van der Maarel-Wierink, Claar D; van der Putten, Gert-Jan; De Visschere, Luc M J; Bronkhorst, Ewald M; de Baat, Cees; Schols, Jos M G A
Pneumonia is a prevalent cause of death in care home residents. Dysphagia is a significant risk factor of aspiration pneumonia. The purpose of the current study was to screen for risk of aspiration in care home residents in the Netherlands and assess potential risk factors of aspiration. Five experienced speech-language therapists assessed 203 care home residents (115 primarily physically disabled, 88 primarily cognitively impaired) 60 and older in the first week after admission to a care home. In 43 (21.2%) residents, speech-language therapists assessed risk of aspiration and found no significant difference between physically disabled (26.1%) and cognitively impaired (14.8%) residents. After multivariate logistic regression analysis, the final prediction model for risk of aspiration showed Parkinson's disease as a significant factor (odds ratio = 5.11; 95% confidence interval [1.49, 17.52]) . The authors therefore conclude that risk of aspiration is a relevant care problem among Dutch care home residents and requires further assessment.
Stolee, Paul; Poss, Jeff; Cook, Richard J; Byrne, Kerry; Hirdes, John P
Little information is available on hip fracture risks among community-dwelling persons receiving home care. Our aim was to identify risk factors for hip fracture from health information routinely collected for older home care clients. This was a cohort study involving secondary analysis of data on 40,279 long-stay (>60 days) home care clients aged 65 and older in Ontario, Canada; occurrence of hip fracture as well as potential risk factor information were measured using the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI)/Minimum Data Set-Home Care assessment instrument. In all, 1,003 clients (2.5%) had hip fracture on follow-up assessment. Older (85+ vs 65-74, relative risk [95% confidence interval]: 0.52 [0.43-0.64]) clients are at increased risk; males are at reduced risk [0.60 (0.51-0.70)]. Other risk factors include osteoporosis (1.19 [1.03-1.36]), falls (1.31 [1.15-1.49]), unsteady gait (1.18 [1.03-1.36]), use of ambulation aide (1.39 [1.21-1.59]), tobacco use (1.42, [1.13-1.80]), severe malnutrition (2.61 [1.67-4.08]), and cognitive impairment (1.30 [1.12-1.51]). Arthritis (0.86 [0.76-0.98]) and morbid obesity (0.34 [0.16-0.72]) were associated with reduced risk. Males and females demonstrated different risk profiles. Important risk factors for hip fracture can be identified from routinely collected data; these could be used to identify at-risk clients for further investigation and prevention strategies.
Poss, Jeff; Cook, Richard J.; Byrne, Kerry; Hirdes, John P.
Background Little information is available on hip fracture risks among community-dwelling persons receiving home care. Our aim was to identify risk factors for hip fracture from health information routinely collected for older home care clients. Methods This was a cohort study involving secondary analysis of data on 40,279 long-stay (>60 days) home care clients aged 65 and older in Ontario, Canada; occurrence of hip fracture as well as potential risk factor information were measured using the Resident Assessment Instrument (RAI)/Minimum Data Set–Home Care assessment instrument. Results In all, 1,003 clients (2.5%) had hip fracture on follow-up assessment. Older (85+ vs 65–74, relative risk [95% confidence interval]: 0.52 [0.43–0.64]) clients are at increased risk; males are at reduced risk [0.60 (0.51–0.70)]. Other risk factors include osteoporosis (1.19 [1.03–1.36]), falls (1.31 [1.15–1.49]), unsteady gait (1.18 [1.03–1.36]), use of ambulation aide (1.39 [1.21–1.59]), tobacco use (1.42, [1.13–1.80]), severe malnutrition (2.61 [1.67–4.08]), and cognitive impairment (1.30 [1.12–1.51]). Arthritis (0.86 [0.76–0.98]) and morbid obesity (0.34 [0.16–0.72]) were associated with reduced risk. Males and females demonstrated different risk profiles. Conclusions Important risk factors for hip fracture can be identified from routinely collected data; these could be used to identify at-risk clients for further investigation and prevention strategies . PMID:19196903
Berglund, Sophie; Grunewald, Charlotta; Pettersson, Hans; Cnattingius, Sven
To identify maternal, pregnancy, delivery and infants characteristics related to neonatal asphyxia and associated with substandard care. A nation-wide case-control study in Sweden. Infants born between 1990 and 2005 with a gestational age > or = 33 weeks and a spontaneous or induced onset of labor. Cases were 177 previously identified infants suffering from encephalopathy caused by asphyxia where there was suspected substandard care during labor, and where claims for financial compensation were filed. Controls were identified from the population-based Swedish Medical Birth Register, had an Apgar score of 10 at five minutes, and were alive at 28 days of age. Severe asphyxia associated with substandard care during childbirth. Maternal and delivery factors associated with asphyxia included maternal age > or = 30 years, short maternal stature (< or =159 cm), previous cesarean delivery, insulin-dependent diabetes before pregnancy and gestational diabetes, induced deliveries and delivery at night, with adjusted odds ratios (ORs) ranging from a two- to fourfold increase in risk. Compared with non-dystocic deliveries, the OR for dystocic deliveries was fivefold higher, and was further increased if epidural anesthesia or opioids were used. Small- and large-for-gestational age infants, post-term (> or =42 weeks) births, twins and breech deliveries had a three- to eightfold increase in risk of asphyxia when there was substandard care during labor. Dystocia of labor, especially if epidurals and/or opioids are used, is the strongest risk factor associated with substandard care causing severe asphyxia during labor.
Bringuente, M E; de Castro, I S; de Jesus, J C; Luciano, L dos S
The present work aimed at studying risk factor that affect people with back pain, identifying them and implementing an intervention proposal of a health education program based on self-care teaching, existential humanist philosophical projects and stress equalization approach line, skeletal-muscle reintegration activities, basic techniques on stress equalization and massage. It has been developed for a population of 42 (forty-two) clients. Two instruments which integrate nursing consultation protocol have been used in data collection. The results showed the existence of associated risk factors which are changeable according to health education programs. The assessment process has contributed for therapeutic measures focus, using non-conventional care methods for this approach providing an improvement to these clients life quality.
Vargas-Porras, Carolina; Villamizar-Carvajal, Beatriz; Ardila-Suárez, Edinson Fabian
To determine the factors associated with the risk of negligence in child care during the first year of rearing in adolescent and adult mothers. This was cross-sectional correlation study with a non-probabilistic sample composed of 250 mothers during their first year of child rearing. The information was collected through the Parenting Inventory for Teenagers and Adults. 88 teenager mothers and 162 adult mothers participated in this study. In general low scores were found in all dimensions in both adolescent mothers group and adult mother group, which indicate the existence of deficiencies in the adequate maternal behavior and risk of negligent care to their children. In the group of teenage mothers there was an evident and significant correlation between the factors: maternal age and occupation dimension belief in punishment and occupation with inappropriate expectations dimension. The group of adult mothers showed significant correlation between: educational level with the dimensions of role reversal, belief in punishment and lack of empathy; socioeconomic dimension with the belief in punishment and age of the child with the lack of empathy dimension. Child rearing expectations of mothers show a high risk of negligence in child care. Therefore, nurses should promote the strengthening of the maternal role. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U.
Enserink, R; Mughini-Gras, L; Duizer, E; Kortbeek, T; Van Pelt, W
The child day-care centre (DCC) is often considered as one risk factor for gastroenteritis (GE) rather than a complex setting in which the interplay of many factors may influence the epidemiology of GE. This study aimed to identify DCC-level risk factors for GE and major enteropathogen occurrence. A dynamic network of 100 and 43 DCCs participated in a syndromic and microbiological surveillance during 2010-2013. The weekly incidence of GE events and weekly prevalence of five major enteropathogens (rotavirus, norovirus, astrovirus, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium hominis/parvum) were modelled per DCC using mixed-effects negative binomial/Poisson regression models. Sixteen hundred children were surveyed up to 3 years, during which 1829 GE episodes were reported and 5197 faecal samples were analysed. Identified risk factors were: large DCC capacity, crowding, having animals, nappy changing areas, sandpits, paddling pools, cleaning potties in normal sinks, cleaning vomit with paper towels (but without cleaner), mixing of staff between child groups, and staff members with multiple daily duties. Protective factors were: disinfecting fomites with chlorine, cleaning vomit with paper towels (and cleaner), daily cleaning of bed linen/toys, cohorting and exclusion policies for ill children and staff. Targeting these factors may reduce the burden of DCC-related GE.
Doran, Kelly; Resnick, Barbara
Little is known about long-term care workers' cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Thus, the authors used baseline objective and subjective data from 98 long-term care staff participating in a worksite health promotion study to provide a comprehensive CVD assessment. The median age of the sample was 32 years ( SD = 13.38). Nine (12.2%) participants smoked and 27 (37.0%) participants reported exposure to secondhand smoke. The average nightly hours of sleep was 6.5 ( SD = 1.18), with 24 (32%) participants reporting sleeping at least fairly bad. Sixty-eight participants (73.1%) were overweight or obese. The median aerobic activity was 0 ( SD = 18.56). Participants ate on average 27 ( SD = 17.34) servings of high fatty and/or salty foods per week. Although blood pressure and cholesterol levels were within normal limits, this population demonstrated poor behavioral CVD risk factors. Given this finding and the young age of the sample, these workers may be ideal candidates for health promotion efforts before health risk factors are present.
Gailiene, Greta; Cenenkiene, Regina
Health care workers are attributed to the group at highest risk of biological factors, as they are daily exposed to fluids of the human body. The risk of sharps injuries and exposure to blood is associated with bloodborne infections. The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and type of professional biological risk factors, to evaluate the use of personal protective devices, application of immunoprophylaxis to health care workers in the surgical departments. METHODS. A retrospective study was carried out from January to June 2006. Data were collected in the surgical departments of Hospital of Kaunas University of Medicine. An anonymous questionnaire survey was performed. RESULTS. More than half (51.4%) of the respondents experienced sharps injuries, 62.1% were exposed to biological fluids, and 39.6% of the workers experienced both injury and exposure. In all cases, the hands were injured during sharps injuries. Exposure of healthy skin and eyes to biological fluids occurred in 63% and 20% of the cases, respectively. Majority of exposures were blood splashes (60%). Physicians most frequently experienced sharps injury during the surgery (79.3%), nurses - during the preparation of instruments (35.1%), supporting staff - disposing the waste (75.8%). Commonly physicians were injured by surgical needles (72.4%), nurses - by needlestick (72.4%), and supporting staff - by glass waste (60.6%). Majority of the respondents (86%) were not vaccinated with HB vaccine. No personal protective equipment was used by 14.5% of the respondents during sharps injuries and 5% during exposures. CONCLUSIONS. More than half of the respondents experienced sharps injury or exposure to biological fluids during the study period. Physicians and nurses experience sharps injury and exposure to biological fluids more commonly as compared to supporting staff. Hepatitis B vaccination is insufficient among health care workers.
Jo, Yong Suk; Lee, Yeon Joo; Park, Jong Sun; Yoon, Ho Il; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Choon-Taek; Cho, Young-Jae
The objectives of this study were to find factors related to medical intensive care unit (ICU) readmission and to develop a prediction index for determining patients who are likely to be readmitted to medical ICUs. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 343 consecutive patients who were admitted to the medical ICU of a single medical center from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2012. We analyzed a broad range of patients' characteristics on the day of admission, extubation, and discharge from the ICU. Of the 343 patients discharged from the ICU alive, 33 (9.6%) were readmitted to the ICU unexpectedly. Using logistic regression analysis, the verified factors associated with increased risk of ICU readmission were male sex [odds ratio (OR) 3.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.29-8.48], history of diabetes mellitus (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.29-7.09), application of continuous renal replacement therapy during ICU stay (OR 2.78, 95% CI 0.85-9.09), white blood cell count on the day of extubation (OR 1.13, 95% CI 1.07-1.21), and heart rate just before ICU discharge (OR 1.03, 95% CI 1.01-1.06). We established a prediction index for ICU readmission using the five verified risk factors (area under the curve, 0.76, 95% CI 0.66-0.86). By using specific risk factors associated with increased readmission to the ICU, a numerical index could be established as an estimation tool to predict the risk of ICU readmission.
Ireland, Sandra E; Arthur, Heather M; Gunn, Elizabeth A; Oczkowski, Wieslaw
Internationally, the development and implementation of stroke care guidelines have resulted in the evolution of stroke prevention outpatient clinics designed to accelerate patient access to treatment and behavioral risk reduction following transient ischemic attack or stroke. To examine the extent to which selected demographic, social-psychological, physiological, and adherence characteristics predicted achievement of blood pressure and glucose targets in a group of patients referred to a Canadian stroke prevention clinic with confirmed transient ischemic attack (TIA) or stroke and hypertension and/or diabetes. A total of 313, English speaking, adult patients who were referred from family or emergency department physicians to a stroke prevention clinic provided demographic data and received social-psychological screening testing at intake. Of these, 93 participants who met criteria of confirmed TIA or stroke plus hypertension and/or diabetes were identified as the study group. Seventy-seven of study group participants completed a 6-month follow-up. Admission screening tests included the Modified and Mini-Mental State Examinations, Trail Making Test, Clock Drawing Test, a medication self-efficacy scale, the Lubben Social Network Scale and the Geriatric Depression Scale. Family physician follow-up was ascertained 4-8 weeks after intake. At approximately 6 months after the initial screening measures, 77 study group participants completed additional measures of adherence, blood pressure and/or glycated hemoglobin. Transient ischemic attack was confirmed in 58% and stroke in 42% of the study group. Mean age was 69 years (SD=11); 53% were male; 97% had hypertension; and 25% were diabetic; some had both. Twenty-three percent were not followed-up by family practitioners. At 6-month follow-up, 97% reported ≥80% adherence to medication; only 57% met treatment targets. A logistic regression analysis identified three independent predictors of achieving blood pressure and
Ertugrul, Sabahattin; Aktar, Fesih; Yolbas, Ilyas; Yilmaz, Ahmet; Elbey, Bilal; Yildirim, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Kamil; Tekin, Recep
Background Healthcare-associated bloodstream infections (HCA-BSI) are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Objectives We aimed to determine the causative organisms and risk factors of HCA-BSIs in NICUs. Methods This study was performed between January 2011 and December 2014 in the neonatal intensive care unit of Dicle university, Turkey. The study consisted of 126 patients (infected group) with positive blood culture and 126 randomly selected patients (uninfected control group) with negative blood culture after four days of hospitalization. Results We found that the most common causative agents isolated from nosocomial infections (NIs) were 20.7% Staphylococcus epidermidis, 26.7% Klebsiella spp., and 13.3% Acinetobacter spp. Incidences of low gestational age, low birth weight, vaginal birth type, and long length of hospitalization were higher in the infected neonates than in the uninfected neonates. In the univariate analysis, surgical operation, ventriculoperitoneal shunt, use of umbilical catheter, nasogastric or orogastric tube, urinary catheter, mechanical ventilation, surfactant treatment, erythrocyte transfusion, plasma transfusion, thrombocyte transfusion, total parenteral nutrition infusion, intracranial hemorrhage, length of hospital stay, fifth-minute Apgar score, and total parenteral nutrition time were significantly associated with NIs. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, fifth-minute Apgar, use of erythrocyte transfusion and surgical operation were found as the independent risk factors for HCA-BSI. Conclusions This study determined the causative organisms and risk factors of HCA-BSIs in NICUs. PMID:28203330
Giannoni, Peggy P.; Kass, Philip H.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with children lost to care, and their families, compared to those not lost to care within the California Early Start Program. The cohort included data on 8987 children enrolled in the Early Start Program in 1998. This cohort consisted of 2443 children lost to care, 6363…
Giannoni, Peggy P.; Kass, Philip H.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted to identify risk factors associated with children lost to care, and their families, compared to those not lost to care within the California Early Start Program. The cohort included data on 8987 children enrolled in the Early Start Program in 1998. This cohort consisted of 2443 children lost to care, 6363…
Kovavisarach, Ekachai; Phromsila, Raweewan
To determine the risk factors related to heartburn in pregnant women attending the antenatal care clinic, Rajavithi Hospital. Self-reporting questionnaire about demographic data and risk factors related to heartburn in those pregnant women between May 1 and July 31, 2010. Heartburn was found in 55 out of 452 pregnant women (12.2%). There were no significant differences in demographic characteristics and risk factors between the heartburn and non-heartburn groups. Consumption of alcoholic drinks was a reversely significant risk factor of heartburn (OR 0.11, CI 0.01 to 0.78) (p = 0.005). Heartburn was not uncommon, and no associated factors were demonstrated.
Ribeiro, Eleonora RO; Guimarães, Alzira Maria DN; Bettiol, Heloísa; Lima, Danilo DF; Almeida, Maria Luiza D; de Souza, Luiz; Silva, Antônio Augusto M; Gurgel, Ricardo Q
Background The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. Methods A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Results: Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%), with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age < 18 to 34 years at delivery, low maternal schooling, low family income, two or more previous deliveries, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having no partner and prenatal care obtained outside Aracaju were associated with inadequate prenatal care use. In contrast, private service attendance protected from inadequate prenatal care use. Conclusion Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use. PMID:19622174
Ribeiro, Eleonora R O; Guimarães, Alzira Maria D N; Bettiol, Heloísa; Lima, Danilo D F; Almeida, Maria Luiza D; de Souza, Luiz; Silva, Antônio Augusto M; Gurgel, Ricardo Q
The aim of prenatal care is to promote good maternal and foetal health and to identify risk factors for adverse pregnancy outcomes in an attempt to promptly manage and solve them. Although high prenatal care attendance is reported in most areas in Brazil, perinatal and neonatal mortalities are disproportionally high, raising doubts about the quality and performance of the care provided. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the adequacy of prenatal care use and the risk factors involved in inadequate prenatal care utilization in the metropolitan area of Aracaju, Northeast Brazil. A survey was carried out with puerperal women who delivered singleton liveborns in all four maternity hospitals of Aracaju. A total of 4552 singleton liveborns were studied. The Adequacy of Prenatal Care Utilization Index, modified according to the guidelines of the Prenatal Care and Birth Humanization Programme, was applied. Socioeconomic, demographic, biological, life style and health service factors were evaluated by multiple logistic regression. Prenatal care coverage in Aracaju was high (98.3%), with a mean number of 6.24 visits. Prenatal care was considered to be adequate or intensive in 66.1% of cases, while 33.9% were considered to have inadequate usage. Age < 18 to 34 years at delivery, low maternal schooling, low family income, two or more previous deliveries, maternal smoking during pregnancy, having no partner and prenatal care obtained outside Aracaju were associated with inadequate prenatal care use. In contrast, private service attendance protected from inadequate prenatal care use. Prenatal care coverage was high. However, a significant number of women still had inadequate prenatal care use. Socioeconomic inequalities, demographic factors and behavioural risk factors are still important factors associated with inadequate prenatal care use.
Krans, Elizabeth E.; Moloci, Nicholas M.; Housey, Michelle T.; Davis, Matthew M.
Objective To evaluate providers’ perspectives regarding the delivery of prenatal care to women with psychosocial risk factors. Methods A random, national sample of 2095 prenatal care providers (853 obstetricians and gynecologists (Ob/Gyns), 270 family medicine (FM) physicians and 972 midwives) completed a mailed survey. We measured respondents’ practice and referral patterns regarding six psychosocial risk factors: adolescence (age ≤ 19), unstable housing, lack of paternal involvement and social support, late prenatal care (> 13 weeks gestation), domestic violence and drug or alcohol use. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses assessed the association between prenatal care provider characteristics and prenatal care utilization patterns. Results Approximately 60% of Ob/Gyns, 48.4% of midwives and 32.2% of FM physicians referred patients with psychosocial risk factors to clinicians outside of their practice. In all three specialties, providers were more likely to increase prenatal care visits with alternative clinicians (social workers, nurses, psychologists/psychiatrists) compared to themselves for all six psychosocial risk factors. Drug or alcohol use and intimate partner violence were the risk factors that most often prompted an increase in utilization. In multivariate analyses, Ob/Gyns who recently completed clinical training were significantly more likely to increase prenatal care utilization with either themselves (OR=2.15; 95% CI 1.14–4.05) or an alternative clinician (2.27; 1.00–4.67) for women with high psychosocial risk pregnancies. Conclusions Prenatal care providers frequently involve alternative clinicians such as social workers, nurses and psychologists or psychiatrists in the delivery of prenatal care to women with psychosocial risk factors. PMID:24740719
Fortinsky, Richard H.; Madigan, Elizabeth A.; Sheehan, T. Joseph; Tullai-McGuinness, Susan; Kleppinger, Alison
Acute care hospitalization during or immediately following a Medicare home health care (HHC) episode is a major adverse outcome, but little has been published about HHC patient-level risk factors for hospitalization. We determined risk factors at HHC admission associated with subsequent acute care hospitalization in a nationally representative Medicare patient sample (n=374,123). Hospitalization was measured using Medicare claims data; risk factors were measured using Outcome Assessment and Information Set data. Seventeen percent of sample members were hospitalized. Multivariate logistic regression analysis found that the most influential risk factors (all p<.001) were: skin wound as primary HHC diagnosis; clinician-judged guarded rehabilitation prognosis; congestive heart failure as primary HHC diagnosis; presence of depressive symptoms; dyspnea severity; and Black, compared to White. HHC initiatives that minimize chronic condition exacerbations, and that actively treat depressive symptoms, might help reduce Medicare patient hospitalizations. Unmeasured reasons for higher hospitalization rates among Black HHC patients deserve further investigation. PMID:24781967
Background According to the World Health Organization, there are over 6.3 million perinatal deaths (PND) a year worldwide. Identifying the factors associated with PND is very helpful in building strategies to improve the care provided to mothers and their babies. Objective To investigate the maternal, gestational and neonatal factors associated with PND at two different levels of care. Methods Case–control study including 299 PND cases and 1161 infants that survived the early neonatal period (controls) between 2001–2006 in two hospitals at different care levels (secondary and tertiary) located in southeastern Brazil. Correlations between study variables and PND were evaluated by univariate analysis. PND-related variables were included in a multiple logistic regression model, and independent estimates of PND risk were obtained. Results Although five-minute Apgar score <7, low birthweight and maternal hemorrhage were associated with PND in the secondary care center, no independent risk factors were identified at this level of care. In the tertiary hospital, PND was positively associated with primiparity, male sex, prematurity, low 5-minute Apgar score, and pregnancy complicated by arterial hypertension or intrauterine infection. Conclusions Several risk factors positively associated with PND were indentified in the tertiary, but not in the secondary care level hospital. Since most of the risk factors herein identified are modifiable through effective antenatal and intrapartum care, greater attention should be given to preventive strategies. PMID:24476422
Nijs, Nele; Toppets, Adinda; Defloor, Tom; Bernaerts, Kris; Milisen, Koen; Van Den Berghe, Greet
To determine the incidence of pressure ulcers occurring at least 48 hours after admission and risk factors for pressure ulcers grade 2-4 in a long-stay surgical Intensive Care Unit (ICU) population. The incidence of pressure ulcers in intensive care units is larger than in non-intensive environments. Prospective descriptive research design. Using pressure ulcers grade 2-4 as an outcome measure, a multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors. Data were obtained on a daily basis in a surgical intensive care unit of the University Hospital Leuven between November 2003-March 2004. A total of 520 long-stay (>or= 24 hours) intensive care patients were included. Cumulative incidence of pressure ulcers grade 2-4 was 20.1%. The following variables were positively associated with pressure ulcers grade 2-4: history of vascular disease, treatment with Dopamine or Dobutamine, intermittent haemodialysis (IHD) or continuous veno-venous haemofiltration (CVVH), mechanical ventilation. Also preventive measures were statistically positively associated with pressure ulcers grade 2-4: turning, floating heels, alternating mattresses, adequate prevention. The use of sedatives, body temperature above 38.5 degrees C and sitting in chair where negatively associated with pressure ulcers. Pressure ulcers are statistically associated with different risk factors and preventive measures. The identified risk factors are eligible to be included in a new risk assessment scale for patients admitted to intensive care units. The novel insights have implications for risk assessment for patients in intensive care units. Patients admitted to intensive care units have other risk factors for pressure ulcers which are eligible to be included in a new risk assessment scale.
Verstraete, Evelien Hilde; De Coen, Kris; Vogelaers, Dirk; Blot, Stijn
Health care-associated bloodstream infection (HABSI) is a frequent complication in neonatal intensive care. Research on risk factors stratified by birth weight and adjusted for severity of illness and comorbidities is limited. Our objective is to describe independent risk factors for HABSI in critically ill neonates with emphasis on risk variation between birth weight groups. We performed a single-center historical cohort study in a tertiary referral center. A neonatal intensive care-audit system was used to identify eligible neonates admitted for ≥72 hours (2002-2011). HABSI is defined according to National Institute of Child Health and Human Development criteria. Risk factors for HABSI were assessed by univariate and logistic regression analysis for the total cohort and for birth weight subgroups, that is, neonates ≤1500 g and >1500 g. A total of 342 neonates developed HABSI in 5134 admissions of ≥72 hours (6.7%). Very low birth weight, total parenteral nutrition (TPN), mechanical ventilation, gastrointestinal disease, surgery (cardiac and other type), and renal insufficiency are independent risk factors for the total cohort. Gastrointestinal disease and cardiac surgery are independent risk factors in both birth weight groups; mechanical ventilation (odds ratio [OR]: 2.6; confidence interval [CI]: 1.6-4.0) and other type of surgery (OR: 4.3; CI: 2.1-8.8) are solely independent risk factors in the ≤1500-g cohort; TPN is exclusively an independent risk factor (OR: 7.9; CI: 3.9-16.2) in the >1500-g cohort. In our neonatal intensive care unit, risk stratification by birth weight revealed some difference. Special attention concerning infection control practices is for neonates receiving TPN, mechanical ventilation, cardiac surgery, and with a gastrointestinal disease.
Bublitz, Margaret H; Rodriguez, Daniel; Polly Gobin, Asi; Waldemore, Marissa; Magee, Susanna; Stroud, Laura R
The objective of the study was to assess the impact of maternal history of adoption or foster care placement in childhood on the risk for preterm birth (PTB), controlling for other known risk factors for PTB. Participants were 302 pregnant women from a low-income, diverse sample drawn from 2 intensive prospective studies of maternal mood and behavior and fetal and infant development. Gestational age was determined by best obstetric estimate. Maternal history of adoption or foster care placement prior to age 18 years was determined by maternal report. Other maternal characteristics, including maternal medical conditions, psychosocial characteristics, and health behaviors, were measured during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy. The odds of delivering preterm (gestational age <37 weeks) were approximately 4 times greater among women with a history of childhood adoption or foster care placement compared with women who were never placed out of the home during childhood. This association remained significant after adjusting for other known risk factors for PTB including maternal medical conditions, psychosocial characteristics, and negative health behaviors in pregnancy. Findings suggest that a history of adoption/foster care placement is an important risk factor for PTB and may be comparable with other established risk factors for PTB including prior history of PTB, body mass index, African-American race, and advanced maternal age. More studies are needed to understand why women with placement histories may be at increased risk to deliver preterm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Simkiss, D E; Stallard, N; Thorogood, M
Children who enter public care are among the most vulnerable in society. In addition to services for their medical needs, a focus on identifying and intervening with families in need where children are at high risk of entering public care is a public health priority. This paper aims to identify the characteristics of children, their parents or their social circumstances which are associated with children entering public care. The databases searched were CSA Illumina, British Education Index, ChildData, CINAHL, Excerpta Medica, MEDLINE, the Campbell and Cochrane Collaborations, NHS Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, NHS Evidence, Social Care Online and TRIP; from start dates to 7 February 2011. A total of 6417 titles were reviewed. After review, 10 papers with cohort or case-control methodologies met the inclusion criteria and the included papers were appraised using questions from the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme to guide the critique of case-control and cohort studies. A narrative synthesis is used to describe the research identified. Socio-economic status, maternal age at birth, health risk factors and other factors including learning difficulties, membership of an ethnic minority group and single parenthood are described as risk factors associated with children entering public care. Health risk factors have been explored using databases developed for other purposes such as health insurance or hospital discharge. A number of risk factors for children entering public care are identified from the literature, some were culturally specific and may not generalize. The interaction between different risk factors needs testing in longitudinal data sets. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Mehndiratta, Prachi; Wasay, Mohammad; Mehndiratta, Man Mohan
Stroke affects 16.9 million people annually and the greatest burden of stroke is in low- and middle-income countries, where 69% of all strokes occur. Stroke risk factors, mortality and outcomes differ in developing countries as compared to the developed world. We performed a literature review of 28 articles pertaining to epidemiology of stroke in Asian women, stroke risk factors, gender-related differences, and stroke outcomes. Asian women differ from women worldwide due to differences in stroke awareness, risk factor profile, stroke subtypes, and social issues that impact stroke care. While Asian men have a higher incidence of stroke as compared to women overall, the long- and short-term outcomes in Asian women tend to be poorer. Both conventional and gender-specific risk factors contribute to stroke risk. Oral contraceptive use and addictions such as tobacco and alcohol are less prevalent among Asian women due to socio cultural differences. There is however, a much higher preponderance of pregnancy-related stroke and cardio-embolic stroke secondary to rheumatic heart disease and heavy use of chewing tobacco. The overall outcome is poor due to poor access to health care and lack of resources. Key Messages: Our review exposed the gaps in our knowledge about stroke risk factors and differences in stroke care provided to Asian women. While there are sociocultural barriers that impede the provision of immediate care to these stroke patients, much needs to be done by way of prevention of recurrent stroke and treatment of risk factors. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Coyne, Bethany; Hollen, Patricia J; Yan, Guofen; Brayman, Kenneth
Improvements in transplantation have increased the survival of children after kidney transplantation. These patients have complex needs, and the current medical system is not prepared to effectively transfer the care of these individuals from pediatric to adult health-care systems. Too often, transfer occurs during moments of crisis and is associated with poor outcomes. The aim of this study was to use a national database, the Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients, to test the hypothesis that the increased risk of graft loss after transfer of care (from pediatric to adult services) for young adult kidney transplant recipients over a 2- to 3-year posttransfer follow-up period was related to these posttransfer risk factors (medication noncompliance, acute rejection, insurance status). A retrospective, longitudinal, correlational design using secondary data was used to evaluate the transfer of care of 250 kidney transplant recipients (ages 16-25). Seventy-seven (30.8%) individuals lost their graft within 3 years after transfer of care. Medication noncompliance, acute rejection, and serum creatinine >2.0 mg/dL at transfer were significant predictors of graft loss after accounting for multiple other factors. These individuals are at risk for graft loss after transfer of care and may benefit from increased personalized care during this risky period.
Doebbeling, B N; Li, N; Wenzel, R P
OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to investigate a nosocomial outbreak of hepatitis A that occurred in the burn treatment center of a referral hospital. METHODS. Retrospective cohort and case-control studies were performed to determine acquisition rates and risk factors for transmission. Adjusted infection rates were calculated by week of exposure. A case-control study was conducted to determine potential mechanisms for nosocomial acquisition. Recently infected health care workers were defined as case patients; exposed, serosusceptible health care workers without infection served as controls. RESULTS. The outbreak of hepatitis A affected 11 health care workers and 1 other burn patient (1 secondary patient case). All 11 health care workers became ill after the admission of a man and his 8-month-old son who developed hepatitis A while in the hospital. The cumulative incidence risk ratio was elevated for health care workers caring for either the infant or the father during the same week of exposure. The case-control study implicated the behavior of eating on the hospital ward as the single most important risk factor for infection. CONCLUSION. Inadequate hand-washing and subsequent oral contamination appear responsible for the outbreak. Hospitals may witness other institutional outbreaks if health care workers regularly eat on the wards. PMID:8259794
Waldenström, Ulla; Rudman, Ann; Hildingsson, Ingegerd
The aim of this study was to investigate satisfaction with intrapartum and postpartum care, and the risk of not being satisfied in relation to 1) a woman's sociodemographic background, 2) physical and emotional well-being in early pregnancy, 3) labor outcomes, 4) care organization, and 5) a woman's subjective assessment of aspects of care. All Swedish-speaking women booked for antenatal care during 3 weeks spread over 1 year (1999-2000) were invited to participate in the study, and 2,686 (82% of those who consented to participate and 58% of those who were eligible) completed questionnaires in early pregnancy and 2 months postpartum. Women who were satisfied with overall intrapartum and postpartum care respectively were compared with those who were not regarding possible risk factors, and associations were tested by logistic regression analysis. Ten percent of women were not satisfied with intrapartum care (ip) and 26% with postpartum care (pp). The following risk factors for not being satisfied were found: 1) age <25 years (ip), only elementary school (ip + pp), single status (pp), inconvenient timing of pregnancy (ip), lack of support from partner (ip); 2) suffering from many physical symptoms (ip + pp); 3) newborn transfer to neonatal clinic (ip + pp); 4) length of stay <1 day and > or =5 days (ip + pp), no "debriefing" after birth (ip), large hospital (pp); 5) lack of support by midwife (ip), little involvement in decision making (ip), dissatisfaction with birth environment (ip), insufficient time for breastfeeding support, encouragement and personal questions (pp).
Luecken, Linda J.; Purdom, Catherine L.; Howe, Rose
Objectives: To examine the psychosocial risk (distress, stress, unintended pregnancy) and protective factors (social support, mastery, familism) associated with entry into prenatal care among low-income Hispanic women. Methods: Between April and September 2005, 483 postpartum Medicaid-eligible Hispanic women completed a survey at the hospital.…
Luecken, Linda J.; Purdom, Catherine L.; Howe, Rose
Objectives: To examine the psychosocial risk (distress, stress, unintended pregnancy) and protective factors (social support, mastery, familism) associated with entry into prenatal care among low-income Hispanic women. Methods: Between April and September 2005, 483 postpartum Medicaid-eligible Hispanic women completed a survey at the hospital.…
Wittchen, H-U; Glaesmer, H; März, W; Stalla, G; Lehnert, H; Zeiher, A M; Silber, S; Koch, U; Böhler, S; Pittrow, D; Ruf, G
DETECT is an epidemiological study in primary care to examine (a) the prevalence rates and comorbidity of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, hyperlipidaemia and coronary heart disease (CHD), and associated conditions; (b) the frequency of behavioural and clinical risk factors for onset and progression; (c) the 12-month course and outcome; and (d) the met and unmet needs for these patients. Three-stage, cross-sectional clinical-epidemiological study with a prospective-longitudinal component in a nationally representative sample of N = 3795 primary care settings [response rate (RR): 60.2%] and N = 55518 patients (RR: 95.5%). Patients completed a standardized assessment, including questionnaires for patients and the physician and diagnostic screening measures (i.e. blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index and waist circumference assessments). A subsample of patients (N = 7519) also completed a standardized laboratory screening program and was followed-up after 12 months. Data were weighted to adjust for non-response, regional distribution and attrition. (1) Doctors and patients sample can be regarded as representative for primary care settings in Germany. (2) The clinician-rated point prevalence of hypertension is highest (35.5%), followed by hyperlipidaemia (29.1%), diabetes (14.1%) and CHD (12.1%); prevalence rates of each disorder as well as their co-incidence rates increase markedly with age. (3) The vast majority (78%) of all patients revealed multiple (3+) behavioural and clinical risk factors. The findings of DETECT underline the considerable burden for primary care doctors in managing a highly morbid patient population, with predominantly complex risk factor constellations, in routine care. Our data provide, in unprecedented detail, a basis for calculating age-, gender- and risk-group-adjusted risk-factor profiles in routine care.
Brust-Renck, Priscila G.; Royer, Caisa E.; Reyna, Valerie F.
In this chapter, we review evidence from the human factors literature that verbal and visual formats can help increase the understanding of numerical risk information in health care. These visual representations of risk are grounded in empirically supported theory. As background, we first review research showing that people often have difficulty understanding numerical risks and benefits in health information. In particular, we discuss how understanding the meanings of numbers results in healthier decisions. Then, we discuss the processes that determine how communication of numerical risks can enhance (or degrade) health judgments and decisions. Specifically, we examine two different approaches to risk communication: a traditional approach and fuzzy-trace theory. Applying research on the complications of understanding and communicating risks, we then highlight how different visual representations are best suited to communicating different risk messages (i.e., their gist). In particular, we review verbal and visual messages that highlight gist representations that can better communicate health information and improve informed decision making. This discussion is informed by human factors theories and methods, which involve the study of how to maximize the interaction between humans and the tools they use. Finally, we present implications and recommendations for future research on human factors in health care. PMID:24999307
Defining fall risk factors and predicting fall risk status among patients in acute care has been a topic of research for decades. With increasing pressure on hospitals to provide quality care and prevent hospital-acquired conditions, the search for effective fall prevention interventions continues. Hundreds of risk factors for falls in acute care…
Defining fall risk factors and predicting fall risk status among patients in acute care has been a topic of research for decades. With increasing pressure on hospitals to provide quality care and prevent hospital-acquired conditions, the search for effective fall prevention interventions continues. Hundreds of risk factors for falls in acute care…
Lima Serrano, M; González Méndez, M I; Carrasco Cebollero, F M; Lima Rodríguez, J S
Pressure ulcers represent a significant problem for patients, professionals and health systems. Their reported incidence and prevalence are significant worldwide. Their character iatrogenic states that its appearance is preventable and its incidence is an indicator of scientific and technical quality both in primary care and specialized care. The aim of this review was to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of pressure ulcers in critically ill patients. The PRISMA Declaration recommendations have been followed and adapted to studies identifying risk factors. A qualitative systematic review of primary studies has been performed and a search was conducted of the PubMed, The Cochrane Library, Scopus and Web of Science databases. Methodological limitations in observational studies have been considered. From 200 references, 17 fulfilled the eligibility criteria. These studies included 19,363 patients admitted to intensive care units. Six studies were classified as high quality and 11 were classified as moderate quality. Risk factors that emerged as predictive of pressure ulcers development more frequently included age, length of ICU stay, diabetes, time of MAP <60-70mmHg, mechanical ventilation, length of mechanical ventilation, intermittent haemodialysis or continuous veno-venous haemofiltration therapy, vasopressor support, sedation and turning. There is no single factors which can explain the occurrence of pressure ulcers. Rather, it is an interplay of factors that increase the probability of its development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Horowitz, Ira N; Baorto, Elizabeth; Cirillo, Tuesday; Davis, Jennifer
Both methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae have become significant causes of disease, both in health care and community settings. All patients admitted to our pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) currently had a rapid test for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) performed as per hospital guidelines. This study looked at risk factors for colonization. Nasal swabs were tested for MRSA on all admissions to the PICU from May 2008 to September 2009 using polymerase chain reaction as per hospital guidelines. All patients enrolled were placed in either a MRSA-positive or a MRSA-negative group, which were compared with each other. Risk factors were assessed from a questionnaire and the resident history. The prevalence of MRSA colonization in our study was 4.5%. Six hundred sixty-six patients were negative for MRSA, and 31 were positive. Patients in the MRSA colonization group were younger, more likely had family (household members) employed in medicine, and were more likely hospitalized or had undergone surgery within the previous 12 months. Prolonged neonatal intensive care unit stay (>1 week) was associated with MRSA colonization (P < .001). The percentage of patients positive for MRSA admitted to a PICU is low. Recent exposure to the health care system, especially a stay in the neonatal intensive care unit, is associated with an increased risk of colonization. Copyright Â© 2012 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
García, Heladia; Torres-Gutiérrez, Javier; Peregrino-Bejarano, Leoncio; Cruz-Castañeda, Marco Antonio
Nosocomial infections are a major and a frequent problem in neonatal intensive care units and increase morbidity, mortality, and costs. The objective of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with nosocomial infections in a neonatal intensive care unit. Nested case control study. Records from patients were registered: gestational age, sex, birth weight, central venous catheter and other devices, congenital malformations, surgeries, mechanical ventilation, steroid use, H2 blockers, length of stay in neonatal intensive care unit, type of infection, and etiological agent. We studied 188 cases with nosocomial infections and 192 controls without nosocomial infections. The most frequent infection was sepsis (34.8%) and coagulase negative Staphylococcus was the principal etiological agent (37.2%). The risk factors associated with nosocomial infection were central venous catheter (OR: 7.3; 95% CI: 2.3-22.8), duration of neonatal intensive care unit stay>14 days (OR: 3.4; 95% CI: 1.7-6.7), H2 blockers (OR: 2.3; 95% CI: 1.2-4.2), number of surgeries≥2 (OR: 3; 95% CI: 1.1-7.9) and mechanical ventilation>7 days (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1-4.2). Some risk factors associated to nosocomial infections in this study are similar to those found previously, with the exception of the number of surgeries that was not reported in previous studies.
Wyżgowski, Przemysław; Rosiek, Anna; Grzela, Tomasz; Leksowski, Krzysztof
Virtually created panic among health care workers about pandemic acquired immune deficiency syndrome prompted us to review the scientific literature to investigate the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission in the daily works of health care workers, especially surgeons and anesthesiologists. In this review, we report worldwide valuations of the number of HIV infections that may occur from unsafe daily work in health care. We also present how to minimize the risk of infection by taking precautions and how to utilize postexposure prophylaxis in accordance with the latest reports of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. HIV-infected patients will be aging, and most of them will become the candidates for procedures such as major vascular reconstruction and artery bypass grafting, where the risks of blood contact and staff injury are high. For these reasons, all health care workers need to know how to prevent, and fight following the accidental exposure to HIV. PMID:27366077
Weiler, Stefan; Gemperli, Armin; Collet, Tinh-Hai; Bauer, Douglas C; Zimmerli, Lukas; Cornuz, Jacques; Battegay, Edouard; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Kerr, Eve A; Aujesky, Drahomir; Rodondi, Nicolas
Assessment of the proportion of patients with well controlled cardiovascular risk factors underestimates the proportion of patients receiving high quality of care. Evaluating whether physicians respond appropriately to poor risk factor control gives a different picture of quality of care. We assessed physician response to control cardiovascular risk factors, as well as markers of potential overtreatment in Switzerland, a country with universal healthcare coverage but without systematic quality monitoring, annual report cards on quality of care or financial incentives to improve quality. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 1002 randomly selected patients aged 50-80 years from four university primary care settings in Switzerland. For hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus, we first measured proportions in control, then assessed therapy modifications among those in poor control. "Appropriate clinical action" was defined as a therapy modification or return to control without therapy modification within 12 months among patients with baseline poor control. Potential overtreatment of these conditions was defined as intensive treatment among low-risk patients with optimal target values. 20% of patients with hypertension, 41% with dyslipidemia and 36% with diabetes mellitus were in control at baseline. When appropriate clinical action in response to poor control was integrated into measuring quality of care, 52 to 55% had appropriate quality of care. Over 12 months, therapy of 61% of patients with baseline poor control was modified for hypertension, 33% for dyslipidemia, and 85% for diabetes mellitus. Increases in number of drug classes (28-51%) and in drug doses (10-61%) were the most common therapy modifications. Patients with target organ damage and higher baseline values were more likely to have appropriate clinical action. We found low rates of potential overtreatment with 2% for hypertension, 3% for diabetes mellitus and 3-6% for dyslipidemia. In
Hagdrup, N A; Simoes, E J; Brownson, R C
Physician counseling of patients on health related activities is an essential component of chronic disease prevention, however this requires patients to have ready access to health care providers. Previous studies have explored access to health care in terms of health plans and cost without accounting for the lack of preventive coverage inherent in many insurance policies. This study compares two measures of health care access, one using an assessment of cost and health plan availability, and a new coverage measure including preventive services. Data was collected from 2574 adult respondents to the 1991-92 Missouri Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System Surveys. Odds ratios were generated for demographic variables, health related behaviors and preventive screening and the two coverage measures. Using health plan and cost 22% lacked full coverage, however including availability of preventive coverage almost 60% lacked full coverage for preventive care. For both coverage measures significant associations were found with age, exercise, marital status, routine checkup and mammography screening. Using the measure of coverage of preventive services, rural residents and those who had never had cholesterol screening were more likely to lack coverage. Inclusion of preventive care in measures of health care coverage may alter previously reported associations with socio-demographic and health related factors. Policy makers should realize that including preventive services in health care coverage greatly increases the number of individuals lacking adequate coverage, and that those lacking adequate coverage are the least likely to undergo preventive screening.
McPherson, John A.; Wagner, Chad E.; Boehm, Leanne M.; Hall, J. David; Johnson, Daniel C.; Miller, Leanna R.; Burns, Kathleen M.; Thompson, Jennifer L.; Shintani, Ayumi K; Ely, E. Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P.
Objective Delirium, an acute organ dysfunction, is common among critically ill patients leading to significant morbidity and mortality; its epidemiology in a mixed cardiology and cardiac surgery intensive care unit (CVICU) is not well established. We sought to determine the prevalence and risk factors for delirium among CVICU patients. Design Prospective observational study. Setting 27-bed medical-surgical CVICU. Patients 200 consecutive patients with an expected CVICU length of stay >24 hours. Interventions None. Measurements Baseline demographic data and daily assessments for delirium using the validated and reliable Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) were recorded, and quantitative tracking of delirium risk factors were conducted. Separate analyses studied the role of admission risk factors for occurrence of delirium during the CVICU stay and identified daily occurring risk factors for the development of delirium on a subsequent CVICU day. Main Results Prevalence of delirium was 26%, similar among cardiology and cardiac surgical patients. Nearly all (92%) exhibited the hypoactive subtype of delirium. Benzodiazepine use on admission was independently predictive of a 3-fold increased risk of delirium [Odds Ratio 3.1 (1, 9.4), p=0.04] during the CVICU stay. Of the daily occurring risk factors, patients who received benzodiazepines [2.6 (1.2, 5.7), p=0.02] or had restraints or devices that precluded mobilization [2.9 (1.3, 6.5), p<0.01] were more likely to have delirium the following day. Hemodynamic status was not associated with delirium. Conclusions Delirium occurred in 1 in 4 patients in the CVICU and was predominately hypoactive in subtype. Chemical restraints via use of benzodiazepines or the use of physical restraints/restraining devices predisposed patients to a greater risk of delirium, pointing to areas of quality improvement that would be new to the vast majority of CVICUs. PMID:23263581
Mohle-Boetani, J C; Stapleton, M; Finger, R; Bean, N H; Poundstone, J; Blake, P A; Griffin, P M
OBJECTIVES. The study's objectives were to assess (1) control of a community outbreak of shigellosis through the promotion of handwashing, (2) risk factors in day-care centers, and (3) shigellosis attributable to attendance at a day-care center. METHODS. In 1991, an outbreak of Shigella sonnei infections occurred in Lexington-Fayette County, Ky; 14 licensed child day-care centers were involved. Communitywide promotion of hand washing was instituted along with diarrhea surveillance. A case-control study compared day-care centers that had confirmed cases of shigellosis with centers that had none. A family transmission study determined those cases attributable to attendance at day-care centers. RESULTS. The outbreak abated 3 weeks after the interventions' initiation. Day-care centers with outbreaks were more likely than those with no cases to have a food handler who changed diapers and to provide transportation for children from their homes to the center. These centers also had a higher toddler-to-toilet ratio than control centers (21 vs 12). In 58% of families with shigellosis, the first person with diarrhea during the outbreak was a child younger than 6 years; 92% of diarrheal illnesses among these children were attributable to day-care attendance. CONCLUSIONS. Community involvement in increasing hand washing most likely resulted in control of this shigellosis outbreak. Diarrhea prevention strategies in day-care centers could prevent substantial communitywide disease. PMID:7762715
Thrombosis in cancer patients is a well-known, frequent complication which can adversely influence treatment outcome and mortality rate. Several cancer-related or patient-related factors may contribute in modulating the magnitude of the risk. Among the treatment-related factors, the use of blood transfusions, erythropoiesis stimulating agents and central venous catheters play a significant role in influencing the epidemiology of thromboembolism in cancer patients. Red cell transfusions may influence the risk of both arterial and venous thromboembolism (VTE), although the mechanisms of causal relationship have not clearly elucidated. A judicious use should be considered, especially for active bleeding with the risk of significant anemia and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors. The use of erythropoiesis stimulating agents carries a definite risk of thrombosis in cancer patients and there is still a debate on whether they can also influence cancer biology and thus clinical outcome. Their use should be carefully weighed considering the duration of chemotherapy courses and the possible short-term benefits of these agents. Catheter-related thrombosis may be present in about 1-5% of cancer patients but asymptomatic cases detected by close ultrasound monitoring may be by far higher. Tailored anti-thrombotic treatment should be undertaken according to the presence of risk of bleeding (e.g., thrombocytopenia). Thrombophylaxis should be considered in patients with a high-risk prothrombotic profile.
Gómez-Urquiza, Jose L; Monsalve-Reyes, Carolina S; San Luis-Costas, Concepción; Fernández-Castillo, Rafael; Aguayo-Estremera, Raimundo; Cañadas-de la Fuente, Guillermo A
To determine the risk factors and levels of burnout in Primary Care nurses. A systematic review was performed. CINAHL, CUIDEN, LILACS, PubMed, ProQuest, ScienceDirect and Scopus databases were consulted. Search equations were 'burnout AND community health nursing' and 'burnout AND primary care nursing'. The search was performed in October 2015. The final sample was n=12 studies. Quantitative primary studies that used Maslach Burnout Inventory for burnout assessment in Primary Care nurses were included without restriction by publication date. The main variables were the mean and standard deviation of the three burnout dimensions, high, medium and low prevalence rates of each dimension, and socio-demographic, occupational and psychological variables that potentially influence burnout level. Studies show high prevalence rates, generally between 23% and 31%, of emotional exhaustion. The prevalence rates of high depersonalisation and low personal accomplishment show heterogeneity, varying between 8%-32% and 4%-92% of the sample, respectively. Studies show that older nurses with more seniority, anxiety and depression, among other variables, have higher burnout levels, while nurses with higher salary, high job satisfaction, organisational support, and good self-concept have less burnout. High emotional exhaustion is the main affected dimension of burnout in Primary Care nursing. There is heterogeneity in depersonalisation and personal accomplishment. Burnout must be prevented in these professionals, by increasing protective factors and monitoring its appearance in those with risk factors. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Karatas, Mevlut; Saylan, Sedat; Kostakoglu, Ugur; Yilmaz, Gurdal
Objectives: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a significant cause of hospital-related infections, one that must be prevented due to its high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors in patients developing VAP in our intensive care units (ICUs). Methods: This retrospective cohort study involved in mechanically ventilated patients hospitalized for more than 48 hours. VAP diagnosed patients were divided into two groups, those developing pneumonia (VAP(+)) and those not (VAP(-)).\\ Results: We researched 1560 patients in adult ICUs, 1152 (73.8%) of whom were mechanically ventilated. The MV use rate was 52%. VAP developed in 15.4% of patients. The VAP rate was calculated as 15.7/1000 ventilator days. Mean length of stay in the ICU for VAP(+) and VAP(-) patients were (26.7±16.3 and 18.1±12.7 days (p<0.001)) and mean length of MV use was (23.5±10.3 and 12.6±7.4 days (p<0.001)). High APACHE II and Charlson co-morbidity index scores, extended length of hospitalization and MV time, previous history of hospitalization and antibiotherapy, reintubation, enteral nutrition, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cerebrovascular disease, diabetes mellitus and organ failure were determined as significant risk factors for VAP. The mortality rate in the VAP(+) was 65.2%, with 23.6% being attributed to VAP. Conclusion: VAPs are prominent nosocomial infections that can cause considerable morbidity and mortality in ICUs. Patient care procedures for the early diagnosis of patients with a high risk of VAP and for the reduction of risk factors must be implemented by providing training concerning risk factors related to VAP for ICU personnel, and preventable risk factors must be reduced to a minimum. PMID:27648020
Chandalia, H B; Singh, D; Kapoor, V; Chandalia, S H; Lamba, P S
We assessed 300 diabetic and 100 age- and sex-matched controls for correlating foot wear practices and foot care knowledge and the presence of foot complications. A structured questionnaire evaluated the knowledge about foot care, type of footwear used, education level, association of tobacco abuse, and any associated symptoms of foot disease. Clinical evaluation was done by inspection of feet for presence of any external deformities, assessment of sensory function (vibration perception threshold, VPT), vascular status (foot pulses and ankle brachial ratio) and presence of any infection.In the diabetes category, 44.7% patients had not received previous foot care education. 0.6% walked barefoot outdoors and 45% walked barefoot indoors. Fourteen (4.7%) patients gave history of foot ulceration in the past and comprised the high risk group; only 2 out of 14 had received foot care education, 6 gave history of tobacco abuse, 8 had symptoms of claudication, 9 had paresthesias, 2 walked barefoot indoors. Average duration of diabetes in the high-risk and low-risk diabetes group was 10.85 +/- 6.53 and 9.83 +/- 7.99 years, respectively. In the high- and low-risk diabetic groups, VPT was 19.57 +/- 11.26 and 15.20 +/- 10.21V (P < 0.02), ankle brachial ratio was 1.05 +/- 0.19 and 1.14 +/- 0.18 (P < 0.05), and the questionnaire scores was 40.8% and 57%, respectively.In the diabetic and the control group, VPT was 15.62 +/- 10.39 and 8.36 +/- 3.61 V (P < 0.01), ankle brachial ratio was 1.14 +/- 0.18 and 1.15 +/- 0.12, and the questionnaire scores were 57% and 40.3%, respectively.In conclusion, poor knowledge of foot care and poor footwear practices were important risk factors for foot problems in diabetes.
Verlaat, Carin W; Visser, Idse H; Wubben, Nina; Hazelzet, Jan A; Lemson, Joris; van Waardenburg, Dick; van der Heide, Douwe; van Dam, Nicolette A; Jansen, Nicolaas J; van Heerde, Mark; van der Starre, Cynthia; van Asperen, Roelie; Kneyber, Martin; van Woensel, Job B; van den Boogaard, Mark; van der Hoeven, Johannes
To determine differences between survivors and nonsurvivors and factors associated with mortality in pediatric intensive care patients with low risk of mortality. Retrospective cohort study. Patients were selected from a national database including all admissions to the PICUs in The Netherlands between 2006 and 2012. Patients less than 18 years old admitted to the PICU with a predicted mortality risk lower than 1% according to either the recalibrated Pediatric Risk of Mortality or the Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 were included. None. In total, 16,874 low-risk admissions were included of which 86 patients (0.5%) died. Nonsurvivors had more unplanned admissions (74.4% vs 38.5%; p < 0.001), had more complex chronic conditions (76.7% vs 58.8%; p = 0.001), were more often mechanically ventilated (88.1% vs 34.9%; p < 0.001), and had a longer length of stay (median, 11 [interquartile range, 5-32] d vs median, 3 [interquartile range, 2-5] d; p < 0.001) when compared with survivors. Factors significantly associated with mortality were complex chronic conditions (odds ratio, 3.29; 95% CI, 1.97-5.50), unplanned admissions (odds ratio, 5.78; 95% CI, 3.40-9.81), and admissions in spring/summer (odds ratio, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.08-2.58). Nonsurvivors in the PICU with a low predicted mortality risk have recognizable risk factors including complex chronic condition and unplanned admissions.
McGrath, Emer R; Glynn, Liam G; Murphy, Andrew W; O Conghaile, Aengus; Canavan, Michelle; Reid, Claire; Moloney, Brian; O'Donnell, Martin J
Heartwatch, a structured risk factor modification program for secondary prevention of cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) in primary care, is associated with improvements in CV risk factors in participating patients. However, it is not known whether Heartwatch translates into reductions in clinically important CV events. The aim of the study was to determine the association between participation in Heartwatch and future risk of CV events in patients with CVD. The study consisted of a prospective cohort of 1,609 patients with CVD in primary care practices. Of these, 97.5% had data available on Heartwatch participation status, of whom 15.2% were Heartwatch participants. Cox proportional hazards models were used to determine the association between Heartwatch participation and risk of the CV composite (CV death, nonfatal myocardial infarction, heart failure, and nonfatal stroke). All-cause mortality and CV mortality were secondary outcome measures. During follow-up, the CV composite occurred in 208 patients (13.6%). Of Heartwatch participants, 8.4% experienced the CV composite compared with 14.5% of nonparticipants (P = .003). Participation in Heartwatch was associated with a significantly reduced risk of the CV composite (hazard ratio [HR] 0.52, 95% CI, 0.31-0.87), CV mortality (HR 0.31, 95% CI, 0.11-0.89), and all-cause mortality (HR 0.32, 95% CI, 0.15-0.68). Heartwatch participation was also associated with greater reductions in mean systolic blood pressure (P = .047), mean diastolic blood pressure (P < .001), and greater use of secondary preventative therapies for CVD, such as lipid-lowering agents (P < .001), β-blockers (P < .001), and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (P < .001). Heartwatch is associated with a reduced risk of major vascular events and improved risk factor modification, supporting its potential as a nationwide program for secondary prevention of CVD. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Junttila, E K; Koskenkari, J; Romppainen, N; Ohtonen, P P; Karttunen, A; Ala-Kokko, T I
Mortality in patients with intracranial hemorrhage remains high. The aim of this study was to determine the 1-year survival and potential risk factors for 1-year mortality in patients with nontraumatic intracranial hemorrhage requiring intensive care. This was a 3-year (2005-2007) retrospective study in a university-level intensive care unit (ICU). Patient characteristics, level of consciousness, and radiological findings of the primary head computed tomography were recorded on admission. Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores were recorded during the ICU stay. Patients were divided into two groups: subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) group and intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) group. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were constructed, and independent risk factors were determined using Cox proportional hazards regression analyses. Two hundred twenty-nine patients were analyzed. The 1-year mortality rate was 32% in patients with SAH and 44% in patients with ICH. The risk factors for 1-year mortality in both groups were unconsciousness on admission [SAH: hazard ratio (HR) 6.2, P = 0.017 and ICH: HR 3.0, P = 0.004] and renal failure during the ICU stay (SAH: HR 2.5, P = 0.021 and ICH: HR 3.6, P = 0.021). Risk factors specific to the type of hemorrhage were the presence of ICH (HR 2.0, P = 0.033) and diffuse cerebral edema (HR 2.3, P = 0.017) in the SAH group and a prior use of warfarin (HR 5.1, P = 0.016) in the ICH group. In addition to decreased level of consciousness on admission, renal failure during the ICU stay is an independent risk factor for 1-year mortality in nontraumatic SAH as well as ICH. 2011 The Authors Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica, 2011 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation.
Zhang, Xiao-rui; Liu, Jie; Zeng, Chao-mei
Many studies have shown a relationship between birth weight discordance and adverse perinatal outcomes. This study aimed to investigate the perinatal risk factors and neonatal complications of discordant twins who are admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. A total of 87 sets of twins were enrolled in this retrospective study, of which 22 sets were discordant twins and 65 sets were concordant twins. Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to identify the risk factors associated with the occurrence of discordant twins. The common neonatal complications of discordant twins were also investigated. Multivariate analysis showed that the use of assisted reproductive techniques, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and unequal placental sharing were risk factors for the occurrence of discordant twins. The incidence of small for gestational age infants and very low birth weight infants of discordant twins was significantly higher, while the birth weight of discordant twins was significantly lower than those of concordant twins. The duration of hospitalization of discordant twins was longer than that of concordant twins. The incidence of several neonatal complications, such as neonatal respiratory distress syndrome and intracranial hemorrhage, was higher in discordant twins than that in concordant twins. The percentage of those requiring pulmonary surfactant and mechanical ventilation was significantly higher in discordant twins than that in concordant twins. Use of assisted reproductive techniques, pregnancy-induced hypertension, and unequal placental sharing are perinatal risk factors of discordant twins who are admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit. These infants are also much more likely to suffer from various neonatal complications, especially respiratory and central nervous system diseases. It is important to prevent the occurrence of discordant twins by decreasing these risk factors and timely treatment should be given to discordant twins.
Duchamp, Claudine Belpoids; Neuwirth, Catherine; Milesi-Defrance, Nadine; Aho, Ludwig Serge
To investigate the risk factors for the acquisition (infection and/or colonization) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which is frequently associated with nosocomial infections, in a surgical intensive care unit in Dijon. A retrospective case-control study was performed on 57 cases matching with 114 controls, between December 1996 and February 1999. The statistical method used was a conditional multiple logistic regression model. Three groups of variables were studied (patient characteristics--invasive procedures--previous administration of antibiotics). The multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed 3 risk factors: duration of sedation, infection with another bacteria and cranio-encephalic trauma. These factors are commonly involved in nosocomial infections. This study confirms the interest of infection control measures and the prevention of nosocomial infections, especially in cranio-encephalic trauma. The hypothetical relationship between acquisition of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and previous administration of antibiotics was not confirmed. A more powerful study would perhaps specify this relationship.
Ezzati, Majid; Obermeyer, Ziad; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Mayosi, Bongani M; Elliott, Paul; Leon, David A
Ischaemic heart disease, stroke, and other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are responsible for an estimated 17.5 million annual deaths in the world. If account is taken of population aging, death rates from CVDs are estimated to be steadily decreasing in the world as a whole, and in regions with reliable trend data. The declines in high-income countries and some countries in Latin America have been ongoing for decades with no indication of slowing. In high-income countries, these positive trends have broadly coincided with, and benefited from, declines in smoking and physiological risk factors like blood pressure and serum cholesterol. Improvements in medical care, including effective primary prevention through management of physiological risk factors, better diagnosis and treatment of acute CVDs, and post-hospital care of those with prior CVDs, are also likely to have contributed to declining CVD event and death rates, especially in the past 40 years. However, the measured risk factor and treatment variables neither explain why the decline began when it did, nor much of the similarities and differences in the start time and rate of the decline across countries or between men and women. There have been sharp changes and fluctuations in CVDs in the former communist countries of Europe and the Soviet Union since the fall of communism in the early 1990s, with changes in volume and patterns of alcohol drinking, as a major cause of the rise in Russia and some other former Soviet countries. The challenge of reaching more definitive conclusions concerning the drivers of what constitutes one of the most remarkable international trends in adult mortality in the past half-century in part reflects the paucity of time trend data not only on disease incidence, risk factors, and clinical care, but also on other potential drivers, including infection and associated inflammatory processes throughout the lifecourse. PMID:26076950
Burke, Robert E.; Whitfield, Emily A.; Hittle, David; Min, Sung-joon; Levy, Cari; Prochazka, Allan V.; Coleman, Eric A.; Schwartz, Robert; Ginde, Adit A.
Objectives Hospital discharges to post-acute care (PAC) facilities have increased rapidly. This increase may lead to more hospital readmissions from PAC facilities, which are common and poorly understood. We sought to determine the risk factors and timing for hospital readmission from PAC facilities and evaluate the impact of readmission on patient outcomes. Design Retrospective analysis of Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey (MCBS) from 2003–2009. Setting The MCBS is a nationally-representative survey of beneficiaries matched with claims data. Participants Community-dwelling beneficiaries who were hospitalized and discharged to a PAC facility for rehabilitation. Intervention/Exposure Potential readmission risk factors included patient demographics, health utilization, active medical conditions at time of PAC admission, and PAC characteristics. Measurements Hospital readmission during the PAC stay, return to community residence, and all-cause mortality. Results Of 3246 acute hospitalizations followed by PAC facility stays, 739 (22.8%) included at least 1 hospital readmission. The strongest risk factors for readmission included impaired functional status (HR 4.78, 95% CI 3.21–7.10), markers of increased acuity such as need for intravenous medications in PAC (1.63, 1.39–1.92), and for-profit PAC ownership (1.43, 1.21–1.69). Readmitted patients had a higher mortality rate at both 30 days (18.9 vs. 8.6%, p<0.001) and 100 days (39.9 vs. 14.5%, p<0.001) even after adjusting for age, comorbidities, and prior health care utilization (30 days: OR 2.01, 95% CI 1.60–2.54; 100 days: OR 3.79, 95% CI 3.13–4.59). Conclusions Hospital readmission from PAC facilities is common and associated with a high mortality rate. Readmission risk factors may signify inadequate transitional care processes or a mismatch between patient needs and PAC resources. PMID:26715357
Moreno Hernández, M I; Trilla Soler, M; Espluga Capdevila, A; Mengual Miralles, N; Bundó Vidiella, M; Juanola Costa, J; Aubà Llambrich, J
To find the amount of self-care (SC), health education (HE) received and the prevalence of risk factors for diabetic foot (RFDF) in patients with type II Diabetes Mellitus (DM) attended in Primary Care. A descriptive crossover study. Primary Care Centre. 100 DM patients attending over 2 months (May and June 1995) to see the doctor or collect prescriptions. Questionnaire on HE, SC habits and social and demographic data, inspection of the feet and physical investigation of lower extremities. 36% had deficient or very deficient hygiene; 73% did not go regularly to the chiropodist, 76% used scissors, 75% did not check the inside of the shoe. 38% had signs of neuropathy and 17%, of peripheric vasculopathy. 25% were at high risk of diabetic foot. Women had more RFDF. The amount of self-care is very low, especially in hygiene, which did not improve over time. HE on foot care is extremely poor despite its being a priority. Educational interventions are required to motivate healthworkers and patients, especially those with most RFDF, in the area of SC.
Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are a major disease burden in the Region. Many of the risk factors are related to lifestyle and can be controlled. Physical inactivity, low fruit and vegetable intake, high fast food consumption and high cholesterol are predominant causes of cardiovascular disease and some cancers. Overweight and obesity can lead to metabolic changes and raise the risk of NCDs, including heart disease and type 2 diabetes. Three main strategies are proposed to deal with the problem: estimate need and advocate for action; develop national policies, strategies and plans for prevention and care; promote and implement community participation in prevention and care. NCDs are preventable using available knowledge; solutions are effective and highly cost-effective.
Nongmaithem, Mackson; Bawa, Arjinder Pal Singh; Pithwa, Abhilash Kumar; Bhatia, Simran Kaur; Singh, Gurjit; Gooptu, Somnath
Background: Diabetic foot results in considerable morbidity and mortality in developing countries and the prevalence of diabetes is expected to increase further in the next decades in these countries. Diabetic ulcers are the most common foot injuries leading to lower extremity amputation. Family physicians have a pivotal role in the prevention or early diagnosis of diabetic foot complications. Patient education regarding foot hygiene, nail care and proper footwear is crucial to reducing the risk of an injury that can lead to ulcer formation. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective study carried out from July 2013 to September 2015. Fifty patients of Diabetes with foot ulcer and two hundred without foot ulcers were examined. Risk factors and clinical profile of patients were studied which included age, gender, duration of diabetes, BMI, smoking, random BSLs history, hypertension, glycated haemoglobin levels, lipid profile, history of loss of sensation and history of amputation. MNSI questionnaire and MNSI practical assessment for neuropathy were administered to diabetic patients along with a pre-structured questionnaire regarding foot care practices. Results: In this study significant risk factors were peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, gender, loss of sensation, duration of diabetes and smoking. MNSI questionnaire and practical assessment scores were higher in foot ulcer patients. Poor foot care practices were observed in patients with diabetic foot ulcer patients. Conclusion: Diabetic foot ulcers were more common in elderly males. Peripheral neuropathy, peripheral vascular disease, Smoking, trauma, duration of diabetes mellitus and high levels of glycated haemoglobin had significant association with occurrence of foot ulcers. MNSI scores had a high predictive value for development of foot ulcers amongst diabetics. Awareness regarding foot care was poor which underlines need to promote practice of foot care amongst diabetic population. PMID
Dettloff, Rick W; Morse, Jacqueline A
To integrate the resources from a local statewide managed care organization (MCO) and a supermarket pharmacy chain to conduct a comprehensive health risk appraisal (HRA). Collected data were used to assess cardiovascular risk factors and identify disease management opportunities. An analysis to determine the prevalence of risk factors was conducted on a cross-sectional HRA survey. The HRA involved point-of-care cholesterol screening (with a follow-up risk factor questionnaire) conducted by pharmacist employees of the employer group (a regional supermarket chain). Those eligible for the screening were employees of the supermarket chain and their dependents covered by the participating MCO. A total of 12,915 completed HRA questionnaires were received. The mean age of the employees participating was approximately 44 years. Of note, 14%, 24%, 21%, and 69% of questionnaires had abnormal values for total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, blood pressure, and body mass index (BMI), respectively. Compared with national benchmarks, low HDL cholesterol and BMI more than 30 kg/m2 were more common in this cohort. More than one-fourth of the employees in this analysis were identified as being at high risk for a coronary heart disease event. The unique collaboration presented here allowed for an expanded role of pharmacists to implement a quality improvement program. In response, the employer decided to continue the HRA screening and offer a employee contribution reduction-based health incentive to covered members. The employer also is considering offering cardiovascular disease management interventions that will be performed by the supermarket chain's pharmacists and targeted toward the identified risk factor trends.
Moraes, Claudia Leite; Arana, Flávia Dias Nogueira; Reichenheim, Michael Eduardo
To evaluate physical intimate partner violence during gestation as an independent risk factor for low quality of prenatal care. A cross-sectional study was carried out at three public maternity wards of the municipality of Rio de Janeiro (Southeastern Brazil). The 528 puerperal women included in the study were selected by simple random sampling from all babies born at term in 2000. Prenatal care information was collected through the pregnant woman's card and face-to-face interviews. The Kotelchuck index was employed to assess the quality of prenatal care. In order to identify violence situations, the Brazilian version of the instrument Revised Conflict Tactics Scales was used. Non-conditional logistic regression was used to assess the effect of exposure, after controlling for confounding variables. Even after adjustment for socioeconomic, demographic, reproductive, and couple's lifestyle variables, physical intimate partner violence during gestation remained associated with low quality of prenatal care. Women exposed to physical violence during gestation had 2.2 times more chance of presenting inadequate prenatal care compared to those without history of physical violence. These findings point to the need of identifying family conflict situations since the beginning of prenatal care in order to address the issue and enable higher adherence to follow-up among victimized pregnant women.
Wiemann, C M; Berenson, A B; Pino, L G; McCombs, S L
Risk factors for late entry into prenatal care were examined among 533 pregnant adolescents younger than 18. Forty-seven percent entered prenatal care after 12 weeks' gestation. Logistic regression analysis indicated that adolescents who no longer had contact with their baby's father were 4.2 times as likely as those who did to enter prenatal care after the first trimester. Adolescents with no history of abortion were 3.2 times as likely to enter care late as those who had had an abortion. Young women who had not used alcohol in the last 30 days and those with only one sex partner in the last 12 months were more likely than adolescents exhibiting riskier behavior to receive care late (odds ratios of 2.7 and 1.6, respectively). Odds of late entry into care were also elevated for those who were unemployed (1.9), black or white (1.9 and 1.7, respectively) and less educated (1.2).
Alderden, Jenny; Rondinelli, June; Pepper, Ginette; Cummins, Mollie; Whitney, JoAnne
To identify risk factors independently predictive of pressure injury (also known as pressure ulcer) development among critical-care patients. We undertook a systematic review of primary research based on standardized criteria set forth by the Institute of Medicine. We searched the following databases: CINAHL (EBSCOhost), the Cochrane Library (Wilson), Dissertations & Theses Global (ProQuest), PubMed (National Library of Medicine), and Scopus. There was no language restriction. A research librarian coordinated the search strategy. Articles that potentially met inclusion criteria were screened by two investigators. Among the articles that met selection criteria, one investigator extracted data and a second investigator reviewed the data for accuracy. Based on a literature search, we developed a tool for assessing study quality using a combination of currently available tools and expert input. We used the method developed by Coleman et al. in 2014 to generate evidence tables and a summary narrative synthesis by domain and subdomain. Of 1753 abstracts reviewed, 158 were identified as potentially eligible and 18 fulfilled eligibility criteria. Five studies were classified as high quality, two were moderate quality, nine were low quality, and two were of very low quality. Age, mobility/activity, perfusion, and vasopressor infusion emerged as important risk factors for pressure injury development, whereas results for risk categories that are theoretically important, including nutrition, and skin/pressure injury status, were mixed. Methodological limitations across studies limited the generalizability of the results, and future research is needed, particularly to evaluate risk conferred by altered nutrition and skin/pressure injury status, and to further elucidate the effects of perfusion-related variables. Results underscore the importance of avoiding overinterpretation of a single study, and the importance of taking study quality into consideration when reviewing risk
Tomlin, Andrew M; Lloyd, Hywel S; Tilyard, Murray W
Background Atrial fibrillation is a major risk factor for stroke and heart disease but there is limited information on its prevalence in New Zealand primary care or the treatment provided to manage thromboembolic risk. Our aim was to estimate the prevalence of atrial fibrillation, assess patient risk for thromboembolism and evaluate the appropriateness of risk reduction using antiplatelet and oral anticoagulation therapy. Design A retrospective cohort study utilising electronic medical records for 739,000 patients registered with 170 general practices in 2014. Methods Patient diagnoses and prescriptions from 2010-2014 were analysed to identify patients with atrial fibrillation in 2014 and co-morbidities included in the CHA2DS2-VASc algorithm. Adjusted prevalence of atrial fibrillation by patient demographic group and the proportion of patients following recommended antithrombotic therapy were calculated. Results 12,712 patients were identified with AF (1.72%, 95% confidence interval 1.69%-1.75%). Prevalence was significantly higher for Maori (odds ratio 1.91, 95% confidence interval 1.80-2.03) than Europeans after adjusting for age, sex, deprivation and clinical risk factors. Stroke risk for Maori and Pacific Island patients was higher than for Europeans across all age groups. Of the 10,406 patients (81.9%) at high risk for thromboembolism, 60.5% were using anticoagulants, 24.1% aspirin monotherapy and 15.4% neither anticoagulants nor aspirin. Oral anticoagulants were used by 31.5% of patients at low risk (CHA2DS2-VASc <2). Conclusions Oral anticoagulants are under-utilised in the management of thromboembolic risk in high risk patients with atrial fibrillation. Better promotion of guideline recommendations for the treatment of patients with atrial fibrillation may be required to improve clinician and patient decision-making.
Haughton, Betsy; Stang, Jamie
Many factors affect the current and future practice of dietetics in the United States. This article provides an overview of the most important population risk factors and trends in health care and public policy that are anticipated to affect the current dietetics workforce and future of dietetics training and practice. It concludes with an overview of the state of the current workforce, highlighting the opportunities and challenges it will face in the future. Demographic shifts in the age and racial/ethnic composition of the US population will be a major determinant of future the dietetics profession because a growing population of older adults with chronic health conditions will require additional medical nutrition therapy services. Dietetics practitioners will work with an increasingly diverse population, which will require the ability to adapt existing programs and services to culturally diverse individuals and communities. Economic factors will affect not only the type, quantity, and quality of food available in homes, but also how health care is delivered, influencing future roles of registered dietitians (RDs) and dietetic technicians, registered (DTRs). As health care services consume a larger percentage of federal and corporate expenditures, health care agencies will continue to look for ways to reduce costs. Health promotion and disease prevention efforts will likely play a larger role in health care services, thus creating many opportunities for RDs and DTRs in preventive care and wellness. Increasingly, dietetics services will be provided in more diverse settings, such as worksites, community health centers, and home-care agencies. To address population-based health care and nutrition priorities effectively, dietetics practice will need to focus on appropriate evidence-based intervention approaches and targets. The workforce needs to be skilled in the delivery of culturally competent interventions across the lifespan, for all population groups, and
Ramsing, Benedicte Grenness Utke; Arpi, Magnus; Andersen, Erik Arthur; Knabe, Niels; Mogensen, Dorthe; Buhl, Dorte; Westh, Henrik; Østergaard, Christian
Introduction The purpose of the study was to describe demographic and clinical characteristics and outbreak handling of a large methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Denmark June 25th–August 8th 2008, and to identify risk factors for MRSA transmission. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from medical records and the Danish Neobase database. All MRSA isolates obtained from neonates, relatives and NICU health care workers (HCW) as well as environmental cultures were typed. Results During the 46 day outbreak period, 102 neonates were admitted to the two neonatal wards. Ninety-nine neonates were subsequently sampled, and 32 neonates (32%) from 25 families were colonized with MRSA (spa-type t127, SCCmec V, PVL negative). Thirteen family members from 11 of those families (44%) and two of 161 HCWs (1%) were colonized with the same MRSA. No one was infected. Five environmental cultures were MRSA positive. In a multiple logistic regression analysis, nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (nCPAP) treatment (p = 0.006) and Caesarean section (p = 0.016) were independent risk factors for MRSA acquisition, whereas days of exposure to MRSA was a risk factors in the unadjusted analysis (p = 0.04). Conclusions MRSA transmission occurs with high frequency in the NICU during hospitalization with unidentified MRSA neonates. Caesarean section and nCPAP treatment were identified as risk factors for MRSA colonization. The MRSA outbreak was controlled through infection control procedures. PMID:23825581
Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Fisher, Philip A.
Children in foster care are at high risk for poor psychosocial outcomes, including school failure, alcohol and other substance abuse, and criminal behaviors. Promoting healthy development by increasing broad-impact positive skills may help reduce some of the risk factors for longer-term negative outcomes. School readiness has been linked to a number of positive outcomes across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and may also boost intermediary positive skills such as self-competence. This paper presents findings from a longitudinal study involving 192 children in foster care who were 5 years old at the start of the study. They participated in a randomized controlled trial of a school readiness program to prepare them for kindergarten. Outcomes were assessed at third grade (9 years old) on variables associated with risk for later involvement in substance use and delinquency. These included positive attitudes towards alcohol use, positive attitudes towards antisocial behaviors, and involvement with deviant peers. Results showed that the intervention decreased positive attitudes towards alcohol use and antisocial behaviors. Further, the mediating role of children’s self-competence was tested. The intervention positively influenced children’s third-grade self-competence, which in turn, decreased their involvement with deviant peers. Findings suggest that promoting school readiness in children in foster care can have far-reaching, positive effects and that increased self-competence may be a mechanism for reducing risk. PMID:27158175
Pears, Katherine C; Kim, Hyoun K; Fisher, Philip A
Children in foster care are at high risk for poor psychosocial outcomes, including school failure, alcohol and other substance abuse, and criminal behaviors. Promoting healthy development by increasing broad-impact positive skills may help reduce some of the risk factors for longer-term negative outcomes. School readiness has been linked to a number of positive outcomes across childhood, adolescence, and adulthood, and may also boost intermediary positive skills such as self-competence. This paper presents findings from a longitudinal study involving 192 children in foster care who were 5 years old at the start of the study. They participated in a randomized controlled trial of a school readiness program to prepare them for kindergarten. Outcomes were assessed at third grade (9 years old) on variables associated with risk for later involvement in substance use and delinquency. These included positive attitudes towards alcohol use, positive attitudes towards antisocial behaviors, and involvement with deviant peers. Results showed that the intervention decreased positive attitudes towards alcohol use and antisocial behaviors. Further, the mediating role of children's self-competence was tested. The intervention positively influenced children's third-grade self-competence, which in turn, decreased their involvement with deviant peers. Findings suggest that promoting school readiness in children in foster care can have far-reaching, positive effects and that increased self-competence may be a mechanism for reducing risk.
Background Delirium features can vary greatly depending on the postoperative population studied; however, most studies focus only on high-risk patients. Describing the impact of delirium and risk factors in mixed populations can help in the development of preventive actions. Methods The occurrence of delirium was evaluated prospectively in 465 consecutive nonventilated postoperative patients admitted to a surgical intensive care unit (SICU) using the confusion assessment method (CAM). Patients with and without delirium were compared. A multiple logistic regression was performed to identify the main risk factors for delirium in the first 24 h of admission to the SICU and the main predictors of outcomes. Results Delirium was diagnosed in 43 (9.2%) individuals and was more frequent on the second and third days of admission. The presence of delirium resulted in longer lengths of SICU and hospital stays [6 days (3–13) vs. 2 days (1–3), p < 0.001 and 26 days (12–39) vs. 6 days (3–13), p <0.001, respectively], as well as higher hospital and SICU mortality rates [16.3% vs. 4.0%, p = 0.004 and 6.5% vs. 1.7%, p = 0.042, respectively]. The risk factors for delirium were age (odds ratio (OR), 1.04 [1.02-1.07]), Acute Physiologic Score (APS; OR, 1.11 [1.04-1.2]), emergency surgery (OR, 8.05 [3.58-18.06]), the use of benzodiazepines (OR, 2.28 [1.04-5.00]), and trauma (OR, 6.16 [4.1-6.5]). Conclusions Delirium negatively impacts postoperative nonventilated patients. Risk factors can be used to detect high-risk patients in a mixed population of SICU patients. PMID:23272945
Park, Pauline K; Cannon, Jeremy W; Ye, Wen; Blackbourne, Lorne H; Holcomb, John B; Beninati, William; Napolitano, Lena M
The overall incidence and mortality of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in civilian trauma settings have decreased over the past four decades; however, the epidemiology and impact of ARDS on modern combat casualty care are unknown. We sought to determine the incidence, risk factors, resource utilization, and mortality associated with ARDS in current combat casualty care. This was a retrospective review of mechanically ventilated US combat casualties within the Department of Defense Trauma Registry (formerly the Joint Theater Trauma Registry) during Operation Iraqi Freedom/Enduring Freedom (October 2001 to August 2008) for ARDS development, resource utilization, and mortality. Of 18,329 US Department of Defense Trauma Registry encounters, 4,679 (25.5%) required mechanical ventilation; ARDS was identified in 156 encounters (3.3%). On multivariate logistic regression, ARDS was independently associated with female sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.62; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-5.71; p = 0.02), higher military-specific Injury Severity Score (Mil ISS) (OR, 4.18; 95% CI, 2.61-6.71; p < 0.001 for Mil ISS ≥25 vs. <15), hypotension (admission systolic blood pressure <90 vs. ≥90 mm Hg; OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.07-2.88; p = 0.03), and tachycardia (admission heart rate ≥90 vs. <90 beats per minute; OR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.06-2.22; p = 0.02). Explosion injury was not associated with increased risk of ARDS. Critical care resource utilization was significantly higher in ARDS patients as was all-cause hospital mortality (ARDS vs. no ARDS, 12.8% vs. 5.9%; p = 0.002). After adjustment for age, sex, injury severity, injury mechanism, Mil ISS, hypotension, tachycardia, and admission Glasgow Coma Scale score, ARDS remained an independent risk factor for death (OR, 1.99; 95% CI, 1.12-3.52; p = 0.02). In this large cohort of modern combat casualties, ARDS risk factors included female sex, higher injury severity, hypotension, and tachycardia, but not explosion injury. Patients with
Salvador González, Betlem; Rodríguez Pascual, Mercedes; Ruipérez Guijarro, Laura; Ferré González, Antonia; Cunillera Puertolas, Oriol; Rodríguez Latre, Luisa M
To determine the prevalence of chronic kidney disease and associated risk factors in subjects over 60 years of age, as well as its staging by determining the glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Cross-sectional observational study. Primary Health Care. Patients≥60 years of age who were seen in 40 Primary Health Care centres with serum creatinine measured in a central laboratory between January 1 and December 31, 2010. kidney transplant, home care. Social-demographic and anthropometric data, cardiovascular risk factors, and diseases established according to electronic clinical records. Serum creatinine was measured using standardised Jaffe kinetic method, and GFR estimated with MDRD-4-IDMS and CKD-EPI. A total of 97,665 subjects (57.3% women, median age 70.0 years [Q1: 65.0, Q3: 77.0]). GFR-MDRD prevalence<60=15.1% (16.6% in women, 13.2% in men; P<.001) and increased with age. Multivariate analysis showed a positive association between GFR-MDRD<60 and age (OR=1.74; 95% CI 1.70 to 1.77), hypertension (OR=2.18; 95% CI 2.08 to 2.30), heart failure (OR=2.03; 95% CI 1.83 to 2.25), atrial fibrillation (OR=1.57; 95% CI 1.41 to 1.76), ischaemic heart disease (OR=1.40; 95% CI 1.30 to 1.50), peripheral arterial disease (OR=1.31; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.57), dyslipidaemia (OR=1.28; 95% CI 1.23 to 1.33), diabetes (OR=1.26; 95% CI 1.17 to 1.34), and stroke (OR=1.17; 95% CI 1.09 to 1.25). The GFR-CKD-EPI model showed an increase in OR with age and male sex, that became significant as a chronic kidney disease risk factor. Chronic kidney disease has considerable prevalence in subjects≥60 years seen in Primary Health Care, more in women, and increasing with age. Hypertension, more than diabetes, was the main associated cardiovascular risk factor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
McCusker, Jane; Cole, Martin G; Voyer, Philippe; Monette, Johanne; Champoux, Nathalie; Ciampi, Antonio; Vu, Minh; Dyachenko, Alina; Belzile, Eric
The objectives of this study were: (1) to describe the prevalence and 6-month incidence of observer-rated depression in residents age 65 and over of long-term care (LTC) facilities; (2) to describe risk factors for depression, at baseline and over time. A multisite, prospective observational study was conducted in residents aged 65 and over of 7 LTC facilities. The Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia (CSDD) was completed by nurses monthly for 6 months. We measured demographic, medical, and functional factors at baseline and monthly intervals, using data from research assessments, nurse interviews, and chart reviews. 274 residents were recruited and completed baseline depression assessments. The prevalence of depression (CSDD score of 6+) was 19.0%. The incidence of depression among those without prevalent depression was 73.3 per 100 person-years. A delirium diagnosis, pain, and diabetes were independently associated with prevalent depression. CSDD score at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were independent risk factors for incident depression. A diagnosis of delirium and uncorrected visual impairment at follow-up occurred concurrently with incident depression. The results of this study have implications for the detection and prevention of depression in LTC. Delirium diagnosis, pain and diabetes at baseline were associated with prevalent depression; depression symptoms at baseline and development of severe cognitive impairment at follow-up were risk factors for incident depression.
Gosalbes Soler, Victoria; Bonet Plá, Alvaro; Sanchis Doménech, Carlos; Fornos Garrigós, Antonio; Fluixá Carrascosa, Carlos; Ajenjo Navarro, Asunción
To evaluate a primary care protocol for intensive monitoring of cardiovascular risk (CVR) factors in type-2 diabetes patients versus usual care. Randomised trial with clusters. Primary care clinics. Sixty family physicians. Participants were randomised between following a protocol of intensive monitoring of CVR factors and maintaining their habitual practice with DM2 patients. Follow-up lasted 12 months. Data on HbA1C, CVR factors and CVR were collected at the start of the study and at 12 months. In all, 188 patients (94 intervention group and 94 control group) were included. At baseline measurement, CVR in control group (CG) was 36.3% (95% CI, 33.9%-38.6%); and in intervention group (IG), 35.9% (95% CI, 33.5%-38.4%), with no significant differences between groups. At one year, CVR in CG was 33.1% (95% CI, 30%-36.1%) and in IG 30.5% (95% CI, 27.8%-33.2%). The CVR difference between baseline and 1-year measurements was 2.9% (95% CI, 0.2%-5.7%) in CG and 5.4% (95% CI, 2.8%-7.1%) in IG. Although improvement of CVR is greater in the IG, the difference between the two groups is not significant. The characteristics of the doctors chosen may have meant that the patients of the two groups received similar treatment.
Yu, Tiffany; Campbell, Timothy; Ciuffetelli, Isabella; Haywood, Carlton; Carroll, Christopher Patrick; Resar, Linda; Strouse, John J; Lanzkron, Sophie
Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with high healthcare utilization rates and poor outcomes in a subset of patients, although the underlying factors that predict this phenotype are poorly understood. Prior studies suggest that comorbid avascular necrosis (AVN) contributes to high healthcare utilization. We sought to clarify whether AVN independently predicts acute care utilization in adults with SCD and to identify characteristics of those with AVN that predict higher utilization. We reviewed the medical records of 87 patients with SCD with symptomatic AVN and compared acute care utilization and clinical characteristics with 87 sex- and age-matched patients with SCD without symptomatic AVN. Patients with ≥2 years of follow-up were included. Outcomes were compared using bivariate analysis and multivariate regression. Our study included 1381 follow-up years, with a median of 7 years per patient. The AVN cohort had greater median rates of urgent care visits (3.2/year vs 1.3/year; P = 0.0155), admissions (1.3/year vs 0.4/year; P = 0.0002), and admission days (5.1 days/year vs 1.8 days/year; P = 0.0007). History of high utilization (odds ratio [OR] 4.28; P = 0.001), acute chest syndrome (OR 3.12; P = 0.005), pneumonia (OR 3.20; P = 0.023), hydroxyurea therapy (OR 2.23; P = 0.0136), and long-term transfusion (OR 2.33; P = 0.014) were associated with AVN. In a median regression model, AVN, acute chest syndrome, and pneumonia were independently associated with greater urgent care visits and admissions. Symptomatic AVN was found to be an independent risk factor for acute care utilization in patients with SCD. Because this is a potentially modifiable factor, further studies are urgently needed to determine whether AVN prevention/early treatment interventions will alter utilization and improve outcomes for patients with SCD.
Burke, Laurie A; Clark, Karen A; Ali, Khatidja S; Gibson, Benjamin W; Smigelsky, Melissa A; Neimeyer, Robert A
Anticipatory grief is the process associated with grieving the loss of loved ones in advance of their inevitable death. Because anticipatory grief has been associated with a variety of outcomes, risk factors for this condition deserve closer consideration. Fifty-seven family members of terminally ill, hospice-eligible veterans receiving palliative care services completed measures assessing psychosocial factors and conditions. Elevated anticipatory grief was found in families characterized by relational dependency, lower education, and poor grief-specific support, who also experienced discomfort with closeness and intimacy, neuroticism, spiritual crisis, and an inability to make sense of the loss. Thus, in this sample, anticipatory grief appears to be part of a cluster of factors and associated distress that call for early monitoring and possible intervention.
Wang, Szu-Han; Wang, Jiun-Yi; Lin, Ping-Yi; Lin, Kuo-Hua; Ko, Chih-Jan; Hsieh, Chia-En; Lin, Hui-Chuan; Chen, Yao-Li
Delirium is one of the main causes of increased length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay among patients who have undergone living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). We aimed to evaluate risk factors for delirium after LDLT as well as to investigate whether delirium impacts the length of ICU and hospital stay. Seventy-eight patients who underwent LDLT during the period January 2010 to December 2012 at a single medical center were enrolled. The Confusion Assessment Method for the Intensive Care Unit (CAM-ICU) scale was used to diagnose delirium. Preoperative, postoperative, and hematologic factors were included as potential risk factors for developing delirium. During the study period, delirium was diagnosed in 37 (47.4%) patients after LDLT. The mean onset of symptoms occurred 7.0±5.5 days after surgery and the mean duration of symptoms was 5.0±2.6 days. The length of stay in the ICU for patients with delirium (39.8±28.1 days) was significantly longer than that for patients without delirium (29.3±19.0 days) (p<0.05). Risk factors associated with delirium included history of alcohol abuse [odds ratio (OR) = 6.40, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.85-22.06], preoperative hepatic encephalopathy (OR = 4.45, 95% CI: 1.36-14.51), APACHE II score ≥16 (OR = 1.73, 95% CI: 1.71-2.56), and duration of endotracheal intubation ≥5 days (OR = 1.81, 95% CI: 1.52-2.23). History of alcohol abuse, preoperative hepatic encephalopathy, APACHE II scores ≥16 and endotracheal intubation ≥5 days were predictive of developing delirium in the ICU following liver transplantation surgery and were associated with increased length of ICU and hospital stay.
Verhave, Jacobien C; Troyanov, Stéphan; Mongeau, Frédéric; Fradette, Lorraine; Bouchard, Josée; Awadalla, Philip; Madore, François
It is uncertain how many patients with CKD and cardiovascular risk factors in publicly funded universal health care systems are aware of their disease and how to achieve their treatment targets. The CARTaGENE study evaluated BP, lipid, and diabetes profiles as well as corresponding treatments in 20,004 random individuals between 40 and 69 years of age. Participants had free access to health care and were recruited from four regions within the province of Quebec, Canada in 2009 and 2010. CKD (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation; <60 ml/min per 1.73 m(2)) was present in 4.0% of the respondents, and hypertension, diabetes, and hypercholesterolemia were reported by 25%, 7.4%, and 28% of participants, respectively. Self-awareness was low: 8% for CKD, 73% for diabetes, and 45% for hypercholesterolemia. Overall, 31% of patients with hypertension did not meet BP goals, and many received fewer antihypertensive drugs than appropriately controlled individuals; 41% of patients with diabetes failed to meet treatment targets. Among those patients with a moderate or high Framingham risk score, 53% of patients had LDL levels above the recommended levels, and many patients were not receiving a statin. Physician checkups were not associated with greater awareness but did increase the achievement of targets. In this population with access to publicly funded health care, CKD and cardiovascular risk factors are common, and self-awareness of these conditions is low. Recommended targets were frequently not achieved, and treatments were less intensive in those patients who failed to reach goals. New strategies to enhance public awareness and reach guideline targets should be developed.
Chandalia, H. B.; Singh, D.; Kapoor, V.; Chandalia, S. H.; Lamba, P. S.
We assessed 300 diabetic and 100 age- and sex-matched controls for correlating foot wear practices and foot care knowledge and the presence of foot complications. A structured questionnaire evaluated the knowledge about foot care, type of footwear used, education level, association of tobacco abuse, and any associated symptoms of foot disease. Clinical evaluation was done by inspection of feet for presence of any external deformities, assessment of sensory function (vibration perception threshold, VPT), vascular status (foot pulses and ankle brachial ratio) and presence of any infection. In the diabetes category, 44.7% patients had not received previous foot care education. 0.6% walked barefoot outdoors and 45% walked barefoot indoors. Fourteen (4.7%) patients gave history of foot ulceration in the past and comprised the high risk group; only 2 out of 14 had received foot care education, 6 gave history of tobacco abuse, 8 had symptoms of claudication, 9 had paresthesias, 2 walked barefoot indoors. Average duration of diabetes in the high-risk and low-risk diabetes group was 10.85 ± 6.53 and 9.83 ± 7.99 years, respectively. In the high- and low-risk diabetic groups, VPT was 19.57 ± 11.26 and 15.20 ± 10.21V (P < 0.02), ankle brachial ratio was 1.05 ± 0.19 and 1.14 ± 0.18 (P < 0.05), and the questionnaire scores was 40.8% and 57%, respectively. In the diabetic and the control group, VPT was 15.62 ± 10.39 and 8.36 ± 3.61 V (P < 0.01), ankle brachial ratio was 1.14 ± 0.18 and 1.15 ± 0.12, and the questionnaire scores were 57% and 40.3%, respectively. In conclusion, poor knowledge of foot care and poor footwear practices were important risk factors for foot problems in diabetes. PMID:20165597
Cunnion, K M; Weber, D J; Broadhead, W E; Hanson, L C; Pieper, C F; Rutala, W A
The purpose of the study was to examine risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia in the surgical and medical/respiratory intensive care unit (ICU) populations. In a public teaching hospital, all cases of nosocomial pneumonia in the surgical and medical/respiratory ICUs (n = 20, respectively) were identified by prospective surveillance during a 5-yr period from 1987-1991. Each group of ICU cases was compared with 40 ICU control patients who did not acquire pneumonia, and analyzed for 25 potential risk factors. Surgical ICU patients were found to have consistently higher rates of nosocomial pneumonia than medical ICU patients (RR = 2.2). The strongest predictor for nosocomial pneumonia in both the surgical and medical/respiratory ICU groups was found to be prolonged mechanical ventilation (> 1 d) resulting in a 12-fold increase in risk over nonventilated patients. APACHE III score was found to be predictive of nosocomial pneumonia in the surgical ICU population, but not in the medical/respiratory ICU population. We conclude that certain groups deserve special attention for infection control intervention. Surgical ICU patients with high APACHE scores and receiving prolonged mechanical ventilation may be at the greatest risk of acquiring nosocomial pneumonia of all hospitalized patients.
Cabré, Joan-Josep; Martín, Francisco; Costa, Bernardo; Piñol, Josep L; Llor, Josep L; Ortega, Yolanda; Basora, Josep; Baldrich, Marta; Solà, Rosa; Daniel, Jordi; Hernández, Josep Ma; Saumell, Judit; Bladé, Jordi; Sagarra, Ramon; Basora, Teresa; Montañés, Dolors; Frigola, Joan L; Donado-Mazarrón, Angel; García-Vidal, Maria Teresa; Sánchez-Oro, Isabel; de Magriñà, Josep M; Urbaneja, Ana; Barrio, Francisco; Vizcaíno, Jesús; Sabaté, Josep M; Pascual, Irene; Revuelta, Vanesa
To estimate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) in a population receiving attention in primary care centers (PCC) we selected a random cohort of ostensibly normal subjects from the registers of 5 basic-health area (BHA) PCC. Diagnosis of MS was with the WHO, NCEP and IDF criteria. Variables recorded were: socio-demographic data, CVD risk factors including lipids, obesity, diabetes, blood pressure and smoking habit and a glucose tolerance test outcome. Of the 720 individuals selected (age 60.3 ± 11.5 years), 431 were female, 352 hypertensive, 142 diabetic, 233 pre-diabetic, 285 obese, 209 dyslipemic and 106 smokers. CVD risk according to the Framingham and REGICOR calculation was 13.8 ± 10% and 8.8 ± 9.8%, respectively. Using the WHO, NCEP and IDF criteria, MS was diagnosed in 166, 210 and 252 subjects, respectively and the relative risk of CVD complications in MS subjects was 2.56. Logistic regression analysis indicated that the MS components (WHO set), the MS components (IDF set) and the female gender had an increased odds ratio for CVD of 3.48 (95CI%: 2.26–5.37), 2.28 (95%CI: 1.84–4.90) and 2.26 (95%CI: 1.48–3.47), respectively. We conclude that MS and concomitant CVD risk is high in ostensibly normal population attending primary care clinics, and this would necessarily impinge on resource allocation in primary care. PMID:18647383
Quinn, C E; Sivasubramaniam, P; Blevins, M; Al Hajajra, A; Znait, A Taleb; Khuri-Bulos, N; Faouri, S; Halasa, N
A better understanding of risk factors for neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) admission can inform interventions to improve neonatal survival. This study aimed to describe a population of newborns admitted to a NICU in Amman, Jordan, and compare them with newborns discharged to home. Newborns born within 96 hours at Al-Bashir Hospital were enrolled from February 2010 to June 2011. Demographic and clinical data were collected for mothers and newborns. Of 5466 enrolled neonates, 373 (6.8%) were admitted to the NICU. The median gestational age of NICU infants was 36 weeks, median birth weight was 2.2 kg and 49.5% were delivered by non-elective caesarean section. Lower gestational age, lower birth weight, delivery by caesarean section and birth in the month of May were statistically significant risk factors for NICU admission. Risk factors for NICU admission were consistent with other populations worldwide; however, median gestational age and birth weight were higher than in developed countries.
García Rojas Vázquez, L E; Trujano-Ramos, L A; Pérez-Rivera, E
The head and neck cancer in Michoacán, Mexico, ranks as the third most common cancer and accounts for 12% of deaths. The increase in malnutrition in a patient with this disease has been associated with increased mortality. We studied prospectively 30 patients of both sexes, aged 18 years with head and neck cancer in the Cancer Care Center of Michoacan. In the evaluation period since August 2010 to August 2011. Formats were used VGS-Oncology (Subjective Global Assessment), NRS 2002 (Nutritional risk screen) and Guss (Gugging Swallowing Screen), through which nutritional risk was determined, and established the swallowing capacity of the study population. In our study, 53.3% of the population had moderate malnutrition according to the VGS Oncology, 33% weight loss record. The NRS 2002 show that 43.3% is at risk of malnutrition. The degree of dysphagia is shown more often in older patients, cancer type and stage of illness. Nutritional risk scales relate directly proportional to tumor location and stage, as well, there are other different oncological factors involved in the patient's nutritional deterioration. Therefore it is of vital importance to have a nutritionist as part of the multidisciplinary team, to detect the nutritional risk and to be able to handle it in an opportune way. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.
Tucker, Larry A.; Clegg, Alan G.
Examined the relationship between lifestyle-related health risks and health care costs and utilization among young adults. Data collected at a primarily white collar worksite in over 2 years indicated that health risks, particularly obesity, stress, and general lifestyle, were significant predictors of health care costs and utilization among these…
Tucker, Larry A.; Clegg, Alan G.
Examined the relationship between lifestyle-related health risks and health care costs and utilization among young adults. Data collected at a primarily white collar worksite in over 2 years indicated that health risks, particularly obesity, stress, and general lifestyle, were significant predictors of health care costs and utilization among these…
Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat-Sim
This study aimed to determine the risk factors associated with the development of pneumothorax among infants admitted to the Malaysian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Twenty-nine of forty NICUs in Malaysian public hospitals participated in the 2006 Malaysian National Neonatal Registry (MNNR). Data of infants from this registry with and without pneumothorax were analysed. A diagnosis of pneumothorax was made in the presence of extra-pleural air detected by chest radiograph or needle aspiration. There were 10,387 infants admitted to these NICUs who met the MNNR inclusion criteria and were included in this study. Pneumothorax developed in 505 (4.9%) of them. Pneumothorax was most common (7.3%) among the extremely low birthweight infants (birthweight equal or less than 1000 g) and the extremely preterm infants of gestation equal or less than 26 weeks (6.8%). Logistic regression analysis showed that the significant risk factors associated with increased risk of development of pneumothorax were: meconium aspiration syndrome (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 2.1, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.7, 2.7), intermittent mandatory ventilation (adjusted OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2, 2.0), high-frequency oscillatory ventilation (adjusted OR = 3.9, 95% CI: 3.0, 5.2) and confirmed sepsis (adjusted OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.3, 2.1). Infants on nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP) therapy were associated with significantly lower risk of pneumothorax (adjusted OR = 0.5, 95% CI: 0.4, 0.6). Meconium aspiration syndrome, mechanical ventilation and sepsis were associated with increased risk and the use of nCPAP with decreased risk of pneumothorax in Malaysian NICUs. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2011 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).
Solano L, M F; Alvarez Lerma, F; Grau, S; Segura, C; Aguilar, A
To describe the epidemiological characteristics of the population with Pneumocystis jiroveci (P. jiroveci) pneumonia, analyzing risk factors associated with the disease, predisposing factors for admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), and prognostic factors of mortality. A retrospective observational study was carried out, involving a cohort of patients consecutively admitted to a hospital in Spain from 1 January 2007 to 31 December 2011, with a final diagnosis of P. jiroveci pneumonia. The ICU and hospitalization service of Hospital del Mar, Barcelona (Spain). We included 36 patients with pneumonia due to P. jiroveci. Of these subjects, 16 required ICU admission (44.4%). The average age of the patients was 41.3 ± 12 years, and 23 were men (63.9%). A total of 86.1% had a history of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, and the remaining 13.9% presented immune-based disease subjected to immunosuppressive therapy. Risk factors associated to hospital mortality were age (51.8 vs. 37.3 years, P=.002), a higher APACHE score upon admission (17 vs. 13 points, P=.009), the need for invasive mechanical ventilation (27.8% vs. 11.1%, P=.000), requirement of vasoactive drugs (25.0% vs. 11.1%, P=.000), fungal coinfection (22.2% vs. 11.1%, P=.001), pneumothorax (16.7% vs. 83.3%, P=.000) and admission to the ICU (27.8% vs. 72.2% P=.000). The high requirement of mechanical ventilation and vasoactive drugs associated with fungal coinfection and pneumothorax in patients admitted to the ICU remain as risk factors associated with mortality in patients with P. jiroveci pneumonia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Bachoura, Abdo; Guitton, Thierry G; Smith, R Malcolm; Vrahas, Mark S; Zurakowski, David; Ring, David
Orthopaedic surgical-site infections prolong hospital stays, double rehospitalization rates, and increase healthcare costs. Additionally, patients with orthopaedic surgical-site infections (SSI) have substantially greater physical limitations and reductions in their health-related quality of life. However, the risk factors for SSI after operative fracture care are unclear. We determined the incidence and quantified modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for SSIs in patients with orthopaedic trauma undergoing surgery. We retrospectively indentified, from our prospective trauma database and billing records, 1611 patients who underwent 1783 trauma-related procedures between 2006 and 2008. Medical records were reviewed and demographics, surgery-specific data, and whether the patients had an SSI were recorded. We determined which if any variables predicted SSI. Six factors independently predicted SSI: (1) the use of a drain, OR 2.3, 95% CI (1.3-3.8); (2) number of operations OR 3.4, 95% CI (2.0-6.0); (3) diabetes, OR 2.1, 95% CI (1.2-3.8); (4) congestive heart failure (CHF), OR 2.8, 95% CI (1.3-6.5); (5) site of injury tibial shaft/plateau, OR 2.3, 95% CI (1.3-4.2); and (6) site of injury, elbow, OR 2.2, 95% CI (1.1-4.7). The risk factors for SSIs after skeletal trauma are most strongly determined by nonmodifiable factors: patient infirmity (diabetes and heart failure) and injury complexity (site of injury, number of operations, use of a drain). Level II, prognostic study. See the Guideline for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.
Gamboa Delgado, Edna M; Rojas Sánchez, Lyda Z; Bermon Angarita, Anderson; Rangel Díaz, Yully Andrea; Jaraba Suárez, Silvia J; Serrano Díaz, Norma C; Vega Fernández, Evaristo
Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, for this reason, they are a public health problem. In Colombia, cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality, having a death rate of 152 deaths per 100,000 population. There are 80% of these cardiovascular events that are considered avoidable. The objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk and its associated factors among the institution's workers in order to design and implement interventions in the work environment which may achieve a decrease in such risk. An analytical cross-sectional study was designed to determine the cardiovascular risk and its associated factors among workers of a high complexity health care institution. A self-applied survey will be conducted considering sociodemographic aspects, physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, smoking, level of perceived stress, and personal and family history. In a second appointment, a physical examination will be made, as well as anthropometric measurements and blood pressure determination. Also, blood samples for evaluating total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting blood sugar will be taken. A ten-year global risk for cardiovascular disease will be determined using the Framingham score. A descriptive analysis of the population's characteristics and a stratified analysis by sex, age, and occupation will be made. Bivariate and multivariate analysis will be made using logistic regression models to evaluate the association between cardiovascular risk and the independent variables. The research protocol was approved by the Scientific and Technical Committee and the Ethics Committee on Research of the Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia. The protocol has already received funding and the enrollment phase will begin in the coming months. The results of this study will give the foundation for the design, implementation, and evaluation of a program based on
Background Cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of mortality worldwide, for this reason, they are a public health problem. In Colombia, cardiovascular diseases are the main cause of mortality, having a death rate of 152 deaths per 100,000 population. There are 80% of these cardiovascular events that are considered avoidable. Objective The objective of the study is to determine the prevalence of the cardiovascular risk and its associated factors among the institution’s workers in order to design and implement interventions in the work environment which may achieve a decrease in such risk. Methods An analytical cross-sectional study was designed to determine the cardiovascular risk and its associated factors among workers of a high complexity health care institution. A self-applied survey will be conducted considering sociodemographic aspects, physical activity, diet, alcohol consumption, smoking, level of perceived stress, and personal and family history. In a second appointment, a physical examination will be made, as well as anthropometric measurements and blood pressure determination. Also, blood samples for evaluating total and high density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting blood sugar will be taken. A ten-year global risk for cardiovascular disease will be determined using the Framingham score. A descriptive analysis of the population’s characteristics and a stratified analysis by sex, age, and occupation will be made. Bivariate and multivariate analysis will be made using logistic regression models to evaluate the association between cardiovascular risk and the independent variables. The research protocol was approved by the Scientific and Technical Committee and the Ethics Committee on Research of the Fundación Cardiovascular de Colombia. Results The protocol has already received funding and the enrollment phase will begin in the coming months. Conclusions The results of this study will give the foundation for the design
Venier, A-G; Leroyer, C; Slekovec, C; Talon, D; Bertrand, X; Parer, S; Alfandari, S; Guerin, J-M; Megarbane, B; Lawrence, C; Clair, B; Lepape, A; Perraud, M; Cassier, P; Trivier, D; Boyer, A; Dubois, V; Asselineau, J; Rogues, A-M; Thiébaut, R
Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a major nosocomial pathogen in intensive care units (ICUs); however, endogenous versus exogenous origin of contamination remains unclear. To identify individual and environmental ICU risk factors for P. aeruginosa acquisition. A five-month prospective multicentric study was performed in ten French ICUs. Adult patients hospitalized in ICU for ≥ 24 h were included and screened for P. aeruginosa colonization on admission, weekly and before discharge. P. aeruginosa acquisition was defined by a subsequent colonization or infection if screening swabs on admission were negative. Water samples were obtained weekly on water taps of the ICUs. Data on patient characteristics, invasive devices exposure, antimicrobial therapy, P. aeruginosa water and patient colonization pressures, and ICU characteristics were collected. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated using multivariate Cox model. Among the 1314 patients without P. aeruginosa on admission, 201 (15%) acquired P. aeruginosa during their ICU stay. Individual characteristics significantly associated with P. aeruginosa acquisition were history of previous P. aeruginosa infection or colonization, cumulative duration of mechanical ventilation and cumulative days of antibiotics not active against P. aeruginosa. Environmental risk factors for P. aeruginosa acquisition were cumulative daily ward 'nine equivalents of nursing manpower use score' (NEMS) [hazard ratio (HR): 1.47 for ≥ 30 points; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-2.03] and contaminated tap water in patient's room (HR: 1.76; CI: 1.09-2.84). Individual risk factors and environmental factors for which intervention is possible were identified for P. aeruginosa acquisition. Copyright © 2014 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
da Silva, Kenia Vieira; Rosa, Maria Luiza Garcia; Jorge, Antônio José Lagoeiro; Leite, Adson Renato; Correia, Dayse Mary Silva; Silva, Davi de Sá; Cetto, Diego Bragatto; Brum, Andreia da Paz; Netto, Pedro Silveira; Rodrigues, Gustavo Domingos
Background Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is a chronic, progressive disease with high morbidity and mortality. It is underdiagnosed, especially among women. Objective To study the prevalence of high risk for OSAS globally and for the Berlin Questionnaire (BQ) categories, and to evaluate the reliability of the BQ use in the population studied. Methods Observational, cross-sectional study with individuals from the Niterói Family Doctor Program, randomly selected, aged between 45 and 99 years. The visits occurred between August/2011 and December/2012. Variables associated with each BQ category and with high risk for OSAS (global) were included in logistic regression models (p < 0.05). Results Of the total (616), 403 individuals (65.4%) reported snoring. The prevalence of high risk for OSA was 42.4%, being 49.7% for category I, 10.2% for category II and 77.6% for category III. Conclusion BQ showed an acceptable reliability after excluding the questions Has anyone noticed that you stop breathing during your sleep? and Have you ever dozed off or fallen asleep while driving?. This should be tested in further studies with samples mostly comprised of women and low educational level individuals. Given the burden of OSAS-related diseases and risks, studies should be conducted to validate new tools and to adapt BQ to better screen OSAS. PMID:27142651
Rose, Gail L; Ferraro, Tonya A; Skelly, Joan M; Badger, Gary J; MacLean, Charles D; Fazzino, Tera L; Helzer, John E
Screening of primary care patients for unhealthy behaviors and mental health issues is recommended by numerous governing bodies internationally, yet evidence suggests that provider-initiated screening is not routine practice. The objective of this study was to implement systematic pre-screening of primary care patients for common preventive health issues on a large scale. Patients registered for non-acute visits to one of 40 primary care providers from eight clinics in an Academic Medical Center health care network in the United States from May, 2012 to May, 2014 were contacted one- to three-days prior to their visit. Patients were invited to complete a questionnaire using an Interactive Voice Response (IVR) system. Six items assessed pain, smoking, alcohol use, physical activity, concern about weight, and mood. The acceptance rate among eligible patients reached by phone was 65.6 %, of which 95.5 % completed the IVR-Screen (N = 8,490; mean age 57; 57 % female). Sample demographics were representative of the overall primary care population from which participants were drawn on gender, race, and insurance status, but participants were slightly older and more likely to be married. Eighty-seven percent of patients screened positive on at least one item, and 59 % endorsed multiple problems. The majority of respondents (64.2 %) reported being never or only somewhat physically active. Weight concern was reported by 43.9 % of respondents, 36.4 % met criteria for unhealthy alcohol use, 23.4 % reported current pain, 19.6 % reported low mood, and 9.4 % reported smoking. The percent endorsement for each behavioral health concern was generally consistent with studies of screening using other methods, and contrasts starkly with the reported low rates of screening and intervention for such concerns in typical PC practice. Results support the feasibility of IVR-based, large-scale pre-appointment behavioral health/ lifestyle risk factor screening of primary care patients. Pre
Colombara, Danny V.; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R.; Desai, Sima S.; Gagnier, Marielle C.; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B.; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H.
Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011–2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ2 tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0–5 months, those 6–23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines. PMID:26787152
Colombara, Danny V; Hernández, Bernardo; McNellan, Claire R; Desai, Sima S; Gagnier, Marielle C; Haakenstad, Annie; Johanns, Casey; Palmisano, Erin B; Ríos-Zertuche, Diego; Schaefer, Alexandra; Zúñiga-Brenes, Paola; Zyznieuski, Nicholas; Iriarte, Emma; Mokdad, Ali H
Care practices and risk factors for diarrhea among impoverished communities across Mesoamerica are unknown. Using Salud Mesoamérica Initiative baseline data, collected 2011-2013, we assessed the prevalence of diarrhea, adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines, and potential diarrhea correlates in poor and indigenous communities across Mesoamerica. This study surveyed 14,500 children under 5 years of age in poor areas of El Salvador, Guatemala, Mexico (Chiapas State), Nicaragua, and Panama. We compared diarrhea prevalence and treatment modalities using χ(2) tests and used multivariable Poisson regression models to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for potential correlates of diarrhea. The 2-week point prevalence of diarrhea was 13% overall, with significant differences between countries (P < 0.05). Approximately one-third of diarrheal children were given oral rehydration solution and less than 3% were given zinc. Approximately 18% were given much less to drink than usual or nothing to drink at all. Antimotility medication was given to 17% of diarrheal children, while antibiotics were inappropriately given to 36%. In a multivariable regression model, compared with children 0-5 months, those 6-23 months had a 49% increased risk for diarrhea (aRR = 1.49, 95% CI = 1.15, 1.95). Our results call for programs to examine and remedy low adherence to evidence-based treatment guidelines.
Fernández-Carrión, F; Gaboli, M; González-Celador, R; Gómez de Quero-Masía, P; Fernández-de Miguel, S; Murga-Herrera, V; Serrano-Ayestarán, O; Sánchez-Granados, J M; Payo-Pérez, R
To determine the incidence of withdrawal syndrome after prolonged infusion of fentanyl and midazolam in children, and the associated risk factors. Historic or retrospective cohort study. Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in an academic center. Forty-eight pediatric patients who received sedation and analgesia only with fentanyl and midazolam through continuous infusion for at least 48 hours. None. Collected data included demographic and clinical parameters, dose and duration of sedation received, and incidence, severity and treatment of withdrawal syndrome. Fifty percent of the patients developed withdrawal syndrome. There were significant differences between the patients who developed withdrawal syndrome and those who did not, in terms of the duration of infusion and the cumulative doses of both drugs. A cumulative fentanyl dose of 0.48 mg/kg, a cumulative midazolam dose of 40 mg/kg, and a duration of infusion of both drugs of 5.75 days were risk factors for the development of withdrawal syndrome. Most children developed mild or moderate disease, beginning about 12-36 hours after weaning from infusion. Methadone was used in most cases for treating withdrawal. There is a high incidence of withdrawal syndrome in children following the continuous infusion of midazolam and fentanyl. The duration of infusion of both drugs and higher cumulative doses are associated with the development of withdrawal syndrome. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.
Shome, Rajeswari; Kalleshamurthy, Triveni; Shankaranarayana, Padmashree B; Giribattanvar, Prashanth; Chandrashekar, Nagarathna; Mohandoss, Nagalingam; Shome, Bibek Ranjan; Kumar, Ashok; Barbuddhe, Sukhadeo B; Rahman, Habibur
The study describes prevalence, clinical symptoms and risk factors for brucellosis in personnel engaged in veterinary health care in Karnataka, India. A total of 1050 sera samples were collected from animal handlers, veterinarians, veterinary students, para-veterinarians and persons engaged in artificial insemination of animals. The sera samples were tested for brucellosis by Rose Bengal plate test (RBPT), serum agglutination test (SAT), IgG and IgM indirect ELISA and PCR. Age, sex, clinical symptoms and risk factors were recorded in structured questionnaire. Of the 1050 samples tested, 6.76, 6.38, 3.90, 2.67 and 2.0% were positive by IgG ELISA, RBPT, SAT, IgM ELISA and PCR, respectively and overall prevalence recorded was 7.04%. The prominent clinical symptoms observed were intermittent fever (71.62%) followed by joint pain and body aches. A high degree of suspicion, awareness and multimodal diagnostic approach is suggested for early diagnosis, treatment and disease follow up.
Serna-Higuita, Lina María; Nieto-Ríos, John Fredy; Contreras-Saldarriaga, Jorge Eduardo; Escobar-Cataño, Juan Felipe; Gómez-Ramírez, Luz Adriana; Montoya-Giraldo, Juan Diego; Parra-Rodas, Elizabeth; Parra-Rodas, Luisa María; Valderrama-Torres, Johana Catalina; Jaimes, Fabián
The incidence of acute kidney injury in the pediatric population and its associated risk factors are currently not clear. The objective of the study was to assess the incidence of acute kidney injury in critically ill pediatric patients and to determine its associated risk factors. We conducted a retrospective study of pediatric patients (<14 years old) admitted to a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. Acute kidney injury (AKI) was classified using the Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes definition KDIGO. A total number of 382 patients were assessed: acute kidney injury was found in 11.5% of them (incidence rate 0.99 persons-day). The following parameters analyzed with multivariate regression analysis were associated with acute kidney injury: low platelet count (R = 2.947; 95% CI= 1.276-6.805) and the need of vasopressor support (OR= 4.601; 95% CI= 1.665-12.710). Children with acute kidney injury had an increased length of stay in the hospital and an increased mortality compared with patients with no kidney injury (19 days vs. 5 days and 3.7/person-day vs. 0.32/person-day). Acute kidney injury is common among critically ill children and it is associated with adverse outcomes, including increased length of stay in the hospital and death. Low platelet count and vasopressor support were independently associated with the development of acute kidney injury in this population.
Lahoorpour, Fariba; Delpisheh, Ali; Afkhamzadeh, Abdorrahim
Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP) has an imperative place amongst nosocomial infections leading to increase morbidity and mortality rates. The present study aimed to determine risk factors for acquisition of ventilator- associated pneumonia in an intensive care unit (ICU). A nested case-control study was carried out from September 2007 to June 2008. All 183 patients hospitalized at the adult ICU ward in Be'sat Hospital, Sanandaj city western Iran over a 48 hour period were included. Bacteriologic diagnosis and antibiotic susceptibility patterns were performed based on Edward & Ewing's methods and CLSI system guidelines. Results : Of the 149 samples which were taken from endotracheal tubes of 183 patients, 48 cases were diagnosed for VAP with an incidence rate of 26.2%. Mean duration of hospitalization was 23.4±10.2 days. The maximum and minimum antibiotic resistance for the gram negative bacteria was 93.3% for Cefalotin and 50% for Amikacin. The main risk factors for acquisition of ventilator- associated pneumonia were mechanical ventilation (Adjusted OR: 1.55, 95% CI: 1.37-1.74), history of antibiotic consumption (AOR: 8.92, CI: 1.16- 66.66) and fever (AOR: 3.11, CI: 1.22- 7.93). VAP is significantly related to ICU hospitalization, mechanical ventilation and history of antibiotics consumption. Cefalotin and Amikacin showed the highest and lowest antibiotic resistance against gram negative bacteria respectively.
Czuba, Laura Rae; Sommerich, Carolyn M; Lavender, Steven A
The goals of this project were to improve the understanding of risk factors that may lead to injury and increased turnover in home health aides, discover unexplored opportunities for intervention, and test those intervention ideas for potential effects, feasibility, and acceptance by home health aides and their employers. Analysis of injury data, extensive direct observation and analysis of aide-patient interactions, participatory intervention ideation focus group discussions, and intervention pilot testing was conducted. A method of categorizing each patient's level of skill in transfer and bathing activities, and their mobility assistance requirements was developed from information collected during the study as well as a review of the literature. In a pilot test, the new categorization scheme was used to control the aides' daily exposure to higher needs patients. The percentage of time that aides worked with patients in higher needs categories was found to be related to the aides' self-reports of end-of-shift fatigue and pain. Home health care companies may find that developing a scheduling system that manages the exposure of their aides to higher needs patients may be a feasible and effective method for reducing the aides' exposure to risk factors for musculoskeletal injuries.
Abqari, Shaad; Gupta, Akash; Shahab, Tabassum; Rabbani, MU; Ali, S Manazir; Firdaus, Uzma
Introduction: Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children representing a major global health burden. It is thus important to determine their prevalence and spectrum and identify risk factors associated with the development of heart defects. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was carried out in the Department of Pediatrics and Center of Cardiology, Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India, from February 2014 to August 2015. All patients referred with complaints or clinical examination suggestive of CHDs were further evaluated with echocardiography. On Echocardiography, patients having CHDs were included as cases and those having a normal echocardiographic study were included as controls. Healthy controls were also included. 400 cases and 400 controls were thus identified; preterms having patent ductus arteriosus and patent foramen ovale and those with acquired heart defects were excluded. Risk factors among cases and controls were further studied. Results: Acyanotic heart defects were 290 (72.50%) of the total heart defects, whereas the contribution of cyanotic heart defects was 110 (27.50%). Out of all CHDs, ventricular septal defect was the most common lesion with contribution of 152 (38%) cases, whereas among the cyanotic heart defects, Tetralogy of Fallot was the most common lesion (18% of total cases). Out of the total 400 cases, 261 were males (65.25%). On univariate analysis, paternal age (odds ratio, OR, 2.01), bad obstetric history (OR, 2.65), antenatal febrile illness (OR, 4.12), and advanced maternal age (OR, 3.28) were found to increase the risk of CHD whereas intake of multivitamin (OR, 3.02) was found to be protective. The risk factors were further analyzed with multivariate logistic regression analysis and all the above factors were found to be significantly associated. Conclusion: We noted that the profile of CHD in our population was similar
Şenel, Gülcin; Uysal, Neşe; Oguz, Gonca; Kaya, Mensure; Kadioullari, Nihal; Koçak, Nesteren; Karaca, Serife
Introductıon: Delirium is a complex but common disorder in palliative care with a prevalence between 13% and 88% but a particular frequency at the end of life yet often remains insufficiently diagnosed and managed. The aim of our study is to determine the frequency of delirium and identify factors associated with delirium at palliative care unit. Two hundred thirteen consecutive inpatients from October 1, 2012, to March 31, 2013, were studied prospectively. Age, gender, Palliative Performance Scale (PPS), Palliative Prognostic Index (PPI), length of stay in hospital, and delirium etiology and subtype were recorded. Delirium was diagnosed with using Delirium Rating Scale (DRS) and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition Text Revision ( DSM-IV TR) criteria. The incidence of delirium among the patients with cancer was 49.8%. Mean age was 60.3 ± 14.8 (female 41%, male 59%, PPS 39.8%, PPI 5.9 ± 3.0, length of stay in hospital 8.6 ± 6.9 days). Univariate logistic regression analysis indicated that use of opioids, anticonvulsants, benzodiazepines, steroids, polypharmacy, infection, malnutrition, immobilization, sleep disturbance, constipation, hyperbilirubinemia, liver/renal failure, pulmonary failure/hypoxia, electrolyte imbalance, brain cancer/metastases, decreased PPS, and increased PPI were risk factors. Subtypes of delirium included hypoactive 49%, mixed 41%, and hyperactive 10%. The communicative impediments associated with delirium generate distress for the patient, their family, and health care practitioners who might have to contend with agitation and difficulty in assessing pain and other symptoms. To manage delirium in patients with cancer, clinicians must be able to diagnose it accurately and undertake appropriate assessment of underlying causes.
Moon, Rachel Y; Sprague, Bruce M; Patel, Kantilal M
A total of 20% of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) cases in the 1990s occurred in child care settings. This is much higher than the 8% expected from Census Bureau data. Factors that were associated with child care SIDS included older age; white race; older, more educated mothers; and unaccustomed prone position. Since these findings, much emphasis has been placed on promoting a safe sleep environment in child care. The objectives of this study were to determine the proportion of SIDS occurring in child care in 2001 and to assess risk factors for SIDS in child care. We conducted a retrospective review of all SIDS deaths that occurred in 2001 in 13 US states. Information regarding demographics, SIDS risk factors, and child care arrangements were collected and analyzed. Deaths that occurred in child care were compared with deaths that occurred during parental care. Of 480 deaths, 79 (16.5%) occurred in child care settings. Of these child care deaths, 36.7% occurred in family child care homes, 17.7% occurred in child care centers, 21.3% occurred in relative care, and 17.7% occurred with a nanny/babysitter at home. Infants in child care were more likely to be older and to die between the hours of 8 am and 4 pm and less likely to be exposed to secondhand smoke. There was no difference in usual, found, or placed sleep position between child care and home deaths. Approximately one half of the infants who died of SIDS in both settings were found prone, and 20% of deaths in both settings were among infants who were unaccustomed to prone sleep. The proportion of SIDS deaths in child care has declined slightly but still remains high at 16.5%. Infants in child care are no more likely to be placed or found prone and no more likely to be on an unsafe sleep surface. Educational efforts with child care providers have been effective and should be expanded to unregulated child care providers. In addition, there may be other, yet-unidentified factors in child care that place
Horneij, Eva L; Jensen, Irene B; Holmström, Eva B; Ekdahl, Charlotte
Sick leave due to neck, shoulder and back disorders (NSBD) is higher among health-care workers, especially nursing aides/assistant nurses, compared with employees in other occupations. More information is needed about predictors of sick leave among health care workers. The aim of the study was to assess whether self-reported factors related to health, work and leisure time could predict: 1) future certified sick leave due to any cause, in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group I) and 2) future self-reported sick leave due to NSBD in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group II). Study group I, comprised 443 female nursing aides/assistant nurses, not on sick leave at baseline when a questionnaire was completed. Data on certified sick leave were collected after 18 months. Study group II comprised 274 of the women, who at baseline reported no sick leave during the preceding year due to NSBD and who participated at the 18 month follow-up. Data on sick leave due to NSBD were collected from the questionnaire at 18 months. The associations between future sick leave and factors related to health, work and leisure time were tested by logistic regression analyses. Health-related factors such as previous low back disorders (OR: 1.89; 95% CI 1.20-2.97) and previous sick leave (OR 6.40; 95%CI 3.97-10.31), were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to any cause. Factors related to health, work and leisure time, i.e. previous low back disorders (OR: 4.45; 95% CI 1.27-15.77) previous sick leave, not due to NSBD (OR 3.30; 95%CI 1.33-8.17), high strain work (OR 2.34; 95%CI 1.05-5.23) and high perceived physical exertion in domestic work (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.12-5.86) were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to NSBD. In the final analyses, previous low back disorders and previous sick leave remained significant in both study groups. The results suggest a focus on previous low back disorders and previous sick leave for the design of early
Estimates of US adults with dementia differ widely and don't distinguish adults living in the community. Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data from 120 485 households in 21 states that used a cognitive decline module in 2011 were used. Data for both respondents and other adults with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) were included through proxy responses. Using responses to questions about the receipt of informal care for their SCD and diagnosed dementia, estimates were made for each state. Overall, 2.9% (range: 1.5% in Tennessee to 5.3% in Arkansas) of all noninstitutionalized adults in these states received informal care for their SCD and 0.9% (range: 0.5% in Tennessee to 2.0% in Arkansas) were estimated to have dementia. Limiting results to respondents reduced estimates significantly. Combined results for respondents and nonrespondents from a representative telephone survey provide varying estimates of SCD-related measures across states, highlighting the need for state-specific estimates.
