Science.gov

Sample records for caregiving metabolic syndrome

  1. Assessment of Caregiver Inventory for Rett Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lane, Jane B; Salter, Amber R; Jones, Nancy E; Cutter, Gary; Horrigan, Joseph; Skinner, Steve A; Kaufmann, Walter E; Glaze, Daniel G; Neul, Jeffrey L; Percy, Alan K

    2017-01-28

    Rett syndrome (RTT) requires total caregiver attention and leads to potential difficulties throughout life. The Caregiver Burden Inventory, designed for Alzheimer disease, was modified to a RTT Caregiver Inventory Assessment (RTT CIA). Reliability and face, construct, and concurrent validity were assessed in caregivers of individuals with RTT. Chi square or Fisher's exact test for categorical variables and t tests or Wilcoxon two-sample tests for continuous variables were utilized. Survey completed by 198 caregivers; 70 caregivers completed follow-up assessment. Exploratory factor analysis revealed good agreement for physical burden, emotional burden, and social burden. Internal reliability was high (Cronbach's alpha 0.898). RTT CIA represents a reliable and valid measure, providing a needed metric of caregiver burden in this disorder.

  2. What is Metabolic Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Metabolic Syndrome? Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of ... that may play a role in causing metabolic syndrome. Outlook Metabolic syndrome is becoming more common due to a ...

  3. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Metabolic syndrome is a group of conditions that put you at risk for heart disease and diabetes. These conditions are High blood pressure High blood glucose, or blood sugar, levels High levels of triglycerides, a type of fat, in your blood Low levels ...

  4. [Metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Takata, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Shimpei

    2013-02-01

    Metabolic syndrome (Mets) is a combination of disorders including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, which increases risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes when occurring together. In Japan, diagnosis criteria of Mets consists of an increased waist circumference and 2 or more of CVD risk factors. Annual health checkups and health guidance using Mets criteria were established in 2008 for the prevention of life-style related diseases in Japan. In this issue, history and diagnostic criteria of Mets and concerns for Mets concept were described.

  5. Metabolic syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... obesity ). This body type may be described as "apple-shaped." Insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone produced ... Syndrome Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the ...

  6. Blueberries and Metabolic Syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders that increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Type 2 diabetes, elevated blood pressure, and atherogenic dyslipidemia are among the metabolic alterations that predispose the individual to several adverse cardiovascular complications. The hea...

  7. [Menopause and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Meirelles, Ricardo M R

    2014-03-01

    The incidence of cardiovascular disease increases considerably after the menopause. One reason for the increased cardiovascular risk seems to be determined by metabolic syndrome, in which all components (visceral obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and glucose metabolism disorder) are associated with higher incidence of coronary artery disease. After menopause, metabolic syndrome is more prevalent than in premenopausal women, and may plays an important role in the occurrence of myocardial infarction and other atherosclerotic and cardiovascular morbidities. Obesity, an essential component of the metabolic syndrome, is also associated with increased incidence of breast, endometrial, bowel, esophagus, and kidney cancer. The treatment of metabolic syndrome is based on the change in lifestyle and, when necessary, the use of medication directed to its components. In the presence of symptoms of the climacteric syndrome, hormonal therapy, when indicated, will also contribute to the improvement of the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Metabolic Syndrome (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... be given medication to decrease insulin resistance. While bariatric surgery for weight loss is not yet approved by ... Can Diabetes Be Prevented? Diabetes Center Metabolic Syndrome Weight Loss Surgery When Being Overweight Is a Health Problem Acanthosis ...

  9. [Locomotive syndrome and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fukushi, Jun-ichi; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2014-10-01

    The Japanese Orthopedic Association coined the term locomotive syndrome (LS) to designate a condition of elderly people in high risk groups of requiring nursing care because of problems with their musculoskeletal diseases. LS is a socioeconomic concept, and closely associated with osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and sarcopenia. Recent studies have revealed that metabolic syndrome (MS), a clustering of cardiovascular risk factors, has been related with LS. For example, individuals with MS have a greater risk of osteoarthritis and sarcopenia. Secreted factors from adipose tissue and skeletal muscles, namely, adipokines and myokines, are involved in the association of LS and MS.

  10. Metabolic syndrome: a new multidisciplinary service line.

    PubMed

    Frezza, Eldo E; Wachtel, Mitchell

    2011-03-01

    That obesity in the USA has reached epidemic proportions is undeniable: one in three American adults is obese. High levels of obesity yield adverse microeconomic and macroeconomic effects, but assessing the viability of bariatric surgery in this respect requires careful consideration of its efficacy, its economic costs, and the benefits of the surgery. Metabolic syndrome is a microcosm of multiple disease states; the diseases that fall under the umbrella of the metabolic syndrome are, like obesity, becoming more prevalent. Epidemic obesity in part reflects inadequate utilization of bariatric surgery and inadequate coordination of efforts by the healthcare system. An integrated delivery network (IDN) is the best current model to achieve healthcare goals for patient subsets that are deemed important. Our overweight population, both with and without the metabolic syndrome, constitutes such a group because of the fraction of the general population they compose, the inherent costs to the healthcare system that their comorbid conditions generate, and the lost productivity to our economy that the treatment of these conditions entail. In this paper, we show a metabolic syndrome service line that will benefit both the individual hospital and the healthcare system. Pathways accepted for bariatric practices can be used, with modification, for the creation of a metabolic syndrome IDN. Implementation of such a system would benefit patients, caregivers, and society.

  11. Metabolic Syndrome: Polycystic Ovary Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mortada, Rami; Williams, Tracy

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous condition characterized by androgen excess, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. It is the most common endocrinopathy among women of reproductive age, affecting between 6.5% and 8% of women, and is the most common cause of infertility. Insulin resistance is almost always present in women with PCOS, regardless of weight, and they often develop diabetes and metabolic syndrome. The Rotterdam criteria are widely used for diagnosis. These criteria require that patients have at least two of the following conditions: hyperandrogenism, ovulatory dysfunction, and polycystic ovaries. The diagnosis of PCOS also requires exclusion of other potential etiologies of hyperandrogenism and ovulatory dysfunction. The approach to PCOS management differs according to the presenting symptoms and treatment goals, particularly the patient's desire for pregnancy. Weight loss through dietary modifications and exercise is recommended for patients with PCOS who are overweight. Oral contraceptives are the first-line treatment for regulating menstrual cycles and reducing manifestations of hyperandrogenism, such as acne and hirsutism. Clomiphene is the first-line drug for management of anovulatory infertility. Metformin is recommended for metabolic abnormalities such as prediabetes, and a statin should be prescribed for cardioprotection if the patient meets standard criteria for statin therapy.

  12. Abdominal obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle

    2006-12-14

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with abdominal obesity, blood lipid disorders, inflammation, insulin resistance or full-blown diabetes, and increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease. Proposed criteria for identifying patients with metabolic syndrome have contributed greatly to preventive medicine, but the value of metabolic syndrome as a scientific concept remains controversial. The presence of metabolic syndrome alone cannot predict global cardiovascular disease risk. But abdominal obesity - the most prevalent manifestation of metabolic syndrome - is a marker of 'dysfunctional adipose tissue', and is of central importance in clinical diagnosis. Better risk assessment algorithms are needed to quantify diabetes and cardiovascular disease risk on a global scale.

  13. [Metabolic syndrome and melatonin].

    PubMed

    Rapoport, S I; Molchanov, A Iu; Golichenkov, V A; Burlakova, O V; Suprunenko, E S; Savchenko, E S

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is characterized by the following symptoms: obesity, AH, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance. Pathophysiologically, MS is underlain by disorders of many biochemical and physiological processes, such as elevated levels of low density lipoproteins, hyperstimulation of pancreatic b-cells, increased insulin secretion, substitution of lipid metabolism for carbohydrate one, overgrowth of adipose tissue, excess production of adiponectin, leptin and other signal molecules and a rise in their local intravascular concentration, weight gain. Endogenous and exogenous melatonin inhibits these pathophysiological mechanisms, normalizes metabolism, equilibrates insulin secretion, prevents pancreatic hyperfunction, phosphorylates insulin receptors, inactivates active oxygen and nitrogen species including those produced in LDLP metabolism. Melatonin has specific MT1 and MT2 receptors localized in all body cells. Due to this, it exerts combined preventive action in patients with MS. Recently, melatonin has been reported to have therapeutic effect in MS; it may be recommended to treat this condition.

  14. Imaging metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Han, Weiping; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang; Chang, Young-Tae; Olivo, Malini; Velan, S Sendhil; Bhakoo, Kishore; Townsend, David; Radda, George K

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a fast growing public health burden for almost all the developed countries and many developing nations. Despite intense efforts from both biomedical and clinical scientists, many fundamental questions regarding its aetiology and development remain unclear, partly due to the lack of suitable imaging technologies to visualize lipid composition and distribution, insulin secretion, β-cell mass and functions in vivo. Such technologies would not only impact on our understanding of the complexity of metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes, but also aid in their diagnosis, drug development and assessment of treatment efficacy. In this article we discuss and propose several strategies for visualization of physiological and pathological changes that affect pancreas and adipose tissue as a result of the development of metabolic diseases. PMID:20533426

  15. Metabolic syndrome, androgens, and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moulana, Mohadetheh; Lima, Roberta; Reckelhoff, Jane F

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is one of the constellation of factors that make up the definition of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is also associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in men and women is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. In men, obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with reductions in testosterone levels. In women, obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with increases in androgen levels. In men, reductions in androgen levels are associated with inflammation, and androgen supplements reduce inflammation. In women, increases in androgens are associated with increases in inflammatory cytokines, and reducing androgens reduces inflammation. This review discusses the possibility that the effects of androgens on metabolic syndrome and its sequelae may differ between males and females.

  16. Gut microbiome and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Rezaie, Peyman; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Mobarhan, Majid Ghayour; Ferns, Gordon A

    2016-01-01

    The gut microbiome contributes approximately 2kg of the whole body weight, and recent studies suggest that gut microbiota has a profound effect on human metabolism, potentially contributing to several features of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is defined by a clustering of metabolic disorders that include central adiposity with visceral fat accumulation, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, dysglycemia and non-optimal blood pressure levels. Metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. It is estimated that around 20-25 percent of the world's adult population has metabolic syndrome. In this manuscript, we have reviewed the existing data linking gut microbiome with metabolic syndrome. Existing evidence from studies both in animals and humans support a link between gut microbiome and various components of metabolic syndrome. Possible pathways include involvement with energy homeostasis and metabolic processes, modulation of inflammatory signaling pathways, interferences with the immune system, and interference with the renin-angiotensin system. Modification of gut microbiota via prebiotics, probiotics or other dietary interventions has provided evidence to support a possible beneficial effect of interventions targeting gut microbiota modulation to treat components or complications of metabolic syndrome.

  17. [Hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Miñambres, Inka; de Leiva, Alberto; Pérez, Antonio

    2014-12-23

    Metabolic syndrome and hypovitaminosis D are 2 diseases with high prevalence that share several risk factors, while epidemiological evidence shows they are associated. Although the mechanisms involved in this association are not well established, hypovitaminosis D is associated with insulin resistance, decreased insulin secretion and activation of the renin-angiotensin system, mechanisms involved in the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. However, the apparent ineffectiveness of vitamin D supplementation on metabolic syndrome components, as well as the limited information about the effect of improving metabolic syndrome components on vitamin D concentrations, does not clarify the direction and the mechanisms involved in the causal relationship between these 2 pathologies. Overall, because of the high prevalence and the epidemiological association between both diseases, hypovitaminosis D could be considered a component of the metabolic syndrome.

  18. Vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Savolainen-Peltonen, Hanna

    2017-03-01

    A vast majority of menopausal women suffer from vasomotor symptoms, such as hot flushes and night sweats, the mean duration of which may be up to 7-10 years. In addition to a decreased quality of life, vasomotor symptoms may have an impact on overall health. Vasomotor symptoms are associated with overactivity of the sympathetic nervous system, and sympathetic overdrive in turn is associated with metabolic syndrome, which is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Menopausal hot flushes have a complex relationship to different features of the metabolic syndrome and not all data point towards an association between vasomotor symptoms and metabolic syndrome. Thus, it is still unclear whether vasomotor symptoms are an independent risk factor for metabolic syndrome. Research in this area is constantly evolving and we present here the most recent data on the possible association between menopausal vasomotor symptoms and the metabolic syndrome.

  19. Genetics of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stančáková, Alena; Laakso, Markku

    2014-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic traits associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Central obesity and insulin resistance are thought to play key roles in the pathogenesis of the MetS. The MetS has a significant genetic component, and therefore linkage analysis, candidate gene approach, and genome-wide association (GWA) studies have been applied in the search of gene variants for the MetS. A few variants have been identified, located mostly in or near genes regulating lipid metabolism. GWA studies for the individual components of the MetS have reported several loci having pleiotropic effects on multiple MetS-related traits. Genetic studies have provided so far only limited evidence for a common genetic background of the MetS. Epigenetic factors (DNA methylation and histone modification) are likely to play important roles in the pathogenesis of the MetS, and they might mediate the effects of environmental exposures on the risk of the MetS. Further research is needed to clarify the role of genetic variation and epigenetic mechanisms in the development of the MetS.

  20. Select Personality Characteristic Differences between Caregivers for Persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Caregivers for Other Types of Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Daniel Scott; Heritage, Jeannette

    The purpose of this study was to analyze select personality characteristics of individuals working within the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) population in comparison to non-AIDS caregivers by using two personality assessment instruments. Subjects were from two health care provider populations. Two hundred research packets were…

  1. Genetics of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Groop, L

    2000-03-01

    The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors such as abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidaemia and glucose intolerance in the same persons has been called the metabolic or insulin-resistance syndrome. In 1998 WHO proposed a unifying definition for the syndrome and chose to call it the metabolic syndrome rather than the insulin-resistance syndrome. Although insulin resistance has been considered as a common denominator for the different components of the syndrome, there is still debate as to whether it is pathogenically involved in all of the different components of the syndrome. Clustering of the syndrome in families suggests a genetic component. It is plausible that so-called thrifty genes, which have ensured optimal storage of energy during periods of fasting, could contribute to the phenotype of the metabolic syndrome. Common variants in a number of candidate genes influencing fat and glucose metabolism can probably, together with environmental triggers, increase susceptibility to the syndrome. Among these, the genes for beta 3-adrenergic receptor, hormone-sensitive lipase, lipoprotein lipase, IRS-1, PC-1, skeletal muscle glycogen synthase, etc. appear to increase the risk of the metabolic syndrome. In addition, novel genes may be identified by genome-wide searches.

  2. Polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ali, Aus Tariq

    2015-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a heterogeneous disorder, where the main clinical features include menstrual irregularities, sub-fertility, hyperandrogenism, and hirsutism. The prevalence of PCOS depends on ethnicity, environmental and genetic factors, as well as the criteria used to define it. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome is a constellation of metabolic disorders which include mainly abdominal obesity, insulin resistance, impaired glucose metabolism, hypertension and dyslipidaemia. These associated disorders directly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DMT2), coronary heart disease (CHD), cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and endometrial cancer. Many patients with PCOS have features of metabolic syndrome such as visceral obesity, hyperinsulinaemia and insulin resistance. These place patients with PCOS under high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD), Type 2 diabetes (DMT2) and gynecological cancer, in particular, endometrial cancer. Metabolic syndrome is also increased in infertile women with PCOS. The aim of this review is to provide clear and up to date information about PCOS and its relationship with metabolic syndrome, and the possible interaction between different metabolic disorders.

  3. Metabolic syndrome in rheumatological diseases.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rosa Maria Rodrigues; de Carvalho, Jozélio Freire; Bonfá, Eloísa

    2009-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is characterized by a combination of various cardiovascular risk factors (age, gender, smoking, hypertension and dyslipidemia) that imply additional cardiovascular morbidity that is greater than the sum of the risks associated with each individual component. Herein, the authors review the rheumatological diseases in which metabolic syndrome has been studied: gout, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren's syndrome and ankylosing spondylitis. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in these disorders varies from 14% to 62.8%. The great majority of these studies demonstrated that this frequency was higher in rheumatological diseases than in the control populations, suggesting that either the presence or the treatment of those diseases seems to influence the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.

  4. Metabolic syndrome and eye diseases.

    PubMed

    Poh, Stanley; Mohamed Abdul, Riswana Banu Binte; Lamoureux, Ecosse L; Wong, Tien Y; Sabanayagam, Charumathi

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is becoming a worldwide medical and public health challenge as it has been seen increasing in prevalence over the years. Age-related eye diseases, the leading cause of blindness globally and visual impairment in developed countries, are also on the rise due to aging of the population. Many of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome have been shown to be associated with these eye diseases. However, the association of metabolic syndrome with eye diseases is not clear. In this review, we reviewed the evidence for associations between metabolic syndrome and certain ocular diseases in populations. We also reviewed the association of individual metabolic syndrome components with ocular diseases due to a paucity of research in this area. Besides, we also summarised the current understanding of etiological mechanisms of how metabolic syndrome or the individual components lead to these ocular diseases. With increasing evidence of such associations, it may be important to identify patients who are at risk of developing metabolic syndrome as prompt treatment and intervention may potentially decrease the risk of developing certain ocular diseases.

  5. Drug-induced metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Marion R; King, Deborah S; Harrell, T Kristopher

    2006-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Based on data from 1988 to 1994, it is estimated that 24% of adults in the United States meet the criteria for diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. The use of certain medications may increase the risk of the metabolic syndrome by either promoting weight gain or altering lipid or glucose metabolism. Health providers should recognize and understand the risk associated with certain medications and appropriately monitor for changes related to the metabolic syndrome. Careful attention to drug choices should be paid in patients who are overweight or have other risk factors for diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

  6. Equine metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, R.; Keen, J.; McGowan, C.

    2015-01-01

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management. PMID:26273009

  7. Equine metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R; Keen, J; McGowan, C

    2015-08-15

    Laminitis is one of the most common and frustrating clinical presentations in equine practice. While the principles of treatment for laminitis have not changed for several decades, there have been some important paradigm shifts in our understanding of laminitis. Most importantly, it is essential to consider laminitis as a clinical sign of disease and not as a disease in its own right. Once this shift in thinking has occurred, it is logical to then question what disease caused the laminitis. More than 90 per cent of horses presented with laminitis as their primary clinical sign will have developed it as a consequence of endocrine disease; most commonly equine metabolic syndrome (EMS). Given the fact that many horses will have painful protracted and/or chronic recurrent disease, a good understanding of the predisposing factors and how to diagnose and manage them is crucial. Current evidence suggests that early diagnosis and effective management of EMS should be a key aim for practising veterinary surgeons to prevent the devastating consequences of laminitis. This review will focus on EMS, its diagnosis and management.

  8. Metabolic syndrome, diet and exercise.

    PubMed

    De Sousa, Sunita M C; Norman, Robert J

    2016-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a range of metabolic complications including insulin resistance (IR), obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. These compound risks result in a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome and possibly increased cardiovascular (CV) disease. As the cardiometabolic risk of PCOS is shared amongst the different diagnostic systems, all women with PCOS should undergo metabolic surveillance though the precise approach differs between guidelines. Lifestyle interventions consisting of increased physical activity and caloric restriction have been shown to improve both metabolic and reproductive outcomes. Pharmacotherapy and bariatric surgery may be considered in resistant metabolic disease. Issues requiring further research include the natural history of PCOS-associated metabolic disease, absolute CV risk and comparative efficacy of lifestyle interventions.

  9. Metabolic Syndrome, Inflammation and Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Paoletti, Rodolfo; Bolego, Chiara; Poli, Andrea; Cignarella, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    The inflammatory component of atherogenesis has been increasingly recognized over the last decade. Inflammation participates in all stages of atherosclerosis, not only during initiation and during evolution of lesions, but also with precipitation of acute thrombotic complications. The metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for development of both cardiovascular disease and type-2 diabetes in humans. Central obesity and insulin resistance are thought to represent common underlying factors of the syndrome, which features a chronic low-grade inflammatory state. Diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome occurs using defined threshold values for waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose and dyslipidemia. The metabolic syndrome appears to affect a significant proportion of the population. Therapeutic approaches that reduce the levels of proinflammatory biomarkers and address traditional risk factors are particularly important in preventing cardiovascular disease and, potentially, diabetes. The primary management of metabolic syndrome involves healthy lifestyle promotion through moderate calorie restriction, moderate increase in physical activity and change in dietary composition. Treatment of individual components aims to control atherogenic dyslipidemia using fibrates and statins, elevated blood pressure, and hyperglycemia. While no single treatment for the metabolic syndrome as a whole yet exists, emerging therapies offer potential as future therapeutic approaches. PMID:17319458

  10. Testosterone and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, Glenn R

    2015-01-01

    Controversies surround the usefulness of identifying patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Many of the components are accepted risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Although the MetS as defined includes many men with insulin resistance, insulin resistance is not universal. The low total testosterone (TT) and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels in these men are best explained by the hyperinsulinism and increased inflammatory cytokines that accompany obesity and increased waist circumference. It is informative that low SHBG levels predict future development of the MetS. Evidence is strong relating low TT levels to CVD in men with and without the MetS; however, the relationship may not be causal. The recommendations of the International Diabetes Federation for managing the MetS include cardiovascular risk assessment, lifestyle changes in diet, exercise, weight reduction and treatment of individual components of the MetS. Unfortunately, it is uncommon to see patients with the MetS lose and maintain a 10% weight loss. Recent reports showing testosterone treatment induced dramatic changes in weight, waist circumference, insulin sensitivity, hemoglobin A1c levels and improvements in each of the components of the MetS are intriguing. While some observational studies have reported that testosterone replacement therapy increases cardiovascular events, the Food and Drug Administration in the United States has reviewed these reports and found them to be seriously flawed. Large, randomized, placebo-controlled trials are needed to provide more definitive data regarding the efficacy and safety of this treatment in middle and older men with the MetS and low TT levels.

  11. Metabolic syndrome in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Nidhi; Grover, Sandeep; Chakrabarti, Subho; Kulhara, Parmanand

    2013-01-01

    To review the data with respect to prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its correlates in schizophrenia. For this review, electronic search engines PUBMED, Sciencedirect, and Google Scholar were used. Available data suggests that most of the studies have been of cross-sectional design. Prevalence rates of MetS have varied from 11% to 69% in medicated patients, and 4-26% in drug naive patients in cross-sectional evaluations. Longitudinal studies have shown the prevalence rates to range from 0% to 14% at the baseline in drug naive patients, which increase to as high as 52.4% by 3 months of antipsychotic medication treatment. The prevalence rates of MetS in patients with schizophrenia are much higher than that seen in general population or healthy controls. Though there is no causal association with any demographic or clinical variables, the risk increases with increase in age. Among antipsychotics, there seems to be an association between MetS and atypical antipsychotics like clozapine and olanzapine. Therefore, the psychiatrists should be more vigilant regarding the presence of MetS in these high risk groups. Research on biological correlates of MetS in schizophrenia is still in its primitive stage, however, these is some evidence to suggest an association of MetS with adiponectin levels, hematological indices, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) and Alpha-1A adrenergic receptor (ADRA1A) gene. These areas hold promise, and targeting these with appropriate interventions may help us to prevent the occurrence of MetS in patients with schizophrenia in future. PMID:24249923

  12. Metabolic Syndrome (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of high blood pressure, heart attack, or stroke. Insulin resistance . This occurs when the body's cells don't ... Polycystic ovarian syndrome. Thought to be related to insulin resistance, this disorder involves the release of extra male ...

  13. Surgical treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Williams, Sharon; Cunningham, Emily; Pories, Walter J

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the surprising finding that bariatric surgery can produce full and durable remission of the metabolic syndrome as well as other comorbidities of obesity including type II diabetes, hypertension, polycystic ovary syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease, nonalcoholic steatotic hepatitis, adult asthma and improvement in weight-bearing arthropathy. Such an outcome was previously deemed impossible. One effect of the surgery is the correction of hyperinsulinemia, a common denominator in the various expressions of the metabolic syndrome. Basal insulin levels return to normal levels within a matter of days following surgery, allowing a return of the first phase of insulin secretion. This effect is 'dose related' to the extent of the reduction of contact between food and the gut. The resolution of the spectrum of diseases that comprise the metabolic syndrome following bariatric surgery suggests that hyperinsulinemia may be the common cause that is corrected by lowering contact between food and the gut. If this concept is true, then the cause of the syndrome, including diabetes, could be a diabetogenic signal from the gut that forces the islets to produce excessive and harmful levels of insulin, or the cause could be the removal of a signal that blocks excessive insulin secretion. If either of these mechanisms is proven correct, the current treatment of diabetes with long-term insulin administration deserves review.

  14. A pilot study of the effects of meditation on regional brain metabolism in distressed dementia caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Pomykala, Kelsey L; Silverman, Daniel HS; Geist, Cheri L; Voege, Patricia; Siddarth, Prabha; Nazarian, Nora; St Cyr, Natalie M; Khalsa, Dharma S; Lavretsky, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Aims Caregiver distress can affect mood and cognition. Meditation can be used to reduce stress. This pilot study explored whether yogic meditation could change regional cerebral metabolism in distressed caregivers. Methods Nine dementia caregivers were randomized to undergo meditation training compared with relaxation for 12 min per day for 8 weeks. Caregivers received neuropsychiatric assessments and brain FDG-PET scans at baseline and postintervention. Results The groups did not differ on measures of mood, mental and physical health, and burden at baseline and follow-up. When comparing the regional cerebral metabolism between groups, significant differences over time were found in the bilateral cerebellum (p < 0.0005), right inferior lateral anterior temporal (p < 0.0005), right inferior frontal (p = 0.001), left superior frontal (p = 0.001), left associative visual (p = 0.002) and right posterior cingulate (p = 0.002) cortices. Conclusion Meditation practice in distressed caregivers resulted in different patterns of regional cerebral metabolism from relaxation. These pilot results should be replicated in a larger study. PMID:23378856

  15. Metabolic syndrome and infertility in men.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Christopher D; Brannigan, Robert E

    2015-05-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a compilation of symptoms including central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Initially used to predict cardiovascular disease, it is now clear that the molecular and physiologic abnormalities seen in metabolic syndrome extend well beyond the cardiovascular system. Growing evidence has linked metabolic syndrome and its individual symptoms to the increasing prevalence of male infertility. This manuscript reviews the recent evidence connecting metabolic syndrome to male infertility as well as the underlying pathophysiology. Currently, there are limited prospective studies examining the effects of treating metabolic syndrome on male reproduction and these relationships will need to be a focus of further investigation.

  16. Current perspectives between metabolic syndrome and cancer

    PubMed Central

    Micucci, Carla; Valli, Debora; Matacchione, Giulia; Catalano, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies linked metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer. Although metabolic syndrome may not necessarily cause cancer, it is linked to poorer cancer outcomes including increased risk of recurrence and overall mortality. This review tends to discuss the major biological and physiological alterations involved in the increase of incidence and mortality of cancer patients affected by metabolic syndrome. We focus on metabolic syndrome-associated visceral adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) pathway as well as estrogen signaling and inflammation. Several of these factors are also involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. A better understanding of the link between metabolic syndrome and cancer may provide new insight about oncogenesis. Moreover, prevention of metabolic syndrome – related alterations may be an important aspect in the management of cancer patients during simultaneous palliative care. PMID:27029038

  17. Current perspectives between metabolic syndrome and cancer.

    PubMed

    Micucci, Carla; Valli, Debora; Matacchione, Giulia; Catalano, Alfonso

    2016-06-21

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors that lead to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Recent studies linked metabolic syndrome and several types of cancer. Although metabolic syndrome may not necessarily cause cancer, it is linked to poorer cancer outcomes including increased risk of recurrence and overall mortality. This review tends to discuss the major biological and physiological alterations involved in the increase of incidence and mortality of cancer patients affected by metabolic syndrome. We focus on metabolic syndrome-associated visceral adiposity, hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-I) pathway as well as estrogen signaling and inflammation. Several of these factors are also involved in carcinogenesis and cancer progression. A better understanding of the link between metabolic syndrome and cancer may provide new insight about oncogenesis. Moreover, prevention of metabolic syndrome - related alterations may be an important aspect in the management of cancer patients during simultaneous palliative care.

  18. Matrix metalloproteinases in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hopps, E; Caimi, G

    2012-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is commonly accompanied by an elevated cardiovascular risk with high morbidity and mortality. The alterations of the arterial vasculature begin with endothelial dysfunction and lead to micro- and macrovascular complications. The remodeling of the endothelial basal membrane, that promotes erosion and thrombosis, has a multifactorial pathogenesis that includes leukocyte activation, increased oxidative stress and also an altered matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) expression. MMPs are endopeptidases which degrade extracellular matrix proteins, such as collagen, gelatins, fibronectin and laminin. They can be secreted by several cells within the vascular wall, but macrophages are determinant in the atherosclerotic plaques. Their activity is regulated by tissue inhibitors of MMP (TIMPs) and also by other molecules, such as plasmin. MMPs could be implicated in plaque instability predisposing to vascular complications. It has been demonstrated that an impaired MMP or TIMP expression is associated with higher risk of all-cause mortality. A large number of studies evaluated MMPs pattern in obesity, diabetes mellitus, arterial hypertension and dyslipidemia, all of which define metabolic syndrome according to several Consensus Statement (i.e. IDF, ATP III, AHA). However, few research have been carried out on subjects with metabolic syndrome. The evidences of an improvement in MMP/TIMP ratio with diet, exercise and medical therapy should encourage further investigations with the intent to contrast the atherosclerotic process and to reduce morbidity and mortality of this kind of patients.

  19. Caregiver Reports of Sleep Problems on a Convenience Sample of Children with Fragile X Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kronk, Rebecca; Dahl, Ronald; Noll, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Caregivers reported on sleep in a convenience sample of 90 children with fragile X syndrome utilizing a standardized assessment tool, the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire (CSHQ), and a 14-day sleep diary. CSHQ data indicated that 47% of participants had sleep problems at a level that suggested referral and further evaluation. Sleep diary data…

  20. Use of Equipment and Respite Services and Caregiver Health among Australian Families Living with Rett Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urbanowicz, Anna; Downs, Jenny; Bebbington, Ami; Jacoby, Peter; Girdler, Sonya; Leonard, Helen

    2011-01-01

    This study assessed factors that could influence equipment and respite services use among Australian families caring for a girl/woman with Rett syndrome and examined relationships between use of these resources and the health of female caregivers. Data was sourced from questionnaires completed by families (n=170) contributing to the Australian…

  1. Metabolic syndrome and cancer: holistic or reductionist?

    PubMed

    Esposito, Katherine; Capuano, Annalisa; Giugliano, Dario

    2014-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome has become a major public health problem worldwide and represents a common clinical condition in countries with a high incidence of obesity and western dietary patterns. Metabolic syndrome associates with common cancers at many sites, including liver, colorectal, and bladder cancers in men, and endometrial, pancreatic, breast post-menopausal, and colorectal cancers in women. However, the role played by each single component of the syndrome on cancer risk is still unclear. For endometrial cancer, obesity and/or high circumference waist explain all the risk associated with the full metabolic syndrome, while for post-menopausal breast cancer, the risk conveyed by metabolic syndrome appears to be greater than its parts, as no single component explains the full risk associated with the syndrome. Future research should cover other avenues in order to elucidate the complexity of biological processes linking metabolic syndrome and cancer.

  2. Thyroid Hormones, Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components.

    PubMed

    Delitala, Alessandro P; Fanciulli, Giuseppe; Pes, Giovanni M; Maioli, Margherita; Delitala, Giuseppe

    2017-03-20

    Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of various metabolic parameters, which included diabetes, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, abdominal obesity, and hypertension. It has merged as a worldwide epidemic and a major public health care concern. However, due to the different criteria used for the assessment, the frequency of metabolic syndrome in the general population is variable but it more common in the older people. Metabolic syndrome is closely linked to cardiovascular risk and increases cardiovascular outcomes and all-cause mortality. Recent evidences showed that alterations of the thyroid function could have an impact on the components of the metabolic syndrome, suggesting that thyroid hormones have a variety of effects on energy homeostasis, lipid and glucose metabolism, and blood pressure. In this review we summarize available data on the action of thyroid hormone on the components of metabolic syndrome.

  3. Gut microbiota and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Festi, Davide; Schiumerini, Ramona; Eusebi, Leonardo Henry; Marasco, Giovanni; Taddia, Martina; Colecchia, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Gut microbiota exerts a significant role in the pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome, as confirmed by studies conducted both on humans and animal models. Gut microbial composition and functions are strongly influenced by diet. This complex intestinal “superorganism” seems to affect host metabolic balance modulating energy absorption, gut motility, appetite, glucose and lipid metabolism, as well as hepatic fatty storage. An impairment of the fine balance between gut microbes and host’s immune system could culminate in the intestinal translocation of bacterial fragments and the development of “metabolic endotoxemia”, leading to systemic inflammation and insulin resistance. Diet induced weight-loss and bariatric surgery promote significant changes of gut microbial composition, that seem to affect the success, or the inefficacy, of treatment strategies. Manipulation of gut microbiota through the administration of prebiotics or probiotics could reduce intestinal low grade inflammation and improve gut barrier integrity, thus, ameliorating metabolic balance and promoting weight loss. However, further evidence is needed to better understand their clinical impact and therapeutic use. PMID:25473159

  4. Dyslipidemic drugs in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqi, Sheelu S.; Misbahuddin; Ahmad, Farida; Rahman, Syed Z.; Khan, Asad U.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Metabolic syndrome predisposes to diabetes and atherosclerotic vascular disease. Statins reduce cardiovascular events, so all metabolic syndrome patients should be evaluated for dyslipidemia. Many patients fail to achieve lipid goals with statin monotherapy. Co-administration of ezetimibe (EZE) and atorvastatin (ATV) may enable more patients to achievelow-density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C) goal while avoiding risks of high-dose statin monotherapy. Materials and Methods: The present study compares rosuvastatin (Rsv) with a combination of (Atv) and (Eze). Metabolic syndrome patients, 30-70 years with LDL-C ≥130 mg/dl and a 10-year CHD risk score of 10% were randomized to double-blind treatment with (Rsv) 5 mg (n = 67) or (Atv) 10 mg+(Eze) 10 mg (n = 68) for 12 weeks. Results: LDL-C reduced significantly; (32.3% and 30.3%, P < 0.001) in (Atv)+(Eze) and (Rsv), respectively, but there was no significant difference between two arms. More patients achieved LDL-C goal of ≤100 mg/dl with (Atv)+(Eze) compared to (Rsv) (65% vs. 58%, P < 0.05). Triglycerides (TG) were reduced more with (Atv)+(Eze) compared to (Rsv) (28.1% and 21.4%, P < 0.001). Greater increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) was observed with (Atv)+(Eze). Both treatments were well tolerated. Conclusion: This study shows that the combination of (Atv)+(Eze) has more efficacy and comparable safety to that of (Rsv). PMID:23869305

  5. Metabolic syndrome in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Aguilar, VM; Moreno-Eutimio, Mario Adanm; Acosta-Altamirano, Gustavo; Tovar-Rodriguez, JM

    2013-01-01

    Breast Cancer is a heterogeneous disease, progressive, currently, are classified according to in pattern of gene expression luminal A, luminal B, basal and HER-2neu + and Triple-negative, 75% to 80% have receptors positive hormonal and 15% to 20% are positive for hER-2neu and 10% to 20% are triple negative, with hormone receptor negative and HER2-neu and their diagnostic is made by exclusion, the Metabolic Syndrome is related to a higher incidence of these cancers where the insulin-leptin axis-adiponectin are implicated in carcinogenesis. PMID:25083463

  6. Metabolic syndrome in children (Review).

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue-E; Zhang, Chong-Lin; Zhen, Qing

    2016-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and increased blood pressure. The prevalence of MetS is on the increase worldwide owing to the epidemic of overweight and obesity. The risk of prevalence of MetS greatly increases during adulthood for those children exposed to cardiometabolic risk factors in their early lives. MetS has also been associated with liver fat accumulation in children. Elevated levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase have been associated with liver fat accumulation. The present review aimed to expand knowledge on the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors responsible for the widespread occurrence of metabolic disease in children.

  7. Metabolic syndrome in children (Review)

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yue-E; Zhang, Chong-Lin; Zhen, Qing

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and increased blood pressure. The prevalence of MetS is on the increase worldwide owing to the epidemic of overweight and obesity. The risk of prevalence of MetS greatly increases during adulthood for those children exposed to cardiometabolic risk factors in their early lives. MetS has also been associated with liver fat accumulation in children. Elevated levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase and γ-glutamyl transferase have been associated with liver fat accumulation. The present review aimed to expand knowledge on the clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors responsible for the widespread occurrence of metabolic disease in children. PMID:27698739

  8. Epinephrine and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, Michael G; Elayan, Hamzeh; Milic, Milos; Sun, Ping; Gharaibeh, Munir

    2012-02-01

    Epinephrine is the prototypical stress hormone. Its stimulation of all α and β adrenergic receptors elicits short-term systolic hypertension, hyperglycemia, and other aspects of the metabolic syndrome. Acute epinephrine infusion increases cardiac output and induces insulin resistance, but removal of the adrenal medulla has no consistent effect on blood pressure. Epinephrine is the most effective endogenous agonist at the β2 receptor. Transgenic mice that cannot make epinephrine and mice that lack the β2 receptor become hypertensive during exercise, presumably owing to the absence of β2-mediated vasodilatation. Epinephrine-deficient mice also have cardiac remodeling and poor cardiac responses to stress, but do not develop resting hypertension. Mice that cannot make epinephrine have a normal metabolism on a regular 14% fat diet but become hyperglycemic and insulin resistant when they eat a high fat diet. Vigorous exercise prevents diabetes in young mice and humans that overeat. However, exercise is a less effective treatment in older type 2 human diabetics and had no effect on glucose or insulin responses in older, diabetic mice. Sensitivity of the β2 receptor falls sharply with advancing age, and adrenal epinephrine release also decreases. However, treatment of older diabetic mice with a β2 adrenergic agonist improved insulin sensitivity, indicating that β2 subsensitivity can be overcome pharmacologically. Recent studies show that over the long term, epinephrine prevents hypertension during stress and improves glucose tolerance. The hyperglycemic influence of epinephrine is short-lived. Chronic administration of epinephrine and other β2 agonists improves cellular glucose uptake and metabolism. Overall, epinephrine counteracts the metabolic syndrome.

  9. Relationship between antihypertensive drugs and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wofford, Marion R; King, Deborah S

    2004-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Based on data from 1988 to 1994, it is estimated that 24% of adults in the United States meet the criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. The use of certain medications increases the risk for metabolic syndrome by either promoting weight gain or the development of changes in lipid or glucose metabolism. Diuretics and beta-blockers are among the agents recommended for first-line therapy for hypertension, yet these medications increase the risk of metabolic syndrome. Healthcare providers should recognize and understand the risk associated with antihypertensive agents and should appropriately monitor for changes related to metabolic syndrome. Careful attention to drug choices should be given with patients who are overweight or have other risk factors for diabetes or cardiovascular disease.

  10. Fetal origins of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Xita, Nektaria; Tsatsoulis, Agathocles

    2010-09-01

    The natural history of metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), which shares many components of metabolic syndrome, may originate in intrauterine life. Evidence from epidemiological observations, clinical, and experimental animal studies suggest that the nutritional, hormonal, and metabolic environment afforded by the mother may permanently program differentiating target tissues of the offspring toward the development of metabolic syndrome/PCOS phenotype in adult life. The mechanisms of fetal programming are not well understood. Thus, the altered tissue differentiation may be the result of fetal adaptive responses representing homeostatic adaptations due to alterations in fetal nutrition. Also, tissues under the influence of androgen excess may be directed toward a more masculine phenotype with regard to reproductive, neuroendocrine, and metabolic traits, while the importance of epigenetics in fetal origin of metabolic syndrome/PCOS cannot be overlooked.

  11. Shaken Baby Syndrome: What Caregivers Need To Know.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiggins, Paula

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the causes of shaken baby syndrome and how to recognize, respond to, and prevent it. Identifies horseplay to avoid and recommends never shaking baby even for apnea. Offers 12 tips for working with crying babies and includes ten discussion questions to test knowledge of the syndrome. (DLH)

  12. Metabolic syndrome and polycystic ovary syndrome: an intriguing overlapping.

    PubMed

    Caserta, Donatella; Adducchio, Gloria; Picchia, Simona; Ralli, Eleonora; Matteucci, Eleonora; Moscarini, Massimo

    2014-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an increasing pathology in adults and in children, due to a parallel rise of obesity. Sedentary lifestyle, food habits, cultural influences and also a genetic predisposition can cause dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance which are the two main features of metabolic syndrome. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a condition directly associated with obesity, insulin resistance (HOMA index) and metabolic syndrome, and it is very interesting for its relationship and overlap with the metabolic syndrome. The relationship between the two syndromes is mutual: PCOS women have a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and also women with metabolic syndrome commonly present the reproductive/endocrine trait of PCOS. Prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome and PCOS are similar for various aspects. It is necessary to treat excess adiposity and insulin resistance, with the overall goals of preventing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and improving reproductive failure in young women with PCOS. First of all, lifestyle changes, then pharmacological therapy, bariatric surgery and laparoscopic ovarian surgery represent the pillars for PCOS treatment.

  13. Metabolic Syndrome in Preeclampsia Women in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Rafeeinia, Arash; Tabandeh, Afsaneh; Khajeniazi, Safoura; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of study was to assess the metabolic syndrome in preeclampsia women. The study was performed on 50 women. The metabolic syndrome prevalence was 66%. Serum glucose, triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol levels significantly were increased and HDL- cholesterol level significantly was decreased in metabolic syndrome patients. These patients showed high prevalence of components of the syndrome. Our results show the importance of dyslipidemia in preeclampsia in overweight and obese women. Preeclampsia and cardiovascular disease are important problems for the health of women. It may be useful to give a treat to people with a high-normal blood pressure in early pregnancy. PMID:25553139

  14. Targets to treat metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahalingaiah, Shruthi; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Metabolic syndrome is comprised of a combination of the following states: increased insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, and increased abdominal obesity. Women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have an increased risk of developing metabolic syndrome over the course of their lives. Metabolic syndrome increases risk of major cardiovascular events, morbidity, quality of life, and overall health care costs. Though metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS is an area of great concern, there is no effective individual medical therapeutic to adequately treat this issue. Areas Covered This article will review key aspects of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. We will discuss classic and novel therapeutics to address metabolic syndrome in women with PCOS. We will conclude with the importance of developing strategic interventions to increase the compliance to lifestyle and dietary modification, in addition to appreciation of the emerging pharmaceutical therapeutics available. Expert Opinion Innovation in lifestyle modification, including diet, exercise, with and without dedicated stress reduction techniques is the future in treatment of metabolic syndrome in PCOS. Application of novel interventions, such as group medical care, may improve future adherence to lifestyle modification recommendations, in addition to or in combination with pharmaceutical therapeutics. PMID:26488852

  15. Metabolic syndrome in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cojocaru, Manole; Cojocaru, Inimioara Mihaela; Silosi, Isabela; Vrabie, Camelia Doina

    2012-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) generally affects people between the ages of 20 and 50. Patients with RA have a significantly higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) compared to the general population. The increased cardiovascular risk (CVR) associated with RA places this disease among the most widely studied. The duration of RA was associated with MS, implicating the role of inflammation in MS development. The presence of MS correlates with increased subclinical atherosclerosis. A positive correlation between prevalence of MS and worsening of functional status was found in patients with RA. Patients with rheumatoid arthritis have an increased risk and a higher mortality from cardiovascular diseases (CVD), the rheumatologist should be aware of those MS risk factors and attempt to modify them. This review summarizes recent advances in the field of MS in RA.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome and Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sheen, Yi-Jing; Sheu, Wayne Huey-Herng

    2011-01-01

    Both metabolic syndrome (MetS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) are major global health issues. Current clinical markers used to reflect renal injury include albuminuria and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR). Given the same eGFR level, urine albumin might be a better risk marker to predict progression of CKD and future development of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs). Serum Cystatin C is emerging as a new biomarker for early detection of renal injury associated with MetS and cardiovascular risk. In addition to each component, MetS per se influences the incidence and prognosis of renal injury and the odds ratios increased with the increase in the number of metabolic abnormalities. Hyperinsulinemia, activation of rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, increase of oxidative stress, and inflammatory cytokines are proposed to be the plausible biological link between MetS and CKD. Weight control, stick control of blood pressure, glucose, and lipids disorders may lead to lessening renal injury and even the subsequent CVD. PMID:21461396

  17. Mangiferin modulation of metabolism and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fomenko, Ekaterina Vladimirovna; Chi, Yuling

    2016-09-10

    The recent emergence of a worldwide epidemic of metabolic disorders, such as obesity and diabetes, demands effective strategy to develop nutraceuticals or pharmaceuticals to halt this trend. Natural products have long been and continue to be an attractive source of nutritional and pharmacological therapeutics. One such natural product is mangiferin (MGF), the predominant constituent of extracts of the mango plant Mangifera indica L. Reports on biological and pharmacological effects of MGF increased exponentially in recent years. MGF has documented antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Recent studies indicate that it modulates multiple biological processes involved in metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids. MGF has been shown to improve metabolic abnormalities and disorders in animal models and humans. This review focuses on the recently reported biological and pharmacological effects of MGF on metabolism and metabolic disorders. © 2016 BioFactors, 42(5):492-503, 2016.

  18. Caregiver Report of Executive Functioning in a Population-Based Sample of Young Children with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Nancy Raitano; Fidler, Deborah J.; Blakeley-Smith, Audrey; Daunhauer, Lisa; Robinson, Cordelia; Hepburn, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    The current study describes everyday executive function (EF) profiles in young children with Down syndrome. Caregivers of children with Down syndrome (n = 26; chronological ages = 4-10 years; mental ages = 2-4 years) completed the Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function-Preschool (BRIEF-P; G. A. Gioia, K. A. Espy, & P. K. Isquith, 2003), a…

  19. HIV Therapy, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk

    PubMed Central

    Pao, Vivian; Lee, Grace A.; Grunfeld, Carl

    2011-01-01

    People with HIV infection have metabolic abnormalities that resemble metabolic syndrome (hypertriglyceridemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and insulin resistance), which is known to predict increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, there is not one underlying cause for these abnormalities and they are not linked to each other. Rather, individual abnormalities can be affected by the host response to HIV itself, specific HIV drugs, classes of HIV drugs, HIV-associated lipoatrophy, or restoration to health. Furthermore, one component of metabolic syndrome, increased waist circumference, occurs less frequently in HIV infection. Thus, HIV infection supports the concept that metabolic syndrome does not represent a syndrome based on a common underlying pathophysiology. As might be predicted from these findings, the prevalence of CVD is higher in people with HIV infection. It remains to be determined whether CVD rates in HIV infection are higher than might be predicted from traditional risk factors, including smoking. PMID:18366987

  20. Glucose intolerance, metabolic syndrome, and neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Cortez, Melissa; Singleton, J Robinson; Smith, A Gordon

    2014-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or metabolic syndrome may result in peripheral nerve injury, although the exact relationship between the conditions is still being characterized. There is animal model, epidemiologic, and clinical evidence to suggest a pathophysiologic relationship between neuropathy and metabolic syndrome, along with its components including obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. IGT and metabolic syndrome are associated with subclinical nerve damage or are typically painful and sensory predominant, although autonomic involvement may also occur. Because there is often preferential small fiber injury and nerve conduction studies may be relatively insensitive, skin biopsy with assessment of intraepidermal nerve fiber density is often used to confirm the diagnosis. Treatment of metabolic syndrome and IGT-associated neuropathies should include diet and exercise counseling, maintenance of normoglycemia, and targeted pharmacologic therapy for modifiable risk factors. Further research is required to fully elucidate the complex pathophysiology, as well as identify optimal diagnostic and treatment approaches.

  1. Managing cardiovascular risk inpatients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nesto, Richard W

    2005-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a constellation of risk factors that contribute to the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD has been identified by the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) as the primary clinical outcome of the metabolic syndrome. Although no algorithm is currently available for estimating the absolute risk of CVD for patients with the metabolic syndrome, screening for cardiovascular (CV) risk in these patients involves testing for lipoprotein abnormalities (namely, an analysis of specific low-density lipoprotein particle numbers) and an assessment of various surrogate markers for subclinical coronary artery disease. Such screening can be used to help predict the development of CVD and thereby allow for effective interventions to help prevent coronary events. Strategies for reducing CV risk in patients with the metabolic syndrome are multifactorial. In addition to placing an emphasis on therapeutic lifestyle changes that increase levels of physical activity, dietary modification, and weight reduction, several pharmacologic therapies are available. One novel approach for managing CV risk in patients with the metabolic syndrome involves the inhibition of the endocannabinoid system, including the use of rimonabant. A review of CV risk factors in patients with the metabolic syndrome is beneficial for clinicians to apply in the care of their patients, along with a discussion about strategies for identifying at-risk patients and managing CVD risk for these patients.

  2. Cardiovascular consequences of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tune, Johnathan D; Goodwill, Adam G; Sassoon, Daniel J; Mather, Kieren J

    2017-01-09

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is defined as the concurrence of obesity-associated cardiovascular risk factors including abdominal obesity, impaired glucose tolerance, hypertriglyceridemia, decreased HDL cholesterol, and/or hypertension. Earlier conceptualizations of the MetS focused on insulin resistance as a core feature, and it is clearly coincident with the above list of features. Each component of the MetS is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease and the combination of these risk factors elevates rates and severity of cardiovascular disease, related to a spectrum of cardiovascular conditions including microvascular dysfunction, coronary atherosclerosis and calcification, cardiac dysfunction, myocardial infarction, and heart failure. While advances in understanding the etiology and consequences of this complex disorder have been made, the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms remain incompletely understood, and it is unclear how these concurrent risk factors conspire to produce the variety of obesity-associated adverse cardiovascular diseases. In this review, we highlight current knowledge regarding the pathophysiological consequences of obesity and the MetS on cardiovascular function and disease, including considerations of potential physiological and molecular mechanisms that may contribute to these adverse outcomes.

  3. The metabolic syndrome in Africa: Current trends.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Christian I

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of several cardiovascular risk factors. Contrary to earlier thoughts, metabolic syndrome is no longer rare in Africa. The prevalence is increasing, and it tends to increase with age. This increase in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the continent is thought to be due to departure from traditional African to western lifestyles. In Africa, it is not limited to adults but is also becoming common among the young ones. Obesity and dyslipidemia seem to be the most common occurring components. While obesity appears more common in females, hypertension tends to be more predominant in males. Insulin resistance has remained the key underlying pathophysiology. Though pharmacologic agents are available to treat the different components of the syndrome, prevention is still possible by reverting back to the traditional African way of life.

  4. [Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome: Metabolic complications].

    PubMed

    Frija-Orvoën, E

    2016-06-01

    Strongly linked to the presence of obesity, the obstructive sleep apnea syndrome is an independent risk factor for abnormalities of glucose metabolism ranging from simple impaired glucose tolerance to type 2 diabetes. It is also a risk factor for dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The pathological mechanisms underlying these associations remain to be precisely discovered, but intermittent hypoxia is probably one of the major factors. The place of obstructive apnea treatment in the management of metabolic conditions remains unclear.

  5. Metabolic syndrome and breast cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Gezgen, G; Roach, E C; Kizilarslanoglu, M C; Petekkaya, I; Altundag, K

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide, breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer in women and the most important cause of cancer-related deaths among women. This disease is on the rise in Turkey. Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disturbances including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, abdominal obesity and high blood sugar. Several studies have examined the association of the individual components of the metabolic syndrome with breast cancer. More recent studies have shown it to be an independent risk factor for breast cancer. It has also been associated with poorer prognosis, increased incidence, a more aggressive tumor phenotype. Basic research studies are now in progress to illuminate the molecular pathways and mechanisms that are behind this correlation. Given the fact that all of the components of metabolic syndrome are modifiable risk factors, preventive measures must be established to improve the outcome of breast cancer patients. In this review we set the background by taking into account previous studies which have identified the components of metabolic syndrome individually as breast cancer risk factors. Then we present the latest findings which elaborate possible explanations regarding how metabolic syndrome as a single entity may affect breast cancer risk.

  6. Holter registers and metabolic syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muñoz-Diosdado, A.; Ramírez-Hernández, L.; Aguilar-Molina, A. M.; Zamora-Justo, J. A.; Gutiérrez-Calleja, R. A.; Virgilio-González, C. D.

    2014-11-01

    There is a relationship between the state of the cardiovascular system and metabolic syndrome (MS). A way to diagnose the heart state of a person is to monitor the electrical activity of the heart using a 24 hours Holter monitor. Scanned ECG signal can be analyzed beat-by-beat by algorithms that separate normal of abnormal heartbeats. If the percentage of abnormal heartbeats is too high it could be argued that the patient has heart problems. We have algorithms that can not only identify the abnormal heartbeats, but they can also classify them, so we classified and counted abnormal heartbeats in patients with MS and subjects without MS. Most of our patients have large waist circumference, high triglycerides and high levels of LDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol although some of them have high blood pressure. We enrolled adult patients with MS free of diabetes in a four month lifestyle intervention program including diet and physical aerobic exercise, and compared with healthy controls. We made an initial registration with a Holter, and 24 hours ECG signal is analyzed to identify and classify the different types of heartbeats. The patients then begin with diet or exercise (at least half an hour daily). Periodically Holter records were taken up and we describe the evolution in time of the number and type of abnormal heartbeats. Results show that the percentage of abnormal heartbeats decreases over time, in some cases the decline is very significant, and almost a reduction to half or less of abnormal heartbeats after several months since the patients changed their eating or physical activity habits.

  7. Targeting inflammation in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Welty, Francine K; Alfaddagh, Abdulhamied; Elajami, Tarec K

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is comprised of a cluster of closely related risk factors, including visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, hypertension, high triglyceride, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; all of which increase the risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. A chronic state of inflammation appears to be a central mechanism underlying the pathophysiology of insulin resistance and MetS. In this review, we summarize recent research which has provided insight into the mechanisms by which inflammation underlies the pathophysiology of the individual components of MetS including visceral adiposity, hyperglycemia and insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. On the basis of these mechanisms, we summarize therapeutic modalities to target inflammation in the MetS and its individual components. Current therapeutic modalities can modulate the individual components of MetS and have a direct anti-inflammatory effect. Lifestyle modifications including exercise, weight loss, and diets high in fruits, vegetables, fiber, whole grains, and low-fat dairy and low in saturated fat and glucose are recommended as a first line therapy. The Mediterranean and dietary approaches to stop hypertension diets are especially beneficial and have been shown to prevent development of MetS. Moreover, the Mediterranean diet has been associated with reductions in total and cardiovascular mortality. Omega-3 fatty acids and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α agonists lower high levels of triglyceride; their role in targeting inflammation is reviewed. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone blockers comprise pharmacologic therapies for hypertension but also target other aspects of MetS including inflammation. Statin drugs target many of the underlying inflammatory pathways involved in MetS.

  8. Metabolic syndrome: contributing factors and treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Susan B; Moussouttas, Michael; Mancini, Barbara

    2005-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease. The World Health Organization and National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III have identified physiologic abnormalities associated with metabolic syndrome, including impaired glucose metabolism, high blood pressure, elevated cholesterol levels, and abdominal obesity. It is estimated that 47 million Americans have metabolic syndrome. A variety of therapies may help reduce the incidence and risk, including diet, weight loss, physical exercise, glycemic control, and pharmacological treatments. Nursing care is focused on developing an individualized plan of care that includes family members and providing education, psychosocial support, close monitoring, and continued follow-up to ensure adherence and success in achieving patient outcomes.

  9. Management issues in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Deedwania, P C; Gupta, R

    2006-10-01

    The metabolic syndrome or cardiovascular dysmetabolic syndrome is characterized by obesity, central obesity, insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The major risk factors leading to this syndrome are physical inactivity and an atherogenic diet and cornerstone clinical feature is abdominal obesity or adiposity. In addition, patients usually have elevated triglycerides, low HDL cholesterol, elevated LDL cholesterol, other abnormal lipid parameters, hypertension, and elevated fasting blood glucose. Impaired fibrinolysis, increased susceptibility to thrombotic events, and raised inflammatory markers are also observed. Given that India has the largest number of subjects with type-2 diabetes in the world it can be extrapolated that this country also has the largest number of patients with the metabolic syndrome. Epidemiological studies confirm a high prevalence. Therapeutic approach involves intervention at a macro-level and control of multiple risk factors using therapeutic lifestyle approaches (diet control and increased physical activity, pharmacotherapy - anti-obesity agents) for control of obesity and visceral obesity, and targeted approach for control of individual risk factors. Pharmacological therapy is a critical step in the management of patients with metabolic syndrome when lifestyle modifications fail to achieve the therapeutic goals. Anti-obesity drugs such as sibutramine and orlistat can be tried to reduce weight and central obesity and jointly control the metabolic syndrome components. Other than weight loss, there is no single best therapy and treatment should consist of treatment of individual components of the metabolic syndrome. Newer drugs such as the endocannabinoid receptor blocker,rimonabant, appear promising in this regard. Atherogenic dyslipidemia should be controlled initially with statins if there is an increase in LDL cholesterol. If there are other lipid abnormalities then combination therapy of statin with fibrates

  10. Mitochondrial Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome and Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Mabalirajan, Ulaganathan; Ghosh, Balaram

    2013-01-01

    Though severe or refractory asthma merely affects less than 10% of asthma population, it consumes significant health resources and contributes significant morbidity and mortality. Severe asthma does not fell in the routine definition of asthma and requires alternative treatment strategies. It has been observed that asthma severity increases with higher body mass index. The obese-asthmatics, in general, have the features of metabolic syndrome and are progressively causing a significant burden for both developed and developing countries thanks to the westernization of the world. As most of the features of metabolic syndrome seem to be originated from central obesity, the underlying mechanisms for metabolic syndrome could help us to understand the pathobiology of obese-asthma condition. While mitochondrial dysfunction is the common factor for most of the risk factors of metabolic syndrome, such as central obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes, the involvement of mitochondria in obese-asthma pathogenesis seems to be important as mitochondrial dysfunction has recently been shown to be involved in airway epithelial injury and asthma pathogenesis. This review discusses current understanding of the overlapping features between metabolic syndrome and asthma in relation to mitochondrial structural and functional alterations with an aim to uncover mechanisms for obese-asthma. PMID:23840225

  11. Caring for the caregivers: an investigation of factors related to well-being among parents caring for a child with Smith-Magenis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Foster, Rebecca H; Kozachek, Stephanie; Stern, Marilyn; Elsea, Sarah H

    2010-04-01

    Smith-Magenis syndrome (SMS) is a complex disorder characterized by numerous challenges, including intellectual disability, speech delay, decreased pain sensitivity, sleep disturbances, hyperactivity, mood instability, and self-injury. Caregivers must readily adapt to the ever-changing needs of the child. Due to these demands, caregivers may encounter difficulties maintaining their own level of well-being. Thus, a total of 112 primary caregivers (i.e., parents) of individuals diagnosed with SMS responded to online questionnaires to assess demographic and psychosocial factors, such as perceptions of child health vulnerability, benefit finding, sleep behaviors, anxiety and depression symptomatology, and caregiver satisfaction and self-efficacy, which may be related to caregiver well-being. Results show that, among mothers, caregiver well-being was directly related to perceived child health vulnerability, caregiver satisfaction, and benefit finding, and a significant moderating effect was observed for depression/anxiety counseling after beginning the caregiver role on the relationship between anxiety symptomatology and caregiver well-being. Results further suggest that maternal caregivers who report high levels of anxiety but do not seek counseling fair the worst in terms of well-being. Among fathers, lower depression symptoms and greater benefit finding were related to higher levels of caregiver well-being. These data show that many factors play roles in influencing coping and well-being among SMS caregivers. Investigating these variables and relationships may reveal additional resources and interventions to assist primary caregivers.

  12. [New obesity and metabolic syndrome treatment: rimonabant].

    PubMed

    Makoundou, V; Golay, A

    2006-01-04

    CBI endocannabinoid system receptors localized in the hypothalamus and the nucleus accumbens are known to regulate hunger. Hyperstimulation of the CBI receptors lead to an increase of food intake, but also to an increase of lipogenesis, decrease of adiponectin and increase of insulin resistance. Rimonabant is the first CBI central and peripheral blocker, tested in international trials (RIO-lipids, RIO-Europe and RIO-North America). Significant results on weight reduction, increased adiponectin and improved metabolic syndrome have been demonstrated. Rimonabant is a new pharmacological therapy and very interesting for tackling obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  13. Metabolic consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Churchill, S J; Wang, E T; Pisarska, M D

    2015-12-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder in women and the leading cause of anovulatory infertility. The prevalence of the syndrome ranges between 6 to 15% based on broader Rotterdam diagnostic criteria verses strict NIH diagnostic criteria.1 The condition is characterized by a combination of ovulatory dysfunction, hyperandrogenism and the presence of polycystic ovaries. PCOS has been associated with multiple metabolic alterations and consequences including impaired glucose tolerance, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, type II diabetes, dyslipidemia, metabolic syndrome, obesity and subclinical cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear however if these associations lead to an increased risk of clinically significant long-term cardiovascular disease. Large prospective studies to date have not detected significant differences in overall cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in PCOS. The phenotypical variability in PCOS has made researching each of these associations challenging as different aspects of the syndrome may be contributing, opposing or confounding factors. The ability to detect significant differences in long-term cardiovascular outcomes may also be due to the variable nature of the syndrome. In this review, we attempt to describe a summary of the current literature concerning the metabolic alterations and cardiovascular consequences of polycystic ovary syndrome.

  14. Factors affecting metabolic syndrome by lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Ki, Nam-Kyun; Lee, Hae-Kag; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Seon-Chil; Kim, Nak-Sang

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The aim of this study was to explore lifestyle factors in relation to metabolic syndrome so as to be able to utilize the results as baseline data for the furtherance of health-care and medical treatment. [Subjects and Methods] This study was conducted with patients who visited a health care center located in Seoul and had abdominal ultrasonography between 2 March 2013 and 28 February, 2014. Heights, weights, and blood pressures were measured by automatic devices. Three radiologists examined the patients using abdominal ultrasonography for gallstone diagnosis. The statuses of patients with regard to smoking, alcohol, coffee, and physical activities were explored for the lifestyle investigation. For investigating baseline demographics, we first used descriptive statistics. We then used the χ2 test to analyze lifestyles and gallstone prevalence with regard to the presence of metabolic syndrome. Lastly, logistic regression analysis was conducted to discover the risk factors of metabolic syndrome. [Results] For men, body mass index, maximum gallstone size, and waist circumference were revealed as risk factors for metabolic syndrome, in descending order of the degree of risk. For females, gallstone presence was the most significant risk factor, followed by waist circumference. [Conclusion] Metabolic disease mainly presents itself along with obesity, and we should become more focused on preventing and treating this disease. A large-scale prospective study is needed in the future, as the cause of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis remained unclear in this study. PMID:26957725

  15. Lennox–Gastaut syndrome: impact on the caregivers and families of patients

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Patricia A

    2014-01-01

    Lennox–Gastaut syndrome (LGS) has a major impact on the health-related quality of life (HRQL) of the affected children as well as their caregivers. The primary caregiver in the family is generally the mother, with support from the father and siblings. The burden of care and the effects of the disease on the child necessitate adjustments in virtually all aspects of the lives of their family. These adjustments inevitably affect the physical, emotional, social, and financial health of the whole family. Numerous sources of support for families can help to ease the burden of care. Improvements in the treatment of LGS, in addition to helping the child with LGS, would likely help improve the HRQL of the family members. This pilot parent survey was designed to explore the impact of epilepsy on caregiver HRQL. Parents of children with epilepsy who had contacted the Epilepsy Information Service at the Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA, were sent questionnaires comprising open- and closed-ended questions. A total of 200 surveys were distributed, with a return rate of 48%. The results revealed that 74% of the parents believed that having a child with epilepsy brought them and their partner closer together. However, when the parents were asked to explain the manner in which epilepsy affected their families, answers included continuous stress, major financial distress, and lack of time to spend with other children. Information and resources for the families of children with LGS could help improve the HRQL of both the patients and their relatives. PMID:25336963

  16. A Comprehensive Review on Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined by a constellation of interconnected physiological, biochemical, clinical, and metabolic factors that directly increases the risk of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and all cause mortality. Insulin resistance, visceral adiposity, atherogenic dyslipidemia, endothelial dysfunction, genetic susceptibility, elevated blood pressure, hypercoagulable state, and chronic stress are the several factors which constitute the syndrome. Chronic inflammation is known to be associated with visceral obesity and insulin resistance which is characterized by production of abnormal adipocytokines such as tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-1 (IL-1), IL-6, leptin, and adiponectin. The interaction between components of the clinical phenotype of the syndrome with its biological phenotype (insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, etc.) contributes to the development of a proinflammatory state and further a chronic, subclinical vascular inflammation which modulates and results in atherosclerotic processes. Lifestyle modification remains the initial intervention of choice for such population. Modern lifestyle modification therapy combines specific recommendations on diet and exercise with behavioural strategies. Pharmacological treatment should be considered for those whose risk factors are not adequately reduced with lifestyle changes. This review provides summary of literature related to the syndrome's definition, epidemiology, underlying pathogenesis, and treatment approaches of each of the risk factors comprising metabolic syndrome. PMID:24711954

  17. Epigenetic priming of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Kimberley D; Cagampang, Felino R

    2011-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia and microalbuminuria, and more recently, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and atherosclerosis. Although the concept of the MetS is subject to debate due to lack of a unifying underlying mechanism, the prevalence of a metabolic syndrome phenotype is rapidly increasing worldwide. Moreover, it is increasingly prevalent in children and adolescents of obese mothers. Evidence from both epidemiological and experimental animal studies now demonstrates that MetS onset is increasingly likely following exposure to suboptimal nutrition during critical periods of development, as observed in maternal obesity. Thus, the developmental priming of the MetS provides a common origin for this multifactorial disorder. Consequently, the mechanisms leading to this developmental priming have recently been the subject of intensive investigation. This review discusses recent data regarding the epigenetic modifications resulting from nutrition during early development that mediate persistent changes in the expression of key metabolic genes and contribute toward an adult metabolic syndrome phenotype. In addition, this review considers the role of the endogenous molecular circadian clock system, which has the potential to act at the interface between nutrient sensing and epigenetic processing. A continued and greater understanding of these mechanisms will eventually aid in the identification of individuals at high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes, and help develop therapeutic interventions, in accordance with current global government strategy.

