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Sample records for caribaea var caribaea

  1. Genetic maps for Pinus elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis using AFLP and microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, M; Cross, M; Dieters, M J; Henry, R

    2003-05-01

    Genetic maps for individual Pinus elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis trees were generated using a pseudo-testcross mapping strategy. A total of 329 amplified fragment length polymorphic (AFLP) and 12 microsatellite markers were found to segregate in a sample of 93 interspecfic F(1) progeny. The male P. caribaea var. hondurensis parent was more heterozygous than the female P. elliottii var. elliottii parent with 19% more markers segregating on the male side. Framework maps were constructed using a LOD 5 threshold for grouping and interval support threshold of LOD 2. The framework map length for the P. elliottii var. elliottii megagametophyte parent (1,170 cM Kosambi; 23 linkage groups) was notably smaller than the P. caribaea var. hondurensis pollen parent (1,658 cM Kosambi; 27 linkage groups). The difference in map lengths was assumed to be due to sex-related recombination variation, which has been previously reported for pines, as the difference in map lengths not be accounted for by the larger number of markers mapping to the P. caribaea var. hondurensis parent - 109 compared with 78 in P. elliottii var. elliottii parent. Based on estimated genome sizes for these species, the framework maps for P. elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis covered 82% and 88% of their respective genomes. The pseudo-testcross strategy was extended to include AFLP and microsatellite markers in an intercross configuration. These comprehensive maps provided further genome coverage, 1,548 and 1,828 cM Kosambi for P. elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis, respectively, and enabled homologous linkage groups to be identified in the two parental maps. Homologous linkage groups were identified for 11 out of 24 P. elliottii var. elliottii and 10 out of 25 P. caribaea var. hondurensis groups. A higher than expected level of segregation distortion was found for both AFLP and microsatellite markers. An explanation for this segregation

  2. The scope for using the volatile profiles of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis as indicators of susceptibility to pine tortoise scale and as predictors of environmental stresses.

    PubMed

    Green, Paul W C; Hamilton, Martin A; Sanchez, Michele D; Corcoran, Marcella R; Manco, Bryan N; Malumphy, Chris P

    2015-04-01

    Climate change, unseasonal fire and urbanization are contributing to the decline of Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis populations in the Turks and Caicos Islands (TCI). Infestation of pines with the invasive pine tortoise scale (PTS, Toumeyella parvicornis) is accelerating this decline. Pine trees in the Bahamas are larger and healthier and are not infested with PTS although they are subject to some of the same environmental pressures as the trees in TCI. Volatile compounds were collected from wild and nursery-reared P. caribaea var. bahamensis from TCI and the Bahamas and characterized using GC/MS analysis, to look for differences between the compounds detected in insect-infested pines of TCI and the healthy pines of the Bahamas. Ten compounds contributing at least 1% of the total detected peak areas in any one of the samples were selected for further study. Eight of these compounds were identified using authentic standards and mass spectral libraries. The main constituents in the samples were α- and β-pinene as well as β-phellandrene, and, together with β-myrcene, their contents varied the most between samples collected at different locations. Principal-component analysis showed that the two structural isomers of pinene, together with β-myrcene and β-phellandrene, contributed 98.4% of the variance between samples. There was a positive relationship between the concentrations of the two structural isomers of pinene and between levels of β-myrcene and β-phellandrene. The results are discussed in relation to the biology and adaptations of invasive scale insects, the importance of monoterpenes in pine as a defense against insect predation, whether these compounds can be used as indicators of tree health, and future directions for research into conserving the Caicos pine. Copyright © 2015 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  3. Growth and Site Relationships of Pinus caribaea Across the Caribbean Basin

    Treesearch

    Leon H. Liegel; [Compiler

    1991-01-01

    Summarizes results of growth, volume, basal area, and stand conditions for Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis in five countries. Past pine management practices are reviewed for all countries. Implications of new forestry and soils research are discussed in terms of their impact on future local reforestation and afforestation...

  4. Growth of Pinus caribaea hondurensis relative to spacing and trunk diameter on two soils in Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    F.H. Wadsworth

    2008-01-01

    Analysis of 19-year-old planted Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis on clay and sandy soils in the mountains of Puerto Rico showed the suitability of both sites for tree growth to commercial size. Growth rates were compared with tree densities ranging from 278 to 2,500 trees per hectare and tree dbh’s (trunk diameters outside bark at breast height, 1.4 meters above ground...

  5. Indications of vigor loss after fire in Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) from electrical resistance measurements

    Treesearch

    T.E. Paysen; A.L. Koonce; E. Taylor; M.O. Rodriquez

    2006-01-01

    In May 1993, electrical resistance measurements were performed on trees in burned and unburned stands of Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea Mor.) in north-eastern Nicaragua to determine whether tree vigor was affected by fire. An Osmose model OZ-67 Shigometer with digital readout was used to collect the sample electrical resistance data. Computer-...

  6. [Temporary abundance variation of Coralliophila abbreviata and Coralliophila caribaea (Mollusca, Coralliophilidae) in a coral reef at Morrocoy National Park].

    PubMed

    del Mónaco, Carlos; Villamizar, Estrella; Narciso, Samuel

    2008-06-01

    The mollusks Coralliophila abbreviata and C. caribaea are coral predators in the Caribbean Sea . We evaluated the temporal variability of abundance and size structure of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea in Cayo Sombrero, Morrocoy National Park, Venezuelar (September 2004 - August 2005). The density of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea was evaluated monthly by means of two 50-meter long transects paralell to the coast line, at 3 m and 6 m deep; aditionally, 30 individuals of C. abbreviata were collected to measure size. The densities of C. abbreviata at the shallow transect fluctuated between 1.78 ind/m2 in September and 6.26 ind/m2 in May. The densities at the deep transect fluctuated between 4.23 ind/m2 in January and 7.66 ind/m2 in May. The densities of C. caribaea at the shallow transect fluctuated between 0 Ind/m2 (except in September) and 0.03 Ind/m2 (September) and the densities at the deep transect fluctuated between 0 Ind/m2 (October to March and July) and 0.1 Ind/m2 (April). Most individuals of C. abbreviata and C. caribaea measured between 12 and 16 mm and between 10 and 15 mm long respectively.

  7. [Substitution of native savanna by Pinus caribaea (Pinaceae) plantations in Venezuela: effect on parameters that indicated changes in soil carbon content].

    PubMed

    Gómez, Yrma; Paolini, Jorge; Hernández, Rosa Mary

    2008-12-01

    A great extension (615,000 ha) of native savannas of the eastern plains of Venezuela have been replaced by plantations of Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis; however, only scarce information exists about the impact of this land use on carbon dynamics in soils. We studied the effect of temporal variability and the substitution on the total organic carbon (TOC), water-soluble carbon (WSC), microbial biomass C (Cmic), basal respiration (BR), microbial metabolic quotient (qCO2) and Cmic/Corg ratio. Selected chemical properties and biological parameters of soils were measured under 3 and 29 year old forest plantations of P. caribaea and an adjacent native savanna which was considered the control. At each site, nine soil composite samples were collected (0-10 cm depth). The studied parameters did not show a defined pattern in relation to temporal variability. Higher carbon preservation occurs in soil microbial biomass under pine plantations. The basal respiration rate and qCO2 suggests that there is a more efficient microbial carbon utilization in the plantations. The Cmic/Corg ratio shows that the microbial biomass has an important stock of soil carbon in pine plantations. The conversion of savannas to pine plantations can increase soil carbon in the eastern plains of Venezuela, but this must be balanced with the ecological importance of natural savannas ecosystems.

  8. Development and characterization of SSR markers from Pinus massoniana and their transferability to P. elliottii, P. caribaea and P. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Feng, Y H; Yang, Z Q; Wang, J; Luo, Q F; Li, H G

    2014-03-12

    Pinus massoniana (Masson's pine) is a widespread tree species in central and southern China and northern Vietnam; it is valued for rosin and paper production. Despite the significant economic value of Masson's pine, little work has been done on its molecular genetics. We developed 318 SSR primers from genome sequences of P. massoniana, and we identified 10 polymorphic markers. The number of alleles in the population of P. massoniana that we examined ranged from two to four, and the Shannon diversity index ranged from 0.150 to 1.133. Cross-species transferability of the 318 SSRs was also analyzed in the slash pine (Pinus elliottii), the Caribbean pine (Pinus caribaea) and the Yunnan pine (Pinus yunnanensis); 15, 10, and 10 primer pairs generated polymorphic amplification, respectively. These sets of polymorphic SSR markers will be useful for population genetics studies of P. massoniana, for genetic identification of interspecific hybridization, and for phylogeographic studies of Pinus spp.

  9. Tannins from barks of Pinus caribaea protect Escherichia coli cells against DNA damage induced by gamma-rays.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, J L; Vernhe, M; Cuetara, E B; Sánchez-Lamar, A; Santana, J L; Llagostera, M

    2006-02-01

    This work was aimed to evaluate genotoxicity and antigenotoxicity activity against gamma-rays of a tannin fraction obtained from barks of Pinus caribaea, as well as to elucidate the antigenotoxic mechanisms involved in radioprotection by using different approaches as pre-, co- and post-irradiation cell treatments with plant extract. The tannin fraction was not genotoxic to Escherichia coli cells in experiments using different exposure times. This extract was antigenotoxic against gamma-rays when the cells were pre- or co-treated with this extracts, but not during post-irradiation treatments, suggesting a possibly antigenotoxic action through free radical scavenging mechanisms. The results are discussed in relation to the chemopreventive and therapeutic potential of the studied plant species.

  10. Classification of Pinus patula, P. tecunumanii, P. oocarpa, P. caribaea var. hondurensis, and Related Taxonomic Entities

    Treesearch

    A.E. Squillace; Jesse P. Perry

    1992-01-01

    Stem xylem terpenes of 75 pine populations were studied to determine relationships among taxonomic entities. Typical Pinus patula populations occurring in areas north and west of Oaxaca, Mexico, had very high proportions of 3-phellandrene and low proportions of other constituents. Terpene compositions of populations of variety longipeduncalatain...

  11. Phylogeography of Pinus subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Jardón-Barbolla, Lev; Delgado-Valerio, Patricia; Geada-López, Gretel; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Piñero, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Four species of Pinus subsection Australes occur in the Caribbean Basin: P. caribaea, P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis. This study analyses the phylogeography of these species to assess possible colonization events from Central America to the islands and subsequent population expansions during glacial periods driven by both drier climate and larger emerged land areas. Methods Allele size data were obtained for plastid microsatellites for 314 individuals from 24 populations, covering the distribution range of subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin. Key Results In total, 113 plastid haplotypes were identified. The highest genetic diversity was found in populations of P. caribaea. Overall, Caribbean Basin populations fit the isolation by distance model. Significant phylogeographical structure was found (RST = 0·671 > permuted RST = 0·101; P < 0·0001). The haplotype network and a Bayesian analysis of population structure (BAPS) indicated different Central American origins for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea plastids, with Central America populations in northern and south-eastern groups. Sudden expansion times for BAPS clusters were close to three glacial maxima. Conclusions Central America contains ancestral plastid haplotypes. Population expansion has played a major role in the distribution of genetic diversity in P. caribaea var. hondurensis. Two colonization events gave rise to the P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea lineages. Plastid variation in the eastern species (P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis) evolved independently from that in P. caribaea var. caribaea. Incomplete lineage sorting between P. cubensis and P. maestrensis is apparent. Inferred expansion times for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and for the eastern lineages correspond to glacial maxima, whereas those for P. caribaea var. hondurensis correspond to the beginning of the temperature decrease that

  12. Pest risk assessment of the importation into the United States of unprocessed Pinus logs and chips from Australia

    Treesearch

    John T Kliejunas; Harold H. Burdsall; Gregg A. DeNitto; Andris Eglitis; Dennis A. Haugen; Michael I. Haverty; Jessie A. Micales-Glaeser

    2006-01-01

    The unmitigated pest risk potential for the importation of unprocessed logs and chips of species of Pinus (Pinus radiata, P. elliottii Engelm. var. elliottii, P. taeda L., and P. caribaea var. hondurensis, principally) from Australia into the United States was assessed by estimating the likelihood and consequences of introduction of representative insects and pathogens...

  13. Interspecific pine hybrids II. genotype by environment interactions across Australia, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe

    Treesearch

    H. S. Dungey; M. J. Dieters; D. P. Gwaze; P. G. Toon; D. G. Nikles

    2000-01-01

    Collaborative research trials of Queensland-bred pine hybrids have been established in many sites outside Australia. These trials enable the estimation of genotype x environment effects, which are important in determining the level of regionalisation needed in any breeding program. Correlations across sites testing hybrids between Pinus caribaea var...

  14. Transpecific microsatellites for hard pines.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, M.; Cross, M.; Maguire, L.; Dieters, J.; Williams, G.; Henry, J.

    2002-04-01

    Microsatellites are difficult to recover from large plant genomes so cross-specific utilisation is an important source of markers. Fifty microsatellites were tested for cross-specific amplification and polymorphism to two New World hard pine species, slash pine ( Pinus elliottii var. elliottii) and Caribbean pine ( P. caribaea var. hondurensis). Twenty-nine (58%) markers amplified in both hard pine species, and 23 of these 29 were polymorphic. Soft pine (subgenus Strobus) microsatellite markers did amplify, but none were polymorphic. Pinus elliottii var. elliottii and P. caribaea var. hondurensis showed mutational changes in the flanking regions and the repeat motif that were informative for Pinus spp. phylogenetic relationships. Most allele length variation could be attributed to variability in repeat unit number. There was no evidence for ascertainment bias.

  15. Chemical composition changes in eucalyptus and pinus woods submitted to heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Brito, J O; Silva, F G; Leão, M M; Almeida, G

    2008-12-01

    This study investigated the influence of heat treatment on the chemical composition of Eucalyptus saligna and Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis woods to understand its role in wood processing. E. saligna and P. caribaea var. hondurensis woods were treated in a laboratorial electric furnace at 120, 140, 160 and 180 degrees C to induce their heat treatment. The chemical composition of the resulting products and those from original wood were determined by gas chromatography. Eucalyptus and Pinus showed a significant reduction in arabinose, manose, galactose and xylose contents when submitted to increasing temperatures. No significant alteration in glucose content was observed. Lignin content, however, increased during the heat process. There was a significant reduction in extractive content for Eucalyptus. On the other hand, a slight increase in extractive content has been determined for the Pinus wood, and that only for the highest temperature. These different behaviors can be explained by differences in chemical constituents between softwoods and hardwoods. The results obtained in this study provide important information for future research and utilization of thermally modified wood.

  16. Measurement of /var epsilon/'//var epsilon/ at Fermilab

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiung, Yee B.

    1988-10-01

    The current status of the measurement of ''direct'' CP violation parameters /var epsilon/'//var epsilon/ in the Fermilab experiment E731 is reviewed. Preliminary results on upper limit for the decays K/sub L/ ..-->.. ..pi../sup 0/e/sup +/e/sup /minus// and ..pi../sup 0/ ..-->.. e/sup +/e/sup /minus// (from 20% of the data taken in 1987-88) are also reported. 9 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Adaptation in a plant-hummingbird association.

    PubMed

    Temeles, Ethan J; Kress, W John

    2003-04-25

    Sexual dimorphism in bill morphology and body size of the Caribbean purple-throated carib hummingbird is associated with a reversal in floral dimorphism of its Heliconia food plants. This hummingbird is the sole pollinator of H. caribaea and H. bihai, with flowers of the former corresponding to the short, straight bills of males, the larger sex, and flowers of the latter corresponding to the long, curved bills of females. On St. Lucia, H. bihai compensates for the rarity of H. caribaea by evolving a second color morph with flowers that match the bills of males, whereas on Dominica, H. caribaea evolves a second color morph with flowers that match the bills of females. The nectar rewards of all Heliconia morphs are consistent with each sex's choice of the morph that corresponds to its bill morphology and energy requirements, supporting the hypothesis that feeding preferences have driven their coadaptation.

  18. Colletotrichum acutatum var. fioriniae (teleomorph: Glomerella acutata var. fioriniae var. nov.) infection of a scale insect.

    PubMed

    Marcelino, Jose; Giordano, Rosanna; Gouli, Svetlana; Gouli, Vladimir; Parker, Bruce L; Skinner, Margaret; TeBeest, David; Cesnik, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    An epizootic has been reported in Fiorinia externa populations in New York, Connecticut, Pennsylvania and NewJersey. Infected insects have profuse sclerotial masses enclosing their bodies. The most commonly isolated microorganism from infected F. externa was Colletotrichum sp. A morphological and molecular characterization of this fungus indicated that it is closely related to phytopathogenic C. acutatum isolates. Isolates of Colletotrichum sp. from F. externa in areas of the epizootic were similar genetically and were named Colletotrichum acutatum var. fioriniae var. nov, based on our findings. In vitro and in planta mating observed between isolates of C. acutatum var. fioriniae could serve as a possible source of genetic variation and might give rise to new biotypes with a propensity to infect insects. Only one other strain, C. gloeosporioides f. sp. ortheziidae, has been reported to show entomopathogenic activity.

  19. Antibacterial activity of essential oils of Pimenta racemosa var. terebinthina and Pimenta racemosa var. grisea.

    PubMed

    Saenz, M T; Tornos, M P; Alvarez, A; Fernandez, M A; García, M D

    2004-09-01

    The antibacterial activity of essential oils of Pimenta racemosa var. terebinthina and P. racemosa var. grisea was determined against Gram (+) and Gram (-) bacteria. P. racemosa var. grisea demonstrated a more pronounced activity. These data would indicate the potential usefulness of the variety grisea as a microbiostatic, antiseptic or disinfectant agent.

  20. TabVar: Tabulated Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Bachan, John

    2015-12-15

    TabVar: A Python library for manipulating datasets in the form of tabulated variables. Tables in tabvar contain many columns representing independent variables, but exactly one distinguished column for the dependent variable. Having a single distinguished column allows a natural lifting of arithmetic operators to tables, much (and in fact fully generalizing) multidimensional array arithmetic. The convenient syntax of whole-table arithmetic, along with the usual operations of filtering and aggregation, and all in the setting of python's interactive REPL allows for rapid exploration of datasets.

  1. TabVar: Tabulated Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Bachan, John

    2015-12-15

    TabVar: A Python library for manipulating datasets in the form of tabulated variables. Tables in tabvar contain many columns representing independent variables, but exactly one distinguished column for the dependent variable. Having a single distinguished column allows a natural lifting of arithmetic operators to tables, much (and in fact fully generalizing) multidimensional array arithmetic. The convenient syntax of whole-table arithmetic, along with the usual operations of filtering and aggregation, and all in the setting of python's interactive REPL allows for rapid exploration of datasets.

  2. New var reconstruction algorithm exposes high var sequence diversity in a single geographic location in Mali.

    PubMed

    Dara, Antoine; Drábek, Elliott F; Travassos, Mark A; Moser, Kara A; Delcher, Arthur L; Su, Qi; Hostelley, Timothy; Coulibaly, Drissa; Daou, Modibo; Dembele, Ahmadou; Diarra, Issa; Kone, Abdoulaye K; Kouriba, Bourema; Laurens, Matthew B; Niangaly, Amadou; Traore, Karim; Tolo, Youssouf; Fraser, Claire M; Thera, Mahamadou A; Djimde, Abdoulaye A; Doumbo, Ogobara K; Plowe, Christopher V; Silva, Joana C

    2017-03-28

    Encoded by the var gene family, highly variable Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein-1 (PfEMP1) proteins mediate tissue-specific cytoadherence of infected erythrocytes, resulting in immune evasion and severe malaria disease. Sequencing and assembling the 40-60 var gene complement for individual infections has been notoriously difficult, impeding molecular epidemiological studies and the assessment of particular var elements as subunit vaccine candidates. We developed and validated a novel algorithm, Exon-Targeted Hybrid Assembly (ETHA), to perform targeted assembly of var gene sequences, based on a combination of Pacific Biosciences and Illumina data. Using ETHA, we characterized the repertoire of var genes in 12 samples from uncomplicated malaria infections in children from a single Malian village and showed them to be as genetically diverse as vars from isolates from around the globe. The gene var2csa, a member of the var family associated with placental malaria pathogenesis, was present in each genome, as were vars previously associated with severe malaria. ETHA, a tool to discover novel var sequences from clinical samples, will aid the understanding of malaria pathogenesis and inform the design of malaria vaccines based on PfEMP1. ETHA is available at: https://sourceforge.net/projects/etha/ .

  3. Notes on the occurrence of Oligonychus milleri (McGregor) and oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Brazil

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We verified infestation of Oligonychus milleri (McGregor) on plantations of Pinus caribaea (Pinaceae) and of Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) on plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) in State of Rondônia, Northern region of Brazil. This represents the first record of O. m...

  4. New species of Psilocybe in the Caribbean, with an emendation of P. guilartensis

    Treesearch

    Gaston Guzman; Fidel Tapia; Florencia Ramirez-Guillen; Timothy J. Baroni; D. Jean Lodge; Sharon A. Cantrell; Nieves-Rivera; Angel M.

    2003-01-01

    Five new species of Psilocybe from the Caribbean are described: P. caribaea, P. egonii, P. subpsilocybioides, P. zapotecoantillarum and P. zapotecocaribaea. All except P. zapotecocaribaea, which is known only from Martinique, are native to Puerto Rico. Psilocybe guilartensis, previously described from Puerto Rico, is the most commonly collected species of Psilocybe in...

  5. The Response of Honduras Pine to Various Photoperiods

    Treesearch

    J. A. Vozzo; C. B. Briscoe

    1963-01-01

    Height growth of Honduras pine (P. caribaea. v. hondurensis) seedllng'S 18 shown to be significantly influenced by photoperiod. Maximum initial effect was obtained by the longest period tested, 16 hours; but by 7 weeks, greatest growth was obtained by an interrupted 11 (8+3) hours.

  6. Plant and litter influences on earthworm abundance and community structures in a tropical wet forest

    Treesearch

    G. Gonzalez; X. Zou

    1999-01-01

    Plant communities differ in species composition and litter input. To examine the influence of plant species on the abundance and community structure of soil fauna, we sampled earthworms in areas close to and away from the bases of Dacryodes excelsa and Heliconia caribaea, two distinct plant communities within a tropical wet forest in Puerto Rico. We also carried out a...

  7. Plant-pollinator interactions and floral convergence in two species of Heliconia from the Caribbean Islands.

    PubMed

    Martén-Rodríguez, Silvana; Kress, W John; Temeles, Ethan J; Meléndez-Ackerman, Elvia

    2011-12-01

    Variation in interspecific interactions across geographic space is a potential driver of diversification and local adaptation. This study quantitatively examined variation in floral phenotypes and pollinator service of Heliconia bihai and H. caribaea across three Antillean islands. The prediction was that floral characters would correspond to the major pollinators of these species on each island. Analysis of floral phenotypes revealed convergence among species and populations of Heliconia from the Greater Antilles. All populations of H. caribaea were similar, characterized by long nectar chambers and short corolla tubes. In contrast, H. bihai populations were strongly divergent: on Dominica, H. bihai had flowers with short nectar chambers and long corollas, whereas on Hispaniola, H. bihai flowers resembled those of H. caribaea with longer nectar chambers and shorter corolla tubes. Morphological variation in floral traits corresponded with geographic differences or similarities in the major pollinators on each island. The Hispaniolan mango, Anthracothorax dominicus, is the principal pollinator of both H. bihai and H. caribaea on Hispaniola; thus, the similarity of floral phenotypes between Heliconia species suggests parallel selective regimes imposed by the principal pollinator. Likewise, divergence between H. bihai populations from Dominica and Hispaniola corresponded with differences in the pollinators visiting this species on the two islands. The study highlights the putative importance of pollinator-mediated selection as driving floral convergence and the evolution of locally-adapted plant variants across a geographic mosaic of pollinator species.

  8. Variable cosmological term \\varLambda(t)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, J.; D'oleire, M.; Pimentel, Luis O.

    2015-11-01

    We present the case of time-varying cosmological term \\varLambda(t). The main idea arises by proposing that as in the cosmological constant case, the scalar potential is identified as V(φ)=2\\varLambda, with \\varLambda a constant, this identification should be kept even when the cosmological term has a temporal dependence, i.e., V(φ(t))=2\\varLambda(t). We use the Lagrangian formalism for a scalar field φ with standard kinetic energy and arbitrary potential V(φ) and apply this model to the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) cosmology. Exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by a special ansatz to solve the Einstein-Klein-Gordon equation and a particular potential for the scalar field and barotropic perfect fluid. We present the evolution on this cosmological term with different scenarios.

  9. 4D-Var Developement at GMAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pelc, Joanna S.; Todling, Ricardo; Akkraoui, Amal El

    2014-01-01

    The Global Modeling and Assimilation Offce (GMAO) is currently using an IAU-based 3D-Var data assimilation system. GMAO has been experimenting with a 3D-Var-hybrid version of its data assimilation system (DAS) for over a year now, which will soon become operational and it will rapidly progress toward a 4D-EnVar. Concurrently, the machinery to exercise traditional 4DVar is in place and it is desirable to have a comparison of the traditional 4D approach with the other available options, and evaluate their performance in the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS) DAS. This work will also explore the possibility for constructing a reduced order model (ROM) to make traditional 4D-Var computationally attractive for increasing model resolutions. Part of the research on ROM will be to search for a suitably acceptable space to carry on the corresponding reduction. This poster illustrates how the IAU-based 4D-Var assimilation compares with our currently used IAU-based 3D-Var.

  10. Volatiles of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Kyung-Mi; Kim, Gun-Hee

    2012-01-01

    The volatile aroma constituents of Chrysanthemum zawadskii var. latilobum K. were separated by hydro distillation extraction (HDE) method using a Clevenger-type apparatus, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The yield of C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. flower essential oil (FEO) was 0.12% (w/w) and the color was light green. Fifty-five volatile chemical components, which make up 88.38% of the total aroma composition, were tentatively characterized. C. zawadskii var. latilobum K. FEOs contained 27 hydrocarbons, 12 alcohols, 7 ketones, 4 esters, 1 aldehyde, 1 amine, and 3 miscellaneous components. The major functional groups were terpene alcohol and ketone. Borneol (12.96), (±)-7-epi-amiteol (12.60), and camphor (10.54%) were the predominant volatiles. These compounds can be used in food and pharmaceutical industries due to their active bio-functional properties. PMID:24471090

  11. VAR Support from Distributed Wind Energy Resources: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Romanowitz, H.; Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Yinger, R.

    2004-07-01

    As the size and quantity of wind farms and other distributed generation facilities increase, especially in relation to local grids, the importance of a reactive power compensator or VAR support from these facilities becomes more significant. Poorly done, it can result in cycling or inadequate VAR support, and the local grid could experience excessive voltage regulation and, ultimately, instability. Improved wind turbine and distributed generation power control technologies are creating VAR support capabilities that can be used to enhance the voltage regulation and stability of local grids. Locating VAR support near the point of consumption, reducing step size, and making the control active all improve the performance of the grid. This paper presents and discusses alternatives for improving the integration of VAR support from distributed generation facilities such as wind farms. We also examine the relative effectiveness of distributed VAR support on the local grid and how it can b e integrated with the VAR support of the grid operator.

  12. Bioactive constituents of Cirsium japonicum var. australe.

    PubMed

    Lai, Wan-Chun; Wu, Yang-Chang; Dankó, Balázs; Cheng, Yuan-Bin; Hsieh, Tusty-Jiuan; Hsieh, Chi-Ting; Tsai, Yu-Chi; El-Shazly, Mohamed; Martins, Ana; Hohmann, Judit; Hunyadi, Attila; Chang, Fang-Rong

    2014-07-25

    Cirsium japonicum var. australe, used as a folk medicine in Taiwan, has been employed traditionally in the treatment of diabetes and inflammatory symptoms. Bioactivity-guided fractionation of its ethanolic extract, utilizing centrifugal partition chromatography monitored by DPPH-TLC analysis, led to the isolation of three new acetylenic phenylacrylic acid esters (1-3) and two new polyacetylenes (4 and 5), together with seven known compounds (6-12). The structures of 1-5 were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations of 4 and 7 were determined utilizing Mosher's method and ECD/CD experiments. The DPPH scavenging activity of the constituents isolated from the C. japonicum var. australe ethanolic extract was evaluated. The potential antidiabetic activity of some of the isolates was evaluated using in vitro cellular glucose uptake and oil red staining assays.

  13. Pregnane glycosides from Caralluma adscendens var. fimbriata.

    PubMed

    Kunert, Olaf; Rao, Vijayalakshmi Gurunath; Babu, Gummadi Sridhar; Sujatha, Palatheeya; Sivagamy, Malayalam; Anuradha, Sandala; Rao, Belvotagi Venkatrao Adavi; Kumar, Bobbala Ravi; Alex, Robert Michael; Schühly, Wolfgang; Kühnelt, Doris; Rao, Ghanakota Venkateshwara; Rao, Achanta Venkata Narasimha Appa

    2008-02-01

    Eleven novel pregnane glycosides, 2-7 and 9-13, of which four, i.e., 10-13, comprised a new pregnane-type genin exhibiting a hydroxymethylene instead of a Me group at C(19), and the known pregnane glycoside stalagmoside V (8) were isolated from whole plants of Caralluma adscendens var. fimbriata, a native Indian succulent plant. Their structures were elucidated by extensive 2D-NMR spectroscopic studies.

  14. Detoxification of Benzoxazolinone Allelochemicals from Wheat by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, G. graminis var. graminis, G. graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum.

    PubMed

    Friebe; Vilich; Hennig; Kluge; Sicker

    1998-07-01

    The ability of phytopathogenic fungi to overcome the chemical defense barriers of their host plants is of great importance for fungal pathogenicity. We studied the role of cyclic hydroxamic acids and their related benzoxazolinones in plant interactions with pathogenic fungi. We identified species-dependent differences in the abilities of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. graminis, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. avenae, and Fusarium culmorum to detoxify these allelochemicals of gramineous plants. The G. graminis var. graminis isolate degraded benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (BOA) and 6-methoxy-benzoxazolin-2(3H)-one (MBOA) more efficiently than did G. graminis var. tritici and G. graminis var. avenae. F. culmorum degraded BOA but not MBOA. N-(2-Hydroxyphenyl)-malonamic acid and N-(2-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)-malonamic acid were the primary G. graminis var. graminis and G. graminis var. tritici metabolites of BOA and MBOA, respectively, as well as of the related cyclic hydroxamic acids. 2-Amino-3H-phenoxazin-3-one was identified as an additional G. graminis var. tritici metabolite of BOA. No metabolite accumulation was detected for G. graminis var. avenae and F. culmorum by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The mycelial growth of the pathogenic fungi was inhibited more by BOA and MBOA than by their related fungal metabolites. The tolerance of Gaeumannomyces spp. for benzoxazolinone compounds is correlated with their detoxification ability. The ability of Gaeumannomyces isolates to cause root rot symptoms in wheat (cultivars Rektor and Astron) parallels their potential to degrade wheat allelochemicals to nontoxic compounds.

  15. Regulation of hemagglutinin/protease expression by the VarS/VarA-CsrA/B/C/D system in Vibrio cholerae.

    PubMed

    Jang, Jeyoun; Jung, Kyung-Tae; Yoo, Cheon-Kwon; Rhie, Gi-Eun

    2010-06-01

    In this study, through the analysis of Vibrio cholerae 2740-80 mutant strains produced by the cholera toxin subunit B gene containing Mariner-based transposon, we found that disruption of the varS gene, a member of the recently reported sensory system VarS/VarA-CsrA/B/C/D, resulted in altered expression of hemagglutinin/protease A. To further investigate the connection between VarS and HapA, we generated an additional varS mutant, V. cholerae 2740-80-VS, and examined the effect of this mutation on expression of HapA and of genes in the VarS/VarA-CsrA/B/C/D system. 2740-80-VS showed decreased expression of varS, csrB/C, hapR, and hapA along with increased biofilm production. Interestingly, expression of the alternative sigma factor sigma(s), which is important for adaptation to environmental stress, was also decreased in this mutant. These results indicate that the VarS/VarA-CsrA/B/C/D system is involved in the control of HapA expression and biofilm production in V. cholerae 2740-80 through HapR regulation, and also that VarS/VarA controls expression of sigma(s) for HapA regulation. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pentacyclic triterpenoids from Aster ageratoides var. pilosus.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fu-Lin; Wang, Ai-Xia; Jia, Zhong-Jian

    2004-11-01

    Two new pentacyclic triterpenoids, 2beta,3beta,16alpha-trihydroxyl-24alpha-al-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (1), 2beta,3beta-dihydroxyl-16-O-beta-D-glucopyranose-24alpha-al-olean-12-en-28-oic acid (2) and two known pentacyclic triterpenoids were isolated from the roots of Aster ageratoides var. pilosus. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, MS, 1H, 13C and 2D NMR). In addition, the anti-bacterial activity and anti-tumor activity of compound 2 were tested.

  17. Fatal Actinomucor elegans var. kuwaitiensis Infection following Combat Trauma▿

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Charla C.; Romanelli, Anna M.; Sutton, Deanna A.; Wickes, Brian L.; Hospenthal, Duane R.

    2009-01-01

    We report the first case of invasive mucormycosis secondary to Actinomucor elegans infection. A severely injured soldier with a fatal A. elegans var. kuwaitiensis infection is described. The identification of this fungus was performed by classical and molecular methods, and this report documents the pathogenicity of the recently described variety Actinomucor elegans var. kuwaitiensis. PMID:19675213

  18. Drop size modification by forest canopies: Measurements using a disdrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Robin L.; Calder, Ian R.

    1993-10-01

    The modification of the drop size spectra of natural and simulated rainfall by the canopies of three tropical plantation tree species was measured using a disdrometer. Contrary to previously published results, large differences were found between species in the degrees of modification. The median-volume drop diameters measured were 2.3, 2.8, and 4,2 mm for Pinus caribaea, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, and Tectona grandis, respectively. The characteristic drip spectra for the different species are equivalent to the corresponding drop size spectra for rainfall with approximate intensities of 50, 100, and 3000 mm h-1 (essentially infinite) for P. caribaea, E. camaldulensis, and T. grandis, respectively. These results have implications for the choice of the best tree species for areas susceptible to soil erosion.

  19. Chemical diversity of volatiles of Teucrium orientale L. var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens determined by simultaneous GC-FID and GC/MS techniques.

    PubMed

    Ozek, Gulmira; Ozek, Temel; Dinç, Muhittin; Doǧu, Süleyman; Başer, Kemal H C

    2012-06-01

    In the present work, three varieties of Teucrium orientale, var. orientale, var. puberulens, and var. glabrescens, were collected and investigated for chemical composition of the oils. Subsequent gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC/MS) revealed high abundance of sesquiterpenes in the essential oils analyzed. All the oils contained β-caryophyllene (22.6, 8.5, and 6.3%, resp.) and hexadecanoic acid (7.9, 12.8, and 13.1%). Germacrene D (24.6 and 33.4%) and bicyclogermacrene (6.7 and 8.5%) were found to be the main constituents of var. orientale and var. puberulens, respectively. The high percentages of β-cubebene (26.9%), α-cubebene (9.0%), and α-copaene (7.2%) established the diversity of var. glabrescens. The qualitative difference between the essential oils allowed the differentiation between the varieties in agreement with the morphological observations described in Flora of Turkey for each variety studied. In addition, a cluster analysis of twelve Teucrium taxa based on the essential-oil composition has been carried out. Hovewer, the analysis did not clearly reflect the infrageneric classification of the genus, it largely confirmed the relationships between the infraspecific taxa of Teucrium orientale and T. chamaedrys.

  20. Notes on the Occurrence of Oligonychus milleri (McGregor) and Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) (Acari: Tetranychidae) in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Castro, E B; Zanardi, O C; Garlet, J; Ochoa, R; Feres, R J F

    2017-08-24

    We verified infestation of Oligonychus milleri (McGregor) on plantations of Pinus caribaea (Pinaceae) and of Oligonychus ununguis (Jacobi) on plantations of Eucalyptus urophylla x Eucalyptus grandis (Myrtaceae) in State of Rondônia, Northern region of Brazil. This represents the first record of O. milleri in Brazil. Oligonychus ununguis was recorded previously, on cypress. The damage caused by these two spider mites in the plantations is described herein.

  1. Somatic Embryogenesis in Olive (Olea europaea L. subsp. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris).

    PubMed

    Rugini, Eddo; Silvestri, Cristian

    2016-01-01

    Protocols for olive somatic embryogenesis from zygotic embryos and mature tissues have been described for both Olea europaea sub. europaea var. sativa and var. sylvestris. Immature zygotic embryos (no more than 75 days old), used after fruit collection or stored at 12-14 °C for 2-3 months, are the best responsive explants and very slightly genotype dependent, and one single protocol can be effective for a wide range of genotypes. On the contrary, protocols for mature zygotic embryos and for mature tissue of cultivars are often genotype specific, so that they may require many adjustments according to genotypes. The use of thidiazuron and cefotaxime seems to be an important trigger for induction phase particularly for tissues derived from cultivars. Up to now, however, the application of this technique for large-scale propagation is hampered also by the low rate of embryo germination; it proves nonetheless very useful for genetic improvement.

  2. 1D-VAR Retrieval Using Superchannels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Xu; Zhou, Daniel; Larar, Allen; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter; Mango, Stephen; SaintGermain, Karen

    2008-01-01

    Since modern ultra-spectral remote sensors have thousands of channels, it is difficult to include all of them in a 1D-var retrieval system. We will describe a physical inversion algorithm, which includes all available channels for the atmospheric temperature, moisture, cloud, and surface parameter retrievals. Both the forward model and the inversion algorithm compress the channel radiances into super channels. These super channels are obtained by projecting the radiance spectra onto a set of pre-calculated eigenvectors. The forward model provides both super channel properties and jacobian in EOF space directly. For ultra-spectral sensors such as Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the NPOESS Airborne Sounder Testbed Interferometer (NAST), a compression ratio of more than 80 can be achieved, leading to a significant reduction in computations involved in an inversion process. Results will be shown applying the algorithm to real IASI and NAST data.

  3. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... formula record or in the form of computer printouts or other comparable VAR supporting documentation. (ii... supporting data may be supplied on the VAR formula record or in the form of computer printouts or other... may be supplied on the VAR formula record or in the form of computer printouts or other comparable VAR...

  4. Isolation of Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii from a dog.

    PubMed

    Kano, Rui; Nagata, Masahiko; Suzuki, Takayuki; Watanabe, Shinichi; Kamata, Hiroshi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko

    2010-06-01

    A rare anthropophilic dermatophyte, Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii, was isolated for the first time from a case of animal dermatophytosis. We morphologically and physiologically identified the isolate from a case of canine dermatophytosis. Molecular typing of chitin synthase 1 (CHS1) and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 sequences suggest that human and canine isolates of T. rubrum and T. rubrum var. raubitschekii are genetically identical. Therefore, T. rubrum, including T. rubrum var. raubitschekii, might be pathogenic to humans and dogs.

  5. New pseudoguaiane derivatives from Inula aschersoniana Janka var. aschersoniana.

    PubMed

    Trendafilova, Antoaneta; Todorova, Milka; Genova, Viktoriya; Shestakova, Pavletta; Dimitrov, Dimitar; Jadranine, Milka; Milosavljevic, Slobodan

    2014-08-01

    The aerial parts of Inula aschersoniana Janka var. aschersoniana afforded parthenolide, diepoxycostunolide, inusoniolide, chrysosplenol C and four new pseudoguaiane-type sesquiterpenoids. Their structures were determined using spectral methods and relative stereochemistry by NOESY correlations.

  6. Puccinia jaceae var.solstitialis teliospore priming on yellow starthistle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Following the introduction of Puccinia jaceae var. solstitialis to California for biological control of yellow starthistle (Centaurea solstitialis, Asteraceae), teliospores, pycnia, and multiple urediniospore generations have been observed in the field. Because urediniospores have a relatively short...

  7. Epidemiological aspects of Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Midori; Kano, Rui; Sugita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Hiruma, Masataro

    2012-12-01

    Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii is a rare anthropophilic dermatophyte isolated around the world from tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis and tinea unguium. In this study, the isolation rate of T. rubrum var. raubitschekii was studied in 200 cases of tinea pedis and tinea unguium in Japan. The 200 clinical isolates were shown to be of downy type as their colonies on Sabouraud's dextrose agar were white to cream, suede-like to downy, with a yellow-brown to wine-red reverse, and they produced few macroconidia. The type strain of T. rubrum var. raubitschekii (CBS 100084) and one clinical isolate (KMU 8337; isolated at Kanazawa) of downy type tested positive for urease, but the reference strain of T. rubrum (CBS 392.58) and the remaining 199 clinical isolates tested negative. Further epidemiological investigations are required to study human cases of infection with the granular type of T. rubrum and T. rubrum var. raubitschekii in Japan.

  8. Phytochemical and termiticidal study of Lantana camara var. aculeata leaves.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh K; Verma, Suman K

    2006-09-01

    Extracts of Lantana camara var. aculeata leaves were studied for their phytochemical constituents and termiticidal effects against adult termite workers. The 5% chloroform extract was found to be significantly effective against termite workers.

  9. Immunomodulatory Activity of Xanthones from Calophyllum teysmannii var. inuphylloide.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, M J; Nascimento, M S; Cidade, H M; Pinto, M M; Kijjoa, A; Anantachoke, C; Silva, A M; Herz, W

    1999-05-01

    Nine xanthones, including 3-(4-hydroxy-3-metnylbutyl)-4,8-dihydroxyxanthone, were isolated from the wood of a Thai collection of CALOPHYLLUM TEYSMANNII Miq. var. INUPHYLLOIDE (King) P. Stephen. Immunomodulatory activities of eight of these have been investigated.

  10. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia following probiotic treatment.

    PubMed

    Appel-da-Silva, Marcelo C; Narvaez, Gabriel A; Perez, Leandro R R; Drehmer, Laura; Lewgoy, Jairo

    2017-12-01

    Probiotics are commonly prescribed as an adjuvant in the treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea caused by Clostridium difficile. We report the case of an immunocompromised 73-year-old patient on chemotherapy who developed Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii fungemia in a central venous catheter during treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis with the probiotic Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii. Fungemia was resolved after interruption of probiotic administration without the need to replace the central venous line.

  11. [Triterpenoid saponins from Bupleurum marginatum var. stenophyllum].

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei; Yang, Yin-Jun; Guo, Bao-Lin; Cen, Shan

    2016-04-01

    Twelve compounds were obtained by phytochemical investigation of 70% EtOH ( containing 0.5%NH3•H2O )extract of the roots of Bupleurum marginatum var. stenophyllum. Based on comparison of their spectral data, including HR-ESI-MS, ¹H-NMR, ¹³C-NMR data, with those of the literature, their structures were elucidated as saikosaponin b2 (1), saikosaponin a(2), saikosaponin b1(3), saikosaponin d (4), hydroxysaikosaponin a (5), saikosaponin b3 (6), saikosaponin c(7),saikosaponin i (8), saikosaponin f (9), chikusaikosides Ⅱ(10), saikosaponin s (11), and saikosaponin I(12). All compounds belong to olean-type triterpenoid saponin and compounds 1, 3, 5, 8-9,11, and 12 were isolated from this plant for the first time. At a concentration of 20 μmol•L⁻¹, compounds 2, 4, 6, 8, 11 and 12 showed strong inhibition activity against influenza virus WSN33 with the inhibition rate of 91.3%,88.6%,53.4%,61.3%,77.3% and 57.4%,respectively. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  12. A Method for Evaluating Volt-VAR Optimization Field Demonstrations

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2014-08-31

    In a regulated business environment a utility must be able to validate that deployed technologies provide quantifiable benefits to the end-use customers. For traditional technologies there are well established procedures for determining what benefits will be derived from the deployment. But for many emerging technologies procedures for determining benefits are less clear and completely absent in some cases. Volt-VAR Optimization is a technology that is being deployed across the nation, but there are still numerous discussions about potential benefits and how they are achieved. This paper will present a method for the evaluation, and quantification of benefits, for field deployments of Volt-VAR Optimization technologies. In addition to the basic methodology, the paper will present a summary of results, and observations, from two separate Volt-VAR Optimization field evaluations using the proposed method.

  13. Extremum Seeking Control of Smart Inverters for VAR Compensation

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, Daniel; Negrete-Pincetic, Matias; Stewart, Emma; Auslander, David, M; Callaway, Duncan

    2015-09-04

    Reactive power compensation is used by utilities to ensure customer voltages are within pre-defined tolerances and reduce system resistive losses. While much attention has been paid to model-based control algorithms for reactive power support and Volt Var Optimization (VVO), these strategies typically require relatively large communications capabilities and accurate models. In this work, a non-model-based control strategy for smart inverters is considered for VAR compensation. An Extremum Seeking control algorithm is applied to modulate the reactive power output of inverters based on real power information from the feeder substation, without an explicit feeder model. Simulation results using utility demand information confirm the ability of the control algorithm to inject VARs to minimize feeder head real power consumption. In addition, we show that the algorithm is capable of improving feeder voltage profiles and reducing reactive power supplied by the distribution substation.

  14. [Genetic diversity and kin relationships among wild and cultivated populations of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes, Palmae) using microsatellite markers].

    PubMed

    Ugalde, José Alfredo Hernández; Urpí, Jorge Mora; Nuñez, Oscar Rocha

    2008-03-01

    Genetic diversity and kin relationships among wild and cultivated populations of the pejibaye palm (Bactris gasipaes, Palmae) using microsatellite markers. The genetic diversity of the peach palm (Pejibaye, Bactris gasipaes Kunth) was evaluated using four nuclear DNA microsatellites in an effort to elucidate the evolution and domestication of this crop. A total of 258 samples from seven wild populations and eleven races were analyzed. All loci were polymorphic and a total of 50 alleles were identified. Average genetic diversity (0.67) and genetic differentiation among populations (Fst=0.16) were high when all populations were considered. Genetic differentiation was lower when the populations were grouped according to their origin into Western and Eastern populations (Fst=0.13 for both). Gene flow was slightly higher among Western populations (Nm=1.71) than among Eastern populations (Nm=1.62). The Putumayo, Yurimaguas, Vaupés, Tucurrique and Guatuso races seem to have been subjected to intense human selection. Hybrid populations exist in Azuero, Tuira, Cauca, Vaupés, Puerto Ayacucho and Solimões, probably resulting from exchange and introgressions among sympatric wild and cultivated populations. Genetic distance (Dm) was estimated to determine the degree of relationship among populations using the neighbor-joining method; the wild populations from Maracaibo were used as the outgroup. The populations were divided into three general groups: Maracaibo (B. caribaea, B. macana var veragua and B. macana var arapuey), Eastern Amazon (Tembe, Pará and Acre) and a third group with two subgroups, Western (Azuero, Chontilla, Tuira, Cauca, Tucurrique and Guatuso) and Upper Amazon (B. dahlgreniana, Puerto Ayacucho, Solimões, Vaupés and Putumayo). The genetic relationships strongly support the hypothesis that peach palm was brought into cultivation independently in no less than three areas: the Western Andes (extending into lower Central America); Upper Amazon (extending

  15. Using electrical resistivity tomography to differentiate sapwood from heartwood: application to conifers.

    PubMed

    Guyot, Adrien; Ostergaard, Kasper T; Lenkopane, Mothei; Fan, Junliang; Lockington, David A

    2013-02-01

    Estimating sapwood area is one of the main sources of error when upscaling point scale sap flow measurements to whole-tree water use. In this study, the potential use of electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) to determine the sapwood-heartwood (SW-HW) boundary is investigated for Pinus elliottii Engelm var. elliottii × Pinus caribaea Morelet var. hondurensis growing in a subtropical climate. Specifically, this study investigates: (i) how electrical resistivity is correlated to either wood moisture content, or electrolyte concentration, or both, and (ii) how the SW-HW boundary is defined in terms of electrical resistivity. Tree cross-sections at breast height are analysed using ERT before being felled and the cross-section surface sampled for analysis of major electrolyte concentrations, wood moisture content and density. Electrical resistivity tomography results show patterns with high resistivities occurring in the inner part of the cross-section, with much lower values towards the outside. The high-resistivity areas were generally smaller than the low-resistivity areas. A comparison between ERT and actual SW area measured after felling shows a slope of the linear regression close to unity (=0.96) with a large spread of values (R(2) = 0.56) mostly due to uncertainties in ERT. Electrolyte concentrations along sampled radial transects (cardinal directions) generally showed no trend from the centre of the tree to the bark. Wood moisture content and density show comparable trends that could explain the resistivity patterns. While this study indicates the potential for application of ERT for estimating SW area, it shows that there remains a need for refinement in locating the SW-HW boundary (e.g., by improvement of the inversion method, or perhaps electrode density) in order to increase the robustness of the method.

  16. Meiotic chromosome pairing in Actinidia chinensis var. deliciosa.

    PubMed

    Mertten, D; Tsang, G K; Manako, K I; McNeilage, M A; Datson, P M

    2012-12-01

    Polyploids are defined as either autopolyploids or allopolyploids, depending on their mode of origin and/or chromosome pairing behaviour. Autopolyploids have chromosome sets that are the result of the duplication or combination of related genomes (e.g., AAAA), while allopolyploids result from the combination of sets of chromosomes from two or more different taxa (e.g., AABB, AABBCC). Allopolyploids are expected to show preferential pairing of homologous chromosomes from within each parental sub-genome, leading to disomic inheritance. In contrast, autopolyploids are expected to show random pairing of chromosomes (non-preferential pairing), potentially leading to polysomic inheritance. The two main cultivated taxa of Actinidia (kiwifruit) are A. chinensis (2x and 4x) and A. chinensis var. deliciosa (6x). There is debate whether A. chinensis var. deliciosa is an autopolyploid derived solely from A. chinensis or whether it is an allopolyploid derived from A. chinensis and one or two other Actinidia taxa. To investigate whether preferential or non-preferential chromosome pairing occurs in A. chinensis var. deliciosa, the inheritance of microsatellite alleles was analysed in the tetraploid progeny of a cross between A. chinensis var. deliciosa and the distantly related Actinidia eriantha Benth. (2x). The frequencies of inherited microsatellite allelic combinations in the hybrids suggested that non-preferential chromosome pairing had occurred in the A. chinensis var. deliciosa parent. Meiotic chromosome analysis showed predominantly bivalent formation in A. chinensis var. deliciosa, but a low frequency of quadrivalent chromosome formations was observed (1 observed in 20 pollen mother cells).

  17. BZ UMa and Var Her 04: Orphan TOADS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, A.; Howell, S.

    2005-05-01

    Both BZ UMa and Var Her 04 are cataclysmic variable stars without a home. Neither fit easily into current classification systems so may extend the population distribution of two unique CV types: UGWZ dwarf novae and intermediate polars. New outburst photometry and archival X-Ray data shed some new light on BZ UMa's high energy state and new spectral and IR observations from Spitzer of dust around the newly discovered cataclysmic variable Var Her 04 may help find it a home as well.

  18. [Iridoid glycosides from buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Yin, Zhi-feng; Liu, Yu-cui; Li, Hong-bo

    2011-10-01

    The study on the buds of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum was carried out to look for anti-HBV constituents. The isolation and purification were performed by HPLC and chromatography on silica gel, polyamide and Sephadex LH-20 column. The structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six iridoid glycosides were identified as jasgranoside B (1), 6-O-methy-catalpol (2), deacetyl asperulosidic acid (3), aucubin (4), 8-dehydroxy shanzhiside (5), and loganin (6). Jasgranoside B (1) is a new compound. Compounds 2-6 were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  19. Terpenoids and sterols from Nepeta cataria L. var. citriodora (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Klimek, Barbara; Modnicki, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    Isolation and GC/MS quantitative determination of ursolic acid in the herb of Nepeta cataria var. citriodora have been performed. The content of this compound was in the range 0.95-1.30%. Daucosterol (beta-sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside) was also isolated from the plant, in addition to small amounts of beta-sitosterol, campesterol, alpha-amyrin and beta-amyrin. The content and composition of essential oil in samples of the Nepeta cataria var. citriodora herb have been analysed as well.

  20. The VarS/VarA two-component system modulates the activity of the Vibrio cholerae quorum-sensing transcriptional regulator HapR.

    PubMed

    Tsou, Amy M; Liu, Zhi; Cai, Tao; Zhu, Jun

    2011-06-01

    The human pathogen Vibrio cholerae uses quorum sensing to regulate the expression of a number of phenotypes, including virulence factor production, in response to changes in cell density. It produces small molecules called autoinducers that increase in concentration as cell density increases, and these autoinducers bind to membrane sensors once they reach a certain threshold. This binding leads to signalling through a downstream phosphorelay pathway to alter the expression of the transcriptional regulator HapR. Previously, it was shown that the VarS/VarA two-component system acts on a component of the phosphorelay pathway upstream of HapR to regulate HapR expression levels. Here, we show that in addition to this mechanism of regulation, VarS and VarA also indirectly modulate HapR protein activity. This modulation is mediated by the small RNA CsrB but is independent of the known quorum-sensing system that links the autoinducers to HapR. Thus, the VarS/VarA two-component system intersects with the quorum-sensing network at two levels. In both cases, the effect of VarS and VarA on quorum sensing is dependent on the Csr small RNAs, which regulate carbon metabolism, suggesting that V. cholerae may integrate nutrient status and cell density sensory inputs to tailor its gene expression profile more precisely to surrounding conditions.

  1. The Vibrio cholerae var regulon encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and an antibiotic efflux pump, which are regulated by VarR, a LysR-type transcription factor.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong-Ting Victor; Massam-Wu, Teresa; Lin, Chen-Ping; Wang, Yen-Jen Anna; Shen, Yu-Chi; Lu, Wen-Jung; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Chen, Yu-Hou; Borges-Walmsley, Maria Ines; Walmsley, Adrian Robert

    2017-01-01

    The genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 Biovar Eltor strain N16961 has revealed a putative antibiotic resistance (var) regulon that is predicted to encode a transcriptional activator (VarR), which is divergently transcribed relative to the putative resistance genes for both a metallo-β-lactamase (VarG) and an antibiotic efflux-pump (VarABCDEF). We sought to test whether these genes could confer antibiotic resistance and are organised as a regulon under the control of VarR. VarG was overexpressed and purified and shown to have β-lactamase activity against penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, having the highest activity against meropenem. The expression of VarABCDEF in the Escherichia coli (ΔacrAB) strain KAM3 conferred resistance to a range of drugs, but most significant resistance was to the macrolide spiramycin. A gel-shift analysis was used to determine if VarR bound to the promoter regions of the resistance genes. Consistent with the regulation of these resistance genes, VarR binds to three distinct intergenic regions, varRG, varGA and varBC located upstream and adjacent to varG, varA and varC, respectively. VarR can act as a repressor at the varRG promoter region; whilst this repression was relieved upon addition of β-lactams, these did not dissociate the VarR/varRG-DNA complex, indicating that the de-repression of varR by β-lactams is indirect. Considering that the genomic arrangement of VarR-VarG is strikingly similar to that of AmpR-AmpC system, it is possible that V. cholerae has evolved a system for resistance to the newer β-lactams that would prove more beneficial to the bacterium in light of current selective pressures.

  2. The Vibrio cholerae var regulon encodes a metallo-β-lactamase and an antibiotic efflux pump, which are regulated by VarR, a LysR-type transcription factor

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chen-Ping; Wang, Yen-Jen Anna; Shen, Yu-Chi; Lu, Wen-Jung; Hsu, Pang-Hung; Chen, Yu-Hou; Borges-Walmsley, Maria Ines

    2017-01-01

    The genome sequence of V. cholerae O1 Biovar Eltor strain N16961 has revealed a putative antibiotic resistance (var) regulon that is predicted to encode a transcriptional activator (VarR), which is divergently transcribed relative to the putative resistance genes for both a metallo-β-lactamase (VarG) and an antibiotic efflux-pump (VarABCDEF). We sought to test whether these genes could confer antibiotic resistance and are organised as a regulon under the control of VarR. VarG was overexpressed and purified and shown to have β-lactamase activity against penicillins, cephalosporins and carbapenems, having the highest activity against meropenem. The expression of VarABCDEF in the Escherichia coli (ΔacrAB) strain KAM3 conferred resistance to a range of drugs, but most significant resistance was to the macrolide spiramycin. A gel-shift analysis was used to determine if VarR bound to the promoter regions of the resistance genes. Consistent with the regulation of these resistance genes, VarR binds to three distinct intergenic regions, varRG, varGA and varBC located upstream and adjacent to varG, varA and varC, respectively. VarR can act as a repressor at the varRG promoter region; whilst this repression was relieved upon addition of β-lactams, these did not dissociate the VarR/varRG-DNA complex, indicating that the de-repression of varR by β-lactams is indirect. Considering that the genomic arrangement of VarR-VarG is strikingly similar to that of AmpR-AmpC system, it is possible that V. cholerae has evolved a system for resistance to the newer β-lactams that would prove more beneficial to the bacterium in light of current selective pressures. PMID:28898293

  3. Transcriptome analysis of antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum - var silencing is not dependent on antisense RNA

    PubMed Central

    Ralph, Stuart A; Bischoff, Emmanuel; Mattei, Denise; Sismeiro, Odile; Dillies, Marie-Agnès; Guigon, Ghislaine; Coppee, Jean-Yves; David, Peter H; Scherf, Artur

    2005-01-01

    Background Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the most severe form of malaria, undergoes antigenic variation through successive presentation of a family of antigens on the surface of parasitized erythrocytes. These antigens, known as Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) proteins, are subject to a mutually exclusive expression system, and are encoded by the multigene var family. The mechanism whereby inactive var genes are silenced is poorly understood. To investigate transcriptional features of this mechanism, we conducted a microarray analysis of parasites that were selected to express different var genes by adhesion to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) or CD36. Results In addition to oligonucleotides for all predicted protein-coding genes, oligonucleotide probes specific to each known var gene of the FCR3 background were designed and added to the microarray, as well as tiled sense and antisense probes for a subset of var genes. In parasites selected for adhesion to CSA, one full-length var gene (var2csa) was strongly upregulated, as were sense RNA molecules emanating from the 3' end of a limited subset of other var genes. No global relationship between sense and antisense production of var genes was observed, but notably, some var genes had coincident high levels of both antisense and sense transcript. Conclusion Mutually exclusive expression of PfEMP1 proteins results from transcriptional silencing of non-expressed var genes. The distribution of steady-state sense and antisense RNA at var loci are not consistent with a silencing mechanism based on antisense silencing of inactive var genes. Silencing of var loci is also associated with altered regulation of genes distal to var loci. PMID:16277748

  4. Cycloartane-Type Saponins from Astragalus tmoleus var. tmoleus.

    PubMed

    Avunduk, Sibel; Mitaine-Offer, Anne-Claire; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2016-01-01

    Five known cycloartane-type glycosides were isolated from the roots of A. tmoleus Boiss. var. tmoleus. The identification of these compounds was mainly achieved by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic techniques and FABMS. The results of our studies confirm that triterpene saponins with the cycloartane-type skeleton might be chemotaxonomically significant for the genus Astragalus.

  5. Ochratoxin A production by strains of Aspergillus niger var. niger.

    PubMed Central

    Abarca, M L; Bragulat, M R; Castellá, G; Cabañes, F J

    1994-01-01

    In a survey of the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OA)-positive strains isolated from feedstuffs, two of the 19 isolates of Aspergillus niger var. niger that were studied produced OA in 2% yeast extract-15% sucrose broth and in corn cultures. This is the first report of production of OA by this species. PMID:8074536

  6. Indolizidine, Antiinfective and Antiparasitic Compounds from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prosopilosidine, a new potent antiinfective and antiparasitic 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium chloride, (1), was isolated from Prosopis glandulosa Torr. var. glandulosa. Furthermore, three additional new and one known indolizidines, prosopilosine (2), isoprosopilosine (3), isoprosopilosidine (4) and jul...

  7. Fast Responding Voltage Regulator and Dynamic VAR Compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Divan, Deepak; Moghe, Rohit; Tholomier, Damien

    2014-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to develop a dynamic VAR compensator (DVC) for voltage regulation through VAR support to demonstrate the ability to achieve greater levels of voltage control on electricity distribution networks, and faster response compared to existing grid technology. The goal of the project was to develop a prototype Fast Dynamic VAR Compensator (Fast DVC) hardware device, and this was achieved. In addition to developing the dynamic VAR compensator device, Varentec in partnership with researchers at North Carolina State University (NCSU) successfully met the objectives to model the potential positive impact of such DVCs on representative power networks. This modeling activity validated the ability of distributed dynamic VAR compensators to provide fast voltage regulation and reactive power control required to respond to grid disturbances under high penetration of fluctuating and intermittent distributed energy resources (DERs) through extensive simulation studies. Specifically the following tasks were set to be accomplished: 1) Development of dynamic VAR compensator to support dynamic voltage variations on the grid through VAR control 2) Extensive testing of the DVC in the lab environment 3) Present the operational DVC device to the DOE at Varentec’s lab 4) Formulation of a detailed specification sheet, unit assembly document, test setup document, unit bring-up plan, and test plan 5) Extensive simulations of the DVC in a system with high PV penetration. Understanding the operation with many DVC on a single distribution system 6) Creation and submittal of quarterly and final reports conveying the design documents, unit performance data, modeling simulation charts and diagrams, and summary explanations of the satisfaction of program goals. This report details the various efforts that led to the development of the Fast DVC as well as the modeling & simulation results. The report begins with the introduction in Section II which outlines the

  8. C.V. Riley’s lost aphids: Siphonophora fragariae var. immaculata and Aphis rapae var. laevigata (Hemiptera: Aphididae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The syntypes of Siphonophora fragariae var. immaculata Riley were rediscovered in the Aphidoidea collection of the United States of America National Museum of Natural History. Previously, S. fragariae immaculata was largely lost and forgotten. Through examination of the specimens, we hereby establ...

  9. An In Vivo and In Vitro Model of Plasmodium falciparum Rosetting and Autoagglutination Mediated by varO, a Group A var Gene Encoding a Frequent Serotype▿

    PubMed Central

    Vigan-Womas, Inès; Guillotte, Micheline; Le Scanf, Cécile; Igonet, Sébastien; Petres, Stéphane; Juillerat, Alexandre; Badaut, Cyril; Nato, Farida; Schneider, Achim; Lavergne, Anne; Contamin, Hugues; Tall, Adama; Baril, Laurence; Bentley, Graham A.; Mercereau-Puijalon, Odile

    2008-01-01

    In the Saimiri sciureus monkey, erythrocytes infected with the varO antigenic variant of the Plasmodium falciparum Palo Alto 89F5 clone bind uninfected red blood cells (rosetting), form autoagglutinates, and have a high multiplication rate, three phenotypic characteristics that are associated with severe malaria in human patients. We report here that varO parasites express a var gene having the characteristics of group A var genes, and we show that the varO Duffy binding-like 1α1 (DBL1α1) domain is implicated in the rosetting of both S. sciureus and human erythrocytes. The soluble varO N-terminal sequence (NTS)-DBL1α1 recombinant domain, produced in a baculovirus-insect cell system, induced high titers of antibodies that reacted with varO-infected red blood cells and disrupted varO rosettes. varO parasites were culture adapted in vitro using human erythrocytes. They formed rosettes and autoagglutinates, and they had the same surface serotype and expressed the same varO gene as the monkey-propagated parasites. To develop an in vitro model with highly homogeneous varO parasites, rosette purification was combined with positive selection by panning with a varO NTS-DBL1α1-specific mouse monoclonal antibody. The single-variant, clonal parasites were used to analyze seroprevalence for varO at the village level in a setting where malaria is holoendemic (Dielmo, Senegal). We found 93.6% (95% confidence interval, 89.7 to 96.4%) seroprevalence for varO surface-reacting antibodies and 86.7% (95% confidence interval, 82.8 to 91.6%) seroprevalence for the recombinant NTS-DBL1α1 domain, and virtually all permanent residents had seroconverted by the age of 5 years. These data imply that the varO model is a relevant in vivo and in vitro model for rosetting and autoagglutination that can be used for rational development of vaccine candidates and therapeutic strategies aimed at preventing malaria pathology. PMID:18809668

  10. [Photosynthetic parameters and physiological indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis influenced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi].