Lefevre-Colau, Marie-Martine; Fayad, Fouad; Rannou, François; Fermanian, Jacques; Coriat, Fernand; Mace, Yann; Revel, Michel; Poiraudeau, Serge
Introduction Many risk factors have been identified for chronic low back pain (cLBP), but only one study evaluated their interrelations. We aimed to investigate the frequency of cLBP risk factors and their interrelations in patients consulting their general practitioners (GPs) for cLBP. Methods A cross-sectional, descriptive, national survey was performed. 3000 GPs randomly selected were asked to include at least one patient consulting for cLBP. Demographic, clinical characteristics and the presence of cLBP risk factors were recorded. The frequency of each cLBP risk factor was calculated and multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was performed to study their interrelations. Results A total of 2068 GPs (68.9%) included at least 1 patient, for 4522 questionnaires analyzed. In the whole sample of patients, the 2 risk factors most commonly observed were history of recurrent LBP (72.1%) and initial limitation of activities of daily living (66.4%). For working patients, common professional risk factors were beliefs, that LBP was due to maintaining a specific posture at work (79.0%) and frequent heavy lifting at work (65.5%). On MCA, we identified 3 risk-factor dimensions (axes) for working and nonworking patients. The main dimension for working patients involved professional risk factors and among these factors, patients' job satisfaction and job recognition largely contribute to this dimension. Discussion Our results shed in light for the first time the interrelation and the respective contribution of several previously identified cLBP risk factors. They suggest that risk factors representing a “work-related” dimension are the most important cLBP risk factors in the working population. PMID:19287499
Hamel, Meghan; Zoutman, Dick; O'Callaghan, Chris
Numerous patient- and hospital-level characteristics have been established as risk factors for the transmission of health care-associated infections (HAIs). Few studies have quantitatively assessed the impact of exposure to hospital roommates on the acquisition of infections. This study evaluated the association between roommate exposures and the risk of HAIs. A retrospective cohort of adult patients admitted to a Canadian teaching hospital between June 30, 2001, and December 31, 2005, was studied. Exposures were characterized as total daily roommate exposures and daily unique roommate exposures. Outcomes examined were methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), and Clostridium difficile. The number of roommate exposures per day was significantly associated with MRSA and VRE infection or colonization (MRSA: hazard ratio [HR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05 to 1.15; VRE: HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.21), and with C difficile infection (HR = 1.11, 95% CI = 1.03 to 1.19). A significant association also was found for number of unique roommate exposures per day and VRE (HR = 1.15, 95% CI = 1.02 to 1.28). The significant associations found between daily roommate exposures and the infection outcomes suggest a possible role for limiting patient-to-patient contact in an infection prevention and control program in this facility. These findings have implications for the deployment and design of acute care hospitals. 2010 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Mazhar, Faizan; Akram, Shahzad; Al-Osaimi, Yousif A; Haider, Nafis
Medication reconciliation is a major component of safe patient care. One of the main problems in the implementation of a medication reconciliation process is the lack of human resources. With limited resources, it is better to target medication reconciliation resources to patients who will derive the most benefit from it. The primary objective of this study was to determine the frequency and types of medication reconciliation errors identified by pharmacists performing medication reconciliation at admission. Each medication error was rated for its potential to cause patient harm during hospitalization. A secondary objective was to determine risk factors associated with medication reconciliation errors. This was a prospective, single-center pilot study conducted in the internal medicine and surgical wards of a tertiary care teaching hospital in the Eastern province of Saudi Arabia. A clinical pharmacist took the best possible medication history of patients admitted to medical and surgical services and compared with the medication orders at hospital admission; any identified discrepancies were noted and analyzed for reconciliation errors. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to determine the risk factors related to reconciliation errors. A total of 328 patients (138 in surgical and 198 in medical) were included in the study. For the 1419 medications recorded, 1091 discrepancies were discovered out of which 491 (41.6%) were reconciliation errors. The errors affected 177 patients (54%). The incidence of reconciliation errors in the medical patient group was 25.1% and 32.0% in the surgical group (p<0.001). In both groups, the most frequent reconciliation error was the omission (43.5% and 51.2%). Lipid-lowering (12.4%) and antihypertensive agents were most commonly involved. If undetected, 43.6% of order errors were rated as potentially requiring increased monitoring or intervention to preclude harm; 17.7% were rated as potentially harmful. A multivariate
Hasegawa, Kohei; Pate, Brian M; Mansbach, Jonathan M; Macias, Charles G; Fisher, Erin S; Piedra, Pedro A; Espinola, Janice A; Sullivan, Ashley F; Camargo, Carlos A
To examine risk factors for transfer of bronchiolitis patients from the ward to the intensive care unit (ICU) and/or initiation of critical care interventions. We performed a 16-center, prospective cohort study of hospitalized children age <2 years with bronchiolitis. During the winters of 2007 to 2010, researchers collected clinical data and nasopharyngeal aspirates from study participants. The primary outcome was late intensive care use, defined as a transfer to the ICU and/or use of mechanical ventilation (regardless of location) after the child's first inpatient day. Among 2104 children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, 1762 (84%) were identified as initial ward patients, comprising the analysis cohort. The median age was 4 months (interquartile range, 2-9 months), and 1048 (59%) were boys. The most frequently detected pathogens were respiratory syncytial virus (72%) and rhinovirus (25%). After the first inpatient day, 47 (3%; 95% confidence interval, 2-4) were subsequently transferred to the ICU or required mechanical ventilation. In the multivariable logistic regression model predicting subsequent transfer to the ICU or mechanical ventilation use, the significant predictors were birth weight <5 pounds (odds ratio, 2.28; 95% confidence interval, 1.30-4.02; P = .004) and respiratory rate high of ≥ 70 breaths/min on the first inpatient day (odds ratio, 4.64; 95% confidence interval, 2.86-7.53; P < .001). In this multicenter study of children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, low birth weight and tachypnea were significantly associated with subsequent transfer to the ICU and/or use of mechanical ventilation. Copyright © 2015 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hasegawa, Kohei; Pate, Brian M.; Mansbach, Jonathan M.; Macias, Charles G.; Fisher, Erin S.; Piedra, Pedro A.; Espinola, Janice A.; Camargo, Carlos A.
Objective To examine risk factors for transfer of bronchiolitis patients from the ward to the intensive care unit (ICU) and/or initiation of critical care interventions. Methods We performed a 16-center, prospective cohort study of hospitalized children age <2 years with bronchiolitis. During the winters of 2007 to 2010, researchers collected clinical data and nasopharyngeal aspirates from study partipants. The primary outcome was late intensive care use, defined as a transfer to the ICU and/or use of mechanical ventilation (regardless of location) after the child’s first inpatient day. Results Among 2,104 children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, 1,762 (84%) were identified as initial ward patients, comprising the analysis cohort. The median age was 4 months (interquartile range, 2–9 months), 1,048 (59%) were male. The most frequently detected pathogens were respiratory syncytial virus (72%) and rhinovirus (25%). After the first inpatient day, 47 (3%; 95% CI, 2%–4%) were subsequently transferred to the ICU or required mechanical ventilation. In the multivariable logistic regression model predicting subsequent transfer to the ICU or mechanical ventilation use, the significant predictors were birth weight <5 pounds (OR, 2.28; 95% CI, 1.30–4.02; P=0.004) and respiratory rate high of ≥70 per minute on the first inpatient day (OR, 4.64; 95% CI, 2.86–7.53; P<0.001). Conclusions In this multicenter study of children hospitalized with bronchiolitis, low birth weight and tachypnea were significantly associated with subsequent transfer to the ICU and/or use of mechanical ventilation. PMID:25528126
Selenius, Heidi; Leppänen Östman, Sari; Strand, Susanne
Inpatient aggression among female forensic psychiatric patients has been shown to be associated with self-harm, that is considered to be a historical risk factor for violence. Research on associations between previous or current self-harm and different types of inpatient aggression is missing. The aim of this register study was to investigate the prevalence of self-harm and the type of inpatient aggression among female forensic psychiatric inpatients, and to study whether the patients' self-harm before and/or during forensic psychiatric care is a risk factor for inpatient aggression. Female forensic psychiatric patients (n = 130) from a high security hospital were included. The results showed that 88% of the female patients had self-harmed at least once during their life and 57% had been physically and/or verbally aggressive towards staff or other patients while in care at the hospital. Self-harm before admission to the current forensic psychiatric care or repeated self-harm were not significantly associated with inpatient aggression, whereas self-harm during care was significantly associated with physical and verbal aggression directed at staff. These results pointed towards self-harm being a dynamic risk factor rather than a historical risk factor for inpatient aggression among female forensic psychiatric patients. Whether self-harm is an individual risk factor or a part of the clinical risk factor 'Symptom of major mental illness' within the HCR-20V3 must be further explored among women. Thus, addressing self-harm committed by female patients during forensic psychiatric care seems to be important in risk assessments and the management of violence, especially in reducing violence against staff in high-security forensic psychiatric services.
Boockvar, Kenneth S.; Litke, Ann; Penrod, Joan D.; Halm, Ethan A.; Morrison, R. Sean; Silberzweig, Stacey B.; Magaziner, Jay; Koval, Kenneth; Siu, Albert L.
OBJECTIVES To describe the incidence and patterns of patient relocation after hip fracture, identify factors associated with relocation, and examine effect of relocation on outcomes. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. SETTING Four hospitals in the New York metropolitan area. PARTICIPANTS A total of 562 patients hospitalized for hip fracture discharged alive in 1997 to 1998. MEASUREMENTS Patient characteristics and hospital course were ascertained using patient or surrogate interview, research nurse assessment, and medical record review. Patient location was ascertained at five time points using patient or surrogate interview, and hospital readmissions were identified using New York state and hospital admission databases. Mobility was measured using patient or surrogate report using the Functional Independence Measure. RESULTS During 6 months of follow-up, the mean number of relocations per patient ± standard deviation was 3.5 ± 1.5 (range 2–10). Forty-one percent of relocations were between home and hospital, 36% between rehabilitation or nursing facility and hospital, 17% between rehabilitation or nursing facility and home, and 4% between two rehabilitation/nursing facilities. In a Poisson regression model that controlled for patient characteristics, hospital course, and length of follow-up, factors associated with relocation (P <.05) were absence of dementia, in-hospital delirium, one or more new impairments at hospital discharge, hospital discharge other than to home, and not living at home alone prefracture. Relocation was not significantly associated with immobility or mortality at 6 months (odds ratio = 1.14, 95% confidence interval = 0.97–1.35). CONCLUSION Subgroups of patients with elevated risk of relocation after hip fracture may be target groups for intensive care coordination and care planning interventions. PMID:15507058
Zamorano, José; Erdine, Serap; Pavia, Abel; Kim, Jae-Hyung; Al-Khadra, Ayman; Westergaard, Mogens; Sutradhar, Santosh; Yunis, Carla
To investigate whether a proactive multifactorial risk factor intervention strategy using single-pill amlodipine/atorvastatin (5/10, 10/10 mg) in addition to other antihypertensive and lipid-lowering therapy, as required, resulted in greater reduction in calculated Framingham 10-year coronary heart disease (CHD) risk compared with usual care (UC) after 52-weeks treatment. Prospective, multinational, open-label, cluster randomized trial, with the investigator as the unit of randomization. Eligible hypertensive patients were 35-79 years of age, with ≥3 additional cardiovascular risk factors, but no history of CHD and baseline total cholesterol (TC) ≤6.5 mmol/l. www.ClinicalTrials.gov ; trial identifier NCT00407537. The primary endpoint was calculated Framingham 10-year CHD risk at 52 weeks. Of the 140 randomized sites, 136 sites contributed 1461 patients. Mean baseline age and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) were comparable between treatment arms. Mean baseline BP (150.3/89.7 vs. 144.3/86.5 mmHg) and Framingham CHD risk (20.0 vs. 18.1%) were higher in the proactive intervention versus the UC arm (p < 0.002 for both). At week 52, mean CHD risk was 12.5% in the proactive intervention arm and 16.3% in the UC arm (p < 0.001). The difference, observed at weeks 16 and 52, was primarily driven by significant differences in systolic BP and in TC between the two arms. Overall, adverse events (AEs) were reported in 48.8% and 44.0% of patients in the proactive intervention and the UC arm, respectively. Although there were differences in the incidence of AEs between the treatment arms, the AE profile in the proactive intervention arm was consistent with previous safety experience for this medication. A proactive multifactorial risk factor intervention strategy that simultaneously treated both BP and cholesterol regardless of individual risk factors per se, is more effective in reducing calculated Framingham 10-year CHD risk than UC in patients with
O'Neill, D G; Riddell, A; Church, D B; Owen, L; Brodbelt, D C; Hall, J L
To estimate prevalence and demographic risk factors for urinary incontinence in bitches under primary veterinary care in England. The study population included all bitches within the VetCompass database from September 1, 2009 to July 7, 2013. Electronic patient records were searched for urinary incontinence cases and additional demographic and clinical information was extracted. Of 100,397 bitches attending 119 clinics in England, an estimated 3108 were diagnosed with urinary incontinence. The prevalence of urinary incontinence was 3·14% (95% confidence intervals: 2·97 to 3·33). Medical therapy was prescribed to 45·6% cases. Predisposed breeds included the Irish setter (odds ratio: 8·09; 95% confidence intervals: 3·15 to 20·80; P< 0·001) and Dobermann (odds ratio: 7·98; 95% confidence intervals: 4·38 to 14·54; P< 0·001). Increased odds of a diagnosis of urinary incontinence were associated with: (1) weight at or above the mean adult bodyweight for the breed (odds ratio: 1·31; 95% confidence intervals: 1·12 to 1·54; P< 0·001), (2) age 9 to 12 years (odds ratio: 3·86; 95% confidence intervals: 2·86 to 5·20, P< 0·001), (3) neuter status (odds ratio: 2·23; 95% confidence intervals: 1·52 to 3·25, P< 0·001) and (4) being insured (odds ratio: 1·59; 95% confidence intervals: 1·34 to 1·88, P< 0·001). Clinical Impact: Urinary incontinence affects just over 3% of bitches overall but affects more than 15% of bitches in high-risk breeds including the Irish setter, Dobermann, bearded collie, rough collie and Dalmatian. These results provide an evidence base for clinicians to enhance clinical recommendations on neutering and weight control, especially in high-risk breeds. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
de Oliveira, Juliana Santos; Rodrigues, Liliane Barbosa; Aurélio, Fernanda Soares; da Silva, Virgínia Braz
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of hearing loss and to analyze the results of newborn hearing screening and audiological diagnosis in private health care systems. METHODS Cross-sectional and retrospective study in a database of newborn hearing screening performed by a private clinic in neonates born in private hospitals of Porto Velho, Rondônia, Northern Brazil. The screening results, the risk for hearing loss, the risk indicators for hearing loss and the diagnosis were descriptively analyzed. Newborns cared in rooming in with their mothers were compared to those admitted to the Intensive Care Unit regarding risk factors for hearing loss. RESULTS: Among 1,146 (100%) enrolled newborns, 1,064 (92.8%) passed and 82 (7.2%) failed the hearing screening. Among all screened neonates, 1,063 (92.8%) were cared in rooming and 83 (7.2%) needed intensive care; 986 (86.0%) were considered at low risk and 160 (14.0%) at high risk for hearing problems. Of the 160 patients identified as having high risk for hearing loss, 83 (37.7%) were admitted to an hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit, 76 (34.5%) used ototoxic drugs and 38 (17.2%) had a family history of hearing loss in childhood. Hearing loss was diagnosed in two patients (0.2% of the screened sample). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of hearing loss in newborns from private hospitals was two cases per 1,000 evaluated patients. The use of ototoxic drugs, admission to Intensive Care Unit and family history of hearing loss were the most common risk factors for hearing loss in the studied population. PMID:24142311
Moon, Rachel Y; Weese-Mayer, Debra E; Silvestri, Jean M
Millions of children in the US have parents who work alternative shifts. As a result, extended-hour and nighttime child care centers have increased in number to meet the needs of parents working nonstandard hours. Recognizing that 20% of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) occurs in child care settings and that child care providers may place infants prone, it is important to determine sleep position practices in nighttime child care centers. To determine if nighttime child care centers 1) follow Back to Sleep recommendations; 2) are aware of the need for a safe sleep environment; and 3) have written policies directing proper SIDS risk reduction practices. A descriptive, cross-sectional survey of licensed child care centers in the US offering evening and nighttime care. All nighttime centers caring for infants <6 months old were recruited for the study. Out of 153 eligible centers, 110 centers in 27 states completed the survey. Infants were placed prone in 20% of centers, although only 1 center placed infants exclusively prone. Infants slept in cribs in 53.6% of centers, but slept in uncluttered sleep environments in only 18.2% of centers. Smoking was prohibited in 86.4% of centers. The most commonly cited reason for avoiding prone altogether was SIDS risk reduction; however, 10 centers that cited SIDS risk reduction continued to place infants prone at least some of the time, because of parental request or concerns about infant comfort. Over half (59%) of the centers had written policies; however, presence of written policy was not associated with avoidance of prone position. In over one third of centers with written policies, providers were unaware of the content of the policy. Twenty percent of nighttime child care centers place infants prone at least some of the time. Most providers who place infants prone do so because of lack of awareness or misinformation about safe sleep environment. Although the Back to Sleep campaign has been effective in communicating the
Read, Anna; Ramwell, Helen; Storer, Helen; Webber, Jonathan
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a growing problem, with its associated morbidity, mortality, and economic costs. Treatment options and the availability of resources are limited and inconsistent. AIM: To implement and evaluate a primary care dietitian-run weight management programme. DESIGN OF STUDY: Pilot intervention study. SETTING: Three health centres in the north locality of Nottingham City Primary Care Trust. METHOD: Two hundred and sixteen individuals, with a body mass index (BMI) > 30 kg/m(2) and coronary heart disease risk factors, were recruited to attend education and support groups. Changes in BMI, waist circumference, percentage body fat, blood pressure, blood lipids, glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), and assessment of psychological wellbeing using the "short form" (SF-36) general health questionnaire, were conducted at 0, 3, and 12 months. RESULTS: One hundred and thirty patients completed the 3-month phase, and 75 completed the follow-up 9-month phase. Four per cent of patients entering the programme achieved a 10% weight loss, and 13% achieved a weight loss between 5 and 10%. Those continuing to attend achieved a mean weight loss of 2.9% (mean = 3.1 kg, ranging from a loss of 23.6 kg to a gain of 3.8 kg, P < 0.001) at 3 months, which was maintained at 12 months. Waist circumference, percentage body fat, systolic blood pressure, total cholesterol, HbA(1c) (in those with diabetes) (P < 0.001), and triglycerides (P = 0.004) showed reduction. Psychological wellbeing improved in seven of the nine categories of the SF-36. CONCLUSION: Those who continued to attend the programme showed significant reduction in weight and other clinical parameters at 3 months, and this was maintained at 1 year with less intensive support. An attrition rate of approximately 66% by 12 months demonstrated that, in spite of intensive dietetic resources, patient retention and follow-up of progress was difficult. PMID:15113494
Coyer, Fiona; Tayyib, Nahla
Pressure injuries (PIs) create a significant burden in the health care system. Up to 49% of critically ill patients develop PIs. Identifying and understanding potential risk factors is essential to the provision of effective targeted prevention strategies to mitigate risk. The objectives of this review are to identify patient-centred clinical factors that may be associated with PI development in the adult intensive care environment and to determine the effect size of the relationship between identified factors and PI development in this unique population. The review will follow the PRISMA reporting guidelines for systematic reviews. Electronic databases (Cochrane; PubMed/MEDLINE; CINAHL (EBSCOhost); Embase; Scopus; PsycINFO; Proquest; Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations; Australian Digital Theses Program, Grey literature, Google scholar, and Clinical Trial Registries) will be systematically searched. A suite of search terms will identify articles that have examined the patient-centred risk factors for PI development in adult intensive care units. The search strategy will be designed to retrieve studies published since inception to 2016 in English language. Quality of the studies will be assessed by using an assessment framework designed to appraise quality in prognostic studies and methodological considerations in the analysis and publication of observational studies. Screening, study selection process, and data extraction will be undertaken by two independent reviewers. Disagreement will be resolved by discussion and, if required, a third independent reviewer. Clinical and methodological heterogeneity across studies will be assessed and, if possible, meta-analyses will be performed. The evidence synthesis arising from this review will identify person-centred risk factors that are associated with PI development among critically ill patients in intensive care. Findings from this review will demonstrate potential patient risk factors that may
Jardim, Thiago Veiga; Sousa, Ana Luiza Lima; Povoa, Thais Rolim; Barroso, Weimar Sebba; Chinem, Brunela; Jardim, Paulo Cesar Veiga
Background Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) are the leading cause of death worldwide. Knowledge about cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) in young adults and their modification over time are measures that change the risks and prevent CVDs. Objectives To determine the presence of CVRFs and their changes in different health care professionals over a period of 20 years. Methods All students of medicine, nursing, nutrition, odontology, and pharmacy departments of Federal University of Goiás who agreed to participate in this study were evaluated when they started their degree courses and 20 years afterward. Questionnaires on CVRFs [systemic arterial hypertension (SAH), diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and family history of early CVD, smoking, alcohol consumption, and sedentarism] were administered. Cholesterol levels, blood sugar levels, blood pressure, weight, height, and body mass index were determined. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to evaluate distribution, the chi-square test was used to compare different courses and sexes, and the McNemar test was used for comparing CVRFs. The significance level was set at a p value of < 0.05. Results The first stage of the study included 281 individuals (91% of all the students), of which 62.9% were women; the mean age was 19.7 years. In the second stage, 215 subjects were reassessed (76% of the initial sample), of which 59.07% were women; the mean age was 39.8 years. The sample mostly consisted of medical students (with a predominance of men), followed by nursing, nutrition, and pharmacy students, with a predominance of women (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain, SAH, and dyslipidemia were observed among physicians and dentists (p < 0.05). Excessive weight gain and SAH and a reduction in sedentarism (p < 0.05) were observed among pharmacists. Among nurses there was an increase in excessive weight and alcohol consumption (p < 0.05). Finally, nutritionists showed an increase in dyslipidemia (p < 0.05). Conclusion In general
Lautenbach, Ebbing; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Maslow, Joel N
Of 49 long-term care facility residents, 21 (43%) were colonized with 2 or more distinct strains of Escherichia coli. There were no significant risk factors for colonization with multiple strains of E. coli. These results suggest that future efforts to efficiently identify the diversity of colonizing strains will be challenging.
Lautenbach, Ebbing; Tolomeo, Pam; Black, Nicole; Maslow, Joel N.
Of 49 long-term care facility residents, 21 (43%) were colonized with two or more distinct strains of Escherichia coli. There were no significant risk factors for colonization with multiple strains of E. coli. These results suggest future efforts to efficiently identify diversity of colonizing strains will be challenging. PMID:19292660
Tayyib, Nahla; Coyer, Fiona; Lewis, Peter
The purpose of this study was to identify pressure ulcer (PU) incidence and risk factors that are associated with PU development in patients in two adult intensive care units (ICU) in Saudi Arabia. A prospective cohort study design was used. A total of 84 participants were screened second daily basis until discharge or death, over a consecutive 30-day period, out of which 33 participants with new PUs were identified giving a cumulative hospital-acquired PU incidence of 39·3% (33/84 participants). The incidence of medical devices-related PUs was 8·3% (7/84). Age, length of stay in the ICU, history of cardiovascular disease and kidney disease, infrequent repositioning, time of operation, emergency admission, mechanical ventilation and lower Braden Scale scores independently predicted the development of a PU. According to binary logistic regression analyses, age, longer stay in ICU and infrequent repositioning were significant predictors of all stages of PUs, while the length of stay in the ICU and infrequent repositioning were associated with the development of stages II-IV PUs. In conclusion, PU incidence rate was higher than that reported in other international studies. This indicates that urgent attention is required for PU prevention strategies in this setting. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Martinez, Jaime D; Galor, Anat; Ramos-Betancourt, Nallely; Lisker-Cervantes, Andrés; Beltrán, Francisco; Ozorno-Zárate, Jorge; Sánchez-Huerta, Valeria; Torres-Vera, Marco-Antonio; Hernández-Quintela, Everardo
Purpose The purpose of this study was to ascertain the frequency and risk factors of dry eye (DE) among patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico. Methods Approximately 338 consecutive new patients attending a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico City underwent an ocular surface examination, which included tear film break-up time, fluorescein corneal staining, Schirmer’s test, and evaluation of meibum quality. Symptoms of DE were evaluated by the Ocular Surface Disease Index and Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Information on demographics, exposures, past medical and ocular history, and medications was also collected. Results The frequency of severe DE symptoms was found to be 43% based on the Ocular Surface Disease Index and 30% based on Dry Eye Questionnaire-5. Risk factors significantly associated with increased DE symptoms included dry mouth and gastrointestinal ulcer medications. With regard to signs, aqueous tear deficiency was a less-frequent finding (22%) in our population than evaporative deficiency (94%). Risk factors associated with aqueous tear deficiency were dry mouth and diuretic use. No risk factors were associated with evaporative deficiency. Risk factors associated with meibomian gland dysfunction included old age, male sex, arthritis, and use of an antihypertensive. The only risk factor associated with corneal staining was dry mouth. Conclusion This is the first study to demonstrate the frequency of symptomatic and clinical DE in a tertiary care ophthalmology center in Mexico. The frequency of DE ranged from 30% using a symptomatic definition to 94% using objective measures. Different risk factors were found for different aspects of DE, suggesting differing underlying pathophysiologies behind different DE subtypes. PMID:27499613
Novotny, T E; Hopkins, R S; Shillam, P; Janoff, E N
A sample of children in the toddler age group was surveyed in Denver, CO, to determine the prevalence of Giardia lamblia and to identify risk factors for the intestinal disease. The sample consisted of 236 children attending day-care centers (DCC) and 79 who were not attending. Thirty-eight children (16 percent) attending DCCs and 7 (9 percent) who had not were positive for G. lamblia in stool samples. Risk factors for those attending DCC facilities included increasing duration of attendance, time per week attending DCCs, low family income, and large family size. The only risk factor for those not attending DCC facilities was travel to Colorado mountains. Multivariate analysis showed that risk factors for all children in the sample included travel to Colorado mountains, large family size, and attending DCC facilities. Infection was not associated with symptoms. PMID:2106707
Hossain, Mosharaf; Mani, Kulanthayan K C; Sidik, Sherina Mohd; Hayati, K S; Rahman, A K M Fazlur
Drowning contributes to incapacity and early death in many countries. In low- and middle-income countries, children are the most susceptible to fatalities. Over 50 % of the global drowning deaths occur among children aged under 15 years old with children aged between 1 and 4 years of age being most at risk. In Bangladesh, drowning rates are 10 to 20 times more than those in other developing countries. The object of this study is to determine the socio-demographic, environmental and caring hazard issues for child drowning in Bangladesh. A case-control study was conducted, with data collected from the Bangladesh Health and Injury Survey (BHIS) to identify the social-demographic and environmental factors associated with childhood drowning. The participants represented 171,366 households from seven divisions of Bangladesh-Dhaka, Rajshahi, Chittagong, Barisal, Sylhet, Khulna and Rangpur. The survey was conducted between January and December of 2003. A total of 141 children drowning were identified in the year preceding the survey. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. The odds ratios with 95% CI intervals were estimated for various associated factors for child drowning deaths. In Bangladesh, in 2003, the incidence of drowning deaths was 104.8 per 100,000 among those aged less than 5 years; 168.7 per 100,000 in rural areas; male 32.4 per 100,000; 112.7 per 100,000 between 10:00 a.m. and 2:00 p.m.; and cannot swim 134.9 per 100,000. The socio-demographic danger factors for child drowning deaths were: being male (OR = 1.45, 95% CI = 1.34-1.78), aged less than 5 years (OR = 2.89, 95% CI = 1.89-3.11), urban areas (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.67-1.87), and mother being illiterate (OR = 1.69, 95% CI = 1.01-2.81). Significant environmental and caring factors included mother/caregiver not being the accompanying person (OR = 25.4, 95% CI = 14.4-45.3) and children cannot swim (OR = 4.5, 95% CI = 1.25-19.4). Drowning is the single largest
Fauzi, Aishah Ahmad; Chung, Tze Yang; Latif, Lydia Abdul
INTRODUCTION This study aimed to determine the risk factors of diabetic Charcot arthropathy of the foot among diabetic patients with and without foot problems. METHODS This was a case-control study involving diabetic patients attending the Diabetic Foot Care and Wound Management Clinic at University Malaya Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, from June 2010 to June 2011. Data on sociodemographic profiles, foot factors and diabetes characteristics was collected and analysed. RESULTS A total of 48 diabetic patients with Charcot arthropathy of the foot were identified. Data from these 48 patients was compared with those of 52 diabetic patients without foot problems. Up to 83.3% of patients with diabetic Charcot arthropathy presented with unilateral Charcot foot, most commonly located at the midfoot (45.8%). Patients with a history of foot problems, including foot ulcer, amputation, surgery or a combination of problems, had the highest (26-time) likelihood of developing Charcot arthropathy (odds ratio 26.4; 95% confidence interval 6.4–109.6). Other significant risk factors included age below 60 years, more than ten years’ duration of diabetes mellitus and the presence of nephropathy. CONCLUSION A history of prior diabetic foot problems is the greatest risk factor for developing diabetic Charcot arthropathy, compared with other risk factors such as diabetes characteristics and sociodemographic profiles. Preventive management of diabetic foot problems in the primary care setting and multidisciplinary care are of paramount importance, especially among chronic diabetic patients. PMID:27075668
... Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors A risk factor is anything that affects ... these are risk factors for exocrine pancreatic cancer . Risk factors that can be changed Tobacco use Smoking ...
Gershon, Robyn R M; Pearson, Julie M; Sherman, Martin F; Samar, Stephanie M; Canton, Allison N; Stone, Patricia W
Patients continue to enter home health care (HHC) "sicker and quicker," often with complex health problems that require extensive intervention. This higher level of acuity may increase the risk of percutaneous injury (PI), yet information on the risk and risk factors for PI and other types of exposures in this setting is exceptionally sparse. To address this gap, a large cross-sectional study of self-reported exposures in HHC registered nurses (RNs) was conducted. A convenience sample of HHC RNs (N=738) completed a survey addressing 5 major constructs: (1) worker-centered characteristics, (2) patient-related characteristics, (3) household characteristics, (4) organizational factors, and (5) prevalence of PIs and other blood and body fluid exposures. Analyses were directed at determining significant risk factors for exposure. Fourteen percent of RNs reported one or more PIs in the past 3 years (7.6 per 100 person-years). Nearly half (45.8%) of all PIs were not formally reported. PIs were significantly correlated with a number of factors, including lack of compliance with Standard Precautions (odds ratio [OR], 1.72; P=.019; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.09-2.71); recapping of needles (OR, 1.78; P=.016; 95% CI: 1.11-2.86); exposure to household stressors (OR, 1.99; P=.005; 95% CI: 1.22-3.25); exposure to violence (OR, 3.47; P=.001; 95% CI: 1.67-7.20); mandatory overtime (OR, 2.44; P=.006; 95% CI: 1.27-4.67); and safety climate (OR, 1.88; P=.004; 95% CI: 1.21-2.91) among others. The prevalence of PI was substantial. Underreporting rates and risk factors for exposure were similar to those identified in other RN work populations, although factors uniquely associated with home care were also identified. Risk mitigation strategies tailored to home care are needed to reduce risk of exposure in this setting.
Background Poverty is widely recognized as a major determinant of poor health, and this link has been extensively studied and verified. Despite the strong evidentiary link, little work has been done to determine what primary care health providers can do to address their patients' income as a risk to their health. This qualitative study explores the barriers to primary care responsiveness to poverty as a health issue in a well-resourced jurisdiction with near-universal health care insurance coverage. Methods One to one interviews were conducted with twelve experts on poverty and health in primary care in Ontario, Canada. Participants included family physicians, specialist physicians, nurse practitioners, community workers, advocates, policy experts and researchers. The interviews were analysed for anticipated and emergent themes. Results This study reveals provider- and patient-centred structural, attitudinal, and knowledge-based barriers to addressing poverty as a risk to health. While many of its findings reinforce previous work in this area, this study's findings point to a number of areas front line primary care providers could target to address their patients' poverty. These include a lack of provider understanding of the lived reality of poverty, leading to a failure to collect adequate data about patients' social circumstances, and to the development of inappropriate care plans. Participants also pointed to prejudicial attitudes among providers, a failure of primary care disciplines to incorporate approaches to poverty as a standard of care, and a lack of knowledge of concrete steps providers can take to address patients' poverty. Conclusions While this study reinforces, in a well-resourced jurisdiction such as Ontario, the previously reported existence of significant barriers to addressing income as a health issue within primary care, the findings point to the possibility of front line primary care providers taking direct steps to address the health risks
Sarkola, Taisto; Kahila, Hanna; Gissler, Mika; Halmesmäki, Erja
To study the risk of children to mothers with alcohol and/or substance abuse related problems for early childhood out-of-home care in Finland. A population-based cross-sectional retrospective analysis of 526 pregnant women attending special outpatient clinics during 1992-2001 and their 626 offspring, with out-of-home care data until 2003 provided by the National Child Welfare Register. Fifty percent (95% confidence interval 46-54%) were at some point and 38% (34-42%) by the age of two years, in out-of-home care. Out-of-home care was associated with maternal care for substance abuse after delivery, nonemployment, housing, daily smoking during pregnancy, increasing number of previous births, mother in custody in her childhood, maternal education, previous child in custody, drug in urine during pregnancy, unplanned pregnancy, partner with significant abuse, regular health-care contact for abuse, daily alcohol consumption before and/or during pregnancy, newborn not discharged with mother, neonatal abstinence symptoms (NAS), intensified perinatal surveillance or NICU, and delayed discharge from hospital. There is a substantial risk of children born to mothers with significant alcohol and/or substance abuse related problems for out-of-home care during early childhood. Factors identified during the pre- and perinatal period are associated with this risk.
Kendall, Earline D.
Children under 3 years of age who are in group care face special health risks. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control indicate the existence of a causal relationship between infant group day care and certain diseases that are spread through contact at day care centers. Children in group care who are still in diapers are especially vulnerable to…
Driscoll, A; Beauchamp, A; Lyubomirsky, G; Demos, L; McNeil, J; Tonkin, A
Patients with established coronary heart disease (CHD) are at the highest risk of further events. Despite proven therapies, secondary prevention is often suboptimal. General practitioners (GPs) are in an ideal position to improve secondary prevention. To contrast management of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with established CHD in primary care to those in clinical guidelines and according to gender. GPs throughout Australia were approached to participate in a programme incorporating a disease management software (mdCare) program. Participating practitioners (1258 GPs) recruited individual patients whose cardiovascular risk factor levels were measured. The mdCare programme included 12,509 patients (58% male) diagnosed with CHD. Their mean age was 71.7years (intra-quartile range 66-78) for men and 74years (intra-quartile range 68-80) for women. Low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol was above target levels in 69% (2032) of women compared with 58% (2487) in men (P < 0.0001). There was also a higher proportion of women with total cholesterol above target levels (76%, 3592) compared with men (57%, 3787) (P < 0.0001). In patients who were prescribed lipid-lowering medication, 53% (2504) of men and 72% (2285) of women continued to have a total cholesterol higher than recommended target levels (P < 0.0001). Overall, over half (52%, 6538) had at least five cardiovascular risk factors (55% (2914) in women and 50% (3624) in men, P < 0.0001). This study found less intensive management of cardiovascular risk factors in CHD patients, particularly among women, despite equivalent cardiovascular risk. This study has shown that these patients have multiple risk factors where gender also plays a role. © 2011 The Authors. Internal Medicine Journal © 2011 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.
Kimm, S Y; Payne, G H; Stylianou, M P; Waclawiw, M A; Lichtenstein, C
The evidence that atherosclerosis begins during adolescence has led to the belief that primary prevention of cardiovascular disease (CHD) should commence in childhood. Although several national guidelines have been issued for the detection and treatment of CHD risk factors in children, concerns continue to be expressed regarding what constitutes appropriate measures and when to institute such measures in children. A 1988 national survey of primary care physicians revealed variation in the management of CHD risk factors in children by physician categories, which suggested the underlying quandary among physicians regarding CHD risk factors in children. To assess current clinical management of pediatric CHD risk factors in the primary care setting and also to evaluate time trends between the current and 1988 surveys. A 25-minute telephone survey was conducted with 1036 of eligible physicians (ie, >20 hours per week direct patient care including at least five pediatric patient contacts) selected from a national probability sample in three practice categories (family practitioners, pediatricians, and general practitioners). The questionnaire assessed the current practice of these physicians in the primary care setting regarding cholesterol and blood pressure (BP) screening and treatment, both nonpharmacologic and pharmacologic, and physician attitude and knowledge. Cholesterol screening in children was performed by 75.7% of all physicians. Nonscreening was highest among general practitioners (38%) and lowest among pediatricians (12%). BP was measured by almost all physicians. The majority of physicians (71%) prescribed diet as the first cholesterol-lowering step, but approximately 16% also used pharmacologic therapy. Cholesterol synthesis inhibitors and bile acid sequestrants were the drugs used most commonly. Approximately 25% of physicians have used drugs in children to treat high BP. Diuretics and beta-blockers were used most frequently. More than one fourth of the
Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...
Xaverius, Pamela; Alman, Cameron; Holtz, Lori; Yarber, Laura
This study examined risk and protective factors associated with very low birth weight (VLBW) for babies born to women receiving adequate or inadequate prenatal care. Birth records from St. Louis City and County from 2000 to 2009 were used (n = 152,590). Data was categorized across risk factors and stratified by adequacy of prenatal care (PNC). Multivariate logistic regression and population attributable risk (PAR) was used to explore risk factors for VLBW infants. Women receiving inadequate prenatal care had a higher prevalence of delivering a VLBW infant than those receiving adequate PNC (4.11 vs. 1.44 %, p < .0001). The distribution of risk factors differed between adequate and inadequate PNC regarding Black race (36.4 vs. 79.0 %, p < .0001), age under 20 (13.0 vs. 33.6 %, p < .0001), <13 years of education (35.9 vs. 77.9 %, p < .0001), Medicaid status (35.7 vs. 74.9, p < .0001), primiparity (41.6 vs. 31.4 %, p < .0001), smoking (9.7 vs. 24.5 %, p < .0001), and diabetes (4.0 vs. 2.4 %, p < .0001), respectively. Black race, advanced maternal age, primiparity and gestational hypertension were significant predictors of VLBW, regardless of adequate or inadequate PNC. Among women with inadequate PNC, Medicaid was protective against (aOR 0.671, 95 % CI 0.563-0.803; PAR -32.6 %) and smoking a risk factor for (aOR 1.23, 95 % CI 1.01, 1.49; PAR 40.1 %) VLBW. When prematurity was added to the adjusted models, the largest PAR shifts to education (44.3 %) among women with inadequate PNC. Community actions around broader issues of racism and social determinants of health are needed to prevent VLBW in a large urban area.
Saydain, Ghulam; Awan, Aamir; Manickam, Palaniappan; Kleinow, Paul; Badr, Safwan
OBJECTIVE Critically ill patients with pulmonary hypertension (PH) pose additional challenges due to the existence of right ventricular (RV) dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of hemodynamic factors on the outcome. METHODS We reviewed the records of patients with a diagnosis of PH admitted to the intensive care unit. In addition to evaluating traditional hemodynamic parameters, we defined severe PH as right atrial pressure >20 mmHg, mean pulmonary artery pressure >55 mmHg, or cardiac index (CI) <2 L/min/m2. We also defined the RV functional index (RFI) as pulmonary artery systolic pressure (PASP) adjusted for CI as PASP/CI; increasing values reflect RV dysfunction. RESULTS Fifty-three patients (mean age 60 years, 72% women, 79% Blacks), were included in the study. Severe PH was present in 68% of patients who had higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (6.8 ± 3.3 vs 3.8 ± 1.6; P = 0.001) and overall in-hospital mortality (36% vs 6%; P = 0.02) compared to nonsevere patients, although Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores (19.9 ± 7.5 vs 18.5 ± 6.04; P = 0.52) were similar and sepsis was more frequent among nonsevere PH patients (31 vs 64%; P = 0.02). Severe PH (P = 0.04), lower mean arterial pressure (P = 0.04), and CI (P = 0.01); need for invasive ventilation (P = 0.02) and vasopressors (P = 0.03); and higher SOFA (P = 0.001), APACHE II (P = 0.03), pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) (P = 0.01), and RFI (P = 0.004) were associated with increased mortality. In a multivariate model, SOFA [OR = 1.45, 95% confidence interval (C.I.) = 1.09–1.93; P = 0.01], PVRI (OR = 1.12, 95% C.I. = 1.02–1.24; P = 0.02), and increasing RFI (OR = 1.06, 95% C.I. = 1.01–1.11; P = 0.01) were independently associated with mortality. CONCLUSION PH is an independent risk factor for mortality in critically ill patients. Composite factors rather than individual hemodynamic parameters are better predictors of
Brown, Eric C.; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael W.
Community coalitions are a popular strategy to coordinate activities and resources to prevent adolescent substance use and delinquent behavior. Despite early evidence of their lack of effectiveness, a new generation of community coalitions has shown positive results in preventing youth substance use and delinquency. This success can be attributed to coalition decision making focused on reducing local risk factors and increasing local protective factors through the use of evidence-based prevention programs. A previous study using cross-sectional data established cut point values for scales measuring risk and protective factors on the Communities That Care Youth Survey (CTCYS) to identify high levels of risk and low levels of protection in communities on each scale. The current study extended this previous research by using longitudinal data to assess the validity of risk and protective factor cut point values in predicting substance use and delinquent behavior 1 year after risk and protection were measured. The findings demonstrate the predictive validity of cut points for risk and protective factor scales measured by the CTCYS and suggest their utility in guiding prevention efforts. PMID:23143070
Briney, John S; Brown, Eric C; Hawkins, J David; Arthur, Michael W
Community coalitions are a popular strategy to coordinate activities and resources to prevent adolescent substance use and delinquent behavior. Despite early evidence of their lack of effectiveness, a new generation of community coalitions has shown positive results in preventing youth substance use and delinquency. This success can be attributed to coalition decision making focused on reducing local risk factors and increasing local protective factors through the use of evidence-based prevention programs. A previous study using cross-sectional data established cut point values for scales measuring risk and protective factors on the Communities That Care Youth Survey (CTCYS) to identify high levels of risk and low levels of protection in communities on each scale. The current study extended this previous research by using longitudinal data to assess the validity of risk and protective factor cut point values in predicting substance use and delinquent behavior 1 year after risk and protection were measured. The findings demonstrate the predictive validity of cut points for risk and protective factor scales measured by the CTCYS and suggest their utility in guiding prevention efforts.
de Freitas, Osvaldo; Penaforte, Thais Rodrigues; Achcar, Angela; Pereira, Leonardo Régis Leira
Introduction Almost 50% of the 17.5 million deaths worldwide from cardiovascular disease have been associated with systemic arterial hypertension (SAH). Into this scenario, Pharmaceutical Care (PC) has been inserted in order to improve the management of SAH and reduce its risks. Objective To evaluate the outcomes and healthcare assistance achieved after discharge of hypertension patients from the PC program. Methods This is a quasi-experimental study with historical controls. Retrospective data collection from 2006 to 2012 was begun in 2013 and included a PC program performed over one year. PC was performed in two basic units of the public health system in Ribeirão Preto-SP, Brazil, where the pharmacist followed up 104 hypertensive patients. The clinical indicators of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), triglycerides, total-cholesterol, high and low density lipoprotein cholesterol were collected, as well as care indicators related to the number of consultations (basic, specialized and emergency care) and antihypertensive drugs used. The coronary risk of patients by the Framingham risk score was also calculated. For the analysis, the data were divided into three periods, 2006–2008 as pre-PC, 2009 as PC and 2010–2012 as post-PC. Results In the pre-PC period, 54.4%, 79.0% and 27.3% of patients presented satisfactory levels of SBP, DBP and total-cholesterol, respectively. In the post-PC period, the percentages were 93.0% for SBP and DBP [p <0.001] and 60.6% for total-cholesterol [p <0.001]. The average number of consultations per patient/year in primary care was 1.66 ± 1.43 and 2.36 ± 1.73, [p = 0.012]; and for emergency care was 1.70 ± 1.43 and 1.06 ± 0.81, [p = 0.002] in the pre-PC and post-PC periods, respectively. The pre-PC Framingham risk in the last year was 14.3% ± 10.6 and the average post-PC was 10.9% ± 7.9. Conclusion PC was effective in the control of blood pressure and total-cholesterolafter discharge of the hypertensive patients
Melamed, Roman; Boland, Lori L; Normington, James P; Prenevost, Rebecca M; Hur, Lindsay Y; Maynard, Leslie F; McNaughton, Molly A; Kinzy, Tyler G; Masood, Adnan; Dastrange, Mehdi; Huguelet, Joseph A
Postoperative pulmonary complications in orthopedic surgery patients have been associated with worse clinical outcomes. Identifying patients with respiratory risk factors requiring enhanced monitoring and management modifications is an important part of postoperative care. Patients with unanticipated respiratory decompensation requiring transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU) have not been studied in sufficient detail. A retrospective case-control study of elective orthopedic surgery patients (knee, hip, shoulder, or spine, n = 51) who developed unanticipated respiratory failure (RF) necessitating transfer to the ICU over a 3-year period was conducted. Controls (n = 153) were frequency matched to cases by gender, age, and surgical procedure. Patient and perioperative care factors, clinical outcomes, and cost of care were examined. Transfer to the ICU occurred within 48 h of surgery in 73 % of the cases, 31 % required non-invasive ventilation, and 18 % required mechanical ventilation. Cases had a higher prevalence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and regular psychotropic medication use than controls. Cases received more intravenous opioids during the first 24 postoperative hours, were hospitalized 4 days longer, had higher in-hospital mortality, and had excess hospitalization costs of US$26,571. COPD, OSA, preoperative psychotropic medications, and anesthesia time were associated with risk of RF in a multivariate analysis. Unanticipated RF after orthopedic surgery is associated with extended hospitalization, increased mortality, and higher cost of care. Hospital protocols that include risk factor assessment, enhanced monitoring, and a cautious approach to opioid use in high-risk patients may reduce the frequency of this complication.
van den Bosch, Gerbrich E; Merkus, Peter J F M; Buysse, Corinne M P; Boehmer, Annemie L M; Vaessen-Verberne, Anja A P H; van Veen, Leonieke N; Hop, Wim C J; de Hoog, Matthijs
Severe acute asthma in children is associated with substantial morbidity and may require pediatric ICU (PICU) admission. The aim of the study was to determine risk factors for PICU admission. The study used a retrospective multicenter case-control design. The cases included children admitted to the PICU because of severe acute asthma and a history of out-patient treatment by pediatricians or pediatric pulmonologists. Controls were children with asthma without a PICU admission for severe acute asthma. The children were matched for sex, age, hospital, and time elapsed since the diagnosis of asthma. Fourteen possible risk factors were analyzed. Sixty-six cases were matched to 164 controls. In univariate analysis, all but one of the analyzed variables were significantly associated with PICU-hospitalization. After multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, 4 risk factors remained significant. These included active or passive smoking, allergies, earlier hospitalization for asthma, and non-sanitized home. Physicians and parents should be aware of these risk factors, and efforts should be made to counteract them. Copyright 2012 Daedalus Enterprises
Background Survivers of stroke or transient ischaemic attacks (TIA) are at risk of new vascular events. Our objective was to study primary health care patients with stroke/TIA regarding their knowledge about risk factors for having a new event of stroke/TIA, possible associations between patient characteristics and patients' knowledge about risk factors, and patients' knowledge about their preventive treatment for stroke/TIA. Methods A questionnaire was distributed to 240 patients with stroke/TIA diagnoses, and 182 patients (76%) responded. We asked 13 questions about diseases/conditions and lifestyle factors known to be risk factors and four questions regarding other diseases/conditions ("distractors"). The patients were also asked whether they considered each disease/condition to be one of their own. Additional questions concerned the patients' social and functional status and their drug use. The t-test was used for continuous variables, chi-square test for categorical variables, and a regression model with variables influencing patient knowledge was created. Results Hypertension, hyperlipidemia and smoking were identified as risk factors by nearly 90% of patients, and atrial fibrillation and diabetes by less than 50%. Few patients considered the distractors as stroke/TIA risk factors (3-6%). Patients with a family history of cardiovascular disease, and patients diagnosed with carotid stenosis, atrial fibrillation or diabetes, knew these were stroke/TIA risk factors to a greater extent than patients without these conditions. Atrial fibrillation or a family history of cardiovascular disease was associated with better knowledge about risk factors, and higher age, cerebral haemorrhage and living alone with poorer knowledge. Only 56% of those taking anticoagulant drugs considered this as intended for prevention, while 48% of those taking platelet aggregation inhibitors thought this was for prevention. Conclusions Knowledge about hypertension, hyperlipidemia and
Geurden, Bart; Franck MPsych, Erik; Lopez Hartmann, Maja; Weyler, Joost; Ysebaert, Dirk
Malnutrition is a known problem in hospitals and nursing homes. This study aims to evaluate the prevalence of being at risk of malnutrition in community living adults receiving homecare nursing and to determine factors independently associated with this risk of malnutrition. Furthermore, it also aimed to describe aspects of current nutritional nursing care. Patients (n = 100) are screened with the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool to evaluate their risk of malnutrition. A patient survey was used to analyse associated factors. In this population, 29% are at risk for malnutrition. Following a multivariate logistic regression analysis, 'loss of appetite' proved the most important factor. A survey for nurses (n = 61) revealed low awareness, poor knowledge, poor communication between stakeholders and a moderate approach of malnutrition. These findings should encourage homecare nurses to use a recommended screening tool for malnutrition and to actively observe and report loss of appetite to initiate the prescription of individual tailored interventions. Belgian homecare nurses' management does not yet fully comply with international recommendations. Additional training in nutritional nursing care and screening methods for malnutrition is needed. Systematic screening should be further developed and evaluated in this at-risk population.
de Araujo Costa, Graziela; Delgado, Artur F; Ferraro, Alexandre; Okay, Thelma Suely
INTRODUCTION: To establish disease severity at admission can be performed by way of the mortality prognostic. Nowadays the prognostic scores make part of quality control and research. The Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) is one of the scores used in the pediatric intensive care units. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study is the utilization of the PRISM and determination of mortality risk factors in a tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. METHODS : Retrospective cohort study, in a period of one year, at a general tertiary pediatric intensive care unit. The pediatric risk of mortality scores corresponding to the first 24 hours of hospitalization were recorded; additional data were collected to characterize the study population. RESULTS: 359 patients were included; the variables that were found to be risk factors for death were multiple organ dysfunction syndrome on admission, mechanical ventilation, use of vasoactive drugs, hospital‐acquired infection, parenteral nutrition and duration of hospitalization (p < 0,0001). Fifty‐four patients (15%) died; median pediatric risk of mortality score was significantly lower in patients who survived (p = 0,0001). The ROC curve yielded a value of 0.76 (CI 95% 0,69–0,83) and the calibration was shown to be adequate. DISCUSSION: It is imperative for pediatric intensive care units to implement strict quality controls to identify groups at risk of death and to ensure the adequacy of treatment. Although some authors have shown that the PRISM score overestimates mortality and that it is not appropriate in specific pediatric populations, in this study pediatric risk of mortality showed satisfactory discriminatory performance in differentiating between survivors and non‐survivors. CONCLUSIONS: The pediatric risk of mortality score showed adequate discriminatory capacity and thus constitutes a useful tool for the assessment of prognosis for pediatric patients admitted to a tertiary pediatric intensive care units. PMID
Roberts, S; Chaboyer, W; Desbrow, B
Malnutrition is common in hospitals and is a risk factor for pressure ulcers. Nutrition care practices relating to the identification and treatment of malnutrition have not been assessed in patients at risk of pressure ulcers. The present study describes nutrition care practices and factors affecting nutritional intakes in this patient group. The study was conducted in four wards at two hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Adult patients at risk of pressure ulcers as a result of restricted mobility were observed for 24 h to determine their daily oral intake and practices such as nutrition screening, documentation and intervention. Independent samples t-tests and chi-squared tests were used to analyse dietary intake and nutrition care-related data. Predictors of receiving a dietitian referral were identified using logistic regression analyses. Two hundred and forty-one patients participated in the present study. The observed nutritional screening rate was 59% (142 patients). Weight and height were documented in 71% and 34% of cases. Sixty-nine patients (29%) received a dietitian referral. Predictors of receiving a dietitian referral included lower body mass index and longer length of stay. On average, patients consumed 73% and 72% of the energy and protein provided, respectively. Between 22% and 38% of patients consumed <50% of food provided at main meals. Nutrition care practices including malnutrition risk screening and documentation of nutritional parameters appear to be inadequate in patients at risk of pressure ulcers. A significant proportion of these patients eat inadequately at main meals, further increasing their risk of malnutrition and pressure ulcers. © 2014 The British Dietetic Association Ltd.
Bhattacharya, Sumanta; Bhattacharya, Saikat; Basu, Rivu; Bera, Pranati; Halder, Aniket
Age, sex, living place (urban or rural), smoking, alcohol consumption, dietary pattern, obesity are considered as risk factors for Colorectal cancer. Our study was done to evaluate the association between these risk factors and colorectal cancer in the population of North Bengal. The present study was done over a period of one year as a hospital-based analytical observational type of study with cross-sectional type of study design. All the patients undergoing colorectal endoscopic biopsy at the Department of Surgery, NBMC&H during the study period for various clinical indications comprised the study population. History and clinical examination were done of the patients whose colorectal biopsy were taken and filled-up in a pre-designed pre-tested proforma. Significance was tested at 95% confidence interval. There is an increased risk of colorectal carcinoma (CRC) with increasing age in our study population. Odd's ratio for last 2 age groups are statistically significant with 2.83 for 41-50 years age group (95% CI is0.3-24), 13.6 for 51-60 years age group (95% CI is 2.1-85.9), 42.5 for more than 60 y age group patients (95% CI is 3.1-571). There is increased risk of colorectal carcinoma in males with an Odd's ratio of 1.6 (95% CI is 0.5-5.5), but it is not statistically significant. There was an increased urban incidence of colorectal carcinoma compared to rural population with an Odd's ratio of 1.8 (with a 95% CI of 0.6-5.9). In our study smoking also proved to be a risk factor and it is significant with an Odd's ratio of 5.4 with a 95% CI of 1.6-8.7. Odd's ratio for cases of alcohol consumption was 3.5 with a 95% CI of 1-11.6. Carcinoma cases were more common among patients with history of non-vegetarian dietary intake with Odds ratio of 1.5 (with a 95% CI of 0.3-8.7), but it was not statistically significant. Obesity has got a significant association with CRC in our study with an Odd's ratio of 7.2 (with 95% CI of 1.3-40.2). More than 50 years of age, smoking
Milani, Richard V; Lavie, Carl J
Cardiac rehabilitation and exercise training (CRET) provides health risk intervention in cardiac patients over a relatively short time frame. Worksite health programs offer a unique opportunity for health intervention, but these programs remain underused due to concerns over recouping the costs. We evaluated the clinical efficacy and cost-effectiveness of a 6-month worksite health intervention using staff from CRET. Employees (n = 308) and spouses (n = 31) of a single employer were randomized to active intervention (n = 185) consisting of worksite health education, nutritional counseling, smoking cessation counseling, physical activity promotion, selected physician referral, and other health counseling versus usual care (n = 154). Health risk status was assessed at baseline and after the 6-month intervention program, and total medical claim costs were obtained in all participants during the year before and the year after intervention. Significant improvements were demonstrated in quality-of-life scores (+10%, p = 0.001), behavioral symptoms (depression -33%, anxiety -32%, somatization -33%, and hostility -47%, all p values <0.001), body fat (-9%, p = 0.001), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (+13%, p = 0.0001), diastolic blood pressure (-2%, p = 0.01), health habits (-60%, p = 0.0001), and total health risk (-25%, p = 0.0001). Of employees categorized as high risk at baseline, 57% were converted to low-risk status. Average employee annual claim costs decreased 48% (p = 0.002) for the 12 months after the intervention, whereas control employees' costs remained unchanged (-16%, p = NS), thus creating a sixfold return on investment. In conclusion, worksite health intervention using CRET staff decreased total health risk and markedly decreased medical claim costs within 12 months.
... has been linked to some cancers: Links between air pollution and cancer risk have been found. These include ... between lung cancer and secondhand tobacco smoke , outdoor air pollution, and asbestos . Drinking water that contains a large ...
Robbins, Catherine J; Connors, K C; Sheehan, Timothy J; Vaughan, James S
Minimize surprises on your financial statement by adopting a model for integrated risk management that: Examines interrelationships among operations, investments, and financing. Incorporates concepts of the capital asset pricing model to manage unexpected volatility
Baer, Heather J; Schneider, Louise I; Colditz, Graham A; Dart, Hank; Andry, Analisa; Williams, Deborah H; Orav, E John; Haas, Jennifer S; Getty, George; Whittemore, Elizabeth; Bates, David W
Primary care clinicians can play an important role in identifying individuals at increased risk of cancer, but often do not obtain detailed information on family history or lifestyle factors from their patients. We evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of using a web-based risk appraisal tool in the primary care setting. Five primary care practices within an academic care network were assigned to the intervention or control group. We included 15,495 patients who had a new patient visit or annual exam during an 8-month period in 2010-2011. Intervention patients were asked to complete a web-based risk appraisal tool on a laptop computer immediately before their visit. Information on family history of cancer was sent to their electronic health record (EHR) for clinicians to view; if accepted, it populated coded fields and could trigger clinician reminders about colon and breast cancer screening. The main outcome measure was new documentation of a positive family history of cancer in coded EHR fields. Secondary outcomes included clinician reminders about screening and discussion of family history, lifestyle factors, and screening. Among eligible intervention patients, 2.0% had new information on family history of cancer entered in the EHR within 30 days after the visit, compared to 0.6% of eligible control patients (adjusted odds ratio = 4.3, p = 0.03). There were no significant differences in the percent of patients who received moderate or high risk reminders for colon or breast cancer screening. Use of this tool was associated with increased documentation of family history of cancer in the EHR, although the percentage of patients with new family history information was low in both groups. Further research is needed to determine how risk appraisal tools can be integrated with workflow and how they affect screening and health behaviors.
Chen, Jichang; Jiang, Yongjiang; Wei, Ba; Ding, Yanling; Xu, Shaolin; Qin, Peixu; Fu, Jinjian
The prevalence and clinical characteristics of neonatal candidemia are poorly understood in western China. The aim of our study was to evaluate the epidemiological features of neonatal candidemia in the Liuzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital. A retrospective case-control study was conducted between January 2012 and November 2015. Electronic databases were reviewed and data on Candida species were isolated from blood cultures and candidemia incidence, risk factors, and mortality were extracted. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were performed to identify risk factors associated with candidemia. During the 4-year period, candidemia was identified in 69 newborns, for an incidence rate of 13.6 per 1000 admissions. Prolonged antibiotic therapy duration [odds ratio (OR), 95% confidence incidence (95% CI) = 1.06, 1.01-1.10], total parenteral nutrition [OR, 95% CI = 6.03, 2.10-17.30] and neurodevelopmental impairment (OR, 95% CI = 7.34, 1.18-45.80) were all associated with increased odds of candidemia development in infants (P value was 0.010, 0.001, 0.033, respectively). The overall mortality rate was 7.2% in the candidemia group. Prolonged duration of antibiotic therapy, presence of total parenteral nutrition and neurodevelopmental impairment were the major risk factors associated with neonatal candidemia. This study highlights the importance of the early detection, diagnosis and treatment of neonatal candidemia.
Guo, Weixia; Woodward, Maria A; Heisler, Michele; Blachley, Taylor; Corneail, Leah; Cederna, Jean; Kaplan, Ariane D; Newman Casey, Paula Anne
To assess risk factors for visual impairment in a high-risk population of people: those without medical insurance. Secondarily, we assessed risk factors for remaining uninsured after implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and evaluated whether the ACA changed demand for local safety net ophthalmology clinic services one year after its implementation. In a retrospective cohort study of patients who attended a community-academic partnership free ophthalmology clinic in Southeastern, Michigan between September 2012 - March 2015, we assessed the prevalence of presenting with visual impairment, the most common causes of presenting with visual impairment and used logistic regression to assess socio-demographic risk factors for visual impairment. We assessed the initial impact of the ACA on clinic utilization. We also analyzed risk factors for remaining uninsured one year after implementation of the ACA private insurance marketplace and Medicaid expansion in the state of Michigan. Among 335 patients, one-fifth (22%) presented with visual impairment; refractive error was the leading cause for presenting with visual impairment. Unemployment was the single significant risk factor for presenting with visual impairment after adjusting for multiple confounding factors (OR = 3.05, 95% CI 1.19-7.87, p=0.01). There was no difference in proportion of visual impairment or type of vision-threatening disease between the insured and uninsured (p=0.26). Seventy six percent of patients remained uninsured one year after ACA implementation. Patients who were white, spoke English as a first language and were US Citizens were more likely to gain insurance coverage through the ACA in our population (p≤ 0.01). There was a non-significant decline in the mean number of patient treated per clinic (52 to 43) before and after ACA implementation (p=0.69). Refractive error was a leading cause for presenting with visual impairment in this vulnerable population, and being unemployed
Guo, Weixia; Woodward, Maria A; Heisler, Michele; Blachley, Taylor; Corneail, Leah; Cederna, Jean; Kaplan, Ariane D; Newman Casey, Paula Anne
Purpose To assess risk factors for visual impairment in a high-risk population of people: those without medical insurance. Secondarily, we assessed risk factors for remaining uninsured after implementation of the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and evaluated whether the ACA changed demand for local safety net ophthalmology clinic services one year after its implementation. Methods In a retrospective cohort study of patients who attended a community-academic partnership free ophthalmology clinic in Southeastern, Michigan between September 2012 – March 2015, we assessed the prevalence of presenting with visual impairment, the most common causes of presenting with visual impairment and used logistic regression to assess socio-demographic risk factors for visual impairment. We assessed the initial impact of the ACA on clinic utilization. We also analyzed risk factors for remaining uninsured one year after implementation of the ACA private insurance marketplace and Medicaid expansion in the state of Michigan. Results Among 335 patients, one-fifth (22%) presented with visual impairment; refractive error was the leading cause for presenting with visual impairment. Unemployment was the single significant risk factor for presenting with visual impairment after adjusting for multiple confounding factors (OR = 3.05, 95% CI 1.19–7.87, p=0.01). There was no difference in proportion of visual impairment or type of vision-threatening disease between the insured and uninsured (p=0.26). Seventy six percent of patients remained uninsured one year after ACA implementation. Patients who were white, spoke English as a first language and were US Citizens were more likely to gain insurance coverage through the ACA in our population (p≤ 0.01). There was a non-significant decline in the mean number of patient treated per clinic (52 to 43) before and after ACA implementation (p=0.69). Conclusion Refractive error was a leading cause for presenting with visual impairment in this vulnerable
Liu, Bo; Li, Song-Qin; Zhang, Su-Ming; Xu, Ping; Zhang, Xiang; Zhang, Yan-Hong; Chen, Wen-Sen
Objective To identify risk factors of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods PubMed, Ovid, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library and references of retrieved articles were searched without language limitation. Pooled odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated by using both the Mantel-Haenszel fixed-effect and the DerSimonian-Laird random-effects models. Results Out of the 205 initially retrieved articles, 9 papers were included. All 4,564 patients were enrolled, including 213 patients with VAP and 4,351 patients without VAP. Among fourteen risk factors, six factors had statistical significances. Risk factors of VAP and its value of OR were as follows: genetic syndrome (OR =2.04; 95% CI: 1.08-3.86), steroids (OR =1.87; 95% CI: 1.07-3.27), reintubation or self-extubation (OR =3.16; 95% CI: 2.10-4.74), bloodstream infection (OR =4.42; 95% CI: 2.12-9.22), prior antibiotic therapy (OR =2.89; 95% CI: 1.41-5.94), bronchoscopy (OR =4.48; 95% CI: 2.31-8.71). Conclusions Special methods of preventions should be taken in the light of risk factors of VAP in PICU so as to decrease the rate. PMID:23991312
Gandhi, Sangeetha; Rao, Vishwas
Background: Pre-eclampsia is one of the leading causes of maternal and infant morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aetiopathogenesis of this condition involves combination of genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The aim of the study was to determine the socio demographic and other risk factors of pre-eclampsia. Materials and Methods: A case control study was conducted at a tertiary care hospital, Karnataka among 100 cases of pre-eclampsia and 200 controls without pre eclampsia. Non probability purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the study subjects. Data was collected by using a pre tested semi structured questionnaire which included information related to socio-demographic and other known risk factors of pre eclampsia. Primary data was collected by interviewing study subjects and secondary data of cases was obtained from case records. Data was analysed using SPSS. Results: Study subjects included 100 cases and 200 controls. Age of less than 20 y (OR=3.8), monthly income of less than Rs4000 (OR=6.8), age of menarche of less than 12 y (OR=13.1), family h/o pre eclampsia (OR=36.0), family h/o Diabetes (OR=44.9), family h/o hypertension (OR=16.7) and previous h/o PIH (OR=58.5) are found to be significant risk factors of pre eclampsia. Conclusion: The significant risk factors may be used for screening pre-eclampsia during registration of pregnancy. PMID:25386463
Agbenorku, Pius; Agbenorku, Manolo; Fiifi-Yankson, Papa Kwesi
Aim: This study aimed at identifying risk factors related to pediatric burns mortality in a middle income country such as Ghana. Methods: The data for the three years retrospective study (May 2009 – April 2012) was obtained from the pediatric burn admissions records and patients’ folders of the Reconstructive Plastic Surgery & Burns Unit (RPSBU), Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. Data retrieved included: Demographic features, Total Burned Surface Area (TBSA) incurred; Aetiology of burns; Duration of the admission; Outcome of admission; Part of the body affected and Cost incurred. Ethical approval for this study was obtained from the KNUST-SMS/KATH Committee on Human Research, Publications and Ethics. Data analyses were performed with SPSS 17.0 version. Results: Information on 197 patients was completely retrieved for the study. Burns mortality rate for the study was identified to be 21.3% (N=42). The mean age of the 42 dead patients was 3.7±0.3 years, ranging from 0-13 years, while, males (54.8%, N= 23) outnumbered females (45.2%, N=19). The TBSA burned interquartile range was 48%. In terms of etiology of burns Scald (73.8%, N=31) was the commonest cause of injury. Mortality risk factors identified were Age <6 years (P=0.028); Scald especially hot water and soup (P=0.016); TBSA >36% (P=0.028) and Inhalation injury (P=0.040). Conclusion: Age, scald, TBSA and Inhalation Injury were identified as pediatric burns mortality risk factors in a developing country such as Ghana’s RPSBU. These identified factors will serve as a guideline for plastic surgeons and other health professionals practicing in countries such as Ghana. PMID:23875121
Nieburg, Ingegerd; Kahan, Thomas
The awareness and control of cardiovascular risk factors other than blood pressure in hypertensive subjects in primary healthcare is not well described. This was examined by data extraction from electronic records from a random sample (115 women and 85 men) corresponding to two-thirds of all hypertensive subjects within a well-defined geographic area in Sweden. Target blood pressure (<140/90 mmHg, <130/80 mmHg if diabetes or kidney disease) was achieved in 27%, and lipid levels (total and LDL-cholesterol <5 and <3.0 mmol/l, respectively) in 42%. Beta-blockers were the most common antihypertensive drug class; 39% were given lipid lowering drugs. The distributions of antihypertensive and lipid lowering drugs were similar across gender and age groups. Patient records often contained information on body mass index, lipid levels, diabetes, left ventricular hypertrophy, microalbuminuria, and smoking habits (reported in 89%, 89%, 73%, 67%, 62% and 61%), but rarely on physical exercise, family history, concurrent cardiovascular disease or alcohol habits (reported in 47%, 46%, 39% and 18%). In conclusion, hypertensive patients in primary healthcare do not have well controlled blood pressure and lipids. The awareness and documentation of several cardiovascular risk factors is low. Improvement in risk assessment and treatment may have substantial effects on prognosis.
