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Sample records for cargo delivery kinetics

  1. Kinesin regulation dynamics through cargo delivery, a single molecule investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Anthony; Kessler, Jonathan; Lin, Huawen; Dutcher, Susan; Wang, Yan Mei

    2015-03-01

    Kinesins are microtubule-based motors that deliver cargo to their destinations in a highly regulated manner. Although in recent years numerous regulators of cargo delivery have been identified, the regulation mechanism of kinesin through the cargo delivery and recycling process is not known. By performing single molecule fluorescence imaging measurements in Chlamydomonas flagella, which are 200 nm in diameter, 10 microns in length, and contain 9 sets of microtubule doublets, we tracked the intraflagellar transport (IFT) trains, BBSome cargo, and kinesin-2 motors through the cargo delivery process and determined the aforementioned dynamics. Upon arrival at the microtubule plus end at the flagellar tip, (1) IFT trains and BBSome cargo remain intact, dissociate together from kinesins and microtubules, and diffuse along flagellar membrane for a mean of 2.3 sec before commencing retrograde travel. (2) Kinesin motors remain bound to and diffuse along microtubules for 1.3 sec before dissociating into the flagellar lumen for recycling.

  2. Materials innovation for co-delivery of diverse therapeutic cargos

    PubMed Central

    Godsey, Megan E; Suryaprakash, Smruthi; Leong, Kam W

    2014-01-01

    Co-delivery is a rapidly growing sector of drug delivery that aspires to enhance therapeutic efficacy through controlled delivery of diverse therapeutic cargoes with synergistic activities. It requires the design of carriers capable of simultaneously transporting to and releasing multiple therapeutics at a disease site. Co-delivery has arisen from the emerging trend of combination therapy, where treatment with two or more therapeutics at the same time can succeed where single therapeutics fail. However, conventional combination therapy offers little control over achieving an optimized therapeutic ratio at the target site. Co-delivery via inclusion of multiple therapeutic cargos within the same carrier addresses this issue by not only ensuring delivery of both therapeutics to the same cell, but also offering a platform for control of the delivery process, from loading to release. Co-delivery systems have been formulated using a number of carriers previously developed for single-therapeutic delivery. Liposomes, polymeric micelles, PLGA nanoparticles, and dendrimers have all been adapted for co-delivery. Much of the effort focuses on dealing with drugs having dissimilar properties, increasing loading efficiencies, and controlling loading and release ratios. In this review, we highlight the innovations in carrier designs and formulations to deliver combination cargoes of drug/drug, drug/siRNA, and drug/pDNA toward disease therapy. With rapid advances in mechanistic understanding of interrelating molecular pathways and development of molecular medicine, the future of co-delivery will become increasingly promising and prominent. PMID:24818000

  3. Catalytic Mesoporous Janus Nanomotors for Active Cargo Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We report on the synergy between catalytic propulsion and mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNPs) for the design of Janus nanomotors as active cargo delivery systems with sizes <100 nm (40, 65, and 90 nm). The Janus asymmetry of the nanomotors is given by electron beam (e-beam) deposition of a very thin platinum (2 nm) layer on MSNPs. The chemically powered Janus nanomotors present active diffusion at low H2O2 fuel concentration (i.e., <3 wt %). Their apparent diffusion coefficient is enhanced up to 100% compared to their Brownian motion. Due to their mesoporous architecture and small dimensions, they can load cargo molecules in large quantity and serve as active nanocarriers for directed cargo delivery on a chip. PMID:25844893

  4. Mesoporous silica-supported lipid bilayers (protocells) for DNA cargo delivery to the spinal cord

    PubMed Central

    Dengler, Ellen C.; Liu, Juewen; Kerwin, Audra; Torres, Sergio; Olcott, Clara M.; Bowman, Brandi N.; Armijo, Leisha; Gentry, Katherine; Wilkerson, Jenny; Wallace, James; Jiang, Xingmao; Carnes, Eric C.; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Milligan, Erin D.

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous mesoporous silica nanoparticles (‘protocells’) that support surface lipid bilayers recently characterized in vitro as carrier constructs for small drug and DNA delivery are reported here as highly biocompatible both in vitro and in vivo, involving the brain and spinal cord following spinal delivery into the lumbosacral subarachnoid space (intrathecal; i.t.). Specifically, positively charged, 1, 2-Dioleoyl-3-Trimethylammonium-Propane (DOTAP) -cholesterol (DOTAP:Chol) liposome-formulated protocells revealed stable in vitro cargo release kinetics and cellular interleukin-10 (IL-10) transgene transfection. Recent approaches using synthetic non-viral vector platforms to deliver the pain-suppressive therapeutic transgene, IL-10, to the spinal subarachnoid space has yielded promising results in animal models of peripheral neuropathy, a condition involving aberrant neuronal communication within sensory pathways in the nervous system. Non-viral drug and gene delivery protocell platforms offer potential flexibility because cargo release-rates can be pH-dependent. We report here that i.t. delivery of protocells, with modified chemistry supporting a surface coating of DOTAP:Chol liposomes and containing the IL-10 transgene, results in functional suppression of pain-related behavior in rats for extended periods. This study is the first demonstration that protocell vectors offer amenable and enduring in vivo biological characteristics that can be applied to spinal gene delivery. PMID:23517784

  5. Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles and Films for Cargo Delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guardado Alvarez, Tania Maria

    Mesoporous silica materials are well known materials that can range from films to nanoparticles. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) and mesoporous silica films have been of increasing interest among the scientific community for its use in cargo delivery. Silica provides ease of functionalization, a robust support and biocompatibility. Several methods have been used in order to give the mesoporous silica nanomaterials different qualities that render them a useful material with different characteristics. Among these methods is surface modification by taking advantage of the OH groups on the surface. When a molecule attached to the surface can act as a molecular machine it transforms the nanomaterial to act as delivery system that can be activated upon command. The work covered in this thesis focuses on the development and synthesis of different mesoporous silica materials for the purpose of trapping and releasing cargo molecules. Chapter 2 focuses in the photoactivation of "snap-top" stoppers over the pore openings of mesoporous silica nanoparticles that releases intact cargo molecules from the pores. The on-command release can be stimulated by either one UV photon or two coherent near-IR photons. Two-photon activation is particularly desirable for use in biological systems because it enables good tissue penetration and precise spatial control. Chapter 3 focuses on the design and synthesis of a nano-container consisting of mesoporous silica nanoparticles with the pore openings covered by "snap-top" caps that are opened by near-IR light. A photo transducer molecule that is a reducing agent in an excited electronic state is covalently attached to the system. Near IR two-photon excitation causes intermolecular electron transfer that reduces a disulfide bond holding the cap in place, thus allowing the cargo molecules to escape. The operation of the "snap-top" release mechanism by both one- and two photon is described. This system presents a proof of concept of a near

  6. Extracellular Vesicles Exploit Viral Entry Routes for Cargo Delivery

    PubMed Central

    van Dongen, Helena M.; Masoumi, Niala

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as crucial mediators of intercellular communication, being involved in a wide array of key biological processes. Eukaryotic cells, and also bacteria, actively release heterogeneous subtypes of EVs into the extracellular space, where their contents reflect their (sub)cellular origin and the physiologic state of the parent cell. Within the past 20 years, presumed subtypes of EVs have been given a rather confusing diversity of names, including exosomes, microvesicles, ectosomes, microparticles, virosomes, virus-like particles, and oncosomes, and these names are variously defined by biogenesis, physical characteristics, or function. The latter category, functions, in particular the transmission of biological signals between cells in vivo and how EVs control biological processes, has garnered much interest. EVs have pathophysiological properties in cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, infectious disease, and cardiovascular disease, highlighting possibilities not only for minimally invasive diagnostic applications but also for therapeutic interventions, like macromolecular drug delivery. Yet, in order to pursue therapies involving EVs and delivering their cargo, a better grasp of EV targeting is needed. Here, we review recent progress in understanding the molecular mechanisms underpinning EV uptake by receptor-ligand interactions with recipient cells, highlighting once again the overlap of EVs and viruses. Despite their highly heterogeneous nature, EVs require common viral entry pathways, and an unanticipated specificity for cargo delivery is being revealed. We discuss the challenges ahead in delineating specific roles for EV-associated ligands and cellular receptors. PMID:26935137

  7. A self-powered kinesin-microtubule system for smart cargo delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Yi; Dong, Weiguang; Feng, Xiyun; Li, Jieling; Li, Junbai

    2014-11-01

    A smart self-powered cargo delivery system that is composed of creatine phosphate kinase (CPK) microspheres, kinesins and microtubules is demonstrated. The CPK microsphere not only acts as an ATP generation and buffering system, but also as a carrier for cargo transport, thus realizing the easy loading and self-powered delivery of cargos at the same time.A smart self-powered cargo delivery system that is composed of creatine phosphate kinase (CPK) microspheres, kinesins and microtubules is demonstrated. The CPK microsphere not only acts as an ATP generation and buffering system, but also as a carrier for cargo transport, thus realizing the easy loading and self-powered delivery of cargos at the same time. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, Fig. S1-S4, and Mov. S1-S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr04454a

  8. Airlift Cargo Hub Port Hold Times: Controlling Variations in Defense Supply Chain Delivery

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-01

    Pagh, 1997). Finally, SCM seeks to establish a flow of goods and information across the chain in order to generate system efficiencies. By...efficiently as possible. High system demand, limited cargo capacity, and desired cost efficiencies drive significant portions of even the highest...priority wartime cargo into a hub and spoke delivery system . However, additional efficiencies afforded through hub and spoke delivery come at the

  9. Systems Analysis and Structural Design of an Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, K. Chauncey; Cruz, Jonathan N.; Antol, Jeffrey; Sasamoto, Washito A.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station will require a continuous supply of replacement parts for ongoing maintenance and repair after the planned retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2010. These parts are existing line-replaceable items collectively called Orbital Replacement Units, and include heavy and oversized items such as Control Moment Gyroscopes and stowed radiator arrays originally intended for delivery aboard the Space Shuttle. Current resupply spacecraft have limited to no capability to deliver these external logistics. In support of NASA's Exploration Systems Architecture Study, a team at Langley Research Center designed an Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle to deliver bulk cargo to the Space Station. The Unpressurized Cargo Delivery Vehicle was required to deliver at least 13,200 lbs of cargo mounted on at least 18 Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanisms. The Crew Launch Vehicle design recommended in the Exploration Systems Architecture Study would be used to launch one annual resupply flight to the International Space Station. The baseline vehicle design developed here has a cargo capacity of 16,000 lbs mounted on up to 20 Flight Releasable Attachment Mechanisms. Major vehicle components are a 5.5m-diameter cargo module containing two detachable cargo pallets with the payload, a Service Module to provide propulsion and power, and an aerodynamic nose cone. To reduce cost and risk, the Service Module is identical to the one used for the Crew Exploration Vehicle design.

  10. Bacteria-mediated delivery of nanoparticles and cargo into cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akin, Demir; Sturgis, Jennifer; Ragheb, Kathy; Sherman, Debby; Burkholder, Kristin; Robinson, J. Paul.; Bhunia, Arun K.; Mohammed, Sulma; Bashir, Rashid

    2007-07-01

    Nanoparticles and bacteria can be used, independently, to deliver genes and proteins into mammalian cells for monitoring or altering gene expression and protein production. Here, we show the simultaneous use of nanoparticles and bacteria to deliver DNA-based model drug molecules in vivo and in vitro. In our approach, cargo (in this case, a fluorescent or a bioluminescent gene) is loaded onto the nanoparticles, which are carried on the bacteria surface. When incubated with cells, the cargo-carrying bacteria (`microbots') were internalized by the cells, and the genes released from the nanoparticles were expressed in the cells. Mice injected with microbots also successfully expressed the genes as seen by the luminescence in different organs. This new approach may be used to deliver different types of cargo into live animals and a variety of cells in culture without the need for complicated genetic manipulations.

  11. Regulated Delivery of Molecular Cargo to Invasive Tumor-derived Microvesicles

    PubMed Central

    Clancy, James W.; Sedgwick, Alanna; Rosse, Carine; Muralidharan-Chari, Vandhana; Raposo, Graca; Method, Michael; Chavrier, Philippe; D'Souza-Schorey, Crislyn

    2015-01-01

    Cells release multiple, distinct, forms of extracellular vesicles including structures known as microvesicles which are known to alter the extracellular environment. Despite growing understanding of microvesicle biogenesis, function, and contents, mechanisms regulating cargo delivery and enrichment remain largely unknown. Here we demonstrate that in amoeboid-like invasive tumor cell lines, the v-SNARE, VAMP3, regulates delivery of microvesicle cargo such as the membrane-type 1 matrix metalloprotease (MT1-MMP) to shedding microvesicles. MT1-MMP delivery to nascent microvesicles depends on the association of VAMP3 with the tetraspanin CD9 and facilitates the maintenance of amoeboid cell invasion. VAMP3-shRNA expression depletes shed vesicles of MT1-MMP and decreases cell invasiveness when embedded in cross-linked collagen matrices. Finally, we describe functionally similar microvesicles isolated from bodily fluids of ovarian cancer patients. Together these studies demonstrate the importance of microvesicle cargo sorting in matrix degradation and disease progression. PMID:25897521

  12. Protocells and their use for targeted delivery of multicomponent cargos to cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, C Jeffrey; Ashley, Carlee Erin; Jiang, Xingmao; Liu, Juewen; Peabody, David S; Wharton, Walker Richard; Carnes, Eric; Chackerian, Bryce; Willman, Cheryl L

    2015-03-31

    Various embodiments provide materials and methods for synthesizing protocells for use in targeted delivery of cargo components to cancer cells. In one embodiment, the lipid bilayer can be fused to the porous particle core to form a protocell. The lipid bilayer can be modified with targeting ligands or other ligands to achieve targeted delivery of cargo components that are loaded within the protocell to a target cell, e.g., a type of cancer. Shielding materials can be conjugated to the surface of the lipid bilayer to reduce undesired non-specific binding.

  13. Protocells and their use for targeted delivery of multicomponent cargos to cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Brinker, Jeffrey C.; Ashley, Carlee Erin; Jiang, Xingmao; Liu, Juewen; Peabody, David S.; Wharton, Walker Richard; Carnes, Eric; Chackerian, Bryce; Willman, Cheryl L.

    2016-11-01

    Various embodiments provide materials and methods for synthesizing protocells for use in targeted delivery of cargo components to cancer cells. In one embodiment, the lipid bilayer can be fused to the porous particle core to form a protocell. The lipid bilayer can be modified with targeting ligands or other ligands to achieve targeted delivery of cargo components that are loaded within the protocell to a target cell, e.g., a type of cancer. Shielding materials can be conjugated to the surface of the lipid bilayer to reduce undesired non-specific binding.

  14. Intracellular Delivery of Molecular Cargo Using Cell-Penetrating Peptides and the Combination Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hua; Tsui, Tung Yu; Ma, Wenxue

    2015-01-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) can cross cellular membranes in a non-toxic fashion, improving the intracellular delivery of various molecular cargos such as nanoparticles, small molecules and plasmid DNA. Because CPPs provide a safe, efficient, and non-invasive mode of transport for various cargos into cells, they have been developed as vectors for the delivery of genetic and biologic products in recent years. Most common CPPs are positively charged peptides. While delivering negatively charged molecules (e.g., nucleic acids) to target cells, the internalization efficiency of CPPs is reduced and inhibited because the cationic charges on the CPPs are neutralized through the covering of CPPs by cargos on the structure. Even under these circumstances, the CPPs can still be non-covalently complexed with the negatively charged molecules. To address this issue, combination strategies of CPPs with other typical carriers provide a promising and novel delivery system. This review summarizes the latest research work in using CPPs combined with molecular cargos including liposomes, polymers, cationic peptides, nanoparticles, adeno-associated virus (AAV) and calcium for the delivery of genetic products, especially for small interfering RNA (siRNA). This combination strategy remedies the reduced internalization efficiency caused by neutralization. PMID:26295227

  15. Cellular mechanisms for cargo delivery and polarity maintenance at different polar domains in plant cells

    PubMed Central

    Łangowski, Łukasz; Wabnik, Krzysztof; Li, Hongjiang; Vanneste, Steffen; Naramoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric localization of proteins in the plasma membrane domains of eukaryotic cells is a fundamental manifestation of cell polarity that is central to multicellular organization and developmental patterning. In plants, the mechanisms underlying the polar localization of cargo proteins are still largely unknown and appear to be fundamentally distinct from those operating in mammals. Here, we present a systematic, quantitative comparative analysis of the polar delivery and subcellular localization of proteins that characterize distinct polar plasma membrane domains in plant cells. The combination of microscopic analyses and computational modeling revealed a mechanistic framework common to diverse polar cargos and underlying the establishment and maintenance of apical, basal, and lateral polar domains in plant cells. This mechanism depends on the polar secretion, constitutive endocytic recycling, and restricted lateral diffusion of cargos within the plasma membrane. Moreover, our observations suggest that polar cargo distribution involves the individual protein potential to form clusters within the plasma membrane and interact with the extracellular matrix. Our observations provide insights into the shared cellular mechanisms of polar cargo delivery and polarity maintenance in plant cells. PMID:27462465

  16. Cellular mechanisms for cargo delivery and polarity maintenance at different polar domains in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Łangowski, Łukasz; Wabnik, Krzysztof; Li, Hongjiang; Vanneste, Steffen; Naramoto, Satoshi; Tanaka, Hirokazu; Friml, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The asymmetric localization of proteins in the plasma membrane domains of eukaryotic cells is a fundamental manifestation of cell polarity that is central to multicellular organization and developmental patterning. In plants, the mechanisms underlying the polar localization of cargo proteins are still largely unknown and appear to be fundamentally distinct from those operating in mammals. Here, we present a systematic, quantitative comparative analysis of the polar delivery and subcellular localization of proteins that characterize distinct polar plasma membrane domains in plant cells. The combination of microscopic analyses and computational modeling revealed a mechanistic framework common to diverse polar cargos and underlying the establishment and maintenance of apical, basal, and lateral polar domains in plant cells. This mechanism depends on the polar secretion, constitutive endocytic recycling, and restricted lateral diffusion of cargos within the plasma membrane. Moreover, our observations suggest that polar cargo distribution involves the individual protein potential to form clusters within the plasma membrane and interact with the extracellular matrix. Our observations provide insights into the shared cellular mechanisms of polar cargo delivery and polarity maintenance in plant cells.

  17. Smart Nanostructures for Cargo Delivery: Uncaging and Activating by Light.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mahdi; Sahandi Zangabad, Parham; Baghaee-Ravari, Soodeh; Ghazadeh, Mehdi; Mirshekari, Hamid; Hamblin, Michael R

    2017-04-05

    Nanotechnology has begun to play a remarkable role in various fields of science and technology. In biomedical applications, nanoparticles have opened new horizons, especially for biosensing, targeted delivery of therapeutics, and so forth. Among drug delivery systems (DDSs), smart nanocarriers that respond to specific stimuli in their environment represent a growing field. Nanoplatforms that can be activated by an external application of light can be used for a wide variety of photoactivated therapies, especially light-triggered DDSs, relying on photoisomerization, photo-cross-linking/un-cross-linking, photoreduction, and so forth. In addition, light activation has potential in photodynamic therapy, photothermal therapy, radiotherapy, protected delivery of bioactive moieties, anticancer drug delivery systems, and theranostics (i.e., real-time monitoring and tracking combined with a therapeutic action to different diseases sites and organs). Combinations of these approaches can lead to enhanced and synergistic therapies, employing light as a trigger or for activation. Nonlinear light absorption mechanisms such as two-photon absorption and photon upconversion have been employed in the design of light-responsive DDSs. The integration of a light stimulus into dual/multiresponsive nanocarriers can provide spatiotemporal controlled delivery and release of therapeutic agents, targeted and controlled nanosystems, combined delivery of two or more agents, their on-demand release under specific conditions, and so forth. Overall, light-activated nanomedicines and DDSs are expected to provide more effective therapies against serious diseases such as cancers, inflammation, infections, and cardiovascular disease with reduced side effects and will open new doors toward the treatment of patients worldwide.

  18. Packaging biological cargoes in mesoporous materials: opportunities for drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Siefker, Justin; Karande, Pankaj; Coppens, Marc-Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Confinement of biomolecules in structured nanoporous materials offers several desirable features ranging from chemical and thermal stability, to resistance to degradation from the external environment. A new generation of mesoporous materials presents exciting new possibilities for the formulation and controlled release of biological agents. Such materials address niche applications in enteral and parenteral delivery of biologics, such as peptides, polypeptides, enzymes and proteins for use as therapeutics, imaging agents, biosensors, and adjuvants. Areas covered: Mesoporous silica Santa Barbara Amorphous-15 (SBA-15), with its unique, tunable pore diameter, and easily functionalized surface, provides a representative example of this new generation of materials. Here, we review recent advances in the design and synthesis of nanostructured mesoporous materials, focusing on SBA-15, and highlight opportunities for the delivery of biological agents to various organ and tissue compartments. Expert opinion: The SBA-15 platform provides a delivery carrier that is inherently separated from the active biologic due to distinct intra and extra-particle environments. This permits the SBA-15 platform to not require direct modification of the active biological therapeutic. Additionally, this makes the platform universal and allows for its application independent of the desired methods of discovery and development. The SBA-15 platform also directly addresses issues of targeted delivery and controlled release, although future challenges in the implementation of this platform reside in particle design, biocompatibility, and the tunability of the internal and external material properties. Examples illustrating the flexibility in the application of the SBA-15 platform are also discussed. PMID:25016923

  19. Delivery of Membrane Impermeable Cargo into CHO Cells by Peptide Nanoparticles Targeted by a Protein Corona

    PubMed Central

    Dittrich, Christian; Burckhardt, Christoph J.; Danuser, Gaudenz

    2012-01-01

    Nanocarriers can fulfill essential functions in the stabilization and delivery of drugs: they prevent solubility issues and degradation, reduce side effects and modify the pharmacokinetic profile. However, particle based pharmaceuticals are very complex and thus challenging to scale up. As formulation routines account for a large fraction of production costs, reducing complexity in the process of assembly, loading and functionalization of nanoparticles is very desirable. Unlike existing approaches with similar goals, our protocol is designed to minimize usage of material and time. Prerequisite to this elegant one-step procedure is the controlled phase-separation of a hydrophobic peptide to nanoparticles, inducing concurrent cargo-entrapment and association of a protein corona. We demonstrate the process by assembling Flutax-2 containing peptide nanoparticles functionalized with transferrin. Cellular uptake of the particles and cargo release depend on specific particle-cell interactions via transferrin receptor. These data indicate corona-mediated delivery of membrane impermeable cargo in vitro by a particulate delivery system entirely composed of amino acids. PMID:22226586

  20. When cationic cell-penetrating peptides meet hydrocarbons to enhance in-cell cargo delivery.

    PubMed

    Di Pisa, Margherita; Chassaing, Gérard; Swiecicki, Jean-Marie

    2015-05-01

    Cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) are short sequences often rich in cationic residues with the remarkable ability to cross cell membranes. In the past 20 years, CPPs have gained wide interest and have found numerous applications in the delivery of bioactive cargoes to the cytosol and even the nucleus of living cells. The covalent or non-covalent addition of hydrocarbon moieties to cationic CPPs alters the hydrophobicity/hydrophilicity balance in their sequence. Such perturbation dramatically influences their interaction with the cell membrane, might induce self-assembling properties and modifies their intracellular trafficking. In particular, the introduction of lipophilic moieties changes the subcellular distribution of CPPs and might result in a dramatically increase of the internalization yield of the co-transported cargoes. Herein, we offer an overview of different aspects of the recent findings concerning the properties of CPPs covalently or non-covalently associated to hydrocarbons. We will focus on the impact of the hydrocarbon moieties on the delivery of various cargoes, either covalently or non-covalently bound to the modified CPPs. We will also provide some key elements to rationalize the influence of the hydrocarbons moieties on the cellular uptake. Furthermore, the recent in vitro and in vivo successful applications of acylated CPPs will be summarized to provide a broad view of the versatility of these modified CPPs as small-molecules and oligonucleotides vectors.

  1. Microfluidic Droplet-Facilitated Hierarchical Assembly for Dual Cargo Loading and Synergistic Delivery

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Bottom-up hierarchical assembly has emerged as an elaborate and energy-efficient strategy for the fabrication of smart materials. Herein, we present a hierarchical assembly process, whereby linear amphiphilic block copolymers are self-assembled into micelles, which in turn are accommodated at the interface of microfluidic droplets via cucurbit[8]uril-mediated host–guest chemistry to form supramolecular microcapsules. The monodisperse microcapsules can be used for simultaneous carriage of both organic (Nile Red) and aqueous-soluble (fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran) cargo. Furthermore, the well-defined compartmentalized structure benefits from the dynamic nature of the supramolecular interaction and offers synergistic delivery of cargos with triggered release or through photocontrolled porosity. This demonstration of premeditated hierarchical assembly, where interactions from the molecular to microscale are designed, illustrates the power of this route toward accessing the next generation of functional materials and encapsulation strategies. PMID:26982167

  2. Theranostic applications of carbon nanomaterials in cancer: Focus on imaging and cargo delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Daiqin; Dougherty, Casey A; Zhu, Kaicheng; Hong, Hao

    2015-07-28

    Carbon based nanomaterials have attracted significant attention over the past decades due to their unique physical properties, versatile functionalization chemistry, and biological compatibility. In this review, we will summarize the current state-of-the-art applications of carbon nanomaterials in cancer imaging and drug delivery/therapy. The carbon nanomaterials will be categorized into fullerenes, nanotubes, nanohorns, nanodiamonds, nanodots and graphene derivatives based on their morphologies. The chemical conjugation/functionalization strategies of each category will be introduced before focusing on their applications in cancer imaging (fluorescence/bioluminescence, magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography (PET), single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), photoacoustic, Raman imaging, etc.) and cargo (chemo/gene/therapy) delivery. The advantages and limitations of each category and the potential clinical utilization of these carbon nanomaterials will be discussed. Multifunctional carbon nanoplatforms have the potential to serve as optimal candidates for image-guided delivery vectors for cancer.

  3. Bacteriophages and phage-inspired nanocarriers for targeted delivery of therapeutic cargos.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Mahdi; Mirshekari, Hamed; Moosavi Basri, Seyed Masoud; Bahrami, Sajad; Moghoofei, Mohsen; Hamblin, Michael R

    2016-11-15

    The main goal of drug delivery systems is to target therapeutic cargoes to desired cells and to ensure their efficient uptake. Recently a number of studies have focused on designing bio-inspired nanocarriers, such as bacteriophages, and synthetic carriers based on the bacteriophage structure. Bacteriophages are viruses that specifically recognize their bacterial hosts. They can replicate only inside their host cell and can act as natural gene carriers. Each type of phage has a particular shape, a different capacity for loading cargo, a specific production time, and their own mechanisms of supramolecular assembly, that have enabled them to act as tunable carriers. New phage-based technologies have led to the construction of different peptide libraries, and recognition abilities provided by novel targeting ligands. Phage hybridization with non-organic compounds introduces new properties to phages and could be a suitable strategy for construction of bio-inorganic carriers. In this review we try to cover the major phage species that have been used in drug and gene delivery systems, and the biological application of phages as novel targeting ligands and targeted therapeutics.

  4. Recent advances in biocompatible nanocarriers for delivery of chemotherapeutic cargoes towards cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Ang, Chung Yen; Tan, Si Yu; Zhao, Yanli

    2014-07-21

    Cancer is currently one of the major diseases that has gained a lot of scientific attention. Conventional cancer therapeutics involve surgical removal of tumors from patients followed by chemotherapeutic treatment. In the use of anticancer drugs during the chemotherapy process, patients often suffer from a variety of undesirable side effects including damage to normal organs. Thus, there is an urgent need for the development of novel strategies to overcome these side effect issues. Among several strategies, the utilization of nanocarriers for anticancer drug delivery has shown improved therapeutic efficiency of the drugs with minimization of the undesirable side effects. In this review, we discuss various types of nanocarriers recently reported in the literature for application in cancer therapy. We introduce some targeting ligands that have been functionalized on nanocarriers in order to impart specificity to the nanocarriers for targeted drug delivery. We also highlight some therapeutic cargoes that are commonly used and their therapeutic mechanisms in cancer treatment. Finally, we summarize some interesting stimulus strategies for controlled release of therapeutic cargoes at tumor sites. This review is expected to inspire new ideas and create novel strategies in advancing efficient cancer therapy using nanomedicine approaches.

  5. Evidence of nose-to-brain delivery of nanoemulsions: cargoes but not vehicles.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ejaj; Feng, Yunhai; Qi, Jianping; Fan, Wufa; Ma, Yuhua; He, Haisheng; Xia, Fei; Dong, Xiaochun; Zhao, Weili; Lu, Yi; Wu, Wei

    2017-01-19

    The nose-to-brain pathway has been proven to be a shortcut for direct drug delivery to the brain. However, whether and to what extent nanoparticles can be delivered through this passage is still awaiting validation with evidence. In this study, nose-to-brain transportation of nanoparticles is tracked via fluorescence bioimaging strategies using nanoemulsions (NEs) as model carriers. Identification of NEs in biological tissues is based on the on → off signal switching of a new type of environment-responsive embedded dyes, P2 and P4, and two conventional probes, DiR and coumarin-6 (C6), are embedded to represent the cargoes. Evidence for the translocation of NEs was collected either via live imaging or ex vivo histological examination in rats after nasal administration. Results suggest that NEs with a particle size of about 100 nm, either naked or coated with chitosan, have longer retention duration in nostrils and slower mucociliary clearance than larger ones. P2 signals, representing integral NEs, can be found in mucosa and trigeminal nerves for all size groups, whereas only weak P2 signals are detected in the olfactory bulb for chitosan-coated NEs of 100 nm. Confocal microscopy further confirms the translocation of integral 100 nm NEs in nasal mucosa and along the trigeminal nerve in decremental intensity. Weak signals of the P4 probe, also representing integral NEs, can be detected in the olfactory bulb but few in the brain. NEs as large as 900 nm cannot be transported to the olfactory bulb. However, the DiR or C6 signals that represent the cargoes can be found in significant amounts along the nose-to-brain pathway and finally reach the brain. Evidence shows that integral NEs can be delivered to the olfactory bulb, but few to the brain, whereas the cargoes can be released and permeated into the brain in greater amounts.

  6. Caspase 3 Targeted Cargo Delivery in Apoptotic Cells Using Capped Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    de la Torre, Cristina; Mondragón, Laura; Coll, Carmen; García-Fernández, Alba; Sancenón, Félix; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Amorós, Pedro; Pérez-Payá, Enrique; Orzáez, Mar

    2015-10-26

    Excessive apoptotic cell death is at the origin of several pathologies, such as degenerative disorders, stroke or ischemia-reperfusion damage. In this context, strategies to improve inhibition of apoptosis and other types of cell death are of interest and may represent a pharmacological opportunity for the treatment of cell-death-related disorders. In this scenario new peptide-containing delivery systems (solids S1 -P1 and S1 -P2 ) are described based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) loaded with a dye and capped with the KKGDEVDKKARDEVDK (P1 ) peptide that contains two repeats of the DEVD target sequence that are selectively hydrolyzed by caspase 3 (C3). This enzyme plays a central role in the execution-phase of apoptosis. HeLa cells electroporated with S1 -P1 are able to deliver the cargo in the presence of staurosporin (STS), which induces apoptosis with the consequent activation of the cytoplasmic C3 enzyme. Moreover, the nanoparticles S1 -P2 , containing both a cell-penetrating TAT peptide and P1 also entered in HeLa cells and delivered the cargo preferentially in cells treated with the apoptosis inducer cisplatin.

  7. BLOC-2 targets recycling endosomal tubules to melanosomes for cargo delivery.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Megan K; Mantegazza, Adriana R; Snir, Olivia L; Tenza, Danièle; Acosta-Ruiz, Amanda; Delevoye, Cédric; Zorger, Richard; Sitaram, Anand; de Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Ravichandran, Keerthana; Rux, John; Sviderskaya, Elena V; Bennett, Dorothy C; Raposo, Graça; Marks, Michael S; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi

    2015-05-25

    Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a group of disorders characterized by the malformation of lysosome-related organelles, such as pigment cell melanosomes. Three of nine characterized HPS subtypes result from mutations in subunits of BLOC-2, a protein complex with no known molecular function. In this paper, we exploit melanocytes from mouse HPS models to place BLOC-2 within a cargo transport pathway from recycling endosomal domains to maturing melanosomes. In BLOC-2-deficient melanocytes, the melanosomal protein TYRP1 was largely depleted from pigment granules and underwent accelerated recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane and to the Golgi. By live-cell imaging, recycling endosomal tubules of wild-type melanocytes made frequent and prolonged contacts with maturing melanosomes; in contrast, tubules from BLOC-2-deficient cells were shorter in length and made fewer, more transient contacts with melanosomes. These results support a model in which BLOC-2 functions to direct recycling endosomal tubular transport intermediates to maturing melanosomes and thereby promote cargo delivery and optimal pigmentation.