    PubMed

    Wei, Zheng-xin; Guo, Dong-qin; Li, Hai-feng; Ding, Bo; Zhang, Jie; Zhou, Nong; Yu, Jie

    2015-10-01

    Through potted inoculation test at room temperature and indoor analysis, the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed after 28 arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi were injected into the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis growing in a sterile soil environment. The results showed that AM fungi established a good symbiosis with P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The AM fungi influenced the photosynthetic parameters and physiological and biochemical indexes of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. And the influences were varied depending on different AM fungi. The application of AM fungi improved photosynthesis intensity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis mesophyll cells, the contents of soluble protein and soluble sugar, protective enzyme activity of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis leaf, which was beneficial to resist the adverse environment and promote the growth of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. Otherwise, there was a certain mutual selectivity between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and AM fungi. From the comprehensive effect of inoculation, Racocetra coralloidea, Scutellospora calospora, Claroideoglomus claroideum, S. pellucida and Rhizophagus clarus were the most suitable AM fungi to P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis when P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was planted in the field.

  11. Autofluorescence of the fungus Morchella conica var. rigida.

    PubMed

    Zižka, Z; Gabriel, J

    2011-03-01

    Autofluorescence (primary fluorescence (AF)) of fruiting bodies and stems of the fungus Morchella conica var. rigida was studied by fluorescence microscopy including sporangia and ascospores. The ascospores were characterized by a weak green-yellow AF at blue excitation. Using a green excitation, no AF was observed. The hyphae located under the layer of asci with ascospores exhibited a higher primary fluorescence, namely their walls that had green-yellow color at blue excitation. Also, their red AF observed when a green excitation was used was significant. Similarly, the hyphae located in the fungal stem exhibited a significant AF, especially their walls when the blue light was used for excitation. In addition, large, yellow-to-yellow/green, oval-to-round bodies with strong fluorescence were detected whose morphological equivalents were not clearly visible in the white halogen light. The AF of the fungus M. conica var. rigida was lower compared with the other higher fungi studied so far.

  12. [Study on quality standard of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis].

    PubMed

    Wu, Shi-Hong; Jiang, Wei-Zhe; Lv, Li; Wu, Ling-Ling; Lv, Cong; Shi, Xiao-Xia; Su, Gui-Liang

    2009-03-01

    To provide scientific basis for the utilization and development of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis by establishing its quality control standard. The bioactive constituents were analyzed by TLC and HPLC. Moisture, ash and the extracts of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis were all determined. The TLC spots of levodopa had similar color with the control group at the same position. The results of HPLC quantitative analysis showed that the linear range of levodopa was 26.45 to approximately 132.25 microg/mL, r = 0.9992, and the average recovery rate was 103.8%, RSD = 1.85%. This method is convenient, accurate, reliable with good reproducibility, so it can be used to establish quality standard for the medicinal material.

  13. [Glycosides from flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-qin; Xia, Jing-jing; Dong, Jun-xing

    2007-10-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the flower of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by re-crystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Seven glycosides were identified as kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->3)-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1-->6)]-beta-D-galactopyranoside (I), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (II), 7-ketologanin (III), oleoside-11-methyl ester (IV), 7-glucosyl-l1-methyl oleoside (V), ligstroside (VI), oleuropein (VII). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds III and V were isolated from the family of Jasminum for the first time and compounds II, IV and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  14. Analysis of 4D Var Data Assimilation Application Issues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trailovic, L.; Etherton, B.; Harrop, C.; Govett, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper summarizes the challenges encountered with our ongoing development and use of a software system designed to facilitate exploration of computational optimizations and strategies for Data Assimilation (DA). The software system is designed and constructed from scratch using modern software development methods and tools, though it incorporates components of pre-existing systems where appropriate. We present results of experiments that employ this system to test approaches for assimilation of observations using a four-dimensional variational (4D Var) scheme. We propose a modular DA system software architecture and demonstrate its utility using a set of models of varying realism and complexity. The software system design and implementation was initially tested and validated using a simple chaotic atmospheric model. A Quasi-Geostrophic (QG) atmospheric model was used to conduct DA experiments of increased difficulty and to validate the software design at larger scales of model complexity. Our QG DA study focused on 2016 winter weather data where a Nature run was used to represent the "true" state of the atmosphere and observations, whereas observation error covariance and observation operator were adapted from pre-existing DA systems. To increase performance, a parallel-in-time algorithm was applied to solve the proposed 4D Var data assimilation problem. That is, the assimilation window was divided into multiple sub-intervals, which allowed for parallelization of the cost function and gradient computations. Continuity equations of the solution were added as constraints across interval boundaries. This approach produced a different formulation of the variational data assimilation problem than weakly constrained 4D Var. We explored a combination of serial and parallel 4D Var algorithms to increase performance.

  15. Identification of Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi by PCR.

    PubMed

    Schlenzig, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    The following chapter describes a PCR method for the identification of the raspberry root rot pathogen Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi. Furthermore, a nested PCR suitable for the detection of the pathogen in infected raspberry roots and validated against the "Duncan bait test" (EPPO Bull 35:87-91, 2005) is explained. Protocols for different DNA extraction methods are given which can be transferred to other fungal pathogens.

  16. Synthesis of Calocybe indica var. APK2 polysaccharide repeating unit.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Xiangming

    2014-06-04

    The first total synthesis of p-methoxyphenyl α-l-fucopyranosyl-(1→6)-α-d-galactopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranoside (2) was achieved starting from five monosaccharide building blocks. This structure represents the repeating unit of the polysaccharide isolated from edible mushroom Calocybe indica var. APK2, and was synthesized in high overall yield via a convergent '3+2' glycosylation strategy.

  17. VarSCAN: Variables in and Near Star Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janík, J.; Parimucha, vS.; Paunzen, E.; Zejda, M.; Dróżdż, M.; Ogłóza, W.; Hegedüs, T.

    2015-07-01

    We present our project to produce an online database of photometric observations of variables in star clusters and their vicinity (VarSCAN). The database now contains more than 145,000 of our own CCD measurements of the two open clusters NGC 6738 and NGC 7142. This poster describes the structure and organization of the database, and shows phased-folded and non-phased-folded light curves for selected variable stars.

  18. Scalable and Flexible Multiview MAX-VAR Canonical Correlation Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiao; Huang, Kejun; Hong, Mingyi; Sidiropoulos, Nicholas D.; So, Anthony Man-Cho

    2017-08-01

    Generalized canonical correlation analysis (GCCA) aims at finding latent low-dimensional common structure from multiple views (feature vectors in different domains) of the same entities. Unlike principal component analysis (PCA) that handles a single view, (G)CCA is able to integrate information from different feature spaces. Here we focus on MAX-VAR GCCA, a popular formulation which has recently gained renewed interest in multilingual processing and speech modeling. The classic MAX-VAR GCCA problem can be solved optimally via eigen-decomposition of a matrix that compounds the (whitened) correlation matrices of the views; but this solution has serious scalability issues, and is not directly amenable to incorporating pertinent structural constraints such as non-negativity and sparsity on the canonical components. We posit regularized MAX-VAR GCCA as a non-convex optimization problem and propose an alternating optimization (AO)-based algorithm to handle it. Our algorithm alternates between {\\em inexact} solutions of a regularized least squares subproblem and a manifold-constrained non-convex subproblem, thereby achieving substantial memory and computational savings. An important benefit of our design is that it can easily handle structure-promoting regularization. We show that the algorithm globally converges to a critical point at a sublinear rate, and approaches a global optimal solution at a linear rate when no regularization is considered. Judiciously designed simulations and large-scale word embedding tasks are employed to showcase the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  19. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii from Eucalyptus camaldulensis in India.

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, A; Jatana, M; Kumar, P; Chatha, L; Kaushal, A; Padhye, A A

    1997-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii has an ecological association with five Eucalyptus species: E. blakelyi, E. camaldulensis, E. gomphocephala, E. rudis, and E. tereticornis. After human infections due to C. neoformans var. gattii were diagnosed in the states of Punjab, Himachal Pradesh, and Karnataka, India, a study was undertaken to investigate the association of C. neoformans var. gattii with Indian eucalypts, especially in the state of Punjab. A total of 696 specimens collected from E. camaldulensis, E. citriodora and E. tereticornis (hybrid) trees were examined for the presence of C. neoformans var. gattii. Flowers from two trees of E. camaldulensis in the Chak Sarkar forest and one from the village of Periana near the Ferozepur area yielded five isolates of C. neoformans var. gattii. The origin of the trees could be traced to Australia, thus providing evidence that the distribution of E. camaldulensis correlated with the distribution of human cryptococcosis cases caused by C. neoformans var. gattii in northern India. PMID:9399553

  20. Using ClinVar as a Resource to Support Variant Interpretations

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Steven M.; Riggs, Erin R.; Maglott, Donna R.; Lee, Jennifer M.; Azzariti, Danielle R.; Niehaus, Annie; Ramos, Erin M.; Martin, Christa L.; Landrum, Melissa J.; Rehm, Heidi L.

    2016-01-01

    ClinVar is a freely accessible, public archive of reports of the relationships among genomic variants and phenotypes. To facilitate evaluation of the clinical significance of each variant, ClinVar aggregates submissions of the same variant, displays supporting data from each submission, and determines if the submitted clinical interpretations are conflicting or concordant. The unit describes how to (1) identify sequence and structural variants of interest in ClinVar with by multiple searching approaches, including Variation Viewer and (2) understand the display of submissions to ClinVar and the evidence supporting each interpretation. By following this protocol, ClinVar users will be able to learn how to incorporate the wealth of resources and knowledge in ClinVar into variant curation and interpretation. PMID:27037489

  1. VT-1161 Protects Immunosuppressed Mice from Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus Infection.

    PubMed

    Gebremariam, Teclegiorgis; Wiederhold, Nathan P; Fothergill, Annette W; Garvey, Edward P; Hoekstra, William J; Schotzinger, Robert J; Patterson, Thomas F; Filler, Scott G; Ibrahim, Ashraf S

    2015-12-01

    We studied the efficacy of the investigational drug VT-1161 against mucormycosis. VT-1161 had more potent in vitro activity against Rhizopus arrhizus var. arrhizus than against R. arrhizus var. delemar. VT-1161 treatment demonstrated dose-dependent plasma drug levels with prolonged survival time and lowered tissue fungal burden in immunosuppressed mice infected with R. arrhizus var. arrhizus and was as effective as high-dose liposomal amphotericin B treatment. These results support further development of VT-1161 against mucormycosis.

  2. An unusual clinical presentation of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei.

    PubMed

    Lee, Deok-Woo; Yang, Ji-Hye; Choi, Seok-Joo; Won, Chong-Hyun; Chang, Sung-Eun; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan; Kim, Mi-Na

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei, the natural host of which is the hedgehog, has been found to cause highly inflammatory and pruritic eruptions, including tinea manuum, tinea corporis, nail infection, kerion, scalp infection, and tinea barbae. To our knowledge, however, no reports have been made of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in the English language literature. We provide here the case of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei.

  3. Antisense long noncoding RNAs regulate var gene activation in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Amit-Avraham, Inbar; Pozner, Guy; Eshar, Shiri; Fastman, Yair; Kolevzon, Netanel; Yavin, Eylon; Dzikowski, Ron

    2015-03-03

    The virulence of Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of the deadliest form of human malaria, is attributed to its ability to evade human immunity through antigenic variation. These parasites alternate between expression of variable antigens, encoded by members of a multicopy gene family named var. Immune evasion through antigenic variation depends on tight regulation of var gene expression, ensuring that only a single var gene is expressed at a time while the rest of the family is maintained transcriptionally silent. Understanding how a single gene is chosen for activation is critical for understanding mutually exclusive expression but remains a mystery. Here, we show that antisense long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) initiating from var introns are associated with the single active var gene at the time in the cell cycle when the single var upstream promoter is active. We demonstrate that these antisense transcripts are incorporated into chromatin, and that expression of these antisense lncRNAs in trans triggers activation of a silent var gene in a sequence- and dose-dependent manner. On the other hand, interference with these lncRNAs using complement peptide nucleic acid molecules down-regulated the active var gene, erased the epigenetic memory, and induced expression switching. Altogether, our data provide evidence that these antisense lncRNAs play a key role in regulating var gene activation and mutually exclusive expression.

  4. [Fungal and bacterial biomass as indicators of soil C sequestration in savannas soils substituted by pine plantations].

    PubMed

    Zabala, Magalis; Gómez, Yrma

    2010-09-01

    A transformation of any natural ecosystem to an agricultural or forest system leads to an important soil modification, not only in the total carbon pool, but also in the carbon associated to the microbial biomass. This way, carbon quantification on soil quality is important for the determination of impacts of agricultural practices and land use changes. The aim of this study was to the determine, through the selective inhibition technique, the fungal and bacterial biomass, and fungal-to-bacterial ratio (F:B) in pine plantations (Pinus caribaea var. hondurensis), to establish if these parameters are sensible indicators of changes in the carbon content in Uverito soils (Venezuela). Furthermore, the inhibitor additivity ratio (IAR) and total combined inhibition (TCI) were carried out to determine if the antibiotics caused non-target inhibition. The quantification of fungal and bacterial biomass was carried out by using of cyloheximide as fungal inhibitor, and streptomycin and chloranphenicol as specific bacterial inhibitors. This research evidences that this land use change exerted a significant effect on soil microbial biomass, and shows that in pine plantations there is a dominance of the fungal component, in contrast to the native savanna, in which the bacterial biomass dominates. The substitution of native savanna by pine plantation in Uverito promotes a major soil carbon sequestration. The values of the inhibitor additivity ratio (IAR) as for native savanna as pine system, were both >1.0. The total combined inhibition (TCI) was smaller in the pine systems, from which it is possible to infer that a high proportion of microbial biomass was affected by the combination of the inhibitors.

  5. Comparison between 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation methods for the simulation of a heavy rainfall case in central Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzarella, Vincenzo; Maiello, Ida; Capozzi, Vincenzo; Budillon, Giorgio; Ferretti, Rossella

    2017-08-01

    This work aims to provide a comparison between three dimensional and four dimensional variational data assimilation methods (3D-Var and 4D-Var) for a heavy rainfall case in central Italy. To evaluate the impact of the assimilation of reflectivity and radial velocity acquired from Monte Midia Doppler radar into the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model, the quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) is used.The two methods are compared for a heavy rainfall event that occurred in central Italy on 14 September 2012 during the first Special Observation Period (SOP1) of the HyMeX (HYdrological cycle in Mediterranean EXperiment) campaign. This event, characterized by a deep low pressure system over the Tyrrhenian Sea, produced flash floods over the Marche and Abruzzo regions, where rainfall maxima reached more than 150 mm 24 h-1.To identify the best QPF, nine experiments are performed using 3D-Var and 4D-Var data assimilation techniques. All simulations are compared in terms of rainfall forecast and precipitation measured by the gauges through three statistical indicators: probability of detection (POD), critical success index (CSI) and false alarm ratio (FAR). The assimilation of conventional observations with 4D-Var method improves the QPF compared to 3D-Var. In addition, the use of radar measurements in 4D-Var simulations enhances the performances of statistical scores for higher rainfall thresholds.

  6. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides).

    PubMed

    Thies, Judy A; Ariss, Jennifer J; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Hassell, Richard L; Levi, Amnon

    2016-03-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN.

  7. Resistance to Southern Root-knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) in Wild Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides)

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Judy A.; Ariss, Jennifer J.; Kousik, Chandrasekar S.; Hassell, Richard L.; Levi, Amnon

    2016-01-01

    Southern root-knot nematode (RKN, Meloidogyne incognita) is a serious pest of cultivated watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) in southern regions of the United States and no resistance is known to exist in commercial watermelon cultivars. Wild watermelon relatives (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) have been shown in greenhouse studies to possess varying degrees of resistance to RKN species. Experiments were conducted over 2 yr to assess resistance of southern RKN in C. lanatus var. citroides accessions from the U.S. Watermelon Plant Introduction Collection in an artificially infested field site at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory in Charleston, SC. In the first study (2006), 19 accessions of C. lanatus var. citroides were compared with reference entries of Citrullus colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. Of the wild watermelon accessions, two entries exhibited significantly less galling than all other entries. Five of the best performing C. lanatus var. citroides accessions were evaluated with and without nematicide at the same field site in 2007. Citrullus lanatus var. citroides accessions performed better than C. lanatus var. lanatus and C. colocynthis. Overall, most entries of C. lanatus var. citroides performed similarly with and without nematicide treatment in regard to root galling, visible egg masses, vine vigor, and root mass. In both years of field evaluations, most C. lanatus var. citroides accessions showed lesser degrees of nematode reproduction and higher vigor and root mass than C. colocynthis and C. lanatus var. lanatus. The results of these two field evaluations suggest that wild watermelon populations may be useful sources of resistance to southern RKN. PMID:27168648

  8. Molecular epidemiology of Italian clinical Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii isolates.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zamfirova, Ralika R; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Viviani, Maria Anna

    2013-07-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans variety grubii is the major etiological agent of cryptococcal meningitis in both immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients. The current PCR-based molecular methods are not sufficient to discriminate among the different populations of this yeast. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate the genotypes of the Italian clinical C. neoformans var. grubii isolates by multilocus sequence typing (MLST). A total of 53 isolates, each representative of a single case, were studied. Genotyping was performed using the ISHAM Cryptococcus MLST consensus scheme and the results were compared to the publically available global C. neoformans var. grubii MLST dataset. A total of 16 genotypes were identified; 14 were new genotypes, one was identical to sequence type (ST) ST81, which had been previously reported from Thailand, and one to ST23 already identified in Uganda, the USA and Korea. Sequence type ST61 was the most numerous, including 16 isolates. Network phylogenetic analysis showed that the Italian isolates could be divided into at least three clusters with similarities with those recovered in Africa, Asia and Americas. Distribution of the STs among the isolates could not be correlated to the hospital in which they were recovered or to the HIV status of the patients. The majority of the isolates belonged to the molecular type VNI; three belonged to the rare molecular type VNII and one to the VNB group, which until now had not been described in Europe. The results reveal that the Italian C. neoformans var. grubii population presents a distinct variability, displaying a high number of new genotypes, and probably recombines sexually.

  9. AmeriFlux US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione

    DOE Data Explorer

    Baldocchi, Dennis [University of California, Berkeley

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Var Vaira Ranch- Ione. Site Description - Located in the lower foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains on privately owned land, the Vaira Ranch site is classified as a grassland dominated by C3 annual grasses. Managed by local rancher, Fran Vaira, brush has been periodically removed for cattle grazing. Species include a variety of grasses and herbs, including purple false brome, smooth cat's ear, and rose clover. Growing season is confined to the wet season only, typically from October to early May.

  10. Spasmolytic constituents from Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. obtusa leaves.

    PubMed

    Begum, S; Farhat, F; Sultana, I; Siddiqui, B S; Shaheen, F; Gilani, A H

    2000-09-01

    Phytochemical studies on the leaves of Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. obtusa have resulted in the isolation of a new triterpenoid camaldulin (3beta-formyloxyurs-11-en-28,13beta-olide) (1) along with ursolic acid lactone acetate (2), ursolic acid lactone (3), betulinic acid (4), and beta-sitosterol 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (5). The structures were assigned on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR studies. Compounds 1-3 were tested for spasmolytic activity and were found to possess calcium antagonist activity.

  11. A flicker reduction control strategy using an adaptive var compensator

    SciTech Connect

    Jatskevich, J.; Wasynczuk, O.; Conrad, L.

    1999-11-01

    A detailed computer model of a power network with loads, resistance welders and an Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) has been developed and used to determine the effectiveness of the AVC on the reduction of observable flicker at neighboring loads. Flicker severity is determined using the UIE/IEC flickermeter methodology. Different control strategies for the AVC are considered and compared with respect to flicker reduction. A new flicker adaptive control (FAC) strategy is proposed that can be used for both power factor correction and flicker reduction. The measurement technique used in the FAC is shown to be accurate even in presence of significant harmonic distortion.

  12. Analgesic and antiinflammatory properties of Sideritis lotsyi var. Mascaensis.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, Margarita; Rabanal Gallego, Rosa M

    2002-05-01

    The antiinflammatory, analgesic and antimicrobial activities of crude ethanol extracts of Sideritis lotsyi var. mascaensis (Lamiaceae), and chloroform and aqueous fractions were evaluated in mice using paw and ear oedema induced by carrageenan and 12-o-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-acetate (TPA), respectively, as inflammation models, the writhing test induced by acetic acid for evaluating analgesic activity and the disk-diffusion method for testing antimicrobial actions. The results obtained demonstrated significant topical antiinflammatory and analgesic activities for the ethanol extract and chloroform fraction, but no relevant antimicrobial activity against the microorganisms tested.

  13. [Chemical constituents from roots of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao].

    PubMed

    Huang, Hai-Jiang; He, Lan-Yun

    2014-03-01

    To study the chemical constituents from the roots of Chirita longgangensis var. hongyao. The methanol extract was isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and preparative HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by MS and spectral data (1H, 13C-NMR). Seven compounds were isolated and identified as plantainoside A (1), plantainoside B (2), calcedarioside C (3), calcedarioside D (4), platyphylloside (5), hirsutanonol (6), and hirsutanonol-5-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (7). Compounds 5-7 were isolated for the first time from the family Gesneriaceae.

  14. Adaptive fuzzy logic control of a static VAR system

    SciTech Connect

    Dash, P.K.; Routray, A.; Panda, P.C.; Panda, S.K.

    1995-12-31

    A fuzzy gain scheduling scheme for PID controller for transient and dynamic voltage stabilization of power transmission systems has been presented in this paper. Fuzzy rules and reasoning are utilized on-line to determine the controller parameters based on the error signal and its derivative. The static VAR controller is designed with the bus angle deviation and its rate as the input signal to a fuzzy PI or PID control loop. This control is tested for a power transmission system supplying dynamic loads and provides superior performance.

  15. Phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Marlena; Matławska, Irena; Szkudlarek, Maurycy

    2006-01-01

    Distribution of phenolic acids in the flowers of Althaea rosea var. nigra has been studied by 2D-TLC and HPLC methods. The phenolic acids occurring in these fractions have been identified as ferulic, vanillic, syringic, p-coumaric, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic and caffeic acids. By means of the HPLC methods the contents of major phenolic acids were estimated. From among the phenolic acids analyzed the syringic, p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids are dominant. Total content of phenolic acids was determined by the Arnov's method.

  16. A new languidulane diterpenoid from Salvia mexicana var. mexicana.

    PubMed

    Frontana-Uribe, Bernardo Antonio; Escárcega-Bobadilla, Martha Verónica; Estrada-Reyes, Rosa; Morales-Serna, José Antonio; Salmón, Manuel; Cárdenas, Jorge

    2011-10-21

    From the aerial parts of Salvia mexicana var. mexicana, two C-10 epimers (α and β) of salvimexicanolide were isolated. Our interpretation of the data, especially the 13C NMR, led us to conclude that the previously described 13C-NMR spectrum of the α-epimer was not accurately assigned and it actually corresponds to the β-epimer. The structures proposed for the salvimexicanolides were verified by means of NOESY experiments. Dugesin B, arbutin, naringenin and the mixture of oleanolic and ursolic acids were also isolated from this Salvia spp.

  17. [Coumarins from Peucedanum harry-smithii var. subglabrum].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Feng, Shilan; Hu, Fangdi; Chen, Erlin

    2009-05-01

    The root of Peucedanum harry-smithii var. subglabrum was extracted with methanol, then separated with solvents at different polarity into four fractions: aqueous (H2O), ethyl acetate (AcOEt), chloroform (CHCl3) and petroleum ether (DAB-6). From AcOEt psoralen, bargapten, xanthotoxin, marmesin, umbelliferone, scopoletin, (+/-) peuformosin, Pd-I b, (+/-) selinidin, praeruptorin D were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel, using petroleum ether/ethyl acetate as eluent. The structures of the coumarins were identified by 1H-NMR and 13C-NMR.

  18. Alkaloid content of the seeds from Erythroxylum Coca var. Coca.

    PubMed

    Casale, John F; Toske, Steven G; Colley, Valerie L

    2005-11-01

    Alkaloid extracts from the seeds of Erythroxylum Coca var. Coca grown in the Chapare Valley of Bolivia were subjected to gas and liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric analyses. Several alkaloids from these seeds were detected and characterized, including methylecgonidine, tropine, 3alpha-acetoxytropane, ecgonine methyl ester, cuscohygrine, N-norbenzoyltropine, benzoyltropine, hexanoylecgonine methyl ester, cocaine, cis-cinnamoylcocaine, and trans-cinnamoylcocaine. Methylecgonidine was determined to be the primary constituent and not an analytical artifact. Additionally, two significant new uncharacterized alkaloids were established as present. Recent evidence suggests that some cocaine processors are adding this seed extraction material to cocaine extracted from coca leaf and may impact cocaine impurity signature profiles.

  19. Pungent Alkamides from Spilanthes acmella L. var. oleracea Clarke.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, N; Nagashima, M

    1992-01-01

    A main pungent amide, spilanthol (1), and three alkamides, (2E)-N-(2-methylbutyl)-2-undecene-8,10-diynamide (2), (2E,7Z)-N-isobutyl-2,7-tridecadiene-10,12-diynamide (3), and (7Z)-N-isobutyl-7-tridecene-10,12-diynamide (4) were isolated from the flower heads of Spilanthes acmella L. var. oleracea Clarke. Their structures were established by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 2 and 4 were new and 3 was found for the first time in Spilanthes species. Chemotaxonomic aspects are discussed.

  20. Regulation of Sugar Transport Systems in Fusarium oxysporum var. lini

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, Rogélio L.; Loureiro-Dias, Maria C.

    1990-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum var. lini (ATCC 10960) formed a facilitated diffusion system for glucose (Ks, about 10 mM) when grown under repressed conditions. Under conditions of derepression, the same system was present together with a high-affinity (Ks, about 40 μM) active system. The maximum velocity of the latter was about 5% of that of the facilitated diffusion system. The high-affinity system was under the control of glucose repression and glucose inactivation. When lactose was the only carbon source in the medium, a facilitated diffusion system for lactose was found (Ks, about 30 mM). PMID:16348256

  1. Ultrastructural Effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego on Midgut Cells of the Cottonwood Leaf Beetle1

    Treesearch

    Leah S. Bauer; Stuart H. Pankratz

    1992-01-01

    Sequential observations of the ultrastructural effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego were made on midgut epithelial cells of the cottonwood leaf beetle, Chrysomela scripta F. Larvae imbibed a droplet of B. thuringiensis var. san diego containing endotoxin and live...

  2. Further elucidation of the taxonomic relationships and geographic distribution of Escobaria sneedii var. sneedii, E. sneedii var. leei, and E. guadalupensis (Cactaceae)

    Treesearch

    Marc A. Baker

    2007-01-01

    Individuals of E. sneedii var. sneedii were found to occur in greater abundance within the Guadalupe Mountains than was previously recorded. No additional populations morphologically intermediate between E. guadalupensis and E. sneedii were found. Taxonomic affiliation and geographic...

  3. Characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci of Pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pityopsis graminifolia (Michx.) Small var. latifolia (Fern.) Semple is an herbaceous perennial that grows in close proximity to the federally endangered species P. ruthii (Small) Small. Twelve polymorphic microsatellite loci were identified from 87 samples of P. graminifolia var. latifolia and addit...

  4. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  5. Silence, Metaperformance, and Communication in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fellie, Maria C.

    2016-01-01

    Many scenes in Pedro Almodóvar's "Hable con ella" (2002) include shots of metaperformances such as silent films, dances, television shows, concerts, and bullfights. Spectators often observe passive characters who are in turn observing. By presenting these performances within cinematic performance, Almodóvar highlights our role as viewers…

  6. Coumarins from Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri endemic to the Timor Islands.

    PubMed

    Teshima, Naoko; Yamada, Hiromi; Ju-ichi, Motoharu; Uji, Tahan; Kinoshita, Takeshi; Ito, Chihiro

    2015-02-01

    Four new coumarins, murrangatin-1'-senecioate (1), 5-methoxypanial (2), mexoticin-2'-senecioate (3) and murralongic acid (4), were isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. zollingeri, together with 23 known coumarins. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated based on spectroscopic data. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. zollingeri is briefly discussed, along with its similarity to M. paniculata.

  7. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... applicable. (i) For a facility which uses in-line meters to measure detergent usage, the total volume of... formula record or in the form of computer printouts or other comparable VAR supporting documentation. (ii... supporting data may be supplied on the VAR formula record or in the form of computer printouts or...

  8. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) populations. III. Central Idaho

    Treesearch

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt

    1983-01-01

    Rehfeldt, Gerald E. 1983. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) populations. III. Central Idaho. Canadian Journal of Forest Research. 13: 626-632. Growth, phenology, and cold hardiness of seedlings from 74 populations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) from central Idaho were compared in four...

  9. Two matrix metalloproteinases inhibitors from Ferula persica var. persica.

    PubMed

    Shahverdi, A R; Saadat, F; Khorramizadeh, M R; Iranshahi, M; Khoshayand, M R

    2006-11-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in several physiologic and pathologic events. There is some evidence indicating the involvement of MMPs in tumor invasion and inflammatory diseases. Here we studied the chloroform extract of Ferula persica var. persica. The influence of these extracts vs. a reference drug, diclofenac sodium, on MMP production by the fibrosarcoma cell line was investigated using an in vitro cytotoxicity assay, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide, and gelatin zymography. The total extract of the roots was found to exhibit a selective inhibitory effect on tumor cell invasion. The bioactivity-guided fractionation of this extract led to the isolation of two compounds. These compounds showed highest MMP inhibitory effect at minimal toxic dose levels. Using conventional spectroscopy methods, the active fractions were identified as t-butyl 3-[(1-methylthiopropyl)dithio]-2-propenyl malonate (persicasulphide B) and umbelliprenin, previously isolated from F. persica var. latisecta. Since inhibition of MMP activity has been employed in modality therapy in diseases such as cancer, this compound might be promising in the preparation of anti-MMP therapeutic derivatives.

  10. Molecular structures of fructans from Agave tequilana Weber var. azul.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Mercedes G; Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; Mendoza-Diaz, Guillermo

    2003-12-31

    Agave plants utilize crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) for CO(2) fixation. Fructans are the principal photosynthetic products generated by agave plants. These carbohydrates are fructose-bound polymers frequently with a single glucose moiety. Agave tequilana Weber var. azul is an economically important CAM species not only because it is the sole plant allowed for tequila production but because it is a potential source of prebiotics. Because of the large amounts of carbohydrates in A. tequilana, in this study the molecular structures of its fructans were determined by fructan derivatization for linkage analysis coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and matrix-assisted laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS). Fructans were extracted from 8-year-old A. tequilana plants. The linkage types present in fructans from A. tequilana were determined by permethylation followed by reductive cleavage, acetylation, and finally GC-MS analysis. Analysis of the degree of polymerization (DP) estimated by (1)H NMR integration and (13)C NMR and confirmed by MALDI-TOF-MS showed a wide DP ranging from 3 to 29 units. All of the analyses performed demonstrated that fructans from A. tequilana consist of a complex mixture of fructooligosaccharides containing principally beta(2 --> 1) linkages, but also beta(2 --> 6) and branch moieties were observed. Finally, it can be stated that fructans from A. tequilana Weber var. azul are not an inulin type as previously thought.

  11. The Development and Application of an Integrated VAR Process Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballantyne, A. Stewart

    2016-07-01

    The VAR ingot has been the focus of several modelling efforts over the years with the result that the thermal regime in the ingot can be simulated quite realistically. Such models provide important insight into solidification of the ingot but present some significant challenges to the casual user such as a process engineer. To provide the process engineer with a tool to assist in the development of a melt practice, a comprehensive model of the complete VAR process has been developed. A radiation heat transfer simulation of the arc has been combined with electrode and ingot models to develop a platform which accepts typical operating variables (voltage, current, and gap) together with process parameters (electrode size, crucible size, orientation, water flow, etc.) as input data. The output consists of heat flow distributions and solidification parameters in the form of text, comma-separated value, and visual toolkit files. The resulting model has been used to examine the relationship between the assumed energy distribution in the arc and the actual energy flux which arrives at the ingot top surface. Utilizing heat balance information generated by the model, the effects of electrode-crucible orientation and arc gap have been explored with regard to the formation of ingot segregation defects.

  12. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets.

    PubMed

    Schierack, Peter; Wieler, Lothar H; Taras, David; Herwig, Volker; Tachu, Babila; Hlinak, Andreas; Schmidt, Michael F G; Scharek, Lydia

    2007-07-15

    Probiotic bacteria have been suggested to stimulate the host immune system. In this study we evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on the systemic immunity of piglets. A pool of 70 piglets was divided into a probiotic or control group. We determined the ratios of peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) subsets and measured proliferative responses and cytokine production of PBMCs and effects on vaccination responses. Blood samples of probiotic-treated piglets showed a significantly lower frequency of CD8(high)/CD3+ T cells and CD8(low)/CD3+ T cells and a significant higher CD4+/CD8+ ratio. IL-4 and IFN-gamma production of polyclonally stimulated PBMCs was on average higher in the probiotic group. Specific proliferative responses of PBMCs to Influenza vaccination antigens were significantly higher and antibody titers against H3N2 Influenza and Mycoplasma vaccination antigens were on average higher in the probiotic group. In conclusion, B. cereus var. toyoi therefore alters the immune status of piglets as indicated by changes in the ratios as well as functionalities of systemic immune cell populations.

  13. Metabolic and bioactivity insights into Brassica oleracea var. acephala.

    PubMed

    Ferreres, Federico; Fernandes, Fátima; Sousa, Carla; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-10-14

    Seeds of Brassica oleracea var. acephala (kale) were analyzed by HPLC/UV-PAD/MSn-ESI. Several phenolic acids and flavonol derivatives were identified. The seeds of this B. oleracea variety exhibited more flavonol derivatives than those of tronchuda cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. costata), also characterized in this paper. Quercetin and isorhamnetin derivatives were found only in kale seeds. Oxalic, aconitic, citric, pyruvic, malic, quinic, shikimic, and fumaric acids were the organic acids present in these matrices, malic acid being predominant in kale and citric acid in tronchuda cabbage seeds. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity was determined in aqueous extracts from both seeds. Kale leaves and butterflies, larvae, and excrements of Pieris brassicae reared on kale were also evaluated. Kale seeds were the most effective AChE inhibitor, followed by tronchuda cabbage seeds and kale leaves. With regard to P. brassicae material, excrements exhibited stronger inhibitory capacity. These results may be explained by the presence of sinapine, an analogue of acetylcholine, only in seed materials. A strong concentration-dependent antioxidant capacity against DPPH, nitric oxide, and superoxide radicals was observed for kale seeds.

  14. Empirical analysis on future-cash arbitrage risk with portfolio VaR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Rongda; Li, Cong; Wang, Weijin; Wang, Ze

    2014-03-01

    This paper constructs the positive arbitrage position by alternating the spot index with Chinese Exchange Traded Fund (ETF) portfolio and estimating the arbitrage-free interval of futures with the latest trade data. Then, an improved Delta-normal method was used, which replaces the simple linear correlation coefficient with tail dependence correlation coefficient, to measure VaR (Value-at-risk) of the arbitrage position. Analysis of VaR implies that the risk of future-cash arbitrage is less than that of investing completely in either futures or spot market. Then according to the compositional VaR and the marginal VaR, we should increase the futures position and decrease the spot position appropriately to minimize the VaR, which can minimize risk subject to certain revenues.

  15. Pollinator-mediated selection in a specialized hummingbird-Heliconia system in the Eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Temeles, E J; Rah, Y J; Andicoechea, J; Byanova, K L; Giller, G S J; Stolk, S B; Kress, W J

    2013-02-01

    Phenotypic matches between plants and their pollinators often are interpreted as examples of reciprocal selection and adaptation. For the two co-occurring plant species, Heliconia bihai and H. caribaea in the Eastern Caribbean, we evaluated for five populations over 2 years the strength and direction of natural selection on corolla length and number of bracts per inflorescence. These plant traits correspond closely to the bill lengths and body masses of their primary pollinators, female or male purple-throated carib hummingbirds (Eulampis jugularis). In H. bihai, directional selection for longer corollas was always significant with the exception of one population in 1 year, whereas selection on bract numbers was rare and found only in one population in 1 year. In contrast, significant directional selection for more bracts per inflorescence occurred in all three populations of the yellow morph and in two populations of the red morph of H. caribaea, whereas significant directional selection on corolla length occurred in only one population of the red morph and one population of the yellow morph. Selection for longer corollas in H. bihai may result from better mechanical fit, and hence pollination, by the long bills of female E. jugularis, their sole pollinator. In contrast, competition between males of E. jugularis for territories may drive selection for more bracts in H. caribaea. Competitive exclusion of female E. jugularis by territorial males also implicates pollinator competition as a possible ecological mechanism for trait diversification in these plants. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2012 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.

  16. Genetic diversity and molecular characterization of several Heliconia species in Colombia.

    PubMed

    Isaza, L; Marulanda, M L; López, A M

    2012-12-19

    Researchers have classified the Heliconia genus as a group of highly variable and diverse plants. Species and cultivars are visually differentiated primarily on the basis of the color and size of inflorescence bracts. At taxonomic level, flower type (parabolic, sigmoid, or erect) and size are taken into account. The vast morphological diversity of heliconias at intra-specific, intra-population, and varietal levels in central-west Colombia prompted the present study. We characterized the genetic variability of 67 genotypes of cultivated heliconias belonging to Heliconia caribaea Lamarck, H. bihai (L.) L., H. orthotricha L. Andersson, H. stricta Huber, H. wagneriana Petersen, and H. psittacorum L. f., as well as that of several interspecific hybrids such as H. psittacorum L. f. x H. spathocircinata Aristeguieta and H. caribaea Lamarck x H. bihai (L.) L. We also created an approximation to their phylogenetic analysis. Molecular analysis using amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) markers revealed a total of 170 bands. Two large, well-defined groups resulted: the first grouped cultivars of the very closely related H. caribaea and H. bihai species with those of H. orthotricha and H. psittacorum, and the second grouped H. stricta and H. wagneriana cultivars. The lowest percentage of polymorphism was found in H. psittacorum (17.65%) and the highest was in H. stricta (55.88%). Using AFLP, phylogenetic analysis of the species studied revealed the monophyletic origin of the Heliconiaceae family, and identified the Heliconia subgenus as monophyletic while providing evidence of the polyphyletic origin of several representatives of the Stenochlamys subgenus.

  17. 1D-Var assimilation of TMI and SSM/I observations in rainy areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreau, E.; Lopez, P.; Bauer, P.

    2003-04-01

    The assimilation of observations related to cloud and precipitation has become a very important issue for most operational weather services including ECMWF. A 1D-Var method was developed by Marécal and Mahfouf (2000) for correcting individual profiles of the model's control variables in order to decrease the discrepancies that often exist between the simulated surface rainfall rates and corresponding retrievals obtained from TMI or SSM/I microwave measurements. Instead of performing the 1D-Var on surface rainfall rates that are derived from multi-channel microwave brightness temperatures (BTs) thanks to various algorithms, the 1D-Var calculations have been applied to the BTs directly. The multiple sensitivities of the BTs to the vertically integrated amounts of rain water and cloud water should provide a stronger constraint on the 1D-Var minimization. Another advantage of this method could result from the better knowledge of the errors on observed BTs than on derived rainfall rates. The potential of applying 1D-Var directly to TMI and SSM/I microwave brightness temperatures has been investigated in this study and its results have been compared with the 1D-Var with derived rainfall rates. Results are presented for a pacific super-typhoon and for a north-atlantic extratropical front. A comparison of the retrieved rain profiles using both methods with rain information deduced from the TRMM precipitation radar (PR) is also presented. Additional direct comparisons with the PR reflectivities will be shown by A. Benedetti (2003). Following the work by Marécal and Mahfouf (2002), indirect "1D-Var + 4D-Var" assimilation experiments will be performed. In this approach, the temperature and humidity increments provided by the 1D-Var are first converted into total column water vapour pseudo-observations that are in turn assimilated in ECMWF's 4D-Var system.

  18. Variability of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of essential oils between Myrtus communis var. Leucocarpa DC and var. Melanocarpa DC.

    PubMed

    Petretto, Giacomo Luigi; Maldini, Mariateresa; Addis, Roberta; Chessa, Mario; Foddai, Marzia; Rourke, Jonathan P; Pintore, Giorgio

    2016-04-15

    Essential oils (EOs) from several individuals of Myrtus communis L. (M. communis) growing in different habitats in Sardinia have been studied. The analyses were focused on four groups of samples, namely cultivated and wild M. communis var. melanocarpa DC, characterized by red/purple berries, and cultivated and wild M. communis var. leucocarpa DC, characterized by white berries. Qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated different EO fingerprints among the studied samples: cultivated and wild leucocarpa variety differs mainly from the melanocarpa variety by a high amount of myrtenyl acetate (>200 mg/mL and 0.4 mg/mL in leucocarpa and melanocarpa varieties respectively). Conversely, the wild group is characterized by a higher amount, compared with the cultivated species, of linalool (about 110 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL respectively), linalyl acetate (about 24 mg/mL and about 6 mg/mL respectively) whereas EOs of the cultivated plants were rich in pinocarveol-cis compared with wild plants (about 2 mg/mL and about 0.5 mg/mL respectively). Principal component analysis applied to the chromatographic data confirm a differentiation and classification of EOs from the four groups of M. communis plants. Finally, antioxidant activity of the studied EOs shows differences between the various categories of samples.

  19. A Molecular Epidemiological Study of var Gene Diversity to Characterize the Reservoir of Plasmodium falciparum in Humans in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Leliwa-Sytek, Aleksandra; Smith, Terry-Ann; Peterson, Ingrid; Brown, Stuart M.; Migot-Nabias, Florence; Deloron, Philippe; Kortok, Moses M.; Marsh, Kevin; Daily, Johanna P.; Ndiaye, Daouda; Sarr, Ousmane; Mboup, Souleymane; Day, Karen P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The reservoir of Plasmodium infection in humans has traditionally been defined by blood slide positivity. This study was designed to characterize the local reservoir of infection in relation to the diverse var genes that encode the major surface antigen of Plasmodium falciparum blood stages and underlie the parasite's ability to establish chronic infection and transmit from human to mosquito. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the molecular epidemiology of the var multigene family at local sites in Gabon, Senegal and Kenya which differ in parasite prevalence and transmission intensity. 1839 distinct var gene types were defined by sequencing DBLα domains in the three sites. Only 76 (4.1%) var types were found in more than one population indicating spatial heterogeneity in var types across the African continent. The majority of var types appeared only once in the population sample. Non-parametric statistical estimators predict in each population at minimum five to seven thousand distinct var types. Similar diversity of var types was seen in sites with different parasite prevalences. Conclusions/Significance Var population genomics provides new insights into the epidemiology of P. falciparum in Africa where malaria has never been conquered. In particular, we have described the extensive reservoir of infection in local African sites and discovered a unique var population structure that can facilitate superinfection through minimal overlap in var repertoires among parasite genomes. Our findings show that var typing as a molecular surveillance system defines the extent of genetic complexity in the reservoir of infection to complement measures of malaria prevalence. The observed small scale spatial diversity of var genes suggests that var genetics could greatly inform current malaria mapping approaches and predict complex malaria population dynamics due to the import of var types to areas where no widespread pre-existing immunity in the population

  20. iVAR: a program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series using vector autoregressive models.

    PubMed

    Liu, Siwei; Molenaar, Peter C M

    2014-12-01

    This article introduces iVAR, an R program for imputing missing data in multivariate time series on the basis of vector autoregressive (VAR) models. We conducted a simulation study to compare iVAR with three methods for handling missing data: listwise deletion, imputation with sample means and variances, and multiple imputation ignoring time dependency. The results showed that iVAR produces better estimates for the cross-lagged coefficients than do the other three methods. We demonstrate the use of iVAR with an empirical example of time series electrodermal activity data and discuss the advantages and limitations of the program.

  1. [Autotoxicity of aqueous extracts from plant of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xin-Hui; Lang, Duo-Yong; Chen, Jing; Zhao, Yun-Sheng; Wu, Xiu-Li; Fu, Xue-Yan

    2014-02-01

    To exploring the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, autotoxic effect of plant aqueous extract were determined. Distilled water (CK), aqueous extract of plant, including root, stem and leaf (12.5, 25, 50 and 100 mg/mL respectively)were applied to testing their effect on early growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Specifically, seed germination rate, germination index, emergence rate, elongation of radical and embryo, and seedling vigor index were determined. The aqueous extract of root, stem, and leaf at 25 mg/mL significantly inhibited the seed germination and seedling growth of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increase of the concentration of aqueous extracts. To the comprehensive allelopathic effect, the extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus stem were more inhibitory than those from leaf and root. The germination index and seedling vigor index were more sensitive to extract than other determined parameters. Aqueous extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus plant gave inhibitory effects on Astragalus. membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth, and this inhibitory effect generally increased with the increases of aqueous extract concentration at a certain ranges. In conclusion, there is an autotoxicity in continuous cropping of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus.

  2. Fungal endophytes of South China blueberry (Vaccinium dunalianum var. urophyllum).

    PubMed

    Li, Z-J; Shen, X-Y; Hou, C-L

    2016-12-01

    A total of 374 fungal endophyte strains were isolated from of Vaccinium dunalianum var. urophyllum (Ericaceae), a well-known cultivated blueberry in southern China. These fungal endophytes could be categorized into 25 morphotypes according to culture characteristics and molecular identification based on the internal transcribed spacer region. All of these isolates belonged to Ascomycota. Jaccard's (Jc) and Sorenson's similarity indices indicated that the species communities from the fruits and branches were closer to each other than to those from leaves. The leaves appeared to host the highest fungal biodiversity, and the fruits displayed the lowest diversity. This study is the first on endophytic fungi isolated from fruits, branches and leaves of blueberry plants. The results contribute to the body of knowledge on the biocontrol of pathogens associated with blueberry and develop the improvement of plant growth. By comparing with the different fungal communities, the leaves appeared to host the highest biodiversity. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  3. Minor pregnanes from Caralluma adscendens var. gracilis and Caralluma pauciflora.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Kommidi Devendar; Rao, Belvotagi Venkatrao Adavi; Babu, Gummadi Sridhar; Kumar, Bobbala Ravi; Braca, Alessandra; Vassallo, Antonio; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Rao, Ghanakota Venkateshwar; Rao, Achanta Venkata Narasimha Appa

    2011-10-01

    Phytochemical investigation of Caralluma adscendens var. gracilis and Caralluma pauciflora (Asclepiadaceae) whole plant extracts allowed to isolate one pregnane glycoside and two pregnanes characterized as 12β,20-O-dibenzoyl-5α,6-dihydrosarcostin β-oleandropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-cymaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-digitoxypyranosyl-(1→4)-β-cymaropyranosyl-(1→4)-β-cymaropyranoside (1), 12β-O-benzoyl-3β,11α,14β,20R-pentahydroxy-pregn-5-ene (2), and 11α-O-benzoyl-3β,12β,14β,20R-pentahydroxy-pregn-5-ene (3), respectively. Their structural characterization was obtained on the basis of extensive NMR spectral studies. Three known pregnane glycosides along with lupeol and β-sitosterol were also isolated and characterized.

  4. Seed oil composition of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke.

    PubMed

    Avato, P; Pesante, M A; Fanizzi, F P; Santos, C Aimbiré de Moraes

    2003-07-01

    The chemical composition of the oil extracted from the seeds of Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke (syn. P. sorbilis) was investigated. Cyanolipids constituted 3% of the total oil from guaraná seeds, whereas acylglycerols accounted for 28%. 1H and 13C NMR analyses indicated that type I cyanolipids (1-cyano-2-hydroxymethylprop-2-ene-1-ol diesters) are present in the oil from P. cupana. GC and GC-MS analysis showed that cis-11-octadecenoic (cis-vaccenic acid) and cis-11-eicosenoic acids were the main FA (30.4 and 38.7%) esterified to the nitrile group. Paullinic acid (7.0%) was also an abundant component. Oleic acid (37.4%) was the dominant fatty acyl chain in the acylglycerols.

  5. A new compound from Senecio cannabifolius var integrilifolius.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hong-Yan; Yang, Li; Zhang, Mian; Wang, Chang-Hong; Wang, Zheng-Tao

    2008-06-01

    Senecio cannabifolius var integrilifolius (Compositae), locally known as "Fanhuncao" in China, is a folk herb used for the treatment of pneumonia, virus influenza and bronchitis. To investigate the chemical constituents of this herb, water extract of the aerial parts was subjected to various chromatography on normal/reversed phase silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Eleven compounds were obtained and identified on the basis of their physicochemical properties and spectroscopic analysis as senecine (1), p-hydroxy-benzeneacetic acid (2), protocatechuic acid (3), 2,5-dihydroxy-benzeneacetic acid (4), 3,4-dihydroxy-benzeneacetic acid (5), vanillic acid (6), caffic acid (7), succinic acid (8), 2-furoic acid (9), 1, 2, 4, 5-tetrahydro-jacaranone (10), and 4-(pyrrolidin-2-one)-phenylacetic acid (11). Compound 1 was structurally identified to be a new compound; the other compounds were isolated from this plant for the first time.

  6. Factors influencing the activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis treatments.

    PubMed

    Becker, N; Zgomba, M; Ludwig, M; Petric, D; Rettich, F

    1992-09-01

    Environmental factors influence the effectiveness of microbial control agents in mosquito control programs. Four of these factors (water temperature, larval density, sunlight and the effect of associated filter feeders) were studied with Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis under laboratory and semifield conditions in Europe using different instars of Aedes vexans, Ae. aegypti and Culex pipiens. Bioassays conducted at a low temperature (5 degrees C) yielded 10-fold higher LC50 and LC90 values compared with those conducted at a high temperature (25 degrees C). The efficacy of B.t.i. decreased in a linear manner with increasing larval density. Sunlight can reduce the effectiveness of B.t.i. by several times. Competition in food intake by filter feeding Daphnia resulted in lower mortality of mosquito larvae after B.t.i. applications.

  7. Intraspecific Variation in Carotenoids of Brassica oleracea var. sabellica.

    PubMed

    Mageney, Vera; Baldermann, Susanne; Albach, Dirk C

    2016-04-27

    Carotenoids are best known as a source of natural antioxidants. Physiologically, carotenoids are part of the photoprotection in plants as they act as scavengers of reactive oxygen species (ROS). An important source of carotenoids in European food is Brassica oleracea. Focusing on the most abundant carotenoids, we estimated the contents of ß-carotene, (9Z)-neoxanthin, zeaxanthin, and lutein as well as those of chlorophylls a and b to assess their variability in Brassica oleracea var. sabellica. Our analyses included more than 30 cultivars categorized in five distinct sets grouped according to morphological characteristics or geographical origin. Our results demonstrated specific carotenoid patterns characteristic for American, Italian, and red-colored kale cultivars. Moreover, we demonstrated a tendency of high zeaxanthin proportions under traditional harvest conditions, which accord to low-temperature regimes. We also compared the carotenoid patterns of self-generated hybrid lines. Corresponding findings indicated that crossbreeding has a high potential for carotenoid content optimization in kale.

  8. Microsatellite markers for Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Caesalpinioideae, Fabaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    López-Roberts, M. Cristina; Barbosa, Ariane R.; Paganucci de Queiroz, Luciano; van den Berg, Cássio

    2016-01-01

    Premise of the study: Senna spectabilis var. excelsa (Fabaceae) is a South and Central American tree of great ecological importance and one of the most common species in several sites of seasonally dry forests. Our goal was to develop microsatellite markers to assess the genetic diversity and structure of this species. Methods and Results: We designed and assessed 53 loci obtained from a microsatellite-enriched library and an intersimple sequence repeat library. Fourteen loci were polymorphic, and they presented a total of 39 alleles in a sample of 61 individuals from six populations. The mean values of observed and expected heterozygosities were 0.355 and 0.479, respectively. Polymorphism information content was 0.390 and the Shannon index was 0.778. Conclusions: Polymorphism information content and Shannon index indicate that at least nine of the 14 microsatellite loci developed are moderate to highly informative, and potentially useful for population genetic studies in this species. PMID:26819856

  9. Acylated apigenin glycosides from alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) var. Artal.

    PubMed

    Stochmal, A; Simonet, A M; Macias, F A; Oliveira, M A; Abreu, J M; Nash, R; Oleszek, W

    2001-08-01

    Three flavones, including 4'-O-[2'-O-E-feruloyl-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1-->2)-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside]apigenin, 7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-4'-O-[2'-O-E-feruloyl-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1-->2)-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside]apigenin and 7-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl-4'-O-[2'-O-p-E-coumaroyl-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1-->2)-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranoside]apigenin have been identified in alfalfa var. Artal. The known flavone 7-O-[2-O-E-feruloyl-[beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1-->3)]-O-beta-D-glucuronopyranosyl(1-->2)-O-beta-D-glucurono-pyranoside] apigenin was also isolated. The structures of these compounds were deduced on the basis of their spectral data.

  10. Deterioration of expanded polystyrene caused by Aureobasidium pullulans var. melanogenum.

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Valeria C; Kuhar, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    An expanded-polystyrene factory located in northern Buenos Aires reported unusual dark spots causing esthetic damage in their production. A fungal strain forming black-olive colonies on extract malt agar medium was isolated from the damaged material and identified as Aureobasidium pullullans var. melanogenum. This fungus is particularly known for its capacity to produce hydrolytic enzymes and a biodegradable extracellular polysaccharide known as pullulan, which is used in the manufacture of packaging material for food and medicine. Laboratory tests were conducted to characterize its growth parameters. It was found that the organism was resistant to a wide range of pHs but did not survive at temperatures over 65°C. The proposed action plan includes drying of the material prior to packaging and disinfection of the machinery used in the manufacturing process and of the silos used for raw material storage.

  11. Sporozoite Route of Infection Influences In Vitro var Gene Transcription of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites From Controlled Human Infections

    PubMed Central

    Dimonte, Sandra; Bruske, Ellen I.; Hass, Johanna; Supan, Christian; Salazar, Carmen L.; Held, Jana; Tschan, Serena; Esen, Meral; Flötenmeyer, Matthias; Koch, Iris; Berger, Jürgen; Bachmann, Anna; Sim, Betty K. L.; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Kremsner, Peter G.; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Frank, Matthias

    2016-01-01

    Background. Antigenic variation in Plasmodium falciparum is mediated by the multicopy var gene family. Each parasite possesses about 60 var genes, and switching between active var loci results in antigenic variation. In the current study, the effect of mosquito and host passage on in vitro var gene transcription was investigated. Methods. Thirty malaria-naive individuals were inoculated by intradermal or intravenous injection with cryopreserved, isogenic NF54 P. falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ) generated from 1 premosquito culture. Microscopic parasitemia developed in 22 individuals, and 21 in vitro cultures were established. The var gene transcript levels were determined in early and late postpatient cultures and in the premosquito culture. Results. At the early time point, all cultures preferentially transcribed 8 subtelomeric var genes. Intradermal infections had higher var gene transcript levels than intravenous infections and a significantly longer intrahost replication time (P = .03). At the late time point, 9 subtelomeric and 8 central var genes were transcribed at the same levels in almost all cultures. Premosquito and late postpatient cultures transcribed the same subtelomeric and central var genes, except for var2csa. Conclusions. The duration of intrahost replication influences in vitro var gene transcript patterns. Differences between premosquito and postpatient cultures decrease with prolonged in vitro growth. PMID:27279526

  12. Cloning of the repertoire of individual Plasmodium falciparum var genes using transformation associated recombination (TAR).

    PubMed

    Gaida, Annette; Becker, Marion M; Schmid, Christoph D; Bühlmann, Tobias; Louis, Edward J; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2011-03-07

    One of the major virulence factors of the malaria causing parasite is the Plasmodium falciparum encoded erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1). It is translocated to It the membrane of infected erythrocytes and expressed from approximately 60 var genes in a mutually exclusive manner. Switching of var genes allows the parasite to alter functional and antigenic properties of infected erythrocytes, to escape the immune defense and to establish chronic infections. We have developed an efficient method for isolating VAR genes from telomeric and other genome locations by adapting transformation-associated recombination (TAR) cloning, which can then be analyzed and sequenced. For this purpose, three plasmids each containing a homologous sequence representing the upstream regions of the group A, B, and C var genes and a sequence homologous to the conserved acidic terminal segment (ATS) of var genes were generated. Co-transfection with P. falciparum strain ITG2F6 genomic DNA in yeast cells yielded 200 TAR clones. The relative frequencies of clones from each group were not biased. Clones were screened by PCR, as well as Southern blotting, which revealed clones missed by PCR due to sequence mismatches with the primers. Selected clones were transformed into E. coli and further analyzed by RFLP and end sequencing. Physical analysis of 36 clones revealed 27 distinct types potentially representing 50% of the var gene repertoire. Three clones were selected for sequencing and assembled into single var gene containing contigs. This study demonstrates that it is possible to rapidly obtain the repertoire of var genes from P. falciparum within a single set of cloning experiments. This technique can be applied to individual isolates which will provide a detailed picture of the diversity of var genes in the field. This is a powerful tool to overcome the obstacles with cloning and assembly of multi-gene families by simultaneously cloning each member.

  13. Origin of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans Diploid Strains

    PubMed Central

    Cogliati, Massimo; Esposto, Maria C.; Clarke, David L.; Wickes, Brian L.; Viviani, Maria A.

    2001-01-01

    The basidiomycetous yeast Cryptococcus neoformans is an important human fungal pathogen. Two varieties, C. neoformans var. neoformans and C. neoformans var. gattii, have been identified. Both are heterothallic with two mating types, MATa and MATα. Some rare isolates are self-fertile and are considered occasional diploid or aneuploid strains. In the present study, 133 isolates, mostly from Italian patients, were investigated to detect the presence of diploid strains in the Igiene Università Milano culture collection. All of the diploid isolates were further investigated by different methods to elucidate their origins. Forty-nine diploid strains were identified by flow cytometry. PCR fingerprinting using the (GACA)4 primer showed that the diploid state was associated with two specific genotypes identified as VN3 and VN4. Determination of mating type on V8 juice medium confirmed that the majority of the strains were sterile. PCR and dot blotting using the two pheromone genes (MFa and MFα) as probes identified 36 of the 49 diploid isolates as MATa/α. The results of pheromone gene sequencing showed that two allelic MFα genes exist and are distinct for serotypes A and D. In contrast, the MFa gene sequence was conserved in both serotype alleles. Amplification of serotype-specific STE20 alleles demonstrated that the diploid strains contained one mating locus inherited from a serotype A parent and one inherited from a serotype D parent. The present results suggest that diploid isolates may be common among the C. neoformans population and that in Italy and other European countries serotype A and D populations are not genetically isolated but are able to recombine by sexual reproduction. PMID:11682503

  14. Aberrant meiotic behavior in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul

    PubMed Central

    Ruvalcaba-Ruiz, Domingo; Rodríguez-Garay, Benjamin

    2002-01-01

    Background Agave tequilana Weber var. azul, is the only one variety permitted by federal law in México to be used for tequila production which is the most popular contemporary alcoholic beverage made from agave and recognized worldwide. Despite the economic, genetic, and ornamental value of the plant, it has not been subjected to detailed cytogenetic research, which could lead to a better understanding of its reproduction for future genetic improvement. The objective of this work was to study the meiotic behavior in pollen mother cells and its implications on the pollen viability in Agave tequilana Weber var. azul. Results The analysis of Pollen Mother Cells in anaphase I (A-I) showed 82.56% of cells with a normal anaphase and, 17.44% with an irregular anaphase. In which 5.28% corresponded to cells with side arm bridges (SAB); 3.68% cells with one bridge and one fragment; 2.58% of irregular anaphase showed cells with one or two lagging chromosomes and 2.95% showed one acentric fragment; cells with two bridges and cells with two bridges and one acentric fragment were observed in frequencies of 1.60% and 1.35% respectively. In anaphase II some cells showed bridges and fragments too. Aberrant A-I cells had many shrunken or empty pollen grains (42.00%) and 58.00 % viable pollen. Conclusion The observed meiotic irregularities suggest that structural chromosome aberrations have occurred, such as heterozygous inversions, sister chromatid exchanges, deletions and duplications which in turn are reflected in a low pollen viability. PMID:12396234

  15. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii: Separate Varietal Status for Cryptococcus neoformans Serotype A Isolates

    PubMed Central

    Franzot, Sarah P.; Salkin, Ira F.; Casadevall, Arturo

    1999-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans presently includes isolates which have been determined by the immunologic reactivity of their capsular polysaccharides to be serotype A and those which have been determined to be serotype D. However, recent analyses of the URA5 sequences and DNA fingerprinting patterns suggest significant genetic differences between the two serotypes. Therefore, we propose to recognize these genotypic distinctions, as well as previously reported phenotypic differences, by restricting C. neoformans var. neoformans to isolates which are serotype D and describing a new variety, C. neoformans var. grubii, for serotype A isolates. PMID:9986871

  16. Two new eriophyid mite species associated with Clematis terniflora var. mandshurica in China (Acari, Eriophyidae)

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Yan; Sun, Yan-Mei; Xue, Xiao-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Two new eriophyid mite species associated with Clematis terniflora var. mandshurica, namely Aculops jilinensis sp. n. and Phyllocoptes terniflores sp. n., are described. Both species infest the tender leaves of host plants, inducing severe curling and blistering. PMID:27833416

  17. Bahiensol, a new glycerolipid from a cultured myxomycete Didymium bahiense var. bahiense.

    PubMed

    Misono, Yuka; Ishibashi, Masami; Ito, Akira

    2003-05-01

    Bahiensol (1), a new glycerolipid with antimicrobial activity has been isolated from a cultured plasmodium of myxomycete Didymium bahiense var. bahiense and its planar structure was elucidated by spectral data.

  18. Phytoremediation of cadmium-contaminated farmland soil by the hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla.

    PubMed

    Song, Xueying; Hu, Xiaojun; Ji, Puhui; Li, Yushuang; Chi, Guangyu; Song, Yufang

    2012-04-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the phytoremediation efficiency of cadmium (Cd) contaminated soil utilizing the Cd hyperaccumulator Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla during one growing season (about 2 months) on farmland in Zhangshi Irrigation Area, the representative wastewater irrigation area in China. Results showed that B. vulgaris L. var. cicla is a promising plant in the phytoremediation of Cd contaminated farmland soil. The maximum of Cd phytoremediation efficiency by B. vulgaris L. var. cicla reached 144.6 mg/ha during one growing season. Planting density had a significant effect on the plant biomass and the overall Cd phytoremediation efficiency (p < 0.05). The amendment of organic manure promoted the biomass increase of B. vulgaris L. var. cicla (p < 0.05) but inhibited the Cd phytoremediation efficiency.

  19. [Mutagenic effects of gamma-rays on Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen].

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiao-xia; Wang, Zhi-an; Yu, Xu-ping

    2007-06-01

    To study the mutagenic effect of gamma-rays on Coix lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen. Physiological and mutagenic effects of gamma-rays on C. lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen dormant seeds were studied. The germination percentage, seeding survival, seeding height and root length of M1 plants and the frequency of chlorophyll mutation in M2 generation were selected as criteria. The gamma-rays showed obvious inhibitory action to the seedling growth, and a strong ability in inducing the chlorophyll mutation. The gamma-rays is one kind of C. lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen effective mutagen. The appropriate dose of gamma-rays is 450 Gy for C. lacryma-jobi var. ma-yuen dormant seeds.

  20. Disseminated histoplasmosis by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii in a paediatric patient from the Chad Republic, Africa.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Guiñon, A; Torres-Rodríguez, J M; Ndidongarte, D Torangar; Cortadellas, F; Labrín, L

    2009-06-01

    Histoplasmosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii is an endemic mycosis of sub-Saharan Africa that usually affects the skin, subcutaneous tissue, lymph nodes and bones. We present a case of a 10-year-old immunocompetent girl with severe cutaneous and subcutaneous abscesses affecting the head and upper body. Microscopic examination showed polar budding yeasts and short mycelium compatible with H. capsulatum var. duboisii. Cultures were not possible but serology showed antibodies against both H. capsulatum var. duboisii and H. capsulatum var. capsulatum antigens. Presumptive diagnosis of histoplasmosis was done but treatment with itraconazole was inefficacious. After 15 days of treatment with Amphotericin B i/v, improvement was evident and, three months later, the patient was discharged with only residual lesions. Seven months later, no relapses were observed.

