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Sample records for caribbean sediments seleccion

  1. Morphology and sedimentation in Caribbean montane streams" examples from Jamaica and Puerto Rico

    Treesearch

    R. Ahmad; F.N. Scatena; A Gupta

    1993-01-01

    This paper presents a summary description of the morphology, sedimentation, and behaviour of the montane streams of eastern Jamaica and eastern Puerto Rico. The area is located within a 200 km wide seismically active zone of Neogene left-lateral strike-slip deformation which defines the plate boundary between the Caribbean and North American Plates. Tropical storms,...

  2. Tectonic events recorded in the sediments and crust of the Caribbean sea floor

    SciTech Connect

    Holcombe, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    A reconnaissance review of reflection-seismic sections from the Caribbean, together with limited information derived from dredged rocks, sediment cores, and drillholes, yields or contributes to first-order conclusions regarding the tectonic history of the water-covered Caribbean. Broadly speaking, tectonic episodes for which there is some evidence are: (1) late Cenozoic convergence and accretion along deformed continental or island margins off Panama, Colombia/Venezuela, and Hispaniola/Puerto Rico; (2) late Cenozoic generation of oceanic crust within the Cayman Trough; (3) late Cenozoic secondary deformation along the Caribbean-North American plate boundary zone, in the form of small pull-apart basins, transcurrent faults, tensional rift basins, and compressional features; (4) late Cenozoic slow disintegration of the western part of the Caribbean plate; (5) Cenozoic rift-basin formation on the upper Nicaraguan rise; (6) early Cenozoic or late Cretaceous opening of the Yucatan Basin; (7) late Cretaceous through early Cenozoic island arc formation; and (8) late Cretaceous and earlier emplacement of flow basalts in the northwestern Venezuelan Basin and possibly beneath large areas of the Caribbean. There is no evidence that except along their active margins, the Venezuelan Basin, Beata Ridge, Colombian Basin, and Nicaraguan rise areas have been sites for large-scale relative movements which created or destroyed plate material since late Cretaceous time - or earlier.

  3. Coral reefs chronically exposed to river sediment plumes in the southwestern Caribbean: Rosario Islands, Colombia.

    PubMed

    Restrepo, Juan D; Park, Edward; Aquino, Samia; Latrubesse, Edgardo M

    2016-05-15

    Politicians do not acknowledge the devastating impacts riverine sediments can have on healthy coral reef ecosystems during environmental debates in Caribbean countries. Therefore, regional and/or local decision makers do not implement the necessary measures to reduce fluvial sediment fluxes on coral reefs. The Magdalena River, the main contributor of continental fluxes into the Caribbean Sea, delivers water and sediment fluxes into the Rosario Islands National Park, an important marine protected area in the southwestern Caribbean. Until now, there is no scientific consensus on the presence of sediment fluxes from the Magdalena River in the coral reefs of the Rosario Islands. Our hypothesis is that high sediment and freshwater inputs from the Magdalena have been present at higher acute levels during the last decade than previously thought, and that these runoff pulses are not flashy. We use in-situ calibrated MODIS satellite images to capture the spatiotemporal variability of the distribution of suspended sediment over the coral reefs. Furthermore, geochemical data are analyzed to detect associated sedimentation rates and pollutant dispersion into the coastal zone. Results confirm that turbidity levels have been much higher than previous values presented by national environmental authorities on coral reefs off Colombia over the last decade. During the 2003-2013-period most of the Total Suspended Sediments (TSS) values witnessed in the sampled regions were above 10mg/l, a threshold value of turbidity for healthy coral reef waters. TSS concentrations throughout the analyzed time were up to 62.3mg/l. Plume pulses were more pronounced during wet seasons of La Niña events in 2002-2003, 2007-2008, and 2009-2010. Reconstructed time series of MODIS TSS indicates that coral reef waters were exposed to river plumes between 19.6 and 47.8% of the entire period of analysis (2000-2013). Further analyses of time series of water discharge and sediment load into the coastal zone

  4. River-Borne Sediment Exports, Sedimentation Rates, and Influence on Benthos and Leaflitter Breakdown in Southern Caribbean Mangroves (uraba, Colombia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, J. F.; Taborda, A.; Arroyave, A.

    2011-12-01

    Deposition of river-borne sediments is a major issue in coastal ecosystems worldwide, but no study has been conducted in Neotropical mangroves. Mangroves in the Urabá Gulf (Southern Caribbean coast of Colombia) receive one of the highest sediment loads (<0.10-0.77 x 106 ton yr-1) of the Caribbean region from rivers crossing an extensive banana crop district. Annual sedimentation rates were computed based in monthly samplings (2009-2010) in mangrove fringes across the Turbo River Delta using bottom-fixed 1L-cylinders (n=15). A significant spatial variation (0.04-0.9 ton m-2 yr-1) was observed among sampling stations within the delta, but the highest trapping occurred on river's main channel (2.54 ton m-2 yr-1). Temporal variation was smaller than spatial variation. Monitoring (twenty 1-m2 quadrats x 3 sites x 12 months) of a dominant mangrove-floor gastropod (Neritina virginea) observed a positive increase of density (4-125 ind. m-2: One-way ANOVA: p<0.001) along a sedimentation gradient (monthly means for low and high sedimentation sites: 3-69 kg m-2 yr-1). The role of N. virginea on leaflitter breakdown relative to sedimentation level was experimentally tested in a black mangrove (Avicennia germinans) stand by using 180 wire-mesh cages (15 x 15 x 25 cm) placed on the forest floor as experimental units, to prevent snail and crab access. After clearing existing snails and litter from the muddy bottom, each cage was placed and 1 senescent leaf of A. germinans and 7 snails were introduced (previously weighed) (snail abundance was similar to background densities). Three levels of area-weighed sedimentation rates (1, 3 and 18 g per cage) were daily added to test the impacts of the field-observed sedimentation gradient. The experiment was carried out during one month. Fresh leaf mass was different among treatments during the first week, increasing in proportion to the sedimentation rate probably due to leaf soaking. However, there was no difference in fresh leaf weight

  5. Morphology and sedimentation in Caribbean montane streams: examples from Jamaica and Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Rafi; Scatena, F. N.; Gupta, Avijit

    1993-05-01

    This paper presents a summary description of the morphology, sedimentation, and behaviour of the montane streams of eastern Jamaica and eastern Puerto Rico. The area is located within a 200 km wide seismically active zone of Neogene left-lateral strike-slip deformation which defines the plate boundary between the Caribbean and North American Plates. Tropical storms, occasionally strengthening up to hurricane force, affect the region periodically. This is an area of steep, mass-movement-scarred hillslopes which supply a large amount of coarse sediment to the rivers. From the description presented, we have constructed a model for the rivers of this region controlled by both neotectonics and periodic large floods. The drainage density is low with a near-rectangular stream network. The gradients are steep with boulder accumulations in the channels, their location at times related to the presence of large past landslides on hillslopes. Narrow, steep and confined channels occur in the mountains, but in wider sections and lower down near coastal plains, flood depositional forms appear in coarse valley alluvium. Small-scale deviations from the general pattern occur locally, controlled by variations in lithology, neotectonism, seasonality in flow, etc. This model for Caribbean montane streams differs considerably from the standard descriptions of alluvial rivers for which a number of detailed studies are available.

  6. Event sedimentation in low-latitude deep-water carbonate basins, Anegada passage, northeast Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2015-01-01

    The Virgin Islands and Whiting basins in the Northeast Caribbean are deep, structurally controlled depocentres partially bound by shallow-water carbonate platforms. Closed basins such as these are thought to document earthquake and hurricane events through the accumulation of event layers such as debris flow and turbidity current deposits and the internal deformation of deposited material. Event layers in the Virgin Islands and Whiting basins are predominantly thin and discontinuous, containing varying amounts of reef- and slope-derived material. Three turbidites/sandy intervals in the upper 2 m of sediment in the eastern Virgin Islands Basin were deposited between ca. 2000 and 13 600 years ago, but do not extend across the basin. In the central and western Virgin Islands Basin, a structureless clay-rich interval is interpreted to be a unifite. Within the Whiting Basin, several discontinuous turbidites and other sand-rich intervals are primarily deposited in base of slope fans. The youngest of these turbidites is ca. 2600 years old. Sediment accumulation in these basins is low (−1) for basin adjacent to carbonate platform, possibly due to limited sediment input during highstand sea-level conditions, sediment trapping and/or cohesive basin walls. We find no evidence of recent sediment transport (turbidites or debris flows) or sediment deformation that can be attributed to the ca. M7.2 1867 Virgin Islands earthquake whose epicentre was located on the north wall of the Virgin Islands Basin or to recent hurricanes that have impacted the region. The lack of significant appreciable pebble or greater size carbonate material in any of the available cores suggests that submarine landslide and basin-wide blocky debris flows have not been a significant mechanism of basin margin modification in the last several thousand years. Thus, basins such as those described here may be poor recorders of past natural hazards, but may provide a long-term record of past oceanographic

  7. Seismic stratigraphy and sedimentation of Magdalena Fan, Southern Colombian Basin, Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kolla, V.; Buffler, R.T.; Ladd, J.W.

    1984-03-01

    Analysis of all available seismic data from the Magdalena Fan in the southern Colombian basin, Caribbean Sea, allows subdivision of the sedimentary section into six seismic sequences (units). Although sediments were deposited in the present-day Magdalena Fan region since about Late Cretaceous, terrigenous sedimentation became significant only in the late Cenozoic during deposition of the upper three sequences associated with the uplifts of the Andes. These upper three sequences comprise the Magdalena Fan proper. The uppermost sequence probably represents the last main phase of sedimentation subsequent to the major uplift of the Andes in the Pliocene. The morphologic and shallow acoustic (3.5 kHz) characteristics of this fan unit are: upper fan, 1:60-1:110 gradients, channels having well-developed levees, and several subbottom reflectors in all areas except in channels; middle fan, 1:110-1:200 gradients, numerous channels with very subdued levees, and several to few subbottom reflectors; lower fan, < 1:250 gradients, small channels, relatively smooth sea floor, and few or no subbottom reflectors.

  8. Large-scale patterns of recent sedimentation along the Cayman Troughpull-apart basin, Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Debalko, D.; Mann, P. )

    1990-05-01

    The North American-Caribbean plate boundary zone consists of a broad zone of active strike-slip deformation that extends 3,200 km from Middle America to the Lesser Antilles. An 1,100-km-long, 100-km-wide pull-apart basin the Cayman Trough is the dominant structural element of the submerged central part of the plate boundary zone between Jamaica and Honduras. In order to investigate large-scale patterns of recent sedimentation in a fully marine pull-apart setting, the authors surveyed a 90,000-km{sup 2} area along the southern edge of the Cayman Trough using SeaMARC II side-scan sonar, 3.5 KHz, and digital single-channel reflection techniques. These data allow them to divide the southern margin of the Cayman Trough pull-apart into three provinces of recent sedimentation: (1) an eastern terrigenous province characterized by straight short canyon systems (average 1-3 km wide and 10-15 km long) and associated small, lobate fans; canyon-fan systems are sourced by clastic spillover from filled borderland-type basins and by erosion of emergent fault-block islands; (2) a central carbonate province characterized by periplatform carbonate detritus fringing four isolated carbonate banks which collectively make up the Nicaraguan Rise; canyon systems (1-3 km wide, 15-80 km long) are highly meandering when unfaulted and straight when faulted; and (3) an eastern carbonate and terrigenous province characterized by both carbonate sediments shed off the easternmost bank of the Nicaraguan Rise bank and by terrigenous sediment derived from Jamaica.

  9. Historical changes of sediments and mollusk assemblages in the Gulf of Batabanó (Caribbean Sea) in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Armenteros, Maickel; Díaz-Asencio, Misael; Fernández-Garcés, Raúl; Eriksson, Mats; Alonso-Hernández, Carlos; Sanchez-Cabeza, Joan-Albert

    2012-08-01

    The first paleoecological reconstruction of the biogeochemical conditions of the Gulf of Batabanó, Caribbean Sea was performed from (210)Pb-dated sediment cores. Depth profiles of 20 major elements and trace metals, organic compounds, grain size, and mollusk assemblage composition were determined from 9 stations encompassing unconsolidated sediments in the gulf. Spatial heterogeneity was evident for the geochemistry of sediments and for the mollusk assemblage composition. Our reconstruction indicates that pollution is not a critical threat to the ecosystem, although a slight historical increase of lead enrichment factor was detected probably due to long-range atmospheric fallout. Mollusk assemblages were composed by 168 species belonging to 59 families and no temporal trends in the species diversity or assemblage composition were detected, suggesting no depletion of diversity or habitat loss. Other signals of habitat loss such as changes in organic budget or increase of fine sediment fraction were absent or weak. Nitrogen retained in sediments changed by <1% in the century, indicating no historical events of eutrophication or oligotrophication in the gulf. Historical decrease of fine sediment fraction in the eastern sector would be linked to modifications in sedimentation rate, land use, and/or particle transport from the shelf border; this also suggests that both sectors have different sedimentary dynamics. Although, on theoretical grounds, historical fishery may have caused deleterious ecosystem effects by overexploitation of spiny lobster stocks, no evidence of habitat degradation or loss, caused by fisheries, could be detected.