Meert, Kathleen L; Donaldson, Amy E; Newth, Christopher J L; Harrison, Rick; Berger, John; Zimmerman, Jerry; Anand, K J S; Carcillo, Joseph; Dean, J Michael; Willson, Douglas F; Nicholson, Carol; Shear, Katherine
To investigate the extent of complicated grief symptoms and associated risk factors among parents whose child died in a pediatric intensive care unit. Cross-sectional survey conducted by mail and telephone. Seven children's hospitals affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network from January 1, 2006, to June 30, 2008. Two hundred sixty-one parents from 872 families whose child died in a pediatric intensive care unit 6 months earlier. Assessment of potential risk factors, including demographic and clinical variables, and parent psychosocial characteristics, such as attachment style, caregiving style, grief avoidance, and social support. Parent report of complicated grief symptoms using the Inventory of Complicated Grief. Total scale range is from 0 to 76; scores of 30 or higher suggest complicated grief. Mean (SD) Inventory of Complicated Grief scores among parents were 33.7 (14.1). Fifty-nine percent of parents (95% confidence interval, 53%-65%) had scores of 30 or higher. Variables independently associated with higher symptom scores in multivariable analysis included being the biological mother or female guardian, trauma as the cause of death, greater attachment-related anxiety and attachment-related avoidance, and greater grief avoidance. Parents who responded to our survey experienced a high level of complicated grief symptoms 6 months after their child's death in the pediatric intensive care unit. However, our estimate of the extent of complicated grief symptoms may be biased because of a high number of nonresponders. Better understanding of complicated grief and its risk factors among parents will allow those most vulnerable to receive professional bereavement support.
Meert, Kathleen L.; Donaldson, Amy E.; Newth, Christopher J. L.; Harrison, Rick; Berger, John; Zimmerman, Jerry; Anand, K. J. S.; Carcillo, Joseph; Dean, J. Michael; Willson, Douglas F.; Nicholson, Carol; Shear, Katherine
Objective To investigate the extent of complicated grief symptoms and associated risk factors among parents whose child died in a pediatric intensive care unit. Design Cross-sectional survey conducted by mail and telephone. Setting Seven children’s hospitals affiliated with the Collaborative Pediatric Critical Care Research Network from January 1, 2006, to June 30, 2008. Participants Two hundred sixty-one parents from 872 families whose child died in a pediatric intensive care unit 6 months earlier. Main Exposure Assessment of potential risk factors, including demographic and clinical variables, and parent psychosocial characteristics, such as attachment style, caregiving style, grief avoidance, and social support. Main Outcome Measure Parent report of complicated grief symptoms using the Inventory of Complicated Grief. Total scale range is from 0 to 76; scores of 30 or higher suggest complicated grief. Results Mean(SD)Inventory of Complicated Grief scores among parents were 33.7 (14.1). Fifty-nine percent of parents (95% confidence interval, 53%–65%) had scores of 30 or higher. Variables independently associated with higher symptom scores in multivariable analysis included being the biological mother or female guardian, trauma as the cause of death, greater attachment-related anxiety and attachment-related avoidance, and greater grief avoidance. Conclusions Parents who responded to our survey experienced a high level of complicated grief symptoms 6 months after their child’s death in the pediatric intensive care unit. However, our estimate of the extent of complicated grief symptoms may be biased because of a high number of nonresponders. Better understanding of complicated grief and its risk factors among parents will allow those most vulnerable to receive professional bereavement support. PMID:21041597
Noriega, Gloria; Ramos, Luciana; Medina-Mora, María Elena; Villa, Antonio R
Codependence as a relational problem that often, but not necessarily always, occurs in conjunction with familial alcoholism. Previous research has shown that various etiological factors resulting from recurring stressful circumstances experienced in childhood or adulthood may contribute to this relation. Another factor arises out of the "submission script" that may be assumed by women living within a culture that typically promotes unequal power between women and men. To examine the prevalence of codependence and its predictors, a cross-sectional study was conducted among a population of 845 young women seeking primary health care in Mexico City. Odds ratio prevalence (ORP) was used to estimate the strength of possible association between codependence and exposure to several factors. A prevalence of 25% of codependence was found. Multivariate analysis revealed that women with a submissive cultural script were nearly eight times more likely to develop codependence than those without this programming. Other relevant factors were having a partner with probable alcohol dependence, a father with alcohol problems, physical and sexual mistreatment by a partner, and a history of emotional mistreatment. Copyright 2008 APA, all rights reserved.
De Jesus, Lilia C; Pappas, Athina; Shankaran, Seetha; Kendrick, Douglas; Das, Abhik; Higgins, Rosemary D; Bell, Edward F; Stoll, Barbara J; Laptook, Abbot R; Walsh, Michele C
The study goal was to evaluate maternal and neonatal risk factors associated with post-neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) discharge mortality among extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. This is a retrospective analysis of ELBW (<1000 g) and <27 weeks' gestational age infants born in the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network sites between January 2000 and June 2007. Infants were tracked until death or 18 to 22 months' corrected age. Infants who died between NICU discharge and the 18- to 22-month follow-up visit were classified as post-NICU discharge mortality (P-NDM). Association of maternal and infant risk factors with P-NDM was determined using logistic regression analysis. A prediction model with 6 significant predictors was developed and validated. There were 5364 infants who survived to NICU discharge; 557 (10%) infants were lost to follow-up, and 107 infants died following NICU discharge. P-NDM rate was 22.3 per 1000 ELBW infants. In the prediction model, African American race, unknown maternal health insurance, and hospital stay ≥ 120 days significantly increased risk, and maternal exposure to intrapartum antibiotics was associated with decreased risk of P-NDM. We identified African American race, unknown medical insurance, and prolonged NICU stay as risk factors associated with P-NDM among ELBW infants. Copyright © 2012 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Gorbach, Christy; Blanton, Linda; Lukawski, Beverly A; Varkey, Alex C; Pitman, E Paige; Garey, Kevin W
The frequency of and risk factors for medication errors by pharmacists during order verification in a tertiary care medical center were reviewed. This retrospective, secondary database study was conducted at a large tertiary care medical center in Houston, Texas. Inpatient and outpatient medication orders and medication errors recorded between July 1, 2011, and June 30, 2012, were reviewed. Independent variables assessed as risk factors for medication errors included workload (mean number of orders verified per pharmacist per shift), work environment (type of day, type of shift, and mean number of pharmacists per shift), and nonmodifiable characteristics of the pharmacist (type of pharmacy degree obtained, age, number of years practicing, and number of years at the institution). A total of 1,887,751 medication orders, 92 medication error events, and 50 pharmacists were included in the study. The overall error rate was 4.87 errors per 100,000 verified orders. An increasing medication error rate was associated with an increased number of orders verified per pharmacist (p = 0.007), the type of shift (p = 0.021), the type of day (p = 0.002), and the mean number of pharmacists per shift (p = 0.001). Pharmacist demographic variables were not associated with risk of error. The number of orders per shift was identified as a significant independent risk factor for medication errors (p = 0.019). An increase in the number of orders verified per shift was associated with an increased rate of pharmacist errors during order verification in a tertiary care medical center. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.
Baumgarten, Mona; Rich, Shayna E.; Shardell, Michelle D.; Hawkes, William G.; Margolis, David J.; Langenberg, Patricia; Orwig, Denise L.; Palmer, Mary H.; Jones, Patricia S.; Sterling, Robert; Kinosian, Bruce P.; Magaziner, Jay
OBJECTIVES To identify care-related factors associated with increased incidence of hospital-acquired pressure ulcers (HAPU) DESIGN Prospective cohort study SETTING Nine hospitals in Baltimore Hip Studies network PARTICIPANTS 658 patients age ≥65 years who underwent surgery for hip fracture MEASUREMENTS Skin examinations at baseline and alternating days until hospital discharge. Patients were deemed to have a HAPU if they developed ≥1 new pressure ulcers stage 2 or higher during the hospital stay. RESULTS Longer emergency department stays were associated with lower HAPU incidence (>4-6 hours: adjusted incidence rate ratio [aIRR] 0.68, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.48-0.96; >6 hours: aIRR 0.68, 95% CI 0.46-0.99, both compared to ≤4 hours). Patients with ≥24 hours between admission and surgery had a higher post-surgery HAPU rate than those with <24 hours (aIRR 1.62, 95% CI 1.24-2.11). Surgery with general anesthesia had a lower post-surgery HAPU rate than surgery with other types of anesthesia (aIRR 0.66, 95% CI 0.49-0.88). There was no significant association of HAPU incidence with timing or type of transport to hospital, or surgery duration. CONCLUSION Most of the factors hypothesized to be associated with higher pressure ulcer incidence were either associated with lower incidence or were not significantly associated, suggesting that HAPU development may not be as sensitive to care-related factors as commonly believed. Rigorous studies of innovative preventive interventions are needed to inform policy and practice. PMID:22332674
Reddy, Jagadesh C.; Murthy, Somasheila I.; Reddy, Ashok K.; Garg, Prashant
Purpose: The aim was to analyze demographics, risk factors, pathogenic organisms, and clinical outcome in cases with microbiologically proven bacterial or fungal scleritis. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of all the medical records of patients with microbiologically proven infectious scleritis examined from March 2005 to December 2009 in the cornea services of L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India was done. Results: Forty-two eyes of 42 patients were included in this study. The mean age at presentation was 48.52 ± 14.10 years (range: 12-70). Surgery was the major risk factor seen in 24 eyes (58.5%). Scleral infection was noted after vitreoretinal surgery (with scleral buckle) in 15 eyes, cataract surgery in 3 eyes, pterygium surgery in 3 eyes, corneoscleral tear repair and scleral buckle surgery in 3 eyes. Sixteen eyes (39%) were on systemic or topical steroids at the time of presentation. History of injury was noted in 9 eyes (22%) and diabetes mellitus in 7 patients (17%). Associated keratitis was noted in 9 eyes (21.4%). The scleral abscess was unifocal in 33 eyes (78.5%), multifocal in 6 eyes (14.2%) and diffuse in 3 eyes (7.14%). The final follow-up ranged from 24 days to 37 months. The final visual acuity was better in 18 eyes (42.8%), stable in 13 (30.9%), and deteriorated in 7 eyes (16.6%). Recurrence was seen in 4 eyes (9.5%). Conclusions: Surgery is a major risk factor for infectious scleritis in our series. Fungus was the most common organism isolated. Thorough debridement and intensive use of medications have improved the outcome. PMID:25949079
Maldonado, Natalia; Castro, Bibiana; Berrio, Indira; Manjarrés, Miguel; Robledo, Carlos; Robledo, Jaime
Carbapenems resistance is a growing phenomenon and a threat to public health because of the reduced therapeutic options for resistant infections. A retrospective case-control study was conducted in 2 tertiary-care hospitals in Medellín, Colombia. Fifty patients infected with ertapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae were compared with a control group consisting of 100 patients with infections caused by ertapenem susceptible enterobacteriaceae. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify factors that best explain ertapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae infections. The factors associated with ertapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae infections were prior exposure to carbapenems (adjusted OR 3.43; 95% IC 1.08-10.87) and prior exposure to cefepime (adjusted OR 6.46; 95% IC 1.08-38.38). Prior exposure to antibiotics is the factor that best explains the ertapenem-resistant enterobacteriaceae infection in this population, highlighting the importance of antimicrobial stewardship programs in hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.
Miller, Melissa B.; Weber, David J.; Goodrich, Jennifer S.; Popowitch, Elena B.; Poe, Michele D.; Nyugen, Viet; Shope, Timothy R.; Foster, David T.; Miller, James R.; Kotch, Jonathan
Children attending child care centers (CCCs) are at increased risk for infections, including those caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Nasal colonization often precedes infection, and MRSA colonization has been associated with increased infection risk. Community-associated MRSA (CA-MRSA) has caused increased MRSA infections in the general population, including children. Little is known about the frequency of MRSA nasal colonization in young children, particularly in those attending CCCs where disease transmission is common. We sampled the nares of 1,163 children in 200 classrooms from 24 CCCs in North Carolina and Virginia to assess S. aureus colonization. MRSA strains were molecularly analyzed for staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type, Panton-Valentine leukocidin status, and multilocus sequence type. A case-control study was performed to identify risk factors for MRSA colonization. We found that 18.1% children were colonized with S. aureus and 1.3% with MRSA. Molecular analysis of the MRSA strains identified 47% as CA-MRSA and 53% as health care-associated MRSA (HA-MRSA). Although two centers had multiple children colonized with MRSA, genotyping indicated that no transmission had occurred within classrooms. The case-control study did not detect statistically significant risk factors for MRSA colonization. However, MRSA-colonized children were more likely to be nonwhite and to have increased exposure to antibiotics and skin infections in the home. Both CA-MRSA and HA-MRSA strains were found colonizing the nares of children attending CCCs. The low frequency of colonization observed highlights the need for a large multicenter study to determine risk factors for MRSA colonization and subsequent infection in this highly susceptible population. PMID:21191058
Navarro-García, Miguel A; Marín-Fernández, Blanca; de Carlos-Alegre, Vanessa; Martínez-Oroz, Amparo; Martorell-Gurucharri, Ainhara; Ordoñez-Ortigosa, Esther; Prieto-Guembe, Patricia; Sorbet-Amóstegui, Maria R; Induráin-Fernández, Silvia; Elizondo-Sotro, Arantzazu; Irigoyen-Aristorena, Maria I; García-Aizpún, Yolanda
To estimate the preoperative levels of anxiety and depression in patients awaiting heart surgery and to identify the risk factors associated with the development of these mood disorders. To evaluate the relationship between preoperative anxiety and depression and postoperative morbidity. Prospective longitudinal study in a sample of 100 patients undergoing heart surgery. We carried out a preoperative structured interview in which the patient completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and sociodemographic (age, sex, marital status, and income) and surgical variables (surgical risk, type of surgery, length of preoperative hospital stay, and surgical history) were also recorded. Pain, analgesic use, and postoperative morbidity were evaluated in the intensive care unit. Thirty-two percent of the patients developed preoperative anxiety and 19%, depression. Age < 65 years (odds ratio=3.05; 95% confidence interval, 1.27-7.3) was the only significant risk factor for developing preoperative anxiety. A length of preoperative hospital stay ≥ 3 days was the main risk factor for preoperative depression (odds ratio=4.59; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-13.17). Preoperative anxiety significantly increased the postoperative pain and analgesic consumption. Neither anxiety nor depression significantly modified the rest of the postoperative variables associated with morbidity in the intesive care unit. Anxiety and depression are mood disorders that are detected in patients awaiting heart surgery, with age <65 years and a prolonged preoperative hospital stay being decisive factors in the development of these conditions. Although preoperative anxiety increased the postoperative pain in these patients, their state of mind did not modify their postoperative course. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Cardiología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
El-Nawawy, Ahmed Ahmed; Al-Halawany, Amina Sedky; Antonios, Manal Abdelmalik; Newegy, Reem Gamal
Objective: Pneumothorax should be considered a medical emergency and requires a high index of suspicion and prompt recognition and intervention. Aims: The objective of the study was to evaluate cases developing pneumothorax following admission to a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) over a 5-year period. Settings and Design: Case notes of all PICU patients (n = 1298) were reviewed, revealing that 135 cases (10.4%) developed pneumothorax, and these were compared with those patients who did not. The most common tool for diagnosis used was chest X-ray followed by a clinical examination. Subjects and Methods: Case notes of 1298 patients admitted in PICU over 1-year study. Results: Patients with pneumothorax had higher mortality rate (P < 0.001), longer length of stay (P < 0.001), higher need for mechanical ventilation (MV) (P < 0.001), and were of younger age (P < 0.001), lower body weight (P < 0.001), higher pediatric index of mortality 2 score on admission (P < 0.001), higher pediatric logistic organ dysfunction score (P < 0.001), compared to their counterpart. Iatrogenic pneumothorax (IP) represented 95% of episodes of pneumothorax. The most common causes of IP were barotrauma secondary to MV, central vein catheter insertion, and other (69.6%, 13.2%, and 17.2%, respectively). Compared to ventilated patients without pneumothorax, ventilated patients who developed pneumothorax had a longer duration of MV care (P < 0.001) and higher nonconventional and high-frequency oscillatory ventilation settings (P < 0.001). Conclusions: This study demonstrated that pneumothorax is common in Alexandria University PICU patients, especially in those on MV and emphasized the importance of the strict application of protective lung strategies among ventilated patients to minimize the risk of pneumothorax. PMID:27630456
Gerlach, Anthony T; Stawicki, Stanislaw P; Cook, Charles H; Murphy, Claire
Background: Aminoglycosides are commonly used antibiotics in the intensive care unit (ICU), but are associated with nephrotoxicity. This study evaluated the development of aminoglycoside-associated nephrotoxicity (AAN) in a single surgical intensive care unit. Materials and Methods: Adult patients in our surgical ICU who received more than two doses of aminoglycosides were retrospectively reviewed for demographics, serum creatinine, receipt of nephrotoxins [angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin-II receptor blockers, diuretics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, vasopressors, vancomycin and intravenous iodinated contrast] and the need for dialysis. AAN was defined as an increase in serum creatinine >0.5 mg/dL on at least 2 consecutive days. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were performed. Results: Sixty-one patients (43 males) receiving aminoglycoside were evaluated. Mean age, weight, initial serum creatinine, and duration of aminoglycoside therapy were 58.7 (±15) years, 83.3 (±24.4) kg, 0.9 (±0.5) mg/dL, and 4 (±2.3) days, respectively. Thirty-one (51%) aminoglycoside recipients also received additional nephrotoxins. Seven aminoglycoside recipients (11.5%) developed AAN, four of whom required dialysis and all had received additional nephrotoxins. Only concurrent use of vasopressors (P = 0.041) and vancomycin (P = 0.002) were statistically associated with AAN. Receipt of vasopressors or vancomycin were independent predictors of acute kidney insufficiency (AKI) with odds ratios of 19.9 (95% CI: 1.6–245, P = 0.019) and 49.8 (95% CI: 4.1–602, P = 0.002), respectively. Four patients (6.6%) required dialysis. Conclusions: In critically ill surgical patients receiving aminoglycosides, AAN occurred in 11.5% of the patients. Concurrent use of aminoglycosides with other nephrotoxins increased the risk of AAN. PMID:22096769
Colprim, Daniel; Inzitari, Marco
Unplanned acute hospital transfers (AT) from post-acute or long-term care facilities represent critical transitions, which expose patients to negative health outcomes and increase the burden of the emergency departments that receive these patients. We aim at determining incidence and risk factors for AT during the first 30 days of admission at an intermediate care and rehabilitation geriatric facility (ICGF). Prospective cohort study conducted in an ICGF of Barcelona, Spain. Sociodemographics, main diagnostics, and variables of the comprehensive geriatric assessment were recorded at admission. At the moment of AT, suspected diagnostic motivating the transfer was recorded. Multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used to evaluate the association between admission characteristics and AT. We included 1505 patients (mean age + standard deviation = 81.31 ± 7.06, 65.7% women). AT were 217 (14.4%, 5.64/1000 days of stay) resulting in only 81 final hospitalizations (37% of AT), whereas 136 patients returned to ICGF after visiting the emergency department. Principal triggers of AT were cardiovascular, falls/orthopedic, and gastrointestinal problems. Being admitted to ICGF after a general surgery [hazard ratio (HR) 1.88; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-2.94; P < .001], taking 8 or more drugs at admission (HR 1.98; 95% CI 1.37-2.86; P < .001) and living with a partner (HR 1.35; 95% CI 1.01-1.81; P = .05) were independently associated with a higher risk of AT. In our sample, clinical and social characteristics at admission to an ICGF are associated with a higher risk of AT. A relevant proportion of AT is not admitted to the acute hospital, suggesting perhaps some avoidable AT. Identification of risk factors might be relevant to design strategies to reduce AT. Copyright © 2014 AMDA – The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ranjit, Roshni; Menezes, Lynette; Drucker, Mitchell; Msukwa, Gerald; Batumba, Nkume
Context: Neonatal conjunctivitis is associated with poor prenatal care worldwide. Purpose: Data on neonatal conjunctivitis is scarce in Malawi. This study describes risk factors associated with conjunctivitis in neonates born in a large tertiary care hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Materials and Methods: Medical records of a retrospective cohort of 231 neonates diagnosed with conjunctivitis from January 2006 to December 2009 at a large tertiary hospital in Malawi were reviewed. All subjects were clinically diagnosed with ophthalmia neonatorum. Data were collected on patient demographics and clinical features. The frequencies were calculated of various risk factors in neonates with ophthalmia neonatorum and their mothers as well as the treatments administered. Results: Mean age of the mother was 23.45 years (range, 15-40 years), and the mean number of previous deliveries was 2.3 (range, 1-7) children. Nearly, 80% of mothers delivered preterm infants via spontaneous vaginal delivery. The mean birth weight of neonates was 2869.6 grams (1100-5000 grams). Among mothers, premature rupture of membranes was the leading risk factor (24%) followed by sepsis during labor (9%), and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI) (7%). Neonates presented with low Apgar scores (19%), fever (8%), and/or meconium aspiration (5%). Providers treated patients empirically with a varied combination of benzyl penicillin, gentamicin, tetracycline eye ointment, and saline eye wash. Tetracycline with a saline eyewash was used frequently (34%) compared with combinations of benzyl penicillin and gentamicin. Conclusions: Improving prenatal care to reduce sepsis, traumatic deliveries, and early diagnosis of STI with appropriate treatment may potentially reduce vertical transmission of neonatal conjunctivitis in this understudied population. PMID:25100909
Msukwa, Gerald; Batumba, Nkume; Drucker, Mitchell; Menezes, Lynette; Ranjit, Roshni
Neonatal conjunctivitis is associated with poor prenatal care worldwide. Data on neonatal conjunctivitis is scarce in Malawi. This study describes risk factors associated with conjunctivitis in neonates born in a large tertiary care hospital in Blantyre, Malawi. Medical records of a retrospective cohort of 231 neonates diagnosed with conjunctivitis from January 2006 to December 2009 at a large tertiary hospital in Malawi were reviewed. All subjects were clinically diagnosed with ophthalmia neonatorum. Data were collected on patient demographics and clinical features. The frequencies were calculated of various risk factors in neonates with ophthalmia neonatorum and their mothers as well as the treatments administered. Mean age of the mother was 23.45 years (range, 15-40 years), and the mean number of previous deliveries was 2.3 (range, 1-7) children. Nearly, 80% of mothers delivered preterm infants via spontaneous vaginal delivery. The mean birth weight of neonates was 2869.6 grams (1100-5000 grams). Among mothers, premature rupture of membranes was the leading risk factor (24%) followed by sepsis during labor (9%), and history of sexually transmitted infections (STI) (7%). Neonates presented with low Apgar scores (19%), fever (8%), and/or meconium aspiration (5%). Providers treated patients empirically with a varied combination of benzyl penicillin, gentamicin, tetracycline eye ointment, and saline eye wash. Tetracycline with a saline eyewash was used frequently (34%) compared with combinations of benzyl penicillin and gentamicin. Improving prenatal care to reduce sepsis, traumatic deliveries, and early diagnosis of STI with appropriate treatment may potentially reduce vertical transmission of neonatal conjunctivitis in this understudied population.
Roth, V R; Longpre, T; Taljaard, M; Coyle, D; Suh, K N; Muldoon, K A; Ramotar, K; Forster, A
OBJECTIVE To assess the clinical effectiveness of a universal screening program compared with a risk factor-based program in reducing the rates of nosocomial methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) among admitted patients at the Ottawa Hospital. DESIGN Quasi-experimental study. SETTING Ottawa Hospital, a multicenter tertiary care facility with 3 main campuses, approximately 47,000 admissions per year, and 1,200 beds. METHODS From January 1, 2006 through December 31, 2007 (24 months), admitted patients underwent risk factor-based MRSA screening. From January 1, 2008 through August 31, 2009 (20 months), all patients admitted underwent universal MRSA screening. To measure the effectiveness of this intervention, segmented regression modeling was used to examine monthly nosocomial MRSA incidence rates per 100,000 patient-days before and during the intervention period. To assess secular trends, nosocomial Clostridium difficile infection, mupirocin prescriptions, and regional MRSA rates were investigated as controls. RESULTS The nosocomial MRSA incidence rate was 46.79 cases per 100,000 patient-days, with no significant differences before and after intervention. The MRSA detection rate per 1,000 admissions increased from 9.8 during risk factor-based screening to 26.2 during universal screening. A total of 644 new nosocomial MRSA cases were observed in 1,448,488 patient-days, 323 during risk factor-based screening and 321 during universal screening. Secular trends in C. difficile infection rates and mupirocin prescriptions remained stable after the intervention whereas population-level MRSA rates decreased. CONCLUSION At Ottawa Hospital, the introduction of universal MRSA admission screening did not significantly affect the rates of nosocomial MRSA compared with risk factor-based screening. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;37(1):41-48.
Narasimhan, Padmanesan; Wood, James; MacIntyre, Chandini Raina; Mathai, Dilip
The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), malnutrition, and young age), emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli. PMID:23476764
Gunnarsdottir, Holmfridur K; Rafnsdottir, Gudbjoerg L; Helgadottir, Berglind; Tomasson, Kristinn
Nursing is a stressful, physically demanding occupation and a rush setting for musculoskeletal problems. The aim of this study is to explore the extent of the association between psychosocial work characteristics and musculoskeletal symptoms among women working in geriatric care. The participants were female employees of all geriatric nursing homes and geriatric hospital wards in Iceland having a staff of 10 or more. A total of 1,886 questionnaires were distributed. The response rate was 80%. Finding the job mentally difficult, mental exhaustion after one's shift, dissatisfaction with supervisors or the flow of information, insufficient influence at work, dissatisfaction with the hierarchy, intense time pressure, lack of solidarity, dissatisfaction with the job, harassment, violence or threats at work; all of the aforementioned gave crude odds ratios (OR) two or above for one or more musculoskeletal symptoms. Mental exhaustion and harassment, violence, and threats were the factors connected with symptoms from all the body regions studied. The extent of the association of work-related psychosocial factors and musculoskeletal symptoms among the geriatric female nursing staff is substantial and needs to be taken into account by occupational health services and others involved in preventive work. Am. J. Ind. Med. 44:679-684, 2003. Copyright 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Paz-Zulueta, María; Llorca, Javier; Sarabia-Lavín, Raquel; Bolumar, Francisco; Rioja, Luis; Delgado, Abraham; Santibáñez, Miguel
Literature evaluating association between neonatal morbidity and immigrant status presents contradictory results. Poorer compliance with prenatal care and greater social risk factors among immigrants could play roles as major confounding variables, thus explaining contradictions. We examined whether prenatal care and social risk factors are confounding variables in the relationship between immigrant status and neonatal morbidity. Retrospective cohort study: 231 pregnant African immigrant women were recruited from 2007-2010 in northern Spain. A Spanish population sample was obtained by simple random sampling at 1:3 ratio. Immigrant status (Spanish, Sub-Saharan and Northern African), prenatal care (Kessner Index adequate, intermediate or inadequate), and social risk factors were treated as independent variables. Low birth weight (LBW < 2500 grams) and preterm birth (< 37 weeks) were collected as neonatal morbidity variables. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Positive associations between immigrant women and higher risk of neonatal morbidity were obtained. Crude OR for preterm births in Northern Africans with respect to nonimmigrants was 2.28 (95% CI: 1.04-5.00), and crude OR for LBW was 1.77 (95% CI: 0.74-4.22). However, after adjusting for prenatal care and social risk factors, associations became protective: adjusted OR for preterm birth = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.14-1.32); LBW = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.15-1.52). Poor compliance with prenatal care was the main independent risk factor associated with both preterm birth (adjusted OR inadequate care = 17.05; 95% CI: 3.92-74.24) and LBW (adjusted OR inadequate care = 6.25; 95% CI: 1.28-30.46). Social risk was an important independent risk factor associated with LBW (adjusted OR = 5.42; 95% CI: 1.58-18.62). Prenatal care and social risk factors were major confounding variables in the relationship between immigrant status and neonatal morbidity.
González Macías, J; Jodar, E; Muñoz, M; Díez Pérez, A; Guañabens, N; Fuster, E
Osteoporosis (OP) is a disease with high prevalence and high economic and social cost. This study has aimed to describe risk factors (RF) among women with osteoporosis (OP) treated in primary care (PC) and hospitals (HO). Cross-sectional, epidemiological and multicenter study, including 194 PC and 186 HO women with OP. Patients in both groups had equivalent age (age+/-SD 67.6+/-9.8 PC and 67.6+/-10 years HO), and OP severity (-3.0+/-0.8 PC vs -3.1+/-0.8 HO). Some specific risk factors for falls such as prolonged use of benzodiazepines and heart rate higher than 80 pulses per minute were more frequent in the hospital setting (24.2% PC vs 15.6% HO, p=0.0354) and (12.9% PC vs 3.2% HO, p=0.0006), respectively. In contrast, intrinsically bone-related RFs for osteoporotic fracture were generally more prevalent in HO: surgical menopause (20.7% vs. 12.8%, p=0.047), previous vertebral fractures (20.6% PC vs 34.9% HO, p=0.0018), and prolonged use of steroids (7.7% PC vs 15.6% HO, p=0.0167). Sedentary lifestyle and tobacco consumption (cigarettes/day), however, were more prevalent in PC than in HO (48.5% PC vs 31.7% HO, p=0.0009 and 16.9+/-4.6 PC vs 11.4+/-9.7 HO, p=0.0344, respectively). Risk factors associated with the risk of falling (not bone-related factors) are more prevalent in OP patients, whilst factors associated with bone quality and density (bone-related factors) are more prevalent in HO patients.
Krauss, Melissa J; Evanoff, Bradley; Hitcho, Eileen; Ngugi, Kinyungu E; Dunagan, William Claiborne; Fischer, Irene; Birge, Stanley; Johnson, Shirley; Costantinou, Eileen; Fraser, Victoria J
OBJECTIVE To comprehensively analyze potential risk factors for falling in the hospital and describe the circumstances surrounding falls. DESIGN Case-control study. Data on potential risk factors and circumstances of the falls were collected via interviews with patients and/or nurses and review of adverse event reports, medical records, and nurse staffing records. SETTING Large urban academic hospital. PATIENTS Ninety-eight inpatients who fell and 318 controls matched on approximate length of stay until the index fall. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS In a multivariate model of patient-related, medication, and care-related variables, factors that were significantly associated with an increased risk of falling included: gait/balance deficit or lower extremity problem (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 9.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.0 to 41.0), confusion (aOR, 3.6; 95% CI, 1.6 to 8.4), use of sedatives/hypnotics (aOR, 4.3; 95% CI, 1.6 to 11.5), use of diabetes medications (aOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 1.3 to 7.9), increasing patient-to-nurse ratio (aOR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.2 to 2.0), and activity level of “up with assistance” compared with “bathroom privileges” (aOR, 8.7; 95% CI, 2.3 to 32.7). Urinary or stool frequency or incontinence was of borderline significance (aOR, 2.3; 95% CI, 0.99 to 5.6). Having one or more side rails raised was associated with a decreased risk of falling (aOR, 0.006; 95% CI, 0.001 to 0.024). CONCLUSIONS Patient health status, especially abnormal gait or lower extremity problems, medications, as well as care-related factors, increase the risk of falling. Fall prevention programs should target patients with these risk factors and consider using frequently scheduled mobilization and toileting, and minimizing use of medications related to falling. PMID:15836543
Knottnerus, J A; Swaen, G M; Slangen, J J; Volovics, A; Durinck, J
It is still controversial, whether moderately high haematocrit (Ht) and haemoglobin (Hb) values are risk factors for coronary heart disease. Using the computerized data-system of the Periodical Medical Examination (PME) of Phillips' International Electrical Company, a case-control study was carried out. Cases were male workers (n = 104, from 50 to 60 years of age) who had suffered a first, non-fatal myocardial infarction, and who had had a PME prior (on the average 16 months) to the occurrence of infarction. For each case two age-matched healthy controls were selected from the PME-attendancy list (= 208). For each subject information was abstracted from the PME-records about haematologic parameters and covariates (smoking, cholesterol, blood pressure, pulse-rate, weight, height, FEV5, consumption of antihypertensive agents). After dichotomizing the haematocrit and haemoglobin values at their whole sample means (0.46 l/l and 9.7 mmol/l respectively) in "low" (lower than or equal to the mean) and "high" (greater than the mean), crude odds-ratio's of 2.7 (95% CI: 1.6-4.6) and 2.1 (95% CI: 1.2-3.6) were found for Ht and Hb respectively, when comparing "high" with "low" levels. The associations between Ht and Hb, and the occurrence of myocardial infarction were still present after controlling for covariates using multiple logistic regression models, entering the continuous variables with their exact values. After adjustment, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) also appeared to be correlated with infarction. Our results confirm the hypothesis that moderately high haematocrit and--to a lesser extent--haemoglobin and MCV-values are risk factors for the occurrence of myocardial infarction.
The National Center for Health Statistics conducted a mortality followback survey of a national probability sample drawn from all deaths of U.S. adults in 1986 and an oversampling of deaths of persons with selected characteristics. Responses were received from the next of kin or other close relatives of 16,598 adult decedents (88.6 percent). Data were collected through a mail questionnaire, followed by telephone or personal interviews with nonrespondents. Data were also collected from the hospitals and other health care facilities used by the decedent in the last year of life. Illustrative results are presented on the four major subject areas studied: risk factors for premature death, disability and care in the last year of life, socioeconomic differentials, and the reliability of selected items reported on the death certificate. Researchers are encouraged to explore the data tape to pursue indepth epidemiologic studies.
... Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and ... Blood Pressure , high cholesterol, diabetes, and thyroid disease. Risk Factors For Arrhythmias and Heart Disease The following ...
Makigami, Kuniko; Ohtaki, Noriko; Ishii, Norihisa; Tamashiro, Tetsuko; Yoshida, Sadao; Yasumura, Seiji
A considerable number of patients suffer recurrence of scabies. To elucidate risk factors for recurrence of scabies, we compared patients who experienced scabies recurrence and those who suffered scabies only once. We conducted a retrospective review of medical records of all scabies patients in a long-term care hospital for the elderly (300 beds; six wards) for a period of 42 months to determine frequency of scabies onsets, underlying diseases, history of treatment, and demographic data such as age and sex. One hundred and forty-eight patients and five hospital staff members suffered scabies during the 42-month study period. All staff members and 98 patients had no recurrence, while 50 patients experienced at least one recurrence of scabies. The cumulative number of scabies diagnoses was 228. The rates of scabies onset and recurrence were considerably different among wards. The dementia unit showed the highest rate of onset and recurrence. In addition to frequent exposure to infectious sources, problematic behavior, such as lying in other patients beds, might cause the high recurrence rate in dementia units. Higher serum total lymphocyte count and topical use of γ-benzene hexachloride were associated with lower risk of scabies recurrence. Recurrence of scabies is not uncommon among elderly patients in institutional settings. Impaired immunity may be a risk factor for recurrence of scabies. Groups with a high onset rate of scabies pose a high likelihood of recurrence. Problematic behavior of demented patients may increase the risk of recurrence. Use of effective topical treatment may effectively prevent recurrence.
O'Connor, Heidi; Al-Qadheeb, Nada S; White, Alexander C; Thaker, Vishal; Devlin, John W
The prevalence, risk factors, treatment practices, and outcomes of agitation in patients undergoing prolonged mechanical ventilation (PMV) in the long-term acute care hospital (LTACH) setting are not well understood. We compared agitation risk factors, management strategies, and outcomes between patients who developed agitation and those who did not, in LTACH patients undergoing PMV. Patients admitted to an LTACH for PMV over a 1-year period were categorized into agitated and nonagitated groups. The presence of agitation risk factors, management strategies, and relevant outcomes were extracted and compared between the 2 groups. A total of 80 patients were included, 41% (33) with agitation and 59% (47) without. Compared to the nonagitated group, the agitated group had a lower Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score (P < .0006), a greater transfer rate from an academic center (P = .05), a greater delirium frequency at both baseline (P = .04) and during admission (P < .001), and a greater rate of benzodiazepine discontinuation (P = .02). Although the use of scheduled antipsychotic (P = .0005) or restraint (P = .002) therapy was more common in the agitated group, use of benzodiazepines (P = .16), opioids (P = .11), or psychiatric evaluation (P = .90) was not. Weaning success, duration of LTACH stay, and daily costs were similar. Agitation among the LTACH patients undergoing PMV is associated with greater delirium and use of antipsychotics and restraints but does not influence weaning success or LTACH stay. Strategies focused on agitation prevention and treatment in this population need to be developed and formally evaluated. © The Author(s) 2013.
Martinelli, Luiz Mário Baptista; Mizutani, Bruno Moreira; Mutti, Anibal; Dèlia, Maria Paula Barbieri; Coltro, Rodrigo Soler; Matsubara, Beatriz Bojikian
OBJECTIVE To evaluate quality of life in a population that attended a specific community event on health care education, and to investigate the association of their quality of life with the presence of cardiovascular risk factors INTRODUCTION Interest in health-related quality of life is growing worldwide as a consequence of increasing rates of chronic disease. However, little is known about the association between quality of life and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS This study included 332 individuals. Demographics, blood pressure, body mass index, and casual glycemia were evaluated. The brief version of the World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire on quality of life was given to them. The medians of the scores obtained for the physical, psychological, emotional, and environmental domains were used as cutoffs to define “higher” and “lower” scores. A multinomial logistic regression model was used to define the parameters associated with lower scores. RESULTS Diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, and obesity were associated with lower scores in the physical domain. Dyslipidemia was also associeted with lower scores in the psychological domain. Male gender and regular physical activity had protective effects on quality of life. Aging was inversely associated with decreased quality of life in the environmental domain. CONCLUSION The presence of cardiovascular risk factors is related to a decreased quality of life. Conversely, male gender and regular physical activity had protective effects on quality of life. These findings suggest that exercising should be further promoted by health-related public programs, with a special focus on women. PMID:19061001
Yang, Alyssa J; Gromoske, Andrea N; Olson, Melissa A; Chaffin, Jeffrey G
The purpose is to examine the relation of social risk factors, and the cumulative burden of social risk factors, on parent-reported dental health and dental care-seeking behavior. National Survey of Children's Health data (2011-2012) were analyzed for US children by Title V Block Grant regions. Multivariate logistic regressions were estimated for ten social risk factors, as well as a cumulative risk index, to find any associations with poor condition of teeth, presence of dental caries, and no dental care visits. Almost all of the risk factors were significantly associated with poor condition of teeth and presence of dental caries for the US. Models associating no dental care visits suggested that low family income (OR 1.58), poor maternal mental health (OR 1.54), high school education or less (OR 1.34), and multi-racial/other race (OR 1.18) were significant factors for the US. Regional variation existed for those risk factors and their association with the outcomes, but income, education, and poor maternal mental health consistently played a significant role in adverse outcomes. The cumulative risk index was strongly related to poor oral health outcomes, with a weaker relationship to dental care utilization. US children experiencing certain social risk factors, such as low family income, high school education or less, and poor maternal mental health, are likely to be at greater risk for poor dental health and low levels of dental-care seeking behavior. Children experiencing multiple social risks are at greater risk for poor oral outcomes than children who experience fewer social risks. An approach that involves the social determinants of health is needed to address these issues.
Olatosi, O O; Inem, V; Sofola, O O; Prakash, P; Sote, E O
The aim was to determine the prevalence of early childhood caries (ECC) and its association with infant feeding and oral health-related behavior among preschool children aged 6-71 months in Lagos. This was a descriptive cross-sectional study in which 302 children aged 6-71 months were selected from four pediatric outpatient clinics in Lagos, Nigeria. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information regarding oral hygiene practices, dietary habits, breast and bottle feeding, birth weight of child and socioeconomic status of the family, from mothers of the children. The status of dental caries was recorded according to the World Health Organization criteria. The prevalence of ECC among 302 children aged 6-71 months was 21.2% while the mean deft was 0.735. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed the correlation of ECC with the associated risk factors. ECC was significantly higher in children who were bottle-fed at night. Method of tooth cleaning other than using fluoridated toothpaste significantly increased the prevalence of ECC. Breastfeeding for duration of 3-6 months showed significantly lesser caries prevalence. Caries significantly increased with age. Early childhood caries is a multifactorial disease in which prolonged duration of breastfeeding, nocturnal bottle feeding, and use of cleaning methods other than fluoridated toothpaste are risk factors for ECC. Oral health promotion programs should be targeted at mothers, pediatricians, nurses, caretakers at day care centers and primary care health workers.
Iwuafor, Anthony A.; Ogunsola, Folasade T.; Oladele, Rita O.; Oduyebo, Oyin O.; Desalu, Ibironke; Egwuatu, Chukwudi C.; Nnachi, Agwu U.; Akujobi, Comfort N.; Ita, Ita O.; Ogban, Godwin I.
Background Infections are common complications in critically ill patients with associated significant morbidity and mortality. Aim This study determined the prevalence, risk factors, clinical outcome and microbiological profile of hospital-acquired infections in the intensive care unit of a Nigerian tertiary hospital. Materials and Methods This was a prospective cohort study, patients were recruited and followed up between September 2011 and July 2012 until they were either discharged from the ICU or died. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of isolates was done using CLSI guidelines. Results Seventy-one patients were recruited with a 45% healthcare associated infection rate representing an incidence rate of 79/1000 patient-days in the intensive care unit. Bloodstream infections (BSI) 49.0% (22/71) and urinary tract infections (UTI) 35.6% (16/71) were the most common infections with incidence rates of 162.9/1000 patient-days and 161.6/1000 patient-days respectively. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common cause of BSIs, responsible for 18.2% of cases, while Candida spp. was the commonest cause of urinary tract infections, contributing 25.0% of cases. Eighty percent (8/10) of the Staphylococcus isolates were methicillin-resistant. Gram-negative multidrug bacteria accounted for 57.1% of organisms isolated though they were not ESBL-producing. Use of antibiotics (OR = 2.98; p = 0.03) and surgery (OR = 3.15, p< 0.05) in the month preceding ICU admission as well as urethral catheterization (OR = 5.38; p<0.05) and endotracheal intubation (OR = 5.78; p< 0.05) were risk factors for infection. Conclusion Our findings demonstrate that healthcare associated infections is a significant risk factor for ICU-mortality and morbidity even after adjusting for APACHE II score. PMID:27776162
Boo, Nem-Yun; Cheah, Irene Guat Sim
This study aimed to identify the risk factors associated with necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in very low birth weight (VLBW; weight < 1,501 g) infants in Malaysian neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). This was a retrospective study based on data collected in a standardised format for all VLBW infants born in 2007 (n = 3,601) and admitted to 31 NICUs in Malaysian public hospitals. A diagnosis of NEC was made based on clinical, radiological and/or histopathological evidence of stage II or III, according to Bell's criteria. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the significant risk factors associated with NEC. 222 (6.2%) infants developed NEC (stage II, n = 197; stage III, n = 25). 69 (31.3%) infants died (stage II, n = 58; stage III, n = 11). The significant risk factors associated with NEC were: maternal age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.024, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.003-1.046; p = 0.027), intrapartum antibiotics (OR 0.639, 95% CI 0.421-0.971; p = 0.036), birth weight (OR 0.999, 95% CI 0.998-0.999; p < 0.001), surfactant therapy (OR 1.590, 95% CI 1.170-2.161; p = 0.003), congenital pneumonia (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.405-2.848; p < 0.001) and indomethacin therapy for the closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) (OR 1.821, 95% CI 1.349-2.431; p = 0.001). Increasing maternal age, decreasing birth weight, surfactant therapy, congenital pneumonia and indomethacin therapy for the closure of PDA were associated with an increased risk of NEC in Malaysian VLBW infants. Infants that received intrapartum antibiotics were associated with a reduced risk of developing NEC.
Tiberia, Michelle J; Milnes, Alan R; Feigal, Robert J; Morley, Keith R; Richardson, David S; Croft, William G; Cheung, Wa Sham
The purpose of this study was to determine family characteristics, beliefs, and habits that contribute to early and severe caries in young children in Canada. A survey was administered to: (1) parents of 139 children diagnosed with early childhood caries (ECC) in 5 pediatric dentistry practices in Canada over a 33-month period (group 1); and (2) parents of all normal referrals (carious and noncarious children) in one of the practices over a 3 month period (group 2). Group 2 prevented studying an exclusive or polarized population, and allowed direct comparison between children with decoy and without decoy. The survey responses were compared with caries rates in the children, determined by dental examination, to detect important correlations of family and child factors with the disease level. Chi-square and logistic regression analyses described the strength of the relationships. Parent responses provided information on: (1) demographics; (2) economic status; (3) birth order; (4) parental education; (5) payment methods; (6) feeding and weaning history; (7) fluoride history; (8) food habits; (9) hygiene; (10) behavior; and (11) medication use. Caries presence and severe caries was linked to: (1) leaving the bottle with a child while sleeping; (2) having problems brushing a child's teeth; (3) prolonged holding of liquids in the mouth; and (4) being Caucasian. The authors did find that bottle use in general and having a difficult child were protective influences against decay. The factors providing the most caries risk are: (1) being left with a bottle while sleeping; (2) parents having problems brushing the child's teeth; (3) holding liquids in the mouth for prolonged times; and (4) ethnicity.
Chen, Yi; Xun, Deng; Wang, Ya-Cong; Wang, Bin; Geng, Shao-Hui; Chen, Hui; Li, Yan-Tao; Li, Xiao-Xin
Background: To investigate the incidence and risk factors of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in two Neonatal Intensive Care Units in North and South of China, respectively. Methods: We studied data concerning 472 infants with gestational age (GA) ≤34 weeks or birth weight (BW) ≤2000 g who were admitted to the Zhujiang Hospital of Southern Medical University and the Fourth Hospital of Shijiazhuang between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2011. Clinical information about perinatal neonates was collected and was confirmed by reviewing medical charts. The incidence and severity of ROP were assessed in the screened population. Main outcome measures are the incidence and severity of ROP. The relationship of clinical risk factors and the development of ROP were analyzed. Results: The overall incidence of ROP was 12.7%, and the overall incidence of type 1 ROP was 2.3%; 9.4% of infants in Zhujiang Hospital had ROP compared to 15.0% infants in the Fourth Hospital of Shijiazhuang developed ROP, and the difference is statistically significant. ROP was significantly associated with GA (odds ratio [OR]: 0.77 [0.62–0.95], P = 0.015), BW (OR: 0.998 [0.996–0.999], P = 0.008), maternal supplemental oxygen administration before and during delivery (OR: 4.27 [1.21–15.10], P = 0.024) and preeclampsia (OR: 6.07 [1.73–21.36] P = 0.005). The risk factors for ROP are different in two hospitals. In Zhujiang Hospital, BW is the independent risk factors for ROP while GA, BW and preeclampsia in the Fourth Hospital in Shijiazhuang Conclusions: Retinopathy of prematurity incidence is different based on area. Incidence of ROP is still high in China. More efforts need to prevent ROP. PMID:25836612
Pijnacker, R; Mughini-Gras, L; Heusinkveld, M; Roelfsema, J; van Pelt, W; Kortbeek, T
Giardia lamblia is a major cause of diarrhoea in children, especially those attending day-care centres (DCCs). Only Giardia assemblages A and B infect humans. Given the lack of assemblage-specific epidemiological data, we aimed to identify risk factors for infection by assemblages A and B in DCC attendees. During 2010-2013, 5,015 faecal samples from ≤4-year-old children attending 40 DCCs participating in laboratory surveillance in the Netherlands were tested for Giardia using RT-PCR. Giardia-positive samples were typed for identification of assemblages A and B. We compared child- and DCC-level characteristics of Giardia-positive children with those of Giardia-negative children using mixed-effects logistic regression. Overall, 226 samples (4.5 %) tested positive for Giardia, and assemblages were determined for 138 of them: 62 (45 %) were assemblage A and 76 (55 %) were B. The only risk factor for assemblage A infection was attending DCCs with indoor sandpits and cats during spring/summer (odds ratio [OR] 13.5; 95% CI 1.8-101.3). For assemblage B, risk factors were attending DCCs with dedicated diaper-changing (OR 3.6; 95% CI 1.7-7.6) and laundry (OR 2.3; 95% CI 1.1-4.9) areas. Preventing sick children from attending day-care and having cloth-towels at the DCC decreased the risk of assemblage B infection (OR 0.0; 95% CI 0.0-0.5 and OR 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.6 respectively). Risk factors for assemblages A and B infection in DCC-attending children were different, with assemblage B being mainly related to anthroponotic transmission, and assemblage A being related to zoonotic transmission. Given these differences, interventions to reduce the burden of childhood giardiasis cannot ignore those assemblage-specific preferred reservoirs and transmission routes.
Mitchell, Rebecca; Harvey, Lara; Draper, Brian; Brodaty, Henry; Close, Jacqueline
To identify factors associated with admission to residential aged care (RAC), respite RAC and transitional care (TC) for older individuals following an injury hospitalisation. A retrospective analysis was conducted of individuals aged ≥65 years who had an injury hospitalisation and who were admitted to RAC during 1 July 2008 and 30 June 2013 in New South Wales, Australia. Multinominal logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with admissions to aged care services compared to returning to the community. Of 191,301 injury hospitalisations, 41,085 (21.5%) individuals either returned or were new admissions to long-term or respite RAC and 3,218 individuals were admitted to TC. Older individuals newly admitted to long-term RAC were four times more likely (OR: 4.36; 95%CI 4.15-4.57), those admitted to respite RAC were twice as likely (OR: 2.37; 95%CI 2.21-2.54) and people admitted to TC were less likely (OR: 0.60; 95%CI 0.53-0.68) to have dementia compared to individuals who returned to the community. Overall, individuals who were admitted to long-term or respite RAC had a higher likelihood of experiencing limitations associated with their physical, cognitive or social abilities, with individuals admitted to TC having a higher likelihood of issues with hygiene and mobility, compared to individuals returning to the community. Understanding the profile and predictive risk factors for injured older individuals using RAC (long-term, respite or TC services) can inform current and future aged care service resource use needs and can be used to understand factors associated with service use. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Introduction Most adults reporting subjective memory complaints (SMCs) do not discuss them with a health care provider and miss an opportunity to learn about treatment options or receive a diagnosis. The objective of this study was to describe correlates of discussing memory problems with a health care professional among adults reporting SMCs. Methods Data were from 10,276 respondents aged 45 years or older in 21 states reporting SMCs on the 2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). Odds ratios (ORs) adjusted for demographic and health-related measures were computed for discussing SMCs with a health care professional. Results Among all respondents aged 45 or older reporting SMCs, 22.9% reported discussing them with a health care professional; among those reporting a recent routine check-up, this rate was 25.2%. The largest adjusted OR for discussing SMCs with a health care professional was for respondents reporting that SMCs always (vs never) caused them to give up household chores (OR, 3.02) or always (vs never) interfered with work (OR, 2.98). Increasing age reduced the likelihood of discussing SMCs. Among respondents who discussed SMCs, 41.8% received treatment. Conclusion Routine check-ups may be a missed opportunity for discussions of SMCs that might lead to diagnosis or treatment. The Affordable Care Act requires a cognitive assessment for Medicare recipients during their annual wellness visit, but these results suggest that adults younger than 65 might also benefit from such an assessment. PMID:26820047
Yang, Su-Pen; Chen, Yin-Yin; Hsu, Han-Shui; Wang, Fu-Der; Chen, Liang-yu; Fung, Chang-Phone
The incidence of fungal healthcare-associated infection (HAI) has increased in a major teaching hospital in the northern part of Taiwan over the past decade, especially in the intensive care units (ICUs). The purpose of this study was to determine the factors that were responsible for the outbreak and trend in the ICU. Surveillance fungal cultures were obtained from "sterile" objects, antiseptic solutions, environment of infected patients and hands of medical personnel. Risk factors for comparison included age, gender, admission service, and total length of stay in the ICU, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II scores at admission to the ICU, main diagnosis on ICU admission, use of invasive devices, receipt of hemodialysis, total parenteral nutrition (TPN) use, history of antibiotic therapy before HAI or during ICU stay in no HAI group, and ICU discharge status (ie, dead or alive). Univariable analysis followed by multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the independent risk factors for ICU fungal HAIs and ICU mortality. There was a significant trend in ICU fungal HAIs from 1998 to 2009 (P < 0.001). A total of 516 episodes of ICU fungal HAIs were identified; the rates of various infections were urinary tract infection (UTI) (54.8%), blood stream infection (BSI) (30.6%), surgical site infection (SSI) (6.6%), pneumonia (4.5%), other sites (3.5%). The fungi identified were: yeasts (54.8%), Candida albicans (27.3%), Candida tropicalis (6.6%), Candida glabrata (6.6%), Candida parapsilosis (1.9%), Candida species (0.8%), and other fungi (1.9%). Candida albicans accounted for 63% of all Candida species. Yeasts were found in the environment of more heavily infected patients. The independent risk factors (P < 0.05) of developing ICU fungal HAIs from all sites were TPN use, sepsis, surgical patients, mechanical ventilation and an indwelling urinary catheter. The independent risk factors for ICU fungal UTI included TPN use
Morad, Mohammed; Nelson, Noele P.; Merrick, Joav; Davidson, Philip W.; Carmeli, Eli
The normal aging process is not in itself a risk factor for constipation, but age-related morbidities, immobility, neurologic impairment or specific drugs are risk factors for constipation. This study was undertaken to examine the prevalence and risk factors for constipation in a large sample of 2400 persons with intellectual disability (ID) aged…
Morad, Mohammed; Nelson, Noele P.; Merrick, Joav; Davidson, Philip W.; Carmeli, Eli
The normal aging process is not in itself a risk factor for constipation, but age-related morbidities, immobility, neurologic impairment or specific drugs are risk factors for constipation. This study was undertaken to examine the prevalence and risk factors for constipation in a large sample of 2400 persons with intellectual disability (ID) aged…
Background Low socio-economic status combined with other risk factors affects a person's physical and psychosocial health from childhood to adulthood. The societal impact of these problems is huge, and the consequences carry on into the next generation(s). Although several studies show these consequences, only a few actually intervene on these issues. In the United States, the Nurse Family Partnership focuses on high risk pregnant women and their children. The main goal of this program is primary prevention of child abuse. The Netherlands is the first country outside the United States allowed to translate and culturally adapt the Nurse Family Partnership into VoorZorg. The aim of the present study is to assess whether VoorZorg is as effective in the Netherland as in the United States. Methods The study consists of three partly overlapping phases. Phase 1 was the translation and cultural adaptation of Nurse Family Partnership and the design of a two-stage selection procedure. Phase 2 was a pilot study to examine the conditions for implementation. Phase 3 is the randomized controlled trial of VoorZorg compared to the care as usual. Primary outcome measures were smoking cessation during pregnancy and after birth, birth outcomes, child development, child abuse and domestic violence. The secondary outcome measure was the number of risk factors present. Discussion This study shows that the Nurse Family Partnership was successfully translated and culturally adapted into the Dutch health care system and that this program fulfills the needs of high-risk pregnant women. We hypothesize that this program will be effective in addressing risk factors that operate during pregnancy and childhood and compromise fetal and child development. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN16131117 PMID:22017924
Hsieh, S Jean; Shum, Mili; Lee, Andrew N; Hasselmark, Fairouz; Gong, Michelle N
Active smokers are prevalent in hospitalized and critically ill patients. Cigarette smoking and nicotine withdrawal may increase delirium in these populations. This systematic review aims to determine whether active cigarette smoking increases the risk for delirium in hospitalized and intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A systematic search of English-, Spanish-, and French-language articles published from 1966 to April 2013 was performed. Studies were included if they measured cigarette smoking as a risk factor and delirium as an outcome in adult hospitalized or ICU patients. Methodologic quality of studies was assessed using both the validated Newcastle Ottawa Scale and an additional evidence-based quality rating scale. A total of 14 cohort studies of surgical and ICU populations were included in the review. No studies in non-ICU inpatients were identified. The incidence of delirium ranged from 9 to 52%, and the prevalence of active smokers ranged from 9 to 44%. The quality of assessment for active smoking varied widely. None of the studies used biochemical measures to determine cigarette smoke exposure. Of the six studies restricting the smoking group to active smokers only, active smoking was independently associated with delirium in one study, trended toward an association in one study, and showed a dose response in one study. Quantitative summary measures were not calculated due to study heterogeneity and missing data. There is currently insufficient evidence to determine if cigarette smoking is a risk factor for delirium. Future studies should consider using biochemical measures of cigarette smoke exposure to objectively quantify smoking behavior.
Corzo-Leon, Dora E.; Alvarado-Matute, Tito; Colombo, Arnaldo L.; Cornejo-Juarez, Patricia; Cortes, Jorge; Echevarria, Juan I.; Guzman-Blanco, Manuel; Macias, Alejandro E.; Nucci, Marcio; Ostrosky-Zeichner, Luis; Ponce-de-Leon, Alfredo; Queiroz-Telles, Flavio; Santolaya, Maria E.; Thompson-Moya, Luis; Tiraboschi, Iris N.; Zurita, Jeannete; Sifuentes-Osornio, Jose
Introduction Larger populations at risk, broader use of antibiotics and longer hospital stays have impacted on the incidence of Candida sp. bloodstream infections (CBSI). Objective To determine clinical and epidemiologic characteristics of patients with CBSI in two tertiary care reference medical institutions in Mexico City. Design Prospective and observational laboratory-based surveillance study conducted from 07/2008 to 06/2010. Methods All patients with CBSI were included. Identification and antifungal susceptibility were performed using CLSI M27-A3 standard procedures. Frequencies, Mann-Whitney U test or T test were used as needed. Risk factors were determined with multivariable analysis and binary logistic regression analysis. Results CBSI represented 3.8% of nosocomial bloodstream infections. Cumulative incidence was 2.8 per 1000 discharges (incidence rate: 0.38 per 1000 patient-days). C. albicans was the predominant species (46%), followed by C. tropicalis (26%). C. glabrata was isolated from patients with diabetes (50%), and elderly patients. Sixty-four patients (86%) received antifungals. Amphotericin-B deoxycholate (AmBD) was the most commonly used agent (66%). Overall mortality rate reached 46%, and risk factors for death were APACHE II score ≥16 (OR = 6.94, CI95% = 2.34–20.58, p<0.0001), and liver disease (OR = 186.11, CI95% = 7.61–4550.20, p = 0.001). Full susceptibility to fluconazole, AmBD and echinocandins among C. albicans, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis was observed. Conclusions The cumulative incidence rate in these centers was higher than other reports from tertiary care hospitals from Latin America. Knowledge of local epidemiologic patterns permits the design of more specific strategies for prevention and preemptive therapy of CBSI. PMID:24830654
Chandrasekhar, Dilip; Chalilparambil, Jaffer; Kallungal, Sajitha Mukriyan; Pattani, Danisha; Chandrakumar, Abin; Pokkavayalil, Vikas
The widespread misuse of antibiotics over the past several decades has been regarded as the contributing factor in the development of resistance toward them. Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) are enzymes produced by certain bacteria that can make them resistant to certain antibiotics. Early detection of ESBL strains and judicious use of antibiotics and proper implementation of infection control strategies are essential to prevent the spread of this threat in the community. The study aimed at appraising the prevalence, risk factors and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of ESBL-producing microorganisms. A prospective observational study was carried out in a tertiary care referral hospital located in Malappuram district of Kerala among inpatients with infection by ESBL-producing bacteria in order to estimate the prevalence, risk factors and their antibiotic susceptibility pattern. Out of the total 1156 patients studied, 118 had confirmed diagnosis on the presence of ESBL-producing microorganisms. Overall, 9.79% of all samples growing Enterobacteriaceae yielded an ESBL producer. Out of the total isolates identified, 66.1% were urinary tract infections, 15.1% were respiratory tract infections, 14.4% were surgical site infections and the remaining constituted blood stream infections. The highest antimicrobial activity against ESBL-producing isolates was observed for meropenem. High prevalence of ESBL-producing organisms is evident in the study setting implicating the necessity to report the ESBL production along with the routine sensitivity reports supplemented with control measures which can assist a clinician in prescribing appropriate antibiotics.
Elovainio, Marko; Heponiemi, Tarja; Kuusio, Hannamaria; Jokela, Markus; Aalto, Anna-Mari; Pekkarinen, Laura; Noro, Anja; Finne-Soveri, Harriet; Kivimäki, Mika; Sinervo, Timo
The association between psychosocial work environment and employee wellbeing has repeatedly been shown. However, as environmental evaluations have typically been self-reported, the observed associations may be attributable to reporting bias. Applying instrumental-variable regression, we used staffing level (the ratio of staff to residents) as an unconfounded instrument for self-reported job demands and job strain to predict various indicators of wellbeing (perceived stress, psychological distress and sleeping problems) among 1525 registered nurses, practical nurses and nursing assistants working in elderly care wards. In ordinary regression, higher self-reported job demands and job strain were associated with increased risk of perceived stress, psychological distress and sleeping problems. The effect estimates for the associations of these psychosocial factors with perceived stress and psychological distress were greater, but less precisely estimated, in an instrumental-variables analysis which took into account only the variation in self-reported job demands and job strain that was explained by staffing level. No association between psychosocial factors and sleeping problems was observed with the instrumental-variable analysis. These results support a causal interpretation of high self-reported job demands and job strain being risk factors for employee wellbeing. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.
