus clinic orientation or clinic orientation alone, had improved access to a primary care provider compared with those receiving usual care. An observational study that compared integration of primary care and other services for people who are homeless with usual care did not observe any difference in access to a primary care provider between the two groups. A small observational study showed improvement among participants with a primary care provider after receiving an intervention consisting of housing and supportive services compared with the period before the intervention. The quality of the evidence was considered moderate for both the outreach plus clinic orientation and clinic orientation alone, and low to very low for the other interventions. Despite limitations, the literature identified reports of
Althabe, Fernando; Buekens, Pierre; Bergel, Eduardo; Belizán, José M; Campbell, Marci K; Moss, Nancy; Hartwell, Tyler; Wright, Linda L
Implementation of evidence-based obstetrical practices remains a significant challenge. Effective strategies to disseminate and implement such practices are needed. We randomly assigned 19 hospitals in Argentina and Uruguay to receive a multifaceted behavioral intervention (including selection of opinion leaders, interactive workshops, training of manual skills, one-on-one academic detailing visits with hospital birth attendants, reminders, and feedback) to develop and implement guidelines for the use of episiotomy and management of the third stage of labor or to receive no intervention. The primary outcomes were the rates of prophylactic use of oxytocin during the third stage of labor and of episiotomy. The main secondary outcomes were postpartum hemorrhage and birth attendants' readiness to change their behavior with regard to episiotomies and management of the third stage of labor. The outcomes were measured at baseline, at the end of the 18-month intervention, and 12 months after the end of the intervention. The rate of use of prophylactic oxytocin increased from 2.1% at baseline to 83.6% after the end of the intervention at hospitals that received the intervention and from 2.6% to 12.3% at control hospitals (P=0.01 for the difference in changes). The rate of use of episiotomy decreased from 41.1% to 29.9% at hospitals receiving the intervention but remained stable at control hospitals, with preintervention and postintervention values of 43.5% and 44.5%, respectively (P<0.001 for the difference in changes). The intervention was also associated with reductions in the rate of postpartum hemorrhage of 500 ml or more (relative rate reduction, 45%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9 to 71) and of 1000 ml or more (relative rate reduction, 70%; 95% CI, 16 to 78). Birth attendants' readiness to change also increased in the hospitals receiving the intervention. The effects on the use of episiotomy and prophylactic oxytocin were sustained 12 months after the end of the
Wachtlin, Joachim; Ringwald, Andreas; Maulhardt, Tobias; Pohl, Karin; Wiedon, Annette
In the non-interventional ophthalmological study 'BRIDGE' the routine care of patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (nAMD) treated with ranibizumab was observed in Germany. A patient regularly sees the general ophthalmologist (GO) for monitoring and, if needed, the injecting ophthalmologist (IO) for intravitreal injections (IVI). Thus, patients are routinely treated by two ophthalmologists in parallel and patient care depends on their collaboration. This cooperation was evaluated based on network questionnaires. 'BRIDGE' was a multicenter, national, open-label, prospective, observational study, conducted between July 2010 and December 2012. The network questionnaire for GOs consisted of 51 questions, while the similar questionnaire for IOs consisted of 43 questions, addressing the type and details of the individual collaboration. The statistical analysis was purely descriptive. The network questionnaire for GOs was completed by 152 GOs, regularly cooperating with 2.5 ± 1.1 IOs, while the questionnaire for IOs was completed by 43 IOs, regularly cooperating with 23.2 ± 23.6 GOs. Generally, both GOs and IOs stated that they regularly exchange information regarding the patients' situation. Diagnostic standards were only established for 15 % of the GOs' collaborations and for 35 % of the IOs' collaborations. After initial treatment, both GOs and IOs agreed on the medical significance of regular monitoring visits performed by the GOs. Agreements on re-treatment criteria were only established in the case of 16 % of the GOs and 28 % of the IOs. Overall, both GOs and IOs were satisfied with the current situation, with regard to the medical treatment situation for patients and to the cooperation within the networks. The network questionnaires revealed well-established cooperation between IOs and GOs in Germany with an accepted division of responsibilities for the routine care of patients with nAMD. However, the cooperation between two
Falb, Kathryn L; Diaz-Olavarrieta, Claudia; Campos, Paola A; Valades, Jimena; Cardenas, Roosebelinda; Carino, Giselle; Gupta, Jhumka