  8. BLOC-2 targets recycling endosomal tubules to melanosomes for cargo delivery

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Megan K.; Mantegazza, Adriana R.; Snir, Olivia L.; Tenza, Danièle; Acosta-Ruiz, Amanda; Delevoye, Cédric; Zorger, Richard; Sitaram, Anand; de Jesus-Rojas, Wilfredo; Ravichandran, Keerthana; Rux, John; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Bennett, Dorothy C.; Raposo, Graça; Setty, Subba Rao Gangi

    2015-01-01

    Hermansky–Pudlak syndrome (HPS) is a group of disorders characterized by the malformation of lysosome-related organelles, such as pigment cell melanosomes. Three of nine characterized HPS subtypes result from mutations in subunits of BLOC-2, a protein complex with no known molecular function. In this paper, we exploit melanocytes from mouse HPS models to place BLOC-2 within a cargo transport pathway from recycling endosomal domains to maturing melanosomes. In BLOC-2–deficient melanocytes, the melanosomal protein TYRP1 was largely depleted from pigment granules and underwent accelerated recycling from endosomes to the plasma membrane and to the Golgi. By live-cell imaging, recycling endosomal tubules of wild-type melanocytes made frequent and prolonged contacts with maturing melanosomes; in contrast, tubules from BLOC-2–deficient cells were shorter in length and made fewer, more transient contacts with melanosomes. These results support a model in which BLOC-2 functions to direct recycling endosomal tubular transport intermediates to maturing melanosomes and thereby promote cargo delivery and optimal pigmentation. PMID:26008744

  9. The targeted delivery of multicomponent cargos to cancer cells by nanoporous particle-supported lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Carlee E; Carnes, Eric C; Phillips, Genevieve K; Padilla, David; Durfee, Paul N; Brown, Page A; Hanna, Tracey N; Liu, Juewen; Phillips, Brandy; Carter, Mark B; Carroll, Nick J; Jiang, Xingmao; Dunphy, Darren R; Willman, Cheryl L; Petsev, Dimiter N; Evans, Deborah G; Parikh, Atul N; Chackerian, Bryce; Wharton, Walker; Peabody, David S; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2011-05-01

    Encapsulation of drugs within nanocarriers that selectively target malignant cells promises to mitigate side effects of conventional chemotherapy and to enable delivery of the unique drug combinations needed for personalized medicine. To realize this potential, however, targeted nanocarriers must simultaneously overcome multiple challenges, including specificity, stability and a high capacity for disparate cargos. Here we report porous nanoparticle-supported lipid bilayers (protocells) that synergistically combine properties of liposomes and nanoporous particles. Protocells modified with a targeting peptide that binds to human hepatocellular carcinoma exhibit a 10,000-fold greater affinity for human hepatocellular carcinoma than for hepatocytes, endothelial cells or immune cells. Furthermore, protocells can be loaded with combinations of therapeutic (drugs, small interfering RNA and toxins) and diagnostic (quantum dots) agents and modified to promote endosomal escape and nuclear accumulation of selected cargos. The enormous capacity of the high-surface-area nanoporous core combined with the enhanced targeting efficacy enabled by the fluid supported lipid bilayer enable a single protocell loaded with a drug cocktail to kill a drug-resistant human hepatocellular carcinoma cell, representing a 10(6)-fold improvement over comparable liposomes.

  10. Cell-specific delivery of diverse cargos by bacteriophage MS2 virus-like particles.

    PubMed

    Ashley, Carlee E; Carnes, Eric C; Phillips, Genevieve K; Durfee, Paul N; Buley, Mekensey D; Lino, Christopher A; Padilla, David P; Phillips, Brandy; Carter, Mark B; Willman, Cheryl L; Brinker, C Jeffrey; Caldeira, Jerri do Carmo; Chackerian, Bryce; Wharton, Walker; Peabody, David S

    2011-07-26

    Virus-like particles (VLPs) of bacteriophage MS2 possess numerous features that make them well-suited for use in targeted delivery of therapeutic and imaging agents. MS2 VLPs can be rapidly produced in large quantities using in vivo or in vitro synthesis techniques. Their capsids can be modified in precise locations via genetic insertion or chemical conjugation, facilitating the multivalent display of targeting ligands. MS2 VLPs also self-assemble in the presence of nucleic acids to specifically encapsidate siRNA and RNA-modified cargos. Here we report the use of MS2 VLPs to selectively deliver nanoparticles, chemotherapeutic drugs, siRNA cocktails, and protein toxins to human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). MS2 VLPs modified with a peptide (SP94) that binds HCC exhibit a 10(4)-fold higher avidity for HCC than for hepatocytes, endothelial cells, monocytes, or lymphocytes and can deliver high concentrations of encapsidated cargo to the cytosol of HCC cells. SP94-targeted VLPs loaded with doxorubicin, cisplatin, and 5-fluorouracil selectively kill the HCC cell line, Hep3B, at drug concentrations <1 nM, while SP94-targeted VLPs that encapsidate a siRNA cocktail, which silences expression of cyclin family members, induce growth arrest and apoptosis of Hep3B at siRNA concentrations <150 pM. Impressively, MS2 VLPs, when loaded with ricin toxin A-chain (RTA) and modified to codisplay the SP94 targeting peptide and a histidine-rich fusogenic peptide (H5WYG) that promotes endosomal escape, kill virtually the entire population of Hep3B cells at an RTA concentration of 100 fM without affecting the viability of control cells. Our results demonstrate that MS2 VLPs, because of their tolerance of multivalent peptide display and their ability to specifically encapsidate a variety of chemically disparate cargos, induce selective cytotoxicity of cancer in vitro and represent a significant improvement in the characteristics of VLP-based delivery systems.

  11. Enzyme-Controlled Nanodevice for Acetylcholine-Triggered Cargo Delivery Based on Janus Au-Mesoporous Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Llopis-Lorente, Antoni; Díez, Paula; de la Torre, Cristina; Sánchez, Alfredo; Sancenón, Félix; Aznar, Elena; Marcos, María D; Martínez-Ruíz, Paloma; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Villalonga, Reynaldo

    2017-03-28

    This work reports a new gated nanodevice for acetylcholine-triggered cargo delivery. We prepared and characterized Janus Au-mesoporous silica nanoparticles functionalized with acetylcholinesterase on the Au face and with supramolecular β-cyclodextrin:benzimidazole inclusion complexes as caps on the mesoporous silica face. The nanodevice is able to selectively deliver the cargo in the presence of acetylcholine via enzyme-mediated acetylcholine hydrolysis, locally lowering the pH and opening the supramolecular gate. Given the key role played by ACh and its relation with Parkinson's disease and other nervous system diseases, we believe that these findings could help design new therapeutic strategies.

  12. Massively Parallel Delivery of Large-Sized Cargo into Mammalian Cells with Light Pulses

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yi-Chien; Wu, Ting-Hsiang; Clemens, Daniel L.; Lee, Bai-Yu; Wen, Ximiao; Horwitz, Marcus A.; Teitell, Michael A.; Chiou, Pei-Yu

    2016-01-01

    We report a high-throughput platform for delivering large cargo into 100,000 cells in 1 min. An array of micro-cavitation bubbles explode in response to laser pulsing, forming pores in adjacent cell membranes, and immediately thereafter, pressurized flows drive slow diffusing cargo through these pores into cells. The platform delivers large cargo including bacteria, enzymes, antibodies, and nanoparticles into diverse cell types with high efficiency and cell viability. We used this platform to explore the intracellular lifestyle of Francisella novicida and discovered that the iglC gene is unexpectedly required for intracellular replication even after phagosome escape into the cell cytosol. PMID:25849636

  13. Fluorescent boronate-based polymer nanoparticles with reactive oxygen species (ROS)-triggered cargo release for drug-delivery applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jäger, Eliézer; Höcherl, Anita; Janoušková, Olga; Jäger, Alessandro; Hrubý, Martin; Konefał, Rafał; Netopilik, Miloš; Pánek, Jiří; Šlouf, Miroslav; Ulbrich, Karel; Štěpánek, Petr

    2016-03-01

    A new drug-delivery system of polymer nanoparticles (NPs) bearing pinacol-type boronic ester and alkyne moieties displaying triggered self-immolative polymer degradation in the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with the capability of cellular imaging is presented. The NPs specifically release their drug cargo under concentrations of ROS that are commonly found in the intracellular environment of certain tumors and of inflamed tissues and exhibit significant cytotoxicity to cancer cells compared to their non-ROS-responsive counterparts.A new drug-delivery system of polymer nanoparticles (NPs) bearing pinacol-type boronic ester and alkyne moieties displaying triggered self-immolative polymer degradation in the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with the capability of cellular imaging is presented. The NPs specifically release their drug cargo under concentrations of ROS that are commonly found in the intracellular environment of certain tumors and of inflamed tissues and exhibit significant cytotoxicity to cancer cells compared to their non-ROS-responsive counterparts. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6nr00791k

  14. Infusion of imaging and therapeutic molecules into the plant virus-based carrier cowpea mosaic virus: cargo-loading and delivery.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Ibrahim; Lee, Karin L; Chen, Kevin; Shukla, Sourabh; Steinmetz, Nicole F

    2013-12-10

    This work is focused on the development of a plant virus-based carrier system for cargo delivery, specifically 30nm-sized cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV). Whereas previous reports described the engineering of CPMV through genetic or chemical modification, we report a non-covalent infusion technique that facilitates efficient cargo loading. Infusion and retention of 130-155 fluorescent dye molecules per CPMV using DAPI (4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole dihydrochloride), propidium iodide (3,8-diamino-5-[3-(diethylmethylammonio)propyl]-6-phenylphenanthridinium diiodide), and acridine orange (3,6-bis(dimethylamino)acridinium chloride), as well as 140 copies of therapeutic payload proflavine (PF, acridine-3,6-diamine hydrochloride), is reported. Loading is achieved through interaction of the cargo with the CPMV's encapsidated RNA molecules. The loading mechanism is specific; empty RNA-free eCPMV nanoparticles could not be loaded. Cargo-infused CPMV nanoparticles remain chemically active, and surface lysine residues were covalent modified with dyes leading to the development of dual-functional CPMV carrier systems. We demonstrate cargo-delivery to a panel of cancer cells (cervical, breast, and colon): CPMV nanoparticles enter cells via the surface marker vimentin, the nanoparticles target the endolysosome, where the carrier is degraded and the cargo is released allowing imaging and/or cell killing. In conclusion, we demonstrate cargo-infusion and delivery to cells; the methods discussed provide a useful means for functionalization of CPMV toward its application as drug and/or contrast agent delivery vehicle.

  15. pHLIP-FIRE, a cell insertion-triggered fluorescent probe for imaging tumors demonstrates targeted cargo delivery in vivo.

    PubMed

    Karabadzhak, Alexander G; An, Ming; Yao, Lan; Langenbacher, Rachel; Moshnikova, Anna; Adochite, Ramona-Cosmina; Andreev, Oleg A; Reshetnyak, Yana K; Engelman, Donald M

    2014-11-21

    We have developed an improved tool for imaging acidic tumors by reporting the insertion of a transmembrane helix: the pHLIP-Fluorescence Insertion REporter (pHLIP-FIRE). In acidic tissues, such as tumors, peptides in the pHLIP family insert as α-helices across cell membranes. The cell-inserting end of the pHLIP-FIRE peptide has a fluorophore-fluorophore or fluorophore-quencher pair. A pair member is released by disulfide cleavage after insertion into the reducing environment inside a cell, resulting in dequenching of the probe. Thus, the fluorescence of the pHLIP-FIRE probe is enhanced upon cell-insertion in the targeted tissues but is suppressed elsewhere due to quenching. Targeting studies in mice bearing breast tumors show strong signaling by pHLIP-FIRE, with a contrast index of ∼17, demonstrating (i) direct imaging of pHLIP insertion and (ii) cargo translocation in vivo. Imaging and targeted cargo delivery should each have clinical applications.

  16. Light-stimulated cargo release from a core–shell structured nanocomposite for site-specific delivery

    SciTech Connect

    Cai, Yun; Ling, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Meng; Su, Likai

    2015-03-15

    This paper reported a core–shell structured site-specific delivery system with a light switch triggered by low energy light (λ=510 nm). Its core was composed of supermagnetic Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanoparticles for magnetic guiding and targeting. Its outer shell consisted of mesoporous silica molecular sieve MCM-41 which offered highly ordered hexagonal tunnels for cargo capacity. A light switch N1-(4aH-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b′]dipyridin-5(5aH)-ylidene)benzene-1, 4-diamine (CBD) was covalently grafted into these hexagonal tunnels, serving as light stimuli acceptor with loading content of 1.1 μM/g. This composite was fully characterized and confirmed by SEM, TEM, XRD patterns, N{sub 2} adsorption/desorption, thermogravimetric analysis, IR, UV–vis absorption and emission spectra. Experimental data suggested that this composite had a core as wide as 150 nm and could be magnetically guided to specific sites. Its hexagonal tunnels were as long as 180 nm. Upon light stimuli of “on” and “off” states, controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s (90% capacity). - Graphical abstract: A core–shell structured site-specific delivery system with a light switch triggered by yellow light was constructed. Controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s (90% capacity). - Highlights: • A core–shell structured site-specific delivery system was constructed. • It consisted of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} core and MCM-41 shell grafted with light switch. • This delivery system was triggered by low energy light. • Controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s.

  17. Highly efficient delivery of functional cargoes by the synergistic effect of GAG binding motifs and cell-penetrating peptides

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, James E.; Osman, Gizem; Morris, Gavin E.; Markides, Hareklea; Rotherham, Michael; Bayoussef, Zahia; El Haj, Alicia J.; Denning, Chris; Shakesheff, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Protein transduction domains (PTDs) are powerful nongenetic tools that allow intracellular delivery of conjugated cargoes to modify cell behavior. Their use in biomedicine has been hampered by inefficient delivery to nuclear and cytoplasmic targets. Here we overcame this deficiency by developing a series of novel fusion proteins that couple a membrane-docking peptide to heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) with a PTD. We showed that this GET (GAG-binding enhanced transduction) system could deliver enzymes (Cre, neomycin phosphotransferase), transcription factors (NANOG, MYOD), antibodies, native proteins (cytochrome C), magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), and nucleic acids [plasmid (p)DNA, modified (mod)RNA, and small inhibitory RNA] at efficiencies of up to two orders of magnitude higher than previously reported in cell types considered hard to transduce, such as mouse embryonic stem cells (mESCs), human ESCs (hESCs), and induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). This technology represents an efficient strategy for controlling cell labeling and directing cell fate or behavior that has broad applicability for basic research, disease modeling, and clinical application. PMID:26733682

  18. Light-stimulated cargo release from a core-shell structured nanocomposite for site-specific delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Yun; Ling, Li; Li, Xiaofang; Chen, Meng; Su, Likai

    2015-03-01

    This paper reported a core-shell structured site-specific delivery system with a light switch triggered by low energy light (λ=510 nm). Its core was composed of supermagnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles for magnetic guiding and targeting. Its outer shell consisted of mesoporous silica molecular sieve MCM-41 which offered highly ordered hexagonal tunnels for cargo capacity. A light switch N1-(4aH-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b‧]dipyridin-5(5aH)-ylidene)benzene-1,4-diamine (CBD) was covalently grafted into these hexagonal tunnels, serving as light stimuli acceptor with loading content of 1.1 μM/g. This composite was fully characterized and confirmed by SEM, TEM, XRD patterns, N2 adsorption/desorption, thermogravimetric analysis, IR, UV-vis absorption and emission spectra. Experimental data suggested that this composite had a core as wide as 150 nm and could be magnetically guided to specific sites. Its hexagonal tunnels were as long as 180 nm. Upon light stimuli of "on" and "off" states, controllable release was observed with short release time of ~900 s (90% capacity).

  19. Intracellular Delivery of Bioactive Cargos to Hard-to-Transfect Cells Using Carbon Nanosyringe Arrays under an Applied Centrifugal g-Force.

    PubMed

    Choi, Minsuk; Lee, Sang Ho; Kim, Won Bae; Gujrati, Vipul; Kim, Daejin; Lee, Jinju; Kim, Jae-Il; Kim, Hyungjun; Saw, Phei Er; Jon, Sangyong

    2016-01-07

    There is considerable interest in developing a common, universal platform for delivering biomacromolecules such as proteins and RNAs into diverse cells with high efficiency. Here, it is shown that carbon nanosyringe arrays (CNSAs) under an applied centrifugal g-force (cf-CNSAs) can deliver diverse bioactive cargos directly into the cytosol of hard-to-transfect cells with relatively high efficiency and reproducibility. The cf-CNSA platform, an optimized version of a previous CNSA-mediated intracellular delivery platform that adds a g-force feature, exhibits more rapid and superior delivery of cargos to various hard-to-transfect cells than is the case in the absence of g-force. Active species, including small interfering RNAs, plasmids, and proteins are successfully transported across plasma membrane barriers into various cells. By overcoming the limitations of currently available transfection methods, the cf-CNSA platform paves the way to universal delivery of a variety of cargos, facilitating the analysis of cellular responses in diverse cell types.

  20. Cargo Delivery into the Brain by in vivo identified Transport Peptides

    PubMed Central

    Urich, Eduard; Schmucki, Roland; Ruderisch, Nadine; Kitas, Eric; Certa, Ulrich; Jacobsen, Helmut; Schweitzer, Christophe; Bergadano, Alessandra; Ebeling, Martin; Loetscher, Hansruedi; Freskgård, Per-Ola

    2015-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier prevent access of biotherapeutics to their targets in the central nervous system and therefore prohibit the effective treatment of neurological disorders. In an attempt to discover novel brain transport vectors in vivo, we injected a T7 phage peptide library and continuously collected blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) using a cisterna magna cannulated conscious rat model. Specific phage clones were highly enriched in the CSF after four rounds of selection. Validation of individual peptide candidates showed CSF enrichments of greater than 1000-fold. The biological activity of peptide-mediated delivery to the brain was confirmed using a BACE1 peptide inhibitor linked to an identified novel transport peptide which led to a 40% reduction of Amyloid-β in CSF. These results indicate that the peptides identified by the in vivo phage selection approach could be useful transporters for systemically administrated large molecules into the brain with therapeutic benefits. PMID:26411801

  1. In vitro incorporation of a cell-binding protein to a lentiviral vector using an engineered split intein enables targeted delivery of genetic cargo.

    PubMed

    Chamoun-Emanuelli, Ana M; Wright, Gus; Roger, Smith; Münch, Robert C; Buchholz, Christian J; Chen, Zhilei

    2015-12-01

    Gene therapy represents a promising therapeutic paradigm for addressing many disorders, but the absence of a vector that can be robustly and reproducibly functionalized with cell-homing functionality to mediate the delivery of genetic cargo specifically to target cells following systemic administration has stood as a major impediment. In this study, a high-affinity protein-protein pair comprising a splicing-deficient naturally split intein was used as molecular Velcro to append a HER2/neu-binding protein (DARPin) onto the surface of a binding-deficient, fusion-competent lentivirus. HER2/neu-specific lentiviruses created using this in vitro pseudotyping approach were able to deliver their genetic reporter cargo specifically to cells that express the target receptor at high levels in a co-culture. We envision that the described technology could provide a powerful, broadly applicable platform for the incorporation of cell-targeting functionality onto viral vectors.

  2. 76 FR 51847 - Air Cargo Screening

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... apply to international inbound cargo. \\2\\ 74 FR 47672. The IFR provides detailed information on TSA's..., Express Delivery and Logistics Association, International Air Transport Association, Meridian One... for international inbound cargo. TSA Response: TSA is working closely with its foreign...

  3. Composite dissolving microneedles for coordinated control of antigen and adjuvant delivery kinetics in transcutaneous vaccination.

    PubMed

    Demuth, Peter C; Garcia-Beltran, Wilfredo F; Ai-Ling, Michelle Lim; Hammond, Paula T; Irvine, Darrell J

    2013-01-14

    Transcutaneous administration has the potential to improve therapeutics delivery, providing an approach that is safer and more convenient than traditional alternatives, while offering the opportunity for improved therapeutic efficacy through sustained/controlled drug release. To this end, we demonstrate a microneedle materials platform for rapid implantation of controlled-release polymer depots into the cutaneous tissue. Arrays of microneedles comprised of drug-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) microparticles or solid PLGA tips were prepared with a supporting and rapidly water-soluble poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) matrix. Upon application of microneedle patches to the skin of mice, the microneedles perforated the stratum corneum and epidermis. Penetration of the outer skin layers was followed by rapid dissolution of the PAA binder on contact with the interstitial fluid of the epidermis, implanting the microparticles or solid polymer microneedles in the tissue, which were retained following patch removal. These polymer depots remained in the skin for weeks following application and sustained the release of encapsulated cargos for systemic delivery. To show the utility of this approach we demonstrated the ability of these composite microneedle arrays to deliver a subunit vaccine formulation. In comparison to traditional needle-based vaccination, microneedle delivery gave improved cellular immunity and equivalent generation of serum antibodies, suggesting the potential of this approach for vaccine delivery. However, the flexibility of this system should allow for improved therapeutic delivery in a variety of diverse contexts.

  4. Tri-membrane nanoparticles produced by combining liposome fusion and a novel patchwork of bicelles to overcome endosomal and nuclear membrane barriers to cargo delivery.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Asako; Mitsueda, Asako; Hasan, Mahadi; Ueda, Miho; Hama, Susumu; Warashina, Shota; Nakamura, Takashi; Harashima, Hideyoshi; Kogure, Kentaro

    2016-03-01

    Membrane fusion is a rational strategy for crossing intracellular membranes that present barriers to liposomal nanocarrier-mediated delivery of plasmid DNA into the nucleus of non-dividing cells, such as dendritic cells. Based on this strategy, we previously developed nanocarriers consisting of a nucleic acid core particle coated with four lipid membranes [Akita, et al., Biomaterials, 2009, 30, 2940-2949]. However, including the endosomal membrane and two nuclear membranes, cells possess three intracellular membranous barriers. Thus, after entering the nucleus, nanoparticles coated with four membranes would still have one lipid membrane remaining, and could impede cargo delivery. Until now, coating a core particle with an odd number of lipid membranes was challenging. To produce nanocarriers with an odd number of lipid membranes, we developed a novel coating method involving lipid nano-discs, also known as bicelles, as a material for packaging DNA in a carrier with an odd number of lipid membranes. In this procedure, bicelles fuse to form an outer coating that resembles a patchwork quilt, which allows the preparation of nanoparticles coated with only three lipid membranes. Moreover, the transfection activity of dendritic cells with these three-membrane nanoparticles was higher than that for nanoparticles coated with four lipid membranes. In summary, we developed novel nanoparticles coated with an odd number of lipid membranes using the novel "patchwork-packaging method" to deliver plasmid DNA into the nucleus via membrane fusion.

  5. Oviductosome-Sperm Membrane Interaction in Cargo Delivery: DETECTION OF FUSION AND UNDERLYING MOLECULAR PLAYERS USING THREE-DIMENSIONAL SUPER-RESOLUTION STRUCTURED ILLUMINATION MICROSCOPY (SR-SIM).

    PubMed

    Al-Dossary, Amal A; Bathala, Pradeepthi; Caplan, Jeffrey L; Martin-DeLeon, Patricia A

    2015-07-17

    Oviductosomes ((OVS), exosomes/microvesicles), which deliver the Ca(2+) efflux pump, plasma membrane Ca(2+)ATPase 4 (PMCA4), to sperm are likely to play an important role in sperm fertilizing ability (Al-Dossary, A. A., Strehler, E. E., and Martin-DeLeon, P. A. (2013) PloS one 8, e80181). It is unknown how exosomes/microvesicles deliver transmembrane proteins such as PMCA4 to sperm. Here we define a novel experimental approach for the assessment of the interaction of OVS with sperm at a nanoscale level, using a lipophilic dye (FM4-64FX) and three-dimensional SR/SIM, which has an 8-fold increase in volumetric resolution, compared with conventional confocal microscopy. Coincubation assays detected fusion of prelabeled OVS with sperm, primarily over the head and midpiece. Immunofluorescence revealed oviductosomal delivery of PMCA4a to WT and Pmca4 KO sperm, and also endogenous PMCA4a on the inner acrosomal membrane. Fusion was confirmed by transmission immunoelectron microscopy, showing immunogold particles in OVS, and fusion stalks on sperm membrane. Immunofluorescence colocalized OVS with the αv integrin subunit which, along with CD9, resides primarily on the sperm head and midpiece. In capacitated and acrosome reacted sperm, fusion was significantly (p < 0.001) inhibited by blocking integrin/ligand interactions via antibodies, exogenous ligands (vitronectin and fibronectin), and their RGD recognition motif. Our results provide evidence that receptor/ligand interactions, involving αvβ3 and α5β1integrins on sperm and OVS, facilitate fusion of OVS in the delivery of transmembrane proteins to sperm. The mechanism uncovered is likely to be also involved in cargo delivery of prostasomes, epididymosomes, and uterosomes.

  6. Spatial organization of the cytoskeleton enhances cargo delivery to specific target areas on the plasma membrane of spherical cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hafner, Anne E.; Rieger, Heiko

    2016-12-01

    Intracellular transport is vital for the proper functioning and survival of a cell. Cargo (proteins, vesicles, organelles, etc) is transferred from its place of creation to its target locations via molecular motor assisted transport along cytoskeletal filaments. The transport efficiency is strongly affected by the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton, which constitutes an inhomogeneous, complex network. In cells with a centrosome microtubules grow radially from the central microtubule organizing center towards the cell periphery whereas actin filaments form a dense meshwork, the actin cortex, underneath the cell membrane with a broad range of orientations. The emerging ballistic motion along filaments is frequently interrupted due to constricting intersection nodes or cycles of detachment and reattachment processes in the crowded cytoplasm. In order to investigate the efficiency of search strategies established by the cell’s specific spatial organization of the cytoskeleton we formulate a random velocity model with intermittent arrest states. With extensive computer simulations we analyze the dependence of the mean first passage times for narrow escape problems on the structural characteristics of the cytoskeleton, the motor properties and the fraction of time spent in each state. We find that an inhomogeneous architecture with a small width of the actin cortex constitutes an efficient intracellular search strategy.

  7. Cargo Assured Access to International Space Station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David A.

    2004-01-01

    Boeing's Cargo Assured Access logistics delivery system will provide a means to transport cargo to/from the International Space Station, Low Earth Orbit and the moon using Expendable Launch Vehicles. For Space Station, this capability will reduce cargo resupply backlog during nominal operations (e.g., supplement Shuttle, Progress, ATV and HTV) and augment cargo resupply capability during contingency operations (e.g., Shuttle delay and/or unavailability of International Partner launch or transfer vehicles). This capability can also provide an autonomous means to deliver cargo to lunar orbit, a lunar orbit refueling and work platform, and a contingency crew safe haven in support of NASA's new Exploration Initiative.

  8. Levodopa microparticles for pulmonary delivery: photodegradation kinetics and LC stability-indicating method.

    PubMed

    Pereira, R L; Paim, C S; Barth, A B; Raffin, R P; Guterres, S S; Schapoval, E E S

    2012-07-01

    Levodopa, (S)-2-amino-3-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid, is still considered the gold standard treatment for Parkinson's disease. However, oral levodopa shows poor pharmacokinetics and its efficacy becomes problematic with the progression of the disease. Pulmonary delivery using the association of the polymers: chitosan, hyaluronic acid and HPMC, represents a novel approach to overcome this problem. A stability-indicating liquid chromatography method for the quantitative determination of levodopa microparticles for pulmonary delivery was developed as well as its photodegradation kinetics in solution. The developed and validated method was applied for the analyses of the novel formulation as well as for protocols of stability studies.

  9. Size Dependent Kinetics of Gold Nanorods in EPR Mediated Tumor Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xiao; Wang, Zhantong; Sun, Xiaolian; Song, Jibin; Jacobson, Orit; Niu, Gang; Kiesewetter, Dale O.; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-01-01

    Gold nanorods (AuNR) have been intensively used in nanomedicine for cancer diagnostics and therapy, due to their excellent plasmonic photothermal properties. Tuning the size and aspect ratio of AuNR tailors the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) in the NIR spectrum at which biological tissues are transparent, thus enables specific and effective treatment. The AuNR extravasates into tumor interstitium through enhanced permeation and retention (EPR) effect. Efficient AuNR based cancer therapy requires efficient AuNR tumor delivery. However, the size of AuNR can dramatically affect its blood circulation and tumor accumulation. Here we proposed for the first time a systematic framework to investigate the size-dependent kinetics of AuNRs during EPR mediated tumor delivery. By using 64Cu-labeled AuNRs with positron emission tomography (PET) and kinetic modeling, the in vivo uptake and kinetics of 64Cu-AuNR during its blood circulation, tumor accumulation and elimination were studied both in vitro and in vivo. The results of different sized AuNRs were compared and the optimum size of AuNR was suggested for EPR mediated tumor delivery. Our study provides a better understanding of the in vivo behavior of AuNR, which can help future design of nanomaterials for cancer imaging and therapy. PMID:27698939

  10. Controlling drug delivery kinetics from mesoporous titania thin films by pore size and surface energy.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, Johan; Atefyekta, Saba; Andersson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The osseointegration capacity of bone-anchoring implants can be improved by the use of drugs that are administrated by an inbuilt drug delivery system. However, to attain superior control of drug delivery and to have the ability to administer drugs of varying size, including proteins, further material development of drug carriers is needed. Mesoporous materials have shown great potential in drug delivery applications to provide and maintain a drug concentration within the therapeutic window for the desired period of time. Moreover, drug delivery from coatings consisting of mesoporous titania has shown to be promising to improve healing of bone-anchoring implants. Here we report on how the delivery of an osteoporosis drug, alendronate, can be controlled by altering pore size and surface energy of mesoporous titania thin films. The pore size was varied from 3.4 nm to 7.2 nm by the use of different structure-directing templates and addition of a swelling agent. The surface energy was also altered by grafting dimethylsilane to the pore walls. The drug uptake and release profiles were monitored in situ using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and it was shown that both pore size and surface energy had a profound effect on both the adsorption and release kinetics of alendronate. The QCM-D data provided evidence that the drug delivery from mesoporous titania films is controlled by a binding-diffusion mechanism. The yielded knowledge of release kinetics is crucial in order to improve the in vivo tissue response associated to therapeutic treatments.