  10. Holocene environmental change of the northern Caribbean inferred from the sediments of a flooded sinkhole, Cayo Coco, Cuba

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peros, M. C.; Agosta G'meiner, A. M.; Collins, S.

    2016-12-01

    We present new data on the Holocene environments of the northern Caribbean inferred from the sediments of a flooded sinkhole (Cenote Jennifer) on the island of Cayo Coco in north-central Cuba. Cenote Jennifer is located several meters above sea level and has an average depth of 13 meters. Water chemistry measurements indicate that the water in the sinkhole is highly stratified with a halocline at about 8 meters depth and an anoxic base. A series of sediment cores collected at the center of the sinkhole were analyzed for fossil pollen, microcharcoal, dinoflagellate cysts, elemental geochemistry (by high-resolution XRF core-scanning), and grain size and were dated by Pb-210 and AMS radiocarbon techniques (using well-preserved macrofossils of leaves, bark, and twigs). The results show that sediments first began to accumulate in Cenote Jennifer approximately 9000 years ago and continued until the present. The elemental geochemistry results record increases in elements such as Br, Cl, Ni, and Cu during the 8.2 kyr event which may reflect enhanced deep-ocean upwelling at this time. The fossil pollen data record a succession in vegetation that included cattail marsh, thorny coastal scrubland, dry evergreen forest, and secondary forest communities over the course of the Holocene. Changes in vegetation were driven mostly by relative sea level rise in the early Holocene but climate change was more important by the middle to late Holocene. Hundreds of mm- to cm-scale laminations are also present in the core, many of which represent past hurricane strikes. The microcharcoal and pollen evidence also suggests that prehistoric humans may have settled the area and practiced agriculture as early as 2800 cal yr BP. The findings from Cenote Jennifer highlight the utility of flooded sinkholes as paleoenvironmental archives in tropical kart regions and provide important new data on the hydroclimatology of the northern Caribbean.

  11. Saharan dust from a marine perspective: sediment-trap time series along a Transatlantic transect between Africa and the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stuut, Jan-Berend; Van der Does, Michelle; Friese, Carmen; Korte, Laura; Munday, Chris

    2014-05-01

    The particle size of mineral dust is often used as a tool to reconstruct paleoenvironmental conditions in the source of the dust. Both in on-land (loess), lacustrine, and in marine archives, the size of dust deposits is considered a proxy for paleo-wind intensity. However, next to wind strength, the particle size of aeolian deposits is also influenced by various other parameters such as source-to-sink distance, altitude at which the particles have been transported, and various other environmental conditions in the sources of the dust. To verify if we can quantify a relationship between the size of mineral dust particles and prevailing environmental conditions, we study "modern" dust. Here we present grain-size distributions of Saharan dust that was collected in marine sediment traps, which were deployed along a transatlantic transect between Northwest Africa and the Caribbean. In these traps, dust is collected that is sinking through the water column to the ocean floor. The big advantage of this sampling strategy is that also potential marine environmental effects of the dust deposition are monitored. The temporal resolution of the trap is 1-2 weeks. The time series was started in 2012 and is still being continued.

  12. Coccolithophore export production and seasonal variation from a trans-Atlantic array of sediment trap moorings (NW Africa to Caribbean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, C. V.; Baumann, K. H.; Brummer, G. J. A.; Fischer, G.; Korte, L.; Stuut, J. B. W.

    2016-02-01

    In this study, we contribute to disclose the ecology and seasonal variability of coccolithophores, to improve their use as proxies for environmental variability in the Equatorial Atlantic Ocean. To this aim, the coccolithophore export fluxes and species composition were investigated from a trans-Atlantic array of sediment trap moorings from NW Africa (Cape Blanc) into the Caribbean (Barbados) (i.e., CB at 20°N/52ºW: M1 at 12ºN/23ºW; M2 at 14ºN/37ºW; M4 at 12ºN/49ºW). Each of the sediment trap devices was deployed at 1200 m depth, sampling settling particles at two-week intervals, and covering a full year (Oct. 2012 to Oct. 2013). First results show important contrasts between both ends of the trans-Atlantic array: total coccolith fluxes were much higher in the oligotrophic station M4 (western part of the basin) than in the highly productive waters off Cape Blanc (eastern edge of the basin), mostly due to the overwhelming dominance of the deep photic layer species Florisphaera profunda and Gladiolithus flabellatus. Off Cape Blanc, higher abundances of the placolith-bearing species Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa spp. were found, more typical of the upper photic layer, while F. profunda decreases in relative abundance and G. flabellatus is almost absent, in comparison to M4. The presence of trans-Atlantic ecological gradients in terms of species diversity and prevalence of K- and r-selected species will be discussed with respect to the prevailing environmental conditions during the monitored period, including Saharan-dust deposition and the influence of the Amazon River plume.This study is part of ongoing multidisciplinary research in the study area, in the context of the projects "DUSTRAFFIC" and "TRAFFIC - Transatlantic Fluxes of Saharan Dust".

  13. Efficiency of erosion mitigation strategies in reducing sediment-loading rates from unpaved road networks into coral reef-bearing waters of the Eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Scharron, Carlos; Gray, Sarah; Sears, Whitney

    2014-05-01

    Erosion from unpaved road networks represents a critical source of stress affecting the coral reef systems of the U.S. Virgin Islands in the Northeastern Caribbean. Combined community- and government-driven efforts to reduce sediment contributions from unpaved roads in the island of St. John have consisted in improving road drainage design, paving selected road segments, and constructing sediment retention structures. Here we describe empirical evidence attesting to the efficacy of these mitigation efforts. Road drainage improvements reduced sediment production rates to about a third of pre-treatment levels. Road-segment scale erosion rates following paving ranged from 5-30% of pre-treatment levels, depending on road slope and road grading frequency. A 616-m3 sediment retention pond proved to contain 86 Mg of sediment annually and about 94% of the runoff generated from a 12 ha sub-catchment with an unpaved road density of 19 km km-2. Watershed-scale modeling evaluations suggested that the combination of these three treatments within the 13-km2 Coral Bay watershed resulted in the reduction of annual sediment delivery rates from 445 Mg yr-1 to 327 Mg yr-1. Cost-effectiveness analyses suggest that road drainage improvements and construction of the detention pond provided the greatest reductions in sediment delivery per total amount of funds spent. Even though paving is a proven erosion control method, the high costs involved made it a relatively cost-inefficient method. Marine sedimentation of terrigenous sediment (land-derived) was regularly monitored (every 26 days) at 15 near-shore and reef sites from 2008 to 2013 below the treated and undeveloped watersheds. Sediment composition (% terrigenous) determined by loss on ignition was multiplied by the total sediment accumulation rate in tube sediment traps to obtain terrigenous sediment accumulation rates (in mg cm-2 d-1). Mean terrigenous sediment accumulation rates were over 24 (near-shore) and 6 (reef) times greater

  14. Palaeo- and rock magnetic investigations on Late Quaternary sediments from low latitudes. I: geomagnetic palaeosecular variation and relative palaeointensity records from the Tobago Basin, Southeast Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Ute; Nowaczyk, Norbert R.; Frederichs, Thomas; Korte, Monika

    2017-03-01

    Detailed palaeo- and rock magnetic investigations were carried out on two sediment cores from the Tobago Basin, Eastern Caribbean. The 2.8 m long profiles span the last 15 kyr, according to accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dates. Global climatic variations marking the transition from the Pleistocene into the Holocene are clearly reflected in the rock magnetic parameters. Their variations reflect the contribution of the coarse-grained fraction to the bulk composition. However, fine-grained Ti-magnetite particles carry a fairly stable magnetization in sediments deposited in the last 10 kyr. Comparison of stacked directional records of characteristic remanent magnetization inclination and declination, with data obtained from geomagnetic field models revealed distinct similarities for most intervals and add to the knowledge about the variability of the geomagnetic field in this area poorly covered by experimental data. A stacked record of relative palaeointensity was also established, using anhysteretic remanent magnetization as normalization parameter. Thus, the intensity of the geomagnetic field was steadily decreasing in the Caribbean between 9 and 0 ka, a trend that does not fit to relative paleointensity records available from Northern Hemisphere stacks but matches other low-latitude records and the South Atlantic Palaeointensity Stack.

  15. Chlorophyll and suspended sediment mapping to the Caribbean Sea from rivers in the capital city of the Dominican Republic using ALOS AVNIR-2 data.

    PubMed

    Sakuno, Yuji; Miño, Esteban R; Nakai, Satoshi; Mutsuda, Hidemi; Okuda, Tetsuji; Nishijima, Wataru; Castro, Rolando; García, Amarillis; Peña, Rosanna; Rodríguez, Marcos; Depratt, G Conrado

    2014-07-01

    This study aims to study the distribution of contaminants in rivers that flow into the Caribbean Sea using chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and suspended sediment (SS) as markers and ALOS AVNIR-2 satellite sensor data. The Haina River (HN) and Ozama and Isabela Rivers (OZ-IS) that flow through the city of Santo Domingo, the capital of the Dominican Republic, were chosen. First, in situ spectral reflectance/Chl-a and SS datasets obtained from these rivers were acquired in March 2011 (case A: with no rain influence) and June 2011 (case B: with rain influence), and the estimation algorithm of Chl-a and SS using AVNIR-2 data was developed from the datasets. Moreover, the developed algorithm was applied to AVNIR-2 data in November 2010 for case A and August 2010 for case B. Results revealed that for Chl-a and SS estimations under cases A and B conditions, the reflectance ratio of AVNIR-2 band 4 and band 3 (AV4/AV3) and the reflectance of AVNIR-2 band 4 (AV4) were effective. The Chl-a and SS mapping results obtained using AVNIR-2 data corresponded with the field survey results. Finally, an outline of the distribution of contaminants at the mouth of the river that flows into the Caribbean Sea was obtained for both rivers in cases A and B.

  16. usSEABED: Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean (Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands) offshore surficial sediment data release

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buczkowski, Brian J.; Reid, Jane A.; Jenkins, Chris J.; Reid, Jamey M.; Williams, S. Jeffress; Flocks, James G.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past 50 years there has been an explosion in scientific interest, research effort and information gathered on the geologic sedimentary character of the United States continental margin. Data and information from thousands of publications have greatly increased our scientific understanding of the geologic origins of the shelf surface but rarely have those data been combined and integrated. This publication is the first release of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean (Puerto Rico and U.S. Virgin Islands) coastal and offshore data from the usSEABED database. The report contains a compilation of published and previously unpublished sediment texture and other geologic data about the sea floor from diverse sources. usSEABED is an innovative database system developed to bring assorted data together in a unified database. The dbSEABED system is used to process the data. Examples of maps displaying attributes such as grain size and sediment color are included. This database contains information that is a scientific foundation for the USGS Marine Aggregate Resources and Processes Assessment and Benthic Habitats projects, and will be useful to the marine science community for other studies of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean continental margins. This publication is divided into ten sections: Home, Introduction, Content, usSEABED (data), dbSEABED (processing), Data Catalog, References, Contacts, Acknowledgments and Frequently Asked Questions. Use the navigation bar on the left to navigate to specific sections of this report. Underlined topics throughout the publication are links to more information. Links to specific and detailed information on processing and those to pages outside this report will open in a new browser window.

  17. Combined records from a stalagmite from Barbados and from lake sediments in Haiti reveal variable seasonality in the Caribbean between 6.7 and 3 ka BP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangini, A.; Blumbach, P.; Verdes, P.; Spötl, C.; Scholz, D.; Machel, H.; Mahon, S.