  18. Hypertension in Metabolic Syndrome: Vascular Pathophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Mendizábal, Yolanda; Llorens, Silvia; Nava, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic and cardiovascular symptoms: insulin resistance (IR), obesity, dyslipemia. Hypertension and vascular disorders are central to this syndrome. After a brief historical review, we discuss the role of sympathetic tone. Subsequently, we examine the link between endothelial dysfunction and IR. NO is involved in the insulin-elicited capillary vasodilatation. The insulin-signaling pathways causing NO release are different to the classical. There is a vasodilatory pathway with activation of NO synthase through Akt, and a vasoconstrictor pathway that involves the release of endothelin-1 via MAPK. IR is associated with an imbalance between both pathways in favour of the vasoconstrictor one. We also consider the link between hypertension and IR: the insulin hypothesis of hypertension. Next we discuss the importance of perivascular adipose tissue and the role of adipokines that possess vasoactive properties. Finally, animal models used in the study of vascular function of metabolic syndrome are reviewed. In particular, the Zucker fatty rat and the spontaneously hypertensive obese rat (SHROB). This one suffers macro- and microvascular malfunction due to a failure in the NO system and an abnormally high release of vasoconstrictor prostaglandins, all this alleviated with glitazones used for metabolic syndrome therapy. PMID:23573411

  19. Mineralocorticoid receptors in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zennaro, Maria-Christina; Caprio, Massimiliano; Fève, Bruno

    2009-11-01

    The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) mediates aldosterone effects on salt homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. MR activation also promotes inflammation, cardiovascular remodelling and endothelial dysfunction, and affects adipose tissue differentiation and function. Some of these effects derive from MR activation by glucocorticoids. Recent epidemiological studies show that the incidence of metabolic syndrome increases across quartiles of aldosterone, implicating the MR as a central player in metabolic homeostasis, involving electrolyte, water and energy balance. This review summarizes the current understanding of MR-mediated effects in diverse tissues and the role of aldosterone as a cardiometabolic risk factor, and discusses the possible relationship between inappropriate MR activation (by both mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids) and the development of metabolic syndrome.

  20. The metabolic syndrome - background and treatment

    PubMed Central

    van Zwieten, P.A.

    2006-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MBS) is characterised by a clustering of cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors. This syndrome is now widely recognised as a distinct pathological entity, and it is receiving a great deal of attention in the medical literature but also in the lay press. Globally speaking, persons with MBS have a clustering of the following risk factors: [List: see text] MBS is associated with important cardio/cerebrovascular and metabolic risks. Prevention and treatment are therefore of great importance. Preventive measures involving lifestyle are mandatory. In addition, MBS patients require pharmacological treatment, usually for the rest of their lives. Complex patterns of drug treatment will be required, since all the different, heterogenous pathophysiological problems will require appropriate treatment. After an introduction to MBS, this article provides an extensive and critical review of the drug treatment of this complex pathological entity. ImagesFigure 2 PMID:25696664

  1. “Micromanaging” metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic diseases are characterized by the failure of regulatory genes or enzymes to effectively orchestrate specific pathways involved in the control of many biological processes. In addition to the classical regulators of metabolic homeostasis, recent discoveries have shown the remarkable role of small non-coding RNAs (microRNAs) in the post-transcriptional regulation of a number of genes, and their involvement in many pathological states, such as diabetes, atherosclerosis and cancer. Of note is microRNA-33 (miR-33), an intronic microRNA (miRNA) located within the sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) genes, one of the master regulators of cholesterol and fatty acid metabolism. We have recently shown that miR-33 regulates cholesterol efflux and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) formation, as well as fatty acid oxidation and insulin signaling. These results describe a model in which miR-33 works in concert with its host genes to ensure that the cell's metabolic state is balanced, thus highlighting the clinical potential of miRNAs as novel therapeutic targets for treating cardiometabolic diseases. PMID:21946517

  2. Idiopathic neuropathy, prediabetes and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gordon Smith, A; Robinson Singleton, J

    2006-03-15

    Peripheral neuropathy is a common problem encountered by neurologists and primary care physicians. While there are many causes for peripheral neuropathy, none can be identified in a large percentage of patients ("idiopathic neuropathy"). Despite its high prevalence, idiopathic neuropathy is poorly studied and understood. There is evolving evidence that impaired glucose tolerance (prediabetes) is associated with idiopathic neuropathy. Preliminary data from a multicenter study of diet and exercise in prediabetes (the Impaired Glucose Tolerance Neuropathy Study) suggests a diet and exercise counseling regimen based on the Diabetes Prevention Program results in improved metabolic measures and small fiber function. Prediabetes is part of the Metabolic Syndrome, which also includes hypertension, hyperlipidemia and obesity. Individual aspects of the Metabolic Syndrome influence risk and progression of diabetic neuropathy and may play a causative role in neuropathy both for those with prediabetes, and those with otherwise idiopathic neuropathy. Thus, a multifactorial treatment approach to individual components of Metabolic Syndrome may slow prediabetic neuropathy progression or result in improvement.

  3. Nutraceuticals in diabetes and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davì, Giovanni; Santilli, Francesca; Patrono, Carlo

    2010-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome represents a clustering of risk factors related to an elevated risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Occurrence of both metabolic syndrome and diabetes and their vascular complications share several pathogenetic features including subclinical, low-grade inflammation, altered oxidative/antioxidant status, and persistent platelet activation. Despite the availability of multiple interventions to counteract these metabolic changes, including appropriate diet, regular exercise, weight control and drugs, epidemiological data are witnessing the growing trend of the problem, reflecting both the multifactorial nature of these diseases as well as the scarce compliance of patients to established strategies. Several nutraceuticals used in clinical practice have been shown to target the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome and their complications and to favorably modulate a number of biochemical and clinical endpoints. These compounds include antioxidant vitamins, such as vitamins C and E, flavonoids, vitamin D, conjugated linoleic acid, omega-3 fatty acids, minerals such as chromium and magnesium, alpha-lipoic acid, phytoestrogens, and dietary fibers. Several areas of concern exist regarding the use of dietary supplements and nutraceuticals in this setting, including product standardization, definition of optimal dosing regimen, potential side effects, drug interactions, and need for evidence-based indications.

  4. Nitric oxide and mitochondria in metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Litvinova, Larisa; Atochin, Dmitriy N.; Fattakhov, Nikolai; Vasilenko, Mariia; Zatolokin, Pavel; Kirienkova, Elena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a cluster of metabolic disorders that collectively increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. Nitric oxide (NO) plays a crucial role in the pathogeneses of MS components and is involved in different mitochondrial signaling pathways that control respiration and apoptosis. The present review summarizes the recent information regarding the interrelations of mitochondria and NO in MS. Changes in the activities of different NO synthase isoforms lead to the formation of metabolic disorders and therefore are highlighted here. Reduced endothelial NOS activity and NO bioavailability, as the main factors underlying the endothelial dysfunction that occurs in MS, are discussed in this review in relation to mitochondrial dysfunction. We also focus on potential therapeutic strategies involving NO signaling pathways that can be used to treat patients with metabolic disorders associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. The article may help researchers develop new approaches for the diagnosis, prevention and treatment of MS. PMID:25741283

  5. Metabolic syndrome in patients with severe mental illness in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Kamkar, Mohammad Zaman; Sanagoo, Akram; Zargarani, Fatemeh; Jouybari, Leila; Marjani, Abdoljalal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome is commonly associated with cardiovascular diseases and psychiatric mental illness. Hence, we aimed to assess the metabolic syndrome among severe mental illness (SMI). Materials and Methods: The study included 267 patients who were referred to the psychiatric unit at 5th Azar Education Hospital of Golestan University of Medical Sciences in Gorgan, Iran. Results: The mean waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride and fasting blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the SMI with metabolic syndrome, but the high density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol was significantly lower. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI patients was 20.60%. There were significant differences in the mean of waist circumference, systolic (except for women) and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol and fasting blood glucose in men and women with metabolic syndrome when compared with subjects without metabolic syndrome. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in SMI women was higher than men. The most age distribution was in range of 30-39 years old. The most prevalence of metabolic syndrome was in age groups 50-59 years old. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was increased from 30 to 59 years old. Conclusion: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with SMI in Gorgan is almost similar to those observed in Asian countries. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was lower than western countries. These observations may be due to cultural differences in the region. It should be mention that the families of mental illness subjects in our country believe that their patients must be cared better than people without mental illness. These findings of this study suggest that mental illness patients are at risk of metabolic syndrome. According to our results, risk factors such as age and gender differences may play an important role in the presence of metabolic syndrome. In our country, women do less

  6. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for neurological disorders.

    PubMed

    Farooqui, Akhlaq A; Farooqui, Tahira; Panza, Francesco; Frisardi, Vincenza

    2012-03-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of common pathologies: abdominal obesity linked to an excess of visceral fat, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. At the molecular level, metabolic syndrome is accompanied not only by dysregulation in the expression of adipokines (cytokines and chemokines), but also by alterations in levels of leptin, a peptide hormone released by white adipose tissue. These changes modulate immune response and inflammation that lead to alterations in the hypothalamic 'bodyweight/appetite/satiety set point,' resulting in the initiation and development of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for neurological disorders such as stroke, depression and Alzheimer's disease. The molecular mechanism underlying the mirror relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders is not fully understood. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that all cellular and biochemical alterations observed in metabolic syndrome like impairment of endothelial cell function, abnormality in essential fatty acid metabolism and alterations in lipid mediators along with abnormal insulin/leptin signaling may represent a pathological bridge between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders such as stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression. The purpose of this review is not only to describe the involvement of brain in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome, but also to link the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome with neurochemical changes in stroke, Alzheimer's disease and depression to a wider audience of neuroscientists with the hope that this discussion will initiate more studies on the relationship between metabolic syndrome and neurological disorders.

  7. Association between polycystic ovary syndrome and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Leandro Martín; Motta, Alicia Beatriz

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine and metabolic disorder affecting women in reproductive age. Although the etiology of PCOS remains unclear, it is believed to result from genetic, environmental and behavioral interactions. Women with PCOS have higher lifetime risk for cardiovascular disease (CVR) than healthy women at the same age and tend to display insulin resistance (IR). IR has traditionally been defined as a decreased ability of insulin to mediate the metabolic actions on glucose uptake, glucose production, and/or lipolysis. This results in a requirement for increased amounts of insulin to achieve a given metabolic action. Metabolic syndrome (MS) includes hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, increased CVR and hyperleptinemia and metabolic disorders such as hypertension, IR, gestational diabetes, type 2 diabetes mellitus, systemic inflammation and endothelial dysfunction. The prevalence of MS in women is around 50 %. In addition, it has been recently suggested that women with MS show increased circulating androgens. The present review discusses the main alterations and features of PCOS and MS and the most important treatments.

  8. [Testosterone deficiency, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Miró, Mercè; Chillarón, Juan J; Pedro-Botet, Juan

    2016-01-15

    Testosterone deficiency in adult age is associated with a decrease in libido, energy, hematocrit, muscle mass and bone mineral density, as well as with depression. More recently, testosterone deficiency has also been associated with various components of the metabolic syndrome, which in turn is associated with a five-fold increase in the risk of cardiovascular disease. Low testosterone levels are associated with increased insulin resistance, increase in fat mass, low HDL cholesterol, higher triglyceride levels and hypertension. Testosterone replacement therapy in patients with testosterone deficiency and type 2 diabetes mellitus and/or metabolic syndrome has shown reductions in insulin resistance, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol and triglycerides and improvement in glycemic control and anthropometric parameters.

  9. Cardiac NO signalling in the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Pechánová, O; Varga, Z V; Cebová, M; Giricz, Z; Pacher, P; Ferdinandy, P

    2015-01-01

    It is well documented that metabolic syndrome (i.e. a group of risk factors, such as abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides and low cholesterol level in high-density lipoprotein), which raises the risk for heart disease and diabetes, is associated with increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) generation. ROS/RNS can modulate cardiac NO signalling and trigger various adaptive changes in NOS and antioxidant enzyme expressions/activities. While initially these changes may represent protective mechanisms in metabolic syndrome, later with more prolonged oxidative, nitrosative and nitrative stress, these are often exhausted, eventually favouring myocardial RNS generation and decreased NO bioavailability. The increased oxidative and nitrative stress also impairs the NO-soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) signalling pathway, limiting the ability of NO to exert its fundamental signalling roles in the heart. Enhanced ROS/RNS generation in the presence of risk factors also facilitates activation of redox-dependent transcriptional factors such as NF-κB, promoting myocardial expression of various pro-inflammatory mediators, and eventually the development of cardiac dysfunction and remodelling. While the dysregulation of NO signalling may interfere with the therapeutic efficacy of conventional drugs used in the management of metabolic syndrome, the modulation of NO signalling may also be responsible for the therapeutic benefits of already proven or recently developed treatment approaches, such as ACE inhibitors, certain β-blockers, and sGC activators. Better understanding of the above-mentioned pathological processes may ultimately lead to more successful therapeutic approaches to overcome metabolic syndrome and its pathological consequences in cardiac NO signalling. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on Pharmacology of the Gasotransmitters. To view the other articles in this

  10. Berry Fruit Consumption and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vendrame, Stefano; Del Bo’, Cristian; Ciappellano, Salvatore; Riso, Patrizia; Klimis-Zacas, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic Syndrome is a cluster of risk factors which often includes central obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, hypertension, endothelial dysfunction, as well as a pro-inflammatory, pro-oxidant, and pro-thrombotic environment. This leads to a dramatically increased risk of developing type II diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of death both in the United States and worldwide. Increasing evidence suggests that berry fruit consumption has a significant potential in the prevention and treatment of most risk factors associated with Metabolic Syndrome and its cardiovascular complications in the human population. This is likely due to the presence of polyphenols with known antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, such as anthocyanins and/or phenolic acids. The present review summarizes the findings of recent dietary interventions with berry fruits on human subjects with or at risk of Metabolic Syndrome. It also discusses the potential role of berries as part of a dietary strategy which could greatly reduce the need for pharmacotherapy, associated with potentially deleterious side effects and constituting a considerable financial burden. PMID:27706020

  11. Abnormal fibrillin metabolism in bovine Marfan syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Potter, K. A.; Hoffman, Y.; Sakai, L. Y.; Byers, P. H.; Besser, T. E.; Milewicz, D. M.

    1993-01-01

    Bovine Marfan syndrome is a disorder that closely resembles human Marfan syndrome in its clinical signs and pathological lesions. The similarities between the human and bovine diseases suggest that similar metabolic defects could be responsible. Although indirect immunofluorescent assays for fibrillin in skin biopsies did not distinguish affected cattle from control animals, cultures of skin fibroblasts of affected animals were distinguished from normal, unrelated control animals and normal half-siblings on the basis of fibrillin staining. After 72 to 96 hours in culture, stained with anti-fibrillin monoclonal antibody 201, hyperconfluent fibroblast cultures of affected cattle had less immunoreactive fibrillin than control cultures, and the staining pattern was granular rather than fibrillar. Under similar culture conditions, normal bovine aortic smooth muscle cells produced large amounts of immunoreactive fibrillin, but smooth muscle cells from a single affected cow showed markedly less fibrillin staining. In pulse-chase metabolic labeling experiments with [35S]cysteine, dermal fibroblasts from 6 affected calves, incorporated far less fibrillin into the extracellular matrix than control cells. These findings are similar to those reported in human Marfan syndrome, and they suggest that the bovine Marfan syndrome, like the human disorder, is caused by a mutation in fibrillin, leading to defective microfibrillar synthesis. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8456941

  12. Bile Acids, Obesity, and the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Huijuan; Patti, Mary Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are increasingly recognized as key regulators of systemic metabolism. While bile acids have long been known to play important and direct roles in nutrient absorption, bile acids also serve as signaling molecules. Bile acid interactions with the nuclear hormone receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and the membrane receptor G-protein-coupled bile acid receptor 5 (TGR5) can regulate incretin hormone and fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) secretion, cholesterol metabolism, and systemic energy expenditure. Bile acid levels and distribution are altered in type 2 diabetes and increased following bariatric procedures, in parallel with reduced body weight and improved insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Thus, modulation of bile acid levels and signaling, using bile acid binding resins, TGR5 agonists, and FXR agonists, may serve as a potent therapeutic approach for the treatment of obesity, type 2 diabetes, and other components of the metabolic syndrome in humans. PMID:25194176

  13. Sleep Symptoms Predict the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Troxel, Wendy M.; Buysse, Daniel J.; Matthews, Karen A.; Kip, Kevin E.; Strollo, Patrick J.; Hall, Martica; Drumheller, Oliver; Reis, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Sleep complaints are highly prevalent and associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality. This is the first prospective study to report the association between commonly reported sleep symptoms and the development of the metabolic syndrome, a key CVD risk factor. Methods: Participants were from the community-based Heart Strategies Concentrating on Risk Evaluation study. The sample was comprised of 812 participants (36% African American; 67% female) who were free of metabolic syndrome at baseline, had completed a baseline sleep questionnaire, and had metabolic syndrome evaluated 3 years after baseline. Apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) was measured cross-sectionally using a portable monitor in a subset of 290 participants. Logistic regression examined the risk of developing metabolic syndrome and its components according to individual sleep symptoms and insomnia syndrome. Results: Specific symptoms of insomnia (difficulty falling asleep [DFA] and “unrefreshing” sleep), but not a syndromal definition of insomnia, were significant predictors of the development of metabolic syndrome. Loud snoring more than doubled the risk of developing the metabolic syndrome and also predicted specific metabolic abnormalities (hyperglycemia and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). With further adjustment for AHI or the number of metabolic abnormalities at baseline, loud snoring remained a significant predictor of metabolic syndrome, whereas DFA and unrefreshing sleep were reduced to marginal significance. Conclusion: Difficulty falling asleep, unrefreshing sleep, and, particularly, loud snoring, predicted the development of metabolic syndrome in community adults. Evaluating sleep symptoms can help identify individuals at risk for developing metabolic syndrome. Citation: Troxel WM; Buysse DJ; Matthews KA; Kip KE; Strollo PJ; Hall M; Drumheller O; Reis SE. Sleep symptoms predict the development of the metabolic syndrome. SLEEP 2010

  14. [Metabolic syndrome and chronic persistent atrial fibrillation].

    PubMed

    Onuchina, E L; Solov'ev, O V; Mochalova, O V; Kononov, S K; Onuchin, S G

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to elucidate specific features of chronic recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) and disturbed carbohydrate metabolism compared with AF patients without MS. It enrolled 145 patients aged 44-83 years: 117 with abdominal obesity (BMI >30 kg/m2, waist circumference >80 and 94 cm in women and men respectively) including 30 without metabolic disturbances; 35 with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), 52 with type 2 DM, and 28 controls without MS. Parameters measured included frequency and severity of AF, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, albuminurea, C-reactive peptide level, quality of AH control, results of echocardiography and 24 hour ECG monitoring (sinus rhythm), and insulin resistance index (HOMA IRindex). Groups of AF and MS patients were dominated by women. The frequency and severity of AF relapses in MS patients were higher than in controls (especially in the presence of IGT and DM). IGT and DM2 associated with structural changes in myocardium (left atrial dilatation, prevalence of LV concentric hypertrophy, diastolic dysfunction) coupled to higher systolic AH and marked metabolic disorders (hyperglycemia, IR, elevated microalbuminurea and C-reactive protein level, dyslipidemia). These conditions contribute to the frequency and severity of AF relapses. Development of AF in MS is a multifactor problem necessitating strict control of AH, dyslipidemia, DM2 and IGT, reduction of body weight and abdominal obesity.

  15. Obesity, adipokines and metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carmina, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The complex mechanisms linking fat excess to metabolic syndrome are not well understood, but several experimental studies have shown that altered production of adipokines plays a main role in development and progression of this disorder. In particular, reduced secretion of adiponectin has a crucial role in inducing insulin resistance but also in determining the clustering of elevated triglycerides and small, dense LDL particles. Increased leptin secretion may be responsible for sympathetic nervous system overactivity and hypertension, while reduced omentin may have an important permissive role in the development of atherogenic processes. Finally, cytokines and other adipokines (resistin, visfatin) determine and modulate the inflammatory process that is an essential component of this condition of cardiovascular risk. Because obesity is prevalent in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), it is not surprising that patients with PCOS present altered adipokine levels and increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. However, because of the presence of other CV risk factors (androgen excess), in PCOS adipokine dysfunction is particularly severe. Understanding and treating adipokine dysfunction in young women with PCOS is an essential component of any politics of prevention of CV diseases in the general population.

  16. Klinefelter syndrome: cardiovascular abnormalities and metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Calogero, A E; Giagulli, V A; Mongioì, L M; Triggiani, V; Radicioni, A F; Jannini, E A; Pasquali, D

    2017-03-03

    Klinefelter syndrome (KS) is one of the most common genetic causes of male infertility. This condition is associated with much comorbidity and with a lower life expectancy. The aim of this review is to explore more in depth cardiovascular and metabolic disorders associated to KS. KS patients have an increased risk of cerebrovascular disease (standardized mortality ratio, SMR, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.6-3.0), but it is not clear whether the cause of the death is of thrombotic or hemorrhagic nature. Cardiovascular congenital anomalies (SMR, 7.3; 95% CI, 2.4-17.1) and the development of thrombosis or leg ulcers (SMR, 7.9; 95% CI, 2.9-17.2) are also more frequent in these subjects. Moreover, cardiovascular abnormalities may be at least partially reversed by testosterone replacement therapy (TRT). KS patients have also an increased probability of endocrine and/or metabolic disease, especially obesity, metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The effects of TRT on these abnormalities are not entirely clear.

  17. Metabolic syndrome and the hepatorenal reflex

    PubMed Central

    Wider, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient hepatic O2 in animal and human studies has been shown to elicit a hepatorenal reflex in response to increased hepatic adenosine, resulting in stimulation of renal as well as muscle sympathetic nerve activity and activating the renin angiotensin system. Low hepatic ATP, hyperuricemia, and hepatic lipid accumulation reported in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients may reflect insufficient hepatic O2 delivery, potentially accounting for the sympathetic overdrive associated with MetS. This theoretical concept is supported by experimental results in animals fed a high fructose diet to induce MetS. Hepatic fructose metabolism rapidly consumes ATP resulting in increased adenosine production and hyperuricemia as well as elevated renin release and sympathetic activity. This review makes the case for the hepatorenal reflex causing sympathetic overdrive and metabolic syndrome in response to exaggerated splanchnic oxygen consumption from excessive eating. This is strongly reinforced by the fact that MetS is cured in a matter of days in a significant percentage of patients by diet, bariatric surgery, or endoluminal sleeve, all of which would decrease splanchnic oxygen demand by limiting nutrient contact with the mucosa and reducing the nutrient load due to the loss of appetite or dietary restriction. PMID:27656314

  18. Metabolic syndrome and the hepatorenal reflex

    PubMed Central

    Wider, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Insufficient hepatic O2 in animal and human studies has been shown to elicit a hepatorenal reflex in response to increased hepatic adenosine, resulting in the stimulation of renal as well as muscle sympathetic nerve activity and activating the renin angiotensin system. Low hepatic ATP, hyperuricemia, and hepatic lipid accumulation reported in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients may reflect insufficient hepatic O2 delivery, potentially accounting for the sympathetic overdrive associated with MetS. This theoretical concept is supported by experimental results in animals fed a high fructose diet to induce MetS. Hepatic fructose metabolism rapidly consumes ATP resulting in increased adenosine production and hyperuricemia as well as elevated renin release and sympathetic activity. This review makes the case for the hepatorenal reflex causing sympathetic overdrive and metabolic syndrome in response to exaggerated splanchnic oxygen consumption from excessive eating. This is strongly reinforced by the fact that MetS is cured in a matter of days in a significant percentage of patients by diet, bariatric surgery, or endoluminal sleeve, all of which would decrease splanchnic oxygen demand by limiting nutrient contact with the mucosa and reducing the nutrient load due to loss of appetite or dietary restriction. PMID:28168086

  19. Metabolic syndrome and chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Bhowmik, D; Tiwari, S C

    2008-01-01

    Obesity is fast becoming a bane for the present civilization, as a result of sedentary lifestyle, atherogenic diet, and a susceptible thrifty genotype. The concept of metabolic syndrome, which is a constellation of metabolic disturbances, has crystallized over the last 80 years with the aim of identifying those at greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. These patients have visceral obesity and insulin resistance characterized by hypertyriglyceridemia. Recently, it has been realized that they are also at an increased risk of chronic renal disease. Release of adipocytokines leads to endothelial dysfunction. There is also activation of systemic and local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, oxidative stress, and impaired fibrinolysis. This leads to glomerular hyperfiltration, proteinuria, focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS), and ultimately end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Treatment consists of lifestyle modifications along with optimal control of blood pressure, blood sugar and lipids. Metformin and thiazolidenidiones reduce insulin resistance; while angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers reduce proteinuria and have a renoprotective effect. Exciting new medical therapies on the horizon include rimonabant a cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonist, soy proteins, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonist. Bariatric surgery for morbid obesity has also been shown to be effective in treating metabolic syndrome.

  20. Cardiorenal metabolic syndrome in the African diaspora: rationale for including chronic kidney disease in the metabolic syndrome definition.

    PubMed

    Lea, Janice P; Greene, Eddie L; Nicholas, Susanne B; Agodoa, Lawrence; Norris, Keith C

    2009-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is more likely to progress to end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in African Americans while the reasons for this are unclear. The metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for the development of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and has been recently linked to incident CKD. Historically, fewer African Americans meet criteria for the definition of metabolic syndrome, despite having higher rates of cardiovascular mortality than Caucasians. The presence of microalbuminuria portends increased cardiovascular risks and has been shown to cluster with the metabolic syndrome. We recently reported that proteinuria is a predictor of CKD progression in African American hypertensives with metabolic syndrome. In this review we explore the potential value of including CKD markers--microalbuminuria/proteinuria or low glomerular filtration rate (GFR)-in refining the cluster of factors defined as metabolic syndrome, ie, "cardiorenal metabolic syndrome."

  1. Metabolic Syndrome and Skin: Psoriasis and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, Tanmay; Garima

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (Met S) is a clustering of risk factors comprising of abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and abnormal glucose tolerance. The prevalence of Met S has been increasing in the last few years throughout the world. Psoriasis has consistently been associated with Met S as well as its various components. However, the association is no longer limited to psoriasis alone. Various dermatological conditions such as lichen planus, androgenetic alopecia, systemic lupus erythematosus, skin tags, acanthosis nigricans, and even cutaneous malignancies have also been found to be associated with this syndrome. Though chronic inflammation is thought to be the bridging link, the role of oxidative stress and endocrine abnormalities has recently been proposed in bringing them together. PMID:23919003

  2. [Chronobiological aspects of obesity and metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Gómez-Abellán, Purificación; Madrid, Juan Antonio; Ordovás, José María; Garaulet, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Circadian rhythms (approximately 24h) are widely characterized at molecular level and their generation is acknowledged to originate from oscillations in expression of several clock genes and from regulation of their protein products. While general entrainment of organisms to environmental light-dark cycles is mainly achieved through the master clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus in mammals, this molecular clockwork is functional in several organs and tissues. Some studies have suggested that disruption of the circadian system (chronodisruption (CD)) may be causal for manifestations of the metabolic syndrome. This review summarizes (1) how molecular clocks coordinate metabolism and their specific role in the adipocyte; (2) the genetic aspects of and scientific evidence for obesity as a chronobiological illness; and (3) CD and its causes and pathological consequences. Finally, ideas about use of chronobiology for the treatment of obesity are discussed.

  3. Metabolic Syndrome: An Evolving Clinical Construct.

    PubMed

    Vassallo, Patricia; Driver, Steven L; Stone, Neil J

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), a clustering of metabolic risk factors, identifies individuals at increased risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Measurement of waist circumference, high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting blood glucose are easily obtained in the clinic. At any level of low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, presence of MetS increases the risk of adverse CVD outcomes including bothatherosclerotic CVD and atrial fibrillation. The MetS construct should focus the clinician on recommending behavioral lifestyle modification as this improves all of its components. The challenge, however, has been the lack of a standardized approach to achieve effective and sustained lifestyle modification in clinical practice. We briefly review various approaches useful to the clinician in counseling such patients. These include group lifestyle programs and emerging mobile technology. Technology alone may not be sufficient, but as an adjunct has the promise to improve low rates of behavioral change currently seen with traditional programs.

  4. Menstrual Health and the Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Tfayli, Hala; Arslanian, Silva

    2009-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome, a constellation of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, has become a major public health concern against the backdrop of increasing rates of obesity. Insulin resistance plays a pivotal role as the underlying pathophysiological linchpin of the various components of the syndrome. The metabolic syndrome is well recognized in adults, and there is convincing evidence that it starts in childhood, with progressive clustering of the various components over time and tracking through adulthood. Adult women and adolescents with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) have higher prevalence rates of the metabolic syndrome compared with the general population. Several anthropometric (obesity, particularly abdominal obesity), metabolic (insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia) and hormonal (low IGFBP1, IGFBP2 and low sex hormone binding globulin) features of adolescents with PCOS are also features of the metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance, believed to be a key pathogenic factor in both PCOS and the metabolic syndrome, may be the thread that links the two conditions. Menstrual health in adolescents could be viewed as yet another component in the evaluation of the metabolic syndrome. Careful assessment of menstrual history and appropriate laboratory work-up could reveal the presence of PCOS in obese at-risk adolescent girls with a family history of the metabolic syndrome. PMID:18574212

  5. Metabolic Syndrome: Does it Differ Between Women and Men?

    PubMed

    Rochlani, Yogita; Pothineni, Naga Venkata; Mehta, Jawahar L

    2015-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease represents a massive healthcare burden worldwide. Gender differences in the pathophysiology, presentation and prognosis of cardiovascular disease have been described in the literature. Metabolic syndrome, characterized by a cluster of metabolic abnormalities is associated with increased risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. With the global obesity epidemic, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is rising rapidly in the developed as well as developing world. However, there is considerable variation in the prevalence based on geography, age, sex and, definition used for diagnosis. Data on gender related differences in metabolic syndrome is relatively scarce. Here, we aim to review the gender differences in epidemiology and pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome as well as its individual components. Knowledge of gender differences in metabolic syndrome can help design gender specific preventative and therapeutic strategies that will have a positive impact on overall population health.

  6. Tea and cinnamon polyphenols improve the metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metabolic syndrome is often a precursor of chronic diseases including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer’s disease. Since the metabolic syndrome is multi-factorial, strategies for reducing its incidence and consequences must also be mult...

  7. Circulating Levels of Uric Acid and Risk for Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Guerra, Alberto F; Morales-López, Herlinda; Garro-Almendaro, Ana K; Vargas-Ayala, German; Durán-Salgado, Montserrat B; Huerta-Ramírez, Saul; Lozano-Nuevo, Jose J

    2017-01-01

    Hyperuricemia leads to insulin resistance, whereas insulin resistance decreases renal excretion of uric acid, both mechanisms link elevated serum uric acid with metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to evaluate the probability for the development of metabolic syndrome in low-income young adults with hyperuricaemia.

  8. Metabolic features of chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naviaux, Robert K; Naviaux, Jane C; Li, Kefeng; Bright, A Taylor; Alaynick, William A; Wang, Lin; Baxter, Asha; Nathan, Neil; Anderson, Wayne; Gordon, Eric

    2016-09-13

    More than 2 million people in the United States have myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We performed targeted, broad-spectrum metabolomics to gain insights into the biology of CFS. We studied a total of 84 subjects using these methods. Forty-five subjects (n = 22 men and 23 women) met diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS by Institute of Medicine, Canadian, and Fukuda criteria. Thirty-nine subjects (n = 18 men and 21 women) were age- and sex-matched normal controls. Males with CFS were 53 (±2.8) y old (mean ± SEM; range, 21-67 y). Females were 52 (±2.5) y old (range, 20-67 y). The Karnofsky performance scores were 62 (±3.2) for males and 54 (±3.3) for females. We targeted 612 metabolites in plasma from 63 biochemical pathways by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, and tandem mass spectrometry in a single-injection method. Patients with CFS showed abnormalities in 20 metabolic pathways. Eighty percent of the diagnostic metabolites were decreased, consistent with a hypometabolic syndrome. Pathway abnormalities included sphingolipid, phospholipid, purine, cholesterol, microbiome, pyrroline-5-carboxylate, riboflavin, branch chain amino acid, peroxisomal, and mitochondrial metabolism. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed diagnostic accuracies of 94% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84-100%] in males using eight metabolites and 96% (95% CI, 86-100%) in females using 13 metabolites. Our data show that despite the heterogeneity of factors leading to CFS, the cellular metabolic response in patients was homogeneous, statistically robust, and chemically similar to the evolutionarily conserved persistence response to environmental stress known as dauer.

  9. Metabolic features of chronic fatigue syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Naviaux, Robert K.; Naviaux, Jane C.; Li, Kefeng; Bright, A. Taylor; Alaynick, William A.; Wang, Lin; Baxter, Asha; Nathan, Neil; Anderson, Wayne; Gordon, Eric

    2016-01-01

    More than 2 million people in the United States have myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). We performed targeted, broad-spectrum metabolomics to gain insights into the biology of CFS. We studied a total of 84 subjects using these methods. Forty-five subjects (n = 22 men and 23 women) met diagnostic criteria for ME/CFS by Institute of Medicine, Canadian, and Fukuda criteria. Thirty-nine subjects (n = 18 men and 21 women) were age- and sex-matched normal controls. Males with CFS were 53 (±2.8) y old (mean ± SEM; range, 21–67 y). Females were 52 (±2.5) y old (range, 20–67 y). The Karnofsky performance scores were 62 (±3.2) for males and 54 (±3.3) for females. We targeted 612 metabolites in plasma from 63 biochemical pathways by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, electrospray ionization, and tandem mass spectrometry in a single-injection method. Patients with CFS showed abnormalities in 20 metabolic pathways. Eighty percent of the diagnostic metabolites were decreased, consistent with a hypometabolic syndrome. Pathway abnormalities included sphingolipid, phospholipid, purine, cholesterol, microbiome, pyrroline-5-carboxylate, riboflavin, branch chain amino acid, peroxisomal, and mitochondrial metabolism. Area under the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed diagnostic accuracies of 94% [95% confidence interval (CI), 84–100%] in males using eight metabolites and 96% (95% CI, 86–100%) in females using 13 metabolites. Our data show that despite the heterogeneity of factors leading to CFS, the cellular metabolic response in patients was homogeneous, statistically robust, and chemically similar to the evolutionarily conserved persistence response to environmental stress known as dauer. PMID:27573827

  10. Effect of metabolic syndrome on the outcome of corticosteroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Roh, Y H; Lee, B K; Baek, J R; Park, M H; Noh, J H; Gong, H S; Baek, G H

    2016-11-01

    Diffuse peripheral nerve impairment is common in metabolic syndrome: in patients with metabolic syndrome and carpal tunnel syndrome this might affect the outcome of treatment by local corticosteroid injection. A total of 55 consecutive patients with carpal tunnel syndrome and metabolic syndrome treated with corticosteroid injection (10 mg triamcinolone acetonide) were age and sex matched with 55 control patients without metabolic syndrome. Grip strength, perception of touch with Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaires were assessed at the baseline and at 6, 12 and 24 weeks follow-up. The two groups had similar pre-operative grip strength and Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire scores. The Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire symptom and function scores of the metabolic syndrome group were significantly greater than the control group at 12 and 24 weeks follow-up. Except for significantly greater grip strength at the 12-week follow-up in the control group, there were no significant differences in grip strength between the groups. Semmes-Weinstein monofilament sensory index for the control group was significantly greater than that of the metabolic syndrome group throughout the 24-week follow-up. After 24 weeks, five patients (13%) in the control group and 13 patients (27%) in the metabolic syndrome group had had carpal tunnel surgery. Patients with metabolic syndrome are at risk for poor functional outcome and failure of treatment after corticosteroid injection for carpal tunnel syndrome.

  11. Plant-derived therapeutics for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Graf, Brittany L; Raskin, Ilya; Cefalu, William T; Ribnicky, David M

    2010-10-01

    Metabolic syndrome is defined as a set of coexisting metabolic disorders that increase an individual's likelihood of developing type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. Medicinal plants, some of which have been used for thousands of years, serve as an excellent source of bioactive compounds for the treatment of metabolic syndrome because they contain a wide range of phytochemicals with diverse metabolic effects. In order for botanicals to be effectively used against metabolic syndrome, however, botanical preparations must be characterized and standardized through the identification of their active compounds and respective modes of action, followed by validation in controlled clinical trials with clearly defined endpoints. This review assesses examples of commonly known and partially characterized botanicals to describe specific considerations for the phytochemical, preclinical and clinical characterization of botanicals associated with metabolic syndrome.

  12. Understanding cachexia as a cancer metabolism syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Porporato, P E

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic reprogramming occurs in tumors to foster cancer cell proliferation, survival and metastasis, but as well at a systemic level affecting the whole organism, eventually leading to cancer cachexia. Indeed, as cancer cells rely on external sources of nitrogen and carbon skeleton to grow, systemic metabolic deregulation promoting tissue wasting and metabolites mobilization ultimately supports tumor growth. Cachectic patients experience a wide range of symptoms affecting several organ functions such as muscle, liver, brain, immune system and heart, collectively decreasing patients' quality of life and worsening their prognosis. Moreover, cachexia is estimated to be the direct cause of at least 20% of cancer deaths. The main aspect of cachexia syndrome is the unstoppable skeletal muscle and fat storage wasting, even with an adequate caloric intake, resulting in nutrient mobilization – both directly as lipid and amino acids and indirectly as glucose derived from the exploitation of liver gluconeogenesis – that reaches the tumor through the bloodstream. From a metabolic standpoint, cachectic host develops a wide range of dysfunctions, from increased insulin and IGF-1 resistance to induction of mitochondrial uncoupling proteins and fat tissue browning resulting in an increased energy expenditure and heat generation, even at rest. For a long time, cachexia has been merely considered an epiphenomenon of end-stage tumors. However, in specific tumor types, such as pancreatic cancers, it is now clear that patients present markers of tissue wasting at a stage in which tumor is not yet clinically detectable, and that host amino acid supply is required for tumor growth. Indeed, tumor cells actively promote tissue wasting by secreting specific factors such as parathyroid hormone-related protein and micro RNAs. Understanding the molecular and metabolic mediators of cachexia will not only advance therapeutic approaches against cancer, but also improve patients' quality of

  13. Pleiotropic genes for metabolic syndrome and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Kraja, Aldi T; Chasman, Daniel I; North, Kari E; Reiner, Alexander P; Yanek, Lisa R; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O; Smith, Jennifer A; Dehghan, Abbas; Dupuis, Josée; Johnson, Andrew D; Feitosa, Mary F; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Chu, Audrey Y; Nolte, Ilja M; Dastani, Zari; Morris, Andrew; Pendergrass, Sarah A; Sun, Yan V; Ritchie, Marylyn D; Vaez, Ahmad; Lin, Honghuang; Ligthart, Symen; Marullo, Letizia; Rohde, Rebecca; Shao, Yaming; Ziegler, Mark A; Im, Hae Kyung; Schnabel, Renate B; Jørgensen, Torben; Jørgensen, Marit E; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Stolk, Ronald P; Snieder, Harold; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Franco, Oscar H; Ikram, M Arfan; Richards, J Brent; Rotimi, Charles; Wilson, James G; Lange, Leslie; Ganesh, Santhi K; Nalls, Mike; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J; Pankow, James S; Coresh, Josef; Tang, Weihong; Linda Kao, W H; Boerwinkle, Eric; Morrison, Alanna C; Ridker, Paul M; Becker, Diane M; Rotter, Jerome I; Kardia, Sharon L R; Loos, Ruth J F; Larson, Martin G; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Province, Michael A; Tracy, Russell; Voight, Benjamin F; Vaidya, Dhananjay; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Benjamin, Emelia J; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z; Prokopenko, Inga; Meigs, James B; Borecki, Ingrid B

    2014-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a health and financial burden worldwide. The MetS definition captures clustering of risk factors that predict higher risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Our study hypothesis is that additional to genes influencing individual MetS risk factors, genetic variants exist that influence MetS and inflammatory markers forming a predisposing MetS genetic network. To test this hypothesis a staged approach was undertaken. (a) We analyzed 17 metabolic and inflammatory traits in more than 85,500 participants from 14 large epidemiological studies within the Cross Consortia Pleiotropy Group. Individuals classified with MetS (NCEP definition), versus those without, showed on average significantly different levels for most inflammatory markers studied. (b) Paired average correlations between 8 metabolic traits and 9 inflammatory markers from the same studies as above, estimated with two methods, and factor analyses on large simulated data, helped in identifying 8 combinations of traits for follow-up in meta-analyses, out of 130,305 possible combinations between metabolic traits and inflammatory markers studied. (c) We performed correlated meta-analyses for 8 metabolic traits and 6 inflammatory markers by using existing GWAS published genetic summary results, with about 2.5 million SNPs from twelve predominantly largest GWAS consortia. These analyses yielded 130 unique SNPs/genes with pleiotropic associations (a SNP/gene associating at least one metabolic trait and one inflammatory marker). Of them twenty-five variants (seven loci newly reported) are proposed as MetS candidates. They map to genes MACF1, KIAA0754, GCKR, GRB14, COBLL1, LOC646736-IRS1, SLC39A8, NELFE, SKIV2L, STK19, TFAP2B, BAZ1B, BCL7B, TBL2, MLXIPL, LPL, TRIB1, ATXN2, HECTD4, PTPN11, ZNF664, PDXDC1, FTO, MC4R and TOMM40. Based on large data evidence, we conclude that inflammation is a feature of MetS and several gene variants show pleiotropic genetic

  14. Pleiotropic genes for metabolic syndrome and inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Kraja, Aldi T.; Chasman, Daniel I.; North, Kari E.; Reiner, Alexander P.; Yanek, Lisa R.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O.; Smith, Jennifer A.; Dehghan, Abbas; Dupuis, Josée; Johnson, Andrew D.; Feitosa, Mary F.; Tekola-Ayele, Fasil; Chu, Audrey Y.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Dastani, Zari; Morris, Andrew; Pendergrass, Sarah A.; Sun, Yan V.; Ritchie, Marylyn D.; Vaez, Ahmad; Lin, Honghuang; Ligthart, Symen; Marullo, Letizia; Rohde, Rebecca; Shao, Yaming; Ziegler, Mark A.; Im, Hae Kyung; Schnabel, Renate B.; Jørgensen, Torben; Jørgensen, Marit E.; Hansen, Torben; Pedersen, Oluf; Stolk, Ronald P.; Snieder, Harold; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Franco, Oscar H.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Richards, J. Brent; Rotimi, Charles; Wilson, James G.; Lange, Leslie; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Nalls, Mike; Rasmussen-Torvik, Laura J.; Pankow, James S.; Coresh, Josef; Tang, Weihong; Kao, W.H. Linda; Boerwinkle, Eric; Morrison, Alanna C.; Ridker, Paul M.; Becker, Diane M.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Loos, Ruth J.F.; Larson, Martin G.; Hsu, Yi-Hsiang; Province, Michael A.; Tracy, Russell; Voight, Benjamin F.; Vaidya, Dhananjay; O’Donnell, Christopher; Benjamin, Emelia J.; Alizadeh, Behrooz Z.; Prokopenko, Inga; Meigs, James B.; Borecki, Ingrid B.

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has become a health and financial burden worldwide. The MetS definition captures clustering of risk factors that predict higher risk for diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Our study hypothesis is that additional to genes influencing individual MetS risk factors, genetic variants exist that influence MetS and inflammatory markers forming a predisposing MetS genetic network. To test this hypothesis a staged approach was undertaken. (a) We analyzed 17 metabolic and inflammatory traits in more than 85,500 participants from 14 large epidemiological studies within the Cross Consortia Pleiotropy Group. Individuals classified with MetS (NCEP definition), versus those without, showed on average significantly different levels for most inflammatory markers studied. (b) Paired average correlations between 8 metabolic traits and 9 inflammatory markers from the same studies as above, estimated with two methods, and factor analyses on large simulated data, helped in identifying 8 combinations of traits for follow-up in meta-analyses, out of 130,305 possible combinations between metabolic traits and inflammatory markers studied. (c) We performed correlated meta-analyses for 8 metabolic traits and 6 inflammatory markers by using existing GWAS published genetic summary results, with about 2.5 million SNPs from twelve predominantly largest GWAS consortia. These analyses yielded 130 unique SNPs/genes with pleiotropic associations (a SNP/gene associating at least one metabolic trait and one inflammatory marker). Of them twenty-five variants (seven loci newly reported) are proposed as MetS candidates. They map to genes MACF1, KIAA0754, GCKR, GRB14, COBLL1, LOC646736-IRS1, SLC39A8, NELFE, SKIV2L, STK19, TFAP2B, BAZ1B, BCL7B, TBL2, MLXIPL, LPL, TRIB1, ATXN2, HECTD4, PTPN11, ZNF664, PDXDC1, FTO, MC4R and TOMM40. Based on large data evidence, we conclude that inflammation is a feature of MetS and several gene variants show pleiotropic genetic

  15. Physical activity and metabolic syndrome in liver transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Kallwitz, Eric R; Loy, Veronica; Mettu, Praveen; Von Roenn, Natasha; Berkes, Jamie; Cotler, Scott J

    2013-10-01

    There is a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in liver transplant recipients, a population that tends to be physically inactive. The aim of this study was to characterize physical activity and evaluate the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome after liver transplantation. A cross-sectional analysis was performed in patients more than 3 months after transplantation. Metabolic syndrome was classified according to National Cholesterol Education Panel Adult Treatment Panel III guidelines. Physical activity, including duration, frequency, and metabolic equivalents of task (METs), was assessed. The study population consisted of 204 subjects, with 156 more than 1 year after transplantation. The median time after transplantation was 53.5 months (range = 3-299 months). The mean duration of exercise was 90 ± 142 minutes, and the mean MET score was 3.6 ± 1.5. Metabolic syndrome was observed in 58.8% of all subjects and in 63.5% of the subjects more than 1 year after transplantation. In a multivariate analysis involving all subjects, metabolic syndrome was associated with a time after transplantation greater than 1 year [odds ratio (OR) = 2.909, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.389-6.092] and older age (OR = 1.036, 95% CI = 1.001-1.072). A second analysis was performed for only patients more than 1 year after transplantation. In a multivariate analysis, metabolic syndrome was associated with lower exercise intensity (OR = 0.690, 95% CI = 0.536-0.887), older age (OR = 1.056, 95% CI = 1.014-1.101), and pretransplant diabetes (OR = 4.246, 95% CI = 1.300-13.864). In conclusion, metabolic syndrome is common after liver transplantation, and the rate is significantly higher in patients more than 1 year after transplantation. The observation that exercise intensity is inversely related to metabolic syndrome after transplantation is novel and suggests that physical activity might provide a means for reducing metabolic syndrome complications in liver

  16. Pediatric obesity, metabolic syndrome, and obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nevin, Mary A

    2013-10-01

    The prevalence of obesity in the pediatric population has dramatically increased in the last 30 years. While the adverse health effects of obesity have long been recognized in adults, many of these complications are now understood to begin in early childhood. Obese children and adolescents are significantly more likely than their peers of healthy weight to suffer from obstructive sleep apnea and metabolic syndrome. In turn, affected individuals may experience myriad serious clinical sequelae; neuro-cognitive, psychiatric, cardiovascular, and endocrinologic complications have each been extensively documented. Thus, the spectrum of obesity-related disease represents a serious but preventable threat to personal and family wellness; additionally, it is a source of considerable health care expenditure and represents a national and international health crisis. The optimal care of these patients will be best achieved through the pediatric health care provider's timely recognition of these clinical problems and knowledge of appropriate intervention strategies.

  17. Metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular diseases in Korea.

    PubMed

    Suh, Sunghwan; Lee, Moon-Kyu

    2014-01-01

    There has been a rapid increase in the prevalence of obesity, type 2 diabetes and metabolic syndrome(MetS) over the past two to three decades in most Asian countries. According to the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey(KNHANES), the prevalence of MetS significantly increased from 24.9% to 31.3% between 1998 and 2007. The clinical significance of MetS is based on the increased risk for the development of cardiovascular disease(CVD). We analyzed the 8-year follow-up data of 2,435 healthy subjects and found that MetS was associated with an increased risk of CVD in both men and women(OR: 1.98, 95% CI: 1.30-3.03 in men; OR: 4.04, 95% CI: 1.78-9.14 in women). MetS was significantly associated with the risk for future coronary heart disease(CHD) in men(OR: 3.68; 95% CI: 1.93-7.01) and stroke in women(OR: 3.96; 95% CI: 1.58- 9.94). We also analyzed the echocardiographic findings of 1,600 healthy subjects to evaluate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and left ventricular diastolic dysfunction(LVDD). The patients with MetS exhibited significant differences in parameters of cardiac structure and the LV diastolic function compared to that observed in the patients without MetS. MetS was associated with an increased risk of LVDD(OR: 1.67; 95% CI: 1.18-2.37). These results suggest that the presence of MetS is associated with an increased risk for the development of serious CVD and abnormal changes in the LV structure and diastolic function, even before the development of overt CVD.

  18. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease: a precursor of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lonardo, Amedeo; Ballestri, Stefano; Marchesini, Giulio; Angulo, Paul; Loria, Paola

    2015-03-01

    The conventional paradigm of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease representing the "hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome" is outdated. We identified and summarized longitudinal studies that, supporting the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease with either type 2 diabetes mellitus or metabolic syndrome, suggest that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease precedes the development of both conditions. Online Medical databases were searched, relevant articles were identified, their references were further assessed and tabulated data were checked. Although several cross-sectional studies linked nonalcoholic fatty liver disease to either diabetes and other components of the metabolic syndrome, we focused on 28 longitudinal studies which provided evidence for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a risk factor for the future development of diabetes. Moreover, additional 19 longitudinal reported that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease precedes and is a risk factor for the future development of the metabolic syndrome. Finally, molecular and genetic studies are discussed supporting the view that aetiology of steatosis and lipid intra-hepatocytic compartmentation are a major determinant of whether fatty liver is/is not associated with insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. Data support the novel paradigm of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a strong determinant for the development of the metabolic syndrome, which has potentially relevant clinical implications for diagnosing, preventing and treating metabolic syndrome.

  19. Laminitis and the equine metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Philip J; Wiedmeyer, Charles E; LaCarrubba, Alison; Ganjam, V K Seshu; Messer, Nat T

    2010-08-01

    Although much has been written about laminitis in the context of its association with inflammatory processes, recognition is growing that most cases of laminitis examined by veterinarians in private practice are those associated with pasture grazing, obesity, and insulin resistance (IR). The term 'endocrinopathic laminitis' has been adopted to classify the instances of laminitis in which the origin seems to be more strongly associated with an underlying endocrinopathy, such as either IR or the influence of corticosteroids. Results of a recent study suggest that obesity and IR represent the most common metabolic and endocrinopathic predispositions for laminitis in horses. IR also plays an important role in the pathogenesis of laminitis that develops when some horses or ponies are allowed to graze pastures at certain times of the year. The term equine metabolic syndrome (EMS) has been proposed as a label for horses whose clinical examination results (including both physical examination and laboratory testing) suggest heightened risk for developing laminitis as a result of underlying IR.

  20. Pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome: insights from monogenic disorders.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Rinki; Carroll, Richard W; Krebs, Jeremy D

    2013-01-01

    Identifying rare human metabolic disorders that result from a single-gene defect has not only enabled improved diagnostic and clinical management of such patients, but also has resulted in key biological insights into the pathophysiology of the increasingly prevalent metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are linked to obesity and driven by excess caloric intake and reduced physical activity. However, key events in the causation of the metabolic syndrome are difficult to disentangle from compensatory effects and epiphenomena. This review provides an overview of three types of human monogenic disorders that result in (1) severe, non-syndromic obesity, (2) pancreatic beta cell forms of early-onset diabetes, and (3) severe insulin resistance. In these patients with single-gene defects causing their exaggerated metabolic disorder, the primary defect is known. The lessons they provide for current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the common metabolic syndrome are highlighted.

  1. Metabolic syndrome in rheumatic diseases: epidemiology, pathophysiology, and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Sidiropoulos, Prodromos I; Karvounaris, Stylianos A; Boumpas, Dimitrios T

    2008-01-01

    Subjects with metabolic syndrome--a constellation of cardiovascular risk factors of which central obesity and insulin resistance are the most characteristic--are at increased risk for developing diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. In these subjects, abdominal adipose tissue is a source of inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, known to promote insulin resistance. The presence of inflammatory cytokines together with the well-documented increased risk for cardiovascular diseases in patients with inflammatory arthritides and systemic lupus erythematosus has prompted studies to examine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in an effort to identify subjects at risk in addition to that conferred by traditional cardiovascular risk factors. These studies have documented a high prevalence of metabolic syndrome which correlates with disease activity and markers of atherosclerosis. The correlation of inflammatory disease activity with metabolic syndrome provides additional evidence for a link between inflammation and metabolic disturbances/vascular morbidity.

  2. Metabolic syndrome: an ill wind that blows some good?

    PubMed

    Taylor, Simeon I

    2015-05-01

    In this issue of the journal, Brima et al. report thought-provoking research providing a potential evolutionary rationale whereby natural selection might have preserved genes that predispose to metabolic syndrome. When CD-1 mice were fed a high fat diet, this induced metabolic changes characteristic of metabolic syndrome. In addition, the high fat diet provided substantial protection from lethality due to infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. The authors hypothesize that the same genes predispose to both metabolic syndrome and protection against infectious disease. Thus, the selective advantage of not dying from infectious disease implicitly provides selective pressure predisposing to metabolic syndrome. This hypothesis follows a similar line of reasoning that has provided explanations for the survival of the HbS mutation for sickle cell disease and renal disease-associated genetic variants in apolipoprotein L1. Variants in these two genes provide protection from malaria and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense, respectively.

  3. Pathogenesis of the Metabolic Syndrome: Insights from Monogenic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Rinki; Carroll, Richard W.; Krebs, Jeremy D.

    2013-01-01

    Identifying rare human metabolic disorders that result from a single-gene defect has not only enabled improved diagnostic and clinical management of such patients, but also has resulted in key biological insights into the pathophysiology of the increasingly prevalent metabolic syndrome. Insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes are linked to obesity and driven by excess caloric intake and reduced physical activity. However, key events in the causation of the metabolic syndrome are difficult to disentangle from compensatory effects and epiphenomena. This review provides an overview of three types of human monogenic disorders that result in (1) severe, non-syndromic obesity, (2) pancreatic beta cell forms of early-onset diabetes, and (3) severe insulin resistance. In these patients with single-gene defects causing their exaggerated metabolic disorder, the primary defect is known. The lessons they provide for current understanding of the molecular pathogenesis of the common metabolic syndrome are highlighted. PMID:23766565

  4. Metabolic syndrome and mammographic density in Mexican women.

    PubMed

    Rice, Megan S; Biessy, Carine; Lajous, Martin; Bertrand, Kimberly A; Tamimi, Rulla M; Torres-Mejía, Gabriela; López-Ridaura, Ruy; Romieu, Isabelle

    2013-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome has been associated with an increased risk of breast cancer; however, little is known about the association between metabolic syndrome and percent mammographic density, a strong predictor of breast cancer. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 789 premenopausal and 322 postmenopausal women in the Mexican Teacher's Cohort (ESMaestras). Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the harmonized definition. We measured percent density on mammograms using a computer-assisted thresholding method. Multivariable linear regression was used to estimate the association between density and metabolic syndrome, as well as its components by state (Jalisco, Veracruz) and menopausal status (premenopausal, postmenopausal). Among premenopausal women in Jalisco, women with metabolic syndrome had higher percent density than those without after adjusting for potential confounders including BMI [difference = 4.76; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.72-7.81]. Among the metabolic syndrome components, only low high-density lipoprotein levels (<50 mg/dL) were associated with significantly higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco (difference = 4.62; 95% CI, 1.73-7.52). Metabolic syndrome was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz (difference = -2.91; 95% CI, -7.19 to 1.38), nor among postmenopausal women in either state. Metabolic syndrome was associated with higher percent density among premenopausal women in Jalisco, Mexico, but was not associated with percent density among premenopausal women in Veracruz, Mexico, or among postmenopausal women in either Jalisco or Veracruz. These findings provide some support for a possible role of metabolic syndrome in mammographic density among premenopausal women; however, results were inconsistent across states and require further confirmation in larger studies.

  5. Stressful life events and incident metabolic syndrome: the Hoorn study.

    PubMed

    Rutters, Femke; Pilz, Stefan; Koopman, Anitra D M; Rauh, Simone P; Pouwer, Frans; Stehouwer, Coen D A; Elders, Petra J; Nijpels, Giel; Dekker, Jacqueline M

    2015-01-01

    Stressful life events are associated with the metabolic syndrome in cross-sectional studies, but prospective studies addressing this issue are rare and limited. We therefore evaluated whether the number of stressful life events is associated with incident metabolic syndrome. We assessed the association between the number of stressful life events experienced in the 5 years up until baseline and incident metabolic syndrome after 6.5 years at follow-up in the Hoorn study, a middle-aged and elderly population-based cohort. Participants with prevalent metabolic syndrome at baseline were excluded. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Adult Treatment Panel III, including fasting plasma glucose levels, HDL-C levels, triglyceride levels, waist circumference and hypertension. We included 1099 participants (47% male; age 60 ± 7 years). During 6.5 years of follow-up, 238 participants (22%) developed the metabolic syndrome. Logistic regression adjusted for age, sex, education level and follow-up duration showed a positive association between the number of stressful life events at baseline and incident metabolic syndrome [OR 1.13 (1.01-1.27) per event, p = 0.049]. In addition, a Poisson model showed a significant positive association between the number of stressful life events at baseline and the number of metabolic syndrome factors at follow-up [OR 1.05 (1.01-1.11) per event, p = 0.018]. Finally, we observed a significant association between the number of stressful life events at baseline and waist circumference at follow-up [adjusted for confounders β 0.86 (0.39-1.34) cm per event, p < 0.001]. Overall, we concluded that persons who reported more stressful life events at baseline had a significantly increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome during 6.5 years of follow-up, in a middle-aged and elderly population-based cohort.

  6. Metabolic syndrome under fire: weighing in on the truth.

    PubMed

    Cheng, A Y; Leiter, Lawrence A

    2006-04-01

    In the past two decades, the 'metabolic syndrome' has raised much clinical and research interest and remains a controversial topic. The constellation of commonly coexisting cardiovascular risk factors, now known as the metabolic syndrome, has had many definitions which has added to the confusion surrounding the syndrome. Recently, the controversy has been escalated by a joint statement from the American Diabetes Association and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes calling into question the existence and clinical utility of the metabolic syndrome as a discrete clinical entity. Despite the controversy, there is agreement that the risk factors of abdominal obesity, hypertension, elevated glucose and dyslipidemia commonly coexist in the same patient, and are important to identify when assessing an individual patient's risk. Therefore, whether the 'syndrome' is a distinct clinical entity is not important. By definition, a syndrome is a group of signs or symptoms that commonly group together. It remains a useful clinical tool to raise awareness among health care professionals to look for 'nontraditional' cardiovascular risk factors, such as glucose intolerance or elevated waist circumference, in patients with other components of the syndrome, without negating the importance of identifying and treating the other 'traditional' risk factors not identified in the syndrome. It also reminds clinicians of the importance of lifestyle interventions to treat all of the components of the syndrome. Therefore, the 'metabolic syndrome' continues to serve a useful clinical purpose to raise awareness among health care professionals and aid in identifying high-risk individuals.

  7. Rimonabant: endocannabinoid inhibition for the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wierzbicki, A S

    2006-12-01

    Rimonabant is the first drug to target the endocannabinoid (CB) pathway by inhibiting the actions of anandamide and 2-archidonyl-glycerol on CB1 receptors. This review gives an overview of rimonabant and the CB system and how this system relates to obesity. Rimonabant blocks the central effects of this neurotransmitter pathway involved in obesity and weight control and also blocks the direct effects of CBs on adipocyte and hepatocyte metabolism. Blockade of CB1 receptors leads to a decrease in appetite and also has direct actions in adipose tissue and the liver to improve glucose, fat and cholesterol metabolism so improving insulin resistance, triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and in some patients, blood pressure. The Rimonabant in Obesity (RIO) trials have shown that rimonabant induces weight loss > 5% in 30-40% of patients and > 10% in 10-20% above both a dietary run-in and long-term hypocaloric management over a 2 year period with a low level of drug-related side effects. Rimonabant therapy is associated with an extra 8-10% increase in HDL-C and a 10-30% reduction in triglycerides and improvements in insulin resistance, glycaemic control in patients with diabetes and also adipokines and cytokines including C-reactive protein over hypocaloric diet therapy. In addition rimonabant abolishes the weight gain associated with smoking cessation and improves the chances of quitting smoking. Thus rimonabant has major effects on both the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors thus has the potential to reduce the risks of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease associated with the cardiometabolic phenotype.

  8. Association of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components with Knee Osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Maddah, Shahpoor; Mahdizadeh, Jamileh

    2015-12-01

    The association of obesity and other metabolic conditions with osteoarthritis is under debate; however, a strong link between metabolic disturbances is suggested to contribute to increased incidences and progression of osteoarthritis. We examined the association of metabolic syndrome and its components with the incidence of knee osteoarthritis in Iranian population. A community-based study was conducted on a total of 625 Iranian volunteers with the complaint of knee pain. Weight-bearing and anteroposterior plain radiographs of both knees were taken on the day of admission. Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed using the modified Adult Treatment Panel III of the National Cholesterol Education Program criteria. Prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome were 22.5% in males and 11.6% in females (P=0.002). The prevalence rate of knee osteoarthritis was 20.0% in males and 43.8% of females (P<0.001). In both genders, osteoarthritis group had higher serum levels of triglyceride and systolic blood pressure in comparison with non-osteoarthritis group. Women with osteoarthritis had higher Body Mass Index (BMI), however, this association was not observed in men. In females, the presence of osteoarthritis was significantly associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, with the risk of metabolic syndrome in the osteoarthritis group at 2.187 fold the risk in the non-osteoarthritis group. But, the presence of osteoarthritis was not associated with metabolic syndrome in males. Metabolic syndrome mainly through high BMI is associated with knee osteoarthritis in the Iranian women, but neither metabolic syndrome nor any related components are associated with knee osteoarthritis in men.

  9. Medicinal agents in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Baños, G; Pérez-Torres, I; El Hafidi, M

    2008-10-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) has become a worldwide health problem. It is difficult for patients to follow a diet/exercise regime that would improve their symptoms, therefore the investigation of agents that may deal with its more serious aspects is an important medical field for research. The cardiovascular consequences associated with the syndrome and some of the therapeutic approaches are discussed. The different agents can be divided into several groups: Inorganic/ organic: Zinc complexes with garlic components as insulino-mimetics; Selenium as antioxidant; Copper, Zinc and Manganese as microcomponents of antioxidant enzymes. Organic: Natural or Synthetic: Glycine is effective in lowering blood pressure, TBARS, intra-abdominal fat tissue and triglycerides in sucrose-fed rats. Pharmaceutical products: Fibrates, Lipid-lowering drugs. Antidiabetics. Anti-gout agents. On the other hand there are natural products such as those of animal origin: Sex hormones (also synthetic) used in the problems of menopause and hypoandrogenism frequently found in the MS, antioxidant Omega-3-oils (fish oils) or Vegetal: for example Digitalis pupurea, century-old cardiovascular medication as well as Magnolia officinalis; Spirulina maxima with beneficial effects as antioxidant and lipid-lowering agent, among others. Prickly Pear Cacti. (Opuntia Ficus- Indica Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Spreng) whose many properties against diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have been empirically known for many years. Perezone (from Perezia plants, a.k.a. Peonia) described as an antiplatelet aggregating agent. The mixed elements in the Mediterranean diet: Fish, salads (peppers, tomatoes), olive oil, garlic, red wine which combines fish oils, garlic and avocado as well as antioxidants from the rest of its components.

  10. Non alcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Paschos, P; Paletas, K

    2009-01-01

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a clinicopathologic entity increasingly recognized as a major health burden in developed countries. It includes a spectrum of liver damage ranging from simple steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), advanced fibrosis, and rarely, progression to cirrhosis. Recent studies emphasize the role of insulin resistance, oxidative stress and subsequent lipid peroxidation, proinflammatory cytokines, adipokines and mitochondrial dysfunction in the development and progression of NAFLD. Furthermore, accumulating evidence supports an association between NAFLD and metabolic syndrome. Although the data are mainly epidemiological, the pathogenesis of NAFLD and metabolic syndrome seems to have common pathophysiological mechanisms, with focus on insulin resistance as a key factor. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of both NAFLD and metabolic syndrome and the findings that strongly support the association of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease as a possible component in the cluster of metabolic syndrome. PMID:19240815

  11. Metabolic syndrome pathophysiology: the role of adipose tissue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several physiopathological explanations for the metabolic syndrome have been proposed involving insulin resistance, chronic inflammation and ectopic fat accumulation following adipose tissue saturation. However, current concepts create several paradoxes, including limited cardiovascular risk reducti...

  12. Interplay of vitamin D and metabolic syndrome: A review.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Priyanka; Kochhar, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a worldwide public health problem. Vitamin D deficiency plays key role in the pathophysiology of risk factors of metabolic syndrome which affect cardiovascular system, increase insulin resistance and obesity, stimulate rennin-angiotensin-aldosterone system that cause hypertension. The discovery of vitamin D receptor expressed ubiquitously in almost all body cells such as immune, vascular and myocardial cells, pancreatic beta cells, neurons and osteoblasts suggests an involvement of vitamin D mediated effects on metabolic syndrome. Moreover vitamin D deficiency as well as cardiovascular diseases and related risk factors frequently co-occur. This underlines the importance of understanding the role of vitamin D in the context of metabolic syndrome. The paper provides an insight into the physiology of vitamin D and relationship of vitamin D deficiency with risk factors of metabolic syndrome through observational and supplementation studies.