Halpern, Anna B; Culakova, Eva; Walter, Roland B; Lyman, Gary H
Adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) commonly require support in the intensive care unit (ICU), but risk factors for admission to the ICU and adverse outcomes remain poorly defined. To examine risk factors, mortality, length of stay, and cost associated with admission to the ICU for patients with AML. This study extracted information from the University HealthSystem Consortium database on patients 18 years or older with AML who were hospitalized for any cause between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2012. The University HealthSystem Consortium database contains demographic, clinical, and cost variables prospectively abstracted by certified coders from discharge summaries. Outcomes were analyzed using univariate and multivariable statistical techniques. Data analysis was performed from November 15, 2013, to August 15, 2016. Primary outcomes were admission to the ICU and inpatient mortality among patients requiring ICU care. Secondary outcomes included length of stay in the ICU, total hospitalization length of stay, and cost. Of the 43 249 patients with AML (mean [SD] age, 59.5 [16.6] years; 23 939 men and 19 310 women), 11 277 (26.1%) were admitted to the ICU. On multivariable analysis (with results reported as odds ratios [95% CIs]), independent risk factors for admission to the ICU included age younger than 80 years (1.56 [1.42-1.70]), hospitalization in the South (1.81 [1.71-1.92]), hospitalization at a low- or medium-volume hospital (1.25 [1.19-1.31]), number of comorbidities (10.64 [8.89-12.62] for 5 vs none), sepsis (4.61 [4.34-4.89]), invasive fungal infection (1.24 [1.11-1.39]), and pneumonia (1.73 [1.63-1.82]). In-hospital mortality was higher for patients requiring ICU care (4857 of 11 277 [43.1%] vs 2959 of 31 972 [9.3%]). On multivariable analysis, independent risk factors for death in patients requiring ICU care included age 60 years or older (1.16 [1.06-1.26]), nonwhite race/ethnicity (1.18 [1.07-1.30]), hospitalization on the West
López-Colombo, A; Pacio-Quiterio, M S; Jesús-Mejenes, L Y; Rodríguez-Aguilar, J E G; López-Guevara, M; Montiel-Jarquín, A J; López-Alvarenga, J C; Morales-Hernández, E R; Ortiz-Juárez, V R; Ávila-Jiménez, L
There are no studies on the factors associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) relapse in primary care patients. To identify the risk factors associated with GERD relapse in primary care patients that responded adequately to short-term treatment with a proton pump inhibitor. A cohort study was conducted that included GERD incident cases. The patients received treatment with omeprazole for 4 weeks. The ReQuest questionnaire and a risk factor questionnaire were applied. The therapeutic success rate and relapse rate were determined at 4 and 12 weeks after treatment suspension. A logistic regression analysis of the possible risk factors for GERD relapse was carried out. Of the 83 patient total, 74 (89.16%) responded to treatment. Symptoms recurred in 36 patients (48.64%) at 4 weeks and in 13 patients (17.57%) at 12 weeks, with an overall relapse rate of 66.21%. The OR multivariate analysis (95% CI) showed the increases in the possibility of GERD relapse for the following factors at 12 weeks after treatment suspension: basic educational level or lower, 24.95 (1.92-323.79); overweight, 1.76 (0.22-13.64); obesity, 0.25 (0.01-3.46); smoking, 0.51 (0.06-3.88); and the consumption of 4-12 cups of coffee per month, 1.00 (0.12-7.84); citrus fruits, 14.76 (1.90-114.57); NSAIDs, 27.77 (1.12-686.11); chocolate, 0.86 (0.18-4.06); ASA 1.63 (0.12-21.63); carbonated beverages, 4.24 (0.32-55.05); spicy food 7-16 times/month, 1.39 (0.17-11.17); and spicy food ≥ 20 times/month, 4.06 (0.47-34.59). The relapse rate after short-term treatment with omeprazole was high. The consumption of citrus fruits and NSAIDs increased the possibility of GERD relapse. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Mexicana de Gastroenterología. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Background Stroke has emerged as a significant and escalating health problem for Asian populations. We compared risk factors, quality of care and risk of death or recurrent stroke in South Asian, East Asian and White patients with acute ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke. Methods Retrospective analysis was performed on consecutive patients with ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage admitted to 12 stroke centers in Ontario, Canada (July 2003-March 2008) and included in the Registry of the Canadian Stroke Network database. The database was linked to population-based administrative databases to determine one-year risk of death or recurrent stroke. Results The study included 253 South Asian, 513 East Asian and 8231 White patients. East Asian patients were more likely to present with intracerebral hemorrhage (30%) compared to South Asian (17%) or White patients (15%) (p<0.001). Time from stroke to hospital arrival was similarly poor with delays >2 hours for more than two thirds of patients in all ethnic groups. Processes of stroke care, including thrombolysis, diagnostic imaging, antithrombotic medications, and rehabilitation services were similar among ethnic groups. Risk of death or recurrent stroke at one year after ischemic stroke was similar for patients who were White (27.6%), East Asian (24.7%, aHR 0.97, 95% CI 0.78-1.21 vs. White), or South Asian (21.9%, aHR 0.91, 95% CI 0.67-1.24 vs. White). Although risk of death or recurrent stroke at one year after intracerebral hemorrhage was higher in East Asian (35.5%) and White patients (47.9%) compared to South Asian patients (30.2%) (p=0.002), these differences disappeared after adjustment for age, sex, stroke severity and comorbid conditions (aHR 0.89 [0.67-1.19] for East Asian vs White and 0.99 [0.54-1.81] for South Asian vs. White). Conclusion After stratification by stroke type, stroke care and outcomes are similar across ethnic groups in Ontario. Enhanced health promotion is needed to reduce delays to hospital
Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Yamashita, Yushiro; Ohtani, Yasuyo; Ornitz, Edward; Kuriya, Norikazu; Murakami, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Seiichi; Hashimoto, Takeo; Yamashita, Fumio
Analysis of the incidence of autistic disorder (AD) among 5,271 children in a neonatal intensive care unit in Japan found that 18 children were later diagnosed with AD, an incidence more than twice as high as previously reported. Children with AD had a significantly higher history of the meconium aspiration syndrome than the controls. (Author/DB)
Matsuishi, Toyojiro; Yamashita, Yushiro; Ohtani, Yasuyo; Ornitz, Edward; Kuriya, Norikazu; Murakami, Yoshihiko; Fukuda, Seiichi; Hashimoto, Takeo; Yamashita, Fumio
Analysis of the incidence of autistic disorder (AD) among 5,271 children in a neonatal intensive care unit in Japan found that 18 children were later diagnosed with AD, an incidence more than twice as high as previously reported. Children with AD had a significantly higher history of the meconium aspiration syndrome than the controls. (Author/DB)
Jackson, James C.; Morandi, Alessandro; Girard, Timothy D.; Hughes, Christopher G.; Thompson, Jennifer L.; Kiehl, Amy L.; Elstad, Mark R.; Wasserstein, Mitzi L.; Goodman, Richard B.; Beckham, Jean C.; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Dittus, Robert S.; Ely, E. Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P.
Rationale: The incidence and risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to the intensive care unit (ICU) experience have not been reported in a mixed veteran and civilian cohort. Objectives: To describe the incidence and risk factors for ICU-related PTSD in veterans and civilians. Methods: This is a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort enrolling adult survivors of critical illness after respiratory failure and/or shock from three Veterans Affairs and one civilian hospital. After classifying those with/without preexisting PTSD (i.e., PTSD before hospitalization), we then assessed all subjects for ICU-related PTSD at 3 and 12 months post hospitalization. Measurements and Main Results: Of 255 survivors, 181 and 160 subjects were assessed for ICU-related PTSD at 3- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. A high probability of ICU-related PTSD was found in up to 10% of patients at either follow-up time point, whether assessed by PTSD Checklist Event-Specific Version (score ≥ 50) or item mapping using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). In the multivariable regression, preexisting PTSD was independently associated with ICU-related PTSD at both 3 and 12 months (P < 0.001), as was preexisting depression (P < 0.03), but veteran status was not a consistent independent risk factor for ICU-related PTSD (3-month P = 0.01, 12-month P = 0.48). Conclusions: This study found around 1 in 10 ICU survivors experienced ICU-related PTSD (i.e., PTSD anchored to their critical illness) in the year after hospitalization. Preexisting PTSD and depression were strongly associated with ICU-related PTSD. PMID:26735627
Patel, Mayur B; Jackson, James C; Morandi, Alessandro; Girard, Timothy D; Hughes, Christopher G; Thompson, Jennifer L; Kiehl, Amy L; Elstad, Mark R; Wasserstein, Mitzi L; Goodman, Richard B; Beckham, Jean C; Chandrasekhar, Rameela; Dittus, Robert S; Ely, E Wesley; Pandharipande, Pratik P
The incidence and risk factors of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to the intensive care unit (ICU) experience have not been reported in a mixed veteran and civilian cohort. To describe the incidence and risk factors for ICU-related PTSD in veterans and civilians. This is a prospective, observational, multicenter cohort enrolling adult survivors of critical illness after respiratory failure and/or shock from three Veterans Affairs and one civilian hospital. After classifying those with/without preexisting PTSD (i.e., PTSD before hospitalization), we then assessed all subjects for ICU-related PTSD at 3 and 12 months post hospitalization. Of 255 survivors, 181 and 160 subjects were assessed for ICU-related PTSD at 3- and 12-month follow-up, respectively. A high probability of ICU-related PTSD was found in up to 10% of patients at either follow-up time point, whether assessed by PTSD Checklist Event-Specific Version (score ≥ 50) or item mapping using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-IV (DSM-IV). In the multivariable regression, preexisting PTSD was independently associated with ICU-related PTSD at both 3 and 12 months (P < 0.001), as was preexisting depression (P < 0.03), but veteran status was not a consistent independent risk factor for ICU-related PTSD (3-month P = 0.01, 12-month P = 0.48). This study found around 1 in 10 ICU survivors experienced ICU-related PTSD (i.e., PTSD anchored to their critical illness) in the year after hospitalization. Preexisting PTSD and depression were strongly associated with ICU-related PTSD.
Khanna, Rohit C.; Ray, Vanita Pathak; Latha, Madhavi; Cassard, Sandra D; Mathai, Annie; Sekhar, Garudadri C
AIM To determine the risk factors for acute endophthalmitis after cataract extraction in a tertiary care centre in India. METHODS We performed a nested case control study within a retrospective cohort. The surgical records of all patients with clinically diagnosed endophthalmitis within one month after cataract surgery, performed between January 2006 and December 2009, were reviewed. These were compared with randomly selected age and gender-matched controls, from patients having routine cataract surgery within ±1wk of the endophthalmitis case. Univariable and multivariable analysis were performed to identify risk factors for endophthalmitis. RESULTS Of the total 33 856 cataract surgeries performed during this period, there were 57 cases of postoperative acute endophthalmitis that met our study criteria. Thus, the overall incidence of endophthalmitis in our cohort was 1.6 per 1000 cataract extractions performed. Mean age of cases was 55.9y (SD: 10.9y) and for controls was 55.6y (SD: 9.8y). Thirty-five cases (61.4%) and 133 controls (59.6%) were males. Median time of onset of endophthalmitis was 4d (IQR 2-9d; range: 1-30d). Thirty-nine cases (68.4%) presented within 7d and 27 cases (47.4%) were culture positive. Two hundred and twenty-three age and gender matched controls were selected. In multivariate analysis, endophthalmitis was associated with posterior capsular rupture (PCR) during surgery (OR 6.98, 95%CI: 2.22-21.98), phacoemulsification via scleral incision with a foldable intraocular lens (IOL) implantation (OR 3.02, 95%CI: 1.13-8.04) and ocular co-morbidity (OR 2.32, 95%CI: 1.11-4.87). CONCLUSION PCR, presence of ocular co-morbidity, and phacoemulsification via scleral incision with foldable-IOL were found to be independent risk factors for acute endophthalmitis. PMID:26682170
Yang, Yijian; Mackey, Dawn C; Liu-Ambrose, Teresa; Leung, Pet-Ming; Feldman, Fabio; Robinovitch, Stephen N
To examine risk factors associated with head impact during falls in older adults in long-term care (LTC). Two LTC facilities in British Columbia, Canada. 160 LTC residents. Prospective cohort study. Between 2007 and 2014, we video captured 520 falls experienced by participants. Each fall video was analyzed to determine whether impact occurred to the head. Using generalized estimating equation models, we examined how head impact was associated with other fall characteristics and health status prior to the fall. Head impact occurred in 33% of falls. Individuals with mild cognitive impairment were at higher risk for head impact (odds ratio = 2.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.5-5.0) than those with more severe cognitive impairment. Impaired vision was associated with 2.0-fold (1.3-3.0) higher odds of head impact. Women were 2.2 times (1.4-3.3) more likely than men to impact their head during a fall. Head impact is common during falls in LTC, with less cognitively impaired, female residents who suffered from visual impairment, being most likely to impact their head. Future research should focus on improving our ability to detect neural consequences of head impact and evaluating the effect of interventions for reducing the risk for fall-related head injuries in LTC.
Bhargava, Ashish; Hayakawa, Kayoko; Silverman, Ethan; Haider, Samran; Alluri, Krishna Chaitanya; Datla, Satya; Diviti, Sreelatha; Kuchipudi, Vamsi; Muppavarapu, Kalyan Srinivas; Lephart, Paul R; Marchaim, Dror; Kaye, Keith S
This study aimed to identify risk factors associated with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) colonization among patients screened with rectal cultures upon admission to a hospital or long-term acute care (LTAC) center and to compare risk factors among patients who were screen positive for CRE at the time of hospital admission with those screen positive prior to LTAC admission. A retrospective nested matched case-control study was conducted from June 2009 to December 2011. Patients with recent LTAC exposure were screened for CRE carriage at the time of hospital admission, and patients admitted to a regional LTAC facility were screened prior to LTAC admission. Cases were patients with a positive CRE screening culture, and controls (matched in a 3∶1 ratio to cases) were patients with negative screening cultures. Nine hundred five cultures were performed on 679 patients. Forty-eight (7.1%) cases were matched to 144 controls. One hundred fifty-eight patients were screened upon hospital admission and 521 prior to LTAC admission. Independent predictors for CRE colonization included Charlson's score greater than 3 (odds ratio [OR], 4.85 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.64-14.41]), immunosuppression (OR, 3.92 [95% CI, 1.08-1.28]), presence of indwelling devices (OR, 5.21 [95% CI, 1.09-2.96]), and prior antimicrobial exposures (OR, 3.89 [95% CI, 0.71-21.47]). Risk factors among patients screened upon hospital admission were similar to the entire cohort. Among patients screened prior to LTAC admission, the characteristics of the CRE-colonized and noncolonized patients were similar. These results can be used to identify patients at increased risk for CRE colonization and to help target active surveillance programs in healthcare settings.
Ak, Oznur; Batirel, Ayse; Ozer, Serdar; Čolakoğlu, Serhan
Summary Background To evaluate the incidence, risk factors and etiology of nosocomial infections (NIs) in the intensive care unit (ICU) of our hospital in order to improve our infection control policies. Material/Methods A 1-year prospective cohort study of nosocomial infection (NI) surveillance was conducted in our ICU in 2008. Results Out of 1134 patients hospitalized in the ICU for a period of 6257 days, 115 patients acquired a total of 135 NIs distributed as follows: 36.3% bacteremia, 30.4% ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), 18.5% catheter-associated urinary tract infection, 7.4% central-line infection, 5.9% cutaneous infection, and 1.3% meningitis. The incidence rate of NI was 21.6 in 1000 patient-days, and the rate of NI was 25.6%. Length of ICU stay, central venous catheterisation, mechanical ventilation and tracheostomy were statistically significant risk factors for NI. Of all NI, 112 (83%) were microbiologically-confirmed and 68.8% of the isolates were Gram-negative, 27.6% were Gram-positive, and 3.6% were fungi. 23 (17%) were clinically-defined infections. The most frequently isolated organism was P. aeruginosa (25%), followed by S. aureus (21.4%), E. coli (18.7%) and A. baumannii (16.9%). Conclusions The bloodstream was the most common site and Gram-negatives were the most commonly reported causes of ICU infections. PMID:21525819
Davies, Benjamin M; Jones, Anna; Patel, Hiren C
Surgical site infection [SSI] increases mortality, morbidity and length of hospital stay. Peri-operative 'care bundles' have reduced SSI in some fields of surgery. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of bundle compliance on SSI in patients undergoing a craniotomy. Cohort study of patients [N=1253] undergoing a craniotomy over 17 months at a single centre. SSI was defined as arising within 30days of operation or 1year where an implant(s) remains. 'Bundle compliance' required administration of antibiotics <60min of induction, maintenance of intraoperative blood sugar (BM) <11mmol and temperature at >36°C. SSI incidence was compared between bundle compliant and non-compliant groups. Case mix adjustment was performed using binary logistic regression. Over the study period, 1253 procedures were carried out and 66 patients (5.3%) developed a SSI. The majority (38, 57.6%) of these cultured Staphyloccoccus species. Only the use of an implant was found to be an independent risk factor for SSI [AOR 2.5, p<0.005, 95%CI 1.4, 4.3]. The use of the bundle did not reduce the occurrence of SSI. An evidence-based bundle did not reduce SSI in this neurosurgical series. The use of an implant was an independent risk factor of its occurrence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
O'Neill, D G; Case, J; Boag, A K; Church, D B; McGreevy, P D; Thomson, P C; Brodbelt, D C
To report prevalence, risk factors and clinical outcomes for presumptive gastric dilation-volvulus diagnosed among an emergency-care population of UK dogs. The study used a cross-sectional design using emergency-care veterinary clinical records from the VetCompass Programme spanning September 1, 2012 to February 28, 2014 and risk factor analysis using multivariable logistic regression modelling. The study population comprised 77,088 dogs attending 50 Vets Now clinics. Overall, 492 dogs had presumptive gastric dilation-volvulus diagnoses, giving a prevalence of 0·64% (95% Confidence interval: 0·58 to 0·70%). Compared with cross-bred dogs, breeds with the highest odds ratios for the diagnosis of presumptive gastric dilation-volvulus were the great Dane (odds ratio: 114·3, 95% Confidence interval 55·1 to 237·1, P<0·001), akita (odds ratio: 84·4, 95% Confidence interval 33·6 to 211·9, P<0·001) and dogue de Bordeaux (odds ratio: 82·9, 95% Confidence interval 39·0 to 176·3, P<0·001). Odds increased as dogs aged up to 12 years and neutered male dogs had 1·3 (95% Confidence interval 1·0 to 1·8, P=0·041) times the odds compared with entire females. Of the cases that were presented alive, 49·7% survived to discharge overall, but 79·3% of surgical cases survived to discharge. Approximately 80% of surgically managed cases survived to discharge. Certain large breeds were highly predisposed. © 2017 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.
Tse, Lurdes; Schwarz, Stephan K W; Bowering, John B; Moore, Randell L; Barr, Alasdair M
Delirium after cardiac surgery is associated with persistent cognitive deficits and increased mortality. The authors' objective was to determine the incidence of and risk factors for delirium in a mixed cohort of patients undergoing on-pump and off-pump cardiac surgery and transcatheter aortic valve implantations (TAVI) in a Canadian quaternary care center. This study followed a pilot from the same center on patients treated in 2007. A retrospective cohort study. A quaternary care center in Vancouver, B.C., Canada. Patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass grafts (CABG), conventional valve replacements, combined CABG-valve replacements, transfemoral TAVI, or transapical TAVI in 2008. Data from 679 charts on demographics, medical history, medications, laboratory results, surgical procedure, and anesthesia were abstracted and analyzed using univariate and multivariate analyses. Nurses screened for delirium using the Confusion Assessment Method, and the final diagnoses were made clinically by physicians. Risk factors were identified using logistic regression and bootstrapping. Delirium occurred in 28% of patients. Delirium was most common in transapical TAVI (47%), and least common in transfemoral TAVI (17%). Delirious patients were older and had greater preoperative cardiac and neurologic burdens than nondelirious patients. Age≥64 years, history of delirium, history of stroke/transient ischemic attack, cognitive impairment, depression, and preoperative use of beta-blocker(s) were associated independently with delirium. The incidence of delirium varied greatly with the type of procedure. The authors' logistic regression model showed that age and certain pre-existing neurologic conditions could predict delirium after cardiac surgery. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Cortez-Dias, Nuno; Martins, Susana; Belo, Adriana; Fiuza, Manuela
To assess the prevalence, treatment and control of diabetes mellitus (DM) in primary health care users, to characterize associated cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and effectiveness of their treatment, and to estimate the clinical impact of DM on the occurrence of coronary artery disease (CAD) and stroke. The VALSIM Study was performed in a primary care setting and involved 719 general practitioners (GPs), based on stratified distribution and proportional to the population density of each region of mainland Portugal and the islands of Madeira and the Azores. A questionnaire on sociodemographic and clinical data (previous diagnosis of DM, CAD or stroke, antidiabetic and antihypertensive medication and statins) and laboratory tests (lipids and HbA1C) was applied by participating GPs to the first two adult patients scheduled for an appointment on a given day, and blood pressure (BP) was measured. DM was defined as fasting glucose of > or = 126 mg/dl or use of antidiabetic agents. The study included 16,856 individuals (mean age 58.1 +/- 15.1 years; 61.6% women), of whom 3215 were identified as diabetic. The prevalence of DM adjusted for gender and age in primary health care users was 14.9%, higher in men (M: 16.8%; F: 13.2%), and increased with age. Among the diabetic population, 90.2% were being treated with antidiabetic drugs and 51.7% had HbA1C lower than 7%. Around 91% had high BP (> or = 130/80 mmHg or were taking antihypertensive medication), 39.5% were overweight, 45.1% were obese, 69.3% had abdominal obesity, 71.8% had metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria), 12% presented CAD and 5% had past history of stroke. The association between these CV risk factors and DM was stronger in women, and the impact of DM on occurrence of CAD and stroke was also higher in women. Among diabetic hypertensives, 78.4% were being treated with antihypertensive drugs, but only 9.3% had BP < 130/80 mmHg (M: 9.5%; F: 9.1%). Of diabetic patients with CAD, 94.2% were taking
with their associated risk of transfusion-associated acute lung injury ( TRALI ) and this issue warrants further study. Fluid amounts for...numbers of patients are now exposed to plasma products, with their associated risk of transfusion-associated acute lung injury ( TRALI ) and this issue
Tukenmez Tigen, Elif; Bilgin, Huseyin; Perk Gurun, Hande; Dogru, Arzu; Ozben, Beste; Cerikcioglu, Nilgun; Korten, Volkan
Thirty-six patients with candidemia and 37 control patients were included consecutively to determine the characteristics of candidemia episodes. The patients with candidemia had higher mortality with higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores and frequency of use of a central venous catheter, total parenteral nutrition, and broad-spectrum antibiotics; chronic renal failure with replacement therapy; and longer stay in an intensive care unit. Candida albicans was the predominant species followed by Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, and Candida parapsilosis. All isolates of C glabrata were itraconazole-resistant. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Greffin, Suzana; André, Mauro Barros; Matos, Jorge Paulo Strogoff de; Kang, Hye Chung; Jorge, Antonio José Lagoeiro; Rosa, Maria Luiza Garcia; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is especially prevalent in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). To evaluate the role of CKD and metabolic syndrome (MS), which is a cluster of risk factors for CVD, as predictors of CVD. Observational, cross-sectional study with a random sample aged 45 or more years extracted from the population assisted by the primary care program in Niterói city in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. CKD was diagnosed by the K/DOQI guidelines and MS, by the harmonized criteria. CVD was said to be present if the participant had one or more of the following findings: echocardiographic abnormalities, and history of myocardial infarction, stroke or heart failure. A logistic regression model was developed to analyze risk factors for CVD using CKD as the variable of primary interest. Fifty hundred and eighty-one participants (38.2% male) with a mean age of 59.4 ± 10.2 years were analyzed. The prevalence rate of CKD was 27.9%. In participants without CKD, MS was associated with a slight but statistically significant increase in the risk for CVD (OR = 1.52, p = 0.037); in those with CKD but without MS the risk for CVD was also statistically significant and at a greater magnitude (OR = 2.42, p = 0.003); when both were present the risk for CVD was substantially higher (OR = 5.13, p < 0.001). In this study involving a population assisted by a primary care program, CKD was confirmed as an independent risk factor for CVD. The presence of MS concurrent with CKD substantially amplified the risk for CVD. A doença cardiovascular (DCV) é especialmente prevalente em pacientes com doença renal crônica (DRC). Avaliar o papel da DRC e da síndrome metabólica (SM), que é um conjunto de fatores de risco para DCV, como previsores de DCV. Estudo observacional, transversal, com uma amostra representativa da população assistida pelo programa de atenção primária em Niterói, RJ, Brasil, incluindo pacientes com idade igual ou maior do que 45 anos. A DRC foi
Hashemian, Morteza; Talaie, Haleh; Akbarpour, Samaneh; Mahdavinejad, Arezou; Mozafari, Naser
Background: Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia (VAP) is the main cause of nosocomial infection at intensive care units (ICUs), which causes high mortality and morbidity. Objectives: The objective of the present survey was to identify the VAP risk and prognostic factors among poisoned patients, who were admitted to the toxicological ICU (TICU), especially central nervous system (CNS) depressants due to their prevalence and importance. Patients and Methods: A case-control study was conducted at the Loghman Hakim hospital between March 2013 and March 2014. Among 300 poisoned patients with mechanical ventilator ≥ 48 hours, 150 patients, who had developed microbiologically-confirmed VAP were considered as the VAP group and 150 without VAP were defined as the control group. The following data were collected; age, gender, type of poisoning, glasgow coma score, Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation (APACHE) II score, length of hospital stay, previous antibiotic use, microbial culture of the trachea, body temperature, leukocyte count, and patients’ outcome. Based on the type of poisoning, patients were divided into three groups including: opioid, CNS depressants and others. All data were expressed as means (SD) for continuous variables and frequencies for categorical variables. Logistic regression was used to determine the relationship between risk factors and VAP. Results: The mean age of the patients was 33.9 ± 14.3 years. The probable VAP incidence and mortality were 22% and 18.6%, respectively. The rate of CNS depressant versus opioid use (odds ratio, 3.74; P < 0.027), APACHE II (odds ratio, 1.28; P < 0.000) and length of hospital stay (odds ratio, 2.15; P < 0.000) were the independent risk factors for VAP. While, the APACHE II score (odds ratio, 1.12; P < 0.044) and length of hospital stay (odds ratio, 2.15; P < 0.000) were the independent predictors of VAP mortality among these patients. The most common microorganisms in VAP cases were Methicillin
Christmas, A Britton; Freeman, Elizabeth; Chisolm, Angela; Fischer, Peter E; Sachdev, Gaurav; Jacobs, David G; Sing, Ronald F
Return transfer (RT) to the intensive care unit (ICU) negatively impacts patient outcomes, length of stay (LOS), and hospital costs. This study assesses the most common events necessitating RT in trauma patients. We performed a retrospective chart review of ICU RT from 2004 to 2008. Patient demographics, injuries and injury severity, reason for transfer, LOS, interventions, and outcomes data were collected. Overall, 158 patients required readmission to the ICU. Respiratory insufficiency/failure (48%) was the most common reason for RT followed by cardiac (16%) and neurological (13%) events. The most commonly associated injuries were traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) (32%), rib fractures (30%), and pulmonary contusions (20%). Initial ICU LOS was 6.6 ± 8 days (range, 1 to 44 days) with 4.4 ± 7.8 ventilator days. Mean floor time before ICU RT was 5.7 ± 6.3 days (range, 0 to 33 days). Forty-nine patients (31%) required intubation and mechanical ventilation on RT. ICU RT incurred an additional ICU LOS of 8 ± 8.5 days (range, 1 to 40 days) and 5.2 ± 7.5 ventilator days. Mortality after a single RT was 10 per cent (n = 16). RT to the ICU most often occurs as a result of respiratory compromise, and patients with TBI are particularly vulnerable. Trauma pulmonary hygiene practices should be evaluated to determine strategies that could decrease RT.
Morgan, D J R; Ho, K M; Armstrong, J; Baker, S
With increasing rates of bariatric surgery and the consequential involvement of increasingly complex patients, uncertainty remains regarding the use of intensive care unit (ICU) services after bariatric surgery. Our objective was to define the incidence, indications, and outcomes of patients requiring ICU admission after bariatric surgery and assess whether unplanned ICU admission could be predicted using preoperative factors. All adult bariatric surgery patients between 2007 and 2011 in Western Australia were identified from the Department of Health Data Linkage Unit database and merged with a separate database encompassing all subsequent ICU admissions pertaining to bariatric surgery. The minimal and mean follow-up periods were 12 months and 3.4 yr, respectively. Of the 12 062 patients who underwent bariatric surgery during the study period, 590 patients (4.9%; 650 ICU admissions) were admitted to an ICU after their bariatric surgery. Patients admitted to the ICU were older (48 vs 43 yr, P<0.001), more likely to be male (49.7 vs 20.2%, P<0.001), and more likely to require revisional bariatric surgery (14.4 vs 7.1%, P<0.001). One hundred and seventy-six patients required an emergent unplanned ICU admission, with 51 requiring multiple ICU admissions. Revisional or open surgery, diabetes mellitus, chronic respiratory disease, and obstructive apnoea were the strongest preoperative factors associated with unplanned ICU admission. Intensive care unit admission after bariatric surgery was uncommon (4.9% of all patients), with 30.9% of all referrals being unplanned. A nomogram and smartphone application based on five important preoperative factors may assist anaesthetists to conduct preoperative planning for high-risk bariatric surgical patients. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Shum, Mili; Lee, Andrew N.; Hasselmark, Fairouz; Gong, Michelle N.
Background: Active smokers are prevalent in hospitalized and critically ill patients. Cigarette smoking and nicotine withdrawal may increase delirium in these populations. This systematic review aims to determine whether active cigarette smoking increases the risk for delirium in hospitalized and intensive care unit (ICU) patients. Methods: A systematic search of English-, Spanish-, and French-language articles published from 1966 to April 2013 was performed. Studies were included if they measured cigarette smoking as a risk factor and delirium as an outcome in adult hospitalized or ICU patients. Methodologic quality of studies was assessed using both the validated Newcastle Ottawa Scale and an additional evidence-based quality rating scale. Results: A total of 14 cohort studies of surgical and ICU populations were included in the review. No studies in non-ICU inpatients were identified. The incidence of delirium ranged from 9 to 52%, and the prevalence of active smokers ranged from 9 to 44%. The quality of assessment for active smoking varied widely. None of the studies used biochemical measures to determine cigarette smoke exposure. Of the six studies restricting the smoking group to active smokers only, active smoking was independently associated with delirium in one study, trended toward an association in one study, and showed a dose response in one study. Quantitative summary measures were not calculated due to study heterogeneity and missing data. Conclusions: There is currently insufficient evidence to determine if cigarette smoking is a risk factor for delirium. Future studies should consider using biochemical measures of cigarette smoke exposure to objectively quantify smoking behavior. PMID:24161052
Mohan, M V N L R; Neeraja, M; Sudhaharan, S; Raju, S B; Gangadhar, T; Lakshmi, V
Renal transplantation is an effective and commonly performed procedure for end-stage renal disease. Urinary tract infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in renal transplant patients. As data on postrenal transplant urinary tract infections from the Indian subcontinent are limited, the present study was conducted to estimate the burden of urinary tract infections in this vulnerable group of patients. This was a prospective study on patients undergoing renal transplantation in 2014 at our tertiary hospital in South India with a follow-up of 2 years to evaluate the risk factors for urinary tract infections. The prevalence of urinary tract infections was 41.9% with a male preponderance of 76.9%. Mean age of the 31 patients was 32.4 ± 10.2 years (range: 16-55 years). Gram-negative bacilli were the most common isolates with Escherichia coli being the predominant pathogen (53.3%). All the infections occurred within 1 year of transplantation with delayed graft function (P < 0.001; confidence interval [CI]: 29.0-96.3) and prolonged hospital stay (P = 0.0281; CI: 42.1-99.6) being the significant risk factors for acquiring urinary tract infections. Carbapenemase production was noted in 33.3% of isolates and all the Gram-negative organisms isolated in the 1(st) month of transplantation were carbapenem-resistant (CR) E. coli. The high rate of carbapenem-resistant organisms in the early posttransplant period is a point of concern, especially with cadaver transplants. Infection control practices and catheter care need to be strictly monitored to minimize the risk for UTI in the immediate posttransplant period.
Dominioni, Lorenzo; Imperatori, Andrea; Rotolo, Nicola; Rovera, Francesca
Many risk factors for postoperative infections have been identified that can be used individually or in combination as scoring indices. Infection risk scores can be applied in clinical practice to identify high-risk surgical patients, to indicate the need to implement risk-reduction strategies, and to stratify risk for comparison of outcome among different patient series. In the hierarchy of patient-related risk factors, serum albumin concentration and advanced age rank at the top of the list. Among the treatment-related factors, the quality of the surgical technique is a most important determinant, although most surgical site infections are attributable to patient-related risk factors rather than to flawed surgical care. Scoring systems can identify the patients at highest risk, thus prompting the implementation of therapy to improve modifiable conditions, but most clinicians outside the academic and research setting do not use them. Risk assessment also can be performed by expert clinical judgment. Discussion with the patient and informed consent are essential. Carefully collected scores of patient risk factors may be valuable to document the relations between the risk and the outcome of surgery. Ideally, each institution should select a validated scoring system to audit postoperative infectious morbidity and surgical performance in the various specialties.
Erdem, Ilknur; Oguzoglu, Naz; Ozturk Engin, Derya; Ozgultekin, Asu; Inan, Asuman Sengoz; Ceran, Nurgul; Kaya, Fatma; Genc, Ipek; Goktas, Pasa
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence, etiology and risk factors for mortality of patients with nosocomial candidemia. This observational study was performed at Haydarpasa Numune Training and Research Hospital, a tertiary care hospital with 750 beds, between the years 2004 and 2007. Fifty defined cases with a nosocomial bloodstream infection caused by Candida species were included in the study. All demographic, microbiological and clinical records for each patient were collected using a standardized form. Blood culture was performed by automated blood culture system, and those samples positive for yeast were subcultured on Sabouraud agar. The mean incidence density of nosocomial candidemia was 0.58/10,000 patient-days/year (range 0.17-1.4). Candidemia episodes increased from 0.17/10,000 to 1.4/10,000 patient-days/year (p < 0.0001). Candida albicans and non-albicans Candida accounted for 15 (30%) and 35 (70%) cases, respectively. The overall mortality was 56% and was significantly associated with stayingin the intensive care unit (odds ratio: 3.667, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-12.54, p = 0.034). This study showed that there was a significantly increased trend in the incidence of candidemia with high mortality during the study period. Copyright © 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Makigami, Kuniko; Ohtaki, Noriko; Ishii, Norihisa; Yasumura, Seiji
Despite the commonness of scabies in Japanese institutional settings, the nationwide prevalence of scabies has not been elucidated. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of scabies and control measures in Japanese hospitals. A questionnaire on scabies epidemiology (e.g. number of patients and onsets of outbreak) and preventive measures were sent to psychiatric hospitals and long-term care hospitals nationwide (n = 1795) in January 2005. Seven hundred and forty-one hospitals responded (41.3%). Three hundred and thirty-three (44.9%) respondent hospitals had one or more scabies cases in 2004. Among 159 hospitals that had experienced scabies outbreak, only 32 of them reported cases of crusted scabies. Multivariate regression analysis showed that hospitals had a greater number of beds, and that acute- and long-term care wards were more likely to experience scabies onsets. Hospitals that compiled their infection control manuals on scabies, treated suspicious patients with scabicides without confirmed diagnosis, and performed skin checkup of inpatients were more likely to experience scabies cases. Infection control personnel should be aware that unrecognized crusted scabies can cause outbreaks. Higher patient turnover is a risk factor for scabies introduction into a hospital. Preventive measures against scabies, such as patient screening at admission and treating all suspicious patients without confirmed diagnosis, were not effective to avoid scabies introduction.
Goyal, Sandeep; Tiwari, Vijay Kumar; Nair, Kesavan Sreekantan; Raj, Sherin
The present study conducted with 100 oral cancer patients at a private tertiary care hospital in Delhi demonstrated that stage III cancer was associated with longer use of tobacco and poor oral hygiene. There was also statistically significant association (p<.05) between consumption of tobacco and alcohol. More than 60% treatment expenditure was on surgery followed by accommodation (9%) and investigations (8%). The effect of tobacco was well known among patients as 76% of the patients knew that common cancer in tobacco chewer is 'oral cancer', 22% of the patients however responded that they did not know which cancer is common in tobacco chewers. 58% said that they learnt about ill effects of tobacco from media while 24% said they learnt from family and friends. Out of 78 tobacco users, 60 (77%) said that they never received help to quit tobacco while 18(23%) have received help to quit.
Buetikofer, S; Wandeler, G; Kouyos, R; Weber, R; Ledergerber, B
We sought to identify reasons for late human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) testing or late presentation for care. A structured chart review was performed to obtain data on test- and health-seeking behaviour of patients presenting late with CD4 cell counts below 350 cells/µl or with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), at the Zurich centre of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study between January 2009 and December 2011. Logistic regression analyses were used to compare demographic characteristics of persons presenting late with not late presenters. Of 281 patients, 45% presented late, 48% were chronically HIV-infected non-late presenters, and an additional 7% fulfilled the <350 CD4 cells/µl criterion for late presentation but a chart review revealed that lymphopenia was caused by acute HIV infection. Among the late presenters, 60% were first tested HIV positive in a private practice. More than half of the tests (60%) were suggested by a physician, only 7% following a specific risk situation. The majority (88%) of patients entered medical care within 1 month of testing HIV positive. Risk factors for late presentation were older age (odds ratio [OR] for ≥ 50 vs <30 years: 3.16, p = 0.017), Asian versus Caucasian ethnicity (OR 3.5, p = 0.021). Compared with men who have sex with men (MSM) without stable partnership, MSM in a stable partnership appeared less likely to present late (OR 0.50, p = 0.034), whereas heterosexual men in a stable partnership had a 2.72-fold increased odds to present late (p = 0.049). The frequency of late testing could be reduced by promoting awareness, particularly among older individuals and heterosexual men in stable partnerships.
Sarabia-Lavín, Raquel; Bolumar, Francisco; Rioja, Luis; Delgado, Abraham
Background and Aim Literature evaluating association between neonatal morbidity and immigrant status presents contradictory results. Poorer compliance with prenatal care and greater social risk factors among immigrants could play roles as major confounding variables, thus explaining contradictions. We examined whether prenatal care and social risk factors are confounding variables in the relationship between immigrant status and neonatal morbidity. Methods Retrospective cohort study: 231 pregnant African immigrant women were recruited from 2007–2010 in northern Spain. A Spanish population sample was obtained by simple random sampling at 1:3 ratio. Immigrant status (Spanish, Sub-Saharan and Northern African), prenatal care (Kessner Index adequate, intermediate or inadequate), and social risk factors were treated as independent variables. Low birth weight (LBW < 2500 grams) and preterm birth (< 37 weeks) were collected as neonatal morbidity variables. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). Results Positive associations between immigrant women and higher risk of neonatal morbidity were obtained. Crude OR for preterm births in Northern Africans with respect to nonimmigrants was 2.28 (95% CI: 1.04–5.00), and crude OR for LBW was 1.77 (95% CI: 0.74–4.22). However, after adjusting for prenatal care and social risk factors, associations became protective: adjusted OR for preterm birth = 0.42 (95% CI: 0.14–1.32); LBW = 0.48 (95% CI: 0.15–1.52). Poor compliance with prenatal care was the main independent risk factor associated with both preterm birth (adjusted OR inadequate care = 17.05; 95% CI: 3.92–74.24) and LBW (adjusted OR inadequate care = 6.25; 95% CI: 1.28–30.46). Social risk was an important independent risk factor associated with LBW (adjusted OR = 5.42; 95% CI: 1.58–18.62). Conclusions Prenatal care and social risk factors were major confounding variables in
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Okafor, Chika C; Lefebvre, Sandra L; Pearl, David L; Yang, Mingyin; Wang, Mansen; Blois, Shauna L; Lund, Elizabeth M; Dewey, Cate E
Calcium oxalate urolithiasis results from the formation of aggregates of calcium salts in the urinary tract. Difficulties associated with effectively treating calcium oxalate urolithiasis and the proportional increase in the prevalence of calcium oxalate uroliths relative to other urolith types over the last 2 decades has increased the concern of clinicians about this disease. To determine factors associated with the development of calcium oxalate urolithiasis in dogs evaluated at general care veterinary hospitals in the United States, a retrospective case-control study was performed. A national electronic database of medical records of all dogs evaluated between October 1, 2007 and December 31, 2010 at 787 general care veterinary hospitals in the United States was reviewed. Dogs were selected as cases at the first-time diagnosis of a laboratory-confirmed urolith comprised of at least 70% calcium oxalate (n=452). Two sets of control dogs with no history of urolithiasis diagnosis were randomly selected after the medical records of all remaining dogs were reviewed: urinalysis examination was a requirement in the selection of one set (n=1808) but was not required in the other set (n=1808). Historical information extracted included urolith composition, dog's diet, age, sex, neuter status, breed size category, hospital location, date of diagnosis, and urinalysis results. Multivariable analysis showed that the odds of first-time diagnosis of calcium oxalate urolithiasis were significantly (P<0.05) greater for dogs<7 years, males (OR: 7.77, 95% CI: 4.93-12.26), neutered (OR: 2.58, 1.44-4.63), toy- vs. medium-sized breeds (OR: 3.15, 1.90-5.22), small- vs. medium-sized breeds (OR: 3.05, 1.83-5.08), large- vs. medium-sized breeds (OR: 0.05, 0.01-0.19), and those with a diagnosis of cystitis within the previous year (OR: 6.49, 4.14-10.16). Urinary factors significantly associated with first-time diagnosis of calcium oxalate urolithiasis were acidic vs. basic pH (OR: 1.94, 1
Mamdouh, H M; Ismail, H M; Kharboush, I F; Tawfik, M M; El Sharkawy, O G; Abdel-Baky, M; Sallam, H N
We conducted a cross-sectional survey to determine the prevalence of, and factors affecting, spousal violence among 3271 ever-married women attending 12 randomly selected family health centres in Alexandria Governorate. More than three-quarters of the participants (77%) reported experiencing spousal violence during their marital life. Emotional violence was the most common type reported (71.0%), followed by physical (50.3%), economic (40.8%) and sexual (37.1%) violence. The study confirms the high prevalence of spousal violence across all socioeconomic strata. Logistic regression analysis indicated large family size, divorce or separation, low educational attainment of husband, smoking habit and drug use in husband, husband's psychological status and history of exposure to physical violence during adolescence were associated with spousal violence. This high rate of spousal violence highlights the urgent need for government and civil society to address the issue, which hinders progress toward Egypt's development goals.
Romo-Gamboa, Juan Pablo; Sandoval-Pérez, Bertha Alicia; Rodríguez-López, Ana Bertha; Torres-González, Marco Antonio; Barrera-de León, Juan Carlos
Introducción: la neumonía asociada a ventilación mecánica (NAVM) representa la segunda causa de infección nosocomial y se asocia con una mayor morbilidad, duración de ventilación mecánica (VM) y estancia hospitalaria. El objetivo fue determinar los factores asociados a NAVM en neonatos. Métodos: estudio transversal analítico en el que se incluyeron recién nacidos que ingresaron intubados con menos de 48 horas de VM o que se intubaron en terapia neonatal. Se definió la NAVM, según los criterios de los Centros para el Control y la Prevencion de Enfermedades (CDC), como “aquella infección nosocomial diagnosticada en pacientes sometidos a VM durante al menos 48 horas”. Se empleó estadística inferencial para el análisis estadístico. Resultados: se estudiaron 82 neonatos, desarrollaron NAVM 27 (33%). La mediana del desarrollo de neumonía fue de seis días (rango 5-11). El germen aislado más común fue la Escherichia coli (27%). Las variables estadísticamente significativas fueron la edad gestacional (p = 0.05) y el uso de antiácidos al ingreso (p = 0.007). Los pacientes con neumonía tuvieron mayor tiempo de estancia hospitalaria (0.001) y tiempo con VM (p = 0.002). Murieron 22 neonatos en población general (27%), de los cuales nueve eran pacientes con NAVM. Conclusión: los factores de riesgo para NAVM incluyen menor edad gestacional, antiácidos y ventilación mecánica prolongada.
Ajayi, Ike-Oluwapo O.; Irabor, Achiaka E.; Ladipo, Modupe M.A.
ABSTRACT Background The family as a unit of care has great effect in tackling adolescent problems and this could be influenced by family functioning. Objective This study assesses the relationship between adolescents’ family functioning with socio-demographic characteristics and behavioural risk factors. Method The research was a cross-sectional, hospital-based study carried out at the General Outpatients Department, University College Hospital (GOPD, UCH), Ibadan, over a period of three months. Four hundred subjects were recruited using a modified Guideline for Adolescent Preventive Services (GAPS) questionnaire, with an incorporated family APGAR (Adaptation, Partnership, Growth, Affection, Resolve) score table. The results were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS), version 11 and the findings on the family assessment and behavioural risk factors were relayed to the respondents. Results The ages of the adolescents ranged from 10 to 19 years. Of the subjects, 8% were sexually active. Mean age for first coitus among the respondents was 15 ± 2.4 years. The rate of ingestion of alcohol and cigarette smoking was very low. The family APGAR scores obtained revealed that 84.5% subjects were rated as having a functional family (7–10 points) and 15.5% of the subjects were rated as having a dysfunctional family (0–6 points). There was a significant association between perceived family function and subjects’ occupation (p = 0.01), parent social class (p = 0.00) and subjects’ sexual activities (p = 0.00). Conclusion The majority of the adolescents were rated as having functional families. Dysfunctional families had significantly sexually active respondents.
Okafor, Ugochukwu V; Efetie, Efenae R; Amucheazi, Adaobi
This study was undertaken to determine the risk factors for maternal deaths in unplanned or unbooked obstetric admissions to the intensive care unit of a tertiary health centre. Hospital records of unbooked obstetric admissions to the intensive care unit of the hospital from January 1997 to December 2006 were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included patients' demographics, diagnosis, duration of stay in the ICU and patient outcome. The intensive care unit records showed that there were 25 unbooked obstetric admissions. Major diagnoses for unplanned admissions to the ICU were preeclampsia/eclampsia (41.1%), obstetric haemorrhage (37.5%), and respiratory distress (12.5%). There were 12 deaths (48%). Organ dysfunction on admission, massive blood loss and late presentation were the risk factors for mortality. The high maternal mortality was mainly due to limited supply of blood products and inadequate prenatal care resulting in disease severity.
Orozco-González, Claudia Nelly; Cortés-Sanabria, Laura; Viera-Franco, Juan José; Ramírez-Márquez, José Juan; Cueto-Manzano, Alfonso M
Introducción: el objetivo de este trabajo es determinar la prevalencia de los factores de riesgo cardiovascular (FRCV) y su asociación con actividad laboral (AL) en trabajadores de dos hospitales de enseñanza de tercer nivel de atención del IMSS. Métodos: estudio descriptivo que incluyó a trabajadores ≥ 18 años. Se realizó historia clínica, examen físico y pruebas de laboratorio para identificar FRCV y asociarlos con AL. Resultados: se estudió un total de 1089 trabajadores, con edad de 41 ± 9 años, el 76% fueron mujeres. La prevalencia de hipertensión fue de 19%, diabetes mellitus 9.6%, dislipidemia 78%, sobrepeso y obesidad 73%; síndrome metabólico (SM) 32.5%, tabaquismo 19%. El SM se asoció con el área de asistentes médicas (OR: 2.73, IC 95%: 1.31-5.69) y nutrición/dietética (OR: 2.6, IC 95%: 1.31-5.24). La obesidad con el área administrativa (OR 3.64 IC 95%: 1.40-7.46). La dislipidemia con el área de asistentes médicas (OR 2.58, IC 95%: 1.15-6.34). La probabilidad de sufrir evento vascular en 10 años fue de 10%. Conclusiones: la prevalencia de FRCV fue alta y no es diferente a la de la población general. Las actividades laborales en riesgo fueron: asistentes médicas, nutricionistas y personal administrativo. Es necesario reorientar programas de promoción de la salud en unidades médicas para mejorar el perfil epidemiológico de los trabajadores.
Mundet-Tudurí, Xavier; Iglesias-Rodal, Manuel; Olmos-Domínguez, Carmen; Bernard-Antoranz, M Lluïsa; Fernández-San Martín, M Isabel; Amado-Guirado, Ester
Objetivo. Comparar la prevalencia de factores de riesgo cardiovascular (FRCV) y eventos vasculares en pacientes tratados con antipsicoticos, comparandolos con los no tratados. Sujetos y metodos. Estudio descriptivo transversal de pacientes atendidos en atencion primaria de la ciudad de Barcelona y tratados con antipsicoticos entre el 2008 y el 2010, comparandolos con una poblacion no tratada. Se registraron las variables antropometricas y clinicas y los FRCV. Se estudio por separado a pacientes adultos y ancianos, y a los tratados con antipsicoticos tipicos y atipicos. Resultados. Un total de 14.087 pacientes habian sido tratados con antipsicoticos (63,4% atipicos). El mas prescrito fue la risperidona. Se aparejaron 13.724 pacientes de la misma edad y genero, pero no tratados (n total = 27.811). Los tratados con antipsicoticos presentaron una prevalencia superior de obesidad (16,9% frente a 10,6%), tabaquismo (22,2% frente a 11,1%), diabetes mellitus (16% frente a 11,9%) y dislipemia (32,8% frente a 25,8%) (p < 0,001). La prevalencia de accidente vascular cerebral fue significativamente superior entre los tratados, tanto en los adultos (odds ratio = 2,33) como en los ancianos (odds ratio = 1,64). La prevalencia de cardiopatia isquemica fue similar en ambos grupos (odds ratio = 0,97). No se observaron diferencias significativas entre los tratados con un antipsicotico tipico o atipico. Conclusiones. Los pacientes tratados con antipsicoticos presentaron una mayor prevalencia de FRCV (diabetes, obesidad y tabaquismo). La presencia de ictus fue superior entre los tratados con antipsicoticos. No se detectaron diferencias importantes entre los pacientes tratados con antipsicoticos tipicos y atipicos.
Background Research has suggested that adults 40 years old and over are not following eye care visit recommendations. In the United States, the proportion of older adults is expected to increase drastically in the coming years. This has important implications for population ocular disease burden, given the relationship between older age and the development of many ocular diseases and conditions. Understanding individual level determinants of vision health could support the development of tailored vision health campaigns and interventions among our growing older population. Thus, we assessed correlates of eye care visits among participants of the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. We pooled and analyzed 2006–2009 BRFSS data from 16 States (N = 118,075). We assessed for the proportion of survey respondents 40 years of age and older reporting having visited an eye care provider within the past two years, two or more years ago, or never by socio-demographic characteristics. Results Nearly 80% of respondents reported an eye care visit within the previous two years. Using the ‘never visits’ as the referent category, the groups with greater odds of having an ocular visit within the past two years included those: greater than 70 years of age (OR = 6.8 [95% confidence interval = 3.7–12.6]), with college degree (5.2[3.0–8.8]), reporting an eye disease, (4.74[1.1–21.2]), diagnosed with diabetes (3.5[1.7–7.5]), of female gender (2.9[2.1–3.9]), with general health insurance (2.7[1.8–3.9]), with eye provider insurance coverage (2.1[1.5–3.0]), with high blood pressure (1.5[1.1–2.2]), and with moderate to extreme near vision difficulties (1.42[1.11–2.08]). Conclusion We found significant variation by socio-demographic characteristics and some variation in state-level estimates in this study. The present findings suggest that there remains compliance gaps of screening guidelines among select socio-demographic sub
Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Davila, Evelyn P; Lam, Byron L; Arheart, Kristopher L; McCollister, Kathryn E; Fernandez, Cristina A; Ocasio, Manuel A; Lee, David J
Research has suggested that adults 40 years old and over are not following eye care visit recommendations. In the United States, the proportion of older adults is expected to increase drastically in the coming years. This has important implications for population ocular disease burden, given the relationship between older age and the development of many ocular diseases and conditions. Understanding individual level determinants of vision health could support the development of tailored vision health campaigns and interventions among our growing older population. Thus, we assessed correlates of eye care visits among participants of the Behavior Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) survey. We pooled and analyzed 2006-2009 BRFSS data from 16 States (N = 118,075). We assessed for the proportion of survey respondents 40 years of age and older reporting having visited an eye care provider within the past two years, two or more years ago, or never by socio-demographic characteristics. Nearly 80% of respondents reported an eye care visit within the previous two years. Using the 'never visits' as the referent category, the groups with greater odds of having an ocular visit within the past two years included those: greater than 70 years of age (OR = 6.8 [95% confidence interval = 3.7-12.6]), with college degree (5.2[3.0-8.8]), reporting an eye disease, (4.74[1.1-21.2]), diagnosed with diabetes (3.5[1.7-7.5]), of female gender (2.9[2.1-3.9]), with general health insurance (2.7[1.8-3.9]), with eye provider insurance coverage (2.1[1.5-3.0]), with high blood pressure (1.5[1.1-2.2]), and with moderate to extreme near vision difficulties (1.42[1.11-2.08]). We found significant variation by socio-demographic characteristics and some variation in state-level estimates in this study. The present findings suggest that there remains compliance gaps of screening guidelines among select socio-demographic sub-groups, as well as provide evidence and support to the CDC
Moon, Kyoung Min; Han, Min Soo; Rim, Ch'ang Bum; Lee, Jun Ho; Kang, Min Seok; Kim, Ji Hye; Kim, Sang Il; Jung, Sun Young; Cho, Yongseon
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for mechanical ventilation in the patients with scrub typhus admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) at a university hospital. We retrospectively selected and analyzed clinical data from the medical records of 70 patients (32 men, 38 women) admitted to the ICU with scrub typhus between 2004 and 2014. The patients had a mean±standard deviation age of 71.2±11.1 years and were evaluated in two groups: those who had been treated with mechanical ventilation (the MV group, n=19) and those who had not (the non-MV group, n=51). Mean ages of the MV group and the non-MV group were 71.2±8.3 years and 71.2±11.1 years, respectively. Significant differences between the two groups were observed with respect to acute respiratory failure (p=0.008), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score (p=0.015), Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (p=0.013), death (p=0.014), and ICU duration (p<0.01). Multivariate analysis indicated that the following factors were significantly associated with mechanical ventilation: acute respiratory failure (p=0.011), SOFA score (p=0.005), APACHE II score (p=0.011), platelet count (p=0.009), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) (p=0.011). Thus, five factors-acute respiratory failure, SOFA score, APACHE II score, platelet count, and LDH-can be the meaningful indicators for mechanical ventilation for the patients with scrub typhus admitted to ICU.
McPhee, Stephen J.; Myers, Lois P.; Schroeder, Steven A.
Understanding the costs and risks of medical care, as well as the benefits, is essential to good medical practice. The literature on this topic transcends disciplines, making it a challenge for clinicians and medical educators to compile information on costs and risks for use in patient care. This annotated bibliography presents summaries of pertinent references on (1) financial costs of care, (2) excessive use of medical services, (3) clinical risks of care, (4) decision analysis, (5) cost-benefit analyses, (6) factors affecting physician use of services and (7) strategies to improve physician ordering patterns. PMID:6814071
Yoon, Jae-Moon; Kim, Ji-Hye; Suh, Beom-Seok
Background The purpose of this study was to investigate how educational status influences cardiovascular risk factors and care of diabetes mellitus and hypertension. Methods From Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey IV, we obtained survey results of 6,835 men and 9,067 women more than 30 years old. We performed multivariate logistic regression to compare cardiovascular risk factors and care of hypertension and diabetes respective to educational status. Results There were disparities in cardiovascular risk factors by educational status. In men, impaired fasting glucose, high triglyceride, and smoking were less frequently found in the highest educated group than in the middle educated group. In women, the prevalence of abdominal obesity, impaired fasting glucose, high blood pressure, high triglyceride, and metabolic syndrome among the highest educated group were significantly lower. The proportion of those with proper physical activity in the highest educated group was found to be less than that of the middle educated group, regardless of gender. For care of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, disease recognition and treatment were lower among the lowest educated group in men, while these disparities were not shown in women. Instead, the lowest educated group in diabetic women received screening exams for eye and kidney complications less than the middle education group. In both genders, the high education group had a higher chance of receiving education about diabetes mellitus. Conclusion There were educational disparities in cardiovascular risk factors and care of hypertension and diabetes mellitus. The disparities were found to be different by gender. PMID:23372903
Nadeem, Erum; Waterman, Jill; Foster, Jared; Paczkowski, Emilie; Belin, Thomas R.; Miranda, Jeanne
This exploratory longitudinal study examined behavioral outcomes and parenting stress among families with children adopted from foster care, taking into account environmental and biological risk factors. Child internalizing and externalizing problems and parenting stress were assessed in 82 adopted children and their families at 2 months…
Demarre, Liesbet; Verhaeghe, Sofie; Van Hecke, Ann; Clays, Els; Grypdonck, Maria; Beeckman, Dimitri
To identify predictive factors associated with the development of pressure ulcers in patients at risk who receive standardized preventive care. Numerous studies have examined factors that predict risk for pressure ulcer development. Only a few studies identified risk factors associated with pressure ulcer development in hospitalized patients receiving standardized preventive care. Secondary analyses of data collected in a multicentre randomized controlled trial. The sample consisted of 610 consecutive patients at risk for pressure ulcer development (Braden Score <17) receiving standardized preventive care measures. Patient demographic information, data on skin and risk assessment, medical history and diagnosis were collected during 26 months (December 2007-January 2010). Predictive factors were identified using multivariate statistics. Pressure ulcers in category II-IV were significantly associated with non-blanchable erythema, urogenital disorders and higher body temperature. Predictive factors significantly associated with superficial pressure ulcers were admission to an internal medicine ward, incontinence-associated dermatitis, non-blanchable erythema and a lower Braden score. Superficial sacral pressure ulcers were significantly associated with incontinence-associated dermatitis. Despite the standardized preventive measures they received, hospitalized patients with non-blanchable erythema, urogenital disorders and a higher body temperature were at increased risk for developing pressure ulcers. Improved identification of at-risk patients can be achieved by taking into account specific predictive factors. Even if preventive measures are in place, continuous assessment and tailoring of interventions is necessary in all patients at risk. Daily skin observation can be used to continuously monitor the effectiveness of the intervention. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Lu, Wenhua; Diep, Cassandra S; McKyer, Lisako J
Childhood obesity has become an epidemic across all racial/ethnic groups in the U.S., including Asian Americans. With different cultures, beliefs, and lifestyles, Asian Americans may face unique sets of risk factors for childhood obesity. This review critically assesses and summarizes the literature on risk factors for childhood obesity among Asian Americans. Among the 14 studies identified, five (35.7%) used national or state-level data, seven (50%) targeted Chinese Americans, and two (14.3%) focused on Hmong Americans. Multiple risk factors for childhood obesity among Asian Americans were reported, including acculturation, generational status, and family functioning. Limitations of the literature included use of small samples, scarcity of ethnically specific data for Asian American subgroups, shortage of qualitative studies, and lack of theoretical foundation. More disaggregated studies are needed to examine the important variability that may exist in risk factors for childhood obesity among Asian American subgroups.
The effect of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in pharmacologically treated patients with stable cardiovascular disease compared to usual care: a randomised controlled trial.
Ijzelenberg, Wilhelmina; Hellemans, Irene M; van Tulder, Maurits W; Heymans, Martijn W; Rauwerda, Jan A; van Rossum, Albert C; Seidell, Jaap C
The additional benefit of lifestyle interventions in patients receiving cardioprotective drug treatment to improve cardiovascular risk profile is not fully established.The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a target-driven multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention programme of 6 months duration aimed at maximum reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with usual care. A single centre, two arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial was performed. Patients with stable established CVD and at least one lifestyle-related risk factor were recruited from the vascular and cardiology outpatient departments of the university hospital. Blocked randomisation was used to allocate patients to the intervention (n = 71) or control group (n = 75) using an on-site computer system combined with allocations in computer-generated tables of random numbers kept in a locked computer file. The intervention group received the comprehensive lifestyle intervention offered in a specialised outpatient clinic in addition to usual care. The control group continued to receive usual care. Outcome measures were the lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, physical activity, physical fitness, diet, blood pressure, plasma total/HDL/LDL cholesterol concentrations, BMI, waist circumference, and changes in medication. The intervention led to increased physical activity/fitness levels and an improved cardiovascular risk factor profile (reduced BMI and waist circumference). In this setting, cardiovascular risk management for blood pressure and lipid levels by prophylactic treatment for CVD in usual care was already close to optimal as reflected in baseline levels. There was no significant improvement in any other risk factor. Even in CVD patients receiving good clinical care and using cardioprotective drug treatment, a comprehensive lifestyle intervention had a beneficial effect on some cardiovascular
The effect of a comprehensive lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular risk factors in pharmacologically treated patients with stable cardiovascular disease compared to usual care: a randomised controlled trial
Background The additional benefit of lifestyle interventions in patients receiving cardioprotective drug treatment to improve cardiovascular risk profile is not fully established. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of a target-driven multidisciplinary structured lifestyle intervention programme of 6 months duration aimed at maximum reduction of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with usual care. Methods A single centre, two arm, parallel group randomised controlled trial was performed. Patients with stable established CVD and at least one lifestyle-related risk factor were recruited from the vascular and cardiology outpatient departments of the university hospital. Blocked randomisation was used to allocate patients to the intervention (n = 71) or control group (n = 75) using an on-site computer system combined with allocations in computer-generated tables of random numbers kept in a locked computer file. The intervention group received the comprehensive lifestyle intervention offered in a specialised outpatient clinic in addition to usual care. The control group continued to receive usual care. Outcome measures were the lifestyle-related cardiovascular risk factors: smoking, physical activity, physical fitness, diet, blood pressure, plasma total/HDL/LDL cholesterol concentrations, BMI, waist circumference, and changes in medication. Results The intervention led to increased physical activity/fitness levels and an improved cardiovascular risk factor profile (reduced BMI and waist circumference). In this setting, cardiovascular risk management for blood pressure and lipid levels by prophylactic treatment for CVD in usual care was already close to optimal as reflected in baseline levels. There was no significant improvement in any other risk factor. Conclusions Even in CVD patients receiving good clinical care and using cardioprotective drug treatment, a comprehensive lifestyle intervention had a
Spillane, Heidi; Nicholas, Sarala; Tang, Zhirong; Szumilin, Elisabeth; Balkan, Suna; Pujades-Rodriguez, Mar
To identify factors influencing mortality in an HIV programme providing care to large numbers of injecting drug users (IDUs) and patients co-infected with hepatitis C (HCV). A longitudinal analysis of monitoring data from HIV-infected adults who started antiretroviral therapy (ART) between 2003 and 2009 was performed. Mortality and programme attrition rates within 2 years of ART initiation were estimated. Associations with individual-level factors were assessed with multivariable Cox and piece-wise Cox regression. A total of 1671 person-years of follow-up from 1014 individuals was analysed. Thirty-four percent of patients were women and 33% were current or ex-IDUs. 36.2% of patients (90.8% of IDUs) were co-infected with HCV. Two-year all-cause mortality rate was 5.4 per 100 person-years (95% CI, 4.4-6.7). Most HIV-related deaths occurred within 6 months of ART start (36, 67.9%), but only 5 (25.0%) non-HIV-related deaths were recorded during this period. Mortality was higher in older patients (HR = 2.50; 95% CI, 1.42-4.40 for ≥40 compared to 15-29 years), and in those with initial BMI < 18.5 kg/m(2) (HR = 3.38; 95% CI, 1.82-5.32), poor adherence to treatment (HR = 5.13; 95% CI, 2.47-10.65 during the second year of therapy), or low initial CD4 cell count (HR = 4.55; 95% CI, 1.54-13.41 for <100 compared to ≥100 cells/μl). Risk of death was not associated with IDU status (P = 0.38). Increased mortality was associated with late presentation of patients. In this programme, death rates were similar regardless of injection drug exposure, supporting the notion that satisfactory treatment outcomes can be achieved when comprehensive care is provided to these patients. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S
Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors
Background The provision of Intensive Care (IC) can lead to a health care provider’s physical, psychological and emotional exhaustion, which may develop into burnout. We notice the absence of specific studies regarding this syndrome in Portuguese Intensive Care Units (ICUs). Our main objective is to study the incidence and risk factors of burnout in Portuguese ICUs. Methods A self-fulfilment questionnaire containing 3 items: (i) socio-demographic data of the study population; (ii) experiences in the workplace; (iii) Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) - was applied to evaluate the influence of distinct factors on the prevalence of burnout among physicians and nurses working in ICUs. Results Three hundred professionals (82 physicians and 218 nurses) from ten ICUs were included in the study, out of a total of 445 who were eligible. There was a high rate of burnout among professionals working in Portuguese ICUs, with 31% having a high level of burnout. However, when burnout levels among nurses and physicians were compared, no significant difference was found. Using multivariate analysis, we identified gender as being a risk factor, where female status increases the risk of burnout. In addition, higher levels of burnout were associated with conflicts and ethical decision making regarding withdrawing treatments. Having a temporary work contract was also identified as a risk factor. Conversely, working for another service of the same health care institution acts as a protective factor. Conclusions A high rate of burnout was identified among professionals working in Portuguese ICUs. This study highlights some new risk factors for burnout (ethical decision making, temporary work contracts), and also protective ones (maintaining activity in other settings outside the ICU) that were not previously reported. Preventive and interventive programmes to avoid and reduce burnout syndrome are of paramount importance in the future organization of ICUs and should take the above results
Boyle, M; Green, M
Patients in intensive care units (ICU) are at high risk of developing pressure sores and the use of pressure sore risk tools has been advocated as a means of identifying patients at risk. A prospective multi-site observational study was conducted to define the incidence of pressure sores, assess two pressure sore risk scales and to define risk factors relevant to intensive care. Patients (n = 534) were assessed for the presence of pressure sores. The Waterlow and Jackson/Cubbin risk scales were completed each day for 314 and 188 of these patients respectively. A total of 75 pressure sores were recorded. Of these, 34 were present on admission. Of the remaining 41, 16 were classified as Grade 1 and 24 as Grade 2 sores. The pressure sore (PS) incidence was 5.2 per cent. Expressed as PS/1000 patient days there were 18.48 pressure sores per 1000 patient days. The ability of the risk scores to predict pressure sores was tested using a Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. The association of risk score with pressure sores was analysed using a survival function (Kaplan Meier) and variables compared using a logrank test (Mantel-Cox). Factors associated with pressure sore occurrence were developed and tested using a survival regression model. Both risk scales were poor predictors of pressure sores (ROC curve area approximately 70 per cent for both). The factors, coma/unresponsiveness/paralysed & sedated and cardiovascular instability were significantly associated with pressure sores with relative risks of 4.2 and 2.5 respectively. Risk increased as a function of time such that the cumulative risk was 50 per cent at 20 days.