    2007-05-01

    The growth of a well-dated stalagmite from Barbados records high infiltration rates into the karst aquifer and hence increased rainfall intensity between 6.7 and 3 ka BP in agreement with records from Lake Miragoane, Haiti [Hodell et al., 1991. Reconstruction of the Caribbean climate change over the past 10,500 years. Nature 352, 790-793], mainly reflecting the insolation maximum of the Northern Hemisphere. Both the lake record and the stable isotope record of the stalagmite reveal additional centennial variability of recharge. High oxygen isotope values in stalagmite calcite, corresponding to reduced recharge, are synchronous with periods of lower stable isotope values recorded in Lake Miragoane ostracods, previously attributed to enhanced precipitation. Accordingly, periods of increased recharge in Barbados correspond to 18O-enriched isotope values of ostracods, which were attributed to higher evaporation/precipitation ratios in the lakes. We ascribe this apparent discrepancy to changes in seasonality, i.e., winter periods of reduced temperature and relative humidity following summer months of increased precipitation. At present, such climate conditions occur during periods of enhanced Northern Atlantic Oscillation (NAO +). If enhanced seasonality is a consequence of a NAO + situation, the apparent discrepancy of high isotope values in lakes (previously attributed to droughts) can be reconciled with lower winter temperatures in the lakes. Further, the correlation of solar intensity (derived from 14C and 10Be) with the isotopic signals recorded in the lacustrine sediments suggests a solar forcing of the NAO during the mid Holocene.

  18. Caribbean Music.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dean, Kris

    1991-01-01

    The Caribbean is a rich breeding ground for African-derived music. A synopsis is given of the music of the following countries and styles: (1) Jamaica; (2) Trinidad and Tobago; (3) Calypso; (4) steel pan; (5) Haiti; (6) Dominican Republic; (7) Cuba; (8) Puerto Rico; and (9) other islands. (SLD)

  19. Caribbean Luxury

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-09-28

    Caribbean Luxury - April 24th, 2003 Description: The Caicos Islands (pronounced KAY-kohss) in the northern Caribbean are a popular tourist attraction, renowned for their beautiful beaches, clear waters, scuba diving, and luxury resorts. The islands lie primarily along the northern perimeter of the submerged Caicos Bank (turquoise), a shallow limestone platform formed of sand, algae, and coral reefs covering 6,140 square kilometers (2,370 square miles). Credit: USGS/NASA/Landsat 7 To learn more about the Landsat satellite go to: landsat.gsfc.nasa.gov/ NASA Goddard Space Flight Center enables NASA’s mission through four scientific endeavors: Earth Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a leading role in NASA’s accomplishments by contributing compelling scientific knowledge to advance the Agency’s mission. Follow us on Twitter Join us on Facebook

  20. The East Falcon Basin: Its Caribbean roots

    SciTech Connect

    Bartok, P.; Boesi, T.

    1996-08-01

    The East Falcon Basin has been described persistently in the context of the Maracaibo Basin tectonic framework. It is the objective of the present study to demonstrate that the Falcon Basin is, in effect, a Caribbean basin juxtaposed on South America and affected by Caribbean tectonics. The oldest rocks outcropping in the region are Late Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks rafted from northcentral Colombia, Middle Jurassic ophiolite complexes, sediments and metasediments and Cretaceous ophiolites transported by a melange of late Cretaceous to early Tertiary sediments. The south vergence of the Caribbean Nappe province has been documented and extends to the present limit of the Andean uplift and to the southern limit of the Coastal Range. The migrating foredeep that developed during the Paleocene-Eocene deposited dominantly basinal shales and thin sandstones. During the Oligocene the Caribbean faults of the Oca system and conjugates began with a dominantly transtensional regime becoming progressively transpressional by Miocene time. The facies development of the Oligocene-Miocene documents the tectonic history. Unique blocks remained as resistant blocks creating ramparts and modifying the basin configuration. During transpression northward-verging thrusting progressively migrated towards the present coastline. The most evident structures of the region are Caribbean in affinity and combined with the sedimentary history of the region can serve to unravel the complex Caribbean-South American plate interaction.

  1. Sedimentation

    Treesearch

    Cliff R. Hupp; Michael R. Schening

    2000-01-01

    Sedimentation is arguably the most important water-quality concern in the United States. Sediment trapping is cited frequently as a major function of riverine-forested wetlands, yet little is known about sedimcntation rates at the landscape scale in relation to site parameters, including woody vegetation type, elevation, velocity, and hydraulic connection to the river...

  2. View - Caribbean Coast - Venezuela

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1973-08-15

    S73-35079 (July-September 1973) --- A near vertical view of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B (five-inch Earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The large body of water is the Golfo de Venezuela; and the major land mass is the Peninsula de Paraguana. The view is looking northward from the mouth of the Golfete de Coro and Punta Cardon to Punta Macolla. The peninsula is connected to the Venezuelan mainland by the narrow strip of land in the most easterly corner of the picture. The dry, arid climate on the peninsula is indicated by sparse vegetation and the abundance of sand dunes. The highest point is about 2,700 feet above the sea and is the conspicuous black spot. Old raised shoreline features appear as streaks parallel to the Golfete de Coro. Sand dunes and stream erosion have modified these features. Water of the Golfete de Coro is red from the high sediment content. The streaks in the water off the peninsula is apparently an effect of wind which is blowing sand and water offshore. The EREP investigator Dr. Jose Antonio Galavis, of the Ministerio de Mines e Hidrocarburos, will use this information to map geology and coastal sedimentation in the Peninsula de Paraguana. Federal agencies participating with NASA on the EREP projects are the Departments of Agriculture, Commerce, Interior, the Environmental Protection Agency and the Corps of Engineers. All EREP photography is available to the public through the Department of Interior?s Earth Resources Observations Systems Data Center, Sioux Falls, South Dakota, 57198. (Alternate number SL3-83-237) Photo credit: NASA

  3. Relevance of Palynological Data for Reconstruction of Abrupt Climatic Change in the Neotropics Region, Based on Marine Sediments from the Cariaco Basin, Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delusina, I.

    2007-05-01

    Pollen analyses from a deep marine core from the anoxic Cariaco Basin, off the coast of Venezuela, encompass the Late Glacial/Bolling-Allerod transition, through the Younger Dryas and into the beginning of the Preboreal. The unique pollen assemblages indicate significant differences, as well as some basic similarities, with pollen results from continental cross-sections and lacustrine deposits of Neotropical regions. Interpretation of the pollen data from these marine sediments must address the specific challenge of distinguishing the climatic signal from preservation patterns in the marine environment. Because the Cariaco Basin acts as a natural sediment trap for rapidly accumulating sediments of marine and terrestrial origin, it provides an opportunity to compare both signals. The pollen assemblages in the basin mirror the complex altitudinal zonation of the coastal vegetation as well as its dynamics in the marine environment which went through the oxic-anoxic transition. Correlation of the pollen data with percentage of sediment lightness, oxygen isotopes, and titanium/iron concentrations in other Cariaco basin cores, as well as a comparison with vascular plant data, shows that the pollen signal is related to climatic events, rather than to a simple preservation pattern. However, an increase in pollen productivity might not be indicative of climate conditions, but of increased discharge of terrigenous material from the continent. The relative constancy in the pollen list and the gradual change in the percentage of counted palynomorphs and the diversity of pollen assemblages speaks to altitudinal reconstruction of vegetation. Thus, the Montana rain forest predominated over deciduous Montana forest or Paramo elements during Bolling-Allerod time, but didn't replace them. At the end of the Late Glacial and in the middle of Younger Dryas time, seasonally dry forest prevailed. At the end of a Heinrich Event (ca 15,500 cal B.P.), the largest shift in vegetation

  4. Caribbean Connections: Moving North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunshine, Catherine A., Ed; Warner, Keith Q., Ed.

    This anthology presents the voices of women and men of Caribbean backgrounds living in the United States. Focus is on five most prevalently represented groups: Puerto Ricans, West Indians, Cubans, Haitians, and Dominicans. The book is organized into five sections: (1) "A Primer on Caribbean Migration" presents an overview of Caribbean…

  5. A Caribbean Education Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jules, Didacus; Miller, Errol; Armstrong, L. Ancilla

    The 20 member countries of the Caribbean Group for Cooperation and Development (CGCED) share with the rest of the world the common goals of reforming their education systems to equip Caribbean people for productivity, wealth creation, and social and personal development, and have participated in several regional and global initiatives. This…

  6. Migration in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mary T.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the problem of geographic literacy with respect to the Caribbean Basin. Provides a lesson plan, including maps and charts, that encourages and challenges students to learn the geography of the Caribbean Basin, and to think about the problems that develop when large numbers of legal and illegal immigrants enter the United States. (RW)

  7. Caribbean Connections: Moving North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunshine, Catherine A., Ed; Warner, Keith Q., Ed.

    This anthology presents the voices of women and men of Caribbean backgrounds living in the United States. Focus is on five most prevalently represented groups: Puerto Ricans, West Indians, Cubans, Haitians, and Dominicans. The book is organized into five sections: (1) "A Primer on Caribbean Migration" presents an overview of Caribbean…

  8. Migration in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Mary T.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the problem of geographic literacy with respect to the Caribbean Basin. Provides a lesson plan, including maps and charts, that encourages and challenges students to learn the geography of the Caribbean Basin, and to think about the problems that develop when large numbers of legal and illegal immigrants enter the United States. (RW)

  9. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    Treesearch

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  10. Geology of the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Edgar, N.T.; Scanlon, K.M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1987-01-01

    The Venezuelan and Colombian basins are located on the Caribbean Plate whilst the Yucatan basin is on the North American Plate. The processes occurring at the boundaries between the Caribbean Plate and the adjacent North American, South American and Cocos Plates, and the resulting surface features and patterns of volcanic and earthquake activity are described. Most of the Caribbean area is floored by atypical oceanic crust and its most valuable main geologic resources identified so far are petroleum, together with sand and gravel. Geological research is being carried out with techniques for broad-range swath imaging of the seafloor, such as GLORIA, and for directly measuring the movement between plates. -J.G.Harvey

  11. Tsunamis in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farwell, J.; Kelly, A.; Mooney, W. D.

    2006-12-01

    The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami increased global awareness to the destruction hazard posed by earthquakes and tsunamis around the world. The United States government has committed 37.5 million dollars toward the upgrade of earthquake and tsunami monitoring systems in the Caribbean region. Several historical earthquakes have caused considerable damage throughout the Caribbean, many causing tsunamis. The US Geological Survey is using a large part of this money to enhance capabilities for rapid detection and notification of earthquakes in the Caribbean in an attempt to warn the millions living in this area of possible tsunamis. The USGS is working with the Puerto Rico Seismic Network, the Seismological Research Unit at the University of West Indies, eight other host countries, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These groups are in the process of installing or upgrading seismic monitoring sites in the earthquake zones of the region. NOAA is also installing four Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) buoys in support of a Caribbean-wide tsunami warning system. Planned seismic stations are located in Antigua/Barbuda, Barbados, Cuba (U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay), the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Honduras, Panama, Turks and Caicos, and Grenada. Satellite telemetry will transmit data from these sites to NEIC, Golden, CO, where the data will be redistributed to NOAA, the University of Puerto Rico and the University of the West Indies, the IRIS Data Management Center and other agencies. The development of seismic monitoring operations began on January 9, 2006. This will improve seismic monitoring capabilities in the Caribbean and Central America, provide better real time data for global monitoring research and assessment activities, and improve understanding of historical tsunamis and their effects on the Caribbean.

  12. Psychotherapy in Caribbean Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefley, Harriet P.; Bestman, Evalina W.

    Caribbean mental health professionals are concerned with the types of psychotherapy that are relevant to the needs of their clients, and with the uses of psychotherapy in a political context. They appear to be divided into two schools: one seeking to promote in clients a change from a traditional world view to a modern one, and the other seeking…

  13. Geology of the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, William P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

  14. Geology of the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, William P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

  15. America's Caribbean Basin Initiative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kasten, Robert W.

    1983-01-01

    Nearly all of the countries that have succeeded in their development over the past 30 years have done so on the strength of market-oriented policies and vigorous participation in the international economy. Aid must be complemented by trade and investment. The Caribbean Basin Initiative puts these principles into practice. (RM)

  16. Caribbean plate interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, M. )

    1993-02-01

    Vector analysis of plate motions, derived from studies of Atlantic magnetic lineations and fracture zone trends, indicates the following relative movements between the Caribbean, North American, and South American Plates. (1) During Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, the North American Plate moved 1900 km westward and 900 km northward relative to the South American Plate. A broad zone including the Caribbean region, i.e., the zone between the North and South America Plates, was a site of left-lateral shear and north-south extension. (2) During Early Cretaceous to Late Cretaceous, the North American Mate moved an additional 1200 km westward relative to South America across this zone. (3) During Late Cretaceous to the end of the Eocene, the North American Plate moved 200 km westward and 400 km northward relative to the South American Plate. (4) From the end of the Eocene to near the end of the Miocene, North America converged on South America some 200 km and moved 100 km eastward relative to it. Through the Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary history of the Caribbean, the region was a shear zone within which left-lateral displacement exceeded 3000 km and north-south extension exceeded 1300 km. In regard to time, 80% of the history of the Caribbean region is one of north-south extension and left-lateral shear. In terms of space, 97% of the shear is left-lateral and the ratio of divergence versus convergence is 7 to 1. Thus, characterizing the Caribbean region, and the Atlantic to its east, as a zone of north-south extension and left-lateral shear, is a fair generalization.