  13. Periodontal disease: the influence of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors that include obesity, impaired glucose tolerance or diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. Recently, more attention has been reserved to the correlation between periodontitis and systemic health. MetS is characterized by oxidative stress, a condition in which the equilibrium between the production and the inactivation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) becomes disrupted. ROS have an essential role in a variety of physiological systems, but under a condition of oxidative stress, they contribute to cellular dysfunction and damage. Oxidative stress may act as a common link to explain the relationship between each component of MetS and periodontitis. All those conditions show increased serum levels of products derived from oxidative damage, promoting a proinflammatory state. Moreover, adipocytokines, produced by the fat cells of fat tissue, might modulate the balance between oxidant and antioxidant activities. An increased caloric intake involves a higher metabolic activity, which results in an increased production of ROS, inducing insulin resistance. At the same time, obese patients require more insulin to maintain blood glucose homeostasis – a state known as hyperinsulinemia, a condition that can evolve into type 2 diabetes. Oxidation products can increase neutrophil adhesion and chemotaxis, thus favoring oxidative damage. Hyperglycemia and an oxidizing state promote the genesis of advanced glycation end-products, which could also be implicated in the degeneration and damage of periodontal tissue. Thus, MetS, the whole of interconnected factors, presents systemic and local manifestations, such as cardiovascular disease and periodontitis, related by a common factor known as oxidative stress. PMID:23009606

  14. Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in prepubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bardsley, Martha Z; Falkner, Bonita; Kowal, Karen; Ross, Judith L

    2013-01-01

    Aims To investigate risk factors for metabolic syndrome in prepubertal boys with Klinefelter syndrome. Methods Eighty-nine boys with Klinefelter syndrome, ages 4–12.9 years, and 34 age-matched control boys had height, weight, waist circumference and blood pressure measured and their parents completed a questionnaire about physical activity. The boys with Klinefelter syndrome also had measurement of lipids, fasting glucose and insulin. Insulin-glucose homeostasis model assessment was calculated, and the boys were evaluated for childhood metabolic syndrome. Results The Klinefelter syndrome and control groups were similar ages (7.5 ± 2.4 vs. 8.1 ± 2.3 years). Body mass index measurements were similar, but waist circumference was >90‰ in 30% of boys with Klinefelter syndrome versus 21% of controls. The mean daily time spent running was 42 min less in the Klinefelter syndrome versus control groups (p < 0.01). About 37% of the boys with Klinefelter syndrome had elevated LDL cholesterol, 24% had insulin resistance, and 7% met the three criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Truncal obesity, insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome are present in boys as young as 4–12 years with Klinefelter syndrome, and these occur in association with reduced running-type activity. PMID:21251059

  15. [Metabolic and Reproductive Consequences of the Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)].

    PubMed

    Feichtinger, Michael; Stopp, Tina; Göbl, Christian

    2016-03-01

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome represents the most common endocrine disease of women of reproductive age. Symptoms include metabolic, gynecologic and cosmetic features. Genetic factors seem to contribute to the disease, affecting not only women but also male relatives of patients with similar symptoms. Besides, lifestyle factors play a central role impacting clinical PCOS appearance. Following we present an overview of the syndrome, its epidemiology, metabolic and gynecological aspects, gender and genetic factors and its therapy.

  16. What is metabolic syndrome, and why are children getting it?

    PubMed

    Weiss, Ram; Bremer, Andrew A; Lustig, Robert H

    2013-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity) that occur in obese children. However, metabolic syndrome can also occur in lean individuals, suggesting that obesity is a marker for the syndrome, not a cause. Metabolic syndrome is difficult to define, due to its nonuniform classification and reliance on hard cutoffs in the evaluation of disorders with non-Gaussian distributions. Defining the syndrome is even more difficult in children, owing to racial and pubertal differences and lack of cardiovascular events. Lipid partitioning among specific fat depots is associated with insulin resistance, which can lead to mitochondrial overload and dysfunctional subcellular energy use and drive the various elements of metabolic syndrome. Multiple environmental factors, in particular a typical Western diet, drive mitochondrial overload, while other changes in Western society, such as stress and sleep deprivation, increase insulin resistance and the propensity for food intake. These culminate in an adverse biochemical phenotype, including development of altered glucose metabolism and early atherogenesis during childhood and early adulthood.

  17. What is metabolic syndrome, and why are children getting it?

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Ram; Bremer, Andrew A; Lustig, Robert H

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome comprises a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, altered glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and abdominal obesity) that occur in obese children. However, metabolic syndrome can also occur in lean individuals, suggesting that obesity is a marker for the syndrome, not a cause. Metabolic syndrome is difficult to define, due to its nonuniform classification and reliance on hard cutoffs in the evaluation of disorders with non-Gaussian distributions. Defining the syndrome is even more difficult in children, owing to racial and pubertal differences and lack of cardiovascular events. Lipid partitioning among specific fat depots is associated with insulin resistance, which can lead to mitochondrial overload and dysfunctional subcellular energy use and drive the various elements of metabolic syndrome. Multiple environmental factors, in particular a typical Western diet, drive mitochondrial overload, while other changes in Western society, such as stress and sleep deprivation, increase insulin resistance and the propensity for food intake. These culminate in an adverse biochemical phenotype, including development of altered glucose metabolism and early atherogenesis during childhood and early adulthood. PMID:23356701

  18. Occupation-Related Differences in the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Chaparro, Miguel-Angel; Calvo-Bonacho, Eva; González-Quintela, Arturo; Fernández-Labandera, Carlos; Cabrera, Martha; Sáinz, Juan-Carlos; Fernández-Meseguer, Ana; Banegas, José R.; Ruilope, Luis-Miguel; Valdivielso, Pedro; Román-García, Javier

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE—To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Spanish working population and determine how the prevalence varies according to occupation and sex. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—This was a cross-sectional study of 259,014 workers (mean age 36.4 years, range [16–74]; 72.9% male) who underwent a routine medical checkup. The Adult Treatment Panel III (2001) definition for metabolic syndrome was used. RESULTS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 11.6% (95% CI 11.5–11.7) in male subjects and 4.1% (4.0–4.2) in female subjects and increased with age. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varied in the different categories of occupational activity depending on the sex considered. Among female subjects, the age-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was higher in blue-collar than in white-collar workers, but this difference was not evident among male workers. CONCLUSIONS—The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varies in the different categories of occupational activity in the Spanish working population. This variation also depends on sex. PMID:18753667

  19. The molecular mechanisms between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yi; Wen, Ya-yuan; Li, Zhi-rong; Luo, Dong-lin; Zhang, Xiao-hua

    2016-03-18

    Metabolic syndrome, which is extremely common in developed and some developing countries, is a clustering of at least three of five of the following medical conditions: abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated fasting plasma glucose, high serum triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein levels. It has been proved that there is a strong association between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer. Metabolic syndrome could increase the risk of breast cancer and influence the prognosis of the breast cancer patients. Some characteristic of metabolic syndrome such as obesity and lack of physical exercise are all risk factors for developing breast cancer. The metabolic syndrome mainly include obesity, type 2 diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and each of them impacts the risk of breast cancer and the prognosis of the breast cancer patients in different ways. In this Review, we focus on recently uncovered aspects of the immunological and molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the development of this highly prevalent and serious disease. These studies bring new insight into the complex associations between metabolic syndrome and breast cancer and have led to the development of novel therapeutic strategies that might enable a personalized approach in the management of this disease.

  20. [Metabolic syndrome in inflammatory rheumatic diseases].

    PubMed

    Malesci, D; Valentini, G; La Montagna, G

    2006-01-01

    Toward the end of the last century a better knowledge of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and their associations led investigators to propose the existence of a unique pathophysiological condition called "metabolic" or "insulin resistance syndrome". Among all, insulin-resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia are considered its most important treatment targets. Different definitions have been provided by World Health Organization (WHO) and by The Third Report of The National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP-ATP III). In particular, abdominal obesity, hypertension, low HDL cholesterol and hyperglicemia are the most common items used for its definition. The presence of MetS is effective in predicting the future risk of diabetes and coronaropathies. The evidence of a higher CV risk rate among different rheumatic inflammatory diseases has recently been associated with high prevalence of MetS in some cases. Rheumatoid or psoriatic arthritis have the large series among arthritis, whereas systemic lupus erythematosus among connective tissue disorders. This review analyses all most important studies about the evidence of MetS in rheumatic patients and the main clinical and prognostic significance of this relation.

  1. Adipokines, metabolic syndrome and rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Abella, Vanessa; Scotece, Morena; Conde, Javier; López, Verónica; Lazzaro, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Gualillo, Oreste

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic disorders that result from the increasing prevalence of obesity. The major components of MetS include insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. MetS identifies the central obesity with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis, have increased prevalence of CVDs. Moreover, CVD risk is increased when obesity is present in these patients. However, traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Thus, MetS and the altered secretion patterns of proinflammatory adipokines present in obesity could be the link between CVDs and rheumatic diseases. Furthermore, adipokines have been linked to the pathogenesis of MetS and its comorbidities through their effects on vascular function and inflammation. In the present paper, we review recent evidence of the role played by adipokines in the modulation of MetS in the general population, and in patients with rheumatic diseases.

  2. Determinants of metabolic syndrome in Chinese schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-qing; Liu, Yu-jian; Zhan, Jian; Liu, Xiao-li; Feng, Qi; Gong, Jie; Talbott, Evelyn O; He, Qi-qiang

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to identify the potential risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS) among Chinese schoolchildren. A cross-sectional study among 624 children (357 boys and 267 girls, aged 9.6 ± 0.7 years) was conducted in Wuhan, China, from May to June 2010. MetS was defined according to the criteria proposed by De Ferranti and the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Data on cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF), household income, parental hypertension, and children's personal information, including birth weight, preterm birth, and breast-feeding, reported by their parents were obtained. Multiple logistic regression showed that CRF (odds ratio [OR] = 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.60-0.77), breast-feeding (OR = 0.32; 95% CI = 0.10-0.97), and paternal hypertension (OR = 5.06; 95% CI = 1.20-21.37) were all independently associated with MetS. In conclusion, low CRF and paternal hypertension significantly increase the risk, whereas breast-feeding may reduce the risk of MetS among Chinese schoolchildren.

  3. Adipokines, Metabolic Syndrome and Rheumatic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Abella, Vanessa; Scotece, Morena; López, Verónica; Lazzaro, Verónica; Pino, Jesús; Gómez-Reino, Juan J.; Gualillo, Oreste

    2014-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of cardiometabolic disorders that result from the increasing prevalence of obesity. The major components of MetS include insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. MetS identifies the central obesity with increased risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Patients with rheumatic diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and ankylosing spondylitis, have increased prevalence of CVDs. Moreover, CVD risk is increased when obesity is present in these patients. However, traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not completely explain the enhanced cardiovascular risk in this population. Thus, MetS and the altered secretion patterns of proinflammatory adipokines present in obesity could be the link between CVDs and rheumatic diseases. Furthermore, adipokines have been linked to the pathogenesis of MetS and its comorbidities through their effects on vascular function and inflammation. In the present paper, we review recent evidence of the role played by adipokines in the modulation of MetS in the general population, and in patients with rheumatic diseases. PMID:24741591

  4. Omentin: linking metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ji-Yin; Chan, Lawrence; Zhou, Shi-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Omentin is an adipokine preferentially produced by visceral adipose tissue with insulin-sensitizing effects. Its expression is reduced in obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Omentin is also positively related with adiponectin, high-density lipoprotein levels and negatively related with body mass index, waist circumference, insulin resistance, triglyceride and leptin levels. Lower plasma omentin levels contribute to the pathogenesis of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in obese or overweight patients. Omentin has anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, anti-cardiovascular disease and antidiabetic properties. With respect to vascular biology, omentin causes vasodilatation of blood vessels and attenuates C-reactive protein-induced angiogenesis. The ability of omentin to reduce insulin resistance in conjunction with its anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties makes it a promising therapeutic target. Thus, omentin may have beneficial effects on the metabolic syndrome and could potentially be used as a biologic marker and/or pharmacologic agent/target in this respect.

  5. Caregiving Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Costs; National Alliance for Caregiving and MetLife Mature Market Institute. February 2010 40% to 70% of family ... Costs; National Alliance for Caregiving and MetLife Mature Market Institute. February 2010 73% of family caregivers who ...

  6. Caregiver Depression

    MedlinePlus

    ... will not sell or share your name. Caregiver Depression Tweet Bookmark this page | Email | Print Many caregivers ... depression See your doctor Treatment Coping Symptoms of depression Caregiving is hard — and can lead to feelings ...

  7. [Metabolic syndrome in a global perspective. Significance for public health].

    PubMed

    Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2006-09-04

    The term "metabolic syndrome" refers to the clustering of a number of cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia) believed to be related to insulin resistance. The prevalence of each of these diseases as well as the metabolic syndrome is increasing world wide. Obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes are no longer diseases of the wealthy. By 2025, three out of four people with diabetes will be living in 3rd world countries, and similar trends are likely for the other components of the syndrome. Preventive action is urgently needed, and studies in China and India have proven to be effective.

  8. Involvement of astrocyte metabolic coupling in Tourette syndrome pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    de Leeuw, Christiaan; Goudriaan, Andrea; Smit, August B; Yu, Dongmei; Mathews, Carol A; Scharf, Jeremiah M; Scharf, J M; Pauls, D L; Yu, D; Illmann, C; Osiecki, L; Neale, B M; Mathews, C A; Reus, V I; Lowe, T L; Freimer, N B; Cox, N J; Davis, L K; Rouleau, G A; Chouinard, S; Dion, Y; Girard, S; Cath, D C; Posthuma, D; Smit, J H; Heutink, P; King, R A; Fernandez, T; Leckman, J F; Sandor, P; Barr, C L; McMahon, W; Lyon, G; Leppert, M; Morgan, J; Weiss, R; Grados, M A; Singer, H; Jankovic, J; Tischfield, J A; Heiman, G A; Verheijen, Mark H G; Posthuma, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Tourette syndrome is a heritable neurodevelopmental disorder whose pathophysiology remains unknown. Recent genome-wide association studies suggest that it is a polygenic disorder influenced by many genes of small effect. We tested whether these genes cluster in cellular function by applying gene-set analysis using expert curated sets of brain-expressed genes in the current largest available Tourette syndrome genome-wide association data set, involving 1285 cases and 4964 controls. The gene sets included specific synaptic, astrocytic, oligodendrocyte and microglial functions. We report association of Tourette syndrome with a set of genes involved in astrocyte function, specifically in astrocyte carbohydrate metabolism. This association is driven primarily by a subset of 33 genes involved in glycolysis and glutamate metabolism through which astrocytes support synaptic function. Our results indicate for the first time that the process of astrocyte-neuron metabolic coupling may be an important contributor to Tourette syndrome pathogenesis. PMID:25735483

  9. The link between abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Liza K; Prins, Johannes B

    2008-04-01

    The clustering of cardiovascular risk factors associated with abdominal obesity is well established. Although currently lacking a universal definition, the metabolic syndrome describes a constellation of metabolic abnormalities, including abdominal obesity, and was originally introduced to characterize a population at high cardiovascular risk. Adipose tissue is a dynamic endocrine organ that secretes several inflammatory and immune mediators known as adipokines. Dysregulation of adipokine secretion, free fatty acid toxicity, and the site-specific differences in abdominal (visceral) versus subcutaneous fat support abdominal obesity as a causal factor mediating the insulin resistance, increased risk of diabetes, and cardiovascular disease in the metabolic syndrome.

  10. Zinc homeostasis in the metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Miao, Xiao; Sun, Weixia; Fu, Yaowen; Miao, Lining; Cai, Lu

    2013-03-01

    Zinc (Zn) is an essential mineral that is required for various cellular functions. Zn dyshomeostasis always is related to certain disorders such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetic complications. The associations of Zn with metabolic syndrome, diabetes and diabetic complications, thus, stem from the multiple roles of Zn: (1) a constructive component of many important enzymes or proteins, (2) a requirement for insulin storage and secretion, (3) a direct or indirect antioxidant action, and (4) an insulin-like action. However, whether there is a clear cause-and-effect relationship of Zn with metabolic syndrome, diabetes, or diabetic complications remains unclear. In fact, it is known that Zn deficiency is a common phenomenon in diabetic patients. Chronic low intake of Zn was associated with the increased risk of diabetes and diabetes also impairs Zn metabolism. Theoretically Zn supplementation should prevent the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications; however, limited available data are not always supportive of the above notion. Therefore, this review has tried to summarize these pieces of available information, possible mechanisms by which Zn prevents the metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and diabetic complications. In the final part, what are the current issues for Zn supplementation were also discussed.

  11. Regulatory functions of PPARbeta in metabolism: implications for the treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grimaldi, Paul A

    2007-08-01

    The prevalence of metabolic disturbances, collectively known as metabolic syndrome, has reached an epidemic proportion in industrialized countries. Lifestyle interventions and pharmacological treatments of such pathologies are only partially efficient and new therapeutic approaches are urgently needed. This review focuses on the recent findings describing the regulatory functions of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor beta (PPARbeta) on lipid metabolism in several tissues and on the implications of such findings on the therapeutic usefulness of PPARbeta agonists in the treatment of particular features of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance, obesity, dyslipidemia and cardiac dysfunctions.

  12. [Metabolic syndrome in employees in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Coniglio, Raúl I; Nellem, Jorge; Gentili, Roberto; Sibechi, Norberto; Agusti, Elisa; Torres, Marta

    2009-01-01

    The detection of metabolic syndrome (MS) is use ful for identifying individuals at risk for type 2 diabetes and coronary heart disease. The objectives of the study were to describe the prevalence of MS in employees 40-65 years old, utilizing different definitions and to analyze the relation with educational level and gender by means of cross-sectional and multicenter study of different regions of Argentina. Compared MS definitions were: International Diabetes Federation, American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute and National Cholesterol Education Program - Adults Treatment Panel III. Fulfilled the protocol 2806 cases. It was observed a prevalence of 0.31, 0.30 and 0.26 respectively, more frequent in men (p = 0.0000). There was no significant difference between sexes in the group 60 to 65 years old. After adjusting to age, sex, physical activity, family history of diabetes and menopause, the women with low educational level (<12 years) had more risk than men, OR = 1.95 (CI 95% 1.49-2.55) p = 0.000 compared with OR = 1.36 (CI 95% 1.10-1.69) p = 0.005, respectively. The low educational level in women, adjusted for confounders, was a predictor of four components of MS: central obesity, low C-HDL, glucose > or =100 mg/dl and hypertriglyceridemia; in men was only a hard predictor of hypertriglyceridemia. The results alert about the need of education of the population for the control of risk factors and adoption of healthy habits.

  13. Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome in San Juan, Puerto Rico

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Cynthia M.; Guzmán, Manuel; Ortiz, Ana P.; Estrella, Mayra; Valle, Yari; Pérez, Naydi; Haddock, Lillian; Suárez, Erick

    2009-01-01

    Objective The metabolic syndrome is associated with a high risk of diabetes and cardiovascular disease, and Hispanics in the United States have higher rates than do other ethnic groups. We assessed the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components in Puerto Rican adults. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study that used a probability cluster design to select a sample of households of the San Juan metropolitan area from 2005 through 2007. A total of 859 persons aged 21–79 years completed a face-to-face interview, blood pressure and waist circumference measurements, and blood sampling. Our primary outcome measure was metabolic syndrome as defined by the updated NCEP-ATP criteria. Results Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was 43.3%; 45.3% for men and 42.2% for women (P>.05). Prevalence significantly rose with age, from 12.8% among participants aged 21–29 years to 58.2% for participants aged 70–79 years (P<.001). Corresponding increases in the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in both men and women were also observed; the prevalence peaked in men aged 50–59 years (62.6%) and in women aged 70–79 years (65.2%). Elevated glucose (49.8%) and abdominal obesity (49.0%) were the most common components of the metabolic syndrome, followed by elevated blood pressure (46.1%), reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (46.0%), and elevated triglycerides (31.3%). Substantial variations were found between men and women in the prevalence of individual components. Conclusions Puerto Ricans have a high prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. This health disparity has implications for diabetes and cardiovascular prevention programs. PMID:19157247

  14. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Lean, Mike EJ

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30–40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5–10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35–40 kg/m2 with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists. PMID:26998259

  15. Metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Gobato, Amanda Oliva; Vasques, Ana Carolina J.; Zambon, Mariana Porto; Barros, Antonio de Azevedo; Hessel, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To verify the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in obese adolescents and its relationship with different body composition indicators. Methods: A cross-sectional study comprising 79 adolescents aged ten to 18 years old. The assessed body composition indicators were: body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, abdominal circumference, and subcutaneous fat. The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed according to the criteria proposed by Cook et al. The insulin resistance was determined by the Homeostasis Model Assessment for Insulin Resistance (HOMA-IR) index for values above 3.16. The analysis of ROC curves was used to assess the BMI and the abdominal circumference, aiming to identify the subjects with metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance. The cutoff point corresponded to the percentage above the reference value used to diagnose obesity. Results: The metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 45.5% of the patients and insulin resistance, in 29.1%. Insulin resistance showed association with HDL-cholesterol (p=0.032) and with metabolic syndrome (p=0.006). All body composition indicators were correlated with insulin resistance (p<0.01). In relation to the cutoff point evaluation, the values of 23.5 and 36.3% above the BMI reference point allowed the identification of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. The best cutoff point for abdominal circumference to identify insulin resistance was 40%. Conclusions: All body composition indicators, HDL-cholesterol and metabolic syndrome showed correlation with insulin resistance. The BMI was the most effective anthropometric indicator to identify insulin resistance. PMID:24676191

  16. The association of breast arterial calcification and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Seyma; Toprak, Huseyin; Aydin, Sinem; Bilgin, Mehmet; Oktay, Veysel; Abaci, Okay; Kocas, Cuneyt

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: We investigated the relationship between metabolic syndrome and breast arterial calcification detected via mammography in a cohort of postmenopausal subjects. METHODS: Among 837 patients referred to our radiology department for mammographic screening, 310 postmenopausal females (105 patients with and 205 patients without breast arterial calcification) aged 40 to 73 (mean 55.9±8.4) years were included in this study. The groups were compared with respect to clinical characteristics and metabolic syndrome criteria. Univariate and multivariate analyses identified the factors related to breast arterial calcification. RESULTS: Age, postmenopausal duration and the frequencies of diabetes mellitus, hypertension and metabolic syndrome were significantly higher in the subjects with breast arterial calcification than in those without (p<0.05). Multivariate analysis indicated that age (OR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1–1.6, p = 0.001) and metabolic syndrome (OR = 4.0, 95% CI = 1.5−10.4, p = 0.005) were independent predictors of breast arterial calcification detected via mammography. The independent predictors among the features of metabolic syndrome were low levels of high-density lipoproteins (OR = 8.1, 95% CI = 1.0−64.0, p = 0.047) and high blood pressure (OR = 8.7, 95% CI = 1.5−49.7, p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: The likelihood of mammographic detection of breast arterial calcification increases with age and in the presence of hypertension or metabolic syndrome. For patients undergoing screening mammography who present with breast arterial calcification, the possibility of metabolic syndrome should be considered. These patients should be informed of their cardiovascular risk factors and counseled on appropriate lifestyle changes. PMID:25627997

  17. A clinical perspective of obesity, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Han, Thang S; Lean, Mike Ej

    2016-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a condition characterized by a special constellation of reversible major risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. The main, diagnostic, components are reduced HDL-cholesterol, raised triglycerides, blood pressure and fasting plasma glucose, all of which are related to weight gain, specifically intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation and a large waist circumference. Using internationally adopted arbitrary cut-off values for waist circumference, having metabolic syndrome doubles the risk of cardiovascular disease, but offers an effective treatment approach through weight management. Metabolic syndrome now affects 30-40% of people by age 65, driven mainly by adult weight gain, and by a genetic or epigenetic predisposition to intra-abdominal/ectopic fat accumulation related to poor intra-uterine growth. Metabolic syndrome is also promoted by a lack of subcutaneous adipose tissue, low skeletal muscle mass and anti-retroviral drugs. Reducing weight by 5-10%, by diet and exercise, with or without, anti-obesity drugs, substantially lowers all metabolic syndrome components, and risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Other cardiovascular disease risk factors such as smoking should be corrected as a priority. Anti-diabetic agents which improve insulin resistance and reduce blood pressure, lipids and weight should be preferred for diabetic patients with metabolic syndrome. Bariatric surgery offers an alternative treatment for those with BMI ≥ 40 or 35-40 kg/m(2) with other significant co-morbidity. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise along with the global obesity epidemic: greater emphasis should be given to effective early weight-management to reduce risk in pre-symptomatic individuals with large waists.

  18. Obesity-Driven Gut Microbiota Inflammatory Pathways to Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz H. A.; Galvão, José G. F. M.; da Silva, Juliane Santos de França; de Sales-Neto, José M.; Rodrigues-Mascarenhas, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The intimate interplay between immune system, metabolism, and gut microbiota plays an important role in controlling metabolic homeostasis and possible obesity development. Obesity involves impairment of immune response affecting both innate and adaptive immunity. The main factors involved in the relationship of obesity with inflammation have not been completely elucidated. On the other hand, gut microbiota, via innate immune receptors, has emerged as one of the key factors regulating events triggering acute inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Inflammatory disorders lead to several signaling transduction pathways activation, inflammatory cytokine, chemokine production and cell migration, which in turn cause metabolic dysfunction. Inflamed adipose tissue, with increased macrophages infiltration, is associated with impaired preadipocyte development and differentiation to mature adipose cells, leading to ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and inflammation, which is essential to understand the pathological mechanisms governing metabolic syndrome. PMID:26635627

  19. Genetic selection of embryos that later develop the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Edwards, M J

    2012-05-01

    THE BARKER HYPOTHESIS: Is an excellent explanation of the process where human and animal foetuses exposed to malnutrition, either by maternal malnutrition or placental insufficiency, are metabolically programmed, with selective stunting of cell differentiation and organ growth. With the postnatal excess of nutrition observed in developed countries, this irreversible programming causes metabolic syndrome, including obesity, type 2 diabetes, and hypertension. Metabolic programming involves epigenetic changes including imprinting which might be transmitted through more than one generation rather than being completely re-set or erased during reproduction. The Barker hypothesis was supported by epidemiological data that recognised no excess fetal or postnatal mortality when pregnant women were starved during the Dutch famine in World War II. This argued against the "thrifty genotype" theory introduced in 1962, which proposed that starvation selected against members of the population with less "thrifty" genes, but the survivors who had "thrifty" genes developed metabolic syndrome if they were subsequently over-nourished. EMBRYONIC/FETAL SELECTION: Embryos or early foetuses could be selected very early in pregnancy on the basis of their genotype, by maternal malnutrition, hypertension, obesity or other causes of placental insufficiency. The genotype that allows embryos, or cells within them, to survive a less hospitable environment in the decidua after implantation might contribute to the later development of metabolic syndrome. This article hypothesises that an adverse intrauterine environment, caused by maternal malnutrition or placental insufficiency, kills a proportion of embryos and selects a surviving population of early embryos whose growth in utero is retarded by their genotype, their environment or a combination of both. The metabolic syndrome follows if the offspring is over-nourished later in life. The embryonic selection hypothesis presented here could be

  20. Metabolic Syndrome Sinkholes: What to Do When Occam's Razor Gets Blunted.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Ross D; Anderson, Todd J; Touyz, Rhian M

    2015-05-01

    The real promise of the metabolic syndrome concept was the opportunity to elucidate a singular common mechanism for its component abnormalities and consequently a singular therapy. That promise has not produced. This relates to the following considerations: (1) metabolic syndrome remains a syndrome not a disease, (2) its diagnosis offers little more than what can be determined by measuring waist circumference, (3) risk assessment is not improved by the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome, (4) the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome does not impact the treatment of each component of the syndrome, and (5) there is no effective therapy for metabolic syndrome in its entirety.

  1. The skin function: a factor of anti-metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The body’s total antioxidant capacity represents a sum of the antioxidant capacity of various tissues/organs. A decrease in the body’s antioxidant capacity may induce oxidative stress and subsequent metabolic syndrome, a clustering of risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The skin, the largest organ of the body, is one of the major components of the body’s total antioxidant defense system, primarily through its xenobiotic/drug biotransformation system, reactive oxygen species-scavenging system, and sweat glands- and sebaceous glands-mediated excretion system. Notably, unlike other contributors, the skin contribution is variable, depending on lifestyles and ambient temperature or seasonal variations. Emerging evidence suggests that decreased skin’s antioxidant and excretory functions (e.g., due to sedentary lifestyles and low ambient temperature) may increase the risk for metabolic syndrome. This review focuses on the relationship between the variability of skin-mediated detoxification and elimination of exogenous and endogenous toxic substances and the development of metabolic syndrome. The potential role of sebum secretion in lipid and cholesterol homeostasis and its impact on metabolic syndrome, and the association between skin disorders (acanthosis nigricans, acne, and burn) and metabolic syndrome are also discussed. PMID:22537765

  2. Pycnogenol® in Metabolic Syndrome and Related Disorders.

    PubMed

    Gulati, Om P

    2015-07-01

    The present review provides an update of the biological actions of Pycnogenol® in the treatment of metabolic syndrome and related disorders such as obesity, dyslipidaemia, diabetes and hypertension. Pycnogenol® is a French maritime pine bark extract produced from the outer bark of Pinus pinaster Ait. Subsp. atlantica. Its strong antioxidant, antiinflammatory, endothelium-dependent vasodilator activity, and also its anti-thrombotic effects make it appropriate for targeting the multifaceted pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome. Clinical studies have shown that it can reduce blood glucose levels in people with diabetes, blood pressure in mild to moderate hypertensive patients, and waist circumference, and improve lipid profile, renal and endothelial functions in metabolic syndrome. This review highlights the pathophysiology of metabolic syndrome and related clinical research findings on the safety and efficacy of Pycnogenol®. The results of clinical research studies performed with Pycnogenol® are discussed using an evidence-based, target-oriented approach following the pathophysiology of individual components as well as in metabolic syndrome overall.

  3. Metabolic syndrome and quality of life: a systematic review 1

    PubMed Central

    Saboya, Patrícia Pozas; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos; Zimmermann, Paulo Roberto; Gustavo, Andréia da Silva; Assumpção, Caroline Melo; Londero, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: to present currently available evidence to verify the association between metabolic syndrome and quality of life. Method: Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Medline and LILACS databases were studied for all studies investigating the association with metabolic syndrome and quality of life. Two blinded reviewers extracted data and one more was chosen in case of doubt. Results: a total of 30 studies were included, considering inclusion and exclusion criteria, which involved 62.063 patients. Almost all studies suggested that metabolic syndrome is significantly associated with impaired quality of life. Some, however, found association only in women, or only if associated with depression or Body Mass Index. Merely one study did not find association after adjusted for confounding factors. Conclusion: although there are a few studies available about the relationship between metabolic syndrome and quality of life, a growing body of evidence has shown significant association between metabolic syndrome and the worsening of quality of life. However, it is necessary to carry out further longitudinal studies to confirm this association and verify whether this relationship is linear, or only an association factor. PMID:27901223

  4. Caregiver Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feinberg, Lynn

    2008-01-01

    Assessment is a critical step in determining appropriate support services. This article discusses "caregiver assessment," a systematic process of gathering information to describe a caregiving situation. Caregiver assessment identifies the particular problems, needs, resources, and strengths of the family caregiver and approaches issues from the…

  5. Dynamic genetic architecture of metabolic syndrome attributes in the rat.

    PubMed

    Seda, Ondrej; Liska, Frantisek; Krenova, Drahomira; Kazdova, Ludmila; Sedova, Lucie; Zima, Tomas; Peng, Junzheng; Pelinkova, Kveta; Tremblay, Johanne; Hamet, Pavel; Kren, Vladimir

    2005-04-14

    The polydactylous rat strain (PD/Cub) is a highly inbred (F > 90) genetic model of metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study was to analyze the genetic architecture of the metabolic derangements found in the PD/Cub strain and to assess its dynamics in time and in response to diet and medication. We derived a PD/Cub x BN/Cub (Brown Norway) F2 intercross population of 149 male rats and performed metabolic profiling and genotyping and multiple levels of genetic linkage and statistical analyses at five different stages of ontogenesis and after high-sucrose diet feeding and dexamethasone administration challenges. The interval mapping analysis of 83 metabolic and morphometric traits revealed over 50 regions genomewide with significant or suggestive linkage to one or more of the traits in the segregating PD/Cub x BN/Cub population. The multiple interval mapping showed that, in addition to "single" quantitative train loci, there are more than 30 pairs of loci across the whole genome significantly influencing the variation of particular traits in an epistatic fashion. This study represents the first whole genome analysis of metabolic syndrome in the PD/Cub model and reveals several new loci previously not connected to the genetics of insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. In addition, it attempts to present the concept of "dynamic genetic architecture" of metabolic syndrome attributes, evidenced by shifts in the genetic determination of syndrome features during ontogenesis and during adaptation to the dietary and pharmacological influences.

  6. ERICA: prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kuschnir, Maria Cristina C; Bloch, Katia Vergetti; Szklo, Moyses; Klein, Carlos Henrique; Barufaldi, Laura Augusta; Abreu, Gabriela de Azevedo; Schaan, Beatriz; da Veiga, Gloria Valeria; da Silva, Thiago Luiz Nogueira; de Vasconcellos, Maurício T L

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in Brazilian adolescents. METHODS We evaluated 37,504 adolescents who were participants in the Study of Cardiovascular Risks in Adolescents (ERICA), a cross-sectional, school-based, national study. The adolescents, aged from 12 to 17 years, lived in cities with populations greater than 100,000 inhabitants. The sample was stratified and clustered into schools and classes. The criteria set out by the International Diabetes Federation were used to define metabolic syndrome. Prevalences of metabolic syndrome were estimated according to sex, age group, school type and nutritional status. RESULTS Of the 37,504 adolescents who were evaluated: 50.2% were female; 54.3% were aged from 15 to 17 years, and 73.3% were from public schools. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 2.6% (95%CI 2.3-2.9), slightly higher in males and in those aged from 15 to 17 years in most macro-regions. The prevalence was the highest in residents from the South macro-region, in the younger female adolescents and in the older male adolescents. The prevalence was higher in public schools (2.8% [95%CI 2.4-3.2]), when compared with private schools (1.9% [95%CI 1.4-2.4]) and higher in obese adolescents when compared with nonobese ones. The most common combinations of components, referring to 3/4 of combinations, were: enlarged waist circumference (WC), low HDL-cholesterol (HDL-c) and high blood pressure; followed by enlarged WC, low HDL-c and high triglycerides; and enlarged WC, low HDL-c, high triglycerides and blood pressure. Low HDL was the second most frequent component, but the highest prevalence of metabolic syndrome (26.8%) was observed in the presence of high triglycerides. CONCLUSIONS ERICA is the first Brazilian nation-wide study to present the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and describe the role of its components. Despite the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome being low, the high prevalences of some

  7. Strawberries, blueberries, and cranberries in the metabolic syndrome: clinical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Basu, Arpita; Lyons, Timothy J

    2012-06-13

    Emerging science supports therapeutic roles of strawberries, blueberries, and cranberries in metabolic syndrome, a prediabetic state characterized by several cardiovascular risk factors. Interventional studies reported by our group and others have demonstrated the following effects: strawberries lowering total and LDL-cholesterol, but not triglycerides, and decreasing surrogate biomarkers of atherosclerosis (malondialdehyde and adhesion molecules); blueberries lowering systolic and diastolic blood pressure and lipid oxidation and improving insulin resistance; and low-calorie cranberry juice selectively decreasing biomarkers of lipid oxidation (oxidized LDL) and inflammation (adhesion molecules) in metabolic syndrome. Mechanistic studies further explain these observations as up-regulation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase activity, reduction in renal oxidative damage, and inhibition of the activity of carbohydrate digestive enzymes or angiotensin-converting enzyme by these berries. These findings need confirmation in future studies with a focus on the effects of strawberry, blueberry, or cranberry intervention in clinical biomarkers and molecular mechanisms underlying the metabolic syndrome.

  8. Thiazide diuretics exacerbate fructose-induced metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reungjui, Sirirat; Roncal, Carlos A; Mu, Wei; Srinivas, Titte R; Sirivongs, Dhavee; Johnson, Richard J; Nakagawa, Takahiko

    2007-10-01

    Fructose is a commonly used sweetener associated with diets that increase the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Thiazide diuretics are frequently used in these patients for treatment of hypertension, but they also exacerbate metabolic syndrome. Rats on high-fructose diets that are given thiazides exhibit potassium depletion and hyperuricemia. Potassium supplementation improves their insulin resistance and hypertension, whereas allopurinol reduces serum levels of uric acid and ameliorates hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, and insulin resistance. Both potassium supplementation and treatment with allopurinol also increase urinary nitric oxide excretion. We suggest that potassium depletion and hyperuricemia in rats exacerbates endothelial dysfunction and lowers the bioavailability of nitric oxide, which blocks insulin activity and causes insulin resistance during thiazide usage. Addition of potassium supplements and allopurinol with thiazides might be helpful in the management of metabolic syndrome.

  9. Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome Among Adult Survivors of Childhood Leukemia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Todd M; Ehrhardt, Matthew J; Ness, Kirsten K

    2016-04-01

    Treatment-related obesity and the metabolic syndrome in adult survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) are risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Both conditions often begin during therapy. Preventive measures, including dietary counseling and tailored exercise, should be initiated early in the course of survivorship, with referral to specialists to optimize success. However, among adults who develop obesity or the metabolic syndrome and who do not respond to lifestyle therapy, medical intervention may be indicated to manage underlying pathology, such as growth hormone deficiency, or to mitigate risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Because no specific clinical trials have been done in this population to treat metabolic syndrome or its components, clinicians who follow adult survivors of childhood ALL should use the existing American Heart Association/National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Scientific Statement to guide their approach.

  10. [Treatment strategy of insomnia for the patients with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Takaesu, Yoshikazu; Inoue, Yuichi

    2012-07-01

    Insomnia has been reported to underlie the development and aggravation of metabolic syndrome including hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes. Treatment of insomnia is important for both the management and prevention of these comorbid disorders. We introduced the treatment strategy of insomnia for the patients with metabolic syndrome. For the better management of insomnia, sleep hygiene education should be given first, and adequate drug therapy should be started thereafter. Cognitive behavioral therapy is useful not only for insomnia symptom but also for the reducing amount of drug and prevention of the recurrence of insomnia. We expect that progress in the management of insomnia would result in the better treatment outcome of metabolic syndrome in general practice.

  11. Oxidant stress and skeletal muscle microvasculopathy in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Goodwill, Adam G; Frisbee, Jefferson C

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the metabolic syndrome in afflicted individuals is, in part, characterized by the development of a severely pro-oxidant state within the vasculature. It has been previously demonstrated by many investigators that this increasingly pro-oxidant state can have severe negative implications for many relevant processes within the vasculature, including the coordination of dilator/constrictor tone or reactivity, the structural adaptations of the vascular wall or distal networks, as well as the integrated regulation of perfusion resistance across and throughout the vascular networks. The purpose of this review article is to present the different sources of oxidant stress within the setting of the metabolic syndrome, the available mechanism for attempts at regulation and the vascular outcomes associated with this condition. It is anticipated that this overview will help readers and investigators to more effectively design experiments and interpret their results within the extremely complicated setting of metabolic syndrome.

  12. Genome-wide association studies of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fall, Tove; Ingelsson, Erik

    2014-01-25

    Until just a few years ago, the genetic determinants of obesity and metabolic syndrome were largely unknown, with the exception of a few forms of monogenic extreme obesity. Since genome-wide association studies (GWAS) became available, large advances have been made. The first single nucleotide polymorphism robustly associated with increased body mass index (BMI) was in 2007 mapped to a gene with for the time unknown function. This gene, now known as fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) has been repeatedly replicated in several ethnicities and is affecting obesity by regulating appetite. Since the first report from a GWAS of obesity, an increasing number of markers have been shown to be associated with BMI, other measures of obesity or fat distribution and metabolic syndrome. This systematic review of obesity GWAS will summarize genome-wide significant findings for obesity and metabolic syndrome and briefly give a few suggestions of what is to be expected in the next few years.

  13. Are there specific treatments for the metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Giugliano, Dario; Ceriello, Antonio; Esposito, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    The concept of the metabolic syndrome, although controversial, continues to gain acceptance. Whereas each risk factor of the metabolic syndrome (visceral obesity, atherogenetic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and dysglycemia) can be dealt with individually, the recommended initial therapeutic approach is to focus on reversing its root causes of atherogenetic diet, sedentary lifestyle, and overweight or obesity. No single diet is currently recommended for patients with the metabolic syndrome, although epidemiologic evidence suggests a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome associated with dietary patterns rich in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, dairy products, and unsaturated fats. We conducted a literature search to identify clinical trials specifically dealing with the resolution of the metabolic syndrome by lifestyle, drugs, or obesity surgery. Criteria used for study selection were English language, randomized trials with a placebo or control group (except for surgery), a follow-up lasting>or=6 mo, and a time frame of 5 y. We identified 3 studies based on lifestyle interventions, 5 studies based on drug therapy, and 3 studies based on laparoscopic weight-reduction surgery The striking resolution of the metabolic syndrome with weight-reduction surgery (93%) as compared with lifestyle (25%) and drugs (19%) strongly suggests that obesity is the driving force for the occurrence of this condition. Although there is no "all-inclusive" diet yet, it seems plausible that a Mediterranean-style diet has most of the desired attributes, including a lower content of refined carbohydrates, a high content of fiber, a moderate content of fat (mostly unsaturated), and a moderate-to-high content of vegetable proteins.

  14. Epigenomics, gestational programming and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Desai, M; Jellyman, J K; Ross, M G

    2015-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms are emerging as mediators linking early environmental exposures during pregnancy with programmed changes in gene expression that alter offspring growth and development. There is irrefutable evidence from human and animal studies that nutrient and environmental agent exposures (for example, endocrine disruptors) during pregnancy may affect fetal/newborn development resulting in offspring obesity and obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities (metabolic syndrome). This concept of 'gestational programming' is associated with alterations to the epigenome (nongenomic) rather than changes in the DNA sequence (genomic). Epigenetic alterations induced by suboptimal maternal nutrition/endocrine factors include DNA methylation, histone modifications, chromatin remodeling and/or regulatory feedback by microRNAs, all of which have the ability to modulate gene expression and promote the metabolic syndrome phenotype. Recent studies have shown tissue-specific transcriptome patterns and phenotypes not only in the exposed individual, but also in subsequent progeny. Notably, the transmission of gestational programming effects to subsequent generations occurs in the absence of continued adverse environmental exposures, thus propagating the cycle of obesity and metabolic syndrome. This phenomenon may be attributed to an extrinsic process resulting from the maternal phenotype and the associated nutrient alterations occurring within each pregnancy. In addition, epigenetic inheritance may occur through somatic cells or through the germ line involving both maternal and paternal lineages. Since epigenetic gene modifications may be reversible, understanding how epigenetic mechanisms contribute to transgenerational transmission of obesity and metabolic dysfunction is crucial for the development of novel early detection and prevention strategies for programmed metabolic syndrome. In this review we discuss the evidence in human and animal studies for the role of

  15. The Link between the Metabolic Syndrome and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Sandra; Bitton-Worms, Keren; LeRoith, Derek

    2011-01-01

    Since the incidence of the metabolic syndrome is on the rise in the western world, its coherence to cancer is becoming more apparent. In this review we discuss the different potential factors involved in the increase of cancer in the metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM) as well as inflammation and hypoxia. We especially focus on the insulin and IGF systems with their intracellular signaling cascades mediated by different receptor subtypes, and suggest that they may play major roles in this process. Understanding the mechanisms involved will be helpful in developing potential therapeutics. PMID:21912508

  16. Metabolic syndrome or glucose challenge in first episode of psychosis?

    PubMed

    Garcia-Rizo, C; Fernandez-Egea, E; Oliveira, C; Meseguer, A; Cabrera, B; Mezquida, G; Bioque, M; Penades, R; Parellada, E; Bernardo, M; Kirkpatrick, B

    2017-03-01

    Patients with schizophrenia exhibit a reduced life expectancy. Although unhealthy lifestyle or suicide risk plays a role, the main causes are diverse medical conditions such as cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Albeit pharmacological secondary side effects might also trigger previous conditions, studies in naïve patients reflect diverse anomalies at the onset. Patients with a first episode of psychosis, display a wide scope of metabolic abnormalities, ranging from normality till pathological values depending on the parameters studied. We attempted to evaluate the metabolic syndrome and glycemic homeostasis in a subset of antipsychotic-naïve patients with a first episode of non-affective psychosis. Patients (n=84) showed a similar prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared with a matched control sample (n=98) (6% vs 4%, P=0.562), while glucose homeostasis values differed significantly (14% vs. 5%, P=0.034). Our results suggest that metabolic syndrome is not a useful clinical condition to be evaluated in patients before pharmacological treatment. Abnormal glycemic homeostasis at the onset of the disease requires specific diagnostic tools and preventive measures in order to avoid future cardiovascular events. New strategies must be implemented in order to evaluate the cardiovascular risk and subsequent morbidity in patients at the onset of the disease.

  17. Treating Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome with Fecal Microbiota Transplantation

    PubMed Central

    Marotz, Clarisse A.; Zarrinpar, Amir

    2016-01-01

    The worldwide prevalence of metabolic syndrome, which includes obesity and its associated diseases, is rising rapidly. The human gut microbiome is recognized as an independent environmental modulator of host metabolic health and disease. Research in animal models has demonstrated that the gut microbiome has the functional capacity to induce or relieve metabolic syndrome. One way to modify the human gut microbiome is by transplanting fecal matter, which contains an abundance of live microorganisms, from a healthy individual to a diseased one in the hopes of alleviating illness. Here we review recent evidence suggesting efficacy of fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) in animal models and humans for the treatment of obesity and its associated metabolic disorders. PMID:27698622

  18. Estrogen and Mitochondria Function in Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Guanghong; Aroor, Annayya R.; Sowers, James R.

    2015-01-01

    The cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS) consists of a constellation of cardiac, renal, and metabolic disorders including insulin resistance (IR), obesity, metabolic dyslipidemia, high-blood pressure, and evidence of early cardiac and renal disease. Mitochondria dysfunction often occurs in the CRS, and this dysfunction is promoted by excess reactive oxygen species, genetic factors, IR, aging, and altered mitochondrial biogenesis. Recently, it has been shown that there are important sex-related differences in mitochondria function and metabolic, cardiovascular, and renal components. Sex differences in the CRS have mainly been attributed to the estrogen’s effects that are mainly mediated by estrogen receptor (ER) α, ERβ, and G-protein coupled receptor 30. In this review, we discuss the effects of estrogen on the mitochondrial function, insulin metabolic signaling, glucose transport, lipid metabolism, and inflammatory responses from liver, pancreatic β cells, adipocytes, skeletal muscle, and cardiovascular tissue. PMID:25149220

  19. Roles of the gut in the metabolic syndrome: an overview.

    PubMed

    Fändriks, L

    2017-04-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors (central obesity, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and arterial hypertension), indicating an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. The gastrointestinal tract is seldom discussed as an organ system of principal importance for metabolic diseases. The present overview connects various metabolic research lines into an integrative physiological context in which the gastrointestinal tract is included. Strong evidence for the involvement of the gut in the metabolic syndrome derives from the powerful effects of weight-reducing (bariatric) gastrointestinal surgery. In fact, gastrointestinal surgery is now recommended as a standard treatment option for type 2 diabetes in obesity. Several gut-related mechanisms that potentially contribute to the metabolic syndrome will be presented. Obesity can be caused by hampered release of satiety-signalling gut hormones, reduced meal-associated energy expenditure and microbiota-assisted harvest of energy from nondigestible food ingredients. Adiposity per se is a well-established risk factor for hyperglycaemia. In addition, a leaky gut mucosa can trigger systemic inflammation mediating peripheral insulin resistance that together with a blunted incretin response aggravates the hyperglycaemic state. The intestinal microbiota is strongly associated with obesity and the related metabolic disease states, although the mechanisms involved remain unclear. Enterorenal signalling has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension and postprandial triglyceride-rich chylomicrons; in addition, intestinal cholesterol metabolism probably contributes to atherosclerosis. It is likely that in the future, the metabolic syndrome will be treated according to novel pharmacological principles interfering with gastrointestinal functionality.

  20. Development of Metabolic Syndrome Associated to Cancer Therapy: Review.

    PubMed

    Casco, Stephania; Soto-Vega, Elena

    2016-12-01

    Long-term childhood cancer survivors are at great risk of developing late adverse effects after treatment, such as, reduced growth, obesity, decreased fertility, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, impaired glucose, another form of cancer, among others organ dysfunctions, some of them are part of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome and cancer connection is still not entirely understood, but there are some notions about it. Metabolic alterations produced during childhood cancer are more likely determined by treatments like radiotherapy, chemotherapy, glucocorticoids therapy, and surgery. Cancer treatment is associated to vascular alterations, hormone deficiencies, changes in insulin sensitivity, lipid metabolism, and inflammatory mediators. Obesity has been considered a crucial component in metabolic syndrome; obesity risk factors during childhood cancer include cranial radiation, female gender, and exposure to glucocorticoids such as dexamethasone. In addition, local radiotherapy or surgery may cause endocrine deficiencies, depends on the directly damage of endocrine organs. Patients who received some types of cancer treatment should be evaluated periodically to early diagnostic metabolic disorders associated to antineoplastic therapy.

  1. Effect of Mediterranean diet with and without weight loss on apolipoprotein B100 metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to assess the effect of a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) with and without weight loss (WL) on apolipoprotein B100 (apoB100) metabolism in men with metabolic syndrome. The diet of 19 men with metabolic syndrome (age, 24–62 years) was first standardized to a North America...

  2. A Clinical Pharmacist's Role in Screening for Metabolic Syndrome in a Rural Pediatric Ambulatory Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benavides, Sandra; Kohler, Lisa A.; Souffrant, Garry

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the pediatric population is increasing. Barriers, including the lack of consensus of a definition for metabolic syndrome and time constraints for the pediatrician, may limit the identification and diagnosis of metabolic syndrome in children. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the role…

  3. Endocannabinoid system overactivity and the metabolic syndrome: prospects for treatment.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Jennifer M; Davis, Stephen N

    2008-02-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) plays a physiologic role in modulating energy balance, feeding behavior, lipoprotein metabolism, insulin sensitivity, and glucose homeostasis, which when dysregulated can all contribute to cardiometabolic risk. Evidence has suggested that the ECS is overactive in human obesity and in animal models of genetic and diet-induced obesity. ECS stimulation centrally and peripherally drives metabolic processes that mimic the metabolic syndrome. These findings have led to the development of potential novel therapeutic targets, including the drug rimonabant, a selective CB1 receptor antagonist, which has been shown to promote weight loss, reduce inflammation, improve dyslipidemia, and improve glucose homeostasis.

  4. Metabolic syndrome and the environmental pollutants from mitochondrial perspectives.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin Taek; Lee, Hong Kyu

    2014-12-01

    The worldwide epidemic of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in the last few decades cannot be fully accounted for only by changes in the lifestyle factors, such as sedentary lifestyle and overeating. Besides genetic factors, there must be other causes to explain this rapid change. They could not be infectious in nature and induce insulin resistance as key biochemical abnormality. Mitochondrial dysfunction could be underlying mechanism behind the insulin resistance, thus metabolic syndrome. Then there have been increasing number of reports suggesting that chronic exposure to and accumulation of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), especially so-called the persistent organic pollutants (POPs) within the body might be associated with metabolic syndrome. Combining two concepts, we developed new "EDCs-induced mitochondrial dysfunction hypothesis of metabolic syndrome". In this review we suggest that classifying those chemicals into 5 groups might be clinically useful considering their removal or avoidance; POPs, non-persistent organic pollutants, heavy metals, air pollutants and drugs. We will also discuss briefly how those insights could be applied to clinical medicine.

  5. Metabolic Syndrome: One Speckled Stone Kills a Flock of Birds?

    PubMed

    Bonde, Ylva; Angelin, Bo

    2017-02-01

    Effectively treating metabolic syndrome and its progression to type 2 diabetes, steatohepatitis and cardiovascular disease remain a major clinical challenge. The use of a novel engineered molecule that combines thyroid hormone and glucagon to target liver and adipose tissue might provide a new 'magic bullet' with exciting future prospects.

  6. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Individual Criteria in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandes, Jill; Lofgren, Ingrid E.

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is present in young adults and because coronary heart disease (CHD) is likely, screening to determine MetS prevalence and its criteria is critical. Objective: To determine MetS prevalence and most prevalent criteria in a sample of first-year college students. Participants: First-year college students between 18 and 24…

  7. Physical Activity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Overweight in Rural Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Justin B.; Davis, Catherine L.; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Lewis, Richard D.; Yin, Zenong

    2008-01-01

    Background: Research suggests significant health differences between rural dwelling youth and their urban counterparts with relation to cardiovascular risk factors. This study was conducted to (1) determine relationships between physical activity and markers of metabolic syndrome, and (2) to explore factors relating to physical activity in a…

  8. Is insulin resistance the cause of the metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Ferrannini, Ele

    2006-01-01

    Following up on original descriptions of clustering of cardiovascular risk factors (chiefly, glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension) around the presence of insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome has recently been upgraded to the status of a disease entity with an inherent predictive value for cardiovascular disease. In pathophysiological terms, insulin resistance (of glucose metabolism) and the attendant compensatory hyperinsulinaemia are causally related to each of glucose intolerance, dyslipidaemia, high blood pressure and vascular dysfunction. The physiological mechanisms are concisely reviewed here. However, insulin resistance/hyperinsulinaemia alone is insufficient to cause these abnormalities, for which other pathogenic factors (e.g. ss-cell dysfunction for glucose intolerance) are required. The metabolic syndrome, on the other hand, has evolved from a set of statistical associations believed to carry an excess of cardiovascular risk. In the various existing definitions, a mixture of physical, metabolic and clinical variables have been used on grounds of predictive value or practical ease. These variables belong to different phenotypes, which are upstream, intermediate and proximal, respectively, in their relation to clinical disease. The resulting 'syndromes' usually lack a cogent conceptual structure, may reflect the particular data set from which they are extracted and may be of limited applicability. While overt diabetes, clinical hypertension and frank dyslipidaemia are often present together in the same patient, a subclinical syndrome with a distinct, probable aetiology and a proven power as a risk indicator remains to be identified.

  9. Identification of metabolic syndrome using decision tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Worachartcheewan, Apilak; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Pidetcha, Phannee; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2010-10-01

    This study employs decision tree as a decision support system for rapid and automated identification of individuals with metabolic syndrome (MS) among a Thai population. Results demonstrated strong predictivity of the decision tree in classification of individuals with and without MS, displaying an overall accuracy in excess of 99%.

  10. Correlations between metabolic syndrome, serologic factors, and gallstones

    PubMed Central

    Sang, Jae Hong; Ki, Nam Kyun; Cho, Jae Hwan; Ahn, Jae Ouk; Sunwoo, Jae Gun

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the serologic factors associated with metabolic syndrome and gallstones. [Subjects and Methods] The study evaluated subjects who visited a health promotion center in Seoul from March 2, 2013 to February 28, 2014, and had undergone abdominal ultrasonography. Height, weight, and blood pressure were measured. Blood sampling was performed for high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, total bilirubin, direct bilirubin, indirect bilirubin, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, thyroid stimulating hormone, and red and white blood cell counts. We conducted logistic regression analysis to assess the risk factors associated with metabolic syndrome. [Results] The risk factors for metabolic syndrome in men, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, body mass index, maximum size of gallstones, white blood cell count, waist circumference, and uric acid level. The factors in women, in order of decreasing weight, were red blood cell count, presence/absence of gallstones, uric acid level, body mass index, fasting blood glucose, and waist circumference. [Conclusion] Most serum biochemical factors and gallstone occurrence could be used to indicate the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome, independent of gender. PMID:27630427

  11. Metabolic syndrome and breast cancer: is there a link?

    PubMed

    Hauner, Dagmar; Hauner, Hans

    2014-04-01

    Epidemiological data suggest a close link between obesity and breast cancer, the most frequently occurring cancer in women. The metabolic syndrome is typically associated with abdominal obesity and comprises disturbances in glucose and/or lipid metabolism and/or hypertension. Recent studies have established a specific association between the metabolic syndrome - as well as its components - and breast cancer, indicating both an increased risk of developing breast cancer and a poorer prognosis. In premenopausal women, obesity might have a protective effect only on receptor-positive tumors, whereas a positive association was observed between obesity/abdominal obesity and an increased risk of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). Overall survival and disease-free survival were reported to be significantly shorter in premenopausal obese women with TNBC compared to non-obese women, but these results are still inconsistent and need further research. The metabolic syndrome is characterized by a state of insulin resistance/hyperinsulinemia and subacute chronic inflammation, with both conditions offering a plausible mechanistic link towards breast cancer. Thus, in addition to their increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, women with this syndrome represent a group at elevated risk of developing breast cancer and with poorer prognosis.

  12. The Metabolic Syndrome and Its Influence on Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis.

    PubMed

    Kanwar, Pushpjeet; Kowdley, Kris V

    2016-05-01

    Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) are highly prevalent in the Western population. Their pathogenesis is closely linked to insulin resistance, which serves as a therapeutic target for the management of these conditions. This review article reviews the research supporting the influence of MetS on NASH and includes studies supporting their similar epidemiology, pathogenesis, and treatment.

  13. Chromium supplementation alleviates risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolic syndrome has been applied to a clustering of risk factors of diabetes and cardiovascular diseases including elevated blood lipids, elevated glucose, elevated blood pressure, proinflammatory state including increased C-reactive protein and TNF-alpha, and prothrombotic state including anomal...

  14. A clustering analysis of lipoprotein diameters in the metabolic syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of smaller low-density lipoproteins (LDL) has been associated with atherosclerosis risk, and the insulin resistance (IR) underlying the metabolic syndrome (MetS). In addition, some research has supported the association of very low-, low- and high-density lipoprotein (VLDL HDL) particle...

  15. Metabolic Syndrome in Children with and without Developmental Coordination Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahi, Gita; LeBlanc, Paul J.; Hay, John A.; Faught, Brent E.; O'Leary, Debra; Cairney, John

    2011-01-01

    Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) have higher rates of obesity compared to children with typical motor development, and, as a result may be at increased risk for developing metabolic syndrome (MetS). The purpose of this study was to determine the presence of MetS and its components among children with and without DCD. This…

  16. Asthma and metabolic syndrome: Current knowledge and future perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Serafino-Agrusa, Laura; Spatafora, Mario; Scichilone, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Asthma and obesity are epidemiologically linked; however, similar relationships are also observed with other markers of the metabolic syndrome, such as insulin resistance and dyslipidemia, which cannot be accounted for by increased body mass alone. Obesity appears to be a predisposing factor for the asthma onset, both in adults and in children. In addition, obesity could make asthma more difficult to control and to treat. Although obesity may predispose to increased Th2 inflammation or tendency to atopy, other mechanisms need to be considered, such as those mediated by hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinemia and dyslipidemia in the context of metabolic syndrome. The mechanisms underlying the association between asthma and metabolic syndrome are yet to be determined. In the past, these two conditions were believed to occur in the same individual without any pathogenetic link. However, the improvement in asthma symptoms following weight reduction indicates a causal relationship. The interplay between these two diseases is probably due to a bidirectional interaction. The purpose of this review is to describe the current knowledge about the possible link between metabolic syndrome and asthma, and explore potential application for future studies and strategic approaches. PMID:25789301

  17. Division IAA Football Players and Risk Factors for Metabolic Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Repovich, Wendy E. S.; Babcock, Garth J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if body composition and blood pressure (BP), two markers for Metabolic Syndrome (MetS), were correlated in college football players. Height, weight, BMI, systolic (SBP) and Diastolic (DBP) blood pressure and body composition (three measures) were assessed in a Division IAA football team (N = 55). Data…

  18. OBESITY PREVALENCE AND METABOLIC SYNDROME IN A PARK USERS

    PubMed Central

    de SOUZA, Maíra Danielle Gomes; VILAR, Lucio; de ANDRADE, Cinthia Barbosa; ALBUQUERQUE, Raíssa de Oliveira e; CORDEIRO, Lúcia Helena de Oliveira; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins; FERRAZ, Álvaro Antônio Bandeira

    2015-01-01

    Background - Overweight and obesity are associated with metabolic syndrome and abdominal obesity, thereby increasing the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. In Brazil, there are still no precise data on the prevalence of these disorders, especially among individuals who carry out some kind of physical activity in public spaces and there are no education and prevention programs for obesity. Aim: To investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and obesity among park users. Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional, descriptive study was conducted with 619 individuals assessed and stratified by profile according to a specific protocol. The group was characterized as follows: female (50.1%) and mean age =50.6±14.8, with predominance of individuals aged between 50 and 59 years (26.8%) and with higher education (68%) and a household income of between 4 and 10 minimum wages (29.2%). Results: Regular physical exercise was reported by 78% of the individuals and it was found that 70.7% were nevertheless of above normal weight: 45% overweight and 25.7% obese, of whom 20.7% had obesity grade I, 3.9% grade II and 1.1% grade III. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 4.3%, mostly in men (6.3%). Arterial hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus were detected in 17.8% and 5.5%, respectively. In view of the influence of obesity on the occurrence of type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome, it was found that this association was not significant for the two conditions (p=0.014 and 0.017, respectively). Conclusion : The findings demonstrate a high prevalence of overweight and obesity in the studied population, and metabolic syndrome in 4.3%, despite the fact that 70% reported engaging in regular physical activity. PMID:26537270

  19. Dietary patterns are associated with metabolic syndrome in adult Samoans.

    PubMed

    DiBello, Julia R; McGarvey, Stephen T; Kraft, Peter; Goldberg, Robert; Campos, Hannia; Quested, Christine; Laumoli, Tuiasina Salamo; Baylin, Ana

    2009-10-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has reached epidemic levels in the Samoan Islands. In this cross-sectional study conducted in 2002-2003, dietary patterns were described among American Samoan (n = 723) and Samoan (n = 785) adults (> or =18 y) to identify neo-traditional and modern eating patterns and to relate these patterns to the presence of metabolic syndrome using Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. The neo-traditional dietary pattern, similar across both polities, was characterized by high intake of local foods, including crab/lobster, coconut products, and taro, and low intake of processed foods, including potato chips and soda. The modern pattern, also similar across both polities, was characterized by high intake of processed foods such as rice, potato chips, cake, and pancakes and low intake of local foods. The neo-traditional dietary pattern was associated with significantly higher serum HDL-cholesterol in American Samoa (P-trend = 0.05) and a decrease in abdominal circumference in American Samoa and Samoa (P-trend = 0.004 and 0.01, respectively). An inverse association was found with metabolic syndrome, although it did not reach significance (P = 0.23 in American Samoa; P = 0.13 in Samoa). The modern pattern was significantly positively associated with metabolic syndrome in Samoa (prevalence ratio = 1.21 for the fifth compared with first quintile; 95% CI: 0.93.1.57; P-trend = 0.05) and with increased serum triglyceride levels in both polities (P < 0.05). Reduced intake of processed foods high in refined grains and adherence to a neo-traditional eating pattern characterized by plant-based fiber, seafood, and coconut products may help to prevent growth in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the Samoan islands.

  20. Review of hyperuricemia as new marker for metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Billiet, Laura; Doaty, Sarah; Katz, James D; Velasquez, Manuel T

    2014-01-01

    Hyperuricemia has long been established as the major etiologic factor in gout. In recent years, a large body of evidence has accumulated that suggests that hyperuricemia may play a role in the development and pathogenesis of a number of metabolic, hemodynamic, and systemic pathologic diseases, including metabolic syndrome, hypertension, stroke, and atherosclerosis. A number of epidemiologic studies have linked hyperuricemia with each of these disorders. In some studies, therapies that lower uric acid may prevent or improve certain components of the metabolic syndrome. There is an association between uric acid and the development of systemic lupus erythematosus; the connection between other rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis is less clear. The mechanism for the role of uric acid in disorders other than gout is not well established but recent investigations point towards systemic inflammation induced by urate, as the major pathophysiological event common to systemic diseases, including atherosclerosis.

  1. Rare nonconservative LRP6 mutations are associated with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajvir; Smith, Emily; Fathzadeh, Mohsen; Liu, Wenzhong; Go, Gwang-Woong; Subrahmanyan, Lakshman; Faramarzi, Saeed; McKenna, William; Mani, Arya

    2013-09-01

    A rare mutation in LRP6 has been shown to underlie autosomal dominant coronary artery disease (CAD) and metabolic syndrome in an Iranian kindred. The prevalence and spectrum of LRP6 mutations in the disease population of the United States is not known. Two hundred white Americans with early onset familial CAD and metabolic syndrome and 2,000 healthy Northern European controls were screened for nonconservative mutations in LRP6. Three novel mutations were identified, which cosegregated with the metabolic traits in the kindreds of the affected subjects and none in the controls. All three mutations reside in the second propeller domain, which plays a critical role in ligand binding. Two of the mutations substituted highly conserved arginines in the second YWTD domain and the third substituted a conserved glycosylation site. The functional characterization of one of the variants showed that it impairs Wnt signaling and acts as a loss of function mutation.

  2. Activity syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Alexander D. M.; Szekeres, Petra; Violich, Mackellar; Gutowsky, Lee F. G.; Eliason, Erika J.; Cooke, Steven J.

    2017-03-01

    Despite growing interest, the behavioural ecology of deep-sea organisms is largely unknown. Much of this scarcity in knowledge can be attributed to deepwater animals being secretive or comparatively 'rare', as well as technical difficulties associated with accessing such remote habitats. Here we tested whether two species of giant marine isopod (Bathynomus giganteus, Booralana tricarinata) captured from 653 to 875 m in the Caribbean Sea near Eleuthera, The Bahamas, exhibited an activity behavioural syndrome across two environmental contexts (presence/absence of food stimulus) and further whether this syndrome carried over consistently between sexes. We also measured routine metabolic rate and oxygen consumption in response to a food stimulus in B. giganteus to assess whether these variables are related to individual differences in personality. We found that both species show an activity syndrome across environmental contexts, but the underlying mechanistic basis of this syndrome, particularly in B. giganteus, is unclear. Contrary to our initial predictions, neither B. giganteus nor B. tricarinata showed any differences between mean expression of behavioural traits between sexes. Both sexes of B. tricarinata showed strong evidence of an activity syndrome underlying movement and foraging ecology, whereas only male B. giganteus showed evidence of an activity syndrome. Generally, individuals that were more active and bolder, in a standard open arena test were also more active when a food stimulus was present. Interestingly, individual differences in metabolism were not related to individual differences in behaviour based on present data. Our study provides the first measurements of behavioural syndromes and metabolism in giant deep-sea isopods.

  3. Measuring Shaken Baby Syndrome Awareness: Preliminary Reliability of a Caregiver Attitudes and Beliefs Survey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russell, Beth S.; Britner, Preston A.

    2006-01-01

    Recent estimates of Shaken Baby Syndrome awareness suggest that approximately half of all American adults have not heard of the often devastating risks of shaking an infant. Using a sample of 288 undergraduate students, we developed a measure of attitudes around infant care practices. A total of 264 community participants completed a revised…

  4. Cognitive Deterioration in Adults with Down Syndrome: Effects on the Individual, Caregivers, and Service Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Chris; Crayton, Lissa; Holland, Anthony; Hall, Scott

    2000-01-01

    Individuals with Down syndrome (n=49) were assigned to three groups: those showing cognitive deterioration, those comparable in age, and those not showing cognitive deterioration but younger. Those experiencing cognitive deterioration were less likely to receive day services, had more impoverished life experiences, and required more support.…

  5. Caregiver Survey of Pharmacotherapy to Treat Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Individuals with Williams Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Marilee A.; Seyfer, Daisha L.; Andridge, Rebecca R.; Foster, Jessica E. A.; McClure, Kelsey E.; Coury, Daniel L.