  1. A new diterpene from Cupressus goveniana var. abramasiana: 5 beta-hydroxy-6-oxasugiol (cupresol).

    PubMed

    Jolad, S D; Hoffmann, J J; Schram, K H; Cole, J R; Bates, R B; Tempesta, M S

    1984-01-01

    The petroleum ether-EtOH extract of Cupressus goveniana var. abramasiana (Cupressaceae) yielded sugiol (1) and the new diterpene, cupresol (5 beta-hydroxy-6-oxasugiol), for which structure 2 was established by spectroscopic and chemical means.

  2. [Content and distribution of active components in cultivated and wild Taxus chinensis var. mairei plants].

    PubMed

    Yu, Shao-Shuai; Sun, Qi-Wu; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Tian, Sheng-Ni; Bo, Pei-Lei

    2012-10-01

    Taxus chinensis var. mairei is an endemic and endangered plant species in China. The resources of T. chinensis var. mairei have been excessively exploited due to its anti-cancer potential, accordingly, the extant T. chinensis var. mairei population is decreasing. In this paper, ultrasonic extraction and HPLC were adopted to determine the contents of active components paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine in cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants, with the content distribution of these components in different parts of the plants having grown for different years and at different slope aspects investigated. There existed obvious differences in the contents of these active components between cultivated and wild T. chinensis var. mairei plants. The paclitaxel content in the wild plants was about 0.78 times more than that in the cultivated plants, whereas the 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine contents were slishtly higher in the cultivated plants. The differences in the three active components contents between different parts and tree canopies of the plants were notable, being higher in barks and upper tree canopies. Four-year old plants had comparatively higher contents of paclitaxel, 7-xylosyltaxol and cephalomannine (0.08, 0.91 and 0.32 mg x g(-1), respectively), and the plants growing at sunny slope had higher contents of the three active components, with significant differences in the paclitaxel and 7-xylosyltaxol contents and unapparent difference in the cephalomannine content of the plants at shady slope. It was suggested that the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants were closely related to the sunshine conditions. To appropriately increase the sunshine during the artificial cultivation of T. chinensis var. mairei would be beneficial to the accumulation of the three active components in T. chinensis var. mairei plants.

  3. Isolation and structure elucidation of a new prenylcoumarin from Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa (Rutaceae).

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Takeshi; Shimada, Motoko

    2002-01-01

    A new C-8 prenylated 5,7-dimethoxycoumarin named omphamurrayin was isolated from the leaves of Murraya paniculata var. omphalocarpa, and its structure was established as 5,7-dimethoxy-8-(1-oxo-2-senecioyl-3-methyl-3-butenyl)-2H-1-benzopyran-2-one on the basis of the spectroscopic evidence. The taxonomic status of M. paniculata var. omphalocarpa is briefly discussed, along with its synonymity to M. paniculata from the chemosystematic viewpoint.

  4. Weinmannia marquesana var. angustifolia (Cunoniaceae), a new variety from the Marquesas Islands

    PubMed Central

    Lorence, David H.; Wagner, Warren L.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Weinmannia marquesana F. Br. var. angustifolia Lorence & W. L. Wagner, var. nov., a new variety with narrow, simple leaves endemic to Tahuata, Marquesas Islands (French Polynesia) is described and its affinities and conservation status are discussed. It is similar to the other two varieties of this species by having simple leaves, but this new variety has much narrower leaf blades, and it resembles Weinmannia tremuloides in having narrow leaf blades but differs by having simple, not trifoliolate leaves. PMID:22171181

  5. ClinVar: public archive of relationships among sequence variation and human phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Landrum, Melissa J.; Lee, Jennifer M.; Riley, George R.; Jang, Wonhee; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Church, Deanna M.; Maglott, Donna R.

    2014-01-01

    ClinVar (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/) provides a freely available archive of reports of relationships among medically important variants and phenotypes. ClinVar accessions submissions reporting human variation, interpretations of the relationship of that variation to human health and the evidence supporting each interpretation. The database is tightly coupled with dbSNP and dbVar, which maintain information about the location of variation on human assemblies. ClinVar is also based on the phenotypic descriptions maintained in MedGen (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/medgen). Each ClinVar record represents the submitter, the variation and the phenotype, i.e. the unit that is assigned an accession of the format SCV000000000.0. The submitter can update the submission at any time, in which case a new version is assigned. To facilitate evaluation of the medical importance of each variant, ClinVar aggregates submissions with the same variation/phenotype combination, adds value from other NCBI databases, assigns a distinct accession of the format RCV000000000.0 and reports if there are conflicting clinical interpretations. Data in ClinVar are available in multiple formats, including html, download as XML, VCF or tab-delimited subsets. Data from ClinVar are provided as annotation tracks on genomic RefSeqs and are used in tools such as Variation Reporter (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/variation/tools/reporter), which reports what is known about variation based on user-supplied locations. PMID:24234437

  6. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes.

    PubMed

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, M age = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman's Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. "Not changed" patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than "improved" and "recovered" patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy.

  7. Semi-nonparametric VaR forecasts for hedge funds during the recent crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Brio, Esther B.; Mora-Valencia, Andrés; Perote, Javier

    2014-05-01

    The need to provide accurate value-at-risk (VaR) forecasting measures has triggered an important literature in econophysics. Although these accurate VaR models and methodologies are particularly demanded for hedge fund managers, there exist few articles specifically devoted to implement new techniques in hedge fund returns VaR forecasting. This article advances in these issues by comparing the performance of risk measures based on parametric distributions (the normal, Student’s t and skewed-t), semi-nonparametric (SNP) methodologies based on Gram-Charlier (GC) series and the extreme value theory (EVT) approach. Our results show that normal-, Student’s t- and Skewed t- based methodologies fail to forecast hedge fund VaR, whilst SNP and EVT approaches accurately success on it. We extend these results to the multivariate framework by providing an explicit formula for the GC copula and its density that encompasses the Gaussian copula and accounts for non-linear dependences. We show that the VaR obtained by the meta GC accurately captures portfolio risk and outperforms regulatory VaR estimates obtained through the meta Gaussian and Student’s t distributions.

  8. Genomic organization and expression of 23 new genes from MATalpha locus of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ping; Roncaglia, Paola; Springer, Deborah J; Fan, Jinjiang; Chaturvedi, Vishnu

    2005-01-07

    The pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans (Cn) causes cryptococcosis, a life-threatening disease of the brain. Molecular studies of Cn variety gattii have lagged behind other two varieties (var. grubii and var. neoformans) although they have distinct biology and disease patterns. We focused on gene discovery in MATalpha locus because it predominates in clinical strains. A var. gattii cosmid library was screened with DNA probes from other two varieties. Two positive clones were sequenced to identify ORFs based on similarities to known proteins, and to ESTs using bioinformatics, and manually by a curator. Approximately 76kb sequenced DNA revealed 23 genes and ORFs. The existence of predicted genes was verified by RT-PCR analyses designed to amplify spliced sequences. The results confirmed that the transcripts were expressed both at 30 and 37 degrees C. The var. gattii MATalpha locus genes showed rearrangements in order and orientation vis-a-vis other two varieties. Mating-specific genes showed higher nonsynonymous mutation rates, and gene trees showed var. gattii strains in a distinct clade. The identification of the largest number, thus far, of var. gattii structural genes should set the stage for future molecular pathogenesis studies.

  9. [Supercritical CO2 fluid extraction and component analysis of leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    PubMed

    Tang, Bin; Zhang, Feng-su; Li, Xiang; Chen, Jian-wei; Yao, Xiao

    2013-12-01

    To research the optimal extraction process of supercritical CO2 extraction and analyze the component of the oil extracted from leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. Using the yield of leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei as the index, investigated the effect of the extraction pressure, extraction temperature and extraction time on the extracting-rate of leaves oil. The chemical composition of the extracted leaves oil was analyzed by derivatized GC-MS. The optimal parameters of the supercritical CO2 extraction of the oil extracted from leaves of Taxus chinensis var. mairei were determined: CO2 compressor pump frequency was 10 Hz, the extraction pressure was 25 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 45 degrees C, the extraction time was 120 min, the isolator I pressure was 8.0 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 40 degrees C, the isolator II pressure was 5.0 MPa and the temperature of extraction was 35 degrees C. The extracted leaves oil was derivatized with boron trifluoride-methanol complex. Thirty-three kinds of fatty acids were identified by GC-MS. The yield of leaves oils are different from Taxus chinensis var. mairei from 3 habitats. The yield of leaves oil from Donggang, Wuxi city is the highest, about 2.61%. The kinds of fatty acids with high amounts in leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei is identical in general, the kinds of fatty acids with low amounts in leaves oil from Taxus chinensis var. mairei have differences.

  10. Arundina graminifolia var. revoluta (Arethuseae, Orchidaceae) has fern-type rheophyte characteristics in the leaves.

    PubMed

    Yorifuji, Eri; Ishikawa, Naoko; Okada, Hiroshi; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2015-03-01

    Morphological and molecular variation between Arundina graminifolia var. graminifolia and the dwarf variety, A. graminifolia var. revoluta, was examined to assess the validity of their taxonomic characteristics and genetic background for identification. Morphological analysis in combination with field observations indicated that A. graminifolia var. revoluta is a rheophyte form of A. graminifolia characterized by narrow leaves, whereas the other morphological characteristics described for A. graminifolia var. revoluta, such as smaller flowers and short stems, were not always accompanied by the narrower leaf phenotype. Molecular analysis based on matK sequences indicated that only partial differentiation has occurred between A. graminifolia var. graminifolia and A. graminifolia var. revoluta. Therefore, we should consider the rheophyte form an ecotype rather than a variety. Anatomical observations of the leaves revealed that the rheophyte form of A. graminifolia possessed characteristics of the rheophytes of both ferns and angiosperms, such as narrower palisade tissue cells and thinner spongy tissue cells, as well as fewer cells in the leaf-width direction and fewer mesophyll cell layers.

  11. Characterization of the antigenicity of Cpl1, a surface protein of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jian-Piao; Liu, Ling-Li; To, Kelvin K W; Lau, Candy C Y; Woo, Patrick C Y; Lau, Susanna K P; Guo, Yong-Hui; Ngan, Antonio H Y; Che, Xiao-Yan; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is an important fungal pathogen. The capsule is a well established virulence factor and a target site for diagnostic tests. The CPL1 gene is required for capsular formation and virulence. The protein product Cpl1 has been proposed to be a secreted protein, but the characteristics of this protein have not been reported. Here we sought to characterize Cpl1. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the Cpl1 of C. neoformans var. neoformans and the Cpl1 orthologs identified in C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii formed a distinct cluster among related fungi; while the putative ortholog found in Trichosporon asahii was distantly related to the Cryptococcus cluster. We expressed Cpl1 abundantly as a secreted His-tagged protein in Pichia pastoris. The protein was used to immunize guinea pigs and rabbits for high titer mono-specific polyclonal antibody that was shown to be highly specific against the cell wall of C. neoformans var. neoformans and did not cross react with C. gattii, T. asahii, Aspergillus spp., Candida spp. and Penicillium spp. Using the anti-Cpl1 antibody, we detected Cpl1 protein in the fresh culture supernatant of C. neoformans var. neoformans and we showed by immunostaining that the Cpl1 protein was located on the surface. The Cpl1 protein is a specific surface protein of C. neoformans var. neoformans.

  12. Penetration, Post-penetration Development, and Reproduction of Meloidogyne incognita on Cucumis melo var. texanus.

    PubMed

    Faske, T R

    2013-03-01

    Cucumis melo var. texanus, a wild melon commonly found in the southern United States and two accessions, Burleson Co. and MX 1230, expressed resistance to Meloidogyne incognita in preliminary experiments. To characterize the mechanism of resistance, we evaluated root penetration, post-penetration development, reproduction, and emigration of M. incognita on these two accessions of C. melo var. texanus. Additionally, we evaluated 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus for their reaction against M. incognita in a greenhouse experiment. Fewer (P ≤ 0.05) J2 penetrated the root system of C. melo var. texanus accessions (Burleson Co. and MX 1230) and C. metuliferus (PI 482452) (resistant control), 7 days after inoculation (DAI) than in C. melo 'Hales Best Jumbo' (susceptible control). A delayed (P ≤ 0.05) rate of nematode development was observed at 7, 14, and 21 DAI that contributed to lower (P ≤ 0.05) egg production on both accessions and C. metuliferus compared with C. melo. Though J2 emigration was observed on all Cucumis genotypes a higher (P ≤ 0.05) rate of J2 emigration was observed from 3 to 6 DAI on accession Burleson Co. and C. metuliferus than on C. melo. The 22 accessions of C. melo var. texanus varied relative to their reaction to M. incognita with eight supporting similar levels of nematode reproduction to that of C. metuliferus. Cucumis melo var. texanus may be a useful source of resistance against root-knot nematode in melon.

  13. Working alliance inventory applied to virtual and augmented reality (WAI-VAR): psychometrics and therapeutic outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Miragall, Marta; Baños, Rosa M.; Cebolla, Ausiàs; Botella, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    This study examines the psychometric properties of the Working Alliance Inventory-Short (WAI-S) adaptation to Virtual Reality (VR) and Augmented Reality (AR) therapies (WAI-VAR). The relationship between the therapeutic alliance (TA) with VR and AR and clinically significant change (CSC) is also explored. Seventy-five patients took part in this study (74.7% women, Mage = 34.41). Fear of flying and adjustment disorder patients received VR therapy, and cockroach phobia patients received AR therapy. Psychometric properties, CSC, one-way ANOVA, Spearman’s Correlations and Multiple Regression were calculated. The WAI-VAR showed a unidimensional structure, high internal consistency and adequate convergent validity. “Not changed” patients scored lower on the WAI-VAR than “improved” and “recovered” patients. Correlation between the WAI-VAR and CSC was moderate. The best fitting model for predicting CSC was a linear combination of the TA with therapist (WAI-S) and the TA with VR and AR (WAI-VAR), due to the latter variable slightly increased the percentage of variability accounted for in CSC. The WAI-VAR is the first validated instrument to measure the TA with VR and AR in research and clinical practice. This study reveals the importance of the quality of the TA with technologies in achieving positive outcomes in the therapy. PMID:26500589

  14. Isolation of Su(var)3-7 mutations by homologous recombination in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Seum, Carole; Pauli, Daniel; Delattre, Marion; Jaquet, Yannis; Spierer, Anne; Spierer, Pierre

    2002-01-01

    The Su(var)3-7 gene, a haplo-suppressor and triplo-enhancer of position-effect variegation (PEV), encodes a zinc finger heterochromatin-associated protein. To understand the role of this protein in heterochromatin and genomic silencing, mutations were generated by homologous recombination. The donor fragment contained a yellow(+) gene and 7.6 kb of the Su(var)3-7 gene inserted between two FRTs. The Su(var)3-7 sequence contained three stop codons flanking an I-SceI cut site located in the 5' half of the gene. Using two different screening approaches, we obtained an allelic series composed of three mutant alleles. The three mutations are dominant suppressors of PEV. One behaves as a null mutation and results in a maternal-effect recessive lethal phenotype that can be rescued by a zygotic paternal wild-type gene. A P transposon zygotically expressing a Su(var)3-7 full-length cDNA also rescues the mutant phenotype. One hypomorphic allele is viable and the pleiotropic phenotype showed by adult flies indicates that rapidly and late dividing cells seem the most affected by reduced amounts of Su(var)3-7 protein. All three mutants were characterized at the molecular level. Each expresses a portion of the Su(var)3-7 protein that is unable to enter the nucleus and bind chromatin. PMID:12136016

  15. Feasibility of Stochastic Voltage/VAr Optimization Considering Renewable Energy Resources for Smart Grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momoh, James A.; Salkuti, Surender Reddy

    2016-06-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic optimization technique for solving the Voltage/VAr control problem including the load demand and Renewable Energy Resources (RERs) variation. The RERs often take along some inputs like stochastic behavior. One of the important challenges i. e., Voltage/VAr control is a prime source for handling power system complexity and reliability, hence it is the fundamental requirement for all the utility companies. There is a need for the robust and efficient Voltage/VAr optimization technique to meet the peak demand and reduction of system losses. The voltages beyond the limit may damage costly sub-station devices and equipments at consumer end as well. Especially, the RERs introduces more disturbances and some of the RERs are not even capable enough to meet the VAr demand. Therefore, there is a strong need for the Voltage/VAr control in RERs environment. This paper aims at the development of optimal scheme for Voltage/VAr control involving RERs. In this paper, Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) method is used to cover full range of variables by maximally satisfying the marginal distribution. Here, backward scenario reduction technique is used to reduce the number of scenarios effectively and maximally retain the fitting accuracy of samples. The developed optimization scheme is tested on IEEE 24 bus Reliability Test System (RTS) considering the load demand and RERs variation.

  16. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata lectin: isolation, characterization, and comparison.

    PubMed

    Chan, Yau Sang; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2015-01-01

    Bauhinia variegata var. variegata seeds are rich in proteins. Previously, one of the major storage proteins of the seeds was found to be a trypsin inhibitor that possessed various biological activities. By using another purification protocol, a glucoside- and galactoside-binding lectin that demonstrated some differences from the previously reported B. variegata lectin could be isolated from the seeds. It involved affinity chromatography on Affi-gel blue gel, ion exchange chromatography on Q-Sepharose and Mono Q, and also size exclusion chromatography on Superdex 75. The lectin was not retained on Affi-gel blue gel but interacted with Q-Sepharose. The lectin was a 64-kDa protein with two 32-kDa subunits. It had low thermostability (stable up to 50 °C) and moderate pH stability (stable in pH 3-10). It exhibited anti-proliferative activity on nasopharyngeal carcinoma HONE1 cells with an IC50 of 12.8 μM after treatment for 48 h. It also slightly inhibited the growth of hepatoma HepG2 cells. The lectin may have potential in aiding cancer treatments.

  17. Periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti var. pacifica filariasis in French Polynesia.

    PubMed

    Moulia-Pelat, J P; Glaziou, P; Chanteau, S; Nguyen-Ngoc, L; Marcet, Y; Gardines, R; Martin, P M; Cartel, J L

    1993-06-01

    In 1992, a study on microfilaremia periodicity was carried out on 12 Wuchereria bancrofti carriers in the Marquesas islands. Blood samples were collected simultaneously every 4 hours during a 48 hour period by finger-prick and venipuncture for determination of microfilaremia by both blood film and membrane filtration technique methods, and for determination of antigenemia. The membrane filtration results showed no significant nycthemeral variations between the microfilaria densities at hours 16:00, 20:00, 24:00, 04:00, 08:00 and 12:00. Conversely, the blood film method showed a significant difference between the microfilaria densities: the microfilaremia was higher during the day (12:00-20:00 hours) than during the night (24:00-08:00 hours). As for antigenemia, using Og 4 C3 monoclonal antibody, there was no significant fluctuation during 48 hours. These results confirm that W. bancrofti var. pacifica is subperiodic and diurnal in French Polynesia. In particular, they substantiate the validity of examining venous blood by the membrane filtration technique as the judgment criterion of choice in therapeutic trials and of examining capillary blood during peak hours by the blood film method for evaluating the endemic level in a population.

  18. [Triterpenoid saponins from flower bud of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-Qin; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2008-01-01

    To study the chemical constituent bud of the flowers of Jasminum officinale var. grandiflorum. The compounds were isolated and purified by recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH - 20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six triterpenoid saponins were identified as 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-beta-D-xylopyranosyl- hederagenin-28-O-beta-D-galactopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-galactopyranosyl ester (1), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (2), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (3), hederagenin-3-O-beta-D-xylopyranosyl (1 --> 3)-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (4), 2alpha, 3beta, 23-trihydroxyolean-12-en-28-oic-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 4)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (1 --> 6)-beta-D-glucopyranosyl ester (5), hederagenin-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl (1 --> 2)-alpha-L-arabinopyranoside (6). Compound 1 is a new compound. Compounds 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 were isolated from the genus Jasminum for the first time.

  19. Bioactive phenylpropanoid analogues from Piper betle L. var. haldia leaves.

    PubMed

    Atiya, Akhtar; Sinha, Barij Nayan; Lal, Uma Ranjan

    2017-02-15

    Phytochemical analyses of the chloroform extract of Piper betle L. var. birkoli, Piperaceae, leaves led to the isolation of two new phenylpropanoid analogues: bis-chavicol dodecanoyl ester (2) and bis-hydroxychavicol dodecanoyl ester (3), along with one known compound: allyl-3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzene (1) on the basis of spectroscopic data 1D ((1)H and (13)C) and 2D ((1)H-(1)H COSY and HMBC) NMR, as well as ESI-MS, FT-IR, HR-ESI-MS and LC-ESI-MS. Compound 2 and 3 exhibited excellent antioxidant DPPH radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 12.67 μg/mL and 1.08 μg/mL compared to ascorbic acid as a standard antioxidant drug with IC50 value of 6.60 μg/mL. Evaluation of cytotoxic activity against two human oral cancer cell lines (AW13516 and AW8507) showed significant effect with GI50 values of 19.61 and 23.01 μg/mL for compound 2 and 10.25 and 13.12 μg/mL for compound 3, compared to Doxorubicin(®) as a standard cytotoxic drug with GI50 value of < 10 μg/mL.

  20. Antioxidant activity of Egyptian Eucalyptus camaldulensis var. brevirostris leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    El-Ghorab, Ahmed H; El-Massry, Khaled F; Marx, Friedhelm; Fadel, Hoda M

    2003-02-01

    Leaves from Eucalvptus camaldulensis var. brevirostris trees, planted in the Nile delta in Egypt, were examined for the antioxidant activity of their nonvolatile compounds. The extracts obtained by ethanol digestion and by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE; CO2 with 15% ethanol) showed the most promising antioxidative activities. In order to identify the most active compounds, both extracts were subjected to a semipreparative reversed-phase HPLC separation, the main fractions were collected, tested for antioxidative activity and analysed by different chromatographical and spectroscopical methods for identification of the most relevant compounds. Gallic and ellagic acid were found to be the prevailing antioxidants in the ethanolic extract. The main two compounds of the SFE extract with antioxidative activity revealed to be flavones. To a high degree of probability they were identified as 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy flavone and 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxy-8-methyl flavone, respectively. The extracts obtained by ethanoldigestion were dried and administered to rats for toxicity evaluation (up to 3 g/kg body weight). No mortality was observed which indicates a very low lethality of the tested extract.

  1. Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of Narcissus tazzeta var. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Lu, Gang; Zou, Qingcheng; Guo, Deping; Zhuang, Xiaoying; Yu, Xiaolin; Xiang, Xun; Cao, Jiashu

    2007-09-01

    Phytoene synthase (PSY), as a key regulatory enzyme for carotene biosynthesis, plays an important role in regulating color formation in many species. In the present study, a protocol was developed for the transformation of Narcissus tazzeta var chinensis using Agrobacterium tumefaciens strain LBA4404 harboring a binary vector pCAMBIA1301 plasmid which contained an antisense phytoene synthase gene, a reporter beta-glucuronidase gene and a selectable marker hygromycin phosphotransferase gene. Effects of some factors on efficiency of transformation and regeneration were examined. Preculture of the explants for 6 days before inoculation enhanced the transient GUS expression. The addition of acetosyringone (AS) at 100 micromol l(-1) for inoculation and a period of 3 days co-cultivation yielded efficient transient GUS expression. Transformants were obtained through selection on MS medium containing 5 mg l(-1) 6-benzylaminopurine (BA), 0.1 mg l(-1)alpha-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 40 mg l(-1) hygromycin. The transformation frequency was 1.24% based on PCR analysis of gus gene. One or two copies of transgene were demonstrated in different transformations by Southern blotting analyses. Northern blotting results confirmed that the transcription of the endogenous psy gene in transgenic plants was inhibited or silenced. The method reported here provides new opportunities for improvement of quality traits of Narcissus tazzeta via genetic transformation.

  2. Foam Separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis var. niger

    PubMed Central

    Grieves, R. B.; Wang, S. L.

    1967-01-01

    An experimental investigation established the effect of the presence of inorganic salts on the foam separation of Pseudomonas fluorescens and of Bacillus subtilis var. niger (B. globigii) from aqueous suspension by use of a cationic surfactant. For P. fluorescens, 5.0 μeq/ml of NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4, K2SO4, CaCl2, CaSO4, MgCl2, or MgSO4 produced increases in the cell concentration in the residual suspension (not carried into the foam) from 2.9 × 105 up to 1.6 × 106 to 2.8 × 107 cells per milliliter (initial suspensions contain from 3.3 × 107 to 4.8 × 107 cells per milliliter). The exceptional influence of magnesium was overcome by bringing the cells into contact first with the surfactant and then the salt. For B. subtilis, the presence of 5.0 μeq/ml of any of the eight salts increased the residual cell concentration by one order of magnitude from 1.2 × 104 to about 4.0 × 105 cells per milliliter. This occurred regardless of the sequence of contact as long as the surfactant contact period was sufficient. The presence of salts increased collapsed foam volumes with P. fluorescens and decreased collapsed foam volumes with B. subtilis. PMID:4961933

  3. Micropropagation of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus).

    PubMed

    Iapichino, Giovanni

    2013-01-01

    The globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus) is a perennial plant cultivated in the Mediterranean region and the Americas for its edible young flower heads. Although vegetative propagation by offshoots or by "ovoli" (underground dormant axillary buds) has been the primary method of propagation, the potential for the diffusion of diseases and the phenotypic variability can be very high. The propagation of this species by axillary shoot proliferation from in vitro-cultured meristems produces systemic pathogen-free plants and a higher multiplication rate as compared to that obtained by conventional agamic multiplication. Axillary shoot proliferation can be induced from excised shoot apices cultured on Murashige and Skoog agar solidified medium supplemented with various concentrations of cytokinins and auxins, depending on genotype. For the production of virus-free plants, meristems, 0.3-0.8 mm long are excised from shoot apices and surface sterilized. The transfer of artichoke microshoots to a medium lacking cytokinins or with low cytokinin concentration is critical for rooting. Adventitious roots develop within 3-5 weeks after transfer to root induction MS medium containing NAA or IAA at various concentrations. However, in vitro rooting frequency rate is dependent on the genotype and the protocol used. Acclimatization of in vitro microshoots having 3-4 roots is successfully accomplished; plantlets develop new roots in ex vitro conditions and continue to grow.

  4. Transport of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki via fomites.

    PubMed

    Van Cuyk, Sheila; Veal, Lee Ann B; Simpson, Beverley; Omberg, Kristin M

    2011-09-01

    The intentional and controlled release of an aerosolized bacterium provides an opportunity to investigate the implications of a biological attack. Since 2006, Los Alamos National Laboratory has worked with several urban areas, including Fairfax County, VA, to design experiments to evaluate biodefense concepts of operations using routine spraying of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki (Btk). Btk is dispersed in large quantities as a slurry to control the gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar. Understanding whether personnel and equipment pick up residual contamination during sampling activities and transport it to other areas is critical for the formulation of appropriate response and recovery plans. While there is a growing body of literature surrounding the transmission of viral diseases via fomites, there is limited information on the transport of Bacillus species via this route. In 2008, LANL investigated whether field sampling activities conducted near sprayed areas, post-spray, resulted in measurable cross-contamination of sampling personnel, equipment, vehicles, and hotel rooms. Viable Btk was detected in all sample types, indicating transport of the agent occurred via fomites.

  5. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-01-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family. PMID:26743902

  6. ACAT inhibitory activity of exudates from Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Yu-Hsin; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Chien, Shih-Chang; Cheng, Wen-Ling; Xiao, Jun-Hong; Wang, Sheng-Yang

    2012-12-01

    Cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) is an enzyme controlling cholesterol esterification in cells. Large amounts of cholesterol esters accumulate in macrophages and smooth muscle cells of blood vessel walls resulting in the initial stages of atherosclerosis. Thus, atherosclerosis might be inhibited through inhibition of the activity of ACAT. In the present study, we identified by spectral analysis and chromatographic quantification that ferruginol was the most abundant component of exudates secreted from the wounding site of Calocedrus macrolepis Kurz var. formosana. Results obtained from the cholesterol absorption assay revealed that ferruginol exhibited a significant inhibitory activity on cholesterol absorption in mice macrophages (RAW 264.7 cell). Based on the results from analyzing the ratio of cholesterol esterification, ferruginol dose-dependently suppressed cholesterol esterification and the IC50 value was 2.0 microg/mL. In conclusion, ferruginol revealed strong inhibitory activities that retarded the absorption and esterification of cholesterol in cells. Our finding indicates that ferruginol might possess a potential for development as a pharmaceutical product for preventing arteriosclerosis.

  7. De Novo Transcriptome Analysis of Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun A; Shin, Ah-Young; Lee, Min-Seon; Lee, Hee-Jeong; Lee, Heung-Ryul; Ahn, Jongmoon; Nahm, Seokhyeon; Jo, Sung-Hwan; Park, Jeong Mee; Kwon, Suk-Yoon

    2016-02-01

    Oriental melon (Cucumis melo L. var. makuwa) is one of six subspecies of melon and is cultivated widely in East Asia, including China, Japan, and Korea. Although oriental melon is economically valuable in Asia and is genetically distinct from other subspecies, few reports of genome-scale research on oriental melon have been published. We generated 30.5 and 36.8 Gb of raw RNA sequence data from the female and male flowers, leaves, roots, and fruit of two oriental melon varieties, Korean landrace (KM) and Breeding line of NongWoo Bio Co. (NW), respectively. From the raw reads, 64,998 transcripts from KM and 100,234 transcripts from NW were de novo assembled. The assembled transcripts were used to identify molecular markers (e.g., single-nucleotide polymorphisms and simple sequence repeats), detect tissue-specific expressed genes, and construct a genetic linkage map. In total, 234 single-nucleotide polymorphisms and 25 simple sequence repeats were screened from 7,871 and 8,052 candidates, respectively, between the KM and NW varieties and used for construction of a genetic map with 94 F2 population specimens. The genetic linkage map consisted of 12 linkage groups, and 248 markers were assigned. These transcriptome and molecular marker data provide information useful for molecular breeding of oriental melon and further comparative studies of the Cucurbitaceae family.

  8. Carbon Dioxide Fixation by Extracts of Streptococcus faecalis var. liquefaciens

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Ronald E.

    1970-01-01

    Extracts of cells of Streptococcus faecalis var. liquefaciens strain 31 incorporated 14CO2 into aspartate. Dialyzed extracts produced radioactive oxalacetate in the absence of exogenously added glutamate and pyridoxal-5′-phosphate and produced radioactive aspartate in the presence of these components. Reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide or reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate could not be substituted for adenosine triphosphate (ATP); phosphoenolpyruvate even in the presence of nucleoside diphosphates could not replace pyruvate plus ATP; propionate plus coenzyme A (CoA) could not replace pyruvate in supporting CO2 fixation by cell extracts. Fixation by dialyzed cell extracts required pyruvate, ATP, MgSO4, and was stimulated by biotin, KCl, 2-mercaptoethanol, CoA, and acetyl CoA. Inhibition of fixation occurred when avidin, NaCl, oxalacetate, or aspartate was added to dialyzed extracts. On the basis of the products formed and the effects of substrates and cofactors on the fixation reaction, it was concluded that pyruvate carboxylase is responsible for CO2 fixation in this microorganism. PMID:4986758

  9. Antioxidant properties of European cranberrybush fruit (Viburnum opulus var. edule).

    PubMed

    Rop, Otakar; Reznicek, Vojtech; Valsikova, Magdalena; Jurikova, Tunde; Mlcek, Jiri; Kramarova, Daniela

    2010-06-23

    In the literature there is little available information concerning European cranberrybush fruit (Viburnum opulus var. edule). This plant can be cultivated, even in harsh climatic conditions, because of its low environmental demands, and it is possible to harvest the fruit even in the snow cover. The aim of this study was to determine the content of polyphenolics, antioxidant activity, flavonoids and vitamin C in the fruit of three cultivars Leningradskaya otbornaya , Souzga and Taezny rubiny of this species. In the case of polyphenolics, high contents [up to 8.29 g of gallic acid/kg of fresh mass (FM)] were observed. The 1,1 -diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2 -azinobis-3-ethyl-benzthiazino-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS) tests were applied to determine antioxidant activity, which was also high in comparison with other fruit species. The corresponding correlations between the polyphenolic content and antioxidant activity were in case of the DPPH test r(2) = 0.88 and for the ABTS test r(2) = 0.98. For comparison, the scavenging activity towards reactive oxygen species (superoxide anion, hydroxyl radical and nitric oxide) was determined by using a 25% fruit extract of particular cultivars. Antioxidant efficiency was also assessed using the rat liver slice model. Furthermore, the contents of flavonoids and vitamin C were assayed, giving values of 4.89 g/kg and 1.64 g/kg FM, respectively. The work should contribute to the popularization of this species as a promising crop plant in human nutrition.

  10. Bioactivity assay of extracts from Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana bark.

    PubMed

    Chao, Louis Kuoping; Hua, Kuo-Feng; Hsu, Hsien-Yeh; Su, Yu-Chang; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2006-12-01

    Alcoholic extracts from bark of Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana Florin (Cupressaceae) were extracted successively using n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol and water, which gave 34.8%, 34.1%, 24.1%, 3.3% and 3.7% soluble fractions, respectively. Antioxidation activity of these fractions by DPPH assay and dissimilar IC50 values of the DPPH showed that ethyl acetate fraction had the best antioxidant activity; its IC50 was 2.6 microg/ml. Analyses of the composition and anti-inflammatory activity of the subfractions from n-C6H14 fraction showed that the T3 and H5ppt had the best anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-stimulated murine macrophage J774A. 1 cells, respectively; moreover, their major constituent was sugiol (T3 37.1%, H5ppt 81.1%), which at dosages of 10 microg/ml inhibited proIL-1beta protein production completely. Furthermore, the T1 also exhibited anti-inflammatory activity, and its major constituent was ferruginol (above 85.6%).

  11. Toxicological assessment of nattokinase derived from Bacillus subtilis var. natto.

    PubMed

    Lampe, Bradley J; English, J Caroline

    2016-02-01

    Subtilisin NAT, commonly known as "nattokinase," is a fibrinolytic enzyme produced by the bacterial strain B. subtilis var. natto, which plays a central role in the fermentation of soybeans into the popular Japanese food natto. Recent studies have reported on the potential anticoagulatory and antihypertensive effects of nattokinase administration in humans, with no indication of adverse effects. To evaluate the safety of nattokinase in a more comprehensive manner, several GLP-compliant studies in rodents and human volunteers have been conducted with the enzyme product, NSK-SD (Japan Bio Science Laboratory Co., Ltd., Japan). Nattokinase was non-mutagenic and non-clastogenic in vitro, and no adverse effects were observed in 28-day and 90-day subchronic toxicity studies conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats at doses up to 167 mg/kg-day and 1000 mg/kg-day, respectively. Mice inoculated with 7.55 × 10(8) CFU of the enzyme-producing bacterial strain showed no signs of toxicity or residual tissue concentrations of viable bacteria. Additionally consumption of 10 mg/kg-day nattokinase for 4 weeks was well tolerated in healthy human volunteers. These findings suggest that the oral consumption of nattokinase is of low toxicological concern. The 90-day oral subchronic NOAEL for nattokinase in male and female Sprague-Dawley rats is 1000 mg/kg-day, the highest dose tested. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Neuroprotective Lignans from the Fruits of Schisandra bicolor var. tuberculata.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ye; Yu, Heng-Yi; Wang, Yan-Mei; Tian, Tian; Wu, Wen-Ming; Zhou, Ming; Meng, Xiang-Gao; Ruan, Han-Li

    2017-04-28

    Nine new lignans (1-9) and ten known analogues (10-19) were isolated from the fruits of Schisandra bicolor var. tuberculata. The structures of compounds 1-9 were established on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. The absolute configuration of compound 1 was determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis with Cu Kα irradiation techniques, and the absolute configurations of compounds 2-9 were deduced by comparing their experimental ECD spectra and optical rotations with those of compound 1 or similar compounds. All isolates were evaluated for their neuroprotective activities against CoCl2, H2O2, and Aβ25-35-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury, and were found to exhibit different degrees of neuroprotective effects. At a low concentration of 3.2 nM, compounds 3, 8, 9, and 14-19 in CoCl2-induced, compounds 7, 8, 13, 17, and 18 in H2O2-induced, and compounds 2, 6, 7, 9, 10, and 12-19 in Aβ25-35-induced SH-SY5Y cell injury models, showed statistically significant neuroprotective activities, when compared with each negative control group.

  13. Effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times.

    PubMed

    Ojo, V O A; Dele, P A; Amole, T A; Anele, U Y; Adeoye, S A; Hassan, O A; Olanite, J A; Idowu, O J

    2013-11-15

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of intercropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus on the growth, herbage yield and chemical composition of P. maximum var. Ntchisi at different harvesting times at the Teaching and Research farm, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta in a randomized complete block design. Samples were collected at different harvesting times (8, 10, 12, 14 weeks after planting). The growth parameters which were plant height, leaf length, leaf number and tiller number measured showed that the intercropping of grass with legume were higher than in the sole plot of P. maximum var. Ntchisi. The plant yield was consistently higher (p < 0.05) in intercropped forages than in sole throughout the harvesting times. The crude protein contents of the forages were also higher for the intercropped across the treatments. The values of the fibre components were significantly different (p < 0.05) at different harvesting times and it was increasing as the harvesting time was increasing. From this study, considering the herbage yield and chemical composition of intecropping Panicum maximum var. Ntchisi and Lablab purpureus, they can be grazed by ruminant animals or harvested at 12 weeks after planting when the quality and quantity will support livestock productivity and can be conserved to be fed to ruminant animals during dry season when feed availability and quality are extremely low.

  14. VARS-TOOL: A Comprehensive, Efficient, and Robust Sensitivity Analysis Toolbox

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Razavi, S.; Sheikholeslami, R.; Haghnegahdar, A.; Esfahbod, B.

    2016-12-01

    VARS-TOOL is an advanced sensitivity and uncertainty analysis toolbox, applicable to the full range of computer simulation models, including Earth and Environmental Systems Models (EESMs). The toolbox was developed originally around VARS (Variogram Analysis of Response Surfaces), which is a general framework for Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) that utilizes the variogram/covariogram concept to characterize the full spectrum of sensitivity-related information, thereby providing a comprehensive set of "global" sensitivity metrics with minimal computational cost. VARS-TOOL is unique in that, with a single sample set (set of simulation model runs), it generates simultaneously three philosophically different families of global sensitivity metrics, including (1) variogram-based metrics called IVARS (Integrated Variogram Across a Range of Scales - VARS approach), (2) variance-based total-order effects (Sobol approach), and (3) derivative-based elementary effects (Morris approach). VARS-TOOL is also enabled with two novel features; the first one being a sequential sampling algorithm, called Progressive Latin Hypercube Sampling (PLHS), which allows progressively increasing the sample size for GSA while maintaining the required sample distributional properties. The second feature is a "grouping strategy" that adaptively groups the model parameters based on their sensitivity or functioning to maximize the reliability of GSA results. These features in conjunction with bootstrapping enable the user to monitor the stability, robustness, and convergence of GSA with the increase in sample size for any given case study. VARS-TOOL has been shown to achieve robust and stable results within 1-2 orders of magnitude smaller sample sizes (fewer model runs) than alternative tools. VARS-TOOL, available in MATLAB and Python, is under continuous development and new capabilities and features are forthcoming.

  15. Trans-acting GC-rich non-coding RNA at var expression site modulates gene counting in malaria parasite

    PubMed Central

    Guizetti, Julien; Barcons-Simon, Anna; Scherf, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Monoallelic expression of the var multigene family enables immune evasion of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in its human host. At a given time only a single member of the 60-member var gene family is expressed at a discrete perinuclear region called the ‘var expression site’. However, the mechanism of var gene counting remains ill-defined. We hypothesize that activation factors associating specifically with the expression site play a key role in this process. Here, we investigate the role of a GC-rich non-coding RNA (ncRNA) gene family composed of 15 highly homologous members. GC-rich genes are positioned adjacent to var genes in chromosome-central gene clusters but are absent near subtelomeric var genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that GC-rich ncRNA localizes to the perinuclear expression site of central and subtelomeric var genes in trans. Importantly, overexpression of distinct GC-rich ncRNA members disrupts the gene counting process at the single cell level and results in activation of a specific subset of var genes in distinct clones. We identify the first trans-acting factor targeted to the elusive perinuclear var expression site and open up new avenues to investigate ncRNA function in antigenic variation of malaria and other protozoan pathogens. PMID:27466391

  16. Trans-acting GC-rich non-coding RNA at var expression site modulates gene counting in malaria parasite.

    PubMed

    Guizetti, Julien; Barcons-Simon, Anna; Scherf, Artur

    2016-11-16

    Monoallelic expression of the var multigene family enables immune evasion of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum in its human host. At a given time only a single member of the 60-member var gene family is expressed at a discrete perinuclear region called the 'var expression site'. However, the mechanism of var gene counting remains ill-defined. We hypothesize that activation factors associating specifically with the expression site play a key role in this process. Here, we investigate the role of a GC-rich non-coding RNA (ncRNA) gene family composed of 15 highly homologous members. GC-rich genes are positioned adjacent to var genes in chromosome-central gene clusters but are absent near subtelomeric var genes. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrates that GC-rich ncRNA localizes to the perinuclear expression site of central and subtelomeric var genes in trans. Importantly, overexpression of distinct GC-rich ncRNA members disrupts the gene counting process at the single cell level and results in activation of a specific subset of var genes in distinct clones. We identify the first trans-acting factor targeted to the elusive perinuclear var expression site and open up new avenues to investigate ncRNA function in antigenic variation of malaria and other protozoan pathogens. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. A comparison between EDA-EnVar and ETKF-EnVar data assimilation techniques using radar observations at convective scales through a case study of Hurricane Ike (2008)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Feifei; Xu, Dongmei; Xue, Ming; Min, Jinzhong

    2017-07-01

    This study examines the impacts of assimilating radar radial velocity (Vr) data for the simulation of hurricane Ike (2008) with two different ensemble generation techniques in the framework of the hybrid ensemble-variational (EnVar) data assimilation system of Weather Research and Forecasting model. For the generation of ensemble perturbations we apply two techniques, the ensemble transform Kalman filter (ETKF) and the ensemble of data assimilation (EDA). For the ETKF-EnVar, the forecast ensemble perturbations are updated by the ETKF, while for the EDA-EnVar, the hybrid is employed to update each ensemble member with perturbed observations. The ensemble mean is analyzed by the hybrid method with flow-dependent ensemble covariance for both EnVar. The sensitivity of analyses and forecasts to the two applied ensemble generation techniques is investigated in our current study. It is found that the EnVar system is rather stable with different ensemble update techniques in terms of its skill on improving the analyses and forecasts. The EDA-EnVar-based ensemble perturbations are likely to include slightly less organized spatial structures than those in ETKF-EnVar, and the perturbations of the latter are constructed more dynamically. Detailed diagnostics reveal that both of the EnVar schemes not only produce positive temperature increments around the hurricane center but also systematically adjust the hurricane location with the hurricane-specific error covariance. On average, the analysis and forecast from the ETKF-EnVar have slightly smaller errors than that from the EDA-EnVar in terms of track, intensity, and precipitation forecast. Moreover, ETKF-EnVar yields better forecasts when verified against conventional observations.

  18. Inheritance of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum.

    PubMed

    Silva, L R A; Rodrigues, R; Pimenta, S; Correa, J W S; Araújo, M S B; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P

    2017-04-20

    Since 2008, Brazil is the largest consumer of agrochemicals, which increases production costs and risks of agricultural products, environment, and farmers' contamination. Sweet pepper, which is one of the main consumed vegetables in the country, is on top of the list of the most sprayed crops. The bacterial spot, caused by Xanthomonas spp, is one of the most damaging diseases of pepper crops. Genetic resistant consists of a suitable way of disease control, but development of durable resistant cultivars as well as understanding of plant-bacterium interaction is being a challenge for plant breeders and pathologists worldwide. Inheritance of disease resistance is often variable, depending on genetic background of the parents. The knowledge of the genetic base controlling such resistance is the first step in a breeding program aiming to develop new genotypes, bringing together resistance and other superior agronomic traits. This study reports the genetic basis of bacterial spot resistance in Capsicum annuum var. annuum using mean generation analysis from crosses between accessions UENF 2285 (susceptible) and UENF 1381 (resistant). The plants of each generation were grown in a greenhouse and leaflets were inoculated with bacterial strain ENA 4135 at 10(5) CFU/mL in 1.0 cm(2) of the mesophyll. Evaluations were performed using a scoring scale whose grades ranged from 1.0 (resistant) to 5.0 (susceptible), depending on symptom manifestation. Genetic control of bacterial spot has a quantitative aspect, with higher additive effect. The quantitative analysis showed that five genes were the minimum number controlling bacterial spot resistance. Additive effect was higher (6.06) than dominant (3.31) and explained 86.36% of total variation.

  19. Indolizidine, antiinfective and antiparasitic compounds from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa.

    PubMed

    Samoylenko, Volodymyr; Ashfaq, Mohammad K; Jacob, Melissa R; Tekwani, Babu L; Khan, Shabana I; Manly, Susan P; Joshi, Vaishali C; Walker, Larry A; Muhammad, Ilias

    2009-01-01

    A new potent antiinfective and antiparasitic 2,3-dihydro-1H-indolizinium chloride (1) was isolated from Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa. Three additional new (2-4) and one known (5) indolizidines were also isolated, and the dihydrochloride salts of 1-3 (compounds 6, 7, and 8) were prepared. Structures were determined by 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectra. Compound 1 showed potent in vitro antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans and Aspergillus fumigatus (IC(50) values = 0.4 and 3.0 microg/mL, respectively) and antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Mycobacterium intracellulare (IC(50) values of 0.35 and 0.9 microg/mL, respectively). The remarkable in vitro fungicidal activity of 1-4 against C. neoformans (MFCs = 0.63-1.25 microg/mL) and 2, 3, and 5 against A. fumigatus (MFCs = 0.63-2.5 microg/mL) were similar to amphotericin B, but >2-4-fold more potent than 6-8. Prosopilosidine (1) showed potent in vivo activity at 0.0625 mg/kg/day/ip for 5 days in a murine model of cryptococcosis by eliminating approximately 76% of C. neoformans infection from brain tissue compared to approximately 83% with amphotericin B at 1.5 mg/kg/day. Compounds 1 and 4 exhibited potent activity and high selectivity index (SI) values against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and chloroquine-resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum, with IC(50) values of 39 and 95 ng/mL and 42 and 120 ng/mL, respectively (chloroquine, IC(50) = 17 and 140 ng/mL). Prosopilosine (1) also showed in vivo antimalarial activity, with an ED(50) value of approximately 2 mg/kg/day/ip against Plasmodium berghei-infected mice after 3 days of treatment.

  20. [Diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi from Taxus chinensis var. mairei].

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    A total of 628 endophytic fungi were isolated from 480 tissue segments of needles and branches of Taxus chinensis var. mairei. According to morphological characteristics and ITS sequences, they represented 43 taxa in 28 genera, of which 10 Hyphomycetes, 20 Coelomycetes, 12 Ascomycetes and 1 unknown fungus. Phomopsis mali was confirmed as the dominant species. In accordance with relative frequency, Alternaria alternata, Aureobasidium pullulans, Colletotrichum boninense, C. gloeosporioides, Epicoccum nigrum , Fungal sp., Fusarium lateritium, Glomerella cingulata, Magnaporthales sp. , Nigrospora oryzae, Pestalotiopsis maculiformans, P. microspora, Peyronellaea glomerata and Xylaria sp. 1 were more common in T. chinensis var. mairei. T. chinensis var. mairei were severely infected by endophytic fungi. Endophytic fungi were found in 81 percent of plant tissues with a high diversity. Distribution ranges of endophytic fungi were influenced by tissue properties. The colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi in needles were obviously lower than in branches, and kinds of endophytic fungi between branches were more similar than those in needles, thus endophytic fungi had tissue preference. In addition, tissue age influenced the community structure of endophytic fungi. The elder branch tissues were, the higher colonization rate, richness, diversity of endophytic fungi were. Systematic studying the diversity and community structure of endophytic fungi in T. chinensis var. mairei and clarifying their distribution regularity in plant tissues would offer basic data and scientific basis for their development and utilization. Discussing the presence of fungal pathogens in healthy plant tissues would be of positive significance for source protection of T. chinensis var. mairei.

  1. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Melissa; Fernandes, Neil D.; Nowakowski, Dennis; Raftery, Mark; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Zhong, Ling; Thomas, Torsten; Egan, Suhelen

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds) are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence. PMID:26528274

  2. VarR controls colonization and virulence in the marine macroalgal pathogen Nautella italica R11.

    PubMed

    Gardiner, Melissa; Fernandes, Neil D; Nowakowski, Dennis; Raftery, Mark; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Zhong, Ling; Thomas, Torsten; Egan, Suhelen

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence to suggest that macroalgae (seaweeds) are susceptible to infectious disease. However, to date, little is known about the mechanisms that facilitate the colonization and virulence of microbial seaweed pathogens. One well-described example of a seaweed disease is the bleaching of the red alga Delisea pulchra, which can be caused by the bacterium Nautella italica R11, a member of the Roseobacter clade. This pathogen contains a unique luxR-type gene, varR, which we hypothesize controls its colonization and virulence. We show here that a varR knock-out strain is deficient in its ability to cause disease in D. pulchra and is defective in biofilm formation and attachment to a common algal polysaccharide. Moreover complementation of the varR gene in trans can restore these functions to the wild type levels. Proteomic analysis of bacterial cells in planktonic and biofilm growth highlight the potential importance of nitrogen scavenging, mobilization of energy reserves, and stress resistance in the biofilm lifestyle of N. italica R11. Moreover, we show that VarR regulates the expression of a specific subset of biofilm-associated proteins. Taken together these data suggest that VarR controls colonization and persistence of N. italica R11 on the surface of a macroalgal host and that it is an important regulator of virulence.

  3. Allowing for model error in strong constraint 4D-Var

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howes, Katherine; Lawless, Amos; Fowler, Alison

    2016-04-01

    Four dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) can be used to obtain the best estimate of the initial conditions of an environmental forecasting model, namely the analysis. In practice, when the forecasting model contains errors, the analysis from the 4D-Var algorithm will be degraded to allow for errors later in the forecast window. This work focusses on improving the analysis at the initial time by allowing for the fact that the model contains error, within the context of strong constraint 4D-Var. The 4D-Var method developed acknowledges the presence of random error in the model at each time step by replacing the observation error covariance matrix with an error covariance matrix that includes both observation error and model error statistics. It is shown that this new matrix represents the correct error statistics of the innovations in the presence of model error. A method for estimating this matrix using innovation statistics, without requiring prior knowledge of the model error statistics, is presented. The method is demonstrated numerically using a non-linear chaotic system with erroneous parameter values. We show that that the new method works to reduce the analysis error covariance when compared with a standard strong constraint 4D-Var scheme. We discuss the fact that an improved analysis will not necessarily provide a better forecast.

  4. Identification of parental genomes and genomic organization in Aster microcephalus var. ovatus.

    PubMed

    Matoba, Hideyuki; Soejima, Akiko; Hoshi, Yoshikazu

    2007-09-01

    The karyotype of diploid Aster iinumae is morphologically similar to that of diploid Aster ageratoides var. ageratoides, however, its chromosome size is apparently smaller (S-type chromosomes versus L-type chromosomes, respectively). The hybrid origin of tetraploid Aster microcephalus var. ovatus (LS-type chromosomes) has previously been suggested by cytogenetics and chloroplast DNA (cp DNA) data. The cp DNA phylogeny also implies that the S-type chromosome is apomorphic, which means that genome size reduction occurred on the evolutionary way to A. iinumae. In this study, we have demonstrated that the chromosome size difference does not depend on the intensity of chromosome condensation but on the DNA content. The simultaneous genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) results show the similarity between S-type chromosomes of A. iinumae and A. microcephalus var. ovatus, and between L-type chromosomes of A. ageratoides and A. microcephalus var. ovatus, which provide additional evidence for A. microcephalus var. ovatus being a tetraploid amphidiploid produced by hybridization between S-type chromosomes and L-type chromosomes. The distribution patterns of Ty1-copia-like retrotransposons were similar in L- and S-type chromosomes. The copies of this retrotransposon dispersed uniformly on all chromosomes, and it is not yet apparent how the Ty1-copia-like retrotransposon affects the size difference between them.

  5. VarMod: modelling the functional effects of non-synonymous variants.

    PubMed

    Pappalardo, Morena; Wass, Mark N

    2014-07-01

    Unravelling the genotype-phenotype relationship in humans remains a challenging task in genomics studies. Recent advances in sequencing technologies mean there are now thousands of sequenced human genomes, revealing millions of single nucleotide variants (SNVs). For non-synonymous SNVs present in proteins the difficulties of the problem lie in first identifying those nsSNVs that result in a functional change in the protein among the many non-functional variants and in turn linking this functional change to phenotype. Here we present VarMod (Variant Modeller) a method that utilises both protein sequence and structural features to predict nsSNVs that alter protein function. VarMod develops recent observations that functional nsSNVs are enriched at protein-protein interfaces and protein-ligand binding sites and uses these characteristics to make predictions. In benchmarking on a set of nearly 3000 nsSNVs VarMod performance is comparable to an existing state of the art method. The VarMod web server provides extensive resources to investigate the sequence and structural features associated with the predictions including visualisation of protein models and complexes via an interactive JSmol molecular viewer. VarMod is available for use at http://www.wasslab.org/varmod.

  6. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo

    2010-01-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect. PMID:22110339

  7. Antidepressant-like Effect of Kaempferol and Quercitirin, Isolated from Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    PubMed

    Park, Soo-Hyun; Sim, Yun-Beom; Han, Pyung-Lim; Lee, Jin-Koo; Suh, Hong-Won

    2010-06-01

    Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. is widely cultivated in Jeju Island (South Korea) for use in manufacture of health foods. This study described antidepressant effect of two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. The expression of the hypothalamic POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin levels were increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten or its flavoniods administered orally. In addition, antidepressant activity was studied using tail suspension test (TST), forced swimming test (FST) and rota-rod test in chronically restraint immobilization stress group in mice. After restraint stress (2 hrs/day for 14 days), animals were kept in cage for 14 days without any further stress, bet with drugs. Mice were fed with a diet supplemented for 14 days and during the behavioral test period with kaempferol or quercitrin (30 mg/kg/day). POMC mRNA or plasma β-endorphin level was increased by extract of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten and its flavoniods. In addition, immobility time in TST and FST was significantly reduced by kaempferol or quercitrin. In rota-rod test, the time of permanence was maintained to the semblance of control group in turning at 15 rpm. Our results suggest that two flavonoids (kaempferol and quercitrin) isolated from the Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten. show a potent antidepressant effect.

  8. Subcellular distribution and chemical forms of thorium in Brassica juncea var. foliosa.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Sai; Kai, Hailu; Zha, Zhongyong; Fang, Zhendong; Wang, Dingna; Du, Liang; Zhang, Dong; Feng, Xiaojie; Jin, Yongdong; Xia, Chuanqin

    2016-06-01

    Brassica juncea var. foliosa (B. juncea var. foliosa) is a promising species for thorium (Th) phytoextraction due to its large biomass, fast growth rate and high tolerance toward Th. To further understand the mechanisms of Th tolerance, the present study investigated the subcellular distribution and chemical forms of Th found in B. juncea var. foliosa Our results indicated that in both roots and leaves, Th contents in different parts of the cells follow the order of cell wall > membranes and soluble fraction > organelles. In particular, Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) analysis showed that Th was abundantly located in cell walls of the roots. Additionally, when plants were exposed to different concentrations of Th, we have found that Th existed in B. juncea var. foliosa with different chemical forms. Much of the Th extracted by 2% acetic acid (HAc), 1 M NaCl and HCl in roots with the percentage distribution varied from 47.2% to 62.5%, while in leaves, most of the Th was in the form of residue and the subdominant amount of Th was extracted by HCl, followed by 2% HAc. This suggested that Th compartmentation in cytosol and integration with phosphate or proteins in cell wall might be responsible for the tolerance of B. juncea var. foliosa to the stress of Th.

  9. Usefulness of the SOS Chromotest in the study of medicinal plants as radioprotectors.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Jorge Luis; Alonso, Alena; Cuétara, Elizabeth; Vernhe, Mariolys; Alvarez, Nadine; Sánchez-Lamar, Angel; Llagostera, Montserrat

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the usefulness of a modified protocol of the SOS Chromotest to detect antigenotoxicity activities against gamma-rays of plant extracts with proven antioxidant activity, and to elucidate the antigenotoxic mechanisms involved in radioprotection using this system. The methodology developed was assayed with amifostine, the most studied radioprotector, and with Phyllanthus orbicularis HBK, Cymbopogon citratus (DC) Stapf and Pinus caribaea Morelet extracts, using pre- and post-treatment procedures. The P. caribaea and C. citratus extracts were antigenotoxic against gamma-rays when the cells were pre-treated with both extracts, suggesting a possible antigenotoxic action through a free radical scavenging mechanisms. Amifostine and the P. orbicularis extract were also antigenotoxic under pre- and post-treatment conditions, indicating that several antimutagenic components of this plant extract may also operate by some intracellular mechanism, unlike its antioxidant activity. The results have demonstrated the usefulness of the modified SOS Chromotest assay in the screening of phytochemical radioprotectors as well as in the study of their antimutagenic mechanisms.

  10. Volt-VAR Optimization on American Electric Power Feeders in Northeast Columbus

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Kevin P.; Weaver, T. F.

    2012-05-10

    In 2007 American Electric Power launched the gridSMART® initiative with the goals of increasing efficiency of the electricity delivery system and improving service to the end-use customers. As part of the initiative, a coordinated Volt-VAR system was deployed on eleven distribution feeders at five substations in the Northeast Columbus Ohio Area. The goal of the coordinated Volt-VAR system was to decrease the amount of energy necessary to provide end-use customers with the same quality of service. The evaluation of the Volt-VAR system performance was conducted in two stages. The first stage was composed of simulation, analysis, and estimation, while the second stage was composed of analyzing collected field data. This panel paper will examine the analysis conducted in both stages and present the estimated improvements in system efficiency.

  11. Evidence of a Multicopper Oxidase in Mn Oxidation by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Ian A; Huber, Don M; Schulze, Darrell G

    2006-02-01

    ABSTRACT Manganese (Mn) oxidation by the plant-pathogenic fungus Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici has been correlated with virulence in take-all disease. The mechanism of Mn oxidation has not, however, been investigated adequately. Research on bacteria and other fungi indicates that Mn oxidation is most often the result of the activity of multicopper oxidases. To determine if G. graminis var. tritici oxidizes Mn by similar means, the Mn oxidizing factor (MOF) produced by G. graminis var. tritici was characterized by cultural, spectrophotometric, and cellulose acetate electrophoresis methods. Based on our results, the MOF is an extracellular enzyme with an estimated molecular weight of 50 to 100 kDa. Electrophoresis and spectrophotometry indicate that the MOF is a multicopper oxidase with laccase activity.

  12. Molecular and morphological evidence for Penstemon luculentus (Plantaginaceae): a replacement name for Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Robert L.; Stevens, Mikel R.; Johnson, Leigh A.; Robbins, Matthew D.; Anderson, Chris D.; Ricks, Nathan J.; Farley, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Penstemon luculentus R.L.Johnson & M.R.Stevens, nom. nov. replaces Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens Dorn & Lichvar. The varietal name glabrescens was not elevated because it was already occupied by Penstemon glabrescens Pennell, a different species. This new arrangement is supported by molecular and morphological evidence. An analysis of genetic diversity in populations of both varieties of Penstemon fremontii Torr. & A. Gray (glabrescens and fremontii) from the Piceance Basin, Colorado, using SSR (simple sequences repeats) or microsatellites markers, revealed significant genetic differentiation between the two. Penstemon fremontii var. glabrescens was also genetically different from Penstemon gibbensii Dorn and Penstemon scariosus var. garrettii (Pennell) N.H. Holmgren. The combination of hirtellous stems, glabrous leaves, non-glandular inflorescence, and long anther hairs distinguish Penstemon luculentus from other morphologically similar species. PMID:27489478

  13. Fatal encephalitis caused by Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca).

    PubMed Central

    Salkin, I F; Dixon, D M; Kemna, M E; Danneman, P J; Griffith, J W

    1990-01-01

    Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava (Cooke) Salkin et Dixon was found to cause fatal encephalitis in a 28-day-old, captivity-bred snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca). The previously healthy bird suddenly developed ataxia, severe torticollis, and extensor rigidity of the legs. Since the animal did not improve with antibiotic or vitamin-mineral supplement therapy, the chick was euthanized 5 days after the onset of neurologic signs. At necropsy, all tissues except the brain were grossly normal. Cultures inoculated with blood from the brain and heart yielded a dematiaceous mould that subsequently proved to be D. constricta var. gallopava. This is the first report of natural central nervous system infection caused by D. constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl. Images PMID:2280022

  14. Fatal encephalitis caused by Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca).

    PubMed

    Salkin, I F; Dixon, D M; Kemna, M E; Danneman, P J; Griffith, J W

    1990-12-01

    Dactylaria constricta var. gallopava (Cooke) Salkin et Dixon was found to cause fatal encephalitis in a 28-day-old, captivity-bred snowy owl chick (Nyctea scandiaca). The previously healthy bird suddenly developed ataxia, severe torticollis, and extensor rigidity of the legs. Since the animal did not improve with antibiotic or vitamin-mineral supplement therapy, the chick was euthanized 5 days after the onset of neurologic signs. At necropsy, all tissues except the brain were grossly normal. Cultures inoculated with blood from the brain and heart yielded a dematiaceous mould that subsequently proved to be D. constricta var. gallopava. This is the first report of natural central nervous system infection caused by D. constricta var. gallopava in a snowy owl.

  15. Outbreak of Rust Caused by Coleosporium asterum on Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea in Ulleung-do

    PubMed Central

    Back, Chang-Gi; Nam, Gu-Youn; Lee, Seung-Yeol

    2014-01-01

    From June to October 2012, severe outbreaks of rust disease on Solidago virgaurea var. gigantea were observed in 5 different regions of Ulleung-do, Korea. Typical rust symptoms appeared as yellow spots, uredinia on leaves, and massive urediniospores covering the entire plant. Severely infected plants became discolored and died. On the basis of its morphological and molecular characteristics, the causal agent was identified as Coleosporium asterum. This pathogen has been reported as rust disease on S. virgaurea in the Canada and United States. In Korea, rust disease on S. virgaurea var. gigantea was reported as Uromyces rudbeckia in 1992. To the best of our knowledge, C. asterum is a novel rust pathogen on S. virgaurea var. gigantea in Korea. PMID:24808739

  16. [Life table and spectral analysis of endangered plant Taxus chinensis var. mairei population].

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Wang, Xingong; Wu, Chengzhen; He, Dongjin; Liao, Chengzhang; Cheng, Yu; Feng, Lei

    2004-06-01

    Based on the investigation in Longxi Mountain National Nature Reserve and the theory of survival analysis, a static life table of Taxus chinensis var. mairei population was worked out, the curves of its survival rate, mortality rate and killing power were drawn, and the population dynamics was analyzed by spectral analysis. The results showed that the survival curve of the population appeared to be a type of Deevey-III, and the high mortality of seeding was one of the important reasons which caused Taxus chinensis var. mairei to be endangered. The spectral analysis of the population showed that there was a marked periodic regularity in the process of natural regeneration of Taxus chinensis var. mairei.

  17. Tamarix arborea var. arborea and Tamarix parviflora: Two species valued for their adaptability to stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Grisafi, Francesca; Oddo, Elisabetta; Gargano, Maria Letizia; Inzerillo, Simone; Russo, Gianni; Venturella, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    The choice of stress resistant and highly adaptable species is a fundamental step for landscaping and ornamental purposes in arid and coastal environments such as those in the Mediterranean basin. The genus Tamarix L. includes about 90 species with a high endurance of adversity. We investigated the water relations and photosynthetic response of Tamarix arborea (Sieb. ex Ehrenb.) Bge. var. arborea and T. parviflora DC. growing in an urban environment. Both species showed no evidence of drought or salt stress in summer, and appeared to follow two strategies with T. arborea var. arborea investing in high carbon gain at the beginning of the summer, and then reducing photosynthetic activity at the end of the season, and T. parviflora showing lower but constant levels of photosynthetic activity throughout the vegetative season. For landscaping and ornamental purposes, we suggest T. arborea var. arborea when a fast-growing, high-cover species is necessary, and T. parviflora when less-invasive species are required.