  17. [Migration in the Caribbean Basin].

    PubMed

    Pastor, R A

    1982-06-01

    A review of recent migration trends in the Caribbean region is presented. The region is defined as those countries and territories in or surrounding the Caribbean. Consideration is also given to migration from the region to the United States. The characteristics and consequences of these migration trends are discussed.

  18. Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsopp, Richard, Ed.

    This dictionary is designed to provide an inventory of English usage in the Caribbean environment and lifestyle as known and spoken in each territory but not recorded in the standard British and American desk dictionaries. It cross-references different names for the same item throughout the anglophone Caribbean, identifies different items called…

  19. Dictionary of Caribbean English Usage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsopp, Richard, Ed.

    This dictionary is designed to provide an inventory of English usage in the Caribbean environment and lifestyle as known and spoken in each territory but not recorded in the standard British and American desk dictionaries. It cross-references different names for the same item throughout the anglophone Caribbean, identifies different items called…

  20. [Factors involved in coastal lagoons formation in Colombian southwest Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-León, Ricardo; Mendoza-Mazzeo, Luis Alberto; Vernette, Georges

    2003-01-01

    Based on origin, geomorphological evolution and environmental characteristics, four of the main types of coastal lagoons were identified in colombian southwest Caribbean. The following are examples of each type: (1) Terrigenous sediment inputs in delta environment (Lagoons from Sinu River Delta, Cordoba Department), (2) Shore sand bars in coastal flat (Tesca Lagoon, Bolivar Deparment), (3) bar built by organisms such as coral reefs, (Isla Grande Lagoons, Bolivar Deparment) and, (4) bars controlled by tectonism (Cartagena Bay, Bolivar Deparment).

  1. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  2. Tectonic evolution of the southeastern Caribbean in Cenozoic time

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Oblique collision between the southern Lesser Antilles arc and continental South America controlled tectonics from end Eocene to present in the S.E. Caribbean. There, terranes are from N to S: 1. magmatic arc platform (Margarita to Grenadines); 2. forearc basin; 3. ophiolite belt that may be basement to the forearc basin; 4. accretionary prism whose structurally shallow rocks near Barbados may be equivalent to formerly deep-seated metasediments exposed in Tobago, Trinidad, Paria, and Araya; 5. foreland thrust belt in the slope and shelf cover of S. America; 6. E. Venezuelan-Trinidad foreland basin; and 7. S. American shield. The boundary between terranes 4 and 5 is probably a N-dipping thrust. Early in the Eocene, the southern L.A. arc was probably intra-Atlantic, NE-trending, and positioned offshore of the N-facing passive margin of northern S. America. The arc moved SE relative to S. America, first consuming Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere and accreting sediment of S. American provenance to its forearc, then riding obliquely over the slope and outer shelf of the continental passive margin. Major effects of the collision are uplift of deep-seated arc rocks, imbrication of arc elements, generation of the El Pilar tear fault, and foreland contraction and basining. The southern Lesser Antilles arc was not attached to a far traveled Caribbean plate of Pacific provenance. This implies the existence of boundaries within the Caribbean between an exotic Caribbean plate and the southern Antillean arc.

  3. Paleoenvironmental evidence for first human colonization of the eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Peter E.; Jones, John G.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Dunning, Nicholas P.; Farrell, Pat; Duncan, Neil A.; Curtis, Jason H.; Singh, Sushant K.

    2015-12-01

    Identifying and dating first human colonization of new places is challenging, especially when group sizes were small and material traces of their occupations were ephemeral. Generating reliable reconstructions of human colonization patterns from intact archaeological sites may be difficult to impossible given post-depositional taphonomic processes and in cases of island and coastal locations the inundation of landscapes resulting from post-Pleistocene sea-level rise. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction is proving to be a more reliable method of identifying small-scale human colonization events than archaeological data alone. We demonstrate the method through a sediment-coring project across the Lesser Antilles and southern Caribbean. Paleoenvironmental data were collected informing on the timing of multiple island-colonization events and land-use histories spanning the full range of human occupations in the Caribbean, from the initial forays into the islands through the arrival and eventual domination of the landscapes and indigenous people by Europeans. In some areas, our data complement archaeological, paleoecological, and historical findings from the Lesser Antilles and in others amplify understanding of colonization history. Here, we highlight data relating to the timing and process of initial colonization in the eastern Caribbean. In particular, paleoenvironmental data from Trinidad, Grenada, Martinique, and Marie-Galante (Guadeloupe) provide a basis for revisiting initial colonization models of the Caribbean. We conclude that archaeological programs addressing human occupations dating to the early to mid-Holocene, especially in dynamic coastal settings, should systematically incorporate paleoenvironmental investigations.

  4. Hurricane Luis, Caribbean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-09-09

    STS069-731-031 (9 September 1995) --- Hurricane Luis is captured on film in its latter days in the Caribbean in this 70mm frame. During the 11-plus day mission, the astronauts aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour caught with their cameras at least two large oceanic storms. A second one later in the flight, named Marilyn, followed a similar path, leaving havoc in its wake on several islands. Endeavour with a five-member crew, launched on September 7, 1995, from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and ended its mission there September 18, 1995, with a successful landing on Runway 33. The multifaceted mission carried astronauts David M. Walker, mission commander; Kenneth D. Cockrell, pilot; and James S. Voss (payload commander), James H. Newman, Michael L. Gernhardt, all mission specialists.

  5. Tides of the Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kjerfve, B.

    1981-05-20

    Analysis of tidal characteristics from 45 gauge locations indicates that the Caribbean Sea has a microtidal range, for the most part between 10 and 20 cm. The tide is primarily either mixed semidiurnal or mixed diurnal but a substantial section from Puerto Rico to Venezuela experiences diurnal tides. Empirical charts of six component tides (M/sub 2/, S/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, K/sub 1/, O/sub 1/, and P/sub 1/) show local detail of phase and amplitude. Each of the semidiurnal component tides is characterized by anticlockwise rotating amphidromes centered in the eastern Caribbean. There is evidence of strong radiational forcing of the S/sub 2/ tide in the south-western Caribbean. The diurnal component tides are largely uniform in both phase and amplitude for most of the western and central Caribbean. However, the diurnal phases increase rapidly towards the northwest and the Yucatan Channel.

  6. Caribbean paleomagnetism and tectonic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Approximately fifty papers treating diverse aspects of Caribbean paleomagnetism have appeared since Creer's pioneering work in the early 1960s. Apparently anomalous early results were initially attributed to anomalous geomagnetic field behavior, to unusual mineralogic effects in rock magnetism and to complex remagnetizations. Eventually the importance of structural and tectonic influences were recognized in paleomagnetic data of the Caribbean area, as elsewhere. Large tectonic rotation is evident from the unusual paleomagnetic declination found at many Caribbean localities. Latitudinal transport, with its plate motion implications, is more subtly expressed in the paleomagnetic inclination parameter, with its typically large relative variance. A review of Caribbean paleomagnetic data is given to form a basis for composing realistic tectonic models.

  7. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankar, Hollis C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  8. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankar, Hollis C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  9. Venezuelan Caribbean Sea under the threat of TBT.

    PubMed

    Paz-Villarraga, César Augusto; Castro, Italo B; Miloslavich, Patricia; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Although environmental tributyltin (TBT) contamination is considered a solved problem, imposex occurrence in Plicopurpura patula as well as butyltins (BTs) contamination in sediments and tissues were detected along 700 km of the Caribbean coastal shore. Areas under the influence of five main ports of Venezuela were covered, as well as large marinas and sites located away from expected sources. Marinas were the most contaminated areas, whilst imposex incidence and TBT levels were relatively low in areas nearby commercial harbors. Thus, it is evident that marinas have become the main source of fresh TBT to the region. This might explain why imposex incidence seems to be widely distributed along the Venezuelan coast, since leisure boats are circulating along the whole coastal region. In fact, this could be the pattern for other areas of the Caribbean Sea.

  10. Deformation of the Caribbean region: One plate or two?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, Neal W.; Diebold, John B.

    1998-11-01

    New deep-penetrating high-resolution multichannel seismic reflection data collected in the eastern Caribbean during R/V Ewing cruise EW9501 imaged both the crustal structure and overlying stratigraphic successions. On the basis of this new multichannel seismic data, we define the geologic development of the Beata Ridge and Venezuelan basin. The Caribbean crust was formed by seafloor spreading in Late Jurassic Early Cretaceous time. Prior to the Senonian, widespread and rapid eruption of basaltic flows began in concert with extensional deformation of the Caribbean crust. Thick volcanic wedges characterized by divergent reflectors are observed along the boundary that separates rough from smooth oceanic crust, are coincident with an abrupt shallowing of the Moho, and appear to be bounded by a large, northwest-dipping fault system. The locus of major extensional deformation migrated through time from the Venezuelan basin to the western flank of the Beata Ridge. Extensional unloading of the Beata Ridge footwall caused uplift and rotation of the ridge. Sediment thicknesses and stratal geometry observed across the Venezuelan basin and Beata Ridge suggest that the majority of the deformation in this region occurred during and soon after the emplacement of the volcanics. Minor fault reactivation in the Neogene along the eastern flank of the Beata Ridge is associated with an accommodation zone (i.e., tear fault) that records a change in the deformation style from bending and subduction of the Caribbean plate along the Muertos Trough south of Puerto Rico to compressional deformation and obduction of the Caribbean plate south of Hispaniola. We propose that this difference in deformational style is, in part, a consequence of the thicker crust on the Beata Ridge, which is more resistant to subduction.

  11. Hyalinea baltica and the Plio-Pleistocene Boundary in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Bock, W D

    1970-11-20

    The foraminifer Hyalinea baltica is found for the first time in sediments from the western Caribbean Sea. Its relationship to the Plio-Pleistocene boundary and to other criteria used to define this boundary is examined, with the result that a strict adherence to the classical definition is urged.

  12. Survey report: Eastern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Yinger, N

    1991-01-01

    Over 1 million people live on 8 small islands in the Eastern Caribbean: St. Kitts-Nevis, Montserrat, Grenada, St. Vincent, Antigua, Barbados, St. Lucia, and Dominica. Starting in 1985 the International Planned Parenthood Federation, Western Hemisphere Region has carried out a series of contraceptive prevalence surveys in these countries. Current information is provided by these surveys in the areas of fertility levels and preferences, contraceptive knowledge and use. Also, socioeconomic, historical and demographic background and analysis such as fertility patterns, desire for additional children, and breastfeeding data; contraceptive awareness including family planning methods and sources; contraceptive use by method, source, and timing, satisfaction, and male attitudes are provided in the surveys, but not in the report abstracted here. The total fertility rate (TFR) and the contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) for the 8 islands are as follows: St. Kitts-Nevis (1984) 2.9 TFR, 40.6 CPR; St. Vincent (1988) 2.9 TFR, 58.3 CPR; Antigua (1988) 1.8 TFR, 52.6 CPR; Barbados (1988) not given, 55.0 CPR; St. Lucia (1988) 3.2 TFR, 47.3 CPR; Dominica (1987) 3.2 TFR, 49.8 CPR. The islands have unusual demographic patterns related to extensive out-migration.