Intimate partner violence (IPV) victimization is a prevalent issue among women residing in Mexico City. Comprehensive and integrated health care provider (HCP) delivered programs in clinic-settings are needed, yet few have been evaluated in Latin America, including Mexico. In addition, there has been minimal attention to interventions among lower income women presenting at settings outside of antenatal care clinics. The current randomized controlled trial seeks to increase midlevel HCPs' capacity, specifically nurses, who are often the first point of contact in this setting, to identify women presenting at health clinics with experiences of IPV and to assist these women with health risk mitigation. Specific outcomes include changes in past-year IPV (physical and/or sexual), reproductive coercion, safety planning, use of community resources, and quality of life. Forty-two public health clinics in Mexico City were randomized to treatment or control clinics. Nurses meeting eligibility criteria in treatment groups received an intensive training on screening for IPV, providing supportive referrals, and assessing for health and safety risks. Nurses meeting eligibility criteria at control clinics received the standard of care which included a one-day training focused on sensitizing staff to IPV as a health issue and referral cards to give to women. Women were screened for eligibility (currently experiencing abuse in a heterosexual relationship, 18-44 years of age, non-pregnant or in first trimester) by research assistants in private areas of waiting rooms in health clinics. Consenting women completed a baseline survey and received the study protocol for that clinic. In treatment clinics, women received the nurse delivered session at baseline and received a follow-up counseling session after three months. Surveys are conducted at baseline, three months, and fifteen months from baseline. This study will provide important insight into whether a nurse-delivered program can
Aberle, Dwight; Charles, Hearns; Hodak, Steven; O’Neill, Daniel; Oklu, Rahmi; Deipolyi, Amy R.
With the rising epidemic of obesity, interventional radiologists are treating increasing numbers of obese patients, as comorbidities associated with obesity preclude more invasive treatments. These patients are at heightened risk of vascular and oncologic disease, both of which often require interventional radiology care. Obese patients pose unique challenges in imaging, technical feasibility, and periprocedural monitoring. This review describes the technical and clinical challenges posed by this population, with proposed methods to mitigate these challenges and optimize care. PMID:28082253
Eneanya, Nwamaka D; Goff, Sarah L; Martinez, Talaya; Gutierrez, Natalie; Klingensmith, Jamie; Griffith, John L; Garvey, Casey; Kitsen, Jenny; Germain, Michael J; Marr, Lisa; Berzoff, Joan; Unruh, Mark; Cohen, Lewis M
End-stage renal disease carries a prognosis similar to cancer yet only 20 % of end-stage renal disease patients are referred to hospice. Furthermore, conversations between dialysis team members and patients about end-of-life planning are uncommon. Lack of provider training about how to communicate prognostic data may contribute to the limited number of end-of-life care discussions that take place with this chronically ill population. In this study, we will test the Shared Decision-Making Renal Supportive Care communication intervention to systematically elicit patient and caretaker preferences for end-of-life care so that care concordant with patients' goals can be provided. This multi-center study will deploy an intervention to improve end-of-life communication for hemodialysis patients who are at high risk of death in the ensuing six months. The intervention will be carried out as a prospective cohort with a retrospective cohort serving as the comparison group. Patients will be recruited from 16 dialysis units associated with two large academic centers in Springfield, Massachusetts and Albuquerque, New Mexico. Critical input from patient advisory boards, a stakeholder panel, and initial qualitative analysis of patient and caretaker experiences with advance care planning have informed the communication intervention. Rigorous communication training for hemodialysis social workers and providers will ensure that standardized study procedures are performed at each dialysis unit. Nephrologists and social workers will communicate prognosis and provide advance care planning in face-to-face encounters with patients and families using a social work-centered algorithm. Study outcomes including frequency and timing of hospice referrals, patient and caretaker satisfaction, quality of end-of-life discussions, and quality of death will be assessed over an 18 month period. The Shared Decision-Making Renal Supportive Care Communication intervention intends to improve discussions
Evaluating the relative effectiveness of high-intensity and low-intensity models of behaviour change communication interventions for abortion care-seeking in Bihar and Jharkhand, India: a cross-sectional study
Banerjee, Sushanta K; Andersen, Kathryn; Pearson, Erin; Warvadekar, Janardan; Khan, Danish U; Batra, Sangeeta
Background This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a high-intensity model (HIM) and a low-intensity model (LIM) of behaviour change communication interventions in Bihar and Jharkhand states of India designed to improve women's knowledge and usage of safe abortion services, as well as the dose effect of intervention exposure. Methods We conducted two cross-sectional household surveys among married women aged 15–49 years in intervention and comparison districts. Difference-in-difference models were used to assess the efficacy of the intervention, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Results Although both intervention types improved abortion knowledge, the HIM intervention was more effective in improving comprehensive knowledge about abortion. In particular, there were improvements in knowledge on legality of abortion (AOR=2.2; 95% CI 1.6 to 2.9) and nearby sources of safe abortion care (AOR=1.7; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.3). Conclusions Higher level of exposure to abortion-related messages was related to more accurate knowledge about abortion within both intervention groups. Evidence was mixed on changes in abortion care-seeking behaviour. More work is needed to ensure that women seek safe abortion services in lieu of informal services that may be more likely to lead to postabortion complications. PMID:28237953
Evaluating the relative effectiveness of high-intensity and low-intensity models of behaviour change communication interventions for abortion care-seeking in Bihar and Jharkhand, India: a cross-sectional study.
