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Sample records for care pfc author

  1. 14 CFR 158.30 - PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. 158... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Application and Approval § 158.30 PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. (a) General. This section specifies the procedures a public agency controlling a...

  2. 14 CFR 158.30 - PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. 158... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Application and Approval § 158.30 PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. (a) General. This section specifies the procedures a public agency controlling a...

  3. 14 CFR 158.30 - PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. 158... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Application and Approval § 158.30 PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. (a) General. This section specifies the procedures a public agency controlling a...

  4. 14 CFR 158.30 - PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) and (3); (D) All applicable airport layout plan, airspace, and environmental requirements have been... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. 158... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Application and Approval § 158.30 PFC...

  5. 14 CFR 158.30 - PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) and (3); (D) All applicable airport layout plan, airspace, and environmental requirements have been... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false PFC Authorization at Non-Hub Airports. 158... (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) Application and Approval § 158.30 PFC...

  6. Palliative care situation in Palestinian Authority.

    PubMed

    Shawawra, Mousa; Khleif, Amal Dweib

    2011-04-01

    Palliative care is a very new concept in Palestine. In fact, it is still not applicable or provided within the Palestinian health care system. However, Al-Sadeel Society had organized a one day workshop in Bethlehem on November 2008 for the health professionals from the governmental and non-governmental sectors to initiate and introduce the idea of palliative care for the first time in Palestine. The general population of Palestine is approximately 2.4 millions (2007), with a life expectancy of 74.3 years of age, the death rate is 3.7 per 1000 population, having 8,910 deaths a year. Deaths due to cancer were 2,305 in five years (1999-2003), where 5,542 new cases were newly diagnosed in the same period. Health services available for cancer patients are hospital units either in patient or day care units. According to the ministry of health (MOH) statistics there are 75 beds in oncology departments in MOH hospitals; represent 2.7% of the total number of beds available, and 60 beds in daily care departments with an occupancy rate at 231.8%. There is no hospice or bereavement follow up care available for patients or their families. Despite the fact that the Palestinian culture is one of the cultures that respect and care for the elderly, but at the end of life, when the load of symptoms is high, most of the patient are care for at hospitals, and usually dye there, because the families are not able to care for their patients, and as there is no system for home care available for the Palestinian patients, and if it is available it is available in limited places and on private bases that are expensive and not affordable to the majority of patients, gross domestic product (GPD) per capita= 1,100 as 2007 estimates). We conducted a needs assessment survey within the only four facilities that provide care for the oncology patients in the West Bank and were filled by the direct health care providers. The results were expressing the fact that there is no palliative care service

  7. 32 CFR 732.14 - Authorized care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... provided: (i) All types of treatment (including operative, restorative, and oral surgical) to relieve pain...), only measures appropriate to relieve pain or abort infection are authorized. (d) Eye refractions...

  8. 32 CFR 732.14 - Authorized care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... provided: (i) All types of treatment (including operative, restorative, and oral surgical) to relieve pain...), only measures appropriate to relieve pain or abort infection are authorized. (d) Eye refractions...

  9. 32 CFR 732.14 - Authorized care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... provided: (i) All types of treatment (including operative, restorative, and oral surgical) to relieve pain...), only measures appropriate to relieve pain or abort infection are authorized. (d) Eye refractions...

  10. 32 CFR 732.14 - Authorized care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), only measures appropriate to relieve pain or abort infection are authorized. (d) Eye refractions and spectacles. Includes refractions of eyes by physicians and optometrists and furnishing and repairing spectacles. (1) Refractions. A refraction may be obtained from a civilian source at Government expense...

  11. 32 CFR 732.14 - Authorized care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...), only measures appropriate to relieve pain or abort infection are authorized. (d) Eye refractions and spectacles. Includes refractions of eyes by physicians and optometrists and furnishing and repairing spectacles. (1) Refractions. A refraction may be obtained from a civilian source at Government expense...

  12. [Antenatal care and source of care during pregnancy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Blondel, B; Kaminski, M; Du Mazaubrun, C; Rumeau-Rouquette, C

    1982-01-01

    The influence of the source of care on the unequalities in the number of antenatal visits was studied in a representative sample of births in France in 1976. The sources of care during pregnancy were divided into five groups according to number and qualification of the medical staff involved: hospital antenatal clinic, gynaecologist or obstetrician, general practitioner, hospital antenatal clinic and other practitioners, several practitioners outside hospital. The number of antenatal visits was related to the source of care. The inequalities in antenatal care according to maternal characteristics originated from inequal access to the most specialized sources of care and disparities in the number of visits within each source of care. Living in a big conurbation was a positive factor for consulting an obstetrician, going to hospital antenatal clinic and having a large number of visits; but even after allowing for this factor, there remained inequalities among women according to their socio-demographic characteristics or the source of care.

  13. [Intensive care in chest trauma (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kopp, K H; Blanig, I; Rabenschlag, R; Vogel, W

    1979-04-01

    A statistical analysis of the case material at the Intensive Care Unit, Freiburg, for the years 1975 and 1976 established that 40% and 39% respectively of patients with multiple injuries had also suffered a chest trauma and that the latter was the direct cause of respiratory insufficiency in 61% (1975) and 57% (1976) of patients in need of controlled respiration, i.e. respiratory insufficiency dominated the clinical and pathophysiological picture. The causes were: restricted respiratory movements due to pain, compression of the lungs or pathological changes in the injured lung, and they affected the normal gaseous exchange in a variety of ways. Alveolar hypoventilation with disturbance of ventilation-perfusion, increase in the functional shunt volume, rise in the functional dead space combined with reduced functional residual capacity and compliance result, if left uncorrected, in a drastic increase of resistance on the part of the pulmonary vessels and finally in, often fatal, hyoxaemia and hypercapnia. Regular estimations of the arterial blood gases in air and pure oxygen, of the arterio-alveolar difference in oxygen pressure, shunt volume, dead space and effective compliance of the chest wall and lungs are, therefore, essential. Treatment in an intensive care unit comprises the relief of any acute condition, such as tension pneumothorax, haemothorax, and general measures. Means to relieve pain in patients whose chest injuries are not sufficiently severe to require artificial ventilation are: intercostal blocking, acupuncture or peridural analgesia; efficient breathing exercises are important. The indications for artificial ventilation should be interpreted generously and the decision to perform it should be made at an early stage. The technique is determined by the type of pathological changes in the gaseous exchange and should aim at restoring normal conditions as far as possible.

  14. 76 FR 3143 - Office of Child Care; Delegation of Authority

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Administration for Children and Families Office of Child Care; Delegation of Authority Notice is hereby given that I have delegated to the Director, Office of Child Care, Administration for..., Pub. L. 104-193), as amended, as they pertain to the functions assigned to the Office of Child...

  15. 78 FR 57211 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... of Sec. 158.29. PFC Applications Approved Public Agency: Louisville Regional Airport Authority... Collect PFC'S: Air taxi commercial operators filing FAA Form 1800-31 which operate at Louisville...

  16. Emergency access authorization for personally controlled online health care data.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tingting; Zhong, Sheng

    2012-02-01

    Personally controlled health records (PCHR) systems have emerged to allow patients to control their own medical data. In a PCHR system, all the access privileges to a patient's data are granted by the patient. However, in many emergency cases, it is impossible for the patient to participate in access authorization on site when immediate medical treatment is needed. To solve the emergency access authorization problem in the absence of patients, we consider two cases: a) the requester is already in the PCHR system but has not obtained the access privilege of the patient's health records, and b) the requester does not even have an account in the PCHR system to submit its request. For each of the two cases, we present a method for emergency access authorization, utilizing the weighted voting and source authentication cryptographic techniques. Our methods provide an effective, secure and private solution for emergency access authorization, that makes the existing PCHR system frameworks more practical and thus improves the patients' experiences of health care when using PCHR systems. We have implemented a prototype system as a proof of concept.

  17. Passive and Hybrid PFC Rectifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Yasuyuki

    The diode rectifier offers several desirable features such as a unity displacement-factor and a high efficiency with low complexity and high reliability, but the utility line-current is significantly distorted. The traditional multi-pulse (e.g., 12-pulse, 18-pulse and so on) PAM concept by means of multiple rectifier units and phase-shifting isolation-transformers is a well-known scheme to improve the input line-current waveform and reduce dc-current/voltage ripple. Though, the necessity of the isolation-transformer is a great weak point especially for applications in low to medium power range. To mitigate the problem, several investigations have been done. The PWM rectifier is a modern and effective alternative, although it results in a higher initial cost, lower efficiency and EMI noise problems due to high frequency switching. To solve the problem, we have two alternatives without PWM and are so called “Passive” schemes. One is the multi-pulse/multi-phase scheme without the isolation transformer but with an autotransformer. This scheme results in a simplified multi-pulse PAM rectifier. The other is the Third-Harmonic-Current Injection and the expanded schemes. Although these two schemes have been studied independently in most cases, new types of diode PFC rectifier obtained by combining the two schemes have been studied recently. Additionally, further new topologies, so called “Hybrid” type, have been proposed very recently. The rectifiers with the new concept consist of an autotransformer-connected double 3-phase bridge 12-pulse rectifier and a PWM dc-dc converter on the dc-side to perform the current injection. The Hybrid rectifiers offer output voltage controllability and sinusoidal input currents similarly to the PWM rectifiers. To show the current trends and remaining possibilities of the Passive and Hybrid rectifiers, this paper gives a survey and historical review of the rectifiers. Then, some new topologies in the category are investigated

  18. Developing PFC representations using reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Reynolds, Jeremy R; O'Reilly, Randall C

    2009-12-01

    From both functional and biological considerations, it is widely believed that action production, planning, and goal-oriented behaviors supported by the frontal cortex are organized hierarchically [Fuster (1991); Koechlin, E., Ody, C., & Kouneiher, F. (2003). Neuroscience: The architecture of cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex. Science, 424, 1181-1184; Miller, G. A., Galanter, E., & Pribram, K. H. (1960). Plans and the structure of behavior. New York: Holt]. However, the nature of the different levels of the hierarchy remains unclear, and little attention has been paid to the origins of such a hierarchy. We address these issues through biologically-inspired computational models that develop representations through reinforcement learning. We explore several different factors in these models that might plausibly give rise to a hierarchical organization of representations within the PFC, including an initial connectivity hierarchy within PFC, a hierarchical set of connections between PFC and subcortical structures controlling it, and differential synaptic plasticity schedules. Simulation results indicate that architectural constraints contribute to the segregation of different types of representations, and that this segregation facilitates learning. These findings are consistent with the idea that there is a functional hierarchy in PFC, as captured in our earlier computational models of PFC function and a growing body of empirical data.

  19. 20 CFR 702.422 - Effect of failure to report on medical care after initial authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... report on medical care after initial authorization. (a) Notwithstanding that medical care is properly... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Effect of failure to report on medical care after initial authorization. 702.422 Section 702.422 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS...

  20. Vendor cited for false PFC savings claim

    SciTech Connect

    Greenstein, I.

    1983-08-29

    A Cynex power factor controller (PFC) vendor claiming a 60% saving was cited by the Better Business Bureau for false advertising after a user survey revealed that savings were only 20% at best. The company plans no future advertising claims, although it insists that 60% savings are possible. The inventor disagrees. (DCK)

  1. Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Offers a lesson designed to help students recognize a key philosophical principle embodied in the U.S. Constitution: that the consent of the governed is the ultimate source of authority in our political system. (JDH)

  2. 76 FR 50540 - Pilot Program of Enhanced Contract Care Authority for Veterans in Highly Rural Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-15

    ... AFFAIRS Pilot Program of Enhanced Contract Care Authority for Veterans in Highly Rural Areas AGENCY... implementing Sec. 403 of Public Law (Pub. L.) 110-387, ``Veterans' Mental Health and Other Care Improvements Act of 2008,'' which requires VA to establish a pilot program to contract with non-VA health care...

  3. 20 CFR 702.422 - Effect of failure to report on medical care after initial authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Effect of failure to report on medical care... ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Medical Care and Supervision Medical Procedures § 702.422 Effect of failure to... authorization of such medical care provider. The effect of a final finding to this effect operates to...

  4. 20 CFR 702.422 - Effect of failure to report on medical care after initial authorization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Effect of failure to report on medical care... ADMINISTRATION AND PROCEDURE Medical Care and Supervision Medical Procedures § 702.422 Effect of failure to... authorization of such medical care provider. The effect of a final finding to this effect operates to...

  5. The impact of competition among health care financing authorities on market yields and issuer interest expenses.

    PubMed

    Bernet, Patrick M; Carpenter, Caryl E; Saunders, Warren

    2011-01-01

    The main source of capital for non-for-profit health care organizations is tax-exempt municipal bonds. The tax-exempt nature of this debt requires that they be issued through financing authorities, which are run by, or affiliated with, state or local government agencies. In some states, all tax-exempt health care bonds must be issued through a single financing authority, but in other states the issuing health care organization has a choice of multiple authorities. Using a Herfindahl index of issuer concentration, prior research has found that greater competition among authorities results in lower interest costs to the issuing health care organization. We pick up where this earlier study left off, examining the links between authority competition, the interest expenses to the issuer, and the yield to the market investor. Although our analysis of all hospital bonds issued between 1994 and 2002 corroborates earlier findings with regard to interest expenses to the issuing health care organization, we also find market yield is lower for statewide authorities where issuer concentration is lower. Thus, authority competition is good from the issuers' point of view, but holds no favor in the investors' eyes. On the other hand, the lower market yield associated with statewide authorities does not make its way down to the issuer in the form of lower interest costs. To help sort through this paradox, we explore our findings through interviews of executives in state issuing authorities.

  6. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual′s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust

  7. Authorities and Mechanisms for Purchased Care at the Department of Veterans Affairs

    PubMed Central

    Greenberg, Michael D.; Batka, Caroline; Buttorff, Christine; Dunigan, Molly; Lovejoy, Susan L.; McGovern, Geoffrey; Pace, Nicholas M.; Pillemer, Francesca; Williams, Kayla M.; Apaydin, Eric; Aranibar, Clara; Buenaventura, Maya; Carter, Phillip; Cherney, Samantha; Davis, Lynn E.; Donohue, Amy Grace; Geyer, Lily; Hemler, Joslyn; Roshan, Parisa; Skrabala, Lauren; Simmons, Stephen; Thompson, Joseph; Welch, Jonathan; Hosek, Susan D.; Farmer, Carrie M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The Veterans Access, Choice, and Accountability Act of 2014 addressed the need for access to timely, high-quality health care for veterans. Section 201 of the legislation called for an independent assessment of various aspects of veterans' health care. The RAND Corporation was tasked with an assessment of the authorities and mechanisms by which the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) pays for health care services from non-VA providers. Purchased care accounted for 10 percent, or around $5.6 billion, of VA's health care budget in fiscal year 2014, and the amount of care purchased from outside VA is growing rapidly. VA purchases non-VA care through an array of programs, each with different payment processes and eligibility requirements for veterans and outside providers. A review and analysis of statutes, regulations, legislation, and literature on VA purchased care, along with interviews with expert stakeholders, a survey of VA medical facilities, and an evaluation of local-level policy documents revealed that VA's purchased care system is complex and decentralized. Inconsistencies in procedures, unclear goals, and a lack of cohesive strategy for purchased care could have ramifications for veterans' access to care. Adding to the complexity of VA's purchased care system is a lack of systematic data collection on access to and quality of care provided through VA's purchased care programs. The analysis also explored concepts of “episodes of care” and their implications for purchased care by VA. PMID:28083425

  8. A transcultural, preventive ethics approach to critical-care medicine: restoring the critical care physician's power and authority.

    PubMed

    McCullough, L B

    1998-12-01

    This article comments on the treatment of critical-care ethics in four preceding articles about critical-care medicine and its ethical challenges in mainland China, Hong Kong, Japan, and the Philippines. These articles show how cultural values can be in both synchrony and conflict in generating these ethical challenges and in the constraints that they place on the response of critical-care ethics to them. To prevent ethical conflict in critical care the author proposes a two-step approach to the ethical justification of critical-care management: (1) the decision to resuscitate and initiate critical-care management, which is based on the obligation to prevent imminent mortality without permanent loss of consciousness; and (2) the decision to continue critical-care management, which is based on the obligation both to prevent imminent death without permanent loss of consciousness and to avoid unnecessary, significant iatrogenic costs to the patient and psychosocial costs to the family when the reduction of mortality risk is marginal. Physicians and hospitals should restore the critical-care physician's authority and power -- against prevailing cultural values, if necessary -- to control when critical-care intervention is offered, when it is recommended to continue, and when it is recommended to be discontinued and the patient allowed to die.

  9. Wound care by district nurses at primary healthcare centres: a challenging task without authority or resources.

    PubMed

    Friman, Anne; Klang, Birgitta; Ebbeskog, Britt

    2011-09-01

    There is a lack of studies that describes how district nurses experience the care they provide in connection with wound care. The aim of this study was therefore to describe district nurses experiences of their nursing actions when treating patients with different kinds of wounds at primary healthcare centres and in the home care in order to increase understanding of this kind of care. A qualitative, descriptive study was conducted, with interviews of eight district nurses. Data were analysed using qualitative content analysis. Three themes and nine sub-themes were identified. The first theme included two sub-themes which revealed that in performing wound care district nurses feel responsible for administering wound care, and they feel confident in making independent assessments. The second theme included three sub-themes which revealed that district nurses endeavour to assess all aspects of their patient's situation and to maintain continuity in both their contact with the patient and the treatment. A treatment plan for wound care and regular reports were identified as being important in collaboration with other healthcare professionals. District nurses wanted their own procedure for referral to facilitate the patient's direct contact with a dermatologist. The third theme included four sub-themes which revealed difficulties associated with ambiguous organisation. Lack of time led to the dressing of wounds being delegated to nursing assistants. Limited access to treatment rooms and equipment made wound care difficult and inefficient. Wound care in the home care was regarded as challenging due to the lack of equipment, and poor lighting, ergonomics and hygiene. The results of this study thus identified the aspirations of district nurses to provide expert wound care while working independently. However, these aspirations were aggravated by organisational shortcomings, such as a lack of authority and the resources required to carry out their nursing actions optimally

  10. 14 CFR 158.49 - Handling of PFC's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... an accounts payable system to handle PFC revenue with subaccounts for each public agency to which.... (a) Collecting carriers shall establish and maintain a financial management system to account for PFC's in accordance with the Department of Transportation's Uniform System of Accounts and Reports...

  11. Does fear of immigration authorities deter tuberculosis patients from seeking care?

    PubMed

    Asch, S; Leake, B; Gelberg, L

    1994-10-01

    Physician groups are concerned that legislation requiring physicians to report illegal immigrants to immigration authorities will delay curative care. In particular, patients with tuberculosis may delay seeking care for infectious symptoms and spread the disease. We surveyed 313 consecutive patients with active tuberculosis from 95 different facilities to examine the relationship of immigration-related variables, symptoms, and delay in seeking care. Most patients (71%) sought care for symptoms rather than as a result of the efforts of public health personnel to screen high-risk groups or to trace contacts of infectious persons. At least 20% of respondents lacked legal documents allowing them to reside in the United States. Few (6%) feared that going to a physician might lead to trouble with immigration authorities. Those who did were almost 4 times as likely to delay seeking care for more than 2 months, a period of time likely to result in disease transmission. Patients potentially exposed an average of 10 domestic and workplace contacts during the course of the delay. Any legislation that increases undocumented immigrants' fear that health care professionals will report them to immigration authorities may exacerbate the current tuberculosis epidemic.

  12. Full practice authority--effecting change and improving access to care: the Nevada journey.

    PubMed

    VanBeuge, Susan S; Walker, Tomas

    2014-06-01

    In 2013, Nevada shifted from a collaborative practice model to full practice authority. Given the challenges many states still face, this article provides an outline of the evolution of the "nurse practitioner" (NP) in Nevada. Reviewing the path Nevada took toward full practice authority, we hope to provide insight including lessons learned and opposition encountered to assist other states working toward full practice authority. Literature searches were conducted on PubMed and MEDLINE. Search terms included "autonomous practice," "nurse practitioner," and "full practice authority." Healthcare reform will require nurse practitioners committed to legislative change. Nurse practitioners have the knowledge and ability to affect the legislative process and improve patients' access to care. With careful planning, full engagement, and team building, making a statute change is possible and should be seriously considered in states still struggling with collaborative relationships. Nurse practitioners are well situated to provide primary care in the United States. Removing barriers to practice through statute change will empower NPs to effect positive change in our struggling healthcare system. ©2014 The Author(s) ©2014 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.

  13. A software tool to aid budget planning for long-term care at local authority level.

    PubMed

    Xie, Haifeng; Chaussalet, Thierry; Toffa, Sam; Crowther, Peter

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we present a software tool that implements a novel modelling framework developed by the authors to provide useful information to budget planners for long-term care at local authority level. By combining unit costs of care with an underlying survival model for publicly funded residents in long-term care, the software tool is able to provide forecasts on the cost of maintaining the group of elderly who are currently in long-term care (referred to as known commitments) for a period of time. User interacts with the tool via a friendly graphical interface that guides them through a set of screens of options in a familiar wizard fashion. This tool was created and tested in collaboration with an English borough. Feedbacks from the care planner and manager show that the tool helps them gain better understanding on the behaviour of length-of-stay of residents under their care, and provides quantitative inputs into their decision making on budget planning for long-term care.

  14. PFOS and PFC releases and associated pollution from a PFC production plant in Minnesota (USA).

    PubMed

    Oliaei, Fardin; Kriens, Don; Weber, Roland; Watson, Alan

    2013-04-01

    Perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and PFOS-related substances have been listed as persistent organic pollutants in the Stockholm Convention. From August 2012, Parties to the Convention needed to address the use, storage, and disposal of PFOS-including production sites and sites where PFOS wastes have been deposited-in their national implementation plans. The paper describes the pollution in Minnesota (USA) caused by the 3M Company at one of the largest per/polyfluorinated chemical (PFC) production facilities. From early 1950s until the end of 2002, when 3M terminated PFOS and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) production, PFOS, PFOA, and other PFC production wastes were disposed around the plant and in local disposal sites. Discharges from the site and releases from deposits caused widespread contamination of ground and surface waters including local drinking water wells. Fish in the river downstream were contaminated with PFOS to levels that led to fish consumption advisories. Human exposures resulted from ingesting contaminated drinking water, requiring installation of water treatment facilities and alternate water supplies. The critical evaluation of the assessments done revealed a range of gaps in particular of human exposure where relevant exposure pathways including the entire exposure via food have not been taken into consideration. Currently, the exposure assessment of vulnerable groups such as children or Hmong minorities is inadequate and needs to be improved/validated by epidemiological studies. The assessment methodology described for this site may serve-with highlighted improvements-as a model for assessment of other PFOS/PFC production sites in the Stockholm Convention implementation.

  15. Academic Underachievement and Exclusion of People Who Have Been Looked after in Local Authority Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallon, James

    2005-01-01

    Although higher education for 50% of all school leavers by 2010 is the stated aim of the United Kingdom government, it is clear that initiatives aimed at widening access do not reach those most in need. This is nowhere more true than in the case of people who have spent all or part of their childhood in the care of local authorities, and who…

  16. Caregiver Burden and Personal Authority: Differentiation and Connection in Caring for an Elderly Parent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabin, Claire; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Personal authority in family system (PAFS), intergenerational construct linking personal development and family interaction, was hypothesized to predict stress/strain of adult children caring for elderly disabled parents. Caregivers (n=70) completed measures of PAFS and of caregiver burden. Caregiving burden was significantly correlated to…

  17. Improving the quality of health care through contracting: a study of health authority practice.

    PubMed Central

    Gray, J D; Donaldson, L J

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate approaches of district health authorities to quality in contracting. DESIGN: Descriptive survey. SETTING: All district health authorities in one health region of England in a National Health Service accounting year. MATERIAL: 129 quality specifications used in contracting for services in six specialties (eight general quality specifications and 121 service specific quality specifications) MAIN MEASURES: Evaluation of the use of quality specifications; their scope and content in relation to established criteria of healthcare quality. RESULTS: Most district health authorities developed quality specifications which would be applicable to their local hospital. When purchasing care outside their boundaries they adopted the quality specifications developed by other health authorities. The service specific quality specifications were more limited in scope than the general quality specifications. The quality of clinical care was referred to in 75% of general and 43% of service specific quality specifications. Both types of specification considered quality issues in superficial and broad terms only. Established features of quality improvement were rarely included. Prerequisites to ensure provider accountability and satisfactory delivery of service specifications were not routinely included in contracts. CONCLUSION: Quality specifications within service contracts are commonly used by health authorities. This study shows that their use of this approach to quality improvement is inconsistent and unlikely to achieve desired quality goals. Continued reliance on the current approach is holding back a more fundamental debate on how to create effective management of quality improvement through the interaction between purchasers and providers of health care. PMID:10164143

  18. Language learning without control: the role of the PFC.

    PubMed

    Friederici, Angela D; Mueller, Jutta L; Sehm, Bernhard; Ragert, Patrick

    2013-05-01

    Learning takes place throughout lifetime but differs in infants and adults because of the development of the PFC, a brain region responsible for cognitive control. To test this hypothesis, adults were investigated in a language learning paradigm under inhibitory, cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over PFC. The experiment included a learning session interspersed with test phases and a test-only session. The stimulus material required the learning of grammatical dependencies between two elements in a novel language. In a parallel design, cathodal transcranial direct current stimulation over the left PFC, right PFC, or sham stimulation was applied during the learning session but not during the test-only session. Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were recorded during both sessions. Whereas no ERP learning effects were observed during the learning session, different ERP learning effects as a function of prior stimulation type were found during the test-only session, although behavioral learning success was equal across conditions. With sham stimulation, the ERP learning effect was reflected in a centro-parietal N400-like negativity indicating lexical processes. Inhibitory stimulation over the left PFC, but not over the right PFC, led to a late positivity similar to that previously observed in prelinguistic infants indicating associative learning. The present data demonstrate that adults can learn with and without cognitive control using different learning mechanisms. In the presence of cognitive control, adult language learning is lexically guided, whereas it appears to be associative in nature when PFC control is downregulated.

  19. The Authority/Pharmacotherapy Care model: an explanatory model of the drug use process in primary care.

    PubMed

    Einarson, Thomas R

    2005-03-01

    Drug utilization studies have proliferated and many variants exist. Few models have been presented that account for all of the different types of studies and approaches. This article presents the Authority/Pharmacotherapy Care model, a structural-functional model of the drug use process that illustrates the factors involved in drug utilization and the relationships between factors. The concepts of authority and transfer of authority underlie the relationships. The drug use process is presented at the microlevel from the viewpoint of an individual who requires treatment with prescription drugs. The various categories of activity/authority (ie, level of patient care) are those of the individual, physician, pharmacist, patient, and drug. Influencing factors, both internal and external, impact upon each level of care. Three aspects must be considered at each level, which are structures, processes, and outcomes, according to Donabedian's model. The result is a structural-functional model that depicts all of the major points in the drug use process, which might be used as a framework to categorize drug utilization studies. This model may be used to represent the drug use process, identify the types of drug use studies, determine pertinent factors involved in the process, understand the relationships between factors, and help in evaluating drug use.

  20. Past makes future: role of pFC in prediction.

    PubMed

    Fuster, Joaquín M; Bressler, Steven L

    2015-04-01

    The pFC enables the essential human capacities for predicting future events and preadapting to them. These capacities rest on both the structure and dynamics of the human pFC. Structurally, pFC, together with posterior association cortex, is at the highest hierarchical level of cortical organization, harboring neural networks that represent complex goal-directed actions. Dynamically, pFC is at the highest level of the perception-action cycle, the circular processing loop through the cortex that interfaces the organism with the environment in the pursuit of goals. In its predictive and preadaptive roles, pFC supports cognitive functions that are critical for the temporal organization of future behavior, including planning, attentional set, working memory, decision-making, and error monitoring. These functions have a common future perspective and are dynamically intertwined in goal-directed action. They all utilize the same neural infrastructure: a vast array of widely distributed, overlapping, and interactive cortical networks of personal memory and semantic knowledge, named cognits, which are formed by synaptic reinforcement in learning and memory acquisition. From this cortex-wide reservoir of memory and knowledge, pFC generates purposeful, goal-directed actions that are preadapted to predicted future events.

  1. Medial PFC Damage Abolishes the Self-reference Effect

    PubMed Central

    Philippi, Carissa L.; Duff, Melissa C.; Denburg, Natalie L.; Tranel, Daniel; Rudrauf, David

    2012-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the medial PFC (mPFC) is a key component of a large-scale neural system supporting a variety of self-related processes. However, it remains unknown whether the mPFC is critical for such processes. In this study, we used a human lesion approach to examine this question. We administered a standard trait judgment paradigm [Kelley, W. M., Macrae, C. N., Wyland, C. L., Caglar, S., Inati, S., & Heatherton, T. F. Finding the self? An event-related fMRI study. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience, 14, 785–794, 2002] to patients with focal brain damage to the mPFC. The self-reference effect (SRE), a memory advantage conferred by self-related processing, served as a measure of intact self-processing ability. We found that damage to the mPFC abolished the SRE. The results demonstrate that the mPFC is necessary for the SRE and suggest that this structure is important for self-referential processing and the neural representation of self. PMID:21942762

  2. [Siamese twins: anesthesia, pre-per- and post-operative care (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Delègue, L; Ghnassia, M D; Du Fontenioux, T

    1980-01-01

    The authors relate the anesthetic and pre-, per- and post-operative care problems they had to meet with six pairs of siamese twins separated at the Hôpital des Enfants Malades (Paris), between 1960 and 1978. 77 cases of such anomalies have been reported since the beginning of the XXth century. The authors point out the importance of: 1) a precise pre-operative assessment of the anatomo- and physiopathological status of the conjoined twins, 2) an outstanding technical organization, 3) a medical and nursing team specialized in pediatric anesthesia and intensive care to face with the predictable and unpredictable problems which may occur, specially those which the clinical and paraclinical investigations have not been able to discover before the operation.

  3. [Medical care of pregnant women with beta-thalassaemia minor, including care during delivery (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Litschgi, M

    1978-10-01

    The diagnostic and therapeutic problems connected with beta-thalassaemia minor during pregnancy are demonstrated by describing the cases of 26 women hospitalised during a total of 38 deliveries in the authors' clinic. All patients came from the Mediterranean area and showed the disease pattern of beta-thalassaemia minor both in the erythrocyte count and in haemoglobin electrophoresis. This aenemia, which is rather rare, reamined largely constant, with few exceptions. Iron substitution during pregnancy was effected only if an iron deficiency was found, the iron level in the serum being subjected to repeated control examinations. These risk pregnancies were controlled by CT scanning, mainly to detect any possible foetal hypoxia caused by aenemia. There was no increased incidence of deformities of the newborn, nor of premature births. However, there was a slight increase of the mean placental weight. This hypertrophy was probably the manifestation of a compensation mechanism. The proportion of slightly depressed newborn was also increased. The importance of examining the partner as well, is emphasised.

  4. Cyclo-octafluorobutane (PFC-318) in the global atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muhle, J.; Vollmer, M. K.; Fraser, P. J.; Rhee, T. S.; Ivy, D. J.; Arnold, T.; Harth, C. M.; Salameh, P.; O'Doherty, S.; Young, D.; Steele, P.; Krummel, P. B.; Leist, M.; Schmidbauer, N.; Lunder, C.; Kim, J.; Kim, K.; Reimann, S.; Simmonds, P.; Prinn, R. G.; Weiss, R. F.

    2010-12-01

    PFC-318 (c-C4F8, cyclo-octafluorobutane) is a long-lived (3200 years) perfluorocarbon (PFC) greenhouse gas with a high 100-year Global Warming Potential (GWP100 = 10,300) and a wide range of industrial uses. We extend previous atmospheric measurements of PFC-318 in the Cape Grim Air Archive (Oram, 1999) with our new in situ measurements from remote and urban AGAGE (Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment) and affiliated stations. Our longest in situ record is from the Jungfraujoch observatory in the Swiss Alps, and our data set is augmented by measurements of flasks from the King Sejong and Troll coastal Antarctic stations and several locations in the Northern Hemisphere. In mid-2009 we find ˜1.25 ppt (parts-per-trillion, dry mol fraction) in the Northern Hemisphere and ˜1.20 ppt in the Southern Hemisphere, with rise rates of ˜0.03 ppt/yr and an interhemispheric ratio of ˜1.04. We obtain PFC-318 emissions for 2008-2010 of ˜1 Gg/yr using a simple box model, and preliminary measurements of older archived air at SIO indicate similar emissions since at the least the late 1990s. In contrast, the EDGAR v4 emissions database estimates much lower PFC-318 emissions of 0.02 Gg/yr for 2005. Using GWP100 we calculate ˜10 million tons of CO2-equivalent PFC-318 emissions/yr for 2008-2010, about double the CO2-equivalent PFC-218 annual emissions, or 0.4 times the CO2-equivalent PFC-116 annual emissions, reported for 2008-2009 by Mühle et al. (2010). Thus PFC-318 is the third most important PFC in terms of CO2-equivalent emissions. We find mostly baseline conditions at remote AGAGE stations and urban sites in the USA, Europe, and Australia, in contrast to frequent above baseline conditions at Gosan station, Jeju Island, South Korea, indicating significant emission sources in East Asia as found by Saito et al. (2010). Oram, D.E., Trends of long-lived anthropogenic halocarbons in the Southern Hemisphere and model calculation of global emissions, Ph.D. thesis, University

  5. Equal contributions and credit given to authors in critical care medicine journals during a 10-yr period*.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Tang, Lu; Bo, Lulong; Li, Jinbao; Deng, Xiaoming

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence and characteristics of the practice of explicitly giving authors equal credit in publications of major journals of critical care medicine. Manual searches were conducted to indentify original research articles with equally credited authors published between January 1, 2001 and December 31, 2010 in four major journals of critical care medicine (American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, Critical Care Medicine, Intensive Care Medicine, and Critical Care). The practice of explicitly giving authors equal credit was found in all four journals. Articles with equally credited authors formed a greater proportion of the total number of articles published in each journal in 2010 vs. in 2000 (American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine: 19.9% vs. 0%; Critical Care Medicine: 10.6% vs. 1.3%; Intensive Care Medicine: 5.3% vs. 0%; and Critical Care: 11.7% vs. 0%). There was a significantly increasing trend in yearly prevalence of equally credited author articles for all the journals (p < .0001 for all four journals). The first two authors received equal credit in most cases, and the practice was also found in nearly every position in the byline. The research institutions among the equally credited author articles were from various countries and regions around the world. Finally, none of the four journals provided specific guidance regarding this practice in their instructions to authors. It is increasingly common to give authors equal credit in original research articles in the major four journals of critical care medicine. A guideline for authors regarding when (and how) "equal" authorship should be assigned is warranted in future.

  6. Devolving authority for health care in Canada's provinces: 1. An introduction to the issues

    PubMed Central

    Lomas, J; Woods, J; Veenstra, G

    1997-01-01

    In 9 of Canada's 10 provinces, much of the decision-making in health care has recently been devolved to local authorities. Provincial governments want this new governance structure to at least contain costs and improve service integration. However, there has been little evaluation of devolution to determine whether these and other goals are being met. Although devolved structures in the provinces vary somewhat with respect to the number of tiers, accountability mechanisms, degree of authority and method of funding, the only structural element that varies substantially is the scope of services under the authority of local boards. The real authority of the boards depends, however, on their negotiated compromises among 3 areas of tension: the provincial government's expectations, the providers' interests and the local citizens' needs and preferences. The boards' abilities to negotiate acceptable compromises will largely determine their effectiveness. This article introduces a survey of the members of 62 boards in 5 provinces for which the response rate was 65%, with 514 of 791 board members responding. PMID:9033419

  7. Two years later - Revisiting autobiographical memory representations in vmPFC and hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Bonnici, Heidi M; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2017-05-11

    A long-standing question in memory neuroscience concerns how and where autobiographical memories of personal experiences are represented in the brain. In a previous high resolution multivoxel pattern analysis fMRI study, we examined two week old (recent) and ten year old (remote) autobiographical memories (Bonnici et al., 2012, J. Neurosci. 32:16982-16991). We found that remote memories were particularly well represented in ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) compared to recent memories. Moreover, while both types of memory were represented within anterior and posterior hippocampus, remote memories were more easily distinguished in the posterior portion. These findings suggested that a change of some kind had occurred between two weeks and ten years in terms of where autobiographical memories were represented in the brain. In order to examine this further, here participants from the original study returned two years later and recalled the memories again. We found that there was no difference in the detectability of memory representations within vmPFC for the now 2 year old and 12 year old memories, and this was also the case for the posterior hippocampus. Direct comparison of the two week old memories (original study) with themselves two years later (present study) confirmed that their representation within vmPFC had become more evident. Overall, this within-subjects longitudinal fMRI study extends our understanding of autobiographical memory representations by allowing us to narrow the window within which their consolidation is likely to occur. We conclude that after a memory is initially encoded, its representation within vmPFC has stablised by, at most, two years later. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Authorizing Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deutelbaum, Wendy

    In contrast to a teacher-dominated literature classroom where authority rests with the one who has the power to grade, a classroom dedicated to cultivating the creative process breaks down the traditional hierarchies (such as theory and practice, text and reader, and organization and improvisation) and concentrates on the needs of the individual…

  9. Leaching of PFC from soils contaminated with PFC of different origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalbe, Ute; Piechotta, Christian; Rothe, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Leaching tests are fundamental tools for the assessment of groundwater impact by contaminated soils concerning the soil-groundwater pathway. Such procedures are supposed to serve as the basis for a reliable leachate prognosis. They can be applied to determine the short and long term leaching behaviour as well as the source term of contaminated soils. For this purpose two types of leaching procedures have been validated in Germany for the examination of the leaching behaviour of frequently occurring organic substances (DIN 19528 - column test and DIN 19529 - batch test). A liquid-to-solid ratio (L/S) of 2 L/kg and 10 L/kg) is the basis for the risk assessment which is implemented in different German regulations. The equivalence of test results for both tests for the same material under investigation has been investigated for a variety of pollutants in order to assess their reliability in compliance testing. However, for emerging pollutants there is hardly data available on this issue. Leaching tests on soils contaminated with emerging pollutants such as PFC (Perfluorinated Surfactants) are currently coming more into consideration due to the increasing detection of contaminated sites. Therefore, two soils were investigated in this study from different contamination source (paper sludge containing compost and fire distinguishing foam) using both leaching tests and both liquid-to-solid ratios. The leachability of the various perfluorinated compounds in relation to their content in solid matter was considered. Furthermore the eluate pre-treatment prior analysis (in particular liquid/solid separation step needed for batch tests) has been taken into account. The comparability of the results from batch and column is dependent on the solubility of the various compounds, on the L/S and on the turbidity in the eluates.

  10. 14 CFR 158.37 - Amendment of approved PFC.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the total approved PFC revenue, (iii) Change the scope of an approved project, (iv) Delete an approved... accomplish a different purpose. (b) The public agency must file a request to the Administrator to amend the... such class previously approved; or (F) To delete an approved project. (2) A copy of any comments...

  11. 14 CFR 158.13 - Use of PFC revenue.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of PFC revenue. 158.13 Section 158.13 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS... certain low-emission technology projects. If a project involves a vehicle or ground support equipment...

  12. Stunted PFC activity during neuromuscular control under stress with obesity.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ranjana K

    2016-02-01

    Obesity is an established risk factor for impaired cognition, which is primarily regulated by the prefrontal cortex (PFC). However, very little is known about the neural pathways that underlie obesity-related declines in neuromuscular control, particularly under stress. The purpose of this study was to determine the role of the PFC on neuromuscular control during handgrip exertions under stress with obesity. Twenty non-obese and obese young adults performed submaximal handgrip exertions in the absence and presence of a concurrent stressful task. Primary dependent measures included oxygenated hemoglobin (HbO2: a measure of PFC activity) and force fluctuations (an indicator of neuromuscular control). Higher HbO2 levels in the PFC were observed in the non-obese compared to the obese group (P = 0.009). In addition, higher HbO2 levels were observed in the stress compared to the control condition in the non-obese group; however, this trend was reversed in the obese group (P = 0.043). In general, force fluctuations increased by 26% in the stress when compared to the control condition (P = 0.001) and obesity was associated with 39% greater force fluctuation (P = 0.024). Finally, while not significant, obesity-related decrements in force fluctuations were magnified under stress (P = 0.063). The current study provides the first evidence that neuromuscular decrements with obesity were associated with impaired PFC activity and this relationship was augmented in stress conditions. These findings are important because they provide new information on obesity-specific changes in brain function associated with neuromuscular control since the knowledge previously focused largely on obesity-specific changes in peripheral muscle capacity.

  13. Never resting region--mPFC in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Bleich-Cohen, Maya; Kupchik, Marina; Gruberger, Michal; Kotler, Moshe; Hendler, Talma

    2012-09-01

    Reduced functional connectivity (FC) in schizophrenia has been demonstrated either in task related or 'default network' areas, but not between these networks, which interact meaningfully. We examined the role of FC between the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in determining language-lateralization during a language task, and its association with structural integrity of the corpus-callosum. Only schizophrenia patients presented increased mPFC-IFG FC during task, which additionally corresponded to decreased white-matter organization of the corpus-callosum. These findings suggest that inability to suppress irrelevant internally-generated information while processing external stimuli might be the basis of functional psychopathology in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Power Supply to Drive a Magnetron for PFC Gas Resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwabuki, Hiroyasu; Iwata, Akihiko; Yoshiyasu, Hajimu

    A power supply to drive a magnetron for a PFC gas resolution has been developed. The power supply (ratings 5kV, 1A) is composed of a full bridge inverter and a voltage doubler rectifier circuit. The characteristics of the current and electric power of a magnetron with the non-linear load were analyzed. As a result, it was found that the magnetron power and the magnetron peak current are approximately linear to the pulse width when the reactor, which controls the current of magnetron, was inserted in the inverter output. We constructed a trial power supply to drive magnetron. It was confirmed that the trial power supply could continuously control the magnetron output up to 3.5kW. The PFC gas resolution efficiency with microwave plasma is larger than the silent discharge method. Therefore we can expect the realization of a small, highly efficient gas resolution device using microwave plasma.

  15. Patients' mobility as an indicator for (in)efficiency:a panel data analysis on Italian health care authorities.

    PubMed

    Mafrolla, Elisabetta; D'Amico, Eugenio

    2013-02-19

    This paper investigates the influence of internal managerial patterns of heath care authorities on the decision of patients to migrate towards different health care organizations to avail treatments. The efficiency and productivity issues are analyzed, considering the (passive) migration as a proxy for the (in)efficient service availed. We follow the "vote by feet" theorization by Tiebout , assuming that citizens can choose to avail a health treatment in a public service provider different from their resident one. The choice for a center that is far from home implies a negative judgment to the alternative health care supplier that is closer to the patient. Testing Fixed Effects Panel Model on a sample of Italian health care authorities, a strong correlation is found among variables in our model and some relevant dependence is tested between patients' mobility behavior and their resident authorities' efficiency in allocating resources on the proper operating cost. Spending in the proper way on health care could bring about an enhancement of performances. Instead, wasting resources is immediately perceived by the patient, who consequently seems to move to a different health care authority. JEL CODE: M48.

  16. Activity in dlPFC and its effective connectivity to vmPFC are associated with temporal discounting

    PubMed Central

    Hare, Todd A.; Hakimi, Shabnam; Rangel, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    There is widespread interest in identifying computational and neurobiological mechanisms that influence the ability to choose long-term benefits over more proximal and readily available rewards in domains such as dietary and economic choice. We present the results of a human fMRI study that examines how neural activity relates to observed individual differences in the discounting of future rewards during an intertemporal monetary choice task. We found that a region of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) BA-46 was more active in trials where subjects chose delayed rewards, after controlling for the subjective value of those rewards. We also found that the connectivity from dlPFC BA-46 to a region of ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) widely associated with the computation of stimulus values, increased at the time of choice, and especially during trials in which subjects chose delayed rewards. Finally, we found that estimates of effective connectivity between these two regions played a critical role in predicting out-of-sample, between-subject differences in discount rates. Together with previous findings in dietary choice, these results suggest that a common set of computational and neurobiological mechanisms facilitate choices in favor of long-term reward in both settings. PMID:24672421

  17. Recovery of cost of hospital and medical care and treatment furnished by the United States; delegation of authority. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2010-03-01

    This rule amends Department of Justice regulations to increase the settlement and waiver authority delegated to heads of departments and agencies of the United States responsible for the furnishing of hospital, medical, surgical, or dental care. This change responds to the increase in medical costs since 1992, when the current level of delegated settlement and waiver authority was established, and will further the efficient operation of the government.