O'Fallon, Erin; Kandel, Ruth; Kandell, Ruth; Schreiber, Robert; D'Agata, Erika M C
An improved understanding of the transmission dynamics of multidrug-resistant (MDR) gram-negative bacteria and the mechanism of acquisition in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) could aid in the development of prevention strategies specific to LTCFs. We thus investigated the incidence of acquisition of these pathogens among an LTCF population. Prospective cohort study. Three separate wards at a 600-bed LTCF in metropolitan Boston, Massachusetts, during the period October 31, 2006, through October 22, 2007. One hundred seventy-two LTCF residents. A series of rectal samples were cultured to determine acquisition of MDR gram-negative bacteria, defined as absence of MDR gram-negative bacterial colonization at baseline and de novo recovery of MDR gram-negative bacteria from a follow-up culture. Molecular typing was performed to identify genetically linked strains. A nested matched case-control study was performed to identify risk factors associated with acquisition. Among 135 residents for whom at least 1 follow-up culture was performed, 52 (39%) acquired at least 1 MDR gram-negative organism during the study period. Thirty-two residents (62%) had not been colonized at baseline and had acquired at least 1 MDR gram-negative species at follow-up culture, and 20 residents (38%) were colonized at baseline and had acquired at least 1 MDR gram-negative species at follow-up culture. The most common coresistance pattern was resistance to extended-spectrum penicillins, ciprofloxacin, and gentamicin (57 isolates [42.5%]). Genetically related strains of MDR gram-negative bacteria were identified among multiple residents and between roommates. On conditional logistic regression analysis, antibiotic exposure during the study period was significantly associated with acquisition of MDR gram-negative bacteria (odds ratio, 5.6 [95% confidence interval, 1.1-28.7]; P = .04). Acquisition of MDR gram-negative bacteria occurred frequently through resident-to-resident transmission. Existing
Swary, Jillian H; Stratman, Erik J
Comorbidities and risk factors are associated with pediatric psoriasis. It is unknown whether pediatricians and dermatologists ask about, record, or counsel on pediatric psoriasis risk factors and comorbidities. The aim of our study was to assess the rate at which pediatricians and dermatologists inquire about, counsel on, and document pediatric psoriasis risk factors and comorbidities in a stable population. This was a retrospective chart review from 2011 to 2013 in a large, rural multidisciplinary clinic, the Marshfield Epidemiologic Study Area. Participants were children ages 18 years and younger with plaque psoriasis. Rates of counseling and screening for pediatric psoriasis risk factors and comorbidities by pediatricians and dermatologists were determined. Thirty patients qualified for the study. Data were collected on body mass index (BMI) and tobacco exposure. Caregiver counseling rates on these factors were low; 66.7% and 60% did not receive counseling on BMI reduction or family member smoking cessation, respectively. Counseling on stress as a risk factor was performed at only one patient's dermatology visit (3.3%). Lipid panels were collected for 40% of patients and fasting glucose levels for 33.3% since the date of first psoriasis diagnosis. Blood pressure was collected for all patients. Only 13.3% of patients were counseled on the psoriasis comorbidity hyperlipidemia, 10% on hypertension, and 3.3% on diabetes mellitus. Dermatologists and pediatricians have a low rate of counseling, documenting, and screening for pediatric psoriasis risk factors and comorbidities, suggesting that psoriasis comorbidity education is an aspect of the patient visit that may need improvement. Pediatric psoriasis counseling and screening guidelines are needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Daher, Elizabeth De Francesco; Soares, Douglas Sousa; de Menezes Fernandes, Anna Tereza Bezerra; Girão, Marília Maria Vasconcelos; Sidrim, Pedro Randal; Pereira, Eanes Delgado Barros; Rocha, Natalia Albuquerque; da Silva, Geraldo Bezerra
The aim of this study is to investigate predictive factors for intensive care unit (ICU) admission among patients with severe leptospirosis. This is a retrospective study with all patients with severe leptospirosis admitted to a tertiary hospital. Patients were divided in ICU and ward groups. Demographical, clinical and laboratory data of the groups were compared as well as acute kidney injury (AKI) severity, according to the RIFLE criteria (R = Risk, I = Injury, F = Failure, L = Loss, E = End-stage kidney disease). A total of 206 patients were included, 83 admitted to ICU and 123 to ward. Mean age was 36 ± 15.8 years, with 85.9% males. Patients in ICU group were older (38.8 ± 15.7 vs. 34.16 ± 15.9 years, p = 0.037), had a shorter hospital stay (4.13 ± 3.1 vs. 9.5 ± 5.2 days, p = 0.0001), lower levels of hematocrit (29.6 ± 6.4 vs. 33.1 ± 8.6%, p = 0.003), hemoglobin (10.2 ± 2.4 vs. 11.6 ± 1.9 g/dL, p < 0.0001), and platelets (94,427 ± 86,743 vs. 128,896 ± 137,017/mm(3), p = 0.035), as well as higher levels of bilirubin (15.0 ± 12.2 vs. 8.6 ± 9.5 mg/dL, p = 0.001). ICU group also had a higher frequency of severe AKI (RIFLE-"Failure": 73.2% vs. 54.2%, p < 0.0001) and a higher prevalence of dialysis requirement (57.3% vs. 27.6%, p < 0.0001). Mortality was higher among ICU patients (23.5% vs. 5.7%, p < 0.0001). Independent predictors for ICU admission were tachypnea (p = 0.027, OR = 13, CI = 1.3-132), hypotension (p = 0.009, OR = 5.27, CI = 1.5-18) and AKI (p = 0.029, OR = 14, CI = 1.3-150). Ceftriaxone use was a protective factor (p = 0.001, OR = 0.13, CI = 0.04-0.4). Independent risk factors for ICU admission in leptospirosis include tachypnea, hypotension and AKI. Ceftriaxone was a protective factor for ICU admission, suggesting that its use may prevent severe forms of the disease.
Kamath, Ramchandra; Mahajan, Kamaleshwar S; Ashok, Lena; Sanal, T S
Background: Cancer has become one of the ten leading causes of death in India. Breast cancer is the most common diagnosed malignancy in India, it ranks second to cervical cancer. An increasing trend in incidence is reported from various registries of national cancer registry project and now India is a country with largest estimated number of breast cancer deaths worldwide. Aim: To study the factors associated with breast cancer. Objectives: To study the association between breast cancer and selected exposure variables and to identify risk factors for breast cancer. Materials and Methods: A hospital based Case control study was conducted at Shirdi Sai Baba Cancer Hospital and Research Center, Manipal, Udupi District. Results: Total 188 participants were included in the study, 94 cases and 94 controls. All the study participants were between 25 to 69 years of age group. The cases and controls were matched by ± 2 years age range. Non vegetarian diet was one of the important risk factors (OR 2.80, CI 1.15-6.81). More than 7 to 12 years of education (OR 4.84 CI 1.51-15.46) had 4.84 times risk of breast cancer as compared with illiterate women. Conclusion: The study suggests that non vegetarian diet is the important risk factor for Breast Cancer and the risk of Breast Cancer is more in educated women as compared with the illiterate women. Limitation: This is a Hospital based study so generalisability of the findings could be limited. PMID:23878422
Saqib, Shahab; Irtiza Hussain Shah Gardyzi, Sayed
Background. Blood-borne viral infections like viral hepatitis are highly prevalent in Pakistan. There is also a potential threat of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) spread in the country. Health care workers (HCWs) are a high risk population for acquiring such viral infections and potential spread to the patients. This study aimed to determine the frequency of three blood-borne viruses: HCV, HBV, and HIV in HCWs of district Malakand in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK) province of Pakistan. Moreover, risk factors and preventive behaviors among HCWs were investigated in detail. Materials and Methods. Prevalence was investigated using serological assays followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) based characterization. A total of 626 health care workers working at 17 different health care units, belonging to 6 different job categories, were included in this study. Results. HIV was not detected in the HCWs while rate of prevalence of HCV and HBV was far less (0.8 % and 0.64 %, resp.) as compared to general population (4.7%–38%). The majority of HCWs were aware of the mode of spread of these viruses and associated risk factors. Needle stick injury was found to be the most important risk factor for possible acquisition of these infections. PMID:27525015
Ramond-Roquin, Aline; Bouton, Céline; Bègue, Cyril; Petit, Audrey; Roquelaure, Yves; Huez, Jean-François
Non-specific low back pain (LBP) affects many people and has major socio-economic consequences. Traditional therapeutic strategies, mainly focused on biomechanical factors, have had moderate and short-term impact. Certain psychosocial factors have been linked to poor prognosis of LBP and they are increasingly considered as promising targets for management of LBP. Primary health care providers (HCPs) are involved in most of the management of people with LBP and they are skilled in providing comprehensive care, including consideration of psychosocial dimensions. This review aims to discuss three pieces of recent research focusing on psychosocial issues in LBP patients in primary care. In the first systematic review, the patients' or HCPs' overall judgment about the likely evolution of LBP was the factor most strongly linked to poor outcome, with predictive validity similar to that of multidimensional scales. This result may be explained by the implicit aggregation of many prognostic factors underlying this judgment and suggests the relevance of considering the patients from biopsychosocial and longitudinal points of view. The second review showed that most of the interventions targeting psychosocial factors in LBP in primary care have to date focused on the cognitive-behavioral factors, resulting in little impact. It is unlikely that any intervention focusing on a single factor would ever fit the needs of most patients; interventions targeting determinants from several fields (mainly psychosocial, biomechanical, and occupational) may be more relevant. Should multiple stakeholders be involved in such interventions, enhanced interprofessional collaboration would be critical to ensure the delivery of coordinated care. Finally, in the third study, the prevalence of psychosocial comorbidity in chronic LBP patients was not found to be significantly higher than in other patients consulting in primary care. Rather than specifically screening for psychosocial conditions, this
Ramond-Roquin, Aline; Bouton, Céline; Bègue, Cyril; Petit, Audrey; Roquelaure, Yves; Huez, Jean-François
Non-specific low back pain (LBP) affects many people and has major socio-economic consequences. Traditional therapeutic strategies, mainly focused on biomechanical factors, have had moderate and short-term impact. Certain psychosocial factors have been linked to poor prognosis of LBP and they are increasingly considered as promising targets for management of LBP. Primary health care providers (HCPs) are involved in most of the management of people with LBP and they are skilled in providing comprehensive care, including consideration of psychosocial dimensions. This review aims to discuss three pieces of recent research focusing on psychosocial issues in LBP patients in primary care. In the first systematic review, the patients’ or HCPs’ overall judgment about the likely evolution of LBP was the factor most strongly linked to poor outcome, with predictive validity similar to that of multidimensional scales. This result may be explained by the implicit aggregation of many prognostic factors underlying this judgment and suggests the relevance of considering the patients from biopsychosocial and longitudinal points of view. The second review showed that most of the interventions targeting psychosocial factors in LBP in primary care have to date focused on the cognitive-behavioral factors, resulting in little impact. It is unlikely that any intervention focusing on a single factor would ever fit the needs of most patients; interventions targeting determinants from several fields (mainly psychosocial, biomechanical, and occupational) may be more relevant. Should multiple stakeholders be involved in such interventions, enhanced interprofessional collaboration would be critical to ensure the delivery of coordinated care. Finally, in the third study, the prevalence of psychosocial comorbidity in chronic LBP patients was not found to be significantly higher than in other patients consulting in primary care. Rather than specifically screening for psychosocial conditions
Ng, Chung Wai Mark; How, Choon How; Ng, Yin Ping
Major depression is a common condition seen in the primary care setting. This article describes the suicide risk assessment of a depressed patient, including practical aspects of history-taking, consideration of factors in deciding if a patient requires immediate transfer for inpatient care and measures to be taken if the patient is not hospitalised. It follows on our earlier article about the approach to management of depression in primary care. PMID:28210741
Fernandez, Rafael; Tizon, Ana-Isabel; Gonzalez, Javier; Monedero, Pablo; Garcia-Sanchez, Manuela; de-la-Torre, Ma-Victoria; Ibañez, Pedro; Frutos, Fernando; del-Nogal, Frutos; Gomez, Ma-Jesus; Marcos, Alfredo; Hernández, Gonzalo
To analyze the impact of decannulation before intensive care unit discharge on ward survival in nonexperimental conditions. Prospective, observational survey. Thirty-one intensive care units throughout Spain. All patients admitted from March 1, 2008 to May 31, 2008. None. At intensive care unit discharge, we recorded demographic variables, severity score, and intensive care unit treatments, with special attention to tracheostomy. After intensive care unit discharge, we recorded intensive care unit readmission and hospital survival. Multivariate analyses for ward mortality, with Cox proportional hazard ratio adjusted for propensity score for intensive care unit decannulation. We included 4,132 patients, 1,996 of whom needed mechanical ventilation. Of these, 260 (13%) were tracheostomized and 59 (23%) died in the intensive care unit. Of the 201 intensive care unit tracheostomized survivors, 60 were decannulated in the intensive care unit and 141 were discharged to the ward with cannulae in place. Variables associated with intensive care unit decannulation (non-neurologic disease [85% vs. 64%], vasoactive drugs [90% vs. 76%], parenteral nutrition [55% vs. 33%], acute renal failure [37% vs. 23%], and good prognosis at intensive care unit discharge [40% vs. 18%]) were included in a propensity score model for decannulation. Crude ward mortality was similar in decannulated and nondecannulated patients (22% vs. 23%); however, after adjustment for the propensity score and Sabadell Score, the presence of a tracheostomy cannula was not associated with any survival disadvantage with an odds ratio of 0.6 [0.3-1.2] (p=.1). In our multicenter setting, intensive care unit discharge before decannulation is not a risk factor.
Beesley, Vanessa L; Rowlands, Ingrid J; Hayes, Sandi C; Janda, Monika; O'Rourke, Peter; Marquart, Louise; Quinn, Michael A; Spurdle, Amanda B; Obermair, Andreas; Brand, Alison; Oehler, Martin K; Leung, Yee; McQuire, Lesley; Webb, Penelope M
Few studies have assessed the risk and impact of lymphedema among women treated for endometrial cancer. We aimed to quantify cumulative incidence of, and risk factors for developing lymphedema following treatment for endometrial cancer and estimate absolute risk for individuals. Further, we report unmet needs for help with lymphedema-specific issues. Women treated for endometrial cancer (n = 1243) were followed-up 3-5 years after diagnosis; a subset of 643 completed a follow-up survey that asked about lymphedema and lymphedema-related support needs. We identified a diagnosis of secondary lymphedema from medical records or self-report. Multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate risk factors and estimates. Overall, 13% of women developed lymphedema. Risk varied markedly with the number of lymph nodes removed and, to a lesser extent, receipt of adjuvant radiation or chemotherapy treatment, and use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (pre-diagnosis). The absolute risk of developing lymphedema was >50% for women with 15+ nodes removed and 2-3 additional risk factors, 30-41% for those with 15+ nodes removed plus 0-1 risk factors or 6-14 nodes removed plus 3 risk factors, but ≤ 8% for women with no nodes removed or 1-5 nodes but no additional risk factors. Over half (55%) of those who developed lymphedema reported unmet need(s), particularly with lymphedema-related costs and pain. Lymphedema is common; experienced by one in eight women following endometrial cancer. Women who have undergone lymphadenectomy have very high risks of lymphedema and should be informed how to self-monitor for symptoms. Affected women need greater levels of support. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol
Background Early diagnosis of cancer could improve survival so better tools are needed. Aim To derive an algorithm to estimate absolute risks of different types of cancer in men incorporating multiple symptoms and risk factors. Design and setting Cohort study using data from 452 UK QResearch® general practices for development and 224 for validation. Method Included patients were males aged 25–89 years. The primary outcome was incident diagnosis of cancer over the next 2 years (lung, colorectal, gastro-oesophageal, pancreatic, renal, blood, prostate, testicular, other cancer). Factors examined were: ‘red flag’ symptoms such as weight loss, abdominal distension, abdominal pain, indigestion, dysphagia, abnormal bleeding, lumps; general symptoms such as tiredness, constipation; and risk factors including age, family history, smoking, alcohol intake, deprivation score and medical conditions. Multinomial logistic regression was used to develop a risk equation to predict cancer type. Performance was tested on a separate validation cohort. Results There were 22 521 cancers from 1 263 071 males in the derivation cohort. The final model included risk factors (age, BMI, chronic pancreatitis, COPD, diabetes, family history, alcohol, smoking, deprivation); 22 symptoms, anaemia and venous thrombo-embolism. The model was well calibrated with good discrimination. The receiver operator curve statistics values were: lung (0.92), colorectal (0.92), gastro-oesophageal (0.93), pancreas (0.89), renal (0.94), prostate (0.90) blood (0.83, testis (0.82); other cancers (0.86). The 10% of males with the highest risks contained 59% of all cancers diagnosed over 2 years. Conclusion The algorithm has good discrimination and could be used to identify those at highest risk of cancer to facilitate more timely referral and investigation. PMID:23336443
Hippisley-Cox, Julia; Coupland, Carol
Background Early diagnosis of cancer could improve survival so better tools are needed. Aim To derive an algorithm to estimate absolute risks of different types of cancer in women incorporating multiple symptoms and risk factors. Design and setting Cohort study using data from 452 UK QResearch® general practices for development and 224 for validation. Method Included patients were females aged 25–89 years. The primary outcome was incident diagnosis of cancer over the next 2 years (lung, colorectal, gastro-oesophageal, pancreatic, ovarian, renal tract, breast, blood, uterine, cervix, other). Factors examined were: ‘red flag’ symptoms including weight loss, abdominal pain, indigestion, dysphagia, abnormal bleeding, lumps; general symptoms including tiredness, constipation; and risk factors including age, family history, smoking, alcohol intake, deprivation, body mass index (BMI), and medical conditions. Multinomial logistic regression was used to develop a risk equation to predict cancer type. Performance was tested on a separate validation cohort. Results There were 23 216 cancers from 1 240 864 females in the derivation cohort. The final model included risk factors (age, BMI, chronic pancreatitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes, family history, alcohol, smoking, deprivation); 23 symptoms, anaemia and venous thrombo-embolism. The model was well calibrated with good discrimination. The receiver operating curve statistics were lung (0.91), colorectal (0.89), gastro-oesophageal (0.90), pancreas (0.87), ovary (0.84), renal (0.90), breast (0.88), blood (0.79), uterus (0.91), cervix (0.73), other cancer (0.82). The 10% of females with the highest risks contained 54% of all cancers diagnosed over 2 years. Conclusion The algorithm has good discrimination and could be used to identify those at highest risk of cancer to facilitate more timely referral and investigation. PMID:23336450
Ell, Kathleen; Katon, Wayne; Lee, Pey-Jiuan; Guterman, Jeffrey; Wu, Shinyi
Identify biopsychosocial factors associated with depression for patients with Type 2 diabetes. A quasi-experimental clinical trial of 1293 patients was predominantly Hispanic (91%) female (62%), mean age 53 and average diabetes duration 10 years; 373 (29%) patients were depressed and assessed by Patient Health Questionnaire-9. Demographic, baseline clinical and psychosocial variables were compared between depressed and nondepressed patients. Bivariate analyses found depression significantly associated (p<0.05) with female gender, diabetes emotional burden and regimen distress, BMI ≥ 30, lack of an A1C test, diabetes duration, poor self-care, number of diabetes symptoms and complications, functional and physical characteristics (pain, self-rated health condition, Short-Form Health Survey SF-physical, disability score and comorbid illnesses), as well as higher number of ICD-9 diagnoses and emergency room use. A multivariable regression model with stepwise selection identified six key risk factors: greater disability, diabetes symptoms and regimen distress, female gender, less diabetes self-care and lack of A1C. In addition, after controlling for identified six factors, the number of psychosocial stressors significantly associated with increased risk of depression (adjusted odds ratio=1.37, 95% confidence intervals: 1.18-1.58, p<.0001). Knowing biopsychosocial factors could help primary care physicians and endocrinologists identify a high-risk group of patients needing depression screening. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Harb, Birgit M; Wonisch, Manfred; Brandt, Dieter; Müller, Rudolf
Initiation of a long-term improvement of cardiac risk factors is one of the major aims of a cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programme. The Health Guide collected data in terms of cardiac risk factors: blood pressure, resting pulse, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, body weight, physical activity and number of cigarettes at admission and discharge after a stationary rehabilitation programme and every 3 months. After 12 months the Health Guides were returned. In the prospective study 2664 patients (71.8% men, age: MV = 62.94 years, SD = 9.96; 28% women, MV = 67.59 years, SD = 9.53) with coronary heart disease (CHD) were included. All cardiac risk factors documented by the Health Guide improved during the cardiac rehabilitation programme. After one year, risk factors were significantly lower than at admission, apart from total cholesterol. The individual goal in terms of body weight and LDL cholesterol was partially achieved after the rehabilitation programme and maintained after one year. In the investigation years, 2004-2007, the cholesterol and blood pressure were significantly lower than in the years 2000-2003. The use of a Health Guide resulted in an improved long-term effect of a cardiac rehabilitation/secondary prevention programme. It is a simple and cheap intervention and can help in the guidance of the patients.
Luz Rentero, Maria; Carbonell, Cristina; Casillas, Marta; González Béjar, Milagros; Berenguer, Rafael
Osteoporosis (OP) is a major, highly prevalent health problem and osteoporosis-related fractures account for high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prevention and early detection of osteoporosis should strive to substantially reduce this risk of fracture. The present observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study sought to assess the prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures in a large sample of postmenopausal women aged 50 to 65 years attending Primary Care facilities in Spain. We recruited 4,960 women, at 96 Primary Care centers. Demographic and anthropometrical data, as well as information regarding risk factors for OP were collected using a questionnaire. the prevalence rates for the major osteoporosis risk factors in our population were: low calcium intake, 43%; benzodiazepine use, 35.1%, and height loss, 30.1%. Other relatively prevalent factors include: having suffered at least one fall during the preceding year; positive family history of falls (particularly on the mother's side), smoking, kyphosis, presence of any disease affecting bone metabolism, personal history of falls, and inability to rise from a chair without using one's arms. The least frequent factors were weight loss of greater than 10% over the preceding 10 years and problems in sensory perception that affect patient's ability to walk. The main risk factors for osteoporosis in women 50-65 years of age are low calcium intake, use of benzodiazepines, and observed loss of height. Our results may help physicians to identify groups at risk for OP and fractures at early stages and consequently, optimize prevention and early diagnosis of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.
Luz Rentero, Maria; Carbonell, Cristina; Casillas, Marta; González Béjar, Milagros; Berenguer, Rafael
Introduction Osteoporosis (OP) is a major, highly prevalent health problem and osteoporosis-related fractures account for high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, prevention and early detection of osteoporosis should strive to substantially reduce this risk of fracture. Objective The present observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study sought to assess the prevalence of risk factors for osteoporosis and fractures in a large sample of postmenopausal women aged 50 to 65 years attending Primary Care facilities in Spain. Methods We recruited 4,960 women, at 96 Primary Care centers. Demographic and anthropometrical data, as well as information regarding risk factors for OP were collected using a questionnaire. Results The prevalence rates for the major osteoporosis risk factors in our population were: low calcium intake, 43%; benzodiazepine use, 35.1%, and height loss, 30.1%. Other relatively prevalent factors include: having suffered at least one fall during the preceding year; positive family history of falls (particularly on the mother’s side), smoking, kyphosis, presence of any disease affecting bone metabolism, personal history of falls, and inability to rise from a chair without using one’s arms. The least frequent factors were weight loss of greater than 10% over the preceding 10 years and problems in sensory perception that affect patient’s ability to walk. Conclusions The main risk factors for osteoporosis in women 50-65 years of age are low calcium intake, use of benzodiazepines, and observed loss of height. Our results may help physicians to identify groups at risk for OP and fractures at early stages and consequently, optimize prevention and early diagnosis of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. PMID:19088873
Borg, Sixten; Palaszewski, Bo; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Ödegaard, Fredrik; Roos, Pontus; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia
Diabetes is one of the chronic diseases that constitute the greatest disease burden in the world. The Swedish National Diabetes Register is an essential part of the diabetes care system. Currently it mainly records clinical outcomes, but here we describe how it has started to collect patient-reported outcome measures, complementing the standard registry data on clinical outcomes as a basis for evaluating diabetes care. Our aims were to develop a questionnaire to measure patient abilities and judgments of their experience of diabetes care, to describe a Swedish diabetes patient sample in terms of their abilities, judgments, and risk factors, and to characterize groups of patients with a need for improvement. Patient abilities and judgments were estimated using item response theory. Analyzing them together with standard risk factors for diabetes comorbidities showed that the different types of data describe different aspects of a patient’s situation. These aspects occasionally overlap, but not in any particularly useful way. They both provide important information to decision makers, and neither is necessarily more relevant than the other. Both should therefore be considered, to achieve a more complete evaluation of diabetes care and to promote person-centered care. PMID:25431875
Borg, Sixten; Palaszewski, Bo; Gerdtham, Ulf-G; Fredrik, Odegaard; Roos, Pontus; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia
Diabetes is one of the chronic diseases that constitute the greatest disease burden in the world. The Swedish National Diabetes Register is an essential part of the diabetes care system. Currently it mainly records clinical outcomes, but here we describe how it has started to collect patient-reported outcome measures, complementing the standard registry data on clinical outcomes as a basis for evaluating diabetes care. Our aims were to develop a questionnaire to measure patient abilities and judgments of their experience of diabetes care, to describe a Swedish diabetes patient sample in terms of their abilities, judgments, and risk factors, and to characterize groups of patients with a need for improvement. Patient abilities and judgments were estimated using item response theory. Analyzing them together with standard risk factors for diabetes comorbidities showed that the different types of data describe different aspects of a patient's situation. These aspects occasionally overlap, but not in any particularly useful way. They both provide important information to decision makers, and neither is necessarily more relevant than the other. Both should therefore be considered, to achieve a more complete evaluation of diabetes care and to promote person-centered care.
Callejo-Torre, Fernando; Eiros Bouza, Jose Maria; Olaechea Astigarraga, Pedro; Coma Del Corral, Maria Jesus; Palomar Martínez, Mercedes; Alvarez-Lerma, Francisco; López-Pueyo, Maria Jesús
Predicting methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in intensive care units (ICUs) avoids inappropriate antimicrobial empirical treatment and enhances infection control. We describe risk factors for colonisation/infection related to MRSA (MRSA-C/I) in critically ill patients once in the ICU and on ICU admission, and search for an easy-to-use predictive model for MRSA colonisation/infection on ICU admission. This multicentre cohort study included 69,894 patients admitted consecutively (stay>24h) in April-June in the five-year period 2006-2010 from 147 Spanish ICUs participating in the National Surveillance Study of Nosocomial Infections in ICUs (ENVIN-HELICS). Data from all patients included were used to identify risk factors for MRSA-C/I during ICU stays, from admission to discharge, using uni- and multivariable analysis (Poisson regression) to check that the sample to be used to develop the predictive models was representative of standard critical care population. To identify risk factors for MRSA-C/I on ICU admission and to develop prediction models, multivariable logistic regression analysis were then performed only on those admitted in 2010 (n=16950, 2/3 for analysis and 1/3 for subsequent validation). We found that, in the period 2006-2010, 1046 patients were MRSA-C/I. Independent risk factors for MRSA-C/I in ICU were: age>65, trauma or medical patient, high APACHE-II score, admitted from a long-term care facility, urinary catheter, previous antibiotic treatment and skin-soft tissue or post-surgical superficial skin infections. Colonisation with several different MDRs significantly increased the risk of MRSA-C/I. Risk factors on ICU admission were: male gender, trauma critical patient, urgent surgery, admitted from other ICUs, hospital ward or long-term facility, immunosuppression and skin-soft tissue infection. Although the best model to identify carriers of MRSA had a good discrimination (AUC-ROC, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.72-0.82), sensitivity was 67% and
Reves, R R; Fong, M; Pickering, L K; Bartlett, A; Alvarez, M; Murray, B E
In a previous study, we found fecal colonization with multiresistant Escherichia coli exhibiting high-level trimethoprim resistance in 19% of diapered children attending six day-care centers in Houston, Tex. To examine the potential risk factors associated with this finding, we conducted cross-sectional studies among 203 children attending 12 day-care centers, 51 children attending a well-child clinic (controls), and 64 medical students. The prevalence of fecal colonization with trimethoprim-resistant E. coli among children attending day-care centers (30%) was higher (P less than 0.001) than among control children (6%) or medical students (8%). The prevalence of colonization among the children attending the 12 centers ranged from 0 to 59% and was correlated with the number of diapered children enrolled (r = 0.73; P less than 0.01). In a case control study among the day-care center children, significant risk factors were an age of less than 12 months and attendance at a center with an enrollment of over 40 diapered children (odds ratios of 2.2 and 3.5, respectively); ethnicity, duration of attendance, and prior antibiotic administration were not associated with colonization. Plasmid analysis of 60 of the day-care center strains revealed 22 profiles, each of which was unique to a given day-care center. Transmission and carriage of trimethoprim-resistant strains for as long as 6 months was documented in one center studied on three occasions. Given the documented transmission of enteric pathogens among diapered children attending day-care centers and their spread into family members, it is likely that day-care centers are an important community reservoir of plasmid-associated antibiotic-resistant E. coli. PMID:2201257
Reves, R R; Fong, M; Pickering, L K; Bartlett, A; Alvarez, M; Murray, B E
In a previous study, we found fecal colonization with multiresistant Escherichia coli exhibiting high-level trimethoprim resistance in 19% of diapered children attending six day-care centers in Houston, Tex. To examine the potential risk factors associated with this finding, we conducted cross-sectional studies among 203 children attending 12 day-care centers, 51 children attending a well-child clinic (controls), and 64 medical students. The prevalence of fecal colonization with trimethoprim-resistant E. coli among children attending day-care centers (30%) was higher (P less than 0.001) than among control children (6%) or medical students (8%). The prevalence of colonization among the children attending the 12 centers ranged from 0 to 59% and was correlated with the number of diapered children enrolled (r = 0.73; P less than 0.01). In a case control study among the day-care center children, significant risk factors were an age of less than 12 months and attendance at a center with an enrollment of over 40 diapered children (odds ratios of 2.2 and 3.5, respectively); ethnicity, duration of attendance, and prior antibiotic administration were not associated with colonization. Plasmid analysis of 60 of the day-care center strains revealed 22 profiles, each of which was unique to a given day-care center. Transmission and carriage of trimethoprim-resistant strains for as long as 6 months was documented in one center studied on three occasions. Given the documented transmission of enteric pathogens among diapered children attending day-care centers and their spread into family members, it is likely that day-care centers are an important community reservoir of plasmid-associated antibiotic-resistant E. coli.
Divala, Oscar H; Amberbir, Alemayehu; Ismail, Zahra; Beyene, Teferi; Garone, Daniela; Pfaff, Colin; Singano, Victor; Akello, Harriet; Joshua, Martias; Nyirenda, Moffat J; Matengeni, Alfred; Berman, Josh; Mallewa, Jane; Chinomba, Gift S; Kayange, Noel; Allain, Theresa J; Chan, Adrienne K; Sodhi, Sumeet K; van Oosterhout, Joep J
Hypertension and diabetes prevalence is high in Africans. Data from HIV infected populations are limited, especially from Malawi. Integrating care for chronic non-communicable co-morbidities in well-established HIV services may provide benefit for patients by preventing multiple hospital visits but will increase the burden of care for busy HIV clinics. Cross-sectional study of adults (≥18 years) at an urban and a rural HIV clinic in Zomba district, Malawi, during 2014. Hypertension and diabetes were diagnosed according to stringent criteria. Proteinuria, non-fasting lipids and cardio/cerebro-vascular disease (CVD) risk scores (Framingham and World Health Organization/International Society for Hypertension) were determined. The association of patient characteristics with diagnoses of hypertension and diabetes was studied using multivariable analyses. We explored the additional burden of care for integrated drug treatment of hypertension and diabetes in HIV clinics. We defined that burden as patients with diabetes and/or stage II and III hypertension, but not with stage I hypertension unless they had proteinuria, previous stroke or high Framingham CVD risk. Nine hundred fifty-two patients were enrolled, 71.7% female, median age 43.0 years, 95.9% on antiretroviral therapy (ART), median duration 47.7 months. Rural and urban patients' characteristics differed substantially. Hypertension prevalence was 23.7% (95%-confidence interval 21.1-26.6; rural 21.0% vs. urban 26.5%; p = 0.047), of whom 59.9% had stage I (mild) hypertension. Diabetes prevalence was 4.1% (95%-confidence interval 3.0-5.6) without significant difference between rural and urban settings. Prevalence of proteinuria, elevated total/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio and high CVD risk score was low. Hypertension diagnosis was associated with increasing age, higher body mass index, presence of proteinuria, being on regimen zidovudine/lamivudine/nevirapine and inversely with World Health
Demoule, Alexandre; Jung, Boris; Prodanovic, Hélène; Molinari, Nicolas; Chanques, Gerald; Coirault, Catherine; Matecki, Stefan; Duguet, Alexandre; Similowski, Thomas; Jaber, Samir
Diaphragmatic insults occurring during intensive care unit (ICU) stays have become the focus of intense research. However, diaphragmatic abnormalities at the initial phase of critical illness remain poorly documented in humans. To determine the incidence, risk factors, and prognostic impact of diaphragmatic impairment on ICU admission. Prospective, 6-month, observational cohort study in two ICUs. Mechanically ventilated patients were studied within 24 hours after intubation (Day 1) and 48 hours later (Day 3). Seventeen anesthetized intubated control anesthesia patients were also studied. The diaphragm was assessed by twitch tracheal pressure in response to bilateral anterior magnetic phrenic nerve stimulation (Ptr,stim). Eighty-five consecutive patients aged 62 (54-75) (median [interquartile range]) were evaluated (medical admission, 79%; Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, 54 [44-68]). On Day 1, Ptr,stim was 8.2 (5.9-12.3) cm H2O and 64% of patients had Ptr,stim less than 11 cm H2O. Independent predictors of low Ptr,stim were sepsis (linear regression coefficient, -3.74; standard error, 1.16; P = 0.002) and Simplified Acute Physiology Score II (linear regression coefficient, -0.07; standard error, 1.69; P = 0.03). Compared with nonsurvivors, ICU survivors had higher Ptr,stim (9.7 [6.3-13.8] vs. 7.3 [5.5-9.7] cm H2O; P = 0.004). This was also true for hospital survivors versus nonsurvivors (9.7 [6.3-13.5] vs. 7.8 [5.5-10.1] cm H2O; P = 0.004). Day 1 and Day 3 Ptr,stim were similar. A reduced capacity of the diaphragm to produce inspiratory pressure (diaphragm dysfunction) is frequent on ICU admission. It is associated with sepsis and disease severity, suggesting that it may represent another form of organ failure. It is associated with a poor prognosis. Clinical trial registered with www.clinicaltrials.gov (NCT 00786526).
Vinagre, Irene; Mata-Cases, Manel; Hermosilla, Eduard; Morros, Rosa; Fina, Francesc; Rosell, Magdalena; Castell, Conxa; Franch-Nadal, Josep; Bolíbar, Bonaventura; Mauricio, Didac
The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and levels of glycemic and cardiovascular risk factor control in patients with type 2 diabetes that are in primary health care centers in Catalonia (Spain). This was a cross-sectional study of a total population of 3,755,038 individuals aged 31-90 years at the end of 2009. Clinical data were obtained retrospectively from electronic clinical records. A total of 286,791 patients with type 2 diabetes were identified (7.6%). Fifty-four percent were men, mean (SD) age was 68.2 (11.4) years, and mean duration of disease was 6.5 (5.1) years. The mean (SD) A1C value was 7.15 (1.5)%, and 56% of the patients had A1C values ≤7%. The mean (SD) blood pressure (BP) values were 137.2 (13.8)/76.4 (8.3) mmHg, mean total cholesterol concentration was 192 (38.6) mg/dL, mean HDL cholesterol concentration was 49.3 (13.2) mg/dL, mean LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration was 112.5 (32.4) mg/dL, and mean BMI was 29.6 (5) kg/m(2). Thirty-one percent of the patients had BP values ≤130/80 mmHg, 37.9% had LDL-C values ≤100 mg/dL, and 45.4% had BMI values ≤30 kg/m(2). Twenty-two percent were managed exclusively with lifestyle changes. Regarding medicated diabetic patients, 46.9, 22.9, and 2.8% were prescribed one, two, or three antidiabetic drugs, respectively, and 23.4% received insulin therapy. The results from this study indicate a similar or improved control of glycemia, lipids, and BP in patients with type 2 diabetes when compared with previous studies performed in Spain and elsewhere.
Vinagre, Irene; Mata-Cases, Manel; Hermosilla, Eduard; Morros, Rosa; Fina, Francesc; Rosell, Magdalena; Castell, Conxa; Franch-Nadal, Josep; Bolíbar, Bonaventura; Mauricio, Didac
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to analyze the clinical characteristics and levels of glycemic and cardiovascular risk factor control in patients with type 2 diabetes that are in primary health care centers in Catalonia (Spain). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This was a cross-sectional study of a total population of 3,755,038 individuals aged 31–90 years at the end of 2009. Clinical data were obtained retrospectively from electronic clinical records. RESULTS A total of 286,791 patients with type 2 diabetes were identified (7.6%). Fifty-four percent were men, mean (SD) age was 68.2 (11.4) years, and mean duration of disease was 6.5 (5.1) years. The mean (SD) A1C value was 7.15 (1.5)%, and 56% of the patients had A1C values ≤7%. The mean (SD) blood pressure (BP) values were 137.2 (13.8)/76.4 (8.3) mmHg, mean total cholesterol concentration was 192 (38.6) mg/dL, mean HDL cholesterol concentration was 49.3 (13.2) mg/dL, mean LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) concentration was 112.5 (32.4) mg/dL, and mean BMI was 29.6 (5) kg/m2. Thirty-one percent of the patients had BP values ≤130/80 mmHg, 37.9% had LDL-C values ≤100 mg/dL, and 45.4% had BMI values ≤30 kg/m2. Twenty-two percent were managed exclusively with lifestyle changes. Regarding medicated diabetic patients, 46.9, 22.9, and 2.8% were prescribed one, two, or three antidiabetic drugs, respectively, and 23.4% received insulin therapy. CONCLUSIONS The results from this study indicate a similar or improved control of glycemia, lipids, and BP in patients with type 2 diabetes when compared with previous studies performed in Spain and elsewhere. PMID:22344609
Santa-Helena, Ernani Tiaraju de; Nemes, Maria Ines Battistella; Eluf Neto, José
In order to estimate the prevalence of treatment non-adherence and associated factors among individuals with systemic arterial hypertension treated at family health care facilities, a cross-sectional study was performed with 595 patients. The dependent variable non-adherence was measured with a Medication Adherence Questionnaire (MAQ). A hierarchical logistic regression model was used to analyze socioeconomic, health care-related, personal, and treatment-related variables. Prevalence of non-adherence was 53%. Variables associated with non-adherence were: (1) socioeconomic--belonging to economic classes C, D, or E; work market participation in unskilled labor; (2) health care--out-of-pocket payment for medication; more than six months since last physician consultation; and (3) personal and treatment characteristics--previous interruption of treatment; being on treatment for less than three years; and presence of a common mental disorder. The study of determinants of non-adherence articulated in a hierarchical model suggests that social inequalities are either directly associated with non-adherence or mediated by personal and health services factors.
Gleeson, Aoife; Larkin, Philip; Walsh, Cathal; O'Sullivan, Niamh
Little is known about the impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in palliative care settings. To date, the clinical impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in palliative care is unknown. To determine prevalence and incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation in a specialist palliative care setting, to identify risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation, to determine the eradication success rate and to determine the impact of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus on survival. Prospective cohort study. Data were collected for consecutive admissions to an inpatient palliative care service. Patients were screened for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation on admission and 1 week post admission. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus eradication was attempted in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus positive patients. Data were collected from 609 admissions for 466 individual patients. Admission screening data were available in 95.5%. Prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation was 11.59% (54 patients). One week incidence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation was 1.2%. Risk factors for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonisation were determined using Chi-Squared test and included high Waterlow score (p < 0.01), high palliative performance scale score (p < 0.01), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus status prior to admission (p < 0.01), admission from hospital (p < 0.05), presence of urinary catheter or percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube (p < 0.05) and poor dietary intake (p < 0.05). Regression analysis did not identify independent risk factors. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was eradicated in 8.1% of admissions, while 46 patients commenced on the protocol (62.2%) died before completing it. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus did
Pang, Junxiong; Thein, Tun-Linn; Leo, Yee-Sin; Lye, David C
Dengue infection can result in severe clinical manifestations requiring intensive care. Effective triage is critical for early clinical management to reduce morbidity and mortality. However, there is limited knowledge on early risk factors of intensive care unit (ICU) requirement. This study aims to identify early clinical and laboratory risk factors of ICU requirement at first presentation in hospital and 24 hours prior to ICU requirement. A retrospective 1:4 matched case-control study was performed with 27 dengue patients who required ICU, and 108 dengue patients who did not require ICU from year 2004-2008, matched by year of dengue presentation. Univariate and multivariate conditional logistic regression were performed. Optimal predictive models were generated with statistically significant risk factors identified using stepwise forward and backward elimination method. ICU dengue patients were significantly older (P=0.003) and had diabetes (P=0.031), compared with non-ICU dengue patients. There were seven deaths among ICU patients at median seven days post fever. At first presentation, the WHO 2009 classification of dengue severity was significantly associated (P<0.001) with ICU, but not the WHO 1997 classification. Early clinical risk factors at presentation associated with ICU requirement were hematocrit change ≥20% concurrent with platelet <50 K [95% confidence-interval (CI)=2.46-30.53], hypoproteinemia (95% CI=1.09-19.74), hypotension (95% CI=1.83-31.79) and severe organ involvement (95% CI=3.30-331). Early laboratory risk factors at presentation were neutrophil proportion (95% CI=1.04-1.17), serum urea (95% CI=1.02-1.56) and alanine aminotransferase level (95% CI=1.001-1.06). This predictive model has sensitivity and specificity up to 88%. Early laboratory risk factors at 24 hours prior to ICU were lymphocyte (95% CI=1.03-1.38) and monocyte proportions (95% CI=1.02-1.78), pulse rate (95% CI=1.002-1.14) and blood pressure (95% CI=0.92-0.996). This
Scheer, Bernd Volker; Perel, Azriel; Pfeiffer, Ulrich J
In order to evaluate the complications and risk factors associated with peripheral arterial catheters used for haemodynamic monitoring, we reviewed the literature published from 1978 to 2001. We closely examined the three most commonly used arterial cannulation sites. The reviewed papers included a total of 19,617 radial, 3899 femoral and 1989 axillary artery catheterizations. Factors that contribute to higher complication rates were investigated. Major complications occurred in fewer than 1% of the cases, and rates were similar for the radial, femoral and axillary arteries. We conclude that arterial cannulation is a safe procedure. PMID:12133178
Zubair, Mohammad; Malik, Abida; Ahmad, Jamal
Aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and risk factors for amputation among patients with diabetic foot ulcer (DFU). We performed a prospective study of 162 DFU in patients treated in a multidisciplinary based diabetes and endocrinology centre of Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College of Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh, India during the period of December 2008-March 2011. Detailed history and physical examination was carried out for every subject. Risk factors for amputation were determined by univariate analysis with 95% of CI. The overall amputation rate was 28.4%. On univariate analysis, male sex [OR 2.8, RR 1.28], hypertension [OR 2.83, RR 1.31], neuropathy [OR 3.01, RR 1.35], nephropathy [OR 2.24, RR 1.26], LDL-C (>100mg/dl) [OR 2.53, RR 1.28], total cholesterol (>150mg/dl) [OR 3.74, RR 1.52],HDLC(<40mg/dl) [OR 1.19, RR 1.18], triglycerides (>200mg/dl) [OR 5.44, RR1.76], previous antibiotic use [OR 9.12, RR 1.92], osteomyelitis [OR 6.97, RR 2.43] and biofilm infection [OR 4.52, RR 1.41] were significant risk factors. The risk factors for amputation were presence of PVD, leukocytosis, neuropathy, nephropathy, hypertension, dyslipidemia, over use of antibiotics, osteomyelitis, biofilm production and higher grade of ulcer. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Caballería, Llorenç; Auladell, Ma Antonia; Torán, Pere; Pera, Guillem; Miranda, Dolores; Alumà, Alba; Casas, José Dario; Muñoz, Laura; Sanchez, Carmen; Tibau, Albert; Birules, Marti; Canut, Santiago; Bernad, Jesús; Aubà, Josep; Aizpurua, Miren Maite; Alcaraz, Enriqueta
Background Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFL) consists in the accumulation of fat vacuoles in the cytoplasm of hepatocytes. Many etiologic factors are associated with NAFL, such as, the metabolic syndrome factors, medications, bariatric surgery, nutritional disorders. However, very little information is available on the clinical relevance of this disorder as a health problem in the general population. Methods and design The aim of the study is establish the risk factors most frequently associated with NAFL in a general adult population assigned to the primary care units and to investigate the relationship between each component of the metabolic syndrome and the risk of having a NAFL. A population based case-control, observational and multicenter study will be carried out in 18 primary care units from the "Area de Gestión del Barcelonés Nord y Maresme" (Barcelona) attending a population of 360,000 inhabitants and will include 326 cases and 370 controls. Cases are defined as all subjects fulfilling the inclusion criteria and with evidence of fatty liver in an abdominal ultrasonography performed for any reason. One control will be randomly selected for each case from the population, matched for age, gender and primary care center. Controls with fatty liver or other liver diseases will be excluded. All cases and controls will be asked about previous hepatic diseases, consumption of alcohol, smoking and drugs, and a physical examination, biochemical analyses including liver function tests, the different components of the metabolic syndrome and the HAIR score will also be performed. Paired controls will also undergo an abdominal ultrasonography. Discussion This study will attempt to determine the factors most frequently associated with the presence of NAFL investigate the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and the risk of fatty liver and study the influence of the different primary care professionals in avoiding the evolution of the disease. PMID
Sifuentes Alvarez, A; Reyes Romero, Miguel
In codon 72 of the p53 antioncogene there are two alleles, arginine and proline; the arg/arg genotype has recently been identified as a risk factor for developing of cervicouterine cancer (CuCa) associated to human papillomavirus (HVP) infection. The aim of this work was to determine in a sample of women the frequency of proline-arginine alleles and genotypes of p53 codon 72. The study was conducted in a sample of inpatient women at the hospital. p53 codon 72 alleles were determined in genomic ADN by amplification of specific sequences by chi 2 test. From 102 analyzed samples, p53-arginine allele corresponded to 67.64% and p53-proline allele corresponded to 32.36%; 47 women (46.10%) were arg/arg homocygotes, 11 women (10.77%) were pro/pro homocygotes, 44 women (43.13%) were arg/pro heterocigotes; the genotype distribution was within the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The detection of a high percentage of arginine homocygotes suggests that this genotype, considered as a risk factor for cancer associated to oncogenic HPV, has a high prevalence in the north of Mexico. The determination of this kind of polymorphisms is important as preventive action with regard to identification of risk factors for CaCu associated to HPV infection.
Background The key management strategy for established coronary heart disease (CHD) patients is to control the underlying risk factors. Further complications will be reduced when these risk factors are treated-to-target (TTT) as recommended by clinical practice guidelines. These targets include blood pressure (BP) lower than 130/80 mm Hg and LDL-cholesterol of less than 2.6 mmol/L and for those with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM), HBA1c less than 7%. This article aimed to explore the issues affecting this approach from both the patients' and primary care physicians' (PCP) perspectives. Methods The study involved triangulation of research methods to determine the findings. Part A: focus group discussions to collect qualitative data from patients with CHD and from PCPs who were managing them in primary care. Part B: A subsequent questionnaire survey to determine the extent of their awareness of treatment targets for modifiable risk factors. Results CHD patients had variable awareness of the modifiable risk factors for CHD due to poor concordance between the PCPs' approach in managing the CHD patients and the latter's reception of information. 46% of participants knew their targets of BP control correctly; 11% of them were correct in stating their target for LDL-cholesterol control. Amongst these participants with DM (n = 146), 27% of them were correct in indicating their target of diabetic control. Conclusions Communication and practice barriers exist which hinder the treat-to-target approach in mitigating the risk factors for CHD patients. Incorporating this approach in routine clinical practice by PCPs has greater potential to achieve treatment targets for patients. PMID:21936960
Mittendorfer-Rutz, Ellenor; Härkänen, Tommi; Tiihonen, Jari; Haukka, Jari
Background Depression ranges among the leading causes of early exit from the labor market worldwide. We aimed to investigate the associations of socio-demographic factors, sickness absence, health care and prescription patterns with the risk of being granted a disability pension in psychiatric outpatients with depression. Methods All non-retired patients aged 18–60 years and living in Sweden 31.12.2005 with at least one psychiatric outpatient care visit due to a depressive episode during 2006 (N = 18034): were followed from 01.01.2007 to 31.12.2010 with regard to granting of all-cause and diagnosis-specific disability pension. Uni- and multivariate Rate Ratios (RR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) were estimated for the various risk markers by Poisson Regression. Results During the four years of follow-up, 3044 patients (16.8%) were granted a disability pension, the majority due to mental disorders (2558, 84%). In the multivariate analyses, being female, below 25 or above 45 years of age, with low educational level, living alone, residing outside big cities and being born outside Europe were predictive of a granted disability pension. Frequent in- and outpatient care due to mental disorders, prescription of antidepressants and long sickness absence spells were also associated with an increased risk of disability pension (range of RRs 1.10 to 5.26). Somatic health care was only predictive of disability pension due to somatic disorders. The risk of being granted a disability pension remained at the same level as at the start of follow-up for about 1.5 years, when it started to decrease and to level off at about 20% of the risk at the end of follow-up. Conclusions Identified risk markers should be considered when monitoring individuals with depression and when designing intervention programs. PMID:24963812
Gonzaga, Isabel Clarisse Albuquerque; Santos, Sheila Lima Diogenes; Silva, Ana Roberta Vilarouca da; Campelo, Viriato
The main determinants of the risk of mortality in the neonatal period are low birth weight and premature birth. The study sought to analyze the adequacy of prenatal care and risk factors associated with premature birth and low birth weight in a northeastern Brazilian capital. This is a case-control study. A model for adequacy of prenatal conditions composed of four indicators was created. Descriptive statistics for univariate analysis were used; as well as Wald linear trend tests, Student's t and chi-square test for bivariate analysis and multiple logistic regression for multivariate analysis with p <0.05. Multivariate analysis showed that poor education, not performing gainful activity, caesarean section, oligohydramnios, placental abruption and pre-eclampsia are independent factors associated with premature birth and/or low birth weight. For adequacy of prenatal care, variable indicator III remained significant, showing that mothers who had inadequate prenatal care had an increased chance for the occurrence of the outcome, highlighting the need for adequate public health policies of care for pregnant women in the municipality under scrutiny.
Yazdanpanah, B; Safari, M; Yazdanpanah, Sh; Angha, P; Karami, M; Emadi, M; Yazdanpanah, S; Poorbehesht, A
This study aimed to investigate whether a community-based participatory diabetes care program could efficiently improve diabetic care and reduce its risk factors. To induce a participatory approach, a local group was established in partnership with academics, local leaders, health providers and public representatives. The group conducted community needs assessment and priority setting process. Diabetes was identified as the first priority health problem in this area. A total of 2569 30- to 65-year-old residents were screened for diabetes and 405 of them took part in a 13-week nutrition education and physical exercise intervention. Out of 1336 high-risk individuals, 17% had fasting blood sugar (FBS) ≥126 mg/dl and 13.5% with FBS between 110 and 125 mg/dl. Percentages of participants with triglycerides (TG) ≥150 mg/dl and cholesterol ≥200 mg/dl were 33.8% and 23.5%, respectively. After completion of the intervention, the mean FBS, HbA1C, TG and cholesterol were decreased significantly. Although systolic and diastolic blood pressure and body mass index were decreased too, the differences were not statistically significant. The mean physical activity increased and consumption of fried foods and saturated oil decreased significantly. The results suggest that participatory community-based care could be a feasible model for control of diabetes and its risk factors.
Byon, Ha Do; Zhu, Shijun; Unick, George; Storr, Carla; Lipscomb, Jane
This study explored potential risk factors for injuries from patient violence among direct care workers in U.S. homes (DCWHs). A national probability sample of 3,377 DCWHs including home health and personal care aides was analyzed using complex sample analysis and generalized estimating equation. Injury from violence was defined as a workrelated injury sustained by aggression, violence, or abuse that was reported to the agency, required medical attention or resulted in absenteeism from work. An association between suffering an injury from patient violence and having a language barrier with patients was noted (OR = 4.44; 95% CI = 1.57, 12.56; p = .005). Findings illuminate the importance of homecare providers to match language between DCWHs and patients to reduce patient violence and improve quality of care in the home setting.
Background Stroke was the second most common cause of death worldwide in 2004, resulting in 5.7 million deaths. This case controlled study was conducted in Tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar, KPK Pakistan about common risk factors of stroke and the impact of these risk factors. Method Study was done at Government Tertiary Care Hospitals of Peshawar namely Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH), Lady Reading Hospital (LRH) and Hayatabad Medical Complex (HMC).The hospital based case–control study included 50 cases (stroke patients) and 100 controls (non-stroke patients). This study was accomplished from 24th April 2012 to October 2012 in tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar. A proper questionnaire was used to collect data from all the cases and controls, which was recorded in the form of tables and graphs. The risk factors studied were Hypertension, Smoking, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, cardiac problems, B.M.I, diet, stress and family history of stroke. Anthropometric (weight, height, body mass index) measurements were done on all patients. For determination of association and impact of these risk factors, analyses were performed by calculation of Chi-Square test and confidence interval using SPSS version 16 program. Results Comparing the cases with controls, hypertension (p = 0.000), sedentary life style (p = 0.000), cardiac problems (p = 0.009), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.010), smoking (p = 0. 042) were significant risk factors whereas B.M.I (p = 0. 393), stress (p = 0.705), family history of stroke (p = 0.729), diet (p = 0.908), were not found to be statistically significant risk factors. The most significant risk factor was systemic hypertension (OR = 4.16) followed by sedentary life style (OR = 3.60), cardiac problems (OR = 2.74) diabetes (OR = 2.49) and smoking (OR = 2.05). Conclusion Hypertension, Smoking, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle and cardiac problems have strong correlations and association with Stroke
Shah, Syed Muhammad; Shah, Syed Muhammad; Khan, Saima; Rehman, Shahzad; Khan, Zakir; Ahmed, Wisal; Zubair
Stroke was the second most common cause of death worldwide in 2004, resulting in 5.7 million deaths. This case controlled study was conducted in Tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar, KPK Pakistan about common risk factors of stroke and the impact of these risk factors. Study was done at Government Tertiary Care Hospitals of Peshawar namely Khyber Teaching Hospital (KTH), Lady Reading Hospital (LRH) and Hayatabad Medical Complex (HMC).The hospital based case-control study included 50 cases (stroke patients) and 100 controls (non-stroke patients). This study was accomplished from 24th April 2012 to October 2012 in tertiary care hospitals of Peshawar. A proper questionnaire was used to collect data from all the cases and controls, which was recorded in the form of tables and graphs. The risk factors studied were Hypertension, Smoking, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle, cardiac problems, B.M.I, diet, stress and family history of stroke. Anthropometric (weight, height, body mass index) measurements were done on all patients. For determination of association and impact of these risk factors, analyses were performed by calculation of Chi-Square test and confidence interval using SPSS version 16 program. Comparing the cases with controls, hypertension (p = 0.000), sedentary life style (p = 0.000), cardiac problems (p = 0.009), diabetes mellitus (p = 0.010), smoking (p = 0. 042) were significant risk factors whereas B.M.I (p = 0. 393), stress (p = 0.705), family history of stroke (p = 0.729), diet (p = 0.908), were not found to be statistically significant risk factors. The most significant risk factor was systemic hypertension (OR = 4.16) followed by sedentary life style (OR = 3.60), cardiac problems (OR = 2.74) diabetes (OR = 2.49) and smoking (OR = 2.05). Hypertension, Smoking, diabetes, sedentary lifestyle and cardiac problems have strong correlations and association with Stroke and are the major risk factors of stroke
Usman, H. R.; Akhtar, S.; Rahbar, M. H.; Hamid, S.; Moattar, T.; Luby, S. P.
A case control study was conducted to identify the association of therapeutic injections with acute hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in Karachi, Pakistan. We enrolled 67 cases of acute HBV infection (IgM anti-HBc positive) and 247 controls (anti-HBc negative) from four hospitals of Karachi during July 2000-June 2001. Exposure to various risk factors during the period relevant to the incubation period of HBV was recorded both from cases and controls using a structured questionnaire. Multivariate logistic regression analysis of the data showed that cases were more likely to have received one injection (OR = 4.0; 95 % CI 1.4, 11.1), or more than one injection (OR = 6.3; 95 % CI 3.2, 12.4) compared to controls. The estimated population attributable risk (PAR) for therapeutic injections was 53%. Also the cases compared to controls were more likely to have household size of seven or more (OR = 1.9; 95 % CI 0.95, 3.9). This study showed that unsafe therapeutic injections appear to be the major risk factor for acute HBV infection and needs immediate focus from public health stand point. PMID:12729198
Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Luby, Stephen P; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Rahman, M Waliur; Sharker, M A Yushuf; Hossain, M Jahangir; Rasul, Choudhury H; Ekram, A R M Saifuddin; Rahman, Mahmudur; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Gurley, Emily S
During April 2007-April 2010, surveillance physicians in adult and pediatric medicine wards of three tertiary public hospitals in Bangladesh identified patients who developed hospital-acquired diarrhea. We calculated incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea. To identify risk factors, we compared these patients to randomly selected patients from the same wards who were admitted > 72 hours without having diarrhea. The incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea was 4.8 cases per 1,000 patient-days. Children < 1 year of age were more likely to develop hospital-acquired diarrhea than older children. The risk of developing hospital-acquired diarrhea increased for each additional day of hospitalization beyond 72 hours, whereas exposure to antibiotics within 72 hours of admission decreased the risk. There were three deaths among case-patients; all were infants. Patients, particularly young children, are at risk for hospital-acquired diarrhea and associated deaths in Bangladeshi hospitals. Further research to identify the responsible organisms and transmission routes could inform prevention strategies. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.
Bhuiyan, Mejbah Uddin; Luby, Stephen P.; Zaman, Rashid Uz; Rahman, M. Waliur; Sharker, M. A. Yushuf; Hossain, M. Jahangir; Rasul, Choudhury H.; Ekram, A. R. M. Saifuddin; Rahman, Mahmudur; Sturm-Ramirez, Katharine; Azziz-Baumgartner, Eduardo; Gurley, Emily S.
During April 2007–April 2010, surveillance physicians in adult and pediatric medicine wards of three tertiary public hospitals in Bangladesh identified patients who developed hospital-acquired diarrhea. We calculated incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea. To identify risk factors, we compared these patients to randomly selected patients from the same wards who were admitted > 72 hours without having diarrhea. The incidence of hospital-acquired diarrhea was 4.8 cases per 1,000 patient-days. Children < 1 year of age were more likely to develop hospital-acquired diarrhea than older children. The risk of developing hospital-acquired diarrhea increased for each additional day of hospitalization beyond 72 hours, whereas exposure to antibiotics within 72 hours of admission decreased the risk. There were three deaths among case-patients; all were infants. Patients, particularly young children, are at risk for hospital-acquired diarrhea and associated deaths in Bangladeshi hospitals. Further research to identify the responsible organisms and transmission routes could inform prevention strategies. PMID:24778198
Sassmannshausen, Ricarda; Deurenberg, Ruud H.; Köck, Robin; Hendrix, Ron; Jurke, Annette; Rossen, John W. A.; Friedrich, Alexander W.
Preventing the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in healthcare facilities is a major infection control target. However, only a few studies have assessed the potential role of healthcare workers (HCWs) for MRSA dissemination. To investigate the MRSA prevalence and the risk factors for MRSA colonization among HCWs, nasopharyngeal swabs were taken between June 2010 and January 2011 from 726 employees from nine acute care hospitals with different care levels within the German part of a Dutch-German border region (EUREGIO). The isolated MRSA strains were investigated using spa typing. The overall MRSA prevalence among HCWs in a non-outbreak situation was 4.6% (33 of 726), and was higher in nurses (5.6%, 29 of 514) than in physicians (1.2%, 1 of 83). Possible risk factors associated with MRSA colonization were a known history of MRSA carriage and the presence of acne. Intensive contact with patients may facilitate MRSA transmission between patients and HCWs. Furthermore, an accumulation of risk factors was accompanied by an increased MRSA prevalence in HCW. PMID:27597843
Shorr, Andrew F; Zilberberg, Marya D; Micek, Scott T; Kollef, Marin H
Pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa now cause pneumonia in patients presenting to the hospital. The concept of health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) attempts to capture this, but its predictive value is unclear. We examined patients admitted with pneumonia; infection with a resistant pathogen served as the study end point. Health care-associated pneumonia was present if a patient met one of the following criteria: recent hospitalization, nursing home residence, long-term hemodialysis, or immunosuppression. We compared rates of resistant infection among patients meeting any criteria for HCAP with those who did not have HCAP and explored the individual components of the definition. Among the cohort (n = 639), resistant pathogens were recovered in 289 (45.2%). Although each component of HCAP occurred more frequently in persons with resistant infections, the broad definition had a specificity of only 48.6% and misclassified one-third of the subjects. Logistic regression showed 4 variables associated with resistant pneumonia: recent hospitalization, nursing home residence, hemodialysis, and intensive care unit admission. A scoring system assigning 4, 3, 2, and 1 points, respectively, for each variable had moderate predictive power for segregating those with and without resistant bacteria. Among patients with fewer than 3 points, the prevalence of resistant pathogens was less than 20% compared with 55% and more than 75% in persons with scores ranging from 3 to 5 and more than 5 points, respectively (P < .001). Although resistance is common in HCAP, not all component criteria for HCAP convey similar risk. Simple scoring tools may facilitate more accurate identification of persons with pneumonia caused by resistant pathogens.
Lundqvist, Stefan; Börjesson, Mats; Larsson, Maria E H; Hagberg, Lars; Cider, Åsa
There is strong evidence that inadequate physical activity (PA) leads to an increased risk of lifestyle-related diseases and premature mortality. Physical activity on prescription (PAP) is a method to increase the level of PA of patients in primary care, but needs further evaluation. The aim of this observational study was to explore the association between PAP-treatment and the PA level of patients with metabolic risk factors and the relationship between changes in the PA level and health outcomes at the 6 month follow-up. This study included 444 patients in primary care, aged 27-85 years (56% females), who were physically inactive with at least one component of metabolic syndrome. The PAP-treatment model included: individualized dialogue concerning PA, prescribed PA, and a structured follow-up. A total of 368 patients (83%) completed the 6 months of follow-up. Of these patients, 73% increased their PA level and 42% moved from an inadequate PA level to sufficient, according to public health recommendations. There were significant improvements (p≤ 0.05) in the following metabolic risk factors: body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein. There were also significant improvements regarding health-related quality of life, assessed by the Short Form 36, in: general health, vitality, social function, mental health, role limitation-physical/emotional, mental component summary, and physical component summary. Regression analysis showed a significant association between changes in the PA level and health outcomes. During the first 6-month period, the caregiver provided PAP support 1-2 times. This study indicates that an individual-based model of PAP-treatment has the potential to change people's PA behavior with improved metabolic risk factors and self-reported quality of life at the 6 month follow-up. Thus, PAP seems to be feasible in a clinical primary care practice, with minimum effort
Börjesson, Mats; Larsson, Maria E. H.; Hagberg, Lars; Cider, Åsa
There is strong evidence that inadequate physical activity (PA) leads to an increased risk of lifestyle-related diseases and premature mortality. Physical activity on prescription (PAP) is a method to increase the level of PA of patients in primary care, but needs further evaluation. The aim of this observational study was to explore the association between PAP-treatment and the PA level of patients with metabolic risk factors and the relationship between changes in the PA level and health outcomes at the 6 month follow-up. This study included 444 patients in primary care, aged 27–85 years (56% females), who were physically inactive with at least one component of metabolic syndrome. The PAP-treatment model included: individualized dialogue concerning PA, prescribed PA, and a structured follow-up. A total of 368 patients (83%) completed the 6 months of follow-up. Of these patients, 73% increased their PA level and 42% moved from an inadequate PA level to sufficient, according to public health recommendations. There were significant improvements (p≤ 0.05) in the following metabolic risk factors: body mass index, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, cholesterol, and low density lipoprotein. There were also significant improvements regarding health-related quality of life, assessed by the Short Form 36, in: general health, vitality, social function, mental health, role limitation-physical/emotional, mental component summary, and physical component summary. Regression analysis showed a significant association between changes in the PA level and health outcomes. During the first 6-month period, the caregiver provided PAP support 1–2 times. This study indicates that an individual-based model of PAP-treatment has the potential to change people’s PA behavior with improved metabolic risk factors and self-reported quality of life at the 6 month follow-up. Thus, PAP seems to be feasible in a clinical primary care practice, with minimum
Pan, Sung-Ching; Wang, Jann-Tay; Chen, Yee-Chun; Chang, Yin-Yin; Chen, Mei-Ling; Chang, Shan-Chwen
The prevalence of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) colonization or infection in the hospital setting has increased globally. Many previous studies had analysed the risk factors for acquiring VRE, based on cross-sectional studies or prevalent cases. However, the actual incidence of and risk factors for VRE remain unclear. The present study was conducted in order to clarify the incidence of and risk factors for VRE in the intensive care unit (ICU). From 1st April 2008 to 31st March 2009, all patients admitted to a surgical ICU (SICU) were put on active surveillance for VRE. The surveillance cultures, obtained by rectal swab, were taken on admission, weekly while staying in the SICU, and on discharge from the SICU. A total of 871 patients were screened. Among them, 34 were found to carry VRE before their admission to the SICU, and 47 acquired VRE during their stay in the SICU, five of whom developed VRE infections. The incidence of newly acquired VRE during ICU stay was 21.9 per 1000 patient-days (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.4–29.1). Using multivariate analysis by logistic regression, we found that the length of ICU stay was an independent risk factor for new acquisition of VRE. In contrast, patients with prior exposure to first-generation cephalosporin were significantly less likely to acquire VRE. Strategies to reduce the duration of ICU stay and prudent usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics are the keys to controlling VRE transmission. PMID:23071778
Mandić, Milan; Rancić, Natasa
Stroke is the third cause of mortality both in men and in women throughout the world. In Serbia, stroke is the first cause of mortality in women older than 55 years of age and the second cause of death in men of the same age. Both ischemic heart diseases and ischemic stroke correlate with the same predisposing, potentially modifiable risk factors (hypertension, abnormal blood lipids and lipoproteins, cigarette smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, diabetes mellitus). Stroke does not usually occur on its own. Patients with stroke have a high prevalence of associated medical problems. These conditions may predict the stroke ("preexisting conditions"), occur for the first time after stroke ("post-stroke complications"), or present as manifestations of preexisting medical conditions after stroke. Risk factors for stroke are divided into the three groups: risk factors which cannot be influenced on such as: age, gender, positive family history of stroke, race: those which are modifiable such as: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking cigarettes, obesity, physical inactivity and the third group consists of potential risk factors for stroke (consumption of alcohol, hormones, changes in fibrinolysis, changes in blood. Stroke remains a leading cause of long-term disability and premature death of both men and women. Consequently, stroke survivors are often handicapped and doomed to sedentary lifestyle which restrains performance of activities of daily living, increases the risk for falls, and may contribute to a higher risk for recurrent stroke and cardiovascular disease. Prevention of stroke is still a great medical and social problem. Further studies are required to investigate potential risk factors for the occurrence of stroke as well as the measures of primary and secondary prevention.