  18. Identification and characterization of microsatellite markers in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Nian-Hui; Xu, Yu-Lan; Wang, Da-Wei; Chen, Shi; Li, Gen-Qian

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Microsatellite primers were developed in Pinus kesiya var. langbianensis (Pinaceae), a species native to southwestern China, to investigate its genetic diversity and population structure in order to provide information for the conservation and management of this species. Methods and Results: Using next-generation sequencing, a total of 2349 putative simple sequence repeat primer pairs were designed. Eighteen polymorphic markers in 60 individuals belonging to four populations of P. kesiya var. langbianensis were identified and characterized with two to 11 alleles per locus. The observed and expected heterozygosity ranged from 0.000 to 0.800 and 0.000 to 0.840, respectively. Each of these loci cross-amplified in the closely related species P. massoniana, P. densata, P. tabuliformis, and P. yunnanensis, with one to seven alleles per locus. Conclusions: The new markers are promising tools to study the population genetics of P. kesiya var. langbianensis and related species. PMID:28224057

  19. Dynamic performance and control of a static var generator using cascade multilevel inverters

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1996-10-01

    A cascade multilevel inverter is proposed for static VAR shifting, compensation/generation applications. The new cascade M-level inverter consists of (M-1)/2 single-phase full bridges in which each bridge has its own separate dc source. This inverter can generate almost sinusoidal waveform voltage with only one time switching per cycle. It can eliminate the need for transformers in multipulse inverters. A prototype static VAR generator (SVG) system using 11- level cascade inverter (21-level line-to-line voltage waveform) has been built. The output voltage waveform is equivalent to that of a 60- pulse inverter. This paper focuses on dynamic performance of the cascade inverter based SVG system. Control schemes are proposed to achieve a fast response which is impossible for a conventional static VAR compensator (SVC). Analytical, simulated and experimental results show the superiority of the proposed SVG system.

  20. Chemical composition and antibacterial activities of the essential oils isolated from Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana.

    PubMed

    Bahri, F; Harrak, R; Achak, N; Romane, A

    2013-01-01

    This study describes the chemical composition and antibacterial activities of essential oils of Moroccan Juniperus thurifera L. var. Africana (Cupressaceae). The essential oil of dried leaves was isolated by hydrodistillation, vapohydrodistillation and microwaves. Sixty-four compounds in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils were identified (79.9%, 92.4% and 98.4% of the oil, respectively). The most abundant compound in J. thurifera L. var. Africana oils is sabinene (38%, 36.2% and 39.4%). Antibacterial activities of J. thurifera essential oils was tested against bacteria Gram ( - ) and Gram (+). The oil is very active against all bacteria tested except Pseudomonas, which turned out to be very resistant.

  1. [Effect of different plant growth regulators on yield and quality of Angelica dahurica var. formosana development].

    PubMed

    Hou, Kai; Chen, Jun-Wen; Zhai, Juan-Yuan; Shen, Hao; Chen, Li; Wu, Wei

    2013-07-01

    To investigate the effect of plant growth regulators on the growth and quality of Angelica dahurica var. formosana. Five plant growth regulators: chlormequat chloride (CCC), Mepiquat chloride (PIX), Gibberellic acid (GA3), Paclobutrazol (PP333) and Maleic Hydrazide (MH) were sprayed in rosette stage, the effects of these plant growth regulators (PGRs) on the growth, yield and quality of A. dahurica var. formosanaw were observed. The biological traits were first measured and then imperatorin and isoimperatorin contents in roots were determined by HPLC. Low concentration GA3 increased the yield while not influenced the premature bolting rate and the coumarin content. Spraying of GA3 (30 mg x L(-1)) could guarantee the growth and development of A. dahurica var. formosana to have a higher yield and maintain the active ingredients content in the root as well.

  2. RBF neural network prediction on weak electrical signals in Aloe vera var. chinensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Lanzhou; Zhao, Jiayin; Wang, Miao

    2008-10-01

    A Gaussian radial base function (RBF) neural network forecast on signals in the Aloe vera var. chinensis by the wavelet soft-threshold denoised as the time series and using the delayed input window chosen at 50, is set up to forecast backward. There was the maximum amplitude at 310.45μV, minimum -75.15μV, average value -2.69μV and <1.5Hz at frequency in Aloe vera var. chinensis respectively. The electrical signal in Aloe vera var. chinensis is a sort of weak, unstable and low frequency signals. A result showed that it is feasible to forecast plant electrical signals for the timing by the RBF. The forecast data can be used as the preferences for the intelligent autocontrol system based on the adaptive characteristic of plants to achieve the energy saving on the agricultural production in the plastic lookum or greenhouse.

  3. Antigenic variation in malaria: in situ switching, relaxed and mutually exclusive transcription of var genes during intra-erythrocytic development in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Scherf, A; Hernandez-Rivas, R; Buffet, P; Bottius, E; Benatar, C; Pouvelle, B; Gysin, J; Lanzer, M

    1998-01-01

    Members of the Plasmodium falciparum var gene family encode clonally variant adhesins, which play an important role in the pathogenicity of tropical malaria. Here we employ a selective panning protocol to generate isogenic P.falciparum populations with defined adhesive phenotypes for CD36, ICAM-1 and CSA, expressing single and distinct var gene variants. This technique has established the framework for examining var gene expression, its regulation and switching. It was found that var gene switching occurs in situ. Ubiquitous transcription of all var gene variants appears to occur in early ring stages. However, var gene expression is tightly regulated in trophozoites and is exerted through a silencing mechanism. Transcriptional control is mutually exclusive in parasites that express defined adhesive phenotypes. In situ var gene switching is apparently mediated at the level of transcriptional initiation, as demonstrated by nuclear run-on analyses. Our results suggest that an epigenetic mechanism(s) is involved in var gene regulation. PMID:9736619

  4. Quantitative determination of alpha-tocopherol in Pistacia lentiscus, Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, and Pistacia terebinthus by TLC-densitometry and colorimetry.

    PubMed

    Kivçak, B; Akay, S

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative determination of alpha-tocopherol in Pistacia lentiscus, Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, and Pistacia terebinthus, leaves was established by TLC-densitometry and colorimetry. The highest amount of alpha-tocopherol was found in P. lentiscus var. chia.

  5. Potential for wind extraction from 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaplotnik, Žiga; Žagar, Nedjeljka

    2017-04-01

    We discuss the potential of the four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4D-Var) to retrieve the unobserved wind field from observations of atmospheric tracers and the mass field through internal model dynamics and the multivariate relationships in the background-error term for 4D-Var. The presence of non-linear moist dynamics makes the wind retrieval from tracers very difficult. On the other hand, it has been shown that moisture observations strongly influence both tropical and mid-latitude wind field in 4D-Var. We present an intermediate complexity model that describes nonlinear interactions between the wind, temperature, aerosols and moisture including their sinks and sources in the framework of the so-called first baroclinic mode atmosphere envisaged by A. Gill. Aerosol physical processes, which are included in the model, are the non-linear advection, diffusion and sources and sinks that exist as dry and wet deposition and diffusion. Precipitation is parametrized according to the Betts-Miller scheme. The control vector for 4D-Var includes aerosols, moisture and the three dynamical variables. The former is analysed univariately whereas wind field and mass field are analysed in a multivariate fashion taking into account quasi-geostrophic and unbalanced dynamics. The OSSE type of studies are performed for the tropical region to assess the ability of 4D-Var to extract wind-field information from the time series of observations of tracers as a function of the flow nonlinearity, the observations density and the length of the assimilation window (12 hours and 24 hours), in dry and moist environment. Results show that the 4D-Var assimilation of aerosols and temperature data is beneficial for the wind analysis with analysis errors strongly dependent on the moist processes and reliable background-error covariances.

  6. An optimization approach for online identification of harmonic resonance due to pending Volt/VAr operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McBee, Kerry D.

    The emphasis on creating a more efficient distribution system has led many utility companies to employ dynamic voltage and VAr compensation (Volt/VAr) applications that reduce energy demand, generation, and losses associated with the transmission and distribution of energy. To achieve these benefits, Volt/VAr applications rely upon algorithms to control voltage support equipment, such as transformer load tap changers, voltage regulators, and capacitor banks. The majority of these algorithms utilize metaheuristic programming methods to determine the Volt/VAr scheme that produces the most energy efficient operating conditions. It has been well documented that the interaction between capacitor bank reactance and the inductive reactance of a distribution system can produce parallel harmonic resonance that can damage utility and customer equipment. The Volt/VAr controlling algorithms that account for harmonics do so in an indirect manner that can mask harmonic resonance conditions. Unlike previous research endeavors, the primary focus of the method described within this dissertation is to identify Volt/VAr schemes that prevent harmonic resonance due to capacitor bank operation. Instead of a metaheuristic approach, the harmonic resonance identification algorithm relies upon constrained mixed integer nonlinear programming (MINLP), which is more suited for analyzing impedance characteristics created by the energized states of a system of capacitor banks. Utilizing a numerical approach improves the accuracy of identifying harmonic resonance conditions, while also reducing the complexity of the process by exclusively relying upon the system's admittance characteristics. The novel harmonic resonance identification method is applicable to distribution systems that are dynamically reconfigured, which can result in a number of unknown harmonic resonance producing conditions, a feature unavailable with existing controlling algorithms. The ability to identify all harmonic

  7. Virulence in the chick model and stress tolerance of Salmonella enterica serovar Orion var. 15+.

    PubMed

    La Ragione, R M; Coles, K E; Jørgensen, F; Humphrey, T J; Woodward, M J

    2001-03-01

    Three Salmonella enterica serovar Orion var. 15+ isolates of distinct provenance were tested for survival in various stress assays. All were less able to survive desiccation than a virulent S. Enteritidis strain, with levels of survival similar to a rpoS mutant of the S. Enteritidis strain, whereas one isolate (F3720) was significantly more acid tolerant. The S. Orion var. 15+ isolates were motile by flagellae and elaborated type-1 and curli-like fimbriae; surface organelles that are considered virulence determinants in Salmonella pathogenesis. Each adhered and invaded HEp-2 tissue culture cells with similar proficiency to the S. Enteritidis control but were significantly less virulent than S. Enteritidis in the one-day-old and seven-day-old chick model. Given an oral dose of 1 x 10(3) cfu to one-day-old chicken, S. Orion var. 15+ isolates colonised 25% of liver and spleens examined at 24 h whereas S. Enteritidis colonised 100% of organs by the same with the same dose. Given an oral dose of 1 x 10(7) cfu at seven-day old, S. Orion var. 15+ failed to colonise livers and spleens in any bird examined at 24 h whereas S. Enteritidis colonised 50% of organs by the same with the same dose. Based on the number of internal organs colonised, one of the three S. Orion var. 15+ isolates tested (strain F3720) was significantly more invasive than the other two (B1 and B7). Also, strain F3720 was shed less than either B1 or B7 supporting the concept that there may be an inverse relationship between the ability to colonise deep tissues and to persist in the gut. These data are discussed in the light that S. Orion var. 15+ is associated with sporadic outbreaks of human infection rather than epidemics.

  8. Diversity, virulence and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol sensitivity of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici isolates from Washington State

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined whether isolates of the take-all pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici become less sensitive to 2,4-DAPG during wheat monoculture as a result of exposure to the antibiotic over multiple growing seasons. Over 177 isolates of G. graminis var. tritici were baited from roots of nat...

  9. [Effect of Water Extracts from Rhizosphere Soil of Cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus on It's Seed Germination and Physiological Characteristics].

    PubMed

    Lang, Duo-yong; Fu, Xue-yan; Rong, Jia-wang; Zhang, Xin-hui

    2015-01-01

    To explore the relationship between continuous cropping obstacle and autotoxicity of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. Distilled water(CK), water extracts of rhizosphere soil(50, 100, 200 and 400 mg/mL) were applied to test their effect on early growth and physiological characteristics of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus. The water extracts from rhizospher soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly increased seedling emergence rate, root length and vigor index of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling when at the concentration of 100 mg/mL or below, however,there was no significant effect at 200 mg/mL or higher. The water extracts from rhizosphere soil of cultivated Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus significantly reduced the SOD activity in Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seedling at 400 mg/mL and POD activity at 200 mg/mL and 400 mg/mL,while significantly increased the MDA content. Water extracts from Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus rhizosphere soil significantly affected Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus germination and seedling growth in a concentration-dependent manner, generally, low concentrations increased the SOD and POD activity which improved seed germination and seedling growth, while high concentrations caused cell membrane damage of the seedling.

  10. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  11. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  12. 40 CFR 180.1243 - Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens strain FZB24; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Bacillus subtilis var... EXEMPTIONS FOR PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1243 Bacillus subtilis... the requirement of a tolerance for residues of the Bacillus subtilis var. amyloliquefaciens...

  13. Accessions of Citrullus lanatus var. Citroides are Valuable Rootstocks for Grafted Watermelon in Fields Infested with Root-Knot Nematodes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Wild watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) RKVL rootstock lines developed at the U.S. Vegetable Laboratory, USDA, ARS in Charleston, South Carolina, were compared to wild tinda and commercial cucurbit rootstock cultivars for grafting of seedless watermelon ‘Tri-X 313’ (C. lanatus var. lanatu...

  14. Occurrence of Brown Blight Caused by Waitea circinata var. zeae on Cool Season Turfgrass in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Yong Se

    2016-01-01

    In 2010, disease symptoms, including necrotic lesions on stems and leaves with circular yellow-brown or irregular brown color patches, were observed on cool-season turfgrass at golf courses (OHCC) and the Daegu University research farm in Gyeongbuk, Korea. We isolated the causal agent and identified it as Waitea circinata var. zeae by morphological characterization and molecular analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of brown patch caused by W. circinata var. zeae on cool-season turfgrass in Korea. PMID:28154493

  15. Occurrence of Brown Blight Caused by Waitea circinata var. zeae on Cool Season Turfgrass in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chang, Taehyun; Lee, Yong Se

    2016-12-01

    In 2010, disease symptoms, including necrotic lesions on stems and leaves with circular yellow-brown or irregular brown color patches, were observed on cool-season turfgrass at golf courses (OHCC) and the Daegu University research farm in Gyeongbuk, Korea. We isolated the causal agent and identified it as Waitea circinata var. zeae by morphological characterization and molecular analysis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of brown patch caused by W. circinata var. zeae on cool-season turfgrass in Korea.

  16. [A new secoiridoid from the flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Gui-Qin; Yin, Zhi-Feng; Dong, Jun-Xing

    2008-05-01

    To study the chemical constituents of the flowers of Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum, the compounds were isolated and purified by HPLC, recrystallization and chromatography on silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of physicochemical properties and spectral analysis. Six secoiridoids were identified as jasgranoside (I), jaspolyoside (II), 8-epi-kingiside (III), 10-hydroxy-oleuropein (IV), 10-hydroxy-ligstroside (V), oleoside-7, 11-dimethyl ester (VI). Compound I is a new compound. Compounds II, III, IV, V and VI were isolated from Jasminum officinale L. var. grandiflorum for the first time.

  17. Strain Rate Effects and Temperature History Effects for Three Different Tempers of 4340 VAR Steel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-07-01

    45, pp 60-66 March, 1978. 17. C.F. Hickey, Jr. and A. A. Anctil, "Split Heat Mechanical Property Comparison of ESR and VAR 4340 Steel ", A•MMRC...Embrittlement in High Hardness ESR 4340 Steel Forgings", ANMRC Technical Report 82-1, Army Materials and Mechanics Research Center, Watertown, Mass, January, 1982...Effects and Temperature History Effects for Three Different Tempers of 4340 VAR Steel . 0 by S. Tanimura and J. Duffy DTICr:fti Army Research Office . . 1

  18. Literature Review and Case Histories of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii Infections in HIV-infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Loulergue, Pierre; Bastides, Frédéric; Baudouin, Véronique; Chandenier, Jacques; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Dupont, Bertrand; Viard, Jean-Paul; Dromer, Françoise

    2007-01-01

    African histoplasmosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii is an invasive fungal infection endemic in central and west Africa. Most of its ecology and pathogenesis remain unknown. H. capsulatum var. capsulatum is an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients who are living in or have traveled to histoplasmosis-endemic areas. In contrast, reports concerning African histoplasmosis during HIV infection are rare, although both pathogens coexist in those regions. We report 3 cases of imported African histoplasmosis diagnosed in France in HIV-infected patients and a literature review on similar cases. PMID:18217546

  19. A new method for sequencing the hypervariable Plasmodium falciparum gene var2csa from clinical samples.

    PubMed

    Dara, Antoine; Travassos, Mark A; Adams, Matthew; Schaffer DeRoo, Sarah; Drábek, Elliott F; Agrawal, Sonia; Laufer, Miriam K; Plowe, Christopher V; Silva, Joana C

    2017-08-17

    VAR2CSA, a member of the Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family, mediates the binding of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes to chondroitin sulfate A, a surface-associated molecule expressed in placental cells, and plays a central role in the pathogenesis of placental malaria. VAR2CSA is a target of naturally acquired immunity and, as such, is a leading vaccine candidate against placental malaria. This protein is very polymorphic and technically challenging to sequence. Published var2csa sequences, mostly limited to specific domains, have been generated through the sequencing of cloned PCR amplicons using capillary electrophoresis, a method that is both time consuming and costly, and that performs poorly when applied to clinical samples that are commonly polyclonal. A next-generation sequencing platform, Pacific Biosciences (PacBio), offers an alternative approach to overcome these issues. PCR primers were designed that target a 5 kb segment in the 5' end of var2csa and the resulting amplicons were sequenced using PacBio sequencing. The primers were optimized using two laboratory strains and were validated on DNA from 43 clinical samples, extracted from dried blood spots on filter paper or from cryopreserved P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes. Sequence reads were assembled using the SMRT-analysis ConsensusTools module. Here, a PacBio sequencing-based approach for recovering a segment encoding the majority of VAR2CSA's extracellular region is described; this segment includes the totality of the first four domains in the 5' end of var2csa (~5 kb), from clinical malaria samples. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated, showing a high success rate from cryopreserved samples and more limited success from dried blood spots stored at room temperature, and characterized the genetic variation of the var2csa locus. This method will facilitate a detailed analysis of var2csa genetic variation and can be adapted to sequence other

  20. Murine Model for Preclinical Studies of Var2CSA-Mediated Pathology Associated with Malaria in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dechavanne, Sebastien; Sousa, Patrícia M.; Barateiro, André; Cunha, Sónia F.; Nunes-Silva, Sofia; Lima, Flávia A.; Murillo, Oscar; Marinho, Claudio R. F.; Gangnard, Stephane; Srivastava, Anand; Braks, Joanna A.; Janse, Chris J.; Gamain, Benoit; Penha-Gonçalves, Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy leads to abortions, stillbirth, low birth weight, and maternal mortality. Infected erythrocytes (IEs) accumulate in the placenta by adhering to chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) via var2CSA protein exposed on the P. falciparum IE membrane. Plasmodium berghei IE infection in pregnant BALB/c mice is a model for severe placental malaria (PM). Here, we describe a transgenic P. berghei parasite expressing the full-length var2CSA extracellular region (domains DBL1X to DBL6ε) fused to a P. berghei exported protein (EMAP1) and characterize a var2CSA-based mouse model of PM. BALB/c mice were infected at midgestation with different doses of P. berghei-var2CSA (P. berghei-VAR) or P. berghei wild-type IEs. Infection with 104 P. berghei-VAR IEs induced a higher incidence of stillbirth and lower fetal weight than P. berghei. At doses of 105 and 106 IEs, P. berghei-VAR-infected mice showed increased maternal mortality during pregnancy and fetal loss, respectively. Parasite loads in infected placentas were similar between parasite lines despite differences in maternal outcomes. Fetal weight loss normalized for parasitemia was higher in P. berghei-VAR-infected mice than in P. berghei-infected mice. In vitro assays showed that higher numbers of P. berghei-VAR IEs than P. berghei IEs adhered to placental tissue. Immunization of mice with P. berghei-VAR elicited IgG antibodies reactive to DBL1-6 recombinant protein, indicating that the topology of immunogenic epitopes is maintained between DBL1-6–EMAP1 on P. berghei-VAR and recombinant DBL1-6 (recDBL1-6). Our data suggested that impairments in pregnancy caused by P. berghei-VAR infection were attributable to var2CSA expression. This model provides a tool for preclinical evaluation of protection against PM induced by approaches that target var2CSA. PMID:27045035

  1. Genetic and phenological variation of tocochromanol (vitamin E) content in wild (Daucus carota L. var. carota) and domesticated carrot (D. carota L. var. sativa)

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Claire H; Maeda, Hiroshi A; Goldman, Irwin L

    2014-01-01

    Carrot roots (Daucus carota L. var. sativa) produce tocochromanol compounds, collectively known as vitamin E. However, little is known about their types and amounts. Here we determined the range and variation in types and amounts of tocochromanols in a variety of cultivated carrot accessions throughout carrot postharvest storage and reproductive stages and in wild-type roots (Daucus carota L. var. carota). Of eight possible tocochromanol compounds, we detected and quantified α-, and the combined peak for β- and γ- forms of tocopherols and tocotrienols. Significant variation in amounts of tocochromanol compounds was observed across accessions and over time. Large increases in α-tocopherol were noted during both reproductive growth and the postharvest stages. The variation of tocochromanols in carrot root tissue provides useful information for future research seeking to understand the role of these compounds in carrot root tissue or to breed varieties with increased levels of these compounds. PMID:26504534

  2. Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii by use of rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequencing.

    PubMed

    McTaggart, Lisa; Richardson, Susan E; Seah, Christine; Hoang, Linda; Fothergill, Annette; Zhang, Sean X

    2011-07-01

    Rapid identification of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans, and Cryptococcus gattii is imperative for facilitation of prompt treatment of cryptococcosis and for understanding the epidemiology of the disease. Our purpose was to evaluate a test algorithm incorporating commercial rapid biochemical tests, differential media, and DNA sequence analysis that will allow us to differentiate these taxa rapidly and accurately. We assessed 147 type, reference, and clinical isolates, including 6 other Cryptococcus spp. (10 isolates) and 14 other yeast species (24 isolates), using a 4-hour urea broth test (Remel), a 24-hour urea broth test (Becton Dickinson), a 4-hour caffeic acid disk test (Hardy Diagnostics and Remel), 40- to 44-hour growth assessment on l-canavanine glycine bromothymol blue (CGB) agar, and intergenic spacer (IGS) sequence analysis. All 123 Cryptococcus isolates hydrolyzed urea, along with 7 isolates of Rhodotorula and Trichosporon. Eighty-five of 86 C. neoformans (99%) and 26 of 27 C. gattii (96%) isolates had positive caffeic acid results, unlike the other cryptococci (0/10) and yeast species (0/24). Together, these two tests positively identified virtually all C. neoformans/C. gattii isolates (98%) within 4 h. CGB agar or IGS sequencing further differentiated these isolates within 48 h. On CGB, 25 of 27 (93%) C. gattii strains induced a blue color change, in contrast to 0 of 86 C. neoformans isolates. Neighbor-joining cluster analysis of IGS sequences differentiated C. neoformans var. grubii, C. neoformans var. neoformans, and C. gattii. Based on these results, we describe a rapid identification algorithm for use in a microbiology laboratory to distinguish clinically relevant Cryptococcus spp.

  3. Does Animal-Mediated Seed Dispersal Facilitate the Formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata Forests?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Dexiang; Yi, Xianfeng; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yakun; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhang, XinPing

    2014-01-01

    The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests. PMID:24587099

  4. Does animal-mediated seed dispersal facilitate the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests?

    PubMed

    Yu, Fei; Wang, Dexiang; Yi, Xianfeng; Shi, Xiaoxiao; Huang, Yakun; Zhang, Hongwu; Zhang, XinPing

    2014-01-01

    The Pinus armandii and Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata mixed forest is one of the major forest types in the Qinling Mountains, China. P. armandii is considered to be a pioneer species during succession and it is usually invaded by late successional Q. aliena var. acuteserrata. However, the mechanism that underlies its invasion remains unclear. In the present study, we tracked seed dispersal of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata using coded plastic tags in the western, middle and eastern Qinling Mountains to elucidate the invasion process in the mixed forests. Our results indicated that the seeds of both P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were removed rapidly in the Qinling Mountains, and there were no differences in the seed removal rates between the two species. There were significant differences in rodent seed-eating and caching strategies between the two tree species. For P. armandii, seeds were more likely to be eaten in situ than those of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata in all plots. By contrast, the acorns of Q. aliena var. acuteserrata were less frequently eaten in situ, but more likely to be removed and cached. Q. aliena var. acuteserrata acorns had significantly longer dispersal distances than P. armandii seeds in all plots. Although P. armandii seeds were less likely to be dispersed into the Q. aliena var. acuteserrata stands, over 30% of the released acorns were transported into the P. armandii stands where they established five seedlings. Based on the coupled recruitment patterns of P. armandii and Q. aliena var. acuteserrata, we suggest that the animal-mediated seed dispersal contributes to the formation of Pinus armandii-Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata forests.

  5. Toxicity of "Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki" to the Painted Lady Butterfly, Vanessa cardui.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Richard; Nadal, Gerard; Kincaid, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Reports the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki (BT), which is highly toxic, to a non-target lepidopteran, the Painted Lady butterfly. Indicates that BT kills some Painted Lady butterfly larvae at the lowest dilution tested after 48 hours. (ASK)

  6. Evidence that the Human Pathogenic Fungus Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii May Have Evolved in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Carbone, Ignazio; Rossouw, Jenny; Thakur, Rameshwari; Govender, Nelesh P.; Mitchell, Thomas G.

    2011-01-01

    Most of the species of fungi that cause disease in mammals, including Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii (serotype A), are exogenous and non-contagious. Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is associated worldwide with avian and arboreal habitats. This airborne, opportunistic pathogen is profoundly neurotropic and the leading cause of fungal meningitis. Patients with HIV/AIDS have been ravaged by cryptococcosis – an estimated one million new cases occur each year, and mortality approaches 50%. Using phylogenetic and population genetic analyses, we present evidence that C. neoformans var. grubii may have evolved from a diverse population in southern Africa. Our ecological studies support the hypothesis that a few of these strains acquired a new environmental reservoir, the excreta of feral pigeons (Columba livia), and were globally dispersed by the migration of birds and humans. This investigation also discovered a novel arboreal reservoir for highly diverse strains of C. neoformans var. grubii that are restricted to southern Africa, the mopane tree (Colophospermum mopane). This finding may have significant public health implications because these primal strains have optimal potential for evolution and because mopane trees contribute to the local economy as a source of timber, folkloric remedies and the edible mopane worm. PMID:21589919

  7. Tracing Genetic Exchange and Biogeography of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii at the Global Population Level.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Johanna; Desjardins, Christopher A; Sykes, Sean M; Beale, Mathew A; Vanhove, Mathieu; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Chen, Yuan; Gujja, Sharvari; Saif, Sakina; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Lawson, Daniel John; Ponzio, Vinicius; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Meyer, Wieland; Engelthaler, David M; Hagen, Ferry; Illnait-Zaragozi, Maria Teresa; Alanio, Alexandre; Vreulink, Jo-Marie; Heitman, Joseph; Perfect, John R; Litvintseva, Anastasia P; Bicanic, Tihana; Harrison, Thomas S; Fisher, Matthew C; Cuomo, Christina A

    2017-09-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is the causative agent of cryptococcal meningitis, a significant source of mortality in immunocompromised individuals, typically human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS patients from developing countries. Despite the worldwide emergence of this ubiquitous infection, little is known about the global molecular epidemiology of this fungal pathogen. Here we sequence the genomes of 188 diverse isolates and characterize the major subdivisions, their relative diversity, and the level of genetic exchange between them. While most isolates of C. neoformans var. grubii belong to one of three major lineages (VNI, VNII, and VNB), some haploid isolates show hybrid ancestry including some that appear to have recently interbred, based on the detection of large blocks of each ancestry across each chromosome. Many isolates display evidence of aneuploidy, which was detected for all chromosomes. In diploid isolates of C. neoformans var. grubii (serotype AA) and of hybrids with C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotype AD) such aneuploidies have resulted in loss of heterozygosity, where a chromosomal region is represented by the genotype of only one parental isolate. Phylogenetic and population genomic analyses of isolates from Brazil reveal that the previously "African" VNB lineage occurs naturally in the South American environment. This suggests migration of the VNB lineage between Africa and South America prior to its diversification, supported by finding ancestral recombination events between isolates from different lineages and regions. The results provide evidence of substantial population structure, with all lineages showing multi-continental distributions; demonstrating the highly dispersive nature of this pathogen. Copyright © 2017 Rhodes et al.

  8. Tracing Genetic Exchange and Biogeography of Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii at the Global Population Level

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Johanna; Desjardins, Christopher A.; Sykes, Sean M.; Beale, Mathew A.; Vanhove, Mathieu; Sakthikumar, Sharadha; Chen, Yuan; Gujja, Sharvari; Saif, Sakina; Chowdhary, Anuradha; Lawson, Daniel John; Ponzio, Vinicius; Colombo, Arnaldo Lopes; Meyer, Wieland; Engelthaler, David M.; Hagen, Ferry; Illnait-Zaragozi, Maria Teresa; Alanio, Alexandre; Vreulink, Jo-Marie; Heitman, Joseph; Perfect, John R.; Litvintseva, Anastasia P.; Bicanic, Tihana; Harrison, Thomas S.; Fisher, Matthew C.; Cuomo, Christina A.

    2017-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii is the causative agent of cryptococcal meningitis, a significant source of mortality in immunocompromised individuals, typically human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS patients from developing countries. Despite the worldwide emergence of this ubiquitous infection, little is known about the global molecular epidemiology of this fungal pathogen. Here we sequence the genomes of 188 diverse isolates and characterize the major subdivisions, their relative diversity, and the level of genetic exchange between them. While most isolates of C. neoformans var. grubii belong to one of three major lineages (VNI, VNII, and VNB), some haploid isolates show hybrid ancestry including some that appear to have recently interbred, based on the detection of large blocks of each ancestry across each chromosome. Many isolates display evidence of aneuploidy, which was detected for all chromosomes. In diploid isolates of C. neoformans var. grubii (serotype AA) and of hybrids with C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotype AD) such aneuploidies have resulted in loss of heterozygosity, where a chromosomal region is represented by the genotype of only one parental isolate. Phylogenetic and population genomic analyses of isolates from Brazil reveal that the previously “African” VNB lineage occurs naturally in the South American environment. This suggests migration of the VNB lineage between Africa and South America prior to its diversification, supported by finding ancestral recombination events between isolates from different lineages and regions. The results provide evidence of substantial population structure, with all lineages showing multi-continental distributions; demonstrating the highly dispersive nature of this pathogen. PMID:28679543

  9. Morphology and accumulation of epicuticular wax on needles of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii)

    Treesearch

    Constance A. Harrington; William C. Carlson

    2015-01-01

    Past studies have documented differences in epicuticular wax among several tree species but little attention has been paid to changes in accumulation of foliar wax that can occur during the year. We sampled current-year needles from the terminal shoots of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii) in late June/early...

  10. Differences in volatile profiles between populations of Ceratoides lanata var. subspinosa (Rydb.)

    Treesearch

    J.T. Howell; Mary Lucero; Rick Estell; Dean Anderson; Ed Fredrickson; Marta Remmenga

    2007-01-01

    Ceratoides lanata (Rydb.) J.T. Howell, common winterfat, is valued for its nutrient content and palatability to livestock; however, the subspecies Ceratoides lanata var. subspinosa (Rydb.) J.T. Howell, (‘subspinosa’) is considered unpalatable. Curiously, observations of ‘subspinosa’ revealed several populations...

  11. [Isolation and diversity analyses of endophytic fungi from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Shen, Shi-Kang; Zhang, Ai-Li; Wu, Chun-Yan; Wu, Fu-Qin; Zhang, Xin-Jun; Wang, Yue-Hua

    2013-11-01

    The paper is aimed at studying the diversity of endophytic fungi community from Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis, and to provide a scientific basis for the utilization value of the endophytic fungi as bioactive material resources. In the present study, endophytic fungi were isolated from roots, rhizomes and leaves of wild P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis collected from Baoshan, Heqing county and Songming city of Yunnan province, and identified and classified by morphological methods together with its ITS sequence analysis. Seven and forty-nine strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. They were identified belonging to 41 genus. In these 41 genus, 3 genus exist in root only, 12 genus only exist in rhizome and 8 genus only exist in leaf. There was difference in endophytic fungi isolated from different sample sites. Endophytic fungi diversity from rhizomes of Heqing site was the highest. Endophytic fungi similarity coefficient was low among different sites and tissues. Based on these results, it is reasonable to propose that endophytic fungi of P. polyphylla var. yannanensis from different tissue and different sample sites has a certain difference which is possibly relate to their different habitats, different structure and composition of each tissue.

  12. Composition of Pteryxia terebinthina var. californica (Coult. and Rose) Mathias essential oils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beauchamp, Philip E.; Dev, Vasu; Munevar-Mendoza, Elsa; Moore, Peggy E.

    2000-01-01

    β-Pinene (35.0%, 53.8%) was the major component of both the aerial parts and the root oils of Pteryxia terebinthina var. californica, respectively. β-Phellandrene (12.2%) was the other most abundant component of the oil from aeial parts while δ-3-carene (14.2%) was the second abundant component of the root oil.

  13. Using Raw VAR Regression Coefficients to Build Networks can be Misleading.

    PubMed

    Bulteel, Kirsten; Tuerlinckx, Francis; Brose, Annette; Ceulemans, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Many questions in the behavioral sciences focus on the causal interplay of a number of variables across time. To reveal the dynamic relations between the variables, their (auto- or cross-) regressive effects across time may be inspected by fitting a lag-one vector autoregressive, or VAR(1), model and visualizing the resulting regression coefficients as the edges of a weighted directed network. Usually, the raw VAR(1) regression coefficients are drawn, but we argue that this may yield misleading network figures and characteristics because of two problems. First, the raw regression coefficients are sensitive to scale and variance differences among the variables and therefore may lack comparability, which is needed if one wants to calculate, for example, centrality measures. Second, they only represent the unique direct effects of the variables, which may give a distorted picture when variables correlate strongly. To deal with these problems, we propose to use other VAR(1)-based measures as edges. Specifically, to solve the comparability issue, the standardized VAR(1) regression coefficients can be displayed. Furthermore, relative importance metrics can be computed to include direct as well as shared and indirect effects into the network.

  14. Bioactivity evaluations of ingredients extracted from the flowers of Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Yan; Yang, Li; Wei, Jian; Huang, Ming; Jiang, Jian-Guo

    2012-12-15

    Citrus aurantium L. var. amara Engl, a member of genus Citrus (Rutaceae), widespread in China, is used as folk medicine for the treatment of helping digest, phlegm, enteritidis, stomachic and other deceases. In the present research, silica gel column, Sephadex LH-20, mass spectrometer (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) were used to separate and identify the chemical compounds from the flowers of C. aurantium var. amara, and several bioactivity assays were used to evaluate their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus and antitumour activities. Two major compounds, 5-hydroxy-6,7,3',4'-tetramethoxyflavone (HTF) and limonexic acid (LA), were isolated and identified from C. aurantium var. amara for the first time. The results of the bioactivity assays showed that HTF and LA displayed significant antioxidant activities and showed significant inhibition effects on the B16 cell lines at a concentration range from 6.25 to 50 μg/ml, and on the SMCC-7721 cell lines from 12.5 to 200 μg/ml. The antitumour effect, anti-inflammatory activity and the inhibiting expression of HBsAg and HBeAg of 2.2.15 cells displayed the tendency in a concentration-dependent manner. These two compounds from C. aurantium var. amara could potentially be used as a promising natural agent in the pharmaceutical industries. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Conditioned food aversion to Ipomoea carnea var. fistulosa induced by Baccharis coridifolia in goats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Baccharis coridifolia is a plant that induces strong conditioned food aversion in ruminants. This research aimed to induce a conditioned food aversion to Ipomoea carnea var. fistulosa in goats, using B. coridifolia as an aversive agent, and to compare the aversion induced by this plant with the aver...

  16. PHYSICO-CHEMICAL PROFILE OF CISSUS QUADRANGULARIS L. VAR-I IN DIFFERENT SOILS

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, T. Sathish; Jegadeesan, M.

    2006-01-01

    The aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis L. var-I collected from different soils were chemically analyzed for setting the standard to be of use in Indian Traditional Systems of medicine. Extractive value, ash value, loss on draying, powder analysis, qualitative and quantitative phyto-chemical estimation were estimated. PMID:22557225

  17. Physico-chemical profile of cissus quadrangularis L. Var-I in different soils.

    PubMed

    Kumar, T Sathish; Jegadeesan, M

    2006-07-01

    The aerial parts of Cissus quadrangularis L. var-I collected from different soils were chemically analyzed for setting the standard to be of use in Indian Traditional Systems of medicine. Extractive value, ash value, loss on draying, powder analysis, qualitative and quantitative phyto-chemical estimation were estimated.

  18. Multilocus sequence typing analysis reveals that Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is a recombinant population.

    PubMed

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zani, Alberto; Rickerts, Volker; McCormick, Ilka; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Velegraki, Aristea; Escandon, Patricia; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Ikeda, Reiko; Bienvenu, Anne-Lise; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Tore, Okan; Akcaglar, Sevim; Lockhart, Shawn; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Varma, Ashok

    2016-02-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) represents about 30% of the clinical isolates in Europe and is present less frequently in the other continents. It is the prevalent etiological agent in primary cutaneous cryptococcosis as well as in cryptococcal skin lesions of disseminated cryptococcosis. Very little is known about the genotypic diversity of this Cryptococcus subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic diversity among a set of clinical and environmental C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates and to evaluate the relationship between genotypes, geographical origin and clinical manifestations. A total of 83 globally collected C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates from Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Turkey, Thailand, Japan, Colombia, and the USA, recovered from different sources (primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis, disseminated cryptococcosis, the environment, and animals), were included in the study. All isolates were confirmed to belong to genotype VNIV by molecular typing and they were further investigated by MLST analysis. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic as well as network analysis strongly suggested the existence of a recombinant rather than a clonal population structure. Geographical origin and source of isolation were not correlated with a specific MLST genotype. The comparison with a set of outgroup C. neoformans var. grubii isolates provided clear evidence that the two varieties have different population structures.

  19. First Case of Human Cryptococcosis Due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Colom, M. Francisca; Frasés, Susana; Ferrer, Consuelo; Jover, Alejandro; Andreu, Mariano; Reus, Sergio; Sánchez, Manuel; Torres-Rodríguez, Josep M.

    2005-01-01

    We report the first case of human cryptococcosis due to Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii described in our country, which was presented as brain cryptococcoma in an immunocompetent patient. An extensive sampling of the patient's environment was carried out to find the source of infection. PMID:16000503

  20. Characterization of a cinnamoyl derivative from broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets.

    PubMed

    Survay, Nazneen Shaik; Kumar, Brajesh; Upadhyaya, Chandrama Prakash; Ko, Eunyoung; Lee, Choonghwan; Choi, Jung Nam; Yoon, Do-Young; Jung, Yi-Sook; Park, Se Won

    2010-12-01

    A new intact glucosinolate Cinnamoyl derivative [6'-O-trans-(4″- hydroxy cinnamoyl)-4-(methylsulphinyl) butyl glucosinolate] (A) has been isolated from Broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica) florets. The compound was isolated and characterized by LC, MS-ESI, FTIR, (1)H and (13)C NMR as well as (1)H-(1)H COSY, DEPT 135° spectrometric experiments.

  1. ClinVar: public archive of interpretations of clinically relevant variants.

    PubMed

    Landrum, Melissa J; Lee, Jennifer M; Benson, Mark; Brown, Garth; Chao, Chen; Chitipiralla, Shanmuga; Gu, Baoshan; Hart, Jennifer; Hoffman, Douglas; Hoover, Jeffrey; Jang, Wonhee; Katz, Kenneth; Ovetsky, Michael; Riley, George; Sethi, Amanjeev; Tully, Ray; Villamarin-Salomon, Ricardo; Rubinstein, Wendy; Maglott, Donna R

    2016-01-04

    ClinVar (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/clinvar/) at the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) is a freely available archive for interpretations of clinical significance of variants for reported conditions. The database includes germline and somatic variants of any size, type or genomic location. Interpretations are submitted by clinical testing laboratories, research laboratories, locus-specific databases, OMIM®, GeneReviews™, UniProt, expert panels and practice guidelines. In NCBI's Variation submission portal, submitters upload batch submissions or use the Submission Wizard for single submissions. Each submitted interpretation is assigned an accession number prefixed with SCV. ClinVar staff review validation reports with data types such as HGVS (Human Genome Variation Society) expressions; however, clinical significance is reported directly from submitters. Interpretations are aggregated by variant-condition combination and assigned an accession number prefixed with RCV. Clinical significance is calculated for the aggregate record, indicating consensus or conflict in the submitted interpretations. ClinVar uses data standards, such as HGVS nomenclature for variants and MedGen identifiers for conditions. The data are available on the web as variant-specific views; the entire data set can be downloaded via ftp. Programmatic access for ClinVar records is available through NCBI's E-utilities. Future development includes providing a variant-centric XML archive and a web page for details of SCV submissions.

  2. Evaluation of genotypic variation of broccoli (brassica oleracea var. italic) in response to selenium treatment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italic) fortified with selenium (Se) has been promoted as a functional food. Here we evaluated 38 broccoli accessions for their capacity to accumulate Se and for their responses to selenate treatment in terms of nutritional qualities and sulfur gene expression. We fo...

  3. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.170 Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements. This section contains requirements for automated detergent blending facilities and hand-blending detergent facilities. All gasoline and all PRC intended for use in gasoline must be...

  4. 40 CFR 80.170 - Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ADDITIVES Detergent Gasoline § 80.170 Volumetric additive reconciliation (VAR), equipment calibration, and recordkeeping requirements. This section contains requirements for automated detergent blending facilities and hand-blending detergent facilities. All gasoline and all PRC intended for use in gasoline must be...

  5. In vitro interactions between Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii and other fungi.

    PubMed

    Muotoe-Okafor, F A; Gugnani, H C

    1997-11-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii has only recently been shown to occur naturally in soil admixed with bat guano in a bat cave. We report our observations on the in vitro interaction of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii with other fungi recovered from the same habitat or other sources by employing co-culture technique and by investigating antibiosis between H. capsulatum var. duboisii and other fungi. The range of interactions varied from total overgrowth of Histoplasma by Aspergillus fumigatus and Microsporum gypseum, through partial antagonism by Lecythophora mutabilis, to mutual inhibition by Wangiella dermatitidis. Those fungi that exhibited a competitive advantage in terms of growth did not affect the viability of Histoplasma. Lysis and mycoparasitic structures were not observed in the co-cultures. However, the cultural filtrate of Chrysosporium indicum inhibited the growth of the Histoplasma strains. The results suggest the ability of H. capsulatum var. duboisii to co-exist with a variety of other potentially pathogenic and non-pathogenic fungi in an ecological niche.

  6. [Effects of shading on photosynthesis characteristics of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong-ying; Fang, Yan-ming; Ji, Hong-li; Ma, Cheng-tao

    2011-07-01

    This paper studied the effects of different shading (light transmittance 20%, 40%, 60%, and 100%) on the photosynthesis characteristics of two ornamental foliage plants Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegata. After shading for six weeks, the net photosynthesis rates of two plants measured ex situ under natural light enhanced, compared to those measured in situ, and, with the increase of shading degree, the net photosynthetic rates had an increasing trend, with the maximum being 9.7 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Photinia x frasery and 8.3 micromol x m(-2) x s(-1) for Aucuba japonica var. variegata. In the meantime, the transpiration rates of the two plants increased significantly. Shading increased the chlorophyll a, b, and a+b contents and the chlorophyll/carotenoids ratio, decreased the chlorophyll a/b, but less affected the carotenoids content. The phenotypic plasticity index (PPI) of net photosynthesis rate and transpiration rate of Photinia x frasery and Aucuba japonica var. variegate was 2.08 and 3.21, and 0.55 and 1.60, respectively. The chlorophyll and carotenoids contents of the two plants were relatively stable, indicating the minor influence of external environment factors on pigments. Aucuba japonica var. variegata had a higher shading tolerance than Photinia x frasery.

  7. VARS2 and TARS2 mutations in patients with mitochondrial encephalomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Diodato, Daria; Melchionda, Laura; Haack, Tobias B; Dallabona, Cristina; Baruffini, Enrico; Donnini, Claudia; Granata, Tiziana; Ragona, Francesca; Balestri, Paolo; Margollicci, Maria; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nasca, Alessia; Powell, Christopher A; Minczuk, Michal; Strom, Tim M; Meitinger, Thomas; Prokisch, Holger; Lamperti, Costanza; Zeviani, Massimo; Ghezzi, Daniele

    2014-08-01

    By way of whole-exome sequencing, we identified a homozygous missense mutation in VARS2 in one subject with microcephaly and epilepsy associated with isolated deficiency of the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) complex I and compound heterozygous mutations in TARS2 in two siblings presenting with axial hypotonia and severe psychomotor delay associated with multiple MRC defects. The nucleotide variants segregated within the families, were absent in Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) databases and are predicted to be deleterious. The amount of VARS2 and TARS2 proteins and valyl-tRNA and threonyl-tRNA levels were decreased in samples of afflicted patients according to the genetic defect. Expression of the corresponding wild-type transcripts in immortalized mutant fibroblasts rescued the biochemical impairment of mitochondrial respiration and yeast modeling of the VARS2 mutation confirmed its pathogenic role. Taken together, these data demonstrate the role of the identified mutations for these mitochondriopathies. Our study reports the first mutations in the VARS2 and TARS2 genes, which encode two mitochondrial aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, as causes of clinically distinct, early-onset mitochondrial encephalopathies.

  8. The phenolic extractives in southern red oak (Quercus falcata Michx. var. falcata)

    Treesearch

    Seiji Ohara; Richard W. Hemingway

    1989-01-01

    The bark of southern red oak (Quercus falcala Michx. var. falcala) is a rich source of quercitrin (quercetin-3-rhamnoside). It contains only low concentrations of (+)-catechin and no significant amounts of epicatechin or gallocatechin. The three major dimeric proanthocyanidins present are epicatechin-(4β→8)-...

  9. 21 CFR 173.145 - Alpha-Galactosidase derived from Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... HUMAN CONSUMPTION Enzyme Preparations and Microorganisms § 173.145 Alpha-Galactosidase derived from... following conditions: (a) The food additive is the enzyme alpha-galactosidase and the mycelia of the microorganism Mortierella vinaceae var. raffinoseutilizer which produces the enzyme. (b) The nonpathogenic...

  10. Response of the Cottonwood Leaf Beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) to Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego

    Treesearch

    Leah S. Bauer

    1990-01-01

    A standardized laboratory bioassay was used to quantify the lethal and sub-lethal responses of larval and adult cottonwood leaf beetles, Chrysomela scripta F., to Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego, formulated as M-One standard powder (Mycogen Corporation, San Diego). The median lethal concentration (LC

  11. The first case of tinea faciei caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei isolated in Chile.

    PubMed

    Concha, Marcela; Nicklas, Claudia; Balcells, Elvira; Guzmán, Ana María; Poggi, Helena; León, Eugenia; Fich, Felix

    2012-03-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei is a zoophilic dermatophyte transmitted by hedgehogs which human infections manifest as highly inflammatory and pruritic eruptions. We report a 21-year-old woman who presented with a two-week history of a pruritic scaly erythematous plaque on the nose. The patient had kept hedgehogs as pets, and one had bitten her on the tip of the nose two months prior to the appearance of the nasal lesion. Fungal culture from the scales on the tip of the patient's nose was compatible with T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei. The strains isolated from cultures made from samples taken from the noses and ears of the pet hedgehogs were morphologically similar to the strain isolated from the patient. Morphological identification was confirmed by sequencing the internal transcribed spacer. The lesion was diagnosed as tinea faciei, and therapy was initiated with topical and systemic terbinafine 250mg/day for eight weeks, which resulted in complete improvement. Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei is the most common dermatophyte isolated in hedgehogs. Usually T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei infection manifests as an extremely inflammatory and pruritic eruption that is confined to the site of contact with the hedgehog. Although the identification of T. mentagrophytes by traditional methods is possible, identification by ITS region analysis is a fast, simple, and increasingly available method. The increasing frequency of the practice of keeping exotic animals as pets has resulted in the emergence of several zoonotic diseases that can potentially be transmitted to humans. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  12. Resistance for watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) against whiteflies (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The sweetpotato whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae), is an important global pest with and an extensive host range. Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus var. lanatus) is among the crops damaged by this pest. Host plant resistance is the foundation for the management of crops pests in general. ...

  13. Effects of fire and restoration seeding on establishment of squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa)

    Treesearch

    Alison Whittaker; Scott L. Jensen

    2008-01-01

    Squarrose knapweed (Centaurea virgata var. squarrosa), herein referred to simply as knapweed, is a noxious weed that invades both disturbed and healthy sagebrush communities. Fire, grazing, mining, recreation, and farming have all played a large part in the establishment of knapweed in Tintic Valley, Utah. This study was designed to look at the...

  14. Development and characterization of 12 polymorphic microsatellite loci for pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pityopsis graminifolia var. latifolia (narrowleaf silkplant), is an herbaceous perennial indigenous to northern Alabama and east Tennessee. Pityopsis graminifolia is a tetraploid (2n=4x=36) and is a sympatric species of the federally endangered plant P. ruthii, which grows along the Hiwassee and Oco...

  15. Hydroxyurea enhances post-fusion hyphal extension during sexual development in C. neoformans var. grubii.

    PubMed

    Zulkifli, M Naim; Kaur, Jan Naseer; Panepinto, John C

    2012-03-01

    Mating and sexual development in C. neoformans var. grubii strains of the H99 background is often less robust than that laboratory generated isogenic C. neoformans var. neoformans strains in the JEC21 background. In Candida albicans and Saccharomyces serevisiae, slowing of DNA synthesis and engagement of the replication stress response, such as that caused by treatment with hydroxyurea (HU), induces filamentation and pseudohyphal growth, respectively. In this study, we investigated the effect of HU treatment on C. neoformans var. grubii morphogenesis. Treatment with HU did not induce filamentation of yeast cells either in liquid culture or on solid YPD or V8 agar. In the presence of the opposite mating partner, we observed early emergence of hyphae in the presence of HU. Semi-quantitative analysis of fusion using marked strains demonstrated that no significant enhancement of fusion in the presence of HU. Transfer of fusion colonies from crosses performed in the absence of HU to V8 + HU revealed enhanced hyphal growth in the presence of HU. Analysis of expression of the target of HU, ribonucleotide reductase, revealed that a phylogenetically divergent catalytic subunit is replication stress responsive in C. neoformans. These results suggest that induction of replication stress promotes post-fusion hyphal growth of C. neoformans var. grubii strains in the H99 background.

  16. Genetic structure of Hepatica nobilis var. japonica, focusing on within population flower color polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kameoka, Shinichiro; Sakio, Hitoshi; Abe, Harue; Ikeda, Hajime; Setoguchi, Hiroaki

    2017-03-01

    How phenotypic or genetic diversity is maintained in a natural habitat is a fundamental question in evolutionary biology. Flower color polymorphism in plants is a common polymorphism. Hepatica nobilis var. japonica on the Sea of Japan (SJ) side of the Japanese mainland exhibits within population flower color polymorphism (e.g., white, pink, and purple), while only white flowers are observed on the Pacific Ocean (PO) side. To determine the relationships between flower color polymorphism, within and among populations, and the genetic structure of H. nobilis var. japonica, we estimated the genetic variation using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. First, we examined whether cryptic lineages corresponding to distinct flower colors contribute to the flower color polymorphisms in H. nobilis var. japonica. In our field observations, no bias in color frequency was observed among populations on Sado Island, a region with high variation in flower color. Simple sequence repeat (SSR) analyses revealed that 18% of the genetic variance was explained by differences among populations, whereas no genetic variation was explained by flower color hue or intensity (0% for both components). These results indicate that the flower color polymorphism is likely not explained by cryptic lineages that have different flower colors. In contrast, populations in the SJ and PO regions were genetically distinguishable. As with the other plant species in these regions, refugial isolation and subsequent migration history may have caused the genetic structure as well as the spatially heterogeneous patterns of flower color polymorphisms in H. nobilis var. japonica.

  17. Multilocus sequence typing analysis reveals that Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans is a recombinant population

    PubMed Central

    Cogliati, Massimo; Zani, Alberto; Rickerts, Volker; McCormick, Ilka; Desnos-Ollivier, Marie; Velegraki, Aristea; Escandon, Patricia; Ichikawa, Tomoe; Ikeda, Reiko; Bienvenue, Anne-Lise; Tintelnot, Kathrin; Tore, Okan; Akcaglar, Sevim; Lockhart, Shawn; Tortorano, Anna Maria; Varma, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) represents about 30% of the clinical isolates in Europe and is present less frequently in the other continents. It is the prevalent etiological agent in primary cutaneous cryptococcosis as well as in cryptococcal skin lesions of disseminated cryptococcosis. Very little is known about the genotypic diversity of this Cryptococcus subtype. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotypic diversity among a set of clinical and environmental C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates and to evaluate the relationship between genotypes, geographical origin and clinical manifestations. A total of 83 globally collected C. neoformans var. neoformans isolates from Italy, Germany, France, Belgium, Denmark, Greece, Turkey, Thailand, Japan, Colombia, and the USA, recovered from different sources (primary and secondary cutaneous cryptococcosis, disseminated cryptococcosis, the environment, and animals), were included in the study. All isolates were confirmed to belong to genotype VNIV by molecular typing and they were further investigated by MLST analysis. Maximum likelihood phylogenetic as well as network analysis strongly suggested the existence of a recombinant rather than a clonal population structure. Geographical origin and source of isolation were not correlated with a specific MLST genotype. The comparison with a set of outgroup C. neoformans var. grubii isolates provided clear evidence that the two varieties have different population structures. PMID:26768709

  18. Larvicidal activity of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus.

    PubMed

    DE Lara, Ana Paula DE Souza Stori; Lorenzon, Lucas Bigolin; Vianna, Ana Muñoz; Santos, Francisco Denis Souza; Pinto, Luciano Silva; Aires Berne, Maria Elisabeth; Leite, Fábio Pereira Leivas

    2016-10-01

    Effective control of gastrointestinal parasites is necessary in sheep production. The development of anthelmintics resistance is causing the available chemically based anthelmintics to become less effective. Biological control strategies present an alternative to this problem. In the current study, we tested the larvicidal effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis Cry11Aa toxin against Haemonchus contortus larvae. Bacterial suspensions [2 × 108 colony-forming units (CFU) g-1 of the feces] of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant Escherichia coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were added to naturally H. contortus egg-contaminated feces. The larvae were quantified, and significant reductions of 62 and 81% (P < 0·001) were, respectively observed, compared with the control group. A 30 mL bacterial suspension (1 × 108 CFU mL-1) of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis and recombinant E. coli expressing Cry11Aa toxin were then orally administered to lambs naturally infected with H. contortus. Twelve hours after administration, feces were collected and submitted to coprocultures. Significant larvae reductions (P < 0·001) of 79 and 90% were observed respectively compared with the control group. The results suggest that the Cry11Aa toxin of B. thuringiensis var. israelensis is a promising new class of biological anthelmintics for treating sheep against H. contortus.

  19. Toxicity of "Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki" to the Painted Lady Butterfly, Vanessa cardui.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalter, Richard; Nadal, Gerard; Kincaid, Dwight

    2000-01-01

    Reports the effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. Kurstaki (BT), which is highly toxic, to a non-target lepidopteran, the Painted Lady butterfly. Indicates that BT kills some Painted Lady butterfly larvae at the lowest dilution tested after 48 hours. (ASK)

  20. [Susceptibility of Aedes aegypti (L.) strains from Havana to a Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis].

    PubMed

    Menéndez Díaz, Zulema; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Jinnay; Gato Armas, René; Companioni Ibañez, Ariamys; Díaz Pérez, Manuel; Bruzón Aguila, Rosa Yirian

    2012-01-01

    the integration of chemical and biological methods is one of the strategies for the vector control, due to the existing environmental problems and the concerns of the community as a result of the synthetic organic insecticide actions. The bacterium called Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis in liquid formulation has been widely used in the vector control programs in several countries and has shown high efficacy at lab in Cuba. to determine the susceptibility of Aedes aegypti collected in the municipalities of La Habana province to Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis. fifteen Aedes aegypti strains, one from each municipality, were used including larvae and pupas collected in 2010 and one reference strain known as Rockefeller. The aqueous formulation of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (Bactivec, Labiofam, Cuba) was used. The bioassays complied with the World Health Organization guidelines for use of bacterial larvicides in the public health sector. The larval mortality was read after 24 hours and the results were processed by the statistical system SPSS (11.0) through Probit analysis. the evaluated mosquito strains showed high susceptibility to biolarvicide, there were no significant differences in LC50 values of Ae. aegypti strains, neither in the comparison of these values with those of the reference strain. the presented results indicate that the use of Bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis continues to be a choice for the control of Aedes aegypti larval populations in La Habana province.

  1. CanProVar 2.0: An Updated Database of Human Cancer Proteome Variation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Menghuan; Wang, Bo; Xu, Jia; Wang, Xiaojing; Xie, Lu; Zhang, Bing; Li, Yixue; Li, Jing

    2017-02-03

    Identification and annotation of the mutations involved in oncogenesis and tumor progression are crucial for both cancer biology and clinical applications. Previously, we developed a public resource CanProVar, a human cancer proteome variation database for storing and querying single amino acid alterations in the human cancers. Since the publication of CanProVar, extensive cancer genomics efforts have revealed the enormous genomic complexity of various types of human cancers. Thus, there is an overwhelming need for comprehensive annotation of the genomic alterations at the protein level and making such knowledge easily accessible. Here, we describe CanProVar 2.0, a significantly expanded version of CanProVar, in which the amount of cancer-related variations and noncancer specific variations was increased by about 10-fold as compared to the previous version. To facilitate the interpretation of the variations, we added to the database functional data on potential impact of the cancer-related variations on 3D protein interaction and on the differential expression of the variant-bearing proteins between cancer and normal samples. The web interface allows for flexible queries based on gene or protein IDs, cancer types, chromosome locations, or pathways. An integrated protein sequence database containing variations that can be directly used for proteomics database searching can be downloaded.

  2. N. sup. var epsilon. -acetyl-. beta. -lysine: An osmolyte synthesized by mothanogenic archaebacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Sowers, K.R.; Gunsalus, R.P. ); Robertson, D.E.; Noll, D.; Roberts, M.F. )

    1990-12-01

    Methanosarcina thermophila, a nonmarine methanogenic archaebacterium, can grow in a range of saline concentrations. At less than 0.4 M NaCl, Ms. thermophila accumulated glutamate in response to increasing osmotic stress. At greater than 0.4 M NaCl, this organism synthesized a modified {beta}-amino acid that was identified as N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine by NMR spectroscopy and ion-exchange HPLC. This {beta}-amino acid derivative accumulated to high intracellular concentrations (up to 0.6 M) in Ms. thermophila and in another methanogen examined - Methanogenium cariaci, a marine species. The compound has features that are characteristic of a compatible solute: it is neutrally charged at physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological pH and it is highly soluble. When the cells were grown in the presence of exogenous glycine betaine, a physiological compatible solute, N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine synthesis was repressed and glycine betaine was accumulated. N{sup {var epsilon}}-Acetyl-{beta}-lysine was synthesized by species from three phylogenetic families when grown in high solute concentrations, suggesting that it may be ubiquitous among the methanogens. The ability to control the biosynthesis of N{sup {var epsilon}}-acetyl-{beta}-lysine in response to extracellular solute concentration indicates that the methanogenic archaebacteria have a unique {beta}-amino acid biosynthetic pathway that is osmotically regulated.

  3. InterVar: Clinical Interpretation of Genetic Variants by the 2015 ACMG-AMP Guidelines.

    PubMed

    Li, Quan; Wang, Kai

    2017-02-02

    In 2015, the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) and the Association for Molecular Pathology (AMP) published updated standards and guidelines for the clinical interpretation of sequence variants with respect to human diseases on the basis of 28 criteria. However, variability between individual interpreters can be extensive because of reasons such as the different understandings of these guidelines and the lack of standard algorithms for implementing them, yet computational tools for semi-automated variant interpretation are not available. To address these problems, we propose a suite of methods for implementing these criteria and have developed a tool called InterVar to help human reviewers interpret the clinical significance of variants. InterVar can take a pre-annotated or VCF file as input and generate automated interpretation on 18 criteria. Furthermore, we have developed a companion web server, wInterVar, to enable user-friendly variant interpretation with an automated interpretation step and a manual adjustment step. These tools are especially useful for addressing severe congenital or very early-onset developmental disorders with high penetrance. Using results from a few published sequencing studies, we demonstrate the utility of InterVar in significantly reducing the time to interpret the clinical significance of sequence variants.

  4. Kudzu [Pueraria montana (Lour.) Merr. Var lobata]: a new source of carbohydrate for bioethanol production

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We determined the amount of standing biomass of kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in naturally-infested fields in Maryland and Alabama, USA. At each site, we evaluated carbohydrate content of root, stems and leaves. For a third site from Georgia, we evaluated the carbohydrate content of roots o...

  5. Forecasting VaR and ES of stock index portfolio: A Vine copula method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bangzheng; Wei, Yu; Yu, Jiang; Lai, Xiaodong; Peng, Zhenfeng

    2014-12-01

    Risk measurement has both theoretical and practical significance in risk management. Using daily sample of 10 international stock indices, firstly this paper models the internal structures among different stock markets with C-Vine, D-Vine and R-Vine copula models. Secondly, the Value-at-Risk (VaR) and Expected Shortfall (ES) of the international stock markets portfolio are forecasted using Monte Carlo method based on the estimated dependence of different Vine copulas. Finally, the accuracy of VaR and ES measurements obtained from different statistical models are evaluated by UC, IND, CC and Posterior analysis. The empirical results show that the VaR forecasts at the quantile levels of 0.9, 0.95, 0.975 and 0.99 with three kinds of Vine copula models are sufficiently accurate. Several traditional methods, such as historical simulation, mean-variance and DCC-GARCH models, fail to pass the CC backtesting. The Vine copula methods can accurately forecast the ES of the portfolio on the base of VaR measurement, and D-Vine copula model is superior to other Vine copulas.

  6. Identification and Characterization of MicroRNAs in Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla Mak.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Li, Jihong; Sang, Yalin; Xing, Shiyan; Wu, Qikui; Liu, Xiaojing

    2015-01-01

    Ginkgo biloba, a dioecious plant known as a living fossil, is an ancient gymnosperm that stands distinct from other gymnosperms and angiosperms. Ginkgo biloba var. epiphylla (G. biloba var. epiphylla), with ovules borne on the leaf blade, is an unusual germplasm derived from G. biloba. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are post-transcriptional gene regulators that play critical roles in diverse biological and metabolic processes. Currently, little is known about the miRNAs involved in the key stage of partly epiphyllous ovule germination in G. biloba var. epiphylla. Two small RNA libraries constructed from epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla were sequenced on an Illumina/Solexa platform. A total of 82 miRNA sequences belonging to 23 families and 53 putative novel miRNAs were identified in the two libraries. Differential expression analysis showed that 25 conserved and 21 novel miRNAs were differentially expressed between epiphyllous ovule leaves and normal leaves. The expression patterns of partially differentially expressed miRNAs and the transcript levels of their predicted target genes were validated by quantitative real time RT-PCR. All the expression profiles of the 21 selected miRNAs were similar to those detected by Solexa deep sequencing. Additionally, the transcript levels of almost all the putative target genes of 9 selected miRNAs were opposite to those of the corresponding miRNAs. The putative target genes of the differentially expressed miRNAs were annotated with Gene Ontology terms related to reproductive process, metabolic process and responding to stimulus. This work presents a broad range of small RNA transcriptome data obtained from epiphyllous ovule and normal leaves of G. biloba var. epiphylla, which may provide insights into the miRNA-mediated regulation in the epiphyllous ovule germination process.

  7. Antioxidant properties and global metabolite screening of the probiotic yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii.