  18. Patients’ mobility as an indicator for (in)efficiency:a panel data analysis on Italian health care authorities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Abstract This paper investigates the influence of internal managerial patterns of heath care authorities on the decision of patients to migrate towards different health care organizations to avail treatments. The efficiency and productivity issues are analyzed, considering the (passive) migration as a proxy for the (in)efficient service availed. We follow the “vote by feet” theorization by Tiebout , assuming that citizens can choose to avail a health treatment in a public service provider different from their resident one. The choice for a center that is far from home implies a negative judgment to the alternative health care supplier that is closer to the patient. Testing Fixed Effects Panel Model on a sample of Italian health care authorities, a strong correlation is found among variables in our model and some relevant dependence is tested between patients’ mobility behavior and their resident authorities’ efficiency in allocating resources on the proper operating cost. Spending in the proper way on health care could bring about an enhancement of performances. Instead, wasting resources is immediately perceived by the patient, who consequently seems to move to a different health care authority. JEL code M48 PMID:23422329

  19. Remote control system for high-perfomance computer simulation of crystal growth by the PFC method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlyuk, Evgeny; Starodumov, Ilya; Osipov, Sergei

    2017-04-01

    Modeling of crystallization process by the phase field crystal method (PFC) - one of the important directions of modern computational materials science. In this paper, the practical side of the computer simulation of the crystallization process by the PFC method is investigated. To solve problems using this method, it is necessary to use high-performance computing clusters, data storage systems and other often expensive complex computer systems. Access to such resources is often limited, unstable and accompanied by various administrative problems. In addition, the variety of software and settings of different computing clusters sometimes does not allow researchers to use unified program code. There is a need to adapt the program code for each configuration of the computer complex. The practical experience of the authors has shown that the creation of a special control system for computing with the possibility of remote use can greatly simplify the implementation of simulations and increase the performance of scientific research. In current paper we show the principal idea of such a system and justify its efficiency.

  20. Physicians' Perspectives on Caring for Cognitively Impaired Elders.(author Abstract)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Wendy L.; McIlvain, Helen E.; Geske, Jenenne A.; Porter, Judy L.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to develop ah in-depth understanding of the issues important to primary care physicians in providing care to cognitively impaired elders. Design and Methods: In-depth interviews were conducted with 20 primary care physicians. Text coded as "cognitive impairment" was retrieved and analyzed by use of grounded theory analysis…

  1. Pilot Study of Behavioral Treatment in Dementia Care Units.(practice Concepts)(author Abstract)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Kemp-Havican, Julie; MacNeill, Susan E.; Johnson, Amanda Schafer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This article reports on the development and use of behavioral treatment as a well-being intervention for individuals with dementia residing at special care units in a nursing home. Design and Methods: The project took place upon the construction and opening of two new homelike units for dementia care in a rural community-care center.…

  2. 75 FR 72682 - Health Care Eligibility Under the Secretarial Designee Program and Related Special Authorities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-26

    ... of the Secretary 32 CFR Part 108 RIN 0790-AI52 Health Care Eligibility Under the Secretarial Designee...: This rule establishes policy and assigns responsibilities for health care eligibility under the... for inpatient health care provided in the United States to foreign military or diplomatic personnel or...

  3. Pilot Study of Behavioral Treatment in Dementia Care Units.(practice Concepts)(author Abstract)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lichtenberg, Peter A.; Kemp-Havican, Julie; MacNeill, Susan E.; Johnson, Amanda Schafer

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: This article reports on the development and use of behavioral treatment as a well-being intervention for individuals with dementia residing at special care units in a nursing home. Design and Methods: The project took place upon the construction and opening of two new homelike units for dementia care in a rural community-care center.…

  4. Projection-specific neuromodulation of mPFC neurons

    PubMed Central

    Dembrow, Nikolai C.; Chitwood, Raymond A.; Johnston, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Mnemonic persistent activity in the PFC constitutes the neural basis of working memory. To understand how neuromodulators contribute to the generation of persistent activity, it is necessary to identify the intrinsic properties of the layer V pyramidal neurons that transfer this information to downstream networks. Here we show that the somatic dynamic and integrative properties of layer V pyramidal neurons in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) depend upon whether they project subcortically- to the pons (corticopontine, CPn) or to the contralateral cortex (commissural, COM). CPn neurons display low temporal summation and accelerate in firing frequency when depolarized, while COM neurons have high temporal summation and display spike frequency accommodation. In response to dynamic stimuli, COM neurons act as low-pass filters, whereas CPn neurons act as band-pass filters, resonating in the theta frequency range (3-6 Hz). The disparate subthreshold properties of COM and CPn neurons can be accounted for by differences in the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated cation h-current. Interestingly, neuromodulators hypothesized to enhance mnemonic persistent activity affect COM and CPn neurons distinctly. Adrenergic modulation shifts the dynamic properties of CPn but not COM neurons, and increases the excitability of CPn neurons significantly more than COM neurons. In response to cholinergic modulation CPn neurons were much more likely to display activity-dependent intrinsic persistent firing than COM neurons. Together, these data suggest that the two categories of projection neurons may subserve separate functions in PFC and may be engaged differently during working memory processes. PMID:21159963

  5. Trainee Teachers, Gender and Becoming the "Right" Person for the Job: Care and Authority in the Vocational Habitus of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Annette

    2012-01-01

    Drawing on a qualitative study of 32 UK student teachers, this paper asks what constitutes the vocational culture of teaching by exploring contradictory discourses of care and authority as they are presented to, and interpreted by, trainee teachers along their journey to becoming newly qualified teachers. Introducing the concept of…

  6. Improving Publication Quality and Quantity for Acute Care Authors From Low- and Middle-Income Settings.

    PubMed

    Bruijns, Stevan R; Banner, Megan; Jacquet, Gabrielle A

    2017-04-01

    Researchers from low- and middle-income countries have limited access to publishing and editing resources. This study describes a journal-initiated platform to improve publication quantity and quality in Sub-Saharan Africa emergency care research: Author Assist. This is a descriptive report of a quality improvement project of referrals to the African Journal of Emergency Medicine's (AfJEM's) Author Assist program between January 2011 and December 2015. After either pre- or post-peer review rejection, authors are matched to an experienced volunteer assistant to revise and resubmit their article in a process that blinds handling editors and reviewers, but not the editor in chief, to participation. Participant data were collected from an Author Assist coordination database and linked to Scopus (Elsevier, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) and the journal's online submission platform. Of the 47 articles referred for Author Assist, 12 (26%) were originally rejected in the pre-peer review stage and 35 (74%) after peer review. Twenty-eight (60%) authors offered Author Assist enrolled. Of the 14 resubmissions during the study period, 12 (86%) were accepted for publication. For comparison, 37 of 40 regular revisions (93%) (without assistance) were accepted for publication during the same period. Author Assist reversed 1 in 4 rejection decisions through a process that unavoidably but minimally biases peer review. Of the few free publication-improvement services targeting researchers in low- and middle-income countries, AfJEM's Author Assist is the only journal-led initiative, and the only one specific to emergency medicine. To continue to refine the design of the program, we recommend further qualitative research exploring author decisions to pursue or forgo enrollment in Author Assist and research examining author and assistant experiences once enrolled. Copyright © 2016 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. [Health care provisions for asylum-seekers : A nationwide survey of public health authorities in Germany].

    PubMed

    Bozorgmehr, Kayvan; Nöst, Stefan; Thaiss, Heidrun M; Razum, Oliver

    2016-05-01

    Nation-wide studies on the health care situation of asylum-seekers in Germany are lacking, but decision-makers increasingly need such information. The aim of the study was to assess structures, processes and needs related to the health care provision for asylum-seekers along the continuum of reception centres to community dwellings from the perspective of the German public health authorities. A nation-wide cross-sectional mixed-methods survey was carried out. All heads of public health authorities in Germany (N = 389) were invited to complete a standardized questionnaire related to: (1) medical procedures and screening; (2) prevention and health promotion; (3) communication; (4) documentation and information; (5) coordination; (6) structural resources and needs. The quantitative survey was complemented by qualitative semi-structured interviews. In total, 123 heads of public health authorities (response rate: 31,6 %) completed the questionnaire, and 29 were interviewed. Priority areas to improve the health care situation were better coordination and standardisation of care, enhancing vaccination capacities, standardised documentation, better health information exchange (in line with data protection laws), and a stronger focus on a few relevant infectious diseases in the scope of compulsory health entry examinations. The instruments proved useful to assess the health care situation of asylum-seekers in a decentralized health care system. Repeated surveys with a focus on selected domains of the questionnaire could help monitor the health care situation on a regular basis.

  8. Patient perceptions in New Mexico about doctors of chiropractic functioning as primary care providers with limited prescriptive authority.

    PubMed

    Lehman, James J; Suozzi, Paul J; Simmons, George R; Jegtvig, Shereen K

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine chiropractic patients' perceptions of chiropractors serving as primary care providers and having a limited prescriptive authority. Four doctors of chiropractic in Albuquerque and Santa Fe, NM, participated in surveying their patients during the summer of 2008. The chiropractors distributed the questionnaires consecutively to chiropractic patients. Patients answered questions regarding their perceptions of their chiropractors, use of chiropractic care, and medications for pain. The participating chiropractors collected the completed patient questionnaires and mailed them to the primary investigator. The chiropractic providers collected 275 chiropractic patient questionnaires. The number of patient questionnaires collected by each of the 4 participating chiropractors ranged from 35 to 100. The patients primarily sought care for the management and treatment of pain (98.5%), and 57.5% considered that their chiropractors were "primary care providers." Eighty-five percent preferred that their chiropractor be qualified to prescribe medications and provide hands-on treatment, whereas 97.5% perceived their chiropractors to be chiropractic physicians. This small group of chiropractic patients from 4 offices in New Mexico perceived that their doctors of chiropractic were physicians and primary care providers, and 85% preferred that their chiropractor treat patients with limited prescriptive authority when appropriately trained. Copyright © 2011 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Social groups that elicit disgust are differentially processed in mPFC

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Susan T.

    2007-01-01

    Social neuroscience suggests medial pre-frontal cortex (mPFC) as necessary for social cognition. However, the mPFC activates less to members of extreme outgroups that elicit disgust, an emotion directed toward both people and objects. This study aimed to counteract that effect. Participants made either superficial categorical age estimations or individuating food-preference judgments about people, while fMRI recorded neural activity. Besides replicating the reduced mPFC activity to extreme outgroups that elicit disgust, this study demonstrates that the same type of judgment for these individuals is processed in a region anatomically distinct from social groups that elicit exclusively social emotions (pity, envy, pride). Finally, inferring individuating information (food preferences) increases mPFC activation above superficial categorical judgments. This evidence fits differentiated mPFC processing of extreme outgroups, which activate mPFC less than other groups, but suggests that individuation increases activation. PMID:18985118

  10. 20 CFR 10.300 - What are the basic rules for authorizing emergency medical care?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR FEDERAL EMPLOYEES' COMPENSATION ACT CLAIMS FOR COMPENSATION UNDER THE FEDERAL EMPLOYEES... provide service. The authorizing official must sign and date the form and must state his or her...

  11. 77 FR 1780 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-11

    ........ 12/05/11 1,300,088 1,678,251 02/01/12 12/01/12 91-01-C-03-SAV Savannah, GA..... 12/07/11 49,908,639...: 11-07-C-00-FNL. Application Type: Impose and use a PFC. PFC Level: $4.50. Total PFC Revenue Approved.... Earliest Charge Effective Date: February 1, 2012. Estimated Charge Expiration Date: March 1, 2016. Class...

  12. What can local authorities do to improve the social care-related quality of life of older adults living at home? Evidence from the Adult Social Care Survey.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, K M; Malley, J; Bosmans, J E; Jansen, A P D; Ostelo, R W; van der Horst, H E; Netten, A

    2014-09-01

    Local authorities spend considerable resources on social care at home for older adults. Given the expected growth in the population of older adults and budget cuts on local government, it is important to find efficient ways of maintaining and improving the quality of life of older adults. The ageing in place literature suggests that policies in other functions of local authorities may have a significant role to play. This study aims to examine the associations between social care-related quality of life (SCRQoL) in older adults and three potential policy targets for local authorities: (i) accessibility of information and advice, (ii) design of the home and (iii) accessibility of the local area. We used cross-sectional data from the English national Adult Social Care Survey (ASCS) 2010/2011 on service users aged 65 years and older and living at home (N=29,935). To examine the association between SCRQoL, as measured by the ASCOT, and three single-item questions about accessibility of information, design of the home and accessibility of the local area, we estimate linear and quantile regression models. After adjusting for physical and mental health factors and other confounders our findings indicate that SCRQoL is significantly lower for older adults who find it more difficult to find information and advice, for those who report that their home design is inappropriate for their needs and for those who find it more difficult to get around their local area. In addition, these three variables are as strongly associated with SCRQoL as physical and mental health factors. We conclude that in seeking to find ways to maintain and improve the quality of life of social care users living at home, local authorities could look more broadly across their responsibilities. Further research is required to explore the cost-effectiveness of these options compared to standard social care services.

  13. [Health care for undocumented migrants--a quantitative study on the role of local health authorities in Germany].

    PubMed

    Mylius, M; Frewer, A

    2014-07-01

    Public welfare on a municipal level for groups with special health risks has been an important topic of public health service for more than a century. This notion has been taken up by the German "Protection against Infection Act" (IfSG) in § 19 IfSG. Local health service authorities may provide out-patient treatment in addition to counselling and diagnosis for patients with sexually transmitted infections and tuberculosis, which is covered by public resources in cases of apparent need. Due to altered legislation and increased global mobility, this may become important for migrants without access to regular health care.Aims of this study were recording, counselling, diagnosis and out-patient treatment of migrants without legal residence status under the German Protection against Infection Act in the public health care system.An electronic mail survey of all local health authorities (n=384) by means of a standardised questionnaire was undertaken. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics. In the annex of the questionnaire the participants were asked to describe a case study.139 of 384 local health authorities completed the questionnaire (36.2%) of whom approximately a quarter (24.6%) described contacts to "illegal" migrants. Contacts to migrants without legal residence status are more frequent in cities with more than 100,000 inhabitants than in ismaller cities (p<0.05). 22.6% of all local health authorities make an effort to reach undocumented migrants for counseling and diagnosis. 25 of the local health authorities (18.4%) indicated the capability to provide treatment in accordance with § 19 IfSG. A majority of these local health authorities also have contacts to undocumented migrants (75%). 16 local health authorities (13.3%) provide out-patient treatment for diseases not listed in Protection against Infection Act. 56 authorities (46.7%) refer patients to aid organisations or to resident doctors.Only a small number of local health authorities have contacts

  14. 77 FR 16537 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status Piramal Critical Care, Inc., (Inhalation Anesthetics...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-21

    ... Anesthetics), Bethlehem, PA Pursuant to its authority under the Foreign-Trade Zones Act of June 18, 1934, as... establish a special-purpose subzone at the inhalation anesthetic manufacturing and distribution facilities... for activity related to the manufacturing and distribution of inhalation anesthetics at the facilities...

  15. 76 FR 64162 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Application 10-16-U-00-OAK To Use PFC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ...-16-U-00-OAK To Use PFC Revenue, Collected at Metropolitan Oakland International Airport, Oakland, CA... following is a brief overview of the use application No. 11-16- U-00-OAK: Proposed charge effective date...

  16. Regulating payment for home care companionship services: legal authority and public policy.

    PubMed

    Kapp, Marshall B

    2008-01-01

    On June 11, 2007, the U.S. Supreme Court issued a ruling in the case of Long Island Care at Home Ltd. v. Coke that upheld a federal regulation exempting employees of third-party agencies who provide home-based "companionship services" to disabled persons from the protections of the minimum wage and overtime pay provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act. This article discusses the legal issues argued in the case and the legal rationales for the court's decision. The article then identifies the important public policy questions involving the maintenance of a sufficient, competent home care workforce that were left unanswered by the legal ruling and outlines some of the pragmatic implications of potential responses to these public policy questions.

  17. [Mobile intensive-care-unit for transportation of premature and newborn babies at risc (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Wille, L; Obladen, M; Schlunk, P; Weisser, J

    1975-02-01

    This is a technical report on a specially equipped ambulance for transportation of high-risk, seriously ill neonates. A mobile neonatal intensive-care-unit operating independently of the car utilized an Ohio-transport-incubator with 12V-DC portable power pak and collapsible stand, battery-operated ECG-monitor with optical and acoustical signal, a ECG-monitor with optical and acoustical signal, a battery-operated infusion pump, a Bird-respirator mark 8 with oxygen-blender, nebulizer and infant circuit with modification for PEEP as well as additional accessories. Ambulance-duty service is guaranteed by the German Red Cross (DRK) to facilitate transfer at any time, while skilled personal (physician, nurse) of the intensive care ward in on 24 hs call.

  18. 14 CFR 158.45 - Collection of PFC's on tickets issued in the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... travel ticket, issuing air carriers and their agents shall collect a PFC from a passenger only for the... § 158.9(a). (e) Collected PFC's shall be distributed as noted on the air travel ticket. (f) Issuing... travel on a nonrefundable or expired ticket is not a change in itinerary. If the ticket purchaser is not...

  19. 14 CFR 158.45 - Collection of PFC's on tickets issued in the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... travel ticket, issuing air carriers and their agents shall collect a PFC from a passenger only for the... § 158.9(a). (e) Collected PFC's shall be distributed as noted on the air travel ticket. (f) Issuing... travel on a nonrefundable or expired ticket is not a change in itinerary. If the ticket purchaser is not...

  20. 76 FR 58079 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    .... Geographic information system mapping. Apron lighting (design and construction). PFC program development. PFC... Disapprovals. In August 2011, there were 10 applications approved. This notice also includes information on... screening system. Design and construct taxiway B extension (runway 22 approach end). Decision Date: July 21...

  1. 77 FR 33805 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... Expansion Act of 1990 (Title IX of the Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act of 1990) (Pub. L. 101-508) and Part... 1, 2012. ESTIMATED CHARGE EXPIRATION DATE: October 1, 2017. CLASS OF AIR CARRIERS NOT REQUIRED TO.... PFC LEVEL: $4.50. TOTAL PFC REVENUE APPROVED IN THIS DECISION: $3,430,000. EARLIEST CHARGE...

  2. 78 FR 76382 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...: Construction and design of taxiway D. Passenger terminal apron--design and construction. Relocate snow removal... access road--design and construction. Terminal area study. Preparation of PFC application 8. Acquire snow... TO COLLECT PFC'S: None. BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF PROJECTS APPROVED FOR COLLECTION AND USE: Snow...

  3. [Bacterial contamination as a complication of intravenous therapy in intensive care (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Kilian, J; Hösch, A; Ahnefeld, F W; Schmitz, J E; Vanek, E

    1980-10-01

    Intravenous infusion therapy has become an indispensible part of intensive care. Problems of bacterial contamination during this therapy are well known. To check on the possible routes of contamination we examined the infusion system in its several parts (infusion solution, infusion system, connection between infusion system and catheter and content of syringes). The highest rate of contamination was found at the connection between the infusion system and the catheter after use for 24 h (26.7%, 39 out of 146 probes); just at the beginning of the infusion we found bacterial growth in 7.1% (10 out of 141 probes). After injection of drugs into the system the infusion solution was contaminated in 1.9% (6 of 320 probes). The system for measuring the central venous pressure was contaminated in 2.7% (4 of 148 probes). At the end of infusion the infusion solutions were contaminated in 3.1% (9 of 287 probes). Different drugs in syringes in no case were contaminated. In most cases (59 probes) we found gram-positive bacteria (87.3%), in only seven cases (9.7%) gram-negative bacterias and in two cases Candida tropicalis. Our results show that the extrinsic or in use contamination plays the most important part in bacterial contamination of the infusion system. Infection control of intravenous therapy necessitates care in the hygienic standard adopted during the infusion and injection procedures.

  4. HIDRA: A new device for PFC and PMI development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andruczyk, Daniel; Ruzic, David N.; Allain, Jean Paul; Curreli, Davide; HIDRA Team

    2014-10-01

    A toroidal plasma device is being constructed at the University of Illinois dedicated in part as a toroidal liquid-metal PFC technology test bench. The Hybrid Illinois stellarator/tokamak Device for Research and Applications (HIDRA) is a medium sized classical stellarator (previously WEGA, IPP Greifswald) with, R = 0.72 m, a = 0.19 m, B < 0.5 T and will be able to reach Te = 10-50 eV, ne = 1017--1018 m-3 with plasmas running up to several minutes. A critical knowledge gap for liquid-metal PFCs is their integration and performance in asymmetric confinement fusion environments. HIDRA will be used to evaluate technologies such as TEMHD driven flows for the first wall, help address key questions including whether a full toroidal liquid-metal loop can operate in a toroidal machine, test low recycling regimes and whether D can be removed and recycled easily. Also, UIUC's experience with in-situ diagnostics will open up new opportunities for innovative Material Application Testing (HIDRA-MAT).

  5. Overall behaviour of PFC integrated SST-1 vacuum system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Ziauddin; Raval, Dilip C.; Paravasu, Yuvakiran; Semwal, Pratibha; Dhanani, Kalpeshkumar R.; George, Siju; Shoaib, Mohammad; Prakash, Arun; Babu, Gattu R.; Thankey, Prashant; Pathan, Firozkhan S.; Pradhan, Subrata

    2017-04-01

    As a part of phase-I up-gradation of Steady-state Superconducting Tokamak (SST-1), Graphite Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) have been integrated inside SST-1 vacuum vessel as a first wall (FW) during Nov 14 and May 2015. The SST-1 FW has a total surface area of the installed PFCs exposed to plasma is ∼ 40 m2 which is nearly 50% of the total surface area of stainless steel vacuum chamber (∼75 m2). The volume of the vessel within the PFCs is ∼ 16 m3. After the integration of PFCs, the entire vessel as well as the PFC cooling/baking circuits has been qualified with an integrated helium leak tightness of < 1.0 x 10-8 mbar 1/s. The pumping system of the SST-1 vacuum vessel comprises of one number of Roots’ pump, four numbers of turbomolecular pumps and a cryopump. After the initial pump down, the PFCs were baked at 250 °C for nearly 20 hours employing hot nitrogen gas to remove the absorbed water vapours. Thereafter, Helium glow discharges cleaning were carried out towards the removal of surface impurities. The pump down characteristics of SST-1 vacuum chamber and the changes in the residual gaseous impurities after the installation of the PFCs will be discussed in this paper.

  6. A fully Bayesian before-after analysis of permeable friction course (PFC) pavement wet weather safety.

    PubMed

    Buddhavarapu, Prasad; Smit, Andre F; Prozzi, Jorge A

    2015-07-01

    Permeable friction course (PFC), a porous hot-mix asphalt, is typically applied to improve wet weather safety on high-speed roadways in Texas. In order to warrant expensive PFC construction, a statistical evaluation of its safety benefits is essential. Generally, the literature on the effectiveness of porous mixes in reducing wet-weather crashes is limited and often inconclusive. In this study, the safety effectiveness of PFC was evaluated using a fully Bayesian before-after safety analysis. First, two groups of road segments overlaid with PFC and non-PFC material were identified across Texas; the non-PFC or reference road segments selected were similar to their PFC counterparts in terms of site specific features. Second, a negative binomial data generating process was assumed to model the underlying distribution of crash counts of PFC and reference road segments to perform Bayesian inference on the safety effectiveness. A data-augmentation based computationally efficient algorithm was employed for a fully Bayesian estimation. The statistical analysis shows that PFC is not effective in reducing wet weather crashes. It should be noted that the findings of this study are in agreement with the existing literature, although these studies were not based on a fully Bayesian statistical analysis. Our study suggests that the safety effectiveness of PFC road surfaces, or any other safety infrastructure, largely relies on its interrelationship with the road user. The results suggest that the safety infrastructure must be properly used to reap the benefits of the substantial investments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Strengthening of the steering role of health++ authorities in health care reforms].

    PubMed

    Marín, J M

    2000-01-01

    Strengthening the ability of health authorities to provide leadership and guidance, now and in the future, is an important issue within the context of health sector reform. It means, among other things, redefining the role of health in light of leading social and economic trends seen in the world at the beginning of the 21st century, increasing participation in health by nongovernmental entities, moving toward participatory democracy in many countries, and modifying concepts of what is considered "public" and "private." Within this scenario, it is necessary to redirect the role of the health sector toward coordinating the mobilization of national resources, on a multisectoral scale, in order to improve equity and social well-being and to channel the limited available resources to the most disadvantaged groups in society. The liberalization of the production and distribution of health-related goods and services, including insurance, challenges the exercise of authority in the area of health. Furthermore, the formation of regional economic blocks and the enormous weight wielded by multinational companies in the areas of pharmaceuticals and other medical supplies and technologies are forcing the health sector to seek ways of harmonizing health legislation and international negotiations. According to many experts, all of these demands surpass the ability of Latin American ministries of health to effectively respond, given most countries' current organizational, legal, and political conditions and technical infrastructure. The countries of the Americas must make it a priority to strengthen their health officials' ability to provide leadership and guidance in order to meet present and future challenges.

  8. Features in simulation of crystal growth using the hyperbolic PFC equation and the dependence of the numerical solution on the parameters of the computational grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starodumov, Ilya; Kropotin, Nikolai

    2016-08-01

    We investigate the three-dimensional mathematical model of crystal growth called PFC (Phase Field Crystal) in a hyperbolic modification. This model is also called the modified model PFC (originally PFC model is formulated in parabolic form) and allows to describe both slow and rapid crystallization processes on atomic length scales and on diffusive time scales. Modified PFC model is described by the differential equation in partial derivatives of the sixth order in space and second order in time. The solution of this equation is possible only by numerical methods. Previously, authors created the software package for the solution of the Phase Field Crystal problem, based on the method of isogeometric analysis (IGA) and PetIGA program library. During further investigation it was found that the quality of the solution can strongly depends on the discretization parameters of a numerical method. In this report, we show the features that should be taken into account during constructing the computational grid for the numerical simulation.

  9. Features in simulation of crystal growth using the hyperbolic PFC equation and the dependence of the numerical solution on the parameters of the computational grid

    SciTech Connect

    Starodumov, Ilya; Kropotin, Nikolai

    2016-08-10

    We investigate the three-dimensional mathematical model of crystal growth called PFC (Phase Field Crystal) in a hyperbolic modification. This model is also called the modified model PFC (originally PFC model is formulated in parabolic form) and allows to describe both slow and rapid crystallization processes on atomic length scales and on diffusive time scales. Modified PFC model is described by the differential equation in partial derivatives of the sixth order in space and second order in time. The solution of this equation is possible only by numerical methods. Previously, authors created the software package for the solution of the Phase Field Crystal problem, based on the method of isogeometric analysis (IGA) and PetIGA program library. During further investigation it was found that the quality of the solution can strongly depends on the discretization parameters of a numerical method. In this report, we show the features that should be taken into account during constructing the computational grid for the numerical simulation.

  10. [Bioethical responsibilities of the health authority in health care and biomedical research].

    PubMed

    Salinas, Rodrigo A; Fuenzalida, Max C

    2015-01-30

    The reflection on bioethical contents of health policies and their effects on the demands for social justice has been a preferred concern of those who have driven the health reforms that were behind the creation of the National Health Service and, more recently, the regime of health guarantees. In the course of the years, the concern for the vindication of individual rights in the context of health care and research has joined to citizen demands for equitable access to health actions. For this purpose, in 2006 and 2012, specific laws addressing these matters were enacted and in the last year, regulations that make them operative emerged and are being implemented. The wording of the articles of both laws, in the effort to rescue individual rights, raises an imbalance in some respects, with regard to the social impact of their implementation. In certain subjects, its provisions run counter to existing codes of professional ethics in the country and in others; its implementation allows the privatization of the process of ethical review of pharmacological research, which was restricted to public health services. The absence of starting up of the National Bioethics Commission, pending since 2006, has prevented the creation of a pluralistic spaTce for deliberation on these issues and others as provided by law.

  11. The effect of statutory limitations on the authority of substitute decision makers on the care of patients in the intensive care unit: case examples and review of state laws affecting withdrawing or withholding life-sustaining treatment.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Arvind; Becker, Julianna

    2014-01-01

    While the ethics and critical care literature is replete with discussion of medical futility and the ethics of end-of-life care decisions in the intensive care unit, little attention is paid to the effect of statutory limitations on the authority of substitute decision makers during the course of treatment of patients in the critical care setting. In many jurisdictions, a clear distinction is made between the authority of a health care power of attorney, who is legally designated by a competent adult to make decisions regarding withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining treatment, and of next-of-kin, who are limited in this regard. However, next-of-kin are often relied upon to consent to necessary procedures to advance a patient's medical care. When conflicts arise between critical care physicians and family members regarding projected patient outcome and functional status, these statutory limitations on decision-making authority by next of kin can cause paralysis in the medical care of severely ill patients, leading to practical and ethical impasses. In this article, we will provide case examples of how statutory limitations on substitute decision making authority for next of kin can impede the care of patients. We will also review the varying jurisdictional limitations on the authority of substitute decision makers and explore their implications for patient care in the critical care setting. Finally, we will review possible ethical and legal solutions to resolve these impasses.

  12. 77 FR 22835 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... of Project Approved for Use: Jetway loading bridge. Decision Date: February 7, 2012. FOR FURTHER... of Projects Approved for Collection and USE: Electrical improvement. Terminal building renovations... Air Carriers Not Required to Collect PFC's: None. Brief Description of Projects Approved...

  13. 78 FR 76389 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ...--design. Master plan update completion/airport geographic information system. Brief Description of Project... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals...). Construction of snow removal equipment building (geothermal heat system). Hangar taxi lane improvements. Hangar...

  14. The feasibility study of hot cell decontamination by the PFC spray method

    SciTech Connect

    Hui-Jun Won; Chong-Hun Jung; Jei-Kwon Moon

    2008-01-15

    The characteristics of per-fluorocarbon compounds (PFC) are colorless, non-toxic, easily vaporized and nonflammable. Also, some of them are liquids of a high density, low surface tension, low latent heat and low specific heat. These particular chemical and physical properties of fluoro-organic compounds permit their use in very different fields such as electronics, medicine, tribology, nuclear and material science. The Sonatol process was developed under a contract with the DOE. The Sonatol process uses an ultrasonic agitation in a PFC solution that contains a fluorinated surfactant to remove radioactive particles from surfaces. Filtering the suspended particles allows the solutions to be reused indefinitely. They applied the Sonatol process to the decontamination of a heterogeneous legacy Pu-238 waste that exhibited an excessive hydrogen gas generation, which prevents a transportation of such a waste to a Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) is developing dry decontamination technologies applicable to a decontamination of a highly radioactive area loosely contaminated with radioactive particles. This contamination has occurred as a result of an examination of a post-irradiated material or the development of the DUPIC process. The dry decontamination technologies developed are the carbon dioxide pellet spray method and the PFC spray method. As a part of the project, PFC ultrasonic decontamination technology was developed in 2004. The PFC spray decontamination method which is based on the test results of the PFC ultrasonic method has been under development since 2005. The developed PFC spray decontamination equipment consists of four modules (spray, collection, filtration and distillation). Vacuum cup of the collection module gathers the contaminated PFC solution, then the solution is moved to the filtration module and it is recycled. After a multiple recycling of the spent PFC solution, it is purified in the distillation

  15. 77 FR 27537 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-10

    ... approved net approved net charge exp. charge exp. PFC revenue PFC revenue date date 11-11-C-01-RNO Reno, NV......... 04/03/12 $25,491,376 $33,933,876 04/01/17 07/01/18 07-02-C-01-CLT 04/11/12 144,557,137 143,057,137 12...: November 1, 2016. Estimated Charge Expiration Date: June 1, 2021. Class of Air Carriers Not Required...

  16. Plasma Facing Components Generic Facilities Review Panel (PFC-GFRP): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McGrath, R.; Allen, S.; Hill, D.; Brooks, J.; Mattas, R.; Davis, J.; Lipschultz, B.; Ulrickson, M.

    1993-10-01

    The Plasma Facing Components (PFC) Facilities Review Panel was chartered by the US Department of Energy, Office of Fusion Energy, ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and Technology Division, to outline the program plan and identify the supporting test facilities that lead to reliable, long-lived plasma facing components for ITER. This report summarizes the panel`s findings and identifies the necessary and sufficient set of test facilities required for ITER PFC development.

  17. Differential Functional Connectivity Alterations of Two Subdivisions within the Right dlPFC in Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Caspers, Julian; Mathys, Christian; Hoffstaedter, Felix; Südmeyer, Martin; Cieslik, Edna C.; Rubbert, Christian; Hartmann, Christian J.; Eickhoff, Claudia R.; Reetz, Kathrin; Grefkes, Christian; Michely, Jochen; Turowski, Bernd; Schnitzler, Alfons; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2017-01-01

    Patients suffering from Parkinson's disease (PD) often show impairments in executive function (EF) like decision-making and action control. The right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has been strongly implicated in EF in healthy subjects and has repeatedly been reported to show alterations related to EF impairment in PD. Recently, two key regions for cognitive action control have been identified within the right dlPFC by co-activation based parcellation. While the posterior region is engaged in rather basal EF like stimulus integration and working memory, the anterior region has a more abstract, supervisory function. To investigate whether these functionally distinct subdivisions of right dlPFC are differentially affected in PD, we analyzed resting-state functional connectivity (FC) in 39 PD patients and 44 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Patients were examined both after at least 12 h withdrawal of dopaminergic drugs (OFF) and under their regular dopaminergic medication (ON). We found that only the posterior right dlPFC subdivision shows FC alterations in PD, while the anterior part remains unaffected. PD-related decreased FC with posterior right dlPFC was found in the bilateral medial posterior parietal cortex (mPPC) and left dorsal premotor region (PMd) in the OFF state. In the medical ON, FC with left PMd normalized, while decoupling with bilateral mPPC remained. Furthermore, we observed increased FC between posterior right dlPFC and the bilateral dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) in PD in the ON state. Our findings point to differential disturbances of right dlPFC connectivity in PD, which relate to its hierarchical organization of EF processing by stronger affecting the functionally basal posterior aspect than the hierarchically higher anterior part. PMID:28611616

  18. Home health and home care in Massachusetts after the Balanced Budget Act of 1997: implications of cost containment pressures for service authorizations.

    PubMed

    Caro, Francis G; Porell, Frank W; Sullivan, Donna M; Safran-Norton, Clare E; Miltiades, Helen

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the response of the Massachusetts state-funded home care program for the elderly when its clients encountered barriers to the receipt of home health services because of HMO enrollment and the implementation of the Balanced Budget Act of 1997. Clients of three regional case management agencies serving the Massachusetts state home care program whose home care services were interrupted because of hospitalization between January 1 and April 30, 1999 and whose services were resumed after they returned home were studied. Detailed data are reported that show how the long-term personal assistance services provided through the state program were often complemented by temporary home health services after elders returned home. The multivariate analysis revealed that the authorization of state-funded personal care services was keyed to the status of home health aide services. After hospitalization, the presence of a home health aide reduced the likelihood of authorization of personal care. At final assessment, the situation was reversed, that is, the withdrawal of a home health aide increased the likelihood of authorization of personal care. The findings suggest that more restrictive Medicare reimbursement policies for home health services led to greater state expenditures for personal care services. In other words, less generous Medicare financing shifted a greater portion of the burden of financing home care to the state of Massachusetts. These findings raise important policy questions about the balance of responsibility between the federal government and states to provide financing of home care services for the elderly.

  19. Fractal analysis of polyferric chloride-humic acid (PFC-HA) flocs in different topological spaces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yili; Lu, Jia; Baiyu, Du; Shi, Baoyou; Wang, Dongsheng

    2009-01-01

    The fractal dimensions in different topological spaces of polyferric chloride-humic acid (PFC-HA) flocs, formed in flocculating different kinds of humic acids (HA) water at different initial pH (9.0, 7.0, 5.0) and PFC dosages, were calculated by effective density-maximum diameter, image analysis, and N2 absorption-desorption methods, respectively. The mass fractal dimensions (Df) of PFC-HA flocs were calculated by bi-logarithm relation of effective density with maximum diameter and Logan empirical equation. The Df value was more than 2.0 at initial pH of 7.0, which was 11% and 13% higher than those at pH 9.0 and 5.0, respectively, indicating the most compact flocs formed in flocculated HA water at initial pH of 7.0. The image analysis for those flocs indicates that after flocculating the HA water at initial pH greater than 7.0 with PFC flocculant, the fractal dimensions of D2 (logA vs. logdL) and D3 (logVsphere VS. logdL) of PFC-HA flocs decreased with the increase of PFC dosages, and PFC-HA flocs showed a gradually looser structure. At the optimum dosage of PFC, the D2 (logA vs. logdL) values of the flocs show 14%-43% difference with their corresponding Df, and they even had different tendency with the change of initial pH values. However, the D2 values of the flocs formed at three different initial pH in HA solution had a same tendency with the corresponding Dr. Based on fractal Frenkel-Halsey-Hill (FHH) adsorption and desorption equations, the pore surface fractal dimensions (Ds) for dried powders of PFC-HA flocs formed in HA water with initial pH 9.0 and 7.0 were all close to 2.9421, and the Ds values of flocs formed at initial pH 5.0 were less than 2.3746. It indicated that the pore surface fractal dimensions of PFC-HA flocs dried powder mainly show the irregularity from the mesopore-size distribution and marcopore-size distribution.

  20. Cholinergic and ghrelinergic receptors and KCNQ channels in the medial PFC regulate the expression of palatability

    PubMed Central

    Parent, Marc A.; Amarante, Linda M.; Swanson, Kyra; Laubach, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a key brain region for the control of consummatory behavior. Neuronal activity in this area is modulated when rats initiate consummatory licking and reversible inactivations eliminate reward contrast effects and reduce a measure of palatability, the duration of licking bouts. Together, these data suggest the hypothesis that rhythmic neuronal activity in the mPFC is crucial for the control of consummatory behavior. The muscarinic cholinergic system is known to regulate membrane excitability and control low-frequency rhythmic activity in the mPFC. Muscarinic receptors (mAChRs) act through KCNQ (Kv7) potassium channels, which have recently been linked to the orexigenic peptide ghrelin. To understand if drugs that act on KCNQ channels within the mPFC have effects on consummatory behavior, we made infusions of several muscarinic drugs (scopolamine, oxotremorine, physostigmine), the KCNQ channel blocker XE-991, and ghrelin into the mPFC and evaluated their effects on consummatory behavior. A consistent finding across all drugs was an effect on the duration of licking bouts when animals consume solutions with a relatively high concentration of sucrose. The muscarinic antagonist scopolamine reduced bout durations, both systemically and intra-cortically. By contrast, the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine, the cholinesterase inhibitor physostigmine, the KCNQ channel blocker XE-991, and ghrelin all increased the durations of licking bouts when infused into the mPFC. Our findings suggest that cholinergic and ghrelinergic signaling in the mPFC, acting through KCNQ channels, regulates the expression of palatability. PMID:26578914

  1. Out-of-hours primary care services: demands and patient referral patterns in a Veneto region (Italy) Local Health Authority.

    PubMed

    Buja, Alessandra; Toffanin, Roberto; Rigon, Stefano; Sandonà, Paolo; Carraro, Daniela; Damiani, Gianfranco; Baldo, Vincenzo

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the characteristics of patients admitted to an out-of-hours (OOH) service and to analyze the related outputs. A retrospective population-based cohort study was conducted by analyzing an electronic database recording 23,980 OOH service contacts in 2011 at a Local Health Authority in the Veneto Region (North-East Italy). A multinomial logistic regression was used to compare the characteristics of contacts handled by the OOH physicians with cases referred to other services. OOH service contact rates were higher for the oldest and youngest age groups and for females rather than males. More than half of the contacts concerned patients who were seen by a OOH physician. More than one in three contacts related problems managed over the phone; only ≈10% of the patients were referred to other services. Many factors, including demographic variables, process-logistic variables and clinical characteristics of the contact, were associated with the decision to visit the patient's home (rather than provide telephone advice alone), or to refer patients to an ED or to a specialist. Our study demonstrated, even after adjusting, certain OOH physicians were more likely than their colleagues to refer a patient to an ED. Our study shows that OOH services meet composite and variously expressed demands. The determining factors associated with cases referred to other health care services should be considered when designing clinical pathways in order to ensure a continuity of care. The unwarranted variability in OOH physicians' performance needs to be addressed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Practice characteristics and prior authorization costs: secondary analysis of data collected by SALT-Net in 9 central New York primary care practices.

    PubMed

    Epling, John W; Mader, Emily M; Morley, Christopher P

    2014-03-06

    An increase in prior authorization (PA) requirements from health insurance companies is placing administrative and financial burdens on primary care offices across the United States. As time allocation for these cases continues to grow, physicians are concerned with additional workload and inefficiency in the workplace. The objective is to estimate the effects of practice characteristics on time spent per prior authorization request in primary care practices. Secondary analysis was performed using data on nine primary care practices in Central New York. Practice characteristics and demographics were collected at the onset of the study. In addition, participants were instructed to complete an "event form" (EF) to document each prior authorization event during a 4-6 week period; prior authorizations included requests for medication as well as other health care services. Stepwise Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Regression was used to model Time in Minutes of each event as an outcome of various factors. Prior authorization events (N = 435) took roughly 20 minutes to complete (beta = 20.017, p < .001); Medicaid requests took less time (beta = -6.085, p < .001), and Electronic Health Record (EHR) system use reduced prior authorization time by about 5 minutes (beta = -5.086, p = .002). While prior authorization events impose substantial costs to primary care offices, it appears that Medicaid requests take less time than private payer requests. Results from the study provide support that Electronic Health Record usage may also reduce time required to complete prior authorization requests.

  3. Practice characteristics and prior authorization costs: secondary analysis of data collected by SALT-Net in 9 central New York primary care practices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An increase in prior authorization (PA) requirements from health insurance companies is placing administrative and financial burdens on primary care offices across the United States. As time allocation for these cases continues to grow, physicians are concerned with additional workload and inefficiency in the workplace. The objective is to estimate the effects of practice characteristics on time spent per prior authorization request in primary care practices. Methods Secondary analysis was performed using data on nine primary care practices in Central New York. Practice characteristics and demographics were collected at the onset of the study. In addition, participants were instructed to complete an "event form" (EF) to document each prior authorization event during a 4–6 week period; prior authorizations included requests for medication as well as other health care services. Stepwise Ordinary Least Squares (OLS) Regression was used to model Time in Minutes of each event as an outcome of various factors. Results Prior authorization events (N = 435) took roughly 20 minutes to complete (beta = 20.017, p < .001); Medicaid requests took less time (beta = −6.085, p < .001), and Electronic Health Record (EHR) system use reduced prior authorization time by about 5 minutes (beta = −5.086, p = .002). Conclusions While prior authorization events impose substantial costs to primary care offices, it appears that Medicaid requests take less time than private payer requests. Results from the study provide support that Electronic Health Record usage may also reduce time required to complete prior authorization requests. PMID:24597483

  4. Preserving the Anti-Scientific Linear No-Threshold Myth: Authority, Agnosticism, Transparency, and the Standard of Care

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, Jeffry A.