    2013-01-01

    Williams syndrome (WS) is a genetic condition characterized by a unique neurocognitive and behavioral profile, including increased incidence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the perceived helpfulness and side effects of medications used to treat ADHD (methylphenidate class,…

  6. Music Therapy for Children with Down Syndrome: Perceptions of Caregivers in a Special School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pienaar, Dorothea

    2012-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) is a genetic disorder resulting from chromosome 21 having three copies (trisomy 21). Cognitive functioning and anatomical features cause speech and language development delay (Kumin, 2003). Children with DS generally enjoy communication (Schoenbrodt, 2004), and respond well to interaction and social scripts. Music therapy has…

  7. Melatonin may curtail the metabolic syndrome: studies on initial and fully established fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, Daniel P; Bernasconi, Pablo A Scacchi; Reynoso, Roxana; Toso, Carlos F Reyes; Scacchi, Pablo

    2013-01-25

    To examine the effect of melatonin given to rats simultaneously with fructose on initial and fully developed metabolic syndrome, male Wistar rats had free access to chow and 5% or 10% fructose drinking solution for 8 weeks. As compared to controls, systolic blood pressure augmented significantly under both treatments whereas excessive body weight was seen in rats receiving the 10% fructose only. Rats drinking 5% fructose showed a greater tolerance to a glucose load while rats having access to a 10% fructose drinking solution exhibited the expected impaired glucose tolerance found in the metabolic syndrome. Circulating triglyceride and low density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-c) concentration augmented significantly in rats showing a fully developed metabolic syndrome only, while high blood cholesterol levels were found at both stages examined. Melatonin (25 μg/mL drinking solution) counteracted the changes in body weight and systolic blood pressure found in rats administered with fructose. Melatonin decreased the abnormal hyperglycemia seen after a glucose load in 10% fructose-treated rats but it did not modify the greater tolerance to glucose observed in animals drinking 5% fructose. Melatonin also counteracted the changes in plasma LDL-c, triglyceride and cholesterol levels and decreased plasma uric acid levels. The results underline a possible therapeutical role of melatonin in the metabolic syndrome, both at initial and established phases.

  8. Melatonin May Curtail the Metabolic Syndrome: Studies on Initial and Fully Established Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cardinali, Daniel P.; Scacchi Bernasconi, Pablo A.; Reynoso, Roxana; Reyes Toso, Carlos F.; Scacchi, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    To examine the effect of melatonin given to rats simultaneously with fructose on initial and fully developed metabolic syndrome, male Wistar rats had free access to chow and 5% or 10% fructose drinking solution for 8 weeks. As compared to controls, systolic blood pressure augmented significantly under both treatments whereas excessive body weight was seen in rats receiving the 10% fructose only. Rats drinking 5% fructose showed a greater tolerance to a glucose load while rats having access to a 10% fructose drinking solution exhibited the expected impaired glucose tolerance found in the metabolic syndrome. Circulating triglyceride and low density lipoproteins-cholesterol (LDL-c) concentration augmented significantly in rats showing a fully developed metabolic syndrome only, while high blood cholesterol levels were found at both stages examined. Melatonin (25 μg/mL drinking solution) counteracted the changes in body weight and systolic blood pressure found in rats administered with fructose. Melatonin decreased the abnormal hyperglycemia seen after a glucose load in 10% fructose-treated rats but it did not modify the greater tolerance to glucose observed in animals drinking 5% fructose. Melatonin also counteracted the changes in plasma LDL-c, triglyceride and cholesterol levels and decreased plasma uric acid levels. The results underline a possible therapeutical role of melatonin in the metabolic syndrome, both at initial and established phases. PMID:23354480

  9. Physical activity in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Strasser, Barbara

    2013-04-01

    Biological aging is typically associated with a progressive increase in body fat mass and a loss of lean body mass. Owing to the metabolic consequences of reduced muscle mass, it is understood that normal aging and/or decreased physical activity may lead to a higher prevalence of metabolic disorders. Lifestyle modification, specifically changes in diet, physical activity, and exercise, is considered the cornerstone of obesity management. However, for most overweight people it is difficult to lose weight permanently through diet or exercise. Thus, prevention of weight gain is thought to be more effective than weight loss in reducing obesity rates. A key question is whether physical activity can extenuate age-related weight gain and promote metabolic health in adults. Current guidelines suggest that adults should accumulate about 60 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity daily to prevent unhealthy weight gain. Because evidence suggests that resistance training may promote a negative energy balance and may change body fat distribution, it is possible that an increase in muscle mass after resistance training may be a key mediator leading to better metabolic control.

  10. Obesity, Metabolic Syndrome, and Physical Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeater, Rachel

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the scope of the problem of obesity in the United States, noting the health risks associated with being overweight or obese (e.g., gallstones, osteoarthritis, sleep apnea, and colon cancer); discussing the association of type-II diabetes mellitus with obesity; examining the effects of exercise on metabolic disease; and looking at…

  11. Developing therapies for the metabolic syndrome: challenges, opportunities, and… the unknown

    PubMed Central

    Matfin, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome refers to a clustering of established and emerging cardiovascular disease risk factors within a single individual. The established risk factors, such as obesity, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and hypertension, and other emerging risk factors are closely related to central obesity (especially intra-abdominal adiposity) and insulin resistance. However, debate continues about the very existence of the metabolic syndrome. Despite the controversies, many existing and new therapies are targeting the metabolic syndrome and component risk factors. To date, no therapies have been approved specifically for treating the metabolic syndrome. In this article some of the challenges and opportunities in developing therapies for the metabolic syndrome are discussed. PMID:23148153

  12. Regional cerebral glucose metabolism in patients with alcoholic Korsakoff's syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kessler, R.M.; Parker, E.S.; Clark, C.M.; Martin, P.R.; George, D.T.; Weingartner, H.; Sokoloff, L.; Ebert, M.H.; Mishkin, M.

    1985-05-01

    Seven alcoholic male subjects diagnosed as having Korsakoff's syndrome and eight age-matched male normal volunteers were studied with /sup 18/F 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2/sup 18/FDG). All subjects were examined at rest with eyes covered in a quiet, darkened room. Serial plasma samples were obtained following injection of 4 to 5 mCi of 2/sup 18/FDG. Tomographic slices spaced at 10mm axial increments were obtained (in-plane resolution = 1.75 cm, axial resolution = 1.78 cm). Four planes were selected from each subject, and a total of 46 regions of interest were sampled and glucose metabolic rates for each region calculated. The mean glucose metalbolic rate for the 46 regions in the Korsakoff subjects was significantly lower than that in the normal controls (5.17 +- .43 versus 6.6 +- 1.31). A Q-component analysis, which examined each subject's regional rates relative to his mean rate, revealed two distinct patterns in the Korsakoff group. Glucose metabolism was significantly reduced in 37 of the 46 regions sampled. Reduced cerebral glucose metabolism in a nondemented group of subjects has not previously been reported. The reduction in cortical metabolism may be the result of damage to sub-cortical projecting systems. The differing patterns of cerebral metabolism in Korsakoff's syndrome suggests subgroups with differing neuropathology. Regions implicated in memory function, medial temporal, thalamic and medial prefrontal were among the regions reduced in metabolism.

  13. New targets to treat obesity and the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Kathleen; Mani, Mitra; Mani, Arya

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of associated metabolic traits that collectively confer unsurpassed risk for development of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes compared to any single CVD risk factor. Truncal obesity plays an exceptionally critical role among all metabolic traits of the MetS. Consequently, the prevalence of the MetS has steadily increased with the growing epidemics of obesity. Pharmacotherapy has been available for obesity for more than one decade, but with little success in improving the metabolic profiles. The serotonergic drugs and inhibitors of pancreatic lipases were among the few drugs that were initially approved to treat obesity. At the present time, only the pancreatic lipase inhibitor orlistat is approved for long-term treatment of obesity. New classes of anti-diabetic drugs, including glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor (GLP-1R) agonists and Dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors, are currently being evaluated for their effects on obesity and metabolic traits. The genetic studies of obesity and metabolic syndrome have identified novel molecules acting on the hunger and satiety peptidergic signaling of the gut-hypothalamus axis or the melanocortin system of the brain and are promising targets for future drug development. The goal is to develop drugs that not only treat obesity, but also favorably impact its associated traits. PMID:26001373

  14. Shift Work Is Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Young Female Korean Workers

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kyoung Hwa; Kim, Yun Jin; Cho, Byung Mann; Lee, Sang Yeoup; Lee, Jeong Gyu; Jeong, Dong Wook; Ji, So Yeon

    2017-01-01

    Background Shift work is associated with health problems, including metabolic syndrome. This study investigated the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome in young workers. Methods A total of 3,317 subjects aged 20–40 years enrolled in the 2011–2012 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were divided into shift and day workers. We conducted a cross-sectional study and calculated odds ratios using multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to examine the association between shift work and metabolic syndrome. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 14.3% and 7.1% among male and female shift workers, respectively. After adjusting for confounding factors, shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in female workers (odds ratio, 2.53; 95% confidence interval, 1.12 to 5.70). Conclusion Shift work was associated with metabolic syndrome in young women. Timely efforts are necessary to manage metabolic syndrome in the workplace. PMID:28360979

  15. Polycystic ovary syndrome: reviewing diagnosis and management of metabolic disturbances.

    PubMed

    Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2014-03-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a common condition in women at reproductive age associated with reproductive and metabolic dysfunction. Proposed diagnosed criteria for PCOS include two out of three features: androgen excess, menstrual irregularity, and polycystic ovary appearance on ultrasound (PCO), after other causes of hyperandrogenism and dysovulation are excluded. Based on these diagnostic criteria, the most common phenotypes are the "classic PCOS"--hyperandrogenism and oligomenorrhea, with or without PCO; the "ovulatory phenotype"--hyperandrogenism and PCO in ovulatory women; and the "non-hyperandrogenic phenotype", in which there is oligomenorrhea and PCO, without overt hyperandrogenism. The presence of obesity may exacerbate the metabolic and reproductive disorders associated with the syndrome. In addition, PCOS women present higher risk for type 2 diabetes and higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors that seems to be associated with the classic phenotype. The main interventions to minimize cardiovascular and metabolic risks in PCOS are lifestyle changes, pharmacological therapy, and bariatric surgery. Treatment with metformin has been shown to improve insulin sensitivity, lowering blood glucose and androgen levels. These effects are more potent when combined with lifestyle interventions. In conclusion, besides reproductive abnormalities, PCOS has been associated to metabolic comorbidities, most of them linked to obesity. Confounders, such as the lack of standard diagnostic criteria, heterogeneity of the clinical presentation, and presence of obesity, make management of PCOS difficult. Therefore, the approach to metabolic abnormalities should be tailored to the risks and treatment goals of each individual woman.

  16. The fetal origins of the metabolic syndrome: can we intervene?

    PubMed

    Ma, Noelle; Hardy, Daniel B

    2012-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that metabolic programming begins during fetal life and adverse events in utero are a critical factor in the etiology of chronic diseases and overall health. While the underlying molecular mechanisms linking impaired fetal development to these adult diseases are being elucidated, little is known about how we can intervene early in life to diminish the incidence and severity of these long-term diseases. This paper highlights the latest clinical and pharmaceutical studies addressing how dietary intervention in fetal and neonatal life may be able to prevent aspects of the metabolic syndrome associated with IUGR pregnancies.

  17. Continuous Metabolic Syndrome Scores for Children Using Salivary Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Ping; Goodson, J. Max; Hartman, Mor-Li; Hasturk, Hatice; Yaskell, Tina; Vargas, Jorel; Cugini, Maryann; Barake, Roula; Alsmadi, Osama; Al-Mutawa, Sabiha; Ariga, Jitendra; Soparkar, Pramod; Behbehani, Jawad; Behbehani, Kazem; Welty, Francine

    2015-01-01

    Background Binary definitions of the metabolic syndrome based on the presence of a particular number of individual risk factors are limited, particularly in the pediatric population. To address this limitation, we aimed at constructing composite and continuous metabolic syndrome scores (cmetS) to represent an overall measure of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a large cohort of metabolically at-risk children, focusing on the use of the usual clinical parameters (waist circumference (WC) and systolic blood pressure (SBP), supplemented with two salivary surrogate variables (glucose and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDLC). Two different approaches used to create the scores were evaluated in comparison. Methods Data from 8,112 Kuwaiti children (10.00 ± 0.67 years) were used to construct two cmetS for each subject. The first cmetS (cmetS-Z) was created by summing standardized residuals of each variable regressed on age and gender; and the second cmetS (cmetS-PCA) was defined as the first principal component from gender-specific principal component analysis based on the four variables. Results There was a graded relationship between both scores and the number of adverse risk factors. The areas under the curve using cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA as predictors for severe metabolic syndrome (defined as the presence of ≥3 metabolic risk factors) were 0.935 and 0.912, respectively. cmetS-Z was positively associated with WC, SBP, and glucose, but inversely associated with HDLC. Except for the lack of association with glucose, cmetS-PCA was similar to cmetS-Z in boys, but had minimum loading on HDLC in girls. Analysis using quantile regression showed an inverse association of fitness level with cmetS-PCA (p = 0.001 for boys; p = 0.002 for girls), and comparison of cmetS-Z and cmetS-PCA suggested that WC and SBP were main contributory components. Significant alterations in the relationship between cmetS and salivary adipocytokines were demonstrated in overweight and obese

  18. Role of sleep quality in the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Koren, Dorit; Dumin, Magdalena; Gozal, David

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence has assigned an important role to sleep as a modulator of metabolic homeostasis. The impact of variations in sleep duration, sleep-disordered breathing, and chronotype to cardiometabolic function encompasses a wide array of perturbations spanning from obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease risk and mortality in both adults and children. Here, we critically and extensively review the published literature on such important issues and provide a comprehensive overview of the most salient pathophysiologic pathways underlying the links between sleep, sleep disorders, and cardiometabolic functioning. PMID:27601926

  19. Recovery and outcomes after the acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) in patients and their family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Herridge, Margaret S; Moss, Marc; Hough, Catherine L; Hopkins, Ramona O; Rice, Todd W; Bienvenu, O Joseph; Azoulay, Elie

    2016-05-01

    Outcomes after acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) are similar to those of other survivors of critical illness and largely affect the nerve, muscle, and central nervous system but also include a constellation of varied physical devastations ranging from contractures and frozen joints to tooth loss and cosmesis. Compromised quality of life is related to a spectrum of impairment of physical, social, emotional, and neurocognitive function and to a much lesser extent discrete pulmonary disability. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW) is ubiquitous and includes contributions from both critical illness polyneuropathy and myopathy, and recovery from these lesions may be incomplete at 5 years after ICU discharge. Cognitive impairment in ARDS survivors ranges from 70 to 100 % at hospital discharge, 46 to 80 % at 1 year, and 20 % at 5 years, and mood disorders including depression and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) are also sustained and prevalent. Robust multidisciplinary and longitudinal interventions that improve these outcomes are still uncertain and data in our literature are conflicting. Studies are needed in family members of ARDS survivors to better understand long-term outcomes of the post-ICU family syndrome and to evaluate how it affects patient recovery.

  20. Long-Term Consequences for Offspring of Paternal Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Linares Segovia, Benigno; Gutiérrez Tinoco, Maximiliano; Izquierdo Arrizon, Angeles; Guízar Mendoza, Juan Manuel; Amador Licona, Norma

    2012-01-01

    Background. Recent studies have reported an increase in the prevalence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents. However, few have focused how diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome together in parents can influence on obesity and metabolic disturbances in offspring. Objective. To know the risk obesity and metabolic disturbance in children, adolescents, and young adults whose parents have diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome. Methods. A comparative survey was made in healthy children of parents with diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome compared with offspring of healthy parents. We performed anthropometry and evaluated blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels in plasma. We registered parent antecedents to diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome and investigated the prevalence of overweight, obesity, and metabolic disturbances in offspring. Results. We studied 259 subjects of 7 to 20 years of age. The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 27% and 37%, respectively. The highest proportion of BMI >95th of the entire group was found in offspring with both diabetic parents. Glucose and total cholesterol levels were lower in the group with healthy parents compared with the group with diabetic mother and metabolic syndrome but with healthy father. HDL cholesterol was higher in the group with both healthy parents than in the group with diabetic mother and metabolic syndrome but healthy father. Conclusions. The offspring of parents with diabetes plus metabolic syndrome showed higher proportion of variables related to metabolic syndrome compared with healthy parents. PMID:23193389

  1. Menopause, the metabolic syndrome, and mind-body therapies

    PubMed Central

    Innes, Kim E.; Selfe, Terry Kit; Taylor, Ann Gill

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease risk rises sharply with menopause, likely due to the coincident increase in insulin resistance and related atherogenic changes that together comprise the metabolic or insulin resistance syndrome, a cluster of metabolic and hemodynamic abnormalities strongly implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of cardiovascular disease. A growing body of research suggests that traditional mind-body practices such as yoga, tai chi, and qigong may offer safe and cost-effective strategies for reducing insulin resistance syndrome-related risk factors for cardiovascular disease in older populations, including postmenopausal women. Current evidence suggests that these practices may reduce insulin resistance and related physiological risk factors for cardiovascular disease; improve mood, well-being, and sleep; decrease sympathetic activation; and enhance cardiovagal function. However, additional rigorous studies are needed to confirm existing findings and to examine long-term effects on cardiovascular health. PMID:18779682

  2. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Marcio H; Bruno, Anderson S; Nahas-Neto, Jorge; Santos, Maria Emilia S; Nahas, Eliana A P

    2014-05-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is considered the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western countries. NAFLD includes a spectrum ranging from a simple steatosis to a nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) which is defined by the presence of inflammatory infiltrate, cellular necrosis, hepatocyte ballooning, and fibrosis and cirrhosis that can eventually develop into hepatocellular carcinoma. Studies emphasize the role of insulin resistance, oxidative stress, pro-inflammatory cytokines, adipokines in the development and progression of NAFLD. It seems to be independently associated with type II diabetes mellitus, increased triglycerides, decreased HDL-cholesterol, abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. These findings are in accordance with the criteria used in the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Here, we will discuss the current knowledge on the epidemiology, pathophysiology and diagnosis of NAFLD and the association of metabolic syndrome in postmenopausal women.

  3. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome: Improving outcome with lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Westerink, N L; Nuver, J; Lefrandt, J D; Vrieling, A H; Gietema, J A; Walenkamp, A M E

    2016-12-01

    Increasing numbers of long-term cancer survivors face important treatment related adverse effects. Cancer treatment induced metabolic syndrome (CTIMetS) is an especially prevalent and harmful condition. The aetiology of CTIMetS likely differs from metabolic syndrome in the general population, but effective treatment and prevention methods are probably similar. In this review, we summarize the potential mechanisms leading to the development of CTIMetS after various types of cancer treatment. Furthermore, we propose a safe and accessible method to treat or prevent CTIMetS through lifestyle change. In particular, we suggest that a lifestyle intervention and optimization of energy balance can prevent or mitigate the development of CTIMetS, which may contribute to optimal survivorship care.

  4. Beta Glucan: Health Benefits in Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, D.; Cuda, C.; Luhovyy, B. L.; Anderson, G. H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite the lack of international agreement regarding the definition and classification of fiber, there is established evidence on the role of dietary fibers in obesity and metabolic syndrome. Beta glucan (β-glucan) is a soluble fiber readily available from oat and barley grains that has been gaining interest due to its multiple functional and bioactive properties. Its beneficial role in insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity is being continuously documented. The fermentability of β-glucans and their ability to form highly viscous solutions in the human gut may constitute the basis of their health benefits. Consequently, the applicability of β-glucan as a food ingredient is being widely considered with the dual purposes of increasing the fiber content of food products and enhancing their health properties. Therefore, this paper explores the role of β-glucans in the prevention and treatment of characteristics of the metabolic syndrome, their underlying mechanisms of action, and their potential in food applications. PMID:22187640

  5. Canagliflozin improves risk factors of metabolic syndrome in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Michael J; Merton, Katherine W; Vijapurkar, Ujjwala; Balis, Dainius A; Desai, Mehul

    2017-01-01

    Objective Metabolic syndrome refers to a collection of risk factors associated with the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Canagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor, improves glycemic control and reduces body weight and blood pressure (BP) in a broad range of patients with T2DM. This post hoc analysis assessed the effects of canagliflozin on the components of metabolic syndrome in patients with T2DM and metabolic syndrome. Methods This analysis was based on data from 2 head-to-head studies of canagliflozin in patients with T2DM on background metformin versus glimepiride (study 1) and background metformin plus sulfonylurea versus sitagliptin 100 mg (study 2). Changes from baseline in glycemic efficacy, anthropometric measures, BP, and lipids were evaluated with canagliflozin versus glimepiride and sitagliptin at week 52 in patients who met ≥2 of the criteria for metabolic syndrome (in addition to T2DM): triglycerides ≥1.7 mmol/L; high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) <1.0 mmol/L (men) or <1.3 mmol/L (women); waist circumference ≥102 cm (non-Asian men), ≥88 cm (non-Asian women), >90 cm (Asian men), or >80 cm (Asian women); diagnosis of hypertension or meeting BP-related criteria (systolic BP ≥130 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥85 mmHg). Safety was assessed based on adverse event reports. Results In study 1, canagliflozin 100 and 300 mg provided similar and greater HbA1c reductions versus glimepiride, respectively. In study 2, canagliflozin 300 mg provided greater HbA1c lowering versus sitagliptin 100 mg. Canagliflozin also reduced fasting plasma glucose, body weight, body mass index, waist circumference, BP, and triglycerides, and increased HDL-C and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol versus glimepiride and sitagliptin. Canagliflozin was generally well tolerated in each study. Conclusion Canagliflozin was associated with improvements in all components of metabolic syndrome in patients with T2DM and

  6. Genetic susceptibility to obesity and metabolic syndrome in childhood.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Concepción M; Olza, Josune; Gil, Angel

    2013-09-01

    Obesity is one of the major public health problems worldwide. It is a chronic, complex, and multifactorial origin disease characterised by body fat excess mainly due to an imbalance between dietary intake and energy expenditure. One of the major complications of obesity is metabolic syndrome, which comprises anthropometrical, clinical, and metabolic dysfunctions that predispose the affected individual to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular diseases. It is hypothesised that the variability in the susceptibility to obesity-mediated metabolic complications involves both environmental and genetic factors. Whereas advances in the knowledge of the variations in the human genome have led to the identification of susceptibility genes that contribute to obesity and related disorders, relatively few studies have specifically focused on the interactions between obesity and genetic polymorphisms and the development of metabolic complications. Despite these limited efforts, an increasing amount of evidence suggests that the effects of some gene variants on metabolic traits are modified by or present only in the setting of obesity. Furthermore, some of these loci may have larger effects on metabolic phenotypes in the presence of certain dietary or lifestyle factors. In the present manuscript, we reviewed the genes and their variants that have been evidenced to play a role in obesity-associated metabolic complications through genetic association studies, including candidate gene and genome-wide association approaches in adults and children.

  7. Sympathetic Nervous System, Hypertension, Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Seravalle, Gino; Grassi, Guido

    2016-09-01

    Experimental and clinical studies have clearly shown the role of the sympathetic nervous system in the pathophysiology of several cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular diseases. This short review will be aimed at focusing and discussing the new information collected on two specific clinical conditions such as obesity and metabolic syndrome. The paper will briefly describe the four main mechanisms that represent the common link between these two pathophysiological conditions and that through the sympathetic nervous system contribute to increase the cardiovascular risk.

  8. Metabolic syndrome in three ethnic groups using current definitions.

    PubMed

    Delisle, Hélène; Désilets, Marie-Claude; Vargas, Estanislao Ramirez; Garrel, Dominique

    2008-04-01

    According to two current definitions, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) among black Haitians of Montreal was <20%, 30%-36% in Algonquin Indians of Quebec, and >45% in Mexicans of Oaxaca (all aged 35-60 y). Although phenotypes were different, high triglycerides and fasting dysglycemia were good predictors of MetS in all three groups using both definitions. The international cut-offs for abdominal obesity were not predictive of MetS in the Haitian subjects.

  9. Progressive cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in rats with evolving metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lehnen, A M; Leguisamo, N M; Casali, K R; Schaan, B D

    2013-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is linked to increased cardiovascular mortality, which may be partially attributed to cardiac sympatho-vagal imbalance. However, autonomic changes were not evaluated during the metabolic syndrome development in a monosodium glutamate-induced animal model. We evaluate temporal changes in cardiovascular autonomic modulation in an animal model of metabolic syndrome. Eighteen neonate male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were treated with monosodium glutamate (MetS), and compared with Wistar-Kyoto (C) and saline-treated SHR (H). Lee index, insulin resistance and autonomic control (spectral analysis) were evaluated at 3 (3-mo), 6 (6-mo) and 9 (9-mo) months of age (compared by two-way ANOVA, p<0.05). Weight of visceral fat, Lee index and arterial pressure were higher in the MetS vs. C and H groups (p<0.001) at all ages. Heart rate variability (HRV) was decreased in the MetS and H groups at 3-mo and 9-mo vs. C. The LF component of HRV was reduced in the MetS group at 3-mo vs. C (p=0.032), and higher vs. C and H at 9-mo (p<0.001, all comparisons). H and MetS rats had a higher LF/HF index vs. C at 9-mo (p=0.001, all comparisons). The VLF component of systolic arterial pressure variability of the MetS was higher earlier (6-mo) than that of the H group. A reduction of 70%, 98% and 54% in αLF index of H and MetS rats vs. C, was observed at 3, 6 and 9 months, respectively. Metabolic syndrome and hypertension in rats evolve with progressive autonomic dysfunction (worst at 9 months), with specific derangements occurring very early.

  10. Incidence of Metabolic Syndrome and Relative Importance of Five Components as a Predictor of Metabolic Syndrome: 5-Year Follow-up Study in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jun Hyun; Kam, Sin; Shin, Ji-yeon; Kim, Jong-Yeon; Lee, Kyung-Eun; Kwon, Gi-Hong; Chun, Byung-Yeol; Chae, Shung Chull; Yang, Dong Heon; Park, Hun Sik

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the incidence of metabolic syndrome and to identify five components as metabolic syndrome predictors. The final study included 1,095 subjects enrolled in a rural part of Daegu Metropolitan City, Korea for a cohort study in 2003. Of these, 762 (69.6%) subjects had participated in the repeat survey. During the five-year follow-up, incidence density was significantly higher for women than for men (men, 30.0/1,000 person-years; women, 46.4/1,000 person-years). In both men and women, incidence of metabolic syndrome showed a significant increase with increasing number of metabolic syndrome components at baseline. Compared with individuals presenting none of components at baseline, relative risks were increased 1.22 (men; 95% CI, 0.43-3.51), 2.21 (women; 95% CI, 0.98-4.97) times more for individuals with one component of metabolic syndrome and 5.30 (men; 95% CI, 2.31-12.13), 5.53 (women; 95% CI, 2.78-11.01) times more for those who had two components. In multivariate analysis, the most powerful risk factor for metabolic syndrome was abdominal obesity in men and low HDL-cholesterol in women (adjusted relative risk, 3.28, 2.53, respectively). Consequently, finding a high risk group for metabolic syndrome according to gender and prevention of metabolic syndrome through lifestyle modification are essential. PMID:24339707

  11. Role of oxidative stress in pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mahjoub, Soleiman; Masrour-Roudsari, Jila

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) recognized as a major cause of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases, has become one of the major public health challenges worldwide. The pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome is multiple and still poorly understood. No single factor has yet been identified as an underlying causal factor. There is a growing belief, however, that obesity, especially visceral obesity, may play an important role in the development of the syndrome. Visceral adiposity seems to be an independent predictor of insulin sensitivity, impaired glucose tolerance, dyslipidemia and elevated blood pressure. An increasing number of studies confirm that oxidative stress, chronic inflammation and angiogenesis all play important roles in the pathogenesis of MS. Chronic hyperglycemia causes oxidative stress in tissues prone to complications in patients with diabetes. Oxidative stress occurs in a cellular system when the production of free radical moieties exceeds the antioxidant capacity of that system. If cellular antioxidants do not remove free radicals, radicals attack and damage proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids. The oxidized or nitrosylated products of free radical attack have decreased biological activity, leading to loss of energy metabolism, cell signaling, transport, and other major functions. These altered products are also targeted for proteosome degradation, further decreasing cellular function. Accumulation of such injury ultimately leads a cell to die through necrotic or apoptotic mechanisms. In conclusion, a puzzle of many pieces of evidence suggests that free radical overgeneration may be considered the key in the generation of insulin resistance, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. PMID:26557292

  12. Validation of the Friedewald Formula in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Knopfholz, José; Disserol, Caio César Diniz; Pierin, Andressa Jardim; Schirr, Fernanda Letícia; Takito, Lilian Lumi; Massucheto Ledesma, Patrícia; Faria-Neto, José Rocha; Olandoski, Marcia; da Cunha, Claudio Leinig Pereira; Bandeira, Antonio Milton

    2014-01-01

    Currently, the Friedewald formula (FF) is the main method for evaluating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c). Recently, many limitations have emerged regarding its use, including patients with triglyceride levels ≥400 mg/dL, diabetes mellitus, and kidney or hepatic chronic diseases. We analyzed the use of the FF in patients with metabolic syndrome. We selected patients with known metabolic syndrome that fulfilled the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults (Adult Treatment Panel III) Final Report and excluded patients with triglyceride levels ≥400 mg/dL and chronic liver and/or kidney disease. Using direct assays, we measured total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, and LDL-c. Then, LDL-c was estimated using the FF and compared with the LDL-c by direct assay. The sample size was 135 patients. Using the FF, the mean LDL-c value was 124.4 ± 42.1 mg/dL; it was 125.1 ± 38.5 mg/dL by direct assay. The correlation coefficient between these two methods was 0.89, with statistical significance (P  value < 0.001). There were no significant differences between the patients with triglyceride levels >150 mg/dL (P = 0.618). In conclusion, FF is a good method for estimating LDL-c in patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:24672715

  13. Metabolic syndrome, atrial fibrillation, and stroke: Tackling an emerging epidemic.

    PubMed

    Hajhosseiny, Reza; Matthews, Gareth K; Lip, Gregory Y H

    2015-11-01

    The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) and AF-related stroke is set to increase dramatically in coming decades, with developing regions such as Latin America experiencing the greatest impact. These trends are primarily driven by aging populations and by the increasing prevalence of the metabolic syndrome. The metabolic syndrome describes an association between diabetes, hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. It is in large part the result of unbalanced diet and sedentary lifestyle. These essentially modifiable risk factors are becoming more prevalent with the widespread adoption of so-called Western lifestyles. This review examines the physiology underlying the link between the metabolic syndrome and AF. Next, it highlights the importance of addressing lifestyle-related risk factors to mitigate the trend toward increasing AF prevalence. It then goes on to discuss the importance of stroke prevention therapy in patients with established AF, focusing on the relative merits of various available options for anticoagulation. Given the recent availability of comprehensive data on the 4 currently available non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulant drugs, this review concludes by discussing the relative merits of specific agents in individual patient groups.

  14. Management of metabolic syndrome through probiotic and prebiotic interventions

    PubMed Central

    Mallappa, Rashmi H.; Rokana, Namita; Duary, Raj Kumar; Panwar, Harsh; Batish, Virender Kumar; Grover, Sunita

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder caused by a cluster of interrelated factors that increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. Obesity is the main precursor for metabolic syndrome that can be targeted in developing various therapies. With this view, several physical, psychological, pharmaceutical and dietary therapies have been proposed for the management of obesity. However, dietary strategies found more appropriate without any adverse health effects. Application of probiotics and prebiotics as biotherapeutics is the new emerging area in developing dietary strategies and many people are interested in learning the facts behind these health claims. Recent studies established the role of probiotics and prebiotics in weight management with possible mechanisms of improved microbial balance, decreased food intake, decreased abdominal adiposity and increased mucosal integrity with decreased inflammatory tone. Hence, the above “Pharmaco-nutritional” approach has been selected and extensively reviewed to gain thorough knowledge on putative mechanisms of probiotic and prebiotic action in order to develop dietary strategies for the management of metabolic syndrome. PMID:22276249

  15. Dietary patterns and metabolic syndrome--a review of epidemiologic evidence.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Amanda J; Coyne, Terry; McClintock, Christine

    2006-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and type 2 diabetes, and appears to be widely prevalent in both developed and developing countries. While lifestyle modification is recommended for management of the syndrome, the dietary pattern most beneficial for patients is yet to be ascertained. Original research papers from the Medline database were examined for dietary patterns that may be associated with the syndrome. Three large-scale epidemiological studies were found fitting our criteria. Dietary patterns high in fruit and vegetable content were generally found to be associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Diet patterns with high meat intake were frequently associated with components of metabolic syndrome, particularly impaired glucose tolerance. High dairy intake was generally associated with reduced risk for components of metabolic syndrome with some inconsistency in the literature regarding risk of obesity. Minimally processed cereals appeared to be associated with decreased risk of metabolic syndrome, while highly processed cereals with high glycaemic index are associated with higher risk. Fried foods were noticeably absent from any dietary pattern associated with decreased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The conclusion of this review is that no individual dietary component could be considered wholly responsible for the association of diet with metabolic syndrome. Rather it is the overall quality of the diet that appears to offer protection against lifestyle disease such as metabolic syndrome. Further research is required into conditions, such as overweight and obesity, which may influence the effect of diet on the development of metabolic syndrome.

  16. Improvement of metabolic syndrome markers through altitude specific hiking vacations.

    PubMed

    Greie, S; Humpeler, E; Gunga, H C; Koralewski, E; Klingler, A; Mittermayr, M; Fries, D; Lechleitner, M; Hoertnagl, H; Hoffmann, G; Strauss-Blasche, G; Schobersberger, W

    2006-06-01

    To study the influence of a 3-week hiking vacation at moderate (1700 m) and low altitude (LA) (200 m) on key-markers of the metabolic syndrome, 71 male volunteers (age 36-66 yr old) with the metabolic syndrome [according to the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) - or World Health Organization (WHO) - definition] participated in the study and were randomly assigned into a moderate altitude (MA) group (1700 m, no. 36) and a low altitude (LA) group (200 m, no. 35). The 3-week vacation program included 12 moderate- intensity guided hiking tours [4 times/week, 55-65% heart rate maximum (HRmax)] with a total exercise time of 29 h plus moderate recreational activities. Both study groups had a comparable and balanced nutrition with no specific dietary restrictions. Anthropometric, metabolic and cardiovascular parameters were measured 10-14 days before vacation, several times during the 3-week vacation, 7-10 days and 6-8 weeks after return. All participants tolerated the vacation without any adverse effects. Body weight, body fat, waist-circumference, fasting glucose, total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C), plasma fibrinogen, resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly decreased over time in both study groups. In the LA group, fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA)-index were significantly decreased one week after return. Relative cycle ergometry performance was significantly increased after return compared to baseline. In both study groups, waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), 2-h oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), and triglycerides remained unchanged. The 3-week vacation intervention at moderate and LA had a positive influence on all key-markers of the metabolic syndrome. No clinically relevant differences could be detected between the study groups. A hiking vacation at moderate and LA can be recommended for people with stable, controlled metabolic and cardiovascular

  17. Effect of metabolic syndrome on sexual function in pre- and postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Otunctemur, Alper; Dursun, Murat; Ozbek, Emin; Sahin, Suleyman; Besiroglu, Huseyin; Koklu, Ismail; Polat, Emre Can; Erkoc, Mustafa; Danis, Eyyup; Bozkurt, Muammer

    2015-01-01

    Female sexual dysfunction is a prevalent and multidimensional disorder related to many biological, psychological, and social determinants. The authors assessed the effect of one of the many factors affect sexual function-metabolic syndrome-on female sexual function. They equally divided 400 women participants among 4 groups: (a) premenopausal with metabolic syndrome, (b) premenopausal without metabolic syndrome, (c) postmenopausal with metabolic syndrome, and (d) postmenopausal without metabolic syndrome. The authors used the Female Sexual Function Index to assess women's sexual function. Female sexual dysfunction was found more often in both pre- and postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome (p =.001). Overall Female Sexual Function Index score and satisfaction, pain, and desire domain scores independently of the menopause status showed statistically significant differences across women with metabolic syndrome in comparison with participants with no metabolic syndrome (p <.05). The authors also evaluated the associations among 5 components of metabolic syndrome and Female Sexual Function Index scores. Higher fasting glucose levels were significantly associated with the Female Sexual Function Index score (p <.05). This study shows that sexual dysfunction is more prevalent in pre- and postmenopausal women with the metabolic syndrome.

  18. From the metabolic syndrome to NAFLD or vice versa?

    PubMed

    Vanni, Ester; Bugianesi, Elisabetta; Kotronen, Anna; De Minicis, Samuele; Yki-Järvinen, Hannele; Svegliati-Baroni, Gianluca

    2010-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome encompasses metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors which predict diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) better than any of its individual components. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) comprises a disease spectrum which includes variable degrees of simple steatosis (nonalcoholic fatty liver, NAFL), nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) and cirrhosis. NAFLD is the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome, with insulin resistance as the main pathogenetic mechanism. Recent data indicate that hyperinsulinemia is probably the consequence rather than cause of NAFLD and NAFLD can be considered an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. Serum free fatty acids derived from lipolysis of visceral adipose tissue are the main source of hepatic triglycerides in NAFLD, although hepatic de novo lipogenesis and dietary fat supply contribute to the pathogenesis of NAFLD. Approximately 10-25% NAFLD patients develop NASH, the evolutive form of hepatic steatosis. Presumably in a genetically predisposed environment, this increased lipid overload overwhelms the oxidative capacity and reactive oxygen species are generated, leading to lipid peroxidation, cytokine induction, chemoattraction of inflammatory cells, hepatic stellate cell activation and finally fibrogenesis with extracellular matrix deposition. No currently available therapies for NAFLD and NASH exist. Recently nuclear receptors have emerged as key regulators of lipid and carbohydrate metabolism for which specific pharmacological ligands are available, making them attractive therapeutic targets for NAFLD and NASH.

  19. Role of Sirtuins in Linking Metabolic Syndrome with Depression

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juhyun; Kim, Jongpil

    2016-01-01

    Depression is now widely regarded as a common disabling disorder that affects negatively the social functioning all over the world. Depression is associated with diverse phenomenon in brain such as neuroinflammation, synaptic dysfunction, and cognitive deficit. Recent studies reported that depression occurs by various metabolic changes, leading to metabolic syndrome. Sirtuins (SIRTs) are NAD+-dependent class III histone deacetylases, known to regulate diverse biological mechanism such as longevity, genomic stability, and inflammation. The modulation of sirtuin activity has been highlighted as a promising approach to reduce neurodegenerative processes. In this review, we summarize the recent discoveries regarding the potential relationship between SIRTs and depression caused by metabolic disorders (Mets). Ultimately, we suggest the possibility that SIRTs will be novel targets to alleviate neuropathogenesis induced by depression. PMID:27065808

  20. An association of metabolic syndrome constellation with cellular membrane caveolae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei-Zheng

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a cluster of metabolic abnormalities that can predispose an individual to a greater risk of developing type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases. The cluster includes abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperglycemia - all of which are risk factors to public health. While searching for a link among the aforementioned malaises, clues have been focused on the cell membrane domain caveolae, wherein the MetS-associated active molecules are colocalized and interacted with to carry out designated biological activities. Caveola disarray could induce all of those individual metabolic abnormalities to be present in animal models and humans, providing a new target for therapeutic strategy in the management of MetS.

  1. Executive Functioning and the Metabolic Syndrome: A Project FRONTIER Study

    PubMed Central

    Falkowski, Jed; Atchison, Timothy; DeButte-Smith, Maxine; Weiner, Myron F.; O'Bryant, Sid

    2014-01-01

    Decrements in cognitive functioning have been linked to the metabolic syndrome (MetS), a risk factor for cardiovascular disease defined by the presence of three of the following: elevated blood pressure, increased waist circumference, elevated blood glucose, elevated triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We examined the relationship between four measures of executive functioning (EF) and MetS as diagnosed by National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-American Heart Association criteria. MetS was examined in a rural population of 395 persons with a mean age of 61.3 years, 71.4% women, 37.0% Hispanic, 53.7% White non-Hispanic. There was a 61.0% prevalence of MetS. We derived a factor score from the four executive function measures which was used to compare those with and without the syndrome, as well as any additive effects of components of the syndrome. Those with MetS exhibited significantly poorer performance than those without the syndrome. However, there was no additive effect, having more components of the syndrome was not related to lower performance. The presence of MetS was associated with poorer EF in this rural cohort of community dwelling volunteers. PMID:24152591

  2. Is Metabolic Syndrome On the Radar? Improving Real-Time Detection of Metabolic Syndrome and Physician Response by Computerized Scan of the Electronic Medical Record

    PubMed Central

    Lui, Kingwai; Randhawa, Gagandeep; Totten, Vicken; Smith, Adam E.; Raese, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Metabolic syndrome is a common underdiagnosed condition among psychiatric patients exacerbated by second-generation antipsychotics, with the exception of aripiprazole and ziprasidone. This study evaluated the prescribing and treating behavior with regard to antipsychotics and metabolic syndrome of psychiatrists before and after implementation of a mandatory admission order set and electronic notification of results. Method: Baseline data from 9,100 consecutive psychiatric admissions to a mental health hospital (July 2013–July 2014) were compared to postintervention data (July 2014–January 2015), which included 1,499 consecutive patient records. The intervention initiated standardized admission testing with electronic notification to psychiatrists when patients met metabolic syndrome criteria (according to Axis III of the DSM-IV). Charts were examined for inclusion of this diagnosis at discharge and for treatment changes. Results: At baseline, only 2.4% of patients (n = 214) were evaluated for metabolic syndrome. Of these, 34.5% (0.8% of the total sample) met metabolic syndrome criteria. Only 15 patients (0.16%) were comprehensively treated. No chart listed metabolic syndrome under Axis III of the DSM-IV. After the intervention, the diagnosis of patients meeting the criteria for metabolic syndrome increased from 0% to 29.3%. Less than 3% of patients were switched to drugs with a more benign metabolic profile. All patients who continued on second-generation antipsychotics had metabolic retesting. Thirty-eight experienced a significant and rapid increase in triglyceride levels after only 3 to 17 days. Conclusions: Mandatory intake testing increases the number of patients evaluated for metabolic syndrome. Electronic alerts increase the inclusion of metabolic syndrome among discharge diagnoses but rarely affect prescribing practices. PMID:27247842

  3. Metabolic syndrome risk factors and dry eye syndrome: a Meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ye-Lei; Cheng, Ya-Lan; Ren, Yu-Ping; Yu, Xiao-Ning; Shentu, Xing-Chao

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the relationship between metabolic risk factors and dry eye syndrome (DES). METHODS Retrieved studies on the association of metabolic syndrome risk factors (hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, and hyperlipidemia) and DES were collected from PubMed, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library in December 2015. Odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled to evaluate the final relationship. Subgroup analyses were conducted according to diagnostic criteria of DES. RESULTS Nine cross-sectional studies and three case-control studies were included in this Meta-analysis. The pooled results showed that people with hypertension, hyperglycemia, and hyperlipidemia had a higher risk of suffering from DES (P<0.05), especially the typical DES symptoms. On the other hand, obesity did not increase the risk of DES. CONCLUSION The present Meta-analysis suggests that all metabolic risk factors except obesity were risk factors for DES. PMID:27500114

  4. Endogenous fructose production and metabolism in the liver contributes to the development of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lanaspa, Miguel A; Ishimoto, Takuji; Li, Nanxing; Cicerchi, Christina; Orlicky, David J.; Ruzicky, Philip; Rivard, Christopher; Inaba, Shinichiro; Roncal-Jimenez, Carlos A.; Bales, Elise S.; Diggle, Christine P.; Asipu, Aruna; Petrash, J. Mark; Kosugi, Tomoki; Maruyama, Shoichi; Sanchez-Lozada, Laura G.; McManaman, James L.; Bonthron, David T; Sautin, Yuri Y.; Johnson, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates with high glycemic index are proposed to promote the development of obesity, insulin resistance and fatty liver, but the mechanism by which this occurs remains unknown. High serum glucose concentrations glucose are known to induce the polyol pathway and increase fructose generation in the liver. Here we show that this hepatic, endogenously-produced fructose causes systemic metabolic changes. We demonstrate that mice unable to metabolize fructose are protected from an increase in energy intake and body weight, visceral obesity, fatty liver, elevated insulin levels and hyperleptinemia after exposure to 10% glucose for 14 weeks. In normal mice, glucose consumption is accompanied by aldose reductase and polyol pathway activation in steatotic areas. In this regard, we show that aldose reductase deficient mice were protected against glucose-induced fatty liver. We conclude that endogenous fructose generation and metabolism in the liver represents an important mechanism whereby glucose promotes the development of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24022321

  5. Metabolic syndrome – Removing roadblocks to therapy: Antigenic immunotherapies☆

    PubMed Central

    Coppieters, Ken T.; von Herrath, Matthias G.

    2014-01-01

    Up to 25 per cent of the world׳s adult population may have the metabolic syndrome, a condition closely associated with central obesity. The metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes and therefore represents an important worldwide health problem. In addition to metabolic abnormalities such as raised fasting plasma glucose, high cholesterol and high blood pressure, there is consensus that obese subjects develop a state of low-grade chronic immune activation. This sustained pro-inflammatory response in fat tissue is thought to worsen insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Likewise, the immune system contributes to the detrimental cascade of events leading to plaque formation in atherosclerosis. It has long been assumed that the innate arm of the immune system was the only key player, but emerging evidence suggests that there is in fact a sizeable adaptive immune component to obesity and cardiovascular disease. From a therapeutic perspective, it could be envisioned that immune modulation drugs such as cytokine inhibitors, co-stimulation blockers or anti-T cell agents could offer benefit. It is questionable, however, whether chronic treatment with for instance biologicals will have a favorable risk/benefit profile in a silent condition such as the metabolic syndrome. An attractive alternative could be the development of antigen-specific T cell therapies, not unlike those currently in various phases of development for type 1 diabetes. In this article, we will give an overview of antigen-specific treatment modalities in type 1 diabetes, followed by a review of the evidence for T cell involvement in obesity and atherosclerosis. PMID:24749057

  6. A metabolic syndrome severity score: A tool to quantify cardio-metabolic risk factors.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Joshua F; Carrington, Melinda J

    2016-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of cardio-metabolic risk factors and is associated with increased mortality. There is no standard, validated way to assess the severity of aggregated metabolic syndrome risk factors. Cardiovascular and diabetes risk factor data came from two studies conducted in Australia from 2006 to 2010 in adults aged 18 or above. In medication free adults, sex-specific clinical thresholds and Principal Component Analysis were used to develop a formula to calculate a metabolic syndrome severity score (MetSSS). These scores were compared to scores derived using the same process in subgroups by sex, age, medication status, and time. We also examined the MetSSS in relation to other known risk factors. In 2125 adults (57.6±14.7years of age), the MetSSS ranged from 0 to 8.7 with a mean of 2.6. There were strong correlations (.95-.99) between the MetSSS in medication free adults and the MetSSS calculated from subgroups. MetSSS predicted medication initiation for hypertension, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia over six months (OR=1.31, 95% CI [1.00-1.70], per MetSSS unit, p=.043). Lower education, medication prescription, history of smoking and age were associated with higher MetSSS (all p<.05). Higher physical but not mental health quality of life was associated with lower MetSSS (p<.001). A standardized formula to measure cardio-metabolic risk factor severity was constructed and demonstrated expected relations with known risk factors. The use of the MetSSS is recommended as a measure of change within individuals in cardio-metabolic risk factors and to guide treatment and management.

  7. Caregiver Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... may take your loved one to an adult day care center or day hospital) The National Eldercare Locator , a service of the U.S. Administration on Aging, can help you find caregiving services in your area. You also can ... care and other caregiving services? Medicare, Medicaid, and private ...

  8. Metabolic syndrome, hypertension, and nervous system injury: Epidemiological correlates.

    PubMed

    Ricci, Giovanna; Pirillo, Isabel; Tomassoni, Daniele; Sirignano, Ascanio; Grappasonni, Iolanda

    2017-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a common and complex disorder combining hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. MetS represents a risk factor for changes in cognitive functions in older age, and several studies have suggested that MetS may be linked to dementia. This article reviews the main evidences about the relationship between MetS and neurodegenerative disease. Starting from an epidemiological point of view, the article analyzes medico-social aspects related to MetS, considering the reduction of work capacity and the condition of disability that it involves. Some authors affirm that on the basis of current Italian legislation, it is possible to consider the syndrome as a disability. This is because all the diseases that make up MetS are high-risk clinical pathological conditions. For these reasons, a joint action is required to contain the incidence of MetS, the high social costs, and the loss of productivity related to the syndrome. In conclusion, healthcare initiatives could be adopted in order to increase the understanding of the pathogenic contributions of each element on MetS and how they can be modified. These actions will be useful to reduce healthcare costs and can lead to more effective prevention of metabolic disease, thus promoting good health.

  9. The Relationship between Metabolic Syndrome and Osteoporosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Sok Kuan; Chin, Kok-Yong; Suhaimi, Farihah Hj; Ahmad, Fairus; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and osteoporosis are two major healthcare problems worldwide. Metabolic syndrome is a constellation of medical conditions consisting of central obesity, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia, in which each acts on bone tissue in different ways. The growing prevalence of MetS and osteoporosis in the population along with the controversial findings on the relationship between both conditions suggest the importance for further investigation and discussion on this topic. This review aims to assess the available evidence on the effects of each component of MetS on bone metabolism from the conventional to the contemporary. Previous studies suggested that the two conditions shared some common underlying pathways, which include regulation of calcium homeostasis, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/receptor activator of the NF-κB (RANK)/osteoprotegerin (OPG) and Wnt-β-catenin signaling pathways. In conclusion, we suggest that MetS may have a potential role in developing osteoporosis and more studies are necessary to further prove this hypothesis. PMID:27338453

  10. Metabolic syndrome in youth: current issues and challenges.

    PubMed

    Huang, Terry T-K; Ball, Geoff D C; Franks, Paul W

    2007-02-01

    The current paper reviews the important issues and challenges facing children and adolescents with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Studies suggest that the MetS and its risk components may be on the rise in children along with rising rates of obesity; however, further study remains warranted. The topics reviewed encompass the definition of the syndrome, its prevalence, clustering and tracking of metabolic risk factors, the role of physical activity and diet in the development of the MetS, criticisms and utility of the MetS definition, and special considerations needed in the pediatric population. Physical activity and diet may play important roles in the MetS; however, research with precise measurements of activity, diet, and metabolic outcomes is needed. The paper concludes by emphasizing that regardless of one's position in the ongoing debate about the MetS, the long-term risks attributable to each individual risk component are real. The abnormality of one component should automatically prompt the screening of other components. Among children and adolescents, lifestyle modification should always serve as the frontline strategy. Prevention during childhood is key to the largest possible impact on adult health at the population level.

  11. Clinical characteristics of metabolic syndrome in Korea, and its comparison with other Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Hong, A Ram; Lim, Soo

    2015-09-01

    Metabolic syndrome is referred to as syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome, and is primarily composed of abdominal obesity, diabetes, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia and high blood pressure. Asians have a lower frequency of obesity than Caucasians, but have an increasing tendency toward metabolic syndrome. Thus, metabolic syndrome poses a major challenge for public health professionals, and is set to become a social and economic problem in Asian populations. Most data on metabolic syndrome are based on studies from Western countries with only limited information derived from Asian populations. Recently, several studies were carried out on a large scale that represents the general Korean population. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean adults has varied depending on the study designs and different criteria, but shows a distinct increasing trend of metabolic syndrome driven by an increase in abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Given the rapid economic progression of Korea over the past 30 years along with a rise of the aged population, it is expected that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome will further increase. Therefore, a proactive strategy at the governmental level for metabolic syndrome prevention should be implemented, reducing abdominal obesity and dyslipidemia. Healthy dietary habits and regular exercise should be emphasized as a part of such a strategy.

  12. β-cell function is associated with metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects

    PubMed Central

    Baez-Duarte, Blanca G; Sánchez-Guillén, María Del Carmen; Pérez-Fuentes, Ricardo; Zamora-Ginez, Irma; Leon-Chavez, Bertha Alicia; Revilla-Monsalve, Cristina; Islas-Andrade, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Aims The clinical diagnosis of metabolic syndrome does not find any parameters to evaluate the insulin sensitivity (IS) or β-cell function. The evaluation of these parameters would detect early risk of developing metabolic syndrome. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between β-cell function and presence of metabolic syndrome in Mexican subjects. Material and methods This study is part of the Mexican Survey on the Prevention of Diabetes (MexDiab Study) with headquarters in the city of Puebla, Mexico. The study comprised of 444 subjects of both genders, aged between 18 and 60 years and allocated into two study groups: (1) control group of individuals at metabolic balance without metabolic syndrome and (2) group composed of subjects with metabolic syndrome and diagnosed according to the criteria of the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Expert Panel on Defection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Cholesterol in Adults. Anthropometric, biochemical, and clinical assessments were carried out. Results Average age of the subjects in the control group (n = 254) was 35.7 ± 11.5 years and 42.0 ± 10.7 years for subjects in the metabolic syndrome group (n = 190). Subjects at metabolic balance without metabolic syndrome showed decreased IS, increased insulin resistance (IR), and altered β-cell function. Individuals with metabolic syndrome showed a high prevalence (P ≤ 0.05) of family history of type 2 diabetes (T2D). This group also showed a significant metabolic imbalance with glucose and insulin levels and lipid profile outside the ranges considered safe to prevent the development of cardiovascular disease and T2D. Conclusion The main finding in this study was the detection of altered β-cell function, decreased IS, an increased IR in subjects at metabolic balance, and the progressive deterioration of β-cell function and IS in subjects with metabolic syndrome as the number of features of metabolic syndrome increases

  13. Association between Nutrient Intake and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Eung-Jin; Yeom, Jeong-Won; Park, Yoon-Hyung

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of nutritional status according to metabolic syndrome in colorectal cancer patients. The subjects were divided into 2 groups (metabolic syndrome group and normal group) according to the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome in 143 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and their lifestyle and nutritional status were analyzed. Recall method was used for the dietary survey, and metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of 3 or more of waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and blood pressure. This study showed that the metabolic syndrome group had a low age, a high body mass index (BMI), and a high drinking rate. The intake of energy, protein, fat, calcium, and phosphorus was significantly higher in the metabolic syndrome group than in the normal group, and the intake of β-carotene, vitamin C, and folic acid was significantly low. The intake of cholesterol, fatty acid, saturated fatty acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid was also higher in the metabolic syndrome group. Higher BMI, alcohol consumption, intake of fat, total fatty acid or saturated fatty acid increased the risk of metabolic syndrome, but fiber, vitamin C, or folic acid intake lowered the risk.Weight management and balanced nutritional intake should be emphasized to prevent metabolic syndrome and to improve the condition in patients with colorectal cancer. PMID:28168180

  14. Excess Metabolic Syndrome Risks Among Women Health Workers Compared With Men.

    PubMed

    Adeoye, Abiodun M; Adewoye, Ifeoluwa A; Dairo, David M; Adebiyi, Adewole; Lackland, Daniel T; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Tayo, Bamidele O

    2015-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with higher rates of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although significant disparities in the risks of metabolic syndrome by occupation type and sex are well documented, the factors associated with metabolic syndrome in low- to middle-income countries remain unclear. These gaps in evidence identify the need for patterns of metabolic syndrome among hospital personnel of both sexes in Nigeria. A total of 256 hospital workers comprising 32.8% men were studied. The mean age of the participants was 42.03 ± 9.4 years. Using International Diabetic Federation criteria, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 24.2%. Women were substantially and significantly more likely to be identified with metabolic syndrome compared with men (34.9% vs 2.4%, respectively; P=.0001). This study identified metabolic syndrome among health workers with over one third of women with metabolic syndrome compared with <10% of men. These results support the implementation of lifestyle modification programs for management of metabolic syndrome in the health care workplace.

  15. Relationship Between Coffee Consumption and Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome Among Japanese Civil Servants

    PubMed Central

    Matsuura, Hideo; Mure, Kanae; Nishio, Nobuhiro; Kitano, Naomi; Nagai, Naoko; Takeshita, Tatsuya

    2012-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome has become a major worldwide public health problem. We examined the relationship between coffee consumption and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among Japanese civil servants. Methods The study participants were 3284 employees (2335 men and 948 women) aged 20 to 65 years. Using data from their 2008 health checkup records, we analyzed the relationship between coffee consumption and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the Japanese criteria. Results Metabolic syndrome was diagnosed in 374 of the 2335 men (16.0%) and 32 of the 948 women (3.4%). In univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses, the odds ratios (ORs) among men for the presence of metabolic syndrome were 0.79 (95% CI: 0.56–1.03) and 0.61 (0.39–0.95), respectively, among moderate (≥4 cups of coffee per day) coffee drinkers as compared with non-coffee drinkers. Among all components of metabolic syndrome, high blood pressure and high triglyceride level were inversely associated with moderate coffee consumption in men, after adjusting for age, body mass index, smoking status, drinking status, and exercise. However, in women, moderate coffee consumption was not significantly associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome or its components. Conclusions Moderate coffee consumption was significantly associated with lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Japanese male civil servants. PMID:22343325

  16. Patients with Old Age or Proximal Tumors Benefit from Metabolic Syndrome in Early Stage Gastric Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Jian-xin; Yu, Hong-mei; Liang, Wei-ping; Jin, Ying; Ren, Chao; He, Ming-ming; Chen, Wei-wei; Luo, Hui-yan; Wang, Zhi-qiang; Zhang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Feng-hua; Li, Yu-hong; Xu, Rui-hua

    2014-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome and/or its components have been demonstrated to be risk factors for several cancers. They are also found to influence survival in breast, colon and prostate cancer, but the prognostic value of metabolic syndrome in gastric cancer has not been investigated. Methods Clinical data and pre-treatment information of metabolic syndrome of 587 patients diagnosed with early stage gastric cancer were retrospectively collected. The associations of metabolic syndrome and/or its components with clinical characteristics and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer were analyzed. Results Metabolic syndrome was identified to be associated with a higher tumor cell differentiation (P = 0.036). Metabolic syndrome was also demonstrated to be a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients aged >50 years old (P = 0.009 in multivariate analysis) or patients with proximal gastric cancer (P = 0.047 in multivariate analysis). No association was found between single metabolic syndrome component and overall survival in early stage gastric cancer. In addition, patients with hypertension might have a trend of better survival through a good control of blood pressure (P = 0.052 in univariate analysis). Conclusions Metabolic syndrome was associated with a better tumor cell differentiation in patients with early stage gastric cancer. Moreover, metabolic syndrome was a significant and independent predictor for better survival in patients with old age or proximal tumors. PMID:24599168

  17. Association between Nutrient Intake and Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Lim, Hee-Sook; Shin, Eung-Jin; Yeom, Jeong-Won; Park, Yoon-Hyung; Kim, Soon-Kyung

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the difference of nutritional status according to metabolic syndrome in colorectal cancer patients. The subjects were divided into 2 groups (metabolic syndrome group and normal group) according to the presence or absence of metabolic syndrome in 143 patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer, and their lifestyle and nutritional status were analyzed. Recall method was used for the dietary survey, and metabolic syndrome was defined as the presence of 3 or more of waist circumference, fasting blood glucose, triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and blood pressure. This study showed that the metabolic syndrome group had a low age, a high body mass index (BMI), and a high drinking rate. The intake of energy, protein, fat, calcium, and phosphorus was significantly higher in the metabolic syndrome group than in the normal group, and the intake of β-carotene, vitamin C, and folic acid was significantly low. The intake of cholesterol, fatty acid, saturated fatty acid, and polyunsaturated fatty acid was also higher in the metabolic syndrome group. Higher BMI, alcohol consumption, intake of fat, total fatty acid or saturated fatty acid increased the risk of metabolic syndrome, but fiber, vitamin C, or folic acid intake lowered the risk.Weight management and balanced nutritional intake should be emphasized to prevent metabolic syndrome and to improve the condition in patients with colorectal cancer.

  18. Metabolic syndrome in childhood from impaired carbohydrate metabolism to nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Manco, Melania

    2011-10-01

    Compelling evidence supports the concept that nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents the hepatic component of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Intrahepatic fat seems to predict more strongly than does visceral adiposity an individual's cardiovascular risk and the likelihood that metabolic abnormalities are present in youth. Young individuals with fatty liver are more insulin resistant and present with a higher prevalence of metabolic abnormalities than do individuals without intrahepatic fat accumulation. They also present with a certain endothelial dysfunction and greater carotid intima-media thickness. Conversely, youth with MetS seem to have an increased risk of developing liver inflammation, a condition termed nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), and fibrosis. In the context of MetS, the liver is central in that it can drive both hepatic and systemic insulin resistance, trigger low-grade inflammation, and promote atherogenic processes. In the context of MetS, NAFLD and altered carbohydrate metabolism track from childhood to adulthood. Thus, prevention, recognition, and effective treatment of these two abnormalities may limit the burden of morbidity and mortality associated with obesity and may delay onset of cardiovascular disease in early adulthood. The present review aims at systematically presenting evidence of the critical interplay of fatty liver and altered glucose metabolism in youth. It attempts to provide pathogenetic explanations for such an association and the rationale for its treatment, with particular regard to nutritional interventions. Key teaching points: Overweight and obese youth should be screened for fatty liver disease once after puberty by liver function tests and ultrasonography. Screening for fatty liver should be accurately performed in young patients with features of metabolic syndrome. Obese patients with fatty liver are at increased risk for altered glucose metabolism, thus they should undergo an oral glucose tolerance test

  19. Ozone (O3): A Potential Contributor to Metabolic Syndrome through Altered Insulin Signaling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Air pollutants have been associated with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, but the mechanisms remain to be elucidated. We hypothesized that acute O3 exposure will produce metabolic impairments through endoplasmic reticular stress (ER) stress and altered insulin signaling in liver,...

  20. Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome: Biochemical Background and Clinical Significance.

    PubMed

    Robberecht, Harry; Hermans, Nina

    2016-03-01

    Biomarkers of the metabolic syndrome are divided into four subgroups. Although dividing them in groups has some limitations, it can be used to draw some conclusions. In a first part, the dyslipidemias and markers of oxidative stress are discussed, while inflammatory markers and cardiometabolic biomarkers are reviewed in a second part. For most of them, the biochemical background and clinical significance are discussed, although here also a well-cut separation cannot always be made. Altered levels cannot always be claimed as the cause, risk, or consequence of the syndrome. Several factors are interrelated to each other and act in a concerted, antagonistic, synergistic, or modulating way. Most important conclusions are summarized at the end of every reviewed subgroup. Genetic biomarkers or influences of various food components on concentration levels are not included in this review article.

  1. Isocaloric fructose restriction and metabolic improvement in children with obesity and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lustig, Robert H.; Mulligan, Kathleen; Noworolski, Susan M.; Tai, Viva W.; Wen, Michael J.; Erkin-Cakmak, Ayca; Gugliucci, Alejandro; Schwarz, Jean-Marc

    2015-01-01

    Objective Dietary fructose is implicated in metabolic syndrome, but intervention studies are confounded by positive caloric balance, changes in adiposity, or artifactually high amounts. We determined whether isocaloric substitution of starch for sugar would improve metabolic parameters in Latino (n=27) and African-American (n=16) children with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Methods Participants consumed a diet for nine days to deliver comparable percentages of protein, fat, and carbohydrate as their self-reported diet; however, dietary sugar was reduced from 28% to 10%, and substituted with starch. Participants recorded daily weights, with calories adjusted for weight maintenance. Participants underwent dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and oral glucose tolerance testing (OGTT) on Days 0 and 10. Biochemical analyses were controlled for weight change by repeated measures ANCOVA. Results Reductions in diastolic BP (−5 mmHg; p=0.002), lactate (−0.3 mmol/L; p<0.001), triglyceride and LDL-cholesterol (−46% and −0.3 mmol/L; p<0.001) were noted. Glucose tolerance and hyperinsulinemia improved (p<0.001). Weight reduced by 0.9±0.2 kg (p<0.001) and fat-free mass by 0.6 kg (p=0.04). Post-hoc sensitivity analysis demonstrates that results in the subcohort that did not lose weight (n=10) were directionally consistent Conclusions Isocaloric fructose restriction improved surrogate metabolic parameters in children with obesity and metabolic syndrome irrespective of weight change. PMID:26499447

  2. Metabolic syndrome associated to non-inflammatory Achilles enthesopathy.

    PubMed

    Abate, Michele; Di Carlo, Luigi; Salini, Vincenzo; Schiavone, Cosima

    2014-01-01

    Enthesopathies are frequently found in rheumatic inflammatory diseases, but can be observed also in absence of systemic inflammation. Aging, overuse, and microtraumas can be responsible for enthesis-degenerative phenomena. Despite that Achilles enthesis is the more frequently affected, no systematic study on the risk factors associated to this enthesopathy has been yet performed. The aim of this paper was to assess whether the metabolic syndrome could be associated to entheseal lesions. Forty-five subjects with symptomatic non-inflammatory Achilles enthesopathy were compared to 45 asymptomatic controls. An ultrasound study of the Achilles enthesis was carried out, and the presence/absence of lesions (morphologic abnormalities, calcific deposits, enthesophytes, cortical abnormalities, and adjacent bursitis) was assessed. On the basis of history, comorbidities (osteoarthritis, diabetes, and hypertension) were recorded. In each subject, body mass index (BMI), glucose, total, and HDL cholesterol were also evaluated. All symptomatic subjects showed at ultrasound evaluation at least one structural entheseal alteration; pathologic features in asymptomatic subjects were found in 6/45 (13.3 %) of cases. Higher values of BMI and glucose were found in subjects with symptomatic enthesopathy. At multiple logistic regression analysis, the presence of high values of BMI and glucose was related to a higher probability to detect entheseal lesions. Metabolic syndrome and overweight may have a role in the pathogenesis of Achilles enthesopathy due to their synergistic worsening effect on other pathogenetic factors of tendon degeneration, such age and overuse. Therefore, subjects with metabolic syndrome practicing sports and other activities stressing the Achilles tendon should receive advice for more frequent controls.