  13. Hurricane Marilyn, Caribbean

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1995-09-17

    STS069-720-026 (17 September 1995) --- Hurricane Marilyn is captured on film as it moves over the Caribbean on September 17, 1995, in this 70mm frame. A motion picture lens on the handheld Hasselblad gives a "fish-eye" effect to the scene. Note the end of the Space Shuttle Endeavour's Remote Manipulator System (RMS) arm, which stayed quite busy during the flight supporting a space walk and extensive operations with two temporarily free-flying spacecraft. During the 11-plus day mission, the astronauts aboard the Endeavour caught with their cameras at least two large oceanic storms. Another hurricane, named Luis, followed a similar path earlier in the flight. Endeavour, with a five-member crew, launched on September 7, 1995, from the Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and ended its mission there September 18, 1995, with a successful landing on Runway 33. The multifaceted mission carried the crew of astronauts David M. Walker, mission commander; Kenneth D. Cockrell, pilot; and James S. Voss (payload commander), James H. Newman, Michael L. Gernhardt, all mission specialists.

  14. Globalizing the English Curriculum through Caribbean Literature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spoelman, Linda; Thomas, Katherine

    Although Caribbean (English) writers hold differing views on the effectiveness of making connections in an area of so much diversity, Caribbean literature can be connected to the English curriculum to promote diversity and understanding. V. S. Naipaul, Nobel Prize winning author from the region, presents a pessimistic view of Caribbean society in…

  15. 9th Caribbean Geological Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Gren

    The ninth in a series of Caribbean Geological Conferences, which are held every 3 or 4 years, took place in Santo Domingo, capital of the Dominican Republic, from the 15th to 26th of August 1980. The conference, which was sponsored by the government of the Dominican Republic and the Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra, was preceded by 2 days of field trips and was opened by President Antonio Guzman on the evening of the 17th of August. Generous support was provided by Alcoa Exploration Co., Falconbridge Dominicana, and Rosario Dominicana.Geologists and geophysicists from 25 countries presented about 130 papers on a wide variety of topics ranging from geophysics to paleontology. While the whole Caribbean area was discussed, there was special emphasis on the northern Caribbean and Hispaniola, as befitted the site of the conference. The contribution of workers from the Dirección General de Mineriá was particularly notable.

  16. Extreme-wave deposits in the Caribbean - towards an improved tsunami hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Max; Oetjen, Jan; May, S. Matthias; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Coastal zones worldwide experience considerable population pressure and demand for a management of hazards such as tsunamis. Tsunami hazard assessment is the initial step of the management process and requires reliable information on frequency and magnitude. In areas with short historical documentation, these long-term frequency-magnitude patterns, which are best explained by inverse power-law functions, mainly rely on geological traces. According to the historical record covering the last 520 years, Caribbean tsunami hazard is demonstrated by more than 80 mostly regional or local seismically induced events. However, based on two numerical hydrodynamic models of tsunamis spawning at the Muertos Trough and the South Caribbean Deformed Belt (SCBD), two trigger scenarios only marginally considered so far, we show that pan-Caribbean tsunamis can be taken into account as well. We furthermore review more than 50 studies for possible geological evidence of tsunamis in the Caribbean including fine-grained subsurface deposits and subaerial coarse clasts, and re-evaluate their implications for tsunami hazard assessment against state-of-the-art models of tsunami deposition. Only a limited number of reliable palaeotsunami records with consistent and robust age control were identified, hampering inter-island or interregional correlation of deposits. Separating between storm and tsunami transport of solitary boulders is very difficult in most cases. Those arranged in ridges or incorporated into polymodal ridge complexes or ramparts, respectively, which line many windward coasts of the Caribbean, can mainly be attributed to long-term formation during strong storms implying the overprinting of potential tsunami signatures. The quantification of parameters of tsunami flooding based on tsunami deposits, such as flow depth, inundation distance or flow velocity, by applying inverse and forward numerical models of sediment transport is still underdeveloped in the Caribbean and needs to

  17. Late Jurassic breakup of the Proto-Caribbean and circum-global circulation across Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Peter O.; Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Sandoval-Gutierrez, Maria; Urbani, Franco; García-Delgado, Dora; Garban, Grony; Pérez Rodríguez, Mireya

    2013-04-01

    Based on earlier plate reconstructions, many authors have postulated a circum-global equatorial current system flowing through the Pangea breakup, the Tethys - Atlantic - Caribbean Seaway, to explain changes in global climate during the Middle and Late Jurassic. While a Toarcian (late Early Jurassic) breakup is well constrained for the Central Atlantic, the place and timing of initial ocean crust formation between the Americas (Gulf of Mexico or Proto-Caribbean?) is still poorly constrained. Ar/Ar ages (190 to 154 Ma) in the Tinaquillo ultramafic complex (NW-Venezuela) have been interpreted as a result of initial Proto-Caribbean rifting. However, the Tinaquillo is clearly a subconinental block and the cited ages age cannot be related with breakup. The Siquisique Ophiolite (NW-Venezuela), long known for the occurrence of Bajocian-early Bathonian ammonite fragments found in interpilow sediments, has previously been interpreted as an early Proto-Caribbean remnant. However, the ammonite fragments were recovered from blocks in a Paleogene tectonic mélange, whereas the main Siquisique ophiolite body seems to be of middle Cretaceous age, based on a few Ar/Ar dates and poorly preserved middle to late Cretaceous radiolarians, which we recovered from black cherts interbedded with volcanics. The best record of Proto-Caribbean rifting and breakup is preserved in the Guaniguanico Terrane of NW-Cuba, which represents a distal Yucatan (N-American) passive margin segment telescoped by Tertiary nappe tectonics. In this terrane middle to upper Oxfordian pelagic limestones encroach on the E-MORB type El Sabalo Basalts which represent the oldest known remnants of oceanic crust clearly identifiable as Proto-Caribbean. Older, syn-rift sediments in the Proto-Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico are known to be deltaic to shallow marine detrital, and evaporitic. Although oceanic crust seemingly started to form in the early Late Jurassic (158 my), recent plate tectonic reconstructions show

  18. Caribbean Women Writers: Suggested Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders-Hamilton, Tanya

    This document is a bibliography of books written by Caribbean women writers. Authors and their works are organized by the country of their origin; these include: Antigua, Barbados/USA, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Matinique, Puerto Rico, Trinidad/Tobago, and Trinidad/USA. Books of interest to children and young…

  19. The Geography of Caribbean Holidays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockledge, Ann

    This paper describes Caribbean street festivals as celebrations that reflect the historic, climate, and movement patterns of the region. Celebrations such as Carnival, Hosay, and Jonkonnu are discussed, and it is proposed that study of these and other festivals can be linked to the five thematic generalizations often utilized by geographers. These…

  20. Shoreline foraminiferal thanatacoenoses around five eastern Caribbean islands and their environmental and biogeographic implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Brent; Wilson, Jacqueline I.

    2011-05-01

    Foraminiferal thanatacoenoses were examined around five islands in the Caribbean Sea, which forms a single biogeographic province with respect to nearshore (<3 m water depth) foraminifera, which live primarily on marine vegetation. On death, they become incorporated into the sediment. The assemblage at a site reflects the live assemblage and post mortem affects such as dissolution and transport during storms. Reefal species ( Amphistegina gibbosa, Asterigerina carinata) are transported towards shore during storms. Foraminiferal thanatacoenoses were examined in 65 nearshore sediment samples from around five eastern Caribbean islands: St. John (US Virgin Islands), St. Kitts, Nevis, Bequia and Tobago. Cluster and principal components analyses distinguished the following environments (indicator species in parentheses): Sediment associated with mangroves ( Ammonia sobrina), Bays subject to organic matter enrichment ( Quinqueloculina poeyana, Triloculina rotunda, T. trigonula), Areas subject to moderate sediment flux during storms ( Quinqueloculina auberiana, Nodobaculariella mexicana, Peneroplis proteus, Archaias angulatus), Locations subject to high sediment flux during storms ( Amphistegina gibbosa), Sites little stressed by organic matter enrichment or storms ( Discorbis rosea). The majority of samples were from sites in the last category. The data from this study could form the nucleus of a catalogue of Caribbean beaches and their environmental influences.

  1. Molecules and fossils reveal punctuated diversification in Caribbean "faviid" corals.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Sonja A; Budd, Ann F; Carlon, David B

    2012-07-25

    Even with well-known sampling biases, the fossil record is key to understanding macro-evolutionary patterns. During the Miocene to Pleistocene in the Caribbean Sea, the fossil record of scleractinian corals shows a remarkable period of rapid diversification followed by massive extinction. Here we combine a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny based on three nuclear introns with an updated fossil stratigraphy to examine patterns of radiation and extinction in Caribbean corals within the traditional family Faviidae. Concatenated phylogenetic analysis showed most species of Caribbean faviids were monophyletic, with the exception of two Manicina species. The time-calibrated tree revealed the stem group originated around the closure of the Tethys Sea (17.0 Ma), while the genus Manicina diversified during the Late Miocene (8.20 Ma), when increased sedimentation and productivity may have favored free-living, heterotrophic species. Reef and shallow water specialists, represented by Diploria and Favia, originate at the beginning of the Pliocene (5 - 6 Ma) as the Isthmus of Panama shoaled and regional productivity declined. Later origination of the stem group than predicted from the fossil record corroborates the hypothesis of morphological convergence in Diploria and Favia genera. Our data support the rapid evolution of morphological and life-history traits among faviid corals that can be linked to Mio-Pliocene environmental changes.

  2. Non-native seagrass Halophila stipulacea forms dense mats under eutrophic conditions in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tussenbroek, B. I.; van Katwijk, M. M.; Bouma, T. J.; van der Heide, T.; Govers, L. L.; Leuven, R. S. E. W.

    2016-09-01

    Seagrasses comprise 78 species and are rarely invasive. But the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, firstly recorded in the Caribbean in the year 2002, has spread quickly throughout the region. Previous works have described this species as invasive in the Caribbean, forming dense mats that exclude native seagrass species. During a reconnaissance field survey of Caribbean seagrass meadows at the islands of Bonaire and Sint Maarten in 2013, we observed that this species was only extremely dense at 5 out of 10 studied meadows. Compared to areas with sparse growth of H. stipulacea, these dense meadows showed consistently higher nutrient concentrations, as indicated by higher leaf tissue N contents of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum (dense when C:N < 22.5) and sediments (dense when %N > 11.3). Thus, the potential invasiveness of this non-native seagrass most likely depends on the environmental conditions, especially the nutrient concentrations.

  3. 76 FR 71939 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA829 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council..., 5 Estate Bakkeroe, St. Thomas, USVI. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management...

  4. 77 FR 43574 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Advisory Panel Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC125 Caribbean Fishery Management Council... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management... Water Front, Charlotte Amalie, St. Thomas, USVI. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery...

  5. 77 FR 47603 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-09

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC146 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting addendum. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery... Conquistador Avenue, Fajardo, Puerto Rico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management...

  6. Caribbean Regional Security: The Challenges to creating Formal Military Relationships in the English-Speaking Caribbean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-31

    incomes. Ramon Grosfoguel adds that in the United States and in Europe, there is a perception that foreign immigrants are taking jobs away from the...2Ramon Grosfoguel , “The Geopolitics of Caribbean Migration,” 201. 3Lilian Bobea, “Migration and Regional Security: Besieged Borders and Caribbean... Grosfoguel , Ramon. “The Geopolitics of Caribbean Migration.” In Security, Problems and Policies in the Post-Cold War Caribbean, 201-224. New York

  7. View of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The large body of water is the Golfo de Venezuela; and the major land mass is the Peninsula de Paraguana. The view is looking northward from the mouth of the Golfete de Coro and Punta Cardon to Punta Macolia. The peninsula is connected to the Venezuelan mainland by the narrow strip of land in the most easterly corner of the picture. The dry, arid climate of the peninsula is indicated by sparse vegetation and the abundance of sand dunes. The highest point is about 2,700 feet above the sea and is the conspicuous black spot. Old raised shorelines features appear as streaks parallel to the Golfete de Coro. Water of the Golfete de Coro is red from the high sediment content. The streaks in the water off the peninsula is apparently an effect of wind which is blowing sand and w

  8. View of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A near vertical view of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela is seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiment Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The large body of water is the Golfo de Venezuela; and the major land mass is the Peninsula de Paraguana. The view is looking northward from the mouth of the Golfete de Coro and Punta Cardon to Punta Macolia. The peninsula is connected to the Venezuelan mainland by the narrow strip of land in the most easterly corner of the picture. The dry, arid climate of the peninsula is indicated by sparse vegetation and the abundance of sand dunes. The highest point is about 2,700 feet above the sea and is the conspicuous black spot. Old raised shorelines features appear as streaks parallel to the Golfete de Coro. Water of the Golfete de Coro is red from the high sediment content. The streaks in the water off the peninsula is apparently an effect of wind which is blowing sand and w

  9. Changing climate and Caribbean coastlines

    SciTech Connect

    Gable, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the significance of rising relative sea level to the Caribbean region. The various factors contributing to rising relative sea level are explained -- rising eustatic sea level from atmospheric warming, natural subsidence, and manmade subsidence. The possibility of changes in storms is also raised. Possible impacts are discussed, for both wetlands and urban areas. Some developing government policies are described, such as restrictions on coastal development. International research agendas are described. A list of recommended tide-gage stations is presented.