    2017-01-01

    The linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption is over 70 years old and holds that all ionizing radiation exposure leaves cumulative effects, all of which are harmful regardless of how low the dose or dose rate is. The claimed harm centers on the risk of future radiogenic cancer. This has been shown countless times to be fallacious, and hundreds of scientific studies—both experimental and observational/epidemiological—demonstrate that at low enough doses and dose rates, ionizing radiation stimulates an evolved adaptive response and therefore is beneficial to health, lowering rather than raising the risk of cancer. Yet the myth of uncorrected lifetime cumulative risk still pervades the field of radiation science and underlies the policies of virtually all regulatory agencies around the world. This article explores some of the motivations behind, and methods used to assure, the extreme durability of the LNT myth in the face of the preponderance of contrary evidence and the manifest harms of radiophobia. These include subservience to the voice of authority, tactics such as claiming agnosticism on behalf of the entire field, transparent references to contrary evidence while dismissing the findings without refutation, and seeking shelter behind the legally protective medical standard of care. PMID:28814947

  5. Preserving the Anti-Scientific Linear No-Threshold Myth: Authority, Agnosticism, Transparency, and the Standard of Care.

    PubMed

    Sacks, Bill; Siegel, Jeffry A

    2017-01-01

    The linear no-threshold (LNT) assumption is over 70 years old and holds that all ionizing radiation exposure leaves cumulative effects, all of which are harmful regardless of how low the dose or dose rate is. The claimed harm centers on the risk of future radiogenic cancer. This has been shown countless times to be fallacious, and hundreds of scientific studies-both experimental and observational/epidemiological-demonstrate that at low enough doses and dose rates, ionizing radiation stimulates an evolved adaptive response and therefore is beneficial to health, lowering rather than raising the risk of cancer. Yet the myth of uncorrected lifetime cumulative risk still pervades the field of radiation science and underlies the policies of virtually all regulatory agencies around the world. This article explores some of the motivations behind, and methods used to assure, the extreme durability of the LNT myth in the face of the preponderance of contrary evidence and the manifest harms of radiophobia. These include subservience to the voice of authority, tactics such as claiming agnosticism on behalf of the entire field, transparent references to contrary evidence while dismissing the findings without refutation, and seeking shelter behind the legally protective medical standard of care.

  6. Mid-term Results of Total Knee Arthroplasty Using PFC Sigma RP-F.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jun-Young; Cheon, Sang-Ho; Kyung, Hee-Soo

    2012-12-01

    We compared the mid-term results after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) using PFC Sigma RP-F mobile model with PFC Sigma PS fixed model. We analyzed 45 knees that underwent TKA with PFC Sigma RP-Fn (study group) and 45 knees with PFC Sigma PS (control group). The mean follow-up period was 65 months (range, 60-69 months). The evaluation system of the American knee society was used for clinical and radiological assessment. Also, the maximal knee flexion angle was assessed. The mean maximum flexion angle in the study group (135°) was greater than that in the control group (125°) at the early post-operation & final follow-up period (p=0.033). The range of motion (ROM) in the study group was recovered earlier at the postoperative 6 months, and ROM gain was improved to a greater extent at the final follow-up period (p=0.039). The knee score and function score and radiographic evaluation were no difference between the two groups (p>0.05) at the final follow-up. The two cases of radiolucency in posterior condyle and medial tibial plateau and one case of patellar elongation were seen in the study group. The PFC Sigma RP-F mobile system appears to facilitate greater maximum flexion angle and ROM gain with two cases of radiolucent line.

  7. Engagement of the PFC in consolidation and recall of recent spatial memory.

    PubMed

    Leon, Wanda C; Bruno, Martin A; Allard, Simon; Nader, Karim; Cuello, A Claudio

    2010-06-01

    The standard model of system consolidation proposes that memories are initially hippocampus dependent and become hippocampus independent over time. Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the retrieval of remote memories. The transformations required to make a memory undergo system's consolidation are thought to require synaptic plasticity. In this study, we investigated the participation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/ERK pathway in acquisition, memory consolidation, and recent memory recall of the Morris water maze (MWM) task using a 1-d training protocol. To this end, bilateral injections of the MEK inhibitor U0126 into the rat mPFC were performed. The injection of the MEK inhibitor in the mPFC did not affect the acquisition of the MWM. However, MEK inhibitor resulted in impairments on recent memory retrieval either when applied at the end of the learning phase (memory consolidation) or prior to the retention test. The results strongly support the concept that recently acquired and consolidated spatial memories require the mPFC, and that local activation of the MAPK/ERK pathway in the mPFC is necessary for the consolidation and recall of recent memories.

  8. Common and unique representations in pFC for face and place attractiveness.

    PubMed

    Pegors, Teresa K; Kable, Joseph W; Chatterjee, Anjan; Epstein, Russell A

    2015-05-01

    Although previous neuroimaging research has identified overlapping correlates of subjective value across different reward types in the ventromedial pFC (vmPFC), it is not clear whether this "common currency" evaluative signal extends to the aesthetic domain. To examine this issue, we scanned human participants with fMRI while they made attractiveness judgments of faces and places-two stimulus categories that are associated with different underlying rewards, have very different visual properties, and are rarely compared with each other. We found overlapping signals for face and place attractiveness in the vmPFC, consistent with the idea that this region codes a signal for value that applies across disparate reward types and across both economic and aesthetic judgments. However, we also identified a subregion of vmPFC within which activity patterns for face and place attractiveness were distinguishable, suggesting that some category-specific attractiveness information is retained in this region. Finally, we observed two separate functional regions in lateral OFC: one region that exhibited a category-unique response to face attractiveness and another region that responded strongly to faces but was insensitive to their value. Our results suggest that vmPFC supports a common mechanism for reward evaluation while also retaining a degree of category-specific information, whereas lateral OFC may be involved in basic reward processing that is specific to only some stimulus categories.

  9. Association of diabetic foot care and amputation rates in Germany.

    PubMed

    Kröger, Knut; Moysidis, Theodoros; Feghaly, Michel; Schäfer, Erika; Bufe, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Podologists are nurses who care for the diabetic foot (orthotics, offloading devices, blisters, calluses, treatment of fungus infection and patient education). In contrast to podiatrists, they are not qualified to perform any surgical treatment or wound care. We analysed whether there is an association between the decrease in major amputations and the number of podologic foot care (PFC) visits prescribed in Germany. Detailed list of all major lower limb amputations (OPS 5-864) performed from 2007 to 2011 was provided by the Federal Statistical Office. Data were separated for the 16 federal states in Germany. Detailed lists of the number of PFC treatments for each of the 5 years were derived from the federal report of the statutory health insurance. The total numbers of hospitalised cases per year having diabetes mellitus documented as an additional diagnosis were used to adjust for the different rates of people with diabetes in each federal state. Within a 5-year time period, population-based major amputations per 100 000 people dropped from 21·7 in 2007 to 17·5 in 2011 (-18·5%); whereas the number of PFC treatments per 1000 insured increased from 22 in 2007 to 60 in 2011 (+172·7%). The total number of major amputations divided by the total number of hospitalised cases with the additional diagnosis of diabetes mellitus (DM) shows an inverse correlation with the number of PFC treatments per 1000 insured (Pearson's correlation factor is -0·52049). The five countries with the highest increase in PFC compared with the five countries with the lowest increase (35·6 versus 15·4 per 1000 insured) will have only small differences in the decrease in major amputation rates in this period (-5·1 versus -3·4 per 100.000). There is a strong association between increasing utilisation PFC and decreasing major amputations in Germany. Further study is required to document the cost-effectiveness of this service. © 2014 The Authors. International Wound Journal © 2014

  10. A comparative analysis between fixed bearing total knee arthroplasty (PFC Sigma) and rotating platform total knee arthroplasty (PFC-RP) with minimum 3-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Jawed, Akram; Kumar, Vijay; Malhotra, R; Yadav, C S; Bhan, S

    2012-06-01

    Since the introduction of mobile bearing total knee designs nearly 30 years back, many studies have been done to evaluate its long-term result. Comparison with fixed bearing designs has been done in the past, but the studies were confounded by variables such as disease, surgeon, bone quality, pain tolerance, etc. We attempt to eliminate these variables in this study. A total of 50 patients who had bilateral arthritis of the knee with similar deformity and pre-operative range of motion on both sides agreed to have one knee replaced with mobile bearing total knee design (PFC-RP) and the other with a fixed bearing design (PFC Sigma) were prospectively evaluated. Comparative analysis of both the designs was done at a mean follow-up of 40 months, minimizing patient, surgeon and observer related bias. Clinical and radiographic outcome, survival and complication rates were compared. At a mean follow-up of 40 months (range 36-47 months), no benefit of mobile bearing (PFC-RP) over fixed bearing design (PFC Sigma) could be demonstrated with respect to Knee Society scores, pain scores, range of flexion, subject preference or patello-femoral complication rates. Radiographs showed no difference in prosthetic alignment. No patient required a revision surgery till last follow-up. Our study demonstrated no advantage of the mobile-bearing arthroplasty over fixed bearing arthroplasty with regard to clinical results at short-term follow-up. However, longer follow-up is necessary to confirm whether these results are sustained.

  11. Feasibility of lung cancer hyperthermia using breathable perfluorochemical (PFC) liquids. Part I: Convective hyperthermia.

    PubMed

    Sekins, K M; Leeper, D B; Hoffman, J K; Wolfson, M R; Shaffer, T H

    2004-05-01

    Clinical studies have shown that hyperthermia in combination with radiotherapy and/or chemotherapy may be effective in the treatment of advanced cancer. No method of lung hyperthermia, however, has been accepted as standard or superior. This investigation sought to demonstrate in animals the thermal and physiologic feasibility of lung hyperthermia induced using heated breathable perfluorochemical (PFC) liquids, a method termed liquid-filled lung convective hyperthermia (LCHT). The ability to use LCHT is rooted in the development of both PFC liquid ventilation, now in clinical development with the PFC perflubron (LiquiVent), and a PFC blood substitute also in late Phase III trials (Oxygent). As LCHT background, the PFC technologies and biology are first reviewed. The physical properties of a variety of PFCs were evaluated for LCHT and it was concluded that more than one liquid is suitable based on such properties. Using total liquid ventilation type devices, LCHT was shown to deliver successfully localized (lobar) lung heating in sheep, and bilateral whole lung heating and whole-body hyperthermia in rabbits, cats and lambs. During LCHT, lung parenchymal temperatures were uniform (<1 degree C) across heated regions. In addition, based on patterns relating lung tissue temperatures to inspiratory and expiratory PFC liquid temperatures in the endotracheal tube, LCHT may minimize invasive thermometry requirements in the lung. Based on acute experiments, it was concluded that LCHT appears feasible and may simplify lung hyperthermia. It was recommended that potentially synergistic combinations of LCHT with other whole-body hyperthermia or local heating modalities, and with chemotherapeutic lung drug delivery, also be explored in the future.

  12. PWM Technique for Non-Isolated Three-Phase Buck-Boost PFC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morizane, Toshimitsu; Shimomori, Wataru; Taniguchi, Katsunori; Kimura, Noriyuki; Ogawa, Masanori

    The buck-boost power factor corrected (PFC) converter has the wide range of the dc output voltage. A new non-isolated three-phase hard-switching and a soft-switching buck-boost PFC converter are proposed. Removing the three-phase transformer from the converters makes their size more compact and their costs lower. In addition, the new control method based on the PWM technique is proposed in this paper to achieve the high power factor. Complete soft-switching is also achieved under the discontinuous current mode (DCM) operation.

  13. TRICARE; Changes included in the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007; authorization of anesthesia and other costs for dental care for children and certain other patients. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2007-09-25

    This final rule implements section 702 of the John Warner National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2007, Public Law 109-364. The rule provides coverage of contracted medical care with respect to dental care beyond that care required as a necessary adjunct to medical or surgical treatment. The entitlement of institutional and anesthesia services is authorized in conjunction with non-covered dental treatment for patients with developmental, mental, or physical disabilities or for pediatric patients age 5 or under. This final rule does not eliminate any contracted medical care that is currently covered for spouses and children. The entitlement of anesthesia services includes general anesthesia services only. Institutional services include institutional benefits associated with both hospital and in-out surgery settings. Patients with developmental, mental, or physical disabilities are those patients with conditions that prohibit dental treatment in a safe and effective manner. Therefore, it is medically or psychologically necessary for these patients to require general anesthesia for dental treatment.

  14. A Halifax Case Study that Offers an Alternative History of Care Provided by Local Authorities under the 1913 Mental Deficiency Act

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dale, Pamela

    2014-01-01

    Institutions, and their problems, have traditionally dominated learning disability histories. We know far more about what happened in areas where councils established and/or enthusiastically used local institutions than other places. Local authorities less committed to institutional care must have relied more on family and other carers. This may…

  15. 75 FR 36099 - Legislative Changes to Primary Care Loan Program Authorized Under Title VII of the Public Health...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-24

    ...On March 23, 2010, President Obama signed into law the Affordable Care Act (ACA), Public Law 111-148. Section 5201 of the ACA changes the Primary Care Loan (PCL) program by: (1) Reducing the number of years for the primary health care service requirement; (2) lowering the interest rate for service default; and (3) eliminating the HHS requirement that parental financial information be submitted for independent students.

  16. Using key performance indicators as knowledge-management tools at a regional health-care authority level.

    PubMed

    Berler, Alexander; Pavlopoulos, Sotiris; Koutsouris, Dimitris

    2005-06-01

    The advantages of the introduction of information and communication technologies in the complex health-care sector are already well-known and well-stated in the past. It is, nevertheless, paradoxical that although the medical community has embraced with satisfaction most of the technological discoveries allowing the improvement in patient care, this has not happened when talking about health-care informatics. Taking the above issue of concern, our work proposes an information model for knowledge management (KM) based upon the use of key performance indicators (KPIs) in health-care systems. Based upon the use of the balanced scorecard (BSC) framework (Kaplan/Norton) and quality assurance techniques in health care (Donabedian), this paper is proposing a patient journey centered approach that drives information flow at all levels of the day-to-day process of delivering effective and managed care, toward information assessment and knowledge discovery. In order to persuade health-care decision-makers to assess the added value of KM tools, those should be used to propose new performance measurement and performance management techniques at all levels of a health-care system. The proposed KPIs are forming a complete set of metrics that enable the performance management of a regional health-care system. In addition, the performance framework established is technically applied by the use of state-of-the-art KM tools such as data warehouses and business intelligence information systems. In that sense, the proposed infrastructure is, technologically speaking, an important KM tool that enables knowledge sharing amongst various health-care stakeholders and between different health-care groups. The use of BSC is an enabling framework toward a KM strategy in health care.

  17. 75 FR 13336 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-19

    ... District Office, (407) 812-6331. Public Agency: Palm Beach County Department of Airports, West Palm Beach... less than 1 percent of the total annual enplanements at Palm Beach International Airport (PBI). Brief... Collection at PBI for Future use at North Palm Beach General Aviation Airport (F45) at a $3.00 PFC...

  18. 75 FR 65551 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Date: February 1, 2022. Class of Air Carriers Not Required To Collect PFC's: No change from previous... Effective Date: February 1, 2011. Estimated Charge Expiration Date: February 1, 2016. Class of Air Carriers... Expiration Date: December 1, 2021. Class of Air Carriers Not Required To Collect PFCs: On-demand air...

  19. 14 CFR 158.47 - Collection of PFC's on tickets issued outside the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... this section, unless the itinerary is for travel wholly within the U.S. Air carriers and foreign air... required to collect a PFC on air travel tickets issued on its own ticket stock unless it serves a point or... collected. Such a record shall appear on or with the air travel ticket and shall include the same...

  20. 14 CFR 158.47 - Collection of PFC's on tickets issued outside the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... this section, unless the itinerary is for travel wholly within the U.S. Air carriers and foreign air... required to collect a PFC on air travel tickets issued on its own ticket stock unless it serves a point or... collected. Such a record shall appear on or with the air travel ticket and shall include the same...

  1. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and Adults in California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC se...

  2. Engagement of the PFC in Consolidation and Recall of Recent Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Wanda C.; Bruno, Martin A.; Allard, Simon; Nader, Karim; Cuello, A. Claudio

    2010-01-01

    The standard model of system consolidation proposes that memories are initially hippocampus dependent and become hippocampus independent over time. Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the retrieval of remote memories. The transformations required to make a memory undergo system's…

  3. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and Adults in California

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC se...

  4. 14 CFR 158.47 - Collection of PFC's on tickets issued outside the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection of PFC's on tickets issued outside the U.S. 158.47 Section 158.47 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT... this section, unless the itinerary is for travel wholly within the U.S. Air carriers and foreign...

  5. 14 CFR 158.45 - Collection of PFC's on tickets issued in the U.S.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Collection of PFC's on tickets issued in the U.S. 158.45 Section 158.45 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... travel on a nonrefundable or expired ticket is not a change in itinerary. If the ticket purchaser is...

  6. 75 FR 33376 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-11

    ... Firefighting Station. Runway 18r/34l Overlay/Rehabilitation. Pavement Management Plan. Security Enhancement... Approved for Collection and Use: Expand terminal parking lot. Repair and maintain runway 16/34 pavement. PFC administration. Repair and maintain runway 03/21 pavement. Repair and maintain taxiway A...

  7. 78 FR 76387 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-17

    ... Projects Approved for Collection and Use: Acquire snow removal equipment. Rehabilitate taxiways A, C and J... enhancements. Rehabilitate runway. Snow removal equipment--broom. Design and rehabilitate taxiway and runway... PFC's: None. Brief Description of Projects Approved for Collection and Use: Snow removal...

  8. 78 FR 57208 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... sterile lobby expansion. Portable pre-conditioned air and ground power unit. Runway 1/19 pavement..., 2012. ESTIMATED CHARGE EXPIRATION DATE: November 1, 2022. CLASS OF AIR CARRIERS NOT REQUIRED TO COLLECT...--phase II). PFC administration costs reimbursement. Add/replace/reconfigure/extend baggage...

  9. Engagement of the PFC in Consolidation and Recall of Recent Spatial Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leon, Wanda C.; Bruno, Martin A.; Allard, Simon; Nader, Karim; Cuello, A. Claudio

    2010-01-01

    The standard model of system consolidation proposes that memories are initially hippocampus dependent and become hippocampus independent over time. Previous studies have demonstrated the involvement of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the retrieval of remote memories. The transformations required to make a memory undergo system's…

  10. 76 FR 27169 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-10

    ... 1, 2015. Estimated Charge Expiration Date: November 1, 2016. Class Of Air Carriers Not Required To Collect PFC's: Air taxi/ commercial operators filing FAA Form 1800-31. Determination: Approved. Based on... rehabilitation. Snow blowers. Sound insulation program. Brief Description of Project Approved for Collection and...

  11. 14 CFR 158.15 - Project eligibility at PFC levels of $1, $2, or $3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., security, or capacity of the national air transportation system; (2) Reduce noise or mitigate noise impacts... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) General § 158.15 Project eligibility at... of the airport. These areas do not include restaurants, car rental and automobile parking facilities...

  12. 14 CFR 158.15 - Project eligibility at PFC levels of $1, $2, or $3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., security, or capacity of the national air transportation system; (2) Reduce noise or mitigate noise impacts... TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS PASSENGER FACILITY CHARGES (PFC'S) General § 158.15 Project eligibility at... of the airport. These areas do not include restaurants, car rental and automobile parking facilities...

  13. 77 FR 15841 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... revenue PFC revenue date date 03-06-C-01-ACV; Arcata, CA...... 2/01/12 $578,450 $523,597 03/01/05 03/01/05 05-07-C-01-ACV; Arcata, CA...... 2/02/12 392,265 336,981 10/01/05 10/01/05 09-03-C-02-PGV;...

  14. 76 FR 56001 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-09

    ....50. Total PFC Revenue Approved in this Decision: $5,307,445. Earliest Charge Effective Date: August 1...-03-DSM Des Moines, IA... 06/29/11 $9,175,000 $9,547,773 08/01/17 08/01/17 01-04-C-01-MBS Freeland,...

  15. Dissociating contributions of ACC and vmPFC in reward prediction, outcome, and choice.

    PubMed

    Vassena, Eliana; Krebs, Ruth M; Silvetti, Massimo; Fias, Wim; Verguts, Tom

    2014-07-01

    Acting in an uncertain environment requires estimating the probability and the value of potential outcomes. These computations are typically ascribed to various parts of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), but the functional architecture of this region remains debated. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) encodes reward prediction and outcome (i.e. win vs lose, Silvetti, Seurinck, & Verguts, 2013. Cortex, 49(6), 1627-35. doi:10.1016/j.cortex.2012.05.008). An outcome-related value signal has also been reported in the ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex (vmPFC, Rangel & Hare, 2010. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 20(2), 262-70. doi:10.1016/j.conb.2010.03.001). Whether a functional dissociation can be traced in these regions with respect to reward prediction and outcome has been suggested but not rigorously tested. Hence an fMRI study was designed to systematically examine the contribution of ACC and vmPFC to reward prediction and outcome. A striking dissociation was identified, with ACC coding for positive prediction errors and vmPFC responding to outcome, irrespective of probability. Moreover, ACC has been assigned a crucial role in the selection of intentional actions (decision-making) and computing the value associated to these actions (action-based value). Conversely, vmPFC seems to implement stimulus-based value processing (Rudebeck et al., 2008. Journal of Neuroscience, 28(51), 13775-85. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3541-08.2008; Rushworth, Behrens, Rudebeck, & Walton, 2007. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 11(4), 168-76. doi:10.1016/j.tics.2007.01.004). Therefore, a decision-making factor (choice vs. no choice condition) was also implemented in the present paradigm to distinguish stimulus-based versus action-based value coding in the mPFC during both decision and outcome phase. We found that vmPFC was more activated during the outcome phase in the no-choice than in the choice condition, potentially confirming the role of this area in stimulus-based (more than action

  16. Uncertainty-Dependent Extinction of Fear Memory in an Amygdala-mPFC Neural Circuit Model

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuzhe; Nakae, Ken; Ishii, Shin; Naoki, Honda

    2016-01-01

    Uncertainty of fear conditioning is crucial for the acquisition and extinction of fear memory. Fear memory acquired through partial pairings of a conditioned stimulus (CS) and an unconditioned stimulus (US) is more resistant to extinction than that acquired through full pairings; this effect is known as the partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE). Although the PREE has been explained by psychological theories, the neural mechanisms underlying the PREE remain largely unclear. Here, we developed a neural circuit model based on three distinct types of neurons (fear, persistent and extinction neurons) in the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). In the model, the fear, persistent and extinction neurons encode predictions of net severity, of unconditioned stimulus (US) intensity, and of net safety, respectively. Our simulation successfully reproduces the PREE. We revealed that unpredictability of the US during extinction was represented by the combined responses of the three types of neurons, which are critical for the PREE. In addition, we extended the model to include amygdala subregions and the mPFC to address a recent finding that the ventral mPFC (vmPFC) is required for consolidating extinction memory but not for memory retrieval. Furthermore, model simulations led us to propose a novel procedure to enhance extinction learning through re-conditioning with a stronger US; strengthened fear memory up-regulates the extinction neuron, which, in turn, further inhibits the fear neuron during re-extinction. Thus, our models increased the understanding of the functional roles of the amygdala and vmPFC in the processing of uncertainty in fear conditioning and extinction. PMID:27617747

  17. Delegations of authority/claims for cost of medical care and services--Department of Veterans Affairs. Final regulations.

    PubMed

    1993-07-22

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) has amended VA regulations to increase the settlement and waiver authority delegated to officials within the Office of the General Counsel and District Counsels. This change follows increased authority delegated by the Department of Justice to heads of departments and agencies of the United States.

  18. Health Care Programs: Fraud and Abuse; Revisions to the Office of Inspector General's Exclusion Authorities. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2017-01-12

    This final rule amends the regulations relating to exclusion authorities under the authority of the Office of Inspector General (OIG) of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS or the Department). The final rule incorporates statutory changes, early reinstatement provisions, and policy changes, and clarifies existing regulatory provisions.

  19. Childhood cancer survivor care: development of the Passport for Care

    PubMed Central

    Poplack, David G.; Fordis, Michael; Landier, Wendy; Bhatia, Smita; Hudson, Melissa M.; Horowitz, Marc E.

    2016-01-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk of long-term adverse effects and late effects of the disease and/or its treatment. In response to national recommendations to improve evidence-based follow-up care, a web-based support system for clinical decision making, the Passport for Care (PFC), was developed for use at the point of care to produce screening recommendations individualized to the survivor. To date, the PFC has been implemented in over half of the nearly 200 clinics affiliated with the Children's Oncology Group across the USA. Most clinician users report that the PFC has been integrated into clinic workflows, and that it fosters improved conversations with survivors about the potential late effects a survivor might experience and about the screening and/or behavioural interventions recommended to improve health status. Furthermore, clinicians using the PFC have indicated that they adhered more closely to follow-up care guidelines. Perspectives on the challenges encountered and lessons learned during the development and deployment of the PFC are reviewed and contrasted with other nationwide approaches to the provision of guidance on survivor follow-up care; furthermore, the implications for the care of childhood cancer survivors are discussed. PMID:25348788

  20. Childhood cancer survivor care: development of the Passport for Care.

    PubMed

    Poplack, David G; Fordis, Michael; Landier, Wendy; Bhatia, Smita; Hudson, Melissa M; Horowitz, Marc E

    2014-12-01

    Survivors of childhood cancer are at risk of long-term adverse effects and late effects of the disease and/or its treatment. In response to national recommendations to improve evidence-based follow-up care, a web-based support system for clinical decision making, the Passport for Care (PFC), was developed for use at the point of care to produce screening recommendations individualized to the survivor. To date, the PFC has been implemented in over half of the nearly 200 clinics affiliated with the Children's Oncology Group across the USA. Most clinician users report that the PFC has been integrated into clinic workflows, and that it fosters improved conversations with survivors about the potential late effects a survivor might experience and about the screening and/or behavioural interventions recommended to improve health status. Furthermore, clinicians using the PFC have indicated that they adhered more closely to follow-up care guidelines. Perspectives on the challenges encountered and lessons learned during the development and deployment of the PFC are reviewed and contrasted with other nationwide approaches to the provision of guidance on survivor follow-up care; furthermore, the implications for the care of childhood cancer survivors are discussed.

  1. Simple adaptive control system design for a quadrotor with an internal PFC

    SciTech Connect

    Mizumoto, Ikuro; Nakamura, Takuto; Kumon, Makoto; Takagi, Taro

    2014-12-10

    The paper deals with an adaptive control system design problem for a four rotor helicopter or quadrotor. A simple adaptive control design scheme with a parallel feedforward compensator (PFC) in the internal loop of the considered quadrotor will be proposed based on the backstepping strategy. As is well known, the backstepping control strategy is one of the advanced control strategy for nonlinear systems. However, the control algorithm will become complex if the system has higher order relative degrees. We will show that one can skip some design steps of the backstepping method by introducing a PFC in the inner loop of the considered quadrotor, so that the structure of the obtained controller will be simplified and a high gain based adaptive feedback control system will be designed. The effectiveness of the proposed method will be confirmed through numerical simulations.

  2. Ethos and Medical Narratives: How Narratives Written by Emergency Medical Personnel Reflect Professional Authority and Affect Patient Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Munger, Roger H.

    Since written reports are completed on most calls to which emergency medical technicians (EMTs) respond, report writing is an important part of their professional lives. Discourse analysis focused on how EMTs establish professional authority using specific rhetorical strategies when completing "run reports." One way of understanding the…

  3. Carefully, Thoughtfully Exploring the "I" in Reciprocity: Practitioner Reflections in Striving for Self-Authoring Student-Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grohs, Jacob R.

    2012-01-01

    The author explores some of the more elusive aims of civic engagement and the tension from the role of self in context of community. Thoughtful reclamation of the role for self can be a catalyst for different "aha" moments in terms of self-authorship, multicultural understanding, and sustainable and effective change agency. This commentary seeks…

  4. Carefully, Thoughtfully Exploring the "I" in Reciprocity: Practitioner Reflections in Striving for Self-Authoring Student-Citizens

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grohs, Jacob R.

    2012-01-01

    The author explores some of the more elusive aims of civic engagement and the tension from the role of self in context of community. Thoughtful reclamation of the role for self can be a catalyst for different "aha" moments in terms of self-authorship, multicultural understanding, and sustainable and effective change agency. This commentary seeks…

  5. Curriculum Guidelines & Regulatory Criteria for Family Nurse Practitioners Seeking Prescriptive Authority To Manage Pharmacotherapeutics in Primary Care. Summary Report 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council of State Boards of Nursing, Chicago, IL.

    This report describes a multi-organizational project to accomplish two goals: (1) to develop pharmacology/pharmacotherapeutics curriculum guidelines designed to prepare family nurse practitioners (FNPs) for full prescriptive authority; and (2) to develop regulatory criteria for evaluating the academic preparation and clinical competencies of FNPs…

  6. PFC Emissions from Detected Versus Nondetected Anode Effects in the Aluminum Industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, David S.; Fraser, Paul; Lavoie, Pascal; Kim, Jooil

    2015-02-01

    Perfluorinated carbon compounds (PFCs) CF4 and C2F6 are potent greenhouse gases that are generated in aluminum reduction cells during events known as anode effects (AEs). Since the 1990s, the aluminum industry has made considerable progress in reducing PFCs from conventionally defined and detected AEs. However in recent years, the industry has noted the presence of unaccounted PFCs that are generated outside the conventional AE definition. Two additional AE categories have been proposed, namely low-voltage, propagating AEs (LVP-AEs) and nonpropagating AEs (NP-AEs) that relate to continuous, background levels of PFC emissions. These unaccounted PFC phenomena may help explain the recent discrepancy between industry accounting and atmospheric measurements of global PFC emissions. Estimates from AGAGE, a global network of atmospheric observatories, suggest as much as 50% underaccounting of PFCs by the aluminum industry in the 2006-2010 period. The following work reviews this discrepancy and the potential role played by LVP-AEs and NP-AEs.

  7. PFC2D simulation of thermally induced cracks in concrete specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xinghong; Chang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Wei; Li, Shuirong

    2013-06-01

    The appearance of cracks exposed to severe environmental conditions can be critical for concrete structures. The research is to validate Particle Flow Code(PFC2D) method in the context of concrete thermally-induced cracking simulations. First, concrete was discreted as meso-level units of aggregate, cement mortar and the interfaces between them. Parallel bonded-particle model in PFC2D was adapted to describe the constitutive relation of the cementing material. Then, the concrete mechanics meso-parameters were obtained through several groups of biaxial tests, in order to make the numerical results comply with the law of the indoor test. The concrete thermal meso-parameters were determined by compared with the parameters in the empirical formula through the simulations imposing a constant heat flow to the left margin of concrete specimens. At last, a case of 1000mm×500mm concrete specimen model was analyzed. It simulated the formation and development process of the thermally-induced cracks under the cold waves of different durations and temperature decline. Good agreements in fracture morphology and process were observed between the simulations, previous studies and laboratory data. The temperature decline limits during cold waves were obtained when its tensile strength was given as 3MPa. And it showed the feasibility of using PFC2D to simulate concrete thermally-induced cracking.

  8. Dissociation of a trait and a valence representation in the mPFC

    PubMed Central

    Baetens, Kris; Vandekerckhove, Marie; Van der Cruyssen, Laurens; Van Overwalle, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A previous functional MRI adaptation study on trait inference indicated that a trait code is located in the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC), but could not rule out that this adaptation effect is due to the trait’s underlying valence. To address this issue, we presented sentences describing positive and negative valences of either a human trait or object characteristic, and manipulated whether the human trait or object characteristic was repeated or not, either with the same or opposite valance. In two trait conditions, a behavioral trait-implying sentence was preceded by a prime sentence that implied the same or the opposite trait. The results confirmed the earlier finding of robust trait adaptation from prime to target in the vmPFC, and also found adaptation in the precuneus and right mid-occipital cortex. In contrast, no valence adaptation was found in two novel object conditions, in which the target sentence again implied a positive or negative trait, but was preceded by a prime sentence that described an object with the same or the opposite valence. Together with the previous study, this indicates that a specific trait code, but not a generalized valence code, is represented in the vmPFC. PMID:23974949

  9. Independent sector mental health care: a 1-day census of private and voluntary sector placements in seven Strategic Health Authority areas in England.

    PubMed

    Hatfield, Barbara; Ryan, Tony; Simpson, Victoria; Sharma, Indhu

    2007-09-01

    The aims of this study were (i) to map the extent of all mental health placements in the independent sector, for adults of working age, and elderly people (excluding those with a diagnosis of dementia placed in Local Authority care homes), on a census date, across the areas in which the study was commissioned; (ii) to identify the characteristics of the population in placements; (iii) to explore some of the characteristics of the placements and the patterns of use within the private and voluntary sectors; and (iv) to identify the funding source of placements, and cost differences between the private and voluntary sector. The study took place in seven Strategic Health Authority areas, and information was sought from all Primary Care Trust and Social Services commissioners of mental health services, including regional secure commissioning teams, within those areas. A cross-sectional sample was used. Information was requested in relation to every individual meeting the inclusion criteria, placed in independent (private or voluntary) psychiatric hospitals, registered mental nursing homes and care homes on a specified study 'census date' of 28 June 2004 in six of the Strategic Health Authority areas, and 7 October 2004 in the seventh. Information was recorded on a standard questionnaire specifically designed for the study. Information was obtained on 3535 adults and 1623 elderly people in private or voluntary facilities. The largest groups of adults and elderly people had diagnoses of severe mental illnesses (42.1% and 30.5%, respectively), and placements were described as 'continuing care' or rehabilitation, with a 'niche' in specialist forensic care. Around four-fifths of units were in the private sector, which for adults was significantly more expensive than the voluntary sector. A large proportion of units (47.2% of adult placements and 59.3% of placements for elderly people) had only single placements from particular commissioning authorities, whilst others had

  10. Scientific publications in critical care medicine journals from Chinese authors: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhi; Liao, Zhuan; Wu, Fei-Xiang; Yang, Li-Qun; Sun, Yu-Ming; Yu, Wei-Feng

    2010-10-01

    People of Chinese ethnicity are the largest population in the world. Critical care medicine in China is developing rapidly and has achieved great advances in recent 20 years. The research contribution in critical care medicine among Chinese individuals in the three major regions of China--Mainland (ML), Hong Kong (HK), and Taiwan (TW)--is unknown. Articles published in 18 journals on critical care medicine originating from ML, TW, and HK from 1999 to 2008 were retrieved from the PubMed database and Science Citation Index Expanded. Quantity and quality analyses were conducted for the total numbers of articles, clinical trials, randomized controlled trials, impact factors (IF), citations, and articles published in high-impact journals. There were 932 articles from ML (268), TW (506), and HK (158) from 1999 to 2008. The annual total numbers of articles of the three regions increased gradually from 1999 to 2008 (from 57 to 157). From 2002 onward, the number of articles published from ML exceeded that from HK, but TW still has the dominance in both annual and total number of articles published compared with ML and HK. The accumulated IF of articles from TW (1676.67) was higher than that from ML (708.25) and HK (449.51). TW had the highest average IF of 3.31 followed by HK of 2.85 and ML of 2.64. HK had the highest average citations of each article of 10.73, followed by TW of 6.74 and ML of 5.34. The Journal of Trauma was the most popular journal in the three regions. The total numbers of articles in China increased markedly from 1999 to 2008. TW published the most number of articles, clinical trials, and randomised controlled trials among the three regions. The Journal of Trauma was the most popular journal in the three regions.

  11. Identifying Inconsistencies and Reporting Deficits in Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork (TMB) Case Reports Authored by TMB Practitioners: a TMB-Adapted CAse REport (CARE) Guidelines Audit Through 2014.

    PubMed

    Munk, Niki; Shue, Sarah; Freeland, Emilee; Ralston, Rick; Boulanger, Karen T

    2016-09-01

    Case reports are a fundamental tool through which therapeutic massage and bodywork (TMB) practitioners can inform research and impact their field by detailing the presentation, treatment, and follow-up of a single individual encountered in practice. Inconsistencies in case reporting limit their impact as fundamental sources of clinical evidence. Using the TMB-adapted CAse REport (CARE) guidelines, the current study sought to provide a rich description regarding the reporting quality of TMB practitioner authored TMB case reports in the literature. 1) Systematic identification of published, peer-reviewed TMB case reports authored by TMB practitioners following PRISMA recommendations; 2) audit development based on TMB-adapted CARE guidelines; 3) audit implementation; and 4) descriptive analysis of audit scores. Our search identified 977 articles and 35 met study inclusion criteria. On average, TMB case reports included approximately 58% of the total items identified as necessary by the TMB-adapted CARE guidelines. Introduction sections of case reports had the best item reporting (80% on average), while Case Presentation (54%) and Results (52%) sections scored moderately overall, with only 20% of necessary Practitioner Description items included on average. Audit scores revealed inconsistent abstract reporting and few audited case reports including client race (20%), perspective (26%), and occupation/activities (40%); practitioner practice setting (12%), training (12%), scope-of-practice (29%), and credentialing (20%); adverse events or lack thereof (17%); and some aspect of informed consent (34%). Treatment descriptor item reporting varied from high to low. Various implications of concern are discussed. The current audit and descriptive analysis highlight several reporting inconsistencies in TMB case reports prior to 2015. Reporting guidelines for case reports are important if standards for, and impact of, TMB case reports are desired. Adherence to reporting

  12. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and Adults in California

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiangmei (May); Bennett, Deborah H.; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E.; Tancredi, Daniel J.; Tulve, Nicolle S.; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2016-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual’s exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2–8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26–0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68–0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend

  13. Serum concentrations of perfluorinated compounds (PFC) among selected populations of children and adults in California.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangmei May; Bennett, Deborah H; Calafat, Antonia M; Kato, Kayoko; Strynar, Mark; Andersen, Erik; Moran, Rebecca E; Tancredi, Daniel J; Tulve, Nicolle S; Hertz-Picciotto, Irva

    2015-01-01

    Perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) have been widely used in industrial applications and consumer products. Their persistent nature and potential health impacts are of concern. Given the high cost of collecting serum samples, this study is to understand whether we can quantify PFC serum concentrations using factors extracted from questionnaire responses and indirect measurements, and whether a single serum measurement can be used to classify an individual's exposure over a one-year period. The study population included three demographic groups: young children (2-8 years old) (N=67), parents of young children (<55 years old) (N=90), and older adults (>55 years old) (N=59). PFC serum concentrations, house dust concentrations, and questionnaires were collected. The geometric mean of perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) was highest for the older adults. In contrast, the geometric mean of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) was highest for children. Serum concentrations of the parent and the child from the same family were moderately correlated (Spearman correlation (r)=0.26-0.79, p<0.05), indicating common sources within a family. For adults, age, having occupational exposure or having used fire extinguisher, frequencies of consuming butter/margarine, pork, canned meat entrées, tuna and white fish, freshwater fish, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significantly positively associated with serum concentrations of individual PFCs. For children, residential dust concentrations, frequency of wearing waterproof clothes, frequency of having canned fish, hotdogs, chicken nuggets, French fries, and chips, and whether they ate microwave popcorn were significant positive predictors of individual PFC serum concentrations. In addition, the serum concentrations collected in a subset of young children (N=20) and the parents (N=42) one year later were strongly correlated (r=0.68-0.98, p<0.001) with the levels measured at the first visits, but showed a decreasing trend. Children had

  14. From Provider to Enabler of Care? Reconfiguring Local Authority Support for Older People and Carers in Leeds, 2008 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Yeandle, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This article explores developments in the support available to older people and carers (i.e., caregivers) in the city of Leeds, United Kingdom, and examines provision changes during a period characterized by unprecedented resource constraint and new developments in national-local governance. Using documentary evidence, official statistics, and findings from recent studies led by the author, the effects of these changes on service planning and delivery and the approach taken by local actors to mitigate their impact are highlighted. The statistical data show a marked decline in some types of services for older people during a 5-year period during which the city council took steps to mobilize citizens and develop new services and system improvements. The analysis focuses on theories of social quality as a framework for analysis of the complex picture of change related to service provision. It concludes that although citizen involvement and consultations exerted a positive influence in delivering support to some older people and carers, research over a longer timescale is needed to show if these changes are adequate to protect older people and carers from the effects of ongoing budgetary constraints. PMID:27019540

  15. Derivation of a needs based capitation formula for allocating prescribing budgets to health authorities and primary care groups in England: regression analysis

    PubMed Central

    Rice, Nigel; Dixon, Paul; Lloyd, David C E F; Roberts, David

    2000-01-01

    Objective To develop a weighted capitation formula for setting target allocations for prescribing expenditures for health authorities and primary care groups in England. Design Regression analysis relating prescribing costs to the demographic, morbidity, and mortality composition of practice lists. Setting 8500 general practices in England. Subjects Data from the 1991 census were attributed to practice lists on the basis of the place of residence of the practice population. Main outcome measures Variation in age, sex, and temporary resident originated prescribing units (ASTRO(97)-PUs) adjusted net ingredient cost of general practices in England for 1997-8 modelled for the impact of health and social needs after controlling for differences in supply. Results A needs gradient based on the four variables: permanent sickness, percentage of dependants in no carer households, percentage of students, and percentage of births on practice lists. These, together with supply characteristics, explained 41% of variation in prescribing costs per ASTRO(97)-PU adjusted capita across practices. The latter alone explained about 35% of variation in total costs per head across practices. Conclusions The model has good statistical specification and contains intuitively plausible needs drivers of prescribing expenditure. Together with adjustments made for differences in ASTRO(97)-PUs the model is capable of explaining 62% (35%+0.65% (41%)) of variation in prescribing expenditure at practice level. The results of the study have formed the basis for setting target budgets for 1999-2000 allocations for prescribing expenditure for health authorities and primary care groups. PMID:10650026

  16. Power-Quality Improvement in PFC Bridgeless SEPIC-Fed BLDC Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim; Bist, Vashist

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a design of a power factor correction (PFC)-based brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive. The speed control of BLDC motor is achieved by controlling the DC link voltage of the voltage source inverter (VSI) feeding BLDC motor using a single voltage sensor. A front-end bridgeless single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC) is used for DC link voltage control and PFC operation. A bridgeless SEPIC is designed to operate in discontinuous inductor current mode (DICM) thus utilizing a simple control scheme of voltage follower. An electronic commutation of BLDC motor is used for VSI to operate in a low-frequency operation for reduced switching losses in the VSI. Moreover, a bridgeless topology offers less conduction losses due to absence of diode bridge rectifier for further increasing the efficiency. The proposed BLDC motor drive is designed to operate over a wide range of speed control with an improved power-quality at the AC mains under the recommended international power-quality standards such as IEC 61000-3-2.

  17. Improved control using PFC and modified linear quadratic regulator for a kind of nonlinear systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ridong; Lu, Renquan; Wang, Shuqing

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes the combination design of predictive functional control (PFC) and optimal linear quadratic (LQ) method for a kind of nonlinear process with output feedback coupling. In many existing control methods for this kind of nonlinear systems, the nonlinear part is either ignored or represented as a rough linear one when corresponding predictive control methods are designed. However, by assuming that the nonlinearity can be ignored or simplified to a linear time-varying part may not lead to the good control performance of subsequent linear control designs. The paper is a further investigation on this kind of systems, in which a procedure of PFC plus a modified optimal LQ control is developed. With respect to the proposed control strategy and the corresponding processes, the closed-loop performance is improved concerning tracking ability and disturbance rejection compared with previous predictive control methods. In addition, the proposed control is easy to implement as it selects a simple structure and a modification of the classical control scheme.

  18. An isolated bridgeless AC-DC PFC converter using a LC resonant voltage doubler rectifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sin-woo; Do, Hyun-Lark

    2016-12-01

    This paper proposed an isolated bridgeless AC-DC power factor correction (PFC) converter using a LC resonant voltage doubler rectifier. The proposed converter is based on isolated conventional single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC) PFC converter. The conduction loss of rectification is reduced than a conventional one because the proposed converter is designed to eliminate a full-bridge rectifier at an input stage. Moreover, for zero-current switching (ZCS) operation and low voltage stresses of output diodes, the secondary of the proposed converter is designed as voltage doubler with a LC resonant tank. Additionally, an input-output electrical isolation is provided for safety standard. In conclusion, high power factor is achieved and efficiency is improved. The operational principles, steady-state analysis and design equations of the proposed converter are described in detail. Experimental results from a 60 W prototype at a constant switching frequency 100 kHz are presented to verify the performance of the proposed converter.