  11. Controlling drug delivery kinetics from mesoporous titania thin films by pore size and surface energy

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Johan; Atefyekta, Saba; Andersson, Martin

    2015-01-01

    The osseointegration capacity of bone-anchoring implants can be improved by the use of drugs that are administrated by an inbuilt drug delivery system. However, to attain superior control of drug delivery and to have the ability to administer drugs of varying size, including proteins, further material development of drug carriers is needed. Mesoporous materials have shown great potential in drug delivery applications to provide and maintain a drug concentration within the therapeutic window for the desired period of time. Moreover, drug delivery from coatings consisting of mesoporous titania has shown to be promising to improve healing of bone-anchoring implants. Here we report on how the delivery of an osteoporosis drug, alendronate, can be controlled by altering pore size and surface energy of mesoporous titania thin films. The pore size was varied from 3.4 nm to 7.2 nm by the use of different structure-directing templates and addition of a swelling agent. The surface energy was also altered by grafting dimethylsilane to the pore walls. The drug uptake and release profiles were monitored in situ using quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and it was shown that both pore size and surface energy had a profound effect on both the adsorption and release kinetics of alendronate. The QCM-D data provided evidence that the drug delivery from mesoporous titania films is controlled by a binding–diffusion mechanism. The yielded knowledge of release kinetics is crucial in order to improve the in vivo tissue response associated to therapeutic treatments. PMID:26185444

  12. Drug Release Kinetics and Transport Mechanisms of Non-degradable and Degradable Polymeric Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yao; Kao, Weiyuan John

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field The advancement in material design and engineering has led to the rapid development of novel materials with increasing complexity and functions. Both non-degradable and degradable polymers have found wide applications in the controlled delivery field. Studies on drug release kinetics provide important information into the function of material systems. To elucidate the detailed transport mechanism and the structure-function relationship of a material system, it is critical to bridge the gap between the macroscopic data and the transport behavior at the molecular level. Areas covered in this review The structure and function information of selected non-degradable and degradable polymers have been collected and summarized from literatures published after 1990s. The release kinetics of selected drug compounds from various material systems will be discussed in case studies. Recent progresses in the mathematical models based on different transport mechanisms will be highlighted. What the reader will gain This article aims to provide an overview of structure-function relationships of selected non-degradable and degradable polymers as drug delivery matrices. Take home message Understanding the structure-function relationship of the material system is key to the successful design of a delivery system for a particular application. Moreover, developing complex polymeric matrices requires more robust mathematical models to elucidate the solute transport mechanisms. PMID:20331353

  13. Intracellular delivery of peptide cargos using iron oxide based nanoparticles: studies on antitumor efficacy of a BCL-2 converting peptide, NuBCP-9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Manoj; Singh, Gurpal; Sharma, Sapna; Gupta, Dikshi; Bansal, Vivek; Arora, Vikas; Bhat, Madhusudan; Srivastava, Sandeep K.; Sapra, Sameer; Kharbanda, Surender; Dinda, Amit K.; Singh, Harpal

    2014-11-01

    Delivering peptides into cells targeting the undruggable oncoproteins is an emerging area in cancer therapeutics. Here we report a novel nanoparticle-based delivery system that can transport therapeutic cargos to the intracellular sites without the need for a cell transduction or penetration domain (CPP). In the present study, we have used iron oxide nanoparticles to deliver an oncopeptide, NuBCP-9, targeting the BCL-2 BH3 domain. Citric acid/2-bromo 2-methylpropanoic acid (CA/BMPA)-capped SPIONs were used to immobilize and deliver the NuBCP-9 peptide to the cancer cells without any noticeable off-target effects. Our results have demonstrated that NuBCP-9-SPIONs efficiently penetrate into cancer cells and bind to its intracellular target protein BCL-2. Moreover, significant inhibition of proliferation and substantial induction of cell death were observed when cancer cells were treated with NuBCP-9-SPIONs at different time intervals. Importantly, the IC50 values for killing of breast cancer cells with NuBCP-9-SPIONs were much lower compared to cells treated with the NuBCP-9 peptide linked with a CPP (Arg-8; NuBCP-9-R8). Molecular and biochemical analyses further supported that NuBCP-9-SPIONs killed breast cancer cells by apoptosis-mediated mechanisms. Furthermore, our data demonstrated that administration of NuBCP-9-SPIONs to mice bearing Ehrlich ascites tumors (EAT) was associated with loss of tumorigenicity and extensive apoptosis in tumor tissues. Taken together, these findings show that a non-CPP-tagged peptide can be successfully delivered to undruggable intracellular oncotargets using SPIONs.Delivering peptides into cells targeting the undruggable oncoproteins is an emerging area in cancer therapeutics. Here we report a novel nanoparticle-based delivery system that can transport therapeutic cargos to the intracellular sites without the need for a cell transduction or penetration domain (CPP). In the present study, we have used iron oxide nanoparticles to

  14. Kinetics of early TCR signaling regulate the pathway of lytic granule delivery to the secretory domain

    PubMed Central

    Beal, Allison M.; Anikeeva, Nadia; Varma, Rajat; Cameron, Thomas O.; Vasiliver-Shamis, Gaia; Norris, Philip J.; Dustin, Michael L.; Sykulev, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY Cytolytic granule mediated killing of virus-infected cells is an essential function of cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Analysis of lytic granule delivery shows that the granules can take long or short paths to the secretory domain where they are released. Both paths utilize the same intracellular molecular events, which have different spatial and temporal arrangements in each path and are regulated by the kinetics of downstream Ca2+ mediated signaling. Rapid and robust signaling causes swift granule concentration near the MTOC and subsequent delivery by the polarized MTOC directly to the secretory domain - the shortest and fastest path. Indolent signaling leads to late recruitment of granules that move along microtubules to the periphery of the synapse and then move tangentially to fuse at the outer edge of the secretory domain - a longer path. The short pathway is associated with faster granule release and more efficient killing than the long pathway. PMID:19833088

  15. Transdermal Delivery of Iron Using Soluble Microneedles: Dermal Kinetics and Safety.

    PubMed

    Modepalli, Naresh; Shivakumar, H Nanjappa; McCrudden, Maeliosa T C; Donnelly, Ryan F; Banga, Ajay; Murthy, S Narasimha

    2016-03-01

    Currently, the iron compounds are administered via oral and parenteral routes in patients of all ages, to treat iron deficiency. Despite continued efforts to supplement iron via these conventional routes, iron deficiency still remains the most prevalent nutritional disorder all over the world. Transdermal replenishment of iron is a novel, potential approach of iron replenishment. Ferric pyrophosphate (FPP) was found to be a suitable source of iron for transdermal replenishment. The safety of FPP was assessed in this project by challenging the dermal fibroblast cells with high concentration of FPP. The cell viability assay and reactive oxygen species assay were performed. The soluble microneedle array was developed, incorporated with FPP and the kinetics of free iron in the skin; extracellular fluid following dermal administration of microneedle array was investigated in hairless rats. From the cell based assays, FPP was selected as one of the potential iron sources for transdermal delivery. The microneedles were found to dissolve in the skin fluid within 3 hours of administration. The FPP concentration in the dermal extracellular fluid declined after complete dissolution of the microneedle array. Overall, the studies demonstrated the safety of FPP for dermal delivery and the feasibility of soluble microneedle approach for transdermal iron replenishment therapy.

  16. Magnetic glass ceramics for sustained 5-fluorouracil delivery: characterization and evaluation of drug release kinetics.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Hameed, S A M; El-Kady, A M; Marzouk, M A

    2014-11-01

    In the present study, magnetic glass ceramics in the system Fe2O3 ∙ TiO2 ∙ P2O5 ∙ SiO2 ∙ MO (M=Mg, Ca, Mn, Cu, Zn or Ce) are prepared. The effect of adding different cations on the thermal behavior, developed phases, microstructure and magnetic properties is studied using differental thermal analysis (DTA), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM), FT-infrared transmission (FT-IR) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) respectively. The magnetic glass ceramics are tested as delivery systems for 5-fluorouracil. Modeling and analysis of release kinetics are addressed. The application of Higuchi square root of time model and the first order release model indicated that, 5-FU is released by diffusion controlled mechanisms, and that its released rate depends greatly on the concentration of loaded drug during the loading stage. The obtained results suggested that, the prepared magnetic glass ceramics can be used for cancer treatment by hyperthermia and/or by localized delivery of therapeutic doses of 5-fluorouracil.

  17. Controlling hydrogelation kinetics by peptide design for three-dimensional encapsulation and injectable delivery of cells.

    PubMed

    Haines-Butterick, Lisa; Rajagopal, Karthikan; Branco, Monica; Salick, Daphne; Rughani, Ronak; Pilarz, Matthew; Lamm, Matthew S; Pochan, Darrin J; Schneider, Joel P

    2007-05-08

    A peptide-based hydrogelation strategy has been developed that allows homogenous encapsulation and subsequent delivery of C3H10t1/2 mesenchymal stem cells. Structure-based peptide design afforded MAX8, a 20-residue peptide that folds and self-assembles in response to DMEM resulting in mechanically rigid hydrogels. The folding and self-assembly kinetics of MAX8 have been tuned so that when hydrogelation is triggered in the presence of cells, the cells become homogeneously impregnated within the gel. A unique characteristic of these gel-cell constructs is that when an appropriate shear stress is applied, the hydrogel will shear-thin resulting in a low-viscosity gel. However, after the application of shear has stopped, the gel quickly resets and recovers its initial mechanical rigidity in a near quantitative fashion. This property allows gel/cell constructs to be delivered via syringe with precision to target sites. Homogenous cellular distribution and cell viability are unaffected by the shear thinning process and gel/cell constructs stay fixed at the point of introduction, suggesting that these gels may be useful for the delivery of cells to target biological sites in tissue regeneration efforts.

  18. Precise control of the drug kinetics by means of non-invasive magnetic drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuzawa, M.; Mishima, F.; Akiyama, Y.; Nishijima, S.

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the problems of the side effects and medical lowering, has been advanced a study on the drug delivery system (DDS) to accumulate the drugs locally in the body with minimum dosage. The DDS is a system that controls the drug kinetics in the body precisely and accumulates the drug locally at the target part, keeping the drugs at high density. Among the DDS, the magnetic drug delivery system (MDDS) is the one that we studied. This is a technique to accumulate drugs by using the magnetic force as the physical driving force. Our previous researches showed the possibility of the technique of MDDS to accumulate the drugs with higher accumulation rate and locality than the traditional methods. It is necessary to apply a strong external magnetic field and a high magnetic gradient to accumulate the ferromagnetic drugs at a deep diseased part non-invasively. However, by applying a static magnetic field from one direction, the drug accumulates only at the surface of the body locates near the magnet. In this study, we tried to change the magnetic field applied by a superconducting bulk magnet with time, in order to make a constant and strong magnetic field applied in the center of the body and to accumulate the ferromagnetic drugs at the deep target part in the body. First of all, the effect of the surface treatment of the ferromagnetic drugs to prevent its absorption in the normal tissue was examined. Then, to increase the accumulation rate of the ferromagnetic drugs at the target part, the distribution of magnetic field was changed, and the optimum spatial and temporal conditions of magnetic field were examined.

  19. Cardiac output, O2 delivery and VO2 kinetics during step exercise in acute normobaric hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Lador, Frédéric; Tam, Enrico; Adami, Alessandra; Kenfack, Marcel Azabji; Bringard, Aurélien; Cautero, Michela; Moia, Christian; Morel, Denis R; Capelli, Carlo; Ferretti, Guido

    2013-04-01

    We hypothesised that phase II time constant (τ2) of alveolar O2 uptake ( [Formula: see text] ) is longer in hypoxia than in normoxia as a consequence of a parallel deceleration of the kinetics of O2 delivery ( [Formula: see text] ). To test this hypothesis, breath-by-breath [Formula: see text] and beat-by-beat [Formula: see text] were measured in eight male subjects (25.4±3.4yy, 1.81±0.05m, 78.8±5.7kg) at the onset of cycling exercise (100W) in normoxia and acute hypoxia ( [Formula: see text] ). Blood lactate ([La]b) accumulation during the exercise transient was also measured. The τ2 for [Formula: see text] was shorter than that for [Formula: see text] in normoxia (8.3±6.8s versus 17.8±3.1s), but not in hypoxia (31.5±21.7s versus 28.4 5.4±5.4s). [La]b was increased in the exercise transient in hypoxia (3.0±0.5mM at exercise versus 1.7±0.2mM at rest), but not in normoxia. We conclude that the slowing down of the [Formula: see text] kinetics generated the longer τ2 for [Formula: see text] in hypoxia, with consequent contribution of anaerobic lactic metabolism to the energy balance in exercise transient, witnessed by the increase in [La]b.

  20. 46 CFR 154.534 - Cargo pumps and cargo compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. 154.534 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.534 Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. Cargo pumps...

  1. 46 CFR 154.534 - Cargo pumps and cargo compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. 154.534 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.534 Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. Cargo pumps...

  2. 46 CFR 154.534 - Cargo pumps and cargo compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. 154.534 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.534 Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. Cargo pumps...

  3. 46 CFR 154.534 - Cargo pumps and cargo compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. 154.534 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.534 Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. Cargo pumps...

  4. 46 CFR 154.534 - Cargo pumps and cargo compressors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. 154.534 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo and Process Piping Systems § 154.534 Cargo pumps and cargo compressors. Cargo pumps...

  5. Air Cargo Marketing Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kersey, J. W.

    1972-01-01

    The factors involved in developing a market for air cargo services are discussed. A comparison is made between the passenger traffic problems and those of cargo traffic. Emphasis is placed on distribution analyses which isolates total distribution cost, including logistical costs such as transportation, inventory, materials handling, packaging, and processing. Specific examples of methods for reducing air cargo costs are presented.

  6. Controlled release delivery of penciclovir via a silicone (MED-4750) polymer: kinetics of drug delivery and efficacy in preventing primary feline herpesvirus infection in culture

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Herpesviruses are ubiquitous pathogens that infect and cause recurrent disease in multiple animal species. Feline herpesvirus-1 (FHV-1), a member of the alphaherpesvirus family, causes respiratory illness and conjunctivitis, and approximately 80% of domestic cats are latently infected. Oral administration of famciclovir or topical application of cidofovir has been shown in masked, placebo-controlled prospective trials to reduce clinical signs and viral shedding in experimentally inoculated cats. However, to the authors’ knowledge, other drugs have not been similarly assessed or were not safe or effective. Likewise, to our knowledge, no drugs have been assessed in a placebo-controlled manner in cats with recrudescent herpetic disease. Controlled-release devices would permit long-term administration of these drugs and enhance compliance. Methods We therefore engineered implantable cylindrical devices made from silicone (MED-4750) impregnated with penciclovir, for long-term, steady-state delivery of this drug. Results Our data show that these devices release penciclovir with a burst of drug delivery until the tenth day of release, then at an average rate of 5.063 ± 1.704 μg per day through the next 50 days with near zero-order kinetics (in comparison to MED-4750-acyclovir devices, which show the same burst kinetics and average 2.236 ± 0.625 μg/day thereafter). Furthermore, these devices suppress primary infection of FHV-1 in a cell culture system. Conclusions The clinical deployment of these silicone-penciclovir devices may allow long-term treatment of FHV-1 infection with a single intervention that could last the life of the host cat. PMID:24558980

  7. Novel polymeric nanoparticles for intracellular delivery of peptide cargos: antitumor efficacy of the Bcl-2 conversion peptide NuBCP-9

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Gupta, Dikshi; Singh, Gurpal; Sharma, Sapna; Bhatt, Madhusudan; Prashant, C.K.; Dinda, A.K.; Kharbanda, Surender; Kufe, Donald; Singh, Harpal

    2014-01-01

    The preclinical development of peptidyl drugs for cancer treatment is hampered by their poor pharmacological properties and cell penetrative capabilities in vivo. In this study, we report a nanoparticle-based formulation that overcomes these limitations, illustrating their utility in studies of the anti-cancer peptide NuBCP-9 which converts BCL-2 from a cell protector to a cell killer. NuBCP-9 was encapsulated in polymeric nanoparticles (NPs) comprised of a polyethylene glycol (PEG)-modified polylactic acid diblock copolymer (NuBCP-9/PLA-PEG), or PEG-polypropylene glycol-PEG-modified PLA - tetrablock copolymer (NuBCP-9/PLA-PEG-PPG-PEG). We found that peptide encapsulation was enhanced by increasing the PEG chain length in the block copolymers. NuBCP-9 release from the NPs was controlled by both PEG chain length and the PLA molecular weight, permitting time-release over sustained periods. Treatment of human cancer cells with these NPs in vitro triggered apoptosis by NuBCP-9-mediated mechanism, with a potency similar to NuBCP-9 linked to a cell-penetrating poly-Arg peptide. Strikingly, in vivo administration of NuBCP-9/NPs triggered complete regressions in the Ehrlich syngeneic mouse model of solid tumor. Our results illustrate an effective method for sustained delivery of anticancer peptides, highlighting the superior qualities of the novel PLA-PEG-PPG-PEG tetrablock copolymer formulation as a tool to target intracellular proteins. PMID:24741005

  8. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Broyan, James; Baccus, Shelley

    2014-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) have been designed such that they can serve the same purpose as a Cargo Transfer Bag, the suitcase-shaped common logistics carrying bag for Shuttle and the International Space Station. After use as a cargo carrier, a regular CTB becomes trash, whereas the MCTB can be unzipped, unsnapped, and unfolded to be reused. Reuse ideas that have been investigated include partitions, crew quarters, solar radiation storm shelters, acoustic blankets, and forward osmosis water processing.

  9. Distinguishing the effects of convective and diffusive O2 delivery on V̇o2 on-kinetics in skeletal muscle contracting at moderate intensity

    PubMed Central

    Spires, Jessica; Gladden, L. Bruce; Grassi, Bruno; Goodwin, Matthew L.; Saidel, Gerald M.

    2013-01-01

    With current techniques, experimental measurements alone cannot characterize the effects of oxygen blood-tissue diffusion on muscle oxygen uptake (V̇o2) kinetics in contracting skeletal muscle. To complement experimental studies, a computational model is used to quantitatively distinguish the contributions of convective oxygen delivery, diffusion into cells, and oxygen utilization to V̇o2 kinetics. The model is validated using previously published experimental V̇o2 kinetics in response to slowed blood flow (Q) on-kinetics in canine muscle (τQ = 20 s, 46 s, and 64 s) [Goodwin ML, Hernández A, Lai N, Cabrera ME, Gladden LB. J Appl Physiol. 112:9–19, 2012]. Distinctive effects of permeability-surface area or diffusive conductance (PS) and Q on V̇o2 kinetics are investigated. Model simulations quantify the relationship between PS and Q, as well as the effects of diffusion associated with PS and Q dynamics on the mean response time of V̇o2. The model indicates that PS and Q are linearly related and that PS increases more with Q when convective delivery is limited by slower Q dynamics. Simulations predict that neither oxygen convective nor diffusive delivery are limiting V̇o2 kinetics in the isolated canine gastrocnemius preparation under normal spontaneous conditions during transitions from rest to moderate (submaximal) energy demand, although both operate close to the tipping point. PMID:23761640

  10. Vesicular Glutamate Transporter 1 Orchestrates Recruitment of Other Synaptic Vesicle Cargo Proteins during Synaptic Vesicle Recycling*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Ping-Yue; Marrs, Julia; Ryan, Timothy A.

    2015-01-01

    A long standing question in synaptic physiology is how neurotransmitter-filled vesicles are rebuilt after exocytosis. Among the first steps in this process is the endocytic retrieval of the transmembrane proteins that are enriched in synaptic vesicles (SVs). At least six types of transmembrane proteins must be recovered, but the rules for how this multiple cargo selection is accomplished are poorly understood. Among these SV cargos is the vesicular glutamate transporter (vGlut). We show here that vGlut1 has a strong influence on the kinetics of retrieval of half of the known SV cargos and that specifically impairing the endocytosis of vGlut1 in turn slows down other SV cargos, demonstrating that cargo retrieval is a collective cargo-driven process. Finally, we demonstrate that different cargos can be retrieved in the same synapse with different kinetics, suggesting that additional post-endocytic sorting steps likely occur in the nerve terminal. PMID:26224632

  11. Controlled delivery of nanosuspensions from osmotic pumps: zero order and non-zero order kinetics.

    PubMed

    Hill, Alexandra; Geissler, Simon; Weigandt, Markus; Mäder, Karsten

    2012-03-28

    Nanosuspensions have gained great interest in the last decade as a formulation tool for poorly soluble drugs. By decreasing particle sizes nanosuspensions enhance dissolution rate and bioavailability of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. Micro-osmotic pumps are widely used in experimental pharmacology and offer a tool of interest for the sustained release of nanosuspensions via the intraperitoneal or subcutaneous application site. The purpose of the present study was to investigate in-vitro the influence of (1) nanosuspension viscosity, (2) pump orifice position and (3) formulation osmolality on the delivery behavior of formulations in implantable osmotic systems. Therefore fenofibrate nanosuspension, methylene blue and fluorescein sodium solutions were chosen as model formulations. They were released in water or isotonic saline solution and drug/dye concentrations were determined by HPLC/UV. Release of nanosuspension particles in low viscous formulations resulted in a burst whereas increasing the viscosity led to the expected zero order delivery. Pumps with upward-positioned orifices released the nanosuspension in a zero order manner. Within the release of dyes, constant delivery could be ensured up to an osmolality of 486 mO sm/kg; above this value premature release of formulation was observed. The results indicate the requirement of in-vitro experiments prior to in-vivo animal testing for determining the release profiles of osmotic pumps.

  12. Impact of emulsion-based drug delivery systems on intestinal permeability and drug release kinetics.

    PubMed

    Buyukozturk, Fulden; Benneyan, James C; Carrier, Rebecca L

    2010-02-25

    Lipid based drug delivery systems, and in particular self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS), show great potential for enhancing oral bioavailability but have not been broadly applied, largely due to lack of general formulation guidance. To help understand how formulation design influences physicochemical emulsion properties and associated function in the gastrointestinal environment, a range of twenty-seven representative self-emulsifying formulations were investigated. Two key functions of emulsion-based drug delivery systems, permeability enhancement and drug release, were studied and statistically related to three formulation properties - oil structure, surfactant hydrophilic liphophilic balance (HLB) values, and surfactant-to-oil ratio. Three surfactants with HLB values ranging from 10 to 15 and three structurally different oils (long chain triglyceride, medium chain triglyceride, and propylene glycol dicaprylate/dicaprate) were combined at three different weight ratios (1:1, 5:1, 9:1). Unstable formulations of low HLB surfactant (HLB=10) had a toxic effect on cells at high (1:1) surfactant concentrations, indicating the importance of formulation stability for minimizing toxicity. Results also indicate that high HLB surfactant (Tween 80) loosens tight junction at high (1:1) surfactant concentrations. Release coefficients for each emulsion system were calculated. Incorporation of a long chain triglyceride (Soybean oil) as the oil phase increased the drug release rate constant. These results help establish an initial foundation for relating emulsion function to formulation design and enabling bioavailability optimization across a broad, representative range of SEDDS formulations.

  13. Military Air Cargo Containerization.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 : ."•" ’* ■- ’ DEPARTMENT OF...Approved to public release; Distribution UnHmlted ? DTIC QUALITY INSPECTED 1 AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 MILITARY AIR CARGO CONTAINERIZATION GRADUATE RESEARCH...PAPER Joseph W. Mancy, Major, USAF AFIT/ GMO /LAL/96J-4 19960617 134 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited The views expressed in this

  14. Role of non-covalent and covalent interactions in cargo loading capacity and stability of polymeric micelles.

    PubMed

    Ke, Xiyu; Ng, Victor Wee Lin; Ono, Robert J; Chan, Julian M W; Krishnamurthy, Sangeetha; Wang, Ying; Hedrick, James L; Yang, Yi Yan

    2014-11-10

    Polymeric micelles self-assembled from biodegradable amphiphilic block copolymers have been proven to be effective drug delivery carriers that reduce the toxicity and enhance the therapeutic efficacy of free drugs. Several reviews have been reported in the literature to discuss the importance of size/size distribution, stability and drug loading capacity of polymeric micelles for successful in vivo drug delivery. This review is focused on non-covalent and covalent interactions that are employed to enhance cargo loading capacity and in vivo stability, and to achieve nanosize with narrow size distribution. In particular, this review analyzes various non-covalent and covalent interactions and chemistry applied to introduce these interactions to the micellar drug delivery systems, as well as the effects of these interactions on micelle stability, drug loading capacity and release kinetics. Moreover, the factors that influence these interactions and the future research directions of polymeric micelles are discussed.

  15. Nanotechnology in oncology: Characterization and in vitro release kinetics of cisplatin-loaded albumin nanoparticles: Implications in anticancer drug delivery

    PubMed Central

    Das, Saikat; Jagan, Lavanya; Isiah, Rajesh; Rajesh, B.; Backianathan, Selvamani; Subhashini, J.

    2011-01-01

    Context: Nanotechnology is an empowering technology that holds promise in cancer therapeutics by increasing the ratio of tumor control probability to normal tissue complication probability. It can increase the bioavailability of the drug at the target site, reduce the frequency of administration and reach otherwise lesser-accessible sites. The present study shows the feasibility of the cisplatin-loaded albumin nanoparticle as a sustained delivery system. Aims: Cisplatin is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of malignant disorders. Conventional cisplatin formulation given as intravenous infusion has low bioavailability to the target organ in addition to significant side-effects, like ototoxicity and nephrotoxicity. The aim of this study was to develop a protein-based nanoparticulate system for sustained release of cisplatin. Materials and Methods: Nanoparticles were prepared by the coacervaton method of microcapsulation and chemical cross-linking with glutaraldehyde. Particle size was characterized by dynamic light scattering and transmission electron microscopy. Results and Conclusions: Using the coacervation method, nanoparticles of less than 70 nm diameter were produced. Drug encapsulation measured by ultraviolet spectroscopy varied from 30% to 80% for different ratios of cisplatin and protein. In vitro release kinetics shows that the nanoparticle-based formulation has biphasic release kinetics and is capable of sustained release compared with the free drug (80% release in 45 h). The study proves the feasibility of the albumin-based cisplatin nanoparticle formulation as a sustained release vehicle of cisplatin. PMID:21844995

  16. Thermodynamic and Kinetic Aspects Involved in the Development of Nanocarriers and Drug Delivery Systems Based on Cationic Biopolymers.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Ismael D; Alasino, Roxana V; Leonhard, Victoria; Beltramo, Dante M

    2016-01-01

    During the last years we have seen an increasing number of reports describing new properties and potential applications of cationic polymers and derived nanostructures. This review gives a summary of their applications in drug delivery, the preparation methods for nano and microstructures and will attempt to give a glimpse on how their structure, chemical composition and properties may be affected or modulated as to make them suitable for an intended application as drug delivery nanocarriers. The compositional complexity with the existence of several reacting groups makes cationic nanostructures critically sensitive to the contribution of thermodynamic and kinetic parameters in the determination of the type and stability of a particular structure and its ability to respond to changes in environmental conditions in the right time frame. Curiously, and contrarily to what could be expected, despite the fact that cationic polymers can form strong electrostatic interactions the contribution of the entropic component has been often found to be very important for their association with negatively charged supramolecular structures. Some general considerations indicate that when considering a complex multimolecular system like a nanocarrier containing an active ingredient it is frequently possible to find conditions under which enthalpic and entropic contributions are compensated leading to stable structures with a marginal thermodynamic stability (free energy change close to zero) which make them able to respond relatively fast to changes in the environmental conditions and therefore suitable for the design of smart drug delivery systems. Like with other nanocarriers, it should always be kept in mind that the properties of cationic nanocarriers will depend not only on their chemical composition but also on the properties of the structures formed by them.

  17. Effects of protein molecular weight on the intrinsic material properties and release kinetics of wet spun polymeric microfiber delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Danya M; Zhang, Linda; Furtado, Stacia; Hopkins, Richard A; Mathiowitz, Edith

    2013-01-01

    Wet spun microfibers have great potential for the design of multifunctional controlled release scaffolds. Understanding aspects of drug delivery and mechanical strength, specific to protein molecular weight, may aid in the optimization and development of wet spun fiber platforms. This study investigated the intrinsic material properties and release kinetics of poly(l-lactic acid) (PLLA) and poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) wet spun microfibers encapsulating proteins with varying molecular weights. A cryogenic emulsion technique developed in our laboratory was used to encapsulate insulin (5.8 kDa), lysozyme (14.3 kDa) and bovine serum albumin (BSA, 66.0 kDa) within wet spun microfibers (~100 μm). Protein loading was found to significantly influence mechanical strength and drug release kinetics of PLGA and PLLA microfibers in a molecular-weight-dependent manner. BSA encapsulation resulted in the most significant decrease in strength and ductility for both PLGA and PLLA microfibers. Interestingly, BSA-loaded PLGA microfibers had a twofold increase (8±2 MPa to 16±1 MPa) in tensile strength and a fourfold increase (3±1% to 12±6%) in elongation until failure in comparison to PLLA microfibers. PLGA and PLLA microfibers exhibited prolonged protein release up to 63 days in vitro. Further analysis with the Korsmeyer-Peppas kinetic model determined that the mechanism of protein release was dependent on Fickian diffusion. These results emphasize the critical role protein molecular weight has on the properties of wet spun filaments, highlighting the importance of designing small molecular analogues to replace growth factors with large molecular weights.

  18. Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Thomas A

    2013-01-01

    Enthusiasm greeted the development of synthetic organic insecticides in the mid-twentieth century, only to see this give way to dismay and eventually scepticism and outright opposition by some. Regardless of how anyone feels about this issue, insecticides and other pesticides have become indispensable, which creates something of a dilemma. Possibly as a result of the shift in public attitude towards insecticides, genetic engineering of microbes was first met with scepticism and caution among scientists. Later, the development of genetically modified crop plants was met with an attitude that hardened into both acceptance and hard-core resistance. Transgenic insects, which came along at the dawn of the twenty-first century, encountered an entrenched opposition. Those of us responsible for studying the protection of crops have been affected more or less by these protagonist and antagonistic positions, and the experiences have often left one thoughtfully mystified as decisions are made by non-participants. Most of the issues boil down to concerns over delivery mechanisms. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry PMID:23852646

  19. Bacterial Growth Kinetics under a Novel Flexible Methacrylate Dressing Serving as a Drug Delivery Vehicle for Antiseptics

    PubMed Central

    Forstner, Christina; Leitgeb, Johannes; Schuster, Rupert; Dosch, Verena; Kramer, Axel; Cutting, Keith F.; Leaper, David J.; Assadian, Ojan

    2013-01-01

    A flexible methacrylate powder dressing (Altrazeal®) transforms into a wound contour conforming matrix once in contact with wound exudate. We hypothesised that it may also serve as a drug delivery vehicle for antiseptics. The antimicrobial efficacy and influence on bacterial growth kinetics in combination with three antiseptics was investigated in an in vitro porcine wound model. Standardized in vitro wounds were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA; ATCC 33591) and divided into six groups: no dressing (negative control), methacrylate dressing alone, and combinations with application of 0.02% Polyhexamethylene Biguanide (PHMB), 0.4% PHMB, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine, 7.7 mg/mL Povidone-iodine (PVP-iodine), and 0.1% Octenidine-dihydrochloride (OCT) + 2% phenoxyethanol. Bacterial load per gram tissue was measured over five days. The highest reduction was observed with PVP-iodine at 24 h to log10 1.43 cfu/g, followed by OCT at 48 h to log10 2.41 cfu/g. Whilst 0.02% PHMB resulted in a stable bacterial load over 120 h to log10 4.00 cfu/g over 120 h, 0.1% PHMB + 0.1% betaine inhibited growth during the first 48 h, with slightly increasing bacterial numbers up to log10 5.38 cfu/g at 120 h. These results indicate that this flexible methacrylate dressing can be loaded with various antiseptics serving as drug delivery system. Depending on the selected combination, an individually shaped and controlled antibacterial effect may be achieved using the same type of wound dressing. PMID:23698780

  20. Nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide layers as potential drug delivery systems: Drug release kinetics and mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Magdalena; Pawlik, Anna; Szuwarzyński, Michał; Jaskuła, Marian; Sulka, Grzegorz D

    2016-07-01

    Nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide (ATO) layers on Ti foil were prepared via a three step anodization process in an electrolyte based on an ethylene glycol solution with fluoride ions. Some of the ATO samples were heat-treated in order to achieve two different crystallographic structures - anatase (400°C) and a mixture of anatase and rutile (600°C). The structural and morphological characterizations of ATO layers were performed using a field emission scanning electron microscope (SEM). The hydrophilicity of ATO layers was determined with contact angle measurements using distilled water. Ibuprofen and gentamicin were loaded effectively inside the ATO nanopores. Afterwards, an in vitro drug release was conducted for 24h under a static and dynamic flow conditions in a phosphate buffer solution at 37°C. The drug concentrations were determined using UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The absorbance of ibuprofen was measured directly at 222nm, whether gentamicin was determined as a complex with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) at 394nm. Both compounds exhibited long term release profiles, despite the ATO structure. A new release model, based on the desorption of the drug from the ATO top surface followed by the desorption and diffusion of the drug from the nanopores, was derived. The proposed release model was fitted to the experimental drug release profiles, and kinetic parameters were calculated.

  1. Stochastic Movement of Multiple Motor Transported Cargo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, David; Gopinathan, Ajay; Xu, Jing

    2015-03-01

    Experimental observations of cargo position during transport by multiple motors are determined by several coupled stochastic processes. During collective transport, each motor can transition between multiple kinetic states, with the state of each motor influencing the states of the others via mechanical coupling through a common cargo. We measured the motion of a micron sized bead as it is transported by two kinesin motors along a single microtubule track, focusing on cargo displacements which are both axial and transverse to the microtubule. We model the effects of inter-motor interference and the state of each motor throughout time, and back out motor properties using a systematic comparison of experimental observations with simulated model traces over a wide parameter space. Our model captures a surface-associated mode of kinesin, which is only accessible via inter-motor interference in groups, in which kinesin diffuses along the microtubule surface and rapidly ``hops'' between protofilaments without dissociating from the microtubule. This enhances local exploration of the microtubule surface, possibly enabling cellular cargos to overcome macromolecular crowding and to navigate obstacles along micro- tubule tracks without sacrificing overall travel distance.

  2. Long-range cargo transport on crowded microtubules: The motor jamming mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Lucas W.; Radtke, Paul K.; Goldman, Carla

    2014-05-01

    The hopping model for cargo transport by molecular motors introduced in Goldman and Sena (2009), Goldman (2010) is extended here in order to incorporate the movement of cargo-motor complexes (C-MC). Hopping processes in this context express the possibility for cargo to be exchanged between neighboring motors at a microtubule where the transport takes place. Jamming of motors is essential for cargos to execute long-range movement in this way. Results from computer simulations accompanied by a mean-field analysis of the extended model confirm our previous analytical results and suggests that an interplay between cargo hopping and the movement of the C-MC’s would control the efficiency of cargo transfer and cargo delivery in these model systems.

  3. Polycaprolactone/maltodextrin nanocarrier for intracellular drug delivery: formulation, uptake mechanism, internalization kinetics, and subcellular localization

    PubMed Central

    Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Gorantla, Yamini; Paulos, Simon A; Sharma, Pankaj; Chaudhary, Jaideep; Palaniappan, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) disease progression is associated with significant changes in intracellular and extracellular proteins, intracellular signaling mechanism, and cancer cell phenotype. These changes may have direct impact on the cellular interactions with nanocarriers; hence, there is the need for a much-detailed understanding, as nanocarrier cellular internalization and intracellular sorting mechanism correlate directly with bioavailability and clinical efficacy. In this study, we report the differences in the rate and mechanism of cellular internalization of a biocompatible polycaprolactone (PCL)/maltodextrin (MD) nanocarrier system for intracellular drug delivery in LNCaP, PC3, and DU145 PCa cell lines. PCL/MD nanocarriers were designed and characterized. PCL/MD nanocarriers significantly increased the intracellular concentration of coumarin-6 and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, a model hydrophobic and large molecule, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis revealed rapid internalization of the nanocarrier. The extent of nanocarrier cellular internalization correlated directly with cell line aggressiveness. PCL/MD internalization was highest in PC3 followed by DU145 and LNCaP, respectively. Uptake in all PCa cell lines was metabolically dependent. Extraction of endogenous cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced uptake by 75%±4.53% in PC3, 64%±6.01% in LNCaP, and 50%±4.50% in DU145, indicating the involvement of endogenous cholesterol in cellular internalization. Internalization of the nanocarrier in LNCaP was mediated mainly by macropinocytosis and clathrin-independent pathways, while internalization in PC3 and DU145 involved clathrin-mediated endocytosis, clathrin-independent pathways, and macropinocytosis. Fluorescence microscopy showed a very diffused and non-compartmentalized subcellular localization of the PCL/MD nanocarriers with possible intranuclear localization and minor colocalization in

  4. Polycaprolactone/maltodextrin nanocarrier for intracellular drug delivery: formulation, uptake mechanism, internalization kinetics, and subcellular localization.