    PubMed

    Datta, Suprama; Timson, David J; Annapure, Uday S

    2017-07-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii is the only yeast species with probiotic properties. It is considered to have therapeutic significance in gastrointestinal disorders. In the present study, a comparative physiological study between this yeast and Saccharomyces cerevisiae (BY4742) was performed by evaluating two prominent traits of probiotic species, responses to different stress conditions and antioxidant capacity. A global metabolite profile was also developed aiming to identify which therapeutically important secondary metabolites are produced. Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. boulardii showed no significant difference in growth patterns but greater stress tolerance compared to S. cerevisiae. It also demonstrated a six- to 10-fold greater antioxidant potential (judged by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl assay), with a 70-fold higher total phenolic content and a 20-fold higher total flavonoid content in the extracellular fraction. These features were clearly differentiated by principal component analysis and further indicated by metabolite profiling. The extracellular fraction of the S. cerevisiae var. boulardii cultures was found to be rich in polyphenolic metabolites: vanillic acid, cinnamic acid, phenyl ethyl alcohol (rose oil), erythromycin, amphetamine and vitamin B6 , which results in the antioxidant capacity of this strain. The present study presents a new perspective for differentiating the two genetically related strains of yeast, S. cerevisiae and S. cerevisiae var. boulardii by assessing their metabolome fingerprints. In addition to the correlation of the phenotypic properties with the secretory metabolites of these two yeasts, the present study also emphasizes the potential to exploit S. cerevisiae var. boulardii in the industrial production of these metabolites. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. GraphVar: a user-friendly toolbox for comprehensive graph analyses of functional brain connectivity.

    PubMed

    Kruschwitz, J D; List, D; Waller, L; Rubinov, M; Walter, H

    2015-04-30

    Graph theory provides a powerful and comprehensive formalism of global and local topological network properties of complex structural or functional brain connectivity. Software packages such as the Brain-Connectivity-Toolbox have contributed to graph theory's increasing popularity for characterization of brain networks. However, comparably comprehensive packages are command-line based and require programming experience; this precludes their use by users without a computational background, whose research would otherwise benefit from graph-theoretical methods. "GraphVar" is a user-friendly GUI-based toolbox for comprehensive graph-theoretical analyses of brain connectivity, including network construction and characterization, statistical analysis on network topological measures, network based statistics, and interactive exploration of results. GraphVar provides a comprehensive collection of graph analysis routines for analyses of functional brain connectivity in one single toolbox by combining features across multiple currently available toolboxes, such as the Brain Connectivity Toolbox, the Graph Analysis Toolbox, and the Network Based Statistic Toolbox (BCT, Rubinov and Sporns, 2010; GAT, Hosseini et al., 2012; NBS, Zalesky et al., 2010). GraphVar was developed under the GNU General Public License v3.0 and can be downloaded at www.rfmri.org/graphvar or www.nitrc.org/projects/graphvar. By combining together features across multiple toolboxes, GraphVar will allow comprehensive graph-theoretical analyses in one single toolbox without resorting to code. GraphVar will make graph theoretical methods more accessible for a broader audience of neuroimaging researchers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. [Effects of low-light stress on photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in artificial domestication cultivation].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shun-lin; Tian, Meng-liang; Liu, Jin-liang; Zhao, Ting-ting; Zhang, Zhong

    2014-09-01

    To decide on the optimum artificial domestication cultivation light environment for Paris polyphylla var. chinensis through investigating the effect of light intensity on leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. Different low-light stress gradients' effect on the growth of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis was compared with no low-light stress treatment through calculating leaf's gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters, light saturation point and compensation point, and then all these parameters were statistically analyzed. Light intensity had significant influence on the photosynthetic characteristics of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. With the strengthening of the low-light stress, chlorophyll content, gas exchange parameters, photosynthetic parameters P., AQY and light saturation point all gradually increased at first, and then decreased. However, both photosynthetic parameters Rd and light compensation point firstly decreased and then rose again. These results showed that too strong or too weak light intensity affected the optimization of photosynthetic parameters of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis. The optimal illuminance for each parameter was not completely same, but they could all reach a relative ideal state when the shading ranges between 40% and 60%. However, photosynthetic parameters deteriorated rapidly when the shading surpass 80%. For artificially cultivating Paris polyphylla var. chinensis in Baoxing,Sichuan or the similar ecological region, shading 40%-60% is the optimal light environment, which can enhance the photosynthesis of Paris polyphylla var. chinensis and promote the accumulation of photosynthetic products.

  10. [Effects of mycorrhizal colonization and medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis inoculated by different foreign AM fungi species].

    PubMed

    Zhou Nong; Ding, Bo; Feng, Yuan; Qi, Wen-hua; Zhang, Hua; Guo, Dong-qin; Xiang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    After 28 foreign species of AM fungi were inoculated in sterilized soil, the effects of the AM mycorrhizal colonization and the medicine quality of Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis were observed by combination of inoculation test in pot at room temperature and instrumental analysis. The results showed that, compared with control group (CK), the inoculation of foreign AM fungi in the soil influenced the spore density, mycorrhizal infection rate, and colonization intensity of AM fungi in root system of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The inoculation of foreign AM fungi enhanced the mycorrhiza viability of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis by increasing the activity of succinic dehydrogenase (SDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in intraradical hyphae. The content of single steroid saponin in rhizome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis showed variation after P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis was inoculated by different foreign species of AM fungi, which was beneficial for increasing the medicine quality; however, the kinds of steroid saponin showed no difference. In a degree, there was a selectivity of symbiosis between P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis and foreign AM fungi. And we found that the Claroideoglomus claroideum and Racocetra coralloidea were best foreign AM fungi species for cultivating P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis under field condition.

  11. Split Heat Mechanical Property Comparison of ESR (Electroslag Remelting) and VAR (Vacuum Arc Remelting) 4340 Steel. Revised

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-05-01

    34· AMMRC TR 83-27 (Revised) lAD SPLIT HEAT MECHANICAL PROPERTY COMPARISON OF ESR AND VAR 4340 STEEL CHARI£S F. HICKEY, Jr. and ALBERT A...COIIEREO SPLIT HEAT MECHANICAL PROPERTY COMPARISON OF Final Report ESR AND VAR 4340 STEEL ’ PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NU1118ER 7. AU THOA(•I •• CONTRACT...decarburized (AOD) heat of 4340 steel which was further pro- cessed by vacuum arc remelting (VAR) and electroslag remelting ( ESR ) into 12.7 em (5 inch) square

  12. Naturally dissolved arsenic concentrations in the Alpine/Mediterranean Var River watershed (France).

    PubMed

    Barats, Aurélie; Féraud, Gilbert; Potot, Cécile; Philippini, Violaine; Travi, Yves; Durrieu, Gaël; Dubar, Michel; Simler, Roland

    2014-03-01

    A detailed study on arsenic (As) in rocks and water from the Var River watershed was undertaken aiming at identifying (i) the origin and the distribution of As in this typical Alpine/Mediterranean basin, and (ii) As input into the Mediterranean Sea. Dissolved As concentrations in the Var River range from 0.1 to 4.5 μg⋅L(-1), due to high hydrological variability and the draining through different geological formations. In the upper part of the Var drainage basin, in the Tinée and the Vésubie valleys, high levels of dissolved As concentrations occur (up to 263 μg⋅L(-1)). The two main sources of As in rocks are the Hercynian metamorphic rocks and the Permian argilites. Highly heterogeneous distribution of As in waters draining through metamorphic rocks is probably related to ore deposits containing arsenopyrite. As, U, W and Mo concentrations in water and rocks correspond to the formation of As-rich ore deposits around Argentera granite by hydrothermal fluids deposited at the end of the Hercynian chain formation, which occurred about 300 My ago. In 2009, weekly monitoring was performed on the Var River (15 km upstream of the mouth), highlighting an average dissolved As concentration (<0.45 μm) of 2.7 ± 0.9 μg⋅L(-1), which is significantly higher than the world-average baseline for river water (0.83 μg⋅L(-1)). Taking the average annual discharge (49.4 m(3)⋅s(-1)) into account and the As levels in the dissolved phase and in deposits of the Var River, dissolved As input into the Mediterranean Sea would be 4. 2± 1.4 tons⋅year(-1) which represents 59% of the total As flux. This study also reveals a probable non-conservative As behaviour, i.e., possible transfer between aqueous and solid phases, during the mixing of the Var River with a tributary.

  13. [Polymorphism of Phaseolus vulgaris var. aborigineus (fabaceae). Evidences of natural hibridation].

    PubMed

    Hoc, Patricia S; Espert, Shirley M; Drewes, Susana I; Burghardt, Alicia D

    2003-01-01

    A polymorphic population of Phaseolus vulgaris var. aborigineus growing at the Northwest of Argentina was studied. In order to know the origin of this polymorphism, some plants belonging to the var. aborigineus, other plants showing floral dimorphism and other individuals with particular characters were collected. Their seeds, obtained after field-work treatments of autogamy and free pollination, were sown in a greenhouse, isolated of the access of pollinators. The growth of each plant was followed until its fructification, and the number of plants that died due to infections was recorded. The number of plants that flowered and fructified was registered in order to study their reproductive success. The floral, fruit and seed qualitative and quantitative characters were documented. With the results obtained, the authors concluded that those individuals that showed floral dimorphism are probably a result of hybridization and introgression between the var. aborigineus and "old cultivars". This hypothesis is supported by the presence of divergent segregation, observed in the offspring of the plants with this segregation. Other crops should allow the genic flow between the parental entities, with the consequence of the establishment of an hybrid population coexistent with their ancestors. Perhaps, as a result of introgression, the stabilized lines exhibit characters different from their parental varieties. The results of autopollination and free pollination in those individuals assigned to var. aborigineus, showed that free pollination brings a great genetic plasticity, because next generations can persist and resist infections. The offspring of the F1 was followed. The plants that belonged to var. aborigineus, product of free pollination, exhibited fast growth and were healthy, while the descendant of the individuals with the floral dimorphism showed characteristics that allowed to conclude the possible existence of degeneration of the hybrid progeny; this

  14. 7a-hydroxfriedelan-3one-26-OL-29-OIC acid and other constituents from Pileostegia Viburnoids VAR. Glabrescens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The preliminary phytotoxic evaluations of a n-BuOH extract from traditional Chinese medicinal plant Pileostegia viburnoides var. glabrescens showed herbicidal activity against dicot Lactuca sativa (lettuce) and monocot Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass). In order to identify the phytotoxic constituent...

  15. Detection of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting the cucurbit weed Cucumis melo var. dudaim in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This is the first report of Papaya ringspot virus type W infecting Cucumis melo var. dudaim, a cucurbit weed, in Florida. It provides an overview of this virus reservoir for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and regulatory scientists....

  16. [Effect of organs biomass by drought stress on the leaf growing stage of Angelica dahurica var. formosana].

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhi-zhong; Ma, Yu-ying; Mi, Xiao-qin; Yang, Ying; Jin, Li-xin; Zong, Lu

    2011-04-01

    To study the effect of natural drought stress conditions on Angelica dahurica var. formnosana vegetative organs biomass accumulation and allocation in leaf growing season. To discuss the changing law of Angelica dahurica var. formosana vegetative organs biomass in different drought stress conditions. Measured Angelica dahurica var. formnosana leaf and leafstalk's biomass, all aboveground biomass and the ratio of root biomass, leaf biomass, root/shoot ratio etc. in the growing season under the natural drought stress condition. Slight drought stress condition was good for organs' biomass accumulation, medium and serious drought stress conditions were bad for organs biomass accumulation. Slight and medium drought stress conditions were good for biomass transit to the root in the leaf growing season and serious drought stress condition was not good for that. Suitable drought stress can improve the root biomass ratio in Angelica dahurica var. formosana leaf growing season and get a better yield.

  17. Chloroplast microsatellite markers for Pseudotaxus chienii developed from the whole chloroplast genome of Taxus chinensis var. mairei (Taxaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Qi; Zhang, Hanrui; He, Yipeng; Wang, Ting; Su, Yingjuan

    2017-01-01

    Premise of the study: Pseudotaxus chienii (Taxaceae) is an old rare species endemic to China that has adapted well to ecological heterogeneity with high genetic diversity in its nuclear genome. However, the genetic variation in its chloroplast genome is unknown. Methods and Results: Eighteen chloroplast microsatellite markers (cpSSRs) were developed from the whole chloroplast genome of Taxus chinensis var. mairei and successfully amplified in four P. chienii populations and one T. chinensis var. mairei population. Of these loci, 10 were polymorphic in P. chienii, whereas six were polymorphic in T. chinensis var. mairei. The unbiased haploid diversity per locus ranged from 0.000 to 0.641 and 0.000 to 0.545 for P. chienii and T. chinensis var. mairei, respectively. Conclusions: The 18 cpSSRs will be used to further investigate the chloroplast genetic structure and adaptive evolution in P. chienii populations. PMID:28337394

  18. Variation in phenology and monoterpene patterns of defoliated and nondefoliated Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca).

    Treesearch

    Rose-Marie Muzika; Judith Engle; Catherine Parks; Boyd. Wickman

    1993-01-01

    Foliage was collected from paired Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca (Beissn.) Franco) trees characterized as either "resistant" or "susceptible" western spruce budworm (Choristoneura occidentalis Freeman (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) attack. Resistant trees produced more...

  19. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA.

    PubMed

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M; Agerbæk, Mette Ø; Ditlev, Sisse B; Resende, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten A; Theander, Thor G; Salanti, Ali; Sander, Adam F

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP) based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines) have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM) can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA)-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA

  20. Expression of P. falciparum var Genes Involves Exchange of the Histone Variant H2A.Z at the Promoter

    PubMed Central

    Petter, Michaela; Lee, Chin Chin; Byrne, Timothy J.; Boysen, Katja E.; Volz, Jennifer; Ralph, Stuart A.; Cowman, Alan F.; Brown, Graham V.; Duffy, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum employs antigenic variation to evade the human immune response by switching the expression of different variant surface antigens encoded by the var gene family. Epigenetic mechanisms including histone modifications and sub-nuclear compartmentalization contribute to transcriptional regulation in the malaria parasite, in particular to control antigenic variation. Another mechanism of epigenetic control is the exchange of canonical histones with alternative variants to generate functionally specialized chromatin domains. Here we demonstrate that the alternative histone PfH2A.Z is associated with the epigenetic regulation of var genes. In many eukaryotic organisms the histone variant H2A.Z mediates an open chromatin structure at promoters and facilitates diverse levels of regulation, including transcriptional activation. Throughout the asexual, intraerythrocytic lifecycle of P. falciparum we found that the P. falciparum ortholog of H2A.Z (PfH2A.Z) colocalizes with histone modifications that are characteristic of transcriptionally-permissive euchromatin, but not with markers of heterochromatin. Consistent with this finding, antibodies to PfH2A.Z co-precipitate the permissive modification H3K4me3. By chromatin-immunoprecipitation we show that PfH2A.Z is enriched in nucleosomes around the transcription start site (TSS) in both transcriptionally active and silent stage-specific genes. In var genes, however, PfH2A.Z is enriched at the TSS only during active transcription in ring stage parasites. Thus, in contrast to other genes, temporal var gene regulation involves histone variant exchange at promoter nucleosomes. Sir2 histone deacetylases are important for var gene silencing and their yeast ortholog antagonises H2A.Z function in subtelomeric yeast genes. In immature P. falciparum parasites lacking Sir2A or Sir2B high var transcription levels correlate with enrichment of PfH2A.Z at the TSS. As Sir2A knock out parasites mature the var genes are

  1. A Novel Virus-Like Particle Based Vaccine Platform Displaying the Placental Malaria Antigen VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Thrane, Susan; Janitzek, Christoph M.; Agerbæk, Mette Ø.; Ditlev, Sisse B.; Resende, Mafalda; Nielsen, Morten A.; Theander, Thor G.; Salanti, Ali; Sander, Adam F.

    2015-01-01

    Placental malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum is a major cause of mortality and severe morbidity. Clinical testing of a soluble protein-based vaccine containing the parasite ligand, VAR2CSA, has been initiated. VAR2CSA binds to the human receptor chondroitin sulphate A (CSA) and is responsible for sequestration of Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes in the placenta. It is imperative that a vaccine against malaria in pregnancy, if administered to women before they become pregnant, can induce a strong and long lasting immune response. While most soluble protein-based vaccines have failed during clinical testing, virus-like particle (VLP) based vaccines (e.g., the licensed human papillomavirus vaccines) have demonstrated high efficacy, suggesting that the spatial assembly of the vaccine antigen is a critical parameter for inducing an optimal long-lasting protective immune response. We have developed a VLP vaccine display platform by identifying regions of the HPV16 L1 coat protein where a biotin acceptor site (AviTagTM) can be inserted without compromising VLP-assembly. Subsequent biotinylation of Avi-L1 VLPs allow us to anchor monovalent streptavidin (mSA)-fused proteins to the biotin, thereby obtaining a dense and repetitive VLP-display of the vaccine antigen. The mSA-VAR2CSA antigen was delivered on the Avi-L1 VLP platform and tested in C57BL/6 mice in comparison to two soluble protein-based vaccines consisting of naked VAR2CSA and mSA-VAR2CSA. The mSA-VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP and soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccines induced higher antibody titers than the soluble naked VAR2CSA vaccine after three immunizations. The VAR2CSA Avi-L1 VLP vaccine induced statistically significantly higher endpoint titres compared to the soluble mSA-VAR2CSA vaccine, after 1st and 2nd immunization; however, this difference was not statistically significant after 3rd immunization. Importantly, the VLP-VAR2CSA induced antibodies were functional in inhibiting the binding of parasites to CSA

  2. Reversal of cisplatin resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells by Taxus chinensis var.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Y Q; Xu, X P; Guo, Q M; Xu, X C; Liu, Q Y; An, S H; Xu, J L; Su, F; Tai, J B

    2016-09-02

    Drug resistance in cells is a major impedance to successful treatment of lung cancer. Taxus chinensis var. inhibits the growth of tumor cells and promotes the synthesis of interleukins 1 and 2 and tumor necrosis factor, enhancing immune function. In this study, T. chinensis var.-induced cell death was analyzed in lung cancer cells (H460) enriched for stem cell growth in a defined serum-free medium. Taxus-treated stem cells were also analyzed for Rhodamine 123 (Rh-123) expression by flow cytometry, and used as a standard functional indicator of MDR. The molecular basis of T. chinensis var.-mediated drug resistance was established by real-time PCR analysis of ABCC1, ABCB1, and lung resistance-related protein (LRP) mRNA, and western blot analysis of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP. Our results revealed that stem cells treated with higher doses of T. chinensis var. showed significantly lower growth inhibition rates than did H460 cells (P < 0.05). The growth of stem and H460 cells treated with a combination of T. chinensis var. and cisplatin was also significantly inhibited (P < 0.05). Rh-123 was significantly accumulated in the intracellular region and showed delayed efflux in stem cells treated with T. chinensis var. (P < 0.05), compared to those treated with verapamil. T. chinensis var.-treated stem cells showed significant downregulation of the ABCC1, ABCB1, and LRP mRNA and MRP1, MDR1, and LRP (P < 0.05) compared to H460 cells. Thus, T. chinensis var.-mediated downregulation of MRP1, MDR1, and LRP might contribute to the reversal of drug resistance in non-small cell lung cancer stem cells.

  3. Central role of Drosophila SU(VAR)3-9 in histone H3-K9 methylation and heterochromatic gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Schotta, Gunnar; Ebert, Anja; Krauss, Veiko; Fischer, Andreas; Hoffmann, Jan; Rea, Stephen; Jenuwein, Thomas; Dorn, Rainer; Reuter, Gunter

    2002-03-01

    Su(var)3-9 is a dominant modifier of heterochromatin-induced gene silencing. Like its mammalian and Schizosaccharomyces pombe homologues, Su(var) 3-9 encodes a histone methyltransferase (HMTase), which selectively methylates histone H3 at lysine 9 (H3-K9). In Su(var)3-9 null mutants, H3-K9 methylation at chromocentre heterochromatin is strongly reduced, indicating that SU(VAR)3-9 is the major heterochromatin-specific HMTase in Drosophila. SU (VAR)3-9 interacts with the heterochromatin-associated HP1 protein and with another silencing factor, SU(VAR)3-7. Notably, SU(VAR)3-9-HP1 interaction is interdependent and governs distinct localization patterns of both proteins. In Su(var)3-9 null mutants, concentration of HP1 at the chromocentre is nearly lost without affecting HP1 accumulation at the fourth chromosome. By contrast, in HP1 null mutants SU(VAR)3-9 is no longer restricted at heterochromatin but broadly dispersed across the chromosomes. Despite this interdependence, Su(var)3-9 dominates the PEV modifier effects of HP1 and Su(var)3-7 and is also epistatic to the Y chromosome effect on PEV. Finally, the human SUV39H1 gene is able to partially rescue Su(var)3-9 silencing defects. Together, these data indicate a central role for the SU(VAR)3-9 HMTase in heterochromatin-induced gene silencing in Drosophila.

  4. Late Holocene stable carbon and nitrogen isotopic variation of bulk organic matter deposited in Blackwood Sinkhole, Abaco, The Bahamas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamalavage, A.; van Hengstum, P. J.; Louchouarn, P.; Fall, P. L.; Donnelly, J. P.

    2015-12-01

    In the modern climate of the Bahamas, a latitudinal precipitation gradient only allows Pine (Pinus caribaea var. bahamensis) dominated forests to exist on the more mesic (humid) northern islands (Abaco, Andros, New Providence, Grand Bahamas). Previous research suggests that the northern Bahamas underwent dramatic environmental changes in the late Holocene (e.g., waves of human arrival, shifts in terrestrial vegetation and animal extinctions). However, disentangling the timing and relative forcing (climatic vs. anthropogenic) of these changes has proven challenging without high-resolution terrestrial climate records. Recently, a late Holocene decadal to multi-decadal laminated sedimentary record was recovered from Blackwood Sinkhole, on Abaco Island. The bottom of the sinkhole is characterized by anoxic, saline groundwater, while the upper, brackish meteoric lens provides a habitat to fish, algae and other organisms. Here, we present δ13Corg and δ15Norg values of bulk organic matter (OM) taken every cm of the 110 cm core to help elucidate changes in the chemical composition of the source of OM reaching the anoxic sediments of the sinkhole. δ13Corg values change at 812 Cal yrs BP (2s: 931-681 Cal yrs BP, 31.7 cm depth) from -30.5 ± 1.6‰ in the lower 80 cm of the core to -27.6 ± 1.2‰ in the upper 30 cm. There is a synchronous change from more enriched δ15N values, 3.7 ± 1.1‰, in the lower portion of the core, to lower δ15N values (1.9 ± .5‰), in the upper portion of the core. A pollen-based reconstruction of terrestrial vegetation from the same core indicates that these isotopic shifts are concomitant with a shift from a dominance of Arecaceae (Palms) and tropical dry hardwoods below 30 cm, to Pinus and Conocarpus predominance above 30 cm. These results indicate that the source of sedimentary OM deposited into the sinkhole changed coherently with regional landscape change. Biomarker analyses will be used to further identify the role of autochthonous

  5. Soil type affects Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum (Pinaceae) seedling growth in simulated drought experiments1

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Alexander J.; Kilgore, Jason S.

    2013-01-01

    • Premise of the study: Effects of drought stress and media type interactions on growth of Pinus ponderosa var. scopulorum germinants were investigated. • Methods and Results: Soil properties and growth responses under drought were compared across four growth media types: two native soils (dolomitic limestone and granite), a soil-less industry standard conifer medium, and a custom-mixed conifer medium. After 35 d of growth, the seedlings under drought stress (reduced watering) produced less shoot and root biomass than watered control seedlings. Organic media led to decreased root biomass, but increased root length and shoot biomass relative to the mineral soils. • Conclusions: Media type affected root-to-shoot biomass partitioning of P. ponderosa var. scopulorum, which may influence net photosynthetic rates, growth, and long-term seedling survival. Further work should examine how specific soil properties like bulk density and organic matter influence biomass allocation in greenhouse studies. PMID:25202578

  6. Development and characterization of 25 EST-SSR markers in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica (Pinaceae)1

    PubMed Central

    Fang, Pan; Niu, Shihui; Yuan, Huwei; Li, Zhexin; Zhang, Yuncheng; Yuan, Lu; Li, Wei

    2014-01-01

    • Premise of the study: A set of novel expressed sequence tag (EST) microsatellite markers was developed in Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica to promote further genetic studies in this species. • Methods and Results: One hundred seventy-five EST–simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were designed and synthesized for 31,653 isotigs based on P. tabuliformis EST sequences. The primer pairs were used to identify 25 polymorphic loci in 48 individuals. The number of alleles ranged from two to eight with observed and expected heterozygosity values of 0.0435 to 0.8125 and 0.0430 to 0.7820, respectively. • Conclusions: These new polymorphic EST-SSR markers will be useful for assessing genetic diversity, molecular breeding and genetic improvement, and conservation of P. sylvestris var. mongolica. PMID:25202597

  7. [Experimental studies on antitussive, expectorant and antiasthmatic effects of extract from Citrus grandis var. tomentosa].

    PubMed

    Li, Pei-Bo; Ma, Yan; Wang, Yong-Gang; Su, Wei-Wei

    2006-08-01

    To observe the antitussive, expectorant and antiashmatic effects of the extract from Citrus grandist var. tomentosa. The cough models induced by ammonia liquor in mice and citric acid in guines pigs were used to observe the antitussive effects. The methods of phenel red execretion in mice and phlegm displacement of rats were used to investigate the expectorant effects. Bronchial asthma model induced by histamine-acetylcholine in guinea pigs was used to observe the antiasthmatic effects. The extract from the title plant could inhibit the cough induced by ammonia in mice, decrease the frequency of cough induced by citric acid in guineas pig and prolong the latent period of cough. The extract also could obviously increase phenol red output of trachea in mice, promote expectoration in rats and prolong the latent period of asthma induced by histamine-acetylcholine in guinea pigs. The extract from C. grandis var. tomenfosa has significant antitussive, expectorant and antiasthmatic effects.

  8. Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere 4D-Var: Formulation and Sensitivity Analysis Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngodock, Hans; Carrier, Matthew; Xu, Liang; Amerault, Clark; Campbell, Tim; Rowley, Clark

    2016-04-01

    The US Navy is currently developing the first coupled ocean-atmosphere four-dimensional variational (4D-Var) data assimilation system to be used for short-term regional forecasting. This project merges the 4D-Var capabilities of the atmospheric component of the Coupled Ocean/Atmospheric Mesoscale Prediction System (COAMPS©) with the Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM) through the Earth System Modeling Framework (ESMF). This will provide the coupled ocean-atmosphere forecast with a fully balanced analysis that accounts for all combined observations in both primary fluids (i.e. ocean and atmosphere). In this present work, the formulation of the system is presented in detail along with a series of adjoint sensitivity analysis results using the coupled ocean-atmosphere adjoint model. The sensitivity of the atmosphere (ocean) to each ocean (atmosphere) model variable is analyzed in detail in order to illustrate the usefulness of this approach in the coupled data assimilation system.

  9. Evaluation of Multiple Inverter Volt-VAR Control Interactions with Realistic Grid Impedances

    SciTech Connect

    Chakraborty, Sudipta; Hoke, Anderson; Lundstrom, Blake

    2015-07-03

    Integration of large numbers of distributed photovoltaic (PV) systems in electric distribution circuits often requires advanced functions (e.g. volt-VAR, frequency-Watt etc.). However, significant concerns have been raised about potential for PV inverters with such controls to interact with one another in a way that could cause grid instability. The lack of standardized inverter models makes it hard to simulate such transient interactions in software. Similarly it is very hard to test these dynamic inverter interactions in the laboratory. In this paper, unique Power Hardware-in-the-Loop (PHIL) techniques are presented to experimentally test for interactions of multiple PV inverters connected to multiple points-of-common-coupling (PCCs) with grid impedances between them. Sample test results are provided from simulation-only scenarios and PHIL testing. Though simulation results indicated possible harmful interactions between inverters' volt-VAR controllers; no such interactions were found in the limited hardware testing.

  10. Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction and Biological Activities of Extracts of Brassica oleracea var. capitata

    PubMed Central

    Dal Prá, Valéria; Dolwitsch, Carolina Bolssoni; Lima, Fernanda Oliveira; Amaro de Carvalho, Camilo; Viana, Carine; do Nascimento, Paulo Cícero

    2015-01-01

    Summary In this work, the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Brassica oleracea var. capitata extracts obtained through ultrasound-assisted extraction are evaluated. The extracts obtained using the best extraction conditions were subjected to different hydrolysis conditions before their use in the biological tests. The crude and hydrolysed extracts were characterized using gas chromatography coupled with a mass detector. The use of ultrasound at 30 °C with 60% (by volume) solvent enabled obtaining a richer extract. All extracts had antioxidant activities against DPPH (13.0–80.0%), superoxide (35.2–63.2%) and peroxyl (89.3–99.5%) radicals, but the use of hydrolysed extracts considerably improved the antioxidant activities. Antimicrobial activities only of the hydrolysed extracts of Brassica oleracea var. capitata were detected. It was confirmed that antioxidant activity of vegetable extracts can be considerably increased when hydrolysis is applied as a pretreatment to their extraction. PMID:27904339

  11. Reproductive activity alterations on the Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex.

    PubMed

    Mello-Silva, Clélia Christina; Vilar, Mônica Magno; Bezerra, José Clecildo Barreto; Vasconcellos, Maurício Carvalho de; Pinheiro, Jairo; Rodrigues, Maria de Lurdes de A

    2007-09-01

    The reproductive activity of Biomphalaria glabrata exposed to Euphorbia splendens var. hislopii latex was evaluated. Parameters related to fecundity and fertility were observed. The snails were exposed to the LD50 (1 mg/l) of crude latex. At the first week post exposure (p.e.), the egg laying was reduced. After the fourth week p.e., an increase of the number of eggs/snail occurred. The results showed a marked reduction in the hatching of the snails, revealing an interference of latex exposure with the reproductive process of B. glabrata of E. splendens var. hislopii. The LD50 of the latex may be used as an alternative method to control the size of the populations of B. glabrata in field.

  12. Allelopathy of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa on the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense.

    PubMed

    Wang, X F; Hassani, D; Cheng, Z W; Wang, C Y; Wu, J

    2014-12-12

    Five gradient concentrations (0.02, 0.04, 0.06, 0.08, and 0.10 g/mL) of leaching liquors from the roots, stems, and leaves of the invasive plant Bidens frondosa were used as conditioning fluid to examine its influence on seed germination conditions of the native plant Geum japonicum var. chinense in Huangshan. All leaching liquors of organs suppressed the seed germination of Geum japonicum var. chinense and reduced the final germination percentage and rate, and increased the germination inhibition rate, with a bimodal dependence on concentration. The leaching liquor inhibited the seed germination significantly at the concentration of 0.02 g/mL respectively. The seed germination was also inhibited as the concentration reached to 0.04 g/mL and beyond. Hence the allelopathic effects of the organs were significantly enhanced respectively. This phenomenon represented the presence of allelopathy substances in the root, stem and leaf of Bidens frondosa.

  13. Side effects of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki on the hymenopterous parasitic wasp Trichogramma chilonis.

    PubMed

    Amichot, Marcel; Curty, Christine; Benguettat-Magliano, Olivia; Gallet, Armel; Wajnberg, Eric

    2016-02-01

    Most of the detrimental effects of using conventional insecticides to control crop pests are now well identified and are nowadays major arguments for replacing such compounds by the use of biological control agents. In this respect, the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki and Trichogramma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) parasitic wasp species are both effective against lepidopterous pests and can actually be used concomitantly. In this work, we studied the potential side effects of B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki on Trichogramma chilonis females. We first evidenced an acute toxicity of B. thuringiensis on T. chilonis. Then, after ingestion of B. thuringiensis at sublethal doses, we focused on life history traits of T. chilonis such as longevity, reproductive success and the time spent on host eggs patches. The reproductive success of T. chilonis was not modified by B. thuringiensis while a significant effect was observed on longevity and the time spent on host eggs patches. The physiological and ecological meanings of the results obtained are discussed.

  14. [Chemical Composition of n-Butanol Fraction from Polygonum amplexicaule var. sinense].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Mei-xian; Hu, Ya-jing; He, Feng; Liu, Xin-qiao

    2015-09-01

    To study chemical composition of n-butanol fraction from Polygonoum amplexicaule var. sinense. TLC,normal-phase silica gel, reveres-phase silica gel, Sephadex-LH and semi-preparative HPLC were used to isolate chemical compositions of n-butanol fraction from Polygonoum amplexicaule var. sinense. Nine compounds were identified as: caffeic acid n-butly ester (1), p-methoxy benzoic acid propyl ester (2),p-E-coumarin quinic acid methyl ester (3),p-Z-coumarin quinic acid methyl ester (4), ethyl ferulate (5), cinchonain I a (6), cinchonain Ib (7), methyl chlorogenate(8), and 6-O-β-D-caffeoylglucose (9). All compounds are isolated from this genus for the first time.

  15. [Study on chemical composition of ethylacetate fraction from Polygonum amplexicaule var. sinense].

    PubMed

    Xiang, Mei-Xian; Hu, Ya-Jing; Yan, Yun-Jun

    2012-10-01

    To study chemical composition of ethylacetate fraction from Polygonoum amplexicaule D. Don var. sinense Forb. TLC, Normal-phase silica gel column, reveres-phase silica gel column, Sephadex-LH, semi-preparative HPLC column were used to isolate chemical compositions of ethylacetate fraction from Polygonoum var. sinense. Eight compounds were identified as: 1. P-Hydroxybenzoic acid, 2. P-Hydroxybenzoic ethanol, 3. Diisobutyl phthalate, 4. Vanillin, 5. Isovanillic acid, 6.3,4,5-trihydroxy-benzoic acid-butyl ester, 7. 4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamic acid, 8. 7-hydroxy-6-methoxycoumarin. Except of Diisobutyl phthalate, the others are isolated for the first from this plant, moreover, Vanillin, Isovanillic acid and P-hydro -xyphenethyl alcohol are gained from genus for the first time.

  16. Apoptosis of HL-60 cells induced by extracts from Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Li, Yan; Ren, Wei; Hu, Wei-Xin

    2006-10-08

    Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis is one member of the Amaryllidaceae family. We found that extracts from N. tazetta var. chinensis (ENT) strongly decreased the survival rate of the following tumor cell lines: HL-60, K562, KT1/A3, and A3R. The cytotoxic effects of ENT on non-cancer cells lines (NHBE and NIH3T3) were smaller than on leukemia cell lines. AO/EB staining and flow cytometry assays showed that ENT induced HL-60 cell apoptosis. Furthermore, the release of cytochrome c and the increase of caspase-8, -9, and -3 activities were tested after HL-60 cells were treated with ENT, which indicated that the mitochondrial pathway and cell death receptor pathway were both involved in the apoptosis signal pathways induced by ENT. Upregulation of Bax showed that the Bcl-2 family was involved in the control of apoptosis. Our results suggest that apoptosis activity can be mediated by ENT in HL-60 cells.

  17. Isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. neoformans from bird droppings, fruits and vegetables in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    López-Martínez, R; Castañón-Olivares, L R

    1995-01-01

    The presence of Cryptococcus neoformans in various natural sources, such as bird droppings, fruits and vegetables, was investigated. A total of 711 samples were analyzed; C. neoformans var. neoformans was isolated from seven out of 74 bird droppings (9.5%), with parrots as one of the most significant sources. Fruits were positive in 9.5% of the 169 samples studied, specially citrus fruits, particularly grapefruit, in which the highest frequency was found. From the 468 vegetable samples, only 20 were positive (4.2%). It is emphasized that five of the positive vegetables species are autochthonous to Mexico: avocado (Nectandra salicifolia), beet (Beta vulgaris var. quinopodiace), chayote (Sechium edule), stringbean (Cassia sp), and nopal (Opuntia ficus-indica).

  18. The anti-rheumatoid arthritis property of the folk medicine Dianbaizhu (Gaultheria leucocarpa var. yunnanensis, Ericaceae).

    PubMed

    Xie, Meng; Lu, Yi; Yan, Cheng; Jiang, Rui; Liu, Weirui; Liu, Zizhen; Xu, Guanling; Yang, Yue; Zhang, Xia; Tian, Yuxin; Wang, Yan; Lu, Jianqiu; She, Gaimei

    2014-12-01

    The Chinese folk medicine Dianbaizhu, consisting of Gaultheria species, is widely used for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis by several minority nationalities. The species and plant parts of this genus used as Dianbaizhu in clinical application are confused. In order to elucidate the species and the medicinal parts, as well as to ascertain the effective components and the probable optimal source of Dianbaizhu, the different plant parts and polarity fractions of its mainstream species, G. leucocarpa var. yunnanensis were investigated. The inhibition of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor produced in macrophage J774 were used to assess the anti-inflammatory effect of those samples. G. leucocarpa var. yunnanensis may be the preferred species for anti-RA effect. The underground parts of this taxon showed the best anti-inflammatory and anti-RA activities; the n-butanol and water fractions of the underground parts may be the most anti-RA active.

  19. Inhibition of Lung Inflammation by Acanthopanax divaricatus var. Albeofructus and Its Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Ju Hee; Sun, Ya Nan; Kim, Young Ho; Lee, Sang Kook; Kim, Hyun Pyo

    2016-01-01

    In order to find potential therapeutic agents on lung inflammatory conditions, the extracts of Acanthopanax divaricatus var. albeofructus were prepared and its constituents were isolated. They include lignans such as (+)-syringaresinol (1), acanthoside B (2), salvadoraside (3) and acanthoside D (4), lariciresinol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5) and phenylpropanoids such as 4-[(1E)-3-methoxy-1-propenyl]phenol (6), coniferin (7), and methyl caffeate (8). The extracts and several constituents such as compound 1, 6 and 8 inhibited the production of inflammatory markers, IL-6 and nitric oxide, from IL-1β-treated lung epithelial cells and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated alveolar macrophages. Furthermore, the extracts and compound 4 significantly inhibited lung inflammation in lipolysaccharide-treated acute lung injury in mice by oral administration. Thus it is suggested that A. divaricatus var. albeofructus and its several constituents may be effective against lung inflammation. PMID:26759704

  20. Impact of 3D Var GSI-ENKF hybrid data assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, V. S.; Johny, C. J.; Sodhi, Jagdeep Singh

    2016-12-01

    The hybrid two-way coupled 3DEnsVar assimilation system was tested with the NCMRWF global data assimilation forecasting system. At present, this system consists of T574L64 deterministic model and the grid-point statistical interpolation analysis scheme. In this experiment, the analysis system is modified with a two-way coupling with an 80 member Ensemble Kalman Filter of T254L64 resolution and runs are carried out in parallel to the operational system for the Indian summer monsoon season (June-September) for the year 2015 to study its impact. Both the assimilation systems are based on NCEP GFS system. It is found that hybrid assimilation marginally improved the quality of the forecasts of all variables over the deterministic 3D Var system, in terms of statistical skill scores and also in terms of circulation features. The impact of the hybrid system in prediction of extreme rainfall and cyclone track is discussed.

  1. Production of isoflavonoids in callus cultures of Pueraria candollei var. mirifica.

    PubMed

    Udomsuk, Latiporn; Jarukamjorn, Kanokwan; Tanaka, Hiroyuki; Putalun, Waraporn

    2009-01-01

    Pueraria candollei Wall. ex Benth. var. mirifica (Airy Shaw & Suvat.) Niyomdham was investigated for callus induction using Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium containing different plant growth regulators. After 8 weeks of culture, 66-100% of leaf or stem explants formed calli. Calli from stem explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l thidiazuron (TDZ) gave the maximum of shoot induction (16%) and the highest level of total isoflavonoids [(50.39 +/- 7.06) mg/g dry wt], which was 7-fold higher than that of the native tuber [(7.04 +/- 0.29) mg/g dry wt]. These results suggest that addition of TDZ to the culture medium markedly enhances the production of isoflavonoids in calli induced from stem explants of P. candollei var. mirifica.

  2. Chemical Nature of Malty Flavor and Aroma Produced by Streptococcus lactis var. maltigenes1

    PubMed Central

    Sheldon, R. M.; Lindsay, R. C.; Libbey, L. M.; Morgan, M. E.

    1971-01-01

    Mature skim milk cultures of Streptococcus lactis var. maltigenes were steam distilled at low temperature under reduced pressure. Ethyl ether extracts were prepared from the distillates and analyzed by gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. Twenty of 31 components detected in the culture distillates were identified positively and 11 tentatively, whereas 10 of 19 components detected in the heated skim milk control were identified positively and 9 tentatively. Among components detected in the culture distillate, but not detected in the heated skim milk distillate, and which have not been previously identified in milk cultures of the organism were phenylacetaldehyde and phenethanol. Quantitative analyses of the volatiles entrained from milk cultures of several strains of S. lactis var. maltigenes revealed a probable relationship between variation in the character of the aroma of the cultures and the alcohol/aldehyde ratio. PMID:5171205

  3. The influence of morphology on geldanamycin production in submerged fermentations of Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. geldanus.

    PubMed

    Dobson, Lynne F; O'Cleirigh, Cormac C; O'Shea, Daniel G

    2008-07-01

    The diverse morphology of the filamentous organism Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. geldanus was characterised by image analysis under various environmental conditions. In the presence of surfactant compounds, a significant decrease in the mean pellet diameter was observed. Cell aggregation was also influenced by spore inoculum level, with high concentrations reducing pellet size. In addition, the dispersion of pellets was found to increase with the inclusion of glass beads to submerged shake-flask cultures. In all cases, production of the secondary metabolite geldanamycin was determined to be dependent on the morphological profile of the organism, with a concomitant increase of 88% in geldanamycin yield observed as the mean pellet diameter was reduced by 70%. Thus, to maximise the yield of geldanamycin, it is necessary to limit pellet formation in Streptomyces hygroscopicus var. geldanus to an appropriate size.

  4. Characterization of convulsions induced by a hexanic extract of Spilanthes acmella var. oleracea in rats.

    PubMed

    Moreira, V M; Maia, J G; de Souza, J M; Bortolotto, Z A; Cavalheiro, E A

    1989-01-01

    To characterize the convulsions induced by a hexanic extract of Spilanthes acmella var. oleracea, male Wistar rats were injected ip with 50 to 150 mg/kg of the extract and EEG and behavior were observed for periods as long as 2 h. Following the lower doses (50 and 75 mg/kg) only minor behavioral changes such as grooming and wet dog shakes were observed. Higher doses (100 to 150 mg/kg) induced full tonic-clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner which were accompanied by typical electrographic seizures in the EEG. These results confirm that the hexane extract of Spilanthes acmella var. oleracea is able to induce generalized convulsions in rats and can be used as a tool in the development of new models of epilepsy.

  5. Medicinal activities of the leaves of Musa sapientum var. sylvesteris in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sahaa, Repon Kumer; Acharyaa, Srijan; Shovon, Syed Sohidul Haque; Royb, Priyanka

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study is to investigate the medicinal value of methanolic extract of the leaves of Musa sapientum var. sylvesteris in Bangladesh. Methods Several biochemical assays, thin layer chormatogarphy and ultra-violet spectroscopy were used to detect the presence of various types of compounds in this extract. Antioxidant effects were measured by DPPH scavenging assay, total reducing assay and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Receptor binding activities and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis assay were performed by hemagglutination assay and hemolysis assay using erythrocytes. Disk diffusion assay was performed to show the antibacterial effect of the extract. Results Methanolic extract of the leaves showed antioxidant and antibacterial activity in vitro. The extract showed hemaglutination inhibition activities and hydrogen peroxide induced hemolysis inhibition activity of human red blood cells. Conclusion Musa sapientum var. sylvesteris can be an useful medicinal plant. PMID:23730561

  6. Differential Recognition of Terminal Extracellular Plasmodium falciparum VAR2CSA Domains by Sera from Multigravid, Malaria-Exposed Malian Women

    PubMed Central

    Travassos, Mark A.; Coulibaly, Drissa; Bailey, Jason A.; Niangaly, Amadou; Adams, Matthew; Nyunt, Myaing M.; Ouattara, Amed; Lyke, Kirsten E.; Laurens, Matthew B.; Pablo, Jozelyn; Jasinskas, Algis; Nakajima, Rie; Berry, Andrea A.; Takala-Harrison, Shannon; Kone, Abdoulaye K.; Kouriba, Bourema; Rowe, J. Alexandra; Doumbo, Ogobara K.; Thera, Mahamadou A.; Laufer, Miriam K.; Felgner, Philip L.; Plowe, Christopher V.

    2015-01-01

    The Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) family mediates parasite sequestration in small capillaries through tissue-specific cytoadherence. The best characterized of these proteins is VAR2CSA, which is expressed on the surface of infected erythrocytes that bind to chondroitin sulfate in the placental matrix. Antibodies to VAR2CSA prevent placental cytoadherence and protect against placental malaria. The size and complexity of the VAR2CSA protein pose challenges for vaccine development, but smaller constitutive domains may be suitable for subunit vaccine development. A protein microarray was printed to include five overlapping fragments of the 3D7 VAR2CSA extracellular region. Malian women with a history of at least one pregnancy had antibody recognition of four of these fragments and had stronger reactivity against the two distal fragments than did nulliparous women, children, and men from Mali, suggesting that the C-terminal extracellular VAR2CSA domains are a potential focus of protective immunity. With carefully chosen sera from longitudinal studies of pregnant women, this approach has the potential to identify seroreactive VAR2CSA domains associated with protective immunity against pregnancy-associated malaria. PMID:25918203

  7. Isolation of Cryptococcus gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii from the flowers and bark of Eucalyptus trees in India.

    PubMed

    Gugnani, H C; Mitchell, T G; Litvintseva, A P; Lengeler, K B; Heitman, J; Kumar, A; Basu, S; Paliwal-Joshi, A

    2005-09-01

    The association of Cryptococcus gattii with Eucalyptus trees has been well established. Here we report the isolation of both C. gattii and Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii from the flowers and bark of Eucalyptus trees in India. We investigated a total of 233 samples of Eucalyptus trees: 120 flowers, 81 fragments of bark, and 32 leaves. C. gattii was isolated from two samples of flowers of Eucalyptus terreticornis. C. neoformans var. grubii was recovered twice from the bark of Eucalyptus camaldulensis, initially from one of three samples, and again 2 months later, from one of four samples collected beneath the canopy of the tree. The primary isolation medium was Nigerseed agar, and brown colonies were presumptively identified as C. gattii or C. neoformans. The species identification was confirmed by morphological and biochemical characteristics. Using the Crypto-Check kit (Iatron, Tokyo, Japan), the first two isolates were identified as serotype B (C. gattii) and the other two were serotype A (C. neoformans var. grubii). PCR analysis of the isolates of C. neoformans var. grubii revealed that they possessed the MATalpha mating type allele. Molecular typing by amplified fragment length polymorphism markers indicated that both isolates of C. neoformans var. grubii possessed the same genotype. This study demonstrates that C. neoformans var. grubii, as well as C. gattii, may be associated with Eucalyptus trees.

  8. Regulation of PfEMP1-VAR2CSA translation by a Plasmodium translation-enhancing factor.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sherwin; Frasch, Alejandra; Mandava, Chandra Sekhar; Ch'ng, Jun-Hong; Quintana, Maria Del Pilar; Vesterlund, Mattias; Ghorbal, Mehdi; Joannin, Nicolas; Franzén, Oscar; Lopez-Rubio, Jose-Juan; Barbieri, Sonia; Lanzavecchia, Antonio; Sanyal, Suparna; Wahlgren, Mats

    2017-05-08

    Pregnancy-associated malaria commonly involves the binding of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes to placental chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) through the PfEMP1-VAR2CSA protein. VAR2CSA is translationally repressed by an upstream open reading frame. In this study, we report that the P. falciparum translation enhancing factor (PTEF) relieves upstream open reading frame repression and thereby facilitates VAR2CSA translation. VAR2CSA protein levels in var2csa-transcribing parasites are dependent on the expression level of PTEF, and the alleviation of upstream open reading frame repression requires the proteolytic processing of PTEF by PfCalpain. Cleavage generates a C-terminal domain that contains a sterile-alpha-motif-like domain. The C-terminal domain is permissive to cytoplasmic shuttling and interacts with ribosomes to facilitate translational derepression of the var2csa coding sequence. It also enhances translation in a heterologous translation system and thus represents the first non-canonical translation enhancing factor to be found in a protozoan. Our results implicate PTEF in regulating placental CSA binding of infected erythrocytes.

  9. Physalindicanols, New Biogenetic Precursors of C28-Steroidal Lactones from Physalis minima var. indica.

    PubMed

    Sinha, S C; Ali, A; Bagchi, A; Sahai, M; Ray, A B

    1987-02-01

    The structures of two isomeric C (28)-sterols isolated from PHYSALIS MINIMA Linn. var. INDICA were elucidated as ergosta-5,25-dien-3beta,24zeta,-diol and ergosta-5,24(28)-dien-3beta,25-diol on the basis of detailed spectral analysis. The isolated sterols are regarded as precursors in the elaboration of complex C (28)-steroidal lactones, native in this plant and related species.

  10. Petiolins A-C, phloroglucinol derivatives from Hypericum pseudopetiolatum var. kiusianum.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Naonobu; Kubota, Takaaki; Ishiyama, Haruaki; Araki, Atsushi; Kashiwada, Yoshiki; Takaishi, Yoshihisa; Mikami, Yuzuru; Kobayashi, Jun'ichi

    2008-05-15

    Two new phloroglucinol derivatives possessing chromane skeleton, petiolins A (1) and B (2), and a new phloroglucinol derivative containing a dihydrofuran ring, petiolin C (3), were isolated from aerial parts of Hypericum pseudopetiolatum var. kiusianum. The gross structures of 1-3 were elucidated by spectroscopic data, and the relative stereochemistry of 3 was elucidated by NOESY data. Petiolins A-C (1-3) showed modest cytotoxicity, while petiolin C (3) exhibited antifungal activity.

  11. Proliferodiscus inspersus var. magniascus and Rodwayella citrinula, Two Unrecorded Taxa of Hyaloscyphaceae (Tribe Arachnopezizeae) in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Han, Jae-Gu; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2014-01-01

    A fungal survey that targeted the tribe Arachnopezizeae (Hyaloscyphaceae, Helotiales) was conducted in Korea. One variety belonging to Proliferodiscus and one species belonging to Rodwayella are recorded for the first time from Korea. Proliferodiscus inspersus var. magniascus differs from P. earoleucus by its amyloid reaction in ascal apices and larger asci. Rodwayella citrinula is distinguished from other members of the genus by small ascospores and its occurrence on grasses. The descriptions, illustrations and cultural characteristics of the species are provided. PMID:24808741

  12. Influence of the probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on the intestinal immunity of piglets.

    PubMed

    Scharek, L; Altherr, B J; Tölke, C; Schmidt, M F G

    2007-12-15

    In a feeding trial, sows and piglets were fed with the probiotic bacterium Bacillus cereus var. toyoi as a feed additive, and the effects on immune cell populations were examined. The development of the gut immune system was determined for piglets at the ages of 14, 28, 35 and 56 days post partum. Tissue samples of the Jejunum and the continuous Peyer's patch were used for enumeration of intraepithelial lymphocyte populations by fluorescence activated flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Both independent methods of investigation led to similar results: the population of intraepithelial CD8+ T cells was significantly enhanced in the probiotic group piglets (p< or =0.05), and the numbers of gammadelta T cells tended to be higher in the intestinal epithelium (p<0.1) at the time of weaning (day 28). Lamina propria lymphocytes were also influenced by the treatment. Application of B. cereus var. toyoi resulted in significantly more CD25+ lymphocytes and gammadelta T cells in the probiotic group post-weaning. The occurrence of pathogenic Escherichia coli serogroups was also less frequent in the feces of piglets from the probiotic group. The finding that the CD8+ T cell population in the intestinal mucosa showed changes on day 28 indicated that the influence of B. cereus var. toyoi supplementation on the intestinal immune system started before weaning, an observation supported by changes in the intestinal microflora observed during the suckling-period. The results suggest that feeding of B. cereus var. toyoi to sows may result in beneficial effects on piglet health status independent of their feed supplementation.

  13. Chemical structures of constituents from the flowers of Osmanthus fragrans var. aurantiacus.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jiang; Nakamura, Seikou; Xu, Bin; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Ohta, Tomoe; Fujimoto, Katsuyoshi; Ogawa, Keiko; Fukaya, Masashi; Miyake, Shiori; Yoshikawa, Masayuki; Matsuda, Hisashi

    2015-01-01

    Three new megastigmane glycosides named floraosmanosides I-III and a new γ-decalactone named floraosmanolactone I together with 16 known constituents were isolated from the flowers of Osmanthus fragrans var. aurantiacus cultivated in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China. The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and physicochemical evidence. Among them, ligustroside and (+)-pinoresinol significantly inhibited nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharide-activated RAW264.7 macrophages.

  14. A new flavonoid and other constituents from Centaurea nicaeensis All. var. walliana M.

    PubMed

    Hammoud, Leila; Seghiri, Ramdane; Benayache, Samir; Mosset, Paul; Lobstein, Annelise; Chaabi, Mehdi; León, Francisco; Brouard, Ignacio; Bermejo, Jaime; Benayache, Fadila

    2012-01-01

    A new flavone glucoside, apigenin 4'-(6″-methylglucuronide) (1), together with six known compounds, cirsilineol, jaceosidin, melitensin, apigenin, apigenin 7-(6″-methylglucuronide) and prunasin, were isolated from the ethanolic extract of the aerial parts of Centaurea nicaeensis All. var. walliana M. (Asteraceae) collected from Souk-Ahras, eastern Algeria. The structures were established by spectral analysis, mainly HRESI-MS, UV and 2D-NMR experiments (COSY, HSQC and HMBC).

  15. A case of tinea manuum caused by Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei: the first isolation in Korea.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Do-Young; Kim, Myoung-Shin; Chang, Sung-Eun; Lee, Mi-Woo; Choi, Jee-Ho; Moon, Kee-Chan; Koh, Jai-Kyoung; Choi, Jong-Soo

    2009-05-01

    Hedgehogs have recently become popular exotic pets in Korea. Several diseases may be acquired from these animals including dermatophytosis, Salmonella infections, contact urticaria and possibly Mycobacterium infections. We describe here a 15-year-old girl who developed tinea manuum after keeping a hedgehog for 4 months. Diagnosis was confirmed by histopathologic and mycological examination. The causative agent was identified as Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei, a zoophilic dermatophyte.

  16. Cytotoxic constituents from the formosan soft coral Clavularia inflata var. luzoniana.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shang-Kwei; Huang, Min-Jay; Duh, Chang-Yih

    2006-10-01

    Three new cytotoxic dolabellane diterpenes, 1-3, three new aromandendrane sesquiterpenoids, 4-6, a new sesquiterpene, 7 (having a new carbon skeleton), and a new cytotoxic xenicane diterpene, 8, were isolated from the methylene chloride solubles of the Formosan soft coral Clavularia inflata var. luzoniana. The structures were elucidated by extensive spectral analysis, and their cytotoxicity against selected cancer cells was measured in vitro.

  17. Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans isolated from droppings of captive birds in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Irokanulo, E O; Makinde, A A; Akuesgi, C O; Ekwonu, M

    1997-04-01

    The yeast, Cryptococcus neoformans, was found in apparently healthy birds at the Jos Wildlife Park and Zoo in Jos, Nigeria. Cryptococcus neoformans var neoformans was isolated from feces of four captive bird species. Five isolates belonged to serotype A while two were serotype D. Serotype A of C. neoformans was isolated from a white face duck (Dendrocygna viduata), eagle owl (Bubo africanus cinerascene) and peacock (Pavo cristatus). The other two (serotype D), were isolated from a spotted eagle owl.

  18. Chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia.

    PubMed

    Magiatis, P; Melliou, E; Skaltsounis, A L; Chinou, I B; Mitaku, S

    1999-12-01

    The chemical composition of the three essential oils obtained by steam distillation of the mastic gum, leaves and twigs of Pistacia lentiscus var. chia, was studied by GC/MS. Sixty nine constituents were identified from the oils. alpha-Pinene, myrcene, trans-caryophyllene and germacrene D were found to be the major components. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the three essential oils and of the resin (total, acid and neutral fraction) against six bacteria and three fungi is reported.

  19. New amylolytic yeast strains for starch and dextrin fermentation. [Schwanniomyces alluvius, Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus

    SciTech Connect

    Laluce, C.; Bertolini, M.C.; Ernandes, J.R. ); Martini, A.V.; Martini, A. )

    1988-10-01

    Yeast strains capable of fermenting starch and dextrin to ethanol were isolated from samples collected from Brazilian factories in which cassava flour is produced. Considerable alcohol production was observed for all the strains selected. One strain (DI-10) fermented starch rapidly and secreted 5 times as much amylolytic enzyme than that observed for Schwanniomyces alluvius UCD 54-83. This strain and three other similar isolates were classified as Saccharomyces cerevisiae var. diastaticus by morphological and physiological characteristics and molecular taxonomy.

  20. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-04

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops.

  1. Interspecific hybridization, polyploidization, and backcross of Brassica oleracea var. alboglabra with B. rapa var. purpurea morphologically recapitulate the evolution of Brassica vegetables

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohui; Liu, Tongjin; Li, Xixiang; Duan, Mengmeng; Wang, Jinglei; Qiu, Yang; Wang, Haiping; Song, Jiangping; Shen, Di

    2016-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and B. rapa are two important vegetable crops. Both are composed of dozens of subspecies encompassing hundreds of varieties and cultivars. Synthetic B. napus with these two plants has been used extensively as a research model for the investigation of allopolyploid evolution. However, the mechanism underlying the explosive evolution of hundreds of varieties of B. oleracea and B. rapa within a short period is poorly understood. In the present study, interspecific hybridization between B. oleracea var. alboglabra and B. rapa var. purpurea was performed. The backcross progeny displayed extensive morphological variation, including some individuals that phenocopied subspecies other than their progenitors. Numerous interesting novel phenotypes and mutants were identified among the backcross progeny. The chromosomal recombination between the A and C genomes and the chromosomal asymmetric segregation were revealed using Simple Sequence Repeats (SSR) markers. These findings provide direct evidence in support of the hypothesis that interspecific hybridization and backcrossing have played roles in the evolution of the vast variety of vegetables among these species and suggest that combination of interspecific hybridization and backcrossing may facilitate the development of new mutants and novel phenotypes for both basic research and the breeding of new vegetable crops. PMID:26727246

  2. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of Sideritis erythrantha Boiss. and Heldr. (var. erythrantha and var. cedretorum P.H. Davis) endemic in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Köse, Elif Odabaş; Deniz, Ismail Gökhan; Sarıkürkçü, Cengiz; Aktaş, Ozgür; Yavuz, Mustafa

    2010-10-01

    In the present study, chemical compositions, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of Sideritis erythrantha var. erythrantha (SE) and Sideritis erythrantha var. cedretorum (SC), which are endemic taxa in Turkey, were investigated. The essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). α-Pinene was the major component of the essential oils of SC and SE. SC essential oil was as effective as antibiotic against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis (VRE), ampicillin resistant Haemophilusinfluenzae and vancomycin sensitive E. faecalis. Similarly, SE essential oil was also as effective as antibiotic against VRE and ampicillin resistant H. influenzae. Antioxidant activities of the essential oils of SC and SE were determined by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), β-carotene/linoleic acid and reducing power. Both essential oils exhibited weak antioxidant activity. This is the first report on antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of the essential oils of SC and SE.

  3. Analysis of the relationship between Chalcone Isomerase gene expression level and rutin production in Ficus deltoidea var. deltoidea and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najid, Najihah Mohd; Zain, Che Radziah Che Mohd; Zainal, Zamri

    2016-11-01

    Ficus deltoidea (moraceae) is a herbal plant with medicinal values. Previous studies reported that the F. deltoidea contains a high level of bioactive compounds such as flavonoids. A cDNA encodes for chalcone isomerase was identified from F. deltoidea, designated as FdCHI, which involved in the isomerization of naringenin chalcone to naringenin. Naringenin is a key branch point for the synthesis of rutin, which is believed involved in defense mechanism in the plant. Therefore, we hypothesized that there might be a direct relationship between FdCHI expression level and rutin production in leaves of F. deltoidea var. deltoidea (FDD) and F. deltoidea var. angustifolia (FDA). Our result showed that expression level of FdCHI in leaves FDD was greater than FDA. Analysis of High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) revealed that rutin was only detected in FDA leaves. Based on the results between FdCHI expression and rutin production, this study concluded that there is no relationship between FdCHI expression and rutin production in leaves of FDA and FDD.

  4. Triterpenoids from Salvia argentea var. aurasiaca (Pomel) Batt. & Trab. and their chemotaxonomic significance.

    PubMed

    Lakhal, Hichem; Kabouche, Ahmed; Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Voutquenne-Nazabadioko, Laurence; Harakat, Dominique; Kabouche, Zahia

    2014-06-01

    Ten triterpenoids were isolated from the exudate of Salvia argentea L. var. aurasiaca (Pomel) Batt. & Trab. Their structures were elucidated by 1D and 2D NMR and HRESIMS analyses as 11α-methoxyurs-12-ene-1β,3β,15α-triol (1), urs-12-ene-1β,3β,11α,15α-tetraol (2), 11α-methoxyurs-12-ene-1β,3β-diol (3), 1β,3β,15α-trihydroxy-11α-methoxyurs-12-en-28-al (4), 1β,3β,15α-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-al (5), urs-12-ene-1β,3β,15α,28-tetraol (6), 11α-methoxyurs-12-ene-1β,3β,28-triol (7), 13β,28-epoxyurs-12-ene-1β,3β-diol (8), urs-12-ene-3β,7β,15α,28-tetraol (9) and olean-12-ene-3β,7β,15α,28-tetraol (10). A chemotaxonomic survey of the triterpenoids of Salvia species show that triterpenoids from the exudate of S. argentea var. aurasiaca (Pomel) Batt. & Trab., provide some features, such as hydroxylation at C-15, and hydroxylation at C-7. On this basis, S. argentea L. var. aurasiaca (Pomel) Batt. & Trab., is quite different from S. argentea L. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. [Callus induction and plant regeneration of Liriope spicata var. prolifera anther].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qun; Zhou, Jianqiu; Wang, Xiaogang; Wang, Jingjing; Li, Jingwen; Chen, Jiachun

    2009-09-01

    To study the technique of the callus induction from anther and plant regeneration of medicinal plants Liriope spicata var. prolifera. Callus was induced from anther of L. spicata var. prolifera on a MS medium supplemented with different hormones. The squash methods combined with a microscope were used to analyze chromosomes of regenerated plantlets. MS +2,4-D 1.0 mg x L(-1) + KT 2.0 mg x L(-1) gave the highest induction ratio which was 41.07%. MS +6-BA 1.5-2.0 mg x L(-1) + NAA 0.1-0.3 mg x L(-1) was suitable for the induction and proliferation of indefinite buds. The buds were transferred to 1/2 MS medium supplemented with NAA 0.1-0.3 mg x L(-1) for rooting. The shoots produced roots of culture and formed complete plantlets. The regenerated plantlets originated from somatic cells. At the same time, the effects of pretreatment of low temperature at 4 degrees C on the callus induction were studied and discussed. This paper sets up the method of tissue culture of anther somatic-cells and intermediate propagation of L. spicata var. prolifera.

  6. Role of a phenazine antibiotic from Pseudomonas fluorescens in biological control of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici.

    PubMed

    Thomashow, L S; Weller, D M

    1988-08-01

    Pseudomonas fluorescens 2-79 (NRRL B-15132) and its rifampin-resistant derivative 2-79RN10 are suppressive to take-all, a major root disease of wheat caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Strain 2-79 produces the antibiotic phenazine-1-carboxylate, which is active in vitro against G. graminis var. tritici and other fungal root pathogens. Mutants defective in phenazine synthesis (Phz-) were generated by Tn5 insertion and then compared with the parental strain to determine the importance of the antibiotic in take-all suppression on wheat roots. Six independent, prototrophic Phz- mutants were noninhibitory to G. graminis var. tritici in vitro and provided significantly less control of take-all than strain 2-79 on wheat seedlings. Antibiotic synthesis, fungal inhibition in vitro, and suppression of take-all on wheat were coordinately restored in two mutants complemented with cloned DNA from a 2-79 genomic library. These mutants contained Tn5 insertions in adjacent EcoRI fragments in the 2-79 genome, and the restriction maps of the region flanking the insertions and the complementary DNA were colinear. These results indicate that sequences required for phenazine production were present in the cloned DNA and support the importance of the phenazine antibiotic in disease suppression in the rhizosphere.