Banerjee, Sushanta K; Andersen, Kathryn; Pearson, Erin; Warvadekar, Janardan; Khan, Danish U; Batra, Sangeeta
This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of a high-intensity model (HIM) and a low-intensity model (LIM) of behaviour change communication interventions in Bihar and Jharkhand states of India designed to improve women's knowledge and usage of safe abortion services, as well as the dose effect of intervention exposure. We conducted two cross-sectional household surveys among married women aged 15-49 years in intervention and comparison districts. Difference-in-difference models were used to assess the efficacy of the intervention, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics. Although both intervention types improved abortion knowledge, the HIM intervention was more effective in improving comprehensive knowledge about abortion. In particular, there were improvements in knowledge on legality of abortion (AOR=2.2; 95% CI 1.6 to 2.9) and nearby sources of safe abortion care (AOR=1.7; 95% CI 1.2 to 1.3). Higher level of exposure to abortion-related messages was related to more accurate knowledge about abortion within both intervention groups. Evidence was mixed on changes in abortion care-seeking behaviour. More work is needed to ensure that women seek safe abortion services in lieu of informal services that may be more likely to lead to postabortion complications. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.
Song, Mi-Kyung; Ward, Sandra E
In reports of end-of-life communication interventions, it is difficult to find sufficient detail about the intervention to allow replication, extension, and translation into practice. The purpose of this article is to provide details about a theory-guided advance care planning intervention, sharing the patient's illness representations to increase trust (SPIRIT), an intervention that has been shown to be efficacious for patients and their surrogates with respect to preparation for end-of-life decision making. The description of SPIRIT is based on an intervention description checklist by Conn (2012), the Intervention Taxonomy from Schulz, Czaja, McKay, Ory, and Belle (2010) and on relevant segments of Consolidated Standards of Reporting Trials. The SPIRIT intervention was developed based on sound theoretical underpinnings and pilot tested with target patient populations and racial or ethnic groups. We describe details about the intervention's theoretical basis, requisite intervener training, implementation of each intervention component, and fidelity monitoring. The details about the components of a theory-guided advance care planning intervention may facilitate translation of the intervention to practice settings. © 2015 Sigma Theta Tau International.
Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L; Taveras, Elsie M; Gortmaker, Steven L; Hohman, Katherine H; Horan, Christine M; Kleinman, Ken P; Mitchell, Kathleen; Price, Sarah; Prosser, Lisa A; Gillman, Matthew W
The obesity epidemic has spared no age group, even young infants. Most childhood obesity is incident by the age of 5 years, making prevention in preschool years a priority. To examine 2-year changes in age- and sex-specific BMI z-scores and obesity-related behaviours among 441 of the 475 originally recruited participants in High Five for Kids, a cluster randomized controlled trial in 10 paediatric practices. The intervention included a more intensive 1-year intervention period (four in-person visits and two phone calls) followed by a less intensive 1-year maintenance period (two in-person visits) among children who were overweight or obese and age 2-6 years at enrolment. The five intervention practices restructured care to manage these children including motivational interviewing and educational modules targeting television viewing and intakes of fast food and sugar-sweetened beverages. After 2 years, compared with usual care, intervention participants had similar changes in BMI z-scores (-0.04 units; 95% CI -0.14, 0.06), television viewing (-0.20 h/d; -0.49 to 0.09) and intakes of fast food (-0.09 servings/week; -0.34 to 0.17) and sugar-sweetened beverages (-0.26 servings/day; -0.67 to 0.14). High Five for Kids, a primarily clinical-based intervention, did not affect BMI z-scores or obesity-related behaviours after 2 years. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.