    PubMed

    Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Gorantla, Yamini; Paulos, Simon A; Sharma, Pankaj; Chaudhary, Jaideep; Palaniappan, Ravi

    2015-01-01

    Prostate cancer (PCa) disease progression is associated with significant changes in intracellular and extracellular proteins, intracellular signaling mechanism, and cancer cell phenotype. These changes may have direct impact on the cellular interactions with nanocarriers; hence, there is the need for a much-detailed understanding, as nanocarrier cellular internalization and intracellular sorting mechanism correlate directly with bioavailability and clinical efficacy. In this study, we report the differences in the rate and mechanism of cellular internalization of a biocompatible polycaprolactone (PCL)/maltodextrin (MD) nanocarrier system for intracellular drug delivery in LNCaP, PC3, and DU145 PCa cell lines. PCL/MD nanocarriers were designed and characterized. PCL/MD nanocarriers significantly increased the intracellular concentration of coumarin-6 and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin, a model hydrophobic and large molecule, respectively. Fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis revealed rapid internalization of the nanocarrier. The extent of nanocarrier cellular internalization correlated directly with cell line aggressiveness. PCL/MD internalization was highest in PC3 followed by DU145 and LNCaP, respectively. Uptake in all PCa cell lines was metabolically dependent. Extraction of endogenous cholesterol by methyl-β-cyclodextrin reduced uptake by 75%±4.53% in PC3, 64%±6.01% in LNCaP, and 50%±4.50% in DU145, indicating the involvement of endogenous cholesterol in cellular internalization. Internalization of the nanocarrier in LNCaP was mediated mainly by macropinocytosis and clathrin-independent pathways, while internalization in PC3 and DU145 involved clathrin-mediated endocytosis, clathrin-independent pathways, and macropinocytosis. Fluorescence microscopy showed a very diffused and non-compartmentalized subcellular localization of the PCL/MD nanocarriers with possible intranuclear localization and minor colocalization in

  5. 46 CFR 111.106-13 - Cargo handling devices or cargo pump rooms handling flammable or combustible cargoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo handling devices or cargo pump rooms handling... OSVs § 111.106-13 Cargo handling devices or cargo pump rooms handling flammable or combustible cargoes... classification of such areas. (c) Cargo pump rooms must be isolated from all sources of vapor ignition...

  6. 22 CFR 228.55 - Delivery services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Delivery services. 228.55 Section 228.55... COMMODITIES AND SERVICES FINANCED BY USAID Waivers § 228.55 Delivery services. (a) Ocean transportation. A... case of bulk cargoes and large cargoes carried by liners; (2) Eligible vessels provide liner...

  7. CargoTIPS: an innovative approach to combating cargo theft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toth, Gail E.

    1998-12-01

    Cargo theft has been estimated by the Federal Bureau o Investigations to be 6 billion annually, while others believe it to be more than 10 billion annually. Opportunistic thieves, street gangs, traditional organized crime groups, and new organized crime groups have been targeting cargo. They steal from warehouses, terminals, equipment, truck stops, or any place where freight comes to a rest. With zero inventory levels, our trailers have become virtual warehouses on wheels and easy targets for thieves. Without information and communication cargo thieves can thrive. The industry and law enforcement are forced into being reactive instead of developing proactive policies and procedures. Cargo thieves cross town lines, county lines, state lines and country borders. This makes communication within the law enforcement community imperative. CargoTIPS (cargo theft information processing system) was developed in response to the need for cargo theft information. The system allows us to collect cargo theft statistics to analyze the problem, assess the threat and develop a response on a national level. CargoTIPS includes a bulletin board, which allows users to communicate with each other, pass on alerts or seek information. The system is also used as an investigative tool. CargoTIPS can identify the mode of transportation (truck, small parcel, air, rail or ocean). It was designed to take in international data. Currently the system has identified that food products are the number one targeted commodity, followed by electronic products and third, computers and computer parts.

  8. The Cargo Transfer Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rourke, K. H.

    1992-03-01

    NASA's Cargo Transfer Vehicle is a key element of the National Launch System currently under definition by a joint USAF and NASA development program. The CTV reference mission and configuration are described. Key mission and system requirements are analyzed and summarized including CTV electrical power and energy, main engine thrust, RCS configurations. Methods of control system validation using full 6DoF simulations are presented.

  9. Acoustic Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bag

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baccus, Shelley

    2015-01-01

    The Logistics Reduction (LR) project within the Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) program is tasked with reducing logistical mass and repurposing logistical items. Multipurpose Cargo Transfer Bags (MCTB) are designed to be the same external volume as a regular cargo transfer bag, the common logistics carrier for the International Space Station. After use as a cargo bag, the MCTB can be unzipped and unfolded to be reused. This Acoustic MCTBs transform into acoustic blankets after the initial logistics carrying objective is complete.

  10. Audible Noise Design of ISS Cargo Module "Cygnus"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Destefanis, Stefano; Paron, Alberto; Bandini, Flavio

    2014-06-01

    Orbital developed the Cygnus advanced manoeuvring spacecraft to demonstrate cargo delivery services under a NASA Commercial Orbital Transportation Services (COTS) Space Act Agreement.In addition to the COTS development and demonstration program, Orbital will utilize Cygnus to perform ISS resupply flights under the Commercial Resupply Service (CRS) contract.Starting in January 2014 Orbital launched its first of eight missions to deliver approximately 20,000 kilograms of cargo to the ISS (International Space Station). Cygnus will carry crew supplies, spares and scientific experiments to the ISS.Cygnus consists of a common service module and a pressurized cargo module. The pressurized cargo module is based on the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module (MPLM), developed by Thales Alenia Space for NASA. Since Cygnus pressurized cargo module will host astronauts performing daily tasks, it is required to be compliant with NASA guidelines related to acoustic comfort (working areas noise not to exceed NC-50 requirement) and safety (caution and warning alarms audibility).The main source of noise inside Cygnus is the ventilation fan, which happens to be the same model already installed on the ATV (Automated Transfer Vehicle) cargo module: however, the strategy adopted to limit its acoustic disturbance had to be differently tailored.This paper presents the activities (assumptions, design, characterization, testing) that led to define the type of noise control devices used on Cygnus, up to its first successful flight (module labelled "PCM0") to the ISS, where it reached 2nd place in the "quietest visiting modules" ranking.

  11. External tank aft cargo carrier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mobley, T. B.

    1984-01-01

    The External Tank (ET) Aft Cargo Carrier (ACC) is a low cost, low risk augmentation of the Space Transportation System (STS). It almost doubles the cargo volume of the STS while minimally impacting other STS elements (orbiter, ET and solid rocket boosters SRBs, launch facilities and STS operations. In addition to increasing the potential volume of cargo carried on a Shuttle launch, the ACC provides the following additional benefits: (1) Increased STS competitiveness for payloads; (2) Increased cargo manifest flexibility; (3) Increased spacecraft design options; (4) Alternate manifesting for special payloads; and (5) Future space platform/station design options.

  12. Multiscale Kinetic Modeling of Liposomal Doxorubicin Delivery Quantifies the Role of Tumor and Drug-Specific Parameters in Local Delivery to Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, B S; Reynolds, J G; Klinz, S G; Geretti, E; Lee, H; Leonard, S C; Gaddy, D F; Espelin, C W; Nielsen, U B; Wickham, T J

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticle encapsulation has been used as a means to manipulate the pharmacokinetic (PK) and safety profile of drugs in oncology. Using pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) vs. conventional doxorubicin as a model system, we developed and experimentally validated a multiscale computational model of liposomal drug delivery. We demonstrated that, for varying tumor transport properties, there is a regimen where liposomal and conventional doxorubicin deliver identical amounts of doxorubicin to tumor cell nuclei. In mice, typical tumor properties consistently favor improved delivery via liposomes relative to free drug. However, in humans, we predict that some tumors will have properties wherein liposomal delivery delivers the identical amount of drug to its target relative to dosing with free drug. The ability to identify tumor types and/or individual patient tumors with high degree of liposome deposition may be critical for optimizing the success of nanoparticle and liposomal anticancer therapeutics. PMID:23835797

  13. GNeosomes: Highly Lysosomotropic Nanoassemblies for Lysosomal Delivery.

    PubMed

    Wexselblatt, Ezequiel; Esko, Jeffrey D; Tor, Yitzhak

    2015-01-01

    GNeosomes, lysosomotropic lipid vesicles decorated with guanidinoneomycin, can encapsulate and facilitate the cellular internalization and lysosomal delivery of cargo ranging from small molecules to high molecular weight proteins, in a process that is exclusively dependent on cell surface glycosaminoglycans. Their cellular uptake mechanism and co-localization with lysosomes, as well as the delivery, release, and activity of internalized cargo, are quantified. GNeosomes are proposed as a universal platform for lysosomal delivery with potential as a basic research tool and a therapeutic vehicle.

  14. 46 CFR 154.315 - Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. 154.315 Section... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.315 Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. (a) Cargo pump rooms and...

  15. 46 CFR 154.315 - Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. 154.315 Section... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.315 Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. (a) Cargo pump rooms and...

  16. 46 CFR 154.315 - Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. 154.315 Section... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.315 Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. (a) Cargo pump rooms and...

  17. 46 CFR 154.315 - Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. 154.315 Section... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.315 Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. (a) Cargo pump rooms and...

  18. 46 CFR 154.315 - Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. 154.315 Section... CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Ship Arrangements § 154.315 Cargo pump and cargo compressor rooms. (a) Cargo pump rooms and...

  19. Optimizing an undulating magnetic microswimmer for cargo towing.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Emiliya; Or, Yizhar

    2016-06-01

    One of the promising capabilities of magnetic microswimmers is towing a cargo, which can be used for targeted drug delivery or performing tissue biopsy. A key question is what should be the optimal size ratio between the cargo and the swimmer's flexible tail. This question is addressed here for the simplest theoretical model of a magnetic microswimmer undergoing planar undulations-a spherical load connected by a torsion spring to a rigid slender link. The swimmer's dynamic is formulated and leading-order expressions for its motion are obtained explicitly under small-amplitude approximation. Optimal combinations of magnetic actuation frequency, torsion stiffness, and tail length for maximizing displacement, average speed, or energetic efficiency are obtained. The theoretical results are compared with reported experiments in several types of cargo-towing magnetic microswimmers.

  20. Optimizing an undulating magnetic microswimmer for cargo towing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutman, Emiliya; Or, Yizhar

    2016-06-01

    One of the promising capabilities of magnetic microswimmers is towing a cargo, which can be used for targeted drug delivery or performing tissue biopsy. A key question is what should be the optimal size ratio between the cargo and the swimmer's flexible tail. This question is addressed here for the simplest theoretical model of a magnetic microswimmer undergoing planar undulations—a spherical load connected by a torsion spring to a rigid slender link. The swimmer's dynamic is formulated and leading-order expressions for its motion are obtained explicitly under small-amplitude approximation. Optimal combinations of magnetic actuation frequency, torsion stiffness, and tail length for maximizing displacement, average speed, or energetic efficiency are obtained. The theoretical results are compared with reported experiments in several types of cargo-towing magnetic microswimmers.

  1. Cargo-cult training

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magueijo, João

    2009-12-01

    Richard Feynman, in one of his famous rants, evoked as a metaphor what he called "cargo-cult science". During the Second World War, the indigenous people of the South Pacific became accustomed to US Air Force planes landing on their islands, invariably bringing a profusion of desirable goods and tasty foods. When the war ended, they were distressed by the discontinuation of this popular service. So, they decided to take action. They cleared elongated patches of land to make them look like runways. They lit wood fires where they had seen electric floodlights guiding in the planes. They built a wooden shack and made a man sit inside with two halves of a coconut on each ear and bamboo bars sticking out like antennas: he was the "air controller". And they waited for the planes to return.

  2. Vacuolar Transport in Tobacco Leaf Epidermis Cells Involves a Single Route for Soluble Cargo and Multiple Routes for Membrane Cargo[W

    PubMed Central

    Bottanelli, Francesca; Foresti, Ombretta; Hanton, Sally; Denecke, Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    We tested if different classes of vacuolar cargo reach the vacuole via distinct mechanisms by interference at multiple steps along the transport route. We show that nucleotide-free mutants of low molecular weight GTPases, including Rab11, the Rab5 members Rha1 and Ara6, and the tonoplast-resident Rab7, caused induced secretion of both lytic and storage vacuolar cargo. In situ analysis in leaf epidermis cells indicates a sequential action of Rab11, Rab5, and Rab7 GTPases. Compared with Rab5 members, mutant Rab11 mediates an early transport defect interfering with the arrival of cargo at prevacuoles, while mutant Rab7 inhibits the final delivery to the vacuole and increases cargo levels in prevacuoles. In contrast with soluble cargo, membrane cargo may follow different routes. Tonoplast targeting of an α-TIP chimera was impaired by nucleotide-free Rha1, Ara6, and Rab7 similar to soluble cargo. By contrast, the tail-anchored tonoplast SNARE Vam3 shares only the Rab7-mediated vacuolar deposition step. The most marked difference was observed for the calcineurin binding protein CBL6, which was insensitive to all Rab mutants tested. Unlike soluble cargo, α-TIP and Vam3, CBL6 transport to the vacuole was COPII independent. The results indicate that soluble vacuolar proteins follow a single route to vacuoles, while membrane spanning proteins may use at least three different transport mechanisms. PMID:21856792

  3. Maximum proton kinetic energy and patient-generated neutron fluence considerations in proton beam arc delivery radiation therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sengbusch, E.; Pérez-Andújar, A.; DeLuca, P. M.; Mackie, T. R.

    2009-01-01

    Several compact proton accelerator systems for use in proton therapy have recently been proposed. Of paramount importance to the development of such an accelerator system is the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that must be reached by the treatment system. The commonly used value for the maximum kinetic energy required for a medical proton accelerator is 250 MeV, but it has not been demonstrated that this energy is indeed necessary to treat all or most patients eligible for proton therapy. This article quantifies the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, necessary to treat a given percentage of patients with rotational proton therapy, and examines the impact of this energy threshold on the cost and feasibility of a compact, gantry-mounted proton accelerator treatment system. One hundred randomized treatment plans from patients treated with IMRT were analyzed. The maximum radiological pathlength from the surface of the patient to the distal edge of the treatment volume was obtained for 180° continuous arc proton therapy and for 180° split arc proton therapy (two 90° arcs) using CT# profiles from the Pinnacle™ (Philips Medical Systems, Madison, WI) treatment planning system. In each case, the maximum kinetic energy of protons, immediately prior to entry into the patient, that would be necessary to treat the patient was calculated using proton range tables for various media. In addition, Monte Carlo simulations were performed to quantify neutron production in a water phantom representing a patient as a function of the maximum proton kinetic energy achievable by a proton treatment system. Protons with a kinetic energy of 240 MeV, immediately prior to entry into the patient, were needed to treat 100% of patients in this study. However, it was shown that 90% of patients could be treated at 198 MeV, and 95% of patients could be treated at 207 MeV. Decreasing the proton kinetic

  4. 46 CFR 153.930 - Cargo antidotes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo antidotes. 153.930 Section 153.930 Shipping COAST... Cargo antidotes. No person may operate a tankship that carries a cargo listed in Table 1 unless the tankship has on board the antidotes described for the cargo in the Medical First Aid Guide for Use...

  5. 46 CFR 154.1810 - Cargo manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... or condensate return system. (iii) Cargo tank cool-down system. (iv) Cargo tank warm-up or... during the voyage. (12) A description of cargo tank cool-down and warm-up operations including purging.... (xi) Vaporizer malfunction or failure. (xii) Piping or cargo valve freeze-up. (16) Any other...

  6. 46 CFR 154.1810 - Cargo manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... or condensate return system. (iii) Cargo tank cool-down system. (iv) Cargo tank warm-up or... during the voyage. (12) A description of cargo tank cool-down and warm-up operations including purging.... (xi) Vaporizer malfunction or failure. (xii) Piping or cargo valve freeze-up. (16) Any other...

  7. 46 CFR 153.907 - Cargo information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...: (1) The name of the cargo as listed in table 1. (2) A description of the cargo's appearance and color... listed in Table 4 of Part 154 of this chapter or § 30.25-1 of this chapter if the cargo is listed in one of these two tables. (2) The name of the cargo prescribed in the letter authorizing carriage of...

  8. 46 CFR 153.907 - Cargo information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...: (1) The name of the cargo as listed in table 1. (2) A description of the cargo's appearance and color... listed in Table 4 of Part 154 of this chapter or § 30.25-1 of this chapter if the cargo is listed in one of these two tables. (2) The name of the cargo prescribed in the letter authorizing carriage of...

  9. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from...

  10. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from...

  11. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from...

  12. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from...

  13. 29 CFR 1918.84 - Bulling cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bulling cargo. 1918.84 Section 1918.84 Labor Regulations...) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.84 Bulling cargo. (a) Bulling cargo shall be done with the bull line led directly from the heel block. However, bulling may be done from...

  14. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  15. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  16. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  17. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  18. 46 CFR 64.97 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose. 64.97 Section 64.97 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING MARINE PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.97 Cargo hose. Each hose assembly, consisting of couplings and a...

  19. X-ray cargo inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ries, Hermann; Hemp, Fred; Koch, Cornelius

    1994-10-01

    Increasing world trade, besides others, means to take care for a continuous flow of cargo. This is important if politicians want to improve a country's economy. There are a lot of technical means assisting to speed up the handling of the huge amount of cargo. But, just taking care for a fast handling of merchandise means to support the fraudulent and often dangerous activities of criminal syndicates and organizations. Responsible governmental officials are now supported in fulfilling their difficult task.

  20. Nuclear cargo detector

    SciTech Connect

    Christo, Steven Basil

    2006-12-19

    Apparatus for the inspection of cargo containers for nuclear materials comprising one or more arrays of modules comprising grounded, closed conductive tubes filled with an ionizing gas mixture such as, but not limited to, Argon:CO.sub.2. A wire is suspended along each tube axis and electrically connected at both ends of the tube. A positive, dc high voltage is supplied to one end of the wire and an amplifier is attached to the other end through a capacitance to decouple the amplifier from the high voltage. X-rays, gamma rays or neutrons produced by nuclear material and passing through the tube ionize the gas. The electrons from the gas ionization process are accelerated toward the wire surface due to the wire's electrical potential. The acceleration of the electrons near the wire's surface is sufficient to ionize more gas and produce an amplification of electrons/ions that create a surge of current large enough to be detectable by the amplifier. Means are also provided for a warning device coupled to the amplifier.

  1. Studies on silicon NMR characterization and kinetic modeling of the structural evolution of siloxane-based materials and their applications in drug delivery and adsorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambati, Jyothirmai

    This dissertation presents studies of the synthetic processes and applications of siloxane-based materials. Kinetic investigations of bridged organoalkoxysilanes that are precursors to organic-inorganic hybrid polysilsesquioxanes are a primary focus. Quick gelation despite extensive cyclization is found during the polymerization of bridged silane precursors except for silanes with certain short bridges. This work is an attempt to characterize and understand some of the distinct features of bridged silanes using experimental characterization, kinetic modeling and simulation. In addition to this, the dissertation shows how the properties of siloxane-materials can be engineered for drug delivery and adsorption. The phase behavior of polymerizing mixtures is first investigated to identify the solutions that favor kinetic characterization. Microphase separation is found to cause gradual loss of NMR signal for certain initial compositions. Distortionless Enhancement by Polarization Transfer 29Si NMR is employed to identify the products of polymerization of some short-bridged silanes under no signal loss conditions. This technique requires knowing indirect 29Si-1H scalar coupling constants which sometimes cannot be measured due to second-order effects. However, the B3LYP density functional method with 6-31G basis set is found to predict accurate 29Si- 1H coupling constants of organoalkoxysilanes and siloxanes. The scalar coupling constants thus estimated are employed to resolve non-trivial coupled NMR spectra and quantitative kinetic modeling is performed using the DEPT Si NMR transients. In order to investigate the role of the organic bridging group, the structural evolution of bridged and non-bridged silanes are compared using Monte Carlo simulations. Kinetic and simulation models suggest that cyclization plays a key role right from the onset of polymerization for bridged silanes even more than in non-bridged silanes. The simulations indicate that the carbosiloxane

  2. Synaptic activation modifies microtubules underlying transport of postsynaptic cargo.

    PubMed

    Maas, Christoph; Belgardt, Dorthe; Lee, Han Kyu; Heisler, Frank F; Lappe-Siefke, Corinna; Magiera, Maria M; van Dijk, Juliette; Hausrat, Torben J; Janke, Carsten; Kneussel, Matthias

    2009-05-26

    Synaptic plasticity, the ability of synapses to change in strength, requires alterations in synaptic molecule compositions over time, and synapses undergo selective modifications on stimulation. Molecular motors operate in sorting/transport of neuronal proteins; however, the targeting mechanisms that guide and direct cargo delivery remain elusive. We addressed the impact of synaptic transmission on the regulation of intracellular microtubule (MT)-based transport. We show that increased neuronal activity, as induced through GlyR activity blockade, facilitates tubulin polyglutamylation, a posttranslational modification thought to represent a molecular traffic sign for transport. Also, GlyR activity blockade alters the binding of the MT-associated protein MAP2 to MTs. By using the kinesin (KIF5) and the postsynaptic protein gephyrin as models, we show that such changes of MT tracks are accompanied by reduced motor protein mobility and cargo delivery into neurites. Notably, the observed neurite targeting deficits are prevented on functional depletion or gene expression knockdown of neuronal polyglutamylase. Our data suggest a previously undescribed concept of synaptic transmission regulating MT-dependent cargo delivery.

  3. Effect of fuel concentration on cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takshak, Anjneya; Mishra, Nirvantosh; Kulkarni, Aditi; Kunwar, Ambarish

    2017-02-01

    Eukaryotic cells employ specialized proteins called molecular motors for transporting organelles and vesicles from one location to another in a regulated and directed manner. These molecular motors often work collectively in a team while transporting cargos. Molecular motors use cytoplasmic ATP as fuel, which is hydrolyzed to generate mechanical force. While the effect of ATP concentration on cargo transport by single Kinesin motor function is well understood, it is still unexplored, both theoretically and experimentally, how ATP concentration would affect cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors. For instance, how does fuel concentration affect the travel distances and travel velocities of cargo? How cooperativity of Kinesin motors engaged on a cargo is affected by ATP concentration? To answer these questions, here we develop mechano-chemical models of cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors. To develop these models we use experimentally-constrained mechano-chemical model of a single Kinesin motor as well as earlier developed mean-field and stochastic models of load sharing for cargo transport. Thus, our new models for cargo transport by a team of Kinesin motors include fuel concentration explicitly, which was not considered in earlier models. We make several interesting predictions which can be tested experimentally. For instance, the travel distances of cargos are very large at limited ATP concentrations in spite of very small travel velocity. Velocities of cargos driven by multiple Kinesin have a Michaelis-Menten dependence on ATP concentration. Similarly, cooperativity among the engaged Kinesin motors on the cargo shows a Michaelis-Menten type dependence, which attains a maximum value near physiological ATP concentrations. Our new results can be potentially useful in controlling artificial nano-molecular shuttles precisely for targeted delivery in various nano-technological applications.

  4. Polymeric drugs with prolonged sustained delivery of specific anti-aggregant agents for platelets: kinetic analysis of the release mechanism.

    PubMed

    Gallardo, Alberto; Rodríguez, Gema; Fernández, Mar; Aguilar, María Rosa; San Román, Julio

    2004-01-01

    The in vitro aqueous behaviour of a metacryloyloxyethyl [2-(acetyloxy)-4-(trifluoromethyl)]benzoate (THEMA)/N,N'-dimethylacrylamide (DMA) copolymer with a THEMA molar content of 39% (labeled THDMA39) has been investigated. This composition has been selected to achieve a system able to keep both the non-water solubility during the release and the resorbability (and the water solubility) after the completion of the drug release. This copolymer exhibited, at pH 7.4, a constant release during several months, very interesting for a long term treatments required for the application of some cardiovascular devices. A kinetic model has been developed to explain the pseudo-zero-order kinetics of the release process. This model, which considers (from the aqueous studies) a linear increase with time of the amount of water present in the polymeric matrix, has been able to fit adequately the experimental data.

  5. Effect of particle size of calcium phosphate based bioceramic drug delivery carrier on the release kinetics of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sasikumar, Swamiappan

    2013-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HAP) is the constituent of calcium phosphate based bone cement and it is extensively used as a bone substitute and drug delivery vehicle in various biomedical applications. In the present study we investigated the release kinetics of ciprofloxacin loaded HAP and analyzed its ability to function as a targeted and sustained release drug carrier. Synthesis of HAP was carried out by combustion method using tartaric acid as a fuel and nitric acid as an oxidizer. Powder XRD and FTIR techniques were employed to characterize the phase purity of the drug carrier and to verify the chemical interaction between the drug and carrier. The synthesized powders were sieve separated to make two different drug carriers with different particle sizes and the surface topography of the pellets of the drug carrier was imaged by AFM. Surface area and porosity of the drug carrier was carried out using surface area analyzer. The in-vitro drug release kinetics was performed in simulated body fluid, at 37.3°C. The amount of ciprofloxacin released is measured using UV-visible spectroscopy following the characteristic λ max of 278 nm. The release saturates around 450 h which indicates that it can be used as a targeted and sustained release carrier for bone infections.

  6. Effect of initial pBMP-9 loading and collagen concentration on the kinetics of peptide release and a mathematical model of the delivery system.

    PubMed

    Lauzon, Marc-Antoine; Marcos, Bernard; Faucheux, Nathalie

    2014-05-28

    Type I collagen is one of the most widely used materials for drug delivery in tissue repair. It is the reference carrier for delivering growth factors like bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs such as BMP-2 and BMP-7) for bone repair. Since BMPs are expensive to produce, we have developed a peptide derived from BMP-9 (pBMP-9) that is 300 times less expensive than the entire protein while still promoting osteogenic differentiation. We have now evaluated the effects of the collagen concentration and the initial pBMP-9 load on peptide release. We then developed a model of pBMP-9 release kinetics by finite differences using a system based on Fick's second law in which the interactions between the peptide and collagen fibers are assumed to follow Langmuir adsorption kinetics. The Langmuir isotherms suggest that the structure of the collagen gel influences the strength of its electrostatic interaction with the peptide, since increasing the collagen concentration decreased the affinity of pBMP-9 for the collagen. The resulting model of the mechanism accurately reflects the experimental data and the parameters estimated indicate that the diffusivities with the different collagen concentrations are similar, whereas the mass transfer coefficient increases with the collagen concentration. The results also indicate that perfect sink conditions cannot be assumed and suggest the presence of an optimal collagen concentration. Finally, we have correlated our conclusions with the differences in collagen fiber organization observed by transmission electron microscopy.

  7. 46 CFR 154.235 - Cargo tank location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Survival Capability and Cargo Tank Location § 154.235 Cargo tank location. (a) For type IG hulls, cargo... extents of damage must be measured to the inner hull. (d) For type IIG, IIPG, and IIIG hulls, cargo...

  8. 46 CFR 154.235 - Cargo tank location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Survival Capability and Cargo Tank Location § 154.235 Cargo tank location. (a) For type IG hulls, cargo... extents of damage must be measured to the inner hull. (d) For type IIG, IIPG, and IIIG hulls, cargo...

  9. 46 CFR 154.235 - Cargo tank location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Survival Capability and Cargo Tank Location § 154.235 Cargo tank location. (a) For type IG hulls, cargo... extents of damage must be measured to the inner hull. (d) For type IIG, IIPG, and IIIG hulls, cargo...

  10. 46 CFR 154.235 - Cargo tank location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Survival Capability and Cargo Tank Location § 154.235 Cargo tank location. (a) For type IG hulls, cargo... extents of damage must be measured to the inner hull. (d) For type IIG, IIPG, and IIIG hulls, cargo...

  11. Aircraft Cargo Compartment Fire Test Simulation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumke, R. E.

    1977-01-01

    The objective of the test was to assess fire containment and fire extinguishment in the cargo by reducing the ventilation through the cargo compartment. Parameters which were measured included ignition time, burnthrough time, and physical damage to the cargo liner, composition of selected combustible gases, temperature-time histories, heat flux, and detector response. The ignitor load was made of a typical cargo consisting of filled cardboard cartons occupying 50% of the compartment volume.

  12. 46 CFR 154.901 - Atmospheric control within cargo tanks and cargo piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Atmospheric control within cargo tanks and cargo piping... BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Atmospheric Control in Cargo Containment Systems § 154.901 Atmospheric...

  13. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  14. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  15. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  16. 46 CFR 153.908 - Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring... Cargo viscosity and melting point information; measuring cargo temperature during discharge: Categories... lading, a written statement of the following: (1) For Category A or B NLS, the cargo's viscosity at 20...

  17. Determination of high-risk cargo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morris, Leo A.; Smith, Douglas E.; Khan, Siraj M.

    1994-10-01

    The approach and methodology used in the determination of the type of cargo containing concealments of commercial quantities of narcotics such as cocaine and heroin is described. This high-risk cargo enters the United States through border crossings at land, seaports and airports. The volume and variety of cargos make it a complex and challenging task for the U.S. Customs Service.

  18. Russian Cargo Craft Final Undocking

    NASA Video Gallery

    The ISS Progress 47 resupply vehicle, loaded with trash, undocked from the International Space Station’s Pirs docking compartment for the final time July 30 at 5:19 p.m. EDT. The cargo ship undo...

  19. Cargo-shell and cargo-cargo couplings govern the mechanics of artificially loaded virus-derived cages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llauró, Aida; Luque, Daniel; Edwards, Ethan; Trus, Benes L.; Avera, John; Reguera, David; Douglas, Trevor; Pablo, Pedro J. De; Castón, José R.

    2016-04-01

    Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two types of proteinaceous payloads. While bound cargo to the inner capsid surface mechanically reinforced the capsid in a structural manner, unbound cargo diffusing freely within the shell cavity pressurized the cages up to ~30 atm due to steric effects. Strong cargo-cargo coupling reduces the resilience of these nanocompartments in ~20% when bound to the shell. Understanding the stability of artificially loaded nanocages will help to design more robust and durable molecular nanocontainers.Nucleic acids are the natural cargo of viruses and key determinants that affect viral shell stability. In some cases the genome structurally reinforces the shell, whereas in others genome packaging causes internal pressure that can induce destabilization. Although it is possible to pack heterologous cargoes inside virus-derived shells, little is known about the physical determinants of these artificial nanocontainers' stability. Atomic force and three-dimensional cryo-electron microscopy provided mechanical and structural information about the physical mechanisms of viral cage stabilization beyond the mere presence/absence of cargos. We analyzed the effects of cargo-shell and cargo-cargo interactions on shell stability after encapsulating two

  20. Advanced propulsion options for the Mars cargo mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frisbee, Robert H.; Blandino, John J.; Sercel, Joel C.; Sargent, Mark S.; Gowda, Nandini

    1990-01-01

    Several advanced propulsion options for a split-mission piloted Mars exploration scenario are presented. The primary study focus is on identifying concepts that can reduce total initial mass in low earth orbit (IMLEO) for the cargo delivery portion of the mission; in addition, concepts that can reduce the trip time of the piloted option are assessed. The propulsion options considered are nuclear thermal propulsion, solar sails, multimegawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion, solar electric propulsion, magnetic sails, mass drivers, rail guns, solar thermal rockets, beamed-energy propulsion systems, and tethers. For the cargo mission, solar sails are found to provide the greatest mass savings over the baseline chemical system, although they suffer from having very long trip times; a good performance compromise between a low IMLEO and a short trip time can be obtained using multimegawatt-class nuclear electric propulsion systems.