  7. A molecular marker for in situ genetic resource conservation of Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Kaewdoungdee, N; Tanee, T

    2013-02-28

    The Thailand cultivar pepper 'phrik man bangchang' (Capsicum annuum var. acuminatum, Solanaceae) was originally cultivated in the Bangchang Subdistrict, Amphawa District in Samut Songkhram Province. The cultivated areas are limited; we verified its distribution in Thailand for in situ 'phrik man bangchang' genetic resource conservation. Samples were collected from the original cultivation area of Bangchang Subdistrict (Or) and were randomly explored in Ratchaburi Province (RB), Khon Kaen Province (KK), and Sakon Nakhon Province (SN). A pure line from The Tropical Vegetable Research Center at Kasetsart University was used as the standard indicator. Two more Capsicum species, C. chinensis and C. frutescens, and a species from another genus in the family, Solanum melongena, were included. A dendrogram constructed from random amplified polymorphic DNA fingerprints indicated that the Or, RB, KK, and SN samples were C. annuum var. acuminatum with supportive similarity coefficients of 0.79 to 0.98. Finally, DNA barcodes, from psbA-trnH spacer region, were provided for the 3 wild species, C. annuum var. acuminatum, C. chinensis, and C. frutescens under GenBank accession Nos. JQ087869-JQ087871. The nucleotide variations between species were 0.23 to 0.26. In summary, 'phrik man bangchang' is still being planted in Bangchang Subdistrict, but only in small areas. The distribution of planting areas is expected to be throughout Thailand.

  8. Potential utilization of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste as a novel source of pectin.

    PubMed

    Korish, Mohamed

    2015-04-01

    The Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides is an ancestor type of watermelon. It was investigated as a new source of pectin. It was cultivated in Egypt for seeds only, while the remaining fruits are discarded as waste. Effect of different extraction conditions such as pH, solid: liquid ratio, temperature and extraction time on pectin yield of Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoides waste was investigated in the present study. The highest yield (19.75 % w/w) was achieved at pH 2, solid: liquid ratio1:15 and 85 °C, for 60 min. Methylation degree and galacturonic acid content of extracted pectin were 55.25 %, w/w and 76.84 %, w/w. The main neutral sugars were galactose followed by arabinose and rhamnose. In addition, glucose, xylose and mannose existed as constituents in the pectin hydrolysate. The results indicated that Citrullus lanatus var. Colocynthoide waste is a potential new source of pectin.

  9. An endophytic fungus efficiently producing paclitaxel isolated from Taxus wallichiana var. mairei

    PubMed Central

    Zaiyou, Jian; Li, Meng; Xiqiao, Hu

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Paclitaxel is a medicinal ingredient with high anticancer activity and widely used in hospitals and clinics. In this study, we isolate endophytic fungi efficiently producing paclitaxel from yew for the purpose of paclitaxel manufacture. The bark of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei was surface sterilized and then inoculated in potato dextrose agar culture medium to isolate endophytic fungi. The paclitaxel in the fungal culture was extracted with mixture of chloroform and the same amount of methanol. The content of paclitaxel in the extract was determined and identified with LC-MS. The endophytic fungus efficiently producing paclitaxel was species identified with ITS rDNA and 26S D1/D2 rDNA sequencing. There were 528 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the bark of T wallichiana var. mairei in total. There was only a strain efficiently producing paclitaxel in these endophytic fungi. The unique strain was identified as Phoma medicaginis. The paclitaxel contents in whole potato dextrose broth (PDB) culture, spent culture medium from this strain and that in dry mycelium is 1.215 mg/L, 0.936 mg/L, and 20 mg/kg, respectively. An endophytic fungus efficiently producing paclitaxel was isolated from T wallichiana var. mairei. This isolated endophytic fungus can be used as a producing strain for paclitaxel manufacture. PMID:28682896

  10. Influence of Intermittent Preventive Treatment on Antibodies to VAR2CSA in Pregnant Cameroonian Women

    PubMed Central

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Tutterrow, Yeung L.; Bobbili, Naveen; Salanti, Ali; Wey, Andrew; Fogako, Josephine; Leke, Robert J.; Leke, Rose G. F.; Taylor, Diane Wallace

    2016-01-01

    Intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) and insecticide-treated bed nets are the standard of care for preventing malaria in pregnant women. Since these preventive measures reduce exposure to malaria, their influence on the antibody (Ab) response to the parasite antigen VAR2CSA was evaluated in pregnant Cameroonian women exposed to holoendemic malaria. Ab levels to full-length VAR2CSA (FV2), variants of the six Duffy binding like (DBL) domains, and proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 were measured longitudinally in 92 women before and 147 women after IPT. As predicted, reduced exposure interfered with acquisition of Ab in primigravidae, with 71% primigravidae being seronegative to FV2 at delivery. Use of IPT for > 13 weeks by multigravidae resulted in 26% of women being seronegative at delivery and a significant reduction in Ab levels to FV2, DBL5, DBL6, proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2, and number of variants recognized. Thus, in women using IPT important immune responses were not acquired by primigravidae and reduced in a portion of multigravidae, especially women with one to two previous pregnancies. Longitudinal data from individual multigravidae on IPT suggest that lower Ab levels most likely resulted from lack of boosting of the VAR2CSA response and not from a short-lived Ab response. PMID:26711513

  11. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Cucumis sativus var. Hardwickii, the wild progenitor of cultivated cucumber.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bang; Zhang, Dan; Gao, Li-Zhi

    2016-11-01

    The complete chloroplast genome sequence of wild cucumber (Cucumis sativus var. hardwickii) was determined and characterized in this study. The genome is of 155 277 bp in length, containing a pair of inverted repeats regions (IRs) of 25 198 bp, which are separated by a large single-copy region of 86 618 bp and a small single-copy region of 18 263 bp. The wild cucumber chloroplast genome has 130 known genes, including 85 protein-coding genes, 8 ribosomal RNA genes, and 37 tRNA genes. Among these genes, 19 comprise one or two introns. There are 11 tRNA genes present in the IR of the chloroplast genome. Phylogenomic analysis showed that C. sativus var. hardwickii forms a cluster with other Cucumis species with strong bootstrap supports and is closely related to C. sativus var. sativus. This newly sequenced chloroplast genome sequence may provide useful genetic information to explore wild cucumber germplasms for cucumber breeding programs.

  12. Physiological Characterization and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of White and Green Leaves of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xia; Kanakala, Surapathrudu; He, Yehua; Zhong, Xiaolan; Yu, Sanmiao; Li, Ruixue; Sun, Lingxia; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Leaf coloration is one of the most important and attractive characteristics of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. The chimeric character is not stable during the in vitro tissue culturing. Many regenerated plants lost economic values for the loss of the chimeric character of leaves. In order to reveal the molecular mechanisms involved in the albino phenotype of the leaf cells, the physiological and transcriptional differences between complete white (CWh) and green (CGr) leaf cells of A. comosus var. bracteatus were analyzed. A total of 1,431 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) in CGr and CWh leaves were identified using RNA-seq. A comparison to the COG, GO and KEGG annotations revealed DEGs involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development and photosynthesis. Furthermore, the measurement of main precursors of chlorophyll in the CWh leaves confirmed that the rate-limiting step in chlorophyll biosynthesis, and thus the cause of the albino phenotype of the white cells, was the conversion of pyrrole porphobilinogen (PBG) to uroporphyrinogen III (Uro III). The enzyme activity of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) and uroporporphyrinogn III synthase (UROS), which catalyze the transition of PBG to Uro III, was significantly decreased in the CWh leaves. Our data showed the transcriptional differences between the CWh and CGr plants and characterized key steps in chlorophyll biosynthesis of the CWh leaves. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of pigment biosynthesis in the CWh leaf cells of A. comosus var. bracteatus. PMID:28095462

  13. An endophytic fungus efficiently producing paclitaxel isolated from Taxus wallichiana var. mairei.

    PubMed

    Zaiyou, Jian; Li, Meng; Xiqiao, Hu

    2017-07-01

    Paclitaxel is a medicinal ingredient with high anticancer activity and widely used in hospitals and clinics. In this study, we isolate endophytic fungi efficiently producing paclitaxel from yew for the purpose of paclitaxel manufacture.The bark of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei was surface sterilized and then inoculated in potato dextrose agar culture medium to isolate endophytic fungi. The paclitaxel in the fungal culture was extracted with mixture of chloroform and the same amount of methanol. The content of paclitaxel in the extract was determined and identified with LC-MS. The endophytic fungus efficiently producing paclitaxel was species identified with ITS rDNA and 26S D1/D2 rDNA sequencing.There were 528 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from the bark of T wallichiana var. mairei in total. There was only a strain efficiently producing paclitaxel in these endophytic fungi. The unique strain was identified as Phoma medicaginis. The paclitaxel contents in whole potato dextrose broth (PDB) culture, spent culture medium from this strain and that in dry mycelium is 1.215 mg/L, 0.936 mg/L, and 20 mg/kg, respectively.An endophytic fungus efficiently producing paclitaxel was isolated from T wallichiana var. mairei. This isolated endophytic fungus can be used as a producing strain for paclitaxel manufacture.

  14. Construction of a reference molecular linkage map of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus).

    PubMed

    Portis, E; Mauromicale, G; Mauro, R; Acquadro, A; Scaglione, D; Lanteri, S

    2009-12-01

    The genome organization of globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus var. scolymus), unlike other species belonging to Asteraceae (=Compositae) family (i.e. sunflower, lettuce and chicory), remains largely unexplored. The species is highly heterozygous and suffers marked inbreeding depression when forced to self-fertilize. Thus a two-way pseudo-testcross represents the optimal strategy for linkage analysis. Here, we report linkage maps based on the progeny of a cross between globe artichoke (C. cardunculus var. scolymus) and cultivated cardoon (C. cardunculus var. altilis). The population was genotyped using a variety of PCR-based marker platforms, resulting in the identification of 708 testcross markers suitable for map construction. The male map consisted of 177 loci arranged in 17 major linkage groups, spanning 1,015.5 cM, while female map was built with 326 loci arranged into 20 major linkage groups, spanning 1,486.8 cM. The presence of 84 loci shared between these maps and those previously developed from a cross within globe artichoke allowed for map alignment and the definition of 17 homologous linkage groups, corresponding to the haploid number of the species. This will provide a favourable property for QTL scanning; furthermore, as 25 mapped markers (8%) correspond to coding regions, it has an additional value as functional map and might represent an important genetic tool for candidate gene studies in globe artichoke.

  15. Release and dispersal of basidiospores from Amanita muscaria var. alba and their infiltration into a residence.

    PubMed

    Li, De-Wei

    2005-11-01

    Release and dispersal of basidiospores of Amanita muscaria var. alba and their potential to infiltrate a nearby residence were investigated. Basidiospore release mainly occurred in the first three days following the expansion of the caps. The concentrations of released basidiospores near basidiomata were 77 137, 75 062, and 41 738 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively, with the highest concentration at 281 738 spores m(-3) air. After three days, the concentration dropped by 95%. At the second location, airborne basidiospore concentrations dropped 96-99% after three days with the concentrations of 940, 575, and 1359 spores m(-3) in the first three days, respectively. The diurnal pattern showed a relatively extended night peak. Relative humidity and dew were positively correlated with basidiospore release and short distance dispersal. Rain and rain rate were positively correlated with basidiospore release, but not correlated with short distance dispersal. The basidiospore release period of Amanita muscaria var. alba was short, but within such a period it released a large amount of basidiospores. However, only less than 5% of basidiospores released were dispersed to the second location 5.2 m away and 2.7 m above the basidiomata. Only < 0.1% of basidiospores dispersed from the basidiomata were found inside a nearby residence. Amanita muscaria var. alba showed a low potential of infiltrating the residence.

  16. The complete chloroplast genome of traditional Chinese medical plants Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis.

    PubMed

    Song, Yun; Xu, Jin; Chen, NaiZhong; Li, MingFu

    2017-03-01

    Paris polyphylla var. yunnanensis is a perennial medical plant widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. Here, we report the complete chloroplast genome of P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis. The genome is 157 675 bp in length including a small single-copy region (SSC, 18 319 bp) and a large single-copy region (LSC, 84 108 bp) separated by a pair of inverted repeats (IRs, 27 624 bp). The genome contained 115 genes, including 81 protein-coding genes, 4 ribosomal RNA genes, and 30 tRNA genes. Among these genes, 13 harbored a single intron and 2 contained a couple of introns. The overall G + C content of the cpDNA is 37.4%, while the corresponding values of the LSC, SSC, and IR regions are 35.71%, 31.43%, and 41.87%, respectively. A Maximum-likelihood phylogenetic analysis suggested that genus Trillium, Paris, Fritillaria, and Lilium were strongly supported as monophyletic and the P. polyphylla var. yunnanensis is closely related to Trillium.

  17. Tyrosinase inhibitory properties of phenylpropanoid glycosides and flavonoids from Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes

    PubMed Central

    Boghrati, Zahra; Naseri, Maryam; Rezaie, Mitra; Pham, Ngoc; Quinn, Ronald J; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): In food industry, the inhibition of tyrosinase is very important, because this enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of phenolic compounds found in fruits and vegetables into quinones, which contribute in undesirable color and taste of fruits and vegetables. Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes (Lamiaceae), a wild-growing flowering plant that has many applications in food preparations and traditional medicine. In Persian language, this medicinal herb is called Kalpoureh. Materials and Methods: 1D- and 2D-NMR experiments were used to determine the chemical structures of the isolated compounds. Antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated using DPPH, FRAP and mushroom tyrosinase inhibition assays. Results: In this research, we isolated two phenylpropanoid glycosides including verbascoside and poliumoside and two flavonoids including jaranol and isorhoifolin using chromatographic techniques. We found promising antioxidant and anti-tyrosinase compounds from Teucrium polium L. var. gnaphalodes. Conclusion: To date, different compounds have been isolated and characterized from T. polium including terpenoids and flavonoids. But no phytochemical study has been reported from T. polium var. gnaphalodes. Poliumoside and jaranol showed promising antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities, respectively. PMID:27746860

  18. Physiological Characterization and Comparative Transcriptome Analysis of White and Green Leaves of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xia; Kanakala, Surapathrudu; He, Yehua; Zhong, Xiaolan; Yu, Sanmiao; Li, Ruixue; Sun, Lingxia; Ma, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Leaf coloration is one of the most important and attractive characteristics of Ananas comosus var. bracteatus. The chimeric character is not stable during the in vitro tissue culturing. Many regenerated plants lost economic values for the loss of the chimeric character of leaves. In order to reveal the molecular mechanisms involved in the albino phenotype of the leaf cells, the physiological and transcriptional differences between complete white (CWh) and green (CGr) leaf cells of A. comosus var. bracteatus were analyzed. A total of 1,431 differentially expressed unigenes (DEGs) in CGr and CWh leaves were identified using RNA-seq. A comparison to the COG, GO and KEGG annotations revealed DEGs involved in chlorophyll biosynthesis, chloroplast development and photosynthesis. Furthermore, the measurement of main precursors of chlorophyll in the CWh leaves confirmed that the rate-limiting step in chlorophyll biosynthesis, and thus the cause of the albino phenotype of the white cells, was the conversion of pyrrole porphobilinogen (PBG) to uroporphyrinogen III (Uro III). The enzyme activity of porphobilinogen deaminase (PBGD) and uroporporphyrinogn III synthase (UROS), which catalyze the transition of PBG to Uro III, was significantly decreased in the CWh leaves. Our data showed the transcriptional differences between the CWh and CGr plants and characterized key steps in chlorophyll biosynthesis of the CWh leaves. These results contribute to our understanding of the mechanisms and regulation of pigment biosynthesis in the CWh leaf cells of A. comosus var. bracteatus.

  19. Effects of Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum on kraft lignin: color stabilization and cytotoxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Remédios, Marlene; Carvalho, Filomena A; Enguita, Francisco J; Cardoso, Carlos; Martins, Ivo C; Santos, Nuno C; Leitão, Ana Lúcia

    2016-06-01

    Wood industries and agricultural crops generate an inexhaustible supply of by-products like lignin, which constitutes an environmental problem. Increasing efforts have been done to find new applications for lignin. One of them is as a food additive, but its chemical nature makes it sensitive to browning which constitutes a major drawback for this type of lignin application. In the present study we are documenting how color stabilization of a commercial kraft lignin was achieved after the treatment with Penicillium chrysogenum var. halophenolicum. In addition the fungal capacity to remove lignin is studied together with the effect of its treatment on cytotoxicity of lignin. P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum was able to transform lignin, ensuring its color stability for more than 24 months. Dynamic light scattering and atomic force microscopy showed that the fungus contributed to homogenize particle size and hydrodynamic properties in lignin suspensions without increase the toxicity over HeLa cells and human primary fibroblasts. These findings suggest new uses for kraft lignin after P. chrysogenum var. halophenolicum treatment providing an effective approach for improve color stability.

  20. Trypsin inhibitors from Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum leaves involved in Pepper yellow mosaic virus resistance.

    PubMed

    Moulin, M M; Rodrigues, R; Ribeiro, S F F; Gonçalves, L S A; Bento, C S; Sudré, C P; Vasconcelos, I M; Gomes, V M

    2014-11-07

    Several plant organs contain proteinase inhibitors, which are produced during normal plant development or are induced upon pathogen attack to suppress the enzymatic activity of phytopathogenic microorganisms. In this study, we examined the presence of proteinase inhibitors, specifically trypsin inhibitors, in the leaf extract of Capsicum baccatum var. pendulum inoculated with PepYMV (Pepper yellow mosaic virus). Leaf extract from plants with the accession number UENF 1624, which is resistant to PepYMV, was collected at 7 different times (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, and 144 h). Seedlings inoculated with PepYMV and control seedlings were grown in a growth chamber. Protein extract from leaf samples was partially purified by reversed-phase chromatography using a C2/C18 column. Residual trypsin activity was assayed to detect inhibitors followed by Tricine-SDS-PAGE analysis to determine the N-terminal peptide sequence. Based on trypsin inhibitor assays, trypsin inhibitors are likely constitutively synthesized in C. baccatum var. pendulum leaf tissue. These inhibitors are likely a defense mechanism for the C. baccatum var. pendulum- PepYMV pathosystem.

  1. Assimilation of Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) Profiles using WRF-Var

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Brad; Jedlovec, Gary J.; Lapenta, William

    2008-01-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model contains a three-dimensional variational (3DVAR) assimilation system (WRF-Var), which allows a user to join data from multiple sources into one coherent analysis. WRF-Var combines observations with a background field traditionally generated using a previous model forecast through minimization of a cost function. In data sparse regions, remotely-sensed observations may be able to improve analyses and produce improved forecasts. One such source comes from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), which together with the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), represents one of the most advanced space-based atmospheric sounding systems. The combined AIRS/AMSU system provides radiance measurements used as input to a sophisticated retrieval scheme which has been shown to produce temperature profiles with an accuracy of 1 K over 1 km layers and humidity profiles with accuracy of 15% in 2 km layers in both clear and partly cloudy conditions. The retrieval algorithm also provides estimates of the accuracy of the retrieved values at each pressure level, allowing the user to select profiles based on the required error tolerances of the application. The purpose of this paper is to describe a procedure to optimally assimilate high-resolution AIRS profile data into a regional configuration of the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) version 2.2 using WRF-Var. The paper focuses on development of background error covariances for the regional domain and background field type using gen_be and an optimal methodology for ingesting AIRS temperature and moisture profiles as separate overland and overwater retrievals with different error characteristics in the WRF-Var. The AIRS thermodynamic profiles are obtained from the version 5.0 Earth Observing System (EOS) science team retrieval algorithm and contain information about the quality of each temperature layer. The quality indicators are used to select the highest quality temperature and moisture

  2. Analysis of simple sequence repeats in the Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici genome and the development of microsatellite markers.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Feng, Yanxia; Sun, Haiyan; Deng, Yuanyu; Yu, Hanshou; Chen, Huaigu

    2014-11-01

    Understanding the genetic structure of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici is essential for the establishment of efficient disease control strategies. It is becoming clear that microsatellites, or simple sequence repeats (SSRs), play an important role in genome organization and phenotypic diversity, and are a large source of genetic markers for population genetics and meiotic maps. In this study, we examined the G. graminis var. tritici genome (1) to analyze its pattern of SSRs, (2) to compare it with other plant pathogenic filamentous fungi, such as Magnaporthe oryzae and M. poae, and (3) to identify new polymorphic SSR markers for genetic diversity. The G. graminis var. tritici genome was rich in SSRs; a total 13,650 SSRs have been identified with mononucleotides being the most common motifs. In coding regions, the densities of tri- and hexanucleotides were significantly higher than in noncoding regions. The di-, tri-, tetra, penta, and hexanucleotide repeats in the G. graminis var. tritici genome were more abundant than the same repeats in M. oryzae and M. poae. From 115 devised primers, 39 SSRs are polymorphic with G. graminis var. tritici isolates, and 8 primers were randomly selected to analyze 116 isolates from China. The number of alleles varied from 2 to 7 and the expected heterozygosity (He) from 0.499 to 0.837. In conclusion, SSRs developed in this study were highly polymorphic, and our analysis indicated that G. graminis var. tritici is a species with high genetic diversity. The results provide a pioneering report for several applications, such as the assessment of population structure and genetic diversity of G. graminis var. tritici.

  3. A significant positive correlation between endogenous trans-zeatin content and total arsenic in arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris cretica var. nervosa.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Yang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Hongbin; Li, Qinchun; Wang, Haijuan; Li, Yanyan

    2017-04-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to compare the content of endogenous trans-zeatin (Z), plant arsenic (As) uptake and physiological indices in the fronds of As-hyperaccumulator (Pteris cretica var. nervosa) and non-hyperaccumulator (Pteris ensiformis). Furthermore, a stepwise regression method was used to study the relationship among determined indices, and the time-course effect of main indices was also investigated under 100mg/kg As stress with time extension. In the 100-200mg/kg As treatments, plant height showed no significant difference and endogenous Z content significantly increased in P. cretica var. nervosa compared to the control, but a significant decrease of height and endogenous Z was observed in P. ensiformis. The concentrations of As (III) and As (V) increased significantly in the fronds of two plants, but this increase was much higher in P. cretica var. nervosa. Compared to the control, the contents of chlorophyll and soluble protein were significantly increased in P. cretica var. nervosa but decreased in P. ensiformis in the 200mg/kg As treatment, respectively. A significant positive correlation was found between the contents of endogenous Z and total As in P. cretica var. nervosa, but such a correlation was not found in P. ensiformis. Additionally, in the time-course effect experiment, a peak value of each index was appeared in the 43rd day in two plants, except for chlorophyll in P. ensiformis, but this value was significantly higher in P. cretica var. nervosa than that in P. ensiformis. In conclusion, a higher endogenous Z content contributed to As accumulation of P. cretica var. nervosa under As stress.

  4. Nuclear pores and perinuclear expression sites of var and ribosomal DNA genes correspond to physically distinct regions in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Guizetti, Julien; Martins, Rafael Miyazawa; Guadagnini, Stéphanie; Claes, Aurélie; Scherf, Artur

    2013-05-01

    The human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum modifies the erythrocyte it infects by exporting variant proteins to the host cell surface. The var gene family that codes for a large, variant adhesive surface protein called P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) plays a particular role in this process, which is linked to pathogenesis and immune evasion. A single member of this gene family is highly transcribed while the other 59 members remain silenced. Importantly, var gene transcription occurs at a spatially restricted, but yet undefined, perinuclear site that is distinct from repressed var gene clusters. To advance our understanding of monoallelic expression, we investigated whether nuclear pores associate with the var gene expression site. To this end, we studied the nuclear pore organization during the asexual blood stage using a specific antibody directed against a subunit of the nuclear pore, P. falciparum Nup116 (PfNup116). Ring and schizont stage parasites showed highly polarized nuclear pore foci, whereas in trophozoite stage nuclear pores redistributed over the entire nuclear surface. Colocalization studies of var transcripts and anti-PfNup116 antibodies showed clear dissociation between nuclear pores and the var gene expression site in ring stage. Similar results were obtained for another differentially transcribed perinuclear gene family, the ribosomal DNA units. Furthermore, we show that in the poised state, the var gene locus is not physically linked to nuclear pores. Our results indicate that P. falciparum does form compartments of high transcriptional activity at the nuclear periphery which are, unlike the case in yeast, devoid of nuclear pores.

  5. CRISPR/Cas9 Genome Editing Reveals That the Intron Is Not Essential for var2csa Gene Activation or Silencing in Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Bryant, Jessica M; Regnault, Clément; Scheidig-Benatar, Christine; Baumgarten, Sebastian; Guizetti, Julien; Scherf, Artur

    2017-07-11

    Plasmodium falciparum relies on monoallelic expression of 1 of 60 var virulence genes for antigenic variation and host immune evasion. Each var gene contains a conserved intron which has been implicated in previous studies in both activation and repression of transcription via several epigenetic mechanisms, including interaction with the var promoter, production of long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs), and localization to repressive perinuclear sites. However, functional studies have relied primarily on artificial expression constructs. Using the recently developed P. falciparum clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/Cas9 system, we directly deleted the var2csa P. falciparum 3D7_1200600 (Pf3D7_1200600) endogenous intron, resulting in an intronless var gene in a natural, marker-free chromosomal context. Deletion of the var2csa intron resulted in an upregulation of transcription of the var2csa gene in ring-stage parasites and subsequent expression of the PfEMP1 protein in late-stage parasites. Intron deletion did not affect the normal temporal regulation and subsequent transcriptional silencing of the var gene in trophozoites but did result in increased rates of var gene switching in some mutant clones. Transcriptional repression of the intronless var2csa gene could be achieved via long-term culture or panning with the CD36 receptor, after which reactivation was possible with chondroitin sulfate A (CSA) panning. These data suggest that the var2csa intron is not required for silencing or activation in ring-stage parasites but point to a subtle role in regulation of switching within the var gene family.IMPORTANCEPlasmodium falciparum is the most virulent species of malaria parasite, causing high rates of morbidity and mortality in those infected. Chronic infection depends on an immune evasion mechanism termed antigenic variation, which in turn relies on monoallelic expression of 1 of ~60 var genes. Understanding antigenic variation and the

  6. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.).

    PubMed

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9-12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3-9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6-12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants.

  7. A genetic linkage map for watermelon derived from a testcross population: ( Citrullus lanatus var. citroides x C. lanatus var. lanatus) x Citrullus colocynthis.

    PubMed

    Levi, A.; Thomas, E.; Joobeur, T.; Zhang, X.; Davis, A.

    2002-09-01

    A genetic linkage map was constructed for watermelon using a testcross population [Plant Accession Griffin 14113 ( Citrullus lanatus var. citroides) x New Hampshire Midget (NHM; C. lanatus var. lanatus)] x U.S. Plant Introduction (PI) 386015 ( Citrullus colocynthis). The map contains 141 randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers produced by 78 primers, 27 inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers produced by 17 primers, and a sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) marker that was previously reported as linked (1.6 cM) to race-1 Fusarium wilt [incited by Fusarium oxysporum Schlechtend.:Fr. f. sp. niveum (E.F.Sm.) W.C. Synder & H.N. Hans] resistance in watermelon. The map consists of 25 linkage groups. Among them are a large linkage group that contains 22 markers covering a mapping distance of 225.6 cM and six large groups each with 10-20 markers covering a mapping distance of 68.8 to 110.8 cM. There are five additional linkage groups consisting of 3-7 markers per group, each covering a mapping distance of 36.5 to 57.2 cM. The 13 remaining linkage groups are small, each consisting of 2-11 markers covering a mapping distance of 3.5-29.9 cM. The entire map covers a total distance of 1,166.2 cM with an average distance of 8.1 cM between two markers. This map is useful for the further development of markers linked to disease resistance and watermelon fruit qualities.

  8. Chromosome Doubling of Microspore-Derived Plants from Cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica L.)

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Suxia; Su, Yanbin; Liu, Yumei; Li, Zhansheng; Fang, Zhiyuan; Yang, Limei; Zhuang, Mu; Zhang, Yangyong; Lv, Honghao; Sun, Peitian

    2015-01-01

    Chromosome doubling of microspore-derived plants is an important factor in the practical application of microspore culture technology because breeding programs require a large number of genetically stable, homozygous doubled haploid plants with a high level of fertility. In the present paper, 29 populations of microspore-derived plantlets from cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) were used to study the ploidy level and spontaneous chromosome doubling of these populations, the artificial chromosome doubling induced by colchicine, and the influence of tissue culture duration on the chromosomal ploidy of the microspore-derived regenerants. Spontaneous chromosome doubling occurred randomly and was genotype dependent. In the plant populations derived from microspores, there were haploids, diploids, and even a low frequency of polyploids and mixed-ploidy plantlets. The total spontaneous doubling in the 14 cabbage populations ranged from 0 to 76.9%, compared with 52.2 to 100% in the 15 broccoli populations. To improve the rate of chromosome doubling, an efficient and reliable artificial chromosome doubling protocol (i.e., the immersion of haploid plantlet roots in a colchicine solution) was developed for cabbage and broccoli microspore-derived haploids. The optimal chromosome doubling of the haploids was obtained with a solution of 0.2% colchicine for 9–12 h or 0.4% colchicine for 3–9 h for cabbage and 0.05% colchicine for 6–12 h for broccoli. This protocol produced chromosome doubling in over 50% of the haploid genotypes for most of the populations derived from cabbage and broccoli. Notably, after 1 or more years in tissue culture, the chromosomes of the haploids were doubled, and most of the haploids turned into doubled haploid or mixed-ploidy plants. This is the first report indicating that tissue culture duration can change the chromosomal ploidy of microspore-derived regenerants. PMID:26734028

  9. Mutations in Su(var)205 and Su(var)3-7 Suppress P-Element-Dependent Silencing in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Bushey, Daniel; Locke, John

    2004-01-01

    In Drosophila melanogaster, the w+ transgene in P{lacW}ciDplac is uniformly expressed throughout the adult eye. However, when other P elements are present, this w+ transgene is randomly silenced and this produces a variegated eye phenotype. This P-element-dependent silencing (PDS) is limited to w+ transgenes inserted in a specific region on chromosome 4. In a screen for genetic modifiers of PDS, we isolated mutations in Su(var)205, Su(var)3-7, and two unidentified genes that suppress this variegated phenotype. Therefore, only a few of the genes encoding heterochromatic modifiers act dose dependently in PDS. In addition, we recovered two spontaneous mutations of P{lacW}ciDplac that variegate in the absence of P elements. These P{lacW}ciDplac derivatives have a gypsy element inserted proximally to the P{lacW}ciDplac insert. The same mutations that suppress PDS also suppress w+ silencing from these P{lacW}ciDplac derivative alleles. This indicates that both cis-acting changes in sequence and trans-acting P elements cause a similar change in chromatin structure that silences w+ expression in P{lacW}ciDplac. Together, these results confirm that PDS occurs at P{lacW}ciDplac because of the chromatin structure at this chromosomal position. Studying w+ variegation from P{lacW}ciDplac provides a model for the interactions that can enhance heterochromatic silencing at single P-element inserts. PMID:15579693

  10. Comparative analysis of flavonoid profile, antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the berries of Juniperus communis L. var. communis and Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pall. from Turkey.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Natalizia; Trovato, Ada; Dugo, Paola; Cacciola, Francesco; Donato, Paola; Marino, Andreana; Bellinghieri, Valentina; La Barbera, Tommaso M; Güvenç, Ayşegül; Taviano, Maria F

    2009-08-12

    The present study was designed to define and compare the flavonoid composition and the biological potential of berries methanol extracts of Juniperus communis L. var. communis (Jcc) and Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis. Pall. (Jcs) from Turkey. Total polyphenols (Folin-Ciocalteau method) were 3-fold higher in Jcc (59.17 +/- 1.65 mg GAE/g extract) than in Jcs (17.64 +/- 0.09 mg GAE/g extract). Flavonoid and biflavonoid content, evaluated by HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analysis, was higher in Jcc (25947 +/- 0.86 and 4346 +/- 3.95 microg/g extract) than in Jcs (5387 +/- 34.88 and 1944 +/- 26.88 microg/g extract). The HPLC analysis of Jcc allowed the separation of 16 flavonoids; hypolaetin-7-pentoside and quercetin-hexoside are the main compounds. Moreover, gossypetin-hexoside-pentoside and gossypetin-hexoside were identified for the first time in Jcc berries. In Jcs eight flavonoids were identified: quercetin-hexoside and isoscutellarein-8-O-hexoside are the most abundant compounds. The in vitro antioxidant activity was determined using different methods; Jcc was found to be more active than Jcs in the DPPH test (IC(50) of 0.63 +/- 0.09 mg/mL and 1.84 +/- 0.10 mg/mL) in reducing power assay (12.82 +/- 0.10 ASE/mL and 64.14 +/- 1.20 ASE/mL), and in TBA assay (IC(50) of 4.44 +/- 0.70 microg/mL and 120.07 +/- 3.60 microg/mL). By contrast, Jcs exhibited more elevated Fe(2+) chelating ability than Jcc. The extracts were also studied for their antimicrobial potential, displaying antimicrobial capacity only against Gram-positive bacteria.

  11. Diversity, virulence, and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol sensitivity of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici isolates from Washington state.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Youn-Sig; Bakker, Peter A H M; Glandorf, Debora C M; Rice, Jennifer T; Paulitz, Timothy C; Weller, David M

    2009-05-01

    We determined whether isolates of the take-all pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici become less sensitive to 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (2,4-DAPG) during wheat monoculture as a result of exposure to the antibiotic over multiple growing seasons. Isolates of G. graminis var. tritici were baited from roots of native grasses collected from noncropped fields and from roots of wheat from fields with different cropping histories near Lind, Ritzville, Pullman, and Almota, WA. Isolates were characterized by using morphological traits, G. graminis variety-specific polymerase chain reaction and pathogenicity tests. The sensitivity of G. graminis var. tritici isolates to 2,4-DAPG was determined by measuring radial growth of each isolate. The 90% effective dose value was 3.1 to 4.4 microg ml(-1) for 2,4-DAPG-sensitive isolates, 4.5 to 6.1 microg ml(-1) for moderately sensitive isolates, and 6.2 to 11.1 microg ml(-1) for less sensitive isolates. Sensitivity of G. graminis var. tritici isolates to 2,4-DAPG was normally distributed in all fields and was not correlated with geographic origin or cropping history of the field. There was no correlation between virulence on wheat and geographical origin, or virulence and sensitivity to 2,4-DAPG. These results indicate that G. graminis var. tritici does not become less sensitive to 2,4-DAPG during extended wheat monoculture.

  12. [Effect of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seed extracts on seed germination and seedling growth of different Codonopsis pilosula caltiver].

    PubMed

    Guo, Feng-Xia; Wu, Zhi-Jiang; Chen, Yuan; Xi, Zhuo-Xia; Zhang, Xiao-Hu; Yao, Li-Rong; Chen, Xiang

    2012-11-01

    To reveal the allelopathy effect of Astragalus membranaceus var. mongholicus seeds and provide information for the intercrop production. The A. membranaceus. var. mongholicus seeds were soaked in distilled water for different time (12, 24, 36, 48, 60 h) , and then the seed extracts were used to study their effects on the seed germination, seedling growth and development of two Codonopsis pilosula. The A. membranaceus var. mongholicus seeds contained some allelopathy compounds. Their soaked liquid had significantly influence on the seed germination and seedling growth of C. pilosula. The seed germination rate, germination power, germination index and vigor index of two C. pilosula calrivar were improved and then inhabited with soaking time elongation. The extract soaking for 24 h significantly improved the germination traits but the extract for 60 h appeared different degrees of inhibiting vigor. The seed extracts soaking ranging between 12 and 60 h all significantly improved the above plant growth of C. pilosula but significant inhibited their radicle growth in length. And with the soaking time elongation the facilitation effect weakened and the inhibiting effect enhanced, especially more significant in the C. pilosula caltivar (Baitiaodangshen). The A. membranaceus var. mongholicus seeds have allelopathic compounds and the endogenous inhibitor can be extracted when soaked for more than 24 h in water with intact seeds, resulting in improvement of seed germination rate. The C. pilosula could be intercropped in A. membranaceus var. mongholicus field, however, when intercroped it should notice that the intercrop proportion should vary with the caltivar.

  13. RBP-Var: a database of functional variants involved in regulation mediated by RNA-binding proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Fengbiao; Xiao, Luoyuan; Li, Xianfeng; Liang, Jialong; Teng, Huajing; Cai, Wanshi; Sun, Zhong Sheng

    2016-01-01

    Transcription factors bind to the genome by forming specific contacts with the primary DNA sequence; however, RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) have greater scope to achieve binding specificity through the RNA secondary structure. It has been revealed that single nucleotide variants (SNVs) that alter RNA structure, also known as RiboSNitches, exhibit 3-fold greater local structure changes than replicates of the same DNA sequence, demonstrated by the fact that depletion of RiboSNitches could result in the alteration of specific RNA shapes at thousands of sites, including 3′ UTRs, binding sites of microRNAs and RBPs. However, the network between SNVs and post-transcriptional regulation remains unclear. Here, we developed RBP-Var, a database freely available at http://www.rbp-var.biols.ac.cn/, which provides annotation of functional variants involved in post-transcriptional interaction and regulation. RBP-Var provides an easy-to-use web interface that allows users to rapidly find whether SNVs of interest can transform the secondary structure of RNA and identify RBPs whose binding may be subsequently disrupted. RBP-Var integrates DNA and RNA biology to understand how various genetic variants and post-transcriptional mechanisms cooperate to orchestrate gene expression. In summary, RBP-Var is useful in selecting candidate SNVs for further functional studies and exploring causal SNVs underlying human diseases. PMID:26635394

  14. The echinocandin B producer fungus Aspergillus nidulans var. roseus ATCC 58397 does not possess innate resistance against its lipopeptide antimycotic.

    PubMed

    Tóth, Viktória; Nagy, Csilla Terézia; Pócsi, István; Emri, Tamás

    2012-07-01

    Aspergillus nidulans var. roseus ATCC 58397 is an echinocandin B (ECB) producer ascomycete with great industrial importance. As demonstrated by ECB/caspofungin sensitivity assays, A. nidulans var. roseus does not possess any inherent resistance to echinocandins, and its tolerance to these lipopeptide antimycotics are even lower than those of the non-producer A. nidulans FGSC A4 strain. Under ECB producing conditions or ECB exposures, A. nidulans var. roseus induced its ECB tolerance via up-regulating elements of the chitin biosynthetic machinery and, hence, through changing dynamically the composition of its own cell wall. Importantly, although the specific β-1,3-glucan synthase activity was elevated, these changes reduced the β-glucan content of hyphae considerably, but the expression of fksA, encoding the catalytic subunit of β-1,3-glucan synthase, the putative target of echinocandins in the aspergilli, was not affected. These data suggest that compensatory chitin biosynthesis is the centerpiece of the induced ECB tolerance of A. nidulans var. roseus. It is important to note that the induced tolerance to ECB (although resulted in paradoxical growth at higher ECB concentrations) was accompanied with reduced growth rate and, under certain conditions, even sensitized the fungus to other stress-generating agents like SDS. We hypothesize that although ECB-resistant mutants may arise in vivo in A. nidulans var. roseus cultures, their widespread propagation is severely restricted by the disadvantageous physiological effects of such mutations.

  15. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts and lignan identified in Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica roots against housefly (Musca domestica L.).

    PubMed

    Seo, Seon-Mi; Park, Il-Kwon

    2012-05-01

    Medicinal plant extracts from 27 plant species in 20 families were tested for their larvicidal activity against housefly, Musca domestica (L.). Responses varied with plant material and concentration. Among plant species tested, Phryma leptostachya var. asiatica showed 100% larvicidal activity against M. domestica at 10 mg/g concentration. Larvicidal activities of Atractylodes japonica, Saussurea lappa, Asiasarum sieboldi, and Gleditsia japonica var. koraiensis were 89.3%, 85.3%, 93.3%, and 96.6% at 10 mg/g concentration, respectively. Extracts of Prunus persica, Curcuma longa, and Paeonia moutan produced moderate activity. Larvicidal activity of other plant extracts was less than 50%. Among test plant species, P. leptostachya var. asiatica showed the most potent larvicidal activity. The active constituent of P. leptostachya var. asiatica roots was identified as the leptostachyol acetate by spectroscopic analysis. The LC(50) values of leptostachyol acetate against M. domestica larvae were 0.039 mg/g. Naturally occurring medicinal plant extracts and P. leptostachya var. asiatica root-derived compounds merit further study as potential housefly larval control agents or lead compounds.

  16. Identification of a Major Dimorphic Region in the Functionally Critical N-Terminal ID1 Domain of VAR2CSA

    PubMed Central

    Doritchamou, Justin; Sabbagh, Audrey; Jespersen, Jakob S.; Renard, Emmanuelle; Salanti, Ali; Nielsen, Morten A.; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2015-01-01

    The VAR2CSA protein of Plasmodium falciparum is transported to and expressed on the infected erythrocyte surface where it plays a key role in placental malaria (PM). It is the current leading candidate for a vaccine to prevent PM. However, the antigenic polymorphism integral to VAR2CSA poses a challenge for vaccine development. Based on detailed analysis of polymorphisms in the sequence of its ligand-binding N-terminal region, currently the main focus for vaccine development, we assessed var2csa from parasite isolates infecting pregnant women. The results reveal for the first time the presence of a major dimorphic region in the functionally critical N-terminal ID1 domain. Parasite isolates expressing VAR2CSA with particular motifs present within this domain are associated with gravidity- and parasite density-related effects. These observations are of particular interest in guiding efforts with respect to optimization of the VAR2CSA-based vaccines currently under development. PMID:26393516

  17. Functional Antibodies against VAR2CSA in Nonpregnant Populations from Colombia Exposed to Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax

    PubMed Central

    Doritchamou, Justin; Arango, Eliana M.; Cabrera, Ana; Arroyo, Maria Isabel; Kain, Kevin C.; Ndam, Nicaise Tuikue; Maestre, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    In pregnancy, parity-dependent immunity is observed in response to placental infection with Plasmodium falciparum. Antibodies recognize the surface antigen, VAR2CSA, expressed on infected red blood cells and inhibit cytoadherence to the placental tissue. In most settings of malaria endemicity, antibodies against VAR2CSA are predominantly observed in multigravid women and infrequently in men, children, and nulligravid women. However, in Colombia, we detected antibodies against multiple constructs of VAR2CSA among men and children with acute P. falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infection. The majority of men and children (>60%) had high levels of IgGs against three recombinant domains of VAR2CSA: DBL5ε, DBL3X, and ID1-ID2. Surprisingly, these antibodies were observed only in pregnant women, men, and children exposed either to P. falciparum or to P. vivax. Moreover, the anti-VAR2CSA antibodies are of high avidity and efficiently inhibit adherence of infected red blood cells to chondroitin sulfate A in vitro, suggesting that they are specific and functional. These unexpected results suggest that there may be genotypic or phenotypic differences in the parasites of this region or in the host response to either P. falciparum or P. vivax infection outside pregnancy. These findings may hold significant clinical relevance to the pathophysiology and outcome of malaria infections in this region. PMID:24686068

  18. Neuroprotective effect of Cucumis melo Var. flexuosus leaf extract on the brains of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Doaa S

    2017-02-01

    The central nervous system is one of the most vulnerable organs affected by the oxidative stress associated with diabetes mellitus. Healthy food provides an important source for antioxidants. Therefore, the protective effect of Cucumis melo var. flexuosus (C. melo var. flexuosus) leaf extract on the brains of diabetic rats was investigated. Adult male albino rats divided into 5 groups of 6 rats each were assigned into a normal control group and four diabetic groups. Diabetes was induced in rats by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 60 mg/kg bw). One of the four diabetic groups was left untreated and was considered as a diabetic control group while the three other groups were treated with C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract at the doses of 30, 60 and 120 mg/kg bw for a period of 30 days. After completion of experimental duration plasma and brains were used for evaluating biochemical changes. The obtained data showed that C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract treatment lowered blood glucose, glycated hemoglobin, brain tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin levels, brain malondialdehyde content and caspase-3 activity. Furthermore, the treatment resulted in a marked increase in plasma dopamine, melatonin, brain vascular endothelial growth factor-A levels, brain catalase and superoxide dismutase activities. From the present study, it can be concluded that the C. melo var. flexuosus leaf extract exerts a neuroprotective effect against oxidative damage associated with diabetes.

  19. Can Hg(II) be determined via quenching of the emission of green fluorescent protein from Anemonia sulcata var. smaragdina?

    PubMed

    Bozkurt, Serap Seyhan; Cavas, Levent

    2009-07-01

    Anemonia sulcata var. smaragdina is a widely distributed Cnidarian species along Turkish coastlines. It is also a well-known example of a facultative symbiotic life form in sea ecosystems. Green fluorescent proteins (GFPs) in Anemonia sulcata var. smaragdina have vital roles in this symbiotic form. The fluorescence quenching by Hg(II) in the supernatants obtained from A. sulcata var. smaragdina was shown in this study. According to results, there was a statistical significant relationship (R(2) = 0.9913) between increased Hg(II) concentration and decreased fluorescence intensity of GFP supernatants obtained from A. sulcata var. smaragdina. Mn(II), Fe(II), and Al(II) showed no interference effect and did not change the fluorescence intensity of GFP supernatants obtained from A. sulcata var. smaragdina. In conclusion, the fluorescence quenching of GFPs by Hg(II) can be a novel method to determine the Hg(II) levels in aqueous solution. Therefore, further researches are strongly warranted because of the possible potential applications of the fluorescence quenching of GFPs by Hg(II).

  20. [Experimental inoculation of Terminalia catappa seedlings with an environmental isolate of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype C ].

    PubMed

    Escandón, Patricia; Huérfano, Sandra; Castañeda, Elizabeth

    2002-12-01

    In 1997, our laboratory reported for the first time the isolation of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii serotype C associated with almond tree (Terminalia catappa) detritus. This finding led to a more detailed follow up of the association between the plant and the yeast. Preliminary data have shown that survival of the yeast in almond trees seedlings goes beyond 100 days. The aim of the present study was to establish if under the conditions previously studied, C. neoformans var. gattii would remain viable for longer periods. A total of 83 almond tree seedings, 20-40 cm high, were inoculated with C. neoformans var. gattii serotype C (INS-755). Assays were carried out inoculating the stem or the soil where the seedlings were planted. Observations were undertaken for a period of up to 12 months. As processing techniques we employed the endophytic fungi procedure (stems), maceration (roots, leaves) and standard suspension method (soils). Additionally, microscopic visualization of the yeast in plant tissues was done with trypan blue plus lactophenol. C. neoformans var. gattii was recovered from the inoculated plants for a period of up to 12 months post-inoculation; additionally, the fungus had the capacity to migrate from the stem to the soil and viceversa, without causing macroscopic or microscopic alterations in the plant tissues. This finding suggests that there appears to be an association between the host plant and C. neoformans var. gattii in the environment.

  1. Presence of alpha and a mating types in environmental and clinical collections of Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii strains from Australia.

    PubMed

    Halliday, C L; Bui, T; Krockenberger, M; Malik, R; Ellis, D H; Carter, D A

    1999-09-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii lives in association with certain species of eucalyptus trees and is a causative agent of cryptococcosis. It exists as two mating types, MATalpha and MATa, which is determined by a single-locus, two-allele system. In the closely related C. neoformans var. neoformans, the alpha mating type has been found to outnumber its a counterpart by at least 30:1, but there have been very limited data on the proportions of each mating type in C. neoformans var. gattii. In the present study, specific PCR primers were designed to amplify two separate alpha-mating-type genes from C. neoformans var. gattii strains. These were used to survey for the presence of the two mating types in clinical and environmental collections of C. neoformans var. gattii strains from Australia. Sixty-eight of 69 clinical isolates produced both alpha mating type-specific bands and were assumed to be of the alpha mating type. The majority of environmental isolates were also of the alpha mating type, but the a mating type was located in two separate areas. In one area, the a mating type outnumbered the alpha mating type by 27:2, but in the second area, the ratio of the two mating types was close to the 50:50 ratio expected for sexual recombination.

  2. var gene transcription and PfEMP1 expression in the rosetting and cytoadhesive Plasmodium falciparum clone FCR3S1.2

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The pathogenicity of Plasmodium falciparum is in part due to the ability of the parasitized red blood cell (pRBC) to adhere to intra-vascular host cell receptors and serum-proteins. Binding of the pRBC is mediated by Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), a large multi-variant molecule encoded by a family of ≈60 var genes. Methods The study of var gene transcription in the parasite clone FCR3S1.2 was performed by semi-quantitative PCR and quantitative PCR (qPCR). The expression of the major PfEMP1 in FCR3S1.2 pRBC was analysed with polyclonal sera in rosette disruption assays and immunofluorecence. Results Transcripts from var1 (FCR3S1.2var1; IT4var21) and other var genes were detected by semi-quantitative PCR but results from qPCR showed that one var gene transcript dominated over the others (FCR3S1.2var2; IT4var60). Antibodies raised in rats to the recombinant NTS-DBL1α of var2 produced in E. coli completely and dose-dependently disrupted rosettes (≈95% at a dilution of 1/5). The sera reacted with the Maurer's clefts in trophozoite stages (IFA) and to the infected erythrocyte surface (FACS) indicating that FCR3S1.2var2 encodes the dominant PfEMP1 expressed in this parasite. Conclusion The major transcript in the rosetting model parasite FCR3S1.2 is FCR3S1.2var2 (IT4var60). The results suggest that this gene encodes the PfEMP1-species responsible for the rosetting phenotype of this parasite. The activity of previously raised antibodies to the NTS-DBL1α of FCR3S1.2var1 is likely due to cross-reactivity with NTS-DBL1α of the var2 encoded PfEMP1. PMID:21266056

  3. Water-soluble polysaccharides from Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida mycelial biomass.

    PubMed

    Komura, Dirce L; Ruthes, Andrea C; Carbonero, Elaine R; Gorin, Philip A J; Iacomini, Marcello

    2014-09-01

    Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida known as Hiratake has a high nutritional value, presents medicinal and nutraceutical properties and it is one of the consumed mushrooms in Brazil. Thus, the aim of this study was to characterize the chemical structure of polysaccharides found in mycelial biomass produced by submerged culture of P. ostreatus var. florida in order to compare with those found in P. ostreatus var. florida fruit bodies. Aqueous and alkali extracts obtained from mycelial biomass were purified, 13C NMR, GC-MS and chemical techniques were used to characterize three polysaccharide structures: a mannogalactan (MG-PfM) with α-D-Galp and 3-O-Me-α-D-Galp units, both (1→6)-linked, highly substituted at O-2 by D-Manp, a glycogen-like polymer (GLY-PfM) with α-D-Glp (1→4)-linked main chain, partially substituted at O-6 by α-D-Glcp side chains and a (1→3), (1→6) β-D-glucan (βGLC-PfM) with a main chain of β-D-Glcp (1→3)-linked units, partially substituted at O-6 by side chains of 6-O-substituted β-D-glucopyranosyl units, on an average of one to every two residues of the backbone. These results show the possibility to obtain similar and also different molecules from those found in the fruiting body of the same mushroom species, therefore the submerged culture of mushroom is a promising way to give raise molecules of interest. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Morpho-anatomy, imbibition, viability and germination of the seed of Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Varela, Rodolfo Omar; Albornoz, Patricia Liliana

    2013-09-01

    Seed biology is a relevant aspect of tropical forests because it is central to the understanding of processes of plant establishment, succession and natural regeneration. Anadenanthera colubrina var. cebil is a timber tree from South America that produces large seeds with thin weak teguments, which is uncommon among legumes. This study describes the morphology and anatomy of the seed coat, the viability, imbibition, and germination in this species. Seeds used during the essays came from 10 trees that grow naturally in Horco Molle, province of Tucumán, Argentina. Seed morphology was described from a sample of 20 units. The seed coat surface was examined with a scanning electron microscope. Transverse sections of hydrated and non-hydrated seeds were employed to describe the histological structure of the seed coat. Hydration, viability and germination experiments were performed under laboratory controlled conditions; and the experimental design consisted of 10 replicas of 10 seeds each. Viability and germination tests were conducted using freshly fallen seeds and seeds stored for five months. Morphologically the seeds of A. colubrina var. cebil are circular to subcircular, laterally compressed, smooth, bright brown and have a horseshoe fissure line (= pleurogram) on both sides. The seed coat comprises five tissue layers and a double (external and internal) cuticle. The outer cuticle (on the epidermis) is smooth and interrupted by microcracks and pores of variable depth. The epidermis consists of macroesclereids with non-lignified secondary walls. This layer is separated from the underlying ones during seed hydration. The other layers of internal tissues are comprised of osteosclereids, parenchyma, osteosclereids, and macrosclereids. The percentage of viable seeds was 93%, decreasing to 75% in seeds with five months old. Seed mass increased 76% after the first eight hours of hydration. Germination percentage was 75% after 76 hours. Germination of seeds stored for five

  5. Identification of novel hybrids between Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii VNI and Cryptococcus gattii VGII.

    PubMed

    Aminnejad, Mojgan; Diaz, Mara; Arabatzis, Michael; Castañeda, Elizabeth; Lazera, Marcia; Velegraki, Aristea; Marriott, Deborah; Sorrell, Tania C; Meyer, Wieland

    2012-06-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans and Cryptococcus gattii are pathogenic yeasts causing meningoencephalitis in immunocompromised and immunocompetent hosts. The fungus is typically haploid, and sexual reproduction occurs normally between individuals with opposite mating types, α and a. C. neoformans var. grubii (serotype A) is comprised of molecular types VNI, VNII, and VNB, and C. neoformans var. neoformans (serotype D) contains the molecular type VNIV. Additionally, diploid or aneuploid AD hybrids (VNIII) have been reported. C. gattii contains the molecular types VGI, VGII, VGIII, and VGIV, which encompass both serotypes B and C. To identify possible hybrid strains, URA5-RFLP analysis was performed on 350 globally obtained clinical, environmental, and veterinary isolates. Four clinical isolates from cerebrospinal fluid showed combination patterns of C. neoformans var. grubii and C. gattii: Brazil (n = 2), Colombia (n = 1), and India (n = 1). These strains were monokaryotic and diploid or aneuploid. M13 PCR fingerprinting showed that they contained fragments of both proposed parental groups. Luminex IGS genotyping identified these isolates as hybrids with two different molecular type combinations: three VNI/VGII and one VNI/VGI. Blue color development on CGB agar was delayed in three isolates and absent in one. C. gattii-specific PCR confirmed the presence of C. gattii in the hybrids. CAP59 allele-specific PCR revealed that all the hybrids contained both serotype A and B alleles. Determination of mating-type allelic patterns by PCR revealed that the isolates were αA aB. This is the first study discovering novel natural hybrids between C. neoformans molecular type VNI and C. gattii molecular type VGII.

  6. PigVar: a database of pig variations and positive selection signatures

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhong-Yin; Li, Aimin; Otecko, Newton O.; Liu, Yan-Hu; Irwin, David M.; Wang, Lu; Adeola, Adeniyi C.; Zhang, Junying; Xie, Hai-Bing

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Pigs are excellent large-animal models for medical research and a promising organ donor source for transplant patients. Next-generation sequencing technology has yielded a dramatic increase in the volume of genomic data for pigs. However, the limited amount of variation data provided by dbSNP, and non-congruent criteria used for calling variation, present considerable hindrances to the utility of this data. We used a uniform pipeline, based on GATK, to identify non-redundant, high-quality, whole-genome SNPs from 280 pigs and 6 outgroup species. A total of 64.6 million SNPs were identified in 280 pigs and 36.8 million in the outgroups. We then used LUMPY to identify a total of 7 236 813 structural variations (SVs) in 211 pigs. Positively selected loci were identified through five statistical tests of different evolutionary attributes of the SNPs. Combining the non-redundant variations and the evolutionary selective scores, we built the first pig-specific variation database, PigVar (http://www.ibiomedical.net/pigvar/), which is a web-based open-access resource. PigVar collects parameters of the variations including summary lists of the locations of the variations within protein-coding and long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) genes, whether the SNPs are synonymous or non-synonymous, their ancestral and derived states, geographic sampling locations, as well as breed information. The PigVar database will be kept operational and updated to facilitate medical research using the pig as model and agricultural research including pig breeding. Database URL: http://www.ibiomedical.net/pigvar/

  7. SEVIRI 4D-var assimilation analysing the April 2010 Eyjafjallajökull ash dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lange, Anne Caroline; Elbern, Hendrik

    2016-04-01

    We present first results of four dimensional variational (4D-var) data assimilation analysis applying SEVIRI observations to the Eulerian regional chemistry and aerosol transport model EURAD-IM (European Air Pollution Dispersion - Inverse Model). Optimising atmospheric dispersion models in terms of volcanic ash transport predictions by observations is especially essential for the aviation industry and associated interests. Remote sensing satellite observations are instrumental for ash detection and monitoring. We choose volcanic ash column retrievals of the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) because as infrared instrument on the geostationary satellite Meteosat Second Generation it delivers measurements with high temporal resolution during day and night. The retrieval method relies on the reverse absorption effect. In the framework of the national initiative ESKP (Earth System Knowledge Platform) and the European ACTRIS-2 (Aerosol, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure) project, we developed new modules (forward and adjoint) within the EURAD-IM, which are able to process SEVIRI ash column data as observational input to the 4D-var system. The focus of the 4D-var analysis is on initial value optimisation of the volcanic ash clouds that were emitted during the explosive Eyjafjallajökull eruption in April 2010. This eruption caused high public interest because of air traffic closures and it was particularly well observed from many different observation systems all over Europe. Considering multiple observation periods simultaneously in one assimilation window generates a continuous trajectory in the phase space and ensures that past observations are considered within their uncertainties. Results are validated mainly by lidar (LIght Detection And Ranging) observations, both ground and satellite based.

  8. Effects of bacteria on cadmium bioaccumulation in the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L.

    PubMed

    Chen, Su; Chao, Lei; Sun, Lina; Sun, Tieheng

    2013-01-01

    To investigate the effects of two cadmium-tolerant bacteria, Staphylococcus pasteuri (S. pasteuri X1) and Agrobacterium tumefaciens (A. tumefaciens X2), on cadmium uptake by the cadmium hyperaccumulator plant Beta vulgaris var. cicla L., a pot experiment with artificially contaminated soil was conducted. The results demonstrated that both cadmium-tolerant bacteria enhanced the dry weight of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. The total dry weights of plants in the control CK20, S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 treatments were 0.85, 1.13, and 1.38 g/pot, respectively. Compared with the control CK20 findings, the total dry weight of plants was increased by 32.8 and 61.1% after inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2, respectively, indicating that A. tumefaciens X2 more strongly promoted the growth of Beta vulgaris var. cicla L. than S. pasteuri X1. In addition, inoculation with S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 significantly (p < 0.05) promoted cadmium uptake by plants and improved the bioaccumulation of cadmium by the plants from the soil. Moreover, the inoculation of S. pasteuri X1 and A. tumefaciens X2 effectively facilitated the transfer of cadmium in the soil from the Fe-Mn oxide and residual fractions to the soluble plus exchangeable and weakly specially adsorbed fractions in the rhizosphere soils of plants. The bacterial enhancement of cadmium phytoavailability might provide a potential and promising method to increase the efficiency of phytoextraction.

  9. CanVar: A resource for sharing germline variation in cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Chubb, Daniel; Broderick, Peter; Dobbins, Sara E.; Houlston, Richard S.

    2016-01-01

    The advent of high-throughput sequencing has accelerated our ability to discover genes predisposing to disease and is transforming clinical genomic sequencing. In both contexts knowledge of the spectrum and frequency of genetic variation in the general population and in disease cohorts is vital to the interpretation of sequencing data. While population level data is becoming increasingly available from publicly accessible sources, as exemplified by The Exome Aggregation Consortium (ExAC), the availability of large-scale disease-specific frequency information is limited. These data are of particular importance to contextualise findings from clinical mutation screens and small gene discovery projects. This is especially true for cancer, which is typified by a number of hereditary predisposition syndromes.  Although mutation frequencies in tumours are available from resources such as Cosmic and The Cancer Genome Atlas, a similar facility for germline variation is lacking. Here we present the Cancer Variation Resource (CanVar) an online database which has been developed using the ExAC framework to provide open access to germline variant frequency data from the sequenced exomes of cancer patients. In its first release, CanVar catalogues the exomes of 1,006 familial early-onset colorectal cancer (CRC) patients sequenced at The Institute of Cancer Research. It is anticipated that CanVar will host data for additional cancers, providing a resource for others studying cancer predisposition and an example of how the research community can utilise the ExAC framework to share sequencing data. PMID:28105316

  10. Differential var gene expression in children with malaria and antidromic effects on host gene expression.

    PubMed

    Kalmbach, Yvonne; Rottmann, Matthias; Kombila, Maryvonne; Kremsner, Peter G; Beck, Hans-Peter; Kun, Jürgen F J

    2010-07-15

    Among 62 children with mild malaria, cerebral malaria, or severe malarial anemia, we analyzed the transcription of different var gene types. There was no difference in parasitemia level or body temperature between groups. However, a significantly different expression pattern was observed in children with cerebral malaria, compared with that in patients in the other 2 groups: children with cerebral malaria had lower expression of the upsA subtype but higher expression of the upsB and upsC subtypes. Furthermore, expression of human genes responsive to tumor necrosis factor and hypoxia correlated with distinct ups types.

  11. Quantification of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora var. robusta in roasted and ground coffee blends.

    PubMed

    Cagliani, Laura Ruth; Pellegrino, Gloria; Giugno, Graziella; Consonni, Roberto

    2013-03-15

    This study reports direct quantification of arabica in roasted and ground coffee blends of Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora var. robusta. (1)H-NMR analysis of water extracts of coffee blends were combined with multivariate statistical analysis to obtain an OPLS model with high predictive capability. This approach allowed to evaluate the composition of coffee blends of unknown arabica and robusta content, on the basis of multiple chemical components. Differences in geographical origin of the analyzed samples did not affected the compositional determination of coffee blends. This approach represents a valid tool in authentication procedures of arabica and robusta blends of roasted and ground coffee.

  12. Haemolytic activity and immunological adjuvant effect of a new steroidal saponin from Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum.

    PubMed

    Adão, Camila Rodrigues; Pereira da Silva, Bernadete; Tinoco, Luzineide Wanderley; Parente, José Paz

    2012-01-01

    A new steroidal saponin was isolated from the bulbs of Allium ampeloprasum L. var. porrum. On the basis of chemical evidence, comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, and comparison with known compounds, its structure was established as (3β,5α,6β,25R)-3-{(O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranosyl)oxy}-6-hydroxyspirostan-2-one (1). Results of the present study indicated that 1 exhibited haemolytic activity in the in vitro assays, and immunological adjuvant activity on the cellular immune response against ovalbumin antigen.

  13. Diterpenoids from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus var. tomentosus.

    PubMed

    Song, Jin-Tong; Han, Yang; Wang, Xiao-Ling; Shen, Tao; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning

    2015-12-01

    One new 9,10-seco-abietane derivative, crotontomentosin A (1), four new abietane-type diterpenoids, crotontomentosins B-E (2-5), one new ent-halimane-type diterpenoid, crotontomentosin F (6), along with five known diterpenoids (7-11) and one known sesquiterpenoid (12) were obtained from the twigs and leaves of Croton caudatus Geisel. var. tomentosus Hook. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic data. Compounds 1-4 and 11 exhibited moderate to weak inhibitory activity against the proliferation of the Hela, Hep G2, MDA-MB-231, or A549 cell lines selectively.

  14. Reinstatement of the Loyalty Islands Sandalwood, Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum (Santalaceae), in New Caledonia.

    PubMed

    Butaud, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Sandalwoods encompass 19 species restricted to southeast Asia and the Pacific. The species Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieill. (Santalaceae) is endemic to New Caledonia (Grande-Terre, Isle of Pines, Loyalty Islands) and Vanuatu, where several varieties are recognized. The Loyalty Islands sandalwood variety is here reinstated as Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum Hürl. emend. Butaud & P.Firmenich, mut. char. It was previously considered a synonym of the type variety; however, new morphological and genetic studies confirmed its distinctiveness. The key for New Caledonian varieties of Santalum austrocaledonicum has been updated and a short description of its essential oil composition and organoleptic quality is given.