Basilici Zannetti, Emanuela; D'Agostino, Fabio; Cittadini, Noemi; Feola, Maurizio; Pennini, Annalisa; Rao, Cecilia; Vellone, Ercole; Tarantino, Umberto; Alvaro, Rosaria
Osteoporosis has a significant impact on affected patients. Healthcare providers should encourage postmenopausal women to improve self-care maintenance behaviors and quality of life following a fragility fracture. The aims of this study were to a) develop two new instruments for measuring, respectively, self-care maintenance and quality of life, in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis; b) evaluate the effectiveness of a tailored educational intervention to improve self-care maintenance and quality of life after a fragility fracture in postmenopausal women. For the first aim, a cross-sectional study will be performed; for the second aim, a multicenter, quasi-experimental, interventional design will be used. A convenience sample of postmenopausal women admitted to 44 hospitals in Italy with a diagnosis of bone fragility fracture will be enrolled and surveyed at 7, 30, 60 and 180 days after discharge. Trained nurses will conduct the educational intervention. The new instruments will allow the measurement of self-care and quality of life in postmenopausal women following a fragility fracture. Through tailored educational interventions, women can be helped to take their medications correctly, adopt a healthy lifestyle, reduce the occurrence of bone fractures, and have a better quality of life.
A randomised controlled trial investigating the effects of Mediterranean diet and aerobic exercise on cognition in cognitively healthy older people living independently within aged care facilities: the Lifestyle Intervention in Independent Living Aged Care (LIILAC) study protocol [ACTRN12614001133628].
Hardman, Roy J; Kennedy, Greg; Macpherson, Helen; Scholey, Andrew B; Pipingas, Andrew
The rapid ageing of the population is becoming an area of great concern, both globally and in Australia. On a societal level, the cost of supporting an ageing demographic, particularly with their associated medical requirements, is becoming an ever increasing burden that is only predicted to rise in the foreseeable future. The progressive decline in individuals' cognitive ability as they age, particularly with respect to the ever increasing incidence of Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and other cognitive complications, is in many respects one of the foundation stones of these concerns. There have been numerous observational studies reporting on the positive effects that aerobic exercise and the Mediterranean diet appear to have on improving cognitive ability. However, the ability of such interventions to improve cognitive ability, or even reduce the rate of cognitive ageing, has not been fully examined by substantial interventional studies within an ageing population. The LIILAC trial will investigate the potential for cognitive change in a cohort of cognitively healthy individuals, between the ages of 60 and 90 years, living in independent accommodation within Australian aged care facilities. This four-arm trial will investigate the cognitive changes which may occur as a result of the introduction of aerobic exercise and/or Mediterranean diet into individuals' lifestyles, as well as the mechanisms by which these changes may be occurring. Participants will be tested at baseline and 6 months on a battery of computer based cognitive assessments, together with cardiovascular and blood biomarker assessments. The cardiovascular measures will assess changes in arterial stiffness and central pulse pressures, while the blood measures will examine changes in metabolic profiles, including brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), inflammatory factors and insulin sensitivity. It is hypothesised that exercise and Mediterranean diet interventions, both individually and in combination
Golnik, Allison; Scal, Peter; Wey, Andrew; Gaillard, Philippe
Forty-six subjects received primary medical care within an autism-specific medical home intervention (www.autismmedicalhome.com) and 157 controls received standard primary medical care. Subjects and controls had autism spectrum disorder diagnoses. Thirty-four subjects (74%) and 62 controls (40%) completed pre and post surveys. Controlling for…
Kertz, Barbara L.; Cully, Jeffery A.; Stanley, Melinda A.; Davila, Jessica A.; Dang, Bich N.; Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C.; Giordano, Thomas P.