  3. Anticoagulant therapy in pregnant patients with metabolic syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Mierzynski, Radzisław; Poniedzialek-Czajkowska, Elzbieta; Kimber-Trojnar, Zaneta; Leszczynska-Gorzelak, Bozena; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy is a specific state of heightened coagulability related to the increase in procoagulant agents and to the reduced fibrinolysis. Pregnancy is associated with a 4-fold increased risk of developing venous thromboembolism (VTE) and this risk still increases to 14-fold during puerperium. A correlation between the metabolic syndrome and development of cardiovascular events and cerebrovascular incidents has been described. Such a relationship is referred to a hypercoagulable state due to increased serum levels of the plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), fibrinogen, factor (F) VII and VIII, von Willebrand factor and from endothelial activation, caused by increased circulating adhesion molecules. As to the risk of VTE, the probability for its association with cardiovascular incidents is increased by common underlying mechanisms such as the activation of platelets and the blood coagulation. A correlation between idiopathic VTE and the metabolic syndrome has been reported. The anticoagulant therapy may be recommended during the pregnancy for the treatment or the prophylaxis of VTE and, in women with artificial heart valves, for the prevention of the valve thrombosis and systemic embolisation. There are also specific conditions during pregnancy which benefit from anticoagulant use, such as recurrent fetal loss, thrombophilia and assisted reproductive technology. There are no published specific data about using of anticoagulant agents in pregnant patients with the metabolic syndrome except for a few articles addressing reproductive problems. The mechanisms of anticoagulant action were studied with the focus on heparinoids, because of their safety not only for the patient but also for the fetus. The new oral anticoagulants were also shortly described although they have been contraindicated during the pregnancy.

  4. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in elderly Japanese-Brazilians

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Natasha Priscilla; Chaim, Rita Cristina; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinh; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta Gouvea; Hirai, Amelia Toyomi; Rosa, Camila Moreno; Padovani, Carlos Roberto; Okoshi, Marina Politi; Okoshi, Katashi

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background Prevalence of individuals with a high cardiovascular risk is elevated in elderly populations. Although metabolic syndrome (MS) increases cardiovascular risk, information is scarce on the prevalence of MS in the elderly. In this study we assessed MS prevalence in a population of elderly Japanese-Brazilians using different MS definitions according to waist circumference cutoff values. Material/Methods We studied 339 elderly subjects, 44.8% males, aged between 60 to 88 years (70.1±6.8). MS was defined according to criteria proposed by the Joint Interim Statement in 2009. As waist circumference cutoff point values remain controversial for Asian and Japanese populations, we employed 3 different cutoffs that are commonly used in Japanese epidemiological studies: 1) ≥90 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women; 2) ≥85 cm for men and ≥90 cm for women; 3) ≥85 cm for men and ≥80 cm for women. Results MS prevalence ranged from 59.9% to 65.8% according to the different definitions. We observed 90% concordance and no statistical difference (p>0.05) in MS prevalence between the 3 definitions. MS diagnosis according to all 3 cutoff values was found in 55.8% of our population, while in only 34.2% was MS discarded by all cutoffs. The prevalence of altered MS components was as follows: arterial blood pressure 82%, fasting glycemia 65.8%, triglyceride 43.4%, and HDL-C levels 36.9%. Conclusions Elderly Japanese-Brazilians present high metabolic syndrome prevalence independent of waist circumference cutoff values. Concordance between the 3 definitions is high, suggesting that all 3 cutoff values yield similar metabolic syndrome prevalence values in this population. PMID:22293888

  5. CE: Original Research: Examining the Links Between Lifestyle Factors and Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chang, Shu-Hung; Chen, Miao-Chuan; Chien, Nai-Hui; Wu, Li-Yu

    2016-12-01

    : Background: As it is in many other developed countries, obesity is a growing health concern in Taiwan, affecting nearly 20% of the adult population. Obesity can increase the risk of developing metabolic syndrome, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Recent data indicate that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Taiwan is 25.5%. Yet some overweight and obese individuals have normal metabolic profiles. It's not clear why some overweight or obese people remain metabolically healthy while others do not.

  6. [The role of melatonin in the development of metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Balliuzek, M F; Grinenko, T N; Kvetnaia, T V

    2009-01-01

    The level of 6-oxymelatonin sulfate, the main metabolite of melatonin (MT), in morning urine samples from patients with metabolic syndrome (MS) suggests enhanced MT production at night. This inference equally holds for aged and elderly patients despite their significantly impaired MT secretion due to age-related involution of the pineal gland. Correlation between MT hypersecretion and manifestations of MT activity also depends on the patients" age. MT test can be used as biological marker of MT and a prognostic factor of MS progress.

  7. Melatonin and the metabolic syndrome: physiopathologic and therapeutical implications.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, Daniel P; Cano, Pilar; Jiménez-Ortega, Vanesa; Esquifino, Ana I

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) patients exhibit sleep/wake disturbances and other circadian abnormalities, and these may be associated with more rapid weight increase and development of diabetes and atherosclerotic disease. On this basis, the successful management of MS may require an ideal drug that besides antagonizing the trigger factors of MS could also correct the disturbed sleep-wake rhythm. Melatonin is an effective chronobiotic agent able to change the phase and amplitude of circadian rhythms. Melatonin has also significant cytoprotective properties preventing a number of MS sequelae in animal models of diabetes and obesity. A small number of controlled trials indicate that melatonin is useful to treat the metabolic and cardiovascular comorbidities of MS. Whether the recently introduced melatonergic agents (ramelteon, agomelatine, tasimelteon) have the potential for treating sleep disorders in MS patients and, more generally, for arresting the progression of disease, merits further investigation.

  8. An approach to the etiology of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bedoya Berrío, Gabriel; Velásquez R, Claudia M

    2013-01-01

    Increased prevalence of obesity in the world, especially accumulation of abnormal amounts of visceral fat predisposes to insulin resistance, which is the central role of metabolic syndrome (MS). Obesity can deregulate the intracellular signaling of insulin due to the production of inflammatory substances, chemoattractant proteins, adipokines and molecules that trigger hormonal mediator potentials for destabilization of signal transduction, leading to metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The complexity of the MS and of the genetic mechanisms involved in its etiology derives from the combination of variants on genes involved and environmental factors that predispose it. The purpose of this paper is to review the effects of obesity in molecular and biochemical responses that trigger insulin resistance and its relation to some candidate genes and the ancestral component of the population. PMID:24892324

  9. An approach to the etiology of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Muñoz Contreras, Angélica M; Bedoya Berrío, Gabriel; Velásquez R, Claudia M

    2013-01-01

    Increased prevalence of obesity in the world, especially accumulation of abnormal amounts of visceral fat predisposes to insulin resistance, which is the central role of metabolic syndrome (MS). Obesity can deregulate the intracellular signaling of insulin due to the production of inflammatory substances, chemoattractant proteins, adipokines and molecules that trigger hormonal mediator potentials for destabilization of signal transduction, leading to metabolic disorders such as hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia. The complexity of the MS and of the genetic mechanisms involved in its etiology derives from the combination of variants on genes involved and environmental factors that predispose it. The purpose of this paper is to review the effects of obesity in molecular and biochemical responses that trigger insulin resistance and its relation to some candidate genes and the ancestral component of the population.

  10. The impact of metabolic disease associated with metabolic syndrome on human pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Malek, Antoine

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic diseases induced by metabolic syndrome (MS) have been increased during the past two decades. During healthy pregnancy maternal organs and placenta are challenged to adapt to the increasingly physiological changes. In addition to the increasingly proatherogenic MS, pregnant woman develops a high cardiac output, hypercoagulability, increased inflammatory activity and insulin resistance with dyslipidemia. The MS describes a cluster of metabolic changes associated with an impact on the physiology of many organs. While the metabolic syndrome is directly responsible for the development of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease, additional impact on human pregnancy like preterm delivery with low-birth-weight infants as well as the development of diseases such as diabetes, preeclampsia and hypertension. Recent evidence suggests that MS is originated in fetal life in association with maternal nutrition during pregnancy and fetal programming which apparently increases the susceptibility for MS in children and later life. This review will describe the MS in association with the origin of the emerging diseases during pregnancy such as diabetes, preeclampsia and others. The influence of perinatal environment and maternal diet and smoking on MS as well as the genetic biomarkers of MS will be described.

  11. Patterns of cholesterol metabolism: pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for dyslipidemias and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lupattelli, G; De Vuono, S; Mannarino, E

    2011-09-01

    Investigating cholesterol metabolism, which derives from balancing cholesterol synthesis and absorption, opens new perspectives in the pathogenesis of dyslipidemias and the metabolic syndrome (MS). Cholesterol metabolism is studied by measuring plasma levels of campesterol, sitosterol and cholestanol, that is, plant sterols which are recognised as surrogate cholesterol-absorption markers and lathosterol or squalene, that is, cholesterol precursors, which are considered surrogate cholesterol-synthesis markers. This article presents current knowledge on cholesterol synthesis and absorption, as evaluated by means of cholesterol precursors and plant sterols, and discusses patterns of cholesterol balance in the main forms of primary hyperlipidaemia and MS. Understanding the mechanism(s) underlying these patterns of cholesterol synthesis and absorption will help to predict the response to hypolipidemic treatment, which can then be tailored to ensure the maximum clinical benefit for patients.

  12. Metabolic syndrome, its pathophysiology and the role of melatonin.

    PubMed

    Srinivasan, Venkataramanujam; Ohta, Yoshiji; Espino, Javier; Pariente, Jose A; Rodriguez, Ana B; Mohamed, Mahaneem; Zakaria, Rahimah

    2013-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterised by symptoms of obesity, insulin resistance, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes mellitus. The pathophysiological mechanisms involved in MetS are complex and involved dysregulation of many biochemical and physiological regulatory mechanisms of the body. Elevated levels of low density lipoproteins like VLDL, and LDL with reduction of HDL seen in patients with MetS contribute to atherogenic dyslipedemia. Melatonin has been suggested to be effective in improving MetS through its anti-hyperlipidemic action. Melatonin reduced both adiposity, and body weight in experimental animal studies and also attenuated weight gain and obesityinduced metabolic alterations and this effect of melatonin is attributed to its anti-oxidative effects. Melatonin administration has been shown to inhibit insulin release by acting through both MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors present in pancreatic β-cells. Melatonin also increased insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance in animals fed with either high fat or high sucrose diet. Melatonin exerts most of its beneficial actions by acting through MT1 and MT2 melatonin receptors present in various tissues of the body and some of the metabolic actions of melatonin have been blocked by melatonin antagonist like luzindole. Ramelteon, the newly available melatonin agonist will also have more promising role in the control of MetS. The numbers of patents are available with regard to treatment of MetS. Drug related to antidepressant fluoxetine is used for treatment of MetS (US Patent No. 2008001400450). Anti-oxidants like S-adenosyl-methionine, Vitamin E, and Vitamin C have been found beneficial in treating MetS (US Patent No. 8063024). Melatonin being a powerful Antioxidant will have a promising role in treating patients with metabolic syndrome.

  13. Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Blood and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children: Is There a Link?

    PubMed

    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Radaelli, Giovanni; Borghi, Elisa; Moretti, Francesca; Verduci, Elvira

    2015-08-21

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome.

  14. Docosahexaenoic Acid Levels in Blood and Metabolic Syndrome in Obese Children: Is There a Link?

    PubMed Central

    Lassandro, Carlotta; Banderali, Giuseppe; Radaelli, Giovanni; Borghi, Elisa; Moretti, Francesca; Verduci, Elvira

    2015-01-01

    Prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing in the pediatric population. Considering the different existing criteria to define metabolic syndrome, the use of the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria has been suggested in children. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) has been associated with beneficial effects on health. The evidence about the relationship of DHA status in blood and components of the metabolic syndrome is unclear. This review discusses the possible association between DHA content in plasma and erythrocytes and components of the metabolic syndrome included in the IDF criteria (obesity, alteration of glucose metabolism, blood lipid profile, and blood pressure) and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in obese children. The current evidence is inconsistent and no definitive conclusion can be drawn in the pediatric population. Well-designed longitudinal and powered trials need to clarify the possible association between blood DHA status and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26307979

  15. Novel nutraceutic therapies for the treatment of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Abundis, Esperanza; Méndez-del Villar, Miriam; Pérez-Rubio, Karina G; Zuñiga, Laura Y; Cortez-Navarrete, Marisol; Ramírez-Rodriguez, Alejandra; González-Ortiz, Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Nutraceutic therapies such as berberine, bitter melon, Gymnema sylvestre, Irvingia gabonensis, resveratrol and ursolic acid have been shown to help control metabolic syndrome (MetS). The effect of berberine on glucose and lipid metabolism, hypertension, obesity and MetS has been evaluated in animal models and humans. Most clinical trials involving bitter melon have been conducted to evaluate its effect on glucose metabolism; nevertheless, some studies have reported favorable effects on lipids and blood pressure although there is little information about its effect on body weight. Gymnema sylvestre helps to decrease body weight and blood sugar levels; however, there is limited information on dyslipidemia and hypertension. Clinical trials of Irvingia gabonensis have shown important effects decreasing glucose and cholesterol concentrations as well decreasing body weight. Resveratrol acts through different mechanisms to decrease blood pressure, lipids, glucose and weight, showing its effects on the population with MetS. Finally, there is evidence of positive effects with ursolic acid in in vitro and in vivo studies on glucose and lipid metabolism and on body weight and visceral fat. Therefore, a review of the beneficial effects and limitations of the above-mentioned nutraceutic therapies is presented. PMID:27076875

  16. Association between Metabolite Profiles, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity Status

    PubMed Central

    Allam-Ndoul, Bénédicte; Guénard, Frédéric; Garneau, Véronique; Cormier, Hubert; Barbier, Olivier; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2016-01-01

    Underlying mechanisms associated with the development of abnormal metabolic phenotypes among obese individuals are not yet clear. Our aim is to investigate differences in plasma metabolomics profiles between normal weight (NW) and overweight/obese (Ov/Ob) individuals, with or without metabolic syndrome (MetS). Mass spectrometry-based metabolite profiling was used to compare metabolite levels between each group. Three main principal components factors explaining a maximum of variance were retained. Factor 1’s (long chain glycerophospholipids) metabolite profile score was higher among Ov/Ob with MetS than among Ov/Ob and NW participants without MetS. This factor was positively correlated to plasma total cholesterol (total-C) and triglyceride levels in the three groups, to high density lipoprotein -cholesterol (HDL-C) among participants without MetS. Factor 2 (amino acids and short to long chain acylcarnitine) was positively correlated to HDL-C and negatively correlated with insulin levels among NW participants. Factor 3’s (medium chain acylcarnitines) metabolite profile scores were higher among NW participants than among Ov/Ob with or without MetS. Factor 3 was negatively associated with glucose levels among the Ov/Ob with MetS. Factor 1 seems to be associated with a deteriorated metabolic profile that corresponds to obesity, whereas Factors 2 and 3 seem to be rather associated with a healthy metabolic profile. PMID:27240400

  17. Adiposity and metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sam, Susan

    2015-02-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common hormonal disorder among reproductive-age women and is associated with a high risk for metabolic disorders. Adiposity and insulin resistance are two prevalent conditions in PCOS and the likely culprits for the heightened metabolic risk. Up to 60% of women with PCOS are considered to be overweight or obese, and even among non-obese women with PCOS there is an increased accumulation of adipose tissue in abdominal depots. Insulin resistance in PCOS is unique and independent of obesity, as even non-obese women with this condition are frequently insulin resistant. However, obesity substantially aggravates the insulin resistance and the metabolic and reproductive abnormalities in women with PCOS. Recently, it has been shown that many aspects of adipose tissue function in PCOS are abnormal, and these abnormalities likely predispose to development of insulin resistance even in the absence of obesity. This review provides an overview of these abnormalities and their impact on development of metabolic disorders. At the end, an overview of the therapeutic options for management of adiposity and its complications in PCOS are discussed.

  18. Interventions for the metabolic dysfunction in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bozdag, Gurkan; Yildiz, Bulent O

    2013-08-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with metabolic disturbances including obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes and dyslipidemia. Cardiometabolic risk should be assessed at regular intervals starting from diagnosis. A comprehensive clinical evaluation includes determination of body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure and measurement of serum lipid and glucose levels in all women with PCOS. A standard 2-h 75g oral glucose tolerance test is required for women with a body mass index over 25kg/m(2) and with other risk factors for glucose intolerance. No long-term data are available for the risk or benefit of any medical intervention for metabolic dysfunction of PCOS. For the initial management of metabolic dysfunction in PCOS, available guidelines recommend lifestyle intervention which improves androgen excess and insulin resistance without significant effect on glucose intolerance or dyslipidemia. Pharmacological interventions include insulin sensitizing agents and statins. Metformin is the most commonly prescribed insulin sensitizer in PCOS. Available randomized controlled trials suggest that metformin improves insulin resistance without any effect on body mass index, fasting glucose or lipid levels. Short term use of statins alone or in combination with metformin decreases total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol and triglycerides in PCOS patients with dyslipidemia. Low dose oral contraception in PCOS appears not to be associated with clinically significant metabolic dysfunction.

  19. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Azhar, Salman

    2011-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of risk factors including insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension that markedly increase the risk of Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor (PPAR) isotypes, PPARα, PPARδ/β and PPARγ are ligand-activated nuclear transcription factors, which modulate the expression of an array of genes that play a central role in regulating glucose, lipid and cholesterol metabolism, where imbalance can lead to obesity, T2DM and CVD. They are also drug targets, and currently, PPARα (fibrates) and PPARγ (thiazolodinediones) agonists are in clinical use for treating dyslipidemia and T2DM, respectively. These metabolic characteristics of the PPARs, coupled with their involvement in metabolic diseases, mean extensive efforts are underway worldwide to develop new and efficacious PPAR-based therapies for the treatment of additional maladies associated with the MetS. This article presents an overview of the functional characteristics of three PPAR isotypes, discusses recent advances in our understanding of the diverse biological actions of PPARs, particularly in the vascular system, and summarizes the developmental status of new single, dual, pan (multiple) and partial PPAR agonists for the clinical management of key components of MetS, T2DM and CVD. It also summarizes the clinical outcomes from various clinical trials aimed at evaluating the atheroprotective actions of currently used fibrates and thiazolodinediones. PMID:20932114

  20. The criteria for metabolic syndrome and the national health screening and education system in Japan

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Two major definitions of metabolic syndrome have been proposed. One focuses on the accumulation of risk factors, a measure used by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI); the other focuses on abdominal obesity, a measure used by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Japanese government. The latter definition takes waist circumference (WC) into consideration as an obligatory component, whereas the former does not. In 2009, the IDF, NHLBI, AHA, and other organizations attempted to unify these criteria; as a result, WC is no longer an obligatory component of those systems, while it remains obligatory in the Japanese criteria. In 2008, a new Japanese cardiovascular screening and education system focused on metabolic syndrome was launched. People undergoing screening are classified into three groups according to the presence of abdominal obesity and the number of metabolic risk factors, and receive health educational support from insurers. This system has yielded several beneficial outcomes: the visibility of metabolic syndrome at the population level has drastically improved; preventive measures have been directed toward metabolic syndrome, which is expected to become more prevalent in future generations; and a post-screening education system has been established. However, several problems with the current system have been identified and are under debate. In this review, we discuss topics related to metabolic syndrome, including (1) the Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome; (2) metabolic syndrome and the universal health screening and education system; and (3) recent debates about Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome. PMID:28092931

  1. The criteria for metabolic syndrome and the national health screening and education system in Japan.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Kazumasa; Iso, Hiroyasu

    2017-01-01

    Two major definitions of metabolic syndrome have been proposed. One focuses on the accumulation of risk factors, a measure used by the American Heart Association (AHA) and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI); the other focuses on abdominal obesity, a measure used by the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and the Japanese government. The latter definition takes waist circumference (WC) into consideration as an obligatory component, whereas the former does not. In 2009, the IDF, NHLBI, AHA, and other organizations attempted to unify these criteria; as a result, WC is no longer an obligatory component of those systems, while it remains obligatory in the Japanese criteria. In 2008, a new Japanese cardiovascular screening and education system focused on metabolic syndrome was launched. People undergoing screening are classified into three groups according to the presence of abdominal obesity and the number of metabolic risk factors, and receive health educational support from insurers. This system has yielded several beneficial outcomes: the visibility of metabolic syndrome at the population level has drastically improved; preventive measures have been directed toward metabolic syndrome, which is expected to become more prevalent in future generations; and a post-screening education system has been established. However, several problems with the current system have been identified and are under debate. In this review, we discuss topics related to metabolic syndrome, including (1) the Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome; (2) metabolic syndrome and the universal health screening and education system; and (3) recent debates about Japanese criteria for metabolic syndrome.

  2. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior Associated with Components of Metabolic Syndrome among People in Rural China

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Jing; Shen, Chong; Chu, Min J.; Gao, Yue X.; Xu, Guang F.; Huang, Jian P.; Xu, Qiong Q.; Cai, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is prevalent worldwide and its prevalence is related to physical activity, race, and lifestyle. Little data is available for people living in rural areas of China. In this study we examined associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components among people in rural China. Methods The Nantong Metabolic Syndrome Study recruited 13,505 female and 6,997 male participants between 2007 and 2008. Data of socio-demographic characteristics and lifestyle were collected. The associations of physical activity and sedentary behaviors with metabolic syndrome components were analyzed. Results Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 21.6%. It was significantly lower in men than in women. Low risks of metabolic syndrome were observed in those who did less sitting and engaged in more vigorous physical activity. The highest tertile of vigorous physical activity was associated with 15–40% decreased odds of metabolic syndrome and all of its components, except for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in men. Women with the highest tertile of moderate physical activity had 15–30% lower odds of central obesity, high glucose, and high triglycerides compared with those in the lowest tertile. Sitting time >42 hours per week had a 4%-12% attributable risk of metabolic syndrome, central obesity, and high triglycerides in both genders, and abnormal glucose and diastolic blood pressure in women. Sleeping for more than 8 hours per day was associated with risk of high serum glucose and lipids. Conclusions Our data suggested that physical activity has a preventive effect against metabolic syndrome and all its abnormal components, and that longer sitting time and sleep duration are associated with an increased risk of metabolic syndrome components, including central obesity and high triglycerides, glucose, and diastolic blood pressure. This study could provide information for future investigation into these associations. Also

  3. Insulin Resistance, Metabolic Syndrome, and Polycystic Ovary Syndrome in Obese Youth.

    PubMed

    Platt, Adrienne M

    2015-07-01

    School nurses are well aware of the childhood obesity epidemic in the United States, as one in three youth are overweight or obese. Co-morbidities found in overweight or obese adults were not commonly found in youth three decades ago but are now increasingly "normal" as the obesity epidemic continues to evolve. This article is the second of six related articles discussing the co-morbidities of childhood obesity and discusses the complex association between obesity and insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome. Insulin resistance increases up to 50% during puberty, which may help to explain why youth are more likely to develop co-morbidities as teens. Treatment of these disorders is focused on changing lifestyle habits, as a child cannot change his or her pubertal progression, ethnicity, or family history. School nurses and other personnel can assist youth with insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and polycystic ovary syndrome by supporting their efforts to make changes, reinforcing that insulin resistance is not necessarily type 2 diabetes even if the child is taking medication, and intervening with negative peer pressure.

  4. Gemigliptin ameliorates Western-diet-induced metabolic syndrome in mice.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung Hee; Leem, Jaechan; Park, Sungmi; Lee, Chong-Kee; Park, Keun-Gyu; Lee, In-Kyu

    2017-02-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are widely used antihyperglycemic agents for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Recently, increasing attention has been focused on the pleiotropic actions of DPP-4 inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to examine whether gemigliptin, a recently developed DPP-4 inhibitor, could ameliorate features of metabolic syndrome. Mice were fed a Western diet (WD) for 12 weeks and were subsequently divided into 2 groups: mice fed a WD diet alone or mice fed a WD diet supplemented with gemigliptin for an additional 4 weeks. Gemigliptin treatment attenuated WD-induced body mass gain, hypercholesterolemia, adipocyte hypertrophy, and macrophage infiltration into adipose tissue, which were accompanied by an increased expression of uncoupling protein 1 in subcutaneous fat. These events contributed to improved insulin sensitivity, as assessed by the homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance and intraperitoneal insulin tolerance test. Furthermore, gemigliptin reduced WD-induced hepatic triglyceride accumulation via inhibition of de novo lipogenesis and activation of fatty acid oxidation, which was accompanied by AMP-dependent protein kinase activation. Gemigliptin ameliorated WD-induced hepatic inflammation and fibrosis through suppression of oxidative stress. These results suggest that DPP-4 inhibitors may represent promising therapeutic agents for metabolic syndrome beyond their current role as antihyperglycemic agents.

  5. Impaired glucose tolerance and metabolic syndrome in idiopathic neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Smith, A Gordon

    2012-05-01

    Idiopathic neuropathy is one of the most common clinical problems encountered in general medical and neurological practices, accounting for up to 40% of all neuropathies in referral series. Several groups have reported an elevated prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in idiopathic neuropathy subjects, although the only carefully conducted case-control study suggested hypertriglyceridemia was a more important risk factor. The nature of the relationship between IGT and neuropathy is a subject of active debate. An evolving literature suggests metabolic syndrome, particularly dyslipidemia and obesity, are potent neuropathy risk factors for both idiopathic and diabetic neuropathy patients. Once established, diabetic neuropathy is likely to be very difficult to reverse. IGT-associated neuropathy, however, may be more amenable to therapy and could represent an ideal population in which to examine potential therapies for diabetes and obesity related neuropathies. Further research is needed to better define the epidemiological relation between IGT, metabolic syndrome, and neuropathy, its underlying pathophysiology, and to develop appropriate surrogate measures and clinical trials strategies.

  6. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Brazilian adults: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a complex of risk factors for cardiovascular disease. This syndrome increases the risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. It has been demonstrated that the prevalence of MS is increasing worldwide. Despite the importance of MS in the context of metabolic and cardiovascular disease, few studies have described the prevalence of MS and its determinants in Latin America. The present study aims to assess studies describing the prevalence of MS in Brazil in order to determine the global prevalence of the syndrome and its components. Methods Systematic review. Searches were carried out in PubMed and Scielo from the earliest available online indexing year through May 2013. There were no restrictions on language. The search terms used to describe MS were taken from the PubMed (MeSH) dictionary: “metabolic syndrome x”, “prevalence” and “Brazil”. Studies were included if they were cross-sectional, described the prevalence of MS and were conducted in apparently healthy subjects, from the general population, 19-64 years old (adult and middle aged) of both genders. The titles and abstracts of all the articles identified were screened for eligibility. Results Ten cross-sectional studies were selected. The weighted mean for general prevalence of MS in Brazil was 29.6% (range: 14.9%-65.3%). Half of the studies used the criteria for clinical diagnosis of MS proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP-ATP III) (2001). The highest prevalence of MS (65.3%) was found in a study conducted in an indigenous population, whereas the lowest prevalence of MS (14.9%) was reported in a rural area. The most frequent MS components were low HDL-cholesterol (59.3%) and hypertension (52.5%). Conclusions Despite methodological differences among the studies selected, our findings suggested a high prevalence of MS in the Brazilian adult population. PMID:24350922

  7. Association of metabolic syndrome with sensory gating deficits in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Micoulaud-Franchi, Jean-Arthur; Faugere, Mélanie; Boyer, Laurent; Cermolacce, Michel; Richieri, Raphaëlle; Faget, Catherine; Philip, Pierre; Vion-Dury, Jean; Lancon, Christophe

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome is more prevalent in schizophrenia than in the general population and is associated with an increased rate of morbidity. It has been associated with cognitive impairments in schizophrenia, which are a core deficit in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Sensory gating deficit is also a core deficit in schizophrenia. The principal objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between sensory gating deficit and metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia, after adjusting for key confounding factors. We hypothesized that patients with metabolic syndrome exhibit a higher rate of sensory gating deficit compared to those without metabolic syndrome. This study investigated sensory gating with the auditory event-related potential method by measuring P50 amplitude changes in a double click conditioning-testing procedure in 51 patients with schizophrenia. Patients with metabolic syndrome (n = 14) had a higher rate of sensory gating deficit (P50 suppression <50%) (p < 0.001) compared to those without metabolic syndrome (n = 37). This result remained significant (B = 2.94, Wald = 8.32, p = 0.004) after taking into account 5 potential confounding factors (age, gender, duration of disorder, Fagerström test, presence of clozapine or olanzapine). In patients without metabolic syndrome, sensory gating deficit was linked to a poorer attentional performance (rho = -0.371, p = 0.05). In patients with metabolic syndrome, sensory gating deficit was linked to poorer memory performance (rho = -0.635, p = 0.02). These findings suggest that metabolic syndrome may be linked to sensory gating deficit in patients with schizophrenia and that the relationship between neurocognitive function and sensory gating deficit could be affected by the metabolic status of the patients. Further studies are needed to address the causal relationship between sensory gating deficit related to schizophrenia, cognitive impairments and metabolic syndrome.

  8. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program’s standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01–4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. PMID:27942116

  9. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Thai Children: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Rerksuppaphol, Lakkana

    2014-01-01

    Background: Metabolic syndrome in children has become the focus of many research projects in recent years. The main goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Thai children and its correlation with overweight and obesity. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study of 348 children enrolled in grade 1 to grade 9 was done in Ongkhaluck province in Thailand. Demographic and anthropometric data were gathered. Blood tests were also performed to check for blood glucose, total cholesterol, and triglycerides. Results: The overall prevalence of metabolic syndrome in our population was 4.0%. Metabolic syndrome was found in 0.7% of non-obese/non-overweight children and 17.6% of obese/overweight children. Participants with metabolic syndrome were found to be significantly older, heavier, and taller and to have higher parameters of adiposity when compared with those without metabolic syndrome. Obesity was significantly correlated with every criterion of diagnosis of metabolic syndrome except Impaired Fasting Glucose (IFG). Conclusion: Findings of this study suggest that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Thai children is consistent with other reports from across the world. PMID:24959487

  10. Cinnamon: potential role in the prevention of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The metabolic syndrome is associated with insulin resistance, elevated glucose and lipids, inflammation, decreased antioxidant activity, increased weight gain, and increased glycation of proteins. Cinnamon has been shown to improve aspects of metabolic syndrome in cells cultured in vitro, and in an...

  11. Obesity, but not Metabolic Syndrome, Negatively Affects Outcome in Bipolar Disorder

    PubMed Central

    McElroy, Susan L; Kemp, David E; Friedman, Edward S; Reilly-Harrington, Noreen A; Sylvia, Louisa G; Calabrese, Joseph R; Rabideau, Dustin J; Ketter, Terence A; Thase, Michael E; Singh, Vivek; Tohen, Mauricio; Bowden, Charles L; Bernstein, Emily E; Brody, Benjamin D; Deckersbach, Thilo; Kocsis, James H; Kinrys, Gustavo; Bobo, William V; Kamali, Masoud; McInnis, Melvin G; Leon, Andrew C.; Faraone, Stephen; Nierenberg, Andrew A; Shelton, Richard C

    2016-01-01

    Objective Examine the effects of obesity and metabolic syndrome on outcome in bipolar disorder. Method The Comparative Effectiveness of a Second Generation Antipsychotic Mood Stabilizer and a Classic Mood Stabilizer for Bipolar Disorder (Bipolar CHOICE) study randomized 482 participants with bipolar disorder in a six-month trial comparing lithium- and quetiapine-based treatment. Baseline variables were compared between groups with and without obesity, with and without abdominal obesity, and with and without metabolic syndrome, respectively. The effects of baseline obesity, abdominal obesity, and metabolic syndrome on outcomes were examined using mixed effects linear regression models. Results At baseline, 44.4% of participants had obesity, 48.0% had abdominal obesity, and 27.3% had metabolic syndrome; neither obesity, nor abdominal obesity, nor metabolic syndrome were associated with increased global severity, mood symptoms, or suicidality, or with poorer functioning or life satisfaction. Treatment groups did not differ on prevalence of obesity, abdominal obesity, or metabolic syndrome. By contrast, among the entire cohort, obesity was associated with less global improvement and less improvement in total mood and depressive symptoms, suicidality, functioning, and life satisfaction after six months of treatment. Abdominal obesity was associated with similar findings. Metabolic syndrome had no effect on outcome. Conclusion Obesity and abdominal obesity, but not metabolic syndrome, were associated with less improvement after six months of lithium- or quetiapine-based treatment. PMID:26114830

  12. The relationship between physical activity levels and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Ko, Kwang-Jun; Kim, Eon-Ho; Baek, Un-Hyo; Gang, Zhao; Kang, Seol-Jung

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Physical activity is important for preventing and managing metabolic syndrome. White-collar workers can be inherently predisposed to chronic diseases, as their jobs are primarily sedentary. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between physical activity and metabolic syndrome in male white-collar workers. [Subjects and Methods] Physical activity and metabolic syndrome factors were measured in 331 male public office workers. Physical activity was classified as high (N=101), moderate (N=115), or low (N=111) using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. To diagnose metabolic syndrome, the U.S. National Cholesterol Education Program's standard was used. [Results] Waist circumference and triglyceride levels, factors of metabolic syndrome, were significantly higher in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. High-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the low physical activity group than in the moderate or high activity group. Waist circumference and fasting glucose were negatively correlated with physical activity level, and HDL cholesterol showed a positive correlation with waist circumference. The odds ratios for metabolic syndrome were 2.03 times higher (95% confidence interval, 1.01-4.09) in the low physical activity group than in the high physical activity group. [Conclusion] Low physical activity was a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers. Therefore, increasing physical activity in daily life may prevent metabolic syndrome in white-collar workers.

  13. Targeted High Performance Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry-based Metabolomics differentiates metabolic syndrome from obesity.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Fanyi; Xu, Mengyang; Bruno, Richard S; Ballard, Kevin D; Zhu, Jiangjiang

    2017-04-01

    Both obesity and the metabolic syndrome are risk factors for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Identification of novel biomarkers are needed to distinguish metabolic syndrome from equally obese individuals in order to direct them to early interventions that reduce their risk of developing further health problems. We utilized mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolic profiling of 221 metabolites to evaluate the associations between metabolite profiles and established metabolic syndrome criteria (i.e. elevated waist circumference, hypertension, elevated fasting glucose, elevated triglycerides, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol) in plasma samples from obese men ( n = 29; BMI = 35.5 ± 5.2 kg/m(2)) and women ( n = 40; 34.9 ± 6.7 kg/m(2)), of which 26 met the criteria for metabolic syndrome (17 men and 9 women). Compared to obese individuals without metabolic syndrome, univariate statistical analysis and partial least squares discriminant analysis showed that a specific group of metabolites from multiple metabolic pathways (i.e. purine metabolism, valine, leucine and isoleucine degradation, and tryptophan metabolism) were associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Receiver operating characteristic curves generated based on the PLS-DA models showed excellent areas under the curve (0.85 and 0.96, for metabolites only model and enhanced metabolites model, respectively), high specificities (0.86 and 0.93), and good sensitivities (0.71 and 0.91). Moreover, principal component analysis revealed that metabolic profiles can be used to further differentiate metabolic syndrome with 3 versus 4-5 metabolic syndrome criteria. Collectively, these findings support targeted metabolomics approaches to distinguish metabolic syndrome from obesity alone, and to stratify metabolic syndrome status based on the number of criteria met. Impact statement We utilized mass spectrometry-based targeted metabolic profiling of 221 metabolites to

  14. Fermented Red Ginseng Potentiates Improvement of Metabolic Dysfunction in Metabolic Syndrome Rat Models

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Min Chul; Lee, Yun Jung; Park, Ji Hun; Kim, Hye Yoom; Yoon, Jung Joo; Ahn, You Mee; Tan, Rui; Park, Min Cheol; Cha, Jeong Dan; Choi, Kyung Min; Kang, Dae Gill; Lee, Ho Sub

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome including obesity, dyslipidemia and hypertension is a cluster of risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Fermentation of medicinal herbs improves their pharmacological efficacy. Red ginseng (RG), a widely used traditional herbal medicine, was reported with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activity. Aim in the present study was to investigate that the effects of fermented red ginseng (FRG) on a high-fructose (HF) diet induced metabolic disorders, and those effects were compared to RG and losartan. Animals were divided into four groups: a control group fed a regular diet and tap water, and fructose groups that were fed a 60% high-fructose (HF) diet with/without RG 250 mg/kg/day or FRG 250 mg/kg/day for eight weeks, respectively. Treatment with FRG significantly suppressed the increments of body weight, liver weight, epididymal fat weight and adipocyte size. Moreover, FRG significantly prevented the development of metabolic disturbances such as hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Staining with Oil-red-o demonstrated a marked increase of hepatic accumulation of triglycerides, and this increase was prevented by FRG. FRG ameliorated endothelial dysfunction by downregulation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and adhesion molecules in the aorta. In addition, FRG induced markedly upregulation of Insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) and glucose transporter type 4 (Glut4) in the muscle. These results indicate that FRG ameliorates obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and fatty liver in HF diet rats. More favorable pharmacological effects on HF diet induced metabolic disorders were observed with FRG, compared to an equal dose of RG. These results showed that the pharmacological activity of RG was enhanced by fermentation. Taken together, fermentated red ginseng might be a beneficial therapeutic approach for metabolic syndrome. PMID:27322312

  15. Caregiver Burden in Fragile X Families

    PubMed Central

    Iosif, Ana-Maria; Sciolla, Andres F.; Brahmbhatt, Khyati; Seritan, Andreea L.

    2013-01-01

    Complex caregiving issues occur in multigenerational families carrying the fragile X mutation and premutation. The same family members may care for children or siblings with fragile X syndrome (FXS) and for elderly parents with fragile X-associated tremor/ataxia syndrome (FXTAS). Family caregivers experience anxiety, depression, neglect of personal health care needs, employment difficulties, and loss of social support, leading to isolation and further psychiatric consequences. There is growing awareness of caregiver burden with regard to parents of children with FXS, but much less is known about the needs of informal caregivers of patients with FXTAS. In this paper, we review the available literature to date and provide suggestions for further exploration of caregivers' needs. Evidence-based strategies to address these needs are included. Many more research studies exploring caregiver burden in multigenerational fragile X families are needed, as well as studies aimed at investigating interventions and their impact on reduction. PMID:24348279

  16. Evaluation of metabolic syndrome in adults of Talca city, Chile

    PubMed Central

    Mujica, Veronica; Leiva, Elba; Icaza, Gloria; Diaz, Nora; Arredondo, Miguel; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Orrego, Roxana; Vásquez, Marcela; Palomo, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    Objective- Insulin resistance (IR) is an important risk factor for type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM2) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Metabolic Syndrome (MS) is a clustering of metabolic alterations associated to IR; however, there is no international consensus for defining its diagnosis. Our objective was to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of MS identified by the ATP III and IDF criteria in adults from Talca city. Research and methods- We studied 1007 individuals, aged 18–74, and residents from Talca. MS subjects were defined according to ATP III (three altered factors) and IDF criteria (patients with waist circumference >80/90 cm (W/M) and two others altered factors). Results- The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to the IDF and ATP III criteria was 36.4% and 29.5%, respectively after adjustment for age and sex. The agreement for both criteria was 89%. The prevalence in men was higher than in women for both MS definitions, although not significant. MS probability increased with age, and the highest risk was in the 57–68 age group (ATP-MS) and 53–72 age group (IDF-MS). Hypertension, high triglycerides and abdominal obesity are the most frequent alterations in MS. Conclusion- MS prevalence in adults was higher when diagnosed with IDF than with ATP criterion; in both, age is directly related with the MS presence. The MS subjects showed higher levels of blood pressure, waist circumference and plasma triglycerides. Considering our results, it is worrisome that one third of our population has a high risk of developing DM2 and CVD in the future. PMID:18482457

  17. Traditional Chinese Medicine in Treatment of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Jun; Zhang, Hanjie; Ye, Jianping

    2008-01-01

    In management of metabolic syndrome, the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) is an excellent representative in alternative and complementary medicines with a complete theory system and substantial herb remedies. In this article, basic principle of TCM is introduced and 22 traditional Chinese herbs are reviewed for their potential activities in the treatment of metabolic syndrome. Three herbs, ginseng, rhizoma coptidis (berberine, the major active compound) and bitter melon, were discussed in detail on their therapeutic potentials. Ginseng extracts made from root, rootlet, berry and leaf of Panax quinquefolium (American ginseng) and Panax ginseng (Asian ginseng), are proved for anti-hyperglycemia, insulin sensitization, islet protection, anti-obesity and anti-oxidation in many model systems. Energy expenditure is enhanced by ginseng through thermogenesis. Ginseng-specific saponins (ginsenosides) are considered as the major bioactive compounds for the metabolic activities of ginseng. Berberine from rhizoma coptidis is an oral hypoglycemic agent. It also has anti-obesity and anti-dyslipidemia activities. The action mechanism is related to inhibition of mitochondrial function, stimulation of glycolysis, activation of AMPK pathway, suppression of adipogenesis and induction of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor expression. Bitter melon or bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) is able to reduce blood glucose and lipids in both normal and diabetic animals. It may also protect β cells, enhance insulin sensitivity and reduce oxidative stress. Although evidence from animals and humans consistently supports the therapeutic activities of ginseng, berberine and bitter melon, multi-center large-scale clinical trials have not been conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of these herbal medicines. PMID:18537696

  18. Stress and obesity/metabolic syndrome in childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Pervanidou, Panagiota; Chrousos, George P

    2011-09-01

    Chronic distress contributes to the development of obesity and comorbid states. Stress is the disturbance of the complex dynamic equilibrium that all organisms must maintain, and is associated with activation of the Stress system comprising of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the arousal/sympathetic nervous systems. The stress system functions in a baseline circadian fashion and interacts with other systems of the organism to regulate a variety of behavioral, endocrine, metabolic, immune and cardiovascular functions. The experience of perceived or real uncontrollable intense and/or chronic stress (distress) may lead to several psychopathologic conditions, including anxiety, depressive and psychosomatic disorders, substance abuse, obesity and the metabolic syndrome, and osteoporosis, as well as impaired reproductive and immune functions. Developing children and adolescents are particularly vulnerable to the effects of chronic stress. Both behavioral and biological pathways are involved in the connection between chronic stress and obesity in adults and children. Emotional "comfort" eating, lack of sleep, impulsive behaviours and selection of specific foods often characterize stressed individuals. In addition to specific behaviours, dysregulation of the stress system through increased secretion of cortisol and catecholamines, especially in the evening hours, and in concert with concurrently elevated insulin concentrations, leads to development of central obesity, insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome. In children, chronic alterations in cortisol secretion may have additional effects on cognitive and emotional development, timing of puberty and final stature. Obese children and adolescents are frequently entangled in a vicious cycle between distress, impairing self-image and distorted self-image, maintaining and worsening distress.

  19. siMS Score: Simple Method for Quantifying Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Soldatovic, Ivan; Vukovic, Rade; Culafic, Djordje; Gajic, Milan; Dimitrijevic-Sreckovic, Vesna

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate siMS score and siMS risk score, novel continuous metabolic syndrome scores as methods for quantification of metabolic status and risk. Materials and Methods Developed siMS score was calculated using formula: siMS score = 2*Waist/Height + Gly/5.6 + Tg/1.7 + TAsystolic/130—HDL/1.02 or 1.28 (for male or female subjects, respectively). siMS risk score was calculated using formula: siMS risk score = siMS score * age/45 or 50 (for male or female subjects, respectively) * family history of cardio/cerebro-vascular events (event = 1.2, no event = 1). A sample of 528 obese and non-obese participants was used to validate siMS score and siMS risk score. Scores calculated as sum of z-scores (each component of metabolic syndrome regressed with age and gender) and sum of scores derived from principal component analysis (PCA) were used for evaluation of siMS score. Variants were made by replacing glucose with HOMA in calculations. Framingham score was used for evaluation of siMS risk score. Results Correlation between siMS score with sum of z-scores and weighted sum of factors of PCA was high (r = 0.866 and r = 0.822, respectively). Correlation between siMS risk score and log transformed Framingham score was medium to high for age groups 18+,30+ and 35+ (0.835, 0.707 and 0.667, respectively). Conclusions siMS score and siMS risk score showed high correlation with more complex scores. Demonstrated accuracy together with superior simplicity and the ability to evaluate and follow-up individual patients makes siMS and siMS risk scores very convenient for use in clinical practice and research as well. PMID:26745635

  20. Risk factors associated with the metabolic syndrome in abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Schneider, H J; Klotsche, J; Friedrich, N; Schipf, S; Völzke, H; Silber, S; März, W; Nauck, M; Pittrow, D; Wehling, M; Sievers, C; Lehnert, H; Stalla, G K; Wittchen, H-U; Wallaschofski, H

    2012-10-01

    Obesity is associated with the metabolic syndrome. However, not all obese individuals have cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF). It is not clear how many abdominally obese individuals are free of CVRF and what distinguishes them from the group of obese individuals with CVRF. In this study, we aimed to assess the associated factors and prevalence of abdominal obesity without CVRF. In our cross-sectional analysis, we included n = 4244 subjects from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP), a population-based study and n = 6671 subjects from the Diabetes Cardiovascular Risk-Evaluation: Targets and Essential Data for Commitment of Treatment (DETECT) study, a representative primary care study in Germany. We defined abdominal obesity by waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) of 0.5 or greater. We assessed how many subjects with abdominal obesity had CVRF based on the definition of the metabolic syndrome. We analysed which conditions were associated with the absence of CVRF in abdominal obesity. In SHIP and DETECT, 2652 (62.5%) and 5126 (76.8%) subjects had a WHtR ≥ 0.5. Among those with a WHtR ≥ 0.5, 9.0% and 13.8% were free of CVRF and 49.9% and 52.7% had at least two CVRF in SHIP and DETECT, respectively. In both studies, after backward elimination, age, male sex, body mass index and high liver enzymes and unemployment were consistently inversely associated with the absence of CVRF. Among abdominally obese subjects, the prevalence of metabolically healthy subjects is low. Conditions consistently associated with the absence of CVRF in abdominal obesity are younger age, female sex, low BMI, and normal liver enzymes, the latter likely reflecting the absence of steatohepatitis.

  1. The relationship between childhood parental loss and metabolic syndrome in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Alciati, Alessandra; Gesuele, Felice; Casazza, Giovanni; Foschi, Diego

    2013-02-01

    The increasing global trend of obesity is a fundamental contributor to the growing prevalence of metabolic syndrome, a cluster of medical abnormalities including impaired glucose and lipid metabolism, obesity and hypertension. Results from animal and human investigations have shown that early life stress can result in weight gain and metabolic changes. Our aim is to investigate whether a particular type of an early adverse event, i.e. parental loss during childhood, is associated with the development of metabolic syndrome in severely obese subjects. One hundred thirty-five consecutive obese patients who were seeking bariatric surgery were assessed for metabolic syndrome according to the Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III criteria. Information regarding the experience of parental separation or bereavement before the age of 17 was collected with the use of a semi-structured interview. In our population, 31.1% of the subjects met the criteria for metabolic syndrome. No significant differences in demographic factors, health habits or psychiatric diagnosis were found between patients with and without coexisting metabolic syndrome. After adjusting for age and gender, multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that both childhood loss of a parent and a body mass index (BMI) value greater than 50 were significant predictors of metabolic syndrome. This study provides preliminary evidence linking childhood parental loss to risk factors for the development of metabolic syndrome.

  2. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Patients with Schizophrenia Referred to Farabi Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Jalal; Karimi, Kamyar; Farnia, Vahid; Golshani, Senobar; Alikhani, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Our study was conducted to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia. Methods The study population included all patients with schizophrenia who were referred to Farabi Hospital, Kermanshah, Iran, between March 2014 and March 2015. A total of 280 subjects who met the study criteria were selected according to the census sampling method. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 30.4% (20.7% in men and 51.5% in women). The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was greater in patients > 40 years than patients aged 20–40 years. There was a significant relationship between marital status and number of hospitalizations with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Conclusions Given the high prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia, healthcare professionals should take measures to identify the risk factors and timely treatment of affected patients, thereby improving the patient’s quality of life and reducing health costs. PMID:27403239

  3. Metabolic syndrome resolution in children and adolescents after 10 weeks of weight loss.

    PubMed

    Coppen, Ann Marie; Risser, Joseph A; Vash, Peter D

    2008-01-01

    Without aggressive intervention, childhood obesity and the metabolic syndrome may result in lifelong physical consequences. Interventions that emphasize healthy eating and regular exercise are crucial to stop this epidemic and its ramifications. This paper discusses the incidence of the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk factors before and after a weight loss program. A retrospective review was conducted in 135 children and adolescents (aged 6 to 19) who completed a 10-week medically supervised weight loss program. Outcome measures included mean change in each component of the metabolic syndrome, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and hemoglobin A(1c). After 10 weeks of weight loss, a mean (SD) weight loss of 9.24 (19.5) kg was attained. Resolution of the metabolic syndrome was seen in 75.5% of children and adolescents. Weight loss can reverse metabolic syndrome and decrease cardiovascular risk in as little as 10 weeks.

  4. [Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the menopausal transition: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Mendes, Karina Giane; Theodoro, Heloísa; Rodrigues, Alice Dalpicolli; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2012-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a complex disorder involving a combination of cardiovascular risk factors. Menopausal transition can be a key factor in the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The current study aims to evaluate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in the menopausal transition, using a systematic review. Three reviewers conducted an article search in PubMed. The articles' quality was evaluated according to Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE). Based on the selected studies, prevalence of metabolic syndrome increases in the post-menopausal (as compared to pre-menopausal) period, regardless of the population and study design. The change was more significant for waist circumference and blood pressure, suggesting that these components have the greatest influence on prevalence of metabolic syndrome.

  5. [Correction of psycho-emotional state by the biofeedback method in patients with metabolic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Koichubekov, B K; Shaikhin, A M; Tabagari, S I; Sorokina, M A; Omarbekova, N K

    2014-11-01

    Metabolic syndrome is one of the important clinical problems of medicine. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the efficacy of heart rate variability biofeedback method in correction of mental and emotional state in patients with metabolic syndrome. For this task was set to study the dynamics of indicators of mental and emotional stress by biofeedback based hardware-software complex "Amblyocor" in patients with metabolic syndrome. Course of heart rate variability biofeedback passed 10 patients with the metabolic syndrome. During biofeedback sessions conducted tests that assess psycho-emotional state by 5 characters. Data processing was performed using software package «Statistica 8.0» and showed a statistically significant decrease in indicators of mental and emotional stress, that demonstrates the effectiveness of biofeedback in the correction of mental and emotional stress in patients with metabolic syndrome.

  6. The developmental origins, mechanisms, and implications of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Kimberley D; Hanson, Mark A

    2010-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents a combination of cardio-metabolic risk determinants, including central obesity, insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia, and microalbuminuria. The prevalence of MetS is rapidly increasing worldwide, largely as a consequence of the ongoing obesity epidemic. Environmental factors during periods early in development have been shown to influence the susceptibility to develop disease in later life. In particular, there is a wealth of evidence from both epidemiological and animal studies for greater incidence of features of MetS as a result of unbalanced maternal nutrition. The mechanisms by which nutritional insults during a period of developmental plasticity result in a MetS phenotype are now beginning to receive considerable scientific interest. This review focuses on recent data regarding these mechanisms, in particular the epigenetic and transcriptional regulation of key metabolic genes in response to nutritional stimuli that mediate persistent changes and an adult MetS phenotype. A continued and greater understanding of these mechanisms will eventually allow specific interventions, with a favorable impact on the global incidence of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in the future.

  7. The potential role of antioxidants in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gregório, Bianca Martins; De Souza, Diogo Benchimol; de Morais Nascimento, Fernanda Amorim; Pereira, Leonardo Matta; Fernandes-Santos, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a constellation of risk factors that raise the risk for heart disease and other health problems, such as obesity. The clustering of metabolic abnormality is closely related to oxidative stress and inflammation, as well as the progression of atherosclerosis. Antioxidants are reducing agents which inhibit the oxidation of other molecules and can be used not only to prevent but also to treat health complications of MS and atherosclerosis. They can be ingested in the normal diet, since they are found in many food sources, or in supplement formulations. Herein, we aim to review the literature concerning the effect of antioxidants on MS. We focus on antioxidants with some evidence of action on this condition, like flavonoids, arginine, vitamin C, vitamin E, carotenoids, resveratrol and selenium. Experimental and clinical studies show that most of the above-mentioned antioxidants exhibit a wide range of effects in protecting the human body, especially in MS patients. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully elucidated for most of these compounds. Also, some of them should be used with caution because their excess can be toxic to the body. In general, antioxidants (especially those present in foods) can be used by MS individuals because of their direct effect on oxidative stress. Additionally, they should be encouraged as part of a nutritional lifestyle change, since this is part of the therapy for all diseases involved in metabolic disorders.

  8. The effects of changes in the metabolic syndrome detection status on arterial stiffening: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Tomiyama, Hirofumi; Hirayama, Yoji; Hashimoto, Hideki; Yambe, Minoru; Yamada, Jiko; Koji, Yutaka; Motobe, Kohki; Shiina, Kazuki; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Yamashinai, Akira

    2006-09-01

    We conducted a prospective study to examine the effects of alterations of the metabolic syndrome detection status on the rate of progression of arterial stiffness, which is recognized as a marker of arterial damage and an indicator of cardiovascular risk. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity as an index of arterial stiffening was recorded twice over a 3-year period in 2080 Japanese men (age, 42 +/- 9 years). At the start of the prospective study, pulse wave velocity was higher in the subjects with metabolic syndrome (n=125) than in those without metabolic syndrome (n=1,955) even after adjusting for mean blood pressure. The annual rate of increase of the pulse wave velocity was higher in the group with persistent metabolic syndrome (27 +/- 51 cm/s/year, n=71) than in the group with regression of metabolic syndrome (6 +/- 39 cm/s/year, n=54) or the group in which metabolic syndrome was absent (13 +/- 37 cm/s/year, n=1843; p < 0.05) after adjustment for changes in blood pressure. In conclusion, the changes in the metabolic syndrome detection status of the subjects during the study period affected the annual rate of progression of arterial stiffening, and persistent metabolic syndrome during the study period was associated with acceleration of arterial stiffening in middle-aged Japanese men. On the other hand, resolution of metabolic syndrome may be associated with attenuation of the progression of arterial damage. Therefore, the increased cardiovascular risk associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome may be at least partly mediated by acceleration of the progression of arterial stiffening.

  9. Current understanding of multiple risk factors as the metabolic syndrome: distillation or deconstruction.

    PubMed

    Boden-Albala, Bernadette

    2006-02-01

    The "metabolic syndrome" is a new term that defines the clustering of vascular risk factors, such as hyperlipidemia, obesity, elevated blood pressure, and elevated blood glucose. Controversy exists regarding the use of the term, which raises the question of whether the unique grouping of vascular risk factors adds more clinical risk then the additive effect of multiple risk factors viewed as separate but important entities. Whatever the answer, the metabolic syndrome constitutes a major public health problem with over 47 million persons in the United States meeting criteria for the metabolic syndrome. Although studies have demonstrated that the metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for overall mortality as well as cardiovascular events, the relationship between the metabolic syndrome and ischemic stroke has not been well characterized. Two large cross-sectional studies report an association between metabolic syndrome and increased risk of a history of stroke. One large multiethnic prospective study found the metabolic syndrome to be significantly associated with an increased risk of ischemic stroke after adjustment for sociodemographics and other cardiovascular risk factors. This study estimated that the metabolic syndrome may account for 19% of ischemic strokes including 30% of stroke in women and over 40% of stroke in Hispanics. Despite debate about the utility of its definition, there is evidence to suggest that the metabolic syndrome is an important risk factor for ischemic stroke, with differential effects by gender and race-ethnicity. Further, the metabolic syndrome has important clinical and public health implications by helping to easily identify individuals at greatest risk of vascular events.

  10. METABOLIC SYNDROME AND DAILY AMBULATION IN CHILDREN, ADOLESCENTS, AND YOUNG ADULTS

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Andrew W.; Parker, Donald E.; Krishnan, Sowmya; Chalmers, Laura J.

    2012-01-01

    Purposes To compare daily ambulatory measures in children, adolescents, and young adults with and without metabolic syndrome, and to assess which metabolic syndrome components, demographic measures, and body composition measures are associated with daily ambulatory measures. Methods Two-hundred fifty subjects between the ages of 10 and 30 years were assessed on metabolic syndrome components, demographic and clinical measures, body fat percentage, and daily ambulatory strides, durations, and cadences during seven consecutive days. Forty-five of the 250 subjects had metabolic syndrome, as defined by the International Diabetes Federation. Results Subjects with metabolic syndrome ambulated at a slower daily average cadence than those without metabolic syndrome (13.6 ± 2.2 strides/min vs. 14.9 ± 3.2 strides/min; p=0.012), and they had slower cadences for continuous durations of 60 minutes (p=0.006), 30 minutes (p=0.005), 20 minutes (p=0.003), 5 minutes (p=0.002), and 1 minute (p=0.001). However, the total amount of time spent ambulating each day was not different (p=0.077). After adjustment for metabolic syndrome status, average cadence is linearly associated with body fat percentage (p<0.001) and fat mass (p<0.01). Group difference in average cadence was no longer significant after adjusting for body fat percentage (p=0.683) and fat mass (p=0.973). Conclusion Children, adolescents, and young adults with metabolic syndrome ambulate more slowly and take fewer strides throughout the day than those without metabolic syndrome, even though the total amount of time spent ambulating is not different. Furthermore, the detrimental influence of metabolic syndrome on ambulatory cadence is primarily a function of body fatness. PMID:22811038

  11. Reduced Flexibility Associated with Metabolic Syndrome in Community-Dwelling Elders

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Ke-Vin; Hung, Chen-Yu; Li, Chia-Ming; Lin, Yu-Hung; Wang, Tyng-Guey; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Han, Der-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Background The ageing process may lead to reductions in physical fitness, a known risk factor in the development of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate cross-sectional and combined associations of metabolic syndrome with body composition and physical fitness in a community based geriatric population. Methods A total of 628 community-dwelling elders attending a geriatric health examination were enrolled in the study. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was based on the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) criterion with Asian cutoff of waist girth was adopted in this study. Body composition was obtained using bioimpedance analysis, and physical fitness was evaluated through the measurement of muscle strength (handgrip force), lower extremity muscle endurance (sit-to-stand test), flexibility (sit-and-reach test), and cardiorespiratory endurance (2-minute step test). Multivariable logistic regression and correlation analysis were performed to determine the association of metabolic syndrome with body composition and functionality variables. Results Metabolic syndrome was associated with increased skeletal muscle index (SMI) (odds ratio (OR), 1.61, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.25–2.07) and decreased flexibility (OR, 0.97, 95% CI, 0.95–0.99) compared with those without metabolic syndrome. When body mass index was accounted for in the analysis, the association of SMI with metabolic syndrome was reduced. Waist circumference was positively correlated with SMI but negatively correlated with flexibility, whereas high density lipoprotein was positively correlated with flexibility but negatively correlated with SMI. Conclusion Reduced flexibility was positively associated with metabolic syndrome independent of age, gender, body composition, and functionality measurements in a community based geriatric population. Significant associations between metabolic syndrome with muscle strength

  12. Nature and Nurture in the Early-Life Origins of Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Bulnes, Antonio; Astiz, Susana; Ovilo, Cristina; Garcia-Contreras, Consolacion; Vazquez-Gomez, Marta

    The combination of genetic background together with food excess and lack of exercise has become the cornerstone of metabolic disorders associated to lifestyle. The scenario is furthermore reinforced by their interaction with other environmental factors (stress, sleeping patterns, education, culture, rural versus urban locations, and xenobiotics, among others) inducing epigenetic changes in the exposed individuals. The immediate consequence is the development of further alterations like obesity and metabolic syndrome, and other adverse health conditions (type-2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, reproductive, immune and neurological disorders). Thus, having in mind the impact of the metabolic syndrome on the worldwide public health, the present review affords the relative roles and the interrelationships of nature (genetic predisposition to metabolic syndrome) and nurture (lifestyle and environmental effects causing epigenetic changes), on the establishment of the metabolic disorders in women; disorders that may evolve to metabolic syndrome prior or during pregnancy and may be transmitted to their descendants.

  13. Family Caregiver Alliance

    MedlinePlus

    ... on your schedule. Look for our launch soon! FAMILY CARE NAVIGATOR ─ Click on Your State AL AK ... Group) Smart Patients Caregivers Community In partnership with Family Caregiver Alliance Learn more Caregiver Research Caregivers exhibit ...

  14. Ethnic Disparities in Metabolic Syndrome in Malaysia: An Analysis by Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dunn, Richard A.; Yen, Steven T.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigates ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome in Malaysia. Methods Data were obtained from the Malaysia Non-Communicable Disease Surveillance-1 (2005/2006). Logistic regressions of metabolic syndrome health risks on sociodemographic and health–lifestyle factors were conducted using a multiracial (Malay, Chinese, and Indian and other ethnic groups) sample of 2,366 individuals. Results Among both males and females, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome amongst Indians was larger compared to both Malays and Chinese because Indians are more likely to exhibit central obesity, elevated fasting blood glucose, and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. We also found that Indians tend to engage in less physical activity and consume fewer fruits and vegetables than Malays and Chinese. Although education and family history of chronic disease are associated with metabolic syndrome status, differences in socioeconomic attributes do not explain ethnic disparities in metabolic syndrome incidence. The difference in metabolic syndrome prevalence between Chinese and Malays was not statistically significant. Whereas both groups exhibited similar obesity rates, ethnic Chinese were less likely to suffer from high fasting blood glucose. Conclusions Metabolic syndrome disproportionately affects Indians in Malaysia. Additionally, fasting blood glucose rates differ dramatically amongst ethnic groups. Attempts to decrease health disparities among ethnic groups in Malaysia will require greater attention to improving the metabolic health of Malays, especially Indians, by encouraging healthful lifestyle changes. PMID:21815810

  15. Irisin levels in relation to metabolic and liver functions in Egyptian patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Fatma H; Elshweikh, Samah A; Abd El-Naby, Amira Y

    2016-04-01

    Irisin is a new myokine that is suspected to influence metabolic syndrome (MetS). However, there is a great controversy with respect to its level in cases of MetS and its correlation with different metabolic parameters. The present study assesses irisin levels in MetS patients and studies its relationship to metabolic and liver functions to evaluate the possible role of the liver in regulation of this level. Sixty subjects were included in this experiment, who were divided into 3 groups: group I (normal control), group II (MetS patients with normal liver enzymes), and group III (MetS with elevated liver enzymes and fatty liver disease). Serum irisin levels showed significant increases in groups II and III compared with group I, and significant increases in group III compared with group II. Also, irisin levels were positively correlated with body mass index, serum triglycerides, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), and liver enzymes. We concluded that serum irisin levels increased in patients with MetS, especially those with elevated liver enzymes, and had a positive correlation with parameters of lipid metabolism and glucose homeostasis with the possibility of hepatic clearance to irisin.

  16. Association between metabolic syndrome, obesity, diabetes mellitus and oncological outcomes of bladder cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cantiello, Francesco; Cicione, Antonio; Salonia, Andrea; Autorino, Riccardo; De Nunzio, Cosimo; Briganti, Alberto; Gandaglia, Giorgio; Dell'Oglio, Paolo; Capogrosso, Paolo; Damiano, Rocco

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of several metabolic abnormalities, its prevalence is increasing worldwide. To summarize the most recent evidence regarding the relationship between metabolic syndrome, its components and the oncological outcomes in bladder cancer patients, a National Center for Biotechnology Information PubMed search for relevant articles either published or e-published up to March 2014 was carried out by combining the following Patient population, Intervention, Comparison, Outcome terms: metabolic syndrome, obesity, body mass index, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, bladder cancer, risk, mortality, cancer specific survival, disease recurrence and progression. Metabolic syndrome is a complex, highly prevalent disorder, and central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension are its main components. Published findings would suggest that metabolic syndrome per se might be associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in male patients, but it did not seem to confer a risk of worse prognosis. Considering the primary components of metabolic syndrome (hypertension, obesity and dyslipidemia), available data are uncertain, and it is no possible to reach a conclusion yet on either a direct or an indirect association with bladder cancer risk and prognosis. Only with regard to type 2 diabetes mellitus, available data would suggest a potential negative correlation. However, as the evaluation of bladder cancer risk and prognosis in patients with metabolic disorders is certainly complex, further studies are urgently required to better assess the actual role of these metabolic disorders.

  17. Oxidative stress and DNA methylation regulation in the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yara, Sabrina; Lavoie, Jean-Claude; Levy, Emile

    2015-01-01

    DNA methylation is implicated in tissue-specific gene expression and genomic imprinting. It is modulated by environmental factors, especially nutrition. Modified DNA methylation patterns may contribute to health problems and susceptibility to complex diseases. Current advances have suggested that the metabolic syndrome (MS) is a programmable disease, which is characterized by epigenetic modifications of vital genes when exposed to oxidative stress. Therefore, the main objective of this paper is to critically review the central context of MS while presenting the most recent knowledge related to epigenetic alterations that are promoted by oxidative stress. Potential pro-oxidant mechanisms that orchestrate changes in methylation profiling and are related to obesity, diabetes and hypertension are discussed. It is anticipated that the identification and understanding of the role of DNA methylation marks could be used to uncover early predictors and define drugs or diet-related treatments able to delay or reverse epigenetic changes, thereby combating MS burden.

  18. Long Noncoding RNAs in Metabolic Syndrome Related Disorders

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Ribonucleic acids (RNAs) are very complex and their all functions have yet to be fully clarified. Noncoding genes (noncoding RNA, sequences, and pseudogenes) comprise 67% of all genes and they are represented by housekeeping noncoding RNAs (transfer RNA (tRNA), ribosomal RNA (rRNA), small nuclear RNA (snRNA), and small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA)) that are engaged in basic cellular processes and by regulatory noncoding RNA (short and long noncoding RNA (ncRNA)) that are important for gene expression/transcript stability. In this review, we summarize data concerning the significance of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) in metabolic syndrome related disorders, focusing on adipose tissue and pancreatic islands. PMID:27881904

  19. Erectile dysfunction, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular risks: facts and controversies

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Edward; Pastuszak, Alexander W.

    2017-01-01

    Erectile dysfunction (ED) is the most common male sexual dysfunction, and shares many risk factors with systemic conditions including cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). ED is considered to be an independent risk factor for CVD and can be a harbinger of future cardiovascular events. Given this relationship, each encounter for ED should be viewed by healthcare providers as an opportunity to screen for CVD and other comorbid conditions, including the MetS, that can significantly affect a man’s overall health. While universally accepted screening guidelines are lacking, expert panels do recommend an approach to risk stratification in men with ED. In this review, we discuss the current state of understanding of the relationship between ED, the MetS, and CV risk, and how this impacts the approach to the patient presenting with ED. PMID:28217448

  20. A Behavior Analytic Approach to Exploratory Motor Behavior: How Can Caregivers Teach EM Behavior to Infants with Down Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Sara M.; Jones, Emily A.