  1. Nonlinear absorption kinetics of self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) containing tocotrienols as lipophilic molecules: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    PubMed

    Alqahtani, Saeed; Alayoubi, Alaadin; Nazzal, Sami; Sylvester, Paul W; Kaddoumi, Amal

    2013-07-01

    Self-emulsifying drug delivery systems (SEDDS) have been broadly used to promote the oral absorption of poorly water-soluble drugs. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the in vivo oral bioavailability of vitamin E isoforms, δ-tocotrienol (δ-T3) and γ-tocotrienol (γ-T3) administered as SEDDS, as compared to commercially available UNIQUE E® Tocotrienols capsules. Results from studies in rats showed that low dose treatment with δ-T3 (90%) and γ-T3 (10%) formulated SEDDS showed bioavailability of 31.5% and 332%, respectively. However, bioavailability showed a progressive decrease with increased treatment dose that displayed nonlinear absorption kinetics. Additional in vitro studies examining cellular uptake studies in Caco 2 cells revealed that the SEDDS formulation increased passive permeability of δ-T3 and γ-T3 by threefold as compared to the commercial capsule formulation. These studies also showed that free surfactants decreased δ-T3 and γ-T3 absorption. Specifically, combined treatment cremophor EL or labrasol with tocotrienols caused a 60-85% reduction in the cellular uptake of δ-T3 and γ-T3 and these effects appear to result from surfactant-induced inhibition of the δ-T3 and γ-T3 transport protein Niemann-Pick C1-like 1 (NPC1L1). In summary, results showed that SEDDS formulation significantly increases the absorption and bioavailability δ-T3 and γ-T3. However, this effect is self-limiting because treatment with increasing doses of SEDDS appears to be associated with a corresponding increase in free surfactants levels that directly and negatively impact tocotrienol transport protein function and results in nonlinear absorption kinetics and a progressive decrease in δ-T3 and γ-T3 absorption and bioavailability.

  2. Solar electric propulsion cargo spacecraft for Mars missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    One of the topics available to the 1990-91 Aerospace Engineering senior class was the development of a preliminary design of an unmanned cargo ferry that would support the Mars mission by bringing equipment and supplies from a low Earth orbit (LEO) to a low Mars orbit (LMO). Several previous studies initiated by NASA have indicated that low-thrust transportation systems seem to offer the best performance for Mars missions. Such systems are characterized by long spiral times during escape and capture maneuvers, high payload mass fractions, and, typically, low propellant mass fractions. Of two main low-thrust candidates, nuclear electric propulsion (NEP) and solar electric propulsion (SEP), only the first one received extensive consideration because it seemed to represent the most promising concept for a manned mission to Mars. However, any sustained Mars initiative will have to include an unmanned cargo transportation system, for which an SEP concept deserves very careful consideration. The key assumptions and requirements established in cooperation with the Space Exploration Initiative office at the NASA Langley Research Center were (1) vehicle is assembled at the Space Station Freedom (SSF); (2) Earth-to-orbit delivery of the vehicle components, propellant, and payload is via shuttle-C; (3) vehicle's cargo mass is 61,000 kg; (4) vehicle delivers cargo to LMO at an altitude of 500 km and inclination of 70 deg; (5) vehicle returns (without cargo) to SSF; (6) vehicle should be reusable for at least three missions; and (7) vehicle is powered by ion argon thrusters. Two configurations were developed by two student teams, working mostly independently.

  3. 46 CFR 153.957 - Persons in charge of transferring liquid cargo in bulk or cleaning cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... safely transfer liquid cargo in bulk or to safely clean cargo tanks; (2) Each transfer of liquid cargo in... or cleaning cargo tanks. 153.957 Section 153.957 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... transferring liquid cargo in bulk or cleaning cargo tanks. (a) The owner and operator of the vessel, and his...

  4. Preparation, characterization, release kinetics, and in vitro cytotoxicity of calcium silicate cement as a risedronate delivery system.

    PubMed

    Gong, Tianxing; Wang, Zhiqin; Zhang, Yubiao; Sun, Changshan; Yang, Quanzu; Troczynski, Tom; Häfeli, Urs O

    2014-07-01

    Injectable bone cements have been well characterized and studied in non-load bearing bone fixation and bone screw augmentation applications. Current calcium phosphate cement or poly(methyl methacrylate) cement have drawbacks like low mechanical strength and in situ exothermic properties. This leads especially in patients with osteoporosis to worsening contact between implant and bone and can finally lead to implant failure. To improve these properties, a calcium silicate cement (CSC) was prepared, which additionally contained the bisphosphonate risedronate (RA) to promote osteoblast function. Cement setting rate and compressive strength were measured and found to be reduced by RA above 0.5 wt%. X-ray diffraction, Rietveld refinement analysis, scanning electron microscopy, and porosity measurements by gas sorption revealed that RA reduces calcium silicate hydrate gel formation and changes the cement's microstructure. Cumulative release profiles of RA from CSC up to 6 months into phosphate buffer solution were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and the results were compared with theoretical release curves obtained from the Higuchi equation. Fourier transform infrared spectra measurements and drug release studies indicate that calcium-RA formed within the cement, from which the drug can be slowly released over time. An investigation of the cytotoxicity of the RA-CSC systems upon osteoblast-like cells showed no toxic effects of concentrations up to 2%. The delivery of RA from within a CSC might thus be a valuable and biocompatible new approach to locally deliver RA and to reconstruct and/or repair osteoporosis-related bone fractures.

  5. Skin Transfection Patterns and Expression Kinetics of Electroporation-Enhanced Plasmid Delivery Using the CELLECTRA-3P, a Portable Next-Generation Dermal Electroporation Device

    PubMed Central

    Amante, Dinah H.; Smith, Trevor R.F.; Mendoza, Janess M.; Schultheis, Katherine; McCoy, Jay R.; Khan, Amir S.; Sardesai, Niranjan Y.; Broderick, Kate E.

    2015-01-01

    The CELLECTRA-3P dermal electroporation device (Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Plymouth Meeting, PA) has been evaluated in the clinic and shown to enhance the delivery of an influenza DNA vaccine. To understand the mechanism by which this device aids in enhancing the host immune response to DNA vaccines we investigated the expression kinetics and localization of a reporter plasmid (pGFP) delivered via the CELLECTRA-3P. Histological analysis revealed green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression as early as 1 hr posttreatment in the epidermal and dermal layers, and as early as 2 hr posttreatment in the subdermal layers. Immunofluorescence techniques identified keratinocytes, fibrocytes, dendritic-like cells, adipocytes, and myocytes as the principal cell populations transfected. We proceeded to demonstrate elicitation of robust host immune responses after plasmid DNA (pDNA) vaccination. In guinea pigs equivalent humoral (antibody binding titers) immune responses were observed between protocols using either CELLECTRA-3P or intramuscular electroporation to deliver the DNA vaccine. In nonhuman primates, robust interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot and protective levels of hemagglutination inhibition titers after pDNA vaccination were observed in groups treated with the CELLECTRA-3P. In conclusion, these findings may assist in the future to design efficient, tolerable DNA vaccination strategies for the clinic. PMID:26222896

  6. Proteomics characterization of exosome cargo.

    PubMed

    Schey, Kevin L; Luther, J Matthew; Rose, Kristie L

    2015-10-01

    Characterization of exosomal cargo is of significant interest because this cargo can provide clues to exosome biogenesis, targeting, and cellular effects and may be a source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment. With recent improvements in proteomics technologies, both qualitative and quantitative characterization of exosomal proteins is possible. Here we provide a brief review of exosome proteomics studies and provide detailed protocols for global qualitative, global quantitative, and targeted quantitative analysis of exosomal proteins. In addition, we provide an example application of a standard global quantitative analysis followed by validation via a targeted quantitative analysis of urine exosome samples from human patients. Advantages and limitations of each method are discussed as well as future directions for exosome proteomics analysis.

  7. Proteomics Characterization of Exosome Cargo

    PubMed Central

    Schey, Kevin L.; Luther, J. Matthew; Rose, Kristie L.

    2015-01-01

    Characterization of exosomal cargo is of significant interest because this cargo can provide clues to exosome biogenesis, targeting, and cellular effects and may be a source of biomarkers for disease diagnosis, prognosis and response to treatment. With recent improvements in proteomics technologies, both qualitative and quantitative characterization of exosomal proteins is possible. Here we provide a brief review of exosome proteomics studies and provide detailed protocols for global qualitative, global quantitative, and targeted quantitative analysis of exosomal proteins. In addition, we provide an example application of a standard global quantitative analysis followed by validation via a targeted quantitative analysis of urine exosome samples from human patients. Advantages and limitations of each method are discussed as well as future directions for exosome proteomics analysis. PMID:25837312

  8. 49 CFR 180.416 - Discharge system inspection and maintenance program for cargo tanks transporting liquefied...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) CONTINUING QUALIFICATION AND MAINTENANCE OF PACKAGINGS Qualification and Maintenance of Cargo Tanks § 180.416 Discharge system inspection and maintenance program for... unloading. (d) Monthly inspections and tests. (1) The operator must visually inspect each delivery...

  9. Development of Nanoparticles Incorporating a Novel Liposomal Membrane Destabilization Peptide for Efficient Release of Cargos into Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ohgita, Takashi; Kogure, Kentaro

    2014-01-01

    In anti-cancer therapy mediated by a nanoparticle-based drug delivery system (DDS), overall efficacy depends on the release efficiency of cargos from the nanoparticles in the cancer cells as well as the specificity of delivery to tumor tissue. However, conventional liposome-based DDS have no mechanism for specifically releasing the encapsulated cargos inside the cancer cells. To overcome this barrier, we developed nanoparticles containing a novel liposomal membrane destabilization peptide (LMDP) that can destabilize membranes by cleavage with intramembranous proteases on/in cancer cells. Calcein encapsulated in liposomes modified with LMDP (LMDP-lipo) was effectively released in the presence of a membrane fraction containing an LMDP-cleavable protease. The release was inhibited by a protease inhibitor, suggesting that LMDP-lipo could effectively release its cargo into cells in response to a cancer-specific protease. Moreover, when LMDP-lipo contained fusogenic lipids, the release of cargo was accelerated, suggesting that the fusion of LMDP-lipo with cellular membranes was the initial step in the intracellular delivery. Time-lapse microscopic observations showed that the release of cargo from LMDP-lipo occurred immediately after association of LMDP-lipo with target cells. Consequently, LMDP-lipo could be a useful nanoparticle capable of effective release of cargos specifically into targeted cancer cells. PMID:25343714

  10. A Novel Multilayered RFID Tagged Cargo Integrity Assurance Scheme

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ming Hour; Luo, Jia Ning; Lu, Shao Yong

    2015-01-01

    To minimize cargo theft during transport, mobile radio frequency identification (RFID) grouping proof methods are generally employed to ensure the integrity of entire cargo loads. However, conventional grouping proofs cannot simultaneously generate grouping proofs for a specific group of RFID tags. The most serious problem of these methods is that nonexistent tags are included in the grouping proofs because of the considerable amount of time it takes to scan a high number of tags. Thus, applying grouping proof methods in the current logistics industry is difficult. To solve this problem, this paper proposes a method for generating multilayered offline grouping proofs. The proposed method provides tag anonymity; moreover, resolving disputes between recipients and transporters over the integrity of cargo deliveries can be expedited by generating grouping proofs and automatically authenticating the consistency between the receipt proof and pick proof. The proposed method can also protect against replay attacks, multi-session attacks, and concurrency attacks. Finally, experimental results verify that, compared with other methods for generating grouping proofs, the proposed method can efficiently generate offline grouping proofs involving several parties in a supply chain using mobile RFID. PMID:26512673

  11. Optimizing an undulating magnetic microswimmer for cargo towing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Or, Yizhar; Gutman, Emiliya

    2015-11-01

    One of the promising applications of robotic microswimmers is towing a cargo for controlled drug delivery, micro-surgery or tumor detection. This capability has been demonstrated by the magnetically-actuated microswimmer of Dreyfus et al. [Nature 2005] in which a red blood cell was attached to a chain of magnetic beads connected by flexible DNA links. A key question is what should be the optimal size of the magnetic tail for towing a given cargo. This question is addressed here for the simplest theoretical model of a magnetic microswimmer under planar undulations - a spherical load connected by a torsion spring to a magnetized rigid slender link. The swimmer's dynamics is formulated assuming negligible hydrodynamic interaction and leading-order expressions for the resulting motion are obtained explicitly under small amplitude approximation. Optimal combinations of magnetic actuation frequency, torsion stiffness, and tail length for maximizing displacement or average speed are obtained. The theoretical results are compared with several reported magnetic microswimmers, and also agree qualitatively with recent results on cargo towing by screw rotation of magnetic helical tails [Walker et al., ACS Nano Letters 2015]. This work is supported by the Israeli Science Foundation (ISF) under Grant No. 567/14.

  12. Communication: Cargo towing by artificial swimmers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debnath, Debajyoti; Ghosh, Pulak K.; Li, Yunyun; Marchesoni, Fabio; Li, Baowen

    2016-11-01

    An active swimmer can tow a passive cargo by binding it to form a self-propelling dimer. The orientation of the cargo relative to the axis of the active dimer's head is determined by the hydrodynamic interactions associated with the propulsion mechanism of the latter. We show how the tower-cargo angular configuration greatly influences the dimer's diffusivity and, therefore, the efficiency of the active swimmer as a micro-towing motor.

  13. Quantitative proteomics identifies NCOA4 as the cargo receptor mediating ferritinophagy

    PubMed Central

    Mancias, Joseph D.; Wang, Xiaoxu; Gygi, Steven P.; Harper, J. Wade; Kimmelman, Alec C.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy, the process by which proteins and organelles are sequestered in double-membrane structures called autophagosomes and delivered to lysosomes for degradation, is critical in diseases such as cancer and neurodegeneration1,2. Much of our understanding of this process has emerged from analysis of bulk cytoplasmic autophagy, but our understanding of how specific cargo including organelles, proteins, or intracellular pathogens are targeted for selective autophagy is limited3. We employed quantitative proteomics to identify a cohort of novel and known autophagosome-enriched proteins, including cargo receptors. Like known cargo receptors, NCOA4 was highly enriched in autophagosomes, and associated with ATG8 proteins that recruit cargo-receptor complexes into autophagosomes. Unbiased identification of NCOA4-associated proteins revealed ferritin heavy and light chains, components of an iron-filled cage structure that protects cells from reactive iron species4 but is degraded via autophagy to release iron5,6 through an unknown mechanism. We found that delivery of ferritin to lysosomes required NCOA4, and an inability of NCOA4-deficient cells to degrade ferritin leads to decreased bioavailable intracellular iron. This work identifies NCOA4 as a selective cargo receptor for autophagic turnover of ferritin (ferritinophagy) critical for iron homeostasis and provides a resource for further dissection of autophagosomal cargo-receptor connectivity. PMID:24695223

  14. 46 CFR 153.285 - Valving for cargo pump manifolds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Valving for cargo pump manifolds. 153.285 Section 153... Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.285 Valving for cargo pump manifolds. (a) When cargo lines serving different tanks enter a pumproom and connect to the same pump: (1) Each cargo line...

  15. 46 CFR 153.285 - Valving for cargo pump manifolds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Valving for cargo pump manifolds. 153.285 Section 153... Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.285 Valving for cargo pump manifolds. (a) When cargo lines serving different tanks enter a pumproom and connect to the same pump: (1) Each cargo line...

  16. 46 CFR 153.285 - Valving for cargo pump manifolds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Valving for cargo pump manifolds. 153.285 Section 153... Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.285 Valving for cargo pump manifolds. (a) When cargo lines serving different tanks enter a pumproom and connect to the same pump: (1) Each cargo line...

  17. 46 CFR 153.333 - Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. 153.333 Section 153.333 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Cargo Pumprooms § 153.333 Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. Each cargo pump within a pump-room...

  18. 46 CFR 153.333 - Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. 153.333 Section 153.333 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Cargo Pumprooms § 153.333 Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. Each cargo pump within a pump-room...

  19. 46 CFR 153.333 - Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. 153.333 Section 153.333 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... Cargo Pumprooms § 153.333 Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. Each cargo pump within a pump-room...

  20. 46 CFR 153.285 - Valving for cargo pump manifolds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Valving for cargo pump manifolds. 153.285 Section 153... Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.285 Valving for cargo pump manifolds. (a) When cargo lines serving different tanks enter a pumproom and connect to the same pump: (1) Each cargo line...

  1. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure...

  2. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure...

  3. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure...

  4. 46 CFR 154.554 - Cargo hose: Bursting pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. 154.554 Section 154.554... Hose § 154.554 Cargo hose: Bursting pressure. Cargo hose that may be exposed to the pressure in the cargo tank, the cargo pump discharge, or the vapor compressor discharge must have a bursting pressure...

  5. 46 CFR 154.476 - Cargo transfer devices and means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Support System § 154.476 Cargo transfer devices and means. (a) If a cargo pump in a cargo tank is... of cargo transfer, such as another pump or gas pressurization. (b) If cargo is transferred by...

  6. 46 CFR 154.476 - Cargo transfer devices and means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Support System § 154.476 Cargo transfer devices and means. (a) If a cargo pump in a cargo tank is... of cargo transfer, such as another pump or gas pressurization. (b) If cargo is transferred by...

  7. 46 CFR 154.476 - Cargo transfer devices and means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Support System § 154.476 Cargo transfer devices and means. (a) If a cargo pump in a cargo tank is... of cargo transfer, such as another pump or gas pressurization. (b) If cargo is transferred by...

  8. 46 CFR 154.476 - Cargo transfer devices and means.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Support System § 154.476 Cargo transfer devices and means. (a) If a cargo pump in a cargo tank is... of cargo transfer, such as another pump or gas pressurization. (b) If cargo is transferred by...

  9. 46 CFR 153.285 - Valving for cargo pump manifolds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Valving for cargo pump manifolds. 153.285 Section 153... Piping Systems and Cargo Handling Equipment § 153.285 Valving for cargo pump manifolds. (a) When cargo lines serving different tanks enter a pumproom and connect to the same pump: (1) Each cargo line...

  10. 46 CFR 154.901 - Atmospheric control within cargo tanks and cargo piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... within cargo tanks and cargo piping systems. (a) Each vessel must have a piping system for purging each... remaining after purging. (c) For cargo tanks certificated to carry flammable gases, the piping system must allow purging the tank of flammable vapors before air is introduced and purging the tank of air...

  11. Turboprop cargo aircraft systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Muehlbauer, J. C.; Hewell, J. G., Jr.; Lindenbaum, S. P.; Randall, C. C.; Searle, N.; Stone, R. G., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of using advanced turboprop propulsion systems to reduce the fuel consumption and direct operating costs of cargo aircraft were studied, and the impact of these systems on aircraft noise and noise prints around a terminal area was determined. Parametric variations of aircraft and propeller characteristics were investigated to determine their effects on noiseprint areas, fuel consumption, and direct operating costs. From these results, three aircraft designs were selected and subjected to design refinements and sensitivity analyses. Three competitive turbofan aircraft were also defined from parametric studies to provide a basis for comparing the two types of propulsion.

  12. 49 CFR 1544.228 - Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security... aircraft; or who performs certain functions related to the transportation, dispatch, or security of...

  13. 49 CFR 1544.228 - Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security... aircraft; or who performs certain functions related to the transportation, dispatch, or security of...

  14. 49 CFR 1544.228 - Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security... aircraft; or who performs certain functions related to the transportation, dispatch, or security of...

  15. 49 CFR 1544.228 - Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security... aircraft; or who performs certain functions related to the transportation, dispatch, or security of...

  16. 49 CFR 1544.228 - Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security threat assessments for cargo personnel in the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to cargo and cargo screening: Security... aircraft; or who performs certain functions related to the transportation, dispatch, or security of...

  17. Integrated nanotechnology platform for tumor-targeted multimodal imaging and therapeutic cargo release

    SciTech Connect

    Hosoya, Hitomi; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; Cristini, Vittorio; Brinker, Lina M.; Staquicini, Fernanda I.; Cardó-Vila, Marina; D’Angelo, Sara; Ferrara, Fortunato; Proneth, Bettina; Lin, Yu-Shen; Dunphy, Darren R.; Dogra, Prashant; Melancon, Marites P.; Stafford, R. Jason; Miyazono, Kohei; Gelovani, Juri G.; Kataoka, Kazunori; Brinker, C. Jeffrey; Sidman, Richard L.; Arap, Wadih

    2016-02-02

    A major challenge of targeted molecular imaging and drug delivery in cancer is establishing a functional combination of ligand-directed cargo with a triggered release system. Here we develop a hydrogel-based nanotechnology platform that integrates tumor targeting, photon-to-heat conversion, and triggered drug delivery within a single nanostructure to enable multimodal imaging and controlled release of therapeutic cargo. In proof-of-concept experiments, we show a broad range of ligand peptide-based applications with phage particles, heat-sensitive liposomes, or mesoporous silica nanoparticles that self-assemble into a hydrogel for tumor-targeted drug delivery. Because nanoparticles pack densely within the nanocarrier, their surface plasmon resonance shifts to near-infrared, thereby enabling a laser-mediated photothermal mechanism of cargo release. We demonstrate both noninvasive imaging and targeted drug delivery in preclinical mouse models of breast and prostate cancer. Finally, we applied mathematical modeling to predict and confirm tumor targeting and drug delivery. We conclude that these results are meaningful steps toward the design and initial translation of an enabling nanotechnology platform with potential for broad clinical applications.

  18. Integrated nanotechnology platform for tumor-targeted multimodal imaging and therapeutic cargo release

    DOE PAGES

    Hosoya, Hitomi; Dobroff, Andrey S.; Driessen, Wouter H. P.; ...

    2016-02-02

    A major challenge of targeted molecular imaging and drug delivery in cancer is establishing a functional combination of ligand-directed cargo with a triggered release system. Here we develop a hydrogel-based nanotechnology platform that integrates tumor targeting, photon-to-heat conversion, and triggered drug delivery within a single nanostructure to enable multimodal imaging and controlled release of therapeutic cargo. In proof-of-concept experiments, we show a broad range of ligand peptide-based applications with phage particles, heat-sensitive liposomes, or mesoporous silica nanoparticles that self-assemble into a hydrogel for tumor-targeted drug delivery. Because nanoparticles pack densely within the nanocarrier, their surface plasmon resonance shifts to near-infrared,more » thereby enabling a laser-mediated photothermal mechanism of cargo release. We demonstrate both noninvasive imaging and targeted drug delivery in preclinical mouse models of breast and prostate cancer. Finally, we applied mathematical modeling to predict and confirm tumor targeting and drug delivery. We conclude that these results are meaningful steps toward the design and initial translation of an enabling nanotechnology platform with potential for broad clinical applications.« less

  19. 46 CFR 151.13-5 - Cargo segregation-tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Segregation of cargo from surrounding waters (Line 1 of Table 151.05). i=Skin of vessel (single skin) only required. Cargo tank wall can be vessel's hull. ii=Double skin required. Cargo tank wall cannot be...

  20. 19 CFR 122.115 - Labeling of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Transit Air Cargo Manifest (TACM) Procedures § 122.115 Labeling of cargo. A warning label, as required by § 18.4(e) of this chapter, shall be attached to all transit air cargo...

  1. 46 CFR 151.13-5 - Cargo segregation-tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) Segregation of cargo from surrounding waters (Line 1 of Table 151.05). i=Skin of vessel (single skin) only required. Cargo tank wall can be vessel's hull. ii=Double skin required. Cargo tank wall cannot be...

  2. 46 CFR 151.13-5 - Cargo segregation-tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...) Segregation of cargo from surrounding waters (Line 1 of Table 151.05). i = Skin of vessel (single skin) only required. Cargo tank wall can be vessel's hull. ii = Double skin required. Cargo tank wall cannot be...

  3. 14 CFR 29.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 29.787 Cargo and baggage compartments. (a) Each cargo and baggage compartment must be...

  4. 14 CFR 27.787 - Cargo and baggage compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Personnel and Cargo Accommodations § 27.787 Cargo and baggage compartments. (a) Each cargo and baggage compartment must be...

  5. 77 FR 30542 - Air Cargo Screening Fees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration RIN 1652-AA64 Air Cargo Screening Fees AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION: Notice of fees. SUMMARY: This notice establishes user fees... (TSA). In the Air Cargo Screening final rule published on August 18, 2011, TSA proposed a fee range...

  6. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear... the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself. (b) All wire...

  7. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear... the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself. (b) All wire...

  8. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear... the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself. (b) All wire...

  9. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear... the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself. (b) All wire...

  10. 46 CFR 28.885 - Cargo gear.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo gear. 28.885 Section 28.885 Shipping COAST GUARD... Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.885 Cargo gear. (a) The safe working load (SWL) for the assembled gear... the load the gear is approved to lift, excluding the weight of the gear itself. (b) All wire...

  11. Polymers for Drug Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    Liechty, William B.; Kryscio, David R.; Slaughter, Brandon V.; Peppas, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    Polymers have played an integral role in the advancement of drug delivery technology by providing controlled release of therapeutic agents in constant doses over long periods, cyclic dosage, and tunable release of both hydrophilic and hydrophobic drugs. From early beginnings using off-the-shelf materials, the field has grown tremendously, driven in part by the innovations of chemical engineers. Modern advances in drug delivery are now predicated upon the rational design of polymers tailored for specific cargo and engineered to exert distinct biological functions. In this review, we highlight the fundamental drug delivery systems and their mathematical foundations and discuss the physiological barriers to drug delivery. We review the origins and applications of stimuli-responsive polymer systems and polymer therapeutics such as polymer-protein and polymer-drug conjugates. The latest developments in polymers capable of molecular recognition or directing intracellular delivery are surveyed to illustrate areas of research advancing the frontiers of drug delivery. PMID:22432577

  12. Improving the Endosomal Escape of Cell-Penetrating Peptides and Their Cargos: Strategies and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Erazo-Oliveras, Alfredo; Muthukrishnan, Nandhini; Baker, Ryan; Wang, Ting-Yi; Pellois, Jean-Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) can deliver cell-impermeable therapeutic cargos into cells. In particular, CPP-cargo conjugates tend to accumulate inside cells by endocytosis. However, they often remain trapped inside endocytic organelles and fail to reach the cytosolic space of cells efficiently. In this review, the evidence for CPP-mediated endosomal escape is discussed. In addition, several strategies that have been utilized to enhance the endosomal escape of CPP-cargos are described. The recent development of branched systems that display multiple copies of a CPP is presented. The use of viral or synthetic peptides that can disrupt the endosomal membrane upon activation by the low pH of endosomes is also discussed. Finally, we survey how CPPs labeled with chromophores can be used in combination with light to stimulate endosomal lysis. The mechanisms and challenges associated with these intracellular delivery methodologies are discussed. PMID:24223492

  13. Mechanized azobenzene-functionalized zirconium metal-organic framework for on-command cargo release

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangshi; Gui, Bo; Yuan, Daqiang; Zeller, Matthias; Wang, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Stimuli-responsive metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have gained increasing attention recently for their potential applications in many areas. We report the design and synthesis of a water-stable zirconium MOF (Zr-MOF) that bears photoresponsive azobenzene groups. This particular MOF can be used as a reservoir for storage of cargo in water, and the cargo-loaded MOF can be further capped to construct a mechanized MOF through the binding of β-cyclodextrin with the azobenzene stalks on the MOF surface. The resulting mechanized MOF has shown on-command cargo release triggered by ultraviolet irradiation or addition of competitive agents without premature release. This study represents a simple approach to the construction of stimuli-responsive mechanized MOFs, and considering mechanized UiO-68-azo made from biocompatible components, this smart system may provide a unique MOF platform for on-command drug delivery in the future. PMID:27493996

  14. Characterizing the composition of molecular motors on moving axonal cargo using "cargo mapping" analysis.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Sylvia; Campbell, George E; Szpankowski, Lukasz; Goldstein, Lawrence S B; Encalada, Sandra E

    2014-10-30

    Understanding the mechanisms by which molecular motors coordinate their activities to transport vesicular cargoes within neurons requires the quantitative analysis of motor/cargo associations at the single vesicle level. The goal of this protocol is to use quantitative fluorescence microscopy to correlate ("map") the position and directionality of movement of live cargo to the composition and relative amounts of motors associated with the same cargo. "Cargo mapping" consists of live imaging of fluorescently labeled cargoes moving in axons cultured on microfluidic devices, followed by chemical fixation during recording of live movement, and subsequent immunofluorescence (IF) staining of the exact same axonal regions with antibodies against motors. Colocalization between cargoes and their associated motors is assessed by assigning sub-pixel position coordinates to motor and cargo channels, by fitting Gaussian functions to the diffraction-limited point spread functions representing individual fluorescent point sources. Fixed cargo and motor images are subsequently superimposed to plots of cargo movement, to "map" them to their tracked trajectories. The strength of this protocol is the combination of live and IF data to record both the transport of vesicular cargoes in live cells and to determine the motors associated to these exact same vesicles. This technique overcomes previous challenges that use biochemical methods to determine the average motor composition of purified heterogeneous bulk vesicle populations, as these methods do not reveal compositions on single moving cargoes. Furthermore, this protocol can be adapted for the analysis of other transport and/or trafficking pathways in other cell types to correlate the movement of individual intracellular structures with their protein composition. Limitations of this protocol are the relatively low throughput due to low transfection efficiencies of cultured primary neurons and a limited field of view available for

  15. Nanovehicular Intracellular Delivery Systems

    PubMed Central

    PROKOP, ALES; DAVIDSON, JEFFREY M.

    2013-01-01

    This article provides an overview of principles and barriers relevant to intracellular drug and gene transport, accumulation and retention (collectively called as drug delivery) by means of nanovehicles (NV). The aim is to deliver a cargo to a particular intracellular site, if possible, to exert a local action. Some of the principles discussed in this article apply to noncolloidal drugs that are not permeable to the plasma membrane or to the blood–brain barrier. NV are defined as a wide range of nanosized particles leading to colloidal objects which are capable of entering cells and tissues and delivering a cargo intracelullarly. Different localization and targeting means are discussed. Limited discussion on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics is also presented. NVs are contrasted to micro-delivery and current nanotechnologies which are already in commercial use. Newer developments in NV technologies are outlined and future applications are stressed. We also briefly review the existing modeling tools and approaches to quantitatively describe the behavior of targeted NV within the vascular and tumor compartments, an area of particular importance. While we list “elementary” phenomena related to different level of complexity of delivery to cancer, we also stress importance of multi-scale modeling and bottom-up systems biology approach. PMID:18200527

  16. A Family of Tetraspans Organizes Cargo for Sorting into Multivesicular Bodies

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, Chris; Payne, Johanna A.; Aboian, Mariam; Smith, William; Katzmann, David J.; Piper, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The abundance of cell surface membrane proteins is regulated by internalization and delivery into intralumenal vesicles (ILVs) of multivesicular bodies (MVB). Many cargoes are ubiquitinated, allowing access to an ESCRT-dependent pathway into MVBs. Yet, how non-ubiquitinated proteins, such as Glycosylphosphatidylinisotol-anchored proteins, enter MVBs is unclear, supporting the possibility of mechanistically distinct ILV biogenesis pathways. Here we show a family of highly ubiquitinated tetraspan Cos proteins provide a Ub-signal in trans, allowing sorting of non-ubiquitinated MVB cargo into the canonical ESCRT- and Ub-dependent pathway. Cos proteins create discrete endosomal subdomains that concentrate Ub-cargo prior to their envelopment into ILVs and the activity of Cos proteins is required not only for efficient sorting of canonical Ub-cargo but is also essential for sorting non-ubiquitinated cargo into MVBs. Expression of these proteins increases during nutrient stress though a NAD+/Sir2-dpendent mechanism that in turn accelerates the down-regulation of a broad range of cell surface proteins. PMID:25942624

  17. 46 CFR 98.30-11 - Cargo pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo pumps. 98.30-11 Section 98.30-11 Shipping COAST..., ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-11 Cargo pumps. No person may operate a cargo pump to transfer a product to or from a portable tank unless the...

  18. 46 CFR 98.30-11 - Cargo pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo pumps. 98.30-11 Section 98.30-11 Shipping COAST..., ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-11 Cargo pumps. No person may operate a cargo pump to transfer a product to or from a portable tank unless the...

  19. 46 CFR 98.30-11 - Cargo pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo pumps. 98.30-11 Section 98.30-11 Shipping COAST..., ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-11 Cargo pumps. No person may operate a cargo pump to transfer a product to or from a portable tank unless the...

  20. 46 CFR 105.25-10 - Cargo pumping installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMERCIAL FISHING VESSELS DISPENSING PETROLEUM PRODUCTS Additional Requirements-When Cargo Tanks Are Installed Below Decks § 105.25-10 Cargo pumping installation. (a) Cargo pumps shall not be installed in the... cargo tanks shall be run directly to the pump, but not through working or crew spaces of vessel....

  1. 46 CFR 154.320 - Cargo control stations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo control stations. 154.320 Section 154.320 Shipping... Arrangements § 154.320 Cargo control stations. (a) Cargo control stations must be above the weather deck. (b) If a cargo control station is in accommodation, service, or control spaces or has access to such...

  2. 46 CFR 154.1828 - Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry. 154.1828 Section... Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry. (a) No person may enter a cargo handling space without the... allowing anyone to enter a cargo handling space, the master shall ensure that: (1) The space is free...

  3. 46 CFR 151.20-5 - Cargo system valving requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... meet the requirements listed below. Cargo tanks, whether gravity or pressure vessel type, for cargoes... tank is insulated) shall be provided with a valving system designated as Gravity-1. Cargo tanks, whether gravity or pressure vessel type, for cargoes which are carried below ambient temperature and...

  4. 46 CFR 151.20-5 - Cargo system valving requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... meet the requirements listed below. Cargo tanks, whether gravity or pressure vessel type, for cargoes... tank is insulated) shall be provided with a valving system designated as Gravity-1. Cargo tanks, whether gravity or pressure vessel type, for cargoes which are carried below ambient temperature and...

  5. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  6. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  7. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  8. 46 CFR 153.975 - Preparation for cargo transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Preparation for cargo transfer. 153.975 Section 153.975 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Procedures § 153.975 Preparation for cargo transfer. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not...