Poor retention in HIV medical care is associated with increased mortality among patients with HIV/AIDS. Developing new interventions to improve retention in HIV primary care is needed. The Department of Veteran Affairs (VA) is the largest single provider of HIV care in the US. We sought to understand what veterans would want in an intervention to improve retention in VA HIV care. We conducted 18 one-on-one interviews and 15 outpatient focus groups with 46 patients living with HIV infection from the Michael E. DeBakey VAMC (MEDVAMC). Analysis identified three focus areas for improving retention in care: developing an HIV friendly clinic environment, providing mental health and substance use treatment concurrent with HIV care and encouraging peer support from other Veterans with HIV. PMID:26829641
Townson, J; Gregory, J W; Cowley, L; Gallagher, D; Channon, S; Robling, M; Williams, D; Hughes, C; Murphy, S; Lowes, L
To design, develop, and evaluate the feasibility of delivering a multi-component community based intervention to parents and primary health care professionals to raise awareness of the symptoms of Type 1 diabetes (T1D) in childhood in 3 adjoining borough counties of South Wales. Parent and primary health care advisory groups were established to design the intervention. Qualitative interviews with stakeholders and parents assessed the acceptability, feasibility and any potential impact of the intervention. The parent component of the intervention developed was a re-useable shopping bag with the 4 main symptoms of T1D illustrated on the side, based on the road traffic system of red warning triangles and an octagon "stop" sign stating "Seek Medical Help". Accompanying the bag was an A5 leaflet giving further information. Both were overwrapped with clear plastic and delivered to 98% (323/329) schools, equating to 101 371 children. The primary health care professional component was a dual glucose/ketone meter, single use lancets, stickers, the A5 parent leaflet displayed as a poster and an educational visit from a Community Diabetes Liaison Nurse. 87% (73/84) of GP practices received the intervention, 100% received the materials. The intervention was delivered within Cardiff, the Vale of Glamorgan and Bridgend. Qualitative analyses suggest that the intervention raised awareness and had some impact. This study showed that it is feasible and acceptable to design, develop and deliver a community based intervention to raise awareness of T1D. There is some suggestion of impact but a definitive evaluation of effectiveness is still required. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Rashid, Harunor; Yin, Jiehui Kevin; Ward, Kirsten; King, Catherine; Seale, Holly; Booy, Robert
Despite official recommendations for health care workers to receive the influenza vaccine, uptake remains low. This systematic review of randomized controlled trials was conducted to understand the evidence about interventions to improve influenza vaccine uptake among health care workers. We identified twelve randomized controlled trials that, collectively, assessed six major categories of interventions involving 193,924 health care workers in high-income countries. The categories were educational materials and training sessions, improved access to the vaccine, rewards following vaccination, organized efforts to raise vaccine awareness, reminders to get vaccinated, and the use of lead advocates for vaccination. Only one of the four studies that evaluated the effect of a single intervention in isolation demonstrated a significantly higher vaccine uptake rate in the intervention group, compared to controls. However, five of the eight studies that evaluated a combination of strategies showed significantly higher vaccine uptake. Despite the low quality of the studies identified, the data suggest that combined interventions can moderately increase vaccine uptake among health care workers. Further methodologically appropriate trials of combined interventions tailored to individual health care settings and incorporating less-studied strategies would enhance the evidence about interventions to improve immunization uptake among health care workers.
Hamall, Katrina M; Heard, Todd R; Inder, Kerry J; McGill, Katherine M; Kay-Lambkin, Frances
Families of children living with chronic illness are more vulnerable to mental health problems, however this can be ameliorated by a family's resilience. The Child Illness and Resilience Program (CHiRP) will develop and evaluate a parent-focussed family intervention designed to increase the resilience and wellbeing of families living with childhood chronic illness. The study will be conducted in an Australian regional paediatric hospital and will use a stepped care intervention that increases in intensity according to parental distress. All parents of children discharged from the hospital will receive a family resilience and wellbeing factsheet (Step 1). Parents of children attending selected outpatient clinics will receive a family resilience and wellbeing activity booklet (Step 2). Parents who receive the booklet and report psychological distress at three-month follow-up will be randomised to participate in a family resilience information support group or waitlist control (Step 3). The Step 3 control group will provide data to compare the relative effectiveness of the booklet intervention alone versus the booklet combined with the group intervention for distressed parents. These participants will then receive the information support group intervention. All parents in Step 2 and 3 will complete baseline, post-intervention and six month follow up assessments. The primary outcomes of the study will be changes in scores between baseline and follow-up assessments on measures of constructs of family resilience, including parental wellbeing, family functioning, family beliefs and perceived social support. Qualitative feedback regarding the utility and acceptability of the different intervention components will also be collected. It is hypothesised that participation in the CHiRP intervention will be associated with positive changes in the key outcome measures. If effective, CHiRP will provide an opportunity for the health sector to deliver a standardised stepped care