  19. Towards a new health care paradigm. Patient-focused care. The case of Kingston Hospital Trust.

    PubMed

    Newman, K

    1997-01-01

    Patient-focused care (PFC) and business process re-engineering (BPR) have been advocated in the academic literature as techniques to improve both quality of service and reduce costs. Seeks to separate and delineate the components of PFC and BPR and, using the case study method, describe the adoption and implementation process of PFC in medicine and maternity by one London NHS Trust Hospital. Reports the impact of this innovation on service delivery, staff reconfiguration and multi-skilling. Identifies preconditions and key success factors and indicates lessons for the future.

  20. Dopamine bioavailability in the mPFC modulates operant learning performance in rats: an experimental study with a computational interpretation.

    PubMed

    Rapanelli, Maximiliano; Frick, Luciana Romina; Miguelez Fernández, Anabel M M; Zanutto, B Silvano

    2015-03-01

    Dopamine encodes reward and its prediction in reinforcement learning. Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has been shown to influence cognitive abilities by modifying dopamine clearance. Nevertheless, it is unknown how COMT in the mPFC influences operant learning. Systemic entacapone (50mg/kg), as well as local entacapone (3 pg) and recombinant COMT (17 μg) in the mPFC were administered to male Long Evans rats prior to training in an operant conditioning task. We found that systemic and local administration of the COMT inhibitor entacapone significantly improves learning performance. Conversely, recombinant COMT administration totally impaired learning. These data have been interpreted through a computational model where the phasic firing of dopaminergic neurons was computed by means of a temporal difference algorithm and dopamine bioavailability in the mPFC was simulated with a gating window. The duration of this window was selected to simulate the effects of inhibited or enhanced COMT activity (by entacapone or recombinant COMT respectively). The model accounts for an improved performance reproducing the entacapone effects, and a detrimental impact on learning when the clearance is increased reproducing the recombinant COMT effects. The experimental and computational results show that learning performance can be deeply influenced by COMT manipulations in the mPFC.

  1. TRICARE: changes included in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010; enhancement of transitional dental care for members of the Reserve Component on active duty for more than 30 days in support of a contingency operation. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2011-12-28

    The Department is publishing this final rule to implement section 703 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010 (NDAA for FY10). Specifically, that legislation amends the transitional health care dental benefits for Reserve Component members on active duty for more than 30 days in support of a contingency operation. The legislation entitles these Reserve Component members to dental care in the same manner as a member of the uniformed services on active duty for more than 30 days, thus providing care to the Reserve member in both military dental treatment facilities and authorized private sector dental care. This final rule does not eliminate any medical or dental care that is currently covered as transitional health care for the member.

  2. Decision-making styles of seriously ill male Veterans for end-of-life care: Autonomists, Altruists, Authorizers, Absolute Trusters, and Avoiders.

    PubMed

    Braun, Ursula K; Beyth, Rebecca J; Ford, Marvella E; Espadas, Donna; McCullough, Laurence B

    2014-03-01

    To describe self-reported decision-making styles and associated pathways through end-of-life (EOL) decision-making for African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic seriously ill male Veterans, and to examine potential relationships of race/ethnicity on these styles. Forty-four African American, White, and Hispanic male Veterans with advanced serious illnesses participated in 8 racially/ethnically homogenous focus groups. Transcripts were qualitatively analyzed to identify major themes, with particular attention to themes that might be unique to each of the racial/ethnic groups. Patients described two main decision-making styles, deciding for oneself and letting others decide, leading to five variants that we labeled Autonomists, Altruists, Authorizers, Absolute Trusters, and Avoiders. These variants, with exception of avoiders (not found among White patients), were found across all racial/ethnic groups. The variants suggested different 'implementation strategies', i.e., how clear patients made decisions and whether or not they then effectively communicated them. These identified decision-making styles and variants generate strategies for clinicians to better address individualized advance care planning. Physicians should elicit seriously ill patients' decision-making styles and consider potential implementation strategies these styles may generate, thus tailoring individualized recommendations to assist patients in their advance care planning. Patient-centered EOL decision-making can ensure that patient preferences are upheld. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  3. Design of a digital holography system for PFC erosion measurements on Proto-MPEX

    SciTech Connect

    ThomasJr., C. E.; Biewer, Theodore M; Baylor, Larry R; Combs, Stephen Kirk; Meitner, Steven J; Rapp, Juergen; Hillis, Donald Lee; Granstedt, E. M.; Majeski, R.; Kaita, R.

    2016-01-01

    A project has been started at ORNL to develop a dual-wavelength digital holography system for plasma facing component (PFC) erosion measurements on Proto-MPEX. Such a system will allow in-situ real-time measurements of component erosion. Initially the system will be developed with one laser, and first experimental laboratory measurements will be made with the single laser system. In the second year of development a second CO2 laser will be added and measurements with the dual wavelength system will begin. Adding the second wavelength allows measurements at a much longer synthetic wavelength equal to the average of the two wavelengths times the average divided by the difference of the two wavelengths.

  4. Can tokamaks PFC survive a single event of any plasma instabilities?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassanein, A.; Sizyuk, V.; Miloshevsky, G.; Sizyuk, T.

    2013-07-01

    Plasma instability events such as disruptions, edge-localized modes (ELMs), runaway electrons (REs), and vertical displacement events (VDEs) are continued to be serious events and most limiting factors for successful tokamak reactor concept. The plasma-facing components (PFCs), e.g., wall, divertor, and limited surfaces of a tokamak as well as coolant structure materials are subjected to intense particle and heat loads and must maintain a clean and stable surface environment among them and the core/edge plasma. Typical ITER transient events parameters are used for assessing the damage from these four different instability events. HEIGHTS simulation showed that a single event of a disruption, giant ELM, VDE, or RE can cause significant surface erosion (melting and vaporization) damage to PFC, nearby components, and/or structural materials (VDE, RE) melting and possible burnout of coolant tubes that could result in shut down of reactor for extended repair time.

  5. Chronic LSD alters gene expression profiles in the mPFC relevant to schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Martin, David A.; Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Nichols, David E.; Nichols, Charles D.

    2014-01-01

    Chronic administration of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) every other day to rats results in a variety of abnormal behaviors. These build over the 90 day course of treatment and can persist at full strength for at least several months after cessation of treatment. The behaviors are consistent with those observed in animal models of schizophrenia and include hyperactivity, reduced sucrose-preference, and decreased social interaction. In order to elucidate molecular changes that underlie these aberrant behaviors, we chronically treated rats with LSD and performed RNA-Sequencing on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an area highly associated with both the actions of LSD and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses. We observed widespread changes in the neurogenetic state of treated animals four weeks after cessation of LSD treatment. QPCR was used to validate a subset of gene expression changes observed with RNA-Seq, and confirmed a significant correlation between the two methods. Functional clustering analysis indicates differentially expressed genes are enriched in pathways involving neurotransmission (Drd2, Gabrb1), synaptic plasticity (Nr2a, Krox20), energy metabolism (Atp5d, Ndufa1) and neuropeptide signaling (Npy, Bdnf), among others. Many processes identified as altered by chronic LSD are also implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and genes affected by LSD are enriched with putative schizophrenia genes. Our results provide a relatively comprehensive analysis of mPFC transcriptional regulation in response to chronic LSD, and indicate that the long-term effects of LSD may bear relevance to psychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia. PMID:24704148

  6. Chronic LSD alters gene expression profiles in the mPFC relevant to schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Martin, David A; Marona-Lewicka, Danuta; Nichols, David E; Nichols, Charles D

    2014-08-01

    Chronic administration of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) every other day to rats results in a variety of abnormal behaviors. These build over the 90 day course of treatment and can persist at full strength for at least several months after cessation of treatment. The behaviors are consistent with those observed in animal models of schizophrenia and include hyperactivity, reduced sucrose-preference, and decreased social interaction. In order to elucidate molecular changes that underlie these aberrant behaviors, we chronically treated rats with LSD and performed RNA-sequencing on the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), an area highly associated with both the actions of LSD and the pathophysiology of schizophrenia and other psychiatric illnesses. We observed widespread changes in the neurogenetic state of treated animals four weeks after cessation of LSD treatment. QPCR was used to validate a subset of gene expression changes observed with RNA-Seq, and confirmed a significant correlation between the two methods. Functional clustering analysis indicates differentially expressed genes are enriched in pathways involving neurotransmission (Drd2, Gabrb1), synaptic plasticity (Nr2a, Krox20), energy metabolism (Atp5d, Ndufa1) and neuropeptide signaling (Npy, Bdnf), among others. Many processes identified as altered by chronic LSD are also implicated in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, and genes affected by LSD are enriched with putative schizophrenia genes. Our results provide a relatively comprehensive analysis of mPFC transcriptional regulation in response to chronic LSD, and indicate that the long-term effects of LSD may bear relevance to psychiatric illnesses, including schizophrenia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Retrospective database analysis of the impact of prior authorization for type 2 diabetes medications on health care costs in a Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug Plan population.

    PubMed

    Bergeson, Joette Gdovin; Worley, Karen; Louder, Anthony; Ward, Melea; Graham, John

    2013-06-01

    Health plans and pharmacy benefit managers have implemented utilization management strategies for newer type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) medications to control pharmacy expenditures. Little is known about the impact of utilization management strategies on overall health care costs and subsequent use of T2DM medications among members who request, but do not receive, a T2DM medication requiring prior authorization (PA).  To examine the relationship between the receipt of a T2DM medication requiring PA, health care costs, and subsequent treatment for T2DM.  A retrospective cohort study using pharmacy, medical, and laboratory claims data was conducted among Medicare Advantage Prescription Drug plan members with a denied claim for a T2DM medication requiring PA (sitagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor [DPP-4i], and exenatide, an incretin mimetic) between January 1, 2008, and June 30, 2009. Subjects were required to have 12 months of continuous enrollment both before and after the index date. The entire study period was 24 months in duration, including a 12-month pre-index and 12-month post-index period. Three cohorts were identified: 1 that received a medication requiring PA (denied claim, subsequent fill) and 2 nonfilling control groups. Both control groups requested a medication requiring PA, as evidenced by the denied claim, but neither received the medication, either because the medication was not authorized or the member chose not to fill. Claims-based estimates were used to infer whether the individual likely met the criteria for PA, with 1 control group designated as having met the claims-based criteria (qualifying nonfilling cohort) and the other not having done so (nonqualifying nonfilling cohort.) The primary endpoint evaluated was the relationship between PA medication fill status and plan-paid costs (medical [including laboratory] and pharmacy) over the 12-month post-denial period, with generalized linear models adjusting for key covariates

  8. The Small GTPase Rac1 Contributes to Extinction of Aversive Memories of Drug Withdrawal by Facilitating GABAA Receptor Endocytosis in the vmPFC.

    PubMed

    Wang, Weisheng; Ju, Yun-Yue; Zhou, Qi-Xin; Tang, Jian-Xin; Li, Meng; Zhang, Lei; Kang, Shuo; Chen, Zhong-Guo; Wang, Yu-Jun; Ji, Hui; Ding, Yu-Qiang; Xu, Lin; Liu, Jing-Gen

    2017-07-26

    Extinction of aversive memories has been a major concern in neuropsychiatric disorders, such as anxiety disorders and drug addiction. However, the mechanisms underlying extinction of aversive memories are not fully understood. Here, we report that extinction of conditioned place aversion (CPA) to naloxone-precipitated opiate withdrawal in male rats activates Rho GTPase Rac1 in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in a BDNF-dependent manner, which determines GABAA receptor (GABAAR) endocytosis via triggering synaptic translocation of activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc) through facilitating actin polymerization. Active Rac1 is essential and sufficient for GABAAR endocytosis and CPA extinction. Knockdown of Rac1 expression within the vmPFC of rats using Rac1-shRNA suppressed GABAAR endocytosis and CPA extinction, whereas expression of a constitutively active form of Rac1 accelerated GABAAR endocytosis and CPA extinction. The crucial role of GABAAR endocytosis in the LTP induction and CPA extinction is evinced by the findings that blockade of GABAAR endocytosis by a dynamin function-blocking peptide (Myr-P4) abolishes LTP induction and CPA extinction. Thus, the present study provides first evidence that Rac1-dependent GABAAR endocytosis plays a crucial role in extinction of aversive memories and reveals the sequence of molecular events that contribute to learning experience modulation of synaptic GABAAR endocytosis.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This study reveals that Rac1-dependent GABAAR endocytosis plays a crucial role in extinction of aversive memories associated with drug withdrawal and identifies Arc as a downstream effector of Rac1 regulations of synaptic plasticity as well as learning and memory, thereby suggesting therapeutic targets to promote extinction of the unwanted memories. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/377096-15$15.00/0.

  9. Endoscopic treatment of large pancreatic fluid collections (PFC) using self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) – a two-center experience

    PubMed Central

    Chaves, Dalton Marques; Mönkemüller, Klaus; Carneiro, Fred; Medrado, Bruno; dos Santos, Marcos; Wodak, Stephanie; Reimão, Sílvia; Sakai, Paulo; de Moura, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Background/study aim: During the last several years, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided pancreatic fluid collections’ (PFC) drainage has evolved into the preferred drainage technique. Recently, self-expanding metallic stents (SEMS) have been used as an alternative to double pigtail stents, with the advantage of providing a larger diameter fistula, thereby decreasing the risk of early obstruction and also allowing for direct endoscopic exploration of the cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the technical and clinical success, safety, and outcome of patients undergoing EUS-guided drainage of complex PFC using SEMS. Patients/materials and methods: The study was conducted at two tertiary hospitals from January 2010 to January 2013. All patients with PFC referred for endoscopic drainage were enrolled in a prospective database. The inclusion criteria were: (1) patients with pseudocysts or walled-off necrosis based on the revised Atlanta classification; (2) symptomatic patients with thick PFC; (3) PFC that persisted more than 6 weeks; and (4) large PFC diameter (≥ 9 cm). The exclusion criteria consisted of coagulation disorders, PFC bleeding or infection, and failure-to-inform written consent. Results: A total of 16 patients (9 females, 7 males; mean age 52.6, range 20 – 82) underwent EUS drainage with SEMS. There were 14 cases of pseudocysts and 2 cases of walled-off necrosis. The etiologies of the PFC were mainly gallstones (8 of 16 patients, 50 %) and alcohol (5 of 16 patients, 31 %). Technical success was achieved in 100 % of the cases. All patients had a complete resolution of the PFC. Conclusion: Transmural EUS-guided drainage of complex PFC using SEMS is feasible, appears safe, and is efficacious. However, the exchange of the UC (uncovered)-SEMS for plastic stents is mandatory within 1 week. Future prospective studies, preferably multicenter studies, comparing SEMS versus traditional plastic stents for the drainage of PFC are

  10. A facile preparation method of a PFC-containing nano-sized emulsion for theranostics of solid tumors.

    PubMed

    Shiraishi, Kouichi; Endoh, Reiko; Furuhata, Hiroshi; Nishihara, Masamichi; Suzuki, Ryo; Maruyama, Kazuo; Oda, Yusuke; Jo, Jun-ichiro; Tabata, Yasuhiko; Yamamoto, Jun; Yokoyama, Masayuki

    2011-12-15

    Theranostics means a therapy conducted in a diagnosis-guided manner. For theranostics of solid tumors by means of ultrasound, we designed a nano-sized emulsion containing perfluoropentane (PFC5). This emulsion can be delivered into tumor tissues through the tumor vasculatures owing to its nano-size, and the emulsion is transformed into a micron-sized bubble upon sonication through phase transition of PFC5. The micron-sized bubbles can more efficiently absorb ultrasonic energy for better diagnostic images and can exhibit more efficient ultrasound-driven therapeutic effects than nano-sized bubbles. For more efficient tumor delivery, smaller size is preferable, yet the preparation of a smaller emulsion is technically more difficult. In this paper, we used a bath-type sonicator to successfully obtain small PFC5-containing emulsions in a diameter of ca. 200nm. Additionally, we prepared these small emulsions at 40°C, which is above the boiling temperature of PFC5. Accordingly, we succeeded in obtaining very small nano-emulsions for theranostics through a very facile method.

  11. A solar light driven dual photoelectrode photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) for simultaneous wastewater treatment and electricity generation.

    PubMed

    Bai, Jing; Wang, Rui; Li, Yunpo; Tang, Yuanyuan; Zeng, Qingyi; Xia, Ligang; Li, Xuejin; Li, Jinhua; Li, Caolong; Zhou, Baoxue

    2016-07-05

    In this paper, a novel dual heterojunction Photocatalytic Fuel Cell (PFC) system based on BiVO4/TiO2 nanotubes/FTO photoanode and ZnO/CuO nanowires/FTO photocathode has been designed. Compared with the electrodes in PFCs reported in earlier literatures, the proposed heterojunction not only enhances the visible light absorption but also offers a higher photoconversion efficiency. In addition, the nanostructured heterojunction owns a large surface area that ensures a large amount of active sites for organics degradation. The performance of the PFC base on the dual photoelectrodes was also studied herein. The results indicated that the PFC in ths paper exhibits a superior performance and its JV(max) reached 0.116 mw cm(-2), which is higher than that in most of reported PFCs with a Pt-free photocathode. When hazardous organic compounds such as methyl orange, Congo red and methylene blue were decomposed, the degradation rates obtained is to be 76%, 83%, and 90% respectively after 80 mins reaction. The proposed heterojunction photoelectrodes provided great potential for cost-effective and high-efficiency organic pollutants degradation and electricity generation in a PFC system. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. 14 CFR 158.18 - Use of PFC revenue to pay for debt service for non-eligible projects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of PFC revenue to pay for debt service for non-eligible projects. 158.18 Section 158.18 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION... that uses all available resources. (c) The FAA reviews the application using the procedures in § 158.27...

  13. 40 CFR Table F-1 to Subpart F of... - Slope and Overvoltage Coefficients for the Calculation of PFC Emissions From Aluminum Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... the Calculation of PFC Emissions From Aluminum Production F Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 98... GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum Production Pt. 98, Subpt. F, Table F-1 Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 98—Slope and Overvoltage Coefficients for the Calculation of PFC Emissions From Aluminum Production...

  14. 40 CFR Table F-1 to Subpart F of... - Slope and Overvoltage Coefficients for the Calculation of PFC Emissions From Aluminum Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the Calculation of PFC Emissions From Aluminum Production F Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 98... GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum Production Pt. 98, Subpt. F, Table F-1 Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 98—Slope and Overvoltage Coefficients for the Calculation of PFC Emissions From Aluminum Production...

  15. 40 CFR Table F-1 to Subpart F of... - Slope and Overvoltage Coefficients for the Calculation of PFC Emissions From Aluminum Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the Calculation of PFC Emissions From Aluminum Production F Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 98... GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum Production Pt. 98, Subpt. F, Table F-1 Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 98—Slope and Overvoltage Coefficients for the Calculation of PFC Emissions From Aluminum Production...

  16. 76 FR 79271 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Application 11-09-C-00-BWI, To Impose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-21

    ...-09-C-00-BWI, To Impose and Use PFC Revenue at Baltimore/ Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, Baltimore, MD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of intent to... impose and use PFC revenue at Baltimore/Washington International Thurgood Marshall Airport, under...

  17. Author Indexing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diodato, Virgil P.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses the effectiveness of using author-supplied indexing to increase subject control in information retrieval, and describes a study which compared author indexing for articles published in "American Mathematical Society" journals to indexing of the same articles by an editor of "Mathematical Reviews." Nine references are…

  18. DPA damage analysis for 14-MeV neutrons on PFC materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-woo; Lee, Bo-young; Ko, Seung-kook; Kim, Hee-soo; Noh, Seung-jung

    2015-06-01

    The dpa (displacement per atom) damage for 14-MeV neutron in a pfc materials was simulated using MCNPX/SPECTER code. The dpa values in the main components of the structural material SS316L, Fe, Cr and Ni, were calculated to analyze the effect of nuclear damage. According to the neutron wall load for ITER design base, a neutron flux of 3.5 × 1013 neutrons/cm2·sec was applied. The simulated dpa values were found to be as 3.0 dpa/fpy for Fe, 2.9 dpa/fpy for Cr and 3.1 dpa/fpy for Ni. For practical experiments, the simulated dpa values due to the irradiation damage of 17-MeV protons were found to be as 0.67 dpa at the peak and 0.05 at the surface for SS316L using by SRIM code at the same fluence. For the 17-MeV proton irradiation, the Bragg peak appears at a 0.64-mm depth. Also, SS316L specimens irradiated by a 17-MeV proton beam with a fluence of 1016 protons/cm2 were analyzed by using transmission electron microscopy.

  19. Previous Institutionalization Is Followed by Broader Amygdala–Hippocampal–PFC Network Connectivity during Aversive Learning in Human Development

    PubMed Central

    Lumian, Daniel S.; Gabard-Durnam, Laurel; Gee, Dylan G.; Goff, Bonnie; Fareri, Dominic S.; Caldera, Christina; Flannery, Jessica; Telzer, Eva H.; Humphreys, Kathryn L.

    2016-01-01

    Early institutional care can be profoundly stressful for the human infant, and, as such, can lead to significant alterations in brain development. In animal models, similar variants of early adversity have been shown to modify amygdala–hippocampal–prefrontal cortex development and associated aversive learning. The current study examined this rearing aberration in human development. Eighty-nine children and adolescents who were either previously institutionalized (PI youth; N = 46; 33 females and 13 males; age range, 7–16 years) or were raised by their biological parents from birth (N = 43; 22 females and 21 males; age range, 7–16 years) completed an aversive-learning paradigm while undergoing functional neuroimaging, wherein visual cues were paired with either an aversive sound (CS+) or no sound (CS−). For the PI youth, better aversive learning was associated with higher concurrent trait anxiety. Both groups showed robust learning and amygdala activation for CS+ versus CS− trials. However, PI youth also exhibited broader recruitment of several regions and increased hippocampal connectivity with prefrontal cortex. Stronger connectivity between the hippocampus and ventromedial PFC predicted significant improvements in future anxiety (measured 2 years later), and this was particularly true within the PI group. These results suggest that for humans as well as for other species, early adversity alters the neurobiology of aversive learning by engaging a broader prefrontal–subcortical circuit than same-aged peers. These differences are interpreted as ontogenetic adaptations and potential sources of resilience. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Prior institutionalization is a significant form of early adversity. While nonhuman animal research suggests that early adversity alters aversive learning and associated neurocircuitry, no prior work has examined this in humans. Here, we show that youth who experienced prior institutionalization, but not comparison youth, recruit

  20. Differential effects of infralimbic vs. ventromedial orbital PFC lidocaine infusions in CD-1 mice on defensive responding in the mouse defense test battery and rat exposure test.

    PubMed

    Wall, P M; Blanchard, R J; Yang, M; Blanchard, D C

    2004-09-10

    The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is extremely sensitive to a variety of stressful situations and threatening events, and has been suggested to be an associative cortical brain system processing the integration of anxiety-related cognitive, affective and motivated behavior in rodents, primates and humans. In addition, recent evidence suggests that (a) anxiety-related affective processing appears to be lateralized to the right hemisphere vmPFC; and (b) there appears to be functional heterogeneity within the rodent vmPFC. The present study evaluated the possibility that distinct sub-areas of the right hemisphere ventral PFC might differentially influence anxiety-like defensive responding in two different predator stress situations following transient inactivation of the ventromedial orbital (vMO) or infralimbic (IL) vmPFC in CD-1 mice. In week 1, IL vmPFC lidocaine infusions reduced anxiety-like defensive responding in mice (enhanced approach and contact) confronted with a hand-held anesthetized rat stimulus in the mouse defense test battery (vMO inactivation exerted minimal effects). In week 2, vMO lidocaine infusions enhanced anxiety-like defensive responding (enhanced avoidance and protected risk assessment) toward a barricaded live rat in the rat exposure test (IL inactivation exerted minimal effects). Although it is unclear whether week 1 mouse defense test battery testing influenced week 2 rat exposure test results, these preliminary data suggest functional differences within the mouse right hemisphere ventral PFC related to cautious evaluation of predator threat. Given the dense unilateral reciprocal connectivity between the IL and vMO subregions of the PFC, both associative ventromedial cortical areas may exert complimentary yet dissociable roles in the processing of threat stimuli. This suggests that while the IL vmPFC may mediate cautious evaluation of threat situations (risk assessment), the vMO PFC may inhibit prepotent avoidance responses to

  1. Authoring Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treviranus, Jutta

    Authoring tools that are accessible and that enable authors to produce accessible Web content play a critical role in web accessibility. Widespread use of authoring tools that comply to the W3C Authoring Tool Accessibility Guidelines (ATAG) would ensure that even authors who are neither knowledgeable about nor particularly motivated to produce accessible content do so by default. The principles and techniques of ATAG are discussed. Some examples of accessible authoring tools are described including authoring tool content management components such as TinyMCE. Considerations for creating an accessible collaborative environment are also covered. As part of providing accessible content, the debate between system-based personal optimization and one universally accessible site configuration is presented. The issues and potential solutions to address the accessibility crisis presented by the advent of rich internet applications are outlined. This challenge must be met to ensure that a large segment of the population is able to participate in the move toward the web as a two-way communication mechanism.

  2. Effects of the Integrated Behavioral Health Project's Efforts to Promote Integrated Care Under Funding from the California Mental Health Services Authority

    PubMed Central

    Cerully, Jennifer L.; Collins, Rebecca L.; Wong, Eunice C.; Seelam, Rachana; Roth, Elizabeth; Yu, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Describes the methods and results of a RAND evaluation of the Integrated Behavioral Health Project's efforts to promote the integration of mental and physical health care among various health care stakeholders in California. PMID:28083420

  3. Planning and Decision Making for Care Transitions

    PubMed Central

    Sörensen, Silvia; Mak, Wingyun; Pinquart, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The need to plan for future health care and residential adjustments increases with age, growing frailty, and restrictions in coverage of long-term care and will continue to grow with population aging. Older adults’ lack of financial preparation for health care costs, insufficient knowledge about available options, and inadequate communication about care-related values has become an increasing public health challenge. This chapter describes a model of Preparation for Future Care (PFC), which encompasses different levels and domains of planning. Research about the extent to which planning is helpful in navigating care transitions is reviewed, and barriers and facilitators of planning including individual, familial, cultural, and national long-term care policy factors are discussed. Planning in the context of dementia and practical approaches that can be taken to enhance PFC is addressed, as well as recommendations for future research in the area of planning and decision making in the context of care transitions. PMID:26207079

  4. Development of perfluorocarbon (PFC) primary standards for monitoring of emissions from aluminum production.

    PubMed

    Rhoderick, G; Chu, P; Dolin, E; Marks, J; Howard, T; Lytle, M; McKenzie, L; Altman, D

    2001-08-01

    An EPA Voluntary Aluminum Industrial Partnership (VAIP) program has been formed to help US primary producers focus on reducing the emissions of two perfluorocarbons (PFCs), tetrafluoromethane (CF4) and hexafluoroethane (C2F6), during the production of aluminum. To ensure comparability of measurements over space and time, traceability to national sources was desirable. Hence, the EPA approached the NIST to develop a suite of primary standards to cover a mole fraction (concentration) range of 0.1 to 1400 micromol mol(-1) for CF4 and 0.01 to 150 micromol mol(-1) of C2F6. A total of eight gravimetric PFC gas standards were prepared with relative expanded uncertainties of < or = 0.52% (approximately 95% confidence level). These primary standards were ultimately used to assign values to a series of secondary gas standards at three mole-fraction levels with relative expanded uncertainties ranging from +/- 0.7% to 5.3% (approximately 95% confidence level). This series of secondary standards was used within the aluminum industry to calibrate instruments used to make emission measurements. Assignment of values to the secondary standards was performed by use of gas chromatography with flame-ionization detection (GC-FID) and Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). Real time pot-line and stack samples from a local aluminum plant were also obtained and sub-samples sent to each participating facility for analysis. The data generated from each facility were sent to NIST for analysis. The maximum difference between the NIST and individual facilities' values for the same sub-sample was +/- 26%.

  5. Aggression and increased glutamate in the mPFC during withdrawal from intermittent alcohol in outbred mice

    PubMed Central

    Hwa, Lara S.; Nathanson, Anna J.; Shimamoto, Akiko; Tayeh, Jillian K.; Wilens, Allison R.; Holly, Elizabeth N.; Newman, Emily L.; DeBold, Joseph F.; Miczek, Klaus A.

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Disrupted social behavior, including occasional aggressive outbursts, is characteristic of withdrawal from long-term alcohol (EtOH) use. Heavy EtOH use and exaggerated responses during withdrawal may be treated using glutamatergic N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) antagonists. Objectives The current experiments explore aggression and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) glutamate as consequences of withdrawal from intermittent access to EtOH, and changes in aggression and mPFC glutamate caused by NMDAR antagonists memantine and ketamine. Methods Swiss male mice underwent withdrawal following 1-8 weeks of intermittent access to 20% EtOH. Aggressive and non-aggressive behaviors with a conspecific were measured 6-8 h into EtOH withdrawal after memantine or ketamine (0-30 mg/kg, i.p.) administration. In separate mice, extracellular mPFC glutamate after memantine was measured during withdrawal using in vivo microdialysis. Results At 6-8 h withdrawal from EtOH, mice exhibited more convulsions and aggression, and decreased social contact compared to age-matched water controls. Memantine, but not ketamine, increased withdrawal aggression at the 5 mg/kg dose in mice with a history of 8 weeks EtOH but not 1 or 4 weeks of EtOH or in water drinkers. Tonic mPFC glutamate was higher during withdrawal after 8 weeks EtOH compared to 1 week EtOH or 8 weeks water. Five mg/kg memantine increased glutamate in 8 week EtOH mice, but also in 1 week EtOH and water drinkers. Conclusions These studies reveal aggressive behavior as a novel symptom of EtOH withdrawal in outbred mice and confirm a role of NMDARs during withdrawal aggression and for disrupted social behavior. PMID:25899790

  6. Subregional differences in the generation of fast network oscillations in the rat medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Glykos, Vasileios; Whittington, Miles A; LeBeau, Fiona E N

    2015-01-01

    Fast network oscillations in the beta (20–30 Hz) and low gamma (30–80 Hz) range underlie higher cognitive functions associated with the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) including attention and working memory. Using a combination of kainate (KA, 200 nm) and the cholinergic agonist carbachol (Cb, 10 μm) fast network oscillations, in the beta frequency range, were evoked in the rat mPFC in vitro. Oscillations were elicited in the prelimbic (PrL), infralimbic (IL) and the dorsopeduncular (DP) cortex, with the largest oscillations observed in DP cortex. Oscillations in both the PrL and DP were dependent, with slightly different sensitivities, on γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A, α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) and kainate receptors, but only oscillations in the DP were significantly reduced by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor blockade. Intracellular recordings showed that 9/20 regular spiking (RS) cells in the PrL exhibited a notable cAMP-dependent hyperpolarisation activated current (Ih) in contrast to 16/17 in the DP cortex. Extracellular single unit recordings showed that the majority of cells in the PrL, and DP regions had interspike firing frequencies (IFFs) at beta (20–30 Hz) frequencies and fired at the peak negativity of the field oscillation. Recordings in DP revealed presumed inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) that were larger in amplitude and more rhythmic than those in the PrL region. Our data suggest that each PFC subregion may be capable of generating distinct patterns of network activity with different cell types involved. Variation in the properties of oscillations evoked in the PrL and DP probably reflects the distinct functional roles of these different PFC regions. PMID:26041504

  7. PLGA/PFC particles loaded with gold nanoparticles as dual contrast agents for photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan J.; Strohm, Eric M.; Sun, Yang; Niu, Chengcheng; Zheng, Yuanyi; Wang, Zhigang; Kolios, Michael C.

    2014-03-01

    Phase-change contrast agents consisting of a perfluorocarbon (PFC) liquid core stabilized by a lipid, protein, or polymer shell have been proposed for a variety of clinical applications. Previous work has demonstrated that vaporization can be induced by laser irradiation through optical absorbers incorporated inside the droplet. In this study, Poly-lactide-coglycolic acid (PLGA) particles loaded with PFC liquid and silica-coated gold nanoparticles (GNPs) were developed and characterized using photoacoustic (PA) methods. Microsized PLGA particles were loaded with PFC liquid and GNPs (14, 35, 55nm each with a 20nm silica shell) using a double emulsion method. The PA signal intensity and optical vaporization threshold were investigated using a 375 MHz transducer and a focused 532-nm laser (up to 450-nJ per pulse). The laser-induced vaporization threshold energy decreased with increasing GNP size. The vaporization threshold was 850, 690 and 420 mJ/cm2 for 5μm-sized PLGA particles loaded with 14, 35 and 55 nm GNPs, respectively. The PA signal intensity increased as the laser fluence increased prior to the vaporization event. This trend was observed for all particles sizes. PLGA particles were then incubated with MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells for 6 hours to investigate passive targeting, and the vaporization of the PLGA particles that were internalized within cells. The PLGA particles passively internalized by MDA cells were visualized via confocal fluorescence imaging. Upon PLGA particle vaporization, bubbles formed inside the cells resulting in cell destruction. This work demonstrates that GNPs-loaded PLGA/PFC particles have potential as PA theranostic agents in PA imaging and optically-triggered drug delivery systems.

  8. Two-Stage Soft-Switching High-Frequency Inverter with Simple PFC Function for Consumer IH Cooking Appliances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawaguchi, Yuki; Hiraki, Eiji; Tanaka, Toshihiko; Sadakata, Hideki; Fujita, Atsushi; Omori, Hideki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    In recent years, consumer induction-heating (IH) cooking appliances have grown increasingly popular because of their easy cleaning, high efficiency, safety, and controllability. IH food cooking system for consumer home use are indispensable to heat various metallic pans, such as aluminum, copper, stainless steel, and iron cast for further diffusing. Furthermore, these appliances have to satisfy the utility AC grid harmonics regulations of IEC61000-3-2. To meet these requirements, this paper proposes a two-stage soft-switching high-frequency inverter with simple PFC function that is suitable for consumer IH cooking appliances. The proposed system comprises a soft-switching chopper based boost PFC converter with passive snubber and phase-shifted PWM controlled ZVZCS high-frequency inverter. In order to satisfy the utility AC grid current harmonic regulations, a simple PFC control technique with discontinuous current mode is introduced. This technique as well as the fundamental operating performances of the proposed IH system is tested. The effectiveness of proposed IH system is substantially proved from a practical point of view on the basis of the experimental results.

  9. Isodirectional tuning of adjacent interneurons and pyramidal cells during working memory: evidence for microcolumnar organization in PFC.

    PubMed

    Rao, S G; Williams, G V; Goldman-Rakic, P S

    1999-04-01

    Studies on the cellular mechanisms of working memory demonstrated that neurons in dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dPFC) exhibit directionally tuned activity during an oculomotor delayed response. To determine the particular contributions of pyramidal cells and interneurons to spatial tuning in dPFC, we examined both individually and in pairs the tuning properties of regular-spiking (RS) and fast-spiking (FS) units that represent putative pyramidal cells and interneurons, respectively. Our main finding is that FS units possess spatially tuned sensory, motor, and delay activity (i. e., "memory fields") similar to those found in RS units. Furthermore, when recorded simultaneously at the same site, the majority of neighboring neurons, whether FS or RS, displayed isodirectional tuning, i.e., they shared very similar tuning angles for the sensory and delay phases of the task. As the trial entered the response phase of the task, many FS units shifted their direction of tuning and became cross-directional to adjacent RS units by the end of the trial. These results establish that a large part of inhibition in prefrontal cortex is spatially oriented rather than being untuned and simply regulating the threshold response of pyramidal cell output. Moreover, the isodirectional tuning between adjacent neurons supports a functional microcolumnar organization in dPFC for spatial memory fields similar to that found in other areas of cortex for sensory receptive fields.

  10. Adolescent social isolation affects schizophrenia-like behavior and astrocyte biomarkers in the PFC of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lan; Min, Li; Zhou, Hao; Li, Man; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2017-08-30

    Social isolation is regarded as a cause of schizophrenia spectrum disorders. Animal models of schizophrenia are constructed by repeated early environment deprivation as an important paradigm to reveal its pathological mechanism. Male Sprague Dawley rats were assigned to either social-rearing (SR) or isolated-rearing (IR) groups during postnatal days (PNDs) 21-34. On PND 56, all rats underwent behavioral testing including locomotor activity, anxiety-related behaviors in an open field and prepulse inhibition (PPI). Then, the rats were sacrificed and prefrontal cortex (PFC) tissues were separated for high-throughput proteomics analysis and Western blot validation. Rats of the IR group showed increased spontaneous locomotion, increased anxiety-like behavior and disrupted PPI compared with rats of the SR group. Based on proteomics analysis, a total of 124 PFC proteins were found to be significantly differentially expressed between the SR group and the IR group, the most remarkable of which were glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Annexin A2 (ANXA2) and vimentin (VIM), three astrocyte biomarkers. Further Western blot measurement confirmed that the levels of GFAP, ANXA2 and VIM were increased significantly in IR rats. Adolescent social isolation induced schizophrenia-like behaviors and significantly different expression of 124 PFC proteins in adult rats, especially GFAP, ANXA2 and VIM, which suggests that astrocyte development might be involved in the neural mechanism of schizophrenia. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Partial discharge and breakdown mechanisms in ultra-dilute SF6 and PFC gases mixed with N2 gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okubo, H.; Yamada, T.; Hatta, K.; Hayakawa, N.; Yuasa, S.; Okabe, S.

    2002-11-01

    Because of the high global warming potential of SF6 gas, research on alternative gases for electrical insulation with a lower environmental impact is essential. Gas mixtures composed of electronegative gases and N2 gas have the advantage of the reduction of the amount of SF6 gas and of utilizing the synergistic effect in electrical insulation performance. We investigated the partial discharge (PD) and breakdown (BD) characteristics of SF6/N2 and PFC (C3F8/N2 and C2F6/N2) gas mixtures under non-uniform electric field conditions, by changing the dilute content of electronegative gases. As a result, the synergistic effect in SF6/N2 gas mixtures was verified to be higher than that in PFC/N2 gas mixtures. The physical mechanism from PD inception to BD was discussed with consideration of the difference in electronegativity of SF6 and PFC gases. Furthermore, we found that PD inception and PD-to-BD mechanisms changed at a content of 10 ppm for SF6 due to the electron attachment activity of SF6 gas. The change in the PD and BD mechanisms in C3F8/N2 and C2F6/N2 gas mixtures appeared at 0.1% content for C3F8 and at 1% content for C2F6.

  12. Author's response.

    PubMed

    Crane, Judy L

    2015-01-01

    This letter to the editor rebuts flawed analyses made by O'Reilly (2014) and points out duplicative comments that have already been rebutted in the peer-reviewed literature. O'Reilly (2014) provides little new scientific information on the source apportionment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in sediments, and the author stands by the results of her research.

  13. Military Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton; Hayes, Bill

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores questions of military authority. The first article looks at the French Army mutinies in World War I and how the French Army dealt with them. The second article examines President Truman's firing of popular and powerful General Douglas MacArthur during the Korean War. The final article…

  14. Ex vivo dissection of optogenetically activated mPFC and hippocampal inputs to neurons in the basolateral amygdala: implications for fear and emotional memory

    PubMed Central

    Hübner, Cora; Bosch, Daniel; Gall, Andrea; Lüthi, Andreas; Ehrlich, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Many lines of evidence suggest that a reciprocally interconnected network comprising the amygdala, ventral hippocampus (vHC), and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) participates in different aspects of the acquisition and extinction of conditioned fear responses and fear behavior. This could at least in part be mediated by direct connections from mPFC or vHC to amygdala to control amygdala activity and output. However, currently the interactions between mPFC and vHC afferents and their specific targets in the amygdala are still poorly understood. Here, we use an ex-vivo optogenetic approach to dissect synaptic properties of inputs from mPFC and vHC to defined neuronal populations in the basal amygdala (BA), the area that we identify as a major target of these projections. We find that BA principal neurons (PNs) and local BA interneurons (INs) receive monosynaptic excitatory inputs from mPFC and vHC. In addition, both these inputs also recruit GABAergic feedforward inhibition in a substantial fraction of PNs, in some neurons this also comprises a slow GABAB-component. Amongst the innervated PNs we identify neurons that project back to subregions of the mPFC, indicating a loop between neurons in mPFC and BA, and a pathway from vHC to mPFC via BA. Interestingly, mPFC inputs also recruit feedforward inhibition in a fraction of INs, suggesting that these inputs can activate dis-inhibitory circuits in the BA. A general feature of both mPFC and vHC inputs to local INs is that excitatory inputs display faster rise and decay kinetics than in PNs, which would enable temporally precise signaling. However, mPFC and vHC inputs to both PNs and INs differ in their presynaptic release properties, in that vHC inputs are more depressing. In summary, our data describe novel wiring, and features of synaptic connections from mPFC and vHC to amygdala that could help to interpret functions of these interconnected brain areas at the network level. PMID:24634648

  15. Visiting Author

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Author of Rocket Boys Homer Hickam, Jr. (left) and Marshall Space Flight Center Director Art Stephenson during a conference at Morris Auditorium. Homer Hickam worked at MSFC during the Apollo project years. As a young man, Mr. Hickam always dreamed of becoming a rocket scientist and following in the footsteps fo Wernher von Braun. Years later he would see his dream realized and had written Rocket Boys commemorating his life and the people at MSFC.

  16. The Mutual Effect of Reciprocally Moving Geokhod and Geological Environment Studied by the Discrete Element Method in Software PFC3D 5.00

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timofeev, V. Yu.; Kust, T. S.; Dronov, A. A.; Beloglazov, I. I.; Ikonnikov, D. A.

    2016-08-01

    A numerical experiment procedure of geokhod traverse in the geological environment, based on software PFC3D 5.00 is presented in the paper; the interpretation of numerical experiment results is provided.

  17. Analysis of the twice-line-frequency light flicker of an LED lamp driven by a single-stage PFC circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi; Han, Gyung-Seok; Kim, Hee-Jun

    2014-07-01

    A large twice-line-frequency light flicker is a problem for a light-emitting-diode (LED) lamp driven by a single-stage power-factor-correction (PFC) circuit. This paper proposes a driving circuit for solving this problem. Furthermore, possible factors that influence the light flicker of a single-stage PFC driven LED lamp are analyzed. The theoretical analysis results are verified by using both simulations and experiments.

  18. Optimization and application of TiO₂/Ti-Pt photo fuel cell (PFC) to effectively generate electricity and degrade organic pollutants simultaneously.

    PubMed

    Li, Kan; Zhang, Hongbo; Tang, Tiantian; Xu, Yunlan; Ying, Diwen; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2014-10-01

    A TiO2/Ti-Pt photo fuel cell (PFC) was established to generate electricity and degrade organic pollutants simultaneously. The electricity generation was optimized through investigation the influences of photoanode calcination temperature and dissolve oxygen on the resistances existing in PFC. TiO2 light quantum yield was also improved in PFC which resulted in a higher PC degradation efficiency. Two kinds of real textile wastewaters were also employed in this PFC system, 62.4% and 50.0% Coulombic efficiency were obtained for 8 h treatment. These refractory wastewaters with high salinity may become good fuels in PFC because a) TiO2 has no selectivity and can degrade nearly any organic substance, b) no more electrolyte is needed due to the high salinity, c) the energy in wastes can be recovered to generate electricity. The electricity generated by the PFC was further applied on a TiO2/Ti rotating disk photoelectrocatalytic reactor. A bias voltage between 0.6 and 0.75 V could be applied and the PC degradation efficiency was significantly improved. This result was similar with that obtained by a 0.7 V DC power.