  9. 46 CFR 153.975 - Preparation for cargo transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Preparation for cargo transfer. 153.975 Section 153.975 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Procedures § 153.975 Preparation for cargo transfer. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not...

  10. 46 CFR 153.975 - Preparation for cargo transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Preparation for cargo transfer. 153.975 Section 153.975 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Procedures § 153.975 Preparation for cargo transfer. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not...

  11. 46 CFR 153.975 - Preparation for cargo transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Preparation for cargo transfer. 153.975 Section 153.975 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Procedures § 153.975 Preparation for cargo transfer. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not...

  12. 46 CFR 153.975 - Preparation for cargo transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Preparation for cargo transfer. 153.975 Section 153.975 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Procedures § 153.975 Preparation for cargo transfer. The person in charge of cargo transfer may not...

  13. 46 CFR 153.316 - Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate. 153.316 Section... CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation § 153.316 Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate. When Table...

  14. 46 CFR 153.316 - Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate. 153.316 Section... CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation § 153.316 Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate. When Table...

  15. 46 CFR 153.316 - Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate. 153.316 Section... CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation § 153.316 Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate. When Table...

  16. 46 CFR 153.316 - Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate. 153.316 Section... CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation § 153.316 Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate. When Table...

  17. 46 CFR 153.316 - Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate. 153.316 Section... CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Handling Space Ventilation § 153.316 Special cargo pumproom ventilation rate. When Table...

  18. Cargo/Logistics Airlift System Study (CLASS), Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, J. M.; Henderson, R. D.; Macey, F. C.; Tuttle, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    The current air cargo system is analyzed along with advanced air cargo systems studies. A forecast of advanced air cargo system demand is presented with cost estimates. It is concluded that there is a need for a dedicated advance air cargo system, and with application of advanced technology, reductions of 45% in air freight rates may be achieved.

  19. 46 CFR 153.333 - Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. 153.333 Section 153... Cargo Pumprooms § 153.333 Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. Each cargo pump within a pump-room must have a discharge pressure gauge outside the pumproom....

  20. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum pressure to which it may be subjected and at least 1034...

  1. 46 CFR 154.556 - Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. 154.556 Section... Equipment Cargo Hose § 154.556 Cargo hose: Maximum working pressure. A cargo hose must have a maximum working pressure not less than the maximum pressure to which it may be subjected and at least 1034...

  2. 46 CFR 153.333 - Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. 153.333 Section 153... Cargo Pumprooms § 153.333 Cargo pump discharge pressure gauge. Each cargo pump within a pump-room must have a discharge pressure gauge outside the pumproom....

  3. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  4. 46 CFR 154.412 - Cargo tank corrosion allowance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo tank corrosion allowance. 154.412 Section 154.412... Containment Systems § 154.412 Cargo tank corrosion allowance. A cargo tank must be designed with a corrosion...) carries a cargo that corrodes the tank material. Note: Corrosion allowance for independent tank type C...

  5. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  6. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  7. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  8. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  9. 29 CFR 1918.87 - Ship's cargo elevators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ship's cargo elevators. 1918.87 Section 1918.87 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR LONGSHORING Handling Cargo § 1918.87 Ship's cargo elevators. (a) Safe working load. The safe working loads of ship's cargo elevators shall be determined and...

  10. 46 CFR 98.30-11 - Cargo pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps. 98.30-11 Section 98.30-11 Shipping COAST..., ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Portable Tanks § 98.30-11 Cargo pumps. No person may operate a cargo pump to transfer a product to or from a portable tank unless the...

  11. 46 CFR 154.235 - Cargo tank location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank location. 154.235 Section 154.235 Shipping... Survival Capability and Cargo Tank Location § 154.235 Cargo tank location. (a) For type IG hulls, cargo tanks must be located inboard of: (1) The transverse extent of damage for collision...

  12. 46 CFR 153.251 - Independent cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Independent cargo tanks. 153.251 Section 153.251... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.251 Independent cargo tanks. All independent cargo tank must meet § 38.05-10 (a)(1), (b), (d),...

  13. 46 CFR 151.25-1 - Cargo tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank. 151.25-1 Section 151.25-1 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-1 Cargo tank. When carrying certain..., within the main cargo tank, and in some cases, in the space between the primary and secondary...

  14. 46 CFR 153.254 - Cargo tank access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank access. 153.254 Section 153.254 Shipping... BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Cargo Tanks § 153.254 Cargo tank access. (a) A cargo tank must have at least one covered manhole opening into...

  15. 46 CFR 154.1828 - Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry. 154.1828 Section... Spaces containing cargo vapor: Entry. (a) No person may enter a cargo handling space without the... allowing anyone to enter a cargo handling space, the master shall ensure that: (1) The space is free...

  16. Maleimide cross-linked bioactive PEG hydrogel exhibits improved reaction kinetics and cross-linking for cell encapsulation and in-situ delivery

    PubMed Central

    Phelps, Edward A.; Enemchukwu, Nduka O.; Fiore, Vincent F.; Sy, Jay C.; Murthy, Niren; Sulchek, Todd A.; Barker, Thomas H.

    2012-01-01

    Engineered polyethylene glycol-maleimide matrices for regenerative medicine exhibit improved reaction efficiency and wider range of Young’s moduli by utilizing maleimide cross-linking chemistry. This hydrogel chemistry is advantageous for cell delivery due to the mild reaction that occurs rapidly enough for in situ delivery, while easily lending itself to “plug-and-play” design variations such as incorporation of enzyme-cleavable cross-links and cell-adhesion peptides. PMID:22174081

  17. 49 CFR 172.328 - Cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... constructed of quenched and tempered steel; or (2) “NQT”, if the cargo tank is constructed of other than quenched and tempered steel. (d) After October 3, 2005, each on-vehicle manually-activated remote...

  18. IP-1 Certification of Cargo Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Hagler, Lisle

    2010-10-05

    The purpose and scope of this engineering note is to demonstrate that the structural design of the cargo container complies with the IP-1 container requirements of 49 CFR 173.410 as required by CFR 173.411.

  19. ISS Update: ATV-3 Cargo Transfer Activities

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA Public Affairs Officer Dan Huot interviews Michael Ferullo, ATV-3 Lead Inventory and Stowage Officer. Transferring cargo to and from a docked resupply ship is a complex and time-consuming acti...

  20. European Cargo Ship Launches to Station

    NASA Video Gallery

    The European Space Agency's (ESA) fourth Automated Transfer Vehicle cargo craft (ATV-4) launched atop an Ariane 5 rocket from Kourou, French Guiana at 5:52 p.m. EDT on Wednesday to begin a 10-day t...

  1. Low Energy Accelerators for Cargo Inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Chuanxiang

    Cargo inspection by X-rays has become essential for seaports and airports. With the emphasis on homeland security issues, the identification of dangerous things, such as explosive items and nuclear materials, is the key feature of a cargo inspection system. And new technologies based on dual energy X-rays, neutrons and monoenergetic X-rays have been studied to achieve sufficiently good material identification. An interpretation of the principle of X-ray cargo inspection technology and the features of X-ray sources are presented in this article. As most of the X-ray sources are based on RF electron linear accelerators (linacs), we give a relatively detailed description of the principle and characteristics of linacs. Cargo inspection technologies based on neutron imaging, neutron analysis, nuclear resonance fluorescence and computer tomography are also mentioned here. The main vendors and their products are summarized at the end of the article.

  2. System for inspection of stacked cargo containers

    SciTech Connect

    Derenzo, Stephen

    2011-08-16

    The present invention relates to a system for inspection of stacked cargo containers. One embodiment of the invention generally comprises a plurality of stacked cargo containers arranged in rows or tiers, each container having a top, a bottom a first side, a second side, a front end, and a back end; a plurality of spacers arranged in rows or tiers; one or more mobile inspection devices for inspecting the cargo containers, wherein the one or more inspection devices are removeably disposed within the spacers, the inspection means configured to move through the spacers to detect radiation within the containers. The invented system can also be configured to inspect the cargo containers for a variety of other potentially hazardous materials including but not limited to explosive and chemical threats.

  3. Software For Nearly Optimal Packing Of Cargo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fennel, Theron R.; Daughtrey, Rodney S.; Schwaab, Doug G.

    1994-01-01

    PACKMAN computer program used to find nearly optimal arrangements of cargo items in storage containers, subject to such multiple packing objectives as utilization of volumes of containers, utilization of containers up to limits on weights, and other considerations. Automatic packing algorithm employed attempts to find best positioning of cargo items in container, such that volume and weight capacity of container both utilized to maximum extent possible. Written in Common LISP.

  4. Survey of air cargo forecasting techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhlthan, A. R.; Vermuri, R. S.

    1978-01-01

    Forecasting techniques currently in use in estimating or predicting the demand for air cargo in various markets are discussed with emphasis on the fundamentals of the different forecasting approaches. References to specific studies are cited when appropriate. The effectiveness of current methods is evaluated and several prospects for future activities or approaches are suggested. Appendices contain summary type analyses of about 50 specific publications on forecasting, and selected bibliographies on air cargo forecasting, air passenger demand forecasting, and general demand and modalsplit modeling.

  5. Simultaneous spectroscopic measurements of the interior temperature and induced cargo release from pore-restricted mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Juyao; Zink, Jeffrey I.

    2016-05-01

    Temperature changes initiated within nano structures are being increasingly used to externally activate responsive delivery vehicles. Yet, the precise measurement of the nano environment temperature increase and its correlation with the induced macroscopic cargo release are difficult to achieve. In this study, we focus on a photothermally activated drug delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles, and use an optical nanothermometer - NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ crystals - for a ratiometric temperature measurement. Using fluorescent dyes as the payload molecule, both the nanoparticle interior temperature change and the macroscopic cargo release amount are monitored simultaneously by fluorescent spectroscopy. We found that the cargo release lags the temperature increase by about 5 min, revealing the threshold temperature that the particles have to reach before a substantial release could happen. Using this spectroscopic method, we are able to directly compare and correlate a nano environment event with its stimulated macroscopic results.Temperature changes initiated within nano structures are being increasingly used to externally activate responsive delivery vehicles. Yet, the precise measurement of the nano environment temperature increase and its correlation with the induced macroscopic cargo release are difficult to achieve. In this study, we focus on a photothermally activated drug delivery system based on mesoporous silica nanoparticles, and use an optical nanothermometer - NaYF4:Yb3+,Er3+ crystals - for a ratiometric temperature measurement. Using fluorescent dyes as the payload molecule, both the nanoparticle interior temperature change and the macroscopic cargo release amount are monitored simultaneously by fluorescent spectroscopy. We found that the cargo release lags the temperature increase by about 5 min, revealing the threshold temperature that the particles have to reach before a substantial release could happen. Using this spectroscopic method, we are

  6. Characterizing X-ray Attenuation of Containerized Cargo

    SciTech Connect

    Birrer, N.; Divin, C.; Glenn, S.; Martz, H.; Wang, G.

    2016-08-02

    X-ray inspection systems can be used to detect radiological and nuclear threats in imported cargo. In order to better understand performance of these systems, the attenuation characteristics of imported cargo need to be determined. This project focused on developing image processing algorithms for segmenting cargo and using x-ray attenuation to quantify equivalent steel thickness to determine cargo density. These algorithms were applied to over 450 cargo radiographs. The results are summarized in this report.

  7. Motility states in bidirectional cargo transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Sarah; Appert-Rolland, Cécile; Santen, Ludger

    2015-09-01

    Intracellular cargos which are transported by molecular motors move stochastically along cytoskeleton filaments. In particular for bidirectionally transported cargos it is an open question whether the characteristics of their motion can result from pure stochastic fluctuations or whether some coordination of the motors is needed. The results of a mean-field (MF) model of cargo-motors dynamics proposed by Müller et al. (Müller M. J. et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 105 (2008) 4609) suggest the existence of states which are characterized by a symmetric bimodal distribution of cargo velocities. These states would result from a stochastic tug of war. Here we analyze the influence of the MF assumption on the cargo motion by considering a model that takes explicitly the position of each motor into account. We find that those states with symmetric bimodal distributions then disappear. As the MF model implicitly assumes some stepping synchronization between motors, we introduce a partial synchronization via an artificial mutual motor-motor activation, and show that the results of the MF model are then recovered but, even in this favorable case, only in the limit of a strong motor-motor activation and of a high number of motors. We conclude that the MF assumption is not relevant for intracellular transport.

  8. The promise of air cargo: System aspects and vehicle design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitehead, A. H., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The current operation of the air cargo system is reviewed. An assessment of the future of air cargo is provided by: (1) analyzing statistics and trends, (2) by noting system problems and inefficiencies, (3) by analyzing characteristics of 'air eligible' commodities, and (4) by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. The following topics are discussed: (1) air cargo demand forecasts; (2) economics of air cargo transport; (3) the integrated air cargo system; (4) evolution of airfreighter design; and (5) the span distributed load concept.

  9. Characterizing Complexity of Containerized Cargo X-ray Images

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Guangxing; Martz, Harry; Glenn, Steven; Divin, Charles; Birrer, Nat

    2016-08-19

    X-ray imaging can be used to inspect cargos imported into the United States. In order to better understand the performance of X-ray inspection systems, the X-ray characteristics (density, complexity) of cargo need to be quantified. In this project, an image complexity measure called integrated power spectral density (IPSD) was studied using both DNDO engineered cargos and stream-of-commerce (SOC) cargos. A joint distribution of cargo density and complexity was obtained. A support vector machine was used to classify the SOC cargos into four categories to estimate the relative fractions.

  10. Design of a spanloader cargo aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weisshaar, Terrence A.

    1989-01-01

    The design features of an aircraft capable of fulfilling a long haul, high capacity cargo mission are described. This span-loading aircraft, or flying wing, is capable of carrying extremely large payloads and is expected to be in demand to replace the slow-moving cargo ships currently in use. The spanloader seeks to reduce empty weight by eliminating the aircraft fuselage. Disadvantages are the thickness of the cargo-containing wing, and resulting stability and control problems. The spanloader presented here has a small fuselage, low-aspect ratio wings, winglets, and uses six turbofan engines for propulsion. It will have a payload capacity of 300,000 pounds plus 30 first class passengers and 6 crew members. Its projected market is transportation of freight from Europe and the U.S.A. to countries in the Pacific Basin. Cost estimates support its economic feasibility.

  11. Functionalized Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes: Cellular Uptake, Biodistribution and Applications in Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Zixian; de Barros, Andre Luis Branco; Soares, Daniel Cristian Ferreira; Moss, Sara Nicole; Alisaraie, Laleh

    2017-03-11

    The unique properties of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) enable them to play important roles in many fields. One of their functional roles is to transport cargo into the cell. SWNTs are able to traverse amphipathic cell membranes due to their large surface area, flexible interactions with cargo, customizable dimensions, and surface chemistry. The cargoes delivered by SWNTs include peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, as well as drug molecules for therapeutic purpose. The drug delivery functions of SWNTs have been explored over the past decade. Many breakthrough studies have shown the high specificity and potency of functionalized SWNT-based drug delivery systems for the treatment of cancers and other diseases. In this review, we discuss different aspects of drug delivery by functionalized SWNT carriers, diving into the cellular uptake mechanisms, biodistribution of the delivery system, and safety concerns on degradation of the carriers. We emphasize the delivery of several common drugs to highlight the recent achievements of SWNT-based drug delivery.

  12. Assembly and Transport of Microscopic Cargos via Reconfigurable Photoactivated Magnetic Microdockers.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Pedrero, Fernando; Massana-Cid, Helena; Tierno, Pietro

    2017-03-15

    The realization of micromotors able to dock and transport microscopic objects in a fluid medium has direct applications toward the delivery of drugs and chemicals in small channels and pores, and the realization of functional wireless microrobots in lab-on-a-chip technology. A simple and general method to tow microscopic particles in water by using remotely controllable light-activated hematite microdockers is demonstrated. These anisotropic ferromagnetic particles can be synthesized in bulk and present the remarkable ability to be activated by light while independently manipulated via external fields. The photoactivation process induces a phoretic flow capable to attract cargos toward the surface of the propellers, while a rotating magnetic field is used to transport the composite particles to any location of the experimental platform. The method allows the assembling of small colloidal clusters of various sizes, composed by a skeleton of mobile magnetic dockers, which cooperatively keep, transport, and release the microscopic cargos. The possibility to easily reconfigure in situ the location of the docker above the cargo is demonstrated, which enables optimize transport and cargo release operations.

  13. Design of multimodal degradable hydrogels for controlled therapeutic delivery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharkar, Prathamesh Madhav

    Hydrogels are of growing interest for the delivery of therapeutics to specific sites in the body. For localized drug delivery, hydrophilic polymeric precursors often are laden with bioactive moieties and then directly injected to the site of interest for in situ gel formation. The release of physically entrapped cargo is dictated by Fickian diffusion, degradation of the drug carrier, or a combination of both. The goal of this work was to design and characterize degradable hydrogel formulations that are responsive to multiple biologically relevant stimuli for degradation-mediated delivery of cargo molecules such as therapeutic proteins, growth factors, and immunomodulatory agents. We began by demonstrating the use of cleavable click linkages formed by Michael-type addition reactions in conjunction with hydrolytically cleavable functionalities for the degradation of injectable hydrogels by endogenous stimuli for controlled protein release. Specifically, the reaction between maleimides and thiols was utilized for hydrogel formation, where thiol selection dictates the degradability of the resulting linkage under thiol-rich reducing conditions. Relevant microenvironments where degradation would occur in vivo include those rich in glutathione (GSH), a tripeptide that is found at elevated concentrations in carcinoma tissues. Degradation of the hydrogels was monitored with rheometry and volumetric swelling measurements. Arylthiol-based thioether succinimide linkages underwent degradation via click cleavage and thiol exchange reaction in the presence of GSH and via ester hydrolysis, whereas alkylthiol-based thioether succinimide linkages only undergo degradation by only ester hydrolysis. The resulting control over the degradation rate within a reducing microenvironment resulted in 2.5 fold differences in the release profile of the model protein, a fluorescently-labeled bovine serum albumin, from dually degradable hydrogels compared to non-degradable hydrogels, where the

  14. 46 CFR 64.89 - Cargo pump unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... with the product to be pumped. (d) A diesel engine that is used to drive a cargo pump must have a spark...) The cargo pump power unit must be— (1) Diesel; (2) Hydraulic; (3) Pneumatic; or (4) Electric. (c)...

  15. 46 CFR 64.89 - Cargo pump unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... with the product to be pumped. (d) A diesel engine that is used to drive a cargo pump must have a spark...) The cargo pump power unit must be— (1) Diesel; (2) Hydraulic; (3) Pneumatic; or (4) Electric. (c)...

  16. 46 CFR 64.89 - Cargo pump unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... with the product to be pumped. (d) A diesel engine that is used to drive a cargo pump must have a spark...) The cargo pump power unit must be— (1) Diesel; (2) Hydraulic; (3) Pneumatic; or (4) Electric. (c)...

  17. 46 CFR 64.89 - Cargo pump unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... with the product to be pumped. (d) A diesel engine that is used to drive a cargo pump must have a spark...) The cargo pump power unit must be— (1) Diesel; (2) Hydraulic; (3) Pneumatic; or (4) Electric. (c)...

  18. 46 CFR 64.89 - Cargo pump unit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... with the product to be pumped. (d) A diesel engine that is used to drive a cargo pump must have a spark...) The cargo pump power unit must be— (1) Diesel; (2) Hydraulic; (3) Pneumatic; or (4) Electric. (c)...

  19. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  20. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  1. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  2. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  3. 14 CFR 23.787 - Baggage and cargo compartments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... inertial load factor is 9g and assuming the maximum allowed baggage or cargo weight for the compartment. (b... means to protect the occupants from injury when the baggage or cargo is subjected to the inertial...

  4. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  5. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  6. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  7. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  8. 49 CFR 172.448 - CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. 172.448 Section 172.448... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.448 CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label. (a) Except for size and color, the CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be as follows: ER14JA09.001 (b) The CARGO AIRCRAFT ONLY label must be black on...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1842 - Cargo system: Controls and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo system: Controls and alarms. 154.1842 Section 154.1842 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... system: Controls and alarms. The master shall ensure that the cargo emergency shut-down system and...

  10. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed...

  11. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed...

  12. 46 CFR 69.67 - Marking of cargo spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Marking of cargo spaces. 69.67 Section 69.67 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.67 Marking of cargo spaces. Cargo spaces used...

  13. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed...

  14. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  15. 46 CFR 69.67 - Marking of cargo spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Marking of cargo spaces. 69.67 Section 69.67 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.67 Marking of cargo spaces. Cargo spaces used...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  17. 46 CFR 69.67 - Marking of cargo spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Marking of cargo spaces. 69.67 Section 69.67 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.67 Marking of cargo spaces. Cargo spaces used...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  19. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... insulated, or 115 °F if uninsulated. If specific filling densities are designated in Subpart 151.50 of this...=Maximum volume to which tank may be loaded. V =Volume of tank. d r=Density of cargo at the temperature required for a cargo vapor pressure equal to the relief valve setting. d L=Density of cargo at the...

  20. 46 CFR 154.310 - Cargo piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping systems. 154.310 Section 154.310 Shipping... Arrangements § 154.310 Cargo piping systems. Cargo liquid or vapor piping must: (a) Be separated from other piping systems, except where an interconnection to inert gas or purge piping is required by §...

  1. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  2. 14 CFR 296.3 - Indirect cargo air carrier.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Indirect cargo air carrier. 296.3 Section... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS INDIRECT AIR TRANSPORTATION OF PROPERTY General § 296.3 Indirect cargo air carrier. An indirect cargo air carrier is any U.S. citizen who undertakes to engage indirectly in...

  3. Cargo/Logistics Airlift System Study (CLASS), Volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, J. M.; Henderson, R. D.; Macey, F. C.; Tuttle, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Current and advanced air cargo systems are evaluated using industrial and consumer statistics. Market and commodity characteristics that influence the use of the air mode are discussed along with a comparison of air and surface mode on typical routes. Results of on-site surveys of cargo processing facilities at airports are presented, and institutional controls and influences on air cargo operations are considered.

  4. 77 FR 65006 - Air Cargo Advance Screening (ACAS) Pilot Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... data interchange (EDI) system before the cargo is brought into or departs the United States by any mode... submission of both the ACAS data and the advance electronic cargo information required by 19 CFR 122.48a... mandatory advance electronic information for air cargo. CBP regulations implementing the Trade Act of...

  5. 46 CFR 308.511 - Cancellation of Open Cargo Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cancellation of Open Cargo Policy. 308.511 Section 308.511 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.511 Cancellation of...

  6. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargoes having toxic properties. 151.50-5 Section 151.50... BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-5 Cargoes having... transporting liquids having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 14 pounds per square inch absolute or vented at...

  7. 46 CFR 151.50-5 - Cargoes having toxic properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargoes having toxic properties. 151.50-5 Section 151.50... BARGES CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-5 Cargoes having... transporting liquids having a Reid vapor pressure exceeding 14 pounds per square inch absolute or vented at...

  8. 48 CFR 52.228-9 - Cargo Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo Insurance. 52.228-9... Insurance. As prescribed in 28.313(a), insert the following clause: Cargo Insurance (MAY 1999) (a) The..., cargo insurance of $_____ per vehicle to cover the value of property on each vehicle and of $_____...

  9. 48 CFR 52.228-9 - Cargo Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo Insurance. 52.228-9... Insurance. As prescribed in 28.313(a), insert the following clause: Cargo Insurance (MAY 1999) (a) The..., cargo insurance of $_____ per vehicle to cover the value of property on each vehicle and of $_____...

  10. 48 CFR 52.228-9 - Cargo Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo Insurance. 52.228-9... Insurance. As prescribed in 28.313(a), insert the following clause: Cargo Insurance (MAY 1999) (a) The..., cargo insurance of $_____ per vehicle to cover the value of property on each vehicle and of $_____...

  11. 46 CFR 154.407 - Cargo tank internal pressure head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank internal pressure head. 154.407 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.407 Cargo tank internal pressure head. (a) For the calculation required under § 154.406(a)(1) and (b), the internal pressure head (heq), must be determined from...

  12. 46 CFR 154.408 - Cargo tank external pressure load.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank external pressure load. 154.408 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.408 Cargo tank external pressure load. For the calculation required under § 154.406 (a)(2) and (b), the external pressure load must be the difference between...

  13. 46 CFR 111.105-29 - Combustible liquid cargo carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Combustible liquid cargo carriers. 111.105-29 Section... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-29 Combustible liquid cargo carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries combustible liquid cargo with a closed-cup flashpoint of 60 degrees...

  14. 46 CFR 127.650 - Bulk liquid cargo limitations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Bulk liquid cargo limitations. 127.650 Section 127.650... liquid cargo limitations. Notwithstanding § 125.110 of this subchapter, no OSV carrying more than 240 total persons may carry flammable or combustible liquid cargoes of Grade D or higher in bulk....

  15. 46 CFR 111.105-29 - Combustible liquid cargo carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Combustible liquid cargo carriers. 111.105-29 Section... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-29 Combustible liquid cargo carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries combustible liquid cargo with a closed-cup flashpoint of 60 degrees...

  16. 46 CFR 111.105-29 - Combustible liquid cargo carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Combustible liquid cargo carriers. 111.105-29 Section... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-29 Combustible liquid cargo carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries combustible liquid cargo with a closed-cup flashpoint of 60 degrees...

  17. 46 CFR 111.105-29 - Combustible liquid cargo carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Combustible liquid cargo carriers. 111.105-29 Section... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-29 Combustible liquid cargo carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries combustible liquid cargo with a closed-cup flashpoint of 60 degrees...

  18. 46 CFR 111.105-29 - Combustible liquid cargo carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Combustible liquid cargo carriers. 111.105-29 Section... ELECTRIC SYSTEMS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS Hazardous Locations § 111.105-29 Combustible liquid cargo carriers. (a) Each vessel that carries combustible liquid cargo with a closed-cup flashpoint of 60 degrees...

  19. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  20. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  1. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  2. 33 CFR 157.23 - Cargo and ballast system information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CARRYING OIL IN BULK Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.23 Cargo and ballast system information. (a... automatic and manual operation of the cargo and ballast system in the vessel. (b) The format and information... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cargo and ballast...

  3. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test at ambient temperature of at least one and a half times its specified maximum working pressure but not more... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section...

  4. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test at ambient temperature of at least one and a half times its specified maximum working pressure but not more... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section...

  5. 46 CFR 153.972 - Connecting a cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the hose's last pressure test is within one year of the date on which the hose is used to transfer cargo; (d) The recommended working pressure marked on a hose used for discharge meets or exceeds the working pressure marked on the cargo piping at the hose connection; and (e) The cargo's temperature...

  6. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test at ambient temperature of at least one and a half times its specified maximum working pressure but not more... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section...

  7. 46 CFR 153.972 - Connecting a cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the hose's last pressure test is within one year of the date on which the hose is used to transfer cargo; (d) The recommended working pressure marked on a hose used for discharge meets or exceeds the working pressure marked on the cargo piping at the hose connection; and (e) The cargo's temperature...

  8. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test at ambient temperature of at least one and a half times its specified maximum working pressure but not more... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section...

  9. 46 CFR 153.972 - Connecting a cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the hose's last pressure test is within one year of the date on which the hose is used to transfer cargo; (d) The recommended working pressure marked on a hose used for discharge meets or exceeds the working pressure marked on the cargo piping at the hose connection; and (e) The cargo's temperature...

  10. 46 CFR 154.562 - Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Hose § 154.562 Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. Each cargo hose must pass a hydrostatic pressure test at ambient temperature of at least one and a half times its specified maximum working pressure but not more... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose: Hydrostatic test. 154.562 Section...

  11. 46 CFR 153.972 - Connecting a cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the hose's last pressure test is within one year of the date on which the hose is used to transfer cargo; (d) The recommended working pressure marked on a hose used for discharge meets or exceeds the working pressure marked on the cargo piping at the hose connection; and (e) The cargo's temperature...

  12. 46 CFR 153.972 - Connecting a cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the hose's last pressure test is within one year of the date on which the hose is used to transfer cargo; (d) The recommended working pressure marked on a hose used for discharge meets or exceeds the working pressure marked on the cargo piping at the hose connection; and (e) The cargo's temperature...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1842 - Cargo system: Controls and alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo system: Controls and alarms. 154.1842 Section 154... SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1842 Cargo system: Controls and alarms. The master shall ensure that the cargo emergency shut-down system and...

  14. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor... § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10a... must have— (a) A means to discharge hydrocarbon vapors from each cargo tank that is ballasted to...

  15. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor... § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10a... must have— (a) A means to discharge hydrocarbon vapors from each cargo tank that is ballasted to...

  16. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor... § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10a... must have— (a) A means to discharge hydrocarbon vapors from each cargo tank that is ballasted to...

  17. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor... § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10a... must have— (a) A means to discharge hydrocarbon vapors from each cargo tank that is ballasted to...

  18. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor... § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10a... must have— (a) A means to discharge hydrocarbon vapors from each cargo tank that is ballasted to...

  19. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  20. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  1. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  2. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  3. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its dome must be enclosed by the vessel's hull structure or a separate steel cover. (b) The steel cover...

  4. 46 CFR 151.15-10 - Cargo gauging devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... continuous reading tape gauges. However such glasses shall be made of high strength material, suitable for... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Tanks § 151.15-10 Cargo gauging devices. This section... related fixtures which form a part of the cargo containment barrier shall be of suitable material...

  5. 46 CFR 151.15-10 - Cargo gauging devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... continuous reading tape gauges. However such glasses shall be made of high strength material, suitable for... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Tanks § 151.15-10 Cargo gauging devices. This section... related fixtures which form a part of the cargo containment barrier shall be of suitable material...

  6. 46 CFR 151.15-10 - Cargo gauging devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... continuous reading tape gauges. However such glasses shall be made of high strength material, suitable for... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Tanks § 151.15-10 Cargo gauging devices. This section... related fixtures which form a part of the cargo containment barrier shall be of suitable material...

  7. 46 CFR 151.15-10 - Cargo gauging devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... continuous reading tape gauges. However such glasses shall be made of high strength material, suitable for... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Tanks § 151.15-10 Cargo gauging devices. This section... related fixtures which form a part of the cargo containment barrier shall be of suitable material...

  8. 46 CFR 151.15-10 - Cargo gauging devices.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... continuous reading tape gauges. However such glasses shall be made of high strength material, suitable for... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Tanks § 151.15-10 Cargo gauging devices. This section... related fixtures which form a part of the cargo containment barrier shall be of suitable material...

  9. 46 CFR 151.25-1 - Cargo tank.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... within the cargo tanks are filled and maintained with a liquid, gas (other than air), or vapor which will... (natural). Vapor space above the liquid surface in the tank is continuously swept with atmospheric air... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-1 Cargo tank. When carrying...

  10. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... temperature corresponding to the vapor pressure of the cargo at the safety relief valve setting. A reduction... required for a cargo vapor pressure equal to the relief valve setting. d L=Density of cargo at the loading temperature and pressure....

  11. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... temperature corresponding to the vapor pressure of the cargo at the safety relief valve setting. A reduction... required for a cargo vapor pressure equal to the relief valve setting. d L=Density of cargo at the loading temperature and pressure....

  12. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... temperature corresponding to the vapor pressure of the cargo at the safety relief valve setting. A reduction... required for a cargo vapor pressure equal to the relief valve setting. d L=Density of cargo at the loading temperature and pressure....

  13. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo hose. 98.25-80 Section 98.25-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  14. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo piping. 98.25-55 Section 98.25-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  15. 46 CFR 153.955 - Warning signs during cargo transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Warning signs during cargo transfer. 153.955 Section 153... Transfer Procedures § 153.955 Warning signs during cargo transfer. (a) When transferring cargo while fast to a dock or at anchor in port, the master shall ensure that the tankship displays a warning sign...

  16. 46 CFR 153.955 - Warning signs during cargo transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Warning signs during cargo transfer. 153.955 Section 153... Transfer Procedures § 153.955 Warning signs during cargo transfer. (a) When transferring cargo while fast to a dock or at anchor in port, the master shall ensure that the tankship displays a warning sign...

  17. 46 CFR 153.955 - Warning signs during cargo transfer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Warning signs during cargo transfer. 153.955 Section 153... Transfer Procedures § 153.955 Warning signs during cargo transfer. (a) When transferring cargo while fast to a dock or at anchor in port, the master shall ensure that the tankship displays a warning sign...

  18. 46 CFR 153.968 - Cargo transfer conference.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo transfer conference. 153.968 Section 153.968... Procedures § 153.968 Cargo transfer conference. (a) Before he may begin making connections for cargo transfer... procedure for shutdown of shore pumps, shore valves, and ship's valves that prevents piping system...