Okwaro, Ferdinand M; Chandler, Clare I R; Hutchinson, Eleanor; Nabirye, Christine; Taaka, Lilian; Kayendeke, Miriam; Nayiga, Susan; Staedke, Sarah G
Health systems in many African countries are failing to provide populations with access to good quality health care. Morbidity and mortality from curable diseases such as malaria remain high. The PRIME trial in Tororo, rural Uganda, designed and tested an intervention to improve care at health centres, with the aim of reducing ill-health due to malaria in surrounding communities. This paper presents the impact and context of this trial from the perspective of community members in the study area. Fieldwork was carried out for a year from the start of the intervention in June 2011, and involved informal observation and discussions as well as 13 focus group discussions with community members, 10 in-depth interviews with local stakeholders, and 162 context descriptions recorded through quarterly interviews with community members, health workers and district officials. Community members observed a small improvement in quality of care at most, but not all, intervention health centres. However, this was diluted by other shortfalls in health services beyond the scope of the intervention. Patients continued to seek care at health centres they considered inadequate as well as positioning themselves and their children to access care through other sources such as research and nongovernmental organization (NGO) projects. These findings point to challenges of designing and delivering interventions within a paradigm that requires factorial (reduced to predictable factors) problem definition with easily actionable and evaluable solutions by small-scale projects. Such requirements mean that interventions often work on the periphery of a health system rather than tackling the murky political and economic realities that shape access to care but are harder to change or evaluate with randomized controlled trials. Highly projectified settings further reduce the ability to genuinely 'control' for different health care access scenarios. We argue for a raised consciousness of how
Wright, Davene R; Taveras, Elsie M; Gillman, Matthew W; Horan, Christine M; Hohman, Katherine H; Gortmaker, Steven L; Prosser, Lisa A
United States pediatric guidelines recommend that childhood obesity counseling be conducted in the primary care setting. Primary care-based interventions can be effective in improving health behaviors, but also costly. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the cost of a primary care-based obesity prevention intervention targeting children between the ages of two and six years who are at elevated risk for obesity, measured against usual care. High Five for Kids was a cluster-randomized controlled clinical trial that aimed to modify children's nutrition and TV viewing habits through a motivational interviewing intervention. We assessed visit-related costs from a societal perspective, including provider-incurred direct medical costs, provider-incurred equipment costs, parent time costs and parent out-of-pocket costs, in 2011 dollars for the intervention (n = 253) and usual care (n =192) groups. We conducted a net cost analysis using both societal and health plan costing perspectives and conducted one-way sensitivity and uncertainty analyses on results. The total costs for the intervention group and usual care groups in the first year of the intervention were $65,643 (95% CI [$64,522, $66,842]) and $12,192 (95% CI [$11,393, $13,174]). The mean costs for the intervention and usual care groups were $259 (95% CI [$255, $264]) and $63 (95% CI [$59, $69]) per child, respectively, for a incremental difference of $196 (95% CI [$191, $202]) per child. Children in the intervention group attended a mean of 2.4 of a possible 4 in-person visits and received 0.45 of a possible 2 counseling phone calls. Provider-incurred costs were the primary driver of cost estimates in sensitivity analyses. High Five for Kids was a resource-intensive intervention. Further studies are needed to assess the cost-effectiveness of the intervention relative to other pediatric obesity interventions.
Chou, Hsin-Kai; Yan, Sui-Hing; Lin, I-Chun; Tsai, Ming-Tsu; Chen, Chu-Chieh; Woung, Lin-Chung
As a progressive degenerative illness, dementia can reveal itself through a variety of symptoms such as intellectual deterioration, loss of recent memory, loss of cognitive ability, and psychological and behavioral problems. The telecare medical support system (TMSS) has been a part of dementia care in many countries for many years. Although worth considering, the TMSS model is difficult to directly implement in Taiwan because of cultural and social issues. This study explores the ease of use and usefulness of TMSS from the perspective of primary caregivers and assesses the benefits of TMSS in home dementia care. We used a qualitative research method to explore the experience and perceptions of 30 primary caregivers who each used TMSS for 6 months in dementia care. Data were collected using 1-hour in-depth interviews. Four senior nurses conducted the content analysis. Approximately two thirds (63.3%) of the participants were primary caregivers of patients with Alzheimer's disease in the mild to medium stage of their illness. After using TMSS for the 6-month study period, participants held generally positive views of its usefulness and ease of use. Participants generally appreciated the ability of TMSS to self-diagnose care recipient conditions; provide reminders, care, and emotional support; and help stabilize the care recipient's condition and emotions. We showed TMSS as an effective tool that helps reduce primary caregiver isolation and uncertainty and provides round-the-clock care management and safety checks using advanced technology and a professional care team. TMSS can effectively enhance dementia care.