Seal, Karen H; Metzler, Thomas J; Gima, Kristian S; Bertenthal, Daniel; Maguen, Shira; Marmar, Charles R
We sought to investigate longitudinal trends and risk factors for mental health diagnoses among Iraq and Afghanistan veterans. We determined the prevalence and predictors of mental health diagnoses among 289,328 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans entering Veterans Affairs (VA) health care from 2002 to 2008 using national VA data. Of 289,328 Iraq and Afghanistan veterans, 106,726 (36.9%) received mental health diagnoses; 62,929 (21.8%) were diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and 50 432 (17.4%) with depression. Adjusted 2-year prevalence rates of PTSD increased 4 to 7 times after the invasion of Iraq. Active duty veterans younger than 25 years had higher rates of PTSD and alcohol and drug use disorder diagnoses compared with active duty veterans older than 40 years (adjusted relative risk = 2.0 and 4.9, respectively). Women were at higher risk for depression than were men, but men had over twice the risk for drug use disorders. Greater combat exposure was associated with higher risk for PTSD. Mental health diagnoses increased substantially after the start of the Iraq War among specific subgroups of returned veterans entering VA health care. Early targeted interventions may prevent chronic mental illness.
Banerjee, Tuhina; Anupurba, Shampa
Fluoroquinolone resistance in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has increased with the widespread use of fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Gram-negative bacilli has been widely studied, though staphylococci and enterococci are also notably resistant. Enterococci being the second most common cause of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) fluoroquinolones are often the drug of choice. This study was undertaken to assess the risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococcal UTI in a tertiary level health facility in north India. A total of 365 patients with UTI caused by enterococci were studied over a period of two years. Patients with ciprofloxacin-resistant and susceptible UTI were considered as cases and controls, respectively. Resistance profile of the isolates against common antibiotics was studied by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. Mechanisms for fluoroquinolone resistance was studied by efflux pump inhibitor activity and multiplex PCR targeting the qnr genes. A total of 204 (55.89%) cases and 161 (44.1%) controls were identified. The fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were significantly resistant to ampicillin, high strength aminoglycosides and vancomycin. The majority (78%) of the resistant isolates showed efflux pump activity. Treatment in indoor locations, presence of urinary catheters and pregnancy along with recent exposure to antibiotics especially fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins and piperacillin-tazobactam were identified as independent risk factors. Our results showed that fluoroquinolone resistance in enterococcal UTI was largely associated with indoor usage of antibiotics and use of indwelling devices. Knowledge of risk factors is important to curb this emergence of resistance.
Banerjee, Tuhina; Anupurba, Shampa
Background & objectives: Fluoroquinolone resistance in both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria has increased with the widespread use of fluoroquinolones. Fluoroquinolone resistance in Gram-negative bacilli has been widely studied, though staphylococci and enterococci are also notably resistant. Enterococci being the second most common cause of healthcare-associated urinary tract infections (UTIs) fluoroquinolones are often the drug of choice. This study was undertaken to assess the risk factors associated with fluoroquinolone-resistant enterococcal UTI in a tertiary level health facility in north India. Methods: A total of 365 patients with UTI caused by enterococci were studied over a period of two years. Patients with ciprofloxacin-resistant and susceptible UTI were considered as cases and controls, respectively. Resistance profile of the isolates against common antibiotics was studied by minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) determination. Mechanisms for fluoroquinolone resistance was studied by efflux pump inhibitor activity and multiplex PCR targeting the qnr genes. Results: A total of 204 (55.89%) cases and 161 (44.1%) controls were identified. The fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates were significantly resistant to ampicillin, high strength aminoglycosides and vancomycin. The majority (78%) of the resistant isolates showed efflux pump activity. Treatment in indoor locations, presence of urinary catheters and pregnancy along with recent exposure to antibiotics especially fluoroquinolones, third generation cephalosporins and piperacillin-tazobactam were identified as independent risk factors. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that fluoroquinolone resistance in enterococcal UTI was largely associated with indoor usage of antibiotics and use of indwelling devices. Knowledge of risk factors is important to curb this emergence of resistance. PMID:28256471
Jaber, Samir; Amraoui, Jibba; Lefrant, Jean-Yves; Arich, Charles; Cohendy, Robert; Landreau, Liliane; Calvet, Yves; Capdevila, Xavier; Mahamat, Aba; Eledjam, Jean-Jacques
To describe the current practice of physicians, to report complications associated with endotracheal intubation (ETI) performed in THE intensive care unit (ICU), and to isolate predictive factors of immediate life-threatening complications. Multiple-center observational study. Seven intensive care units of two university hospitals. : We evaluated 253 occurrences of ETI in 220 patients. From January 1 to June 30, 2003, data related to all ETI performed in ICU were collected. Information regarding patient descriptors, procedures, and immediate complications were analyzed. The main indications to intubate the trachea were acute respiratory failure, shock, and coma. Some 148 ETIs (59%) were performed by residents. At least one severe complication occurred in 71 ETIs (28%): severe hypoxemia (26%), hemodynamic collapse (25%), and cardiac arrest (2%). The other complications were difficult intubation (12%), cardiac arrhythmia (10%), esophageal intubation (5%), and aspiration (2%). Presence of acute respiratory failure and the presence of shock as an indication for ETI were identified as independent risk factors for occurrence of complications, and ETI performed by a junior physician supervised by a senior (i.e., two operators) was identified as a protective factor for the occurrence of complications. ETI in ICU patients is associated with a high rate of immediate and severe life-threatening complications. Independent risk factors of complication occurrence were presence of acute respiratory failure and presence of shock as an indication for ETI. Further studies should aim to better define protocols for intubation in critically ill patients to make this procedure safer.
Sances, G; Ghiotto, N; Galli, F; Guaschino, E; Rezzani, C; Guidetti, V; Nappi, G
To investigate factors influencing prognosis in medication-overuse headache (MOH), we conducted a 12-month follow-up of patients with probable MOH. We recruited 215 patients consecutively admitted to our headache centre for an inpatient detoxification treatment. We analysed likely predictor factors for headache resolution (sex, age, primary headache, psychiatric comorbidity, type and timing of overuse). Mann-Whitney U-test and chi-squared test were used. One year after withdrawal, we had complete data on 172 patients (80%): 38 of these patients (22%) had relapsed into overuse and 134 (78%) had not. The negative prognostic factors for relapse were: intake of more than 30 doses/month (P = 0.004), smoking (P = 0.012), alcohol consumption (P = 0.037), non-confirmation of MOH diagnosis 2 months after detoxification (P = 0.000), and return to overused drug(s) (P = 0.000). The 1-year relapse rate was 22%. The existence of sub-groups of MOH patients with such risk factors could influence treatment strategies.
Le Hello, Simon; Falcot, Virginie; Lacassin, Flore; Mikulski, Marc; Baumann, Francine
In New Caledonia, South Pacific, Acinetobacter baumannii is a nosocomial pathogen. OXA-23 carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (CRAB) has been ranked third among all multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria at the main hospital of Nouméa in New Caledonia (24.8%, 50/202 isolates). In the present study, risk factors and outcomes for 50 patients with CRAB infection were compared with those of 152 patients infected with other MDR bacteria. Independent risk factors for infection with CRAB were respiratory ward admission (odds ratio 2.8, 95% confidence interval 1.1-7.1) and previous treatment with quinolones, β-lactams and anti-MRSA antibiotics. The 30-day mortality was higher for CRAB infections compared with other MDR infections (14% vs 3.3%, p = 0.006). These findings highlight the importance of knowing specific local characteristics relating to the ecology and patterns of resistance of MDR bacteria so as to avoid the emergence of unexpected pan-resistant bacteria.
McCarthy, Logan; Pullen, Lisa M; Savage, Jennifer; Cayce, Jonathan
Suicide is the third leading cause of death in adolescents in the United States, with suicidal behavior peaking in adolescence. Suicidal and self-harming behavior is often chronic, with an estimated 15-30% of adolescents who attempt suicide having a second suicide attempt within a year. The focus of acute psychiatric hospitalization is on stabilization of these psychiatric symptoms resulting at times in premature discharge. Finding from studies based on high rehospitalization rates among adolescents admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital indicates that adolescents continue to experience crisis upon discharge from an acute psychiatric hospital, leading to the question of whether or not these adolescents are being discharged prematurely. A chart review was performed on 98 adolescent clients admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital to identify risk factors that may increase rehospitalization among adolescents admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital. Clients admitted to the hospital within a 12-month time frame were compared to clients who were not readmitted during that 12-month period. History of self-harming behavior and length of stay greater than 5 days were found to be risk factors for rehospitalization. Adolescent clients who are admitted to an acute psychiatric hospital with a history of self-harming behavior and extended length of stay need to be identified and individualized treatment plans implemented for preventing repeat hospitalizations. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Abduelkarem, A R; El-Shareif, H J; Sharif, S I
The aim of this study was to provide an overview of the risk factors for acute myocardial infarction in patients attending Tripoli Medical Centre, Libya. Records were reviewed for 622 patients with a mean age of 58.3 (SD 12.9) years. Diabetes mellitus (48.2%), hypertension (35.7%) and smoking (50.6%) were among the risk factors reported. There were 110 patients (17.7%) who died during hospitalization, mainly suffering cardiogenic shock (48.0%). The rate of use of thrombolytic therapy was low in patients who were female (40.4% versus 58.4% for males), older age (31.6% for those > 85 years versus 63.3% for patients < 55 years), diabetics (45.3% versus 62.0% for non-diabetic patients) and hypertensives (47.3% versus 57.8% for non-hypertensive patients). Prevention strategies should be implemented in order to improve the long-term prognosis and decrease overall morbidity and mortality from coronary artery disease in Libyan patients.
El-Hamad, Issa; Pezzoli, Maria Chiara; Chiari, Erika; Scarcella, Carmelo; Vassallo, Francesco; Puoti, Massimo; Ciccaglione, Anna; Ciccozzi, Massimo; Scalzini, Alfredo; Castelli, Francesco
Screening migrants from areas where hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is endemic is important to implement preventive measures in Europe. The aim of our study was to assess (1) the feasibility of point-of-care screening in a primary care clinic and (2) hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence, associated risk factors, and its clinical and epidemiological implications in undocumented migrants in Brescia, northern Italy. A longitudinal prospective study was conducted from January 2006 to April 2010 to assess HBsAg reactivity and associated risk factors among consenting undocumented migrants who accessed the Service of International Medicine of Brescia's Local Health Authority. Genotyping assay was also performed in HBV DNA-positive patients. Screening was accepted by 3,728/4,078 (91.4%) subjects consecutively observed during the study period, 224 (6%) of whom were found to be HBsAg-positive. HBsAg reactivity was independently associated with the prevalence of HBsAg carriers in the geographical area of provenance (p < 0.001). On the contrary, current or past sexual risk behaviors (despite being common in our sample) were not associated with HBV infection. Half of the HBsAg patients (111/224) had either hepatitis B e-antigen (HBeAg)-positive or -negative chronic HBV infection with a possible indication for treatment. HBV genotypes were identified in 45 of 167 HBV-infected patients as follows: genotype D, 27 subjects; genotype A, 8; genotype B, 5; and genotype C, 5. The geographical distribution of genotypes reflected the geographic provenance. Our results suggest that point-of-care screening is feasible in undocumented migrants and should be targeted according to provenance. Case detection of HBV infection among migrants could potentially reduce HBV incidence in migrants' contacts and in the general population by prompting vaccination of susceptible individuals and care of eligible infected patients. © 2014 International Society of Travel Medicine.
Ruiz, Álvaro J; Aschner, Pablo J; Puerta, María Fernanda; Cristancho, Rafael Alfonso
Obesity is frequently associated with risk factors for cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Central obesity is a marker of increased intra-abdominal adiposity and a known risk factor for atherosclerosis and diabetes; it is also a good predictor of risk for coronary events, cardiovascular mortality, diabetes and metabolic syndrome. A less predictive alternate measurement is known as the body mass index (BMI). Obesity prevalence was estimated first by BMI and then by abdominal obesity (measured by waist circumference, WC) in primary care patients. As part of an international study, primary care physicians recruited consecutive patients aged 18 to 80 years who consulted for any reason on two pre-specified half-days. Age, gender, smoking status and history of cardiovascular disease or diabetes were recorded. Height, weight and WC were measured using standard methods. Pregnant women and subjects unwilling to participate were excluded. A total of 3,795 patients from 105 primary care centers located throughout Colombia were evaluated. The mean age was 45 years (69% females). Of these, 60.7% of males and 53.9% of females were overweight or obese according to their BMI; 24.6% of males and 44.6% of females had abdominal obesity when National Cholesterol Education Program guidelines were used, but numbers changed to 62.5% and 67.0% when the International Diabetes Federation guidelines were used. Obesity, either determined by BMI or by WC, was associated with higher prevalence of diabetes, hypertension and dyslipidemia. Increased waist circumference is a practical and useful marker for cardiovascular and metabolic conditions. The prevalence of abdominal obesity in Colombian primary care patients is high and more frequent in females.
Nefs, Giesje; Pouwer, François; Denollet, Johan; Pop, Victor Jm
Depression is a common psychiatric complication of diabetes, but little is known about the natural course and the consequences of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes. While depression has been related to poor glycemic control and increased risk for macrovascular disease, its association with microvascular complications remains understudied. The predictive role of other psychological risk factors such as Type D (distressed) personality and the mechanisms that possibly link depression and Type D personality with poor vascular outcomes are also still unclear. This prospective cohort study will examine: (1) the course of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes; (2) whether depressive symptoms and Type D personality are associated with the development of microvascular and/or macrovascular complications and with the risk of all-cause or vascular mortality; and (3) the behavioral and physiological mechanisms that may mediate these associations. The DiaDDZoB Study is embedded within the larger DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study, which covers a comprehensive cohort of type 2 diabetes patients treated by over 200 primary care physicians in South-East Brabant, The Netherlands. These patients will be followed during their lifetime and are assessed annually for demographic, clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial factors. Measurements include an interviewer-administered and self-report questionnaire, regular care laboratory tests and physical examinations, and pharmacy medication records. The DiaDDZoB Study uses data that have been collected during the original baseline assessment in 2005 (M0; N = 2,460) and the 2007 (M1; N = 2,225) and 2008 (M2; N = 2,032) follow-up assessments. The DiaDDZoB Study is expected to contribute to the current understanding of the course of depression in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes and will also test whether depressed patients or those with Type D personality are at increased risk
Background Depression is a common psychiatric complication of diabetes, but little is known about the natural course and the consequences of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes. While depression has been related to poor glycemic control and increased risk for macrovascular disease, its association with microvascular complications remains understudied. The predictive role of other psychological risk factors such as Type D (distressed) personality and the mechanisms that possibly link depression and Type D personality with poor vascular outcomes are also still unclear. Methods/Design This prospective cohort study will examine: (1) the course of depressive symptoms in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes; (2) whether depressive symptoms and Type D personality are associated with the development of microvascular and/or macrovascular complications and with the risk of all-cause or vascular mortality; and (3) the behavioral and physiological mechanisms that may mediate these associations. The DiaDDZoB Study is embedded within the larger DIAZOB Primary Care Diabetes study, which covers a comprehensive cohort of type 2 diabetes patients treated by over 200 primary care physicians in South-East Brabant, The Netherlands. These patients will be followed during their lifetime and are assessed annually for demographic, clinical, lifestyle and psychosocial factors. Measurements include an interviewer-administered and self-report questionnaire, regular care laboratory tests and physical examinations, and pharmacy medication records. The DiaDDZoB Study uses data that have been collected during the original baseline assessment in 2005 (M0; N = 2,460) and the 2007 (M1; N = 2,225) and 2008 (M2; N = 2,032) follow-up assessments. Discussion The DiaDDZoB Study is expected to contribute to the current understanding of the course of depression in primary care patients with type 2 diabetes and will also test whether depressed patients or those with Type
cardiovascular disease among black women can be better controlled through the use of a stress reduction intervention that reduces the sympathetic nervous...All participants will have high normal (130/80) or mild hypertension and at least two additional risk factors for cardiovascular disease (e.g
Müller, Rita; Halfens, Ruud; Schwendimann, René; Müller, Marianne; Imoberdorf, Reinhard; Ballmer, Peter E
Falls in patient are a major problem in acute care institutions because of direct and indirect consequences. The objectives of the present retrospective case control study were to explore predictors of falls and fall-related injuries in hospitalised patients in a department of internal medicine at a Swiss acute care hospital. The sample included 228 hospitalised patients with a fall and 228 patients without a fall as control subjects, matched by age, gender and medical diagnosis. The cases were further analysed, whereby injured patients were compared with uninjured ones. Data were obtained from patient records and the hospital information system (HIS). Patients with a previous fall, mobility disorders, altered cognition, altered urinary and fecal excretions, intake of sedativa or other psychotropic drugs, a higher amount of comorbidities and case mix, as well as a prolonged length of stay were significantly more frequent in the cases than in the controls. Patients with falls and controls showed no differences in terms of impaired vision, intake of five and more medications, or diuretica. Analysis by logistic regression revealed mobility disorder (OR 5,2; 95 % VI 2.39-11.44) and altered excretions (OR 1,8; 95 % VI 1.02-3.31) as significant main effects and there also were significant interactions between previous falls, intake of sedativa or other psychopharmaca and altered cognition. No difference could be seen in any variable between patients with a fall-related injury and no injury. Therefore a predictive profile could be found for patients at risk to fall which might be helpful for further prevention strategies. However, no predictive marker for fall-related injuries could be defined in the present study.
Hernández-Valencia, Marcelino; Rodríguez-Lundes, Ociel; Landero-Montes de Oca, María Esther; Pichardo-García, Raúl; Escamilla-Godínez, Gregorio
We undertook this study to determine risk factors for histological alterations of the female genital tract in an open population who attend a first-level care medical facility. We conducted a case/control cohort study that included patients from outpatient consultation who responded to a cervical cancer control and prevention program. We studied 1933 patients; 88 patients (cases) had cellular alterations and were matched with 88 patients without alterations (controls). Statistical analysis was carried out with one-way ANOVA for comparison between groups and association of variables with relative risk for 95% confidence interval; p <0.05. Mean age of the case group was 36.1 +/- 1.6 years and the control group had a mean age of 35.8 +/- 2.1 years. Diagnoses obtained in the case group showed a greater frequency of ectropion, human papilloma virus infection and CIN1. Risks factors analyzed in these patients showed statistical differences in number of gestations >2 (RR = 2.33) and the early initiation of sexual activity (<19 years) (RR = 1.14) for experiencing histological problems of the female genital tract. Prevention of cervical cancer can be accomplished through timely and opportune detection in order to avoid the disease or to decrease risk factors by using condoms, delaying initiation of sexual activity and limiting the number of sexual partners. These are all strategies that the general population should be aware of.
van der Pols-Vijlbrief, Rachel; Wijnhoven, Hanneke Ah; Molenaar, Hilde; Visser, Marjolein
It is generally thought that causes of undernutrition are multifactorial, but there are limited quantitative studies performed. We therefore examined a wide range of potential factors associated with undernutrition in community-dwelling older adults. Cross-sectional study. Community-dwelling older adults (≥65 years) receiving home care in the Netherlands. Data on potential factors associated with (risk of) undernutrition were collected among 300 older adults. Nutritional status was assessed by the SNAQ65+ instrument. Undernutrition was defined as mid-upper arm circumference <25 cm or unintentional weight loss of ≥4 kg in 6 months. Being at risk of undernutrition was defined as having poor appetite and inability to walk up and down stairs of fifteen steps, without resting. Of all participants, ninety-two (31·7 %) were undernourished and twenty-four (8·0 %) were at risk of undernutrition. Based on multivariate logistic regression analyses, the statistically significant factors associated with (risk of) undernutrition (P<0·05) were: unable to go outside (OR=5·39), intestinal problems (OR=2·88), smoking (OR=2·56), osteoporosis (OR=2·46), eating fewer than three snacks daily (OR=2·61), dependency in activities of daily living (OR=1·21), physical inactivity (OR=2·01), nausea (OR=2·50) and cancer (OR=2·84); a borderline significant factor was depression symptoms (OR=1·83, P=0·053). The study suggests that (risk of) undernutrition is a multifactorial problem and that associated factors can be found in several domains. These findings may support the development of intervention trials for the prevention and treatment of undernutrition in community-dwelling older adults.
Said, Qayyim; Marx, Carrie McAdam; Schwartz, J Sanford; Ben-Joseph, Rami; Brixner, Diana I
This study was performed to evaluate the association of body mass index (BMI) with the incidence of cardiometabolic risk factors in ambulatory care electronic medical records (EMRs) over 5 years or more. A retrospective cohort of normal versus obese patients. Subjects>or=18 years were identified between 1996 and 2005. Patients were categorized as either normal weight (18 kg/m2
Randomized controlled trial of a coordinated care intervention to improve risk factor control after stroke or transient ischemic attack in the safety net: Secondary stroke prevention by Uniting Community and Chronic care model teams Early to End Disparities (SUCCEED).
Towfighi, Amytis; Cheng, Eric M; Ayala-Rivera, Monica; McCreath, Heather; Sanossian, Nerses; Dutta, Tara; Mehta, Bijal; Bryg, Robert; Rao, Neal; Song, Shlee; Razmara, Ali; Ramirez, Magaly; Sivers-Teixeira, Theresa; Tran, Jamie; Mojarro-Huang, Elizabeth; Montoya, Ana; Corrales, Marilyn; Martinez, Beatrice; Willis, Phyllis; Macias, Mireya; Ibrahim, Nancy; Wu, Shinyi; Wacksman, Jeremy; Haber, Hilary; Richards, Adam; Barry, Frances; Hill, Valerie; Mittman, Brian; Cunningham, William; Liu, Honghu; Ganz, David A; Factor, Diane; Vickrey, Barbara G
Recurrent strokes are preventable through awareness and control of risk factors such as hypertension, and through lifestyle changes such as healthier diets, greater physical activity, and smoking cessation. However, vascular risk factor control is frequently poor among stroke survivors, particularly among socio-economically disadvantaged blacks, Latinos and other people of color. The Chronic Care Model (CCM) is an effective framework for multi-component interventions aimed at improving care processes and outcomes for individuals with chronic disease. In addition, community health workers (CHWs) have played an integral role in reducing health disparities; however, their effectiveness in reducing vascular risk among stroke survivors remains unknown. Our objectives are to develop, test, and assess the economic value of a CCM-based intervention using an Advanced Practice Clinician (APC)-CHW team to improve risk factor control after stroke in an under-resourced, racially/ethnically diverse population. In this single-blind randomized controlled trial, 516 adults (≥40 years) with an ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack or intracerebral hemorrhage within the prior 90 days are being enrolled at five sites within the Los Angeles County safety-net setting and randomized 1:1 to intervention vs usual care. Participants are excluded if they do not speak English, Spanish, Cantonese, Mandarin, or Korean or if they are unable to consent. The intervention includes a minimum of three clinic visits in the healthcare setting, three home visits, and Chronic Disease Self-Management Program group workshops in community venues. The primary outcome is blood pressure (BP) control (systolic BP <130 mmHg) at 1 year. Secondary outcomes include: (1) mean change in systolic BP; (2) control of other vascular risk factors including lipids and hemoglobin A1c, (3) inflammation (C reactive protein [CRP]), (4) medication adherence, (5) lifestyle factors (smoking, diet, and physical activity
Alhawassi, Tariq M; Krass, Ines; Bajorek, Beata V; Pont, Lisa G
Adverse drug reactions (ADRs) are an important health issue. While prevalence and risk factors associated with ADRs in the general adult population have been well documented, much less is known about ADRs in the elderly population. The aim of this study was to review the published literature to estimate the prevalence of ADRs in the elderly in the acute care setting and identify factors associated with an increased risk of an ADR in the elderly. A systematic review of studies published between 2003 and 2013 was conducted in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, EMBASE, Google Scholar and MEDLINE. Key search terms included: “adverse drug reactions”, “adverse effects”, “elderly patients and hospital admission”, “drug therapy”, “drug adverse effects”, “drug related”, “aged”, “older patients”, “geriatric”, “hospitalization”, and “emergency admissions”. For inclusion in the review, studies had to focus on ADRs in the elderly and had to include an explicit definition of what was considered an ADR and/or an explicit assessment of causality, and a clear description of the method used for ADR identification, and had to describe factors associated with an increased risk of an ADR. Fourteen hospital-based observational studies exploring ADRs in the elderly in the acute care setting were eligible for inclusion in this review. The mean prevalence of ADRs in the elderly in the studies included in this review was 11.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.1%–16.8%). The median prevalence of ADRs leading to hospitalization was 10.0% (95% CI: 7.2%–12.8%), while the prevalence of ADRs occurring during hospitalization was 11.5% (95% CI: 0%–27.7%). There was wide variation in the overall ADR prevalence, from 5.8% to 46.3%. Female sex, increased comorbid complexity, and increased number of medications were all significantly associated with an increased risk of an ADR. Retrospective studies and those relying on identification by the
Barkow, Katrin; Maier, Wolfgang; Ustün, T Bedirhan; Gänsicke, Michael; Wittchen, Hans-Ulrich; Heun, Reinhard
The aim of this study was to identify internationally relevant risk factors for the persistence of depression in primary care. None of the previous studies examining primary care patients could examine an equivalently large international sample. The findings from the WHO Collaborative Study on 'Psychological Problems in General Health Care' might be generalised to different cultural environments. A primary care sample of depressed subjects (ICD-10) (n=725) from 15 centres from all over the world was reinvestigated for the presence of depression after 12 months. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine the relationship of sociodemographic variables, characteristics of mental illness, and social disability with depression at follow-up. 33.5% of the subjects met ICD-10 criteria for a current depressive episode at the 12-month follow-up. Logistic regression analysis revealed that years of formal education, unemployment, depression severity, antidepressant use, abdominal pain as the main reason for consulting the general practitioner, and 'Repeated suicidal thoughts' were related to depression after 1 year. We have only poor information about details of the actual course of patients between the two assessments. Our findings of significant variables are generally comparable to results of previously conducted studies. Sociodemographic and disease-specific variables play an important role in the prediction of depression at the 12-month follow-up. General practitioners must be careful in the consideration of these variables but also of individual patient characteristics.
González-DelCastillo, J; Núñez-Orantos, M J; Candel, F J; Martín-Sánchez, F J
Antibiotic treatment inadequacy is common in these sites of infection and may have implications for the patient's prognosis. In acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, the document states that for the establishment of an adequate treatment it must be assessed the severity, the patient comorbidity and the risk factors for multidrug-resistant microorganism. The concept of health care-associated pneumonia is discussed and leads to errors in the etiologic diagnosis and therefore in the selection of antibiotic treatment. This paper discusses how to perform this approach to the possible etiology to guide empirical treatment.
Aftyka, Anna; Rybojad, Beata; Rosa, Wojciech; Wróbel, Aleksandra; Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Hanna
The aim of this study was to identify the potential risk factors for the development of post-traumatic stress disorder in mothers and fathers following infant hospitalisation in the neonatal intensive care unit. The development of neonatal intensive care units has increased the survival rate of infants. However, one of the major parental problems is post-traumatic stress disorder. An observational study covered 125 parents (72 mothers and 53 fathers) of infants aged 3-12 months who were hospitalised in the neonatal intensive care unit during the neonatal period. Third-referral neonatal intensive care unit. Several standardised and self-reported research tools were used to estimate the level of post-traumatic stress symptoms (Impact Event Scale-Revised), perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale) and coping strategies (COPE Inventory). The respondents also completed a Parent and Infant Characteristic Questionnaire. The mothers and fathers did not differ in their parental and infant characteristics. Post-traumatic stress disorder was present in 60% of the mothers and 47% of the fathers. Compared to the fathers, the mothers felt greater stress (p = .020) and presented a higher severity of post-traumatic stress disorder (p < .001). Previous miscarriages (p = .023) and the presence of chronic diseases (p = .032) were risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder in the mothers. In the fathers, an Apgar test at 1 min after birth (p = .030) and a partner's post-traumatic stress disorder (p = .038) were related to post-traumatic stress disorder. The mothers compared to the fathers were more likely to use strategies such as: positive reinterpretation and growth, focusing on and venting of emotions, instrumental social support, religious coping and acceptance. In the fathers, the predictors included an Apgar score at 1 min after birth, a lack of congenital anomalies in the child and mental disengagement. Risk factors for post-traumatic stress disorder, as
Cardiac rehabilitation after acute coronary syndrome comparing adherence and risk factor modification in a community-based shared care model versus hospital-based care in a randomised controlled trial with 12 months of follow-up.
Bertelsen, Jannik B; Refsgaard, Jens; Kanstrup, Helle; Johnsen, Søren P; Qvist, Ina; Christensen, Bo; Christensen, Kent L
To investigate whether phase II cardiac rehabilitation (CR) conducted by a community model of shared care CR (SC-CR) including health care centres and general practice was feasible and provided acceptable results and to compare SC-CR to hospital-based CR (H-CR) in a randomised controlled trial. Patients were randomised to H-CR or SC-CR after admission for acute coronary syndrome. In SC-CR, the general practitioner took over the responsibility of the remaining rehabilitation, pharmacological treatment and risk factor management after the initial visit to the hospital outpatient clinic. The Municipal Health Care Centres provided courses on smoking cessation, nutrition, and exercise training and contributed to disease education and psychosocial support. The main endpoint was adherence to the CR programme and compliance with lifestyle modifications. In total, 1364 patients were screened, 327 (24%) were eligible, and 212 (65%) accepted participation. Phase II CR was completed by 192 (91%) of the participants. Full adherence to the CR programme was seen in 53% in SC-CR versus 54% in H-CR (relative risk (RR): 0.98, 95% confidence interval: 0.73-1.32). In H-CR, patients had higher rates of adherence to dietary advice and health education. In SC-CR, 12% of patients did not attend the risk factor evaluation and clinical assessment with their general practitioner. No difference in risk factor improvement was found. Exercise training was declined by 25% in both groups. Adherence to phase II CR was high in both groups. SC-CR did not improve adherence and efficacy, but had comparable effects on medication and risk factors. Thus, SC-CR was safe and effective.
Chen, Wen-Ching; Sun, Yu-Hua; Lan, Tsuo-Hung; Chiu, Hsien-Jane
This one-year follow-up study determined the incidence and risk factors of workplace violence against nursing staff in a psychiatric hospital. The cohort members had a website to report events whenever they came across violence. A total of 971 events were reported. The incidence rates of physical violence, verbal abuse, bullying/mobbing, sexual harassment, and racial harassment were 1.7, 3.7, 0.2, 0.3, and 0 per staff-year, respectively. Young age, female sex, lower education, shorter duration of employment, and high level of anxiety of staff seemed to be the determinants of violence. Pre-placement education should focus on these staff to reduce workplace violence.
Suciu, Laura Mihaela; Pasc, Andrada Larisa; Cucerea, Manuela; Bell, Edward F
This study aims to compare women with early (13-16 years), late teenage (17-19 years), and adult (25-29 years) pregnancies regarding pregnancy risk factors and reproductive outcomes. An observational study, utilizing medical charts and direct interview, conducted in an academic hospital during January 2011 and December 2012. Our sample comprised 395 teenage and 736 adult pregnancies. Pregnant teenagers were more likely than adults to be single (41.7 vs. 33.2%; odds ratio [OR]: 1.43, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.11-1.84), to live in a rural area (70.9 vs. 53.9%; OR: 2.07, 95% CI: 1.60-2.69), and to live with extended family (74.2 vs. 16.0%; OR: 15.04, 95% CI: 11.15-20.29). Adolescent mothers were more likely than adult mothers to give birth by vaginal delivery (78.5 vs. 69.6%; OR: 1.82, 95% CI: 1.17-2.84), and rate of operative delivery was lower amongst this group (8.6 vs. 9.8%; OR: 0.8, 95% CI: 0.5-1.3). The newborns of adolescent mothers were more likely to be low birth weight (14.9 vs. 9.1%; OR: 1.75, 95% CI: 1.20-2.54) and more likely to successfully breastfeed (91.9 vs. 82.2%; OR: 2.45; 95% CI: 1.63-3.69) but the length of hospital stay was similar with adult mothers' newborns. The distinct risk factors and behaviors associated with pregnancy, among teenagers may help address the health needs of this unique and vulnerable group and their offspring. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.
Bouju, G; Grall-Bronnec, M; Landreat-Guillou, M; Venisse, J-L
In France, consumption of gambling games increased by 148% between 1960 and 2005. In 2004, gamblers lost approximately 0.9% of household income, compared to 0.4% in 1960. This represents approximately 134 Euros per year and per head. In spite of this important increase, the level remains lower than the European average (1%). However, gambling practices may continue to escalate in France in the next few years, particularly with the recent announce of the legalisation of online games and sports betting. With the spread of legalised gambling, pathological gambling rates may increase in France in the next years, in response to more widely available and more attractive gambling opportunities. In this context, there is a need for better understanding of the risk factors that are implicated in the development and maintenance of pathological gambling. This paper briefly describes the major risk factors for pathological gambling by examining the recent published literature available during the first quarter of 2008. This documentary basis was collected by Inserm for the collective expert report procedure on Gambling (contexts and addictions). Seventy-two articles focusing on risk factors for pathological gambling were considered in this review. Only 47 of them were taken into account for analysis. The selection of these 47 publications was based on the guide on literature analysis established by the French National Agency for Accreditation and Assessment in Health (ANAES, 2000). Some publications from more recent literature have also been added, mostly about Internet gambling. We identify three major types of risk factors implicated in gambling problems: some of them are related to the subject (individual factors), others are related to the object of the addiction, here the gambling activity by itself (structural factors), and the last are related to environment (contextual or situational factors). Thus, the development and maintenance of pathological gambling seems to be
Kronfly Rubiano, Eduardo; Rivilla Frias, Daniel; Ortega Abarca, Isabel; Villanueva Villanueva, Montserrat; Beltrán Martínez, Eva; Comellas Villalba, Montserrat; Almeda Ortega, Jesús; Casals Fransi, Jordi; Rico García, Yolanda; Martínez Carmona, Sonia; Carrasco Coria, Rosa; Bonfill Gavaldà, Montserrat; Calderón Loren, Belén; Fernández Fernández, Mercedes; Barranco Oliver, Laura
To determine the prevalence of the risk of depression, major defining characteristics and factors associated with. Sub-study of comprehensive geriatric assessment cross-study. Primary health center. For an estimated 14% prevalence we need a sample of 288 people. From 3854, 290 people ≥75 years were selected. Excluding terminals, chemotherapy, recent surgery, temporary residence, mental retardation, serious psychiatric illness, or under home care. risk of depression (≥2 points on the Goldberg depression subscale. Sociodemographic and five study areas of the Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment: medical -comorbidity, polypharmacy, falls and hospital admissions-, functional -Up&Go Test, Lawton-Brody and Barthel Index-, nutritional -Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA)-, mental-affective -Pfeiffer Questionnaire and Goldberg scale-, and social. Descriptive analysis and logistic regression. We obtained 290 interviews, with 102 (35.1%) male and mean age of 79.4 years (SD:3.2). The prevalence of the risk of depression was 37.2%, 26.5% in men and 43.1% in women (p=0.005). Association of risk of depression is observed with arterial hypertension (OR:3.87 95% CI:1.61-9.34), cancer (OR:4.12 95%, CI:1.58-10.76), lack of leisure activity (OR:2.75 95%, CI:1.33-5.67), increase of anxiety scale (OR:1.87 95%, CI:1.57-2.22) and decrease in MNA (OR:0.78 95%, CI:0.68-0.9). The prevalence of risk of depression is higher than expected, although overestimated until being confirmed with a diagnostic test. We appreciate new associations of comorbidity variables with risk of depression and corroborate other known. The studied factors that were associated with the risk of depression should be included in future studies of geriatric depression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Suffoletto, Brian; Miller, Thomas; Shah, Rahul; Callaway, Clifton; Yealy, Donald M
We sought to evaluate the ability of the Identification of Seniors At Risk (ISAR) tool to differentiate between older adult patients having a poor outcome within 30 days of emergency department (ED) care and those who do not. We compare prognostic accuracy of subjective versus objective risk factors. 202 community-dwelling patients age 65 years and older presenting to two EDs were prospectively enrolled. Participants completed the six-question ISAR and objective testing (cognition, ambulation, vision). We reviewed electronic medical records for current medications, hospitalisations in the past six months, ED disposition, length of hospital stay, subsequent ED visits or inpatient admissions or death at 30 days. Participants were given a point for each risk factor present; subjective and objective risk factors were scored separately. We tested ability of individual risk factors and scores to predict a composite outcome of subsequent ED visit, postdischarge hospitalisation or death by day 30 after the index ED visit. We computed receiver operating curve area under the curves (AUC) to determine tool discrimination. 23% of participants had a poor 30-day outcome. The optimum subjective ISAR cut-off score for screening was ≥2, which was present in 84% of participants, had a sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 19%. Using the subjective ISAR tool, the AUC was 0.66. The optimum objective ISAR-related risk cut-off score for screening was ≥3, which was present in 82% of participants, had a sensitivity of 87% and specificity of 40%. Using the objective ISAR-related tool, the AUC was 0.69. The self-reported ISAR tool did not discriminate well between older adults with or without 30-day hospital revisit or death. An optimum score of ≥2 would identify many older adults at no apparent increased risk of poor outcomes at 30 days. Using objective ISAR-related risk factors did not improve overall discrimination. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For
Ciszewski, Tomasz; Łopacka-Szatan, Karolina; Miotła, Paweł; Starosławska, Elżbieta
Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women's ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual's life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence. PMID:26528110
Ciardullo, Anna V; Daghio, M Monica; Bevini, Massimo; Feltri, Gaetano; Novi, Doriano; Fattori, Giuseppe; Borsari, Silvana; Donato, Carlo Di
We analysed the risk factors associated with diabetic complications in the cohort of patients assisted by a type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) shared-care program. We analysed registry data from 16,136 T2DM patients. Of them, 4,781 had microangiopathy, 3,469 CV events. They were 70.5 ± 17.1 years old, 50% were male, disease duration 13.3 ± 7.8 years, BMI 28.7 ± 4.9 kg/m², HbA1c 7.08 ± 1.23%, FBG 134.7 ± 35.7 mg/dl, 2hPPBG 163.9 ± 47.8 mg/dl, 12.5% smokers. Cholesterol 202.5 ± 37.6 mg/dl, HDL 51.4 ± 20.4 mg/dl, LDL 126.5 ± 36.0 mg/dl, triglyceride 146.2 ± 72.4 mg/dl, SBP 137.8 ± 14.2 mmHg, DBP 80.7 ± 10.8 mmHg, 10-year CV risk score 13.7 ± 9.1; 70.4% had no microangiopathy-i.e. renal, retinal, peripheral nerve disease-and 78.5% of patients had no CV events. Age-adjusted risk factors associated with diabetic complications were male gender, HbA1c, 2hPPBG, HDL, and triglyceride. FBG and SBP were associated with microangiopathy, whereas smoking with cardiovascular events. Optimal targets were reached in: FBG 17%, 2hPPBG 8%, HbA1c 21%, cholesterol 17%, HDL 8%, LDL 5%, triglyceride 20%, SBP 13%, DBP 30%. Drug profiles showed 13% using metformin, 28% sulphonilureas, 26% bitherapy, 4% insulin; 12% statins, 16% anti-platelets, 27% anti-hypertensives, 2% anti-coagulants. T2DM patients showed an acceptable CV risk profile. Joint risk factors for diabetic complications were male gender, HbA1c, 2hPPBG, HDL, and triglyceride. Distinct risk factors were FBG and SBP for micro- and smoking for macrovascular disease. A targeted-to-treat approach needs more attention in the care of T2DM patients.
Obai, Gerald; Odongo, Pancras; Wanyama, Ronald
Anaemia is a public health problem affecting over 1.62 billion people globally. It affects all age groups of people and is particularly more prevalent in pregnant women. Africa carries a high burden of anaemia; in Uganda 24 % of women of child bearing age have anaemia. Pregnant women living in poverty are at greater risk of developing iron deficiency anaemia. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of anaemia and the associated risk factors in pregnant women attending antenatal care at Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals in Northern and Western Uganda respectively. We conducted a cross sectional study in Gulu and Hoima Regional Hospitals from July to October 2012. Our study participants were pregnant women attending antenatal care. Socio-demographic data were collected using structured questionnaires and blood samples were collected for haemoglobin estimation. Haemoglobin concentration was determined using an automated analyzer closed mode of blood sampling. Data were analysed using Stata version 12. Odds ratio was used as a measure of association, with 95% confidence interval; and independent risk factors for anaemia were investigated using logistic regression analyses. Ethical approval was obtained from Gulu University Research Ethics Committee and written informed consent was obtained from each study participant. The overall prevalence of anaemia was 22.1%; higher in Gulu (32.9%) than in Hoima (12.1%), p < 0.001. In Gulu, the prevalence of mild anaemia was 23%, moderate anaemia was 9%, and severe anaemia was 0.8%, while in Hoima, the prevalence of mild anaemia was 9%, moderate anaemia was 2.5%, and severe anaemia was 0.5%. Independent risk factors for anaemia were: being a housewife [Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR) = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.05-2.68]; and being a resident in Gulu (AOR = 3.6, 95% CI: 2.41-5.58). The prevalence of anaemia in pregnant women in Gulu is higher than in Hoima. Amongst pregnancy women, being a housewife is an independent risk
Pore, Shraddha M.; Ramanand, Sunita J.; Patil, Praveenkumar T.; Gore, Alka D.; Pawar, Mayur P.; Gaidhankar, Smita L.; Ghanghas, Ravi R.
Aims: Envenomation with poisonous snakes is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. The present study was undertaken with the objectives of assessing anti-snake venom (ASV) use, early adverse reactions to ASV, premedication and clinical outcomes in snake bite patients. Association of various risk factors (age, gender, dose of ASV, time gap between snake bite and ASV administration, use of mechanical ventilation and type of snake bite) with mortality was also assessed. Settings and Design: This retrospective study was conducted at two Tertiary Care Teaching Hospitals. Subjects and Methods: The medical records of 176 patients of snake bite with documented use of ASV were retrospectively analyzed to retrieve relevant data. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive statistics was used to express results about ASV use, early adverse reactions to ASV, premedication and clinical outcomes. Univariate and multivariate analysis was performed to find out significant risk factors associated with mortality. Results: The main indication for ASV was vasculotoxic snake bite (75%) followed by neurotoxic snake bite (16%). Mean dose of ASV was 18.63 ± 14.52 vials. Prophylactic premedication with corticosteroids alone or in combination with antihistaminic was used in more than 70% patients. Early adverse reactions to ASV were seen in 4% patients. Neurotoxic snake bite was a significant risk factor associated with mortality in multivariate analysis. Conclusions: Neurotoxic snake bite is an independent predictor of mortality in snake bite patients. Currently used polyvalent ASV may be less effective in treating neurotoxic snake bite. PMID:26069363
Muro, Sissy; Garza-González, Elvira; Camacho-Ortiz, Adrian; González, Gloria María; Llaca-Díaz, Jorge Martín; Bosques, Francisco; Rositas, Félix
To describe the risk factors and molecular epidemiology of nosocomial bloodstream infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae in a tertiary care hospital. Patients with enterobacteria-positive blood cultures were included. ESBL expression in the isolates was detected using the combination disk method. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed using the disk diffusion method. bla(SHV), bla(TEM), and bla(CTX-M) genes were identified in the isolated strains by PCR and sequencing. Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were genotyped by PFGE. Of the 90 isolates recovered, half were found to express ESBLs. Twenty-eight (62%) of these isolates were K. pneumoniae, 8 (18%) were Escherichia coli, 6 (13%) were Enterobacter cloacae, and 3 (7%) were Serratia marcescens. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the only independent risk factor associated with infection by ESBL-producing strains was use of broad-spectrum cephalosporins. None of the isolates was resistant to imipenem. The bla(SHV5) gene was detected in 84% of isolates, followed by bla(CTX-M15) (27%), bla(SHV2) (9%), and bla(SHV12) (7%). PFGE identified six clones among the 28 ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates. ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae clones were detected throughout the hospital. Use of broad-spectrum cephalosporins is the most important risk factor associated with the proliferation of ESBL-producing strains. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.
Rello, Jordi; Bello, Irene; de Vicente, Rosario; Hermira Anchuelo, Ana; Ballesteros, Maria Ángeles; Iranzo, Reyes; Rellán, Luzdivina; Riera, Jordi; Robles, Juan Carlos
One-year survival in lung transplant is around 85%, but this figure has not increased in recent years, in spite of technical improvements. Retrospective, multicenter cohort study. Data from 272 eligible adults with lung transplant were recorded at 7 intensive care units (ICU) in Spain in 2013. The objective was to identify variables that might help to guide future clinical interventions in order to reducethe risk of death in the postoperative period. One patient (0.3%) died in the operating room and 27 (10%) within 90 days. Twenty (7.4%) died within 28 days, after a median of 14 ICU days. Grade 3 pulmonary graft dysfunction was documented in 108 patients, of whom 21 died, compared with 6 out of 163 without pulmonary graft dysfunction (P<.001). At ICU admission, non-survivors had significantly lower (P=.03) median PaO2/FiO2 (200mmHg vs 280mmHg), and the difference increased after 24hours (178 vs 297mmHg, P<.001). Thirteen required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, and 7(53.8%) died. A logistic regression model identified pulmonary graft dysfunction (OR: 6.77), donor age>60yr (OR: 2.91) and SOFA>8 (OR: 2.53) as independent predictors of 90-day mortality. At ICU admission, higher median procalcitonin (1.6 vs 0.6) and lower median PaO2/FiO2 (200 vs 280mmHg) were significantly associated with mortality. Graft dysfunction remains a significant problem in lung transplant. Early ICU interventions in patients with severe hypoxemia or high procalcitonin are crucial in order to lower mortality. Copyright © 2017 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Alam, Tahmina; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Sarmin, Monira; Shahrin, Lubaba; Afroze, Farzana; Sharifuzzaman; Akhter, Shamima; Shahunja, K M; Shahid, Abu Sadat Mohammad Sayeem Bin; Bardhan, Pradip Kumar; Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer
Children with diarrhea hospitalized for respiratory distress often have fatal outcome in resource-limited settings, although data are lacking on risk factors for death in such children. We sought to evaluate clinical predictors for death in such children. In this prospective cohort study, we enrolled under-5 children with diarrhea admitted with severe respiratory distress to the intensive care unit of Dhaka Hospital of International Centre for Diarhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh, from September 2014 through September 2015. We compared clinical and laboratory characteristics between study children those who died (n = 29) and those who survived (n = 62). In logistic regression analysis, after adjusting for potential confounders, the independent predictors for death in children hospitalized for diarrhea and severe respiratory distress were severe sepsis and hypoglycemia (P < .05 for all). Thus, recognition of these simple parameters may help clinicians identify children with diarrhea at risk of deaths in order to initiate prompt management for the better outcome, especially in resource-poor settings.
Minutolo, Roberto; Sasso, Ferdinando C; Chiodini, Paolo; Cianciaruso, Bruno; Carbonara, Ornella; Zamboli, Pasquale; Tirino, Giuseppina; Pota, Andrea; Torella, Roberto; Conte, Giuseppe; De Nicola, Luca
Advanced diabetic nephropathy (DN) is characterized by a marked development of cardiovascular and renal disease. These patients are frequently managed by different health professionals with the consequence that the quality of care may differ substantially. To compare the management of cardiovascular risk factors in patients with type 2 DN and an estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR) of 15-60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 followed in nephrology, diabetology and primary care. This multicentre cross-sectional study verified the control of blood pressure (BP), total cholesterol, triglycerides, glycosylated haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and haemoglobin in patients exclusively followed in either nephrology (n = 266), diabetology (n = 246) or primary care (n = 195) of the same metropolitan area for at least 1 year. Primary care patients were older and had a greater prevalence of previous cardiovascular events. The GFR was lower in nephrology than in diabetology and primary care (33 +/- 13 versus 47 +/- 9 and 40 +/- 12 ml/min per 1.73 m2, P < 0.0001). The prevalence of BP target (< 130/80 mmHg) was similarly low in nephrology, diabetology and primary care (14, 13 and 10%, P = 0.421) probably because of insufficient prescription of diuretics and low-salt diet. Whereas the prevalence of the triglycerides target was similar, that of total cholesterol (< 200 mg/dl) was larger in diabetology (63%) than in nephrology and primary care (59 and 46%, P = 0.003) because of greater statin prescription in hypercholesterolemic individuals (70, 50 and 41%, respectively, P = 0.002). The attainment of HbA1c less than 7% was less frequent in diabetology (32%) than in nephrology and primary care (61 and 46%, P = 0.0003) despite a more frequent prescription of insulin/oral agents in diabetology. The control of anaemia was better in diabetology. Multivariate analysis adjusted for the patient case-mix and physician-level clustering confirmed these differences except for anaemia. Patients with advanced DN
Background The Brazilian Study on the Practice of Diabetes Care main objective was to provide an epidemiological profile of individuals with type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) in Brazil, concerning therapy and adherence to international guidelines in the medical practice. Methods This observational, cross-sectional, multicenter study collected and analyzed data from individuals with type 1 and 2 DM attending public or private clinics in Brazil. Each investigator included the first 10 patients with type 2 DM who visited his/her office, and the first 5 patients with type 1 DM. Results A total of 1,358 patients were analyzed; 375 (27.6%) had type 1 and 983 (72.4%) had type 2 DM. Most individuals were women, Caucasian, and private health care users. High prevalence rates of hypertension, dyslipidemia and central obesity were observed, particularly in type 2 DM. Only 7.3% and 5.1% of the individuals with types 1 and 2 DM, respectively, had optimal control of blood pressure, plasma glucose and lipids. The absence of hypertension and female sex were associated with better control of type 1 DM and other cardiovascular risk factors. In type 2 DM, older age was also associated with better control. Conclusions Female sex, older age, and absence of hypertension were associated with better metabolic control. An optimal control of plasma glucose and other cardiovascular risk factors are obtained only in a minority of individuals with diabetes. Local numbers, compared to those from other countries are worse. PMID:23972112
Cowppli-Bony, Pascale; Dartigues, Jean-François; Orgogozo, Jean-Marc
Etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is still undefined in its most frequent sporadic type, but a role of vascular risk factor is more and more evocated in its pathophysiology. This role enables to hope that preventive or curative care of vascular risk factors could decrease AD incidence. Among these factors, high blood pressure, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and tobacco consumption were the most studied. We review the risk for AD, which had been associated with each of these factors in epidemiological studies. High blood pressure is associated with an increased risk of AD in most studies while the results are more controversial for the others factors. All these four vascular risk factors have variable interaction with the presence of cerebrovascular diseases and of the epsilon 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene which is a predisposition factor for sporadic AD.
McCarrier, Kelly P; Martin, Diane P; Ralston, James D; Zimmerman, Frederick J
Minimum wage policies have been advanced as mechanisms to improve the economic conditions of the working poor. Both positive and negative effects of such policies on health care access have been hypothesized, but associations have yet to be thoroughly tested. To examine whether the presence of minimum wage policies in excess of the federal standard of $5.15 per hour was associated with health care access indicators among low-skilled adults of working age, a cross-sectional analysis of 2004 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data was conducted. Self-reported health insurance status and experience with cost-related barriers to needed medical care were adjusted in multi-level logistic regression models to control for potential confounding at the state, county, and individual levels. State-level wage policy was not found to be associated with insurance status or unmet medical need in the models, providing early evidence that increased minimum wage rates may neither strengthen nor weaken access to care as previously predicted.
Veld, Diana Huis In 't; Pengpid, Supa; Colebunders, Robert; Skaal, Linda; Peltzer, Karl
Alcohol use may have a negative impact on the course of HIV disease and the effectiveness of its treatment. We studied patients with HIV who use alcohol and associated socio-demographic, health and psychosocial factors. Outcomes from this study may help in selecting patients from clinical practice with high-risk alcohol use and who are likely to benefit most from alcohol reduction interventions. In a cross sectional study in three primary health care clinics in Pretoria, South Africa, from January 2012 to June 2012, patients with HIV infection were interviewed and patients' medical files were reviewed to obtain data on levels of alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test), patients' socio-demographic characteristics, HIV-related information, health related quality of life (WHOQoL-HIVBref), internalized AIDS stigma, symptoms of depression and adherence to antiretroviral therapy. Analyses consisted of descriptive statistics, bi- and multivariate logistic regression models. A total of 2230 patients (1483 [66.5%] female) were included. The median age was 37 years (interquartile range 31-43), 99.5% were black Africans, 1975 (88.6%) had started ART and the median time on ART was 22 months (interquartile range 9-40). No alcohol was used by 64% of patients, 8.9% were low risk drinkers, 25.1% of patients were hazardous or harmful drinkers and 2.0% had possible alcohol dependence. In multivariate analysis high-risk drinking was positively associated with male gender, never being married, tobacco use, a higher score for the 'level of independence'-domain measured with the WHOQoL-HIVBref questionnaire, and with more depressive symptoms compared to low-risk drinking. This study shows a high prevalence of hazardous or harmful drinking in patients with HIV infection (especially men) attending primary health care clinics in South Africa. Routine screening for alcohol use should be introduced in these clinics and harm reduction interventions should be evaluated, taking
López-Carbajal, Mario Joaquín; Manríquez-Moreno, María Esther; Gálvez-Camargo, Daniela; Ramírez-Jiménez, Evelia
preeclampsia constitutes one of the main causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. The aim was to identify the risk factors associated to the developmental of preeclampsia mild-moderate and severe, as well as the force of association of these factors in a hospital of second-level medical care. study of cases and controls, a relation 1:1, in women withdrawn of the Service of Gynecology and Obstetrics during 2004 to 2007. Pregnant women with more than 20 weeks gestation were included. In the cases group we included patients with diagnosis of preeclampsia mild-moderate or severe (corroborated clinical and laboratory). In the controls group that had a normal childbirth without pathology during the pregnancy. 42 cases and 42 controls. The average age was of 27 years. The associated risk factors were overweight, obesity, irregular prenatal control, short or long intergenesic period, history of caesarean or preeclampsia in previous pregnancies. the knowledge of the risk factors will allow the accomplishment of preventive measures and decrease the fetal and maternal morbidity and mortality due to preeclampsia.
Thomas, Simone; Sauter, Wolfgang; Starrost, Ulrike; Pohl, Marcus; Mehrholz, Jan
Treatment of critical illness on intensive-care-units (ICU) results often in persistent invasive endotracheal intubation which might delay rehabilitation and increases the risk of mortality. Recent longitudinal studies have described the recovery of critically ill people, but the detailed time course of decannulation in patients with chronic critical illness with ICU-acquired muscle weakness (ICUAW) is not well known. The aim of our study was to describe the decannulation times and associated risk factors in patients who are chronic critically ill with ICU acquired weakness. This is a cohort study. Postacute and rehabilitation units. Chronic critically ill patients with ICUAW and tracheostomy tube. We calculated the time until decannulation and used possible predictor variables to explain this time course. We included 122 patients with ICUAW. Successful decannulation of the tracheostomy tube was achieved after a median of 40.5 days (interquartile range= 44) after study onset and after a median of 89 days (interquartile range= 58) after onset of primary illness. Our final multivariate Cox-Proportional Hazard model included two main risk factors for decannulation: the amount of medical tubes such as catheters at admission to the rehabilitation center (adjusted hazard ratio [HR]=1.572 (95% CI: 1.021 to 2.415) and the duration of weaning from respirator in days (adjusted HR= 1.02 per day (95% CI: 1.006 to 1.03). No adverse events occurred. We described the detailed time course of decannulation in the rehabilitation of chronic critically ill patients and no adverse events were observed. Taken many single factors into account the quantity of medical tubes and the duration of weaning from respirator were associated risk factors for decannulation in this population. Knowing an exact time course of decannulation supports medical decisions in clinical rehabilitation and might help to give a prognosis for decannulation. The amount of medical tubes and the duration of weaning
Enock, Malachi E; Omoti, Afekhide E; Alikah, Anita A
To determine the risk factors, and the pattern of ocular trauma in Irrua, a sub-urban community in Edo State, Nigeria. A prospective study of all cases of ocular trauma seen in the Irrua Specialist Teaching Hospital, Irrua, Nigeria from January to December 2005. The age, gender, occupation, activity at time of injury, use of protective eye wear, visual acuity, and findings on ocular examination were recorded. One hundred and eighty-two patients were seen during the period of study. There were 130 males (72.2%) and 52 females (28.8%), with a ratio of 2.5:1. Motorcycle-related road traffic accident was the most common cause of ocular injury occurring in 56 patients (30.8%), followed by assault in 40 patients (22%), and farming in 35 patients (19.2%). The conjunctiva, lids, and cornea were the ocular structures mostly affected. Fifty one patients (28%) were blind in the affected eye, at presentation. Only 22 patients (12.1%) presented within 24 hours of injury. Motorcycle-related accidents were the most significant cause of ocular injury. The use of protective helmets with plastic covering over the face should be enforced. Measures to reduce physical assault in schools, and in the civil society should also be enforced. Farmers should be encouraged to wear protective goggles.
Hellstrand, Mats; Simonsson, Bo; Engström, Sevek; Nilsson, Kent W; Molarius, Anu
The total number of cardiovascular (CVD) deaths accounted for almost a third of all deaths globally in 2013. Population based randomised controlled trials, managed within primary care, on CVD risk factor interventions are scarce. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effects of a health dialogue intervention in a primary care setting offered to a population at the age of 55 years, focusing on CVD risk factors. The study was performed in five primary health care centres in the county of Västmanland, Sweden between April 2011 and December 2012. Men and women were randomly assigned to intervention (n = 440) and control groups (n = 440). At baseline, both groups filled in a health questionnaire and serum cholesterol, fasting plasma glucose, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), weight, height, waist (WC) and hip circumference, waist hip ratio (WHR) and systolic/diastolic blood pressure were measured. Intervention group attended a health dialogue, supported by a visualised health profile, with a possibility for further activities. Participation rates at baseline were 53% and 52% respectively. A 1-year follow-up was carried out. The intervention group (n = 165) showed reductions compared to the control group (n = 177) concerning body mass index (BMI) (0.3 kg/m(2), p = .031), WC (2.1 cm, p ≤ .001) and WHR (.002, p ≤ .001) at the 1-year follow-up. No differences between the intervention and control groups were found in other variables. Intervention group, compared to baseline, had reduced weight, BMI, WC, WHR, HbA1c, and diet, while the men in the control group had reduced their alcohol consumption. A health dialogue intervention at the age of 55 years, conducted in ordinary primary care, showed a moderate effect on CVD risk factor levels, in terms of BMI, WC and WHR. BioMed Central, ISRCTN22586871 , date assigned; 10/12/2015.
Mumu, Shirin Jahan; Saleh, Farzana; Ara, Ferdous; Haque, Md Rabiul; Ali, Liaquat
Awareness regarding risk factors is a prerequisite for the prevention of diabetes in general population. However, there are great variations in the level of this awareness from population to population and this needs to be explored in different ethnic and social groups for designing appropriate preventive strategies. The purpose of the study was to assess the level of awareness regarding the risk factors responsible for the development of type 2 diabetes and its determinants among individuals who attended a tertiary care hospital. Under an analytical cross-sectional design, 400 non-diabetic respondents, aged >30 years, were conveniently selected from the Out-Patient Department of BIRDEM, the tertiary care hospital of the Diabetic Association of Bangladesh. A pretested, semi-structured questionnaire was developed to assess knowledge and attitude of the respondents. Respondents' level of knowledge and attitude were categorized as good, average and poor (GAP). Multivariate along with bivariate statistics was used to measure knowledge and attitude of type 2 diabetes. Among the respondents the levels of knowledge and attitude were 13%, 10% good; 68%, 75% average and 19%, 14% poor respectively. In multivariate analysis, high literacy (p = 0.0001), respondents who are in service (p = 0.02) and family history of diabetes (p = 0.02) were found significantly associated with the knowledge score after adjustment. Respondents who had passed secondary and higher secondary education had a significant association (p = 0.03) with the attitude score. Housewives had a significantly lower attitude score than others (p = 0.04). Family history of diabetes and knowledge on the risk factors of diabetes showed significant positive association with the attitude score (p = 0.013 and p = 0.0001 respectively). Overall, respondents participating in this study have average awareness regarding risk factors of diabetes. From a public health perspective, there is a
Objectives The purpose of this study was to use decision tree analysis to explore the factors associated with pressure ulcers (PUs) among elderly people admitted to Korean long-term care facilities. Methods The data were extracted from the 2014 National Inpatient Sample (NIS)—data of Health Insurance Review and Assessment Service (HIRA). A MapReduce-based program was implemented to join and filter 5 tables of the NIS. The outcome predicted by the decision tree model was the prevalence of PUs as defined by the Korean Standard Classification of Disease-7 (KCD-7; code L89*). Using R 3.3.1, a decision tree was generated with the finalized 15,856 cases and 830 variables. Results The decision tree displayed 15 subgroups with 8 variables showing 0.804 accuracy, 0.820 sensitivity, and 0.787 specificity. The most significant primary predictor of PUs was length of stay less than 0.5 day. Other predictors were the presence of an infectious wound dressing, followed by having diagnoses numbering less than 3.5 and the presence of a simple dressing. Among diagnoses, “injuries to the hip and thigh” was the top predictor ranking 5th overall. Total hospital cost exceeding 2,200,000 Korean won (US $2,000) rounded out the top 7. Conclusions These results support previous studies that showed length of stay, comorbidity, and total hospital cost were associated with PUs. Moreover, wound dressings were commonly used to treat PUs. They also show that machine learning, such as a decision tree, could effectively predict PUs using big data. PMID:28261530
To explore the quality/comprehensiveness of nursing documentation of pressure ulcers and to investigate the relationship between the nursing documentation and the incidence of pressure ulcers in four intensive care units. Pressure ulcer prevention requires consistent assessments and documentation to decrease pressure ulcer incidence. Currently, most research is focused on devices to prevent pressure ulcers. Studies have rarely considered the relationship among pressure ulcer risk factors, incidence and nursing documentation. Thus, a study to investigate this relationship is needed to fill this information gap. A retrospective, comparative, descriptive, correlational study. A convenience sample of 196 intensive care units patients at the selected medical centre comprised the study sample. All medical records of patients admitted to intensive care units between the time periods of September 1, 2011 through September 30, 2012 were audited. Data used in the analysis included 98 pressure ulcer patients and 98 non-pressure ulcer patients. The quality and comprehensiveness of pressure ulcer documentation were measured by the modified European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel Pressure Ulcers Assessment Instrument and the Comprehensiveness in Nursing Documentation instrument. The correlations between quality/comprehensiveness of pressure ulcer documentation and incidence of pressure ulcers were not statistically significant. Patients with pressure ulcers had longer length of stay than patients without pressure ulcers stay. There were no statistically significant differences in quality/comprehensiveness scores of pressure ulcer documentation between dayshift and nightshift. This study revealed a lack of quality/comprehensiveness in nursing documentation of pressure ulcers. This study demonstrates that staff nurses often perform poorly on documenting pressure ulcer appearance, staging and treatment. Moreover, nursing documentation of pressure ulcers does not provide a complete
Striegel-Moore, Ruth H.; Bulik, Cynthia M.