  19. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo hose. 98.25-80 Section 98.25-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  20. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo piping. 98.25-55 Section 98.25-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  1. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo piping. 98.25-55 Section 98.25-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  2. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo piping. 98.25-55 Section 98.25-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  3. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo hose. 98.25-80 Section 98.25-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  4. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo hose. 98.25-80 Section 98.25-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  5. 46 CFR 98.25-80 - Cargo hose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo hose. 98.25-80 Section 98.25-80 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  6. 46 CFR 98.25-55 - Cargo piping.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo piping. 98.25-55 Section 98.25-55 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CARGO AND MISCELLANEOUS VESSELS SPECIAL CONSTRUCTION, ARRANGEMENT, AND OTHER PROVISIONS FOR CERTAIN DANGEROUS CARGOES IN BULK Anhydrous Ammonia in Bulk §...

  7. 46 CFR 151.45-6 - Maximum amount of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... insulated, or 115 °F if uninsulated. If specific filling densities are designated in Subpart 151.50 of this...=Maximum volume to which tank may be loaded. V =Volume of tank. d r=Density of cargo at the temperature required for a cargo vapor pressure equal to the relief valve setting. d L=Density of cargo at the...

  8. 46 CFR 154.407 - Cargo tank internal pressure head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo tank internal pressure head. 154.407 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.407 Cargo tank internal pressure head. (a) For the calculation required under § 154.406(a)(1) and (b), the internal pressure head (heq), must be determined from...

  9. 46 CFR 154.407 - Cargo tank internal pressure head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo tank internal pressure head. 154.407 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.407 Cargo tank internal pressure head. (a) For the calculation required under § 154.406(a)(1) and (b), the internal pressure head (heq), must be determined from...

  10. 46 CFR 154.407 - Cargo tank internal pressure head.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo tank internal pressure head. 154.407 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.407 Cargo tank internal pressure head. (a) For the calculation required under § 154.406(a)(1) and (b), the internal pressure head (heq), must be determined from...

  11. 46 CFR 154.310 - Cargo piping systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo piping systems. 154.310 Section 154.310 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS... under § 154.703, not enter or pass through a machinery space other than a cargo pump or compressor...

  12. 46 CFR 154.408 - Cargo tank external pressure load.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo tank external pressure load. 154.408 Section 154... Equipment Cargo Containment Systems § 154.408 Cargo tank external pressure load. For the calculation required under § 154.406 (a)(2) and (b), the external pressure load must be the difference between...

  13. 46 CFR 153.440 - Cargo temperature sensors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo temperature sensors. 153.440 Section 153.440 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS... Temperature Control Systems § 153.440 Cargo temperature sensors. (a) Except as prescribed in paragraph (c)...

  14. 48 CFR 52.228-9 - Cargo Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo Insurance. 52.228-9... Insurance. As prescribed in 28.313(a), insert the following clause: Cargo Insurance (MAY 1999) (a) The..., cargo insurance of $_____ per vehicle to cover the value of property on each vehicle and of $_____...

  15. 48 CFR 52.228-9 - Cargo Insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo Insurance. 52.228-9... Insurance. As prescribed in 28.313(a), insert the following clause: Cargo Insurance (MAY 1999) (a) The..., cargo insurance of $_____ per vehicle to cover the value of property on each vehicle and of $_____...

  16. 46 CFR 154.1844 - Cargo tanks: Filling limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tanks: Filling limits. 154.1844 Section 154.1844... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1844 Cargo tanks... cargo tank is not loaded: (1) More than 98 percent liquid full; or (2) In excess of the...

  17. 46 CFR 154.410 - Cargo tank sloshing loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank sloshing loads. 154.410 Section 154.410... Containment Systems § 154.410 Cargo tank sloshing loads. (a) For the calculation required under § 154.406 (a... be specially approved by the Commandant (CG-522). (b) If the sloshing loads affect the cargo...

  18. 46 CFR 154.411 - Cargo tank thermal loads.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tank thermal loads. 154.411 Section 154.411... Containment Systems § 154.411 Cargo tank thermal loads. For the calculations required under § 154.406(a)(4... thermal loads for the cooling down periods of cargo tanks for design temperatures lower than −55 °C...

  19. 46 CFR 162.050-25 - Cargo monitor: Design specification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo monitor: Design specification. 162.050-25 Section....050-25 Cargo monitor: Design specification. (a) This section contains requirements that apply to cargo monitors. (b) Each monitor must be designed so that it is calibrated by a means that does not...

  20. 33 CFR 155.225 - Internal cargo transfer capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.225 Internal cargo transfer capability. Oil tankers and offshore oil barges must... cargo block, unless the vessel's installed cargo piping system is capable of performing this function....

  1. 33 CFR 155.225 - Internal cargo transfer capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.225 Internal cargo transfer capability. Oil tankers and offshore oil barges must... cargo block, unless the vessel's installed cargo piping system is capable of performing this function....

  2. 33 CFR 155.225 - Internal cargo transfer capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.225 Internal cargo transfer capability. Oil tankers and offshore oil barges must... cargo block, unless the vessel's installed cargo piping system is capable of performing this function....

  3. 33 CFR 155.225 - Internal cargo transfer capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.225 Internal cargo transfer capability. Oil tankers and offshore oil barges must... cargo block, unless the vessel's installed cargo piping system is capable of performing this function....

  4. 33 CFR 155.225 - Internal cargo transfer capability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) POLLUTION OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL POLLUTION PREVENTION REGULATIONS FOR VESSELS Vessel Equipment § 155.225 Internal cargo transfer capability. Oil tankers and offshore oil barges must... cargo block, unless the vessel's installed cargo piping system is capable of performing this function....

  5. 46 CFR 308.511 - Cancellation of Open Cargo Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cancellation of Open Cargo Policy. 308.511 Section 308.511 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.511 Cancellation of...

  6. 46 CFR 308.511 - Cancellation of Open Cargo Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cancellation of Open Cargo Policy. 308.511 Section 308.511 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.511 Cancellation of...

  7. 46 CFR 308.511 - Cancellation of Open Cargo Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cancellation of Open Cargo Policy. 308.511 Section 308.511 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.511 Cancellation of Open...

  8. 46 CFR 308.511 - Cancellation of Open Cargo Policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cancellation of Open Cargo Policy. 308.511 Section 308.511 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance § 308.511 Cancellation of...

  9. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed...

  10. 46 CFR 151.25-2 - Cargo handling space.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo handling space. 151.25-2 Section 151.25-2 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Environmental Control § 151.25-2 Cargo handling space. Pump rooms, compressor rooms, refrigeration rooms, heating rooms, instrument rooms or other closed...

  11. 46 CFR 69.67 - Marking of cargo spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Marking of cargo spaces. 69.67 Section 69.67 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.67 Marking of cargo spaces. Cargo spaces used...

  12. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  13. 46 CFR 154.1850 - Entering cargo handling spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Entering cargo handling spaces. 154.1850 Section 154... cargo handling spaces. (a) The master shall ensure that the ventilation system under § 154.1200 is in operation for 30 minutes before a person enters one of the following: (1) Spaces containing cargo...

  14. 46 CFR 69.67 - Marking of cargo spaces.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Marking of cargo spaces. 69.67 Section 69.67 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DOCUMENTATION AND MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS MEASUREMENT OF VESSELS Convention Measurement System § 69.67 Marking of cargo spaces. Cargo spaces used...

  15. 49 CFR 172.328 - Cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo tanks. 172.328 Section 172.328 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  16. 49 CFR 172.328 - Cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo tanks. 172.328 Section 172.328 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  17. 49 CFR 172.328 - Cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo tanks. 172.328 Section 172.328 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  18. 49 CFR 172.328 - Cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo tanks. 172.328 Section 172.328 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TABLE,...

  19. Inspection of cargo containers using gamma radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hussein, Esam M. A.; Gokhale, Prasad; Arendtsz, Nina V.; Lawrence, Andre H.

    1997-02-01

    This paper investigate, with the aid of Monte Carlo simulations and laboratory experiments, a technique for the detection of narcotics in large cargo containers using gamma-radiation. The transmission and back-scattering of photons, at different energies, is used to provide information useful for identifying the presence of bulk quantities of commonly encountered narcotics.

  20. Cargo selectivity of yeast sorting nexins.

    PubMed

    Bean, Björn D M; Davey, Michael; Conibear, Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    Sorting nexins are PX domain-containing proteins that bind phospholipids and often act in membrane trafficking where they help to select cargo. However, the functions and cargo specificities of many sorting nexins are unknown. Here, a high-throughput imaging screen was used to identify new sorting nexin cargo in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Deletions of 9 different sorting nexins were screened for mislocalization of a set of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged membrane proteins found at the plasma membrane, Golgi or endosomes. This identified 27 proteins that require 1 or more sorting nexins for their correct localization, 23 of which represent novel sorting nexin cargo. Nine hits whose sorting was dependent on Snx4, the sorting nexin-containing retromer complex, or both retromer and Snx3, were examined in detail to search for potential sorting motifs. We identified cytosolic domains of Ear1, Ymd8 and Ymr010w that conferred retromer-dependent sorting on a chimeric reporter and identified conserved residues required for this sorting in a functional assay. This work defined a consensus sequence for retromer and Snx3-dependent sorting.

  1. 46 CFR 154.1810 - Cargo manual.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... system that affect its operation and maintenance, including pressure and temperature ranges and relief valve settings. (6) Pressures, temperatures, and liquid levels for all operations. (7) General... with inert gas and air. (13) A description of hull and cargo tank temperature monitoring systems....

  2. 46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91 Section... PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that is— (a) Fitted between the cargo...

  3. 46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91 Section... PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that is— (a) Fitted between the cargo...

  4. 46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91 Section... PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that is— (a) Fitted between the cargo...

  5. 46 CFR 153.336 - Special cargo pump or pumproom requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Special cargo pump or pumproom requirements. 153.336... Equipment Cargo Pumprooms § 153.336 Special cargo pump or pumproom requirements. (a) When Table 1 refers to this section: (1) The cargo pump must be an intank cargo pump; (2) The cargo pumproom must be on...

  6. 46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91 Section... PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that is— (a) Fitted between the cargo...

  7. 46 CFR 64.91 - Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. 64.91 Section... PORTABLE TANKS AND CARGO HANDLING SYSTEMS Cargo Handling System § 64.91 Relief valve for the cargo pump discharge. The cargo pump discharge must have a relief valve that is— (a) Fitted between the cargo...

  8. 46 CFR 97.12-1 - Bulk ores and similar cargoes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bulk ores and similar cargoes. 97.12-1 Section 97.12-1... OPERATIONS Cargo Stowage § 97.12-1 Bulk ores and similar cargoes. (a) The owners or operators of general cargo vessels which carry bulk cargoes such as ore, ore concentrates, and similar cargoes shall...

  9. 46 CFR 154.1831 - Persons in charge of transferring liquid cargo in bulk or preparing cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in bulk or a cool-down, warm-up, gas-free, or air-out of each cargo tank; (2) Each transfer of liquid cargo in bulk, and each cool-down, warm-up, gas-free, or air-out of a cargo tank, is supervised by a... in bulk or a cool-down, warm-up, gas-free, or air-out of a cargo tank possesses the...

  10. 46 CFR 154.1831 - Persons in charge of transferring liquid cargo in bulk or preparing cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... in bulk or a cool-down, warm-up, gas-free, or air-out of each cargo tank; (2) Each transfer of liquid cargo in bulk, and each cool-down, warm-up, gas-free, or air-out of a cargo tank, is supervised by a... in bulk or a cool-down, warm-up, gas-free, or air-out of a cargo tank possesses the...

  11. An outlook for cargo aircraft of the future. [assessment of the future of air cargo by analyzing statistics and trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicks, O. W.; Whitehead, A. H., Jr.; Alford, W. J., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    An assessment is provided of the future of air cargo by analyzing air cargo statistics and trends, by noting air cargo system problems and inefficiencies, by analyzing characteristics of air-eligible commodities, and by showing the promise of new technology for future cargo aircraft with significant improvements in costs and efficiency. NASA's proposed program is reviewed which would sponsor the research needed to provide for development of advanced designs by 1985.

  12. 46 CFR 154.1831 - Persons in charge of transferring liquid cargo in bulk or preparing cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... in bulk or a cool-down, warm-up, gas-free, or air-out of each cargo tank; (2) Each transfer of liquid cargo in bulk, and each cool-down, warm-up, gas-free, or air-out of a cargo tank, is supervised by a... in bulk or a cool-down, warm-up, gas-free, or air-out of a cargo tank possesses the...

  13. Stochastic simulations of cargo transport by processive molecular motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korn, Christian B.; Klumpp, Stefan; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Schwarz, Ulrich S.

    2009-12-01

    We use stochastic computer simulations to study the transport of a spherical cargo particle along a microtubule-like track on a planar substrate by several kinesin-like processive motors. Our newly developed adhesive motor dynamics algorithm combines the numerical integration of a Langevin equation for the motion of a sphere with kinetic rules for the molecular motors. The Langevin part includes diffusive motion, the action of the pulling motors, and hydrodynamic interactions between sphere and wall. The kinetic rules for the motors include binding to and unbinding from the filament as well as active motor steps. We find that the simulated mean transport length increases exponentially with the number of bound motors, in good agreement with earlier results. The number of motors in binding range to the motor track fluctuates in time with a Poissonian distribution, both for springs and cables being used as models for the linker mechanics. Cooperativity in the sense of equal load sharing only occurs for high values for viscosity and attachment time.

  14. Stochastic simulations of cargo transport by processive molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Korn, Christian B; Klumpp, Stefan; Lipowsky, Reinhard; Schwarz, Ulrich S

    2009-12-28

    We use stochastic computer simulations to study the transport of a spherical cargo particle along a microtubule-like track on a planar substrate by several kinesin-like processive motors. Our newly developed adhesive motor dynamics algorithm combines the numerical integration of a Langevin equation for the motion of a sphere with kinetic rules for the molecular motors. The Langevin part includes diffusive motion, the action of the pulling motors, and hydrodynamic interactions between sphere and wall. The kinetic rules for the motors include binding to and unbinding from the filament as well as active motor steps. We find that the simulated mean transport length increases exponentially with the number of bound motors, in good agreement with earlier results. The number of motors in binding range to the motor track fluctuates in time with a Poissonian distribution, both for springs and cables being used as models for the linker mechanics. Cooperativity in the sense of equal load sharing only occurs for high values for viscosity and attachment time.

  15. 49 CFR 1548.15 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for individuals having unescorted access to cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on a passenger aircraft or all-cargo aircraft,...

  16. 49 CFR 1548.15 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for individuals having unescorted access to cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on a passenger aircraft or all-cargo aircraft,...

  17. 49 CFR 1548.15 - Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for individuals having unescorted access to cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Relating to Transportation (Continued) TRANSPORTATION SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to cargo: Security threat assessments for... transportation, dispatch or security of cargo for transport on a passenger aircraft or all-cargo aircraft,...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1831 - Persons in charge of transferring liquid cargo in bulk or preparing cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING... preparing cargo tanks. (a) The owner and operator of the vessel, and his or her agent, and each of them...”, authorized for the classification of cargo carried, are on duty to safely conduct a transfer of liquid...

  19. 46 CFR 154.1831 - Persons in charge of transferring liquid cargo in bulk or preparing cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SAFETY STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING... preparing cargo tanks. (a) The owner and operator of the vessel, and his or her agent, and each of them...”, authorized for the classification of cargo carried, are on duty to safely conduct a transfer of liquid...

  20. Cellular Delivery of Nanoparticles Revealed with Combined Optical and Isotopic Nanoscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Proetto, Maria T.; Anderton, Christopher R.; Hu, Dehong; Szymanski, Craig J.; Zhu, Zihua; Patterson, Joseph P.; Kammeyer, Jacquelin K.; Nilewski, Lizanne G.; Rush, Anthony M.; Bell, Nia C.; Evans, James E.; Orr, Galya; Howell, Stephen B.; Gianneschi, Nathan C.

    2016-03-07

    Synthetic drug-carrying nanomaterials offer great potential as targeted cellular delivery vehicles. Typically, their size, morphology, surface chemistry and stability are optimized in order to control their effect on drug release kinetics, cellular uptake pathways, efficiency and site of action. However, methods to track the carriers and their cargo independently at the micro- and nanoscale have been severely underutilized preventing the correlation between structure and function. Here we show that by using combined optical and isotopic nanoscopy we can track the uptake in cancer cells and subsequent drug release of a Pt(II)-loaded anticancer nanoparticle (NP) system. We found that by directly polymerizing an oxaliplatin analogue containing a norbornyl moiety amenable to polymerization via ring opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) we could generate amphiphiles in one pot. Spontaneous self-assembly of the drug-containing polymers in aqueous solution led to well-defined NPs in a reproducible manner. Our results demonstrate that the covalently loaded NPs are equipotent with free oxaliplatin and are taken up intact via endocytic pathways before release of the cytotoxic cargo. This was confirmed by super resolution fluorescence structured illumination microscopy (SIM) and nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). We anticipate that this type of multimodal cellular tracking of NP and drug will bridge the knowledge gap between particle structure and performance for the vast array of currently generalizable systems in the literature. Furthermore, the use of covalently loaded NP drug systems should allow development of more stable, reproducible and site specific nanodelivery agents.

  1. 46 CFR 32.50-10 - Cargo pumps on tank vessels with independent cargo tanks which were constructed prior to November...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-10 Cargo pumps on tank vessels with independent cargo tanks... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cargo pumps on tank vessels with independent cargo...

  2. 46 CFR 32.50-10 - Cargo pumps on tank vessels with independent cargo tanks which were constructed prior to November...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-10 Cargo pumps on tank vessels with independent cargo tanks... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo pumps on tank vessels with independent cargo...

  3. 46 CFR 32.50-10 - Cargo pumps on tank vessels with independent cargo tanks which were constructed prior to November...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-10 Cargo pumps on tank vessels with independent cargo tanks... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cargo pumps on tank vessels with independent cargo...

  4. 46 CFR 32.50-10 - Cargo pumps on tank vessels with independent cargo tanks which were constructed prior to November...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-10 Cargo pumps on tank vessels with independent cargo tanks... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cargo pumps on tank vessels with independent cargo...

  5. 46 CFR 32.50-10 - Cargo pumps on tank vessels with independent cargo tanks which were constructed prior to November...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY TANK VESSELS SPECIAL EQUIPMENT, MACHINERY, AND HULL REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-10 Cargo pumps on tank vessels with independent cargo tanks... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo pumps on tank vessels with independent cargo...

  6. Cell-Mediated Drugs Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Batrakova, Elena V.; Gendelman, Howard E.; Kabanov, Alexander V.

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Drug targeting to sites of tissue injury, tumor or infection with limited toxicity is the goal for successful pharmaceutics. Immunocytes (including mononuclear phagocytes (dendritic cells, monocytes and macrophages), neutrophils, and lymphocytes) are highly mobile; they can migrate across impermeable barriers and release their drug cargo at sites of infection or tissue injury. Thus immune cells can be exploited as trojan horses for drug delivery. AREAS COVERED IN THIS REVIEW This paper reviews how immunocytes laden with drugs can cross the blood brain or blood tumor barriers, to facilitate treatments for infectious diseases, injury, cancer, or inflammatory diseases. The promises and perils of cell-mediated drug delivery are reviewed, with examples of how immunocytes can be harnessed to improve therapeutic end points. EXPERT OPINION Using cells as delivery vehicles enables targeted drug transport, and prolonged circulation times, along with reductions in cell and tissue toxicities. Such systems for drug carriage and targeted release represent a novel disease combating strategy being applied to a spectrum of human disorders. The design of nanocarriers for cell-mediated drug delivery may differ from those used for conventional drug delivery systems; nevertheless, engaging different defense mechanisms into drug delivery may open new perspectives for the active delivery of drugs. PMID:21348773

  7. Development of a calcium phosphate co-precipitate/poly(lactide-co-glycolide) DNA delivery system: release kinetics and cellular transfection studies.

    PubMed

    Kofron, Michelle D; Laurencin, Cato T

    2004-06-01

    One of the most common non-viral methods for the introduction of foreign deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) into cultured cells is calcium phosphate co-precipitate transfection. This technique involves the encapsulation of DNA within a calcium phosphate co-precipitate, particulate addition to in vitro cell culture, endocytosis of the co-precipitate, and exogenous DNA expression by the transfected cell. In this study, we fabricated a novel non-viral gene transfer system by adsorbing DNA, encapsulated in calcium phosphate (DNA/Ca-P) co-precipitates, to biodegradable two- and three-dimensional poly(lactide-co-glycolide) matrices (2D-DNA/Ca-P/PLAGA, 3D-DNA/Ca-P/PLAGA). Co-precipitate release studies demonstrated an initial burst release over the first 48 h. By day 7, approximately 96% of the initially adsorbed DNA/Ca-P co-precipitate had been released. This was followed by low levels of co-precipitate release for 42 days. Polymerase chain reaction was used to demonstrate the ability of the released DNA containing co-precipitates to transfect SaOS-2 cells cultured in vitro on the 3D-DNA/Ca-P/PLAGA matrix and maintenance of the structural integrity of the exogenous DNA. In summary, a promising system for the incorporation and controlled delivery of exogenous genes encapsulated within a calcium phosphate co-precipitate from biodegradable polymeric matrices has been developed and may have applicability to the delivery of therapeutic genes and the transfection of other cell types.

  8. Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Investment Model-Cargo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Jesse; Santmire, Tara

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC) Air Cargo Investment Model-Cargo (ACIMC), is to examine the economic effects of technology investment on the air cargo market, particularly the market for new cargo aircraft. To do so, we have built an econometrically based model designed to operate like the ACIM. Two main drivers account for virtually all of the demand: the growth rate of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and changes in the fare yield (which is a proxy of the price charged or fare). These differences arise from a combination of the nature of air cargo demand and the peculiarities of the air cargo market. The net effect of these two factors are that sales of new cargo aircraft are much less sensitive to either increases in GDP or changes in the costs of labor, capital, fuel, materials, and energy associated with the production of new cargo aircraft than the sales of new passenger aircraft. This in conjunction with the relatively small size of the cargo aircraft market means technology improvements to the cargo aircraft will do relatively very little to spur increased sales of new cargo aircraft.

  9. Cargo adaptors: structures illuminate mechanisms regulating vesicle biogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Paczkowski, Jon E.; Richardson, Brian C.; Fromme, J. Christopher

    2015-01-01

    Cargo adaptors sort transmembrane protein cargos into nascent vesicles by binding directly to their cytosolic domains. Recent studies have revealed previously unappreciated roles for cargo adaptors and regulatory mechanisms governing their function. The AP-1 and AP-2 clathrin adaptors switch between open and closed conformations that ensure they function at the right place at the right time. The exomer cargo adaptor plays a direct role in remodeling the membrane for vesicle fission. Several different cargo adaptors functioning in distinct trafficking pathways at the Golgi are similarly regulated through bivalent binding to the Arf1 GTPase, potentially enabling regulation by a threshold concentration of Arf1. Taken together, these studies highlight that cargo adaptors do more than just adapt cargos. PMID:25795254

  10. Cargo adaptors: structures illuminate mechanisms regulating vesicle biogenesis.

    PubMed

    Paczkowski, Jon E; Richardson, Brian C; Fromme, J Christopher

    2015-07-01

    Cargo adaptors sort transmembrane protein cargos into nascent vesicles by binding directly to their cytosolic domains. Recent studies have revealed previously unappreciated roles for cargo adaptors and regulatory mechanisms governing their function. The adaptor protein (AP)-1 and AP-2 clathrin adaptors switch between open and closed conformations that ensure they function at the right place at the right time. The exomer cargo adaptor has a direct role in remodeling the membrane for vesicle fission. Several different cargo adaptors functioning in distinct trafficking pathways at the Golgi are similarly regulated through bivalent binding to the ADP-ribosylation factor 1 (Arf1) GTPase, potentially enabling regulation by a threshold concentration of Arf1. Taken together, these studies highlight that cargo adaptors do more than just adapt cargos.

  11. Vector-free intracellular delivery by reversible permeabilization

    PubMed Central

    Annibaldi, Valeria; Gallagher, Louise; Mulholland, Joanne; Molloy, Emer L.; Breen, Conor J.; Gilbert, Jennifer L.; Martin, Darren S.; Maguire, Michael; Curry, Fitz-Roy

    2017-01-01

    Despite advances in intracellular delivery technologies, efficient methods are still required that are vector-free, can address a wide range of cargo types and can be applied to cells that are difficult to transfect whilst maintaining cell viability. We have developed a novel vector-free method that uses reversible permeabilization to achieve rapid intracellular delivery of cargos with varying composition, properties and size. A permeabilizing delivery solution was developed that contains a low level of ethanol as the permeabilizing agent. Reversal of cell permeabilization is achieved by temporally and volumetrically controlling the contact of the target cells with this solution. Cells are seeded in conventional multi-well plates. Following removal of the supernatant, the cargo is mixed with the delivery solution and applied directly to the cells using an atomizer. After a short incubation period, permeabilization is halted by incubating the cells in a phosphate buffer saline solution that dilutes the ethanol and is non-toxic to the permeabilized cells. Normal culture medium is then added. The procedure lasts less than 5 min. With this method, proteins, mRNA, plasmid DNA and other molecules have been delivered to a variety of cell types, including primary cells, with low toxicity and cargo functionality has been confirmed in proof-of-principle studies. Co-delivery of different cargo types has also been demonstrated. Importantly, delivery occurs by diffusion directly into the cytoplasm in an endocytic-independent manner. Unlike some other vector-free methods, adherent cells are addressed in situ without the need for detachment from their substratum. The method has also been adapted to address suspension cells. This delivery method is gentle yet highly reproducible, compatible with high throughput and automated cell-based assays and has the potential to enable a broad range of research, drug discovery and clinical applications. PMID:28358921

  12. Gemini: A long-range cargo transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    The proposed Gemini, a long-range cargo transport, is designed as a high capacity, dedicated cargo transporter of 8'x8'x20' inter-modal containers, and long-range design. These requirements will result in a design that is larger than any existing aircraft. Due to the size, a conventional configuration would result in an aircraft unable to operate economically at existing airports. It is necessary to design for a minimum possible empty weight, wingspan, and landing gear track. After considering both a single fuselage biplane and a double fuselage biplane configuration, the design team choose the double fuselage biplane configuration. Both of these configuration choices result in a reduced wing root bending moment and subsequently in substantial savings in the wing weight. An overall decrease in the weight of the airplane, its systems, and fuel will be a direct result of the wing weight savings.

  13. Photoactivated colloidal dockers for cargo transportation.

    PubMed

    Palacci, Jérémie; Sacanna, Stefano; Vatchinsky, Adrian; Chaikin, Paul M; Pine, David J

    2013-10-30

    We introduce a self-propelled colloidal hematite docker that can be steered to a small particle cargo many times its size, dock, transport the cargo to a remote location, and then release it. The self-propulsion and docking are reversible and activated by visible light. The docker can be steered either by a weak uniform magnetic field or by nanoscale tracks in a textured substrate. The light-activated motion and docking originate from osmotic/phoretic particle transport in a concentration gradient of fuel, hydrogen peroxide, induced by the photocatalytic activity of the hematite. The docking mechanism is versatile and can be applied to various materials and shapes. The hematite dockers are simple single-component particles and are synthesized in bulk quantities. This system opens up new possibilities for designing complex micrometer-size factories as well as new biomimetic systems.

  14. Multimodal delivery of irinotecan from microparticles with two distinct compartments.

    PubMed

    Rahmani, Sahar; Park, Tae-Hong; Dishman, Acacia Frances; Lahann, Joerg

    2013-11-28

    In the last several decades, research in the field of drug delivery has been challenged with the fabrication of carrier systems engineered to deliver therapeutics to the target site with sustained and controlled release kinetics. Herein, we report the fabrication of microparticles composed of two distinct compartments: i) one compartment containing a pH responsive polymer, acetal-modified dextran, and PLGA (polylactide-co-glycolide), and ii) one compartment composed entirely of PLGA. We demonstrate the complete release of dextran from the microparticles during a 10-hour period in an acidic pH environment and the complete degradation of one compartment in less than 24h. This is in congruence with the stability of the same microparticles in neutral pH over the 24-hour period. Such microparticles can be used as pH responsive carrier systems for drug delivery applications where their cargo will only be released when the optimum pH window is reached. The feasibility of the microparticle system for such an application was confirmed by encapsulating a cancer therapeutic, irinotecan, in the compartment containing the acetal-modified dextran polymer and the pH dependent release over a 5-day period was studied. It was found that upon pH change to an acidic environment, over 50% of the drug was first released at a rapid rate for 10h, similar to that observed for the dextran release, before continuing at a more controlled rate for 4 days. As such, these microparticles can play an important role in the fabrication of novel drug delivery systems due to the selective, controlled, and pH responsive release of their encapsulated therapeutics.

  15. Scanning Cargo Containers with Tagged Neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Viesti, G.; Botosso, C.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Zenoni, A.; Donzella, A.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Bernard, S.; Mariani, A.; Szabo, J.-L.; Sannie, G.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Nad, K.; Peerani, P.; Sequeira, V.

    2007-10-26

    A new Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) able to detect illicit materials such as explosives and narcotics in cargo containers has been developed within the EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project. After the R and D phase, the inspection portal has been installed and commissioned at the Rijeka seaport in Croatia, where it has been operated in connection with the existing X-ray scanner for a first two-month demonstration campaign. Results obtained are presented and discussed in this paper.

  16. Scanning Cargo Containers with Tagged Neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viesti, G.; Botosso, C.; Fabris, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Nebbia, G.; Pesente, S.; Zenoni, A.; Donzella, A.; Perot, B.; Carasco, C.; Bernard, S.; Mariani, A.; Szabo, J.-L.; Sannie, G.; Valkovic, V.; Sudac, D.; Nad, K.; Peerani, P.; Sequeira, V.; Salvato, M.; Moszynski, M.; Gierlik, M.; Klamra, W.; Le Tourneur, P.; Lhuissier, M.; Colonna, A.; Tintori, C.

    2007-10-01

    A new Tagged Neutron Inspection System (TNIS) able to detect illicit materials such as explosives and narcotics in cargo containers has been developed within the EURopean Illicit TRAfficing Countermeasures Kit (EURITRACK) project. After the R&D phase, the inspection portal has been installed and commissioned at the Rijeka seaport in Croatia, where it has been operated in connection with the existing X-ray scanner for a first two-month demonstration campaign. Results obtained are presented and discussed in this paper.

  17. Investigation of Grade E Cargo Flammability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-03-01

    Chromatographie studies were performed on two No. 6 oils meeting Grade E cargo requirements to determine if they exhibit below flash point ignition behavior...Their flash points were obtained by the Pensky-Martens Closed Cup Method (ASTM Method D93). This was followed by tests to determine whether these oils ...could ignite at temperatures below their flash point. In addition, Chromatographie analyses were performed on the bulk oils and their vapors to

  18. Winged cargo return vehicle conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    NASA is committed to placing a permanent space station in Earth orbit in the 1990's. Space Station Freedom (SSF) will be located in a 220 n.m. orbit at 28.5 degrees inclination. The Winged Cargo Return Vehicle's (CRV) primary mission is to support SSF crew by flying regular resupply missions. The winged CRV is designed to be reusable, dry land recoverable, and unmanned. The CRV will be launched inline on three liquid hydrogen/oxygen rocket boosters with a payload capacity of 113,000 lbs. The three boosters will take the CRV to an orbit of 50 by 110 n.m. From this altitude the orbital manuevering engine will place the vehicle in synchronous orbit with the space station. The winged CRV will deliver cargo modules to the space station by direct docking or by remaining outside the SSF command zone and using the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) to transfer cargo. After unloading/loading, the CRV will deorbit and fly back to Kennedy Space Center. The CRV has a wing span of 57.8 feet, a length of 76.0 feet, and a dry weight of 61.5 klb. The cargo capacity of the vehicle is 44.4 klb. The vehicle has a lift-drag ratio of 1.28 (hypersonic) and 6.0 (subsonic), resulting in a 1351 n.m. cross range. The overall mission length ranges between 18.8 and 80.5 hr. The operational period will be the years 2000 to 2020.

  19. Cargo transportation by airships: A systems study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, C. J.; Dalton, C.

    1976-01-01

    A systems engineering study of a lighter than air airship transportation system was conducted. The feasibility of the use of airships in hauling cargo was demonstrated. Social, legal, environmental and political factors were considered as well as the technical factors necessary to design an effective airship transportation system. In order to accomplish an effective airship transportation program two phases of implementation were recommended. Phase I would involve a fleet of rigid airships of 3.5 million cubic feet displacement capable of carrying 25 tons of cargo internal to the helium-filled gas bag. The Phase I fleet would demonstrate the economic and technical feasibility of modern-day airships while providing a training capability for the construction and operation of larger airships. The Phase II portion would be a fleet of rigid airships of 12 million cubic feet displacement capable of carrying a cargo of 100 tons a distance of 2,000 miles at a cruising speed of 60 mph. An economic analysis is given for a variety of missions for both Phase I and Phase II airships.

  20. Simultaneous determination of drug surface concentration and polymer degradation kinetics in biodegradable polymer/drug membranes: a model drug delivery system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Joo-Woon; Gardella, Joseph A.