  15. Saponins from leaves of Kalopanax pictum var. maximowiczii, a Korean medicinal plant.

    PubMed

    Hahn, D R; Oinaka, T; Kasai, R; Tanaka, O

    1989-08-01

    From leaves of Kalopanax pictum var. maximowiczii, a Korean medicinal plant, six known saponins of hederagenin were isolated. One of the monodesmosides was identified as sapindoside A, previously isolated from Sapindus spp. Another monodesmoside and four bisdesmosides were proved to be identical with saponins-K3, -K10 and -K12 and Kizuta saponins-K8 and -K11, respectively, all of which have been isolated from Hedera rhombea. It was observed that the water solubilities of these monodesmosides were increased in the presence of the co-occurring bisdesmosides. The relationship between structure and solubilizing effect is reported.

  16. Revision of the South American genus Xiphiola Bolívar, 1896 (Orthoptera: Acrididae: Ommatolampidinae: Abracrini).

    PubMed

    Costa, Maria Kátia Matiotti Da; Ferrari, Augusto; Zefa, Edison; Carvalho, Gervásio Silva

    2016-09-26

    The Neotropical genus Xiphiola Bolívar, 1896 is revised. It includes two valid species: Xiphiola borellii Giglio-Tos, 1900 and Xiphiola cyanoptera (Gerstaecker, 1889). The genus and the species are redescribed and diagnostic characters are provided along with illustrations of each species. A lectotype and paralectoype for X. cyanoptera are here designated. We also include new morphological characters from male and female genitalia, and external characters that have not been employed until now. We present the distribution map based on material examined, as well as a key to species.

  17. Optimal Allocation of Static Var Compensator via Mixed Integer Conic Programming

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Xiaohu; Shi, Di; Wang, Zhiwei; Huang, Junhui; Wang, Xu; Liu, Guodong; Tomsovic, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Shunt FACTS devices, such as, a Static Var Compensator (SVC), are capable of providing local reactive power compensation. They are widely used in the network to reduce the real power loss and improve the voltage profile. This paper proposes a planning model based on mixed integer conic programming (MICP) to optimally allocate SVCs in the transmission network considering load uncertainty. The load uncertainties are represented by a number of scenarios. Reformulation and linearization techniques are utilized to transform the original non-convex model into a convex second order cone programming (SOCP) model. Numerical case studies based on the IEEE 30-bus system demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed planning model.

  18. Field installation and modifications of a 5-kV class adaptive var compensator

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Huang, T.; Szofran, A.; Andexler, G.; Dong, M.; Venkata, S.S.; Butler, N.; Rodriguez, A.; Kerszenbaum, I.

    1995-10-01

    A 5-kV class Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) was designed, installed, and tested at a rock crushing plant where the reactive power is rapidly varying. Several novel circuits including optical triggering for the switching of the solid state devices are used in the AVC. The AVC provides reactive power support for cyclic loads, and maintains the power factor at unity at the point of installation without introducing transients to the system. During the field testing of the AVC, several modifications were made to ensure that the AVC operates accurately in a harsh industrial environment. The design, modifications and field test results of the AVC are presented in this paper.

  19. Development and field testing of a 15-kv class adaptive var compensator

    SciTech Connect

    El-Sharkawi, M.A.; Dong, M.; Huang, T.; Szofran, A.; Andexler, G.; Venkata, S.S.; Butler, N.; Rodriguez, A.; Kerszenbaum

    1995-10-01

    A 15-kV class Adaptive Var Compensator (AVC) is developed and field tested. The AVC is a solid stat switched, binary stepped capacitor bank, used to compensate any rapidly changing reactive demand within one-half cycle without introducing transients of harmonics. The main features of the AVC are introduced followed by an historical evolution. A general description of each major module is presented and modifications as development proceeded are shown. Results from two industrial site installations are also presented showing the adverse conditions in which the AVC will successfully operate.

  20. Monoamine oxidase B inhibitors from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten.

    PubMed

    Han, Y N; Choo, Y; Lee, Y C; Moon, Y I; Kim, S D; Choi, J W

    2001-02-01

    Three varieties of methyl citrate and 1-methyl malate were isolated from the fruits of Opuntia ficus-indica var. saboten Makino through in vitro bioassay-guided isolation for the inhibition on monoamine oxidase(MAO). The IC50 values for MAO-B of 1-monomethyl citrate, 1,3-dimethyl citrate, trimethyl citrate and 1-methyl malate were 0.19, 0.23, 0.61 and 0.25 mM, respectively. However, on MAO-A, their inhibitions showed only marginal activity.

  1. The histological lesions of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var erinacei infection in dogs.

    PubMed

    Fairley, R A

    2001-04-01

    A retrospective study of the histological features of four cases of canine Trichophyton mentagrophytes var erinacei infection is reported. In all four dogs the initial lesions affected the dorsal muzzle and in two dogs the lesions spread to more distant sites on the body. Clinically, the lesions were characterized by scaling, crusting and hair loss. Histologically, the main lesions were characterized by acanthosis, epidermal, ostial and infundibular hyperkeratosis, serocellular crusting, mural folliculitis and furunculosis. Fungal hyphae were usually sparse and often difficult to see in haematoxylin and eosin stained sections. When visible they were seen in the epidermal, ostial and infundibular scale and, less frequently, within hair shafts.

  2. A clarified position for solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme in the evolutionary history of tomatoes (solanaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Ranc, Nicolas; Muños, Stéphane; Santoni, Sylvain; Causse, Mathilde

    2008-01-01

    Background The natural phenotypic variability present in the germplasm of cultivated plants can be linked to molecular polymorphisms using association genetics. However it is necessary to consider the genetic structure of the germplasm used to avoid false association. The knowledge of genetic structure of plant populations can help in inferring plant evolutionary history. In this context, we genotyped 360 wild, feral and cultivated accessions with 20 simple sequence repeat markers and investigated the extent and structure of the genetic variation. The study focused on the red fruited tomato clade involved in the domestication of tomato and confirmed the admixture status of cherry tomatoes (Solanum lycopersicum var. cerasiforme). We used a nested sample strategy to set-up core collection maximizing the genetic diversity with a minimum of individuals. Results Molecular diversity was considerably lower in S. lycopersicum i.e. the domesticated form. Model-based analysis showed that the 144 S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme accessions were structured into two groups: one close to the domesticated group and one resulting from the admixture of the S. lycopersicum and S. pimpinellifolium genomes. SSR genotyping also indicates that domesticated and wild tomatoes have evolved as a species complex with intensive level of hybridization. We compiled genotypic and phenotypic data to identify sub-samples of 8, 24, 32 and 64 cherry tomato accessions that captured most of the genetic and morphological diversity present in the entire S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme collection. Conclusion The extent and structure of allelic variation is discussed in relation to historical events like domestication and modern selection. The potential use of the admixed group of S. lycopersicum var. cerasiforme for association genetics studies is also discussed. Nested core collections sampled to represent tomato diversity will be useful in diversity studies. Molecular and phenotypic variability of

  3. Evaluation of the antinflammatory and analgesic activity of Sideritis canariensis var. pannosa in mice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, Margarita; Rabanal, Rosa M

    2002-06-01

    A previous chemical study of Sideritis canariensis var. pannosa demonstrated the presence of some important classes of related organic compounds with anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the crude ethanol extract and the chloroformic and aqueous fractions of S. canariensis have been examined for their antimicrobial actions through the disk-diffusion method and for their anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in several animal models. No relevant antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms was found. The chloroformic fraction was the most interesting, exhibiting a good analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity.

  4. [Exploration of influencing factors of price of herbal based on VAR model].

    PubMed

    Wang, Nuo; Liu, Shu-Zhen; Yang, Guang

    2014-10-01

    Based on vector auto-regression (VAR) model, this paper takes advantage of Granger causality test, variance decomposition and impulse response analysis techniques to carry out a comprehensive study of the factors influencing the price of Chinese herbal, including herbal cultivation costs, acreage, natural disasters, the residents' needs and inflation. The study found that there is Granger causality relationship between inflation and herbal prices, cultivation costs and herbal prices. And in the total variance analysis of Chinese herbal and medicine price index, the largest contribution to it is from its own fluctuations, followed by the cultivation costs and inflation.

  5. Spectral analysis of LBV stars in M31: AF And and Var 15

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valeev, A. F.; Sholukhova, O.; Fabrika, S.

    2015-01-01

    We study spectra of two bona fide LBV stars in M31: AF And and Var 15. The spectra were obtained with the 6-m telescope (Russia) from 2005 to 2012. The model spectra were calculated with the CMFGEN code. We have not found strong changes in the spectra of the LBV stars in that time interval, however a certain variability has been detected. We estimate the star and wind parameters, such as luminosity, temperature, raduis, mass loss rate, escape velocity, hydrogen content, and reddening. We study the stars on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram and find their initial masses using evolutionary tracks by Meynet et al. (1994).

  6. Operational benefits from optimal volt/var scheduling in the south-east Australian transmission network

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, E.; Eichler, R.; Lyons, M.

    1995-12-31

    The Victorian power system supplies the Australian federal state of Victoria (population: 4.5 million; capital city: Melbourne) with electricity. Over the last three years an extensive EMS computer system has been installed at the System Control Centre in Melbourne. It includes among other functions a complete set of Optimal Power Flow (OPF) applications. This paper reports on the results gained during the first year of daily application of the Optimal Volt/Var Scheduling (VVS) function and ends with an outlook on planned future extensions.

  7. Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino: An ethnomedical, phytochemical and pharmacological review.

    PubMed

    Li, Ai-Ling; Chen, Bang-Jiao; Li, Guo-Hui; Zhou, Ming-Xing; Li, Yan-Ru; Ren, Dong-Mei; Lou, Hong-Xiang; Wang, Xiao-Ning; Shen, Tao

    2017-08-31

    The calyxes and fruits of Physalis alkekengi L. var. franchetii (Mast.) Makino (Physalis Calyx seu Fructus), have been widely used in traditional and indigenous Chinese medicines for the therapy of cough, excessive phlegm, pharyngitis, sore throat, dysuria, pemphigus, eczema, and jaundice with a long history. The present review aims to achieve a comprehensive and up-to-date investigation in ethnomedical uses, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicity of P. alkekengi var. franchetii, particularly its calyxes and fruits. Through analysis of these findings, evidences supporting their applications in ethnomedicines are illustrated. Possible perspectives and opportunities for the future research are analyzed to highlight the gaps in our knowledge that deserves further investigation. Information on P. alkekengi var. franchetii was collected via electronic search of major scientific databases (e.g. Web of Science, SciFinder, Google Scholar, Pubmed, Elsevier, SpringerLink, Wiley online and China Knowledge Resource Integrated) for publications on this medicinal plant. Information was also obtained from local classic herbal literature on ethnopharmacology. About 124 chemical ingredients have been characterized from different parts of this plant. Steroids (particularly physalins) and flavonoids are the major characteristic and bioactive constituents. The crude extracts and the isolated compounds have demonstrated various in vitro and in vivo pharmacological functions, such as anti-inflammation, inhibition of tumor cell proliferation, antimicrobial activity, diuretic effect, anti-diabetes, anti-asthma, immunomodulation, and anti-oxidation. P. alkekengi var. franchetii is an important medicinal plant for the ethnomedical therapy of microbial infection, inflammation, and respiratory diseases (e.g. cough, excessive phlegm, pharyngitis). Phytochemical and pharmacological investigations of this plant definitely increased in the past half century. The chemical profiles, including

  8. Cloning and expression of the lepidopteran toxin produced by Bacillus thuringiensis var Sotto in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Rady, M H

    1991-01-01

    During sporulation, Bacillus thuringiensis var. Sotto produces a parasporal crystalline protein which is toxic for the silk-worm, Bombyx mori and the cotton leaf worm, Spodoptera littoralis. The gene coding this crystal protein is present in a single plasmid. The plasmid DNA was isolated, purified and physically mapped using restriction endonuclease enzymes (R.E.). The gene coding the delta-endotoxin was inserted into Escherichia coli-Jm103, using cloning vector pUC8. Transformed E. coli cells were found to synthesize the delta-endotoxin as demonstrated by the pathogenicity of the transformed cells against 4th instar larvae of S. littoralis.

  9. Dry-heat Resistance of Bacillus Subtilis Var. Niger Spores on Mated Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simko, G. J.; Devlin, J. D.; Wardle, M. D.

    1971-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores were placed on the surfaces of test coupons manufactured from typical spacecraft materials including stainless steel, magnesium, titanium, and aluminum. These coupons were then juxtaposed at the inoculated surfaces and subjected to test pressures of 0, 1000, 5000, and 10,000 psi. Tests were conducted in ambient, nitrogen, and helium atmospheres. While under the test pressure condition, the spores were exposed to 125 C for intervals of 5, 10, 20, 50, or 80 min. Survivor data were subjected to a linear regression analysis that calculated decimal reduction times.

  10. De novo assembly and analysis of the transcriptome of Ocimum americanum var. pilosum under cold stress.

    PubMed

    Zhan, Xiangqiang; Yang, Lan; Wang, Dong; Zhu, Jian Kang; Lang, Zhaobo

    2016-03-09

    Ocimum americanum var. pilosum is a chilling-sensitive, widely distributed plant that is consumed as a vegetable in central and southern China. To increase our understanding of cold stress responses in this species, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly for O. americanum var. pilosum and compared the transcriptomes of plants grown under normal and low temperatures. A total of 115,022,842 high quality, clean reads were obtained from four libraries (two replicates of control samples and two replicates of chilling-treated samples) and were used to perform de novo transcriptome assembly. After isoforms were considered, 42,816 unigenes were generated, 30,748 of which were similar to known proteins as determined by a BLASTx search (E-value < =1.0E-05) against NCBI non-redundant, Swiss-Prot, Gene Ontology, KEGG, and Cluster of COG databases. Comparative analysis of transcriptomes revealed that 5179 unigenes were differentially expressed (with at least 2-fold changes, FDR < 0.01) in chilling-treated samples, and that 2344 and 2835 unigenes were up- and down-regulated by chilling stress, respectively. Expression of the 10 most up-regulated and the five most down-regulated unigenes was validated by qRT-PCR. To increase our understanding of these differentially expressed unigenes, we performed Gene ontology and KEGG pathway enrichment analyses. The CBF-mediated transcriptional cascade, a well-known cold tolerance pathway, was reconstructed using our de novo assembled transcriptome. Our study has generated a genome-wide transcript profile of O. americanum var. pilosum and a de novo assembled transcriptome, which can be used to characterize genes related to diverse biological processes. This is the first study to assess the cold-responsive transcriptome in an Ocimum species. Our results suggest that cold temperature significantly affects genes related to protein translation and cellular metabolism in this chilling sensitive species. Although most of the CBF

  11. SURVIVAL OF MICROORGANISMS IN A SIMULATED MARTIAN ENVIRONMENT. I. BACILLUS SUBTILIS VAR. GLOBIGII.

    PubMed

    HAGEN, C A; HAWRYLEWICZ, E J; EHRLICH, R

    1964-05-01

    Survival of Bacillus subtilis var. globigii in a simulated Martian environment was demonstrated. Previous contact with the simulated Martian soil or atmosphere reduced germination or outgrowth of unheated spores, or both. Inoculation into simulated Martian soil and then flushing with a simulated Martian atmosphere were lethal to both vegetative cells and spores. After one diurnal temperature cycle (26 to -60 C), the majority of of cells present were spores. No further effect of the diurnal cycle on survival was noted in any of the experimental samples.

  12. A biologically active fructan from the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules.

    PubMed

    Kardosová, A; Ebringerová, A; Alföldi, J; Nosál'ová, G; Franová, S; Hríbalová, V

    2003-11-01

    From the roots of Arctium lappa L., var. Herkules a low-molecular-weight fructofuranan of the inulin-type has been isolated by water extraction and ethanol precipitation, followed by ion-exchange chromatography and gel filtration of the crude precipitate. The methods employed in structural determination were methylation analysis and 1H and 13C NMR spectral measurements. In tests for antitussive activity in cats the fructan was found to be equally active as some non-narcotic, synthetic preparations used in clinical practice to treat coughing, and in mitogenic and comitogenic tests its biological response was comparable to that of the commercial Zymosan immunomodulator.

  13. Relationship between poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate production and delta-endotoxin for Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A Karin; Farrera, Reynold R; López, Ruth; Pérez-Guevara, Fermín

    2006-05-01

    A linear relationship between total solid concentration (TSC), delta-endotoxin production [Cry = 0.2795(TSC)-0.2472, R2 = 0.8644] and poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) accumulation [PHB = 0.1327(TSC) + 0.3974, R2 = 0.9877] in Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki HD-73 was observed. A similar correlation between delta-endotoxin and PHB accumulation [Cry = 2.1573(PHB)-1.1248, R2 = 0.9181] was found. A minimum PHB accumulation of 0.52 mg l(-1) was required before the onset of delta-endotoxin production.

  14. Reinstatement of the Loyalty Islands Sandalwood, Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum (Santalaceae), in New Caledonia

    PubMed Central

    Butaud, Jean-François

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Sandalwoods encompass 19 species restricted to southeast Asia and the Pacific. The species Santalum austrocaledonicum Vieill. (Santalaceae) is endemic to New Caledonia (Grande-Terre, Isle of Pines, Loyalty Islands) and Vanuatu, where several varieties are recognized. The Loyalty Islands sandalwood variety is here reinstated as Santalum austrocaledonicum var. glabrum Hürl. emend. Butaud & P.Firmenich, mut. char. It was previously considered a synonym of the type variety; however, new morphological and genetic studies confirmed its distinctiveness. The key for New Caledonian varieties of Santalum austrocaledonicum has been updated and a short description of its essential oil composition and organoleptic quality is given. PMID:26491390

  15. Chemodiversity Associated with Cytotoxicity and Antimicrobial Activity of Piper aduncum var. ossanum.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Yamilet; Montes, Rodny; Scull, Ramón; Sánchez, Arturo; Cos, Paul; Monzote, Lianet; Setzer, William N

    2016-12-01

    Chemical analysis, antimicrobial activity and cytotoxic effects of essential oils (EOs) from leaves of Piper aduncum var. ossanum from two localities Bauta (EO-B) and Ceiba (EO-C), Artemisa Province, Cuba, were determined. EOs were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. EO-B demonstrated higher activity against S. aureus and L. amazonensis; while a lower cytotoxicity on mammalian cells was observed. Both EOs displayed the same activity against Plasmodium falciparum, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, and Leishmania infantum. Both EOs were inactive against Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. © 2016 Wiley-VHCA AG, Zurich, Switzerland.

  16. Immunogenicity of the Plasmodium falciparum PfEMP1-VarO Adhesin: Induction of Surface-Reactive and Rosette-Disrupting Antibodies to VarO Infected Erythrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Guillotte, Micheline; Juillerat, Alexandre; Igonet, Sébastien; Hessel, Audrey; Petres, Stéphane; Crublet, Elodie; Le Scanf, Cécile; Lewit-Bentley, Anita; Bentley, Graham A.

    2015-01-01

    Adhesion of Plasmodium falciparum-infected red blood cells (iRBC) to human erythrocytes (i.e. rosetting) is associated with severe malaria. Rosetting results from interactions between a subset of variant PfEMP1 (Plasmodium falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1) adhesins and specific erythrocyte receptors. Interfering with such interactions is considered a promising intervention against severe malaria. To evaluate the feasibility of a vaccine strategy targetting rosetting, we have used here the Palo Alto 89F5 VarO rosetting model. PfEMP1-VarO consists of five Duffy-Binding Like domains (DBL1-5) and one Cysteine-rich Interdomain Region (CIDR1). The binding domain has been mapped to DBL1 and the ABO blood group was identified as the erythrocyte receptor. Here, we study the immunogenicity of all six recombinant PfEMP1-VarO domains and the DBL1- CIDR1 Head domain in BALB/c and outbred OF1 mice. Five readouts of antibody responses are explored: ELISA titres on the recombinant antigen, VarO-iRBC immunoblot reactivity, VarO-iRBC surface-reactivity, capacity to disrupt VarO rosettes and the capacity to prevent VarO rosette formation. For three domains, we explore influence of the expression system on antigenicity and immunogenicity. We show that correctly folded PfEMP1 domains elicit high antibody titres and induce a homogeneous response in outbred and BALB/c mice after three injections. High levels of rosette-disrupting and rosette-preventing antibodies are induced by DBL1 and the Head domain. Reduced-alkylated or denatured proteins fail to induce surface-reacting and rosette-disrupting antibodies, indicating that surface epitopes are conformational. We also report limited cross-reactivity between some PfEMP1 VarO domains. These results highlight the high immunogenicity of the individual domains in outbred animals and provide a strong basis for a rational vaccination strategy targeting rosetting. PMID:26222304

  17. Selection and characterization of Euglena anabaena var. minor as a new candidate Euglena species for industrial application.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Kengo; Mitra, Sharbanee; Iwata, Osamu; Ishikawa, Takahiro; Kato, Sueo; Yamada, Koji

    2015-01-01

    Euglena gracilis is a microalgae used as a model organism. Recently, mass cultivation of this species has been achieved for industrial applications. The genus Euglena includes more than 200 species that share common useful features, but the potential industrial applications of other Euglena species have not been evaluated. Thus, we conducted a pilot screening study to identify other species that proliferate at a sufficiently rapid rate to be used for mass cultivation; we found that Euglena anabaena var. minor had a rapid growth rate. In addition, its cells accumulated more than 40% weight of carbohydrate, most of which is considered to be a euglenoid specific type of beta-1-3-glucan, paramylon. Carbohydrate is stored in E. anabaena var. minor cells during normal culture, whereas E. gracilis requires nitrogen limitation to facilitate paramylon accumulation. These results suggest the potential industrial application of E. anabaena var. minor.

  18. Colonization of barley roots by endophytic fungi and their reduction of take-all caused by Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici.

    PubMed

    Maciá-Vicente, Jose G; Jansson, Hans-Börje; Mendgen, Kurt; Lopez-Llorca, Luis V

    2008-08-01

    Fungal root endophytes obtained from natural vegetation were tested for antifungal activity in dual culture tests against the root pathogen Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici. Fifteen isolates, including Acremonium blochii, Acremonium furcatum, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cylindrocarpon sp., Cylindrocarpon destructans, Dactylaria sp., Fusarium equiseti, Phoma herbarum, Phoma leveillei, and a sterile mycelium, selected based on the dual culture test, were inoculated on barley roots in growth tubes under axenic conditions, both in the absence and presence of G. graminis var. tritici. All isolates colonized the rhizosphere and very often the root cortex without causing disease symptoms and without affecting plant growth. Eight isolates significantly reduced the symptoms caused by G. graminis var. tritici, and 6 of them reduced its presence in the roots.

  19. Acetyl Eburicoic Acid from Laetiporus sulphureus var. miniatus Suppresses Inflammation in Murine Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Saba, Evelyn; Son, Youngmin; Jeon, Bo Ra; Kim, Seong-Eun; Lee, In-Kyoung

    2015-01-01

    The basidiomycete Laetiporus sulphureus var. miniatus belongs to the Aphyllophorales, Polyporaceae, and grows on the needleleaf tree. The fruiting bodies of Laetiporus species are known to produce N-methylated tyramine derivatives, polysaccharides, and various lanostane triterpenoids. As part of our ongoing effort to discover biologically active compounds from wood-rotting fungi, an anti-inflammatory triterpene, LSM-H7, has been isolated from the fruiting body of L. sulphureus var. miniatus and identified as acetyl eburicoic acid. LSM-H7 dose-dependently inhibited the NO production in RAW 264.7 cells without any cytotoxicity at the tested concentrations. Furthermore it suppressed the production of proinflammatory cytokines, mainly inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor α, when compared with glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase. These data suggest that LSM-H7 is a crucial component for the anti-inflammatory activity of L. sulphureus var. miniatus. PMID:26190920

  20. Drosophila H1 Regulates the Genetic Activity of Heterochromatin by Recruitment of Su(var)3-9

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xingwu; Wontakal, Sandeep N.; Kavi, Harsh; Kim, Byung Ju; Guzzardo, Paloma M.; Emelyanov, Alexander V.; Xu, Na; Hannon, Gregory J.; Zavadil, Jiri; Fyodorov, Dmitry V.; Skoultchi, Arthur I.

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic genomes harbor transposable elements and other repetitive sequences that must be silenced. Small RNA interference pathways play a major role in their repression. Here, we reveal another mechanism for silencing these sequences in Drosophila. Depleting the linker histone H1 in vivo leads to strong activation of these elements. H1-mediated silencing occurs in combination with the heterochromatin-specific histone H3 lysine 9 methyltransferase Su(var)3-9. H1 physically interacts with Su(var)3-9 and recruits it to chromatin in vitro, which promotes H3 methylation. We propose that H1 plays a key role in silencing by tethering Su(var)3-9 to heterochromatin. The tethering function of H1 adds to its established role as a regulator of chromatin compaction and accessibility. PMID:23559249

  1. Essential oil compositions and anticholinesterase activities of two edible plants Tragopogon latifolius var. angustifolius and Lycopsis orientalis.

    PubMed

    Ertaş, Abdulselam; Gören, Ahmet C; Boğa, Mehmet; Yeşil, Yeter; Kolak, Ufuk

    2014-01-01

    This is the first report in the literature on essential oil compositions of Tragopogon latifolius var. angustifolius and Lycopsis orientalis which were analysed by using GC-FID and GC-MS techniques. The main constituents of T. latifolius var. angustifolius were identified as α-selinene (10.5%), 2,5-di-tert octyl-p-benzoquinone (9.5%) and valencene (7.0%); however, the main components of L. orientalis were identified as heptacosane (10.5%), τ-muurolene (9.6%) and tetratetracontane (9.4%). The essential oils of T. latifolius var. angustifolius and L. orientalis species exhibited moderate inhibitory activity against acetyl- and butyryl-cholinesterase enzymes at 200 μg/mL.

  2. Transformation of Bacillus subtilis in alpha-amylase productivity by deoxyribonucleic acid from B. subtilis var. amylosacchariticus.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Y; Yamane, K; Yamaguchi, K; Nagata, Y; Maruo, B

    1974-12-01

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) of Bacillus subtilis var. amylosacchariticus showed almost the same ability as B. subtilis Marburg to induce transfer of several genetic markers in DNA-mediated transformation. DNA-DNA hybridization data also showed an intimate relationship between the two strains. Genetic elements involved in the production of extracellular alpha-amylase (EC 3.2.1.1.) in B. subtilis var. amylosacchariticus were studied by using DNA-mediated transformation. Two Marburg derivatives, NA20(amyR2) and NA20-22(amyR1), produced about 50 and 10 U of alpha-amylase per mg of cells, respectively, whereas B. subtilis var. amylosacchariticus produced as much as 150 U of the enzyme per mg of cells. When B. subtilis var. amylosacchariticus was crossed with strain NA20-22 as recipient, transformants that acquired high alpha-amylase productivity (about 50 U/mg of cells) were obtained. Genetic analysis revealed that a regulator gene (amyR) for alpha-amylase synthesis was found in B. subtilis var. amylosacchariticus, as in the case of B. natto 1212 (amyR2) and B. subtilis Marburg (amyR1). The allele was designated amyR3; it is phenotypically indistinguishable from amyR2, but is readily distinguishable from amyR1. The presence of amyR3 was not sufficient for an organism to render production of an exceptional amount of alpha-amylase. Extra-high alpha-amylase producers could be obtained by crossing B. subtilis var. amylosacchariticus as donor with strain NA20 as recipient. The transformants produced the same or even greater amounts of the enzyme than the donor strain. Results suggest the presence of another gene that is involved in the production of the exceptional amount of alpha-amylase.

  3. Understanding mechanisms of rarity in pteridophytes: competition and climate change threaten the rare fern Asplenium scolopendrium var. americanum (Aspleniaceae).

    PubMed

    Testo, Weston L; Watkins, James E

    2013-11-01

    Understanding the ecology of rare species can inform aspects of conservation strategies; however, the mechanisms of rarity remain elusive for most pteridophytes, which possess independent and ecologically distinct gametophyte and sporophyte generations. To elucidate factors contributing to recent declines of the rare fern Asplenium scolopendrium var. americanum, we studied the ecology and ecophysiology of its gametophyte generation, focusing on responses to competition, temperature, and water stress. Gametophytes of A. scolopendrium var. americanum, its widespread European relative A. scolopendrium var. scolopendrium, and five co-occurring fern species were grown from spores. Gametophytes were grown at 20°C and 25°C, and germination rates, intra- and interspecific competition, desiccation tolerance, and sporophyte production were determined for all species. Gametophytes of A. scolopendrium var. americanum had the lowest rates of germination and sporophyte production among all species studied and exhibited the greatest sensitivity to interspecific competition, temperature increases, and desiccation. Mature gametophytes of A. scolopendrium var. americanum grown at 25°C were 84.6% smaller than those grown at 20°C, and only 1.5% produced sporophytes after 200 d in culture. Similar responses were not observed in other species studied. The recent declines and current status of populations of A. scolopendrium var. americanum are linked to its gametophyte's limited capacity to tolerate competition and physiological stress linked to climate change. This is the first study to develop a mechanistic understanding of rarity and decline in a fern and demonstrates the importance of considering the ecology of the gametophyte in plants with independent sporophyte and gametophyte generations.

  4. Comparison of the specificity of antibodies to VAR2CSA in Cameroonian multigravidae with and without placental malaria: a retrospective case-control study.

    PubMed

    Babakhanyan, Anna; Fang, Rui; Wey, Andrew; Salanti, Ali; Sama, Grace; Efundem, Canisia; Leke, Robert J I; Chen, John J; Leke, Rose G F; Taylor, Diane W

    2015-12-01

    Antibodies (Ab) to VAR2CSA prevent Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes from sequestrating in the placenta, i.e., prevent placental malaria (PM). The specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA associated with absence of PM is unknown. Accordingly, differences in the specificity of Ab to VAR2CSA were compared between multigravidae with and without PM who had Ab to VAR2CSA. In a retrospective case-control study, plasma collected from Cameroonian multigravidae with (n = 96) and without (n = 324) PM were screened in 21 assays that measured antibody levels to full length VAR2CSA (FV2), individual VAR2CSA DBL domains, VAR2CSA domains from different genetic backgrounds (variants), as well as proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2. Multigravidae with and without PM had similar levels of Ab to FV2, the six VAR2CSA DBL domains and different variants, while the proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 was significantly higher in women without PM at delivery (p = 0.0030) compared to women with PM. In a logistic regression model adjusted for gravidity and age, the percentage of high avidity Ab to FV2 was associated with reduced likelihood of PM in multigravidae. A 5 % increase in proportion of high avidity Ab to FV2 was associated with a nearly 15 % lower likelihood of PM. Ab avidity to FV2 may be an important indicator of immunity to PM.

  5. Positive Selection of Plasmodium falciparum Parasites With Multiple var2csa-Type PfEMP1 Genes During the Course of Infection in Pregnant Women

    PubMed Central

    Salanti, Ali; Lavstsen, Thomas; Nielsen, Morten A.; Theander, Thor G.; Leke, Rose G. F.; Lo, Yeung Y.; Bobbili, Naveen; Arnot, David E.; Taylor, Diane W.

    2011-01-01

    Placental malaria infections are caused by Plasmodium falciparum–infected red blood cells sequestering in the placenta by binding to chondroitin sulfate A, mediated by VAR2CSA, a variant of the PfEMP1 family of adhesion antigens. Recent studies have shown that many P. falciparum genomes have multiple genes coding for different VAR2CSA proteins, and parasites with >1 var2csa gene appear to be more common in pregnant women with placental malaria than in nonpregnant individuals. We present evidence that, in pregnant women, parasites containing multiple var2csa-type genes possess a selective advantage over parasites with a single var2csa gene. Accumulation of parasites with multiple copies of the var2csa gene during the course of pregnancy was also correlated with the development of antibodies involved in blocking VAR2CSA adhesion. The data suggest that multiplicity of var2csa-type genes enables P. falciparum parasites to persist for a longer period of time during placental infections, probably because of their greater capacity for antigenic variation and evasion of variant-specific immune responses. PMID:21592998

  6. Transcriptome analysis of Panax vietnamensis var. fuscidicus discovers putative ocotillol-type ginsenosides biosynthesis genes and genetic markers.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guang-Hui; Ma, Chun-Hua; Zhang, Jia-Jin; Chen, Jun-Wen; Tang, Qing-Yan; He, Mu-Han; Xu, Xiang-Zeng; Jiang, Ni-Hao; Yang, Sheng-Chao

    2015-03-08

    P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus, called "Yesanqi" in Chinese, is a new variety of P. vietnamensis, which was first found in Jinping County, the southern part of Yunnan Province, China. Compared with other Panax plants, this species contains higher content of ocotillol-type saponin, majonoside R2. Despite the pharmacological importance of ocotillol-type saponins, little is known about their biosynthesis in plants. Hence, P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus is a suitable medicinal herbal plant species to study biosynthesis of ocotillol-type saponins. In addition, the available genomic information of this important herbal plant is lacking. To investigate the P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus transcriptome, Illumina HiSeq™ 2000 sequencing platform was employed. We produced 114,703,210 clean reads, assembled into 126,758 unigenes, with an average length of 1,304 bp and N50 of 2,108 bp. Among these 126,758 unigenes, 85,214 unigenes (67.23%) were annotated based on the information available from the public databases. The transcripts encoding the known enzymes involved in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis were identified in our Illumina dataset. A full-length cDNA of three Squalene epoxidase (SE) genes were obtained using reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) and the expression patterns of ten unigenes were analyzed by reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR). Furthermore, 15 candidate cytochrome P450 genes and 17 candidate UDP-glycosyltransferase genes most likely to involve in triterpenoid saponins biosynthesis pathway were discovered from transcriptome sequencing of P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus. We further analyzed the data and found 21,320 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), 30 primer pairs for SSRs were randomly selected for validation of the amplification and polymorphism in 13 P. vietnamensis var. fuscidiscus accessions. Meanwhile, five major triterpene saponins in roots of P. vietnamensis var. fuscidicus were determined using high performance

  7. Necrotising ventriculitis due to combined infection with Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis and Candida krusei in an eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus).

    PubMed

    Muir, M; Raidal, S R

    2012-07-01

    Acute necrosis of the ventriculus is a very uncommon lesion in birds. We describe a fatal case of acute necrotising ventriculitis caused by Rhizopus microsporus var. chinensis in a mature female eclectus parrot (Eclectus roratus). The bird presented acutely dull and lethargic, was vomiting and had bright green droppings, suggestive of acute heavy metal poisoning. It was treated with fluids and chelation therapy, but died within 12 h. Necropsy, cytology, histopathology and culture results demonstrated fungal invasion of the ventriculus associated with transmural necrosis, haemorrhage, acute inflammation and abundant R. microsporus var. chinensis and lesser numbers of Candida krusei.

  8. Chromosomal location of genes for novel glutenin subunits and gliadins in wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides).

    PubMed

    Xu, S S; Khan, K; Klindworth, D L; Faris, J D; Nygard, G

    2004-05-01

    The glutenin and gliadin proteins of wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum L. var. dicoccoides, have potential for improvement of durum wheat ( T. turgidum L. var. durum) quality. The objective of this study was to determine the chromosomes controlling the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits and gliadin proteins present in three T. turgidum var. dicoccoides accessions (Israel-A, PI-481521, and PI-478742), which were used as chromosome donors in Langdon durum- T. turgidum var. dicoccoides (LDN-DIC) chromosome substitution lines. The three T. turgidum var. dicoccoides accessions, their respective LDN-DIC substitution lines, and a number of controls with known HMW glutenin subunits were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), urea/SDS-PAGE, and acid polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (A-PAGE). The results revealed that all three T. turgidum var. dicoccoides accessions possess Glu-A1 alleles that are the same as or similar to those reported previously. However, each T. turgidum var. dicoccoides accession had a unique Glu-B1 allele. PI-478742 had an unusual 1Bx subunit, which had mobility slightly slower than the 1Ax subunit in 12% SDS-PAGE gels. The subunits controlled by chromosome 1B of PI-481521 were slightly faster in mobility than the subunits of the Glu-B1n allele, and the 1By subunit was identified as band 8. The 1B subunits of Israel-A had similar mobility to subunits 14 and 16. The new Glu-B1 alleles were designated as Glu-B1be in Israel-A, Glu-B1bf in PI-481521, and Glu-B1bg in PI-478742. Results from A-PAGE revealed that PI-481521, PI-478742, and Israel-A had eight, 12, and nine unique gliadin bands, respectively, that were assigned to specific chromosomes. The identified glutenin subunits and gliadin proteins in the LDN-DIC substitution lines provide the basis for evaluating their effects on end-use quality, and they are also useful biochemical markers for identifying specific chromosomes or chromosome

  9. Disseminated histoplasmosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii in a non-HIV patient in Burkina Faso: Case report.

    PubMed

    Zida, A; Niamba, P; Barro-Traoré, F; Korsaga-Somé, N; Tapsoba, P; Briegel, J; Guiguemdé, R T

    2015-06-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal infection due to Histoplasma capsulatum. The African form of this mycosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii, remains rare. We report a case of disseminated African histoplasmosis with skin, lymph nodes, bones and viscera localizations. The 22-year-old patient was HIV-seronegative and was considered immunocompetent. The presence of Histoplasma capsulatum var duboisii in ulcerations and a nodule pus aspiration was confirmed by direct microscopic examination and by culture. The medical treatment was based on fluconazole. Even though a regression of the symptoms was observed, the patient died. In disseminated African histoplasmosis, an early laboratory diagnosis must be carried out for accurate treatment.

  10. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  11. The complete chloroplast genome of Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum using Illumina sequencing.

    PubMed

    Raveendar, Sebastin; Na, Young-Wang; Lee, Jung-Ro; Shim, Donghwan; Ma, Kyung-Ho; Lee, Sok-Young; Chung, Jong-Wook

    2015-07-20

    Chloroplast (cp) genome sequences provide a valuable source for DNA barcoding. Molecular phylogenetic studies have concentrated on DNA sequencing of conserved gene loci. However, this approach is time consuming and more difficult to implement when gene organization differs among species. Here we report the complete re-sequencing of the cp genome of Capsicum pepper (Capsicum annuum var. glabriusculum) using the Illumina platform. The total length of the cp genome is 156,817 bp with a 37.7% overall GC content. A pair of inverted repeats (IRs) of 50,284 bp were separated by a small single copy (SSC; 18,948 bp) and a large single copy (LSC; 87,446 bp). The number of cp genes in C. annuum var. glabriusculum is the same as that in other Capsicum species. Variations in the lengths of LSC; SSC and IR regions were the main contributors to the size variation in the cp genome of this species. A total of 125 simple sequence repeat (SSR) and 48 insertions or deletions variants were found by sequence alignment of Capsicum cp genome. These findings provide a foundation for further investigation of cp genome evolution in Capsicum and other higher plants.

  12. ISOLATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF AN ENDOPHYTIC FUNGUS PRODUCING PACLITAXEL FROM TAXUS WALLICHIANA VAR MAIREI.

    PubMed

    Zaiyou, Jian; Hongsheng, Wang; Ning, Wang; Li, Meng; Guifang, Xu

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to isolate endophytic fungi producing paclitaxel from yew for the purpose of paclitaxel manufacture. Surface sterilized bark of Taxus wallichiana var. mairei was used as source material and potato dextrose agar culture medium was used in isolation of endophytic fungi. Fungal cultures were extracted with a mixture of chloroform / methanol (1:1, v/v) and the paclitaxel in the extracts was determined and authenticated with LC-MS. An endophytic fungus that produced paclitaxel was identified by ITS rDNA and 26S D1/D2 rDNA sequencing. The results showed that a total of 435 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from T. wallichiana var. mairei and purified. Only one of these strains produced paclitaxel and it belongs to Fusarium. The paclitaxel productivity in whole PDB culture and that in spent culture medium from this strain is 0.0153 mg/L and 0.0119 mg/L respectively. The paclitaxel content in dry mycelium is 0.27 mg/kg. This isolated endophytic fungus produced paclitaxel at a considerable level and shows potentiality as a producing strain for paclitaxel manufacture after strain improvement. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  13. Generation of Maillard compounds from inulin during the thermal processing of Agave tequilana Weber Var. azul.

    PubMed

    Mancilla-Margalli, Norma A; López, Mercedes G

    2002-02-13

    During the cooking process of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul to produce tequila, besides the hydrolysis of inulin to generate fermentable sugars, many volatiles, mainly Maillard compounds, are produced, most of which may have a significant impact on the overall flavor of tequila. Exudates (agave juice) from a tequila company were collected periodically, and color, Brix, fructose concentration, and reducing sugars were determined as inulin breakdown took place. Maillard compounds were obtained by extraction with CH(2)Cl(2), and the extracts were analyzed by GC-MS. Increments in color, Brix, and reducing sugars were observed as a function of time, but a decrease in fructose concentration was found. Many Maillard compounds were identified in the exudates, including furans, pyrans, aldehydes, and nitrogen and sulfur compounds. The most abundant Maillard compounds were methyl-2-furoate, 2,3-dihydroxy-3,5-dihydro-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one, and 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural. In addition, a series of short- and long-chain fatty acids was also found. A large number of the volatiles in A. tequilana Weber var. azul were also detected in tequila extracts, and most of these have been reported as a powerful odorants, responsible for the unique tequila flavor.

  14. Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii in the koala (Phascolarctos cinereus): serological evidence for subclinical cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Krockenberger, M B; Canfield, P J; Barnes, J; Vogelnest, L; Connolly, J; Ley, C; Malik, R

    2002-06-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans var. gattii has been shown to have a strong association with eucalypts frequently used by koalas and, not surprisingly, it has been shown to colonize the nasal cavities of koalas. The progression from nasal colonization to tissue invasion is critical to understanding the pathogenesis of cryptococcosis in this species and provides a model for pathogenesis of cryptococcosis in other species. Cryptococcal antigenaemia was detected in twenty-eight healthy koalas from three different regions. This was interpreted as representing limited subclinical disease. One koala developed cryptococcal pneumonia 6 months after leaving the study, whereas another developed cryptococcal meningoencephalitis during the course of the study. Opportunistic necropsies on ten antigen-positive koalas resulted in discovery of small cryptococcal lesions in two (paranasal sinus and lung, respectively). Our data suggest that cryptococcal antigenaemia occurs commonly in koalas, especially in areas with a high environmental presence of C n. var. gattii. Subclinical disease appears most likely to manifest as a small focal lesion in the respiratory tract. Possible outcomes include elimination by an effective immune response, quiescence with possibility of later re-activation or direct progression to overt disease. Symptomatic and subclinical cases showed differences in levels of antigenaemia. The data presented have significant implications for koalas in captivity.

  15. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil from Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jun; Ban, Xiaoquan; Zeng, Hong; He, Jingsheng; Huang, Bo; Wang, Youwei

    2011-02-28

    The essential oil extracted from the fruits of Cicuta virosa L. var. latisecta Celak was tested in vitro and in vivo against four foodborne fungi, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus oryzae, Aspergillus niger, and Alternaria alternata. Forty-five different components accounting for 98.4% of the total oil composition were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major components were γ-terpinene (40.92%), p-cymene (27.93%), and cumin aldehyde (21.20%). Antifungal activity was tested by the poisoned food technique against the four fungi. Minimum inhibitory concentration against the fungi was 5 μL/mL and percentage inhibition of mycelial growth was determined at day 9. The essential oil had a strong inhibitory effect on spore production and germination in all tested fungi proportional to concentration. The oil exhibited noticeable inhibition on dry mycelium weight and synthesis of aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) by A. flavus, completely inhibiting AFB(1) production at 4 μL/mL. The effect of the essential oil on inhibition of decay development in cherry tomatoes was tested in vivo by exposing inoculated and control fruit to essential oil vapor at a concentration of 200 μL/mL. Results indicated that the essential oil from C. virosa var. latisecta (CVEO) has potential as a preservative to control food spoilage.

  16. Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis: a thermotolerant fungus with potential for production of thermostable amylases.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Simone C; Jorge, João A; Terenzi, Héctor F; Polizeli, Maria de Lourdes T M

    2003-12-01

    The effect of several nutritional and environmental parameters on growth and amylase production from Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis was analysed. This fungus was isolated from soil of the Brazilian "cerrado" and produced high levels of amylolytic activity at 45 degrees C in liquid medium supplemented with starch, sugar cane bagasse, oat meal or cassava flour. Glucose in the culture medium drastically repressed the amylolytic activity. The products of hydrolysis were analysed by thin layer chromatography, and glucose was detected as the main component. The amylolytic activity hydrolysed several substrates, such as amylopectin, amylase, glycogen, pullulan, starch, and maltose. Glucose was always the main end product detected by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis. These results indicated that the amylolytic activity studied is a glucoamylase, but there were also low levels of alpha-amylase. As compared to other fungi, R. microsporus var. rhizopodiformis can be considered an efficient producer of thermostable amylases, using raw residues of low cost as substrates. This information is of technological value, considering the importance of amylases for industrial hydrolysis.

  17. The influence of VAR processes and parameters on white spot formation in Alloy 718

    SciTech Connect

    Damkroger, B.K.; Kelley, J.B.; Schlienger, M.E.; Van Den Avyle, J.A.; Williamson, R.L.; Zanner, F.J.

    1994-05-01

    Significant progress has occurred lately regarding the classification, characterization, and formation of white spots during vacuum arc remelting (VAR). White spots have been generally split into three categories: discrete white spots, which are believed to be associated with undissolved material which has fallen in from the shelf, crown, or torus regions; dendritic white spots, usually associated with dendrite clusters having fallen from the electrode; and solidification white spots, believed to be caused by local perturbations in the solidifications conditions. Characteristics and proposed formation mechanisms of white spots are reviewed and discussed in context of physical processes occurring during VAR, such as fluid flow and arc behavior. Where possible, their formation mechanisms will be considered with respect to specific operating parameters. In order to more fully understand the formation of solidification white spots, an experimental program has been begun to characterize the solidification stability of Alloy 718 and variants with respect to changes in growth rate and thermal environment. A description of the experimental program and preliminary results are included.

  18. Assimilation of SAPHIR radiance: impact on hyperspectral radiances in 4D-VAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indira Rani, S.; Doherty, Amy; Atkinson, Nigel; Bell, William; Newman, Stuart; Renshaw, Richard; George, John P.; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2016-04-01

    Assimilation of a new observation dataset in an NWP system may affect the quality of an existing observation data set against the model background (short forecast), which in-turn influence the use of an existing observation in the NWP system. Effect of the use of one data set on the use of another data set can be quantified as positive, negative or neutral. Impact of the addition of new dataset is defined as positive if the number of assimilated observations of an existing type of observation increases, and bias and standard deviation decreases compared to the control (without the new dataset) experiment. Recently a new dataset, Megha Tropiques SAPHIR radiances, which provides atmospheric humidity information, is added in the Unified Model 4D-VAR assimilation system. In this paper we discuss the impact of SAPHIR on the assimilation of hyper-spectral radiances like AIRS, IASI and CrIS. Though SAPHIR is a Microwave instrument, its impact can be clearly seen in the use of hyper-spectral radiances in the 4D-VAR data assimilation systems in addition to other Microwave and InfraRed observation. SAPHIR assimilation decreased the standard deviation of the spectral channels of wave number from 650 -1600 cm-1 in all the three hyperspectral radiances. Similar impact on the hyperspectral radiances can be seen due to the assimilation of other Microwave radiances like from AMSR2 and SSMIS Imager.

  19. Impact of AIRS radiance in the NCUM 4D-VAR assimilation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, Desamsetti; Indira Rani, S.; Mallick, Swapan; George, John P.; Sharma, Priti

    2016-04-01

    The hyperspectral radiances from Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS), on board NASA-AQUA satellite, have been processed through the Observation Processing System (OPS) and assimilated in the Variational Assimilation (VAR) System of NCMRWF Unified Model (NCUM). Numerical experiments are conducted in order to study the impact of the AIRS radiance in the NCUM analysis and forecast system. NCMRWF receives AIRS radiance from EUMETCAST through MOSDAC. AIRS is a grating spectrometer having 2378 channels covering the thermal infrared spectrum between 3 and 15 μm. Out of 2378 channels, 324 channels are selected for assimilation according to the peaking of weighting function and meteorological importance. According to the surface type and day-night conditions, some of the channels are not assimilated in the VAR. Observation Simulation Experiments (OSEs) are conducted for a period of 15 days to see the impact of AIRS radiances in NCUM. Statistical parameters like bias and RMSE are calculated to see the real impact of AIRS radiances in the assimilation system. Assimilation of AIRS in the NCUM system reduced the bias and RMSE in the radiances from instruments onboard other satellites. The impact of AIRS is clearly seen in the hyperspectral radiances like IASI and CrIS and also in infrared (HIRS) and microwave (AMSU, ATMS, etc.) sensors.

  20. Viola kauaensis var. hosakae (Violaceae), a new variety of endemic Hawaiian violet

    PubMed Central

    Havran, J. Christopher; Harbin, Susan Ching; Portner, Talia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The Hawaiian endemic Viola kauaensis A. Gray has a broad distribution in bogs of Kaua`i and a limited distribution on mesic ridges in the Ko`olau Mountains of O`ahu. Based on differences in scale, the O`ahu populations of Viola kauaensis had previously been described as a distinct taxon. The taxonomic status of the O`ahu populations was reevaluated through a morphometric analysis of all varieties of Viola kauaensis and the morphologically similar Viola vanroyenii. Morphological features of historic and freshly collected specimens of all varieties of Viola kauaensis were analyzed with a principal components analysis. Populations from O`ahu represent a distinct cluster that slightly overlaps with Viola kauaensis var. kauaensis. Lamina width, apex angle, and base angles contribute to the separation of the O`ahu populations from other varieties of Viola kauaensis. Due to differences in scale, the O`ahu populations are described as Viola kauaensis var. hosakae, a new critically endangered taxon. PMID:25197224

  1. Viola kauaensis var. hosakae (Violaceae), a new variety of endemic Hawaiian violet.

    PubMed

    Havran, J Christopher; Harbin, Susan Ching; Portner, Talia

    2014-01-01

    The Hawaiian endemic Viola kauaensis A. Gray has a broad distribution in bogs of Kaua`i and a limited distribution on mesic ridges in the Ko`olau Mountains of O`ahu. Based on differences in scale, the O`ahu populations of Viola kauaensis had previously been described as a distinct taxon. The taxonomic status of the O`ahu populations was reevaluated through a morphometric analysis of all varieties of Viola kauaensis and the morphologically similar Viola vanroyenii. Morphological features of historic and freshly collected specimens of all varieties of Viola kauaensis were analyzed with a principal components analysis. Populations from O`ahu represent a distinct cluster that slightly overlaps with Viola kauaensis var. kauaensis. Lamina width, apex angle, and base angles contribute to the separation of the O`ahu populations from other varieties of Viola kauaensis. Due to differences in scale, the O`ahu populations are described as Viola kauaensis var. hosakae, a new critically endangered taxon.

  2. Distribution and baseline values of trace elements in the sediment of Var River catchment, Southeast France.

    PubMed

    Al Abdullah, Jamal; Michèl, Hervé; Funel, Geneviève Barci; Féraud, Gilbert

    2014-12-01

    This study reports on the determination of trace element (TE)-Li, As, Co, Cs, Cu, Pb, U, and Zn-and major element (ME)-Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ca, Mn, Na, and K-concentrations in 18 riverbed sediments and a sediment core from the Var River catchment using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results were compared with those of a reference sediment core, and the contribution of clay and organic carbon contents in the distribution of TE and ME in the sediment samples was investigated. The mean concentrations of the ME were comparable in both core and riverbed samples and were within the natural averages. In the case of TE, the concentrations were lower in riverbed sediment samples than those found in the sediment core. High mean concentration of As was observed (7.6 μg g(-1)) in both core and riverbed sediments, relatively higher than the worldwide reported values. The obtained data indicated that the natural high level of arsenic might be originated from the parent rocks, especially metamorphic rocks surrounding granites and from Permian sediments. Statistical approach, viz., Pearson correlation matrix, was applied to better understand the correlation among TE in both riverbed and sediment core samples. No significant metallic contamination was detected in the low Var valley despite of the localization of several industrial facilities. Therefore, results confirm that the concentrations of the TE obtained in the riverbed sediments could be considered as a baseline guide for future pollution monitoring program.

  3. Ointment of Brassica oleracea var. capitata Matures the Extracellular Matrix in Skin Wounds of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarandy, Mariáurea Matias; Novaes, Rômulo Dias; da Matta, Sérgio Luiz Pinto; Mezencio, Jose Mario da Silveira; da Silva, Marcelo Barreto; Zanuncio, José Cola; Gonçalves, Reggiani Vilela

    2015-01-01

    Wound healing is a complex process that aims to restore damaged tissue. Phytotherapeutics, such as cabbage, Brassica oleracea var. capitata (Brassicaceae), and sunflower, Helianthus annuus L. (Asteraceae) oil, are used as wound healers. Five circular wounds, each 12 mm in diameter, were made in the dorsolateral region of each rat. The animals were divided into four groups: balsam (B. oleracea); ointment (B. oleracea); sunflower oil (Helianthus annuus); control (saline solution 0.9%). These products were applied daily for 20 days and every four days the tissues of different wounds were removed. The wound contraction area, total collagen, types I and III collagen, glycosaminoglycans, and tissue cellularity were analyzed. In the groups that received ointment and balsam there was reduction in the wound area on days 4, 8, 12, and 20. Throughout the trial period, the balsam and ointment groups showed a higher amount of total collagen, type I collagen, and glycosaminoglycan compared to the others groups. The rats in the groups treated with B. oleracea var. capitata showed a higher number of cells on days 8, 16, and 20. B. oleracea was effective in stimulating the maturation of collagen and increasing the cellularity, as also in improving the mechanical resistance of the newly formed tissue. PMID:26170889

  4. Glaucasides A-C, three saikosaponins from Atriplex glauca L. var. ifiniensis (Caball) Maire.

    PubMed

    Jabrane, Aymen; Ben Jannet, Hichem; Miyamoto, Tomofumi; Tanaka, Chiaki; Mirjolet, Jean-François; Duchamp, Olivier; Harzallah-Skhiri, Féthia; Lacaille-Dubois, Marie-Aleth

    2011-02-01

    From the roots of Atriplex glauca L. var. ifiniensis (Caball) Maire (syn. of Atriplex parvifolia Lowe var. genuina Maire), three new saikosaponins designated as glaucasides A-C (1-3) were isolated together with the known 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl-saikogenin F (4). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by extensive analysis of one-dimensional and two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, FABMS, HR-ESIMS and chemical evidence as 13β,28-epoxy-16β,21β-dihydroxyolean-11-en-3β-yl O-β-D-[2-O-sulfate]-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranoside (1), 13β,28-epoxy-16β,21β-dihydroxyolean-11-en-3β-yl O-β-D-[2-O-sulfate]-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-α-L-arabinopyranosyl 21-O-{4-(secbutylamido)-butanoyl ester} (2) and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1 → 2)-β-D-galactopyranosyl saikogenin G (3). The cytotoxic activities of these compounds were evaluated against the HT-29 and HCT 116 human colon cancer cell lines. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Isolated coastal populations of Tilia americana var. caroliniana persist long-term through vegetative growth.

    PubMed

    Evans, Jonathan P; Morris, Ashley B

    2016-09-01

    Sprouting in woody plant species allows for the long-term persistence of small, isolated populations experiencing changing environments and can preserve genetic diversity in these populations despite the infrequent recruitment of sexually produced individuals. We examined demographic data collected over a 10-yr period for Tilia americana var. caroliniana populations in the context of genetic structure as an empirical case study of this concept. Two back-barrier islands on the Georgia coast of the United States were completely censused for Tilia americana var. caroliniana. Recruitment, growth, and mortality of all stems were tracked over 10 yr. All genets were genotyped using eight nuclear microsatellite loci to assess population genetic structure among sampled stems and among populations in the region. The two island populations differed in their ability to establish seedlings despite having similar patterns in flowering frequency. Seedling mortality was high throughout the 10 yr, and cycling of ramets within genets was common. Long-term recruitment in this system appears to be primarily a result of vegetative growth via basal sprouts. Genetic structure was limited, both between islands and among populations in the region. Long-lived woody species that persist by vegetative reproduction may unexpectedly influence regional forest responses to climate change, particularly on the trailing edge of a species' distribution. © 2016 Evans and Morris. Published by the Botanical Society of America. This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License (CC-BY-NC).

  6. Field Experiments of Pollination Ecology: The Case of Lycoris sanguinea var. sanguinea.

    PubMed

    Yamaji, Futa; Ohsawa, Takeshi A

    2016-11-25

    Plant-pollinator interactions have been studied for approximately one hundred years. During that time, many field methods have been developed to clarify the pollination effectiveness of each pollinator for visited flowers. Pollinator observations have been one of the most common methods to identify pollinators, and bagging and cage experiments have been conducted to show the effectiveness of specific pollinators. In a previous study of Lycoris sanguinea var. sanguinea, its effective pollinators, the visitation frequencies of each floral visitor, and its reproductive strategies were not identified. This study reports the observation that small bees visited flowers that were partially opened (breaking buds). To the best of our knowledge, this phenomenon has not been reported previously. Further, this study investigates the hypothesis that small bees can pollinate at that flowering stage. This study demonstrates the basic methods of field experiments in pollination ecology using L. sanguinea var. sanguinea. Pollinator observations and digital video showed the visitation frequencies of each floral visitor. Bagging and cage experiments revealed that these flowers could be pollinated fully and that breaking-bud pollination could be important for the pollination of this plant species. The advantages and disadvantages of each method are discussed, and recent developments, including laboratory experiments, are described.

  7. Chemical variability of the essential oil of Juniperus phoenicea var. turbinata from Algeria.

    PubMed

    Bekhechi, Chahrazed; Atik Bekkara, Fewzia; Consiglio, Danaë; Bighelli, Ange; Tomi, Félix

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of 50 samples of leaf oil isolated from Algerian Juniperus phoenicea var. turbinata L. harvested in eight locations (littoral zone and highlands) was investigated by GC-FID (in combination with retention indices), GC/MS, and (13) C-NMR analyses. The composition of the J. phoenicea var. turbinata leaf oils was dominated by monoterpenes. Hierarchical cluster and principal component analyses confirmed the chemical variability of the leaf oil of this species. Indeed, three clusters were distinguished on the basis of the α-pinene, α-terpinyl acetate, β-phellandrene, and germacrene D contents. In most oil samples, α-pinene (30.2-76.7%) was the major compound, associated with β-phellandrene (up to 22.5%) and α-terpinyl acetate (up to 13.4%). However, five out of the 50 samples exhibited an atypical composition characterized by the predominance of germacrene D (16.7-22.7%), α-pinene (15.8-20.4%), and α-terpinyl acetate (6.1-22.6%).

  8. Biogeographic variation of foliar n-alkanes of Juniperus communis var. saxatilis Pallas from the Balkans.

    PubMed

    Rajčević, Nemanja; Janaćković, Pedja; Dodoš, Tanja; Tešević, Vele; Marin, Petar D

    2014-12-01

    The composition of the epicuticular n-alkanes isolated from the leaves of ten populations of Juniperus communis L. var. saxatilis Pallas from central (continental) and western (coastal) areas of the Balkan Peninsula was characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. In the leaf waxes, 14 n-alkane homologues with chain-lengths ranging from C22 to C35 were identified. All samples were dominated by n-tritriacontane (C33 ), but differences in two other dominant n-alkanes allowed separating the coastal from the continental populations. Several statistical methods (ANOVA, principal component, discriminant, and cluster analyses as well as the Mantel test) were deployed to analyze the diversity and variability of the epicuticular-leaf-n-alkane patterns of the ten natural populations of J. communis var. saxatilis and their relation to different geographic and bioclimatic parameters. Cluster analysis showed a high correlation of the leaf-n-alkane patterns with the geographical distribution of the investigated samples, differentiating the coastal from the continental populations of this taxon. Several bioclimatic parameters related to aridity were highly correlated with this differentiation.

  9. Dihydrofolate Reductase Activity in Strains of Streptococcus faecium var. durans Resistant to Methasquin and Amethopterin1

    PubMed Central

    Rader, Jeanne I.; Hutchison, Dorris J.

    1972-01-01

    Resistance to the antifolates methasquin and amethopterin has been studied in new strains of Streptococcus faecium var. durans. Two methasquin-resistant strains (SF/MQ, SF/MQT) and an amethopterin-resistant strain (SF/AM) were selected independently from the wild-type S. faecium var. durans (SF/O). SF/MQT is a thymine auxotroph. Total dihydrofolate reductase activity was elevated in each of the resistant strains. The greatest increase (36-fold) was observed in extracts of SF/AM. The methasquin-resistant strains, SF/MQ and SF/MQT, had 29-fold and 8-fold, respectively, more dihydrofolate reductase activity than the parental strain. Total dihydrofolate reductase activity of SF/O was separable by gel filtration into two components: a folate reductase (11%) and a specific dihydrofolate reductase (89%). Folate reductase activity was associated with 88% of the total dihydrofolate reductase activity of SF/MQT, with specific dihydrofolate reductase activity accounting for the remaining 12%. In SF/MQ and SF/AM, folate reductase activity was associated with 97% of the total dihydrofolate reductase activity. Studies of the inhibition by methasquin and amethopterin of partially purified folate reductase and specific dihydrofolate reductase of the mutant strains suggested that resistance was not accompanied by changes in the affinities of these enzymes for either antifolate. PMID:4401600

  10. Lignans from the tuber-barks of Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta and their antimelanogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki Hyun; Moon, Eunjung; Kim, Sun Yeou; Lee, Kang Ro

    2010-04-28

    Colocasia antiquorum var. esculenta , a variant of C. antiquorum , commonly known as "Imperial Taro", is an edible vegetable in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. This study with the aim of evaluating the potential of C. antiquorum var. esculenta as a functional food with a depigmenting effect resulted in the identification of a new sesquilignan, named colocasinol A (1), and a new acyclic phenylpropane lignanamide, named cis-grossamide K (2), together with 10 known compounds (3-12). The identification and structural elucidation of these compounds were based on 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic data analysis as well as high-resolution fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry (FABMS) and electron impact mass spectrometry (EIMS). Quantitation of the melanin contents and cell viability in murine melanocyte melan-a cells was used to assess the antimelanogenic activities of the isolated compounds. Among them, cis-grossamide K (2), isoamericanol A (3), americanol A (4), 2-hydroxy-3,2'-dimethoxy-4'-(2,3-epoxy-1-hydroxypropyl)-5-(3-hydroxy-1-propenyl)biphenyl (5), and (-)-pinoresinol (6) showed inhibitory effects on melanin production. Compounds 2, 5, and 6 exerted a particularly strong antimelanogenic activity on the cells without high cell toxicity (IC(50) = 54.24, 53.49, and 56.26 microM, and LD(50) = 163.60, 110.23, and >500 microM, respectively).

  11. Antifungal properties of ethanolic extract and its active compounds from Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana (Florin) heartwood.

    PubMed

    Yen, Tsair-Bor; Chang, Hui-Ting; Hsieh, Chun-Chun; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2008-07-01

    The ethanolic extract of Calocedrus macrolepis var. formosana heartwood was screened for antifungal compounds by agar dilution assay and liquid chromatography. Two compounds, beta-thujaplicin and gamma-thujaplicin, responsible for the antifungal property of C. macrolepis var. formosana heartwood were isolated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and identified by 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The antifungal activities of these two compounds were further evaluated against total 15 fungi, including wood decay fungi, tree pathogenic fungi and molds. The hexane soluble fraction showed the strongest antifungal activities among all fractions. beta-Thujaplicin and gamma-thujaplicin exhibited not only very strong antifungal activity, but also broad antifungal spectrum. The MIC values of beta-thujaplicin and gamma-thujaplicin were in the range of 5.0-50.0 microg/ml. In addition, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was carried out to study the structural change of fungal hyphae induced by beta-thujaplicin. Strong cell wall shrinkage indicated the fungicidal effect could be attributed to the combined actions of metal chelating and cytoplasm leakage. It also suggests that the role of metal chelating is indispensable in the design of environmental-friendly fungicides.