Salmela, Sanna; Poskiparta, Marita; Kasila, Kirsti; Vahasarja, Kati; Vanhala, Mauno
The objective of this study was to review the evidence concerning stage-based dietary interventions in primary care among persons with diabetes or an elevated diabetes risk. Search strategies were electronic databases and manual search. Selection criteria were randomized controlled studies with stage-based dietary intervention, conducted in…
Salmela, Sanna; Poskiparta, Marita; Kasila, Kirsti; Vahasarja, Kati; Vanhala, Mauno
The objective of this study was to review the evidence concerning stage-based dietary interventions in primary care among persons with diabetes or an elevated diabetes risk. Search strategies were electronic databases and manual search. Selection criteria were randomized controlled studies with stage-based dietary intervention, conducted in…
Saha, Sanjib; Carlsson, Katarina Steen; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Eriksson, Margareta K.; Hagberg, Lars; Eliasson, Mats; Johansson, Pia
Background Lifestyle interventions affect patients’ risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MeSy), a pre-stage to cardiovascular diseases, diabetes and related complications. An effective lifestyle intervention is the Swedish Björknäs intervention, a 3-year randomized controlled trial in primary care for MeSy patients. To include future disease-related cost and health consequences in a cost-effectiveness analysis, a simulation model was used to estimate the short-term (3-year) and long-term (lifelong) cost-effectiveness of the Björknäs study. Methodology/ Principal Findings A Markov micro-simulation model was used to predict the cost and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) for MeSy-related diseases based on ten risk factors. Model inputs were levels of individual risk factors at baseline and at the third year. The model estimated short-term and long-term costs and QALYs for the intervention and control groups. The cost-effectiveness of the intervention was assessed using differences-in-differences approach to compare the changes between the groups in the health care and societal perspectives, using a 3% discount rate. A 95% confidence interval (CI), based on bootstrapping, and sensitivity analyses describe the uncertainty in the estimates. In the short-term, costs are predicted to increase over time in both groups, but less in the intervention group, resulting in an average cost saving/reduction of US$-700 (in 2012, US$1=six point five seven SEK) and US$-500, in the societal and health care perspectives. The long-term estimate also predicts increased costs, but considerably less in the intervention group: US$-7,300 (95% CI: US$-19,700 to US$-1,000) in the societal, and US$-1,500 (95% CI: US$-5,400 to US$2,650) in the health care perspective. As intervention costs were US$211 per participant, the intervention would result in cost saving. Furthermore, in the long-term an estimated 0.46 QALYs (95% CI: 0.12 to 0.69) per participant would be gained. Conclusions
McCoy, Sandra I; Fahey, Carolyn; Rao, Aarthi; Kapologwe, Ntuli; Njau, Prosper F; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio
Interventions incorporating constructs from behavioral economics and psychology have the potential to enhance HIV 'treatment as prevention' (TasP) strategies. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated an intervention to improve antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence based on the concepts of social norms and priming. We used tools from marketing research and patient-centered design to develop a combination intervention that included visual feedback about clinic-level retention in care, a self-relevant prime, and useful take-home items with the priming image. The intervention was implemented at two HIV primary clinics in Shinyanga, Tanzania in 2-week intervals for six months. We conducted a quasi-experimental pilot study with a random sample of exposed and unexposed adult patients living with HIV infection (PLHIV) to compare retention and the proportion of patients with medication possession ratio (MPR) ≥95% after six months. Intervention acceptability was determined with a convenience sample of 405 PLHIV at baseline (n = 189) and endline (n = 216). Medical records were reviewed for 438 PLHIV (320 intervention, 118 standard of care). In adjusted analyses, PLHIV exposed to the intervention were significantly more likely to be in care after 6 months (87% vs. 79%, adjusted odds ratio (ORa) = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.08, 2.78, p<0.05) and were more likely to achieve MPR≥95% (70% vs. 59%, OR = 1.51, 95% CI: 0.96, 2.37, p = 0.07). The intervention was associated with increases in staff support of treatment goals (100% vs. 95%, p = 0.01) and life goals (66% vs. 50%, p<0.01), the perceived likelihood of other patients' adherence (54% vs. 32%, p<0.01), support from other patients (71% vs. 60%, p = 0.03), and being very satisfied with care (53% vs. 35%, p<0.01). This novel intervention has the potential to improve the clinic experience, short-term retention in care, and ART adherence. Future studies are needed to expand the generalizability of the approach and evaluate effectiveness on
Martinez, Kathryn A; Aslakson, Rebecca A; Wilson, Renee F; Apostol, Colleen C; Fawole, Oluwakemi A; Lau, Brandyn D; Vollenweider, Daniela; Bass, Eric B; Dy, Sydney M
Poorly controlled pain is common in advanced cancer. The objective of this article was to synthesize the evidence on the effectiveness of pain-focused interventions in this population. We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and DARE from 2000 through December 2011. We included prospective, controlled health care intervention studies in advanced cancer populations, focusing on pain. Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria; most focused on nurse-led patient-centered interventions. In all, 9 (47%) of the 19 studies found a significant effect on pain. The most common intervention type was patient/caregiver education, in 17 (89%) of 19 studies, 7 of which demonstrated a significant decrease in pain. We found moderate strength of evidence that pain in advanced cancer can be improved using health care interventions, particularly nurse-led patient-centered interventions.