    2004-06-01

    This paper reports new simultaneous ToF-SIMS analysis to determine both the earliest stage of polymer degradation and the surface concentration of a drug additive. The static SIMS spectra of a model Ph 3N/poly( L-lactic acid) (PLLA) (20:80 wt.%) blend matrix ( t˜0.4 μm on 1.0 cm 2) hydrolyzed in buffered conditions are simultaneously and independently analyzed in the low mass range for the surface accumulation profile of Ph 3N and in the high mass for the hydrolytic degradation kinetics of PLLA, respectively. The rate of PLLA degradation at pH 10.0 is ˜2 times faster than that at pH 7.4, but the corresponding rate of Ph 3N accumulation at the surface is accelerated by a factor of ˜10.5 times faster. The results provide new insight in evaluating the surface concentration of Ph 3N (p Kb=0) from the blends, indicating that the initial rapid increase in surface concentration of Ph 3N is related to but not singularly dependent on the rate of PLLA degradation.

  1. Mission Design Considerations for Mars Cargo of the Human Spaceflight Architecture Team's Evolvable Mars Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sjauw, Waldy K.; McGuire, Melissa L.; Freeh, Joshua E.

    2016-01-01

    Recent NASA interest in human missions to Mars has led to an Evolvable Mars Campaign by the agency's Human Architecture Team. Delivering the crew return propulsion stages and Mars surface landers, SEP based systems are employed because of their high specific impulse characteristics enabling missions requiring less propellant although with longer transfer times. The Earth departure trajectories start from an SLS launch vehicle delivery orbit and are spiral shaped because of the low SEP thrust. Previous studies have led to interest in assessing the divide in trip time between the Earth departure and interplanetary legs of the mission for a representative SEP cargo vehicle.

  2. Foundation for Heavy Lift: Early Developments in the Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sumrall, John P.; McArthur, J. Craig

    2007-01-01

    The Ares V Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) is NASA's primary vessel for safe, reliable delivery of the Lunar Surface Access Module (LSAM) and other resources into Earth orbit, as articulated in the U.S. Vision for Space Exploration.' The Ares V launch concept is shown. The foundation for this heavy-lift companion to the Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) is taking shape within NASA and with its government and industry partners. This paper will address accomplishments in the Ares V Launch Vehicle during 2006 and 2007 and offer a preview of future activities.

  3. AND logic-like pH- and light-dual controlled drug delivery by surface modified mesoporous silica nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Junwei; He, Zhaoshuai; Li, Biao; Cheng, Tanyu; Liu, Guohua

    2017-04-01

    Recently, the controlled drug delivery system has become a potential platform for biomedical application. Herein, we developed a pH and light-dual controlled cargo release system exhibiting AND logic based on MCM-41 mesoporous silica nanoparticles, which was surface modified using β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) with imine bond and azobenzene derivative. The complex of β-CD and azobenzene derivative effectively blocked the cargo delivery in pH=7.0 phosphate buffered saline (PBS) solution without 365nm UV light irradiation. The cargo was fully released when both factors of acidic environment (pH=5.0 PBS) and 365nm UV light irradiation were satisfied, meanwhile only very little cargo was delivered if one factor was satisfied. The result also demonstrates that the opening/closing of the gate and the release of the cargo in small portions can be controlled.

  4. Drug Delivery via Cell Membrane Fusion Using Lipopeptide Modified Liposomes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Efficient delivery of drugs to living cells is still a major challenge. Currently, most methods rely on the endocytotic pathway resulting in low delivery efficiency due to limited endosomal escape and/or degradation in lysosomes. Here, we report a new method for direct drug delivery into the cytosol of live cells in vitro and invivo utilizing targeted membrane fusion between liposomes and live cells. A pair of complementary coiled-coil lipopeptides was embedded in the lipid bilayer of liposomes and cell membranes respectively, resulting in targeted membrane fusion with concomitant release of liposome encapsulated cargo including fluorescent dyes and the cytotoxic drug doxorubicin. Using a wide spectrum of endocytosis inhibitors and endosome trackers, we demonstrate that the major site of cargo release is at the plasma membrane. This method thus allows for the quick and efficient delivery of drugs and is expected to have many invitro, ex vivo, and invivo applications. PMID:27725960

  5. Graphene as multi-functional delivery platform in cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Nejabat, Mojgan; Charbgoo, Fahimeh; Ramezani, Mohammad

    2017-04-03

    The biomedical applications of graphene-based nanomaterials including drug and gene delivery have grown rapidly in the past few years. This is due to its high surface area that results in high cargo loading capacity. It is demonstrated that graphene can improve drug efficacy without increasing the dose of the chemotherapeutic agent in cancer treatment. Considering these valuable benefits of graphene, this review focused on the newest advancements in drug and gene delivery systems using graphene and unveiling advantages and disadvantages of different graphene-based materials in introducing an effective cargo delivery system for cancer therapy. Different approaches for reducing cytotoxic impacts of grapheme oxide and production of biocompatible delivery platform were also reviewed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Challenges and perspectives of transport cargo vehicles utilization for performing research in free flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matveeva, T. V.; Belyaev, M. Yu.; Tsvetkov, V. V.

    2014-01-01

    Russian Progress transport cargo vehicles have successfully been used in different space station programs since 1978. At present time, they play an important role in the International Space Station (ISS) project. Main tasks performed by the transport cargo vehicle (TCV) in the station program are the following: refueling of the station, delivery of consumables and equipment, waste removal, station attitude control and orbit correction maneuver execution. At the same time, the cargo vehicle basic systems still retain unused resources after the vehicle finishes its work with the station. It makes sense to use these resources to perform research in free flight of TCV after departure from the ISS when possible. The fields of research can be determined not only on the basis of the vehicle capabilities as a research platform but also taking into account needs of the research community. Possible fields could be the following:

  7. Advanced Solar-propelled Cargo Spacecraft for Mars Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auziasdeturenne, Jacqueline; Beall, Mark; Burianek, Joseph; Cinniger, Anna; Dunmire, Barbrina; Haberman, Eric; Iwamoto, James; Johnson, Stephen; Mccracken, Shawn; Miller, Melanie

    1989-01-01

    Three concepts for an unmanned, solar powered, cargo spacecraft for Mars support missions were investigated. These spacecraft are designed to carry a 50,000 kg payload from a low Earth orbit to a low Mars orbit. Each design uses a distinctly different propulsion system: A Solar Radiation Absorption (SRA) system, a Solar-Pumped Laser (SPL) system and a solar powered magnetoplasmadynamic (MPD) arc system. The SRA directly converts solar energy to thermal energy in the propellant through a novel process. In the SPL system, a pair of solar-pumped, multi-megawatt, CO2 lasers in sunsynchronous Earth orbit converts solar energy to laser energy. The MPD system used indium phosphide solar cells to convert sunlight to electricity, which powers the propulsion system. Various orbital transfer options are examined for these concepts. In the SRA system, the mother ship transfers the payload into a very high Earth orbit and a small auxiliary propulsion system boosts the payload into a Hohmann transfer to Mars. The SPL spacecraft and the SPL powered spacecraft return to Earth for subsequent missions. The MPD propelled spacecraft, however, remains at Mars as an orbiting space station. A patched conic approximation was used to determine a heliocentric interplanetary transfer orbit for the MPD propelled spacecraft. All three solar-powered spacecraft use an aerobrake procedure to place the payload into a low Mars parking orbit. The payload delivery times range from 160 days to 873 days (2.39 years).

  8. 46 CFR 98.30-14 - Cargo pumps.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cargo pumps. 98.30-14 Section 98.30-14 Shipping COAST... Containers § 98.30-14 Cargo pumps. No person may operate a cargo pump to transfer a product to or from a portable tank unless the pump is installed— (a) Above deck; or (b) Below deck, in conformance with...

  9. 6. An "A" class buoy tender loads cargo alongside a ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. An "A" class buoy tender loads cargo alongside a dock. The cargo carrying capacity of the 180s made them useful in supplying out-of-the-way settlements and installations. Note the A-frame support for the cargo boom. This system was found only on "A" class tenders. - U.S. Coast Guard Buoy Tenders, 180' Class, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, 2100 Second Street Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  10. Coming or going? Un-BLOC-ing delivery and recycling pathways during melanosome maturation

    PubMed Central

    Cutler, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Melanosome biogenesis requires successive waves of cargo delivery from endosomes to immature melanosomes, coupled with recycling of the trafficking machinery. Dennis et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201605090) report differential roles for BLOC-1 and BLOC-3 complexes in delivery and recycling of melanosomal biogenetic components, supplying directionality to melanosome maturation. PMID:27482050

  11. Exploiting Noncovalent Interactions in an Imine-Based Covalent Organic Framework for Quercetin Delivery.

    PubMed

    Vyas, Vijay S; Vishwakarma, Medhavi; Moudrakovski, Igor; Haase, Frederik; Savasci, Gökcen; Ochsenfeld, Christian; Spatz, Joachim P; Lotsch, Bettina V

    2016-10-01

    Covalent organic frameworks (COFs) are a new class of nanoporous polymeric vector showing promise as drug-delivery vehicles with high loading capacity and biocompatibility. The interaction between the carrier and the cargo is specifically tailored on a molecular level by H-bonding. Cell-proliferation studies indicate higher efficacy of the drug in cancer cells by nanocarrier delivery mediated by the COF.

  12. 46 CFR 32.50-30 - Cargo hose-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-30 Cargo hose—TB/ALL. Cargo hose carried on... head of the cargo pump or pump relief valve setting, less static head, but in no case less than 150 pounds per square inch. Note: For additional requirements concerning cargo hose, see 33 CFR 154.500,...

  13. 46 CFR 32.50-30 - Cargo hose-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-30 Cargo hose—TB/ALL. Cargo hose carried on... head of the cargo pump or pump relief valve setting, less static head, but in no case less than 150 pounds per square inch. Note: For additional requirements concerning cargo hose, see 33 CFR 154.500,...

  14. 46 CFR 32.50-30 - Cargo hose-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-30 Cargo hose—TB/ALL. Cargo hose carried on... head of the cargo pump or pump relief valve setting, less static head, but in no case less than 150 pounds per square inch. Note: For additional requirements concerning cargo hose, see 33 CFR 154.500,...

  15. 46 CFR 32.50-30 - Cargo hose-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-30 Cargo hose—TB/ALL. Cargo hose carried on... head of the cargo pump or pump relief valve setting, less static head, but in no case less than 150 pounds per square inch. Note: For additional requirements concerning cargo hose, see 33 CFR 154.500,...

  16. 46 CFR 32.50-30 - Cargo hose-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS Pumps, Piping, and Hose for Cargo Handling § 32.50-30 Cargo hose—TB/ALL. Cargo hose carried on... head of the cargo pump or pump relief valve setting, less static head, but in no case less than 150 pounds per square inch. Note: For additional requirements concerning cargo hose, see 33 CFR 154.500,...

  17. 46 CFR 153.1052 - Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1052 Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. No person shall load or carry other cargoes in a cargo containment system of a U.S. flag ship endorsed to carry sulfuric acid... 46 Shipping 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks....

  18. 46 CFR 153.1052 - Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1052 Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. No person shall load or carry other cargoes in a cargo containment system of a U.S. flag ship endorsed to carry sulfuric acid... 46 Shipping 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks....

  19. 46 CFR 153.1052 - Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1052 Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. No person shall load or carry other cargoes in a cargo containment system of a U.S. flag ship endorsed to carry sulfuric acid... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks....

  20. 46 CFR 153.1052 - Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Special Cargo Procedures § 153.1052 Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks. No person shall load or carry other cargoes in a cargo containment system of a U.S. flag ship endorsed to carry sulfuric acid... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Carriage of other cargoes in acid tanks....

  1. 46 CFR 35.35-70 - Maintenance of cargo handling equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance of cargo handling equipment-TB/ALL. 35.35-70... Handling § 35.35-70 Maintenance of cargo handling equipment—TB/ALL. The cargo handling equipment shall be... that leakage of cargo occurs through the body of the hose. (b) Cargo pump relief valves shall be...

  2. 46 CFR 35.35-70 - Maintenance of cargo handling equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Maintenance of cargo handling equipment-TB/ALL. 35.35-70... Handling § 35.35-70 Maintenance of cargo handling equipment—TB/ALL. The cargo handling equipment shall be... that leakage of cargo occurs through the body of the hose. (b) Cargo pump relief valves shall be...

  3. 46 CFR 35.35-70 - Maintenance of cargo handling equipment-TB/ALL.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Maintenance of cargo handling equipment-TB/ALL. 35.35-70... Handling § 35.35-70 Maintenance of cargo handling equipment—TB/ALL. The cargo handling equipment shall be... that leakage of cargo occurs through the body of the hose. (b) Cargo pump relief valves shall be...

  4. Cargo recognition during clathrin-mediated endocytosis: a team effort.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Alexander

    2004-08-01

    Transmembrane proteins destined to endosomes are selectively accumulated in clathrin-coated pits at the plasma membrane and rapidly internalized in clathrin-coated vesicles. The recognition of specific sequence motifs in transmembrane cargo by coated-pit proteins confers specificity on the endocytic process. Interaction of membrane cargo with the clathrin adaptor protein complex AP-2 is the major mechanism of cargo sorting into coated pits in mammalian cells. Recent studies have revealed a variety of alternative mechanisms of cargo recruitment involving additional adaptor proteins. These alternative mechanisms appear to be particularly important during clathrin-mediated endocytosis of signaling receptors.

  5. Cargo distributions differentiate pathological axonal transport impairments

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, Cassie S.; Lee, Robert H.; Coulter, Wallace H.

    2012-01-01

    Axonal transport is an essential process in neurons, analogous to shipping goods, by which energetic and cellular building supplies are carried downstream (anterogradely) and wastes are carried upstream (retrogradely) by molecular motors, which act as cargo porters. Impairments in axonal transport have been linked to devastating and often lethal neurodegenerative diseases, such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Huntington’s, and Alzheimer’s. Axonal transport impairment types include a decrease in available motors for cargo transport (motor depletion), the presence of defective or non-functional motors (motor dilution), and the presence of increased or larger cargos (protein aggregation). An impediment to potential treatment identification has been the inability to determine what type(s) of axonal transport impairment candidates that could be present in a given disease. In this study, we utilize a computational model and common axonal transport experimental metrics to reveal the axonal transport impairment general characteristics or “signatures” that result from three general defect types of motor depletion, motor dilution, and protein aggregation. Our results not only provide a means to discern these general impairments types, they also reveal key dynamic and emergent features of axonal transport, which potentially underlie multiple impairment types. The identified characteristics, as well as the analytical method, can be used to help elucidate the axonal transport impairments observed in experimental and clinical data. For example, using the model-predicted defect signatures, we identify the defect candidates, which are most likely to be responsible for the axonal transport impairments in the G93A SOD1 mouse model of ALS. PMID:22285784

  6. San Francisco Bay Area Cargo Forecast.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    CHAlES IN SAY AREA AND PACIFIC COAST SHARES FOREIGN CONTAINER CAKRO Pacftic Coast Bay Area bil Total .1 Share of Total as Share of Ypar lted States...patterns and recent trends, and on evaluation of the key factors and events likely to affect future trade. Thus, it was both "past and forward looking...Bay Area Forecast The baseline, high, and low forecasts of Bay Area Trade Route 29 containerized cargo shown in Table 28 are based on evaluation of

  7. Detection of special nuclear material in hydrogenous cargo using differential die-away analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Kelly Alexander

    Differential Die Away Analysis is a sensitive technique to detect presence of fissile materials like 235U and 239Pu. In DDAA, a neutron generator produces repetitive pulses of neutrons which are directed into a cargo being inspected. As each pulse passes through the cargo, the neutrons are thermalized and absorbed. The thermalization process is very rapid and the population of all neutrons from source to epithermal neutrons decays away within microseconds. The population of thermal neutrons however decays much slower with the diffusion decay time of the inspected medium (thermal neutron die-away time), on the order of hundreds of microseconds. If special nuclear material (SNM) is present, the thermalized neutrons from the source will cause fissions that produce a new source of neutrons. These fast fission neutrons decay with a time very similar to that of the thermal neutron die away of the surrounding cargo. Improvement of DDAA sensitivity can be obtained by advanced knowledge of the thermal-neutron kinetic properties of the inspected medium. The standard way to obtain such information is by measuring thermal neutron die-away by a detector inside of the medium. Since this is not practical in a real system, a method of determining information about thermal die-away properties of a medium from external measurements is examined. This method allows inspected media to be grossly characterized by their neutron moderating and attenuating characteristics. The DDAA method provides a binary decision regarding the presence or absence of special nuclear material in an inspection medium. A detection algorithm was developed that utilizes advance knowledge of detector response to improve the decision quality. The sensitivity of DDAA, for a given source of neutrons, critically depends on optimizing the fast and epithermal neutron detection system. The optimization involves both time response and detection efficiency. The optimized detectors were able to detect fissile material

  8. Transportation of nanoscale cargoes by myosin propelled actin filaments.

    PubMed

    Persson, Malin; Gullberg, Maria; Tolf, Conny; Lindberg, A Michael; Månsson, Alf; Kocer, Armagan

    2013-01-01

    Myosin II propelled actin filaments move ten times faster than kinesin driven microtubules and are thus attractive candidates as cargo-transporting shuttles in motor driven lab-on-a-chip devices. In addition, actomyosin-based transportation of nanoparticles is useful in various fundamental studies. However, it is poorly understood how actomyosin function is affected by different number of nanoscale cargoes, by cargo size, and by the mode of cargo-attachment to the actin filament. This is studied here using biotin/fluorophores, streptavidin, streptavidin-coated quantum dots, and liposomes as model cargoes attached to monomers along the actin filaments ("side-attached") or to the trailing filament end via the plus end capping protein CapZ. Long-distance transportation (>100 µm) could be seen for all cargoes independently of attachment mode but the fraction of motile filaments decreased with increasing number of side-attached cargoes, a reduction that occurred within a range of 10-50 streptavidin molecules, 1-10 quantum dots or with just 1 liposome. However, as observed by monitoring these motile filaments with the attached cargo, the velocity was little affected. This also applied for end-attached cargoes where the attachment was mediated by CapZ. The results with side-attached cargoes argue against certain models for chemomechanical energy transduction in actomyosin and give important insights of relevance for effective exploitation of actomyosin-based cargo-transportation in molecular diagnostics and other nanotechnological applications. The attachment of quantum dots via CapZ, without appreciable modulation of actomyosin function, is useful in fundamental studies as exemplified here by tracking with nanometer accuracy.

  9. Bifunctional chimeric fusion proteins engineered for DNA delivery: Optimization of the protein to DNA ratio

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shan; Simon, Melissa J.; Morrison, Barclay; Banta, Scott

    2009-01-01

    Background Cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been used to deliver nucleotide-based therapeutics to cells, but this approach has produced mixed results. Ionic interactions and covalent bonds between the CPPs and the cargos may inhibit the effectiveness of the CPPs or interfere with the bioactivity of the cargos. Methods We have created a bifunctional chimeric protein that binds DNA using the p50 domain of the NF-κB transcription factor and is functionalized for delivery with the TAT CPP. The green fluorescent protein (GFP) has been incorporated for tracking delivery. The new chimeric protein, p50-GFP-TAT, was compared to p50-GFP, GFP-TAT and GFP as controls for the ability to transduce PC12 cells with and without oligonucleotide cargos. Results The p50-GFP-TAT construct can deliver 30bp and 293bp oligonucleotides to PC12 cells with an optimal ratio of 1.89 protein molecules per base pair of DNA length. This correlation was validated through the delivery of a fluorescent protein transgene encoded in a plasmid to PC12 cells. Conclusion Self-assembling CPP-based bifunctional fusion proteins can be engineered for the non-viral delivery of nucleotide-based cargos to mammalian cells. General significance This work represents an important step forward in the rational design of protein-based systems for the delivery of macromolecular cargos. PMID:19402206

  10. 46 CFR 308.524 - Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-304.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance... application for cancellation of an Open Cargo Policy Form MA-304 may be obtained from the American War...

  11. 46 CFR 154.705 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.705 Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. (a) Each cargo boil-off...

  12. 46 CFR 154.705 - Cargo boil-off as fuel: General.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... STANDARDS FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Design, Construction and Equipment Cargo Pressure and Temperature Control § 154.705 Cargo boil-off as fuel: General. (a) Each cargo boil-off...

  13. 33 CFR 150.435 - When are cargo transfers not allowed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... in charge (PIC) of cargo transfer is not on duty at the port; (b) During an electrical storm in the... berthed at the port, unless the PIC of cargo transfer determines that a cargo transfer should be...

  14. 33 CFR 150.435 - When are cargo transfers not allowed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... in charge (PIC) of cargo transfer is not on duty at the port; (b) During an electrical storm in the... berthed at the port, unless the PIC of cargo transfer determines that a cargo transfer should be...

  15. 33 CFR 150.435 - When are cargo transfers not allowed?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... in charge (PIC) of cargo transfer is not on duty at the port; (b) During an electrical storm in the... berthed at the port, unless the PIC of cargo transfer determines that a cargo transfer should be...

  16. 46 CFR 308.524 - Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-304.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance... application for cancellation of an Open Cargo Policy Form MA-304 may be obtained from the American War...

  17. 46 CFR 308.524 - Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-304.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance... application for cancellation of an Open Cargo Policy Form MA-304 may be obtained from the American War...

  18. 46 CFR 308.524 - Application for cancellation of Open Cargo Policy, Form MA-304.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Cargo Insurance Ii-Open Policy War Risk Cargo Insurance... application for cancellation of an Open Cargo Policy Form MA-304 may be obtained from the American War...

  19. Intelligent, self-powered, drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Patra, Debabrata; Sengupta, Samudra; Duan, Wentao; Zhang, Hua; Pavlick, Ryan; Sen, Ayusman

    2013-02-21

    Self-propelled nano/micromotors and pumps are considered to be next generation drug delivery systems since the carriers can either propel themselves ("motor"-based drug delivery) or be delivered ("pump"-based drug delivery) to the target in response to specific biomarkers. Recently, there has been significant advancement towards developing nano/microtransporters into proof-of-concept tools for biomedical applications. This review encompasses the progress made to date on the design of synthetic nano/micromotors and pumps with respect to transportation and delivery of cargo at specific locations. Looking ahead, it is possible to imagine a day when intelligent machines navigate through the human body and perform challenging tasks.

  20. Direct attachment of nanoparticle cargo to Salmonella typhimurium membranes designed for combination bacteriotherapy against tumors.

    PubMed

    Kazmierczak, Robert; Choe, Elizabeth; Sinclair, Jared; Eisenstark, Abraham

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle technology is an emerging approach to resolve difficult-to-manage internal diseases. It is highly regarded, in particular, for medical use in treatment of cancer due to the innate ability of certain nanoparticles to accumulate in the porous environment of tumors and to be toxic to cancer cells. However, the therapeutic success of nanoparticles is limited by the technical difficulty of fully penetrating and thus attacking the tumor. Additionally, while nanoparticles possess seeming-specificity due to the unique physiological properties of tumors themselves, it is difficult to tailor the delivery of nanoparticles or drugs in other models, such as use in cardiac disease, to the specific target. Thus, a need for delivery systems that will accurately and precisely bring nanoparticles carrying drug payloads to their intended sites currently exists. Our solution to this engineering challenge is to load such nanoparticles onto a biological "mailman" (a novel, nontoxic, therapeutic strain of Salmonella typhimurium engineered to preferentially and precisely seek out, penetrate, and hinder prostate cancer cells as the biological delivery system) that will deliver the therapeutics to a target site. In this chapter, we describe two methods that establish proof-of-concept for our cargo loading and delivery system by attaching nanoparticles to the Salmonella membrane. The first method (Subheading 1.1) describes association of sucrose-conjugated gold nanoparticles to the surface of Salmonella bacteria. The second method (Subheading 1.2) biotinylates the native Salmonella membrane to attach streptavidin-conjugated fluorophores as example nanoparticle cargo, with an alternative method (expression of membrane bound biotin target sites using autodisplay plasmid vectors) that increases the concentration of biotin on the membrane surface for streptavidin-conjugated nanoparticle attachment. By directly attaching the fluorophores to our bacterial vector through biocompatible

  1. 46 CFR 151.45-4 - Cargo-handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... the persons in charge of cargo handling. (h) Auxiliary steam, air, fuel, or electric current. When discharging cargo from one or more barges, the towing vessel may furnish steam, air, fuel, or electric current... started or, if started, shall be discontinued under the following conditions: (1) During severe...

  2. 46 CFR 151.45-4 - Cargo-handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the persons in charge of cargo handling. (h) Auxiliary steam, air, fuel, or electric current. When discharging cargo from one or more barges, the towing vessel may furnish steam, air, fuel, or electric current... started or, if started, shall be discontinued under the following conditions: (1) During severe...

  3. 46 CFR 151.45-4 - Cargo-handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... the persons in charge of cargo handling. (h) Auxiliary steam, air, fuel, or electric current. When discharging cargo from one or more barges, the towing vessel may furnish steam, air, fuel, or electric current... started or, if started, shall be discontinued under the following conditions: (1) During severe...

  4. 46 CFR 151.45-4 - Cargo-handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the persons in charge of cargo handling. (h) Auxiliary steam, air, fuel, or electric current. When discharging cargo from one or more barges, the towing vessel may furnish steam, air, fuel, or electric current... started or, if started, shall be discontinued under the following conditions: (1) During severe...

  5. 46 CFR 151.45-4 - Cargo-handling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the persons in charge of cargo handling. (h) Auxiliary steam, air, fuel, or electric current. When discharging cargo from one or more barges, the towing vessel may furnish steam, air, fuel, or electric current... started or, if started, shall be discontinued under the following conditions: (1) During severe...

  6. 46 CFR 154.408 - Cargo tank external pressure load.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cargo tank external pressure load. 154.408 Section 154.408 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES... minimum internal pressure (maximum vacuum), and the maximum external pressure to which any portion of...

  7. 49 CFR 175.75 - Quantity limitations and cargo location.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... passengers and that it meets all certification requirements for a Class B aircraft cargo compartment in 14 CFR 25.857(b) or for a Class C aircraft cargo compartment in 14 CFR 25.857(c). A package bearing a... inaccessible manner. The requirements of this paragraph do not apply to Class 9, ORM-D-AIR and Limited...

  8. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks. 157.35 Section 157.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.35 Ballast added to cargo tanks. The master of a tank vessel...

  9. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks. 157.35 Section 157.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.35 Ballast added to cargo tanks. The master of a tank vessel...

  10. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks. 157.35 Section 157.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.35 Ballast added to cargo tanks. The master of a tank vessel...

  11. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks. 157.35 Section 157.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.35 Ballast added to cargo tanks. The master of a tank vessel...

  12. 33 CFR 157.35 - Ballast added to cargo tanks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Ballast added to cargo tanks. 157.35 Section 157.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... OIL IN BULK Vessel Operation § 157.35 Ballast added to cargo tanks. The master of a tank vessel...

  13. 33 CFR 401.76 - In-transit cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false In-transit cargo. 401.76 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Toll Assessment and Payment § 401.76 In-transit cargo... the Seaway Transit Declaration Form, but is deemed to be ballast and not subject to toll assessment....

  14. 33 CFR 401.76 - In-transit cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false In-transit cargo. 401.76 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Toll Assessment and Payment § 401.76 In-transit cargo... the Seaway Transit Declaration Form, but is deemed to be ballast and not subject to toll assessment....

  15. 33 CFR 401.76 - In-transit cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false In-transit cargo. 401.76 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Toll Assessment and Payment § 401.76 In-transit cargo... the Seaway Transit Declaration Form, but is deemed to be ballast and not subject to toll assessment....

  16. 33 CFR 401.76 - In-transit cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false In-transit cargo. 401.76 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Toll Assessment and Payment § 401.76 In-transit cargo... the Seaway Transit Declaration Form, but is deemed to be ballast and not subject to toll assessment....

  17. 33 CFR 401.76 - In-transit cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false In-transit cargo. 401.76 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Regulations Toll Assessment and Payment § 401.76 In-transit cargo... the Seaway Transit Declaration Form, but is deemed to be ballast and not subject to toll assessment....

  18. 41 CFR 102-117.140 - What is cargo preference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What is cargo preference? 102-117.140 Section 102-117.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-borne cargo that moves internationally be transported on U.S. flag vessels. Deviations or waivers...

  19. 41 CFR 102-117.140 - What is cargo preference?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What is cargo preference? 102-117.140 Section 102-117.140 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management...-borne cargo that moves internationally be transported on U.S. flag vessels. Deviations or waivers...

  20. 19 CFR 122.48 - Air cargo manifest.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air cargo manifest. 122.48 Section 122.48 Customs... AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Entry and Entry Documents; Electronic Manifest Requirements for..., and Overflying the United States § 122.48 Air cargo manifest. (a) When required. Except as provided...

  1. 33 CFR 157.134 - Cargo tank drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.134 Cargo tank drainage. Each cargo tank must be designed for longitudinal and transverse drainage of crude oil to...

  2. 33 CFR 157.134 - Cargo tank drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.134 Cargo tank drainage. Each cargo tank must be designed for longitudinal and transverse drainage of crude oil to...

  3. 33 CFR 157.134 - Cargo tank drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.134 Cargo tank drainage. Each cargo tank must be designed for longitudinal and transverse drainage of crude oil to...

  4. 33 CFR 157.134 - Cargo tank drainage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION RULES FOR THE PROTECTION OF THE MARINE ENVIRONMENT RELATING TO TANK VESSELS CARRYING OIL IN BULK Crude Oil Washing (COW) System on Tank Vessels Design, Equipment, and Installation § 157.134 Cargo tank drainage. Each cargo tank must be designed for longitudinal and transverse drainage of crude oil to...

  5. Cargo/Logistics Airlift System Study (CLASS), Volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norman, J. M.; Henderson, R. D.; Macey, F. C.; Tuttle, R. P.

    1978-01-01

    Air containerization is discussed in terms of lower freight rates, size and pallet limitations, refrigeration, backhaul of empties, and ownership. It is concluded that there is a need for an advance air cargo system as indicated by the industry/transportation case studies, and a stimulation of the air cargo would result in freight rate reductions.

  6. 49 CFR 1546.205 - Acceptance and screening of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER... non-intrusive method of assessing whether cargo poses a threat to transportation security, as provided... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of cargo....

  7. 49 CFR 1546.205 - Acceptance and screening of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER... non-intrusive method of assessing whether cargo poses a threat to transportation security, as provided... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of cargo....

  8. 49 CFR 1544.205 - Acceptance and screening of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY... examination or non-intrusive method of assessing whether cargo poses a threat to transportation security, as... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of cargo....

  9. 49 CFR 1544.205 - Acceptance and screening of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY... examination or non-intrusive method of assessing whether cargo poses a threat to transportation security, as... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of cargo....

  10. 49 CFR 1544.205 - Acceptance and screening of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY... examination or non-intrusive method of assessing whether cargo poses a threat to transportation security, as... 49 Transportation 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of cargo....

  11. 49 CFR 1546.205 - Acceptance and screening of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER... non-intrusive method of assessing whether cargo poses a threat to transportation security, as provided... 49 Transportation 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of cargo....

  12. 49 CFR 1546.205 - Acceptance and screening of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER... non-intrusive method of assessing whether cargo poses a threat to transportation security, as provided... 49 Transportation 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of cargo....

  13. 49 CFR 1544.205 - Acceptance and screening of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY... examination or non-intrusive method of assessing whether cargo poses a threat to transportation security, as... 49 Transportation 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of cargo....

  14. 49 CFR 1544.205 - Acceptance and screening of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY AIRCRAFT OPERATOR SECURITY... examination or non-intrusive method of assessing whether cargo poses a threat to transportation security, as... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of cargo....

  15. 49 CFR 1546.205 - Acceptance and screening of cargo.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SECURITY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY CIVIL AVIATION SECURITY FOREIGN AIR CARRIER... non-intrusive method of assessing whether cargo poses a threat to transportation security, as provided... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acceptance and screening of cargo....

  16. 46 CFR 154.1844 - Cargo tanks: Filling limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... section; and dL=density of the cargo at the loading temperature and pressure. (b) The reference temperature to be used in paragraph (a)(2) of this section is the temperature corresponding to the vapor pressure of the cargo at the set pressure of the pressure relief valves....

  17. 46 CFR 151.20-5 - Cargo system valving requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... having a saturated vapor pressure of 10 pounds per square inch gauge or less at 115 °F (105 °F if the... vapor pressure is maintained at 10 pounds per square inch gauge or below shall be provided with a valving system designated as Gravity-2. Cargo tanks for cargoes which have vapor pressures above 10...

  18. 46 CFR 154.1844 - Cargo tanks: Filling limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section; and dL=density of the cargo at the loading temperature and pressure. (b) The reference temperature to be used in paragraph (a)(2) of this section is the temperature corresponding to the vapor pressure of the cargo at the set pressure of the pressure relief valves....

  19. 46 CFR 154.1844 - Cargo tanks: Filling limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... section; and dL=density of the cargo at the loading temperature and pressure. (b) The reference temperature to be used in paragraph (a)(2) of this section is the temperature corresponding to the vapor pressure of the cargo at the set pressure of the pressure relief valves....

  20. 46 CFR 151.20-5 - Cargo system valving requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... having a saturated vapor pressure of 10 pounds per square inch gauge or less at 115 °F (105 °F if the... vapor pressure is maintained at 10 pounds per square inch gauge or below shall be provided with a valving system designated as Gravity-2. Cargo tanks for cargoes which have vapor pressures above 10...