  12. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-01-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected maternal body weights (CMBW) were slightly higher in animals receiving low dose extracts (2 mg/kg/day) as compared to all groups of animals. However, body weight differences were not statistically significant. Gravid uterine weight, number of corpora lutea, number of implantation sites, percentage of foetal resorptions, number of life foetuses, foetal weight and foetal sex ratio showed no significant differences among all group animals. None of the foetuses from all dams showed evidence of external congenital malformations. These findings may suggest that aqueous extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata up to 1000 mg/kg/day statistically do not show any significant teratogenic effects in rats but do affect the maternal body weight and this is dose dependent. PMID:22605953

  13. Evaluation of the Teratogenicity of Aqueous Extract of Labisia pumila var. alata in rats.

    PubMed

    Mohd Fuad, Wan Ezumi; Sulaiman, Siti Amrah; Islam, Mohamad Nazrul; Abdul Wahab, Mohd Suhaimi; Sahil Jamalullail, Syed Mohsin

    2005-07-01

    A dose range study to assess the teratogenic potential of aqueous extract of Labisia pumila var. alata (Kacip Fatimah) was conducted in rodents. The extract at doses of 0 (control), 2, 20, 200, 400, 1000 mg/kg/day were respectively administered by gavaging to 6 groups of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats from day 6 through day 16 of pregnancy and sacrificed on day 21. No significant agent-related effects including changes in maternal body weight (MBW) nor weight gain were observed. The corrected maternal body weights (CMBW) were slightly higher in animals receiving low dose extracts (2 mg/kg/day) as compared to all groups of animals. However, body weight differences were not statistically significant. Gravid uterine weight, number of corpora lutea, number of implantation sites, percentage of foetal resorptions, number of life foetuses, foetal weight and foetal sex ratio showed no significant differences among all group animals. None of the foetuses from all dams showed evidence of external congenital malformations. These findings may suggest that aqueous extracts of Labisia pumila var. alata up to 1000 mg/kg/day statistically do not show any significant teratogenic effects in rats but do affect the maternal body weight and this is dose dependent.

  14. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-06-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

  15. [Reclamation of the plant regeneration efficiency of Brassica campestris subsp. chinensis var.Parachinensis].

    PubMed

    Yu, X L; Cao, J S; Xu, S Y

    2001-06-01

    This investigation has developed an efficient and fast method for plant regeneration from petiole of cotyledon explants of Brassica campestris L. subsp. chinensis Makino var. parachinensis Tsen et Lee. A medium was designed for B. campestris subsp. chinensis var. parachinensis to obtain the high frequency of shoot regeneration, which contained BAP 2 mg/L, NAA 0.75-1.0 mgL and 7.5 mg/L AgNO3 solution to the half of NH4+ concentration's MS basic medium. 60 mL/L coconut milk were added to all of media. In this method, frequency of shoot regeneration of "youqing caixin" reached as high as 91.2% and the number of shoots per explant reached as high as 4.7 plants. The result showed that there was a positive correlation between frequency of shoot regeneration and number of shoots per explant. The little shoots could be observed five days after inoculation and were formed directly. The inducing rate of roots of the shoots reached as high as 100% and the rate of viability of transferred mature plant reached higher than 95%. The regeneration period from petiole with cotyledon to a seedling was shorten to about 49 days. Factors influencing in vitro explant regeneration were studied.

  16. Evaluation of microbiological accumulation capability of the commercial sponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica (Schmidt) (Porifera, Demospongiae).

    PubMed

    Stabili, Loredana; Licciano, Margherita; Longo, Caterina; Corriero, Giuseppe; Mercurio, Maria

    2008-05-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological accumulation capability of the demosponge Spongia officinalis var. adriatica. Six microbiological parameters were researched in two sampling periods in the water and in reared sponge samples coming from sites with different degrees of microbial contamination: an off-shore fish farm displaced off the Apulian coast (Southern Adriatic Sea) and a no-impacted area displaced into the Marine Protected Area of Porto Cesareo (Apulian coast-Ionian Sea). We detected the density of culturable heterotrophic bacteria by spread plate on marine agar, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C on Plate Count Agar and vibrios on thiosulphate-citrate-bile-sucrose-salt (TCBS) agar. Total and fecal coliforms as well as fecal streptococci concentrations were detected by the MPN method. Bacterial densities were always higher in the sponge homogenates compared with the corresponding seawater in the sampling points and in both sampling periods. As regard vibrios, total culturable bacteria at 37 degrees C and fecal streptococci concentrations, the highest values were observed in the sponge samples coming from the off-shore fish farm during the summer period. The ability of Spongia officinalis var. adriatica to accumulate the microbial pollution indicators suggests that this species can be employed as a bioindicator for monitoring water quality.

  17. [Niche characteristics of plant populations in Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata stands in Qinling Mountains].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yonghua; Lei, Ruide; He, Xingyuan; Jia, Xia

    2004-06-01

    Based on the data collected from 31 plots and using Levins, Hurlbert and Pianka formulas, this paper calculated and analyzed the niche breadths and overlaps of 24 tree and 29 shrub populations in Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata stands in Mt. Qinling, Shaanxi. The results showed that the Levins and Hurlbert's niche breadths of Quercus aliena var. acuteserrata , Pinus armandi, Toxicodendron vernicifluum, Populus davidiana and Pinus tabulaeformis in arbor layer were 3.695, 1.695, 1.325, 0.840, 0.702 and 0.036, 0.299, 0.568, 1.721, 2.701 respectively, and those of Corrylus heterophylla, Lespedeza formosa and Smilax vaginata in shrub layer were 1.833, 1.466, 0.984 and 0.111, 0.300, 0.594, respectively. In general, the niche overlaps between the species with bigger niche breadth and other species were higher, and those of the species having similar environmental requirements were also higher.

  18. A novel B(var) allele (547 G>A) demonstrates differential expression depending on the co-inherited ABO allele.

    PubMed

    Cho, D; Kim, S H; Ki, C S; Choi, K L; Cho, Y G; Song, J W; Shin, J H; Suh, S P; Yazer, M H; Ryang, D W

    2004-10-01

    Genetic analysis of group B donors in Korea was performed. Exons 6 and 7 were sequenced in 12 phenotypically B3 donors 6 B3, 6 A1B3. Consensus sequences all B3 and 2/6 A1B3 donors were present. Four A1B3 donors demonstrated a novel B allele, B(var), in the context of A101/ or A102/B(var) genotypes. Family studies based on an A1B3 donor with the B(var) allele and on another unrelated subject with identical genotype and phenotype revealed B(var)/O01 genotypes with full B-antigen expression. B(var) allele is subject to differential expression, depending on the co-inherited ABO allele.

  19. Starmera pilosocereana sp. nov., a yeast isolated from necrotic tissue of cacti in a sandy coastal dune ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Larissa F D; Barbosa, Raquel; Sampaio, José Paulo; Lachance, Marc-André; Rosa, Carlos A

    2015-12-01

    Two strains of a novel cactophilic yeast species were isolated from the columnar cactus Pilosocereus arrabidae in a sand dune ecosystem in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the large subunit rRNA gene D1/D2 domains showed that the strains represent a sister species to Starmera caribaea, from which it differs by 21 nt substitutions and two indels. The novel species is heterothallic and the asci are deliquescent with the formation of two to four hat-shaped ascospores. The name Starmera pilosocereana sp. nov. is proposed for the species. The type strain is UFMG-CM-Y316T ( = CBS 13266T) and the allotype is UFMG-CM-Y346a ( = CBS 13265). The Mycobank number is MB 810683. In addition, Candida stellimalicola belonging to the Starmera clade, is reassigned to Starmera as a new combination.

  20. First report of bacterial blight of cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) caused by Pseudomonas cannabina pv. alisalensis in California

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel bacterial leaf blight was seen in field grown cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.) in Monterey County, California in 2006. Koch’s postulates were completed and etiology of the pathogen was determined. Physiological and molecular characterization showed that the pathogen was Pseudomon...

  1. Transcriptome analysis and identification of genes associated with omega-3 fatty acid biosynthesis in Perilla frutescens (L.) var. frutescens

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Perilla (Perilla frutescens (L.) var frutescens) produces high levels of a-linolenic acid (ALA), an omega-3 fatty acid important to health and development. To uncover key genes involved in fatty acid (FA) and triacylglycerol (TAG) synthesis in perilla, we conducted deep sequencing of cD...

  2. Diversity, virulence and 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol sensitivity of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici isolates from Washington State.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Populations of 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG)-producing Pseudomonas fluorescens buildup in soils that have undergone continuous wheat or barley monoculture, resulting in take-all decline (TAD). We tested whether Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt) isolates (causal agent of take-all) in mon...

  3. Antisweet natural products. VIII. Structures of hodulosides VI--X from Hovenia dulcis Thunb. var. tomentella Makino.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, K; Nagai, Y; Yoshida, M; Arihara, S

    1993-10-01

    From the Fresh leaves of Hovenia dulcis Thunb. var. tomentella Makino, five five new dammarane glycosides named hodulosides VI-X (1-5) were isolated. Their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectral evidence. Hodulosides VII-X showed antisweet activities.

  4. Wooden sticks as the source of a pseudoepidemic of infection with Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis among immunocompromised patients.

    PubMed

    Verweij, P E; Voss, A; Donnelly, J P; de Pauw, B E; Meis, J F

    1997-09-01

    Wooden sticks used to suspend feces obtained for surveillance cultures were found to be the source of Rhizopus microsporus var. rhizopodiformis causing a pseudo-outbreak among 17 immunocompromised patients cared for in three different wards. Nonsterile wooden products should therefore not be used for collecting, handling, and processing specimens for microbiological examination.

  5. [Effects of ectomycorrhizal fungi on alleviating the decline of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantations on Keerqin sandy land].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiao-Jun; Kang, Hong-Zhang; Xu, Mei-Ling; Wu, Xiang-Yun; Wang, Wei

    2007-12-01

    Based on the observations of air temperature, soil temperature, and root systems of Pinus sylvestris var. mongolica plantations on southeastern Keerqin sandy land, the decline mechanisms of the plantations were analyzed from the aspect of the effects of temperature on the growth and survival of ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECM). The results indicated that ECM could hardly survive with in 0-5 cm soil layer because of its high temperature environment, but the temperature condition in 20-40 cm soil layer was suitable for the survival and growth of ECM. 78% of the roots of 13-42 years old P. sylvestris var. mongolica tress were distributed in 20-40 cm soil layer, which suggested that the existence of ECM in this soil layer inhibited or alleviated the decline of the P. sylvestris var. mongolica plantations, and was not the inducing factor of the plantations' top withering, low growth rate, and tree death. The lack of ECM in surface soil layer (0-5 cm) could be one of the main reasons leading to the death of seedlings root systems, and thus, the failure of P. sylvestris var. mongolica plantations' regeneration.

  6. Pollination of pima pineapple cactus (Coryphantha sheeri var. robustispina): does pollen flow limit abundance of this endangered species?

    Treesearch

    Christopher J. McDonald; Guy R. McPherson

    2005-01-01

    Pima pineapple cactus (PPC) (Coryphantha sheeri var. robustispina), a federally listed endangered species, occurs throughout southeastern Arizona and has relatively low population densities. To determine whether pollination limits reproduction of PPC we used florescent dye to quantify pollen flow between individuals in a PPC...

  7. Stomatal behavior of ozone-sensitive and -insensitive coneflowers ( Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata ) in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    Treesearch

    Nancy Grulke; H. S. Neufeld; A. W. Davison; M. Roberts; A. H. Chappelka

    2006-01-01

    • Morphological and physiological attributes were assessed to elucidate the underlying mechanisms of ozone (O3) sensitivity in a highly sensitive species, cutleaf coneflower (Rudbeckia laciniata var. digitata). • Foliage at the same height in the canopy on paired O3-...

  8. Comparative proteomic analysis of differential responses of Pinus massoniana and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Simon, Martin; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2014-03-12

    Acid rain (AR), a serious environmental issue, severely affects plant growth and development. As the gymnosperms of conifer woody plants, Pinus massoniana (AR-sensitive) and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei (AR-resistant) are widely distributed in southern China. Under AR stress, significant necrosis and collapsed lesions were found in P. massoniana needles with remarkable yellowing and wilting tips, whereas T. wallichiana var. mairei did not exhibit chlorosis and visible damage. Due to the activation of a large number of stress-related genes and the synthesis of various functional proteins to counteract AR stress, it is important to study the differences in AR-tolerance mechanisms by comparative proteomic analysis of tolerant and sensitive species. This study revealed a total of 65 and 26 differentially expressed proteins that were identified in P. massoniana and T. wallichiana var. mairei, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, signal transduction and transcription were drastically down-regulated in P. massoniana, whereas most of the proteins participating in metabolism, cell structure, photosynthesis and transcription were increased in T. wallichiana var. mairei. These results suggest the distinct patterns of protein expression in the two woody species in response to AR, allowing a deeper understanding of diversity on AR tolerance in forest tree species.

  9. Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Differential Responses of Pinus massoniana and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei to Simulated Acid Rain

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen-Jun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Ting-Wu; Simon, Martin; Wang, Wen-Hua; Chen, Juan; Wu, Fei-Hua; Liu, Xiang; Shen, Zhi-Jun; Zheng, Hai-Lei

    2014-01-01

    Acid rain (AR), a serious environmental issue, severely affects plant growth and development. As the gymnosperms of conifer woody plants, Pinus massoniana (AR-sensitive) and Taxus wallichiana var. mairei (AR-resistant) are widely distributed in southern China. Under AR stress, significant necrosis and collapsed lesions were found in P. massoniana needles with remarkable yellowing and wilting tips, whereas T. wallichiana var. mairei did not exhibit chlorosis and visible damage. Due to the activation of a large number of stress-related genes and the synthesis of various functional proteins to counteract AR stress, it is important to study the differences in AR-tolerance mechanisms by comparative proteomic analysis of tolerant and sensitive species. This study revealed a total of 65 and 26 differentially expressed proteins that were identified in P. massoniana and T. wallichiana var. mairei, respectively. Among them, proteins involved in metabolism, photosynthesis, signal transduction and transcription were drastically down-regulated in P. massoniana, whereas most of the proteins participating in metabolism, cell structure, photosynthesis and transcription were increased in T. wallichiana var. mairei. These results suggest the distinct patterns of protein expression in the two woody species in response to AR, allowing a deeper understanding of diversity on AR tolerance in forest tree species. PMID:24625662

  10. Gene flow analysis demonstrates that Phytophthora fragariae var. rubi constitutes a distinct species, Phytophthora rubi comb. nov.

    PubMed

    Man in 't Veld, Willem A

    2007-01-01

    Isozyme analysis and cytochrome oxidase sequences were used to examine whether differentiation of P. fragariae var. fragariae and P. fragariae var. rubi at the variety level is justified. In isozyme studies six strains of both P. fragariae varieties were analyzed with malate dehydrogenase (MDH), glucose phosphate isomerase (GPI), aconitase (ACO), isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) and phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (PGD), comprising altogether seven putative loci. Five unique alleles (Mdh-1(A), Mdh-2(B), Gpi(A), Aco(B) and Idh-1(B)) were found in strains of P. fragariae var. fragariae, whereas five unique alleles (Mdh-1(B), Mdh-2(A), Gpi(B), Aco(A) and Idh-1(A)) were present in strains of P. fragariae var. rubi. It was inferred from these data that there is no gene flow between the two P. fragariae varieties. Cytochrome oxidase I (Cox I) sequences showed consistent differences at 15 positions between strains of Fragaria and Rubus respectively. Based on isozyme data, cytochrome oxidase I sequences, and previously published differences in restyriction enzyme patterns of mitochondrial DNA, sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes, AFLP patterns and pathogenicity, it was concluded that both specific pathogenic varieties of P. fragariae are reproductively isolated and constitute a distinct species. Consequently strains isolated from Rubus idaeus are assigned to Phytophthora rubi comb. nov.

  11. Quantitative trait loci mapping of heat tolerance in broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) using genotyping-by-sequencing

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Predicted rising global temperatures due to climate change have generated a demand for crops that are resistant to yield and quality losses from heat stress. Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) is a cool weather crop with high temperatures during production decreasing both head quality and yie...

  12. Antiparasitic and antimicrobial indolizidines from the leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var glandulosa from Nevada and Texas USA

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A new indolizidine alkaloid, named (Delta) 1,6-juliprosopine (1), together with previously known indolizidine analogs (2-6), was isolated from the leaves of Prosopis glandulosa var. glandulosa, collected from Nevada, USA; while two other known indolizidines juliprosopine (6) and juliprosine (7) were...

  13. [The molecular structure of iso-aloesin isolated from the leaves of Aloe vera L. var. chinensis (Haw.) Berge].

    PubMed

    Yuan, A X

    1993-10-01

    A new constituent iso-aloesin was isolated from the leaves of Aloe vera var. chinensis found in the Province of Guangxi. The molecular formula of iso-aloesin is C19H22O9, which is 2-acetonyl-6-C-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-7-hydroxy-5-methyl-chromone.

  14. MinVar: A rapid and versatile tool for HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Huber, Michael; Metzner, Karin J; Geissberger, Fabienne D; Shah, Cyril; Leemann, Christine; Klimkait, Thomas; Böni, Jürg; Trkola, Alexandra; Zagordi, Osvaldo

    2017-02-01

    Genotypic monitoring of drug-resistance mutations (DRMs) in HIV-1 infected individuals is strongly recommended to guide selection of the initial antiretroviral therapy (ART) and changes of drug regimens. Traditionally, mutations conferring drug resistance are detected by population sequencing of the reverse transcribed viral RNA encoding the HIV-1 enzymes target by ART, followed by manual analysis and interpretation of Sanger sequencing traces. This process is labor intensive, relies on subjective interpretation from the operator, and offers limited sensitivity as only mutations above 20% frequency can be reliably detected. Here we present MinVar, a pipeline for the analysis of deep sequencing data, which allows reliable and automated detection of DRMs down to 5%. We evaluated MinVar with data from amplicon sequencing of defined mixtures of molecular virus clones with known DRM and plasma samples of viremic HIV-1 infected individuals and we compared it to VirVarSeq, another virus variant detection tool exclusively working on Illumina deep sequencing data. MinVar was designed to be compatible with a diverse range of sequencing platforms and allows the detection of DRMs and insertions/deletions from deep sequencing data without the need to perform additional bioinformatics analysis, a prerequisite to a widespread implementation of HIV-1 genotyping using deep sequencing in routine diagnostic settings.

  15. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca). IV. Montana and Idaho near the Continental Divide

    Treesearch

    Gerald Rehfeldt

    1988-01-01

    Seventy-seven seedling populations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) sampled from near the Continental Divide in Idaho and Montana exhibited pronounced genetic differences when compared in three common environments. Differentiation involved several traits that are components of an annual developmental cycle that must be completed within a growing...

  16. HYDROLOGICAL AND CLIMATIC RESPONSES OF OLD-GROWTH PINUS ELLIOTTII VAR. DENSA IN MESIC PINE FLATWOODS FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus elliottii Englem. var. densa Little & Dorman (Southern Slash Pine) is unique in that it is the only native sub-tropical pine in the USA. Once occupying much of the south Florida landscape, it is now restricted to an estimated 3% of its pre human settlement area. Land manag...

  17. Targeted mapping of Cdu1, a major locus regulating grain cadmium concentration in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Some durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars have the genetic propensity to accumulate cadmium (Cd) in the grain. A major gene controlling grain Cd concentration designated as Cdu1 has been reported on 5B, but the genetic factor(s) conferring the low Cd phenotype are currently unknow...

  18. First Report of Soybean Rust, Caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, on Kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in Illinois

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Soybean rust, caused by Phakopsora pachyrhizi, was first observed on soybean (Glycine max) in the continental United States in Louisiana in 2004, and on kudzu (Pueraria montana var. lobata) in the United States in 2005. Kudzu is a leguminous weed that is prevalent in the southern United States with ...

  19. Family differences in equations for predicting biomass and leaf area in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. menziesii).

    Treesearch

    J.B. St. Clair

    1993-01-01

    Logarithmic regression equations were developed to predict component biomass and leaf area for an 18-yr-old genetic test of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii [Mirb.] Franco var. menziesii) based on stem diameter or cross-sectional sapwood area. Equations did not differ among open-pollinated families in slope, but intercepts...

  20. HYDROLOGICAL AND CLIMATIC RESPONSES OF OLD-GROWTH PINUS ELLIOTTII VAR. DENSA IN MESIC PINE FLATWOODS FLORIDA, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pinus elliottii Englem. var. densa Little & Dorman (Southern Slash Pine) is unique in that it is the only native sub-tropical pine in the USA. Once occupying much of the south Florida landscape, it is now restricted to an estimated 3% of its pre human settlement area. Land manag...

  1. Characterization of the pH-Mediated solubility of Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego native δ-endotoxin crystals

    Treesearch

    C. N. Koller; L. S. Bauer; R. M. Hollingworth

    1992-01-01

    Native crystals of Bacillus thuringiensis var. san diego, a coleopteran-specific δ-endotoxin, were metabolically labeled with [35S]methionine. Specific activity was 82,000 CPM/μg (2.44 Ci/mmol). Using a universal buffer formulated with the same ionic strength at every pH, we determined that...

  2. Genetic analyses of nickel tolerance in a North American serpentine endemic plant, Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. barbarae (Brassicaceae).

    PubMed

    Burrell, A Millie; Hawkins, Angela K; Pepper, Alan E

    2012-11-01

    The evolution of metal tolerance in plants is an important model for studies of adaptation to environment, population genetics, and speciation. Here, we investigated nickel tolerance in the North American serpentine endemic Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. barbarae in comparison with its nonserpentine sister taxon C. amplexicaulis var. amplexicaulis. We hypothesized that the serpentine endemic would have a heritable growth advantage on nickel-containing substrates. We employed an artificial growth assay to quantify biomass accumulation. Study plants were crossed to create an F(2:3) population that was used to determine the heritability of nickel tolerance and to map quantitative trait loci (QTL). Nickel accumulation in both laboratory populations and native specimens was examined using energy-dispersive x-ray fluorescence (EDXRF). The serpentine endemic had a dramatic growth advantage at concentrations of nickel >30 µmol/L. Caulanthus amplexicaulis var. barbarae and its nonserpentine sister taxon both accumulated nickel to substantial levels. Nickel tolerance was highly heritable (h(2) = 0.59) and not associated with accumulation. The QTL analyses identified two major loci for nickel tolerance, on linkage group 2 (LG2) and linkage group 9 (LG9). In our study, nickel tolerance was determined by two major loci with large effects. At both loci, alleles from the serpentine parent conferred positive effects on nickel tolerance, suggesting that they are adaptive in the natural serpentine environment. The mechanism of nickel tolerance in the serpentine plant was not exclusion of nickel. Nickel tolerance may have an inducible component in C. amplexicaulis var. barbarae.

  3. Genetic differentiation of two California red oak species, Quercus parvula var. shreveii and Q. wislizeni, based on AFLP genetic markers

    Treesearch

    Nasser Kashani; Richard S. Dodd

    2002-01-01

    Oaks are renowned for posing problems in defining species boundaries. One example is the case of the interior live oak complex that is usually taken to include two varieties of Quercus wislizeni from the Coast Ranges of California and the Sierra Nevada, and Q. parvula var. shreveii from the central coast of...

  4. Ecological adaptations in Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) populations: I. North Idaho and North-East Washington

    Treesearch

    Gerald E. Rehfeldt

    1979-01-01

    Growth, phenology and frost tolerance of seedlings from 50 populations of Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) were compared in 12 environments. Statistical analyses of six variables (bud burst, bud set, 3-year height, spring and fall frost injuries, and deviation from regression of 3-year height on 2-year height) showed that populations not only differed in...

  5. First report of downy mildew disease caused by Plasmopara halstedii on the native Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton var. speciosa (Wender.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The showy black-eyed Susan Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton var. speciosa (Wender.) is an important perennial wildflower native to the Northeast and Midwest regions of the United States. Besides its aesthetic value in the landscape, this native plant attracts pollinators and provides seeds for birds during t...

  6. Effects of Bacillus cereus var. toyoi on immune parameters of pregnant sows.

    PubMed

    Schierack, Peter; Filter, Matthias; Scharek, Lydia; Toelke, Christiane; Taras, David; Tedin, Karsten; Haverson, Karin; Lübke-Becker, Antina; Wieler, Lothar H

    2009-01-15

    Changing immune parameters during pregnancy have previously been reported in humans and cattle, and have been suggested to contribute to increased susceptibility to infections. However, data regarding immune parameters during pregnancy in sows are rare. In this study, we investigated the peripartal immune status of sows using phenotypical (FACS analysis) as well as functional (proliferation assays, cytokine analysis) parameters of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in pregnant sows. In previous studies, we reported a modulation of the immune system after feed supplementation of the probiotic Bacillus cereus var. toyoi in piglets [Schierack, P., Wieler, L.H., Taras, D., Herwig, V., Tachu, B., Hlinak, A., Schmidt, M.F., Scharek, L., 2007. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi enhanced systemic immune response in piglets. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. 118, 1-11]. Here, we extended these previous studies to include investigations of possible probiotic effects on the peripartal immune status of sows and their reproductivity. We show that immune parameters of sows change during pregnancy, the proliferative response of PBMCs to several bacterial antigens in control animals decreased from days 90 to 30 ante partum. Relative numbers (%) of CD3+CD8+, CD4+, cytotoxic T, CD14+ and CD21+ cells were reduced compared to non-pregnant sows. In contrast, the proliferative response of PBMCs of probiotic-treated sows increased during pregnancy. Bacterial antigens primarily stimulated the proliferation of naïve CD21+ cells and the relative CD21+ cell numbers were elevated in the probiotic group in the absence of effects on other immune cell populations. The clinical and microbial status of both control and probiotic sows was similar, excluding pre-existing health problems or infections as responsible for the immunological changes, and feed supplementation also had no significant effects on reproductivity. The results suggest that the probiotic B. cereus var. toyoi can alter the

  7. Homology blocks of Plasmodium falciparum var genes and clinically distinct forms of severe malaria in a local population

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The primary target of the human immune response to the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), is encoded by the members of the hyper-diverse var gene family. The parasite exhibits antigenic variation via mutually exclusive expression (switching) of the ~60 var genes within its genome. It is thought that different variants exhibit different host endothelial binding preferences that in turn result in different manifestations of disease. Results Var sequences comprise ancient sequence fragments, termed homology blocks (HBs), that recombine at exceedingly high rates. We use HBs to define distinct var types within a local population. We then reanalyze a dataset that contains clinical and var expression data to investigate whether the HBs allow for a description of sequence diversity corresponding to biological function, such that it improves our ability to predict disease phenotype from parasite genetics. We find that even a generic set of HBs, which are defined for a small number of non-local parasites: capture the majority of local sequence diversity; improve our ability to predict disease severity from parasite genetics; and reveal a previously hypothesized yet previously unobserved parasite genetic basis for two forms of severe disease. We find that the expression rates of some HBs correlate more strongly with severe disease phenotypes than the expression rates of classic var DBLα tag types, and principal components of HB expression rate profiles further improve genotype-phenotype models. More specifically, within the large Kenyan dataset that is the focus of this study, we observe that HB expression differs significantly for severe versus mild disease, and for rosetting versus impaired consciousness associated severe disease. The analysis of a second much smaller dataset from Mali suggests that these HB-phenotype associations are consistent across geographically distant populations, since we find

  8. The complete chloroplast genome sequence of Gentiana lawrencei var. farreri (Gentianaceae) and comparative analysis with its congeneric species

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Peng-Cheng; Zhang, Yan-Zhao; Geng, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    Background The chloroplast (cp) genome is useful in plant systematics, genetic diversity analysis, molecular identification and divergence dating. The genus Gentiana contains 362 species, but there are only two valuable complete cp genomes. The purpose of this study is to report the characterization of complete cp genome of G. lawrencei var. farreri, which is endemic to the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (QTP). Methods Using high throughput sequencing technology, we got the complete nucleotide sequence of the G. lawrencei var. farreri cp genome. The comparison analysis including genome difference and gene divergence was performed with its congeneric species G. straminea. The simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and phylogenetics were studied as well. Results The cp genome of G. lawrencei var. farreri is a circular molecule of 138,750 bp, containing a pair of 24,653 bp inverted repeats which are separated by small and large single-copy regions of 11,365 and 78,082 bp, respectively. The cp genome contains 130 known genes, including 85 protein coding genes (PCGs), eight ribosomal RNA genes and 37 tRNA genes. Comparative analyses indicated that G. lawrencei var. farreri is 10,241 bp shorter than its congeneric species G. straminea. Four large gaps were detected that are responsible for 85% of the total sequence loss. Further detailed analyses revealed that 10 PCGs were included in the four gaps that encode nine NADH dehydrogenase subunits. The cp gene content, order and orientation are similar to those of its congeneric species, but with some variation among the PCGs. Three genes, ndhB, ndhF and clpP, have high nonsynonymous to synonymous values. There are 34 SSRs in the G. lawrencei var. farreri cp genome, of which 25 are mononucleotide repeats: no dinucleotide repeats were detected. Comparison with the G. straminea cp genome indicated that five SSRs have length polymorphisms and 23 SSRs are species-specific. The phylogenetic analysis of 48 PCGs from 12 Gentianales taxa cp genomes

  9. The epidemiology and mating behavior of Arthroderma benhamiae var. erinacei in household four-toed hedgehogs (Atelerix albiventris) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yoko; Sano, Ayako; Takizawa, Kayoko; Fukushima, Kazutaka; Miyaji, Makoto; Nishimura, Kazuko

    2003-01-01

    An epidemiological survey of Trichophyton mentagrophytes var. erinacei in the household hedgehog and other rodents was made between January 17, 2002 and February 28, 2002 in Japan. Quills and hairs were collected from sources identified via the internet. The fungus was isolated only from the quills of four-toed hedgehogs (7/18; 39%) from Kanto to Kyushu regions. Isolates were examined morphologically, physiologically and genetically, and identified as T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei anamorph. The isolates were also genetically compared with European hedgehog (Erinaceus europeus)-borne T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei and Kenyan hedgehog (Aterelix albiventris)-borne Arthroderma benhamiae, and their genotypes of the ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rDNA were all identical. The isolates were crossed with A. benhamiae Americano-European race and African race, A. vanbreuseghemii and A. simii, with the result that they mated only with African race (+) or (-). Mating types of the isolates were (+) in 6 isolates and (-) in one. An intra-isolate mating between one of the 6 plus isolates and the minus one formed abundant mature gymnothesia, the mating type ratio of the F1 progeny was approximately 1:1, and the sib crossings of F1 progeny produced abundant fertile gymnothesia. The present study revealed that the intra-Japanese hedgehog-borne isolate crossing showed complete fertility and that the sexual degeneration pointed out by Takashio (Mycologia 71: 968-976, 1979) did not exist. Two pairs of mating, (+) and (-) mating types of Japanese isolates with (-) and (+) tester strains of A. benhamiae African race formed less gymnothesia, mating type ratios were unbalanced, and sib crossings of F1 progeny produced small gymnothesia containing a low number of asci, pseudogymothesia, or none, respectively. These results show that A. benhamiae var. erinacei, the teleomorph of T. mentagrophytes var. erinacei, belongs to a different mating group (e.g. hedgehog race) than the Americano-European and

  10. Hybrid Origins of Carex rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis, Two Problematic Taxa in Carex Section Vesicariae (Cyperaceae)

    PubMed Central

    M. Pedersen, A. Tiril; Nowak, Michael D.; Brysting, Anne K.; Elven, Reidar; Bjorå, Charlotte S.

    2016-01-01

    Hybridization is frequent in the large and ecologically significant genus Carex (Cyperaceae). In four important sections of the northern regions (Ceratocystis, Glareosae, Phacocystis and Vesicariae), the frequent occurrence of hybrids often renders the identification of “pure” species and hybrids difficult. In this study we address the origins and taxonomic rank of two taxa of section Vesicariae: Carex rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis. The origin and taxonomic status of C. stenolepis has been the subject of substantial debate over the years, whereas C. rostrata var. borealis has received very little attention in the years since its first description in the 19th century. By performing an extensive sampling of relevant taxa from a broad distribution range, and analyzing data from fifteen microsatellite loci developed specifically for our study together with pollen stainability measures, we resolve the hybrid origins of C. rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis and provide new insights into this taxonomically challenging group of sedges. Our results are in accordance with previous findings suggesting that C. stenolepis is a hybrid between C. vesicaria and C. saxatilis. They are also in accordance with a previous proposition that C. rostrata var. borealis is a hybrid between C. rostrata and C. rotundata, and furthermore suggest that both hybrids are the result of multiple, recent (i.e., postglacial) hybridization events. We found little evidence for successful sexual reproduction within C. rostrata var. borealis and C. stenolepis, but conclude that the common and recurrent, largely predictable occurrence of these taxa justifies accepting both hybrids as hybrid species with binomial names. There are, however, complications as to types and priority names, and we therefore choose to address these problems in a separate paper. PMID:27780239

  11. Increased risk of low birth weight in women with placental malaria associated with P. falciparum VAR2CSA clade.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jaymin C; Hathaway, Nicholas J; Parobek, Christian M; Thwai, Kyaw L; Madanitsa, Mwayiwawo; Khairallah, Carole; Kalilani-Phiri, Linda; Mwapasa, Victor; Massougbodji, Achille; Fievet, Nadine; Bailey, Jeffery A; Ter Kuile, Feiko O; Deloron, Philippe; Engel, Stephanie M; Taylor, Steve M; Juliano, Jonathan J; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise; Meshnick, Steven R

    2017-08-11

    Pregnancy associated malaria (PAM) causes adverse pregnancy and birth outcomes owing to Plasmodium falciparum accumulation in the placenta. Placental accumulation is mediated by P. falciparum protein VAR2CSA, a leading PAM-specific vaccine target. The extent of its antigen diversity and impact on clinical outcomes remain poorly understood. Through amplicon deep-sequencing placental malaria samples from women in Malawi and Benin, we assessed sequence diversity of VAR2CSA's ID1-DBL2x region, containing putative vaccine targets and estimated associations of specific clades with adverse birth outcomes. Overall, var2csa diversity was high and haplotypes subdivided into five clades, the largest two defined by homology to parasites strains, 3D7 or FCR3. Across both cohorts, compared to women infected with only FCR3-like variants, women infected with only 3D7-like variants delivered infants with lower birthweight (difference: -267.99 g; 95% Confidence Interval [CI]: -466.43 g,-69.55 g) and higher odds of low birthweight (<2500 g) (Odds Ratio [OR] 5.41; 95% CI:0.99,29.52) and small-for-gestational-age (OR: 3.65; 95% CI: 1.01,13.38). In two distinct malaria-endemic African settings, parasites harboring 3D7-like variants of VAR2CSA were associated with worse birth outcomes, supporting differential effects of infection with specific parasite strains. The immense diversity coupled with differential clinical effects of this diversity suggest that an effective VAR2CSA-based vaccine may require multivalent activity.

  12. Development of intestinal microflora and occurrence of diarrhoea in sucking foals: effects of Bacillus cereus var. toyoi supplementation.

    PubMed

    John, Jenny; Roediger, Kathrin; Schroedl, Wieland; Aldaher, Nada; Vervuert, Ingrid

    2015-02-14

    Almost all foals develop transient diarrhoea within the first weeks of life. Studies indicated different viral, bacterial, and parasitic causes, such as rotavirus, Clostridium perfringens, Escherichia coli, and Cryptosporidium are discussed. But little is known about the development of intestinal microflora in foals. The present study investigated whether the supplementation with Bacillus cereus var. toyoi would modify the developing intestinal microflora and consequently reduce diarrhoea in foals. From birth, the foals were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: placebo (10 mL isotonic NaCl, n = 8), low dosage (LD; 5 × 10(8) cfu B. cereus var. toyoi, n = 7) and high dosage (HD; 2 × 10(9) cfu B. cereus var. toyoi, n = 10). Treatment groups were supplemented orally once a day for 58 days. Faeces scoring and sampling were performed within the first 24 h after birth and on day 9, 16, 23, 30, 44, 58 of the foal's life and also on the first day of diarrhoea. Culture-plate methods were used to analyse the bacterial microflora. Eighty-eight per cent of the foals developed diarrhoea (placebo 7/8, LD 5/7, HD 10/10) during the first 58 days of life. Bacillus cereus var. toyoi supplementation had no effect on bacterial microflora. Clostridium perfringens and enterobacteria were equally prevalent in foals with diarrhoea and those who were not afflicted. We conclude that the supplementation of B. cereus var. toyoi had no effect on the occurrence of diarrhoea and health status in the foals.

  13. Processes of late Quaternary turbidity current flow and deposition on the Var deep sea fan, northwest Mediterranean sea

    SciTech Connect

    Piper, D. ); Savoye, B. )

    1993-09-01

    Late Quaternary sedimentation patterns on the Var deep-sea fan are known from high-resolution seismic boomer profiles (vertical resolution < 1 m), piston cores, SAR side-scan sonargraphs, and submersible dives. Foram biostratigraphy and radiocarbon dating provide chronologic control that is seismically correlated across the fan. Regional erosional events correspond to the isotopic state 2 and 6 glacial maxima. A widespread surface sand layer was deposited from the 1979 turbidity current, which broke two submarine cables. Numerical modeling constrains its character. A small slide on the upper prodelta developed into an accelerating turbidity current, which eroded sand from the Var canyon. The current was 30 m thick in the upper valley, expanding downflow to >120 m, where it spilled over the eastern Var sedimentary ridge at a velocity of 2.5 ms[sup [minus]1]. Other Holocene turbidity currents (with a 103-yr recurrence interval) were muddier and thicker, but also deposited sand on middle fan-valley levees and are inferred to have had a similar slide-related origin. Late Pleistocene turbidity currents deposited on the high Var sedimentary ridge. The presence of sediment waves and the cross-flow slope inferred from levee asymmetry indicate that some flow were hundreds of meters thick, with velocities of 0.35 ms[sup [minus]1]. Estimated times for deposition of thick levee mud beds are many days or weeks. Late Pleistocene flows therefore are interpreted to result from hyperpycnal flow of glacial outwash in the Var River. Variation in late Pleistocene-Holocene turbidite sedimentation thus is controlled more by changes in sediment supply than by sea level.

  14. Pollinator Competition as a Driver of Floral Divergence: An Experimental Test

    PubMed Central

    Temeles, Ethan J.; Newman, Julia T.; Newman, Jennifer H.; Cho, Se Yeon; Mazzotta, Alexandra R.; Kress, W. John

    2016-01-01

    Optimal foraging models of floral divergence predict that competition between two different types of pollinators will result in partitioning, increased assortative mating, and divergence of two floral phenotypes. We tested these predictions in a tropical plant-pollinator system using sexes of purple-throated carib hummingbirds (Anthracothorax jugularis) as the pollinators, red and yellow inflorescence morphs of Heliconia caribaea as the plants, and fluorescent dyes as pollen analogs in an enclosed outdoor garden. When foraging alone, males exhibited a significant preference for the yellow morph of H. caribaea, whereas females exhibited no preference. In competition, males maintained their preference for the yellow morph and through aggression caused females to over-visit the red morph, resulting in resource partitioning. Competition significantly increased within-morph dye transfer (assortative mating) relative to non-competitive environments. Competition and partitioning of color morphs by sexes of purple-throated caribs also resulted in selection for floral divergence as measured by dye deposition on stigmas. Red and yellow morphs did not differ significantly in dye deposition in the competition trials, but differences in dye deposition and preferences for morphs when sexes of purple-throated caribs foraged alone implied fixation of one or the other color morph in the absence of competition. Competition also resulted in selection for divergence in corolla length, with the red morph experiencing directional selection for longer corollas and the yellow morph experiencing stabilizing selection on corolla length. Our results thus support predictions of foraging models of floral divergence and indicate that pollinator competition is a viable mechanism for divergence in floral traits of plants. PMID:26814810

  15. Pollinator Competition as a Driver of Floral Divergence: An Experimental Test.

    PubMed

    Temeles, Ethan J; Newman, Julia T; Newman, Jennifer H; Cho, Se Yeon; Mazzotta, Alexandra R; Kress, W John

    2016-01-01

    Optimal foraging models of floral divergence predict that competition between two different types of pollinators will result in partitioning, increased assortative mating, and divergence of two floral phenotypes. We tested these predictions in a tropical plant-pollinator system using sexes of purple-throated carib hummingbirds (Anthracothorax jugularis) as the pollinators, red and yellow inflorescence morphs of Heliconia caribaea as the plants, and fluorescent dyes as pollen analogs in an enclosed outdoor garden. When foraging alone, males exhibited a significant preference for the yellow morph of H. caribaea, whereas females exhibited no preference. In competition, males maintained their preference for the yellow morph and through aggression caused females to over-visit the red morph, resulting in resource partitioning. Competition significantly increased within-morph dye transfer (assortative mating) relative to non-competitive environments. Competition and partitioning of color morphs by sexes of purple-throated caribs also resulted in selection for floral divergence as measured by dye deposition on stigmas. Red and yellow morphs did not differ significantly in dye deposition in the competition trials, but differences in dye deposition and preferences for morphs when sexes of purple-throated caribs foraged alone implied fixation of one or the other color morph in the absence of competition. Competition also resulted in selection for divergence in corolla length, with the red morph experiencing directional selection for longer corollas and the yellow morph experiencing stabilizing selection on corolla length. Our results thus support predictions of foraging models of floral divergence and indicate that pollinator competition is a viable mechanism for divergence in floral traits of plants.

  16. Plastid transformation in cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) by the biolistic process.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Menq-Jiau; Yang, Ming-Te; Chu, Wan-Ru; Liu, Cheng-Wei

    2014-01-01

    Cabbage (Brassica oleracea L. var. capitata L.) is one of the most important vegetable crops grown worldwide. Scientists are using biotechnology in addition to traditional breeding methods to develop new cabbage varieties with desirable traits. Recent biotechnological advances in chloroplast transformation technology have opened new avenues for crop improvement. In 2007, we developed a stable plastid transformation system for cabbage and reported the successful transformation of the cry1Ab gene into the cabbage chloroplast genome. This chapter describes the methods for cabbage transformation using biolistic procedures. The following sections are included in this protocol: preparation of donor materials, coating gold particles with DNA, biolistic bombardment, as well as the regeneration and selection of transplastomic cabbage plants. The establishment of a plastid transformation system for cabbage offers new possibilities for introducing new agronomic and horticultural traits into Brassica crops.

  17. Influence of nutrient factors on production of mucilage by Amphora coffeaeformis var. perpusilla

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buzzelli, Elena; Gianna, Roberto; Marchiori, Enrico; Bruno, Milena

    1997-08-01

    Widely distributed productions of mucilages affected the coasts of the Adriatic sea in the summers of 1988, 1989 and 1991 (the so-called "dirty sea" phenomenon). Samples taken in this area revealed a mix of diatom and dinoflagellate algae trapped in the mucilagenous matrix, but cultured isolates from the samples showed the species Amphora coffeaeformis var. perpusilla producing a kind of exopolysaccharide (EPS) very similar in structure to that of the floating pillows which appear in the Adriatic waters. The effects of growing concentrations of primary nutrients on EPS production by A. coffeaeformis were evaluated and the results showed a prevailing influence of nitrogen, alone or in synergy with phosphorus, with respect to phosphorus alone. EPS production never stopped, even during the stationary phase and never overlapped with growth curves. 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd

  18. [Genetic diversity and mating system Pinus brutia var. Stankewiczii sukacz. in small localities of Sudak (Crimea)].

    PubMed

    Korshikov, I I; Kalafat, L A; Milchevskaya, Ya G

    2015-01-01

    A comparative analysis of genetic variation at 12 polymorphic isozyme loci, and the mating system has been carried out in mature trees and their seed progeny in three small localities of Pinus brutia var. stankewiczii Sukacz. near the town of Sudak--settlement of Novyi Svet in the Crimea. We found that embryos maintain the same allelic diversity as mother plants but their observed heterozygosity is lower on the average by 37.4%. The significant deviation of genotype distribution from the theoretically expected ratios caused by the deficiency of heterozygotes was observed at 8 out of 12 loci. Multilocus estimate of outcrossing rate (t(m)) in populations varied from 68.9 to 94.9% making on the average 80.7%.

  19. Green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by Ricinus communis var. carmencita leaf extract and its antibacterial study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojha, Sunita; Sett, Arghya; Bora, Utpal

    2017-09-01

    In this study, we report synthesis of silver nanoparticles (RcAgNPs) from silver nitrate solution using methanolic leaf extract of Ricinus communis var. carmencita. The polyphenols present in the leaves reduce Ag++ ions to Ag0 followed by a color change. Silver nanoparticle formation was ensured by surface plasmon resonance between 400 nm to 500 nm. Crystallinity of the synthesized nanoparticles was confirmed by UHRTEM, SAED and XRD analysis. The capping of phytochemicals and thermal stability of RcAgNPs were assessed by FTIR spectra and TGA analysis, respectively. It also showed antibacterial activity against both gram positive and gram negative strains. RcAgNPs were non-toxic against normal cell line (mouse fibroblast cell line L929) at lower concentrations (80 µg ml-1).

  20. A performance comparison of static VAr compensator based on Goertzel and FFT algorithm and experimental validation.

    PubMed

    Kececioglu, O Fatih; Gani, Ahmet; Sekkeli, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of the present paper is to introduce a new approach for measuring and calculation of fundamental power components in the case of various distorted waveforms including those containing harmonics. The parameters of active, reactive, apparent power and power factor, are measured and calculated by using Goertzel algorithm instead of fast Fourier transformation which is commonly used. The main advantage of utilizing Goertzel algorithm is to minimize computational load and trigonometric equations. The parameters measured in the new technique are applied to a fixed capacitor-thyristor controlled reactor based static VAr compensation system to achieve accurate power factor correction for the first time. This study is implemented both simulation and experimentally.

  1. Effect of bacterial polysaccharides on the growth of Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and wheat roots.

    PubMed

    Lasík, J; Stanĕk, M; Vancura, V; Wurst, M

    1979-01-01

    Agrobacterium sp. and related species which in the soil and in the rhizosphere of wheat accompany the fungus Gaemannomyces graminis var. tritici and cause take-all of the wheat roots produced polysaccharides in pure cultures (glucans, mannoglucans and galactomannoglucans). These polysaccharides were utilized better by the mycelium of G. graminis than glucose and polysaccharides of plant origin that occurred on the surface of wheat roots (the so-called mucigel). At lower concentrations these bacterial polysaccharides stimulated growth of wheat roots, higher concentrations (more than 0.1%) were inhibitory. Bacteria inoculated on the surface of wheat first inhibited and then stimulated the development of the plants and their growth. Changes in the growth rate of wheat, the rhizosphere of which was colonized by bacteria simultaneously with the fungus G. graminis and also some changes in the course of the disease of wheat roots caused by the fungus can be explained by the inhibitory or stimulatory effect of polysaccharides of accompanying bacteria.

  2. Structural characterization and gastroprotective property of a novel glucofructan from Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum.

    PubMed

    Malafaia, Camila R A; da Silva, Bernadete P; Tinoco, Luzineide W; Parente, José P

    2015-01-30

    A new polysaccharide with an estimated weight-average molar mass of 2.6×10(3) was isolated from Allium ampeloprasum var. porrum by hot water extraction, and purified by Sephacryl S-300 HR high-resolution chromatography. It was composed of D-fructose and D-glucose in 10:6 molar ratio, respectively. The structure of the glucofructan was investigated by chemical and spectroscopic methods, including methylation analysis, nuclear magnetic resonance, and electrospray mass spectrometry (ES-MS). The results permitted the structure of the glucofructan to be written as α-D-Glcp-(1→1)-β-D-Fruf-(2→1)-{[α-D-Glcp-(1→6)-β-D-Fruf-(2→6)]-β-D-Fruf-(2→1)}4-β-D-Fruf-(2↔1)-α-D-Glcp. Results of the present study indicated that this new glucofructan exhibited significant gastroprotective property, using in vivo experimental models.

  3. [Chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi].

    PubMed

    Deng, Gai-Gai; Yang, Xiu-Wei; Zhang, You-Bo; Xu, Wei; Wei, Wei; Chen, Tian-Li

    2015-06-01

    The chemical constituents from lipophilic parts in the roots of Angelica dahurica var. formosana cv. Chuanbaizhi were studied in this paper. The compounds were separated and purified by repeated column chromatographic methods on silica gel and HPLC, and the chemical structures of compounds were determined by spectral data analyses. Twenty-nine compounds were obtained and identified as isoimperatorin (1), β-sitosterol (2), imperatorin (3), bergapten (4), osthenol (5), xanthotoxin (6), isoimpinellin (7), dehydrogeijerin (8), phellopterin (9), isodemethylfuropinarine (10), 7-demethylsuberosin (11), alloimperatorin (12), xanthotoxol (13), isooxypeucedanin (14), alloisoimperatorin (15), demethylfuropinarine (16), 5-hydroxy-8-methoxypsoralen (17), oxypeucedanin methanolate (18), pabulenol (19), byakangelicin (20), marmesin (21), (+) -decursinol (22), heraclenol (23), oxypeucedanin hydrate (24), marmesinin (25), ulopterol (26), erythro-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (27), threo-guaiacylglycerol-β-ferulic acid ether (28), and uracil (29). Compounds 5, 8, 11, 18, 21-23, and 26-28 were obtained from the roots of title plant for the first time.

  4. Bauhinia variegata var. variegata trypsin inhibitor: from isolation to potential medicinal applications.

    PubMed

    Fang, Evandro Fei; Wong, Jack Ho; Bah, Clara Shui Fern; Lin, Peng; Tsao, Sai Wah; Ng, Tzi Bun

    2010-06-11

    Here we report for the first time of a new Kunitz-type trypsin inhibitor (termed BvvTI) from seeds of the Camel's foot tree, Bauhinia variegata var. variegata. BvvTI shares the same reactive site residues (Arg, Ser) and exhibits a homology of N-terminal amino acid sequence to other Bauhinia protease inhibitors. The trypsin inhibitory activity (K(i), 0.1 x 10(-9)M) of BvvTI ranks the highest among them. Besides anti-HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, BvvTI could significantly inhibit the proliferation of nasopharyngeal cancer CNE-1 cells in a selective way. This may partially be contributed by its induction of cytokines and apoptotic bodies. These results unveil potential medicinal applications of BvvTI.

  5. Retention for Stoploss reinsurance to minimize VaR in compound Poisson-Lognormal distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soleh, Achmad Zanbar; Noviyanti, Lienda; Nurrahmawati, Irma

    2015-12-01

    Automobile insurance is one of the emerging general insurance's product in Indonesia. Fluctuation in total premium revenues and total claim expenses leads to a risk that insurance company can not be able to pay consumer's claims, thus reinsurance is needeed. Reinsurance is a risk transfer mechanism from the insurance company to another company called reinsurer, one of the reinsurance type is Stoploss. Because reinsurer charges premium to the insurance company, it is important to determine the retention or the total claims to be retain solely by the insurance company. Thus, retention is determined using Value at Risk (VaR) which minimize the total risk of the insurance company in the presence of Stoploss reinsurance. Retention depends only on the distribution of total claims and reinsurance loading factor. We use the compound Poisson distribution and the Log-Normal Distribution to illustrate the retention value in a collective risk model.

  6. [Modification and expression of insecticidal protein structural gene of Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai 7-29].

    PubMed

    Guo, S; Hong, Z; Wang, J; Wang, M; Yu, M; Fan, Y

    1992-06-01

    The regulative region (181bp) and the fifth toxic active domain (217bp) were removed from the insecticidal protein gene of Bacillus thuringiensis var. aizawai 7-29. After the synthesis of the adaptor (15bp) that contains initiation codon (ATG) and the PCR synthesis of the fifth toxic active domain (229bp) that contains stop codon (TAA), were inserted into on 5' truncated and 3' truncated of the coding fod N-terminal peptid's DNA fragment, that to become a modified structural gene. The modified structural gene can be play initiatic translation-function and stop translation-function during translation of insecticidal protein. The insecticidal protein was determined by western blotting, showed the expression of modified structural gene in Escherichia coli JM 103. The bioassay of insecticidal proteins showed the 3' truncated and 5' truncated of insecticidal gene was higher toxic active than the 3' truncated of insecticidal gene in Escherichia coli JM 103.

  7. Oxygenated diterpenes and other constituents from Moroccan Juniperus phoenicea and Juniperus thurifera var. africana.

    PubMed

    Barrero, Alejandro F; Quilez del Moral, José F; Herrador, M Mar; Akssira, Mohamed; Bennamara, Ahmed; Akkad, Said; Aitigri, Mohamed

    2004-09-01

    Six new diterpenic acids isolated as their methyl ester derivatives, i.e., methyl 12-oxo-8alpha,15-dihydroxyabiet-13-en-19-oate, methyl 12-oxo-8alpha-hydroxyabiet-13-en-19-oate, methyl 15-hydroperoxy-8alpha,12alpha-epidioxiabiet-13-en-19-oate, methyl 15-hydroxy-8alpha,12alpha-epidioxiabiet-13-en-19-oate, methyl 15-hydroperoxy-8alpha,14alpha,12alpha,13alpha-diepoxiabietan-13-en-19-oate, and methyl 7alpha,12beta-dihydroxysandaracopimarate, together with two new isovalerate derivatives of p-methoxycinnamyl alcohol and linalool, were isolated from the leaves of Juniperus thurifera var. africana and Juniperus phoenicea, grown in Morocco. The structures of these compounds were established by using spectroscopic techniques, including 2D NMR spectra. The cytotoxicity of the abietane diterpenoids was tested against five cell lines.

  8. Colorless chlorophyll catabolites in senescent florets of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica).

    PubMed

    Roiser, Matthias H; Müller, Thomas; Kräutler, Bernhard

    2015-02-11

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type "nonfluorescent" Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana.

  9. Nutritional content of fresh, bee-collected and stored pollen of Aloe greatheadii var. davyana (Asphodelaceae).

    PubMed

    Human, Hannelie; Nicolson, Sue W

    2006-07-01

    Aloe greatheadii var. davyana is the most important indigenous South African bee plant. Fresh, bee-collected and stored pollen of this aloe was collected and analysed for its nutritional content, including amino acid and fatty acid composition. Highly significant differences were found between the three types of pollen. Collection and storage by the bees resulted in increased water (13-21% wet weight) and carbohydrate content (35-61% dry weight), with a resultant decrease in crude protein (51-28% dry weight) and lipid content (10-8% dry weight). Essential amino acids were present in equal or higher amounts than the required minimum levels for honeybee development, with the exception of tryptophan. Fatty acids comprised a higher proportion of total lipid in fresh pollen than in bee-collected and stored pollen. This study is the first to compare the changes that occur in pollen of a single species after collection by honeybees.

  10. Phytochemical constituents of the aerial parts from Solidago virga-aurea var. gigantea.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sang Zin; Choi, Sang Un; Lee, Kang Ro

    2004-02-01

    The chromatographic separation of the MeOH extract of the aerial parts of Solidago virga-aurea var. gigantea M(IQ) (Compositae) led to the isolation of six terpenoids and four phenolic compounds, trans-phytol (1), ent-germacra-4(15),5,10(14)-trien-1alpha-ol (2), beta-amyrin acetate (3), ent-germacra-4(15),5,10(14)-trien-1beta-ol (4), beta-dictyopterol (5), oleanolic acid (6), kaempferol (7), kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (8), methyl 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl quinate (9), and 3,5-di-O-caffeoyl quinic acid (10). Their structures were established by chemical and spectroscopic methods. Compounds 4, 5, and 10 showed moderate cytotoxicity against five cultured human tumor cell lines in vitro with its ED50 values ranging from 1.52 to approximately 18.57 microg/mL.

  11. Dry-heat resistance of Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores on mated surfaces.

    PubMed

    Simko, G J; Devlin, J D; Wardle, M D

    1971-10-01

    Bacillus subtilis var. niger spores were placed on the surfaces of test coupons manufactured from typical spacecraft materials (stainless steel, magnesium, titanium, and aluminum). These coupons were then juxtaposed at the inoculated surfaces and subjected to test pressures of 0, 1,000, 5,000, and 10,000 psi. Tests were conducted in ambient, nitrogen, and helium atmospheres. While under the test pressure condition, the spores were exposed to 125 C for intervals of 5, 10, 20, 50, or 80 min, with survivor data being subjected to a linear regression analysis that calculated decimal reduction times. Differences in the dry-heat resistance of the test organism resulting from pressure, atmosphere, and material were observed.

  12. Estimation of genetic diversity Among Turkish kale populations (Brassica oleracea var. acephala L.) using RAPD markers.

    PubMed

    Okumus, A; Balkaya, A

    2007-04-01

    20 populations of kale (B. oleracea var. acephala L.) selected from 127 populations for fresh consumption terms of yield and leaf quality characteristics as superior types using weight-based ranking method from the Black Sea Region of Turkey were evaluated at the DNA level using randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) markers compared to some morphological characters. The 7 primers selected from 100 decamers used generated 110 bands, of which 60 (54.5%) were polymorphic. Jaccard's genetic distances were calculated and dendogram was generated using the UPGMA algorithm. The dendogram obtained were classified into three main groups and four subgroups. The accessions showed a limited clustering in compare to morphological characters such as the number of leaf, leaf intentation of the margin, leaf and midrib color and thickness of midrib than geographical characteristics. Leaf color and midrib thickness characters clustered in the same group as OR49 and G18 accessions; S20, G6 and OR37 accessions, respectively.

  13. Antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities of chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla).

    PubMed

    Sacan, Ozlem; Yanardag, Refiye

    2010-05-01

    Plants have been used for many years as a source of traditional medicine to treat various diseases and conditions. Many of these medicinal plants are also excellent sources for phytochemicals, many of which contain potent antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities. Chard (Beta vulgaris L. var. cicla) is widely spread in Turkey and used as an antidiabetic in traditional medicine. In the present study, the antioxidant activity and acetylcholinesterase inhibitor capacity of chard were examined. In addition, proline level of chard was determined. The antioxidant activity of water extract of chard was evaluated using different antioxidant tests. The results were compared with natural and synthetic antioxidants. The results suggest that chard may provide a natural source of antioxidant and antiacetylcholinesterase activities and proline content.

  14. Chemical constituents of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis and their antioxidant activities.

    PubMed

    Fu, Ka-Li; Li, Xian; Ye, Ji; Lu, Lu; Xu, Xi-Ke; Li, Hui-Liang; Zhang, Wei-Dong; Shen, Yun-Heng

    2016-09-01

    Two new flavan derivatives tazettones C-D (1-2), one new β-coumaranone (tazettone E, 3), one new flavan (tazettone F, 4), and one new phenylpropanoid (tazettone G, 5), together with six known flavonoids (6-11), were isolated from the bulbs of Narcissus tazetta var. chinensis Roem. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis. In addition, the structures of 1-3 were confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction. All isolated compounds were tested for antioxidant activity by Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay. Compounds 6-8 and 10-11 exhibited potent antioxidant activity against H2O2-induced impairment in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells at tested concentrations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on the phenylethanoid glycosides with anti-complement activity from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood.

    PubMed

    Si, Chuan-Ling; Deng, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Zhong; Kim, Jin-Kyu; Bae, Young-Soo

    2008-01-01

    Four epimeric phenylethanoid glycosides, including a new one, R,S-beta-ethoxy-beta-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->3)-beta-D-(6-O-E-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside named isoilicifolioside A (1), and three known compounds, ilicifolioside A (2), campneoside II (3), and isocampneoside II (4), were isolated from Paulownia tomentosa var. tomentosa wood. The structures of the four compounds were elucidated by the interpretation of 1D and 2D NMR and MS spectra. This is the first report of the chemical profile of this tree. Compounds 1-4 exhibited excellent anti-complement activity with IC(50) values less than 74 microM, compared with tiliroside (IC(50) = 104 microM) and rosmarinic acid (IC(50) = 182 microM) that were used as positive controls.

  16. Antigiardial Activity of Podophyllotoxin-Type Lignans from Bursera fagaroides var. fagaroides.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Filiberto; Puebla-Pérez, Ana María; González-Pozos, Sirenia; Hernández-Hernández, José Manuel; Pérez-Rangel, Armando; Alvarez, Laura Patricia; Tapia-Pastrana, Gabriela; Castillo-Romero, Araceli

    2017-05-13

    Giardiasis, a diarrheal disease, is highly prevalent in developing countries. Several drugs are available for the treatment of this parasitosis; unfortunately, all of them have variable efficacies and adverse effects. Bursera fagaroides has been known for its anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal properties in Mexican traditional medicine. We investigated the in vitro anti-giardial activities of four podophyllotoxin-type lignans from Bursera fagaroides var. fagaroides, namely, 5'-desmethoxy-β-peltatin-A-methylether (5-DES), acetylpodophyllotoxin (APOD), burseranin (BUR), and podophyllotoxin (POD). All lignans affected the Giardia adhesion and electron microscopy images revealed morphological alterations in the caudal region, ventral disk, membrane, and flagella, to different extents. Only 5-DES, APOD, and POD caused growth inhibition. Using the Caco-2 human cell line as a model of the intestinal epithelium, we demonstrated that APOD displayed direct antigiardial killing activity and low toxicity on Caco-2 cells. This finding makes it an attractive potential starting point for new antigiardial drugs.

  17. Colorless Chlorophyll Catabolites in Senescent Florets of Broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica)

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Typical postharvest storage of broccoli (Brassica oleracea var. italica) causes degreening of this common vegetable with visible loss of chlorophyll (Chl). As shown here, colorless Chl-catabolites are generated. In fresh extracts of degreening florets of broccoli, three colorless tetrapyrrolic Chl-catabolites accumulated and were detected by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC): two “nonfluorescent” Chl-catabolites (NCCs), provisionally named Bo-NCC-1 and Bo-NCC-2, and a colorless 1,19-dioxobilin-type “nonfluorescent” Chl-catabolite (DNCC), named Bo-DNCC. Analysis by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and mass spectrometry of these three linear tetrapyrroles revealed their structures. In combination with a comparison of their HPL-chromatographic properties, this allowed their identification with three known catabolites from two other brassicacea, namely two NCCs from oil seed rape (Brassica napus) and a DNCC from degreened leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana. PMID:25620234

  18. Six new physalins from Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii and their cytotoxicity and antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ye-Kun; Xie, Si-da; Xu, Wan-Xuan; Nian, Yin; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Peng, Xing-Rong; Ding, Zhong-Tao; Qiu, Ming-Hua

    2016-07-01

    Six new physalin steroids, 7β-methoxylisophysalin B (1), 7β-methoxylphysalin C (2), physalin V (3), physalin VI (4), physalin VII (5), isophysalin I (6), together with 20 known physalins (7-26) were isolated from calyces of Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii. Structures of the new compounds were revealed through 1D and 2D NMR and mass spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1-26 were evaluated for cytotoxicity against human HL-60, SMMC-7721, A-549, MCF-7 and SW-480, and the results indicated that compounds 8, 11, and 14 displayed potent cytotoxicities (IC50<5μM) in vitro. Further antibacterial assay indicated that compounds 8, 14, and 19 showed high antibacterial activities against Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. In vivo effects on the intestinal microflora of Physalis alkekengi var. francheti extracts.

    PubMed

    Li, Xinli; Zhang, Cuili; Li, Weiling; Wu, Dachang; Liu, Jianjun; Tang, Li; Xin, Yi

    2013-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects on the intestinal microflora balance of Physalis alkekengi var. francheti extracts (PE) using in vivo mouse model. Luteolin-7-O-β-glycoside, Physalin J, Physalin D, and Physalin P were isolated from PE extracts and identified. Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Helicobacter, Prevotella, Odoribacter and Oribacterium were detected as dominant organisms in the intestinal tract of mice by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. The quality and quantity of Lactobacillus genus increased significantly with increasing concentration of PE. This study shows that the intestinal microflora balance could be improved by PE, and thus, it has the significant potential to be used as a natural agent for restoring the intestinal microflora balance. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Transcriptome analysis and metabolic profiling of green and red kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jin; Kim, Jae Kwang; Kim, HyeRan; Kim, Yeon Jeong; Park, Yun Ji; Kim, Sun Ju; Kim, Changsoo; Park, Sang Un

    2018-02-15

    Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) is a rich source of numerous health-benefiting compounds, including vitamins, glucosinolates, phenolic compounds, and carotenoids. However, the genetic resources for exploiting the phyto-nutritional traits of kales are limited. To acquire precise information on secondary metabolites in kales, we performed a comprehensive analysis of the transcriptome and metabolome of green and red kale seedlings. Kale transcriptome datasets revealed 37,149 annotated genes and several secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes. HPLC analysis revealed 14 glucosinolates, 20 anthocyanins, 3 phenylpropanoids, and 6 carotenoids in the kale seedlings that were examined. Red kale contained more glucosinolates, anthocyanins, and phenylpropanoids than green kale, whereas the carotenoid contents were much higher in green kale than in red kale. Ultimately, our data will be a valuable resource for future research on kale bio-engineering and will provide basic information to define gene-to-metabolite networks in kale. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.