    2014-01-01

    Impairment in exploratory motor (EM) behavior is part of the Down syndrome behavioral phenotype. Exploratory motor behavior may be a pivotal skill for early intervention with infants with Down syndrome. Exploratory motor impairments are often attributed to general delays in motor development in infants with Down syndrome. A behavior analytic…

  1. Association of Microalbuminuria with Metabolic Syndrome among Aged Population.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Hong; Lin, Hai-Yan; Wang, Shu-Hua; Guan, Li-Ying; Wang, Yi-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Background. The impact of the various components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on chronic kidney disease has been conflicting. We aim to investigate the association between MetS and microalbuminuria and identify the major contributing components of MetS that result in microalbuminuria in the Chinese aged population. Methods. A total of 674 adults aged 55-98 years (males: 266; mean age: 66.5 ± 7.5 years) were studied. MetS was defined by the 2004 Chinese Diabetes Society criteria and microalbuminuria by urine albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) ≥3 mg/mmoL. Results. The prevalence of microalbuminuria was gradually increased with increasing number of MetS components (P < 0.05). In multivariate regression, after adjusting for age and sex, MetS was the strongest correlate of microalbuminuria (OR = 1.781, 95% CI = 1.226-2.587; P < 0.05) followed by the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) (OR = 1.217, 95% CI = 1.044-1.092; P < 0.05), systolic blood pressure (SBP) (OR = 1.011, 95% CI = 1.107-1.338; P < 0.05), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) (OR = 0.576, 95% CI = 0.348-0.953; P < 0.05). Conclusions. MetS is independently associated with microalbuminuria in the Chinese aged population. Elevated FPG is the most predominant component of metabolic syndrome associated with microalbuminuria followed by elevated SBP and reduced HDL-C.

  2. Impaired contractile recovery after low-flow myocardial ischemia in a porcine model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Janice V; Lu, Li; Ye, Shuyu; Bergman, Bryan C; Sparagna, Genevieve C; Sarraf, Mohammad; Reusch, Jane E B; Greyson, Clifford R; Schwartz, Gregory G

    2013-03-15

    Clinical metabolic syndrome conveys a poor prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome, not fully accounted for by the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. To explain this observation, we determined whether postischemic myocardial contractile and metabolic function are impaired in a porcine dietary model of metabolic syndrome without atherosclerosis. Micropigs (n = 28) were assigned to a control diet (low fat, no added sugars) or an intervention diet (high saturated fat and simple sugars, no added cholesterol) for 7 mo. The intervention diet produced obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance, but not atherosclerosis. Under open-chest, anesthetized conditions, pigs underwent 45 min of low-flow myocardial ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. In both diet groups, contractile function was similar at baseline and declined similarly during ischemia. However, after 120 min of reperfusion, regional work recovered to 21 ± 12% of baseline in metabolic syndrome pigs compared with 61 ± 13% in control pigs (P = 0.01). Ischemia-reperfusion caused a progressive decline in mechanical/metabolic efficiency (regional work/O2 consumption) in metabolic syndrome hearts, but not in control hearts. Metabolic syndrome hearts demonstrated altered fatty acyl composition of cardiolipin and increased Akt phosphorylation in both ischemic and nonischemic regions, suggesting tonic activation. Metabolic syndrome hearts used more fatty acid than control hearts (P = 0.03). When fatty acid availability was restricted by prior insulin exposure, differences between groups in postischemic contractile recovery and mechanical/metabolic efficiency were eliminated. In conclusion, pigs with characteristics of metabolic syndrome demonstrate impaired contractile and metabolic recovery after low-flow myocardial ischemia. Contributory mechanisms may include remodeling of cardiolipin, abnormal activation of Akt, and excessive utilization of fatty acid substrates.

  3. Impaired contractile recovery after low-flow myocardial ischemia in a porcine model of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Janice V.; Lu, Li; Ye, Shuyu; Bergman, Bryan C.; Sparagna, Genevieve C.; Sarraf, Mohammad; Reusch, Jane E. B.; Greyson, Clifford R.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical metabolic syndrome conveys a poor prognosis in patients with acute coronary syndrome, not fully accounted for by the extent of coronary atherosclerosis. To explain this observation, we determined whether postischemic myocardial contractile and metabolic function are impaired in a porcine dietary model of metabolic syndrome without atherosclerosis. Micropigs (n = 28) were assigned to a control diet (low fat, no added sugars) or an intervention diet (high saturated fat and simple sugars, no added cholesterol) for 7 mo. The intervention diet produced obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and impaired glucose tolerance, but not atherosclerosis. Under open-chest, anesthetized conditions, pigs underwent 45 min of low-flow myocardial ischemia and 120 min of reperfusion. In both diet groups, contractile function was similar at baseline and declined similarly during ischemia. However, after 120 min of reperfusion, regional work recovered to 21 ± 12% of baseline in metabolic syndrome pigs compared with 61 ± 13% in control pigs (P = 0.01). Ischemia-reperfusion caused a progressive decline in mechanical/metabolic efficiency (regional work/O2 consumption) in metabolic syndrome hearts, but not in control hearts. Metabolic syndrome hearts demonstrated altered fatty acyl composition of cardiolipin and increased Akt phosphorylation in both ischemic and nonischemic regions, suggesting tonic activation. Metabolic syndrome hearts used more fatty acid than control hearts (P = 0.03). When fatty acid availability was restricted by prior insulin exposure, differences between groups in postischemic contractile recovery and mechanical/metabolic efficiency were eliminated. In conclusion, pigs with characteristics of metabolic syndrome demonstrate impaired contractile and metabolic recovery after low-flow myocardial ischemia. Contributory mechanisms may include remodeling of cardiolipin, abnormal activation of Akt, and excessive utilization of fatty acid substrates. PMID:23335793

  4. Metabolic syndrome and C-reactive protein in bank employees

    PubMed Central

    Cattafesta, Monica; Bissoli, Nazaré Souza; Salaroli, Luciane Bresciani

    2016-01-01

    Background The ultrasensitive C-reactive protein (us-CRP) is used for the diagnosis of cardiovascular disease, but it is not well described as a marker for the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome (MS). Methods An observational and transversal study of bank employees evaluated anthropometric, hemodynamic, and biochemical data. CRP values were determined using commercial kits from Roche Diagnostics Ltd, and MS criteria were analyzed according to National Cholesterol Education Program’s – Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP/ATP III). Results A total of 88 individuals had MS, and 77.3% (n=68) of these showed alterations of us-CRP (P=0.0001, confidence interval [CI] 0.11–0.34). Individuals with MS had higher mean values of us-CRP in global measures (P=0.0001) and stratified by sex (P=0.004) than individuals without the syndrome. This marker exhibited significant differences with varying criteria for MS, such as waist circumference (P=0.0001), triglycerides (P=0.002), and diastolic blood pressure (P=0.007), and the highest levels of us-CRP were found in individuals with more MS criteria. Conclusion us-CRP was strongly associated with the presence of MS and MS criteria in this group of workers. us-CRP is a useful and effective marker for identifying the development of MS and may be used as a reference in routine care. PMID:27274294

  5. Management of metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Pacifico, L; Anania, C; Martino, F; Poggiogalle, E; Chiarelli, F; Arca, M; Chiesa, C

    2011-06-01

    Concomitantly with the increasing prevalence of childhood obesity, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MS) is rising among children and adolescents, leading to fears for future epidemics of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease in the young. This makes the accurate identification and the appropriate treatment of children and adolescents with MS an important priority for health care systems. This review will focus on the management of each component of MS, including the nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), which is currently considered as the hepatic component of the syndrome. The most relevant target of treatment of MS in children and adolescents is the abdominal obesity. To this end, we will discuss the efficacy of dietary approaches, possibly coupled with regular physical activity, on eliciting visceral fat reduction. We will also highlight several aspects of the treatment of the high triglyceride/low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol phenotype, including the use of non-pharmacological measures, and indications for instituting drug therapies. Part of this review will address treatment of glucose abnormalities, including the benefits of lifestyle modification alone, and the potential adjunctive role of hypoglycemic drugs. The treatment of hypertension in children with MS also requires a multifaceted approach and the available data of this topic will be examined. The remainder of this review will address treatment to reverse NAFLD and prevent progression to end-stage disease.

  6. Prostate cancer prevention by nutritional means to alleviate metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Barnard, R James

    2007-09-01

    In 1987 when Reaven introduced syndrome X (metabolic syndrome, or MS), we were studying skeletal muscle insulin resistance and found that when rodents were fed a high-fat, refined-sugar (HFS) diet, insulin resistance developed along with aspects of MS, including hyperinsulinemia, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, and obesity. MS was controlled in rodents by switching them to a low-fat, starch diet and was controlled in humans with a low-fat starch diet and daily exercise (Pritikin Program). Others reported inverse relations between serum insulin and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). When subjects were placed on the Pritikin Program, insulin fell and SHBG rose and it was suggested that prostate cancer might also be an aspect of MS. A bioassay was developed with tumor cell lines grown in culture and stimulated with serum before and after a diet and exercise intervention. Diet and exercise altered serum factors that slowed the growth rate and induced apoptosis in androgen-dependent prostate cancer cells. Changes in serum with diet and exercise that might be important include reductions in insulin, estradiol, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and free testosterone with increases in SHBG and IGF binding protein-1. Hyperinsulinemia stimulates liver production of IGF-I, plays a role in the promotion of prostate cancer, and thus is the cornerstone for both MS and prostate cancer. Adopting a low-fat starch diet with daily exercise controls MS and should reduce the risk of prostate cancer.

  7. Metabolic syndrome in Mediterranean women with polycystic ovary syndrome: when and how to predict its onset.

    PubMed

    Espinós-Gómez, Juan J; Rodriguez-Espinosa, J; Ordóñez-Llanos, J; Calaf-Alsina, J

    2012-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with the metabolic syndrome (MetS). The metabolic disorders are not universal and may vary with race, age and phenotype. Our purpose was to determine the clinical and biochemical characteristics of Mediterranean PCOS women with MetS, compare them with non-MetS PCOS patients, and assess the ability of clinical data and biochemical tests to predict these abnormalities within our population. A total of 218 subjects, 196 PCOS women and 22 controls, undergo a physical examination and laboratory evaluation for a diagnosis of MetS. MetS was categorized according to NCEP ATP III guidelines. PCOS patients were analyzed separately and compared in three subgroups: three or more MetS criteria, two criteria, one or no criteria. The overall prevalence of MetS was 21.4%. Women with MetS had higher glucose (G) levels than PCOS women with two criteria (5.7 ± 1.5 vs 5 ± 0.4, p < 0.05). Both groups were comparable for all the other parameters. Waist circumference (WC), body mass index (BMI), systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP), bioavailable testosterone (uT), triglycerides (TG) and insulin (I) levels were significantly higher and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) levels, high-density lipoprotein (HDL), HOMA and QUICKI indexes significantly lower in both groups, MetS and patients with two criteria, compared with women with one or no criteria and the control group. WC, HDL and TG were the best predictors of PCOS patients at risk for MetS. In conclusion, we recommend considering PCOS patients with two criteria of MetS as having the same risk as patients with the full syndrome. Waist circumference with HDL and triglycerides is an efficient combined test to identify PCOS women at risk for metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

  8. PPARs Link Early Life Nutritional Insults to Later Programmed Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tain, You-Lin; Hsu, Chien-Ning; Chan, Julie Y. H.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is an important component of metabolic syndrome. Adulthood hypertension and metabolic syndrome can be programmed in response to nutritional insults in early life. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) serve as a nutrient-sensing signaling linking nutritional programming to hypertension and metabolic syndrome. All three members of PPARs, PPARα, PPARβ/δ, and PPARγ, are expressed in the kidney and involved in blood pressure control. This review provides an overview of potential clinical applications of targeting on the PPARs in the kidney to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome, with an emphasis on the following areas: mechanistic insights to interpret programmed hypertension; the link between the PPARs, nutritional insults, and programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome; the impact of PPAR signaling pathway in a maternal high-fructose model; and current experimental studies on early intervention by PPAR modulators to prevent programmed hypertension and metabolic syndrome. Animal studies employing a reprogramming strategy via targeting PPARs to prevent hypertension have demonstrated interesting results. It is critical that the observed effects on developmental reprogramming in animal models are replicated in human studies, to halt the globally-growing epidemic of metabolic syndrome-related diseases. PMID:26712739

  9. Metabolic syndrome: a closer look at the growing epidemic and its associated pathologies.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, S; O'Driscoll, L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is reaching epidemic proportions with recent worldwide figures estimated at 1.4 billion and rising year-on-year. Obesity affects all socioeconomic backgrounds and ethnicities and is a pre-requisite for metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of risk factors, such as central obesity, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia and hypertension that together culminate in the increased risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. As these conditions are among the leading causes of deaths worldwide and metabolic syndrome increases the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus fivefold and cardiovascular disease threefold, it is of critical importance that a precise definition is agreed upon by all interested parties. Also of particular interest is the relationship between metabolic syndrome and cancer. Metabolic syndrome has been associated with a plethora of cancers including breast, pancreatic, colon and liver cancer. Furthermore, each individual risk factor for metabolic syndrome has also an association with cancer. Our review collates internationally generated information on metabolic syndrome, its many definitions and its associations with life-threatening conditions including type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease and cancer, providing a foundation for future advancements on this topic.

  10. Lifestyle changes and prevention of metabolic syndrome in the Heart of New Ulm Project.

    PubMed

    VanWormer, Jeffrey J; Boucher, Jackie L; Sidebottom, Abbey C; Sillah, Arthur; Knickelbine, Thomas

    2017-06-01

    Prior research has shown that unhealthy lifestyles increase the risk for developing a number of chronic diseases, but there are few studies examining how lifestyle changes impact metabolic syndrome. This study analyzed the association between two-year changes in key lifestyle risk metrics and incident metabolic syndrome in adults. A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from metabolic syndrome free adults in the Heart of New Ulm Project (New Ulm, MN). The outcome was incident metabolic syndrome observed two years after baseline in 2009. The primary predictor was change in optimal lifestyle score based on four behavioral risk factors, including smoking, alcohol use, fruit/vegetable consumption, and physical activity. In the analytical sample of 1059 adults, 12% developed metabolic syndrome by 2011. Multivariable regression models (adjusted for baseline lifestyle score, age, sex, education, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes) revealed that a two-year decrease in optimal lifestyle score was associated with significantly greater odds of incident metabolic syndrome (OR = 2.92; 95% CI: 1.69, 5.04; p < 0.001). This association was primarily driven by changes in obesity, fruit/vegetable consumption, and alcohol intake. As compared to improving poor lifestyle habits, maintaining a healthy lifestyle seemed to be most helpful in avoiding metabolic syndrome over the two-year study timeframe.

  11. Metabolic Syndrome As an Underlying Disease Entity and Its Relationship to Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Andean Hispanics

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Lezama, Josefina; Arguelles, William; Goldberg, Ronald; Schneiderman, Neil; Khan, Zubair; Morey, Oscar O.; Raja, Muhammad Waheed; Paz, Roberto; Chirinos, Julio A.; Llabre, Maria M.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The question of whether the metabolic syndrome truly reflects a single disease entity with a common underlying pathology remains unclear. In this study, we assess whether metabolic syndrome represents an underlying disease construct in a large population-based sample of Andean Hispanic adults and examine its relationship to subclinical atherosclerosis. Methods: The study sample was comprised of 2513 participants. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to identify a metabolic syndrome latent factor using waist circumference, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), and glucose levels as indicators. The relationship with subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by carotid intima media thickness (cIMT), was assessed using structural equation modeling. Results: Results supported the proposed structure of the metabolic syndrome latent factor evidenced by adequate fit indexes. HDL-C did not significantly load on the metabolic syndrome latent factor (standardized factor loading=0.01, P=0.88). The metabolic syndrome latent factor was significantly associated with cIMT in women (B=0.007, P<0.001) and men (B=0.008, P<0.001) after controlling for age, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and smoking. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that metabolic syndrome components, such as waist circumference, blood pressure, TGs, and glucose levels, but not HDL-C, share a common underlying pathophysiology that may contribute to the progression of atherosclerosis in Andean Hispanics. Its longitudinal association with cardiovascular disease should be the focus of future research. PMID:24206171

  12. Metabolic syndrome remodels electrical activity of the sinoatrial node and produces arrhythmias in rats.

    PubMed

    Albarado-Ibañez, Alondra; Avelino-Cruz, José Everardo; Velasco, Myrian; Torres-Jácome, Julián; Hiriart, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    In the last ten years, the incidences of metabolic syndrome and supraventricular arrhythmias have greatly increased. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of alterations, which include obesity, hypertension, hypertriglyceridemia, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, that increase the risk of developing, among others, atrial and nodal arrhythmias. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that metabolic syndrome induces electrical remodeling of the sinus node and produces arrhythmias. We induced metabolic syndrome in 2-month-old male Wistar rats by administering 20% sucrose in the drinking water. Eight weeks later, the rats were anesthetized and the electrocardiogram was recorded, revealing the presence of arrhythmias only in treated rats. Using conventional microelectrode and voltage clamp techniques, we analyzed the electrical activity of the sinoatrial node. We observed that in the sinoatrial node of "metabolic syndrome rats", compared to controls, the spontaneous firing of all cells decreased, while the slope of the diastolic depolarization increased only in latent pacemaker cells. Accordingly, the pacemaker currents If and Ist increased. Furthermore, histological analysis showed a large amount of fat surrounding nodal cardiomyocytes and a rise in the sympathetic innervation. Finally, Poincaré plot denoted irregularity in the R-R and P-P ECG intervals, in agreement with the variability of nodal firing potential recorded in metabolic syndrome rats. We conclude that metabolic syndrome produces a dysfunction SA node by disrupting normal architecture and the electrical activity, which could explain the onset of arrhythmias in rats.

  13. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder is a Risk Factor for Metabolic Syndrome in an Impoverished Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Tamara; Skelton, Kelly; Phifer, Justine; Jovanovic, Tanja; Gillespie, Charles F.; Smith, Alicia; Umpierrez, Guillermo; Bradley, Bekh; Ressler, Kerry J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Metabolic syndrome is associated with elevated risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes, and has increased prevalence in low-income African-Americans, which constitutes a significant health disparity. The mechanisms responsible for this disparity remain unclear; the current study investigated the relationship between Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and metabolic syndrome. Method We assessed childhood and adult trauma history, Major Depressive Disorder (MDD), PTSD, and the components of metabolic syndrome in an urban population. We recruited 245 low socio-economic status (SES), primarily African American subjects from general medical clinics in an inner-city hospital. Results Trauma exposure was extremely prevalent, with 90.6% of subjects reporting at least one significant trauma, and 18.8% of subjects meeting criteria for a current PTSD. Metabolic syndrome was also prevalent in this population (33.2%), with significantly higher rates among patients with current PTSD (47.8%, p<.05). After controlling for demographics, smoking history, antipsychotic use, depression, and exercise, current PTSD remained the only significant predictor of metabolic syndrome (p=0.006). Conclusions PTSD is associated with increased rates of metabolic syndrome within a traumatized, impoverished urban population. Further studies should investigate if PTSD treatment may reduce the rates of metabolic syndrome, improve overall health outcomes, and decrease healthcare disparities in minority populations. PMID:21596206

  14. Variable Association between Components of the Metabolic Syndrome and Electrocardiographic Abnormalities in Korean Adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul-Hee; Ko, Kwan-Ho; Park, Seong-Wook; Park, Joong-Yeol; Lee, Ki-Up

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims Resting electrocardiogram (ECG) abnormalities have been strongly associated with cardiovascular disease mortality. Little is known, however, about the association between individual components of metabolic syndrome and ECG abnormalities, especially in Asian populations. Methods We examined clinical and laboratory data from 31,399 subjects (age 20 to 89 years) who underwent medical check-ups. ECG abnormalities were divided into minor and major abnormalities based on Novacode criteria. Ischemic ECG findings were separately identified and analyzed. Results The overall prevalence rates of ECG abnormalities were significantly higher in subjects with than in those without metabolic syndrome (p < 0.01). Ischemic ECG was strongly associated with metabolic syndrome in all age groups of both sexes, except for younger women. In multiple logistic regression analysis, metabolic syndrome was independently associated with ischemic ECG (odds ratio, 2.30 [2.04 to 2.62]; p < 0.01), after adjusting for sex, age, smoking, and family history of cardiovascular disease. Of the metabolic syndrome components, hyperglycemia in younger subjects and hypertension in elderly subjects were major factors for ischemic ECG changes, whereas hypertriglyceridemia was not an independent risk factor in any age group. The association between ischemic ECG findings and central obesity was weaker in women than in men. Conclusions Metabolic syndrome was strongly associated with ECG abnormalities, especially ischemic ECG findings, in Koreans. The association between each component of metabolic syndrome and ECG abnormalities varied according to age and sex. PMID:20526391

  15. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    De Long, Nicole E; Holloway, Alison C

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood) may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate) and processing (acrylamide), in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants) and drinking water (heavy metals) and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity. PMID:28367067

  16. Plasma lipidomics discloses metabolic syndrome with a specific HDL phenotype.

    PubMed

    Jové, Mariona; Naudí, Alba; Portero-Otin, Manuel; Cabré, Rosanna; Rovira-Llopis, Susana; Bañuls, Celia; Rocha, Milagros; Hernández-Mijares, Antonio; Victor, Victor M; Pamplona, Reinald

    2014-12-01

    Lipidomics reveals a remarkable diversity of lipids in human plasma. In this study, we have performed an in-depth lipidomic analysis of human plasma from healthy individuals and subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in order to determine the lipidomic profile that allows prognosis of a pathological subpopulation with altered high-density lipoprotein (HDL) metabolism. The MetS population was categorized as having pathological or nonpathological HDL. Anthropometric parameters, cardiovascular risk markers, and lipoprotein subclasses of HDL and low-density lipoproteins were also evaluated. Lipidomic analysis revealed 357 differential molecules that were clustered (k means) in the two groups. The molecules identified in the whole lipidome showed that MetS subjects presented lower levels of glycerolipids and higher levels of glycerophospholipids with respect to control subjects. In contrast, when only statistically differential lipids were taken into account, differences were found between the two groups in almost cases. Furthermore, levels of saturated fatty acids were higher in patients with pathological HDL levels than in controls, whereas levels of unsaturated fatty acids were lower. These results highlight the potential of lipidomics as a clinical tool for risk assessment and monitoring of disease.

  17. Nuts in the prevention and treatment of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Guasch-Ferré, Marta; Bulló, Mònica; Sabaté, Joan

    2014-07-01

    Nuts are rich in many bioactive compounds that can exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular health. We reviewed the evidence relating nut consumption and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components. Nuts reduce the postprandial glycemic response; however, long-term trials of nuts on insulin resistance and glycemic control in diabetic individuals are inconsistent. Epidemiologic studies have shown that nuts may lower the risk of diabetes incidence in women. Few studies have assessed the association between nuts and abdominal obesity, although an inverse association with body mass index and general obesity has been observed. Limited evidence suggests that nuts have a protective effect on blood pressure and endothelial function. Nuts have a cholesterol-lowering effect, but the relation between nuts and hypertriglyceridemia and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol is not well established. A recent pooled analysis of clinical trials showed that nuts are inversely related to triglyceride concentrations only in subjects with hypertriglyceridemia. An inverse association was found between the frequency of nut consumption and the prevalence and the incidence of MetS. Several trials evaluated the effect of nuts on subjects with MetS and found that they may have benefits in some components. Compared with a low-fat diet, a Mediterranean diet enriched with nuts could be beneficial for MetS management. The protective effects on metabolism could be explained by the modulation of inflammation and oxidation. Further trials are needed to clarify the role of nuts in MetS prevention and treatment.

  18. Influence of metabolic syndrome on upper gastrointestinal disease.

    PubMed

    Sogabe, Masahiro; Okahisa, Toshiya; Kimura, Tetsuo; Okamoto, Koichi; Miyamoto, Hiroshi; Muguruma, Naoki; Takayama, Tetsuji

    2016-08-01

    A recent increase in the rate of obesity as a result of insufficient physical exercise and excess food consumption has been seen in both developed and developing countries throughout the world. Additionally, the recent increased number of obese individuals with lifestyle-related diseases associated with abnormalities in glucose metabolism, dyslipidemia, and hypertension, defined as metabolic syndrome (MS), has been problematic. Although MS has been highlighted as a risk factor for ischemic heart disease and arteriosclerotic diseases, it was also recently shown to be associated with digestive system disorders, including upper gastrointestinal diseases. Unlike high body weight and high body mass index, abdominal obesity with visceral fat accumulation is implicated in the onset of various digestive system diseases because excessive visceral fat accumulation may cause an increase in intra-abdominal pressure, inducing the release of various bioactive substances, known as adipocytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, resistin, leptin, and adiponectin. This review article focuses on upper gastrointestinal disorders and their association with MS, including obesity, visceral fat accumulation, and the major upper gastrointestinal diseases.

  19. Copper and zinc metabolism in aminonucleoside-induced nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pedraza-Chaverrí, J; Torres-Rodríguez, G A; Cruz, C; Mainero, A; Tapia, E; Ibarra-Rubio, M E; Silencio, J L

    1994-01-01

    Copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) were measured in urine, serum and tissues from rats with nephrotic syndrome (NS) induced with a single subcutaneous dose of puromycin aminonucleoside (PAN; 15 mg/100 g BW). Control animals were pair-fed. Urine was collected daily, and the rats were sacrificed on day 10. PAN-nephrotic rats had proteinuria (days 3-10), high urinary Cu (days 1, 2, 4-10) and Zn (days 3-10) excretion. On day 10, nephrotic rats had: (a) albuminuria, hypoalbuminemia, hypoproteinemia, high urine and low serum levels of ceruloplasmin; (b) low Cu and Zn serum levels; (c) high clearance and fractional excretion of Cu and Zn, and (d) low kidney and liver Cu content and essentially normal tissue Zn levels. The alterations in Cu metabolism were more intense than those in Zn metabolism. Urine Cu and Zn showed a positive correlation with urine total protein on days 3-10 which suggests that high urinary excretion of Cu and Zn may be due to the excretion of its carrier proteins. In conclusion, these rats did not show a typical Zn deficiency but a clear decrease in Cu in the liver and kidney.

  20. Effects of metabolic syndrome on language functions in aging.

    PubMed

    Cahana-Amitay, Dalia; Spiro, Avron; Cohen, Jason A; Oveis, Abigail C; Ojo, Emmanuel A; Sayers, Jesse T; Obler, Loraine K; Albert, Martin L

    2015-02-01

    This study explored effects of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) on language in aging. MetS is a constellation of five vascular and metabolic risk factors associated with the development of chronic diseases and increased risk of mortality, as well as brain and cognitive impairments. We tested 281 English-speaking older adults aged 55-84, free of stroke and dementia. Presence of MetS was based on the harmonized criteria (Alberti et al., 2009). Language performance was assessed by measures of accuracy and reaction time on two tasks of lexical retrieval and two tasks of sentence processing. Regression analyses, adjusted for age, education, gender, diabetes, hypertension, and heart disease, demonstrated that participants with MetS had significantly lower accuracy on measures of lexical retrieval (action naming) and sentence processing (embedded sentences, both subject and object relative clauses). Reaction time was slightly faster on the test of embedded sentences among those with MetS. MetS adversely affects the language performance of older adults, impairing accuracy of both lexical retrieval and sentence processing. This finding reinforces and extends results of earlier research documenting the negative influence of potentially treatable medical conditions (diabetes, hypertension) on language performance in aging. The unanticipated finding that persons with MetS were faster in processing embedded sentences may represent an impairment of timing functions among older individuals with MetS.

  1. Early-life chemical exposures and risk of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    De Long, Nicole E; Holloway, Alison C

    2017-01-01

    The global prevalence of obesity has been increasing at a staggering pace, with few indications of any decline, and is now one of the major public health challenges worldwide. While obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) have historically thought to be largely driven by increased caloric intake and lack of exercise, this is insufficient to account for the observed changes in disease trends. There is now increasing evidence to suggest that exposure to synthetic chemicals in our environment may also play a key role in the etiology and pathophysiology of metabolic diseases. Importantly, exposures occurring in early life (in utero and early childhood) may have a more profound effect on life-long risk of obesity and MetS. This narrative review explores the evidence linking early-life exposure to a suite of chemicals that are common contaminants associated with food production (pesticides; imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos, and glyphosate) and processing (acrylamide), in addition to chemicals ubiquitously found in our household goods (brominated flame retardants) and drinking water (heavy metals) and changes in key pathways important for the development of MetS and obesity.

  2. Metabolic dysfunction in obese Hispanic women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sam, Susan; Scoccia, Bert; Yalamanchi, Sudha; Mazzone, Theodore

    2015-01-01

    STUDY QUESTION Are certain ethnic groups with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) at increased risk of metabolic disorders? SUMMARY ANSWER Obese Hispanic women with PCOS are at increased risk of metabolic disorders compared with age- and BMI-matched obese non-Hispanic white women with PCOS in the USA. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY Ethnic differences in body composition and metabolic risk are well established. PCOS is a common disorder in women of reproductive age and is associated with high rates of insulin resistance, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION A cross-sectional observational study was performed at an Academic Medical Center on 60 women of reproductive age with PCOS. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS Blood was obtained after fasting from 17 Hispanic, 22 non-Hispanic black and 21 non-Hispanic white women with PCOS who were similar in age and BMI. Anthropometric parameters, insulin, lipid and lipoprotein levels (measured by nuclear magnetic resonance) were compared between the three groups. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE Age and BMI did not differ between the groups. Hispanic women with PCOS had higher waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (P = 0.02), homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (P = 0.03) and a more atherogenic lipid and lipoprotein profile consisting of lower high-density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.02), higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particle number (P = 0.02), higher very low-density lipoprotein particle (VLDL) size (P = 0.03) and lower LDL (P = 0.03) and HDL particle size (P = 0.005) compared with non-Hispanic white women. The differences in HDL, HOMA-IR, VLDL and LDL size did not persist after adjustment for WHR while differences in LDL particle number (P = 0.04) and HDL size (P = 0.01) persisted. LIMITATIONS, REASON FOR CAUTION The sample size for the three groups was small but the findings were still significant. The women were mostly obese so the ethnic differences in metabolic disorders may

  3. Dietary Patterns of Korean Adults and the Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Woo, Hae Dong; Shin, Aesun; Kim, Jeongseon

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome has been increasing in Korea and has been associated with dietary habits. The aim of our study was to identify the relationship between dietary patterns and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome. Using a validated food frequency questionnaire, we employed a cross-sectional design to assess the dietary intake of 1257 Korean adults aged 31 to 70 years. To determine the participants’ dietary patterns, we considered 37 predefined food groups in principal components analysis. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. The abdominal obesity criterion was modified using Asian guidelines. Prevalence ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the metabolic syndrome were calculated across the quartiles of dietary pattern scores using log binomial regression models. The covariates used in the model were age, sex, total energy intake, tobacco intake, alcohol consumption, and physical activity. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 19.8% in men and 14.1% in women. The PCA identified three distinct dietary patterns: the ‘traditional’ pattern, the ‘meat’ pattern, and the ‘snack’ pattern. There was an association of increasing waist circumference and body mass index with increasing score in the meat dietary pattern. The multivariate-adjusted prevalence ratio of metabolic syndrome for the highest quartile of the meat pattern in comparison with the lowest quartile was 1.47 (95% CI: 1.00–2.15, p for trend = 0.016). A positive association between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the dietary pattern score was found only for men with the meat dietary pattern (2.15, 95% CI: 1.10–4.21, p for trend = 0.005). The traditional pattern and the snack pattern were not associated with an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. The meat dietary pattern was associated with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome in Korean male adults. PMID:25365577

  4. Effect of heart rate on the risk of developing metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Taku; Iseki, Kunitoshi; Iseki, Chiho; Ohya, Yusuke; Kinjo, Kozen; Takishita, Shuichi

    2009-09-01

    High heart rate and metabolic syndrome are risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The relationship between heart rate and risk of developing metabolic syndrome has not been studied in a large cohort. We examined the relationship between heart rate and the risk of developing metabolic syndrome in individuals who participated in a health evaluation program from 1997 to 2002. Among the 7958 individuals who participated in the program, 1677 were excluded from our study because they were being treated for heart disease or had been diagnosed with metabolic syndrome at baseline examination. A total of 6281 individuals (3789 men and 2492 women, 20-89 years of age) were evaluated. They were categorized according to their baseline heart rate and were followed up for a mean of 47+/-16 months (range: 7-71 months). Over the 5-year period, 619 individuals (9.9%) developed metabolic syndrome. Men with elevated baseline heart rates were more likely to experience metabolic syndrome than were those with normal heart rates. This was not true for female patients. The odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of developing metabolic syndrome among men in the highest quartile for heart rate was 1.725 (1.282-2.320) compared with those in the lowest quartile. Each increase in the heart rate category led to an approximately 1.2-fold increase in the risk of developing metabolic syndrome for men only, even after adjusting for age and lifestyle. Elevated heart rate is a risk factor for developing metabolic syndrome in men.

  5. Clustering and combining pattern of metabolic syndrome components in a rural Brazilian adult population.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Adriano Marçal; Felisbino-Mendes, Mariana Santos; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo

    2013-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE Metabolic syndrome is characterized by clustering of cardiovascular risk factors such as obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and arterial hypertension. The aim of this study was to estimate the probability of clustering and the combination pattern of three or more metabolic syndrome components in a rural Brazilian adult population. DESIGN AND SETTING This was a cross-sectional study conducted in two rural communities located in the Jequitinhonha Valley, Minas Gerais, Brazil. METHODS The sample was composed of 534 adults (both sexes). Waist circumference, blood pressure and demographic, lifestyle and biochemical characteristics were assessed. The prevalences of metabolic syndrome and its components were estimated using the definitions of the National Cholesterol Education Program - Adult Treatment Panel III. A binomial distribution equation was used to evaluate the probability of clustering of metabolic syndrome components. The statistical significance level was set at 5% (P < 0.05). RESULTS Metabolic syndrome was more frequent among women (23.3%) than among men (6.5%). Clustering of three or more metabolic syndrome components was greater than expected by chance. The commonest combinations of three metabolic syndrome components were: hypertriglyceridemia + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension and abdominal obesity + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension; and of four metabolic syndrome components: abdominal obesity + hypertriglyceridemia + low levels of HDL-c + arterial hypertension. CONCLUSION The population studied presented high prevalence of metabolic syndrome among women and clustering of its components greater than expected by chance, suggesting that the combination pattern was non-random.

  6. Determinants of increased cardiovascular disease in obesity and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vazzana, N; Santilli, F; Sestili, S; Cuccurullo, C; Davi, G

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased mortality and morbidity for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and adipose tissue is recognised as an important player in obesity-mediated CVD. The diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome (MS) appears to identify substantial additional cardiovascular risk above and beyond the individual risk factors, even though the pathophysiology underlying this evidence is still unravelled. The inflammatory response related to fat accumulation may influence cardiovascular risk through its involvement not only in body weight homeostasis, but also in coagulation, fibrinolysis, endothelial dysfunction, insulin resistance (IR) and atherosclerosis. Moreover, there is evidence that oxidative stress may be a mechanistic link between several components of MS and CVD, through its role in inflammation and its ability to disrupt insulin-signaling. The cross-talk between impaired insulin-signaling and inflammatory pathways enhances both metabolic IR and endothelial dysfunction, which synergize to predispose to CVD. Persistent platelet hyperreactivity/activation emerges as the final pathway driven by intertwined interactions among IR, adipokine release, inflammation, dyslipidemia and oxidative stress and provides a pathophysiological explanation for the excess risk of atherothrombosis in this setting. Despite the availability of multiple interventions to counteract these metabolic changes, including appropriate diet, regular exercise, antiobesity drugs and bariatric surgery, relative failure to control the incidence of MS and its complications reflects both the multifactorial nature of these diseases as well as the scarce compliance of patients to established strategies. Evaluation of the impact of these therapeutic strategies on the pathobiology of atherothrombosis, as discussed in this review, will translate into an optimized approach for cardiovascular prevention.

  7. Early probiotics to prevent childhood metabolic syndrome: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Haribalakrishna; Patole, Sanjay

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To conduct a systematic review of studies on early probiotic supplementation to prevent childhood metabolic syndrome (MS). METHODS: Using the Cochrane systematic review strategy we searched PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, and the conference proceedings of the Pediatric American Society meetings and trial registries in December 2014. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and non RCTs of probiotic supplementation to the mother and/or infant for a minimum duration of 4 wk were selected. Of these, studies that reported on MS or its components (obesity, raised blood pressure, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia) in children between 2-19 years were to be eligible for inclusion in the review. Risk of bias (ROB) in selected RCTs and quality assessment of non-RCT studies were to be assessed by the Cochrane ROB assessment table and New Castle Ottawa scale. RESULTS: There were no studies on early probiotic administration for prevention of childhood MS (CMS). Follow up studies of two placebo controlled RCTs (n = 233) reported on the effects of early probiotics on one or more components of MS in children aged 2-19 years. Meta-analysis of those two studies could not be performed due to differences in the patient population, type of outcomes studied and the timing of their assessment. Assessment of childhood metabolic outcomes was not the primary objective of these studies. The first study that assessed the effects of prenatal and postnatal supplementation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG on body mass index till 10 years, did not report a significant benefit. In the second study, Lactobacillus paracasei 19 was supplemented to healthy term infants from 4-13 mo. No significant effect on body mass index, body composition or metabolic markers was detected. CONCLUSION: Current evidence on early probiotic administration to prevent CMS is inadequate. Gaps in knowledge need to be addressed before large RCTs can be planned. PMID:26413489

  8. Harmonizing the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome--focusing on abdominal obesity.

    PubMed

    Silva, Valter; Stanton, Kenneth R; Grande, Antonio José

    2013-04-01

    In 2009, important health organizations met to construct a Joint Scientific Statement (JSS) intended to harmonize the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome worldwide. The JSS aimed to unify the diagnostic criteria of metabolic syndrome, particularly in relation to whether to include abdominal obesity as a criterion of diagnosis. A large part of the JSS is devoted to discussing the diagnosis of abdominal obesity. More specifically, 9 of the 16 papers focused on abdominal obesity. Continuing this emphasis, we discuss the harmonization of the diagnosis of metabolic syndrome worldwide, specifically focusing on the need to improve the diagnosis of abdominal obesity.

  9. Role of androgen excess on metabolic aberrations and cardiovascular risk in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Christakou, Charikleia D; Diamanti-Kandarakis, Evanthia

    2008-11-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with a clustering of metabolic and cardiovascular risk factors. Insulin resistance is implicated as the major player in the metabolic abnormalities and contributes to the increased cardiovascular risk associated with the syndrome. However, androgen excess appears to participate as an independent parameter, which further aggravates the cardiovascular and metabolic aberrations in affected women with PCOS. The resultant impact of hyperandrogenemia possibly acquires clinical significance for women's health in the context of PCOS, particularly since recent data support an increased incidence of coronary artery disease and of cardiovascular events directly related to androgen levels in women with the syndrome.

  10. Mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 induced by ROS contributed to cardiomyocyte apoptosis in metabolic syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Aibin; Liu, Jingyi; Liu, Peilin; Jia, Min; Wang, Han; Tao, Ling

    2014-04-18

    Highlights: • Metabolic syndrome exacerbated MI/R induced injury accompanied by decreased Nur77. • ROS led to Nur77 translocation in metabolic syndrome. • Inhibiting relocation of Nur77 to mitochondria reduced ROS-induced cardiomyocyte injury in metabolic syndrome. - Abstract: Metabolic syndrome is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis which contributes to cardiac dysfunction after myocardial ischemia/reperfusion (MI/R) injury. Nur77, a nuclear orphan receptor, is involved in such various cellular events as apoptosis, proliferation, and glucose and lipid metabolism in several cell types. Apoptosis is positively correlated with mitochondrial translocation of Nur77 in the cancer cells. However, the roles of Nur77 on cardiac myocytes in patients with metabolic syndrome remain unclear. The objective of this study was to determine whether Nur77 may contribute to cardiac apoptosis in patients with metabolic syndrome after I/R injury, and, if so, to identify the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible. We used leptin-deficient (ob/ob) mice to make metabolic syndrome models. In this report, we observed that, accompanied by the substantial decline in apoptosis inducer Nur77, MI/R induced cardiac dysfunction was manifested as cardiomyopathy and increased ROS. Using the neonatal rat cardiac myocytes cultured in a high-glucose and high-fat medium, we found that excessive H{sub 2}O{sub 2} led to the significant alteration in mitochondrial membrane potential and translocation of Nur77 from the nucleus to the mitochondria. However, inhibition of the relocation of Nur77 to mitochondria via Cyclosporin A reversed the changes in membrane potential mediated by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and reduced myocardial cell injury. Therefore, these data provide a potential underlying mechanism for cardiac dysfunction in metabolic syndrome and the suppression of Nur77 translocation may provide an effective approach to reduce cardiac injury in the

  11. Do the Interactions between Glucocorticoids and Sex Hormones Regulate the Development of the Metabolic Syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Alemany, Marià

    2012-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome is basically a maturity-onset disease. Typically, its manifestations begin to flourish years after the initial dietary or environmental aggression began. Since most hormonal, metabolic, or defense responses are practically immediate, the procrastinated response do not seem justified. Only in childhood, the damages of the metabolic syndrome appear with minimal delay. Sex affects the incidence of the metabolic syndrome, but this is more an effect of timing than absolute gender differences, females holding better than males up to menopause, when the differences between sexes tend to disappear. The metabolic syndrome is related to an immune response, countered by a permanent increase in glucocorticoids, which keep the immune system at bay but also induce insulin resistance, alter the lipid metabolism, favor fat deposition, mobilize protein, and decrease androgen synthesis. Androgens limit the operation of glucocorticoids, which is also partly blocked by estrogens, since they decrease inflammation (which enhances glucocorticoid release). These facts suggest that the appearance of the metabolic syndrome symptoms depends on the strength (i.e., levels) of androgens and estrogens. The predominance of glucocorticoids and the full manifestation of the syndrome in men are favored by decreased androgen activity. Low androgens can be found in infancy, maturity, advanced age, or because of their inhibition by glucocorticoids (inflammation, stress, medical treatment). Estrogens decrease inflammation and reduce the glucocorticoid response. Low estrogen (infancy, menopause) again allow the predominance of glucocorticoids and the manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. It is postulated that the equilibrium between sex hormones and glucocorticoids may be a critical element in the timing of the manifestation of metabolic syndrome-related pathologies. PMID:22649414

  12. Association of low vitamin D levels with metabolic syndrome in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Farrokhlagha; Damghani, Samaneh; Lessan-Pezeshki, Mahboob; Razeghi, Effat; Maziar, Sima; Mahdavi-Mazdeh, Mitra

    2016-04-01

    Low vitamin D levels have been linked to metabolic syndrome in the general population. In the present study, the relationship between inadequate serum concentrations of vitamin D and metabolic syndrome in patients with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis was explored. In a cross-sectional setting, 145 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis were enrolled. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Serum concentration of 25(OH) vitamin D was determined by a commercially available enzyme immunosorbent assay method. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 53.1%. The prevalence rate of severe vitamin D deficiency (<5 ng/mL) was 3.4%, mild vitamin D deficiency (5-15 ng/mL) 31.0%, vitamin D insufficiency (16-30 ng/mL) 36.6%, and vitamin D sufficiency (>30 ng/mL) 29.0%. With the increasing number of metabolic abnormalities, vitamin D levels significantly decreased (P for trend = 0.028). Among the components of metabolic syndrome, vitamin D deficiency was significantly associated with central obesity (odds ratio [OR], 95% confident interval [CI] = 2.80, 1.11-7.04, P = 0.028). A positive, but nonsignificant association between vitamin D deficiency and raised fasting plasma glucose was noted (OR, 95% CI = 2.40, 0.94-6.11, P = 0.067). Both vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency were significantly associated with an increased likelihood of having metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05). In a final model controlling for age, sex, and parathyroid hormone levels, vitamin D deficiency increased the odds of having metabolic syndrome by more than threefold (OR, 95% CI = 3.26, 1.30-8.20, P = 0.012). Low levels of vitamin D are frequent among hemodialysis patients and are associated with the metabolic syndrome.

  13. A central role of eNOS in the protective effect of wine against metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leighton, Federico; Miranda-Rottmann, Soledad; Urquiaga, Inés

    2006-01-01

    The positive health effects derived from moderate wine consumption are pleiotropic. They appear as improvements in cardiovascular risk factors such as plasma lipids, haemostatic mechanisms, endothelial function and antioxidant defences. The active principles would be ethanol and mainly polyphenols. Results from our and other laboratories support the unifying hypothesis that the improvements in risk factors after red wine consumption are mediated by endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Many genes are involved, but the participation of eNOS would be a constant feature. The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic risk factors associated with high risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The National Cholesterol Education Programmmes Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEPATP III) clinical definition of the metabolic syndrome requires the presence of at least three risk factors, from among abdominal obesity, high plasma triacylglycerols, low plasma HDL, high blood pressure and high fasting plasma glucose. The molecular mechanisms responsible for the metabolic syndrome are not known. Since metabolic syndrome apparently affects 10-30% of the population in the world, research on its pathogenesis and control is needed. The recent finding that eNOS knockout mice present a cluster of cardiovascular risk factors comparable to those of the metabolic syndrome suggests that defects in eNOS function may cause human metabolic syndrome. These mice are hypertensive, insulin resistant and dyslipidemic. Further support for a pathogenic role of eNOS comes from the finding in humans that eNOS polymorphisms associate with insulin resistance and diabetes, with hypertension, with inflammatory and oxidative stress markers and with albuminuria. So, the data sustain the hypothesis that eNOS enhancement should reduce metabolic syndrome incidence and its consequences. Therefore red wine, since it enhances eNOS function, should be considered as a potential tool for the control of metabolic

  14. Kapalabhati pranayama: An answer to modern day polycystic ovarian syndrome and coexisting metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Ansari, Reshma Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Breath, the vital force of life, is controlled positively by pranayama to ensure homeostasis and wellbeing in humans. Kapalabhati is the rapid breathing technique of pranayama, which is considered as a cure for various ailments. The possible use of this technique to combat metabolic syndrome (MS) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been discussed in this article. Various published literature from PubMed, Scopus, and theses were reviewed to reinforce the hypothesis that this technique is the answer to ailments due to modernization. It was worthwhile to note that Kapalabhati does combat various features of MS, but its efficacy against PCOS is yet to be proven. However, since both syndromes arise due to a common factor hyperinsulinemia primarily induced by stress in this modern world, it is hypothesized that Kapalabhati holds good against PCOS too. Hence, in conclusion, it can be said that it would be beneficial to conduct a study on PCOS women to ascertain the efficacy of Kapalabhati in their population. PMID:27512324

  15. Kapalabhati pranayama: An answer to modern day polycystic ovarian syndrome and coexisting metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Ansari, Reshma Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Breath, the vital force of life, is controlled positively by pranayama to ensure homeostasis and wellbeing in humans. Kapalabhati is the rapid breathing technique of pranayama, which is considered as a cure for various ailments. The possible use of this technique to combat metabolic syndrome (MS) and polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) has been discussed in this article. Various published literature from PubMed, Scopus, and theses were reviewed to reinforce the hypothesis that this technique is the answer to ailments due to modernization. It was worthwhile to note that Kapalabhati does combat various features of MS, but its efficacy against PCOS is yet to be proven. However, since both syndromes arise due to a common factor hyperinsulinemia primarily induced by stress in this modern world, it is hypothesized that Kapalabhati holds good against PCOS too. Hence, in conclusion, it can be said that it would be beneficial to conduct a study on PCOS women to ascertain the efficacy of Kapalabhati in their population.

  16. Genotype by energy expenditure interaction with metabolic syndrome traits: the Portuguese healthy family study.

    PubMed

    Santos, Daniel M V; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; Diego, Vincent P; Souza, Michele C; Chaves, Raquel N; Blangero, John; Maia, José A R

    2013-01-01

    Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (p<0.001) for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. For waist circumference, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, the significant GxEE interaction was due to rejection of the variance homogeneity hypothesis. For waist circumference and glucose, GxEE was also significant by the rejection of the genetic correlation hypothesis. The results showed that metabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active.

  17. Genotype by Energy Expenditure Interaction with Metabolic Syndrome Traits: The Portuguese Healthy Family Study

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Daniel M. V.; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Diego, Vincent P.; Souza, Michele C.; Chaves, Raquel N.; Blangero, John; Maia, José A. R.

    2013-01-01

    Moderate-to-high levels of physical activity are established as preventive factors in metabolic syndrome development. However, there is variability in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome under distinct physical activity conditions. In the present study we applied a Genotype X Environment interaction method to examine the presence of GxEE interaction in the phenotypic expression of metabolic syndrome. A total of 958 subjects, from 294 families of The Portuguese Healthy Family study, were included in the analysis. Total daily energy expenditure was assessed using a 3 day physical activity diary. Six metabolic syndrome related traits, including waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides, were measured and adjusted for age and sex. GxEE examination was performed on SOLAR 4.3.1. All metabolic syndrome indicators were significantly heritable. The GxEE interaction model fitted the data better than the polygenic model (p<0.001) for waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. For waist circumference, glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides, the significant GxEE interaction was due to rejection of the variance homogeneity hypothesis. For waist circumference and glucose, GxEE was also significant by the rejection of the genetic correlation hypothesis. The results showed that metabolic syndrome traits expression is significantly influenced by the interaction established between total daily energy expenditure and genotypes. Physical activity may be considered an environmental variable that promotes metabolic differences between individuals that are distinctively active. PMID:24260389

  18. QT correction formulas and laboratory analysis on patients with metabolic syndrome and diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sara; Rivera, Pedro; Rodríguez, María. G.; Severeyn, Érika; Altuve, Miguel

    2013-11-01

    This article presents a study of ventricular repolarization in diabetic and metabolic syndrome subjects. The corrected QT interval (QTc) was estimated using four correction formulas commonly employed in the literature: Bazett, Fridericia, Framingham and Hodges. After extracting the Q, R and T waves from the electrocardiogram of 52 subjects (19 diabetic, 15 with metabolic syndrome and 18 control), using a wavelet-based approach, the RR interval and QT interval were determined. Then, QTc interval was computed using the formulas previously mentioned. Additionally, laboratory test (fasting glucose, cholesterol, triglycerides) were also evaluated. Results show that metabolic syndrome subjects have normal QTc. However, a longer QTc in this population may be a sign of future complication. The corrected QT interval by Fridericia's formula seems to be the most appropriated for metabolic syndrome subjects (low correlation coefficient between RR and QTc). Significant differences were obtained in the blood glucose and triglyceride levels, principally due to the abnormal sugar metabolization of metabolic syndrome and diabetic subjects. Further studies are focused on the acquisition of a larger database of metabolic syndrome and diabetics subjects and the repetition of this study using other populations, like high performance athletes.

  19. Vasodilator responses and endothelin-dependent vasoconstriction in metabolically healthy obesity and the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Schinzari, Francesca; Iantorno, Micaela; Campia, Umberto; Mores, Nadia; Rovella, Valentina; Tesauro, Manfredi; Di Daniele, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    Patients with metabolically healthy obesity (MHO) do not present the cluster of metabolic abnormalities that define the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Whether MHO is associated with lower impairment of vasoreactivity than the MetS is unknown. For this purpose, forearm blood flow (FBF) responses were measured by strain-gauge plethysmography during the intra-arterial infusion of acetylcholine (ACh), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and/or the selective endothelin type A (ETA) receptor blocker BQ-123 in 119 obese individuals with MHO (n = 34) or with the MetS (n = 85) and in healthy lean controls (n = 56). ACh and SNP caused a significant vasodilation in both obese and lean participants (all P < 0.001). However, the response to both agents was significantly lower in the obese than in the control group (both P < 0.001). Among the obese participants, the reactivity to ACh was higher in MHO than in MetS patients, whereas the responsiveness to SNP was equally impaired in both groups (P = 0.45). Infusion of BQ-123 significantly increased FBF in obese patients (P < 0001), but not in the lean participants; hence, FBF following ETA receptor blockade was higher in both obese groups than in controls (both P < 0.001). FBF response to BQ-123 was significantly higher in patients with the MetS than in those with MHO (P = 0.007). In conclusion, patients with MHO have abnormal vascular reactivity, although their endothelial dysfunction is less pronounced than in patients with the MetS. These findings indicate that obesity is associated with vascular damage independent of those metabolic abnormalities underlying the MetS. PMID:26374766

  20. Hepatic Transporter Expression in Metabolic Syndrome: Phenotype, Serum Metabolic Hormones, and Transcription Factor Expression.

    PubMed

    Donepudi, Ajay C; Cheng, Qiuqiong; Lu, Zhenqiang James; Cherrington, Nathan J; Slitt, Angela L

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a multifactorial disease associated with obesity, insulin resistance, diabetes, and the alteration of multiple metabolic hormones. Obesity rates have been rising worldwide, which increases our need to understand how this population will respond to drugs and exposure to other chemicals. The purpose of this study was to determine in lean and obese mice the ontogeny of clinical biomarkers such as serum hormone and blood glucose levels as well as the physiologic markers that correlate with nuclear receptor- and transporter-related pathways. Livers from male and female wild-type (WT) (C57BL/6) and ob/ob mice littermates were collected before, during, and after the onset of obesity. Serum hormone and mRNA levels were analyzed. Physiologic changes and gene expression during maturation and progression to obesity were performed and correlation analysis was performed using canonical correlations. Significant ontogenic changes in both WT and ob/ob mice were observed and these ontogenic changes differ in ob/ob mice with the development of obesity. In males and females, the ontogenic pattern of the expression of genes such as Abcc3, 4, Abcg2, Cyp2b10, and 4a14 started to differ from week 3, and became significant at weeks 4 and 8 in ob/ob mice compared with WT mice. In obese males, serum resistin, glucagon, and glucose levels correlated with the expression of most hepatic ATP-binding cassette (Abc) transporters, whereas in obese females, serum glucagon-like peptide 1 levels were correlated with most hepatic uptake transporters and P450 enzymes. Overall, the correlation between physiologic changes and gene expression indicate that metabolism-related hormones may play a role in regulating the genes involved in drug metabolism and transport.

  1. Montelukast and irbesartan ameliorate metabolic and hepatic disorders in fructose-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohamed A; Amin, Entesar F; Ibrahim, Salwa A; Abdelzaher, Walaa Y; Abdelrahman, Aly M

    2014-02-05

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a global health problem. Elucidation of the role of 5- lipooxygenase/leukotriene pathway and renin angiotensin system in the pathogenesis of MetS suggests a variety of potential therapies worthy of testing. The present work investigated the effect of montelukast, a leukotriene antagonist and/or irbesartan, an angiotensin II-receptor blocker, in the prevention of fructose-induced MetS in rats. Rats were allocated into 9 groups and treated for 6 weeks as follow: normal control; MetS group (received 20% fructose); MetS+montelukast groups (treated with montelukast, 5, 10, and 20 mg/kg/day, respectively); MetS+irbesartan groups (treated withirbesartan 15, 30, and 45 mg/kg/day, respectively); and MetS+montelukast+irbesartan group (co treated with montelukast 5 mg/kg plus irbesartan 15 mg/g). Metabolic parameters (visceral fat index, liver index, insulin resistance, and serum lipid profile), oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, reduced glutathione, and catalase), and inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-α, and uric acid) were measured. Expression of caspase-3 in hepatic tissues was detected by immunohistochemistry. Liver injury was evaluated by histopathological examination and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT). Montelukast, irbesartan, and their combination caused significant attenuation in metabolic and hepatic disorders. Their effect was associated with attenuation of oxidative stress markers, inflammatory mediators, and caspase-3 expression. This study highlighted the protective effects of montelukast and irbesartan against fructose-induced metabolic and hepatic disorders. The protective effect of either drug relies, at least in part, on their antioxidant and antiinflammatory effect, as well as on the reduction of caspase-3 expression in hepatic tissue.

  2. Influence of coffee brew in metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Abrahão, Sheila Andrade; Pereira, Rosemary Gualberto Fonseca Alvarenga; de Sousa, Raimundo Vicente; Lima, Adriene Ribeiro; Crema, Gabriela Previatti; Barros, Bianca Sacramento

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of coffee drinking on clinical markers of diabetes and metabolic syndrome in Zucker rats. Diabetic Zucker rats with metabolic syndrome and control Zucker rats were used for in vivo tests. The animals received daily doses of coffee drink by gavage for 30 days. After the treatment, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol and fractions, creatinine, uric acid, activity of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase were evaluated. Urea and creatinine levels were also analyzed in urine. By collaborating in the modulation of the metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type 2, coffee drink helped in reducing serum glucose, total cholesterol and triglycerides. The results demonstrate that treatment with roasted coffee drink, because of its hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic effect, is efficient in the protection of animals with metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus type 2.

  3. Webinar Presentation: Metals, Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Adolescence

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This presentation, Metals, Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals and Biomarkers of Metabolic Syndrome Risk in Adolescence, was given at the NIEHS/EPA Children's Centers 2015 Webinar Series held on Feb. 11, 2015.

  4. Management of hypertension in children and adolescents with the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Puri, Mala; Flynn, Joseph T

    2006-01-01

    Because elevated blood pressure is one of the defining criteria of the metabolic syndrome, treatment of hypertension will be required in many, if not most, children and adolescents diagnosed with the metabolic syndrome. This review highlights several aspects of the approach to treatment of hypertension in young patients with the metabolic syndrome, including the definition of hypertension, use of nonpharmacologic measures, indications for instituting antihypertensive medications, and the potential adjunctive role that insulin-sensitizing agents may play in blood pressure reduction. The choice of antihypertensive agent is also discussed, along with consideration of the diabetogenic effects of various classes of antihypertensive agents. Consideration of all of these issues is important in achieving blood pressure control in children and adolescents with the metabolic syndrome, as appropriate treatment may help to forestall the development not only of type 2 diabetes but also of the cardiovascular disease that is frequently already present at the time of diagnosis of type 2 diabetes in adults.

  5. Systemic role for vitamin d in the treatment of psoriasis and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fu, Lisa Wenyang; Vender, Ronald

    2011-01-01

    The novel discovery of the systemic role of vitamin D in the modulation of the immune system especially the Type 1 helper T cell (Th1) pathway reveals its potential for treating Th1 inflammatory diseases. Psoriasis has been recently established to be a systemic disease centered on inflammation and involvement of cytokines of the Th1 pathway. There is an increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis. Metabolic syndrome also involves a proinflammatory state. This paper proposes the idea of the potential use of oral vitamin D to treat psoriasis and metabolic syndrome concurrently. We propose there is merit in more clinical trials investigating the use of vitamin D to treat both psoriasis and metabolic syndrome through its anti-inflammatory effects. On application to psoriasis management and prognosis, the goal is to decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease and decrease disease morbidity and mortality.

  6. Metabolic syndrome: A review of the role of vitamin D in mediating susceptibility and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Strange, Richard C; Shipman, Kate E; Ramachandran, Sudarshan

    2015-01-01

    Despite the well-recognised role of vitamin D in a wide range of physiological processes, hypovitaminosis is common worldwide (prevalence 30%-50%) presumably arising from inadequate exposure to ultraviolet radiation and insufficient consumption. While generally not at the very low levels associated with rickets, hypovitaminosis D has been implicated in various very different, pathophysiological processes. These include putative effects on the pathogenesis of neoplastic change, inflammatory and demyelinating conditions, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. This review focuses on the association between hypovitaminosis D and the metabolic syndrome as well as its component characteristics which are central obesity, glucose homeostasis, insulin resistance, hypertension and atherogenic dyslipidaemia. We also consider the effects of hypovitaminosis D on outcomes associated with the metabolic syndrome such as CVD, diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. We structure this review into 3 distinct sections; the metabolic syndrome, vitamin D biochemistry and the putative association between hypovitaminosis D, the metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular risk. PMID:26185598

  7. A review on the effects of Allium sativum (Garlic) in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hosseini, A; Hosseinzadeh, H

    2015-11-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a common problem world-wide and includes abdominal obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and hyperglycemia disorders. It leads to insulin resistance and the development of diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular disease. Allium sativum (garlic) has been documented to exhibit anti-diabetic, hypotensive, and hypolipidemic properties. This suggests a potential role of A. sativum in the management of metabolic syndrome; however, more studies should be conducted to evaluate its effectiveness. In this review, we discussed the most relevant articles to find out the role of A. sativum in different components of metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease risk factors. Because human reports are rare, further studies are required to establish the clinical value of A. sativum in metabolic syndrome.

  8. The CardioMetabolic Health Alliance: Working Toward a New Care Model for the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sperling, Laurence S; Mechanick, Jeffrey I; Neeland, Ian J; Herrick, Cynthia J; Després, Jean-Pierre; Ndumele, Chiadi E; Vijayaraghavan, Krishnaswami; Handelsman, Yehuda; Puckrein, Gary A; Araneta, Maria Rosario G; Blum, Quie K; Collins, Karen K; Cook, Stephen; Dhurandhar, Nikhil V; Dixon, Dave L; Egan, Brent M; Ferdinand, Daphne P; Herman, Lawrence M; Hessen, Scott E; Jacobson, Terry A; Pate, Russell R; Ratner, Robert E; Brinton, Eliot A; Forker, Alan D; Ritzenthaler, Laura L; Grundy, Scott M

    2015-09-01

    The Cardiometabolic Think Tank was convened on June 20, 2014, in Washington, DC, as a "call to action" activity focused on defining new patient care models and approaches to address contemporary issues of cardiometabolic risk and disease. Individual experts representing >20 professional organizations participated in this roundtable discussion. The Think Tank consensus was that the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a complex pathophysiological state comprised of a cluster of clinically measured and typically unmeasured risk factors, is progressive in its course, and is associated with serious and extensive comorbidity, but tends to be clinically under-recognized. The ideal patient care model for MetS must accurately identify those at risk before MetS develops and must recognize subtypes and stages of MetS to more effectively direct prevention and therapies. This new MetS care model introduces both affirmed and emerging concepts that will require consensus development, validation, and optimization in the future.

  9. Profiling of plasma metabolites in postmenopausal women with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Iida, Miho; Harada, Sei; Kurihara, Ayako; Fukai, Kota; Kuwabara, Kazuyo; Sugiyama, Daisuke; Takeuchi, Ayano; Okamura, Tomonori; Akiyama, Miki; Nishiwaki, Yuji; Suzuki, Asako; Hirayama, Akiyoshi; Sugimoto, Masahiro; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru; Banno, Kouji; Aoki, Daisuke; Takebayashi, Toru

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: The aim of the study was to investigate the associations of amino acids and other polar metabolites with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in postmenopausal women in a lean Asian population. Methods: The participants were 1,422 female residents enrolled in a cohort study from April to August 2012. MetS was defined according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III modified for Japanese women. Associations were examined between MetS and 78 metabolites assayed in fasting plasma samples using capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry. Replication analysis was performed to confirm the robustness of the results in a separate population created by random allocation. Results: Analysis was performed for 877 naturally postmenopausal women, including 594 in the original population and 283 in the replication population. The average age, body mass index, and levels of high- and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol of the entire population were 64.6 years, 23.0 kg/m2, 72.1 mg/dL, and 126.1 mg/dL, respectively. There was no significant difference in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels between women with and without MetS. Thirteen metabolites were significantly related to MetS: multiple plasma amino acids were elevated in women with MetS, including branched-chain amino acids, alanine, glutamate, and proline; and alpha-aminoadipate, which is generated by lysine degradation, was also significantly increased. Conclusions: Our large-scale metabolomic profiling indicates that Japanese postmenopausal women with MetS have abnormal polar metabolites, suggesting altered catabolic pathways. These results may help to understand metabolic disturbance, including in persons with normal body mass index and relatively high levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and may have clinical utility based on further studies. PMID:27070805

  10. Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Metabolic Syndrome in Spanish Population

    PubMed Central

    Barreiro, Bienvenido; Garcia, Luis; Lozano, Lourdes; Almagro, Pere; Quintana, Salvador; Alsina, Monserrat; Heredia, Jose Luis

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is a clinical picture characterized by repeated episodes of obstruction of the upper airway. OSA is associated with cardiovascular risk factors, some of which are components of metabolic syndrome (MS). Objectives: First, determine the prevalence of MS in patients with OSA visited in sleep clinic. Second, evaluate whether there is an independent association between MS components and the severity of OSA. Methods: Patients with clinical suspicion of OSA were evaluated by polysomnography. Three groups were defined according to apnea hypoapnea index (AHI): no OSA (AHI <5), mild-moderate (AHI≥ 5 ≤30), and severe (AHI> 30). All patients were determined in fasting blood glucose, total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides and insulin. MS was defined according to criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP). Results: A total of 141 patients (mean age 54 ± 11 years) were evaluated. According to AIH, 25 subjects had no OSA and 116 had OSA (41mild-moderate and 75 severe). MS prevalence ranged from 43-81% in OSA group. Also, a significant increase in waist circumference, triglycerides, glucose, blood pressure levels, and a decrease in HDL cholesterol levels was observed in more severe OSA patients. All polysomnographic parameters correlated significantly with metabolic abnormalities. After a multiple regression analysis, abdominal obesity (p <0.02), glucose (p <0.01) and HDL cholesterol (p <0.001) were independently associated with OSA. Conclusions: Our findings show high prevalence of MS in OSA, especially in severe group. A significant association between OSA and some of the components of MS was found in Spanish population. PMID:24222804

  11. Melatonin-insulin interactions in patients with metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Robeva, R; Kirilov, G; Tomova, A; Kumanov, Ph

    2008-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) as a group of risk factors is strongly associated with diabetes type 2 and cardiovascular disease. Insulin resistance plays a key role in the pathogenesis of MS. Recent studies have shown that melatonin may influence insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Therefore, the present study analyzed the relationships between the melatonin and the insulin in patients with MS and controls. The melatonin rhythm, insulin and lipid levels were studied in 40 subjects (21 patients and 19 controls) in reproductive age. The night melatonin-insulin ratio was correlated negatively with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r = -0.370, p = 0.024) and total cholesterol (r = -0.348, p = 0.030), and positively with high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (r = +0.414, p = 0.010). Night-time melatonin levels were related to night-time insulin concentrations (r = +0.313, p = 0.049). The correlation was pronounced in patients with MS (r = +0.640, p = 0.002), but did not reach statistical significance in controls (P > 0.05). In the patients with MS unlike the controls the night-day melatonin difference (%) correlated negatively with the fasting glucose (r = -0.494, p = 0.023) and positively to daily insulin (r = +0.536, p = 0.012). Our results show that melatonin-insulin interactions may exist in patients with MS, as well as relationships between melatonin-insulin ratio and the lipid profile. Pineal disturbances could influence the pathogenesis and the phenotype variations of the MS. Larger studies are needed to confirm or reject this hypothesis and to clarify the role of the melatonin in the metabolic disturbances.