  10. Symbiodinium Photosynthesis in Caribbean Octocorals

    PubMed Central

    Ramsby, Blake D.; Shirur, Kartick P.

    2014-01-01

    Symbioses with the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium form the foundation of tropical coral reef communities. Symbiodinium photosynthesis fuels the growth of an array of marine invertebrates, including cnidarians such as scleractinian corals and octocorals (e.g., gorgonian and soft corals). Studies examining the symbioses between Caribbean gorgonian corals and Symbiodinium are sparse, even though gorgonian corals blanket the landscape of Caribbean coral reefs. The objective of this study was to compare photosynthetic characteristics of Symbiodinium in four common Caribbean gorgonian species: Pterogorgia anceps, Eunicea tourneforti, Pseudoplexaura porosa, and Pseudoplexaura wagenaari. Symbiodinium associated with these four species exhibited differences in Symbiodinium density, chlorophyll a per cell, light absorption by chlorophyll a, and rates of photosynthetic oxygen production. The two Pseudoplexaura species had higher Symbiodinium densities and chlorophyll a per Symbiodinium cell but lower chlorophyll a specific absorption compared to P. anceps and E. tourneforti. Consequently, P. porosa and P. wagenaari had the highest average photosynthetic rates per cm2 but the lowest average photosynthetic rates per Symbiodinium cell or chlorophyll a. With the exception of Symbiodinium from E. tourneforti, isolated Symbiodinium did not photosynthesize at the same rate as Symbiodinium in hospite. Differences in Symbiodinium photosynthetic performance could not be attributed to Symbiodinium type. All P. anceps (n = 9) and P. wagenaari (n = 6) colonies, in addition to one E. tourneforti and three P. porosa colonies, associated with Symbiodinium type B1. The B1 Symbiodinium from these four gorgonian species did not cluster with lineages of B1 Symbiodinium from scleractinian corals. The remaining eight E. tourneforti colonies harbored Symbiodinium type B1L, while six P. porosa colonies harbored type B1i. Understanding the symbioses between gorgonian corals and Symbiodinium will

  11. Solar drying in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Headley, O. )

    1992-03-01

    The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) has estimated that a quarter of crops are lost through inadequate handling after harvesting. The use of solar dryers can reduce these losses and improve the quality of food. Oliver Headley of the University of the West Indies overviews a range of dryers developed in the Caribbean region. Solar dryers have been used in various parts of the Caribbean for the past eighteen years. The main types are: closed cycle dryers with separate flat plate collector; open cycle dryers with roof vanes against direct sunlight; open cycle dryers with rockbed heat storage units; open cycle dryers with chimneys for air circulation; wire basket dryers with flow through ventilation; barn roof collectors feeding packed bed dryers. During the dry season (January to April), mean daily insolation in a typical Caribbean island is about 25 MJ/m{sup 2}. With such an abundant resource, solar crop drying emerged as a preferred method for the preservation of perishable commodities. In territories without fossil fuel reserves solar energy is an obvious alternative since it does not involve expenditure of scarce foreign exchange. Research and development work in solar crop drying was conducted both at experimental sites in the University and in rural districts throughout the region. Several types of dryer were designed and tested.

  12. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  13. Honduras: Caribbean Coast.

    PubMed

    Harborne, A R; Afzal, D C; Andrews, M J

    2001-12-01

    The coast of Honduras, Central America, represents the southern end of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, although its marine resources are less extensive and studied than nearby Belize and Mexico. However, the coastal zone contains mainland reef formations, mangroves, wetlands, seagrass beds and extensive fringing reefs around its offshore islands, and has a key role in the economy of the country. Like most tropical areas, this complex of benthic habitats experiences limited annual variation in climatic and oceanographic conditions but seasonal and occasional conditions, particularly coral bleaching and hurricanes, are important influences. The effects of stochastic factors on the country's coral reefs were clearly demonstrated during 1998 when Honduras experienced a major hurricane and bleaching event. Any natural or anthropogenic impacts on reef health will inevitably affect other countries in Latin America, and vice versa, since the marine resources are linked via currents and the functioning of the system transcends political boundaries. Much further work on, for example, movement of larvae and transfer of pollutants is required to delineate the full extent of these links. Anthropogenic impacts, largely driven by the increasing population and proportion of people living in coastal areas, are numerous and include key factors such as agricultural run-off, over-fishing, urban and industrial pollution (particularly sewage) and infrastructure development. Many of these threats act synergistically and, for example, poor watershed management via shifting cultivation, increases sedimentation and pesticide run-off onto coral reefs, which increases stress to corals already affected by decreasing water quality and coral bleaching. Threats from agriculture and fishing are particularly significant because of the size of both industries. The desire to generate urgently required revenue within Honduras has also led to increased tourism which provides an overarching stress

  14. Radium isotopes in the Orinoco estuary and Eastern Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.S.; Todd, J.F. )

    1993-02-15

    Radium isotopes provide a means of identifying the source of freshened waters in the ocean and determining the time elapsed since these waters were in the estuary. The authors present evidence that during April, waters from the Amazon mixing zone pass within 50 km of the mouth of the Orinoco River. These Amazon waters are characterized by a lower [sup 228]Ra/[sup 226]Ra activity ratio (AR) than are waters from the Orinoco at similar salinities. During autumn, the increased discharge of the Orinoco displaces the freshened Amazon waters seaward, yet the two can be distinguished clearly. Within the Caribbean Sea, waters of Orinoco origin carry a characteristic radium signature including excess activities of [sup 224]Ra. This isotope may be used to estimate the time elapsed since the waters were removed from contact with sediments. Current speeds based on [sup 224]Ra dating ranged from 15 to 33 cm/s during April. The radium isotopes also provide an assessment of sediment mixing in the estuary. During low discharge (April), considerable mixing of older sediment by physical or biological processes or dredging maintained high activities of [sup 228]Ra in the estuary and produced the highest [sup 228]Ra/[sup 226]Ra AR's yet measured in any estuary. During high discharge (September), a large fraction of the [sup 228]Ra was derived from desorption from fresh sediment rather than mixing of older sediments. Activities of [sup 224]Ra were high in the estuary during both high and low discharge, indicating that considerable mixing of recently introduced sediment must occur during each period. During April, [sup 224]Ra and [sup 228]Ra activities in the water were about equal, indicating that most of the sediment being resuspended had been stored in the estuary long enough to reestablish radioactive equilibrium in the [sup 232]Th decay series (i.e., 20 years). 19 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Teaching and Learning with Caribbean Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Clement B. G.

    Presently, the most frequent point of contact between the United States and many Caribbean island states is the immigrant population. Incentives for immigration are provided by a tradition of colonialism, economies dependent upon agriculture, and problems resulting from rapidly increasing populations. The continuing influx of Caribbeans to the…

  16. Creating Research Culture in Caribbean Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Theodore; Simmons, Lynette

    2010-01-01

    Recent expansion of tertiary education in the Caribbean via the creation of two new universities invites reflection on what impedes the creation of research culture, and what enables it. We contend that research culture in the Caribbean comes up against the strictures of post-colonial dependence, university education in the region being largely a…

  17. The Caribbean Online: Exploration through Internet Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Provides an annotated list of websites that cover a variety of topics on the Caribbean such as the African cultures of Cuba, Belize and its government, news organizations throughout the Caribbean, and general information on the University of Puerto Rico. (CMK)

  18. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  19. Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Melva P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies examines how language is treated in Jamaica and other Anglophone Caribbean societies and the effects of a haphazard approach to language planning on the social dynamics of the society as well as the individual. It briefly explores how Language is handled in Francophone or…

  20. Creating Research Culture in Caribbean Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Theodore; Simmons, Lynette

    2010-01-01

    Recent expansion of tertiary education in the Caribbean via the creation of two new universities invites reflection on what impedes the creation of research culture, and what enables it. We contend that research culture in the Caribbean comes up against the strictures of post-colonial dependence, university education in the region being largely a…

  1. Bibliography of Serials on Caribbean Affairs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conway, Dennis; Milman, Claudio

    An alphabetical listing of serial titles that are relevant to Caribbean affairs and culture is provided. Annotations include the individual publication's scope of coverage as well as its frequency of appearance (monthly, quarterly, weekly, etc.) and postal address. The same type of information regarding newspapers published in the Caribbean area…

  2. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  3. Caribbean tectonics and relative plate motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.; Dewey, J. F.; Cooper, C.; Mann, P.; Pindell, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    During the last century, three different ways of interpreting the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean have been proposed, taking into account the Bailey Willis School of a permanent pre-Jurassic deep sea basin, the Edward Suess School of a subsided continental terrain, and the Alfred Wegener School of continental separation. The present investigation is concerned with an outline of an interpretation which follows that of Pindell and Dewey (1982). An attempt is made to point out ways in which the advanced hypotheses can be tested. The fit of Africa, North America, and South America is considered along with aspects of relative motion between North and South America since the early Jurasic. Attention is given to a framework for reconstructing Caribbean plate evolution, the evolution of the Caribbean, the plate boundary zones of the northern and southern Caribbean, and the active deformation of the Caribbean plate.

  4. Giant Upper Cretaceous oysters from the Gulf coast and Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Norman F.; Kauffman, Erle G.

    1964-01-01

    Two unusually massive ostreid species, representing the largest and youngest Mesozoic members of their respective lineages, occur in Upper Cretaceous sediment of the gulf coast and Caribbean areas. Their characteristics and significance, as well as the morphologic terminology of ostreids in general, are discussed. Crassostrea cusseta Sohl and Kauffman n. sp. is the largest known ostreid from Mesozoic rocks of North America; it occurs sporadically in the Cusseta Sand and rarely in the Blufftown Formation of the Chattahoochee River region in Georgia and Alabama. It is especially notable in that it lacks a detectable posterior adductor muscle scar on large adult shells. C. cusseta is the terminal Cretaceous member of the C. soleniscus lineage in gulf coast sediments; the lineage continues, however, with little basic modification, throughout the Cenozoic, being represented in the Eocene by C. gigantissima (Finch) and probably, in modern times, by C. virginica (Gmelin). The C. soleniscus lineage is the first typically modern crassostreid group recognized in the Mesozoic. Arctostrea aguilerae (Böse) occurs in Late Campanian and Early Maestrichtian sediments of Alabama, Mississippi, Texas(?), Mexico, and Cuba. The mature shell of this species is larger and more massive than that of any other known arctostreid. Arctostrea is well represented throughout the Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous of Europe, but in North America, despite the great numbers and diversity of Cretaceous oysters, only A. aguilerae and the Albian form A. carinata are known. The presence of A. aquilerae in both the Caribbean and gulf coast faunas is exceptional, as the Late Cretaceous faunas of these provinces are generally distinct and originated in different faunal realms.

  5. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  6. Vestiges of the proto-Caribbean seaway: Origin of the San Souci Volcanic Group, Trinidad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Iain; Kerr, Andrew C.; Chamberlain, Kevin R.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Urbani, Franco; Hastie, Alan R.; Pindell, James L.; Barry, Tiffany L.; Millar, Ian L.

    2014-06-01

    Outcrops of volcanic-hypabyssal rocks in Trinidad document the opening of the proto-Caribbean seaway during Jurassic-Cretaceous break-up of the Americas. The San Souci Group on the northern coast of Trinidad comprises the San Souci Volcanic Formation (SSVF) and passive margin sediments of the ~ 130-125 Ma Toco Formation. The Group was trapped at the leading edge of the Pacific-derived Caribbean Plate during the Cretaceous-Palaeogene, colliding with the para-autochthonous margin of Trinidad during the Oligocene-Miocene. In-situ U-Pb ion probe dating of micro-zircons from a mafic volcanic breccia reveal the SSVF crystallised at 135.0 ± 7.3 Ma. The age of the SSVF is within error of the age of the Toco Formation. Assuming a conformable contact, geodynamic models indicate a likely origin for the SSVF on the passive margin close to the northern tip of South America. Immobile element and Nd-Hf radiogenic isotope signatures of the mafic rocks indicate the SSVF was formed by ≪10% partial melting of a heterogeneous spinel peridotite source with no subduction or continental lithospheric mantle component. Felsic breccias within the SSVF are more enriched in incompatible elements, with isotope signatures that are less radiogenic than the mafic rocks of the SSVF. The felsic rocks may be derived from re-melting of mafic crust. Although geochemical comparisons are drawn here with proto-Caribbean igneous outcrops in Venezuela and elsewhere in the Caribbean more work is needed to elucidate the development of the proto-Caribbean seaway and its rifted margins. In particular, ion probe dating of micro-zircons may yield valuable insights into magmatism and metamorphism in the Caribbean, and in altered basaltic terranes more generally.