The authors review research on risk factors for eating disorders, restricting their focus to studies in which clear precedence of the hypothesized risk factor over onset of the disorder is established. They illustrate how studies of sociocultural risk factors and biological factors have progressed on parallel tracks and propose that major advances…
Pak, Mila; Lindseth, Glenda
Gallstone disease is one of the most common public health problems in the United States. Approximately 10%-20% of the national adult populations currently carry gallstones, and gallstone prevalence is rising. In addition, nearly 750,000 cholecystectomies are performed annually in the United States; direct and indirect costs of gallbladder surgery are estimated to be $6.5 billion. Cholelithiasis is also strongly associated with gallbladder, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer occurrence. Moreover, the National Institutes of Health estimates that almost 3,000 deaths (0.12% of all deaths) per year are attributed to complications of cholelithiasis and gallbladder disease. Although extensive research has tried to identify risk factors for cholelithiasis, several studies indicate that definitive findings still remain elusive. In this review, predisposing factors for cholelithiasis are identified, the pathophysiology of gallstone disease is described, and nonsurgical preventive options are discussed. Understanding the risk factors for cholelithiasis may not only be useful in assisting nurses to provide resources and education for patients who are diagnosed with gallstones, but also in developing novel preventive measures for the disease.
Amberpet, Rajesh; Sistla, Sujatha; Parija, Subhash Chandra; Thabah, Molly Mary
Gut colonization with Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) increases the risk of acquiring infection during hospital stay. Patients admitted in the ICU's are the major reservoirs for VRE colonization due to higher antibiotic pressure. To determine the rate of VRE colonization among patients admitted in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) and to assess the various risk factors which are associated with VRE colonization. This was a prospective study carried out over a period of 18 months from September 2013 to February 2015 in the Jawaharlal Institute of Post graduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry, South India. After 48 hours of ICU admission rectal swabs were collected from a total of 302 patients, admitted in MICU. The samples were inoculated on to Bile Esculin Sodium Azide agar with 6mg/L of vancomycin. Vancomycin resistance was confirmed by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) by agar dilution method. Isolates were identified up to species level by standard biochemical tests. Vancomycin resistance genes such as van A, van B and van C, were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Risk factors were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The rates of VRE colonization in patients admitted to MICU was 29%. Majority of the isolates were Enterococcus faecium (77.2 %) followed by Enterococcus faecalis (23.8%). All the VRE isolates were positive for van A gene. Increased duration of hospital stay, younger age, consumption of ceftriaxone and vancomycin were found to be significantly associated with VRE colonization in MICU. Among VRE colonized patients, six (4.5%) acquired VRE infection. The rates of VRE colonization in our ICU were similar to other hospitals worldwide. Educating health care workers on the importance of adherence to hand hygiene is essential to bring down VRE colonization rates.
Amberpet, Rajesh; Parija, Subhash Chandra; Thabah, Molly Mary
Introduction Gut colonization with Vancomycin Resistant Enterococci (VRE) increases the risk of acquiring infection during hospital stay. Patients admitted in the ICU’s are the major reservoirs for VRE colonization due to higher antibiotic pressure. Aim To determine the rate of VRE colonization among patients admitted in the Medical Intensive Care Unit (MICU) and to assess the various risk factors which are associated with VRE colonization. Materials and Methods This was a prospective study carried out over a period of 18 months from September 2013 to February 2015 in the Jawaharlal Institute of Post graduate Medical Education and Research (JIPMER), Pondicherry, South India. After 48 hours of ICU admission rectal swabs were collected from a total of 302 patients, admitted in MICU. The samples were inoculated on to Bile Esculin Sodium Azide agar with 6mg/L of vancomycin. Vancomycin resistance was confirmed by determination of Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) by agar dilution method. Isolates were identified up to species level by standard biochemical tests. Vancomycin resistance genes such as van A, van B and van C, were detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Risk factors were assessed by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Results The rates of VRE colonization in patients admitted to MICU was 29%. Majority of the isolates were Enterococcus faecium (77.2 %) followed by Enterococcus faecalis (23.8%). All the VRE isolates were positive for van A gene. Increased duration of hospital stay, younger age, consumption of ceftriaxone and vancomycin were found to be significantly associated with VRE colonization in MICU. Among VRE colonized patients, six (4.5%) acquired VRE infection. Conclusion The rates of VRE colonization in our ICU were similar to other hospitals worldwide. Educating health care workers on the importance of adherence to hand hygiene is essential to bring down VRE colonization rates. PMID:27790430
Martín-Merino, Elisa; Huerta-Álvarez, Consuelo; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Montero-Corominas, Dolores
Among 95,057 patients ≥50 years with new anti-osteoporosis medications (AOM) (2001-2013) in primary care, 1-year cessation was 51% (28%-68%), higher in men, smokers, patients with missing lifestyle data, and out normal BMI, and lower in those aged 60-79, with recent fractures or other anti-osteoporotics, suggesting non-severe osteoporosis and less risk awareness. Low compliance to anti-osteoporosis medications (AOM) has been previously reported. We aimed to estimate 1-year cessation rates of different AOMs as used in Spanish healthcare settings, and to identify associated risk factors. A cohort study was performed using primary care records data (BIFAP). Patients entered the cohort when aged 50 years in 2001-2013, with ≥1 year of data available, and identified as incident users of AOM (1-year washout). Participants were divided into six cohorts: alendronate, other oral bisphosphonates, selective oestrogen receptor modulators, strontium ranelate, teriparatide, and denosumab. Patients were followed from therapy initiation to the earliest of cessation (90-day refill gap), switching (to alternative AOM), loss to follow-up, death, or end of 2013. One-year therapy cessation was estimated using life tables. Hazard ratios (of cessation) according to age, sex, lifestyle factors, morbidity, and co-medication were estimated after stepwise backwards selection. A total of 95,057 AOM users were identified (91% women; mean age 68). One-year cessation was 51% overall, highest for strontium ranelate (68%), and lowest for denosumab (28%). Cessation probability was higher in men (14% to 2.1-fold), smokers (>6%), and patients with missing BMI (19-28%) or smoking (6-20%) data, and overweight/obese/underweight (7% to 2.6-fold increase compared to normal weight). Patients aged 60-79 years, with a recent fracture or other drugs used for osteoporosis, had better persistence. Over half of the patients initiating AOM stopped therapy within the first year after initiation. The
Hadi, Ahmed Mahmoud Abdel; Hamdy, Islam Shereen
Background This study aimed to identify the main risk factors for development of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in neonatal intensive care units in Alexandria, Egypt, from January 2010 to January 2012. Methods A prospective cohort study was undertaken in infants weighing < 1250 g and maternal postmenstrual age < 32 weeks if there was concern about prolonged exposure to oxygen. The main clinical outcomes were occurrence of any stage of ROP and in particular severe ROP. Perinatal variables considered were: birth weight, gestational age, gender, method of ventilation (nasal continuous airway pressure or intermittent mechanical ventilation), packed red blood cell and/or plasma transfusion, occurrence of sepsis, neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia, intraventricular hemorrhage, and patent ductus arteriosus. After obtaining informed consent from the parents, infants at risk were examined for ROP using indirect ophthalmoscopy, ie, RetCam II fundus photography. Results The study included 152 infants of mean gestational age 31.02 weeks and mean birth weight 1.229 kg. Seventy-two cases (47.5%) were male and 80 cases (52.5%) were female. Of the cases screened, 100 (65.6%) had no ROP, 52 had ROP of any stage (34.4%), and 27 (18%) had stage 1, five (3.3%) had stage 2, 17 (11.5%) had stage 3, and three (1.6%) had stage 4 disease. No infants had stage 5 ROP. Of all our cases with ROP, 15 (28.6%) had prethreshold disease type 1 that required treatment, comprising 9.8% of all cases screened for ROP. Using stepwise logistic regression analysis, all risk factors studied were found to be significantly associated with the development of ROP, except for neonatal indirect hyperbilirubinemia. Severity of ROP was inversely proportional to birth weight and gestational age. Conclusion ROP occurred in 34.4% of all infants screened in the neonatal intensive care units at three obstetric hospitals in Alexandria. The main risk factors for development of threshold ROP by regression analysis
Okoro, Catherine A; Zhao, Guixiang; Fox, Jared B; Eke, Paul I; Greenlund, Kurt J; Town, Machell
As a result of the 2010 Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, millions of U.S. adults attained health insurance coverage. However, millions of adults remain uninsured or underinsured. Compared with adults without barriers to health care, adults who lack health insurance coverage, have coverage gaps, or skip or delay care because of limited personal finances might face increased risk for poor physical and mental health and premature mortality. 2014. The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is an ongoing, state-based, landline- and cellular-telephone survey of noninstitutionalized adults aged ≥18 years residing in the United States. Data are collected from states, the District of Columbia, and participating U.S. territories on health risk behaviors, chronic health conditions, health care access, and use of clinical preventive services (CPS). An optional Health Care Access module was included in the 2014 BRFSS. This report summarizes 2014 BRFSS data from all 50 states and the District of Columbia on health care access and use of selected CPS recommended by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force or the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices among working-aged adults (aged 18-64 years), by state, state Medicaid expansion status, expanded geographic region, and federal poverty level (FPL). This report also provides analysis of primary type of health insurance coverage at the time of interview, continuity of health insurance coverage during the preceding 12 months, and other health care access measures (i.e., unmet health care need because of cost, unmet prescription need because of cost, medical debt [medical bills being paid off over time], number of health care visits during the preceding year, and satisfaction with received health care) from 43 states that included questions from the optional BRFSS Health Care Access module. In 2014, health insurance coverage and other health care access measures varied substantially by state, state
Rhee, YongJoo; Taitel, Michael S.; Walker, David R.; Lau, Denys T.
Objective: This study examines the risk factors of narcotic drug use, medical and pharmacy claim costs, and health services use among lower back pain (LBP) patients who use narcotic medications. Methods: This retrospective study used administrative claims data between September 2002 and March 2004 from 3 employer health plans that collectively contained records of 165,569 employees 18 to 64 years of age. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine risk factors and health care services use consequences of narcotic drug use in patients with LBR Results: The study sample included 13,760 patients with LBP due to mechanical causes. Nearly 60% were female and the average age was 47 years. Almost half of the patients with LBP (45%) used narcotic drugs. Narcotic-using patients with LBP had significantly higher rates of comorbid conditions than patients with LBP not using narcotic drugs; hypertension (23% vs 13%), arthritis (14% vs 4%), depression (10% vs 5%), anxiety (6% vs 3%), and cancer (2% vs 1%) (P < 0.001). Patients with LBP with 2 identified psychological comorbid conditions, depression and anxiety, on average used more narcotic medications. Patients with LBP who had surgery were significantly more likely to use narcotic drugs within 1 week of procedure than those patients without surgery (P < 0.001). In contrast, patients with LBP who had chiropractic services for LBP were less likely to take narcotic drugs within 7 days after services compared to those without chiropractic services (P < 0.001). Furthermore, controlling for health conditions, patients with LBP who took narcotic medications were significantly more likely than patients not taking narcotics to have an emergency room visit within 30 days after the initial narcotic drug prescription dates (P < 0.001). Narcotic-using patients with LBP accounted for 62% of health care costs among all patients with LBP. The average monthly health care cost for a narcotic-using LBP patient was $1222, compared
Rhee, YongJoo; Taitel, Michael S; Walker, David R; Lau, Denys T
This study examines the risk factors of narcotic drug use, medical and pharmacy claim costs, and health services use among lower back pain (LBP) patients who use narcotic medications. This retrospective study used administrative claims data between September 2002 and March 2004 from 3 employer health plans that collectively contained records of 165,569 employees 18 to 64 years of age. Multivariate regression analyses were performed to examine risk factors and health care services use consequences of narcotic drug use in patients with LBP. The study sample included 13,760 patients with LBP due to mechanical causes. Nearly 60% were female and the average age was 47 years. Almost half of the patients with LBP (45%) used narcotic drugs. Narcotic-using patients with LBP had significantly higher rates of comorbid conditions than patients with LBP not using narcotic drugs; hypertension (23% vs 13%), arthritis (14% vs 4%), depression (10% vs 5%), anxiety (6% vs 3%), and cancer (2% vs 1%) (P<0.001). Patients with LBP with 2 identified psychological comorbid conditions, depression and anxiety, on average used more narcotic medications. Patients with LBP who had surgery were significantly more likely to use narcotic drugs within 1 week of procedure than those patients without surgery (P<0.001). In contrast, patients with LBP who had chiropractic services for LBP were less likely to take narcotic drugs within 7 days after services compared to those without chiropractic services (P<0.001). Furthermore, controlling for health conditions, patients with LBP who took narcotic medications were significantly more likely than patients not taking narcotics to have an emergency room visit within 30 days after the initial narcotic drug prescription dates (P<0.001). Narcotic-using patients with LBP accounted for 62% of health care costs among all patients with LBP. The average monthly health care cost for a narcotic-using LBP patient was $1222, compared to $430 for a LBP patient not using
Jahangir, Eiman; Irazola, Vilma; Rubinstein, Adolfo
Health care utilization is an important step to disease management, providing opportunities for prevention and treatment. Anderson's Health Behavior Model has defined utilization by need, predisposing, and enabling determinants. We hypothesize that need, predisposing, and enabling, highlighting behavioral factors are associated with utilization in Argentina. We performed a logistic regression analysis of the 2005 and 2009 Argentinean Survey of Risk Factors, a cohort of 41,392 and 34,732 individuals, to explore the association between need, enabling, predisposing, and behavioral factors to blood pressure measurement in the last year. In the 2005 cohort, blood pressure measurement was associated with perception of health, insurance coverage, basic needs met, and income. Additionally, female sex, civil state, household type, older age groups, education, and alcohol use were associated with utilization. The 2009 cohort showed similar associations with only minor differences between the models. We explored the association between utilization of clinical preventive services with need, enabling, predisposing, and behavioral factors. While predisposing and need determinants are associated with utilization, enabling factors such as insurance coverage provides an area for public intervention. These are important findings where policies should be focused to improve utilization of preventive services in Argentina.
Jahangir, Eiman; Irazola, Vilma; Rubinstein, Adolfo
Introduction Health care utilization is an important step to disease management, providing opportunities for prevention and treatment. Anderson’s Health Behavior Model has defined utilization by need, predisposing, and enabling determinants. We hypothesize that need, predisposing, and enabling, highlighting behavioral factors are associated with utilization in Argentina. Methods We performed a logistic regression analysis of the 2005 and 2009 Argentinean Survey of Risk Factors, a cohort of 41,392 and 34,732 individuals, to explore the association between need, enabling, predisposing, and behavioral factors to blood pressure measurement in the last year. Results In the 2005 cohort, blood pressure measurement was associated with perception of health, insurance coverage, basic needs met, and income. Additionally, female sex, civil state, household type, older age groups, education, and alcohol use were associated with utilization. The 2009 cohort showed similar associations with only minor differences between the models. Conclusions We explored the association between utilization of clinical preventive services with need, enabling, predisposing, and behavioral factors. While predisposing and need determinants are associated with utilization, enabling factors such as insurance coverage provides an area for public intervention. These are important findings where policies should be focused to improve utilization of preventive services in Argentina. PMID:22984608
Ding, Xiurong; Yan, Donghui; Sun, Wei; Zeng, Zhaoyin; Su, Ruirui; Su, Jianrong
Nosocomial candidemia extends the length of hospital stay, increases the costs of medical care, and is associated with a high mortality rate. Epidemiological data that assist in the choice of initial therapy may help to improve the prognosis. The present study was undertaken to investigate the epidemiology of nosocomial candidemia and identify risk factors for nosocomial candidemia caused by C. albicans and non-albicans Candida species (NAC). A retrospective chart review was undertaken to analyze cases of nosocomial candidemia treated at the Beijing Friendship Hospital between January 2008 and December 2012. All cases of candidemia were identified using the previously published criteria. Among 106 patients analyzed, 53.8% had nosocomial candidemia caused by NAC. Candida albicans was the most common causative agent, accounting for 46.2% of all cases, followed by C. glabrata (25.5%), C. tropicalis (15.1%), C. parapsilosis (10.4%) and C. Krusei (0.9%). Comparison of nosocomial C. albicans and NAC candidemia by multivariate logistic regression showed that factors independently associated with nosocomial NAC candidemia included exposure to azole agents (odds ratio [OR]: 3.359; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.136-10.154; P = .031) and artificial surgical implants (OR: 37.519; 95% CI: 2.5-562.998; P = .009). A significant risk factor for nosocomial C. albicans candidemia was cancer surgery (OR: 0.075; 95% CI: 0.013-0.437; P = .004). Clinical and epidemiological differences in the risk factors between nosocomial candidemia caused by C. albicans and NAC should be considered when selecting an initial antifungal regimen for the treatment of adult patients. This should be undertaken before the availability of species identification and/or antifungal susceptibility results. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: email@example.com.
Angue, Marion; Allou, Nicolas; Belmonte, Olivier; Lefort, Yannick; Lugagne, Nathalie; Vandroux, David; Montravers, Philippe; Allyn, Jérôme
Few national recommendations exist on management of patients returning from abroad and all focus on hospitalized patients. Our purpose was to compare, in an intensive care unit (ICU), the admission prevalence and acquisition of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria carriage in patients with ("Abroad") or without ("Local") a recent stay abroad, and then identify the risk factors in "Abroad" patients. In this retrospective study, we reviewed charts of all the patients hospitalized in the ICU unit from January 2011 through July 2013 with hygiene samplings performed. We identified all patients who had stayed abroad ("Abroad") within 6 months prior to ICU admission. Of 1,842 ICU patients, 129 (7%) "Abroad" patients were reported. In the "Abroad" group, the rate of MDR strain carriage was higher at admission (33% vs 6.7%, p < 0.001) and also more often diagnosed during the ICU stay (acquisition rate: 17% vs 5.2%, p < 0.001) than in "Local" patients. Risk factors associated with MDR bacteria carriage at admission in "Abroad" patients were diabetes mellitus [odds ratio (OR) 5.1 (1.7-14.8), p = 0.003] and "hospitalization abroad with antibiotic treatment" [OR 10.7 (4.2-27.3), p < 0.001]. Hospitalization abroad without antibiotic treatment was not identified as a risk factor. The main factor associated with MDR bacteria carriage after a stay abroad seems to be a hospitalization abroad only in case of antibiotic treatment abroad. Screening and isolation of "Abroad" patients should be recommended, even in case of a first negative screening. © 2015 International Society of Travel Medicine.
Radisic, Sally; Newbold, K Bruce
The Air Quality Health Index (AQHI) provides air quality and health information such that the public can implement health protective behaviours (reducing and/or rescheduling outdoor activity) and decrease exposure to outdoor air pollution. The AQHI's health messages account for increased risk associated with "at risk" populations (i.e. young children, elderly and those with pre-existing respiratory and/or cardiovascular conditions) who rely on health care and service providers for guidance. Using Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations theory, our objective with respect to health care and service providers and their respective "at risk" populations was to explore: 1) level of AQHI knowledge; 2) factors influencing AQHI adoption and; 3) strategies that may increase uptake of AQHI, according to city divisions and socioeconomic status (SES). Semi-structured face-to-face interviews with health care (Registered Nurses and Certified Respiratory Educators) and service providers (Registered Early Childhood Educators) and focus groups with their respective "at risk" populations explored barriers and facilitators to AQHI adoption. Participants were selected using purposive sampling. Each transcript was analyzed using an Interpretive Description approach to identify themes. Analyses were informed by Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations theory. Fifty participants (6 health care and service providers, 16 parents, 13 elderly, 15 people with existing respiratory conditions) contributed to this study. AQHI knowledge, AQHI characteristics and perceptions of air quality and health influenced AQHI adoption. AQHI knowledge centred on numerical reliance and health protective intent but varied with SES. More emphasis on AQHI relevance with respect to health benefits was required to stress relative advantage over other indices and reduce index confusion. AQHI reporting at a neighbourhood scale was recognized as addressing geographic variability and uncertainty in perceived versus measured air
Viñas Cabrera, Lidia; Fernández San-Martín, María Isabel; Martín López, Luis Miguel
To evaluate the effectiveness of a joint team intervention between primary care (PC) and mental health (MH) to improve information on cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in psychotic patients. Multicenter before-after intervention study. Seven primary care and 2 mental health centers in Barcelona participated. All patients between 18-65 years old with a confirmed diagnosis of psychosis assigned to PC teams (n = 690) are included. Shared clinical sessions, developing a joint GP-MH protocol and implement it. Gender, age, number of Appointments per center/year, smoking, blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, waist circumference (WC), Cardiovascular Risk. Comparison of CVRF records from 2008 to 2010 using statistical tests for paired data. Calculation of CVRF prevalence in accordance with metabolic syndrome criteria and the criteria for referral to GP. The mean age was 42.3 (SD 11.4) years, with 67% males. All CVRF significantly Increased in clinical notes, particularly all blood test parameters and WC. More than 35% of patients had a CVRF according to metabolic syndrome criteria. Criteria to refer to PC physician (2010) identified: obesity 51.9%, 23.9% hypertension, high cholesterol 20.4% and 11.6% diabetes. CVRF recording improvement. High percentage of patients needed GP intervention due to a CVRF. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.
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It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.
Pears, Katherine C.; Kim, Hyoun K.; Leve, Leslie D.
Girls in foster care may face difficulties across the transition to middle school. Latent growth curve modeling was employed to examine trajectories and predictors of academic competence and aggression from and against peers for 75 girls in foster care from the end of elementary school to the 2nd year of middle school. Across the transition to middle school, academic competence increased. Poor self-regulation was associated with decreased academic competence, and higher caregiver support was associated with increased academic competence. Frequency of aggression from peers decreased across the transition, with perceived school competence predicting smaller decreases. Aggression against peers dropped initially and then increased to pretransition levels by the end of the 2nd year of middle school. Lower caregiver support was associated with higher rates of aggression against peers at the end of the 1st year of middle school. The results are discussed in terms of implications for interventions for girls in foster care. PMID:22389543
García-Muñoz Rodrigo, F; Rivero Rodríguez, S; Siles Quesada, C
Heat loss in the newborn after delivery could interfere with post-natal adaptation due to metabolic and hemodynamic instability. Associated perinatal factors and their relationship with morbidity and mortality during the neonatal period have not been systematically studied in our unit. To determine the temperature of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants on admission to our NICU, and to determine the associated perinatal variables, and the association of temperature with morbidity and mortality. Infants born in our maternity from January 2006 to November 2012, with birth weights (BW) 401 g to 1,499 g and/or less than 30 weeks gestational age, were included. A multivariate analysis was performed using the perinatal variables and the temperature on admission, as well as a logistic regression between these and the morbidity-mortality variables, in order to detect any independent associations. A total of 635 infants were included, with a mean (± SD) birth weight and gestational age of 1,137.6 ± 257.6g, and 29.5 ± 2.0 weeks, respectively. The mean admission temperature was 35.8 ± 0.6°C (range: 33.0-37.8°C). The proportion of infants with a temperature < 36°C was 44.4%. Independently associated perinatal variables were chorioamnionitis, birth weight, vaginal delivery, and advanced cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR). Admission hypothermia was associated with severe intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) (grades 3 and 4) (OR: 0.377; 95% CI: 0.221-0.643; P<.001), and mortality (OR: 0.329; 95% CI: 0.208-0.519; P=.012). Hypothermia on admission is frequent among our VLBW infants. Birth weight, vaginal delivery, and advanced CPR were the principal variables associated with hypothermia. A low temperature on admission was related to an increased risk of IVH and mortality. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Oğuz Mızrakçı, Serpil; Arda, Bilgin; Erdem, Hüseyin Aytaç; Uyar, Mehmet; Tünger, Alper; Sipahi, Oğuz Reşat; Ulusoy, Sercan
In this study it was aimed to investigate the risk factors for gastrointestinal colonization by extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in intensive care unit (ICU) of anaesthesiology and reanimation, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey. This study was performed prospectively on adult patients hospitalized in ICU of anaesthesiology and reanimation and rectal swab cultures were performed in all patients in the first 48 hours of hospitalization and every one week until discharge or death. Samples were transported to the laboratory in Stuart transport medium and were cultured on two EMB agar plates (one including 4 mg/L ceftazidime) and incubated for 48 hours. E.coli and K.pneumoniae isolates were identified by conventional methods. Antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by disc diffusion method on Mueller Hinton agar and interpreted according to CLSI guidelines. ESBL was confirmed by double disc synergy test. A total of 140 patients (49 female 91 male; age range: 18-83 years, mean age: 56.3 years) were evaluated, and 41 (29.3%) of the patients were found to be colonized with ESBL positive E.coli (n= 39) or K.pneumoniae (n= 2). The mean time for colonization was 11.15 ± 10.91 (range between 2-39) days. Age and gender of the patients and antibiotic consumption before or during the stay in ICU of anaesthesiology and reanimation were not found to be associated with colonization (p> 0.05). However length of ICU of anaesthesiology and reanimation stay in colonized patients was longer than non-colonized patients (27.59 ± 22.52 vs. 17.78 ± 11.74 days; p< 0.05). Infectious episodes developed in 22% (9/41) of the colonized cases and three of the nine strains were isolated from the blood cultures, five from the urine cultures and one from both blood and bronchoalveolar lavage cultures. ESBL-positive E.coli or K.pneumoniae colonization was found as an independent risk factor for the development of
The Risk Factor Assessment Branch (RFAB) focuses on the development, evaluation, and dissemination of high-quality risk factor metrics, methods, tools, technologies, and resources for use across the cancer research continuum, and the assessment of cancer-related risk factors in the population.
Blome, Wendy Whiting; Shields, Joseph; Verdieck, Mary Jeanne
The child welfare and substance abuse systems are integrally linked through the children and families they both serve. There is a dearth of knowledge, however, on how children who have experienced foster care fare when they are treated for substance abuse issues as adults. This article presents an exploratory study using the Alcohol and Drug…
Blome, Wendy Whiting; Shields, Joseph; Verdieck, Mary Jeanne
The child welfare and substance abuse systems are integrally linked through the children and families they both serve. There is a dearth of knowledge, however, on how children who have experienced foster care fare when they are treated for substance abuse issues as adults. This article presents an exploratory study using the Alcohol and Drug…
Anjulo, Antehun Alemayehu; Abebe, Tamrat; Hailemichael, Feleke; Mihret, Adane
Herpes simplex virus type-2 is the common cause of genital ulcer disease worldwide. Genital herpes infection is a major concern in pregnancy due to the risk of neonatal transmission. A Cross-sectional survey was conducted from December 2013 to September 2014 in randomly selected 28 health centers to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors of herpes simplex virus type-2 infection among pregnant women attending antenatal care in Wolaita zone, Southern Ethiopia. After taking written consent socio demographic, behavioral, obstetric history and family planning data along with blood samples were collected from 252 pregnant women using pre-structured questionnaire. Sera were tested using HerpeSelect-2 ELISA IgG. Data entry and analysis was done using Epi info 3.5.4 and SPSS 21.00 respectively. Binary logistic regression was performed to identify the risk factors associated with HSV-2 seropositivity. P-values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. The overall seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection was 32.1 % (81/252) among pregnant women in Wolaita zone. Independent predictors of HSV-2 infection includes daily laborer (AOR 1.293, 95 % CI: 1.033-1.739; p = 0.022), having one sexual partners (AOR 0.476, 95 % CI: 0 .250 -0.904; p = 0.023), history of STDs (AOR 2.822, 95 % CI: 1.50-5.289; p = 0.001) and use of contraceptive (AOR 2.602, 95 % CI: 1.407-4.812; p = 0.002). Overall seroprevalence of HSV-2 infection among pregnant women of Wolaita Zone is high. Awareness creation among high risk groups like women who have history of STD should be strengthened. Strengthening the quality of health service delivery and expansion of health service coverage is mandatory.
Bono, Valerie; Amendola, Christine Lazaros
Primary care providers (PCPs) play a crucial role caring for patients with depression, managing antidepressant therapy, and assessing patients for suicide risk. Ten percent of the more than 20 million primary care visits for depression each year involve mental health issues, and account for 62% of the antidepressants prescribed in the United States. Psychiatric disorders appear to be underrecognized and undertreated in primary care. Suicidal ideation is present in a significant percentage of depressed primary care patients but rarely discussed. This article describes the warning signs and risk factors associated with suicide and recommends screening tools that can help PCPs identify patients at risk.
Bajcetic, Milica; Ilic, Katarina; Singh, Nada Majkic; Novakovic, Ivana; Vukotic, Milija; Nedeljkovic, Srecko; Simeunovic, Slavko
The presence of cardiovascular risk factors in children may be important in the development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Adequate control of blood pressure is a cornerstone in atherosclerosis prevention. The aim of the Yugoslav Study of the Precursors of Atherosclerosis in School Children (YUSAD) was to identify risk factors for elevated blood pressure in school children. The YUSAD study is a multicentre follow-up study comprised of two cross-sectional surveys conducted five years apart. At baseline, 10-year-old children (3226 boys and 3074 girls [n=6300]) were randomly selected during periodical visits to primary health care centres. The risk factors measured were heart rate, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, grade point average and current smoking status. Significant age and sex differences were identified in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and all investigated independent variables. In a multivariate analysis, diastolic blood pressure in 10-year-old boys was directly and significantly related to total cholesterol and height, whereas it was inversely related to weight. At follow-up, in the multivariate model, only BMI was a significant predictor of diastolic blood pressure in boys. In girls at baseline in the multivariate regression analysis, the only significant predictor of diastolic blood pressure was total cholesterol. In 15-year-old girls, diastolic blood pressure was significantly and directly related to BMI and heart rate, whereas it was inversely related to weight. For both 10- and 15-year-old male and female participants, none of the variables by multivariate analysis were a significant predictor of systolic blood pressure. Age, sex, heart rate, cholesterol and weight are the most important predictors of blood pressure in school children.
Beaune, S; Juvin, P; Beauchet, A; Casalino, E; Megarbane, B
Each year, approximately 165,000 poisonings are managed in the emergency departments (ED) in France. We performed a descriptive analysis of self-poisoned patients admitted to a university hospital ED in the Paris metropolitan area (France) aimed at investigating their outcome and the risk factors for transfer to the intensive care unit (ICU). We retrospectively reviewed patients' records and performed multivariate logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors for ICU admission. During 4 years, 882 self-poisoned patients (median age, 38 years [IQR, 26-47]; sex-ratio, 1M/3F) were admitted to the ED, representing 0.7% of all referred patients. Poisonings mainly resulted from multidrug exposures (53%), including benzodiazepines (78%), serotonin reuptake inhibitors (17%), acetaminophen (13%), antipsychotics (9.5%), imidazopyridines (9.5%), antihypertensive drugs (3%), and polycyclic antidepressants (1.3%). Ethanol was involved in 20% of the exposures. Patients were briefly (<24h) monitored in the ED (55%), transferred to the psychiatric department (30%), medical ward (2%) or ICU (6%), and took an irregular discharge (7%). Among the patients transferred to the ICU, 25% were mechanically ventilated and only one died. Risk factors for ICU admission included antihypertensive (Odds ratio (OR), 40.6; 95%-confidence interval (CI), 7.5-221.9) or antipsychotic drug ingestion (OR, 5.3; CI, 2.0-14.4), male gender (OR, 3.3; CI, 1.30-8.8), and consciousness impairment (OR, 2.1; CI, 1.8-2.5 per point lost in Glasgow coma score). Deliberate drug exposure represents a frequent cause of ED admission. Psychotropic drugs are most commonly involved. Transfer to the ICU is rare and predicted by male gender, drug class, and coma depth.
Friese, K; Dudenhausen, J W; Kirschner, W; Schäfer, A; Elkeles, T
In this report: Preterm birth will be characterized as a so far widely neglected public health problem in Germany. Actual evidence with respect to epidemiological and intervention knowledge will be summarized. Objectives, methods and routines of the BabyCare program will be presented. Associations between main risk factors and preterm birth will be calculated. Considerable deficiencies in nutritional habits and in micro nutritional intake will be summarized. And conclusions will be derived for future additional focussed actions in the prevention of preterm birth and other important complications in pregnancy within the program and for additional interventions in health policy which are imperative. It will be shown that the rate of preterm birth can be reduced and there is a high probability for further reduction by additional and targeted interventions in smoking, stress and especially nutrition.
Williams, Nicholas P; Coombs, Ngaire A; Johnson, Matthew J; Josephs, Lynn K; Rigge, Lucy A; Staples, Karl J; Thomas, Mike; Wilkinson, Tom MA
Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is more common in patients with COPD than in the adult general population, with studies of hospitalized CAP patients consistently reporting COPD as a frequent comorbidity. However, despite an increasing recognition of its importance, large studies evaluating the incidence patterns over time, risk factors and burden of CAP in COPD are currently lacking. Methods A retrospective observational study using a large UK-based database of linked primary and secondary care records was conducted. Patients with a diagnosis of COPD aged ≥40 years were followed up for 5 years from January 1, 2010. CAP and exacerbation episodes were identified from hospital discharge data and primary care coding records, and rates were calculated per month, adjusting for mortality, and displayed over time. In addition, baseline factors predicting future risk of CAP and hospital admission with CAP were identified. Results A total of 14,513 COPD patients were identified: 13.4% (n=1,938) had ≥1 CAP episode, of whom 18.8% suffered from recurrent (≥2) CAP. Highest rates of both CAP and exacerbations were seen in winter. A greater proportion of frequent, compared to infrequent, exacerbators experienced recurrent CAP (5.1% versus 2.0%, respectively, P<0.001); 75.6% of CAP episodes were associated with hospital admission compared to 22.1% of exacerbations. Older age and increasing grade of airflow limitation were independently associated with increased odds of CAP and hospital admission with CAP. Other independent predictors of future CAP included lower body mass index, inhaled corticosteroid use, prior frequent exacerbations and comorbidities, including ischemic heart disease and diabetes. Conclusion CAP in COPD demonstrates clear seasonal patterns, with patient characteristics predictive of the odds of future CAP and hospital admission with CAP. Highlighting this burden of COPD-associated CAP during the winter period informs us of the likely triggers
Ishani, Areef; Greer, Nancy; Taylor, Brent C; Kubes, Laurie; Cole, Paula; Atwood, Melissa; Clothier, Barbara; Ercan-Fang, Nacide
To determine whether nurse case management with a therapeutic algorithm could effectively improve rates of control for hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia compared with usual care among veterans with diabetes. A randomized controlled trial of diabetic patients that had blood pressure (BP) >140/90 mmHg, hemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) >9.0%, or LDL >100 mg/dL. Intervention patients received case management (n = 278) versus usual care (n = 278) over a 1-year period. The primary outcome was the percentage of patients achieving simultaneous control of all three parameters (defined by BP <130/80 mmHg, HbA(1c) <8.0%, and LDL <100 mg/dL) at 1 year. Secondary outcomes included improvements within each individual component of the composite primary outcome. Differences between groups were analyzed using t tests, Pearson χ(2) tests, and linear and logistic regression. A greater number of individuals assigned to case management achieved the primary study outcome of having all three outcome measures under control (61 [21.9%] compared with 28 [10.1%] in the usual care group [P < 0.01]). In addition, a greater number of individuals assigned to the intervention group achieved the individual treatment goals of HbA(1c) <8.0% (73.7 vs. 65.8%, P = 0.04) and BP <130/80 mmHg (45.0 vs. 25.4%, P < 0.01), but not for LDL <100 mg/dL (57.6 vs. 55.4%, P = 0.61), compared with those in the usual care group. In patients with diabetes, nurse case managers using a treatment algorithm can effectively improve the number of individuals with control of multiple cardiovascular risk factors at 1 year.
Ji, Yaofeng; Liu, Yin; Yang, Na
Rhinitis is a common global disorder that impacts on the quality of life of the sufferer and caregivers. Treatment for pediatric rhinitis is empirical and does not include a detailed history of the allergy triggers or allergy testing. Thus, allergen avoidance advice is not tailored to the child's sensitivities, which may result in adenoid hypertrophy. However, infant onset rhinitis, especially its relationship with respiratory viruses, remains to be further clarified. Rhinitis basically involves inflammation of the upper nasal lining, presenting typically with symptoms of runny nose (rhinorrhea), nasal blockage, and/or sneezing. While not typically fatal, it does impose significant health, psychological, and monetary burden to its sufferers, and is thus considered a global health problem. Previous findings showed that immunotherapy had significant clinical efficacy in children with allergic rhinitis. The present review article aims to highlight recent perspectives pertaining to the rhinitis risk factors especially in pediatric patients. PMID:27698737
Post Sennehed, Charlotte; Gard, Gunvor; Holmberg, Sara; Stigmar, Kjerstin; Forsbrand, Malin; Grahn, Birgitta
Working conditions substantially influence health, work ability and sick leave. Useful instruments to help clinicians pay attention to working conditions are lacking in primary care (PC). The aim of this study was to test the validity of a short "Blue flags" questionnaire, which focuses on work-related psychosocial risk factors and any potential need for contacts and/or actions at the workplace. From the original"The General Nordic Questionnaire" (QPSNordic) the research group identified five content areas with a total of 51 items which were considered to be most relevant focusing on work-related psychosocial risk factors. Fourteen items were selected from the identified QPSNordic content areas and organised in a short questionnaire "Blue flags". These 14 items were validated towards the 51 QPSNordic items. Content validity was reviewed by a professional panel and a patient panel. Structural and concurrent validity were also tested within a randomised clinical trial. The two panels (n = 111) considered the 14 psychosocial items to be relevant. A four-factor model was extracted with an explained variance of 25.2%, 14.9%, 10.9% and 8.3% respectively. All 14 items showed satisfactory loadings on all factors. Concerning concurrent validity the overall correlation was very strong rs = 0.87 (p < 0.001).). Correlations were moderately strong for factor one, rs = 0.62 (p < 0.001) and factor two, rs = 0.74 (p < 0.001). Factor three and factor four were weaker, bur still fair and significant at rs = 0.53 (p < 0.001) and rs = 0.41 (p < 0.001) respectively. The internal consistency of the whole "Blue flags" was good with Cronbach's alpha of 0.76. The content, structural and concurrent validity were satisfactory in this first step of development of the "Blue flags" questionnaire. In summary, the overall validity is considered acceptable. Testing in clinical contexts and in other patient populations is recommended to ensure predictive validity and
Verlinden, S; Hersen, M; Thomas, J
Nine incidents of multiple-victim homicide in American secondary schools are examined and common risk factors are identified. The literature dealing with individual, family, social, societal, and situational risk factors for youth violence and aggression is reviewed along with existing risk assessment methods. Checklists of risk factors for serious youth violence and school violence are used in reviewing each school shooting case. Commonalties among the cases and implications for psychologists practicing in clinical and school settings are discussed.
Sumritpradit, Preeda; Setthalikhit, Thitipong
Background and Objective. To determine the value of repeated brain CT in TBI cases for risk-stratified care management (RSCM) and to identify predicting factors which will change the neurosurgical management after repeated brain CTs. Methods. A 5-year retrospective study from January 2009 to August 2013 was conducted. The primary outcome was the value of repeated brain CT in TBI cases. The secondary outcome is to identify predicting factors which will change the neurosurgical management after repeated brain CTs. Results. There were 145 consecutive patients with TBI and repeated brain CT after initial abnormal brain CT. Forty-two percent of all cases (N = 61) revealed the progression of intracranial hemorrhage after repeated brain CT. In all 145 consecutive patients, 67.6% of cases (N = 98) were categorized as mild TBI. For mild head injury, 8.2% of cases (N = 8) had undergone neurosurgical management after repeated brain CT. Only 1 from 74 mild TBI patients with repeated brain CT had neurosurgical intervention. Clopidogrel and midline shift more than 2 mm on initial brain CT were significant predicting factors to indicate the neurosurgical management in mild TBI cases. Conclusion. Routine repeated brain CT for RSCM had no clinical benefit in mild TBI cases. PMID:27703812
Okamoto, Koh; Lin, Michael Y; Haverkate, Manon; Lolans, Karen; Moore, Nicholas M; Weiner, Shayna; Lyles, Rosie D; Blom, Donald; Rhee, Yoona; Kemble, Sarah; Fogg, Louis; Hines, David W; Weinstein, Robert A; Hayden, Mary K
OBJECTIVE To identify modifiable risk factors for acquisition of Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (KPC) colonization among long-term acute-care hospital (LTACH) patients. DESIGN Multicenter, matched case-control study. SETTING Four LTACHs in Chicago, Illinois. PARTICIPANTS Each case patient included in this study had a KPC-negative rectal surveillance culture on admission followed by a KPC-positive surveillance culture later in the hospital stay. Each matched control patient had a KPC-negative rectal surveillance culture on admission and no KPC isolated during the hospital stay. RESULTS From June 2012 to June 2013, 2,575 patients were admitted to 4 LTACHs; 217 of 2,144 KPC-negative patients (10.1%) acquired KPC. In total, 100 of these patients were selected at random and matched to 100 controls by LTACH facility, admission date, and censored length of stay. Acquisitions occurred a median of 16.5 days after admission. On multivariate analysis, we found that exposure to higher colonization pressure (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 1.01-1.04; P=.002), exposure to a carbapenem (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.06-4.77; P=.04), and higher Charlson comorbidity index (OR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.01-1.29; P=.04) were independent risk factors for KPC acquisition; the odds of KPC acquisition increased by 2% for each 1% increase in colonization pressure. CONCLUSIONS Higher colonization pressure, exposure to carbapenems, and a higher Charlson comorbidity index independently increased the odds of KPC acquisition among LTACH patients. Reducing colonization pressure (through separation of KPC-positive patients from KPC-negative patients using strict cohorts or private rooms) and reducing carbapenem exposure may prevent KPC cross transmission in this high-risk patient population. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;1-8.
Han, Jennifer H.; Maslow, Joel; Han, Xiaoyan; Xie, Sharon X.; Tolomeo, Pam; Santana, Evelyn; Carson, Lesley; Lautenbach, Ebbing
Background. The objective of this study was to assess risk factors for the development of fluoroquinolone (FQ)–resistant Escherichia coli gastrointestinal tract colonization in long-term care facility (LTCF) residents. Methods. A prospective cohort study was conducted from 2006 to 2008 at 3 LTCFs. Residents initially colonized with FQ-susceptible E. coli were followed by means of serial fecal sampling for new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization for up to 12 months or until discharge or death. A Cox proportional hazards regression model was developed to identify risk factors for new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization, with antibiotic and device exposures modeled as time-varying covariates. Results. Fifty-seven (47.5%) of 120 residents became newly colonized with FQ-resistant E. coli, with a median time to colonization of 57 days. Fecal incontinence (hazard ratio [HR], 1.78; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04–3.06; P = .04) was significantly associated with FQ-resistant E. coli acquisition. Receipt of amoxicillin-clavulanate (HR, 6.48; 95% CI, 1.43–29.4; P = .02) and the presence of a urinary catheter (HR, 3.81; 95% CI, 1.06–13.8; P = .04) during LTCF stay increased the risk of new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization. Conclusions. Acquisition of FQ-resistant E. coli was common, with nearly half of LTCF residents developing new FQ-resistant E. coli colonization. Further studies are needed on interventions to limit the emergence of FQ-resistant E. coli in LTCFs. PMID:23986544
Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Ralston, James D.; Martin, Diane P.
Objectives. We examined whether minimum wage policy is associated with access to medical care among low-skilled workers in the United States. Methods. We used multilevel logistic regression to analyze a data set consisting of individual-level indicators of uninsurance and unmet medical need from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and state-level ecological controls from the US Census, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and several other sources in all 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1996 and 2007. Results. Higher state-level minimum wage rates were associated with significantly reduced odds of reporting unmet medical need after control for the ecological covariates, substate region fixed effects, and individual demographic and health characteristics (odds ratio = 0.853; 95% confidence interval = 0.750, 0.971). Minimum wage rates were not significantly associated with being uninsured. Conclusions. Higher minimum wages may be associated with a reduced likelihood of experiencing unmet medical need among low-skilled workers, and do not appear to be associated with uninsurance. These findings appear to refute the suggestion that minimum wage laws have detrimental effects on access to health care, as opponents of the policies have suggested. PMID:21164102
McCarrier, Kelly P; Zimmerman, Frederick J; Ralston, James D; Martin, Diane P
We examined whether minimum wage policy is associated with access to medical care among low-skilled workers in the United States. We used multilevel logistic regression to analyze a data set consisting of individual-level indicators of uninsurance and unmet medical need from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and state-level ecological controls from the US Census, Bureau of Labor Statistics, and several other sources in all 50 states and the District of Columbia between 1996 and 2007. Higher state-level minimum wage rates were associated with significantly reduced odds of reporting unmet medical need after control for the ecological covariates, substate region fixed effects, and individual demographic and health characteristics (odds ratio = 0.853; 95% confidence interval = 0.750, 0.971). Minimum wage rates were not significantly associated with being uninsured. Higher minimum wages may be associated with a reduced likelihood of experiencing unmet medical need among low-skilled workers, and do not appear to be associated with uninsurance. These findings appear to refute the suggestion that minimum wage laws have detrimental effects on access to health care, as opponents of the policies have suggested.
Rubio-Perez, Ines; Martin-Perez, Elena; Garcia, Diego Domingo; Calvo, Manuel Lopez-Brea; Barrera, Eduardo Larrañaga
Introduction Extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing bacteria have been increasingly reported as causal agents of nosocomial infection worldwide. Resistance patterns vary internationally, and even locally, from one institution to the other. We investigated the clinical isolates positive for ESBL-producing bacteria in our institution, a tertiary care hospital in Madrid (Spain), during a 2-year period (2007–2008). Methods Clinical and microbiological data were retrospectively reviewed. Two hundred and nineteen patients were included in the study. Results Advanced age, diabetes, use of catheters, previous hospitalization and previous antibiotic treatment were some of the risk factors found among patients. Escherichia coli was the most frequent isolate, and urinary tract the most common site of isolation. Internal Medicine, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and General Surgery presented the highest number of isolates. There were no outbreaks during the study period. Antibiotic patterns showed high resistance rates to quinolones in all isolates. There was 100% sensitivity to carbapenems. Conclusion Carbapenems continue to be the treatment of choice for ESBL-producing bacteria. Infection control measures are of great importance to avoid the spread of these nosocomial infections. PMID:22822411
Pipatsatitpong, Duangnate; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Mungthin, Mathirut; Aunpad, Ratchaneewan; Naaglor, Tawee; Rangsin, Ram
In September 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate parasitic infections in a child care center in Khlong Toei, Bangkok, Thailand. Of 503 children and staff members, 258 (51.3%) stool samples and questionnaires were obtained. The most common parasitic infection was Blastocystis sp. (13.6%). Blastocystis sp. subtype 3 was predominantly found (80.0%), followed by subtypes 2 (12.0%) and 1 (8.0%). The prevalence of Blastocystis infection varied among different age groups. The prevalence of Blastocystis infection in non-HIV-infected children aged < 10 and 10–19 years were 14.5% and 10.3%, respectively, which were not significantly different. All 31 HIV-infected children were not infected with Blastocystis sp. The most likely reason could be the result of properly using prevention measures for this specific group. PMID:26033017
Retrospectively all consecutive medical expertise within the appraisal of early retirement/occupational disability or of the status of a severely disabled person in 88 people (85 % female) diagnosed with fibromyalgia who were investigated by a structured pain therapist's and psychotherapeutic assessment were analysed. 44 % had a history of psychiatric disorder, 85 % met the criteria of a current psychiatric disorder according ICD-10. 8 % indicated sexual abuse, 16 % severe physical abuse in childhood or adulthood and 13 % emotional deprivation in the childhood. A preponderance of belonging to lower class compared to the general German population was noted. Former and current psychiatric disorders, biographic adverse experiences, duration of generalized pain, age, sex and social class had no substantial predictive value on the extensive health care utilization (number of doctors, pain-related hospital and rehabilitation stays and pain-related operations).
Pipatsatitpong, Duangnate; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Mungthin, Mathirut; Aunpad, Ratchaneewan; Naaglor, Tawee; Rangsin, Ram
In September 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate parasitic infections in a child care center in Khlong Toei, Bangkok, Thailand. Of 503 children and staff members, 258 (51.3%) stool samples and questionnaires were obtained. The most common parasitic infection was Blastocystis sp. (13.6%). Blastocystis sp. subtype 3 was predominantly found (80.0%), followed by subtypes 2 (12.0%) and 1 (8.0%). The prevalence of Blastocystis infection varied among different age groups. The prevalence of Blastocystis infection in non-HIV-infected children aged < 10 and 10-19 years were 14.5% and 10.3%, respectively, which were not significantly different. All 31 HIV-infected children were not infected with Blastocystis sp. The most likely reason could be the result of properly using prevention measures for this specific group.
Allebeck, Peter; Mastekaasa, Arne
Extensive information is available from official statistics and descriptive studies on the association between different socio-demographic background factors and sickness absence. This information addresses age, gender, place of residence, and socio-economic status. However, few studies have thoroughly analysed these background factors, and rigorous scientific evidence on the causal relationship between these factors and sick leave is lacking. Regarding the family, we found no scientific evidence that marital status or children living at home were associated with sickness absence. However, we found limited scientific evidence for an effect of divorce. Regarding work-related factors, we found limited scientific evidence for an effect of physically stressful work, and moderate scientific evidence for low psychological control over the work situation. We found limited scientific evidence for a correlation in time between unemployment and sickness absence, but insufficient scientific evidence for the causes of the association. There was moderate scientific evidence that the amount of sickness absence is influenced by the design of the social insurance system, but insufficient evidence on the magnitude of change required to influence the level of sickness absence. Essentially the same results apply to disability pension, although the number of studies is small. However, we found moderate scientific evidence for the effects of socio-economic status, which could be explained partly by childhood experiences.
García, Heladia; Rubio-Espíritu, Jorge; Islas-Rodríguez, Maria Teresa
To identify risk factors associated with birth trauma. Servicio de Neonatología, Hospital General "Dr. Manuel Gea González", Secretaría de Salud. Case-control, prolective study. There were 129 cases and 134 controls. We recorded the following variables: a) maternal and delivery: age, weight, height, prenatal care, pre-existing disease or gestational disease, mode of delivery, anesthetic management during labor, use of external maneuvers or forceps; b) newborn: birth weight, gestational age, academic degree of attendant physician at delivery, and type of birth injury. The independent risk factors associated to birth injury were: for ecchymoses; general anesthesia (OR 13.7, 95% CI = 3 - 62.6), breech presentation (OR 6.4, 95% IC 95% = 1.4 - 27.9) and gestational age < or = 32 weeks (OR 6.4, 95% CI = 1.3 - 31.1); for lacerations, vaginal dystocic delivery or cesarean section (OR 19, 95% CI = 4.4 - 81.1) and use of external maneuvers (OR 5.6, 95% CI = 1.5 - 21.6); for cephalhematoma maternal height < or = 1.54 m (OR 7.4, 95% CI = 2.3 - 23.7) and external maneuvers (OR 7.2, 95% CI = 2.3 - 23.7); for caput succedaneum, external maneuvers (OR 3.4, 95% CI = 1.5-7.7) and maternal age < or = 19 or > or = 36 years (OR 3.0, 95% CI = 1.4 - 6.4). Risk factors associated with birth injuries identified in this study involved maternal conditions, neonatal conditions and mechanism of delivery.
Yu, Esther Yee Tak; Wan, Eric Yuk Fai; Chan, Karina Hiu Yen; Wong, Carlos King Ho; Kwok, Ruby Lai Ping; Fong, Daniel Yee Tak; Lam, Cindy Lo Kuen
There is some evidence to support a risk-stratified, multi-disciplinary approach to manage patients with hypertension in primary care. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of care (QOC) of a multi-disciplinary Risk Assessment and Management Programme for Hypertension (RAMP-HT) for hypertensive patients in busy government-funded primary care clinics in Hong Kong. The objectives are to develop an evidence-based, structured and comprehensive evaluation framework on quality of care, to enhance the QOC of the RAMP-HT through an audit spiral of two evaluation cycles and to determine the effectiveness of the programme in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. A longitudinal study is conducted using the Action Learning and Audit Spiral methodologies to measure whether pre-set target standards of care intended by the RAMP-HT are achieved. A structured evaluation framework on the quality of structure, process and outcomes of care has been developed based on the programme objectives and literature review in collaboration with the programme workgroup and health service providers. Each participating clinic is invited to complete a structure of care evaluation questionnaire in each evaluation cycle. The data of all patients who have enrolled into the RAMP-HT in the pre-defined evaluation periods are used for the evaluation of the process and outcomes of care in each evaluation cycle. For evaluation of the effectiveness of RAMP-HT, the primary outcomes including blood pressure (both systolic and diastolic), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and estimated 10-year CVD risk of RAMP-HT participants are compared to those of hypertensive patients in usual care without RAMP-HT. The QOC and effectiveness of the RAMP-HT in improving clinical and patient-reported outcomes for patients with hypertension in normal primary care will be determined. Possible areas for quality enhancement and standards of good practice will be established to inform service planning and policy
Çalık Başaran, Nursel; Karaağaoğlu, Ergun; Hasçelik, Gülşen; Durusu Tanrıöver, Mine; Akova, Murat
Objective: We aimed to determine the frequency, type, and etiology of infections and the risk factors for infections and mortality in hospitalized cancer patients. Materials and Methods: We prospectively enrolled adult cancer patients hospitalized in the internal medicine wards of a tertiary care academic center between January and August 2004. Patients were followed during their hospitalization periods for neutropenia, infections, culture results, and mortality. Results: We followed 473 cancer patients with 818 hospitalization episodes and 384 infection episodes in total. Seventy-nine percent of the infections were nosocomial, and febrile neutropenia (FN) was observed in 196 (51%) of the infection episodes. Bacteremia was found in 29% of FN episodes and in 8% of nonneutropenic patients. Gram-positive bacteria were the leading cause of bacteremia in both neutropenic and nonneutropenic cases (70% and 58%, respectively). Presence of an indwelling central catheter increased bacteremia risk by 3-fold. The overall mortality rate was 17%, whereas 34% of the patients with bloodstream infections died. Presence of bacteremia and advanced disease stage increased overall mortality by 6.1-fold and 3.7-fold, respectively. Conclusion: Nearly half of the cancer patients developed an infection during their hospital stays, with gram-positive bacteria being the predominant etiologic microorganisms. This demonstrates the changing trends in infections considering that, until 2004, gram-negative bacteria were the most predominant microorganisms among cancer patients in our institute. PMID:27095391
Agarwal, Surabhi; Elliott, Jennifer R; Manzi, Susan
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has emerged as a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Growing evidence suggests that inflammation plays a key role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis from initial endothelial dysfunction to rupture of atheromatous plaques. The increased frequency of atherosclerosis in SLE is likely due to a complex interplay among traditional risk factors, disease-related factors such as medications and disease activity, and inflammatory and immunogenic factors. Identification of these novel risk factors will lead to a better understanding of CVD pathogenesis and may also provide targets for potential treatment strategies. When caring for SLE patients, clinicians should be aware of the increased CVD risk and treat the known modifiable risk factors in addition to controlling disease activity and inflammation.
Leigh, J R
A risk sharing agreement between a managed care organization and an employer can be used by employers to either guarantee a managed care plan's short-term success or mitigate its failure. Under such arrangements, the managed care organization financially shares the employer's risk of unfavorable claims experience.
Understanding factors that impact on health care professionals' risk perceptions and responses toward Clostridium difficile and meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: a structured literature review.
Burnett, Emma; Kearney, Nora; Johnston, Bridget; Corlett, Joanne; MacGillivray, Stephen
Clostridium difficile is the most common health care-associated infection. Despite considerable efforts to prevent and manage C difficile, poor clinical practice and nonadherence to policy continues to compromise patient safety. Risk perception research is essential in gaining understanding about how health care professionals respond. A structured literature review examined empirical evidence regarding health care professionals' risk perceptions and responses toward C difficile. Because of limited evidence available, the review was extended to include other health care-associated infections. Only studies related to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) could be identified. Eleven studies were included. Four were specific to C difficile and 7 to MRSA. All studies found that technical understanding of C difficile was poor and that staff were concerned about risks to patients and themselves. Technical understanding for MRSA, however, was good, and staff were less concerned about their own health. Information provision was perceived to be inadequate and untrustworthy, which included the media. Practice in most studies was poor. There is a need to build on the efforts of risk perception research from other disciplines to understand how health care professionals think and make decisions about C difficile. This can help inform the development of effective management and communication strategies to maximize the quality of care provided. Copyright © 2013 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Costa, Patrícia de Oliveira; Atta, Elias Hallack; Silva, André Ricardo Araújo da
This study aimed at evaluating the predictors and outcomes associated with multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacterial (MDR-GNB) infections in an oncology pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Data were collected relating to all episodes of GNB infection that occurred in a PICU between January of 2009 and December of 2012. GNB infections were divided into two groups for comparison: (1) infections attributed to MDR-GNB and (2) infections attributed to non-MDR-GNB. Variables of interest included age, gender, presence of solid tumor or hematologic disease, cancer status, central venous catheter use, previous Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, healthcare-associated infection, neutropenia in the preceding 7 days, duration of neutropenia, length of hospital stay before ICU admission, length of ICU stay, and the use of any of the following in the previous 30 days: antimicrobial agents, corticosteroids, chemotherapy, or radiation therapy. Other variables included initial appropriate antimicrobial treatment, definitive inadequate antimicrobial treatment, duration of appropriate antibiotic use, time to initiate adequate antibiotic therapy, and the 7- and 30-day mortality. Multivariate logistic regression analyses showed significant relationships between MDR-GNB and hematologic diseases (odds ratio [OR] 5.262; 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.282-21.594; p=0.021) and healthcare-associated infection (OR 18.360; 95% CI 1.778-189.560; p=0.015). There were significant differences between MDR-GNB and non-MDR-GNB patients for the following variables: inadequate initial empirical antibiotic therapy, time to initiate adequate antibiotic treatment, and inappropriate antibiotic therapy. Hematologic malignancy and healthcare-associated infection were significantly associated with MDR-GNB infection in this sample of pediatric oncology patients. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.
Umer, Amna; Haile, Zelalem Teka; Ahmadi-Montecalvo, Halima; Chertok, Ilana R Azulay
To examine the association between sociodemographic, economic and health-related lifestyle factors and receipt of pre-pregnancy dental cleaning in West Virginia. A population-based secondary data analysis was conducted using the 2009-2010 West Virginia Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS) dataset. The study population consisted of 3050 women who answered the survey question about pre-pregnancy dental cleaning. Approximately 47% of the participants visited a dentist during the 12 months before pregnancy. Results from the logistic regression model showed that pre-pregnant Non-Hispanic white women were more likely to get their teeth cleaned compared to women from other racial/ethnic backgrounds (OR = 1.75; 95% CI: 1.01-3.04). Women with more than a high-school education (OR = 1.79; 95% CI: 1.22-2.62), young women < 20 years of age (OR = 2.75; 95% CI: 1.86-4.06), women with private health insurance (OR = 2.65; 95% CI: 1.98-3.55) and women who had intended pregnancy (OR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.04-1.64) were more likely to have dental cleaning before pregnancy compared to women with less than a high-school education, women between the ages of 20-29, uninsured women and women who had unintended pregnancy, respectively. Identifying factors associated with dental cleaning can aid healthcare providers and policy makers in developing approaches to promoting oral care among women of childbearing age.
Pressure sore prevention in palliative care is recognized as being an essential element of holistic care, with the primary goal of promoting quality of life for patient and family. Little is known about the incidence of pressure sore development and the use of pressure sore risk assessment tools in palliative care settings. The development of a risk assessment tool specifically for palliative care patients in a 41-bedded specialist palliative care unit is described. The risk assessment tool was developed as part of a tissue viability practice development initiative. The approach adopted in the validation of the Hunters Hill Marie Curie Centre pressure sore risk assessment tool was the comparative analysis of professional judgment of experienced palliative care nurses with the numerical scores achieved during the assessment of risk on 291 patients (529 risk assessment events). This comparative analysis identified the threshold for different degrees of risk for the patient group involved: low risk, medium risk, high risk and very high risk. Further work is being undertaken to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of the new tool. A number of issues are explored in this paper in relation to pressure sore prevention in palliative care: the role of risk assessment tools, the sometimes conflicting aims of trying to ensure comfort and prevent pressure sore damage, and the uncertainties faced by palliative care nurses when they are trying to maintain quality of life for the dying.
Aftyka, Anna; Rybojad, Beata; Rozalska-Walaszek, Ilona; Rzoñca, Patryk; Humeniuk, Ewa
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among parents of neonates hospitalized in the Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU) stays an underestimated problem. We determined the incidence of PTSD in parents and pointed out medical and demographic risk factors for PTSD in neonates hospitalized in the NICU. The study involved 39 mothers and 27 fathers of 42 infants aged 1 to 16 months who were hospitalized in the NICU of a Children's University Hospital during the neonatal period. As a measure of PTSD we used the Polish version of the Impact of Event Scale-Revised (IES-R). The current level of stress was measured using the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10). The author's questionnaire contained demographic and medical information on the infants hospitalized in the NICU and their parents. Data were statistically analyzed. The incidence of PTSD and levels of stress did not differ in the group of mothers and fathers. There was a statistically significant difference in the severity of PTSD symptoms in general (p=0.006) and the severity of symptoms of intrusion (p=0.009) and arousal (p=0.015), which were more pronounced in mothers of children hospitalized in the NICU than in their fathers. In the multivariate models perceived stress was the only predictor that significantly affected the rate of PTSD symptoms in parents. Since PTSD is a very common problem in parents of children hospitalized in the NICU and estimating the risk of its occurrence on the basis of collected data is not possible, the parents of all those children should be considered at high risk.
García-Barrios, C; Castañeda-Camey, X; Romero-Guerrero, X; González-Hernández, D; Langer-Glas, A
Midwives in rural areas of the State of Morelos are one of the most important resources used by rural women for health care of pregnancy, delivery and the puerperium. This work was aimed at identifying midwives perceptions of pregnant women's risk factors, in order to include this knowledge in reproductive health programs which articulate institutional and traditional health systems. We applied a questionnaire to all midwives in the Municipalities of Ocuituco, yecapixtla and Zacualpan, Morelos (n = 35). Four key informants were selected and interviewed. These instruments enabled us to measure variability in perception of risk factors. Knowledge of risk factors is defective among midwives. Previous training made a big difference. Sixty three per cent of midwives who attended training courses are better qualified from an academic medicine point of view. Only 28.7 per cent of non-trained midwives (43% for both groups), indicating that sociocultural aspects prevail over technical training in midwives perceptions of reproductive risk factors.
Kristóf, K; Szabó, D; Marsh, J W; Cser, V; Janik, L; Rozgonyi, F; Nobilis, A; Nagy, K; Paterson, D L
The extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella spp. cause worldwide problems in intensive care units. The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae and K. oxytoca strains in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) in Budapest, Hungary and to determine the risk factors of the infections and the epidemiological features. Infections with Klebsiella spp. were analyzed retrospectively by reviewing the medical records between January 2001 and December 2005. Antibiotic susceptibility tests, isoelectric focusing, pulsed field gel electrophoresis, plasmid analysis, PCR for bla(TEM) and bla(SHV) and DNA sequencing analysis were performed on ESBL-producing Klebsiella isolates. A total of 45 babies were found to be infected with non-ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. and 39 with ESBL-producing Klebsiella spp. Of the parameters analyzed, including sex, gestational age, twin pregnancy, birth weight, presence of central vascular catheter, mechanical ventilator use, parenteral nutrition, polymicrobial infection, caesarean section, transfusion and mortality, we found no statistically significant difference between the ESBL and the non-ESBL groups, or between the K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca species. Further characterization of the ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae and K. oxytoca strains isolated between February 2001 and January 2003 revealed three distinct PFGE patterns of SHV-5-producing K. pneumoniae (A, B, E) and two distinct patterns of SHV-12-producing K. oxytoca (C,D) isolates; these had different plasmid profiles. From July to November 2005, a new SHV-5 producing K. oxytoca (F) was isolated. The molecular epidemiology of ESBL-producing organisms in a NICU over time shows substantial shifts in predominant strains. The ESBL production of the infected organisms has an impact on the survival of newborn babies with infections caused by Klebsiella spp.
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