  12. Quercetin ameliorates cardiovascular, hepatic, and metabolic changes in diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Panchal, Sunil K; Poudyal, Hemant; Brown, Lindsay

    2012-06-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). We investigated the responses to the flavonol, quercetin, in male Wistar rats (8-9 wk old) divided into 4 groups. Two groups were given either a corn starch-rich (C) or high-carbohydrate, high-fat (H) diet for 16 wk; the remaining 2 groups were given either a C or H diet for 8 wk followed by supplementation with 0.8 g/kg quercetin in the food for the following 8 wk (CQ and HQ, respectively). The H diet contained ~68% carbohydrates, mainly as fructose and sucrose, and ~24% fat from beef tallow; the C diet contained ~68% carbohydrates as polysaccharides and ~0.7% fat. Compared with the C rats, the H rats had greater body weight and abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, higher systolic blood pressure, impaired glucose tolerance, cardiovascular remodeling, and NAFLD. The H rats had lower protein expressions of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-related factor-2 (Nrf2), heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (CPT1) with greater expression of NF-κB in both the heart and the liver and less expression of caspase-3 in the liver than in C rats. HQ rats had higher expression of Nrf2, HO-1, and CPT1 and lower expression of NF-κB than H rats in both the heart and the liver. HQ rats had less abdominal fat and lower systolic blood pressure along with attenuation of changes in structure and function of the heart and the liver compared with H rats, although body weight and dyslipidemia did not differ between the H and HQ rats. Thus, quercetin treatment attenuated most of the symptoms of metabolic syndrome, including abdominal obesity, cardiovascular remodeling, and NAFLD, with the most likely mechanisms being decreases in oxidative stress and inflammation.

  13. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Japanese Workers by Clustered Business Category

    PubMed Central

    Hidaka, Tomoo; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Hiruta, Yuhei; Hata, Junko; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2016-01-01

    The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted to reveal the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components and describe the features of such prevalence among Japanese workers by clustered business category using big data. The data of approximately 120,000 workers were obtained from a national representative insurance organization, and the study analyzed the health checkup and questionnaire results according to the field of business of each subject. Abnormalities found during the checkups such as excessive waist circumference, hypertension or glucose intolerance, and metabolic syndrome, were recorded. All subjects were classified by business field into 18 categories based on The North American Industry Classification System. Based on the criteria of the Japanese Committee for the Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome, the standardized prevalence ratio (SPR) of metabolic syndrome and its components by business category was calculated, and the 95% confidence interval of the SPR was computed. Hierarchical cluster analysis was then performed based on the SPR of metabolic syndrome components, and the 18 business categories were classified into three clusters for both males and females. The following business categories were at significantly high risk of metabolic syndrome: among males, Construction, Transportation, Professional Services, and Cooperative Association; and among females, Health Care and Cooperative Association. The results of the cluster analysis indicated one cluster for each gender with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome components; among males, a cluster consisting of Manufacturing, Transportation, Finance, and Cooperative Association, and among females, a cluster consisting of Mining, Transportation, Finance, Accommodation, and Cooperative Association. These findings reveal that, when providing health guidance and support regarding metabolic syndrome, consideration must be given to its components and the variety of its

  14. The metabolic syndrome in survivors of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Reisi, Nahid; Azhir, Afshin; Hashemipour, Mahin; Raeissi, Pouran; Amini, Abasgholi; Moafi, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in survivors of childhood leukemia in Isfahan, Iran. METHODS: During a 4-year period (2003 to 2007), 55 children (33 male and 22 female) diagnosed with ALL at Unit of Hematology/ Oncology, Department of Pediatrics, Isfahan University of Medical Science, were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the modified version of Adult Treatment Panel (ATP III) crite-ria. Insulin resistance was defined based on the homeostasis model assessment index (HOMA-IR). RESULTS: The mean age of participates was 10.4 years (range 6-19 years) and the mean interval since completion of chemotherapy was 35 months. Twenty percent (11/55) of survivors (10 male, 1 female) met criteria for diagnosis of metabolic syndrome. Obesity was observed in one forth of patients and nearly 3/4 of obese patients had metabolic syndrome. High serum insulin levels were found in 16% of participants and in 63% of obese survivors. The mean insulin levels in survivors with metabolic syndrome was three-times more than those without (28.3 mu/l vs. 9.57 mu/l, p = 0.004). Insulin resistance was detected in 72.7% of survivors with metabolic syndrome and it was positively correlated with serum triglycerides (0.543, p ≤ 0.001), systolic and diastolic BP (0.348, p = 0.01 and 0.368, p = 006 respectively), insulin levels (0.914, p < 0.001) and blood sugar (0.398, p = 003). CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in survivors of childhood leukemia in Iran is higher than developed countries. Nearly all of the obese patients had metabolic syndrome. Weight control and regular physical exercise are recommended to the survivors. PMID:21772869

  15. Abdominal obesity and the metabolic syndrome: contribution to global cardiometabolic risk.

    PubMed

    Després, Jean-Pierre; Lemieux, Isabelle; Bergeron, Jean; Pibarot, Philippe; Mathieu, Patrick; Larose, Eric; Rodés-Cabau, Josep; Bertrand, Olivier F; Poirier, Paul

    2008-06-01

    There is currently substantial confusion between the conceptual definition of the metabolic syndrome and the clinical screening parameters and cut-off values proposed by various organizations (NCEP-ATP III, IDF, WHO, etc) to identify individuals with the metabolic syndrome. Although it is clear that in vivo insulin resistance is a key abnormality associated with an atherogenic, prothrombotic, and inflammatory profile which has been named by some the "metabolic syndrome" or by others "syndrome X" or "insulin resistance syndrome", it is more and more recognized that the most prevalent form of this constellation of metabolic abnormalities linked to insulin resistance is found in patients with abdominal obesity, especially with an excess of intra-abdominal or visceral adipose tissue. We have previously proposed that visceral obesity may represent a clinical intermediate phenotype reflecting the relative inability of subcutaneous adipose tissue to act as a protective metabolic sink for the clearance and storage of the extra energy derived from dietary triglycerides, leading to ectopic fat deposition in visceral adipose depots, skeletal muscle, liver, heart, etc. Thus, visceral obesity may partly be a marker of a dysmetabolic state and partly a cause of the metabolic syndrome. Although waist circumference is a better marker of abdominal fat accumulation than the body mass index, an elevated waistline alone is not sufficient to diagnose visceral obesity and we have proposed that an elevated fasting triglyceride concentration could represent, when waist circumference is increased, a simple clinical marker of excess visceral/ectopic fat. Finally, a clinical diagnosis of visceral obesity, insulin resistance, or of the metabolic syndrome is not sufficient to assess global risk of cardiovascular disease. To achieve this goal, physicians should first pay attention to the classical risk factors while also considering the additional risk resulting from the presence of abdominal

  16. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Its Components among Japanese Workers by Clustered Business Category.

    PubMed

    Hidaka, Tomoo; Hayakawa, Takehito; Kakamu, Takeyasu; Kumagai, Tomohiro; Hiruta, Yuhei; Hata, Junko; Tsuji, Masayoshi; Fukushima, Tetsuhito

    2016-01-01

    The present study was a cross-sectional study conducted to reveal the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components and describe the features of such prevalence among Japanese workers by clustered business category using big data. The data of approximately 120,000 workers were obtained from a national representative insurance organization, and the study analyzed the health checkup and questionnaire results according to the field of business of each subject. Abnormalities found during the checkups such as excessive waist circumference, hypertension or glucose intolerance, and metabolic syndrome, were recorded. All subjects were classified by business field into 18 categories based on The North American Industry Classification System. Based on the criteria of the Japanese Committee for the Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome, the standardized prevalence ratio (SPR) of metabolic syndrome and its components by business category was calculated, and the 95% confidence interval of the SPR was computed. Hierarchical cluster analysis was then performed based on the SPR of metabolic syndrome components, and the 18 business categories were classified into three clusters for both males and females. The following business categories were at significantly high risk of metabolic syndrome: among males, Construction, Transportation, Professional Services, and Cooperative Association; and among females, Health Care and Cooperative Association. The results of the cluster analysis indicated one cluster for each gender with a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome components; among males, a cluster consisting of Manufacturing, Transportation, Finance, and Cooperative Association, and among females, a cluster consisting of Mining, Transportation, Finance, Accommodation, and Cooperative Association. These findings reveal that, when providing health guidance and support regarding metabolic syndrome, consideration must be given to its components and the variety of its

  17. The association between frailty, the metabolic syndrome, and mortality over the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Kane, Alice E; Gregson, Edward; Theou, Olga; Rockwood, Kenneth; Howlett, Susan E

    2017-03-09

    Frailty and the metabolic syndrome are each associated with poor outcomes, but in very old people (90+ years) only frailty was associated with an increased mortality risk. We investigated the relationship between frailty, metabolic syndrome, and mortality risk, in younger (20-65 years) and older (65+ years) people. This is a secondary analysis of the US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) datasets for 2003-2004 and 2005-2006, linked with mortality data up to 2011. The metabolic syndrome was defined using the International Diabetes Federation criteria. Frailty was operationalized using a 41-item frailty index (FI). Compared to the younger group (n = 6403), older adults (n = 2152) had both a higher FI (0.10 ± 0.00 vs. 0.22 ± 0.00, p < 0.001) and a greater prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (24.1 vs. 45.5%, p < 0.001). The metabolic syndrome and FI were correlated in younger people (r = 0.25, p < 0.001) but not in older people (r = 0.08, p < 0.1). In bivariate analyses, the FI predicted mortality risk in both age groups whereas the metabolic syndrome did so only in the younger group. In Cox models, adjusted for age, sex, race, education, and each other, the FI was associated with increased mortality risk at both ages (younger HR 1.05 (1.04-1.06); older HR 1.04 (1.03-1.04) whereas the metabolic syndrome did not contribute to mortality risk. The FI better predicted mortality than did the metabolic syndrome, regardless of age.

  18. Bidirectional Relationships and Disconnects between NAFLD and Features of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wainwright, Patrick; Byrne, Christopher D

    2016-03-11

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a wide spectrum of liver disease from simple steatosis, to steatohepatitis, (both with and without liver fibrosis), cirrhosis and end-stage liver failure. NAFLD also increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and both HCC and end stage liver disease may markedly increase risk of liver-related mortality. NAFLD is increasing in prevalence and is presently the second most frequent indication for liver transplantation. As NAFLD is frequently associated with insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidaemia, hypertension and hyperglycaemia, NAFLD is often considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. There is growing evidence that this relationship between NAFLD and metabolic syndrome is bidirectional, in that NAFLD can predispose to metabolic syndrome features, which can in turn exacerbate NAFLD or increase the risk of its development in those without a pre-existing diagnosis. Although the relationship between NAFLD and metabolic syndrome is frequently bidirectional, recently there has been much interest in genotype/phenotype relationships where there is a disconnect between the liver disease and metabolic syndrome features. Such potential examples of genotypes that are associated with a dissociation between liver disease and metabolic syndrome are patatin-like phospholipase domain-containing protein-3 (PNPLA3) (I148M) and transmembrane 6 superfamily member 2 protein (TM6SF2) (E167K) genotypes. This review will explore the bidirectional relationship between metabolic syndrome and NAFLD, and will also discuss recent insights from studies of PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 genotypes that may give insight into how and why metabolic syndrome features and liver disease are linked in NAFLD.

  19. Serum adipocytokine profile and metabolic syndrome in young adult female dermatomyositis patients

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Marilda Guimarães; Borba, Eduardo Ferreira; de Mello, Suzana Beatriz Veríssimo; Shinjo, Samuel Katsuyuki

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To analyse the frequency of metabolic syndrome in young adult female dermatomyositis patients and its possible association with clinical and laboratory dermatomyositis-related features and serum adipocytokines. METHOD: This cross-sectional study included 35 dermatomyositis patients and 48 healthy controls. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to the 2009 Joint Interim Statement. RESULTS: Patient age was comparable in the dermatomyositis and control groups, and the median disease duration was 1.0 year. An increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome was detected in the dermatomyositis group (34.3% vs. 6.3%; p=0.001). In addition, increased serum adiponectin and resistin levels were noted in contrast to lower leptin levels. In dermatomyositis patients, adipocytokine levels were correlated with the levels of total cholesterol, low-density cholesterol, triglycerides and muscle enzymes. A comparison of dermatomyositis patients with (n=12) and without (n=23) syndrome metabolic revealed that adipocytokine levels were also correlated with age, and that dermatomyositis patients with metabolic syndrome tended to have more disease activity despite similar adipocytokine levels. CONCLUSIONS: Metabolic syndrome is highly prevalent in young adult female dermatomyositis patients and is related to age and disease activity. Moreover, increased serum adiponectin and resistin levels were detected in dermatomyositis patients, but lower serum leptin levels were observed. PMID:28076515

  20. The obesity paradox is not observed in chronic heart failure patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Narumi, Taro; Watanabe, Tetsu; Kadowaki, Shinpei; Otaki, Yoichiro; Honda, Yuki; Nishiyama, Satoshi; Takahashi, Hiroki; Arimoto, Takanori; Shishido, Tetsuro; Miyamoto, Takuya; Kubota, Isao

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although being overweight or obese is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, obese subjects often live longer than their lean peers, and this is known as the obesity paradox. We investigated the impact of obesity on cardiac prognosis in chronic heart failure (CHF) patients, with or without metabolic syndrome. Design and Methods: We divided 374 consecutive CHF patients into two groups according to their mean body mass index (BMI) and prospectively followed them for 2 years. Results: There were 126 cardiac events, including 32 cardiac deaths and 94 re-hospitalizations. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a significantly lower cardiac event rate in the higher BMI group (log-rank test P < 0.001) in all patients and those patients without metabolic syndrome. There was no association between BMI and cardiac prognosis in patients with metabolic syndrome. Cox hazard analysis revealed that a higher BMI was associated with favorable cardiac outcomes in all patients and patients without metabolic syndrome, after adjusting for confounding factors. However, this finding did not extend to patients with metabolic syndrome. Conclusions: The advantages of obesity are not found in CHF patients with metabolic syndrome. PMID:26417279

  1. Development of an Experimental Model of Diabetes Co-Existing with Metabolic Syndrome in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Rajesh Kumar; Ray Mohanty, Ipseeta; Borde, Manjusha K.; Maheshwari, Ujwala; Deshmukh, Y. A.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The incidence of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus is on the rise globally. Objective. The present study was designed to develop a unique animal model that will mimic the pathological features seen in individuals with diabetes and metabolic syndrome, suitable for pharmacological screening of drugs. Materials and Methods. A combination of High-Fat Diet (HFD) and low dose of streptozotocin (STZ) at 30, 35, and 40 mg/kg was used to induce metabolic syndrome in the setting of diabetes mellitus in Wistar rats. Results. The 40 mg/kg STZ produced sustained hyperglycemia and the dose was thus selected for the study to induce diabetes mellitus. Various components of metabolic syndrome such as dyslipidemia {(increased triglyceride, total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and decreased HDL cholesterol)}, diabetes mellitus (blood glucose, HbA1c, serum insulin, and C-peptide), and hypertension {systolic blood pressure} were mimicked in the developed model of metabolic syndrome co-existing with diabetes mellitus. In addition to significant cardiac injury, atherogenic index, inflammation (hs-CRP), decline in hepatic and renal function were observed in the HF-DC group when compared to NC group rats. The histopathological assessment confirmed presence of edema, necrosis, and inflammation in heart, pancreas, liver, and kidney of HF-DC group as compared to NC. Conclusion. The present study has developed a unique rodent model of metabolic syndrome, with diabetes as an essential component. PMID:26880906

  2. The association between employment status and metabolic syndrome in women: modifying effect of education.

    PubMed

    Demiral, Yucel; Arik, Hale; Toğrul, Belgin Unal

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the researchers in this study was to examine the relations of paid work versus housework and educational level to metabolic syndrome in women. The study sample consisted of women who participated in a baseline survey of the Heart of Balcova Project, which is an ongoing cohort study in Izmir, Turkey. A randomly selected subsample of women who were aged 30-64 years and who were not retired or unemployed was derived from the individuals who participated in the Heart of Balcova Project. All data were collected through face-to-face interviews with 191 workers and 342 housewives. The association between employment status and metabolic syndrome was explored using multiple logistic regression models. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome was significantly higher among housewives than among workers. Among the women with a high educational level, odds of metabolic syndrome were significantly higher for housewives than for those who were employed. An association between employment status and metabolic syndrome was not observed in the group with a low level of education. The findings revealed that educational level had a modifying effect on the relationship between employment status and metabolic syndrome among women and thus has implications for improving the understanding of the importance of health and educational opportunities for housewives.

  3. The effects of exercise program on burnout and metabolic syndrome components in banking and insurance workers.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Han Hui; Yeh, Ching Ying; Su, Chien Tien; Chen, Chiou Jong; Peng, Shu Mei; Chen, Ruey Yu

    2013-01-01

    To explore the effectiveness of exercise program for banking and insurance workers and clarify the association between exercise, burnout, and metabolic syndrome components. In the process of the study, a practicable worksite exercise program was developed for bank and insurance enterprises. A three-month (12-wk) exercise course was conducted, and its benefits evaluated. Levels of burnout and metabolic syndrome components were analyzed after exercise intervention. After intervention, the indicators of burnout and metabolic syndrome components were significantly improved in both low and high intensity groups, and the improvement were expressed in reduction of waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, person burnout and work-related burnout. A dose-response of burnouts and metabolic syndrome components with exercise intensity are shown (p<0.05). Metabolic syndrome components were independently associated with burnout and exercise intensity in the crude model. After adjustment for potential confounders, waist circumference and systolic blood pressure differences showed significant associations with exercise intensity (p<0.05). This study demonstrated an effective approach to worksite exercise intervention and exercise intensity played an important role to alleviate damage between burnouts and metabolic syndrome components.

  4. Metabolic syndrome between two ethnic minority groups (Circassians and Chechens) and the original inhabitants of Jordan.

    PubMed

    Dajani, Rana; Khader, Yousef S; Hakooz, Nancy; Fatahalla, Raja; Quadan, Farouk

    2013-02-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome is increasing worldwide and exhibits variation among ethnic groups. The objective of this study was to estimate and compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components between two ethnic groups (Circassians and Chechens) in Jordan and the original inhabitants of Jordan. Data were collected from a cross-sectional study of Circassian (n = 436), Chechen (n = 355), and Jordanian (n = 3234) population aged 18 years and older. Metabolic syndrome was defined according to International Diabetes Federation criteria. Age-standardized prevalence rate of metabolic syndrome was Jordanians 38.0 %, Circassians 32.0 %, and Chechens 33.7 %. Compared to Jordanians, both minority groups had lower means of body mass index, total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, and triglycerides. The means of high-density lipoprotein and low-density lipoprotein were significantly higher among Circassians compared to Jordanians and Chechens. The odds of BMI defined by overweight and obesity and diabetes were less common among Circassians and Chechens compared to Jordanians. The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome and its individual components is relatively high in the three ethnic groups compared to world. Variation in components between groups may relate to ethnicity. Therefore, a community-based integrated approach is needed that would include behavioral, social changes that would lead to the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

  5. Moderate Weight Loss Decreases Oxidative Stress and Increases Antioxidant Status in Patients with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Del Ben, Maria; Angelico, Francesco; Cangemi, Roberto; Loffredo, Lorenzo; Carnevale, Roberto; Augelletti, Teresa; Baratta, Francesco; Polimeni, Licia; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Violi, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Background. Oxidative stress is enhanced in metabolic syndrome (MetS) and believed to contribute to accelerated atherosclerosis. Weight loss is associated with lowered oxidative stress. Methods. We performed a cross-sectional study in 92 consecutive patients with metabolic syndrome and 80 without. A dietary intervention with moderately low-calorie diet (600 calories/day negative energy balance) was carried out in 53 of metabolic syndrome patients. Oxidative stress, assessed by sNOX2-dp and urinary 8-iso-PGF2α, and antioxidant status, assessed by serum levels of vitamin E and adiponectin, were measured before and after 6 months. Results. Serum vitamin E/cholesterol ratio was significantly lower in metabolic syndrome compared to controls (P < 0.001) and decreased by increasing the number of metabolic syndrome components (P < 0.001). After six months, 23 and 30 patients showed >5% (group A) or <5% (group B) weight loss, respectively. Urinary 8-iso-PGF2α (−39.0%), serum sNOX2-dp (−22.2%), adiponectin (+125%), and vitamin E/cholesterol ratio (+129.8%) significantly changed only in A group. Changes in body weight and in serum adiponectin were independent predictors of vitamin E/cholesterol ratio variation. Conclusion. Our findings show that in metabolic syndrome moderate weight loss is associated with multiple health benefits including not only oxidative stress reduction but also enhancement of antioxidant status. PMID:24533215

  6. The influence of BMI on the association between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Han, Guang-Ming; Soliman, Ghada A; Meza, Jane L; Islam, K M Monirul; Watanabe-Galloway, Shinobu

    2016-04-14

    Overweight and obese individuals have an increased risk of developing the metabolic syndrome because of subsequent chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, which the antioxidant nutrient lycopene can reduce. However, studies indicate that different BMI statuses can alter the positive effects of lycopene. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine how BMI influences the association between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome. The tertile rank method was used to divide 13 196 participants, aged 20 years and older, into three groups according to serum concentrations of lycopene. The associations between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome were analysed separately for normal-weight, overweight and obese participants. Overall, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the first tertile group (OR 38·6%; 95% CI 36·9, 40·3) compared with the second tertile group (OR 29·3%; 95% CI 27·5, 31·1) and the third tertile group (OR 26·6%; 95% CI 24·9, 28·3). However, the associations between lycopene and the metabolic syndrome were only significant for normal-weight and overweight participants (P0·05), even after adjusting for possible confounding variables. In conclusion, BMI appears to strongly influence the association between serum lycopene and the metabolic syndrome.

  7. Evaluation of metabolic syndrome in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Duruöz, Mehmet Tuncay; Turan, Yasemin; Gürgan, Alev; Deveci, Hülya

    2012-03-01

    The aim of our study was to investigate the frequency of the metabolic syndrome in chronic low back pain and evaluate the differences in clinical and functional parameters in chronic low back pain patients with and without metabolic syndrome. Patients complaining of low back pain complaint lasting for at least 2 months were included in the study. In order to establish functional deficiency, Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire, Istanbul Low Back Pain Disability Index and Oswestry Disability Index were used. To evaluate depression, Beck's depression scale was used. The diagnosis of metabolic syndrome was made according to the criteria of National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) defined in 2001. For this; lumbar circumference around anterior iliac spine, arterial blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, plasma triglyceride levels and HDL cholesterol levels were noted down. Sixty patients (51 women) were included in the study. There was significant difference in terms of BMI (P = 0.034), age (P = 0.001), waist circumference (P = 0.048) and disease duration (P = 0.005) between chronic low back pain patients with and without metabolic syndrome. There was no significant difference in other parameters. Low back pain is a frequent complaint amongst people with obesity in the abdominal area. According to our results, elderly people, people with chronic low back pain and patients with high BMI are under risk for metabolic syndrome. For this reason this group of patients can be screened for metabolic syndrome and preventive measures can be taken.

  8. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Metabolic Syndrome: Current Understanding and Potential Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an obesity-based, complicated clinical condition that has become a global epidemic problem with a high associated risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality. Dyslipidemia, hypertension, and diabetes or glucose dysmetabolism are the major factors constituting metabolic syndrome, and these factors are interrelated and share underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Severe obesity predisposes individuals to metabolic syndrome, and recent data suggest that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) contribute significantly to adipocyte generation by increasing the number of adipocytes. Accordingly, an increasing number of studies have examined the potential roles of MSCs in managing obesity and metabolic syndrome. However, despite the growing bank of experimental and clinical data, the efficacy and the safety of MSCs in the clinical setting are still to be optimized. It is thus hoped that ongoing and future studies can elucidate the roles of MSCs in metabolic syndrome and lead to MSC-based therapeutic options for affected patients. This review discusses current understanding of the relationship between MSCs and metabolic syndrome and its potential implications for patient management. PMID:27313625

  9. The association between macronutrient intake and the metabolic syndrome and its components in type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ahola, Aila J; Harjutsalo, Valma; Thorn, Lena M; Freese, Riitta; Forsblom, Carol; Mäkimattila, Sari; Groop, Per-Henrik

    2017-02-20

    Diet is a major modifiable lifestyle factor that may affect the components of the metabolic syndrome. We aimed to investigate the association between relative proportions of macronutrients and the components of the metabolic syndrome in a population of individuals with type 1 diabetes. In all, 791 individuals without nephropathy, with plausible energy intake and known metabolic syndrome status, taking part in the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study were included in the analyses. Dietary data were collected with a diet record. The association between the relative macronutrient intake and the outcome variables were analysed using multivariable nutrient density substitution models. The relative proportions of dietary macronutrients or fatty acids were not associated with the presence of the metabolic syndrome. In men, however, favouring carbohydrates over fats was associated with lower odds of the waist component, whereas favouring either carbohydrates or fats over proteins was associated with lower odds of the blood pressure component of the metabolic syndrome. In women, substituting carbohydrates for fats was associated with lower HDL-cholesterol concentration. Substituting carbohydrates or fats for alcohol or protein was, in men, associated with lower systolic blood pressure. To conclude, the relative distribution of macronutrients may have some relevance for the metabolic syndrome.

  10. Use of fibrates in the metabolic syndrome: A review

    PubMed Central

    Shipman, Kate E; Strange, Richard C; Ramachandran, Sudarshan

    2016-01-01

    The use of fibrates in the treatment of dyslipidaemia has changed significantly over recent years. Their role appeared clear at the start of this century. The Helsinki Heart Study and Veterans Affairs High-Density Cholesterol Intervention Trial suggested significant benefit, especially in patients with atherogenic dyslipidaemia. However, this clarity disintegrated following the negative outcomes reported by the Bezafibrate Infarction Prevention, Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes and Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes randomised controlled trials. In this review we discuss these and other relevant trials and consider patient subgroups such as those with the metabolic syndrome and those needing treatment to prevent the microvascular complications associated with diabetes in whom fibrates may be useful. We also discuss observations from our group that may provide some explanation for the varying outcomes reported in large trials. The actions of fibrates in patients who are also on statins are interesting and appear to differ from those in patients not on statins. Understanding this is key as statins are the primary lipid lowering agents and likely to occupy that position for the foreseeable future. We also present other features of fibrate treatment we have observed in our clinical practice; changes in creatinine, liver function tests and the paradoxical high density lipoprotein reduction. Our purpose is to provide enough data for the reader to make objective decisions in their own clinical practice regarding fibrate use. PMID:26981181

  11. Epicardial Adiposity in Children with Obesity and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Eren, Erdal; Koca, Bulent; Ture, Mehmet; Guzel, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Obesity increases cardiac diseases by increasing tendency to atherosclerosis. Our aim was to define epicardial adipose tissue thickness, and its related factors in obese children. Methods: Total of 94 patients were divided into obesity with metabolic syndrome (MS) (n=30), obesity without MS (n=33), and control (n=31) groups. Auxological values with fasting glucose, fasting insulin, alanine transaminase, serum lipid levels, and high sensitive C-reactive protein levels were evaluated. Epicardial adipose tissue thickness, interventricular septum thickness and left ventricular mass were measured by echocardiography. Findings: Weight, body mass index, waist circumference, insulin, alanine transaminase, and high sensitive C-reactive protein values were markedly higher in obesity group when compared with controls (P<0.001). Epicardial adipose tissue thickness was 0.64±0.23 cm in obesity with MS; 0.60±0.20 cm in obesity without MS, and 0.27±0.12 cm in control group (P<0.001). Interventricular septum thickness and left ventricular mass values were markedly high in obesity without MS group (P<0.001 and P=0.002). Conclusion: Our study has indicated that obesity has unfavorable effects on heart starting in the adolescence. PMID:25755863

  12. Clinical utility of metabolic syndrome severity scores: considerations for practitioners

    PubMed Central

    DeBoer, Mark D; Gurka, Matthew J

    2017-01-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is marked by abnormalities in central obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol, and high fasting glucose and appears to be produced by underlying processes of inflammation, oxidative stress, and adipocyte dysfunction. MetS has traditionally been classified based on dichotomous criteria that deny that MetS-related risk likely exists as a spectrum. Continuous MetS scores provide a way to track MetS-related risk over time. We generated MetS severity scores that are sex- and race/ethnicity-specific, acknowledging that the way MetS is manifested may be different by sex and racial/ethnic subgroup. These scores are correlated with long-term risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Clinical use of scores like these provide a potential opportunity to identify patients at highest risk, motivate patients toward lifestyle change, and follow treatment progress over time. PMID:28255250

  13. Adipose Tissue in Metabolic Syndrome: Onset and Progression of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Luna-Luna, María; Medina-Urrutia, Aida; Vargas-Alarcón, Gilberto; Coss-Rovirosa, Fernanda; Vargas-Barrón, Jesús; Pérez-Méndez, Óscar

    2015-07-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS) should be considered a clinical entity when its different symptoms share a common etiology: obesity/insulin resistance as a result of a multi-organ dysfunction. The main interest in treating MetS as a clinical entity is that the addition of its components drastically increases the risk of atherosclerosis. In MetS, the adipose tissue plays a central role along with an unbalanced gut microbiome, which has become relevant in recent years. Once visceral adipose tissue (VAT) increases, dyslipidemia and endothelial dysfunction follow as additive risk factors. However, when the nonalcoholic fatty liver is present, risk of a cardiovascular event is highly augmented. Epicardial adipose tissue (EAT) seems to increase simultaneously with the VAT. In this context, the former may play a more important role in the development of the atherosclerotic plaque than the latter. Hence, EAT may act as a paracrine tissue vis-à-vis the coronary arteries favoring the local inflammation and the atheroma calcification.

  14. Peripheral Neuropathy in Prediabetes and the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stino, Amro M; Smith, A Gordon

    2017-03-07

    Peripheral neuropathy is a major cause of disability worldwide. Diabetes is the most common cause of neuropathy, accounting for 50% of cases. Over half of people with diabetes develop neuropathy, and diabetic neuropathy (DPN) is a major cause of reduced quality of life due to pain, sensory loss, gait instability, fall related injury, and foot ulceration and amputation. Most patients with nondiabetic neuropathy have cryptogenic sensory peripheral neuropathy (CSPN). A growing body of literature links prediabetes, obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) to risk of both DPN and CSPN (CSPN-MetS). This association may be particularly strong in type 2 diabetes (T2D). There are no effective medical treatments for CSPN or DPN and aggressive glycemic control is an effective approach to neuropathy risk reduction only in type 1 diabetes (T1D). Several studies suggest lifestyle based treatments that integrate dietary counseling with exercise may be a promising therapeutic approach to early DPN in T2D and CSPN-MetS . This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Effects of Dairy on Metabolic Syndrome Parameters: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Dugan, Christine E.; Fernandez, Maria Luz

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MetS), characterized by central obesity, dyslipidemias, hypertension, and hyperglycemia, impacts 34 percent of the U.S. adult population. MetS has been demonstrated to be affected by dietary components. Data from epidemiological studies and clinical interventions suggest that one or more dairy components might directly affect MetS parameters. For example, calcium has been postulated to reduce body weight by modulating vitamin D concentrations in plasma and therefore attenuating intracellular calcium effects in activating genes involved in fatty acid synthesis and reducing those involved in lipolysis. Peptides present in milk have been associated with the inhibition of angiotensin converting enzyme and, therefore, with blood pressure reductions. Branched chain amino acids may increase post-prandial insulin secretion and regulate plasma glucose levels, and leucine, an abundant amino acid in milk, may be responsible for decreased plasma glucose through modulation of mTOR. Through different proposed mechanisms, dairy nutrients may target all components of MetS. PMID:24910559

  16. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy and metabolic syndrome: a review.

    PubMed

    Poniedzialek-Czajkowska, Elzbieta; Mierzynski, Radzislaw; Kimber-Trojnar, Zaneta; Leszczynska-Gorzelak, Bozena; Oleszczuk, Jan

    2014-01-01

    This review presents available evidence for possible application of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in pregnant obese women with metabolic syndrome (MS) and focuses on prophylaxis of pregnancy complications associated with MS such as gestational hypertension, preeclampsia and gestational diabetes. Dietary supplementation with n-3 PUFAs has recently become popular and their adequate intake during pregnancy and early childhood is of clinical importance. The results of experimental and epidemiological investigations reveal that n-3 PUFAs, especially α- linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), may decrease the risk of cardiovascular diseases. It is believed that n-3 PUFAs affect a multitude of molecular pathways, involving regulation of gene expression, alteration of physical and chemical properties of cellular membranes and modulation of membrane channels and proteins. A large body of evidence focuses on anti-inflammatory properties of PUFAs which seem to be fundamental in prevention and reversing of insulin resistance, atherogenic dyslipidemia, hypertension, thromboembolism and in improving vascular function. Despite the potential PUFAs benefits of decreasing insulin resistance, their application in order to prevent preeclampsia, gestational hypertension and gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant women with MS has not yet been established. Numerous reports have revealed that appropriate fetal development, including neuronal, retinal and immune function depends on EPA and DHA which are crucial also for prevention of preterm birth. Thus the supplementation with EPA and DHA is highly recommended during pregnancy although the optimal dosing and treatment strategies still need to be determined.

  17. Exploring the metabolic syndrome: Nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease

    PubMed Central

    Catanzaro, Roberto; Cuffari, Biagio; Italia, Angelo; Marotta, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    After the first description of fatty pancreas in 1933, the effects of pancreatic steatosis have been poorly investigated, compared with that of the liver. However, the interest of research is increasing. Fat accumulation, associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), has been defined as “fatty infiltration” or “nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease” (NAFPD). The term “fatty replacement” describes a distinct phenomenon characterized by death of acinar cells and replacement by adipose tissue. Risk factors for developing NAFPD include obesity, increasing age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alcohol and hyperferritinemia. Increasing evidence support the role of pancreatic fat in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, MetS, atherosclerosis, severe acute pancreatitis and even pancreatic cancer. Evidence exists that fatty pancreas could be used as the initial indicator of “ectopic fat deposition”, which is a key element of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and/or MetS. Moreover, in patients with fatty pancreas, pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with an increased risk of intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pancreatic fistula. PMID:27678349

  18. Cardiorenal Metabolic Syndrome and Cardiometabolic Risks in Minority Populations

    PubMed Central

    Ferdinand, Keith C.; Rodriguez, Fatima; Nasser, Samar A.; Caballero, A. Enrique; Puckrein, Gary A.; Zangeneh, Farhad; Mansour, Michael; Foody, JoAnne Micale; Pemu, Priscilla E.; Ofili, Elizabeth O.

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), including heart disease and stroke, is the leading cause of death in the USA, regardless of self-determined race/ethnicity, and largely driven by cardiometabolic risk (CMR) and cardiorenal metabolic syndrome (CRS). The primary drivers of increased CMR include obesity, hypertension, insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, chronic kidney disease as well as associated adverse behaviors of physical inactivity, smoking, and unhealthy eating habits. Given the importance of CRS for public health, multiple stakeholders, including the National Minority Quality Forum (the Forum), the American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists (AACE), the American College of Cardiology (ACC), and the Association of Black Cardiologists (ABC), have developed this review to inform clinicians and other health professionals of the unique aspects of CMR in racial/ethnic minorities and of potential means to improve CMR factor control, to reduce CRS and CVD in diverse populations, and to provide more effective, coordinated care. This paper highlights CRS and CMR as sources of significant morbidity and mortality (particularly in racial/ethnic minorities), associated health-care costs, and an evolving index tool for cardiometabolic disease to determine geographical and environmental factors. Finally, this work provides a few examples of interventions potentially successful at reducing disparities in cardiometabolic health. PMID:24847329

  19. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome in Coronary Artery Disease Patients

    PubMed Central

    Montazerifar, Farzaneh; Bolouri, Ahmad; Mahmoudi Mozaffar, Milad; Karajibani, Mansour

    2016-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a worldwide health problem, which is growing in Iranian adults. MetS is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes and coronary artery disease (CAD). In this study, we aimed to investigate the prevalence of MetS and its individual components in CAD patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed on 200 CAD patients who had undergone elective coronary angiography at the cardiology department. Anthropometric indices including waist circumference (WC) and body mass index were measured. Blood samples were obtained to determine glucose and lipid profile. MetS components were defined according to the modified Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria. Results The prevalence of MetS among patients was 49.5% (women: 55.9%; men: 40.2%; P < 0.05). The prevalence increased with age. The low high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (low HDL-C) (84.8%), high fasting blood glucose (high FBG) (77.8%) and high WC (75.8%) were the most prevalent risk factors in CAD patients with MetS. Conclusions Recent data indicate that the dyslipidemia, hyperglycemia and abdominal obesity are crucial predictors of MetS in CAD patients. Further prospective studies are recommended for more clarification. PMID:28197293

  20. Exploring the metabolic syndrome: Nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Roberto; Cuffari, Biagio; Italia, Angelo; Marotta, Francesco

    2016-09-14

    After the first description of fatty pancreas in 1933, the effects of pancreatic steatosis have been poorly investigated, compared with that of the liver. However, the interest of research is increasing. Fat accumulation, associated with obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MetS), has been defined as "fatty infiltration" or "nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease" (NAFPD). The term "fatty replacement" describes a distinct phenomenon characterized by death of acinar cells and replacement by adipose tissue. Risk factors for developing NAFPD include obesity, increasing age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, alcohol and hyperferritinemia. Increasing evidence support the role of pancreatic fat in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, MetS, atherosclerosis, severe acute pancreatitis and even pancreatic cancer. Evidence exists that fatty pancreas could be used as the initial indicator of "ectopic fat deposition", which is a key element of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and/or MetS. Moreover, in patients with fatty pancreas, pancreaticoduodenectomy is associated with an increased risk of intraoperative blood loss and post-operative pancreatic fistula.

  1. [Obesity and metabolic syndrome in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Rosende, Andrés; Pellegrini, Carlos; Iglesias, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and the metabolic syndrome are closely related to the cases of cardiovascular disease; they are usually regarded as belonging to the adult population but are seen with increasing frequency in children and adolescents. There is evidence that atherosclerotic lesions occur most often in young people with obesity. The factors involved in this pandemic are manifold and range from genetic-biological to cultural changes. The family and the environment in which the child develops play a key role in the adoption of habits related to diet and physical activity. This problem does not respect borders and cultures but all countries are being affected, even more those of middle-income. State and Society as a whole can play a role oriented to modify this environment. The restriction on sales of unhealthy food and the fight against the sedentary lifestyle are urgently needed to be applied. The impact that these disorders will have in terms of cardiovascular disease, has not yet reached its true dimension.

  2. Associations among Metabolic Syndrome, Ischemia, Inflammatory, Oxidatives, and Lipids Biomarkers

    PubMed Central

    Valle Gottlieb, Maria Gabriela; da Cruz, Ivana Beatrice Mânica; Duarte, Marta M. F.; Moresco, Rafael Noal; Wiehe, Mário; Schwanke, Carla Helena Augustin; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos

    2010-01-01

    Context: Metabolic syndrome (MS) is described as a cluster of cardiometabolic risk factors. Studies suggest that ischemia-modified albumin (IMA) is a biomarker of cardiovascular diseases. IMA levels could be associated with cardiometabolic risks and represent a possible indication of microvascular dysfunction in MS patients. Objective: To confirm this possible association, we evaluated the association between IMA levels and MS. Design: We performed a case-control study (32 healthy individuals and 74 subjects with MS) to evaluate the association between MS, IMA, and other biomarkers [high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (OxLDL), oxidized low-density lipoprotein autoantibodies (anti-OxLDL), IL-6, lipid profile, and glucose]. Results: The MS group showed higher levels of IMA (0.618 ± 0.1355) as well as higher levels of hs-CRP, OxLDL, anti-OxLDL, and IL-6 than did control subjects (IMA = 0.338 ± 0.0486) (P < 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed that IMA and MS association was independent of sex, age, diabetes mellitus 2, and hypercholesterolemia. Conclusion: We found an association between IMA and MS. Additional studies including prospective genetic variation approaches need to be performed to help elucidate this association between IMA and MS and its potential clinical role. PMID:20016051

  3. Insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome in normal-weight individuals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanying; Chen, Youming; Liu, Xinyu; Li, Mi; Wu, Bide; Li, Yongqiang; Liang, Yan; Shao, Xiaofei; Holthöfer, Harry; Zou, Hequn

    2014-08-01

    We performed this study to investigate the prevalences of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a Chinese population with normal weight. We also examined whether fat mass is associated with insulin resistance and MetS in normal-weight individuals. Data were drawn from a cross-sectional study in China. Subjects with diabetes were excluded. The prevalences of insulin resistance and MetS were calculated. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed repeated separately for body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in both men and women. We also used the combination of BMI and WC to predict insulin resistance and MetS. 8.55 % of normal-weight men and 12.62 % of normal-weight women had insulin resistance. 7.41 % of normal-weight men and 10.24 % of normal-weight women had MetS. WC was associated with incident insulin resistance and MetS independent of BMI in both men and women. BMI was independently associated with incident MetS in women. Normal-weight individuals with insulin resistance and/or MetS are not rare in the Chinese population. Fat mass is associated with insulin resistance and MetS in normal-weight subjects. The current findings support using both BMI and WC in clinical practice.

  4. Inflammaging, Metabolic Syndrome and Melatonin: A Call for Treatment Studies.

    PubMed

    Cardinali, Daniel P; Hardeland, Rüdiger

    2016-05-11

    The metabolic syndrome (MS) is a collection of risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including obesity, hypertension, hyperinsulinemia, glucose intolerance and dyslipidemia. MS is associated with low-grade inflammation of the white adipose tissue, which can subsequently lead to insulin resistance, impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes. Adipocytes secrete proinflammatory cytokines as well as leptin and trigger a vicious circle which leads to additional weight gain largely as fat. The imbalance between inflammatory and anti-inflammatory signals is crucial to aging. Healthy aging can benefit from melatonin, a compound known to possess direct and indirect antioxidant properties, to have a significant protective effect on mitochondrial function, to enhance circadian rhythm amplitudes, to modulate the immune system and to exhibit neuroprotective actions. Melatonin levels decrease in the course of senescence and are more strongly reduced in diseases related to insulin resistance. This short review article analyzes the multiple protective actions of melatonin that are relevant to the attenuation of inflammatory responses and progression of inflammaging and how melatonin is effective to curtail MS in animal models of hyperadiposity. The clinical data supporting the possible therapeutical use of melatonin in human MS are also reviewed. Since attention has been focused on the development of potent melatonin analogs with prolonged effects (ramelteon, agomelatine, tasimelteon, piromelatine) and in clinical trials these analogs were administered in doses considerably higher than those usually employed for melatonin, clinical trials on melatonin in the range of 50-100 mg/day are needed to further assess its therapeutic value in MS.

  5. Metabolic evidence of diminished lipid oxidation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Complex diseases, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), are not limited to specific genes, pathogens, toxicoses, or identifiable environmental influences. PCOS still remains a diagnosis of exclusion despite being the most common female endocrinopathy and the leading cause of metabolic syndrome, ...

  6. Metabolic Rate: A Factor in Developing Obesity in Children with Down Syndrome?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chad, Karen; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Resting metabolic rate and its relation to selected anthropomorphic measures were determined in 11 male and 7 female noninstitutionalized children with Down Syndrome. Dietary analysis was performed to determine the children's nutritional status. Results have implications for the prevention and treatment of obesity in children with Down Syndrome.…

  7. From Molecules to the Clinic: Linking Schizophrenia and Metabolic Syndrome through Sphingolipids Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rolando I; Rojo, Leonel E; Henriquez-Henriquez, Marcela; Silva, Hernán; Maturana, Alejandro; Villar, María J; Fuentes, Manuel; Gaspar, Pablo A

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a prevalent and severe comorbidity observed in schizophrenia (SZ). The exact nature of this association is controversial and very often accredited to the effects of psychotropic medications and disease-induced life-style modifications, such as inactive lifestyle, poor dietary choices, and smoking. However, drug therapy and disease-induced lifestyle factors are likely not the only factors contributing to the observed converging nature of these conditions, since an increased prevalence of MS is also observed in first episode and drug-naïve psychosis populations. MS and SZ share common intrinsic susceptibility factors and etiopathogenic mechanisms, which may change the way we approach clinical management of SZ patients. Among the most relevant common pathogenic pathways of SZ and MS are alterations in the sphingolipids (SLs) metabolism and SLs homeostasis. SLs have important structural functions as they participate in the formation of membrane "lipid rafts." SLs also play physiological roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, and inflammatory processes, which might be part of MS/SZ common pathophysiological processes. In this article we review a plausible mechanism to explain the link between MS and SZ through a disruption in SL homeostasis. Additionally, we provide insights on how this hypothesis can lead to the developing of new diagnostic/therapeutic technologies for SZ patients.

  8. From Molecules to the Clinic: Linking Schizophrenia and Metabolic Syndrome through Sphingolipids Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Castillo, Rolando I.; Rojo, Leonel E.; Henriquez-Henriquez, Marcela; Silva, Hernán; Maturana, Alejandro; Villar, María J.; Fuentes, Manuel; Gaspar, Pablo A.

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a prevalent and severe comorbidity observed in schizophrenia (SZ). The exact nature of this association is controversial and very often accredited to the effects of psychotropic medications and disease-induced life-style modifications, such as inactive lifestyle, poor dietary choices, and smoking. However, drug therapy and disease-induced lifestyle factors are likely not the only factors contributing to the observed converging nature of these conditions, since an increased prevalence of MS is also observed in first episode and drug-naïve psychosis populations. MS and SZ share common intrinsic susceptibility factors and etiopathogenic mechanisms, which may change the way we approach clinical management of SZ patients. Among the most relevant common pathogenic pathways of SZ and MS are alterations in the sphingolipids (SLs) metabolism and SLs homeostasis. SLs have important structural functions as they participate in the formation of membrane “lipid rafts.” SLs also play physiological roles in cell differentiation, proliferation, and inflammatory processes, which might be part of MS/SZ common pathophysiological processes. In this article we review a plausible mechanism to explain the link between MS and SZ through a disruption in SL homeostasis. Additionally, we provide insights on how this hypothesis can lead to the developing of new diagnostic/therapeutic technologies for SZ patients. PMID:27877101

  9. Syndromic insulin resistance: Models for the therapeutic basis of the metabolic syndrome and other targets of insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gorden, Phillip; Zadeh, Elika Safar; Cochran, Elaine; Brown, Rebecca J.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Insulin resistance is the key feature of the “metabolic syndrome,” a cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes that includes hypertension, dyslipidemia, obesity, and hyperglycemia. Existing treatments target individual metabolic syndrome components, and act non-specifically with respect to disease pathophysiology. Our goal is to understand the link between insulin resistance and the metabolic syndrome, and how to develop treatment approaches. Methods We present three cases of extreme, syndromic insulin resistance: lipodystrophy, autoantibodies to the insulin receptor, and mutations of the insulin receptor, with discussion of pathophysiology and treatment. Results In lipodystrophy, insulin resistance is a direct consequence of leptin deficiency, and thus leptin replacement reverses metabolic syndrome abnormalities, including diabetes and hypertriglyeridemia. The insulin “receptoropathies”, including autoantibodies to the insulin receptor and insulin receptor mutations, are characterized by extreme insulin resistance and ovarian hyperandrogenism, without dyslipidemia or fatty liver disease. Autoantibodies to the insulin receptor can be treated using an immunosuppressive paradigm adapted from treatment of other autoimmune and neoplastic conditions. Leptin treatment has shown some success in treating hyperglycemia in insulin receptor mutations. Treatment for this condition remains inadequate, and novel therapies that bypass insulin receptor signaling, such as enhancers of brown adipose tissue, are needed. Conclusion We presented a clinical approach to treatment of syndromic insulin resistance. The study of rare diseases that replicate the metabolic syndrome, with clear-cut pathophysiology, allows the opportunity to understand novel physiology, and develop targeted therapies that may be applicable to the broader population with obesity, insulin resistance, and diabetes. PMID:23047930

  10. The Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome and Different Obesity Phenotype in Iranian Male Military Personnel.

    PubMed

    Payab, Moloud; Hasani-Ranjbar, Shirin; Merati, Yaser; Esteghamati, Alireza; Qorbani, Mostafa; Hematabadi, Mahboobeh; Rashidian, Hoda; Shirzad, Nooshin

    2017-03-01

    Obesity, especially when concentrated in the abdominal area, is often associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome. Stress, particularly occupational stress, is one of the most important factors contributing to the increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome components among different populations. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of overweight and obesity as well as the criteria for metabolic syndrome and its risk factors and different obesity phenotype in a population of military personnel aged 20 to 65 years. This study is a retrospective cross-sectional study in which data are extracted from the database of a military hospital (2,200 participants). The records of participants contained information such as age, marital status, educational level, weight, height, body mass index, blood pressure, waist circumference, history of drug use and smoking, as well as the results of tests including lipid profile and fasting blood glucose. The Adult Treatment Panel III criteria as well as two national criteria were used to identify metabolic syndrome among participants. Data analysis was p1erformed using SPSS version 16. The average age of participants was 33.37 (7.75) years. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome according to Iranian cutoff was 26.6% for the waist circumference >90 cm (585 persons) and 19.6% for the waist circumference >95 cm (432 persons). The rate of metabolic syndrome was identified as 11.1% (432 cases) according to Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results of the current study identified that the prevalence of metabolic syndrome among military individuals is less than other populations, but the prevalence of the syndrome is higher than other military personnel in other countries.

  11. Irritable Bowel Syndrome May Be Associated with Elevated Alanine Aminotransferase and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Kwang-Min; Joo, Nam-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Recent studies have revealed close relationships between hepatic injury, metabolic pathways, and gut microbiota. The microorganisms in the intestine also cause irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The aim of this study was to examine whether IBS was associated with elevated hepatic enzyme [alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST)], gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT) levels, and metabolic syndrome (MS). Materials and Methods This was a retrospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. The case and control groups comprised subjects who visited our health promotion center for general check-ups from June 2010 to December 2010. Of the 1127 initially screened subjects, 83 had IBS according to the Rome III criteria. The control group consisted of 260 age- and sex-matched subjects without IBS who visited our health promotion center during the same period. Results Compared to control subjects, patients with IBS showed significantly higher values of anthropometric parameters (body mass index, waist circumference), liver enzymes, γ-GT, and lipid levels. The prevalences of elevated ALT (16.9% vs. 7.7%; p=0.015) and γ-GT (24.1% vs. 11.5%; p=0.037) levels were significantly higher in patients with IBS than in control subjects. A statistically significant difference was observed in the prevalence of MS between controls and IBS patients (12.7% vs. 32.5%; p<0.001). The relationships between elevated ALT levels, MS, and IBS remained statistically significant after controlling for potential confounding factors. Conclusion On the basis of our study results, IBS may be an important condition in certain patients with elevated ALT levels and MS. PMID:26632395

  12. Metabolic Syndromes Associated with HIV: Mitigating the Side Effects of Drug Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stringer, William W.; Sattler, Fred R.

    2001-01-01

    HIV infection and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) are associated with such metabolic disorders as AIDS wasting syndrome, metabolic dysregulation, and abnormalities of serum lipids. Adjunctive therapies (e.g., diet and antilipid therapy); risk factor modification (e.g., smoking cessation and blood pressure control); aerobic exercise;…

  13. Localization of genes involved in the metabolic syndrome using multivariate linkage analysis

    PubMed Central

    Olswold, Curtis; Andrade, Mariza de

    2003-01-01

    There are no well accepted criteria for the diagnosis of the metabolic syndrome. However, the metabolic syndrome is identified clinically by the presence of three or more of these five variables: larger waist circumference, higher triglyceride levels, lower HDL-cholesterol concentrations, hypertension, and impaired fasting glucose. We use sets of two or three variables, which are available in the Framingham Heart Study data set, to localize genes responsible for this syndrome using multivariate quantitative linkage analysis. This analysis demonstrates the applicability of using multivariate linkage analysis and how its use increases the power to detect linkage when genes are involved in the same disease mechanism. PMID:14975125

  14. The metabolic syndrome in a global perspective. The public health impact--secondary publication.

    PubMed

    Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2007-05-01

    The term "metabolic syndrome" refers to the clustering of a number of cardiovascular risk factors (obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and hyperglycaemia) believed to be related to insulin resistance. The prevalence of each of these diseases as well as the metabolic syndrome is increasing world wide. Obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes are no longer diseases of the wealthy. By 2025, three out of four people with diabetes will be living in third world countries, and similar trends are likely for the other components of the syndrome. Preventive action is urgently needed, and studies in China and India have proven to be effective.

  15. Models for estimating the metabolic syndrome biological age as the new index for evaluation and management of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Young Gon; Suh, Eunkyung; Chun, Hyejin; Kim, Sun-Hyun; Kim, Deog Ki; Bae, Chul-Young

    2017-01-01

    Purpose This study aims to propose a metabolic syndrome (MS) biological age model, through which overall evaluation and management of the health status and aging state in MS can be done easily. Through this model, we hope to provide a novel evaluation and management health index that can be utilized in various health care fields. Patient and methods MS parameters from American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute guidelines in 2005 were used as biomarkers for the estimation of MS biological age. MS biological age model development was done by analyzing data of 263,828 participants and clinical application of the developed MS biological age was assessed by analyzing the data of 188,886 subjects. Results The principal component accounted for 36.1% in male and 38.9% in female of the total variance in the battery of five variables. The correlation coefficient between corrected biological age and chronological age in males and females were 0.711 and 0.737, respectively. Significant difference for mean MS biological age and chronological age between the three groups, normal, at risk and MS, was seen (P<0.001). Conclusion For the comprehensive approach in MS management, MS biological age is expected to be additionally utilized as a novel evaluation and management index along with the traditional MS diagnosis. PMID:28203066

  16. Management of dyslipidemia in the metabolic syndrome: recommendations of the Spanish HDL-Forum.

    PubMed

    Ascaso, Juan; Gonzalez Santos, Pedro; Hernandez Mijares, Antonio; Mangas Rojas, Alipio; Masana, Luis; Millan, Jesus; Pallardo, Luis Felipe; Pedro-Botet, Juan; Perez Jimenez, Francisco; Pintó, Xavier; Plaza, Ignacio; Rubiés, Juan; Zúñiga, Manuel

    2007-01-01

    In order to characterize the metabolic syndrome it becomes necessary to establish a number of diagnostic criteria. Because of its impact on cardiovascular morbidity/mortality, considerable attention has been focussed on the dyslipidemia accompanying the metabolic syndrome. The aim of this review is to highlight the fundamental aspects of the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and the treatment of the metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia with recommendations to clinicians. The clinical expression of the metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia is characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C). In addition, metabolic syndrome dyslipidemia is associated with high levels of apolipoprotein (apo) B-100-rich particles of a particularly atherogenic phenotype (small dense low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol [LDL-C]. High levels of triglyceride-rich particles (very low-density lipoprotein) are also evident both at baseline and in overload situations (postprandial hyperlipidemia). Overall, the 'quantitative' dyslipidemia characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and low levels of HDL-C and the 'qualitative' dyslipidemia characterized by high levels of apo B-100- and triglyceride-rich particles, together with insulin resistance, constitute an atherogenic triad in patients with the metabolic syndrome. The therapeutic management of the metabolic syndrome, regardless of the control of the bodyweight, BP, hyperglycemia or overt diabetes mellitus, aims at maintaining optimum plasma lipid levels. Therapeutic goals are similar to those for high-risk situations because of the coexistence of multiple risk factors. The primary goal in treatment should be achieving an LDL-C level of <100 mg/dL (or <70 mg/dL in cases with established ischemic heart disease or risk equivalents). A further goal is increasing the HDL-C level to >or=40 mg/dL in men or 50 mg/dL in women. A non-HDL-C goal of 130 mg/dL should also be aimed at in cases of hypertriglyceridemia

  17. FTO gene associates to metabolic syndrome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Attaoua, Redha; Ait El Mkadem, Samira; Radian, Serban; Fica, Simona; Hanzu, Felicia; Albu, Alice; Gheorghiu, Monica; Coculescu, Mihai; Grigorescu, Florin

    2008-08-22

    The FTO (Fat mass and obesity associated) locus has recently been associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in humans. To understand the role of the FTO gene in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) we genotyped single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1421085 (C/T) in women with PCOS (n=207) and controls (n=100) from a Central European population. The homozygous C/C genotype showed increased prevalence in PCOS patients either obese or with metabolic syndrome (MetS) compared to lean PCOS patients or controls (27.6%, 38.9%, 22.3%, and 16.3%, respectively). In logistic regression, this genotype strongly associated with MetS (P<0.0001, OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.8-5.7) and impaired fasting glucose (IFG) with P<0.0007, OR 7.7, 95% CI 2.1-28.6, independently of BMI or age, and to AUC(gluc) during OGTT (P<0.0001, alpha=0.99), indicating an influential role of the FTO gene in the glucose intolerance component of MetS.

  18. Is antipsychotic polypharmacy associated with metabolic syndrome even after adjustment for lifestyle effects?: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although the validity and safety of antipsychotic polypharmacy remains unclear, it is commonplace in the treatment of schizophrenia. This study aimed to investigate the degree that antipsychotic polypharmacy contributed to metabolic syndrome in outpatients with schizophrenia, after adjustment for the effects of lifestyle. Methods A cross-sectional survey was carried out between April 2007 and October 2007 at Yamanashi Prefectural KITA hospital in Japan. 334 patients consented to this cross-sectional study. We measured the components consisting metabolic syndrome, and interviewed the participants about their lifestyle. We classified metabolic syndrome into four groups according to the severity of metabolic disturbance: the metabolic syndrome; the pre-metabolic syndrome; the visceral fat obesity; and the normal group. We used multinomial logistic regression models to assess the association of metabolic syndrome with antipsychotic polypharmacy, adjusting for lifestyle. Results Seventy-four (22.2%) patients were in the metabolic syndrome group, 61 (18.3%) patients were in the pre-metabolic syndrome group, and 41 (12.3%) patients were in visceral fat obesity group. Antipsychotic polypharmacy was present in 167 (50.0%) patients. In multinomial logistic regression analyses, antipsychotic polypharmacy was significantly associated with the pre-metabolic syndrome group (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 2.348; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.181-4.668), but not with the metabolic syndrome group (AOR, 1.269; 95%CI, 0.679-2.371). Conclusions These results suggest that antipsychotic polypharmacy, compared with monotherapy, may be independently associated with an increased risk of having pre-metabolic syndrome, even after adjusting for patients' lifestyle characteristics. As metabolic syndrome is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular mortality, further studies are needed to clarify the validity and safety of antipsychotic polypharmacy. PMID:21791046

  19. Increased copeptin levels in metabolic syndrome from a Romanian population

    PubMed Central

    Vintilă, M; Gheorghiu, ML; Caragheorgheopol, A; Baculescu, N; Lichiardopol, C; Badiu, C; Coculescu, M; Grigorescu, F; Poiană, C

    2016-01-01

    Rationale: Arginine vasopressin (AVP) is secreted under conditions of water deprivation. Since AVP has a low half-life in the plasma, the C-terminal fragment of AVP-precursor (copeptin) was used to estimate the AVP levels. High copeptin levels increase the risk for the development of diabetes mellitus. Aim: This study was aimed to measure copeptin levels in the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Romanians using a competitive enzyme immunoassay. Methods and results: Patients prone to present MetS (n = 63) were compared to controls (n = 42). In the MetS group, the syndrome was confirmed in 93.6%. Affected patients displayed 85.7% obesity and insulin resistance (HOMAIR of 4.9 ± 0.4 versus 1.1 ± 0.8 in controls). Low HDL-cholesterol was less represented (47.5%). Copeptin levels were 0.6 ± 0.0 in MetS versus 0.42 ± 0.0 ng/ mL in controls (P < 0.004). Higher copeptin (0.79 to 1.83 ng/ mL) was associated with MetS, P < 0.0018, OR 20, 95%CI [3.03 – 131.7]. In ANOVA, high copeptin was equally explained by MetS or obesity (P < 0.05,α = 3.8). The best correlation was found with high triglyceride levels (P < 0.013,α = 6.3) while the correlation with HOMAIR remained not significant. Discussion: These data indicated a concordant correlation between increased copeptin and MetS or its components. In the light of epidemiological data, indicating that more than 50% of the European population has a lower daily water intake and a fraction of 25% displaying high copeptin, our data further sustained that copeptin may be a good biomarker for MetS and/ or obesity, which should be further investigated with other members of the osmoregulation pathway at both pathogenesis and genetic levels. PMID:27928437

  20. Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome versus Inborn Errors of Metabolism: A Review With Clinical Recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Gelfand, Amy A.; Gallagher, Renata C.

    2015-01-01

    Structured Abstract Background Inborn errors of metabolism are on the differential for patients presenting with a cyclic vomiting syndrome phenotype. Classes of disorders to consider include: mitochondrial disorders, fatty acid oxidation disorders, urea cycle defects, organic acidurias and acute intermittent porphyria. Aim This article reviews the metabolic differential diagnosis and approach to screening for inborn errors in children and adults presenting with a cyclic or recurrent vomiting phenotype. Conclusion Cyclic vomiting syndrome is thought to be an episodic syndrome that may be associated with migraine. It is a diagnosis of exclusion. Inborn errors of metabolism should be considered in the patient presenting with a recurrent vomiting phenotype. Mitochondrial dysfunction may play a role in cyclic vomiting syndrome, and true mitochondrial disorders can present with a true cyclic vomiting phenotype. PMID:26678622

  1. Brown adipose tissue: a potential target in the fight against obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Poekes, Laurence; Lanthier, Nicolas; Leclercq, Isabelle A

    2015-12-01

    BAT (brown adipose tissue) is the main site of thermogenesis in mammals. It is essential to ensure thermoregulation in newborns. It is also found in (some) adult humans. Its capacity to oxidize fatty acids and glucose without ATP production contributes to energy expenditure and glucose homoeostasis. Brown fat activation has thus emerged as an attractive therapeutic target for the treatment of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. In the present review, we integrate the recent advances on the metabolic role of BAT and its relation with other tissues as well as its potential contribution to fighting obesity and the metabolic syndrome.

  2. [Renoprotecion With Metabolic Syndrome: the Possibility of Receptor Agonist Imidazoline Moxonidine].

    PubMed

    Ostroumova, O D; Zykova, A A

    2016-10-01

    The article is devoted to the of prevalence, diagnosis, and prognostic significance of renal damage in metabolic syndrome. The pathogenetic mechanisms of development and progression of chronic kidney disease in individuals with obesity, including the role of increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system is discussed. Approaches to the choice of antihypertensive drugs with an emphasis on metabolic and renal protection properties are given. The advantages of imidazoline receptors in neuroprotective of moxonidine in patients with arterial hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus is discussed in detail. number of mechanisms of renal protection actions of the agonists of imidazoline receptors is described.

  3. Impact of Cadmium Exposure on the Association between Lipopolysaccharide and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Han, Seung Jin; Ha, Kyoung Hwa; Jeon, Ja Young; Kim, Hae Jin; Lee, Kwan Woo; Kim, Dae Jung

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is an environmental contaminant that has a direct impact on the gut microbiome. Perturbations in the gut microbiome have been linked to metabolic disorders associated with inflammation generated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). We investigated the impact of Cd on the association between LPS and metabolic syndrome. The study population consisted of 200 apparently healthy subjects (30–64 years of age; 96 men, 104 women). Serum LPS and blood Cd concentrations were measured by ELISA and graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrophotometry (GF-AAS), respectively. The highest LPS quartile was associated with a greater prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men. There was a significant association between LPS activity and metabolic syndrome in men with blood Cd concentrations higher than the 50th percentile (OR = 3.05, 95% CI = 1.39–6.70); however, this relationship was not significant in men with blood Cd concentrations lower than the 50th percentile. The results of this study provide evidence for a strong association between high LPS activity and the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in men with relatively high blood Cd concentrations. Therefore, exposure to Cd may potentiate the association between LPS and metabolic syndrome in men. PMID:26378560

  4. Endocrine and metabolic characteristics in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Glintborg, Dorte

    2016-04-01

    Hirsutism affects 5-25% women, and the condition is most often caused by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). The initial evaluation of hirsute patients should include a thorough medical history, clinical evaluation, and standardized blood samples to diagnose the 5% hirsute patients with rare endocrine disorders. The majority of these examinations can be performed by the patient's general practitioner. PCOS is a diagnosis of exclusion and is a multiorgan disease affecting most endocrine organs including ovaries, adrenals, pituitary, fat cells, and endocrine pancreas. The manifestations of PCOS are diverse, and up to 50% patients are normal weight. In most cases, however, the severity of symptoms can be related to abdominal obesity. Increased inflammation in PCOS can be measured as decreased adiponectin levels and increased levels of adipokines, chemokines, and interleukins. In the present thesis the use of these inflammatory markers is reviewed, but more data including hard end points are needed to determine which of these markers that should be introduced to the daily clinic. Abdominal obesity and insulin resistance stimulates ovarian and adrenal androgen production, whereas SHBG levels are decreased. Increased testosterone levels may further increase abdominal obesity and inflammation, therefore describing PCOS as a vicious cycle. Abdominal obesity and increased activation of the inflammatory system is seen in both normal weight and obese PCOS patients leading to an increased risk of dyslipidemia, diabetes, and possibly cardiovascular disease. Patients diagnosed with PCOS therefore should be screened for elements in the metabolic syndrome including weight, waist, blood pressure, HbA1c, and lipid status. Our data supported that prolactin and HbA1c levels could be markers of cardiovascular risk and should be confirmed by prospective studies. PCOS is a life-long condition and treatment modalities involve lifestyle modification, insulin sensitizers such as metformin, or

  5. Relationship between socioeconomic status and metabolic syndrome among Nigerian adults.

    PubMed

    Adedoyin, Rufus A; Afolabi, Abiodun; Adegoke, Olajire O; Akintomide, Anthony O; Awotidebe, Taofeek O

    2013-01-01

    The study determined the diastolic and systolic pressure, anthropometric parameters, serological parameters comprising fasting blood glucose (FBG), triglyceride (TG) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) as well as the socio-economic status (SES) of inhabitants of Ilora with a view to providing information on impact of SES on metabolic syndrome (MetS). One hundred participants (54 males and 46 females) whose ages ranged from 30 and 70 years, participated in the study. Participants were recruited from the three wards of the town using multi-stage random sampling procedure. Subjects' weights, height, blood pressure, waist circumference (WC) were measured using standard instruments. Fasting blood glucose (FBG) was measured using a glucometer on participants' blood samples taken after at least 8h of fasting. Serum triglyceride (TG) and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) were analyzed using enzyme colometric assay kits in the laboratory. SES of the participants was determined by using a questionnaire, which sought information on annual income, occupation and education. Participants who had MetS were determined using the new International Diabetes Foundation definition of MetS. Both descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. The mean scores for the males and females systolic blood pressure (SBP) were 123.20 ± 20.72 mmHg and 117.78 ± 14.64 mmHg, and the diastolic blood pressure (DBP), 78.63 ± 11.72 mmHg and 75.98 ± 13.06 mmHg, respectively. The mean of serological variables scores for the males and females, respectively, were FBG (4.95 ± 0.81 mmol/L and 4.84 ± 1.36 mmol/L), TG (1.28 ± 0.75 mmol/L and 1.35 ± 1.05 mmol/L), HDL-C (1.26 ± 0.21 mmol/L and 2.32 ± 7.34 mmol/L). The mean SES scores for the males and females were 14.35 ± 4.75 and 13.13 ± 4.66, respectively. The prevalence of MetS was 43.5% in females and 9.3% in males. Significant differences were found in SBP and FBG across the three SES groups (F=3

  6. Relationship between cortisol, life events and metabolic syndrome in men.

    PubMed

    Fabre, Bibiana; Grosman, Halina; Mazza, Osvaldo; Nolazco, Carlos; Machulsky, Nahuel Fernandez; Mesch, Viviana; Schreier, Laura; Gidron, Yori; Berg, Gabriela

    2013-01-01

    Psychological factors and stressful life events (LE) are considered to play a role in the onset of the metabolic syndrome (MS). We tested the association between LE and cortisol, a marker of chronic stress, with the risk of developing MS and their interaction. From a total number of 2906 men who completed a screening for the early detection of prostate cancer, 149 healthy men (mean ± SD age, 58.6 ± 7.7 years) were included in this study. Participants were assessed by the Holmes and Rahe questionnaire about their experience of LE during the previous 1-5 years. MS was diagnosed according to National Cholesterol Education Program-Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III) and International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Serum cortisol was measured at 08:00-09:00 h. Participants with MS (IDF criteria) reported significantly more past LE (p = 0.009) and greater summed weight of LE (p = 0.049) than those without MS. Furthermore, LE interacted with cortisol in relation to MS: in men with increased serum cortisol levels ( ≥ 13.7 μg/dl), number of LE significantly predicted MS-status (relative risk (RR) = 1.16, p = 0.03), whereas in men with low cortisol, LE were unrelated to MS (p = 0.52). We conclude that LE were significantly more prevalent in men with the MS than without the MS, according to IDF criteria, independent of the effects of age and body mass index, especially in men with increased serum cortisol levels.