  7. Tsunami Risk for the Caribbean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozelkov, A. S.; Kurkin, A. A.; Pelinovsky, E. N.; Zahibo, N.

    2004-12-01

    The tsunami problem for the coast of the Caribbean basin is discussed. Briefly the historical data of tsunami in the Caribbean Sea are presented. Numerical simulation of potential tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea is performed in the framework of the nonlinear-shallow theory. The tsunami wave height distribution along the Caribbean Coast is computed. These results are used to estimate the far-field tsunami potential of various coastal locations in the Caribbean Sea. In fact, five zones with tsunami low risk are selected basing on prognostic computations, they are: the bay "Golfo de Batabano" and the coast of province "Ciego de Avila" in Cuba, the Nicaraguan Coast (between Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas), the border between Mexico and Belize, the bay "Golfo de Venezuela" in Venezuela. The analysis of historical data confirms that there was no tsunami in the selected zones. Also, the wave attenuation in the Caribbean Sea is investigated; in fact, wave amplitude decreases in an order if the tsunami source is located on the distance up to 1000 km from the coastal location. Both factors wave attenuation and wave height distribution should be taken into account in the planned warning system for the Caribbean Sea.

  8. Caribbean basin framework, 2: Northern Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Tyburski, S.A.; Gordon, M.B.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    There are four Jurassic to Recent basin-forming periods in northern Central America (honduras, Honduran Borderlands, Belize, Guatemala, northern Nicaragua): (1) Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rifting and subsidence along normal faults in Honduras and Guatemala; rifts are suggested but are not well defined in Honduras by the distribution of clastic sediments and associated volcanic rocks. Rifting is attributed to the separation of Central America from the southern margin of the North American plate; (2) Cretaceous subsidence recorded by the development of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize; subsidence is attributed to thermal subsidence of the rifted margins of the various blocks; (3) Late Cretaceous-Recent development of a volcanic arc along the western margin of Middle America and the northern margin of Honduras; (4) Late Cretaceous large-scale folding in Honduras, ophiolite obduction, and formation of a foredeep basin in Guatemala (Sepur trough); deformation is attributed to the collision between a north-facing arc in northern Honduras and the Nicaraguan Rise and the passive margin of Guatemala and Belize; and (5) Eocene to Recent strike-slip faulting along the present-day North American-Caribbean plate boundary in Guatemala, northern Honduras, and Belize. Strike-slip faults and basins form a California-type borderlands characterized by elongate basins that appear as half-grabens in profile. Counterclockwise rotation of the central honduras plateau, a thicker and topographically higher-than-average block within the plate boundary zone, is accommodated by rifting or strike-slip faults at its edges.

  9. Hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, J. D.

    2003-04-01

    Although the South American continent includes three of the largest river basins of the world, the Amazon, the Orinoco, and the Paraná, with some of the highest discharges and sediment loads, a number of comparatively smaller systems in Colombia carry a significant share of sediment and dissolved loads from the continent. Fifteen rivers west of the Cordilleras in South America discharge a combined 254 km3 yr-1 or 8020 m3 s-1 of water into the Pacific. The San Juan River has the highest water discharge (2550 m3 s-1), sediment load (16 x 106 t yr-1), and basin-wide sediment yield (1150 t km-2 yr-1) on the entire west coast of South America. The best estimate of total sediment load into the Pacific Ocean from both gauged and ungauged rivers is 96 x 106 t yr-1. These results in a sediment yield estimate of 1,260 t km-2 yr-1. Analysis of 22 rivers draining into the Caribbean Sea indicate that the combined water discharge and sediment load are 338 km3 yr-1 and 168 x 106 t yr-1, respectively, corresponding to a sediment yield for the Colombia Caribbean drainage basins of 541 t km-2 yr-1, or approximately half of the yield for the Pacific basins of Colombia. The Magdalena River, the largest river system in Colombia, has an annual discharge of 7,232 m3 s-1. Load measurements during the 21 year period yielded an annual sediment load of 144 x 106 t yr-1. The Magdalena has the highest sediment yield (559 t km-2 yr-1) of any medium-sized or large river along the entire east coast of South America and contributes 9% of the total sediment load discharged into the Atlantic Ocean from eastern South America. The concentrations of major dissolved constituents and mass transport rates for major Colombian rivers were based on averages calculated from monthly samples from 1990-1993. Ca2+ and Mg2+ are the dominant ions, indicating that the water corresponds to the rock-dominated type. Dissolved inorganic carbon, present mostly as bicarbonate ions, constitutes almost 50% of the total

  10. Can biological invasions save Caribbean coral reefs?

    PubMed

    Bellwood, David Roy; Robert Goatley, Christopher Harry

    2017-01-09

    It is widely accepted that coral reefs are in decline globally, due to climate change as well as more direct human impacts such as poor water quality and overharvesting [1-3]. Biological invasions are also seen as a major threat [4-6]; however, they may not all be negative. An invasion of Red Sea rabbitfishes is disrupting Mediterranean ecosystems by removing macro-algae - meanwhile, in contrast, the Caribbean is suffering from excess macro-algal growth. We suggest that an invasion of the Caribbean by rabbitfishes may prove beneficial, and that the future of Caribbean coral reefs may depend upon a rabbitfish invasion.

  11. Plate boundary forces in the vicinity of Trinidad-the-transition from transpression to transtension in the Southern Caribbean plate boundary zones

    SciTech Connect

    Algar, S.T.; Pindell, J.L. )

    1993-02-01

    Deformation in the southern Caribbean plate boundary zones as recorded in the Northern Range of Trinidad initiated in the Oligocene with northward vergent gravity sliding of Northern Range sediments due to uplift and oversteepening of the previously passive margin by the eastward migration of the Caribbean flexural forebulge. Progressive east-southeast transvergence of the Caribbean Plate with respect to South America overthrust incorporated the Northern Range sediments into the Caribbean accretionary prism, thrusting them south-southeast to produce a Middle Miocene transpressive foreland fold and thrust belt in southern Trinidad. Late Miocene deformation within Trinidad was increasingly dominated by right-lateral strike-slop (RLSS) faulting, at the expense of transpressive compressional features. Right-stepping of RLSS motion initiated the Gulf of Paria and Caroni pull-apart basins, Since Early Pliocene these basins and other areas to the north of Trinidad have undergone north-south extension in addition to east-west trending RLSS. Such extension caused the northward withdrawal of Caribbean terranes from atop of the Northern Range, Resulting in rapid isostatically induced uplift (approximately 0.5 mmyr[sup -1]). This change in deformation style may relate to a hitherto unrecognized shift in the relative motion of the eastern Caribbean Plate with respect to South America: from east-southeast-directed transpression to east-northeast-directed transtension.

  12. Caribbean immigrants: a black success story?

    PubMed

    Model, S

    1991-01-01

    "This article examines the 1980 earnings and earnings attainment process of Afro-Caribbean immigrants [to the United States] relative to Afro-Americans, native-born whites and foreign-born whites. Controlling for gender, the comparisons consider Caribbean Islanders as a whole and disaggregated by nation of origin. The results indicate that, in 1980 at least, fact did not justify the opinion that any West Indian subgroup had higher gross or net earnings than native-born blacks. Rather, a few non-English speaking subgroups fared worse. In addition, regardless of national background, Caribbean-born men experienced vast earnings disparities relative to white men. This was not the case for West Indian women, whose net earnings were, at minimum, equivalent to those of white women. Further analysis suggests that, for most Caribbean groups, West Indian background adds little to an understanding of the earnings attainment process that cannot be obtained from other measurable characteristics."

  13. Total Solar Eclipse--A Caribbean Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Steven; Tunstall, Louisa; Tunstall, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Describes the experiences of two high school students who traveled to the Caribbean island of Curacao to view a total solar eclipse and prepare methods for teaching classmates about the eclipse the following school year. (Author/WRM)

  14. Total Solar Eclipse--A Caribbean Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Steven; Tunstall, Louisa; Tunstall, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Describes the experiences of two high school students who traveled to the Caribbean island of Curacao to view a total solar eclipse and prepare methods for teaching classmates about the eclipse the following school year. (Author/WRM)

  15. Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands

    SciTech Connect

    Pytlinski, J.T. )

    1992-01-01

    All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative energy options. Several alternative energy projects financed by local, federal and international organizations are presented. Present and future uses of alternative energy technologies are described in different islands. Barrier which handicap developing and implementing alternative energy sources in the Caribbean are discussed. The potential and possible applications of alternative energy technologies such as: solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), ocean currents and tides energy, biomass, peat energy, municipal solid wastes, bioconversion, hydropower, geothermal energy, nuclear energy and energy conservation are discussed in detail as means to alleviate the energy situation in the Caribbean islands.

  16. Business Booms for Caribbean Med Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broad, William J.

    1979-01-01

    As a last chance medical haven, Caribbean medical schools are increasingly sought by U.S. students. Federal and state investigations are being run on one of these, and two former students have filed suit. (BB)

  17. Forest fires in the insular Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Robbins, A Marcus J; Eckelmann, Claus-Martin; Quiñones, Maya

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a summary of the forest fire reports in the insular Caribbean derived from both management reports and an analysis of publicly available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrodiometer (MODIS) satellite active fire products from the region. A vast difference between the amount of fires reported by land managers and fire points in the MODIS Fire Information for Resource Management System data can be observed. Future research is recommended to better understand the nature of these differences. While there is a general lack of available statistical data on forest fires in the Caribbean, a few general observations can be made: Forest fires occur mainly in dry forest types (500 to 1000 mm of mean annual rainfall). These are also the areas where most human settlements are located. Lowland high forests and montane forests with higher rainfall (1000 and more mm y(-1)) are less susceptible to forest fire, but they can burn in exceptionally dry years. Most of the dry forest ecosystems in the Caribbean can be considered to be fire-sensitive ecosystems, while the pine forests in the Caribbean (Cuba, Dominican Republic, and the Bahamas) are maintained by wildfires. In fire-sensitive ecosystems, uncontrolled burning often encourages the spread of alien invasive species. A Caribbean Fire Management Cooperation Strategy was developed between 2005 and 2006 under auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. This regional strategy aims to strengthen Caribbean fire management networking by encouraging closer collaboration among countries with similar ecological conditions. The strategy for the Caribbean identifies a number of research, training, and management activities to improve wildfire management capacity in the Caribbean.

  18. Biodiversity of Actinomycetes associated with Caribbean sponges and their potential for natural product discovery.

    PubMed

    Vicente, Jan; Stewart, Allison; Song, Bongkeun; Hill, Russell T; Wright, Jeffrey L

    2013-08-01

    Marine actinomycetes provide a rich source of structurally unique and bioactive secondary metabolites. Numerous genera of marine actinomycetes have been isolated from marine sediments as well as several sponge species. In this study, 16 different species of Caribbean sponges were collected from four different locations in the coastal waters off Puerto Rico in order to examine diversity and bioactive metabolite production of marine actinomycetes in Caribbean sponges. Sediments were also collected from each location, in order to compare actinomycete communities between these two types of samples. A total of 180 actinomycetes were isolated and identified based on 16S rRNA gene analysis. Phylogenetic analysis revealed the presence of at least 14 new phylotypes belonging to the genera Micromonospora, Verruscosispora, Streptomyces, Salinospora, Solwaraspora, Microbacterium and Cellulosimicrobium. Seventy-eight of the isolates (19 from sediments and 59 from sponges) shared 100 % sequence identity with Micromonospora sp. R1. Despite having identical 16S rRNA sequences, the bioactivity of extracts and subsequent fractions generated from the fermentation of both sponge- and sediment-derived isolates identical to Micromonospora sp. R1 varied greatly, with a marked increase in antibiotic metabolite production in those isolates derived from sponges. These results indicate that the chemical profiles of isolates with high 16S rRNA sequence homology to known strains can be diverse and dependent on the source of isolation. In addition, seven previously reported dihydroquinones produced by five different Streptomyces strains have been purified and characterized from one Streptomyces sp. strain isolated in this study from the Caribbean sponge Agelas sceptrum.