  19. Early-life exposure to noise reduces mPFC astrocyte numbers and T-maze alternation/discrimination task performance in adult male rats

    PubMed Central

    Ruvalcaba-Delgadillo, Yaveth; Luquín, Sonia; Ramos-Zúñiga, Rodrigo; Feria-Velasco, Alfredo; González-Castañeda, Rocío Elizabeth; Pérez-Vega, Maria Isabel; Jáuregui-Huerta, Fernando; García-Estrada, Joaquín

    2015-01-01

    In this experiment, we evaluated the long-term effects of noise by assessing both astrocyte changes in medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and mPFC-related alternation/discrimination tasks. Twenty-one-day-old male rats were exposed during a period of 15 days to a standardized rats’ audiogram-fitted adaptation of a human noisy environment. We measured serum corticosterone (CORT) levels at the end of the exposure and periodically registered body weight gain. In order to evaluate the long-term effects of this exposure, we assessed the rats’ performance on the T-maze apparatus 3 months later. Astrocyte numbers and proliferative changes in mPFC were also evaluated at this stage. We found that environmental noise (EN) exposure significantly increased serum CORT levels and negatively affected the body weight gain curve. Accordingly, enduring effects of noise were demonstrated on mPFC. The ability to solve alternation/discrimination tasks was reduced, as well as the number of astroglial cells. We also found reduced cytogenesis among the mPFC areas evaluated. Our results support the idea that early exposure to environmental stressors may have long-lasting consequences affecting complex cognitive processes. These results also suggest that glial changes may become an important element behind the cognitive and morphological alterations accompanying the PFC changes seen in some stress-related pathologies. PMID:26168952

  20. Intensified vmPFC surveillance over PTSS under perturbed microRNA-608/AChE interaction.

    PubMed

    Lin, T; Simchovitz, A; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, S; Vaisvaser, S; Admon, R; Hanin, G; Hanan, M; Kliper, E; Bar-Haim, Y; Shomron, N; Fernandez, G; Lubin, G; Fruchter, E; Hendler, T; Soreq, H

    2016-05-03

    Trauma causes variable risk of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) owing to yet-unknown genome-neuronal interactions. Here, we report co-intensified amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) emotional responses that may overcome PTSS in individuals with the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17228616 in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene. We have recently shown that in individuals with the minor rs17228616 allele, this SNP interrupts AChE suppression by microRNA (miRNA)-608, leading to cortical elevation of brain AChE and reduced cortisol and the miRNA-608 target GABAergic modulator CDC42, all stress-associated. To examine whether this SNP has effects on PTSS and threat-related brain circuits, we exposed 76 healthy Israel Defense Forces soldiers who experienced chronic military stress to a functional magnetic resonance imaging task of emotional and neutral visual stimuli. Minor allele individuals predictably reacted to emotional stimuli by hyperactivated amygdala, a hallmark of PTSS and a predisposing factor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite this, minor allele individuals showed no difference in PTSS levels. Mediation analyses indicated that the potentiated amygdala reactivity in minor allele soldiers promoted enhanced vmPFC recruitment that was associated with their limited PTSS. Furthermore, we found interrelated expression levels of several miRNA-608 targets including CD44, CDC42 and interleukin 6 in human amygdala samples (N=7). Our findings suggest that miRNA-608/AChE interaction is involved in the threat circuitry and PTSS and support a model where greater vmPFC regulatory activity compensates for amygdala hyperactivation in minor allele individuals to neutralize their PTSS susceptibility.

  1. Intensified vmPFC surveillance over PTSS under perturbed microRNA-608/AChE interaction

    PubMed Central

    Lin, T; Simchovitz, A; Shenhar-Tsarfaty, S; Vaisvaser, S; Admon, R; Hanin, G; Hanan, M; Kliper, E; Bar-Haim, Y; Shomron, N; Fernandez, G; Lubin, G; Fruchter, E; Hendler, T; Soreq, H

    2016-01-01

    Trauma causes variable risk of posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) owing to yet-unknown genome–neuronal interactions. Here, we report co-intensified amygdala and ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) emotional responses that may overcome PTSS in individuals with the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17228616 in the acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene. We have recently shown that in individuals with the minor rs17228616 allele, this SNP interrupts AChE suppression by microRNA (miRNA)-608, leading to cortical elevation of brain AChE and reduced cortisol and the miRNA-608 target GABAergic modulator CDC42, all stress-associated. To examine whether this SNP has effects on PTSS and threat-related brain circuits, we exposed 76 healthy Israel Defense Forces soldiers who experienced chronic military stress to a functional magnetic resonance imaging task of emotional and neutral visual stimuli. Minor allele individuals predictably reacted to emotional stimuli by hyperactivated amygdala, a hallmark of PTSS and a predisposing factor of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite this, minor allele individuals showed no difference in PTSS levels. Mediation analyses indicated that the potentiated amygdala reactivity in minor allele soldiers promoted enhanced vmPFC recruitment that was associated with their limited PTSS. Furthermore, we found interrelated expression levels of several miRNA-608 targets including CD44, CDC42 and interleukin 6 in human amygdala samples (N=7). Our findings suggest that miRNA-608/AChE interaction is involved in the threat circuitry and PTSS and support a model where greater vmPFC regulatory activity compensates for amygdala hyperactivation in minor allele individuals to neutralize their PTSS susceptibility. PMID:27138800

  2. Combustion Control System Design of Diesel Engine via ASPR based Output Feedback Control Strategy with a PFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizumoto, Ikuro; Tsunematsu, Junpei; Fujii, Seiya

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a design method of an output feedback control system with a simple feedforward input for a combustion model of diesel engine will be proposed based on the almost strictly positive real-ness (ASPR-ness) of the controlled system for a combustion control of diesel engines. A parallel feedforward compensator (PFC) design scheme which renders the resulting augmented controlled system ASPR will also be proposed in order to design a stable output feedback control system for the considered combustion model. The effectiveness of our proposed method will be confirmed through numerical simulations.

  3. The Author's Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greenslade, Thomas B.

    2011-01-01

    The referee's report is a standard rite of passage for an author of articles in The Physics Teacher. Will the referee (and the editor) agree with the basic premise and the details of your carefully thought-out article? I have faced this moment of truth many times; the majority of them were during the editorship of Cliff Swartz. These reminiscences are as much about the journal as Cliff, for, to many of us, the two seemed inseparable.

  4. The authority for certain clinical tasks performed by unlicensed patient care technicians and LPNs/LVNs in the hemodialysis setting: a review.

    PubMed

    O'Keefe, Cathleen

    2014-01-01

    The growing incidence of end stage renal disease (ESRD) has resulted in an ever-increasing demand for hemodialysis services throughout the country. Unlicensed assistive personnel (UAP), including dialysis technicians or patient care technicians (PCTs), and licensed practical nurses (LPNs) or licensed vocational nurses (LVNs) perform a vital role in the care of patients undergoing hemodialysis and are a critical staff component in hemodialysis facilities. This analysis provides a broad overview of the positions of states with respect to the administration of heparin and saline via peripheral and central lines by PCTs and LPNs/LVNs in the hemodialysis setting.

  5. Ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) as a target of the dorsolateral prefrontal modulation by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Nakamura-Palacios, Ester Miyuki; Lopes, Isabela Bittencourt Coutinho; Souza, Rodolpho Albuquerque; Klauss, Jaisa; Batista, Edson Kruger; Conti, Catarine Lima; Moscon, Janine Andrade; de Souza, Rodrigo Stênio Moll

    2016-10-01

    Here, we report some electrophysiologic and imaging effects of the transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) in drug addiction, notably in alcohol and crack-cocaine dependence. The low resolution electromagnetic tomography (LORETA) analysis obtained through event-related potentials (ERPs) under drug-related cues, more specifically in its P3 segment (300-500 ms) in both, alcoholics and crack-cocaine users, showed that the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) was the brain area with the largest change towards increasing activation under drug-related cues in those subjects that kept abstinence during and after the treatment with bilateral tDCS (2 mA, 35 cm(2), cathodal left and anodal right) over dlPFC, applied repetitively (five daily sessions). In an additional study in crack-cocaine, which showed craving decreases after repetitive bilateral tDCS, we examined data originating from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and we found increased DTI parameters in the left connection between vmPFC and nucleus accumbens (NAcc), such as the number of voxels, fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), in tDCS-treated crack-cocaine users when compared to the sham-tDCS group. This increasing of DTI parameters was significantly correlated with craving decreasing after the repetitive tDCS. The vmPFC relates to the control of drug seeking, possibly by extinguishing this behavior. In our studies, the bilateral dlPFC tDCS reduced relapses and craving to the drug use, and increased the vmPFC activation under drug cues, which may be of a great importance in the control of drug use in drug addiction.

  6. Voluntary exercise partially reverses neonatal alcohol-induced deficits in mPFC layer II/III dendritic morphology of male adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, G F; Criss, K J; Klintsova, A Y

    2015-08-01

    Developmental alcohol exposure in humans can produce a wide range of deficits collectively referred to as fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). FASD-related impairments in executive functioning later in life suggest long-term damage to the prefrontal cortex (PFC). In rodent neonates, moderate to high levels of alcohol exposure decreased frontal lobe brain size and altered medial PFC pyramidal neuron dendritic morphology. Previous research in our lab demonstrated that neonatal alcohol exposure decreased basilar dendritic complexity but did not affect spine density in Layer II/III pyramidal neurons in 26- to 30-day-old rats. The current study adds to the literature by evaluating the effect of neonatal alcohol exposure on mPFC Layer II/III basilar dendritic morphology in adolescent male rats. Additionally, it examines the potential for voluntary exercise to mitigate alcohol-induced deficits on mPFC dendritic complexity. An animal model of binge drinking during the third trimester of pregnancy was used. Rats were intubated with alcohol (alcohol-exposed, AE; 5.25 g kg(-1) day(-1)) on postnatal days (PD) 4-9; two control groups were included (suckle control and sham-intubated). Rats were anesthetized and perfused with heparinized saline solution on PD 42, and brains were processed for Golgi-Cox staining. Developmental alcohol exposure decreased spine density and dendritic complexity of basilar dendrites of Layer II/III neurons in the medial PFC (mPFC) compared to dendrites of control animals. Voluntary exercise increased spine density and dendritic length in AE animals resulting in elimination of the differences between AE and SH rats. Thus, voluntary exercise during early adolescence selectively rescued alcohol-induced morphological deficits in the mPFC.

  7. Effects of Duloxetine Treatment on Cognitive Flexibility and BDNF Expression in the mPFC of Adult Male Mice Exposed to Social Stress during Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hang; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Fan; Yuan, San-Na; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Early stress is a significant risk factor for the onset of mood disorders such as depression during adulthood. Impairments in cognitive flexibility mediated by prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction are increasingly recognized as important etiological and pathological factors in the development of depression. Our previous study demonstrated that social defeat stress during early adolescence produced delayed deficits in cognitive flexibility in adult mice. The potential molecular mechanisms underlying these long-term consequences remain unclear. One candidate molecule is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which plays a vital role in neural development and synaptic plasticity. In this study, we initially examined the effects of adolescent social stress on cognitive flexibility and PFC BDNF expression within a week after the last stress exposure and 6 weeks later during adulthood. Adolescent (PND 28) male mice were subjected to stress or control manipulation for 10 days. The attentional set-shifting task (AST) was used to assess cognitive flexibility. Levels of BDNF mRNA and protein in the PFC were examined after behavioral testing. The results demonstrated that previously stressed mice exhibited delayed extra-dimensional set-shifting deficits in AST when tested as adults but not when tested as adolescents. Consistent with the cognitive alterations, adolescent stress induced dynamic alterations in BDNF expression in the medial PFC (mPFC), with a transient increase observed shortly after the stress, followed by a decrease 6 weeks later during adulthood. Next, we further determined the effects of chronic treatment with the antidepressant duloxetine during early adulthood on cognitive and molecular alterations induced by adolescent stress. Compared with the controls, duloxetine treatment reversed the cognitive deficits and increased the BDNF protein expression in the mPFC during adulthood in previously stressed mice. These findings demonstrated that BDNF expression

  8. Effects of Duloxetine Treatment on Cognitive Flexibility and BDNF Expression in the mPFC of Adult Male Mice Exposed to Social Stress during Adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Hang; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Fan; Yuan, San-na; Shao, Feng; Wang, Weiwen

    2016-01-01

    Early stress is a significant risk factor for the onset of mood disorders such as depression during adulthood. Impairments in cognitive flexibility mediated by prefrontal cortex (PFC) dysfunction are increasingly recognized as important etiological and pathological factors in the development of depression. Our previous study demonstrated that social defeat stress during early adolescence produced delayed deficits in cognitive flexibility in adult mice. The potential molecular mechanisms underlying these long-term consequences remain unclear. One candidate molecule is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which plays a vital role in neural development and synaptic plasticity. In this study, we initially examined the effects of adolescent social stress on cognitive flexibility and PFC BDNF expression within a week after the last stress exposure and 6 weeks later during adulthood. Adolescent (PND 28) male mice were subjected to stress or control manipulation for 10 days. The attentional set-shifting task (AST) was used to assess cognitive flexibility. Levels of BDNF mRNA and protein in the PFC were examined after behavioral testing. The results demonstrated that previously stressed mice exhibited delayed extra-dimensional set-shifting deficits in AST when tested as adults but not when tested as adolescents. Consistent with the cognitive alterations, adolescent stress induced dynamic alterations in BDNF expression in the medial PFC (mPFC), with a transient increase observed shortly after the stress, followed by a decrease 6 weeks later during adulthood. Next, we further determined the effects of chronic treatment with the antidepressant duloxetine during early adulthood on cognitive and molecular alterations induced by adolescent stress. Compared with the controls, duloxetine treatment reversed the cognitive deficits and increased the BDNF protein expression in the mPFC during adulthood in previously stressed mice. These findings demonstrated that BDNF expression

  9. Amygdala and dlPFC abnormalities, with aberrant connectivity and habituation in response to emotional stimuli in females with BPD.

    PubMed

    Dudas, Robert B; Mole, Tom B; Morris, Laurel S; Denman, Chess; Hill, Emma; Szalma, Bence; Evans, Davy; Dunn, Barnaby; Fletcher, Paul; Voon, Valerie

    2017-01-15

    Little is known about the frontolimbic abnormalities thought to underlie borderline personality disorder (BPD). We endeavoured to study regional responses, as well as their connectivity and habituation during emotion processing. 14 BPD patients and 14 normal female controls (NC) controlled for menstrual phase underwent emotion-induction during an fMRI task using standardised images in a block design. We then performed psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis to investigate functional connectivity. BPD patients reported more disgust in questionnaires compared to controls. Relative to NC, they showed reduced left amygdala and increased dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) activation to all emotions collapsed versus neutral. Habituation of ventral striatal activity to repeated emotional stimuli was observed in controls but not in BPD. Finally, in the context of disgust (but not other emotions) versus neutral, BPD patients displayed enhanced left amygdala coupling with the dlPFC and ventral striatum. Strict inclusion criteria reduced the sample size. In summary, BPD showed abnormal patterns of activation, habituation and connectivity in regions linked to emotion regulation. Amygdala deactivation may be mediated by abnormal top-down regulatory control from the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Aberrant emotion processing may play a unique role in the pathophysiology of BPD. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  10. A PFC2D model of the interactions between the tire and the aggregate filled arrester bed on escape ramp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Pin-pin; Chen, Chui-ce; Pei, Shi-kang; Li, Xin

    2017-06-01

    The stopping distance of a runaway vehicle is determined by the entry speed, the design of aggregate-filled arrester bed and the longitudinal grade of escape ramp. Although numerous previous studies have been carried out on the influence of speed and grade on stopping distance, taking into account aggregate properties is rare. Firstly, this paper analyzes the interactions between the tire and the aggregate. The tire and the aggregate are abstracted into a big particle unit and a particle combination unit consisting of lots of aggregates, respectively. Secondly this paper proposes an assumption that this interaction is a kind of particle flow. Later, this paper uses some particle properties to describe the tire-particle unit and aggregate-particle unit respectively, then puts forward several simplified steps of modeling by particle flow code in 2 dimensions (PFC2D). Therefore, a PFC2D micro-simulation model of the interactions between the tire and the aggregate is proposed. The parameters of particle properties are then calibrated by three groups of numerical tests. The calibrated model is verified by eight full-scale arrester bed testing data to demonstrate its feasibility and accuracy. This model provides escape ramp designers a feasible simulation method not only for predicting the stopping distance but also considering the aggregate properties.

  11. Valence-specific conflict moderation in the dorso-medial PFC and the caudate head in emotional speech

    PubMed Central

    Dengler, Reinhard; Wittfoth, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Emotional speech comprises of complex multimodal verbal and non-verbal information that allows deducting others’ emotional states or thoughts in social interactions. While the neural correlates of verbal and non-verbal aspects and their interaction in emotional speech have been identified, there is very little evidence on how we perceive and resolve incongruity in emotional speech, and whether such incongruity extends to current concepts of task-specific prediction errors as a consequence of unexpected action outcomes (‘negative surprise’). Here, we explored this possibility while participants listened to congruent and incongruent angry, happy or neutral utterances and categorized the expressed emotions by their verbal (semantic) content. Results reveal valence-specific incongruity effects: negative verbal content expressed in a happy tone of voice increased activation in the dorso-medial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) extending its role from conflict moderation to appraisal of valence-specific conflict in emotional speech. Conversely, the caudate head bilaterally responded selectively to positive verbal content expressed in an angry tone of voice broadening previous accounts of the caudate head in linguistic control to moderating valence-specific control in emotional speech. Together, these results suggest that control structures of the human brain (dmPFC and subcompartments of the basal ganglia) impact emotional speech differentially when conflict arises. PMID:24526187

  12. A PFC3D-based numerical simulation of cutting load for lunar rock simulant and experimental validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Peng; Jiang, Shengyuan; Tang, Dewei; Xu, Bo

    2017-05-01

    For sake of striking a balance between the need of drilling efficiency and the constrains of power budget on the moon, the penetrations per revolution of drill bit are generally limited in the range around 0.1 mm, and besides the geometric angle of the cutting blade need to be well designed. This paper introduces a simulation approach based on PFC3D (particle flow code 3 dimensions) for analyzing the cutting load feature on lunar rock simulant, which is derived from different geometric-angle blades with a small cutting depth. The mean values of the cutting force of five blades in the survey region (four on the boundary points and one on the center point) are selected as the macroscopic responses of model. The method of experimental design which includes Plackett-Burman (PB) design and central composite design (CCD) method is adopted in the matching procedure of microparameters in PFC model. Using the optimization method of enumeration, the optimum set of microparameters is acquired. Then, the experimental validation is implemented by using other twenty-five blades with different geometric angles, and the results from both simulations and laboratory tests give fair agreements. Additionally, the rock breaking process cut by different blades are quantified from simulation analysis. This research provides the theoretical support for the refinement of the rock cutting load prediction and the geometric design of cutting blade on the drill bit.

  13. 76 FR 28121 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-13

    .../21 06-07-C-02-GJT Grand Junction, CO 04/18/11 8,330,000 15,857,760 08/01/23 01/01/24 01-04-C-01-CIC... Transportation Authority, Egg Harbor Township, New Jersey. Application Number: 11-07-C-00-ACY. Application Type...-2835. Public Agency: Lafayette Airport Commission, Lafayette, Louisiana. Application Number:...

  14. 78 FR 57213 - Notice of Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Approvals and Disapprovals

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-17

    ... construction. Electrical vault. Taxiway H construction. Storm water update. Gulfstream Road/tunnel design..., (601) 664-9893. Public Agency: Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority, Buffalo, New York... Description of Projects Approved for Collection and Use at Buffalo Niagara International Airport (BUF) at a...

  15. Assessment and management of the first German case of a contamination with perfluorinated compounds (PFC) in the Region Sauerland, North Rhine-Westphalia.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Michael; Kraft, Martin; Rauchfuss, Knut; Hölzer, Jürgen

    2008-01-01

    In May 2006 the first serious German perfluorinated compounds (PFC) case of contamination became evident. Industrial waste with high concentrations of PFC was manufactured into a soil improver by a recycling company and spread by farmers on agricultural land of the rural area Sauerland, and led to substantial environmental pollution. In parts of the affected area, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) concentrations in drinking water were > 0.5 microg/L. The German Drinking Water Commission assessed PFC in drinking water and set a health-based guidance value for safe lifelong exposure of all population groups at 0.3 microg/L (sum of perfluorooctane sulfonate [PFOS] and PFOA). The Ministry of Environment together with regional institutions initiated monitoring measurements and actions to minimize further contamination. A human biomonitoring study with mother-child pairs and men revealed that increased PFOA exposure via drinking water led to about four- to eightfold higher PFOA levels in plasma compared to nonexposed groups. Analysis of PFC in breast milk showed comparatively low levels, which seemed not to pose a risk for lactating infants. Due to high levels of PFOS in fish from contaminated lakes and rivers, recommendations for anglers to reduce fish consumption were initiated. Remediation of the affected area is ongoing and PFC levels in various matrices are still above background levels.

  16. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Left Primary Motor Cortex (mPFC-lPMC) Affects Subjective Beauty but Not Ugliness

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics has been searching for the neural bases of the subjective experience of beauty. It has been demonstrated that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the left primary motor cortex (lPMC) correlate with the subjective experience of beauty. Although beauty and ugliness seem to be semantically and conceptually opposite, it is still unknown whether these two evaluations represent extreme opposites in unitary or bivariate dimensions. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to examine whether non-invasive brain stimulation modulates two types of esthetic evaluation; evaluating beauty and ugliness. Participants rated the subjective beauty and ugliness of abstract paintings before and after the application of tDCS. Application of cathodal tDCS over the mPFC with anode electrode over the lPMC, which induced temporal inhibition of neural excitability of the mPFC, led to a decrease in beauty ratings but not ugliness ratings. There were no changes in ratings of both beauty and ugliness when applying anodal tDCS or sham stimulation over the mPFC. Results from our experiment indicate that the mPFC and the lPMC have a causal role in generating the subjective experience of beauty, with beauty and ugliness evaluations constituting two distinct dimensions. PMID:26696865

  17. Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation over the Medial Prefrontal Cortex and Left Primary Motor Cortex (mPFC-lPMC) Affects Subjective Beauty but Not Ugliness.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Koyo; Kawabata, Hideaki

    2015-01-01

    Neuroaesthetics has been searching for the neural bases of the subjective experience of beauty. It has been demonstrated that neural activities in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the left primary motor cortex (lPMC) correlate with the subjective experience of beauty. Although beauty and ugliness seem to be semantically and conceptually opposite, it is still unknown whether these two evaluations represent extreme opposites in unitary or bivariate dimensions. In this study, we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to examine whether non-invasive brain stimulation modulates two types of esthetic evaluation; evaluating beauty and ugliness. Participants rated the subjective beauty and ugliness of abstract paintings before and after the application of tDCS. Application of cathodal tDCS over the mPFC with anode electrode over the lPMC, which induced temporal inhibition of neural excitability of the mPFC, led to a decrease in beauty ratings but not ugliness ratings. There were no changes in ratings of both beauty and ugliness when applying anodal tDCS or sham stimulation over the mPFC. Results from our experiment indicate that the mPFC and the lPMC have a causal role in generating the subjective experience of beauty, with beauty and ugliness evaluations constituting two distinct dimensions.

  18. 78 FR 9393 - Delegation of Authorities

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-08

    ... Administrator, Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), with authority to re- delegate, the authority... sharing of data with representatives of health plans pertaining to the Health Care Fraud and Abuse Control...

  19. ["Abnormal reaction" or cultural misunderstandings? A contribution to the improvement of medical care to children of migrant labourers in the FRG (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Zimmermann, E; Riedesser, P; Schindera, F

    1982-01-01

    The overproportional rate of medical treatment of foreign children in the private practice of paediatricians and in the paediatric hospitals imposes very often special difficulties on our medical care system. These difficulties do not only result from the language barrier but also from the vast difference between the illness concepts of our medical system which bases in natural science, and the traditional concepts of the prescientific medical layman system of the foreign patients. Because of the doctors ignorance in these different cultural forms of understanding, feeling and expression of illness, as well as in the specific attitudes to the body, shown by members--specially women and girls--of the South European an Asia Minor societies, it leads often to deep misunderstandings in the doctor-patient-relation and therefore to false diagnosis and wrong treatment. This should be demonstrated in one case.

  20. Higher Rate of Revision in PFC Sigma Primary Total Knee Arthroplasty With Mismatch of Femoro-Tibial Component Sizes.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Clarke, Henry D; Graves, Stephen E; Liu, Yen-Liang; de Steiger, Richard N

    2015-05-01

    Total knee arthroplasty (TKA) systems permit a degree of femoro-tibial component size mismatch. The effect of mismatched components on revision rates has not been evaluated in a large study. We reviewed 21,906 fixed-bearing PFC Sigma primary TKAs using the Australian Orthopaedic Association National Joint Replacement Registry, dividing patients into three groups: no femoro-tibial size mismatch, tibial component size > femoral component size, and femoral component > tibial component. Revision rates were higher when the femoral size was greater than the tibia, compared to both equal size (HR = 1.20 (1.00, 1.45), P = 0.047) and to tibial size greater than femoral (HR = 1.60 (1.08, 2.37), P = 0.019). Potential mechanisms to explain these findings include edge loading of polyethylene and increased tibial component stresses.

  1. A PFC power supply with minimized energy storage components and a new control technique for cascaded SMPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frost, Damien F.

    2009-12-01

    This Master of Applied Science thesis proposes a new design of low power, power factor corrected (PFC), power supplies. By lifting the hold up time restriction for devices that have a battery built in, the energy storage elements of the converter can be reduced, permitting a small and inexpensive power converter to be built. In addition, a new control technique for controlling cascaded converters is presented, named duty mode control (DMC). Its advantages are shown through simulations. The system was proven using a prototype developed in the laboratory designed for a universal ac input voltage (85 - 265 VRMS at 50 - 60Hz) and a 40W output at 12V . It consisted of two interleaved phases sensed and digitally controlled on the isolated side of the converter. The prototype was able to achieve a power factor of greater than 0.98 for all operating conditions, and input harmonic current distortion well below any set of standards.

  2. Identifying Inconsistencies and Reporting Deficits in Therapeutic Massage and Bodywork (TMB) Case Reports Authored by TMB Practitioners: a TMB-Adapted CAse REport (CARE) Guidelines Audit Through 2014†

    PubMed Central

    Munk, Niki; Shue, Sarah; Freeland, Emilee; Ralston, Rick; Boulanger, Karen T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Case reports are a fundamental tool through which therapeutic massage and bodywork (TMB) practitioners can inform research and impact their field by detailing the presentation, treatment, and follow-up of a single individual encountered in practice. Inconsistencies in case reporting limit their impact as fundamental sources of clinical evidence. Using the TMB-adapted CAse REport (CARE) guidelines, the current study sought to provide a rich description regarding the reporting quality of TMB practitioner authored TMB case reports in the literature. Methods 1) Systematic identification of published, peer-reviewed TMB case reports authored by TMB practitioners following PRISMA recommendations; 2) audit development based on TMB-adapted CARE guidelines; 3) audit implementation; and 4) descriptive analysis of audit scores. Results Our search identified 977 articles and 35 met study inclusion criteria. On average, TMB case reports included approximately 58% of the total items identified as necessary by the TMB-adapted CARE guidelines. Introduction sections of case reports had the best item reporting (80% on average), while Case Presentation (54%) and Results (52%) sections scored moderately overall, with only 20% of necessary Practitioner Description items included on average. Audit scores revealed inconsistent abstract reporting and few audited case reports including client race (20%), perspective (26%), and occupation/activities (40%); practitioner practice setting (12%), training (12%), scope-of-practice (29%), and credentialing (20%); adverse events or lack thereof (17%); and some aspect of informed consent (34%). Treatment descriptor item reporting varied from high to low. Various implications of concern are discussed. Conclusion The current audit and descriptive analysis highlight several reporting inconsistencies in TMB case reports prior to 2015. Reporting guidelines for case reports are important if standards for, and impact of, TMB case reports are

  3. Department of Defense Congressional Action on FY 1982 Authorization Request.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-01-07

    4,500) 13,460) 060 DEPOT HYDRAULICS FAC 112,4001 (12.0001 (12,400) (12.4001 005 NORTON AFB CA 0,567 -11.000 20,567 0GG MX HEADQUARTERS (11.000...PROGRAM ELEMENT. RiOJECT. TASK Office of the Asst. Sec. of Defense (Comptroller) AREAA WORK UNT NUEtRS OASD(C) P/ B P&FC, Rm 3B872, Pentagon...Action Department of Defense Budget Authorization AYR"AC? (Mt . an HIer b N nud~ 1410011t 9V SWeek ..nw.) -IThe DoD Congressional Action

  4. Transiently increased glutamate cycling in rat PFC is associated with rapid onset of antidepressant-like effects

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Golam M. I.; Zhang, Jie; Thomas, Monique; Banasr, Mounira; Ma, Xiaoxian; Pittman, Brian; Bristow, Linda; Schaeffer, Eric; Duman, Ronald; Rothman, Douglas; Behar, Kevin; Sanacora, Gerard

    2017-01-01

    Several drugs have recently been reported to induce rapid antidepressant effects in clinical trials and rodent models. Although the cellular mechanisms involved remain unclear, reports suggest that increased glutamate transmission contributes to these effects. Here, we demonstrate that the antidepressant-like efficacy of three unique drugs, with reported rapid onset antidepressant properties, is coupled with a rapid transient rise in glutamate cycling in medial prefronal cortex (mPFC) of awake rats as measured by ex vivo 1H-[13C]-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Rats were acutely pre-treated by intraperitoneal injection with a single dose of ketamine (1,3,10,30,80mg/kg), Ro 25-6981 (1,3,10mg/kg), scopolamine (5,25,100μg/kg) or vehicle (controls). At fixed times after drug injection animals received an intravenous infusion of [1,6-13C2]glucose for 8 min to enrich brain amino acid pools with 13C, followed by rapid euthanasia. The mPFC was dissected, extracted with ethanol and metabolite 13C enrichments measured. We found a clear dose dependent effect of ketamine and Ro 25-6981 on behavior and the percent of 13C-enrichment of glutamate, glutamine and GABA. Further, we also found an effect of scopolamine on both cycling and behavior. These studies demonstrate that three pharmacologically distinct classes of drugs, clinically related through their reported rapid antidepressant actions, share the common ability to rapidly stimulate glutamate cycling at doses pertinent for their antidepressant-like efficacy. We conclude that increased cycling precedes the antidepressant action at behaviorally effective doses and suggests the rapid change in cycling could be used to predict efficacy of novel agents or identify doses with antidepressant activity. PMID:27067013

  5. Balancing authority, deference and trust across the public–private divide in health care: Tuberculosis health visitors in western Maharashtra, India

    PubMed Central

    Kielmann, Karina; Datye, Vinita; Pradhan, Anagha; Rangan, Sheela

    2014-01-01

    While concepts such as ‘partnership’ are central to the terminology of private–public mix (PPM), little attention has been paid to how social relations are negotiated among the diverse actors responsible for implementing these inter-sectoral arrangements. India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) has used intermediary agents to facilitate the involvement of private providers in the expansion of Directly Observed Therapy, Short-Course (DOTS). We examine the roles of tuberculosis health visitors (TB HVs) in mediating working relationships among private providers, programme staff and patients that underpin a PPM-DOTS launched by the RNTCP in western Maharashtra. In addition to observations and informal interactions with the programme and participating health providers, researchers conducted in-depth interviews with senior programme officers and eight TB HVs. Framed by a political discourse of clinical governance, working relationships within the PPM are structured by the pluralistic context, social and professional hierarchies and paternalism of health care in India. TB HVs are at the nexus of these relationships, yet remain undervalued partly because accountability is measured through technical rather than social outcomes of the ‘partnership’. Close attention to the dynamics of power relations in working practices within the health system can improve accountability and sustainability of partnerships. PMID:25147003

  6. Balancing authority, deference and trust across the public-private divide in health care: tuberculosis health visitors in western Maharashtra, India.

    PubMed

    Kielmann, Karina; Datye, Vinita; Pradhan, Anagha; Rangan, Sheela

    2014-01-01

    While concepts such as 'partnership' are central to the terminology of private-public mix (PPM), little attention has been paid to how social relations are negotiated among the diverse actors responsible for implementing these inter-sectoral arrangements. India's Revised National Tuberculosis Control Programme (RNTCP) has used intermediary agents to facilitate the involvement of private providers in the expansion of Directly Observed Therapy, Short-Course (DOTS). We examine the roles of tuberculosis health visitors (TB HVs) in mediating working relationships among private providers, programme staff and patients that underpin a PPM-DOTS launched by the RNTCP in western Maharashtra. In addition to observations and informal interactions with the programme and participating health providers, researchers conducted in-depth interviews with senior programme officers and eight TB HVs. Framed by a political discourse of clinical governance, working relationships within the PPM are structured by the pluralistic context, social and professional hierarchies and paternalism of health care in India. TB HVs are at the nexus of these relationships, yet remain undervalued partly because accountability is measured through technical rather than social outcomes of the 'partnership'. Close attention to the dynamics of power relations in working practices within the health system can improve accountability and sustainability of partnerships.

  7. Communication with the public in the health-care system: a descriptive study of the use of social media in local health authorities and public hospitals in Italy.

    PubMed

    Vanzetta, Marina; Vellone, Ercole; Dal Molin, Alberto; Rocco, Gennaro; De Marinis, Maria Grazia; Rosaria, Alvaro

    2014-01-01

    In 2010 the Italian Ministry of Health set out recommendations for the use of social technology and Web 2.0, inviting organisations within the Italian national health service (Servizio Sanitario Nazionale, SSN) to equip themselves with instruments. 1. to ascertain how many local health authorities (Aziende Sanitarie Locali, ASL) and public hospitals have a presence on the most widely used social media websites in Italy: Facebook, Twitter and YouTube; 2. to find out how well the Facebook, Twitter and YouTube pages of ASLs and public hospitals are known among the general population; 3. to find out how ASLs and public hospitals engage with the general public on social media sites. The websites of all ASLs and public hospitals across the country were visited to look for the icons of the social media sites under examination. The data considered were publicly available upon access. A total of 245 websites were analysed. 7.34% ASLs and hospitals had social media accounts. 8 organisations had an account on all three of the social media sites considered in the study. The results show a low presence of ASLs and hospitals on social media. Other studies are needed in this field.

  8. [Team building in health care by means of outdoor training. Evaluation of the experience of a Local Health Authority of Pinerolo].

    PubMed

    Cominetti, Laura; Dimonte, Valerio

    2011-01-01

    It is always difficult to measure the quality and efficacy of a formative event. The event assessed in this study was an outdoor course and the aspects considered were the degree of satisfaction, the increase of knowledge, modifications in behavior and working actions and organized change (4 levels according to Kirkpatrick). Data were collected by means of a questionnaire which the 28 course participants were asked to fill in. Some aspects were statistically tested to evaluate eventual associations between the role of the participant and the answer given but these were not found to be significant. Results showed a good levels of satisfaction and knowledge increase which, in terms of working procedures and individual behavior, resulted in better team-building and mutual appreciation, whereas organizational changes were rather limited and sometimes reflected disappointment. The study made the Health Authority aware of the value of human resources and of the fact that a formative event which acts on feelings and behavior may be the key to success in bringing about deep and lasting changes.

  9. Cardiac rehabilitation with a nurse case manager (GoHeart) across local and regional health authorities improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial outcomes. A one-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Vibeke Brogaard; Maindal, Helle Terkildsen

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark, the local and regional health authorities share responsibility for cardiac rehabilitation (CR). The objective was to assess effectiveness of CR across sectors coordinated by a nurse case manager (NCM). A one-year follow-up study. A CR programme (GoHeart) was evaluated in a cohort at Lillebaelt Hospital Vejle, DK from 2010 to 2011. Consecutive patients admitted to CR were included. The inclusion criteria were the event of acute myocardial infarction or stable angina and invasive revascularization (left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) ≥45%). Cardiac risk factors, stratified self-care and self-reported psychosocial factors (SF12 and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS)) were assessed at admission (phase IIa), at three months at discharge (phase IIb) and at one-year follow-up (phase III). Intention-to-treat and predefined subgroup analysis on sex was performed. Of 241 patients, 183 (75.9%) were included (mean age 63.8 years). At discharge improvements were found in total-cholesterol (p < 0.001), low density lipoprotein (LDL; p < 0.001), functional capacities (metabolic equivalent of tasks (METS), p < 0.01), self-care management (p < 0.001), Health status Short Form 12 version (SF12; physical; p < 0.001 and mental; p < 0.01) and in depression symptoms (p < 0.01). At one-year follow-up these outcomes were maintained; additionally there was improvement in body mass index (BMI; p < 0.05), and high density lipoprotein (HDL; p < 0.05). There were no sex differences. CR shared between local and regional health authorities led by a NCM (GoHeart) improves risk factors, self-care and psychosocial factors. Further improvements in most variables were at one-year follow-up.

  10. 40 CFR Table F-1 to Subpart F of... - Slope and Overvoltage Coefficients for the Calculation of PFC Emissions From Aluminum Production

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Slope and Overvoltage Coefficients for the Calculation of PFC Emissions From Aluminum Production F Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part 98... GREENHOUSE GAS REPORTING Aluminum Production Pt. 98, Subpt. F, Table F-1 Table F-1 to Subpart F of Part...

  11. 75 FR 12328 - Notice of Intent To Rule on Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Application 10-07-C-00-LAX, To Impose...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ...-07-C-00-LAX, To Impose and Use PFC Revenue at Los Angeles International Airport, Los Angeles, CA... revenue at Los Angeles International Airport, under the provisions of the Aviation Safety and Capacity... must be mailed or delivered to Mr. Steve Martin, Chief Operating Officer, Los Angeles World...

  12. TRF requirements for in vitro PFC responses to SRBC and R36a. I. TRF is distinct from IL 2 but indistinguishable from polyclonal BCSF.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, L; Prystowsky, M B; Dick, R F; Sosman, J A; Fitch, F W; Quintáns, J

    1984-03-01

    In vitro PFC responses to the thymus-independent (TI) antigen Streptococcus pneumoniae R36a require T cell replacing factor(s) (TRF). This requirement for TRF is as significant as for the thymus-dependent (TD) antigen SRBC. TRF is shown to be distinct from IL 2 by the following observations: 1) culture supernatants from the cloned T cell line L2, collected over an 8-day period after allogeneic stimulation, transiently contain IL 2 activity but maintain high levels of TRF activity throughout 192 hr; 2) L2V, a variant subclone of L2, produces much higher levels of TRF activity than the parental line but no detectable IL 2 activity; 3) the addition of IL2+, TRF- supernatants from the T cell hybridoma FS6-14.13 does not affect the L2V SF-driven PFC responses to R36a or SRBC; and 4) the addition of contaminating T cells to cultures containing T cell-depleted spleen cells, L2V SF, and antigen does not affect the PFC response. TRF does appear to be indistinguishable from polyclonal B cell stimulating factor (BCSF), which stimulates polyclonal PFC responses in the absence of antigen, mitogen, or anti-Ig. The TRF and BCSF activities of L2V SF could not be separated by ion-exchange, hydrophobic-interaction, and gel-filtration chromatography. TRF and BCSF have an apparent m.w. of approximately 40,000.

  13. Effects of Chronic Dopamine D2R Agonist Treatment and Polysialic Acid Depletion on Dendritic Spine Density and Excitatory Neurotransmission in the mPFC of Adult Rats

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Gómez, Esther; Varea, Emilio; Blasco-Ibáñez, José Miguel; Crespo, Carlos; Nacher, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Dopamine D2 receptors (D2R) in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are key players in the etiology and therapeutics of schizophrenia. The overactivation of these receptors contributes to mPFC dysfunction. Chronic treatment with D2R agonists modifies the expression of molecules implicated in neuronal structural plasticity, synaptic function, and inhibitory neurotransmission, which are also altered in schizophrenia. These changes are dependent on the expression of the polysialylated form of the neural cell adhesion molecule (PSA-NCAM), a plasticity-related molecule, but nothing is known about the effects of D2R and PSA-NCAM on excitatory neurotransmission and the structure of mPFC pyramidal neurons, two additional features affected in schizophrenia. To evaluate these parameters, we have chronically treated adult rats with PPHT (a D2R agonist) after enzymatic removal of PSA with Endo-N. Both treatments decreased spine density in apical dendrites of pyramidal neurons without affecting their inhibitory innervation. Endo-N also reduced the expression of vesicular glutamate transporter-1. These results indicate that D2R and PSA-NCAM are important players in the regulation of the structural plasticity of mPFC excitatory neurons. This is relevant to our understanding of the neurobiological basis of schizophrenia, in which structural alterations of pyramidal neurons and altered expression of D2R and PSA-NCAM have been found. PMID:27110404

  14. Attitudes toward expanding nurses' authority.

    PubMed

    Kerzman, Hana; Van Dijk, Dina; Eizenberg, Limor; Khaikin, Rut; Phridman, Shoshi; Siman-Tov, Maya; Goldberg, Shoshi

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of care procedures previously under the physician's authority have been placed in the hands of registered nurses. The purpose of this study was to examine the attitudes of nurses towards expanding nurses' authority and the relationships between these attitudes and job satisfaction facets, professional characteristics, and demographics. A cross-sectional study was conducted between 2010 and 2011 in three major medical centers in Israel. Participants included 833 nurses working in 89 departments. Attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority were assessed by self-report questionnaire, as well as job satisfaction facets including perception of professional autonomy, nurse-physician working relations, workload and burnout, perceptions of quality of care, and nursing staff satisfaction at work. Nurses reported positive attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority and moderate attitudes for interpretation of diagnostic tests in selected situations. The results of multivariate regression analyses demonstrate that the nurses' satisfaction from professional autonomy and work relations were the most influential factors in explaining their attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority. In addition, professionally young nurses tend to be more positive regarding changes in nurses' authority. In the Israeli reality of a nurse's shortage, we are witnessing professional transitions toward expansion of the scope of nurses' accountability and decision-making authority. The current research contributes to our understanding of attitudes toward the expansion of nurses' authority among the nursing staffs. The findings indicate the necessity of redefining the scope of nursing practice within the current professional context.

  15. Cocaine Self-Administration Elevates GluN2B within dmPFC Mediating Heightened Cue-Elicited Operant Responding

    PubMed Central

    Szumlinski, Karen K; Wroten, Melissa G; Miller, Bailey W; Sacramento, Arianne D; Cohen, Matan; Ben-Shahar, Osnat; Kippin, Tod E

    2016-01-01

    Cue-elicited drug-craving correlates with hyperactivity within prefrontal cortex (PFC), which is theorized to result from dysregulated excitatory neurotransmission. The NMDA glutamate receptor is highly implicated in addiction-related neuroplasticity. As NMDA receptor function is regulated critically by its GluN2 subunits, herein, we assayed the relation between incubated cue-elicited cocaine-seeking following extended access to intravenous cocaine (6 h/d; 0.25 mg/infusion for 10 d) and the expression of GluN2A/B receptor subunits within PFC sub regions during early versus late withdrawal (respectively, 3 vs. 30 days). Cocaine-seeking rats exhibited elevated GluN2B expression within the dorsomedial aspect of the PFC (dmPFC); this effect was apparent at both 3 and 30 days withdrawal and occurred in cocaine-experienced rats, regardless of experiencing an extinction test or not. Thus, elevated dmPFC GluN2B expression appears to reflect a pharmacodynamic response to excessive cocaine intake that is independent of the duration of drug withdrawal or re-exposure to drug-taking context. The functional relevance of elevated dmPFC GluN2B expression for drug-seeking was assessed by the local infusion of the prototypical GluN2B-selective antagonist ifenprodil (1.0 µg/side). Ifenprodil did not alter cue-elicited responding in animals with a history of saline self-administration. In contrast, ifenprodil lowered cue-elicited cocaine-seeking, while potentiating cue-elicited sucrose-seeking. Thus, the effects of an intra-dmPFC ifenprodil infusion upon cue reactivity are reinforcer-specific, arguing in favor of targeting GluN2B-containing NMDA receptors as a pharmacological strategy for reducing behavioral reactivity to drug-associated cues with the potential benefit of heightening the reinforcing properties of cues associated with non-drug primary rewards. PMID:27478879

  16. 42 CFR 1002.2 - General authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false General authority. 1002.2 Section 1002.2 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES... entity from participation in the Medicare, Medicaid and other Federal health care programs under...

  17. 42 CFR 1002.2 - General authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false General authority. 1002.2 Section 1002.2 Public Health OFFICE OF INSPECTOR GENERAL-HEALTH CARE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES OIG AUTHORITIES... entity from participation in the Medicare, Medicaid and other Federal health care programs under...

  18. Nucleus Accumbens Shell and mPFC but Not Insula Orexin-1 Receptors Promote Excessive Alcohol Drinking

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Kelly; Wegner, Scott A.; Yu, Ji Hwan; Mototake, Arisa; Hu, Bing; Hopf, Frederic W.