Martinez, Kathryn A.; Aslakson, Rebecca A.; Wilson, Renee F.; Apostol, Colleen C.; Fawole, Oluwakemi A.; Lau, Brandyn D.; Vollenweider, Daniela; Bass, Eric B.; Dy, Sydney M.
Purpose Poorly controlled pain is common in advanced cancer. The objective of this article was to synthesize the evidence on the effectiveness of pain-focused interventions in this population. Methods We searched MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, Cochrane, and DARE from 2000 through December 2011. We included prospective, controlled health care intervention studies in advanced cancer populations, focusing on pain. Results Nineteen studies met the inclusion criteria; most focused on nurse-led patient-centered interventions. In all, 9 (47%) of the 19 studies found a significant effect on pain. The most common intervention type was patient/caregiver education, in 17 (89%) of 19 studies, 7 of which demonstrated a significant decrease in pain. Conclusions We found moderate strength of evidence that pain in advanced cancer can be improved using health care interventions, particularly nurse-led patient-centered interventions. PMID:23408371
Sugimoto, Kaoru; Ishikawa, Mariko; Kouketsu, Nobuko; Ozaki, Mitsuyo; Tomita, Ikue; Hong, Youngjae; Miura, Hisayuki; Nishikawa, Mitsunori; Yokoe, Yuriko; Nakashima, Kazumitsu
The National Center for Geriatrics and Gerontology in Japan implemented a home medical care support system for aged patients in April 2009. In this study, we report a case of terminal care system where a medical care intervention was carried out by a close coordination of visiting nurses and other staffs with a "at-home terminal care" brochure on hand, and we discussed how this system was brought forward satisfactory and how it affected this culture.
Ramírez-Tirado, Laura Alejandra; Tirado-Gómez, Laura Leticia; López-Cervantes, Malaquías
To analyze the principal indicators associated with maternal mortality and mortality in children under 1 year of age and evaluate coverage levels and variability among the federative entities of Mexico. Eight interventions in maternal and child primary health care (variables) were studied: complete vaccination series, measles vaccine, and pentavalent vaccine in children under 1 year of age; early breast-feeding; prenatal care with at least one check-up by trained staff; prevalence of contraceptive use among married women of reproductive age; obstetric care in delivery by trained staff; and the administration of tetanus toxoid (TT) to pregnant women. The average and standard deviation of national coverage for each variable was calculated. Within each federative entity the proportion of municipalities with high, medium, and low marginalization was determined. States were ranked by the proportion of municipalities with high marginalization (highest to lowest) and divided into quintiles. Absolute inequality was measured using the observed difference and relative inequality, using the ratio of each variable studied. The average national coverage for the eight variables studied ranged from 86.5% to 97.5%, with administration of TT to pregnant women the lowest and administration of measles vaccine to children under 1 year of age the highest. Obstetric care in delivery, prevalence of contraceptive use, and prenatal checkup were the variables with less equitable coverage. In states with higher levels of marginalization, activities dependent on a structured health system-e.g., obstetric care in delivery-showed lower levels of coverage compared to preventive activities not requiring costly inputs or infrastructure-e.g., early breast-feeding. Interventions exhibiting greater inequity are associated with the lack of medical infrastructure and are more accentuated in federative entities with higher levels of marginalization. Greater public health expenditure is urgently needed
Sousa, Clemente N; Apóstolo, João Luís; Figueiredo, Maria Henriqueta; Martins, Maria Manuela; Dias, Vanessa Filipa
The literature shows many self-care behaviours related to people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Our aim is to identify interventions within the 'teaching' that promote self-care (behaviour) with arteriovenous fistula (AVF). The development of self-care behaviours with the AVF allows the access to maintain the best possible conditions, because its state influences the efficacy of the dialysis treatment. However, few studies assess self-care behaviours that people with ESRD have with the AVF, as well as interventions that promote this self-care. Discursive paper. Our research was conducted in MEDLINE, Health Nursing and Allied Literature (CINAHL), Web of Science and SCOPUS using three search expressions, between the period of 2000-2010. We selected studies that identified interventions that promote self-care with AVF. No study has shown in detail the interventions that aimed at promoting self-care behaviours with the AVF for patients with ESRD. We verify that the interventions that promote self-care are directed mostly to the moments after AVF construction. This paper reinforces the need to develop guidelines that provide guidance for self-care with the AVF to be developed by people with ESRD. We also found that self-care behaviours directed to the AVF are mostly associated with postconstruction of the access. Based on these results, it is necessary to delineate clear intervention programmes and objectives, in order to assess self-care with the AVF by people with ESRD, as well as to develop guidelines that