  7. Prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in children with psoriatic disease.

    PubMed

    Goldminz, Ari M; Buzney, Catherine D; Kim, Noori; Au, Shiu-Chung; Levine, Danielle E; Wang, Andrew C; Volf, Eva M; Yaniv, Shimrat S; Kerensky, Todd A; Bhandarkar, Manasa; Dumont, Nicole M; Lizzul, Paul F; Loo, Daniel S; Kulig, John W; Brown, Mary E; Lopez-Benitez, Jorge M; Miller, Laurie C; Gottlieb, Alice B

    2013-01-01

    Adults with psoriasis have a greater risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD), but few studies have investigated the prevalence of MetS and other risk factors for CVD in children with psoriasis. In an assessor-blinded study, 20 children ages 9-17 years with a current or previously documented history of psoriasis involving 5% or more of their body surface area or psoriatic arthritis were compared with a cohort of age- and sex-matched controls with benign nevi, warts, or acne. MetS, our primary endpoint, was defined by the presence of abnormal values in at least three of the following measures: triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), fasting blood glucose (FBG), waist circumference, and blood pressure. Secondary endpoints included high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), total cholesterol (TC), and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Thirty percent (6/20) of children with psoriasis met the criteria for MetS, compared with 5% (1/20) of the control group (p < 0.05). Subjects with psoriasis had higher mean FBG (91.1 mg/dL) than the control group (82.9 mg/dL) (p = 0.01). There were no statistically significant differences in the other four components of MetS, BMI, BMI percentile, hs-CRP, TC, or LDL-C. The results of this trial demonstrate that children with psoriasis have higher rates of MetS than age- and sex-matched controls. It may therefore be important to evaluate children with psoriasis for components of MetS to prevent future CVD morbidity and mortality.

  8. Maternal obesity - a risk factor for metabolic syndrome in children

    PubMed Central

    MOREA, MELINDA; MIU, NICOLAE; MOREA, VICENŢIU FLORIN; CORNEAN, RODICA

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine the association between the metabolic syndrome in children (MS) and the pre-pregnancy nutritional status of the mother. Design and methods A total number of 180 children aged between 6–19 years were examined. Self reported data about parents and their children were collected. The children underwent physical examination; weight, height, waist circumference, blood pressure (BP) were measured. The nutritional status of the children was assessed by body mass index (BMI) and laboratory tests needed to diagnose MS were performed. IDF criteria for MS were used in children 10 years and older, and age and gender specific cut-off points in children younger than 10 years. The mothers were classified in the normal weight, overweight and obese categories according to the pre-pregnancy BMI. The statistical analysis of the data was descriptive and inferential analysis. In the bivariate analysis of the association between qualitative variables, we used the Chi-Square test and the exact Fisher test. The statistical analysis was performed with SPSS v 13.0. Results 73 (40.55%) children were normal weight, 54 (30%) were overweight and 53 (29.44%) were obese. None of the normal weight children, 16 (29.60%) of the overweight and 23 (43.40%) of the obese ones had MS; 125 (69.44%) of the mothers were normal weight, 44 (24.44%) were overweight and 11 (6.11%) were obese. Pre-pregnancy maternal BMI was significantly associated with offspring MS in both genders, obese children and in the 10–16 age group. Conclusions Pre-pregnancy maternal overweight/obesity represents a risk factor for offspring MS. The results are very difficult to compare between studies because of different cut-off values and definition of MS in children. If prevention is the goal rather than treatment, the perinatal period may be an important focus for future research. PMID:26527958

  9. Assessing Metabolic Syndrome Through Increased Heart Rate During Exercise.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Gharipour, Mojgan; Nezafati, Pouya; Shafie, Davood; Aghababaei, Esmaeil; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2016-11-01

    The present study aimed to assess changes in resting and maximum heart rates as primary indicators of cardiac autonomic function in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients and to determine their value for discriminating MetS from non-MetS. 468 participants were enrolled in this cross-sectional study and assessed according to the updated adult treatment panel III (ATP-III) definition of MetS. Resting and maximum heart rates were recorded following the Bruce protocol during an exercise. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to identify the best cutoff point for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state. 194 participants (41.5%) were diagnosed as MetS. The mean resting heart rate (RHR) was not statistically different between the two groups (P=0.078). However, the mean maximum heart (MHR) rate was considerably higher in participants with MetS (142.37±14.84 beats per min) compared to the non-MetS group (134.62±21.63 beats per min) (P<0.001). In the MetS group, the MHR was positively correlated with the serum triglyceride level (β=0.185, P=0.033) and was inversely associated with age (β=-0.469, P<0.001). The MHR had a moderate value for discriminating MetS from the non-MetS state (c=0.580, P=0.004) with the optimal cutoff point of 140 beats per min. In MetS patients, the MHR was significantly greater compared to non-MetS subjects and was directly correlated with serum triglyceride levels and inversely with advanced age. Moreover, MHR can be used as a suspicious indicator for identifying MetS.

  10. Severe hypomagnesemia and low-grade inflammation in metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guerrero-Romero, Fernando; Bermudez-Peña, Carmen; Rodríguez-Morán, Martha

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the association between severe hypomagnesemia and the low-grade inflammatory response in subjects with metabolic syndrome (MetS), ninety-eight individuals with new diagnosis of MetS were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Pregnancy, smoking, alcohol intake, renal damage, hepatic disorders, infectious or chronic inflammatory diseases, malignancy, use of diuretics, statins, calcium antagonist, antioxidants, vitamins, anti-inflammatory drugs, or previous oral magnesium supplementation were exclusion criteria. According serum magnesium levels, participants were assigned to the following groups: 1) severe hypomagnesemia (≤1.2 mg/dL); 2) hypomagnesemia (>1.2≤1.8 mg/dL); 3) Normal serum magnesium levels (>1.8 mg/dL). The low-grade inflammatory response was defined by elevation of serum levels of (hsCRP >1.0 ≤10.0 mg/L) or TNF-alpha (TNF-α ≥3.5 pg/mL). Severe hypomagnesemia, hypomagnesemia, and normomagnesemia were identified in 21 (21.4%), 38 (38.8%), and 39 (39.8%) individuals. The ORs, adjusted by WC, showed that severe hypomagnesemia (OR: 8.1; CI 95%: 3.6-19.4 and OR: 3.7; CI 95%: 1.1-12.1), but not hypomagnesemia (OR: 1.8; CI 95%: 0.9-15.5 and OR: 1.6; CI 95%: 0.7-3.6), was strongly associated with elevated hsCRP and TNF-α levels, and that normomagnesemia exhibited a protective role (OR: 0.32; CI 95%: 0.1-0.7 and OR: 0.28; CI 95%: 0.1-0.6) for elevation of CRP and TNF-α. Results of this study show that, in subjects with MetS, severe hypomagnesemia, but not hypomagnesemia, is associated with elevated concentrations of CRP and TNF-α.

  11. Genome-Wide Association Study of Metabolic Syndrome in Koreans

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Seok Won; Chung, Myungguen; Park, Soo-Jung; Cho, Seong Beom

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome (METS) is a disorder of energy utilization and storage and increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease and diabetes. To identify the genetic risk factors of METS, we carried out a genome-wide association study (GWAS) for 2,657 cases and 5,917 controls in Korean populations. As a result, we could identify 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with genome-wide significance level p-values (<5 × 10-8), 8 SNPs with genome-wide suggestive p-values (5 × 10-8 ≤ p < 1 × 10-5), and 2 SNPs of more functional variants with borderline p-values (5 × 10-5 ≤ p < 1 × 10-4). On the other hand, the multiple correction criteria of conventional GWASs exclude false-positive loci, but simultaneously, they discard many true-positive loci. To reconsider the discarded true-positive loci, we attempted to include the functional variants (nonsynonymous SNPs [nsSNPs] and expression quantitative trait loci [eQTL]) among the top 5,000 SNPs based on the proportion of phenotypic variance explained by genotypic variance. In total, 159 eQTLs and 18 nsSNPs were presented in the top 5,000 SNPs. Although they should be replicated in other independent populations, 6 eQTLs and 2 nsSNP loci were located in the molecular pathways of LPL, APOA5, and CHRM2, which were the significant or suggestive loci in the METS GWAS. Conclusively, our approach using the conventional GWAS, reconsidering functional variants and pathway-based interpretation, suggests a useful method to understand the GWAS results of complex traits and can be expanded in other genomewide association studies. PMID:25705157

  12. Elevated resting heart rate is associated with the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rogowski, Ori; Steinvil, Arie; Berliner, Shlomo; Cohen, Michael; Saar, Nili; Kliuk Ben-Bassat, Orit; Shapira, Itzhak

    2009-01-01

    Background Increased resting heart rate (RHR) may be associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity. Our aim was to explore the possibility that increased RHR is associated with the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a sample of apparently healthy individuals and those with cardiovascular risk factors. Methods We performed a cross-sectional analysis in a large sample of apparently healthy individuals who attended a general health screening program and agreed to participate in our survey. We analyzed a sample of 7706 individuals (5106 men and 2600 women) with 13.2% of men and 8.9% of the women fulfilling the criteria for the MetS. The participants were divided into quintiles of resting heart rate. Multiple adjusted odds ratio was calculated for having the MetS in each quintile compared to the first. Results The multi-adjusted odds for the presence of the MetS increased gradually from an arbitrarily defined figure of 1.0 in the lowest RHR quintile (<60 beats per minute (BPM) in men and <64 BPM in women) to 4.1 and 4.2 in men and women respectively in the highest one (≥80 BPM in men and ≥82 BPM in women). Conclusion Raised resting heart rate is significantly associated with the presence of MetS in a group of apparently healthy individuals and those with an atherothrombotic risk. The strength of this association supports the potential presence of one or more shared pathophysiological mechanisms for both RHR and the MetS. PMID:19828043

  13. Obesity and metabolic syndrome: potential benefit from specific nutritional components.

    PubMed

    Abete, I; Goyenechea, E; Zulet, M A; Martínez, J A

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) manifestations is rapidly increasing worldwide, and is becoming an important health problem. Actually, MetS includes a combination of clinical complications such as obesity (central adiposity), insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, dyslipidemia, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease and hypertension. All these alterations predispose individuals to type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease inducing earlier mortality rates among people. In general terms, it is difficult for patients to follow a standard long-term diet/exercise regime that would improve or alleviate MetS symptoms. Thus, the investigation of food components that may deal with the MetS features is an important field for ameliorate and facilitate MetS dietary-based therapies. Currently antioxidants are of great interest due to the described association between obesity, cardiovascular alterations and oxidative stress. On the other hand, high MUFA and PUFA diets are being also considered due to their potential benefits on hypertension, insulin resistance and triglyceride levels. Mineral composition of the diet is also relevant since high potassium intake may improve hypertension and high calcium consumption may promote lipid oxidation. Thus, although nutritional supplements are at the peak of dietetic therapies, the consumption of some specific foods (legumes, fatty fish, vegetables and fruits, etc) with bioactive components within an energy-restricted diet is a promising approach to manage MetS manifestations. Therefore, the present review focuses on some of the most important food components currently investigated to improve and make easier the nutritional MetS treatment.

  14. Trends in Metabolic Syndrome Severity and Lifestyle Factors Among Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Arthur M.; Gurka, Matthew J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Childhood metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a risk factor for adverse outcomes later in life. Our goal was to identify temporal trends among US adolescents in the severity of MetS, its individual components, and factors related to diet and physical activity. METHODS: We analyzed 5117 participants aged 12 to 19 from NHANES. We used regression analysis of individual waves of data, 1999 to 2012. MetS severity was calculated using a gender- and race/ethnicity-specific MetS severity z score. RESULTS: There was a linear trend of decreasing MetS severity in US adolescents from 1999 to 2012 (P = .030). This occurred despite a trend of increasing BMI z score (P = .005); instead, the decrease in MetS severity appeared to be due to trends in increasing high-density lipoprotein (HDL; P < .0001) and decreasing triglyceride (P = .0001) levels. In considering lifestyle factors, there was no change in physical activity over the time period. Regarding dietary patterns, total calorie consumption and carbohydrate consumption were positively associated with triglyceride levels and negatively associated with HDL levels, whereas unsaturated fat consumption exhibited the opposite associations. Consistent with these associations, there was a trend of decreasing total calorie consumption (P < .0001), decreasing carbohydrate consumption (P < .0001), and increasing unsaturated fat consumption (P = .002). CONCLUSIONS: The healthier trend of declining MetS severity in adolescents appeared to be due to favorable increases in HDL and decreases in fasting triglyceride measurements. These were in turn associated with favorable changes in dietary patterns among US adolescents. Future studies should investigate the causality of dietary differences on changes in MetS severity in adolescents. PMID:26908664

  15. Childhood obesity affects adult metabolic syndrome and diabetes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yajun; Hou, Dongqing; Zhao, Xiaoyuan; Wang, Liang; Hu, Yuehua; Liu, Junting; Cheng, Hong; Yang, Ping; Shan, Xinying; Yan, Yinkun; Cruickshank, J Kennedy; Mi, Jie

    2015-09-01

    We seek to observe the association between childhood obesity by different measures and adult obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and diabetes. Thousand two hundred and nine subjects from "Beijing Blood Pressure Cohort Study" were followed 22.9 ± 0.5 years in average from childhood to adulthood. We defined childhood obesity using body mass index (BMI) or left subscapular skinfold (LSSF), and adult obesity as BMI ≥ 28 kg/m(2). MetS was defined according to the joint statement of International Diabetes Federation and American Heart Association with modified waist circumference (≥ 90/85 cm for men/women). Diabetes was defined as fasting plasma glucose ≥ 7.0 mmol/L or blood glucose 2 h after oral glucose tolerance test ≥ 11.1 mmol/L or currently using blood glucose-lowering agents. Multiple linear and logistic regression models were used to assess the association. The incidence of adult obesity was 13.4, 60.0, 48.3, and 65.1 % for children without obesity, having obesity by BMI only, by LSSF only, and by both, respectively. Compared to children without obesity, children obese by LSSF only or by both had higher risk of diabetes. After controlling for adult obesity, childhood obesity predicted independently long-term risks of diabetes (odds ratio 2.8, 95 % confidence interval 1.2-6.3) or abdominal obesity (2.7, 1.6-4.7) other than MetS as a whole (1.2, 0.6-2.4). Childhood obesity predicts long-term risk of adult diabetes, and the effect is independent of adult obesity. LSSF is better than BMI in predicting adult diabetes.

  16. Metabolic Syndrome and Selective Inflammatory Markers in Psoriatic Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vachatova, Simona; Andrys, Ctirad; Salavec, Miloslav; Ettler, Karel; Rehacek, Vit; Cermakova, Eva; Malkova, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    The presented article studies the role of selected inflammatory and anti-inflammatory serum markers of psoriatic patients in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MS) and psoriasis. The study is based on the comparison between the group of psoriatic patients (74) and the control group (65). We found significantly higher BMI (p < 0.05) and diastolic blood pressure (p < 0.05) in the psoriatic patients. The values of waist circumference and BMI were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in the male patients compared to the men in the control group. The analysis revealed significantly higher CRP (p < 0.001), Lp-PLA2 (p < 0.001), leptin (p < 0.01), and resistin (p < 0.01) levels in the psoriatic patients. Significantly higher levels of CRP (p < 0.01), Lp-PLA2 (p < 0.001), leptin (p < 0.01), and resistin (p < 0.05) were found in the patients with MS compared to the controls with MS. The level of adiponectin was significantly lower (p < 0.01) in the patients with MS. Finally, we found significantly higher level of Lp-PLA2 (p < 0.001) in the group of patients without MS compared to the controls without MS. In conclusion, observed inflammatory and anti-inflammatory markers (CRP, adiponectin, leptin, resistin, and Lp-PLA2) are involved in both pathogenesis of MS and pathogenesis of psoriasis. The level of Lp-PLA2 indicates the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis (cardiovascular risk) in psoriatic patients. PMID:28097156

  17. Dry eye disease in patients with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cabuk, Kubra Serefoglu; Cakir, Ilkay; Kirgiz, Ahmet; Atalay, Kursat; Taskapili, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate dry eye disease (DED) in patients with metabolic syndrome (MetS) and compare with healthy individuals. Methods The study was conducted in the Ophthalmology and Endocrinology Department of Bagcilar Education and Research Hospital, a tertiary care center in Istanbul, Turkey, between January and December 2015. In this prospective case-controlled study, dry eye disease tests were performed on 44 patients with MetS and 43 healthy controls. TearLab Osmolarity System, which is a lab-on-a-chip technology, was used to measure tear osmolarity. McMonnies & Ho symptoms questionnaire along with Schirmer I test and tear film break-up time (TFBUT) test were also performed. Statistical evaluation was performed by students’ independent test. Results There was no statistically significant difference in tear osmolarity, TFBUT, and McMonnies & Ho questionnaire scores between MetS and normal group. However, Schirmer I test was significantly higher in MetS group (14.8±9.4mm versus 20.4±9.4, p=0.007). In women subgroup, tear osmolarity was significantly higher in MetS group compared to the normal group and over the cut-off score 308 mOsm/L (309.4±13.1 mOsm/L versus 301.2±8.7mOsm/L, p=0.012). Conclusion Patients with MetS present with lower tear volumes and a higher incidence of lacrimal gland hypofunction than age-matched controls. Especially women with MetS have higher tear osmolarities, which disrupt the normal functioning of the ocular surface and cause inflammation. Clinicians should be aware of higher DED incidence in patients with MetS for early treatment to prevent serious ocular complications. PMID:27874148

  18. Childhood trauma and metabolic syndrome in men and women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Chioun; Tsenkova, Vera; Carr, Deborah

    2014-01-01

    The long-term effects of childhood trauma on health are well-documented, but few population-based studies have explored how childhood trauma affects the risk of developing metabolic syndrome (MetS) in adulthood. Using data from 1,234 adults in the second wave of the Midlife Development in the U.S. survey (2004), we investigate (1) the extent to which childhood abuse affects the risk of developing MetS in adulthood; (2) how the severity of different types of abuse (emotional, physical, sexual, or cumulative abuse) affects this risk; and (3) the extent to which adult socioeconomic status (SES), maladaptive stress responses, and unhealthy behaviors mediate the association. We also test whether these associations differ significantly by sex. We find that emotional and physical abuse increase the risk of developing MetS for both sexes, whereas sexual abuse is a predictor for women only. For both sexes, individuals who experienced more cumulative abuse have a greater risk of developing MetS. Adult SES partially explains the association between childhood abuse and MetS. Maladaptive stress responses and unhealthy behaviors further explain the association. Among the potential mediators, poor sleep quality was a significant pathway for men and women, while stress-induced eating was a significant pathway for women only. Our findings suggest that the well-documented health consequences of early life trauma may vary by the nature of the trauma, the victim’s sex, and the coping mechanisms that he or she employs. PMID:24524907

  19. [Prevalence and characteristics associated with metabolic syndrome in Japanese-Brazilians with and without periodontal disease].

    PubMed

    Borges, Pollyanna Kássia de Oliveira; Gimeno, Suely Godoy Agostinho; Tomita, Nilce Emy; Ferreira, Sandra Roberta

    2007-03-01

    This cross-sectional study focused on the relationship between periodontal disease and metabolic syndrome. Data were analyzed from 1,315 Japanese-Brazilians ranging from 30 to 92 years of age, submitted to physical, laboratory, and dental exams. Means and percentages were used in the data description and logistic regression pattern in the analysis of associations among variables. 484 (36.8%) of the 1,315 were edentulous, 215 (16.4%) enjoyed periodontal health, 513 (39%) had gingivitis, 85 (6.5%), showed initial or moderate periodontitis, and 18 (1.4%) suffered from chronic periodontitis. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome was 54.3%, higher among individuals with periodontitis than in the healthy (51.5% vs. 48.8%), but this association was not statistically significant. Individuals with metabolic syndrome showed a worse metabolic and anthropometric profile.

  20. Medium-chain fatty acids: functional lipids for the prevention and treatment of the metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Koji; Yanagita, Teruyoshi

    2010-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a cluster of metabolic disorders, such as abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension and impaired fasting glucose, that contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Although the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome is complicated and the precise mechanisms have not been elucidated, dietary lipids have been recognized as contributory factors in the development and the prevention of cardiovascular risk clustering. This review explores the physiological functions and molecular actions of medium-chain fatty acids (MCFAs) and medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) in the development of metabolic syndrome. Experimental studies demonstrate that dietary MCFAs/MCTs suppress fat deposition through enhanced thermogenesis and fat oxidation in animal and human subjects. Additionally, several reports suggest that MCFAs/MCTs offer the therapeutic advantage of preserving insulin sensitivity in animal models and patients with type 2 diabetes.

  1. [Effect of different light regimens on the development of metabolic syndrome of aging rats].

    PubMed

    Vinogradova, I A

    2007-01-01

    During two years the influence of light regimens (standard lightning--LD, constant lightning--LL, natural lightning of the North-West of Russia--NL) and of melatonin on the development of metabolic syndrome of ageing LIO rats was studied. It was found out that during the process of ageing of rats kept in the conditions of the broken rhythm of day and night, different breaches of metabolism in the form of abdominal obesity, hyperinsulinemia, hypercholesterolemia, hyperglycemia, hyperbetalipoproteinemia and glycosuria occurred. These breaches can be considered to be metabolic syndrome or the syndrome of insulinoresistancy. The use of melatonin at night time starting from the rats' age of four months slowed down the age breaches of metabolism in rats. This fact proves indirectly the lack of this hormone in the conditions of natural lightning of the North-West of Russia.

  2. Prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome in Qatar: results from a National Health Survey

    PubMed Central

    Al-Thani, Mohamed Hamad; Al-Thani, Al Anoud Mohammed; Cheema, Sohaila; Sheikh, Javaid; Mamtani, Ravinder; Lowenfels, Albert B; Al-Chetachi, Walaa Fattah; Almalki, Badria Ali; Hassan Khalifa, Shamseldin Ali; Haj Bakri, Ahmad Omar; Maisonneuve, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine optimum measurements for abdominal obesity and to assess the prevalence and determinants of metabolic syndrome in Qatar. Design National health survey. Setting Qatar National STEPwise Survey conducted by the Supreme Council of Health during 2012. Participants 2496 Qatari citizens aged 18–64 representative of the general population. Primary and secondary outcome measures Measure of obesity (body mass index, waist circumference or waist-to-height ratio) that best identified the presence of at least 2 other factors of metabolic syndrome; cut-off values of waist circumference; frequency of metabolic syndrome. Results Waist circumference ≥102 for men and ≥94 cm for women was the best predictor of the presence of other determinants of metabolic syndrome (raised blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, triglycerides and reduced high-density lipoprotein cholesterol). Using these values, we identified 28% of Qataris with metabolic syndrome, which is considerably lower than the estimate of 37% calculated using the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria. Restricting the analysis to participants without known elevated blood pressure, elevated blood sugar or diabetes 16.5% would be classified as having metabolic syndrome. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, the prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased steadily with age (OR=3.40 (95% CI 2.02 to 5.74), OR=5.66 (3.65 to 8.78), OR=10.2 (5.98 to 17.6) and OR=18.2 (7.01 to 47.5) for those in the age group ‘30–39’, ‘40–49’, ‘50–59’, ‘60–64’ vs ‘18–29’; p<0.0001), decreased with increasing educational attainment (OR=0.61 (0.39 to 0.96) for those who attained ‘secondary school or more’ compared with ‘less than primary school’; p=0.03) and exercise (OR=0.60 (0.42 to 0.86) for those exercising ≥3000 vs <600 MET-min/week; p=0.006) but was not associated with smoking or diet. Conclusions Waist circumference was the best measure of obesity to

  3. Demographic and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome in Native African type-2 diabetic patients.

    PubMed Central

    Isezuo, S. A.; Ezunu, E.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To describe the metabolic syndrome and its demographic and clinical correlates in native African type-2 diabetic patients. METHODS: Cross-sectional analysis of 254 type-2 diabetic indigenous Nigerians consecutively recruited in a teaching hospital. The main outcome measure was metabolic syndrome. Variables of interest included family history/duration of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, gender, socioeconomic class, occupation and place of domicile (urban or rural). Intergroup comparisons were made with Chi-squared tests or t-tests. RESULTS: Patients were aged 35-80 years (mean: 52.0 +/- 11.7 years) and made of 154 (60.6%) males and 100 (39.4%) females. Full-blown metabolic syndrome was noted in 52 patients (20.5%). Metabolic syndrome, as defined by the WHO, was noted in 150 patients (59.1%). About 72.4% of patients were dyslipidemic, 54.3% were hypertensive, 42.5% were obese, 44.9% were microalbuminuric and 32.3% were hyperuricemic. Ischemic heart disease (myocardial infarction) occurred in only 2.4% of patients. Concurrent hypertension and dyslipidemia; obesity and dyslipidemia; and hypertension and obesity occurred in 44.4%, 42.5% and 33.1% of type-2 diabetics, respectively. Compared to the diabetics without metabolic syndrome, those with the syndrome had a significantly higher proportion of patients with a family history of hypertension and diabetes (44% versus 25%; p = 0.003); among the upper/middle socioeconomic class: 52.0% versus 30.8% (p = 0.001); and among the urban dwelling: 68.0% versus 49.0% (p = 0.004). Metabolic syndrome was inversely proportional to the physical activity of an individual (chi2 = 21.69, df = 5, p = 0.001). Blood pressure was significantly higher among patients with metabolic syndrome than those without it (140.6 +/- 22.9/85.2 +/- 12.9 mmHg versus 126.9 +/- 15.4 mmHg; P < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The development of metabolic syndrome in African type-2 diabetic patients is influenced by demographic and clinical factors

  4. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Guatemalan school children.

    PubMed

    Mbowe, Omar; Diaz, Alicia; Wallace, Jana; Mazariegos, Manolo; Jolly, Pauline

    2014-09-01

    Guatemala is experiencing a nutritional and lifestyle transition. While chronic malnutrition is prevalent, overweight, obesity and chronic diseases have increased substantially in the country. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the associated cardiovascular risk factors in the pre-adolescent Guatemalan population. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 302 Guatemalan children (8-13 years old) attending public and private schools in the Municipality of Chimaltenango. Demographic data and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were collected. A blood sample was taken after an 8 h overnight fast and analyzed for glucose, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The data were analyzed to identify factors associated with metabolic syndrome and with its components. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the study population was 2.0 %. However, approximately 54 % of the children had at least one component of metabolic syndrome, while none had four or five of the components. The three most prevalent risk factors were high triglycerides (43.4 %), low HDL cholesterol (17.2 %) and obesity (12.3 %). Boys were more likely to be obese than girls and rural children were more likely to have higher triglyceride levels than urban children. Although the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is low, the fact that majority of the children already have at least one component of metabolic syndrome is cause for concern since components of metabolic syndrome can continue into adulthood and increase the risk for chronic diseases later in life. Therefore, immediate action should be taken to address the problem.

  5. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Guatemalan school children

    PubMed Central

    Mbowe, Omar; Diaz, Alicia; Wallace, Jana; Mazariegos, Manolo; Jolly, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Guatemala is experiencing a nutritional and lifestyle transition. While chronic malnutrition is prevalent, overweight, obesity and chronic diseases have increased substantially in the country. This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the associated cardiovascular risk factors in the pre-adolescent Guatemalan population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 302 Guatemalan children (8–13 years old) attending public and private schools in the Municipality of Chimaltenango. Demographic data and anthropometric and blood pressure measurements were collected. A blood sample was taken after an 8-hour overnight fast and analyzed for glucose, triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels. The data were analyzed to identify factors associated with metabolic syndrome and with its components. Results The prevalence of metabolic syndrome in the study population was 2.0%. However, approximately 54% of the children had at least one component of metabolic syndrome, while none had four or five of the components. The three most prevalent risk factors were high triglycerides (43.4%), low HDL cholesterol (17.2%) and obesity (12.3%). Boys were more likely to be obese than girls and rural children were more likely to have higher triglyceride levels than urban children. Conclusions Although the prevalence of metabolic syndrome is low, the fact that majority of the children already have at least one component of metabolic syndrome is cause for concern since components of metabolic syndrome can continue into adulthood and increase the risk for chronic diseases later in life. Therefore, immediate action should be taken to address the problem. PMID:24337775

  6. The association of nephrolithiasis with metabolic syndrome and its components: a cross-sectional analysis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yen-Tze; Yang, Pei-Yu; Yang, Yu-Wen; Sun, Hung-Yu; Lin, I-Ching

    2017-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome is a worldwide disorder and also the major risk factor of several systemic diseases. Evidence identifying the association between metabolic syndrome and nephrolithiasis is lacking, especially in Taiwan. Aim The aim of this study was to investigate the association between nephrolithiasis and metabolic syndrome and its components. Design and setting This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Health Examination Department of a medical center in Changhua, Taiwan, from January 2010 to December 2010. Methods We reviewed the medical records of patients who had visited the Health Examination Center of Changhua Christian Hospital in 2010. A total of 3,886 individuals were enrolled. According to the exclusion criteria, those with an age <20 years and an abnormal renal function were excluded. A total of 3,793 subjects were included. All P-values are two tailed, and P<0.05 was defined as statistically significant. Results The results showed a correlation between nephrolithiasis and metabolic syndrome and its components. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratio (OR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of metabolic syndrome for nephrolithiasis was 1.318 (1.083–1.604), with a P-value of 0.006. Larger waist circumference (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.338; 95% CI 1.098–1.631; P=0.004), higher blood pressure (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.333; 95% CI 1.106–1.607; P=0.003), and increased fasting glucose (multivariable-adjusted OR 1.276; 95% CI 1.054–1.546; P=0.01) were associated with nephrolithiasis. Conclusion This is the first study in Taiwan to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome and nephrolithiasis. The mechanism is controversial, and several hypotheses are offered. Adequate lifestyle modification and proper treatment in metabolic syndrome management may both contribute to nephrolithiasis prevention. PMID:28123300

  7. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in patients with psoriasis: a hospital-based cross-sectional study*

    PubMed Central

    Milčić, Danijela; Janković, Slavenka; Vesić, Sonja; Milinković, Mirjana; Marinković, Jelena; Ćirković, Andja; Janković, Janko

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND Emerging epidemiological evidence suggests independent associations between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. Objectives: The aim of the study was to examine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis, and to assess which factors may predict metabolic syndrome in these patients. METHODS A hospital-based, cross-sectional study with 244 psoriatic patients and 163 control subjects with skin diseases other than psoriasis was conducted at the Clinic of Dermatovenerology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, from October 2011 to October 2012. Metabolic syndrome was defined using the revised National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III. Severity of psoriasis was measured by Psoriasis Area and Severity Index and Body Surface Area. RESULTS The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for psoriasis patients vs. non-psoriasis patients were 2.66 (95% CI, 1.58-4.42) for metabolic syndrome, 3.81 (95% CI, 2.30-6.31) for hypertension, 2.29 (95% CI, 1.39-3.78) for central obesity, 1.92 (95% CI, 1.08-3.41) for hyperglycemia, 1.87 (95% CI 1.18-2.96) for low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level, and 1.42 (95% CI, 0.87-1.04) for hypertrigliceridemia. We failed to find any statistically significant association between the metabolic syndrome and clinical severity of psoriasis. Later onset and longer duration of psoriasis were predicting factors for metabolic syndrome in our patients. Study limitations: The cross-sectional design of the study does not allow us to draw directional causal inferences concerning the association between psoriasis and metabolic syndrome. Factors such as diet, alcohol consumption or mental health, which have not been evaluated in this study, may be confounders in this relation. CONCLUSION A higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components in patients with psoriasis than in controls, regardless of disease severity, emphasizes the need for early treatment and

  8. What do we know about metabolic syndrome in adolescents with PCOS?

    PubMed

    Cırık, Derya Akdağ; Dilbaz, Berna

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy of reproductive-aged women that manifests itself with a variety of features. For this reason, three different diagnostic criteria have been introduced. For adults, the National Institutes of Health Conference (NIH) criteria, which consists of hyperandrogenism and oligo-anovulation, is the most widely used. Symptoms of PCOS usually start with puberty and may overlap with normal pubertal development. Hormonal fluctuations during this period make the diagnosis of PCOS more difficult. Until now, there is no validated diagnostic criteria for PCOS in adolescents. Although menstrual disorders and cosmetic problems are the most common complaints of adolescents with PCOS, patients should also be evaluated for the potential risk for insulin resistance, obesity, subclinical atherosclerosis, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Obesity is the most prominent predictor of metabolic syndrome. As the incidence of obesity is increasing both in childhood and adolescence, governments will be faced with a social and economic burden in the future. Adolescents with PCOS are more obese than normal adolescents and have an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. It is suggested that abdominal adiposity increases the risk of metabolic syndrome by inducing various cytokine secretions. Although there is no consensus on metabolic syndrome criteria in the adolescent period, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria may be used for children older than 10 years. Various clinical and metabolic markers are investigated for the prediction of metabolic syndrome in the literature. Waist circumference, serum triglycerides and androgens are the suspected predictors of metabolic syndrome. The prevention of abdominal adiposity and the early diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence should be the main target for the prevention of metabolic syndrome. Clinicians should investigate adolescents with PCOS for metabolic and

  9. What do we know about metabolic syndrome in adolescents with PCOS?

    PubMed Central

    Cırık, Derya Akdağ; Dilbaz, Berna

    2014-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy of reproductive-aged women that manifests itself with a variety of features. For this reason, three different diagnostic criteria have been introduced. For adults, the National Institutes of Health Conference (NIH) criteria, which consists of hyperandrogenism and oligo-anovulation, is the most widely used. Symptoms of PCOS usually start with puberty and may overlap with normal pubertal development. Hormonal fluctuations during this period make the diagnosis of PCOS more difficult. Until now, there is no validated diagnostic criteria for PCOS in adolescents. Although menstrual disorders and cosmetic problems are the most common complaints of adolescents with PCOS, patients should also be evaluated for the potential risk for insulin resistance, obesity, subclinical atherosclerosis, diabetes, metabolic syndrome and cardiovascular disease. Obesity is the most prominent predictor of metabolic syndrome. As the incidence of obesity is increasing both in childhood and adolescence, governments will be faced with a social and economic burden in the future. Adolescents with PCOS are more obese than normal adolescents and have an increased risk of metabolic syndrome. It is suggested that abdominal adiposity increases the risk of metabolic syndrome by inducing various cytokine secretions. Although there is no consensus on metabolic syndrome criteria in the adolescent period, International Diabetes Federation (IDF) criteria may be used for children older than 10 years. Various clinical and metabolic markers are investigated for the prediction of metabolic syndrome in the literature. Waist circumference, serum triglycerides and androgens are the suspected predictors of metabolic syndrome. The prevention of abdominal adiposity and the early diagnosis of PCOS in adolescence should be the main target for the prevention of metabolic syndrome. Clinicians should investigate adolescents with PCOS for metabolic and

  10. Sugar-Sweetened Beverages and Risk of Metabolic Syndrome and Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Malik, Vasanti S.; Popkin, Barry M.; Bray, George A.; Després, Jean-Pierre; Willett, Walter C.; Hu, Frank B.

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs), which include soft drinks, fruit drinks, iced tea, and energy and vitamin water drinks has risen across the globe. Regular consumption of SSBs has been associated with weight gain and risk of overweight and obesity, but the role of SSBs in the development of related chronic metabolic diseases, such as metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes, has not been quantitatively reviewed. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We searched the MEDLINE database up to May 2010 for prospective cohort studies of SSB intake and risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. We identified 11 studies (three for metabolic syndrome and eight for type 2 diabetes) for inclusion in a random-effects meta-analysis comparing SSB intake in the highest to lowest quantiles in relation to risk of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. RESULTS Based on data from these studies, including 310,819 participants and 15,043 cases of type 2 diabetes, individuals in the highest quantile of SSB intake (most often 1–2 servings/day) had a 26% greater risk of developing type 2 diabetes than those in the lowest quantile (none or <1 serving/month) (relative risk [RR] 1.26 [95% CI 1.12–1.41]). Among studies evaluating metabolic syndrome, including 19,431 participants and 5,803 cases, the pooled RR was 1.20 [1.02–1.42]. CONCLUSIONS In addition to weight gain, higher consumption of SSBs is associated with development of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. These data provide empirical evidence that intake of SSBs should be limited to reduce obesity-related risk of chronic metabolic diseases. PMID:20693348

  11. Metabolic syndrome, activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and inflammatory mediators in depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Martinac, Marko; Pehar, Davor; Karlović, Dalibor; Babić, Dragan; Marcinko, Darko; Jakovljević, Miro

    2014-03-01

    Depression has been associated with various cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension, obesity, atherogenic dyslipidemia and hyperglycemia. In depressive disorder, hyperactivity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis and changes in the immune system have been observed. On the other hand, somatic diseases such as obesity, hyperlipidemia, hypertension and diabetes mellitus type 2 are now perceived as important comorbid conditions in patients with depression. The pathogenesis of the metabolic syndrome and depression is complex and poorly researched; however, it is considered that the interaction of chronic stress, psychotrauma, hypercotisolism and disturbed immune functions contribute to the development of these disorders. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between depression and metabolic syndrome regarding the HPA axis dysfunction and altered inflammatory processes. Literature search in Medline and other databases included articles written in English published between 1985 and 2012. Analysis of the literature was conducted using a systematic approach with the search terms such as depression, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, cytokines, glucocorticoids, cortisol, and HPA axis. In conclusion, the relationship between depression and metabolic syndrome is still a subject of controversy. Further prospective studies are required to clarify the possible causal relationship between depression and metabolic syndrome and its components. Furthermore, it is important to explore the possibility of a common biologic mechanism in the pathogenesis of these two disorders, in which special attention should be paid to the immune system function, especially the possible specific mechanisms by which cytokines can induce and maintain depressive symptoms and metabolic disorders. The data presented here emphasize the importance of recognition and treatment of depressive disorders with consequent reduction in the incidence of metabolic syndrome, but

  12. Comparing the Ability of Anthropometric Indicators in Identifying Metabolic Syndrome in HIV Patients

    PubMed Central

    Beraldo, Rebeca Antunes; Meliscki, Gabriela Cristina; Silva, Bruna Ramos; Navarro, Anderson Marliere; Bollela, Valdes Roberto; Schmidt, André; Foss-Freitas, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Background Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) can cause side effects in HIV patients, as the metabolic syndrome. Early identification of risk for development of cardiovascular diseases using available reliable and practical methods is fundamental. On this basis, the aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of anthropometric indicators to identify metabolic syndrome in HIV patients on HAART. Methods It is a cross-sectional study. A number of 280 stable HIV patients were studied. It measured weight, height, waist circumference (WC), hip circumference (HP), thigh circumference (TC) and calculated body mass index (BMI), body adiposity index (BAI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to thigh ratio (WTR). There was also a performance of biochemical tests of lipid profile and fasting glucose. Systemic blood pressure was measured. The criteria proposed by the National Cholesterol Education Program III (NCEP-ATP III) to metabolic syndrome classification was used. Individuals were divided in groups with or without metabolic alterations and their anthropometric indicators were compared. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were designed for each anthropometric indicator using the metabolic syndrome classification to identify sensitivity and specificity. Results WC was a good tool to identify each metabolic disorder separately: total cholesterol (only females, p<0.05), triglycerides (only males, p<0.001), HDL cholesterol (p<0.05), LDL cholesterol (p<005) and fasting glycemic (p<005). WC also showed the best performance to identify metabolic syndrome in both genders (areas under the curve (AUCs): 0.79 and 0.76 for male and female, respectively), while BAI proved to be an inadequate indicator (AUCs: 0.63 and 0.67 for males and females), respectively, in this population. Conclusions The central adiposity measure (WC) had the best performance to identify metabolic syndrome, and it is a convenient, cheap and reliable tool that can be used in clinical

  13. Prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among nursing personnel and its association with occupational stress, anxiety and depression1

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Renata Perfeito; Marziale, Maria Helena Palucci; Martins, Julia Trevisan; Ribeiro, Patrícia Helena Vivan; Robazzi, Maria Lucia do Carmo Cruz; Dalmas, José Carlos

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to identify the prevalence of Metabolic Syndrome among nursing personnel, and its association with occupational stress, anxiety and depression. METHOD: a descriptive correlational study undertaken with 226 nursing personnel from a teaching hospital. Data collection was undertaken through application of the Job Stress Scale, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and a sociodemographic questionnaire, with variables of Metabolic Syndrome. Univariate analyses and Chi-squared and Pearson tests were used for correlation between the variables, with a level of significance of 5%. RESULTS: 86 (38.1%) workers presented Metabolic Syndrome, of whom 183 (81.1%) were female, and 43 (19.9%) male, aged between 23 and 66 years old. In relation to anxiety and depression, 154 (68.1%) presented anxiety, with 48 (31.2%) also presenting Metabolic Syndrome; 185 (81.8%) presented depression, of whom 62 (33.5%) also had Metabolic Syndrome. It was ascertained that 61 (27.0%) workers presented stress and that of these, 14 (22.9%) presented Metabolic Syndrome. CONCLUSION: a correlation was observed between the variables of anxiety and Metabolic Syndrome and stress and Metabolic Syndrome, there being no correlation between the variables of depression and Metabolic Syndrome. PMID:26155007

  14. Dysfunctional adipose tissue and low-grade inflammation in the management of the metabolic syndrome: current practices and future advances

    PubMed Central

    van Greevenbroek, Marleen M. J.; Schalkwijk, Casper G.; Stehouwer, Coen D.A.

    2016-01-01

    The ongoing worldwide obesity epidemic makes the metabolic syndrome an increasingly important entity. In this review, we provide a short background on the metabolic syndrome, we discuss recent developments in the three main options that have been identified for intervention in the metabolic syndrome, i.e. lifestyle and surgical and pharmacological interventions, and we focus on different views in the literature and also include our own viewpoints on the metabolic syndrome. In addition, we discuss some emerging treatment targets for adipose tissue dysfunction and low-grade inflammation, i.e. activation of the inflammasome and the complement system, and consider some selected opportunities for intervention in these processes. PMID:27803798

  15. Metabolic syndrome in chronic hepatitis C infection: does it still matter in the era of directly acting antiviral therapy?

    PubMed Central

    Lim, TR

    2014-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is prevalent in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. Given the pandemic spread of HCV infection and metabolic syndrome, the burden of their interaction is a major public health issue. The presence of metabolic syndrome accelerates the progression of liver disease in patients with HCV infection. New drug development in HCV has seen an unprecedented rise in the last year, which resulted in better efficacy, better tolerance, and a shorter treatment duration. This review describes the underlying mechanisms and clinical effects of metabolic syndrome in HCV infection, as well as their importance in the era of new directly acting antiviral therapy. PMID:25506251

  16. Hydroxytyrosol ameliorates metabolic, cardiovascular and liver changes in a rat model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome: Pharmacological and metabolism-based investigation.

    PubMed

    Poudyal, Hemant; Lemonakis, Nikolaos; Efentakis, Panagiotis; Gikas, Evangelos; Halabalaki, Maria; Andreadou, Ioanna; Skaltsounis, Leandros; Brown, Lindsay

    2017-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome is a clustering of interrelated risk factors for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The Mediterranean diet has been proposed as an important dietary pattern to confer cardioprotection by attenuating risk factors of metabolic syndrome. Hydroxytyrosol (HT) is present in olive fruit and oil, which are basic constituents of the Mediterranean diet. In this study, we have shown that treatment with HT (20mg/kg/d for 8 weeks) decreased adiposity, improved impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, improved endothelial function with lower systolic blood pressure, decreased left ventricular fibrosis and resultant diastolic stiffness and reduced markers of liver damage in a diet-induced rat model of metabolic syndrome. These results were accompanied by reduced infiltration of monocytes/macrophages into the heart with reduced biomarkers of oxidative stress. Furthermore, in an HRMS-based metabolism study of HT, we have identified 24 HT phase I and II metabolites, six of them being over-produced in high-starch, low-fat diet fed rats treated with HT compared to obese rats on high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet. These results provide direct evidence for cardioprotective effects of hydroxytyrosol by attenuation of metabolic risk factors. The implications of altered metabolism of HT in high-carbohydrate, high-fat diet fed obese rats warrant further investigation.

  17. Antipsychotic Drugs Opposite to Metabolic Risk: Neurotransmitters, Neurohormonal and Pharmacogenetic Mechanisms Underlying with Weight Gain and Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Milano, Walter; De Rosa, Michele; Milano, Luca; Capasso, Anna

    2013-01-01

    Important sources of metabolic diseases such as obesity and metabolic syndrome are significantly more prevalent in patients treated with antipsychotic drugs than the general population and they not only reduce the quality of life but also significantly reduce the life expectancy, being important risk factors for cardiovascular disease. The pathogenic mechanisms underlying these events are not entirely clear they are complex and multi-determined or not tied to a single defining event. In this review we examine the literature on the interactions of antipsychotic drugs with neurotransmitters in the brain, with pharmacogenetics hormones and peripheral mechanisms that may induce, albeit in different ways between different molecules, not only weight gain but also 'onset of major diseases such as diabetes, dyslipidemia and hypertension that are the basis of the metabolic syndrome. Today, the possible metabolic changes induced by various antipsychotic drugs and their major physical health consequences, are among the major concerns of clinicians and it is therefore necessary to monitor the main metabolic parameters to prevent or minimize any of these patients as well as the metabolism events associated with the use of antipsychotic drugs. PMID:23894259

  18. Upregulated expression of brain enzymatic markers of arachidonic and docosahexaenoic acid metabolism in a rat model of the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In animal models, the metabolic syndrome elicits a cerebral response characterized by altered phospholipid and unesterified fatty acid concentrations and increases in pro-apoptotic inflammatory mediators that may cause synaptic loss and cognitive impairment. We hypothesized that these changes are associated with phospholipase (PLA2) enzymes that regulate arachidonic (AA, 20:4n-6) and docosahexaenoic (DHA, 22:6n-6) acid metabolism, major polyunsaturated fatty acids in brain. Male Wistar rats were fed a control or high-sucrose diet for 8 weeks. Brains were assayed for markers of AA metabolism (calcium-dependent cytosolic cPLA2 IVA and cyclooxygenases), DHA metabolism (calcium-independent iPLA2 VIA and lipoxygenases), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and synaptic integrity (drebrin and synaptophysin). Lipid concentrations were measured in brains subjected to high-energy microwave fixation. Results The high-sucrose compared with control diet induced insulin resistance, and increased phosphorylated-cPLA2 protein, cPLA2 and iPLA2 activity and 12-lipoxygenase mRNA, but decreased BDNF mRNA and protein, and drebrin mRNA. The concentration of several n-6 fatty acids in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and lysophosphatidylcholine was increased, as was unesterified AA concentration. Eicosanoid concentrations (prostaglandin E2, thromboxane B2 and leukotriene B4) did not change. Conclusion These findings show upregulated brain AA and DHA metabolism and reduced BDNF and drebrin, but no changes in eicosanoids, in an animal model of the metabolic syndrome. These changes might contribute to altered synaptic plasticity and cognitive impairment in rats and humans with the metabolic syndrome. PMID:23110484

  19. Impact of different metabolic syndrome classifications on the metabolic syndrome prevalence in a young Middle Eastern population.

    PubMed

    Chedid, Rima; Gannagé-Yared, Marie-Hélène; Khalifé, Simon; Halaby, Georges; Zoghbi, Fernand

    2009-06-01

    The metabolic syndrome (MetS) prevalence in a young Middle Eastern population has never been studied. We studied this prevalence in a randomly selected population of Lebanese students using different MetS classifications. Three hundred eighty-one subjects aged 18 to 30 years were included in the study. Anthropometric and biological parameters (waist circumference [WC], systolic and diastolic blood pressures, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and homeostasis model assessment [HOMA] index to assess insulin resistance) were measured. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were generated to determine population-specific cutoff values for MetS parameters and HOMA index. The MetS prevalence was calculated using the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP-III), the actualized ATP-III, and our cutoffs, either with or without HOMA index as an extra risk factor. The MetS prevalence using the ATP-III and the actualized ATP-III was, respectively, 5.25% and 5.28%. It increased to 9.19% when using our cutoff values and to 12.64% when HOMA index was added. This increase was significant only in men. The identified cutoff values are, for WC, 91 cm in women and 99.5 cm in men and, for HOMA index, 2.32. Among the MetS components, WC was the best MetS predictor, whereas fasting plasma glucose was the poorest. Our study shows that the MetS prevalence in Lebanon is comparable with other countries. In addition, we identified in our population new cutoff points for MetS parameters and HOMA index that allow the detection of a higher number of subjects with the MetS, mainly in the male population.

  20. Management of the Metabolic Syndrome and the Obese Patient with Metabolic Disturbances: South Asian Perspective.

    PubMed

    Misra, Anoop; Bhardwaj, Swati

    2015-01-01

    There is an increased prevalence of obesity and the metabolic syndrome (MS) among South Asians. The phenotypes of obesity and body fat distribution are different in South Asians; they have high body fat, intra-abdominal and subcutaneous fat and fatty liver at a lower body mass index compared to white Caucasians; this has led to the frequent occurrence of morbidities related to a higher magnitude of adiposity [e.g. type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), hypertension (HTN) and dyslipidemia]. The increasing prevalence of obesity and related diseases in the South Asian population requires aggressive lifestyle management including diet, physical activity and, sometimes, drugs. For therapeutic interventions, several drugs can be used either as mono- or combination therapy. Drugs like orlistat, which is used for the management of obesity, also reduce the risk of T2DM. Similarly, HMG CoA reductase inhibitors decrease low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol levels and reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. However, some drugs used for the treatment of HTN (e.g. β-blockers) may increase the risk of hyperglycemia and therefore need to be used with caution. Finally, to prevent obesity, MS and T2DM among South Asians, it is particularly important to effectively implement and strengthen population-based primary prevention strategies.

  1. The Metabolic Syndrome in Men study: a resource for studies of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases.

    PubMed

    Laakso, Markku; Kuusisto, Johanna; Stančáková, Alena; Kuulasmaa, Teemu; Pajukanta, Päivi; Lusis, Aldons J; Collins, Francis S; Mohlke, Karen L; Boehnke, Michael

    2017-03-01

    The Metabolic Syndrome in Men (METSIM) study is a population-based study including 10,197 Finnish men examined in 2005-2010. The aim of the study is to investigate nongenetic and genetic factors associated with the risk of T2D and CVD, and with cardiovascular risk factors. The protocol includes a detailed phenotyping of the participants, an oral glucose tolerance test, fasting laboratory measurements including proton NMR measurements, mass spectometry metabolomics, adipose tissue biopsies from 1,400 participants, and a stool sample. In our ongoing follow-up study, we have, to date, reexamined 6,496 participants. Extensive genotyping and exome sequencing have been performed for essentially all METSIM participants, and >2,000 METSIM participants have been whole-genome sequenced. We have identified several nongenetic markers associated with the development of diabetes and cardiovascular events, and participated in several genetic association studies to identify gene variants associated with diabetes, hyperglycemia, and cardiovascular risk factors. The generation of a phenotype and genotype resource in the METSIM study allows us to proceed toward a "systems genetics" approach, which includes statistical methods to quantitate and integrate intermediate phenotypes, such as transcript, protein, or metabolite levels, to provide a global view of the molecular architecture of complex traits.

  2. [Chronic inflammation and metabolic syndrome in comparison with other signs belonging to the image of polycystic ovary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Marciniak, Aleksandra; Nawrocka-Rutkowska, Jolanta; Wiśniewska, Berenika; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Starczewski, Andrzej

    2013-04-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder which concern even 5-10% of women in reproductive age. PCOS is a cause of hyperandrogenism and menstrual disorders with chronic anovulation. The most common clinical symptoms observed in PCOS are hirsutism, acne and obesity. Patients with PCOS often suffer from metabolic disorders like insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, arteriosclerosis and other abnormalities of the metabolic syndrome. 35 to 60% of women with PCOS are obese and about 50% of them have insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia. The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis emphasizes the role of inflammatory processes. There are a number of markers of the inflammation process. They are also observed in PCOS and may indicate an increased risk of cardiovascular disease in women. More than 46% of women with PCOS can be diagnosed with metabolic syndrome. Because of the fact that patients with PCOS are at higher risk group of the earlier development of complications such as diabetes t 2, atherosclerosis, hypertension and cardiovascular system diseases, it is important to carry out metabolic disorders diagnosis in every patient with PCOS. It will help to estimate the risk of complications and allow for the implementation of prevention or treatment of metabolic diseases belonging to the image of PCOS.

  3. Relation between uric acid and metabolic syndrome in subjects with cardiometabolic risk

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Hellen Abreu; Carraro, Júlia Cristina Cardoso; Bressan, Josefina; Hermsdorff, Helen Hermana Miranda

    2015-01-01

    Objective To identify possible relations between serum uric acid levels and metabolic syndrome and its components in a population with cardiometabolic risk. Methods This cross-sectional study included 80 subjects (46 women), with mean age of 48±16 years, seen at the Cardiovascular Health Program. Results The prevalence of hyperuricemia and metabolic syndrome was 6.3% and 47.1%, respectively. Uric acid level was significantly higher in individuals with metabolic syndrome (5.1±1.6mg/dL), as compared to those with no syndrome or with pre-syndrome (3.9±1.2 and 4.1±1.3mg/dL, respectively; p<0.05). The uric acid levels were significantly higher in men presenting abdominal obesity, and among women with abdominal obesity, lower HDL-c levels and higher blood pressure (p<0.05). Conclusion Uric acid concentrations were positively related to the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and its components, and there were differences between genders. Our results indicate serum uric acid as a potential biomarker for patients with cardiometabolic risk. PMID:26018145

  4. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and diabetes mellitus after renal transplantation: prevention and treatment.

    PubMed

    Wissing, Karl Martin; Pipeleers, Lissa

    2014-04-01

    The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome in dialysis patients is high and further increases after transplantation due to weight gain and the detrimental metabolic effects of immunosuppressive drugs. Corticosteroids cause insulin resistance, hyperlipidemia, abnormal glucose metabolism and arterial hypertension. The calcineurin inhibitor tacrolimus is diabetogenic by inhibiting insulin secretion, whereas cyclosporine causes hypertension and increases cholesterol levels. Mtor antagonists are responsible for hyperlipidemia and abnormal glucose metabolism by mechanisms that also implicate insulin resistance. The metabolic syndrome in transplant recipients has numerous detrimental effects such as increasing the risk of new onset diabetes, cardiovascular disease events and patient death. In addition, it has also been linked with accelerated loss of graft function, proteinuria and ultimately graft loss. Prevention and management of the metabolic syndrome are based on increasing physical activity, promotion of weight loss and control of cardiovascular risk factors. Bariatric surgery before or after renal transplantation in patients with body mass index >35 kg/m(2) is an option but its long term effects on graft and patient survival have not been investigated. Steroid withdrawal and replacement of tacrolimus with cyclosporine facilitate control of diabetes, whereas replacement of cyclosporine and mtor antagonists can improve hyperlipidemia. The new costimulation inhibitor belatacept has potent immunosuppressive properties without metabolic adverse effects and will be an important component of immunosuppressive regimens with better metabolic risk profile. Medical treatment of cardiovascular risk factors has to take potential drug interactions with immunosuppressive medication and drug accumulation due to renal insufficiency into account.

  5. The Duration of Breastfeeding and Its Association with Metabolic Syndrome among Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Yakubov, Renata; Nadir, Erez; Stein, Roni; Klein-Kremer, Adi

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether duration of breastfeeding is associated with a lower prevalence of metabolic syndrome in obese children. Methods. A retrospective analysis of obese children aged 3 to 18 years followed at a pediatric outpatient clinic at a single center between the years 2008 and 2012. The children were divided according to their breastfeeding duration: no breastfeeding, a short period of breastfeeding, and a long term breastfeeding. Also, they were divided into metabolic and nonmetabolic syndrome groups, based on physical examination and laboratory tests. Results. Out of 4642 children who visited the clinic, 123 were obese and were included in the study. About half of them matched the metabolic syndrome criteria. There was no correlation between the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and the duration of breastfeeding. Hypertension, abnormal low levels of HDL, high levels of HbA1c, and high fasting triglyceride levels were very common in our study population, yet no statistical significance was noted among the different breastfeeding groups. Conclusion. In this study, breastfeeding was not associated with a reduced risk for metabolic syndrome, compared with formula feeding, in children who are obese. PMID:26295060

  6. Association between serum ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome: an updated meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yuelong; He, Lianping; Chen, Yi; Fang, Yun; Yao, Yingshui

    2015-01-01

    It is definite that the serum iron level has a positive correlation with the risk of obesity. However, the association between increased serum ferritin levels and the metabolic syndrome still remains controversial. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to confirm the association between serum ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome. We searched PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) for relevant articles that assessed the association between serum ferritin levels and metabolic syndrome and were published between 2006 and 2014. Review Manage 5.3 software was used to collect and analysis the data cited in the ultimately selected papers. The variance was exhibited using the forest plot and the heterogeneity among studies was examined using the I2 index. We use the funnel plot to evaluate the publication bias. Cross-sectional study, case-control study and prospective cohort study met our inclusion criteria including data from a total of 4,797 participants. The pooled odds ratio (OR) for the metabolic syndrome comparing the highest and lowest category of ferritin levels was 1.20 (95% CI: 0.69, 1.71; I2=96%). The meta-analysis demonstrates that elevated ferritin levels are positive aassociated with metabolic syndrome. PMID:26550259

  7. Metabolic Syndrome, Neurotoxic 1-Deoxysphingolipids and Nervous Tissue Inflammation in Chronic Idiopathic Axonal Polyneuropathy (CIAP)

    PubMed Central

    Hube, Larissa; Dohrn, Maike F.; Karsai, Gergely; Hirshman, Sarah; Van Damme, Philip; Schulz, Jörg B.; Weis, Joachim; Hornemann, Thorsten; Claeys, Kristl G.

    2017-01-01

    Aim Chronic idiopathic axonal polyneuropathy (CIAP) is a slowly progressive, predominantly sensory, axonal polyneuropathy, with no aetiology being identified despite extensive investigations. We studied the potential role of the metabolic syndrome, neurotoxic 1-deoxysphingolipids (1-deoxySLs), microangiopathy and inflammation in sural nerve biopsies. Methods We included 30 CIAP-patients, 28 with diabetic distal symmetrical polyneuropathy (DSPN) and 31 healthy controls. We assessed standardised scales, tested for the metabolic syndrome, measured 1-deoxySLs in plasma, performed electroneurography and studied 17 sural nerve biopsies (10 CIAP; 7 DSPN). Results One third of the CIAP-patients had a metabolic syndrome, significantly less frequent than DSPN-patients (89%). Although the metabolic syndrome was not significantly more prevalent in CIAP compared to healthy controls, hypercholesterolemia did occur significantly more frequent. 1-deoxySLs were significantly and equally elevated in both patient groups compared to healthy controls. Mean basal lamina thickness of small endoneurial vessels and the number of CD68- or CD8-positive cells in biopsies of CIAP- and DSPN-patients did not differ significantly. However, the number of leucocyte-common-antigen positive cells was significantly increased in CIAP. Conclusions A non-significant trend towards a higher occurrence of the metabolic syndrome in CIAP-patients compared to healthy controls was found. 1-deoxySLs were significantly increased in plasma of CIAP-patients. Microangiopathy and an inflammatory component were present in CIAP-biopsies. PMID:28114358

  8. Physical Therapy for Metabolic Syndrome Prevention in Workers: Novel Role of Physical Therapist.

    PubMed

    Satoh, Tomonori; Nemoto, Yuki; Utumi, Takako; Munakata, Masanori

    2016-01-01

    In Japan, physical therapists have usually been involved in physical therapy for patients with functional disorders associated with cerebrovascular or orthopedic diseases in hospitals. With the aging of Japanese society, the number of diseased people will progressively increase; thus, it is important to pay much more attention to disease prevention. In this regard, physical therapists are expected to play a new role in the field of preventive medicine. Metabolic syndrome or central obesity with multiple cardiometabolic risks is associated with a high risk of type 2 diabetes or cardiovascular diseases and is now a central target for early detection and intervention for disease prevention. The incidence of metabolic syndrome increases with age, and men showed a higher incidence of metabolic syndrome than women in all generations. We have been involved in the guidance of workers with metabolic syndrome for a long time, and we conducted a multicenter study to establish effective guidance for these worker. In this paper, we will use our evidence to discuss the role of physical therapists in providing guidance for preventing metabolic syndrome. We are now conducting worksite supporting exercise intervention for workers who were resistant to conventional lifestyle guidance. In addition, the unique role of physical therapists in this new trial will be introduced.

  9. Grapes (Vitis vinifera) as a Potential Candidate for the Therapy of the Metabolic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akaberi, Maryam; Hosseinzadeh, Hosein

    2016-04-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with several disorders, including hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia as well as cardiovascular diseases and stroke. Plant-derived polyphenols, compounds found in numerous plant species, play an important role as potential treatments for components of metabolic syndrome. Studies have provided evidence for protective effects of various polyphenol-rich foods against metabolic syndrome. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, nuts, and berries are rich in polyphenolic compounds. Grapes (Vitis vinifera), especially grape seeds, stand out as rich sources of polyphenol potent antioxidants and have been reported helpful for inhibiting the risk factors involved in the metabolic syndrome such as hyperlipidemia, hyperglycemia, and hypertension. There are also many studies about gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, and anti-obesity effects of grape polyphenolic compounds especially proanthocyanidins in the literature. The present study investigates the protective effects of grape seeds in metabolic syndrome. The results of this study show that grape polyphenols have significant effects on the level of blood glucose, lipid profile, blood pressure, as well as beneficial activities in liver and heart with various mechanisms. In addition, the pharmacokinetics of grape polyphenols is discussed. More detailed mechanistic investigations and phytochemical studies for finding the exact bioactive component(s) and molecular signaling pathways are suggested.

  10. Modified metabolic syndrome and second cancers in women: A case control study

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Mendoza, Carlos-Manuel; Pérez-Chávez, Ernesto; Fuente-Vera, Tania-Angélica De-la

    2016-01-01

    Background: According to some studies, the metabolic syndrome causes diverse primary cancers; however, there is no evidence about metabolic syndrome impact on second cancers development in women. Aim: To find out the implication of the modified metabolic syndrome in women with second cancers. Materials and Methods: This was a case–control study, at a general hospital in Mexico City, in women with second cancers (cases) and age-matched women with only one neoplasm (controls). The analysis comprised: Tumor (s), anthropometric features, and body mass index (BMI); moreover, presence of diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and fasting serum levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose. Results: The sample was of nine cases and 27 controls. In cases, the metabolic syndrome (diabetes mellitus or glucose > 99 mg/dL + hypertension or blood pressure ≥ 135/85 mm Hg + triglycerides > 149 mg/dL or BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) was more frequent (odds ratio 20.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.9–227.1). Conclusion: Our results suggest that in women, the modified metabolic syndrome may be a risk factor for second cancers. PMID:28032086

  11. Should waist circumference be replaced by index of central obesity (ICO) in definition of metabolic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Parikh, R; Mohan, V; Joshi, S

    2012-01-01

    Waist circumference has been widely used as the parameter of central obesity in defining metabolic syndrome. Global consensus definition of metabolic syndrome has suggested various race- and gender-specific cutoffs of waist circumference for quantifying central obesity. We have earlier proposed that using index of central obesity (ICO), the need for race- and gender-specific cutoffs may be obviated. We propose that waist circumference be supplanted with index of central obesity in all definitions of metabolic syndrome. Using index of central obesity a common cutoff of 0.5 applicable across races and genders might be obtained. Moreover, it will enhance the sensitivity of definition by diagnosing subjects who are shorter than general population. Among 258 male and 242 female diabetic patients, subjects with metabolic syndrome (defined as per gender-specific waist circumference cutoffs), were found to have a common lower range of index of central obesity suggesting that a common cutoff of waist circumference may be obtained. In another study from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey database, replacing index of central obesity with waist circumference was found to enhance the specificity and sensitivity of definition of metabolic syndrome.