    2016-01-01

    Addiction to alcohol remains a major social and economic problem, in part because of the high motivation for alcohol that humans exhibit and the hazardous binge intake this promotes. Orexin-1-type receptors (OX1Rs) promote reward intake under conditions of strong drives for reward, including excessive alcohol intake. While systemic modulation of OX1Rs can alter alcohol drinking, the brain regions that mediate this OX1R enhancement of excessive drinking remain unknown. Given the importance of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and anterior insular cortex (aINS) in driving many addictive behaviors, including OX1Rs within these regions, we examined the importance of OX1Rs in these regions on excessive alcohol drinking in C57BL/6 mice during limited-access alcohol drinking in the dark cycle. Inhibition of OX1Rs with the widely used SB-334867 within the medial NAc Shell (mNAsh) significantly reduced drinking of alcohol, with no effect on saccharin intake, and no effect on alcohol consumption when infused above the mNAsh. In contrast, intra-mNAsh infusion of the orexin-2 receptor TCS-OX2-29 had no impact on alcohol drinking. In addition, OX1R inhibition within the aINS had no effect on excessive drinking, which was surprising given the importance of aINS-NAc circuits in promoting alcohol consumption and the role for aINS OX1Rs in driving nicotine intake. However, OX1R inhibition within the mPFC did reduce alcohol drinking, indicating cortical OXR involvement in promoting intake. Also, in support of the critical role for mNAsh OX1Rs, SB within the mNAsh also significantly reduced operant alcohol self-administration in rats. Finally, orexin ex vivo enhanced firing in mNAsh neurons from alcohol-drinking mice, with no effect on evoked EPSCs or input resistance; a similar orexin increase in firing without a change in input resistance was observed in alcohol-naïve mice. Taken together, our results suggest that OX1Rs within the mNAsh and mPFC, but not the aINS, play a central role in

  19. Comparison the performance of carbon plate and Pt-loaded carbon in photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalik, Wan Fadhilah; Ong, Soon-An; Ho, Li-Ngee; Voon, Chun-Hong; Wong, Yee-Shian; Yusoff, Nik Athirah; Lee, Sin-Li

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to compare the performance of cathode electrode in photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) system under UV light irradiation. The initial concentration 10 mg/L of Reactive Black 5 (RB5) with carbon plate (CP) and Pt-loaded carbon (Pt/C) as cathode reduced to 2.052 and 0.549 mg/L, respectively, after 24 h irradiated by UV light. The value for open circuit voltage, Voc, short-circuit current density, Jsc and maximum power density, Pmax for CP was 0.825 V, 0.00035 mA/cm2 and 0.000063 mW/cm2, respectively, meanwhile Voc, Jsc and Pmax for Pt/C was 1.15 V, 0.0015 mA/cm2 and 0.000286 mW/cm2, respectively, by varying external resistor value from 300 kΩ to 10 Ω. The degradation of RB5 and generation of electricity with Pt/C as cathode showed greater performance than CP.

  20. Research on the deformation and failure evolution of sandstone under triaxial compression based on PFC2D

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, X. B.; Han, X. X.; Zhou, T. B.; Liu, E. L.

    2017-04-01

    Through the comparative analysis of the results of the triaxial compression experiments of sandstone and the numerical simulation results of particle flow code PFC2D under the same conditions, the typical simulation curve and the corresponding simulation process were selected to analyze the evolution characteristics of the surface deformation field, the evolution characteristics of the velocity field and displacement field of the deformation localization bands of sandstone under triaxial compression. Research results show that the changes of the velocities and displacements of deformation localization bands corresponds to the change of stress during compression; In the same deformation localization band, the dislocation velocities are always in the same direction, but in the direction vertical to the localization band, the localization band sometimes squeezes and sometimes stretches; At different positions of the same deformation localization band, the dislocation velocities and extrusion velocities are both different at the same time; In the post-peak stage of loading, along the same deformation localization band, the dislocation displacements close to both loaded ends are generally greater than the ones near to the middle position of the specimen, the stretching displacements close to both loaded ends are generally smaller than the ones near to the middle position of the specimen.

  1. Postnatal Day 2 to 11 Constitutes a 5-HT-Sensitive Period Impacting Adult mPFC Function

    PubMed Central

    Rebello, Tahilia J.; Yu, Qinghui; Goodfellow, Nathalie M.; Caffrey Cagliostro, Martha K.; Teissier, Anne; Morelli, Emanuela; Demireva, Elena Y.; Chemiakine, Alexei; Rosoklija, Gorazd B.; Dwork, Andrew J.; Lambe, Evelyn K.; Ansorge, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Early-life serotonin [5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)] signaling modulates brain development, which impacts adult behavior, but 5-HT-sensitive periods, neural substrates, and behavioral consequences remain poorly understood. Here we identify the period ranging from postnatal day 2 (P2) to P11 as 5-HT sensitive, with 5-HT transporter (5-HTT) blockade increasing anxiety- and depression-like behavior, and impairing fear extinction learning and memory in adult mice. Concomitantly, P2–P11 5-HTT blockade causes dendritic hypotrophy and reduced excitability of infralimbic (IL) cortex pyramidal neurons that normally promote fear extinction. By contrast, the neighboring prelimbic (PL) pyramidal neurons, which normally inhibit fear extinction, become more excitable. Excitotoxic IL but not PL lesions in adult control mice reproduce the anxiety-related phenotypes. These findings suggest that increased 5-HT signaling during P2–P11 alters adult mPFC function to increase anxiety and impair fear extinction, and imply a differential role for IL and PL neurons in regulating affective behaviors. Together, our results support a developmental mechanism for the etiology and pathophysiology of affective disorders and fear-related behaviors. PMID:25209278

  2. Optimism and Planning for Future Care Needs among Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Sörensen, Silvia; Hirsch, Jameson K.; Lyness, Jeffrey M.

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with an increase in need for assistance. Preparation for future care (PFC) is related to improved coping ability as well as better mental and physical health outcomes among older adults. We examined the association of optimism with components of PFC among older adults. We also explored race differences in the relationship between optimism and PFC. In Study 1, multiple regression showed that optimism was positively related to concrete planning. In Study 2, optimism was related to gathering information. An exploratory analysis combining the samples yielded a race interaction: For Whites higher optimism, but for Blacks lower optimism was associated with more planning. High optimism may be a barrier to future planning in certain social and cultural contexts. PMID:26045699

  3. Who Cares for Care Leavers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Julie; Rodgers, Paul; West, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a programme of learning and development at the University of Sheffield, United Kingdom, to support looked-after children and care leavers (youth previously provided care outside or beyond family) throughout the student lifecycle. In this context, looked-after children are those cared for by a town/city authority where…

  4. Who Cares for Care Leavers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Askew, Julie; Rodgers, Paul; West, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    This chapter describes a programme of learning and development at the University of Sheffield, United Kingdom, to support looked-after children and care leavers (youth previously provided care outside or beyond family) throughout the student lifecycle. In this context, looked-after children are those cared for by a town/city authority where…

  5. Veterans Health Care Authorization Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Sen. Akaka, Daniel K. [D-HI

    2009-01-15

    Senate - 07/24/2009 Placed on Senate Legislative Calendar under General Orders. Calendar No. 128. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. The profession of medicine and the public: examining Americans' changing confidence in physician authority from the beginning of the 'health care crisis' to the era of health care reform.

    PubMed

    Pescosolido, B A; Tuch, S A; Martin, J K

    2001-03-01

    Recent work on the sociology of the professions, in general, and on the profession of medicine, in particular, target dramatic changes in the organization of social institutions, "boundary work" among professionals, and the implications of both for professional power. However, public attitudes cited in theories as a critical linchpin of professional status remain relatively unexplored in the face of these changes and widespread contentions of public dissatisfaction. Using data from the 1976 National Survey of Access to Care (Aday, Andersen, and Fleming 1980) and the 1998 General Social Survey (Davis, Smith, and Mardsen 1998), we take advantage of a unique opportunity to compare the public's attitudes across a 20-year period. We examine individuals' evaluations of the way physicians do their work and their ability to confront health problems. Three findings support a complex view of public sentiments. First, while public confidence in physicians remains relatively high, we document a crystallization of attitudes reflecting greater negative and fewer positive sentiments. Second, while neither the structure of attitudes nor the role of sociodemographic characteristics in explaining attitudes has significantly shifted over time, in 1998 health status and insurance status are correlated with negative attitudes. Third, using General Social Survey time trend data on the confidence in medicine compared to other professions (science and education), we find support for a general public response to social institutions, with confidence in medicine tracking closely with confidence in science in level, and education in pattern. We end with four possible explanations of our findings, including and a general discussion of the role of the public in the professional status of physicians and its implications for social change in the institution of medicine.

  7. Prevention of alcohol-heightened aggression by CRF-R1 antagonists in mice: critical role for DRN-PFC serotonin pathway.

    PubMed

    Quadros, Isabel M; Hwa, Lara S; Shimamoto, Akiko; Carlson, Julia; DeBold, Joseph F; Miczek, Klaus A

    2014-11-01

    Alcohol can escalate aggressive behavior in a significant subgroup of rodents, humans, and nonhuman primates. The present study investigated whether blockade of corticotropin-releasing factor receptor type 1 (CRF-R1) could prevent the emergence of alcohol-heightened aggression in mice. The serotonin (5-HT) pathway from the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) to the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) by CRF-R1 was investigated as a possible target for the prevention of alcohol-heightened aggressive behavior. Male CFW mice that reliably exhibited aggressive behaviors after consuming 1 g/kg of alcohol received systemic or intra-DRN administration of CRF-R1 antagonists, CP-154,526 or MTIP, before a confrontation with a male conspecific. Blockade of DRN CRF-R1 receptors with both antagonists significantly reduced only alcohol-heightened aggression, whereas systemic administration reduced both alcohol-heightened and species-typical aggression. Next, a 5-HT1A agonist, 8-OH-DPAT, was coadministered with CP-154,526 into the DRN to temporarily disrupt 5-HT activity. This manipulation abolished the antiaggressive effects of intra-DRN CP-154,526. In the mPFC, in vivo microdialysis revealed that extracellular 5-HT levels were increased in mice that consumed alcohol and were then injected with CP-154,526, both systemically or intra-DRN. Neither alcohol nor CP-154,526 alone affected 5-HT release in the mPFC. The present results suggest the DRN as a critical site for CRF-R1 to modulate alcohol-heightened aggression via action on the serotonergic DRN-PFC pathway.

  8. Age-related changes in overcoming proactive interference in associative memory: The role of PFC-mediated executive control processes at retrieval.

    PubMed

    Dulas, Michael R; Duarte, Audrey

    2016-05-15

    Behavioral evidence has shown age-related impairments in overcoming proactive interference in memory, but it is unclear what underlies this deficit. Imaging studies in the young suggest overcoming interference may require several executive control processes supported by the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC) and dorsolateral PFC (DLPFC). The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated whether age-related changes in dissociable executive control processes underlie deficits in overcoming proactive interference in associative memory during retrieval. Participants were tasked with remembering which associate (face or scene) objects were paired with most recently during study, under conditions of high or low proactive interference. Behavioral results demonstrated that, as interference increased, memory performance decreased similarly across groups, with slight associative memory deficits in older adults. Imaging results demonstrated that, across groups, left mid-VLPFC showed increasing activity with increasing interference, though activity did not distinguish correct from incorrect associative memory responses, suggesting this region may not directly serve in successful resolution of proactive interference, per se. Under conditions of high interference, older adults showed reduced associative memory accuracy effects in the DLPFC and anterior PFC. These results suggest that age-related PFC dysfunction may not be ubiquitous. Executive processes supported by ventral regions that detect mnemonic interference may be less affected than processes supported by dorsal and anterior regions that directly resolve interference.

  9. Authority in Educational Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steutel, Jan; Spiecker, Ben

    2000-01-01

    Summarizes John Wilson's account of authority in educational relationships by reconstructing his views on different types of authority. Explores the topic of parental authority arguing that parental authority differs from the authority of teachers. Comments on whether authoritative parental supervision is essential. Includes references. (CMK)

  10. Defense: FY2014 Authorization and Appropriations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-16

    government barometer of changes in health care costs; and 52 See House amendment number 169 in...250 million from the Defense Rapid Innovation Program to funding for training and readiness rejected 206-220 Defense: FY2014 Authorization and

  11. House authorizes billion for SSC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggs, William Ward

    On October 15, 1987, the U.S. House of Representatives Committee on Science, Space, and Technology voted favorably on H.R. 3228, a bill authorizing $1.079 billion over the next 3 fiscal years (FY) for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) proposed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The bill authorizes $10 million to be spent in FY 1988 on siting and construction. Site proposals from 26 states are currently under review by DOE and the National Academy of Sciences.Before the committee approved the authorization, Don Ritter (R-Pa.) introduced numerous amendments to the bill. The intent of the measures was to delay complete funding for the project until careful and objective site selection and partial funding of the SSC from other countries could be assured. All of the amendments were voted down.

  12. Prescriptive Authority and Psychology: A Status Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Ronald E.; DeLeon, Patrick H.; Newman, Russ; Sammons, Morgan T.; Dunivin, Debra L.; Baker, Deborah C.

    2009-01-01

    The progress of psychology toward the acquisition of prescriptive authority is critically reviewed. Advances made by other nonphysician health care professions toward expanding their scopes of practice to include prescriptive authority are compared with gains made by professional psychology. Societal trends affecting attitudes toward the use of…

  13. Dissociable Roles of Ventromedial Prefrontal Cortex (vmPFC) and Rostral Anterior Cingulate Cortex (rACC) in Value Representation and Optimistic Bias

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Karina S.; Otero, Marcela; Teng, Cindy; Jacobs, Madeline; Odenheimer, Stephanie; Pine, Daniel S.; Blair, R. J. R.

    2013-01-01

    Optimistic bias (OB) is seen when individuals underestimate their probability of experiencing negative life events and overestimate their probability of experiencing positive life events. A reduced OB has been linked with increased depression symptoms . However, given the relevance of this information to mood and anxiety disorders, little is currently known regarding the neurobiology of OB. In the current study, we examine the neural basis of OB in healthy individuals (n=33) during probability estimation of future positive and negative events occurring to themselves relative to other, comparable individuals. In line with previous work, subjects showed significant OB; they considered themselves significantly more likely to experience future positive and significantly less likely to experience future negative events relative to comparable others. Positive, relative to negative events, un-modulated by subjects’ probability estimates, were associated with significantly greater activity within ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Moreover, responses within both regions to positive events negatively related to the healthy subjects’ self reports of depression symptoms. However, there was no significant modulation of activity in either region by the subject’s OB, objectified as the level to which they thought the event was more likely [positive events] or less likely [negative events] to occur to them relative to comparable others. In contrast, activity within rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) was positively modulated by OB for positive events and activity within anterior insula and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) was negatively modulated by OB for negative events. However, there was no significant relationship between responsiveness within these regions and self reports of depression symptoms. The data are discussed with reference to current models of vmPFC, rACC and anterior insula functioning. PMID:23567883

  14. Baclofen ameliorates spatial working memory impairments induced by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion via up-regulation of HCN2 expression in the PFC in rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Pan; Chen, Cheng; Lu, Yun; Fu, TianLi; Lu, Qing; Xu, Xulin; Li, Changjun; He, Zhi; Guo, Lianjun

    2016-07-15

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CCH) causes memory deficits and increases the risk of vascular dementia (VD) through several biologically plausible pathways. However, whether CCH causes prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent spatial working memory impairments and Baclofen, a GABAB receptor agonist, could ameliorate the impairments is still not clear especially the mechanisms underlying the process. In this study, rats were subjected to permanent bilateral occlusion of the common carotid arteries (two-vessel occlusion, 2VO) to induce CCH. Two weeks later, rats were treated with 25mg/kg Baclofen (intraperitioneal injection, i.p.) for 3 weeks. Spatial working memory was evaluated in a Morris water maze using a modified delayed matching-to-place (DMP) procedure. Western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to quantify the protein levels and protein localization. Our results showed that 2VO caused striking spatial working memory impairments, accompanied with a decreased HCN2 expression in PFC, but the protein levels of protein gene product 9.5 (PGP9.5, a neuron specific protein), glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), synaptophysin (SYP), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), parvalbumin (PV) and HCN1 were not distinguishably changed as compared with sham-operated rats. Baclofen treatment significantly improved the spatial working memory impairments caused by 2VO, accompanied with a reversion of 2VO-induced down-regulation of HCN2. Furthermore, there was a co-localization of HCN2 subunits and parvalbumin-positive neurons in PFC. Therefore, HCN2 may target inhibitory interneurons that is implicated in working memory processes, which may be a possible mechanism of the up-regulation of HCN2 by Baclofen treatment that reliefs spatial working memory deficits in rats with CCH.

  15. Smaborns Dagpasning: Et Problem for Foraeldre og Kommuner. (Day-Care of Pre-School Children: A Problem to Parents and Local Authorities. With an English Summary). Publication No. 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Bodil

    Survey data were collected for the purposes of describing and comparing various forms of day care provision for preschool children within Danish municipalities with different day care provision and different degrees of urbanization. Information concerning the family background of subjects, parental assessment of different aspects of day care and…

  16. Smaborns Dagpasning: Et Problem for Foraeldre og Kommuner. (Day-Care of Pre-School Children: A Problem to Parents and Local Authorities. With an English Summary). Publication No. 103.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gronhoj, Bodil

    Survey data were collected for the purposes of describing and comparing various forms of day care provision for preschool children within Danish municipalities with different day care provision and different degrees of urbanization. Information concerning the family background of subjects, parental assessment of different aspects of day care and…

  17. Authority in Engineering Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephan, Karl D.

    2012-01-01

    Authority as a philosophical concept is defined both in general and as it applies to engineering education. Authority is shown to be a good and necessary part of social structures, in contrast to some cultural trends that regard it as an unnecessary and outmoded evil. Technical, educational, and organizational authority in their normal functions…

  18. And Speaking of Authority...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Connie

    2010-01-01

    Over breakfast at the American Library Association (ALA) Annual Conference, this author was asked, "What is authority? What does one know about the ways in which he/she determines credibility? Whom do you trust?" In this article, the author focuses on these questions in terms of administrators who have control over libraries. She provides a…

  19. Selecting Authoring Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locatis, Craig; Carr, Victor

    1985-01-01

    Presents suggestions for selecting authoring systems based on reviews of over one dozen systems; defines authoring systems; discusses their potential benefits; introduces background evaluation concepts; describes procedures for collecting information about system attributes; and presents a system selection checklist and an authoring system…

  20. And Speaking of Authority...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Connie

    2010-01-01

    Over breakfast at the American Library Association (ALA) Annual Conference, this author was asked, "What is authority? What does one know about the ways in which he/she determines credibility? Whom do you trust?" In this article, the author focuses on these questions in terms of administrators who have control over libraries. She provides a…

  1. Child Care Services and the NYS Uniform Fire Prevention and Building Code: A Building Code Examination of Child Day Care Services Which Are Regulated by the NYS Department of Social Services with Particular Attention to Day Care Centers and the Role of the Local Authority Having Jurisdiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York State Div. of Code Enforcement and Administration, Albany.

    This course manual details the Uniform Fire Prevention and Building Code of New York State and how it affects child care services, particularly day care centers. The sections of the manual, each detailing a part of the code, are: (1) Introduction, Scope, Registration, and Definitions and Facilities Regulated by the New York Department of Social…

  2. Author! Author! Seymour Simon: Science Writer Extraordinaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of author Seymour Simon, whose topics for children's photo essays include icebergs, gorillas, thunderstorms, optical illusions, snakes, air, water, planets, airplanes, volcanoes, cars, the brain, bridges, bugs, crocodiles, skyscrapers, sharks, and paper airplanes. Though he is best known in the style and an…

  3. Author! Author! Seymour Simon: Science Writer Extraordinaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of author Seymour Simon, whose topics for children's photo essays include icebergs, gorillas, thunderstorms, optical illusions, snakes, air, water, planets, airplanes, volcanoes, cars, the brain, bridges, bugs, crocodiles, skyscrapers, sharks, and paper airplanes. Though he is best known in the style and an…

  4. Author! Author! Making Kids Laugh: Jon Scieszka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of author Jon Scieszka, best known for his first published title, "The True Story of the Three Little Pigs!" which has become a modern classic. The publication of this creative and inventive title led to the numerous fractured fairy tales published since its release in 1989. His books have received numerous…

  5. Author! Author! Making Kids Laugh: Jon Scieszka

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of author Jon Scieszka, best known for his first published title, "The True Story of the Three Little Pigs!" which has become a modern classic. The publication of this creative and inventive title led to the numerous fractured fairy tales published since its release in 1989. His books have received numerous…

  6. Authorizations for Head Start, Follow Through, Community Services, and Establish Child Care Information and Referral Services. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Resources of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Eighth Congress, Second Session on H.R. 5145.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    This hearing was convened to discuss the Human Services Amendments of 1984 (H.R. 5145) which would extend the authorization for Head Start, Follow-Through, and the Community Services Block Grant Program (CSBG) and would establish the Child Care Information and Referral Services Act, as proposed in H.R. 2242. Testimony concerns (1) Head Start…

  7. Impact of financial agreements in European chronic care on health care expenditure growth.

    PubMed

    Tsiachristas, Apostolos; Dikkers, Carolien; Boland, Melinde R S; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2016-04-01

    Various types of financial agreements have been implemented in Europe to reduce health care expenditure by stimulating integrated chronic care. This study used difference-in-differences (DID) models to estimate differences in health care expenditure trends before and after the introduction of a financial agreement between 9 intervention countries and 16 control countries. Intervention countries included countries with pay-for-coordination (PFC), pay-for-performance (PFP), and/or all inclusive agreements (bundled and global payment) for integrated chronic care. OECD and WHO data from 1996 to 2013 was used. The results from the main DID models showed that the annual growth of outpatient expenditure was decreased in countries with PFC (by 21.28 US$ per capita) and in countries with all-inclusive agreements (by 216.60 US$ per capita). The growth of hospital and administrative expenditure was decreased in countries with PFP by 64.50 US$ per capita and 5.74 US$ per capita, respectively. When modelling impact as a non-linear function of time during the total 4-year period after implementation, PFP decreased the growth of hospital and administrative expenditure and all-inclusive agreements reduced the growth of outpatient expenditure. Financial agreements are potentially powerful tools to stimulate integrated care and influence health care expenditure growth. A blended payment scheme that combines elements of PFC, PFP, and all-inclusive payments is likely to provide the strongest financial incentives to control health care expenditure growth. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Intermittent Ethanol during Adolescence Leads to Lasting Behavioral Changes in Adulthood and Alters Gene Expression and Histone Methylation in the PFC

    PubMed Central

    Wolstenholme, Jennifer T.; Mahmood, Tariq; Harris, Guy M.; Abbas, Shahroze; Miles, Michael F.

    2017-01-01

    Adolescents primarily consume alcohol in binges, which can be particularly harmful to the developing frontal cortex and increase risk for an adult alcohol use disorder. We conducted a study investigating immediate and long lasting changes to the prefrontal cortex (PFC) transcriptome to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying adult ethanol behavioral sensitivity following binge ethanol in adolescence. DBA/2J mice were orally dosed with 4 g/kg ethanol intermittently from day 29 to 42. Adolescent mice were tested for anxiety-like behavior and ethanol sensitivity using the loss of righting reflex task. As adults, mice were tested for cognitive changes using the novel object recognition task, ethanol-induced anxiolysis and ethanol sensitivity. Adolescent binge ethanol altered ethanol sensitivity in young mice and led to lasting memory deficits in the object recognition test and greater ethanol sensitivity in adulthood. Using genomic profiling of transcripts in the PFC, we found that binge ethanol reduced myelin-related gene expression and altered chromatin modifying genes involved in histone demethylation at H3K9 and H3K36. We hypothesize that ethanol’s actions on histone methylation may be a switch for future transcriptional changes that underlie the behavioral changes lasting into adulthood.

  9. Photocatalytic fuel cell (PFC) and dye self-photosensitization photocatalytic fuel cell (DSPFC) with BiOCl/Ti photoanode under UV and visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Kan; Xu, Yunlan; He, Yi; Yang, Chen; Wang, Yalin; Jia, Jinping

    2013-04-02

    A fuel cell that functioned as a photo fuel cell (PFC) when irradiated with UV light and as a dye self-photosensitization photo fuel cell (DSPFC) when irradiated with visible light was proposed and investigated in this study. The system included a BiOCl/Ti plate photoanode and a Pt cathode, and dye solutions were employed as fuel. Electricity was generated at the same time as the dyes were degraded. 26.2% and 24.4% Coulombic efficiency were obtained when 20 mL of 10 mg · L(-1) Rhodamine B solution was treated with UV for 2 h and visible light for 3 h, respectively. Irradiation with natural and artificial sunlight was also evaluated. UV and visible light could be utilized at the same time and the photogenerated current was observed. The mechanism of electricity generation in BiOCl/Ti PFC and DSPFC was studied through degradation of the colorless salicylic acid solution. Factors that affect the electricity generation and dye degradation performance, such as solution pH and cathode material, were also investigated and optimized.

  10. Author fees for online publication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Like the journals themselves, AGU publication fees have been restructured to accommodate the new online, publish-as-ready approach. The new fee structure is based on authors' providing electronic files of their text and art in acceptable formats (Word, WordPerfect, and LaTeX for text, and .eps or .tif for digital art). However, if you are unable to supply electronic files, you can opt for a higher-charge, full-service route in which AGU will create electronic files from hard copy. All authors for AGU journals are expected to support the journal archive through fees based on number as well as size of article files. The revenue from these fees is set aside for the "Perpetual Care Trust Fund," which will support the migration of the journal archive to new formats or media as technology changes. For several journals, excess length fees remain in place to encourage submission of concisely written articles. During this first transition year, most author fees are based on the number of print page equivalents (pdf) in an article; in the future, however, charges are expected to be associated with file size. The specific fees for each journal are posted on AGU's Web site under Publications-Tools for Authors.

  11. [Authority in the psychiatric clinic].

    PubMed

    Laemmel, K

    1983-01-01

    Although considerable progress was made as far as therapy and individual rights of the patients are concerned today the psychiatric hospital is more than ever the butt of open citicism. One of the reasons for that is the odium of involuntarity and authority surrounding it. It is based on the ill-fame and dubious reputation of the nineteenth century "asylum". The problem of authority concerns today's hospitals as much as ever. How the hospital is run depends naturally in the first place on the personality of it's director his views on authority, as much as on his understanding and ability to handle the intensive dynamic processes in the institution. Recognizing the boundaries of his actual knowledge and training, his "authoritative authority", makes him wisely limit his goals and activities. Power or "authoritarian authority" must be employed with restraint and moderation but without hesitancy when necessary. The clinic represents for the patient a total milieu. It's therapeutic effect relies a great deal on the regulatory influence of the daily routine based on the authority of the treatment team. Jones' ideas of the "Therapeutic Community" have only limited value for today's psychiatric hospital. Even less significant contributions have been made by the antipsychiatric movement or the Marxist-inspired reformers of the last decades. Only that is therapeutic which in the final analysis helps the patient to cope successfully with reality. Even today the use of involuntary measures-seclusion and medication etc. remain a necessary tool for the treatment of some patients. As every institution is always part of a public or private structure, it's authority is always bridled by these. Ethical clinical psychiatry requires an ethical political state, if it is not to become it's henchman. Even in democratic countries problems may arise around involuntary hospitalization, the care of psychiatrically ill criminals or the legalities around medicating the uncooperative psychotic

  12. Authoring tool evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, A.L.; Klenk, K.S.; Coday, A.C.; McGee, J.P.; Rivenburgh, R.R.; Gonzales, D.M.; Mniszewski, S.M.

    1994-09-15

    This paper discusses and evaluates a number of authoring tools currently on the market. The tools evaluated are Visix Galaxy, NeuronData Open Interface Elements, Sybase Gain Momentum, XVT Power++, Aimtech IconAuthor, Liant C++/Views, and Inmark Technology zApp. Also discussed is the LIST project and how this evaluation is being used to fit an authoring tool to the project.

  13. Publishers: Save Authors' Time.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Khaled

    2017-02-02

    Scientific journals ask authors to put their manuscripts, at the submission stage, sometimes in a complex style and a specific pagination format that are time consuming while it is unclear yet that the submitted manuscripts will be accepted. In the case of rejections, authors need to submit to another journal most likely with a different style and formatting that require additional work and time. To save authors' time, publishers should allow authors to submit their manuscripts in any format and to comply with the style required by the targeted journal only in revised versions, but not at the submission step when the manuscripts are not yet approved for publication.

  14. The Voice of Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetterlund, Kris

    2012-01-01

    In the last part of 2011, conversations swirled around the Internet and print about the assault on museum authority. The Marcus Institute for Digital Education in the Arts (MIDEA) summarized some of the discussion in their blog entry "The Participatory Museum and a New Authority." Other sites joined in the discussion, for example, the Museum Geek…

  15. The Authors Reply

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    File, Kieran A.; Adams, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the authors' reply to Beniko Mason and Stephen Krashen's comments on their recent article published in "TESOL Quarterly." Mason and Krashen have provided an interesting reinterpretation of the authors' results and have also brought up several valid points regarding the efficiency of vocabulary learning from instruction,…

  16. Freedom, Coercion, Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellah, Robert N.

    1999-01-01

    Despite much talk about balancing freedom and responsibility in higher education, a more appropriate pairing is of freedom with authority. The concept of responsibility has become problematic, and educators have lost the ability to speak with authority. Although we have come to identify freedom with the free market, it is the bottom line which has…

  17. Charter Authorizers Face Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Joey

    2013-01-01

    Since the first charter school opened 20 years ago in Minnesota, charters have been a focus of school reform advocates and the subject of substantial research. Yet the regulators of the charter industry (called "authorizers" or "sponsors") remain a mystery to many. In fact, many authorizers work in isolation, developing their…

  18. The Voice of Authority

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wetterlund, Kris

    2012-01-01

    In the last part of 2011, conversations swirled around the Internet and print about the assault on museum authority. The Marcus Institute for Digital Education in the Arts (MIDEA) summarized some of the discussion in their blog entry "The Participatory Museum and a New Authority." Other sites joined in the discussion, for example, the Museum Geek…

  19. Boerhaave: Author and Editor *

    PubMed Central

    Lindeboom, G. A.

    1974-01-01

    The many facets of Herman Boerhaave's life are presented. He was a renowned teacher, physician, author, and editor. Discussed here are his activities as cataloger of the Vossius Collection, author of books on chemistry, botany, and medicine, and as editor of works by Vesalius and early Greek medical writers. Printing and bookselling in Leiden during Boerhaave's era are described. Images PMID:4596962

  20. Evaluating Digital Authoring Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilde, Russ

    2004-01-01

    As the quality of authoring software increases, online course developers become less reliant on proprietary learning management systems, and develop skills in the design of original, in-house materials and the delivery platforms for them. This report examines the capabilities of digital authoring software tools for the development of learning…

  1. Charter Authorizers Face Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gustafson, Joey

    2013-01-01

    Since the first charter school opened 20 years ago in Minnesota, charters have been a focus of school reform advocates and the subject of substantial research. Yet the regulators of the charter industry (called "authorizers" or "sponsors") remain a mystery to many. In fact, many authorizers work in isolation, developing their…

  2. Authoring and Hypermedia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lieberth, Ann K.; Martin, Doug R.

    1995-01-01

    Because of the diversity of clients served by speech-language pathologists and audiologists, available commercial software may not meet all needs. Authoring programs allow the clinician to design software that can be customized for individual clients. This article describes an authoring program called HyperCard and its use in preparing hypermedia…

  3. Dealing with the authorities.

    PubMed

    Nemes, J

    1991-10-14

    Tax-exempt bond financings, inherently complex transactions, can become even more complicated, cumbersome and costly as hospitals come to terms with restrictive policies imposed by some state financing authorities. Executives also find they sometimes get caught in authorities' political machinations that may have little to do with the business of the municipal bond markets.

  4. Let Care Shine Through

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondy, Elizabeth; Hambacher, Elyse

    2016-01-01

    Care is in the eyes of the receiver; it doesn't exist unless those being cared for experience it. The authors describe culturally relevant critical teacher care, an approach that considers the effects of students' cultural and socioeconomic conditions and that helps teachers find ways to show care to every learner--especially those from oppressed…

  5. Let Care Shine Through

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bondy, Elizabeth; Hambacher, Elyse

    2016-01-01

    Care is in the eyes of the receiver; it doesn't exist unless those being cared for experience it. The authors describe culturally relevant critical teacher care, an approach that considers the effects of students' cultural and socioeconomic conditions and that helps teachers find ways to show care to every learner--especially those from oppressed…

  6. Caring Encounters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunn, Alyson

    2012-01-01

    Children with autism may seem to not care about things or have the same range of emotions as those of us who see them and care for them. But they do have empathy and they can be taught how to communicate it, says the author, a teacher of children with autism. We simply need to listen to them, watch them, and be with them in their moment.

  7. Trajectories of Preparation for Future Care among First-Degree Relatives of Alzheimer's Disease Patients: An Ancillary Study of ADAPT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Wingyun; Sorensen, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the longitudinal patterns of Preparation for Future Care (PFC), defined as Awareness, Avoidance, Gathering Information, Decision Making, and Concrete Plans, in first-degree relatives of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design and Methods: Eight time points across 6.5 years from a subsample of adults aged 70 years…

  8. Trajectories of Preparation for Future Care among First-Degree Relatives of Alzheimer's Disease Patients: An Ancillary Study of ADAPT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Wingyun; Sorensen, Silvia

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study examines the longitudinal patterns of Preparation for Future Care (PFC), defined as Awareness, Avoidance, Gathering Information, Decision Making, and Concrete Plans, in first-degree relatives of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD). Design and Methods: Eight time points across 6.5 years from a subsample of adults aged 70 years…

  9. The Antidepressant Effects of an mGlu2/3 Receptor Antagonist and Ketamine Require AMPA Receptor Stimulation in the mPFC and Subsequent Activation of the 5-HT Neurons in the DRN

    PubMed Central

    Fukumoto, Kenichi; Iijima, Michihiko; Chaki, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    We have reported the antidepressant effects of both metabotropic glutamate 2/3 (mGlu2/3) receptor antagonists and ketamine in several animal models, and proposed that serotonergic (5-HTergic) transmission is involved in these actions. Given that the projections from the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), where the majority of serotonin (5-HT) neurons exist, are reportedly involved in the antidepressant effects, in this study, we investigated using the forced swimming test (FST) of C57BL/6J male mice, the role of 5-HT neurons in the DRN regulated by the mPFC–DRN projections in the antidepressant effects of an mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist, LY341495, and ketamine. Following systemic administration/microinjection into the mPFC, both LY341495 and ketamine were found to exert antidepressant effects in the FST, and the effects were attenuated by depletion of 5-HT by treatment with an inhibitor of 5-HT synthesis, PCPA. The antidepressant effects of LY341495 and ketamine were also blocked by systemic administration/microinjection into the mPFC of an AMPA receptor antagonist, NBQX. Moreover, systemic administration/microinjection into the mPFC of LY341495 and ketamine significantly increased the c-Fos expression in the 5-HT neurons in the DRN, and the effect of systemic administration of these drugs on the neuronal c-Fos expression was attenuated by microinjection of NBQX into the mPFC. Our findings suggest that activation of 5-HT neurons in the DRN regulated by stimulation of the AMPA receptor in the mPFC may be involved in the antidepressant effects of an mGlu2/3 receptor antagonist and ketamine. PMID:26245499

  10. A nonlinear control scheme based on dynamic evolution path theory for improved dynamic performance of boost PFC converter working on nonlinear features.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Pratap Ranjan; Panda, Anup Kumar

    2016-11-01

    This paper is concerned to performance improvement of boost PFC converter under large random load fluctuation, ensuring unity power factor (UPF) at source end and regulated voltage at load side. To obtain such performance, a nonlinear controller based on dynamic evolution path theory is designed and its robustness is examined under both heavy and light loading condition. In this paper, %THD and zero-cross-over dead-zone of input current is significantly reduced. Also, very less response time of input current and output voltage to that of load and reference variation is remarked. A simulation model of proposed system is designed and it is realized using dSPACE 1104 signal processor for a 390VDC, 500W prototype. The relevant experimental and simulation waveforms are presented.

  11. Implementation of PFC (Predictive Functional Control) in a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) for a HVAC (Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning) system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreutz, M.; Richalet, J.; Mocha, K.; Haber, R.

    2014-12-01

    HVAC systems of industrial buildings consume a lot of energy. Therefore it is important to know the performance of these systems and strategies to optimize the hardware and the control. Tackling the temperature control of the HVAC system promises quick savings by tuning the control within specified tolerance limits, which mostly can be done by low investment. This paper mainly deals with the implementation strategy of a new controller in a PLC using the predictive functional control for temperature control. The different stages of the implementation from the simulation over the SCL code till to the real-time operation are presented. A bumpless switch between the PI(D) and the PFC control was realized, as well.

  12. Public challenge of physician authority.

    PubMed

    Haug, M R; Lavin, B

    1979-08-01

    A sample survey of the public in a midwestern state substantiates the existence of widespread challenges to the authority of physicians, a phenomenon previously reported only impressionistically in the media. Attitudes tending to reject physicians' right to direct their interaction with patients characterized more than half the sample and were related to younger age, higher educational level, and greater health knowledge, with a consumerist and anti-authority stance also explanatory. Actual challenging behavior occurred at least once for about half the group, but in this instance was related less to age and knowledge than to more extensive experience with the health care system, as well as a lack of trust in people in general and doctors' competence in particular. However, explained variance was modest, arguing that other variables, not identified in this study, are at work. Surprisingly, respondents' health status, race, sex, and pattern of insurance coverage had little impact on either attitude or behavior, while both knowledge and a general tendency to reject authority were influential factors. Implications for physician-patient relations in the future are discussed in light of a number of social changes, including the rising educational level of the American public.

  13. EASy: Expert authorizations system

    SciTech Connect

    Altfeld, J.; Landon, D.F.; Daniels, C.J.

    1996-12-31

    Equifax Check Services provides retail merchants and other businesses with quality decisions concerning the acceptability. risk. or fraudulence of customer checks. The greatest percentage of these decisions are provided automatically through on-line links with point-of-sale terminals. When a transaction is suspect, a referral notice is generated directing the merchant to call one of Equifax Check Services` authorization centers for additional processing. This processing considers a wide variety of information unavailable through online processing, thereby giving consumers the greatest possible benefit of doubt prior to declining checks. These high-risk authorizations had historically been handled using a legacy mainframe system involving a high degree of manual intervention. Authorizations agents would complete a lengthy, rigorous training regimen, and be monitored as to their performance. Pursuit of service excellence caused Equifax, in conjunction with Brightware Corporation, to develop the Expert Authorization System (EASy), a rule-based solution for check authorizations that uses an innovative twist on a standard blackboard architecture. EASy was deployed and is used today by as many as 300 concurrent users. By encapsulating extensive domain knowledge, EASy has effectively eliminated authorization errors, provided consistent and replicable decisions, reduced elapsed time to a decision, and reduced the average agent training time from 4-6 weeks to 3 days.

  14. Defense: FY2014 Authorization and Appropriations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-08

    pay—to the National Health Expenditure index, which is a federal government barometer of changes in health care costs; and • Introduce enrollment...authorization in the bill rejected 191-232 n/a Coffman H.Amdt. 145 shift $250 million from the Defense Rapid Innovation Program to funding for

  15. 45 CFR 150.325 - Settlement authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement With Respect to Issuers and Non-Federal... limits the authority of CMS to settle any issue or case described in the notice furnished in...

  16. 45 CFR 150.325 - Settlement authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement With Respect to Issuers and Non-Federal... limits the authority of CMS to settle any issue or case described in the notice furnished in...

  17. 45 CFR 150.325 - Settlement authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement With Respect to Issuers and Non-Federal... limits the authority of CMS to settle any issue or case described in the notice furnished in...

  18. 45 CFR 150.325 - Settlement authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement With Respect to Issuers and Non-Federal... limits the authority of CMS to settle any issue or case described in the notice furnished in...

  19. 45 CFR 150.325 - Settlement authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement With Respect to Issuers and Non-Federal... limits the authority of CMS to settle any issue or case described in the notice furnished in...

  20. Development of Behavioral Control and Associated vmPFC-DLPFC Connectivity Explains Children's Increased Resistance to Temptation in Intertemporal Choice.

    PubMed

    Steinbeis, Nikolaus; Haushofer, Johannes; Fehr, Ernst; Singer, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Human civilization is based on the successful pursuit of long-term goals, requiring the ability to forego immediate pleasure for the sake of larger future rewards. This ability improves with age, but the precise cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying its development remain elusive. The developmental changes could result either from younger children valuing immediate rewards more strongly or because older children become better at controlling their impulses. By implementing 2 tasks, a choice-independent valuation task and an intertemporal choice task, both behaviorally and using fMRI in twenty 6- to 13-year old children, we show developmental improvements in behavioral control to uniquely account for age-related changes in temporal discounting. We show further that overcoming temptation during childhood occurs as a function of an age-related increase in functional coupling between value signals in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and brain regions dedicated to behavioral control, such as left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex during choice. These findings can help to devise measures that reduce the substantial costs of impatience to society. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  1. Google Scholar's Ghost Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In the journal "The Chronicle of Higher Education," an article by Geoffrey Nunberg criticizes Google's Book Search (GBS), emphasizing that disturbing errors are endemic. He recognizes that for mainstream "googling" purposes, "they don't really care about metadata provided by a library catalog." In perhaps his most discouraging point, linguistics…

  2. Google Scholar's Ghost Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacso, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In the journal "The Chronicle of Higher Education," an article by Geoffrey Nunberg criticizes Google's Book Search (GBS), emphasizing that disturbing errors are endemic. He recognizes that for mainstream "googling" purposes, "they don't really care about metadata provided by a library catalog." In perhaps his most discouraging point, linguistics…

  3. 77 FR 51540 - Medicare Program; Approved Renewal of Deeming Authority of the Accreditation Association for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Authority of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care, Inc. for Medicare Advantage Health... Medicare Advantage ``deeming authority'' of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care, Inc... apply for MA deeming authority are generally recognized by the health care industry as entities that...

  4. Children as Authors Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii State Dept. of Education, Honolulu. Office of Instructional Services.

    Intended for teachers, librarians, and administrators, this handbook explores the possibilities of implementing a "Children as Authors" project by using collaborative and integrative teaching strategies to motivate elementary school children to write. After describing the project and explaining its benefits, the handbook explores ways…

  5. CAL Authoring Aids.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, N. P.

    In their eight years of involvement in Computer Assisted Learning, the Division of Education Research Services has assisted many authors in developing their courseware. Whether the courseware has been a short half hour module or a large course involving over a hundred hours of student time, there have been many common problems. A major objective…

  6. Author Identification Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    Many efforts are currently underway to disambiguate author names and assign unique identification numbers so that publications by a given scholar can be reliably grouped together. This paper reviews a number of operational and in-development services. Some systems like ResearcherId.Com depend on self-registration and self-identification of a…

  7. Authors on Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

    Different authors' attitudes toward film are revealed through five different sections of this book: (1) articles, essays, and reviews pertaining to the silent cinema and the transition to sound; (2) general statements on the film medium or filmmakers and their messages; (3) essays dealing with the problems, involvements, and reflections of the…

  8. Creating Digital Authors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoch, Melody; Langston-DeMott, Brooke; Adams-Budde, Melissa

    2014-01-01

    Elementary students find themselves engaged and learning at a digital writing camp. The authors find that such elementary students usually have limited access to technology at home and school, and posit that teachers should do all they can to give them more access to and experience in digital composing. Students were motivated and learned to use…

  9. Author Identification Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, A. Ben

    2009-01-01

    Many efforts are currently underway to disambiguate author names and assign unique identification numbers so that publications by a given scholar can be reliably grouped together. This paper reviews a number of operational and in-development services. Some systems like ResearcherId.Com depend on self-registration and self-identification of a…

  10. Authors on Film.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geduld, Harry M., Ed.

    Different authors' attitudes toward film are revealed through five different sections of this book: (1) articles, essays, and reviews pertaining to the silent cinema and the transition to sound; (2) general statements on the film medium or filmmakers and their messages; (3) essays dealing with the problems, involvements, and reflections of the…

  11. Author and Agitator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mark, Jan

    1978-01-01

    Many schools now bring professional writers in to work with or talk to children, often with impressive results. But what do the writers themselves make of these visits? Here a children's books author pens a wry portrait of a typical classroom encounter. (Editor/RK)

  12. The surrogate's authority.

    PubMed

    Lindemann, Hilde; Nelson, James Lindemann

    2014-04-01

    The authority of surrogates-often close family members-to make treatment decisions for previously capacitated patients is said to come from their knowledge of the patient, which they are to draw on as they exercise substituted judgment on the patient's behalf. However, proxy accuracy studies call this authority into question, hence the Patient Preference Predictor (PPP). We identify two problems with contemporary understandings of the surrogate's role. The first is with the assumption that knowledge of the patient entails knowledge of what the patient's choice of treatment would be. The second is with the assumption that a good decision reproduces the content of that choice. If we are right, then the PPP, helpful though it might be in guiding surrogates' decisions, nevertheless would hold them to the wrong standards and in that way could add to, rather than relieve, the stress they experience as they try to do their job.

  13. FFTF Authorization Agreement

    SciTech Connect

    DAUTEL, W.A.

    2000-09-25

    The purpose of the Authorization Agreement is to serve as a mechanism whereby the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and Fluor Hanford (FH) jointly clarify and agree to key conditions for conducting work safely and efficiently in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Work must be accomplished in a manner that achieves high levels of quality while protecting the environment and the safety and health of workers and the public, and complying with applicable contractual and regulatory requirements. It is the intent of this Agreement to address those items of significant importance in establishing and supporting the FFTF Authorization Envelope, but this Agreement in no way alters the terms and conditions of the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC), Contract Number DE-AC06-96RL13200.

  14. [Species: author definitions].

    PubMed

    Lherminer, P; Solignac, M

    2000-02-01

    For a long time the definitions of species have been mainly restricted to logicians and philosophers; with the contribution of biologists, the number of concepts increased dramatically. The concepts elaborated by authors of the evolutionary synthesis seemed decisive for a time but the number of definitions proposed was never as high as in the last half century. In the present review, a list of classical or less well-known definitions are proposed with some commentaries.

  15. Patient care in radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Ehrlich, R.A.; McCloskey, E.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book focuses on patient care procedures for radiographers. The authors focus on the role of the radiographer as a member of the health care team. The authors report on such topics as communication in patient care: safety, medico-legal considerations, transfer and positioning; physical needs; infection control; medication; CPR standards, acute situations; examination of the GI tract; contrast media; special imaging techniques and bedside radiography.

  16. Navy Child Care, 1980.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    after-school and summer programs. 248 The outer band is composed of preschool care and preteen /teen programs. These programs are perceived by the...author as retention oriented because they do not directly assist in getting members to work. Preteen and teen programs, though not surveyed by the author...just those in Navy child-care centers. Teen and preteen programs, summer programs, family day-care programs, etc., are all child support services

  17. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  18. Child Care in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graham, Kathy

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the author describes early learning and care arrangements in Canada and how the country faced the challenges in the development of a National Child Care System. While the provincial/territorial governments are responsible for early learning and care, the federal government has formed health and social programs including some child…

  19. Stimulus Value Signals in Ventromedial PFC Reflect the Integration of Attribute Value Signals Computed in Fusiform Gyrus and Posterior Superior Temporal Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Seung-Lark; O'Doherty, John P.

    2013-01-01

    We often have to make choices among multiattribute stimuli (e.g., a food that differs on its taste and health). Behavioral data suggest that choices are made by computing the value of the different attributes and then integrating them into an overall stimulus value signal. However, it is not known whether this theory describes the way the brain computes the stimulus value signals, or how the underlying computations might be implemented. We investigated these questions using a human fMRI task in which individuals had to evaluate T-shirts that varied in their visual esthetic (e.g., color) and semantic (e.g., meaning of logo printed in T-shirt) components. We found that activity in the fusiform gyrus, an area associated with the processing of visual features, correlated with the value of the visual esthetic attributes, but not with the value of the semantic attributes. In contrast, activity in posterior superior temporal gyrus, an area associated with the processing of semantic meaning, exhibited the opposite pattern. Furthermore, both areas exhibited functional connectivity with an area of ventromedial prefrontal cortex that reflects the computation of overall stimulus values at the time of decision. The results provide supporting evidence for the hypothesis that some attribute values are computed in cortical areas specialized in the processing of such features, and that those attribute-specific values are then passed to the vmPFC to be integrated into an overall stimulus value signal to guide the decision. PMID:23678116

  20. Developmental fluoxetine and prenatal stress effects on serotonin, dopamine, and synaptophysin density in the PFC and hippocampus of offspring at weaning.

    PubMed

    Gemmel, Mary; Rayen, Ine; Lotus, Tiffany; van Donkelaar, Eva; Steinbusch, Harry W; De Lacalle, Sonsoles; Kokras, Nikolaos; Dalla, Christina; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2016-04-01

    Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor medication exposure during the perinatal period can have a long term impact in adult offspring on neuroplasticity and the serotonergic system, but the impact of these medications during early development is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of developmental exposure to the SSRI, fluoxetine, on the serotonergic system, dopaminergic system, and synaptophysin density in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, as well as number of immature neurons in the dentate gyrus, in juvenile rat offspring at weaning. To model aspects of maternal depression, prenatal restraint stress was used. Sprague-Dawley rat offspring were exposed to either prenatal stress and/or fluoxetine. Main findings show that developmental fluoxetine exposure to prenatally stressed offspring decreased 5-HT and 5-HIAA levels and altered the dopaminergic system in the hippocampus. Prenatal stress, regardless of fluoxetine, increased synaptophysin density in the PFC. This work indicates that early exposure to maternal stress and SSRI medication can alter brain monoamine levels and synaptophysin density in offspring at weaning.

  1. Counterfactual quantum certificate authorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy H., Akshata; Srikanth, R.; Srinivas, T.

    2014-05-01

    We present a multipartite protocol in a counterfactual paradigm. In counterfactual quantum cryptography, secure information is transmitted between two spatially separated parties even when there is no physical travel of particles transferring the information between them. We propose here a tripartite counterfactual quantum protocol for the task of certificate authorization. Here a trusted third party, Alice, authenticates an entity Bob (e.g., a bank) that a client Charlie wishes to securely transact with. The protocol is counterfactual with respect to either Bob or Charlie. We prove its security against a general incoherent attack, where Eve attacks single particles.

  2. [Schistosomiasis epidemiology (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Picq, J J; Roux, J

    1980-01-01

    Schistosomiasis are, with three hundred million of infested people, the second world endemy, after malaria. For each of the four species, the distribution areas, the life cycle and the main epidemiological features are recalled in the first chapter. In the five following chapters, the authors consider the human or animal reservoirs of virus, the importance of these diseases towards public health, the gasteropod molluscs acting as intermediate hosts, and the problems of immunity in man. The concepts of "schistosomian infection" and "schistosomian disease" are exposed as well as the differences affecting the various strains of schistosomes and snails intermediate hosts. The authors emphasize the value of quantitative parasitological techniques and sero-immunological methods for epidemiological surveys. They underline the difficulties met in the evaluation of the effect of these diseases upon public health. The main causes inducing the duration of the endemy and those responsible for its extension are studied. The value of mathematic patterns is briefly discussed. Quantitative data compiled through epidemiological surveys should improve the use of the various means presently available for controling schistosomiasis.

  3. Ethical behaviour of authors in biomedical journalism.

    PubMed

    Bevan, Joan C

    2002-03-01

    Biomedical journals communicate new information that changes health-care decisions. If authors ignore the fundamental values of honesty and trust, that information becomes flawed, and society or patients may be harmed. By describing two cases of unethical behaviour by authors, and using them as a focus to review acceptable ethics in publication, this article aims to educate readers who have not considered the ethical implications in writing manuscripts for biomedical journals. Two cases of unethical behaviour by authors occurred when the results of new drug trials were reported. They were discovered after publication in a biomedical journal, and in the review process after the submission of a manuscript for publication respectively. In the first case, duplicate publication was identified because the same control data were used, but not acknowledged, in three publications by the same investigators. In the second, ghost writing by a pharmaceutical company writer was suspected because of the atypical presentation of a senior author's work. The editor consulted with the authors of both reports. In the first case, the authors concurred about the duplication, and the editors of the three journals wrote editorials to record the duplicate publications. The second case of ghost writing was unconfirmed by the authors, but the submission was withdrawn, and the article was later published in another journal. These cases draw attention to recently recognized types of scientific misconduct that influence the perception of scientific work. Duplicate publication and ghost writing not only deceive the reader, but may also conceal flawed study design and conflict of interest.

  4. [The process of "sense-making" in nursing and in literature. Research and analysis of health care situations in several works of Russian authors of the 19th century].

    PubMed

    Manara, D F; Campagnano, T

    2001-01-01

    In this article the authors examine an aspect that is seldom considered in the contemporary nursing research in Italy. Beside the well-known process of "decision-making" happens, in every relief situation, a process of "sense-making". This process, more or less shared by the various protagonists involved, is similar to what happens in artistic experience. Object of this research is to show the process of "sense-making" through a critical analysis of some famous works of russian literature of the late nineteenth century: Lev Nikolaevic Tolstoj, The death of Ivan Il'ic' and The stories of Sebastopol; Fedor Michajlovic Dostoevsky, The idiot; Michail Afanas'evic Bulgakov, Morphine. The similes between literature and nursing in the analysis of the process of "sense-making" will suggest, at last, some general reflections for our matter: moreover the hermeneutic comprehension of the other and the constructivist approach in the use of nursing theories.

  5. A question of authority

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Earl W. )

    2003-10-15

    A Question of Authority. This article deals with a certain scenario and several reviewers are to give their opinion. This one is in regards to - Suspending an IACUC approved animal use activity is about the last thing a research institution wants to do. Consider the predicament that the Great Eastern University IACUC faced when Dr. Janet Jenkins, the Attending Veterinarian, suspended all animal use activity on an approved protocol of Dr. Roy Maslo. Jenkins had the IACUCs authority to temporarily suspend a protocol, subject to review by a quorum of the full committee. She alleged that Maslo used mice from his breeding colony, not purchased rats, to begin a new study. Jenkins saw Maslos technicians bringing mouse cages to a procedure room and setting up for a minor survival surgery. She asked them to wait until she clarified things as she felt confident that the protocol called for rats. She called Maslo and asked him if the study had been approved for mice, to which he responded affirmatively. Still not feeling quite assured, she went to her office, reviewed the protocol, and found only rat studies described. She also called the IACUC office to see if there were any approved amendments which she may not have received, and was told that there were none. By the time she returned, one procedure was completed. Understandably upset, she informed the technicians and Maslo that any further activity on the protocol was suspended until the issue was resolved. Jenkins informed the IACUC chairman who in turned called an emergency meeting of the committee.

  6. Becoming Co-Authors: Toward Sharing Authority in Religious Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyun-Sook

    2009-01-01

    This article offers an alternative model, the model of shared authority, to the traditional, authoritarian model for authority and obedience for Religious Education. This model moves away from the authoritarian model of a teacher as the authority and the students as obedient listeners in the direction of a shared authority model in which teachers…

  7. Mental Health in Long Term Care Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shore, Herbert

    1978-01-01

    There are many ways in which long-term care facilities attempt to cope with the mental health problems of the elderly. The author reviews five factors crucial to effective care for the aged in these facilities. (Author/RK)

  8. Palliative Care Practice in Neurocritical Care.

    PubMed

    Knies, Andrea K; Hwang, David Y

    2016-12-01

    Many neurocritically ill patients and their families have high amounts of palliative care needs. Multiple professional societies relevant to neurocritical care have released consensus statements on meeting palliative care needs in neuroscience intensive care units. In this review, the authors discuss the ongoing debate regarding what model of palliative care delivery is optimal, focus on the process of shared decision making during goals-of-care discussions, and briefly comment on transitions from intensive care to comfort care. Regardless of an institution's model of palliative care practice, every neurocritical care clinician should possess core competencies necessary to provide basic, integrative palliative care for neurocritically ill patients. Given the high proportion of neurocritically ill patients who lack decision-making capacity, communication skills that enable clinicians to facilitate shared decision making with patients' surrogates are of particular relevance, especially when the limitation of life support is in the discussion. High-quality decision aids to assist neurocritical care teams and surrogate decision makers during common goals-of-care discussions may have the potential for further promotion of best palliative care practices. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  9. The Common Traits of the ACC and PFC in Anxiety Disorders in the DSM-5: Meta-Analysis of Voxel-Based Morphometry Studies

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Zhengjia; Zhang, Tao; Du, Mingying; Gong, Qiyong; Lui, Su; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    the importance of the ventral anterior cingulate (ACC)/medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating anxiety symptoms. PMID:24676455

  10. The common traits of the ACC and PFC in anxiety disorders in the DSM-5: meta-analysis of voxel-based morphometry studies.

    PubMed

    Shang, Jing; Fu, Yuchuan; Ren, Zhengjia; Zhang, Tao; Du, Mingying; Gong, Qiyong; Lui, Su; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    cingulate (ACC)/medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in mediating anxiety symptoms.

  11. Allocation of authority in European health policy.

    PubMed

    Adolph, Christopher; Greer, Scott L; Massard da Fonseca, Elize

    2012-11-01

    Although many study the effects of different allocations of health policy authority, few ask why countries assign responsibility over different policies as they do. We test two broad theories: fiscal federalism, which predicts rational governments will concentrate information-intensive operations at lower levels, and redistributive and regulatory functions at higher levels; and "politicized federalism", which suggests a combination of systematic and historically idiosyncratic political variables interfere with efficient allocation of authority. Drawing on the WHO Health in Transition country profiles, we present new data on the allocation of responsibility for key health care policy tasks (implementation, provision, finance, regulation, and framework legislation) and policy areas (primary, secondary and tertiary care, public health and pharmaceuticals) in the 27 EU member states and Switzerland. We use a Bayesian multinomial mixed logit model to analyze how different countries arrive at different allocations of authority over each task and area of health policy, and find the allocation of powers broadly follows fiscal federalism. Responsibility for pharmaceuticals, framework legislation, and most finance lodges at the highest levels of government, acute and primary care in the regions, and provision at the local and regional levels. Where allocation does not follow fiscal federalism, it appears to reflect ethnic divisions, the population of states and regions, the presence of mountainous terrain, and the timing of region creation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Scientific and Artistic Authority

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eriksson, S. C.

    2012-12-01

    The differences and similarities between science and art are commonly discussed in various disciplines, e.g. collective versus individual, truth versus imagination, fact versus fiction, and more. Both art and science involve communication. Both artists and scientists have responsibilities of integrity in the arena of intellectual property. However, an artist has a primary responsibility to his/her personal artistic vision and craft. A scientist has a very clearly defined responsibility to scientific method as a collective practice, i.e. generally accepted scientific knowledge, norms of data collection and analysis as well as norms of communication. In presenting a work of art to an audience, it is accepted that different people will interpret the art through different lens. In science communication, we hope that the audience's understanding is in line with scientific interpretation. When science and art meet, how do we come to an understanding of what the intended message should be and how it should or must be received. Accuracy in fact is important in science, as is accuracy of the message whether it is a process, model, image or story. How do we mediate this tension in collaborative projects? How do we celebrate the artistic nature of an artwork based on science when there is tension between the artistic merit and the scientific content? Authority of the artist, scientist, and organization must be satisfied.

  13. Authors in Schools: Some Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Margaret

    An author's school visits can be, to a degree, part of an author's workplace depending on how many visits an author undertakes during a year. From the perspective of an author, the visits need to be fulfilling in terms of feeling valued and respected. From the school's point of view, it would appear that the visit is deemed a success if the author…

  14. Defense Support to Civil Authorities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    Response Authority and Other Military Assistance to Civil Authority ( MACA ) [on-line pamphlet], The Army Lawyer (Charlottesville, VA: Judge Advocate...City Bombing: Immediate Response Authority and Other Military Assistance to Civil Authority ( MACA ). The Army Lawyer. [Charlottesville, VA]: Judge

  15. A novel escapable social interaction test reveals that social behavior and mPFC activation during an escapable social encounter are altered by post-weaning social isolation and are dependent on the aggressiveness of the stimulus rat.

    PubMed

    Goodell, Dayton J; Ahern, Megan A; Baynard, Jessica; Wall, Vanessa L; Bland, Sondra T

    2017-01-15

    Post-weaning social isolation (PSI) has been shown to increase aggressive behavior and alter medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) function in social species such as rats. Here we developed a novel escapable social interaction test (ESIT) allowing for the quantification of escape and social behaviors in addition to mPFC activation in response to an aggressive or nonaggressive stimulus rat. Male rats were exposed to 3 weeks of PSI (ISO) or group (GRP) housing, and exposed to 3 trials, with either no trial, all trials, or the last trial only with a stimulus rat. Analysis of social behaviors indicated that ISO rats spent less time in the escape chamber and more time engaged in social interaction, aggressive grooming, and boxing than did GRP rats. Interestingly, during the third trial all rats engaged in more of the quantified social behaviors and spent less time escaping in response to aggressive but not nonaggressive stimulus rats. Rats exposed to nonaggressive stimulus rats on the third trial had greater c-fos and ARC immunoreactivity in the mPFC than those exposed to an aggressive stimulus rat. Conversely, a social encounter produced an increase in large PSD-95 punctae in the mPFC independently of trial number, but only in ISO rats exposed to an aggressive stimulus rat. The results presented here demonstrate that PSI increases interaction time and aggressive behaviors during escapable social interaction, and that the aggressiveness of the stimulus rat in a social encounter is an important component of behavioral and neural outcomes for both isolation and group-reared rats.

  16. Health care lessons from Thailand.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, S

    1993-01-01

    Thailand's health care system incorporates the private and public sectors. The government regulates health care through a system of capping, which protects its interests while providing a climate for competition. As a result, the private sector has developed and implemented some interesting concepts in health care as it turned to prevention, hospital care alternatives, neighbourhood-based ambulatory care and home care. The author suggests that Canada could benefit by examining some of Thailand's innovations.

  17. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  18. Caring as a Managerial Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroth, Michael; Keeler, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to broaden the discourse about caring as a managerial strategy by describing caring from three perspectives: nursing, education, and management. The authors suggest that current organizational models inadequately address the caring connection between manager and employee. Definitions of managerial caring and care…

  19. Caring as a Managerial Strategy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroth, Michael; Keeler, Carolyn

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to broaden the discourse about caring as a managerial strategy by describing caring from three perspectives: nursing, education, and management. The authors suggest that current organizational models inadequately address the caring connection between manager and employee. Definitions of managerial caring and care…

  20. Trends in Family Child Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neugebauer, Roger

    2011-01-01

    The author presents insights from various readers of "ExchangeEveryDay" regarding trends in the world of family child care. Kathleen Reticker of Acre Family Child Care in Lowell, Massachusetts thinks an increasing trend in Family Child Care is the pressure to emulate a Center, instead of seeing family child care as a different model. Over the…

  1. 42 CFR 35.21 - Authorization of transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Transfer of Patients § 35.21 Authorization of transfer. Except as...-Service hospital at which he is receiving care or treatment as a patient of the Service to a station...

  2. 42 CFR 35.21 - Authorization of transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Transfer of Patients § 35.21 Authorization of transfer. Except as...-Service hospital at which he is receiving care or treatment as a patient of the Service to a station...

  3. 42 CFR 35.21 - Authorization of transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Transfer of Patients § 35.21 Authorization of transfer. Except as...-Service hospital at which he is receiving care or treatment as a patient of the Service to a station...

  4. Author Support for the Design of Automated Medical Interviews

    PubMed Central

    Maccabe, A.B.; Underwood, W.E.; Brunjes, Shannon

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes a prototype system that provides interactive author support for an automated medical interviewing system. An on-line users manual enables health care professionals to use the system without prior knowledge or experience. The approach taken was to make the author support programs interviews in the underlying interviewing system.

  5. 42 CFR 35.21 - Authorization of transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Authorization of transfer. 35.21 Section 35.21 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES MEDICAL CARE AND EXAMINATIONS HOSPITAL AND STATION MANAGEMENT Transfer of Patients § 35.21 Authorization of transfer. Except as...

  6. 32 CFR 564.38 - For whom authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true For whom authorized. 564.38 Section 564.38 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ORGANIZED RESERVES NATIONAL GUARD REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.38 For whom authorized. (a) In line of duty. Medical care...

  7. 32 CFR 564.38 - For whom authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false For whom authorized. 564.38 Section 564.38 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ORGANIZED RESERVES NATIONAL GUARD REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.38 For whom authorized. (a) In line of duty. Medical care...

  8. 32 CFR 564.38 - For whom authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true For whom authorized. 564.38 Section 564.38 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ORGANIZED RESERVES NATIONAL GUARD REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.38 For whom authorized. (a) In line of duty. Medical care...

  9. 32 CFR 564.38 - For whom authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true For whom authorized. 564.38 Section 564.38 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ORGANIZED RESERVES NATIONAL GUARD REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.38 For whom authorized. (a) In line of duty. Medical care...

  10. 32 CFR 564.38 - For whom authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false For whom authorized. 564.38 Section 564.38 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY ORGANIZED RESERVES NATIONAL GUARD REGULATIONS Medical Attendance and Burial § 564.38 For whom authorized. (a) In line of duty. Medical care...

  11. 78 FR 76061 - Authorization for Non-VA Medical Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... AFFAIRS 38 CFR Part 17 RIN 2900-AO46 Authorization for Non-VA Medical Services AGENCY: Department of... VA's regulations regarding payment by VA for medical services under VA's statutory authority for non-VA medical care. In the Federal Register on November 28, 2012, VA proposed to remove an outdated...

  12. Gender, job authority, and depression.

    PubMed

    Pudrovska, Tetyana; Karraker, Amelia

    2014-12-01

    Using the 1957-2004 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, we explore the effect of job authority in 1993 (at age 54) on the change in depressive symptoms between 1993 and 2004 (age 65) among white men and women. Within-gender comparisons indicate that women with job authority (defined as control over others' work) exhibit more depressive symptoms than women without job authority, whereas men in authority positions are overall less depressed than men without job authority. Between-gender comparisons reveal that although women have higher depression than men, women's disadvantage in depression is significantly greater among individuals with job authority than without job authority. We argue that macro- and meso-processes of gender stratification create a workplace in which exercising job authority exposes women to interpersonal stressors that undermine health benefits of job authority. Our study highlights how the cultural meanings of masculinities and femininities attenuate or amplify health-promoting resources of socioeconomic advantage.

  13. The Allure of Authors: Author Studies in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Carol Brennan

    Noting that readers of all ages seek out favorite authors, this book offers a model that encourages readers to respond aesthetically, biographically, and critically to an author's literature. At the heart of the book are four author studies that were implemented with children at various grade levels. These studies span the genres of picture…

  14. The Allure of Authors: Author Studies in the Elementary Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Carol Brennan

    Noting that readers of all ages seek out favorite authors, this book offers a model that encourages readers to respond aesthetically, biographically, and critically to an author's literature. At the heart of the book are four author studies that were implemented with children at various grade levels. These studies span the genres of picture…

  15. Models of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Dottie C.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    This section describes hospice or palliative care programs for terminally ill patients and their families. The programs described are in Montreal, Quebec; Halifax, Nova Scotia; New Haven, Connecticut; Marin County, California; Tucson, Arizona; and Springfield, Illinois. (Author/JEL)

  16. Author Name Disambiguation in MEDLINE

    PubMed Central

    TORVIK, VETLE I.; SMALHEISER, NEIL R.

    2009-01-01

    Background We recently described “Author-ity,” a model for estimating the probability that two articles in MEDLINE, sharing the same author name, were written by the same individual. Features include shared title words, journal name, coauthors, medical subject headings, language, affiliations, and author name features (middle initial, suffix, and prevalence in MEDLINE). Here we test the hypothesis that the Author-ity model will suffice to disambiguate author names for the vast majority of articles in MEDLINE. Methods Enhancements include: (a) incorporating first names and their variants, email addresses, and correlations between specific last names and affiliation words; (b) new methods of generating large unbiased training sets; (c) new methods for estimating the prior probability; (d) a weighted least squares algorithm for correcting transitivity violations; and (e) a maximum likelihood based agglomerative algorithm for computing clusters of articles that represent inferred author-individuals. Results Pairwise comparisons were computed for all author names on all 15.3 million articles in MEDLINE (2006 baseline), that share last name and first initial, to create Author-ity 2006, a database that has each name on each article assigned to one of 6.7 million inferred author-individual clusters. Recall is estimated at ~98.8%. Lumping (putting two different individuals into the same cluster) affects ~0.5% of clusters, whereas splitting (assigning articles written by the same individual to >1 cluster) affects ~2% of articles. Impact The Author-ity model can be applied generally to other bibliographic databases. Author name disambiguation allows information retrieval and data integration to become person-centered, not just document-centered, setting the stage for new data mining and social network tools that will facilitate the analysis of scholarly publishing and collaboration behavior. Availability The Author-ity 2006 database is available for nonprofit academic

  17. Authority and Pedagogy as Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between authority and music. It starts with the proposition that music--as an art or an educative enterprise in Western environs--remains a highly idealized enterprise and this idealization creates an alibi for action that is characteristically narrow and guided by authority. Schmidt claims that authority is…

  18. Enhancing Author's Voice through Scripting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Chase J.; Rasinski, Timothy V.

    2011-01-01

    The authors suggest using scripting as a strategy to mentor and enhance author's voice in writing. Through gradual release, students use authentic literature as a model for writing with voice. The authors also propose possible extensions for independent practice, integration across content areas, and tips for evaluation.

  19. Authority and Pedagogy as Framing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between authority and music. It starts with the proposition that music--as an art or an educative enterprise in Western environs--remains a highly idealized enterprise and this idealization creates an alibi for action that is characteristically narrow and guided by authority. Schmidt claims that authority is…

  20. Authority Files for Microcomputer Databases.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Scott

    1988-01-01

    Examines the function of an authority file and the application of authority control to microcomputer-based library databases. Capabilities of relational database management systems which allow for an authority control system on the microcomputer level are noted. (10 references) (MES)

  1. Caring about Independent Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Karen

    2010-01-01

    With the rhetoric of independence, new cash for care systems were introduced in many developed welfare states at the end of the 20th century. These systems allow local authorities to pay people who are eligible for community care services directly, to enable them to employ their own careworkers. Despite the obvious importance of the careworker's…

  2. Dateline Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Care Information Exchange, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Reports on developments and trends affecting child care programs. Considered are mass media coverage of the issues surrounding child care, notably the Galinsky-Belsky debate on television's TODAY show, and cover story articles in NATION'S BUSINESS and FORTUNE. (Author/BB)

  3. On Caring and Craftsmanship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Jim

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the art teacher's responsibility to show genuine care for his/her students and their perceptions of reality and to encourage craftsmanship. To the author, caring involves the practice of effective communication, while craftsmanship means doing the best possible job of planning, revising, and executing a project. (AM)

  4. The Need To Define "Care" in Pharmaceutical Care: An Examination across Research, Practice and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galt, Kimberly A.

    2000-01-01

    This article examines the concept of "care" and how it relates to pharmacy. Five areas from a cross-discipline review of the literature are presented: the definition of care, care as behavior, the relationship of caring behaviors to health, the relationship of caring behaviors to outcomes, and the teaching of caring behaviors. (Author)

  5. Challenging Unjust Authority and Creating a Profession.

    PubMed

    Doona, Mary Ellen

    2017-05-01

    The emergence of the trained nurse as a new profession for women coincided with the transformation of hospitals from refuges for the sick and poor into treatment facilities. The hospital was an apt setting for learning nursing's fundamentals, but the domestic demands of the setting soon took precedence over nursing education. Nursing superintendents struggled to honor the right of pupil nurses to an education over the might of the hospital's demands. The 20th anniversary of the Trained Nurse Movement in 1893 proved the decisive moment when nursing superintendents created professional associations and gathered the nursing diaspora into a coherent force. Recourse to the law followed with nurses seeking legal validation of their authority over nursing education. Now, as then, a nurse's authority is a right that has to be protected when the might of individuals and institutions, both subtle and blatant, interferes with nurses caring for the well-being of society.

  6. Analysis of Private Sector Care Reform Authorities and Savings

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-12-01

    problem by raising cost shares and 4 But the increase in total military compensation was not done...per unit nature of the original subsidy. 6 John E. Whitley et al., “Medical Total Force Management,” IDA Paper P-5047 (Alexandria, VA: Institute...the three original options offered to beneficiaries—Prime (a Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)-like option), Extra (a Preferred Provider

  7. Author! Author! Jan Brett: Hedgehogs, Trolls, and a Gingerbread Baby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of author Jan Brett. According to Jan Brett's official webpage, there have been more than twenty-eight million of her books printed. Her titles can always be found on the best-selling children's book author/illustrator lists. Brett is one of the most beloved and recognized children's book illustrators and is…

  8. Presenting International Literature through Author Studies and Author Pairings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch-Brown, Carol; Tomlinson, Carl M.

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the value of international books as a source of literature for middle school students. Considers the benefits of international books, and instructional strategies including focusing on an international author and author pairings. Provides an annotated list of works by Robin Klein, John Marsden, Uri Orlev, Anthony Browne, and Jorg Muller.…

  9. Author! Author! Jan Brett: Hedgehogs, Trolls, and a Gingerbread Baby

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This column presents a brief biography of author Jan Brett. According to Jan Brett's official webpage, there have been more than twenty-eight million of her books printed. Her titles can always be found on the best-selling children's book author/illustrator lists. Brett is one of the most beloved and recognized children's book illustrators and is…

  10. 31 CFR 210.4 - Authorizations and revocations of authorizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Authorizations and revocations of authorizations. 210.4 Section 210.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance... corporate action, or the appointment of a receiver, conservator, or liquidator for the RDFI. In any...

  11. Activation of 5‐HT2A receptors by TCB‐2 induces recurrent oscillatory burst discharge in layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the mPFC in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Spindle, Michael S.; Thomas, Mark P.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is a region of neocortex that plays an integral role in several cognitive processes which are abnormal in schizophrenic patients. As with other cortical regions, large‐bodied layer 5 pyramidal neurons serve as the principle subcortical output of microcircuits of the mPFC. The coexpression of both inhibitory serotonin 5‐HT1A receptors on the axon initial segments, and excitatory 5‐HT2A receptors throughout the somatodendritic compartments, by layer 5 pyramidal neurons allows serotonin to provide potent top–down regulation of input–output relationships within cortical microcircuits. Application of 5‐HT2A agonists has previously been shown to enhance synaptic input to layer 5 pyramidal neurons, as well as increase the gain in neuronal firing rate in response to increasing depolarizing current steps. Using whole‐cell patch‐clamp recordings obtained from layer 5 pyramidal neurons of the mPFC of C57/bl6 mice, the aim of our present study was to investigate the modulation of long‐term spike trains by the selective 5‐HT2A agonist TCB‐2. We found that in the presence of synaptic blockers, TCB‐2 induced recurrent oscillatory bursting (ROB) after 15–20 sec of tonic spiking in 7 of the 14 cells. In those seven cells, ROB discharge was accurately predicted by the presence of a voltage sag in response to a hyperpolarizing current injection. This effect was reversed by 5–10 min of drug washout and ROB discharge was inhibited by both synaptic activity and coapplication of the 5‐HT2A/2C antagonist ketanserin. While the full implications of this work are not yet understood, it may provide important insight into serotonergic modulation of cortical networks. PMID:24844635

  12. Blonanserin ameliorates phencyclidine-induced visual-recognition memory deficits: the complex mechanism of blonanserin action involving D₃-5-HT₂A and D₁-NMDA receptors in the mPFC.

    PubMed

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Mori, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Yurie; Seki, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Iwamoto, Kunihiro; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2015-02-01

    Blonanserin differs from currently used serotonin 5-HT₂A/dopamine-D₂ receptor antagonists in that it exhibits higher affinity for dopamine-D₂/₃ receptors than for serotonin 5-HT₂A receptors. We investigated the involvement of dopamine-D₃ receptors in the effects of blonanserin on cognitive impairment in an animal model of schizophrenia. We also sought to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this involvement. Blonanserin, as well as olanzapine, significantly ameliorated phencyclidine (PCP)-induced impairment of visual-recognition memory, as demonstrated by the novel-object recognition test (NORT) and increased extracellular dopamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). With blonanserin, both of these effects were antagonized by DOI (a serotonin 5-HT₂A receptor agonist) and 7-OH-DPAT (a dopamine-D₃ receptor agonist), whereas the effects of olanzapine were antagonized by DOI but not by 7-OH-DPAT. The ameliorating effect was also antagonized by SCH23390 (a dopamine-D₁ receptor antagonist) and H-89 (a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor). Blonanserin significantly remediated the decrease in phosphorylation levels of PKA at Thr(197) and of NR1 (an essential subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors) at Ser(897) by PKA in the mPFC after a NORT training session in the PCP-administered mice. There were no differences in the levels of NR1 phosphorylated at Ser(896) by PKC in any group. These results suggest that the ameliorating effect of blonanserin on PCP-induced cognitive impairment is associated with indirect functional stimulation of the dopamine-D₁-PKA-NMDA receptor pathway following augmentation of dopaminergic neurotransmission due to inhibition of both dopamine-D₃ and serotonin 5-HT₂A receptors in the mPFC.

  13. Blonanserin Ameliorates Phencyclidine-Induced Visual-Recognition Memory Deficits: the Complex Mechanism of Blonanserin Action Involving D3-5-HT2A and D1-NMDA Receptors in the mPFC

    PubMed Central

    Hida, Hirotake; Mouri, Akihiro; Mori, Kentaro; Matsumoto, Yurie; Seki, Takeshi; Taniguchi, Masayuki; Yamada, Kiyofumi; Iwamoto, Kunihiro; Ozaki, Norio; Nabeshima, Toshitaka; Noda, Yukihiro

    2015-01-01

    Blonanserin differs from currently used serotonin 5-HT2A/dopamine-D2 receptor antagonists in that it exhibits higher affinity for dopamine-D2/3 receptors than for serotonin 5-HT2A receptors. We investigated the involvement of dopamine-D3 receptors in the effects of blonanserin on cognitive impairment in an animal model of schizophrenia. We also sought to elucidate the molecular mechanism underlying this involvement. Blonanserin, as well as olanzapine, significantly ameliorated phencyclidine (PCP)-induced impairment of visual-recognition memory, as demonstrated by the novel-object recognition test (NORT) and increased extracellular dopamine levels in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). With blonanserin, both of these effects were antagonized by DOI (a serotonin 5-HT2A receptor agonist) and 7-OH-DPAT (a dopamine-D3 receptor agonist), whereas the effects of olanzapine were antagonized by DOI but not by 7-OH-DPAT. The ameliorating effect was also antagonized by SCH23390 (a dopamine-D1 receptor antagonist) and H-89 (a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor). Blonanserin significantly remediated the decrease in phosphorylation levels of PKA at Thr197 and of NR1 (an essential subunit of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors) at Ser897 by PKA in the mPFC after a NORT training session in the PCP-administered mice. There were no differences in the levels of NR1 phosphorylated at Ser896 by PKC in any group. These results suggest that the ameliorating effect of blonanserin on PCP-induced cognitive impairment is associated with indirect functional stimulation of the dopamine-D1-PKA-NMDA receptor pathway following augmentation of dopaminergic neurotransmission due to inhibition of both dopamine-D3 and serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in the mPFC. PMID:25120077

  14. In Search of Models of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Glen W.

    1978-01-01

    Without careful definition of "spiritual," hospice care will be little different in quality from that offered in acute and chronic care centers. Also discussed is the challenge to hospice care staff to defy trends in recent health care allowing staff rather than patients to determine what dignity means. (Author)

  15. In Search of Models of Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidson, Glen W.

    1978-01-01

    Without careful definition of "spiritual," hospice care will be little different in quality from that offered in acute and chronic care centers. Also discussed is the challenge to hospice care staff to defy trends in recent health care allowing staff rather than patients to determine what dignity means. (Author)

  16. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; (2) A... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU OF...

  17. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; (2) A... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU...

  18. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; (2) A... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU...

  19. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; (2) A... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU...

  20. 25 CFR 11.1104 - Shelter care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-care may be detained, pending a court hearing, in the following places: (1) A foster care facility authorized under tribal or state law to provide foster care, group care or protective residence; (2) A... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shelter care. 11.1104 Section 11.1104 Indians BUREAU...

  1. Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-15

    Homeownership and Economic Opportunity Act of 2000P.L. 106-569 Removal of regulatory barriers to homeownership* FY 2005 Appropriation Authorized: Indefinite...3,660,000 Amends the Great Ape Conservation Act of 2000 (sec. 703, 16 U.S.C. 6305)* FY 2010 Appropriation Authorized: 5,000,000 Unauthorized FY 2015...note) * FY 2011 Appropriation Authorized: 1,000,000 Unauthorized FY 2015 Appropriations: Not Available Great Lakes Fish and Wildlife Restoration Act

  2. Medical authority and nursing integrity

    PubMed Central

    de Raeve, L

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the respective legitimacy or illegitimacy of medical authority over nursing work. The analysis makes use of Joseph Raz's ideas concerning the nature of authority. Various scenarios are considered which lend themselves to differing interpretations, and the conclusion reached is that acting in accordance with legitimate medical authority enhances rather than compromises the nurse's professional integrity. Difficulties, however, may lie in disentangling legitimate from illegitimate attempts to control nursing work. PMID:12468653

  3. Automated Author Aiding System Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-07-01

    0V) 0 Technical Report 684 r-Vass A Automated Author Aiding System Conference: Final Report edited by Nancy K. Atwood University of California at...AUTHOR AIDING SYSTEM CONFERENCE: Final Report FINAL REPORT June 84 through June 85 4. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOM(I4~dited by Nancy K...Dots Entered) Technical Report 684 Automated Author Aiding System Conference: Final Report edited by Nancy K. Atwood University of California at Los

  4. The Author and His Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain Today, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Continuing series on contemporary Spanish authors. Covers the writings of Fernando Lazaro Carreter, Maria Elvira Lacaci, Manuel Calvo Hernando, Rodrigo Rubio, Victor Alperi, and Francisco Garfias. (DS)

  5. The Author and His Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain Today, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Continuing series on contemporary Spanish authors. Covers the writings of Fernando Lazaro Carreter, Maria Elvira Lacaci, Manuel Calvo Hernando, Rodrigo Rubio, Victor Alperi, and Francisco Garfias. (DS)

  6. Palliative Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patients and Families Take the Quiz What Is Palliative Care? Definition Palliative care (pronounced pal-lee-uh- ... more control over your care. A Partnership of Palliative Care Team, Patient and Family Palliative care teams ...

  7. Children's Conceptions of Parental Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tisak, Marie S.

    1986-01-01

    Examines children's conceptions of parental authority. A total of 120 children were interviewed and asked to evaluate social events (stealing, family chores, friendship choice) pertaining to restraint of behavior and maintenance of parental rule systems. Results suggest that children's notions of authority are heterogeneous with respect to the…

  8. Student Authority: Antidote to Alienation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joan

    2010-01-01

    The widespread disaffection of students from school is manifested in academic failure, indifference, and defiance. These problems can be alleviated, I argue, when an authority structure is developed that combines three components--freedom, power, and legitimacy. Authority understood as either power or freedom is apt to subvert students' school…

  9. Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-15

    Education Act * EPA programs for environmental education FY 1996 APPROPRIATIONS AUTHORIZED: $ 14,000,000 UNAUTHORIZED FY 1998 APPROPRIATIONS...incarcerated individuals FY 1995 APPROPRIATIONS AUTHORIZED: $ 45,000,000 UNAUTHORIZED FY 1998 APPROPRIATIONS: $ 10,214,000 P. L. 101-619 National Environmental

  10. Unauthorized Appropriations and Expiring Authorizations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-01-11

    levees Expiration Date: September 30> 1996 FY 1996 Appropriations Authorized: $ 5,000,000 P. L. 101-619 National Environmental Education Act * EPA programs...for environmental education Expiration Date: September 30, 1996 FY 1996 Appropriations Authorized: $ 14>000,000 P. L. 101-596 Great Lakes Critical

  11. The Classes of Authoring Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozel, Kathy

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of developments in authoring tools and describes ways to categorize products by platform, type of end-product, sophistication of end-product, and authoring metaphor. Discusses products from AimTech, Allegiant, Allen Communication, Asymetrix, Corel, Discovery Systems International, Enigma, Harrow Media, Horizons, Innovus,…

  12. Author's Response to Peer Commentary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, James

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the author's response to peer commentary on his article entitled "Reflections on 50 years of teaching psychology." The author is pleased that most of them share some of his concerns about the lack of progress in the teaching of psychology over the last 50 years, and he welcomes the fact that they then go on to raise…

  13. Young Chinese Children's Authority Concepts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Jenny; Smetana, Judith G.; Metzger, Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Using multilevel analyses, we examined the influence of domain (moral, conventional, and personal) and the familiarity of different authority figures (mother, teacher, person in charge, and stranger) in public, school, or home settings in 123 four to seven-year-old Chinese children (M = 5.6 years) in Hong Kong. Children affirmed authority more for…

  14. The Author and the Reviewers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVito, Joseph A.

    The diversity of textbook and scholarly book reviewers makes it difficult for an author to deal with reviews in any systematic or preplanned manner. There are, however, several helpful working assumptions: (1) the reviewer is always right, (2) the author is always right in principle but frequently wrong in practice, (3) the publisher wants what…

  15. The Teacher's Source of Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Northrop

    1979-01-01

    An argument is developed that suggests the authority of a work of literature lies in its transcendent themes having the power of illumination through the development of an increased understanding of one's own life and the lives of others. (Author/MLF)

  16. Towards Evolutional Authoring Support Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aroyo, Lora; Mizoguchi, Riichiro

    2004-01-01

    The ultimate aim of this research is to specify and implement a general authoring framework for content and knowledge engineering for Intelligent Educational Systems (IES). In this context we attempt to develop an authoring tool supporting this framework that is powerful in its functionality, generic in its support of instructional strategies and…

  17. [Fetal alcohol syndrome (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Cahuana, A; Krauel, J; Molina, V; Lizárraga, I; Alfonso, H

    1977-01-01

    A case of fetal alcohol syndrome is reported in a intrauterine growth retarded female newborn with dysmorphic features and congenital cardiopathy whose mother suffered from a chronic ethylism during pregnancy. Authors compare this case findings with the reported revisions of other authors.

  18. A Copyright Guide for Authors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Robert E.

    This book provides a commentary on the current copyright law as it affects authors of creative works, intended for authors as well as for business people who need to know more than just the fundamentals. The book has application for novelists, playwrights, poets, biographers, journalists, historians, educators, artists, designers, musicians,…

  19. The Classes of Authoring Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kozel, Kathy

    1997-01-01

    Provides an overview of developments in authoring tools and describes ways to categorize products by platform, type of end-product, sophistication of end-product, and authoring metaphor. Discusses products from AimTech, Allegiant, Allen Communication, Asymetrix, Corel, Discovery Systems International, Enigma, Harrow Media, Horizons, Innovus,…

  20. Hypermedia Authoring as Critical Literacy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myers, Jamie; Beach, Richard

    2001-01-01

    Discusses three pedagogical frameworks in which students have used hypermedia authoring tools to generate a practice of critical literacy, including critical inquiry into social worlds, critical response to literature, and knowledge construction in the classroom through hypermedia. Discusses how, in hypermedia authoring for critical literacy,…

  1. Relationship between receiving authorities and monitoring authorities. The EMEA experience.

    PubMed

    Cuddy, Brendan James

    2008-01-01

    The approach of the European Medicines Agency (EMEA) to good laboratory practice (GLP) inspections in the context of authorization of medicinal products is illustrated with particular reference to the EMEA's experience as a receiving authority (RA), the procedures it has in place for the reporting and follow-up of GLP inspections, and the role of the ad hoc GLP inspectors working group. Other key issues dealt with are the relationship between the EU monitoring authorities (MAs) and the EMEA as a specific RA, how inspections outside the EU are handled and some aspects (exchange of information, handling of non-compliance, triggers for inspection) that have been raised during recent inspections.

  2. Principles of Effective Day Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silcock, Anne

    1981-01-01

    Examines the role of day care in the Australian community and offers six principles of effective day care. The principles are based on the assumption that good quality day care facilitates and enhances child development and does not jeopardize the attachment between mothers and their children. (Author/CM)

  3. The Ethics of Terminal Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agich, George J.

    1978-01-01

    Need for a critical and analytical approach to ethics of terminal care is suggested by considering a series of unexamined questions regarding justification of terminal care. If terminal care is a moral and ethical enterprise, such considerations must be given a more prominent place in discussions of the hospice movement. (Author)

  4. Delivering Health Care and Mental Health Care Services to Children in Family Foster Care after Welfare and Health Care Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simms, Mark D.; Freundlich, Madelyn; Battistelli, Ellen S.; Kaufman, Neal D.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the essential features of a health care system that can meet the special needs of children in out-of-home care. Discusses some of the major recent changes brought about by welfare and health care reform. Notes that it remains to be seen whether the quality of services will improve as a result of these reforms. (Author)

  5. Health care in Brazil.

    PubMed Central

    Haines, A

    1993-01-01

    Brazil has great geopolitical importance because of its size, environmental resources, and potential economic power. The organisation of its health care system reflects the schisms within Brazilian society. High technology private care is available to the rich and inadequate public care to the poor. Limited financial resources have been overconcentrated on health care in the hospital sector and health professionals are generally inappropriately trained to meet the needs of the community. However, recent changes in the organisation of health care are taking power away from federal government to state and local authorities. This should help the process of reform, but many vested interests remain to be overcome. A link programme between Britain and Brazil focusing on primary care has resulted in exchange of ideas and staff between the two countries. If primary care in Brazil can be improved it could help to narrow the health divide between rich and poor. Images p503-a p504-a p505-a PMID:8448465

  6. Bioethics and caring.

    PubMed

    van Hooft, S

    1996-04-01

    The author agrees with the critiques of moral theory offered by such writers as Bernard Williams and Alasdair MacIntyre, and uses ideas from Heidegger and Levinas to argue that caring is an ontological structure of human existence which takes two forms: caring about on self (which he calls our "self-project") and caring-about-others. This dual form of caring is expressed on four Aristotelian levels of human living which the author describes and illustrates with reference to the phenomenon of pain. It is concluded from this analysis that traditional notions of morality as imposing obligations should give way to an understanding of ethics as the social forms given to our caring for ourselves and for others. A number of implications for ethical theory are sketched out with the conclusion that virtue theory should be preferred and that the model could be worked out more fully to show that virtue theory can be internalist, particularist, pluralist, personalist and objectivist.

  7. Altruism and mature care: some rival moral considerations in care ethics.

    PubMed

    Hem, Marit Helene; Halvorsen, Kristin; Nortvedt, Per

    2014-11-01

    We discuss Carol Gilligan's original concept of mature care in the light of the altruistic approach to caring and good clinical judgment. In particular, we highlight how the concept of mature care can capture important challenges in today's nursing. Further, we illuminate how mature care might differ normatively from an altruistic approach to caring and the traditional prudential virtues in nursing. We also discuss similarities between mature care and virtue ethics. For nursing and nurses' identity, in today's health care system that is increasingly pressured to 'produce' health, we believe it is important to both developing further theories on mature care and having normative discussions about care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. [Group health care].

    PubMed

    Hermida, C

    1986-01-01

    The transition from individual to group health care entails a response to multidisciplinary scientific systems, the enlistment of community participation, and an effort to make the professionals aware of the need to work as a team. The author points to the need to change the information system so that the professional-to-be will acquire a mentality and method of work appropriate for group care. In the architecture of service facilities structural changes must also be provided for the care of groups rather than individuals. In short, the change entails a review of all the elements of care.

  9. Tutorial for Authors and Referees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Editors from Physical Review Letters and Physical Review will provide information and tips for our less experienced referees and authors. This session is aimed at anyone looking to submit to or review for any of the APS journals, as well as anyone who would like to learn more about the authoring and refereeing processes. Topics for discussion will include advice on how to write good manuscripts, similarities and differences in writing referee reports for PRL and PR, and other ways in which authors, referees, and editors can work together productively. Following a short presentation from the editors, there will be a moderated discussion.

  10. The Author and His Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain Today, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Works of Emilio Garcia Gomez, Dario Fernandez Florez, Armando Lopez Salinas, Jaime de Arminan, Luis Lopez Anglada, and Carmen Bravo Villasante are analyzed in this continuing series on Spanish authors. (DS)

  11. 3 CFR - Delegation of Authority

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... State By the authority vested in me as President by the Constitution and the laws of the United States of America, including section 301 of title 3, United States Code, I hereby delegate to you...

  12. Local Authority and Town Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duder, Bruce

    1987-01-01

    Provides an overview and definition of local authority and town planning in New Zealand. Demonstrates the relevance of planning matters to the teaching of geography. Reviews objectives of geography and specific planning methods used in several districts. (BR)

  13. Author Credit for Transdisciplinary Collaboration.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Ding, Ying; Malic, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Transdisciplinary collaboration is the key for innovation. An evaluation mechanism is necessary to ensure that academic credit for this costly process can be allocated fairly among coauthors. This paper proposes a set of quantitative measures (e.g., t_credit and t_index) to reflect authors' transdisciplinary contributions to publications. These measures are based on paper-topic probability distributions and author-topic probability distributions. We conduct an empirical analysis of the information retrieval domain which demonstrates that these measures effectively improve the results of harmonic_credit and h_index measures by taking into account the transdisciplinary contributions of authors. The definitions of t_credit and t_index provide a fair and effective way for research organizations to assign credit to authors of transdisciplinary publications.

  14. The Author and His Works

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain Today, 1971

    1971-01-01

    Works of Emilio Garcia Gomez, Dario Fernandez Florez, Armando Lopez Salinas, Jaime de Arminan, Luis Lopez Anglada, and Carmen Bravo Villasante are analyzed in this continuing series on Spanish authors. (DS)

  15. The Author and His Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spain Today, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Critical evaluation and biographical comments on contemporary Spanish authors Arcadio de Larrea Palacin, Leopoldo de Luis, Andres Bosch, Condesa de Campo Alange, Gonzalo Torrente Ballester, and Juan Rof Carballo. (DS)

  16. Tutorial for Authors and Referees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2014-03-01

    Editors from Physical Review Letters and Physical Review will provide information and tips for less experienced referees and authors. Topics for discussion will include advice on how to write good manuscripts, similarities and differences in writing referee reports for PRL and PR, and other ways in which authors, referees, and editors can work together productively. Following a short presentation from the editors, there will be a moderated discussion. A light breakfast of bagels, pastries, coffee, and tea will be served.

  17. Spaceport Florida Authority: Business Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    The Spaceport Florida Authority (SFA) was established under Florida Statute by the Governor and Legislature to assist the development of our nation's space transportation industry and to generate new space-related jobs, investment and opportunities statewide. Included in the Authorities' business plan is the statement of work and list of team members involved in creating the report, SFA's current operating concept, market analysis, assessment of accomplishments, a sample operating concept and a "roadmap to success".

  18. 76 FR 81366 - TRICARE: Changes Included in the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-28

    ... treatment facilities and authorized private sector dental care. This final rule does not eliminate any... the Reserve member in both military dental treatment facilities and authorized private sector dental... space available care in military dental treatment facilities and eligibility for the TRICARE...

  19. Primary health care.

    PubMed

    Kitai, A

    1986-07-01

    Development of primary care in Japan in still relatively unorganized and unstructured. As mentioned above, the author describes some strengths and weaknesses of the Japanese primary care system. In addressing the weaknesses the following suggestions are offered for the Japanese primary care delivery system: Increase the number of emergency rooms for all day, especially on holidays and at night. Introduce an appointment system. Introduce an open system of hospitals. Coordinate with public hospitals and primary care clinics. Organize the referral system between private practitioners and community hospitals. Increase the number of paramedical staff. Strengthen group practice among primary care physicians. Increase the establishment of departments of primary care practice with government financial incentives to medical schools and teaching hospitals. Develop a more active and direct teaching role for primary care practice or family practice at undergraduate, graduate, and postgraduate levels. Improve and maintain present health insurance payment method, shifting from quantity of care to quality and continuity of care. Introduce formal continuing education. Introduce formal training programs of primary care and strengthen ambulatory care teaching programs.

  20. Hospice Care

    MedlinePlus

    Hospice care is end-of-life care. A team of health care professionals and volunteers provides it. They give medical, psychological, and spiritual support. The goal of the care is to help people who ...

  1. Hospice Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Page Resize Text Printer Friendly Online Chat Hospice Care What is Hospice Care? When is Hospice Care ... Other Family Counseling and Support Services What is Hospice Care? Hospice programs are available to help terminally ill ...

  2. Managed Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... three types of managed care plans: Health Maintenance Organizations (HMO) usually only pay for care within the ... who coordinates most of your care. Preferred Provider Organizations (PPO) usually pay more if you get care ...

  3. Tracheostomy care

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory failure - tracheostomy care; Ventilator - tracheostomy care; Respiratory insufficiency - tracheostomy care ... Before you leave the hospital, health care providers will teach you how ... and suction the tube Keep the air you breathe moist Clean ...

  4. Palliative Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Palliative Care KidsHealth > For Parents > Palliative Care A A A ... decisions about their child's care. Who Needs Palliative Care? Any child who has a serious, complex, or ...

  5. Job Authority and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pudrovska, Tetyana

    2014-01-01

    Using the 1957–2011 data from the Wisconsin Longitudinal Study, I integrate the gender relations theory, a life course perspective, and a biosocial stress perspective to explore the effect of women’s job authority in 1975 (at age 36) and 1993 (at age 54) on breast cancer incidence up to 2011. Findings indicate that women with the authority to hire, fire, and influence others’ pay had a significantly higher risk of a breast cancer diagnosis over the next 30 years compared to housewives and employed women with no job authority. Because job authority conferred the highest risk of breast cancer for women who also spent more hours dealing with people at work in 1975, I suggest that the assertion of job authority by women in the 1970s involved stressful interpersonal experiences, such as social isolation and negative social interactions, that may have increased the risk of breast cancer via prolonged dysregulation of the glucocorticoid system and exposure of breast tissue to the adverse effects of chronically elevated cortisol. This study contributes to sociology by emphasizing gendered biosocial pathways through which women’s occupational experiences become embodied and drive forward physiological repercussions. PMID:25506089

  6. Author! Author! Amazing Cartoonist, Gifted Writer: William Steig

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    This article gives a brief biography of William Steig, one of America's best-known cartoonists and, later in life, a beloved children's author and illustrator. A major motion picture based on Steig's picture book "Shrek!" won the first Oscar in the category of best animated feature film in 2002. Steig passed away at the age of 95 in October, 2003.…

  7. Author! Author! Creator of Frog and Toad: Arnold Lobel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of author Arnold Lobel, perhaps best known for giving the world Frog and Toad. Arnold Lobel was born in Los Angeles, California, on May 22, 1933, and was raised by his grandparents in New York. He loved checking out books from the library when he was a little boy and sharing with his classmates the stories…

  8. Author! Author! Creator of Frog and Toad: Arnold Lobel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2005-01-01

    This article presents a brief biography of author Arnold Lobel, perhaps best known for giving the world Frog and Toad. Arnold Lobel was born in Los Angeles, California, on May 22, 1933, and was raised by his grandparents in New York. He loved checking out books from the library when he was a little boy and sharing with his classmates the stories…

  9. Author! Author! Amazing Cartoonist, Gifted Writer: William Steig

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    This article gives a brief biography of William Steig, one of America's best-known cartoonists and, later in life, a beloved children's author and illustrator. A major motion picture based on Steig's picture book "Shrek!" won the first Oscar in the category of best animated feature film in 2002. Steig passed away at the age of 95 in October, 2003.…

  10. Author! Author! Noted Writer of Historical Fiction: Karen Cushman

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brodie, Carolyn S.

    2004-01-01

    This article gives a brief biography of author Karen Cushman, best known for the attention to detail and thorough research that goes into her historical novels. Her first two novels, "Catherine, Called Birdy" and "The Midwife's Apprentice" were both Newbery Medal winners. A selected bibliography, as well as a list of related resources, is also…

  11. Living Authors, Living Stories: Integrating Local Authors into Our Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Beatrice Mendez

    2009-01-01

    Keeping literature classrooms vibrant, energized, and current can require supreme pedagogical effort, especially in light of students' sometimes pointed disinterest in traditional and/or canonical texts. Integrating local authors into a standard curriculum can be an effective strategy for invigorating students' interest in literature and helping…

  12. Ethics, Politics, and Religion in Public Health Care: A Manifesto for Health Care Chaplains in Canada.

    PubMed

    Lasair, Simon

    2016-03-01

    Health care chaplaincy positions in Canada are significantly threatened due to widespread health care cutbacks. Yet the current time also presents a significant opportunity for spiritual care providers. This article argues that religion and spirituality in Canada are undergoing significant changes. The question for Canadian health care chaplains is, then: how well equipped are they to understand these changes in health care settings and to engage them? This article attempts to go part way toward an answer. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Tutorial for Authors and Referees

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-03-01

    Editors from Physical Review Letters and Physical Review will provide information and tips for our less experienced referees and authors. This session is aimed at anyone looking to submit to or review for any of the APS journals, as well as anyone who would like to learn more about the authoring and refereeing processes. Topics for discussion will include advice on how to write good manuscripts, similarities and differences in writing referee reports for PRL and PR, and other ways in which authors, referees, and editors can work together productively. Following a short presentation from the editors, there will be a m oderated discussion. A light breakfast of bagels, pastries, coffee and tea will be served.

  14. Author Credit for Transdisciplinary Collaboration

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jian; Ding, Ying; Malic, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    Transdisciplinary collaboration is the key for innovation. An evaluation mechanism is necessary to ensure that academic credit for this costly process can be allocated fairly among coauthors. This paper proposes a set of quantitative measures (e.g., t_credit and t_index) to reflect authors’ transdisciplinary contributions to publications. These measures are based on paper-topic probability distributions and author-topic probability distributions. We conduct an empirical analysis of the information retrieval domain which demonstrates that these measures effectively improve the results of harmonic_credit and h_index measures by taking into account the transdisciplinary contributions of authors. The definitions of t_credit and t_index provide a fair and effective way for research organizations to assign credit to authors of transdisciplinary publications. PMID:26375678

  15. Care Aides' Relational Practices and Caring Contributions.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Elizabeth A; Spiers, Jude

    2016-11-01

    residents. 2. Describe how nursing home managers can empower care aides to provide care. DISCLOSURE STATEMENT Neither the planners nor the author have any conflicts of interest to disclose. The current study was a qualitative focused ethnography aimed at exploring the complexities of care; working environments; and knowledge, skills, and efforts of care aides who work in nursing homes. Over the past decade, dramatic shifts in staffing patterns in Canadian nursing homes have transformed care aides' assistive and caring roles. Care aides are now the central and most accessible service providers to nursing home residents. In the current article, the authors (a) conceptualize care aide work as caring rather than caring activities, (b) explore relational care as a foundational and significant component of care aide work, (c) interpret care aides' relational care practices through the lens of Swanson's Middle Range Theory of Caring, and (d) describe how nursing home managers can empower care aides to do this work. [Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 42(11), 24-30.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  16. The Discursive Construction of Collaborative Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engestrom, Yrjo; Engestrom, Ritva; Kerosuo, Hannele

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes sessions in which medical professionals, along with patient and researcher interventionists, discuss the care of a patient with multiple chronic illnesses, aiming at the creation of a new, collaborative care practice. (Author/VWL)

  17. 78 FR 12953 - TRICARE; TRICARE Sanction Authority for Third-Party Billing Agents

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... programs (and, where applicable, other Federal health care programs) against persons that violate the... regulatory authority to sanction billing agencies or any entities that prepare or submit improper health care... have a contractual relationship with the health care provider that requires them to file claims...

  18. 77 FR 19290 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Renewal of Deeming Authority of the Accreditation Association for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-30

    ... Deeming Authority of the Accreditation Association for Ambulatory Health Care, Inc. for Medicare Advantage... Care, Inc. (AAAHC) for Health Maintenance Organizations and Preferred Provider Organizations for a term... generally recognized by the health care industry as entities that accredit HMOs and PPOs. As we specify at...

  19. 38 CFR 17.180 - Delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., the Under Secretary for Health is hereby delegated authority as follows: (a) To exercise the powers... overall operation of the Veterans Canteen Service and to designate selected employees of the Veterans... Homes Note: Sections 17.190 through 17.200 do not apply to nursing home care in State homes....

  20. 38 CFR 17.180 - Delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., the Under Secretary for Health is hereby delegated authority as follows: (a) To exercise the powers... overall operation of the Veterans Canteen Service and to designate selected employees of the Veterans... Homes Note: Sections 17.190 through 17.200 do not apply to nursing home care in State homes....

  1. 38 CFR 17.180 - Delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., the Under Secretary for Health is hereby delegated authority as follows: (a) To exercise the powers... overall operation of the Veterans Canteen Service and to designate selected employees of the Veterans... Homes Note: Sections 17.190 through 17.200 do not apply to nursing home care in State homes....

  2. 38 CFR 17.180 - Delegation of authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., the Under Secretary for Health is hereby delegated authority as follows: (a) To exercise the powers... overall operation of the Veterans Canteen Service and to designate selected employees of the Veterans... Homes Note: Sections 17.190 through 17.200 do not apply to nursing home care in State homes....

  3. 45 CFR 675.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... PROCESS FOR DEPLOYMENT TO ANTARCTICA § 675.1 Purpose and authority. (a) This part sets forth the... Antarctica. Medical screening examinations are necessary to determine the presence of any physical or... that could not be effectively treated by the limited medical care capabilities in Antarctica. (b...

  4. 42 CFR 438.210 - Coverage and authorization of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coverage and authorization of services. 438.210 Section 438.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and Performance...

  5. 42 CFR 438.210 - Coverage and authorization of services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Coverage and authorization of services. 438.210 Section 438.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Quality Assessment and Performance...

  6. The future of the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority.

    PubMed

    English, Veronica

    2013-04-01

    The UK Government has proposed that the Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) should be abolished and its functions transferred to the Care Quality Commission. This commentary explores the problems with this proposal and suggests that an independent review of how the HFEA carries out its functions and a subsequent reform of some of its practices represent a better option for the UK.

  7. 45 CFR 675.1 - Purpose and authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... PROCESS FOR DEPLOYMENT TO ANTARCTICA § 675.1 Purpose and authority. (a) This part sets forth the... Antarctica. Medical screening examinations are necessary to determine the presence of any physical or... that could not be effectively treated by the limited medical care capabilities in Antarctica....

  8. 45 CFR 150.403 - Scope of ALJ's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Scope of ALJ's authority. 150.403 Section 150.403 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.403 Scope of...

  9. 45 CFR 150.403 - Scope of ALJ's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Scope of ALJ's authority. 150.403 Section 150.403 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.403 Scope of...

  10. 45 CFR 150.403 - Scope of ALJ's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Scope of ALJ's authority. 150.403 Section 150.403 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.403 Scope of...

  11. 45 CFR 150.403 - Scope of ALJ's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Scope of ALJ's authority. 150.403 Section 150.403 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.403 Scope of...

  12. 45 CFR 150.403 - Scope of ALJ's authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Scope of ALJ's authority. 150.403 Section 150.403 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING TO HEALTH CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS Administrative Hearings § 150.403 Scope of...

  13. 45 CFR 99.21 - Authority of presiding officer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEARINGS FOR THE CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Hearing Procedures § 99.21 Authority of presiding officer. (a) The presiding officer shall have the duty to conduct a fair hearing, to avoid delay, maintain... party against whom discovery is sought; (6) Regulate the course of the hearing and conduct of...

  14. Caring to Care: Applying Noddings' Philosophy to Medical Education.

    PubMed

    Balmer, Dorene F; Hirsh, David A; Monie, Daphne; Weil, Henry; Richards, Boyd F

    2016-04-26

    The authors argue that Nel Noddings' philosophy, "an ethic of caring," may illuminate how students learn to be caring physicians from their experience of being in a caring, reciprocal relationship with teaching faculty. In her philosophy, Noddings acknowledges two important contextual continuities: duration and space, which the authors speculate exist within longitudinal integrated clerkships. In this Perspective, the authors highlight core features of Noddings' philosophy and explore its applicability to medical education. They apply Noddings' philosophy to a subset of data from a previously published longitudinal case study to explore its "goodness of fit" with the experience of eight students in the 2012 cohort of the Columbia-Bassett longitudinal integrated clerkship. In line with Noddings' philosophy, the authors' supplementary analysis suggests that students (1) recognized caring when they talked about "being known" by teaching faculty who "cared for" and "trusted" them; (2) responded to caring by demonstrating enthusiasm, action, and responsibility toward patients; and (3) acknowledged that duration and space facilitated caring relations with teaching faculty. The authors discuss how Noddings' philosophy provides a useful conceptual framework to apply to medical education design and to future research on caring-oriented clinical training, such as longitudinal integrated clerkships.

  15. 32 CFR 732.15 - Unauthorized care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unauthorized care. 732.15 Section 732.15... DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.15 Unauthorized care. The following are not authorized by this part: (a) Chiropractic services. (b) Vasectomies. (c) Tubal ligations....

  16. 32 CFR 732.15 - Unauthorized care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unauthorized care. 732.15 Section 732.15... DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.15 Unauthorized care. The following are not authorized by this part: (a) Chiropractic services. (b) Vasectomies. (c) Tubal ligations....

  17. 32 CFR 732.15 - Unauthorized care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unauthorized care. 732.15 Section 732.15... DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.15 Unauthorized care. The following are not authorized by this part: (a) Chiropractic services. (b) Vasectomies. (c) Tubal ligations....

  18. 32 CFR 732.15 - Unauthorized care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unauthorized care. 732.15 Section 732.15... DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.15 Unauthorized care. The following are not authorized by this part: (a) Chiropractic services. (b) Vasectomies. (c) Tubal ligations....

  19. 32 CFR 732.15 - Unauthorized care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 5 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unauthorized care. 732.15 Section 732.15... DENTAL CARE Medical and Dental Care From Nonnaval Sources § 732.15 Unauthorized care. The following are not authorized by this part: (a) Chiropractic services. (b) Vasectomies. (c) Tubal ligations....

  20. Parents as Consumers of Child Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuqua, Robert W.; Labensohn, Dorothy

    1986-01-01

    Results of a survey of parents utilizing day care indicated that parents thought they were prepared to select child care, but they in reality did not have the skills or assistance available to them to function as wise consumers of child care. Findings also indicated a lack of diverse, affordable, and accessible child care arrangements. (Author/BL)

  1. Day Care: Scientific and Social Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zigler, Edward F., Ed.; Gordon, Edmund W., Ed.

    In this book of articles on day care, policy analyses of day care delivery are combined with recent research on the effects of day care. The authors include experimental psychologists, psychiatrists, economists, public health workers, pediatricians, and early childhood educators. Among the issues investigated are the influence of day care on…

  2. Authorizing the Foreign Language Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxim, Hiram H.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews current practices in foreign-language teaching in light of Bourdieu's theories of language and power to show how failing to assess discursive intent prevents students from understanding strategic use of language. Bordieu's model is then proposed as the basis for pedagogy that authorizes students to use their existing cognitive skills in…

  3. Students as Ethnographers: Encouraging Authority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, William W.

    1991-01-01

    Suggests that the practice of ethnography in the spirit of Clifford Geertz's "thick description," and the thinking that this practice demands, can give college students both a tool for inquiry and a sense of their positions as authorities in the writing process. Defines thick description and discusses how ethnography works in a…

  4. NASA Publications Guide for Authors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    This document presents guidelines for use by NASA authors in preparation and publication of their scientific and technical information (STI). Section 2 gives an overview. Section 2 describes types of publication. Section 3 discusses technical, data/information, and dissemination reviews. Section 4 provides recommended standards and gives the elements of a typical report. Section 5 presents miscellaneous preparation recommendations.

  5. [Histology of keratoglobus (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Knieper, P; Rochels, R; Nover, A

    1980-07-01

    The authors examined four cases of keratoglobus and report here on the histological changes found: degenerative alterations of the epithelium, characteristic changes of Bowman's membrane, such as thinning, detachment and wrinkling, alterations of the stroma and secondary alterations of the Descemet's membrane. These results indicate that keratoglobus is nearly an extreme variant of keratoconus.

  6. Authoring Educational Courseware Using OXYGEN.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ip, Albert

    Engaging learners on the World Wide Web is more than sending Web pages to the user. However, for many course delivery software programs, the smallest unit of delivery is a Web page. How content experts can create engaging Web pages has largely been ignored or taken for granted. This paper reports on an authoring model for creating pedagogically…

  7. [Transient neonatal diabetes (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    de Ureta, A; Jiménez, M; Arroyos, A; Alonso, J A; Sánchez de León, L; Félix, V

    1980-07-01

    A case of transient diabetes "mellitus" in a newborn infant with secondary hypertonic dehydration is presented. Authors review the problematical ethiology of this rare disease and a commentary is made on the adequate control of their case with continuous endovenous infusion of insulin.

  8. Achieving Journalistic Authority through Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1990-01-01

    Examines how journalists use three narrative strategies (synecdoche, omission, and personalization) to assert their authority in their retellings of the John F. Kennedy assassination. Finds that, by giving themselves a central position within the story, journalists make the assassination story as much about American journalists as about Kennedy's…

  9. Authority, Identity, and Collaborative Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langer-Osuna, Jennifer M.

    2017-01-01

    The field of mathematics education research has seen a resurgence of interest in understanding collaborative learning because students in K-12 classrooms are increasingly expected to make sense of mathematics problems together. This Research Commentary argues for the importance of understanding student authority relations in collaborative…

  10. Registering Researchers in Authority Files

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith-Yoshimura, Karen; Altman, Micah; Conlon, Michael; Cristán, Ana Lupe; Dawson, Laura; Dunham, Joanne; Hickey, Thom; Hook, Daniel; Horstmann, Wolfram; MacEwan, Andrew; Schreur, Philip; Smart, Laura; Wacker, Melanie; Woutersen, Saskia

    2014-01-01

    Written by OCLC Research Program Officer Karen Smith-Yoshimura and the 13 members of the Registering Researchers in Authority Files Task Group comprised of specialists from the US, UK, and the Netherlands, this report summarizes their research into approaches to providing authoritative researcher identifiers. Registering researchers in some type…

  11. Achieving Journalistic Authority through Narrative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zelizer, Barbie

    1990-01-01

    Examines how journalists use three narrative strategies (synecdoche, omission, and personalization) to assert their authority in their retellings of the John F. Kennedy assassination. Finds that, by giving themselves a central position within the story, journalists make the assassination story as much about American journalists as about Kennedy's…

  12. Wisconsin Authors/Teaching Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karolides, Nicholas J., Ed.

    1984-01-01

    The articles in this journal issue explore inventive ways of teaching literature, including the use of works written by Wisconsin residents. The titles of the articles and their authors are as follows: (1) "From Wau-Bun to Door Way" (Richard Boudreau); (2) "The Reading Tree" (Richard Behm); (3) "Manipulating Language: A…

  13. Authority, Conflict, and Teacher Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spady, William G.

    1973-01-01

    An analysis which attempts to link all three of the sources of conflict in schools, which appear to reside in three overlapping arenas: the goals and functions of public schools, the nature of the roles that are defined by these functions, and the manner or style in which these roles are played out. (Author/JM)

  14. Authorizing the Foreign Language Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxim, Hiram H.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews current practices in foreign-language teaching in light of Bourdieu's theories of language and power to show how failing to assess discursive intent prevents students from understanding strategic use of language. Bordieu's model is then proposed as the basis for pedagogy that authorizes students to use their existing cognitive skills in…

  15. A Virtual International Authority File.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tillett, Barbara B.

    A pool of authority records for bibliographic entities (persons, corporate bodies, works/expressions, concepts, objects, events, and places) to use on the Internet is of interest, not only to libraries and their users, but also to publishers, copyright and rights management organizations, museums, and archives. This paper explores different models…

  16. Pupil Authors and Teacher Innovators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parry, John.

    2004-01-01

    This article explores three aspects regarding the supporting of teaching and learning through ICT (information and communication technology). First, the use and value of storyboarding as a preferable technique prior to the creation of a pupil-authored CD-ROM by children aged 9 and 14. Second, responses to the innovation by practicing teachers.…

  17. Columbine Author Speaks at Conference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Andrea J.

    2004-01-01

    Brooks Brown, the author of No Easy Answers: The Truth Behind Death at Columbine High School, spoke at the 11th annual Reclaiming Youth International No Disposable Kids conference at Rushmore Plaza Holiday Inn. Brown, who worked with Michael Moore on his Academy Award winning documentary, "Bowling for Columbine," said the letters he…

  18. Authority, Gender, Power, and Tokenism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaux, Kay

    1978-01-01

    The role of women in leadership positions can be understood fully only by considering both the process and the broader structural aspects of the organization. Available from: JABS Order Dept., NTL Institute for Applied Behavior Science, P.O. Box 9155, Rosslyn Station, Arlington, Virginia 22209 (Author)

  19. Evaluating a Multimedia Authoring Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    John, Bonnie E.; Mashyna, Matthew M.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a case study of a computer scientist learning and using the Cognitive Walkthrough (CW) technique to assess a multimedia authoring tool. Compares predictions by the analysis to the usability problems found in empirical usability tests. Presents several hypotheses about the cause of low effectiveness, which suggest that additional…

  20. Stress-altered synaptic plasticity and DAMP signaling in the hippocampus-PFC axis; elucidating the significance of IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα expression in neural changes associated with a prolonged exposure therapy.

    PubMed

    Ogundele, Olalekan M; Ebenezer, Philip J; Lee, Charles C; Francis, Joseph

    2017-06-14

    Traumatic stress patients showed significant improvement in behavior after a prolonged exposure to an unrelated stimulus. This treatment method attempts to promote extinction of the fear memory associated with the initial traumatic experience. However, the subsequent prolonged exposure to such stimulus creates an additional layer of neural stress. Although the mechanism remains unclear, prolonged exposure therapy (PET) likely involves changes in synaptic plasticity, neurotransmitter function and inflammation; especially in parts of the brain concerned with the formation and retrieval of fear memory (Hippocampus and Prefrontal Cortex: PFC). Since certain synaptic proteins are also involved in danger-associated molecular pattern signaling (DAMP), we identified the significance of IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα expression as a potential link between the concurrent progression of synaptic and inflammatory changes in stress. Thus, a comparison between IGF-1/IGF-1R/CaMKIIα, synaptic and DAMP proteins in stress and PET may highlight the significance of PET on synaptic morphology and neuronal inflammatory response. In behaviorally characterized Sprague-Dawley rats, there was a significant decline in neural IGF-1 (p<0.001), hippocampal (p<0.001) and cortical (p<0.05) IGF-1R expression. These animals showed a significant loss of presynaptic markers (synaptophysin; p<0.001), and changes in neurotransmitters (VGLUT2, Tyrosine hydroxylase, GABA, ChAT). Furthermore, naïve stressed rats recorded a significant decrease in post-synaptic marker (PSD-95; p<0.01) and synaptic regulator (CaMKIIα; p<0.001). As part of the synaptic response to a decrease in brain CaMKIIα, small ion conductance channel (KCa2.2) was upregulated in the brain of naïve stressed rats (p<0.01). After a PET, an increase in IGF-1 (p<0.05) and IGF-1R was recorded in the Stress-PET group (p<0.001). As such, hippocampal (p<0.001), but not cortical (ns) synaptophysin expression increased in Stress-PET. Although PSD-95

  1. Steadying the Three-Legged Stool: Authorizers, Charter Schools, and Education Service Providers. Authorizing Matters. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Adam; Lin, Margaret

    2006-01-01

    A three-legged stool is always stable, regardless of its placement on an uneven surface. Keeping the top parallel to the floor and comfortable to sit on, however, requires careful steps to achieve balance among each of the three legs. In carrying out their work, authorizers typically work to achieve steadiness in a two-party accountability…

  2. Blending Key Ingredients to Assure Quality in Home Health Care.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Deloris G.

    1986-01-01

    Careful staff selection, training, and review are among the methods the author recommends to home care agencies striving to provide top-notch services. Discusses measuring the quality of care employees are providing, accreditation, and the benefits of accreditation. (CT)

  3. Comparison of the clinical outcomes after total knee arthroplasty with the LCS rotating platform mobile bearing knee system and the PFC Sigma RP-F mobile bearing knee system.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Ju-Yeong; Jeong, Jae-Heon; Lee, Sang-Hak; Jung, Ho-Joong; Jung, Young-Bok

    2012-12-01

    We compared clinical outcomes after total knee arthroplasty with the Low Contact Stress (LCS) rotating platform mobile bearing knee system and the Press Fit Condylar Sigma rotating platform high flexion (PFC Sigma RP-F) mobile bearing knee system. Fifty cases of total knee arthroplasty were performed with the PFC Sigma RP-F mobile bearing knee system and sixty-one cases were performed with the LCS mobile bearing total knee arthroplasty. The average duration of follow-up was 2.9 years. The mean Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score was 62.1 (range, 52 to 75) in the LCS group and 61.9 (range, 50 to 74) in the Sigma RP-F group preoperatively, and 90.1 (range, 84 to 100) in the LCS group and 89.8 (range, 83 to 100) in the Sigma RP-F group at the final follow-up. The mean preoperative flexion contracture was 6.7° (range, 0° to 10°) in the LCS group and 9.3° (range, 0° to 15°) in the Sigma RP-F group preoperatively. The mean range of motion was 124.6° (range, 105° to 150°) in the LCS group and 126.1° (range, 104° to 145°) in the Sigma RP-F group at the final follow-up. After a minimum duration of follow-up of two years, we found no significant differences between the two groups with regard to the range of knee motion or the clinical or radiographic results.

  4. Comparison of the Clinical Outcomes after Total Knee Arthroplasty with the LCS Rotating Platform Mobile Bearing Knee System and the PFC Sigma RP-F Mobile Bearing Knee System

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Ju-Yeong; Jeong, Jae-Heon; Lee, Sang-Hak; Jung, Ho-Joong

    2012-01-01

    Background We compared clinical outcomes after total knee arthroplasty with the Low Contact Stress (LCS) rotating platform mobile bearing knee system and the Press Fit Condylar Sigma rotating platform high flexion (PFC Sigma RP-F) mobile bearing knee system. Methods Fifty cases of total knee arthroplasty were performed with the PFC Sigma RP-F mobile bearing knee system and sixty-one cases were performed with the LCS mobile bearing total knee arthroplasty. The average duration of follow-up was 2.9 years. Results The mean Hospital for Special Surgery (HSS) knee score was 62.1 (range, 52 to 75) in the LCS group and 61.9 (range, 50 to 74) in the Sigma RP-F group preoperatively, and 90.1 (range, 84 to 100) in the LCS group and 89.8 (range, 83 to 100) in the Sigma RP-F group at the final follow-up. The mean preoperative flexion contracture was 6.7° (range, 0° to 10°) in the LCS group and 9.3° (range, 0° to 15°) in the Sigma RP-F group preoperatively. The mean range of motion was 124.6° (range, 105° to 150°) in the LCS group and 126.1° (range, 104° to 145°) in the Sigma RP-F group at the final follow-up. Conclusions After a minimum duration of follow-up of two years, we found no significant differences between the two groups with regard to the range of knee motion or the clinical or radiographic results. PMID:23205234

  5. The Future of Mental Health Care Delivery: Ideals and Realities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gottlieb, Michael C.; Cooper, Caren C.

    2000-01-01

    Gives a response to the reactants of the authors' article (this issue), "Ethical Issues with Managed Care: Challenges Facing Counseling Psychology." Anticipates trends in the managed care movement and predicts numerous models of health care delivery as the current system of managed care diminishes. (Author/GCP)

  6. Health, fortune, and moral authority in medicine.

    PubMed

    Bowlin, John R

    1996-01-01

    The Christian conviction about Divine Providence encourages a novel account of the moral content of health and authority in the health care context. While health can be understood as the disposition of a living body to be able to proceed in the world well, as a species of freedom it is informed by the particular projects and concerns that Christians hold deepest. This is due to the fact that health acquires content, and thus becomes desirable as a particular type of good, only in relation to judgments about the good life. Aquinas' reflections concerning the good of health and its partial slavery to fortune reveal a Christian past that dwelt on the intrinsic and instrumental good of health. A rich Christian tradition in which health as intrinsically good, a good of the body, is ordained to the interests of right Christian virtue. Each of these factors affects the character of the health to be pursued and the authority of the physician as determining the ends and means of medicine.

  7. Behavioral Techniques in Foster Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stein, Theodore J.; Gambrill, Eileen D.

    1976-01-01

    Behavioral modification techniques are used with families of children in foster care as a way of helping them achieve long-range goals for their children. Case examples illustrate the goals, intervention plans, and the outcomes. (Author)

  8. [Travel during pregnancy (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lehmann, W D

    1976-08-27

    Before a long journey, the healthy pregnant woman should be advised by her doctor after a careful examination. Healthy pregnant women may consider traveling to any destination except tropical and subtropical regions, where a danger of infection with malaria or dysentery exists. Likewise she should not select a country where vaccination with living virus is required on entry. Pregnant women with a high risk (hemorrhages, toxemia of pregnancy, threatening premature birth) should be advised unconditionally against a long journey.

  9. Elkhorn ruling boosts state authority

    SciTech Connect

    Beecher, H.A.

    1995-03-01

    On 31 May 1994, a landmark U.S. Supreme Court decision expanded state authority to establish conditions to protect water quality and included stream flows, aesthetics, and, potentially, other elements in a broad definition of water quality. Called the {open_quotes}Elkhorn case{close_quotes} the Supreme Court ruled that the state of Washington Department of Ecology has authority to set instream flows for fish (primarily steelhead, chinook, and coho salmon) as a condition of a Water Quality Certification (WQC) issued by the state under Section 401 of the federal Clean Water Act (CWA). The case surrounded the petitioners (applicants) proposed building of the Elkhorn Hydroelectric Project on the Dosewallips River, Washington. The project would have consisted of a dam near the boundary of Olympic National Park and a pipeline to carry diverted water around a 1.2-mile bypass reach to a powerhouse at Olympic National Forest`s Elkhorn Campground.

  10. Collabortive Authoring of Walden's Paths

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yuanling; Bogen II, Paul Logasa; Pogue, Daniel; Furuta, Richard Keith; Shipman, Frank Major

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a prototype of an authoring tool to allow users to collaboratively build, annotate, manage, share and reuse collections of distributed resources from the World Wide Web. This extends on the Walden’s Path project’s work to help educators bring resources found on the World Wide Web into a linear contextualized structure. The introduction of collaborative authoring feature fosters collaborative learning activities through social interaction among participants, where participants can coauthor paths in groups. Besides, the prototype supports path sharing, branching and reusing; specifically, individual participant can contribute to the group with private collections of knowledge resources; paths completed by group can be shared among group members, such that participants can tailor, extend, reorder and/or replace nodes to have sub versions of shared paths for different information needs.

  11. Proxy consent: moral authority misconceived

    PubMed Central

    Wrigley, A

    2007-01-01

    The Mental Capacity Act 2005 has provided unified scope in the British medical system for proxy consent with regard to medical decisions, in the form of a lasting power of attorney. While the intentions are to increase the autonomous decision making powers of those unable to consent, the author of this paper argues that the whole notion of proxy consent collapses into a paternalistic judgement regarding the other person's best interests and that the new legislation introduces only an advisor, not a proxy with the moral authority to make treatment decisions on behalf of another. The criticism is threefold. First, there is good empirical evidence that people are poor proxy decision makers as regards accurately representing other people's desires and wishes, and this is therefore a pragmatically inadequate method of gaining consent. Second, philosophical theory explaining how we represent other people's thought processes indicates that we are unlikely ever to achieve accurate simulations of others' wishes in making a proxy decision. Third, even if we could accurately simulate other people's beliefs and wishes, the current construction of proxy consent in the Mental Capacity Act means that it has no significant ethical authority to match that of autonomous decision making. Instead, it is governed by a professional, paternalistic, best‐interests judgement that undermines the intended role of a proxy decision maker. The author argues in favour of clearly adopting the paternalistic best‐interests option and viewing the proxy as solely an advisor to the professional medical team in helping make best‐interests judgements. PMID:17761821

  12. Computer Aided Authoring and Editing.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-02-01

    information in to reduce the cost and time required for various forms or to repeat it in various authors to create documents that teach places, the computer... teach this Skill, first the displayed and minor editorial changes task was divided into parts. Docu~ments were made using word processing type with...training illustrates this point. The teaching of weather symbols, Navy flags and Morse code represent a a NAE OFFINffRO ;;171wparticular class of

  13. Strenghening Safeguards Authorities and Institutions

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman,M.; Lockwood, d.; Rosenthal, M.D.; Tape, J.W.

    2008-06-06

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards system has changed in major ways from the establishment of the IAEA in 1957 until the present. Changes include strengthening the legal framework of safeguards; improvements in concepts and approaches for safeguards implementation; and significant improvements in the technical tools available to inspectors. In this paper, we explore three broad areas related to strengthening safeguards authorities and institutions: integrated safeguards and State-Level Approaches; special inspections; and NPT withdrawal and the continuation of safeguards.

  14. Beyond Care?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedge, Nicki; Mackenzie, Alison

    2012-01-01

    Care is a feature of all of our lives, all of the time. An analysis of Scotland's Curriculum for Excellence reveals that care and caring permeate complex dimensions of life in and after school and we ask here, if, on some accounts, care can do the work required of it. Acknowledging the significance of her contribution to care, we focus on the work…

  15. What is the health care product?

    PubMed

    France, K R; Grover, R

    1992-06-01

    Because of the current competitive environment, health care providers (hospitals, HMOs, physicians, and others) are constantly searching for better products and better means for delivering them. The health care product is often loosely defined as a service. The authors develop a more precise definition of the health care product, product line, and product mix. A bundle-of-elements concept is presented for the health care product. These conceptualizations help to address how health care providers can segment their market and position, promote, and price their products. Though the authors focus on hospitals, the concepts and procedures developed are applicable to other health care organizations.

  16. Achieving better health care outcomes for children in foster care.

    PubMed

    Mekonnen, Robin; Noonan, Kathleen; Rubin, David

    2009-04-01

    This article reviews the challenges health care systems face as they attempt to improve health care outcomes for children in foster care. It discusses several of the promising health care strategies occurring outside the perimeter of child welfare and identifies some of the key impasses in working alongside efforts in child welfare reform. The authors posit that the greatest impasse in establishing a reasonable quality of health care for these children is placement instability, in which children move frequently among multiple homes and in and out of the child welfare system. The authors propose potential strategies in which efforts to improve placement stability can serve as a vehicle for multidisciplinary reform across the health care system.

  17. Who Cares about Caring in Early Childhood Teacher Education Programs?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Abigail; Mercurio, Mia; Peloso, Jeanne M.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to care for oneself, near and distant others, animals, plants, human-made objects, and even ideas is an antidote for violence in its many forms as experienced in childhood as well as adulthood. This article makes a case for facilitating the development of the ability to care as children develop. The authors emphasize the importance of…

  18. Do Your Students Care Whether You Care about Them?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Steven A.

    2009-01-01

    The author integrates research and theory to suggest that caring is an important dimension of effective college teaching. Despite the fact that students are acutely aware of whether their professors care about them, professors do not necessarily prioritize this aspect of teaching to the same extent. This article provides concrete suggestions about…

  19. Becoming Connected, Being Caring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Julienne; Ashburner, Charlotte; Holman, Cheryl

    2006-01-01

    This paper highlights perspectives on action research in education, health and social care and was originally presented as a keynote at the International Practitioner Research Conference and Collaborative Action Research Conference in 2005. The paper links with the other conference keynote given by Stephen Kemmis, co-author of "Becoming…

  20. Self Care

    MedlinePlus

    ... Care Connections Experiences Research Learning Evaluation Print Email Self Care If you are living with a chronic ... help you cope can make a real difference. Self-care techniques are things you can do for ...