  19. Applicability of LOICZ catchment coast continuum in a major Caribbean basin: The Magdalena River, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, Juan D.

    2008-04-01

    Within the Land Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ)-Basins approach, the Magdalena River Project (MRP) is an interdisciplinary research, which aims to improve the scientific understanding of the linkages between the Magdalena drainage basin and its associated coastal environments. The MRP is an outgrowth of the initial regional planning that resulted from the LOICZ South American Basins (SamBas) and Caribbean Basins (CariBas) studies on land use and hydrological changes during approximately the past century in tropical and temperate benchmark river basins. The results of the MRP presented in this article show that the extent of land-cover change and erosion within the catchment has increased over the last 10-20 yr. The overall increasing trends in sediment load on a regional scale may be attributed to a range of anthropogenic influences including: a 40% decrease in forests over a 20-yr period; a 65% increase in agricultural and pasture; poor practices of land use; mining; and increasing rates of urbanization. These increasing trends in sediment load coincide with the overall decline of live coral cover in a 145-km 2 coral reef complex in the Caribbean Sea. In addition, the impacts of heavy sediment loads and freshwater discharges have greatly contributed not only to the total disappearance of coral formations but also to a considerable reduction in abundance of seagrass beds in Cartagena Bay and neighbouring areas. The synthesis and analysis presented in this article are just first steps toward understanding the natural and human-induced factors that have produced the observed patterns of water discharge and sediment load of the Magdalena River into the Caribbean Sea, and to relating these processes to the impact on coastal ecosystems.

  20. Poverty, drug abuse fuel Caribbean AIDS outbreak.

    PubMed

    Kovaleski, S F

    1998-01-01

    Hatred and fear of homosexuals, together with a fear of losing tourism revenue, drove many high-level policymakers in the Caribbean to ignore the HIV/AIDS in its infancy. With an annual incidence rate of at least 146.6 people per 100,000, the Bahamas now has one of the highest AIDS rates in the world and the highest such rate in the English-speaking Caribbean. AIDS has become the major cause of death for men and women aged 20-44 in the Bahamas. Indeed, throughout the Caribbean, countries like the Bahamas must now cope with a growing AIDS epidemic. UN AIDS Program figures indicate that at least 310,000 people in the Caribbean have either HIV infection or AIDS, and that the prevalence rate among adults is almost 2%. This compares with an estimated 7.4% of the adult population of sub-Saharan Africa which is infected and 0.6% of adults in North America. 65% of reported AIDS cases in the region result from heterosexual intercourse. While the annual number of AIDS cases has been falling in North America over the last several years and rates in Latin America have leveled off, rates in the Caribbean are increasing sharply. Poverty, the population's lack of awareness, low levels of education, internal and international migration, crack cocaine use, promiscuity, high levels of STDs, prostitution, and tourism are also facilitating the spread of HIV in the Caribbean. Social conservatism, mainly in the English-Caribbean, about discussing sex impedes the implementation and success of HIV/AIDS prevention interventions.

  1. Prehistorical and historical declines in Caribbean coral reef accretion rates driven by loss of parrotfish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cramer, Katie L.; O'Dea, Aaron; Clark, Tara R.; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Norris, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    Caribbean coral reefs have transformed into algal-dominated habitats over recent decades, but the mechanisms of change are unresolved due to a lack of quantitative ecological data before large-scale human impacts. To understand the role of reduced herbivory in recent coral declines, we produce a high-resolution 3,000 year record of reef accretion rate and herbivore (parrotfish and urchin) abundance from the analysis of sediments and fish, coral and urchin subfossils within cores from Caribbean Panama. At each site, declines in accretion rates and parrotfish abundance were initiated in the prehistorical or historical period. Statistical tests of direct cause and effect relationships using convergent cross mapping reveal that accretion rates are driven by parrotfish abundance (but not vice versa) but are not affected by total urchin abundance. These results confirm the critical role of parrotfish in maintaining coral-dominated reef habitat and the urgent need for restoration of parrotfish populations to enable reef persistence.

  2. Prehistorical and historical declines in Caribbean coral reef accretion rates driven by loss of parrotfish

    PubMed Central

    Cramer, Katie L.; O'Dea, Aaron; Clark, Tara R.; Zhao, Jian-xin; Norris, Richard D.

    2017-01-01

    Caribbean coral reefs have transformed into algal-dominated habitats over recent decades, but the mechanisms of change are unresolved due to a lack of quantitative ecological data before large-scale human impacts. To understand the role of reduced herbivory in recent coral declines, we produce a high-resolution 3,000 year record of reef accretion rate and herbivore (parrotfish and urchin) abundance from the analysis of sediments and fish, coral and urchin subfossils within cores from Caribbean Panama. At each site, declines in accretion rates and parrotfish abundance were initiated in the prehistorical or historical period. Statistical tests of direct cause and effect relationships using convergent cross mapping reveal that accretion rates are driven by parrotfish abundance (but not vice versa) but are not affected by total urchin abundance. These results confirm the critical role of parrotfish in maintaining coral-dominated reef habitat and the urgent need for restoration of parrotfish populations to enable reef persistence. PMID:28112169

  3. Prehistorical and historical declines in Caribbean coral reef accretion rates driven by loss of parrotfish.

    PubMed

    Cramer, Katie L; O'Dea, Aaron; Clark, Tara R; Zhao, Jian-Xin; Norris, Richard D

    2017-01-23

    Caribbean coral reefs have transformed into algal-dominated habitats over recent decades, but the mechanisms of change are unresolved due to a lack of quantitative ecological data before large-scale human impacts. To understand the role of reduced herbivory in recent coral declines, we produce a high-resolution 3,000 year record of reef accretion rate and herbivore (parrotfish and urchin) abundance from the analysis of sediments and fish, coral and urchin subfossils within cores from Caribbean Panama. At each site, declines in accretion rates and parrotfish abundance were initiated in the prehistorical or historical period. Statistical tests of direct cause and effect relationships using convergent cross mapping reveal that accretion rates are driven by parrotfish abundance (but not vice versa) but are not affected by total urchin abundance. These results confirm the critical role of parrotfish in maintaining coral-dominated reef habitat and the urgent need for restoration of parrotfish populations to enable reef persistence.

  4. Late holocene vegetation change on Andros Island, Bahamas: Evidence of Caribbean climate change and human colonization

    SciTech Connect

    Kjhellmark, E. )

    1994-06-01

    Sediment cores from blue holes on Andros Island, Bahamas, contain a remarkably detailed record of the past vegetation. A Holocene dry period from at least 2000 to 1500 yr bp is evidenced by sedimentological and palynological facies from the basal portion of one core. The coincides with a suggested dry period in Central America and the Caribbean region, but it has never been found this far north and east. A hardwood vegetation is established at ca. 1500 yr bp and remains a dominant vegetation component until [approximately]900 yr bp when pine and charcoal begin to increase in abundance. At 750 yr bp, pinewoods replace the hardwoods and charcoal peaks indicating human disturbance. The 900 yr bp date for the onset of significant human disturbance is relatively late, compared with other estimates of human colonization of the Caribbean region, suggesting that the occupation of island interiors may have lagged behind that of the coastal regions.

  5. Coastal sedimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubel, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Several important coastal sedimentation problems are identified. Application of existing or anticipated remote sensing techniques to examine these problems is considered. Specifically, coastal fine particle sediment systems, floods and hy hurricanes and sedimentation f of coastal systems, routes and rates of sediment transport on continental shelves, and dredging and dredged material disposal are discussed.

  6. 76 FR 49452 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA622 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council...

  7. 50 CFR 622.493 - Landing Caribbean queen conch intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conch intact. (a) A Caribbean queen conch in or from the Caribbean EEZ must be maintained with meat and shell intact. (b) The operator of a vessel that fishes in the EEZ is responsible for ensuring...

  8. 50 CFR 622.493 - Landing Caribbean queen conch intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conch intact. (a) A Caribbean queen conch in or from the Caribbean EEZ must be maintained with meat and shell intact. (b) The operator of a vessel that fishes in the EEZ is responsible for ensuring...

  9. 78 FR 14078 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC531 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management...

  10. 78 FR 32623 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC706 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management...

  11. 77 FR 60381 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council (CFMC); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC257 Caribbean Fishery Management Council (CFMC); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery...

  12. 77 FR 60380 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC264 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management...

  13. Seleccion y Capacitacion de Promotores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Dra. Gaby Fujimoto

    1990-01-01

    The program philosophies of a Latin American nonacademic school program for children aged 0-6 years are discussed. The role of the natural educator is analyzed. Promotors of these programs are described, and strategies for finding them are suggested. (DG)

  14. Seleccion y Capacitacion de Promotores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Dra. Gaby Fujimoto

    1990-01-01

    The program philosophies of a Latin American nonacademic school program for children aged 0-6 years are discussed. The role of the natural educator is analyzed. Promotors of these programs are described, and strategies for finding them are suggested. (DG)

  15. Medical tourism in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Ramírez de Arellano, Annette B

    2011-01-01

    Although travel for medical reasons has a long history, it has more recently evolved from a cottage industry to a worldwide enterprise. A number of countries are positioning themselves to attract visitors who are willing to travel to obtain health services that are more accessible, less expensive, or more available than in their countries of origin. This has in turn given rise to medical packages that combine tourism with health. Several Caribbean nations - including Cuba, Barbados, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico - hope to expand their revenues in this new market. Each country has selected specific service niches and promotes its services accordingly. While Cuba has been promoting its services to other countries for several decades, medical tourism is just beginning in the other islands. Ultimately, these nations' economic success will hinge on their comparative advantage vis-à-vis other options, while their success in terms of improving their own health care depends on the extent to which the services for tourists are also available to the islands' populations.

  16. Tsunami Warning Services for the Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, P. M.; Ferris, J. C.; Weinstein, S. A.

    2007-05-01

    Tsunami warning and watch services are currently provided to the Caribbean region through a collaborative effort between the two NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs): the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, and the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska. The WCATWC, in coordination with the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), provides fast-response warning services to the U.S. territories of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (PR/VI). The PTWC provides regional watch services to other countries throughout and surrounding the Caribbean Sea as part of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions. This collaboration is analogous to the TWC's responsibilities in the Pacific basin: the WCATWC provides fast-response warning services for the U.S. west coast states, Alaska, and British Columbia in Canada, while the PTWC provides regional services for countries throughout and surrounding the Pacific Ocean (as well as a fast-response service for the U.S. State of Hawaii). Caribbean seismic data are transmitted to the TWCs through several means. The PRSN directly exports data to the WCATWC, providing the Center sufficient seismic data for the PR/VI region. Additionally, the PRSN provides the TWCs with data gathered from other Caribbean nations. Using modern communication capabilities, the seismic data can be processed at the TWCs at the same time it is processed locally. Another source of high- quality seismic data is the new USGS nine-station array that circles the region. The Global Seismic Network maintains several stations in Caribbean, Central American, and South American nations which are available in real-time to the TWCs. Unfortunately, sea level data coverage is sporadic in the region. The PR/VI has a relatively dense array of coastal tide gages, but coastal tide gage coverage is very sparse for the rest of the Caribbean basin. Three deep-ocean pressure

  17. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caribbean Basin Trade... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that,...

  18. Achievement and Underachievement: The Experiences of African Caribbeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhamie, Jasmine

    2012-01-01

    The disproportionate representation of African Caribbeans in all the negative educational statistics has been well documented. Despite this, there are African Caribbeans who achieve academically but relatively few studies have explored this area. This study aimed to investigate the factors that contribute to African Caribbean academic success,…

  19. Achievement and Underachievement: The Experiences of African Caribbeans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhamie, Jasmine

    2012-01-01

    The disproportionate representation of African Caribbeans in all the negative educational statistics has been well documented. Despite this, there are African Caribbeans who achieve academically but relatively few studies have explored this area. This study aimed to investigate the factors that contribute to African Caribbean academic success,…

  20. Caribbean Life in New York City: Sociocultural Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Constance R., Ed.; Chaney, Elsa M., Ed.

    This book comprises the following papers discussing Caribbean life in New York City: (1) The Context of Caribbean Migration (Elsa M. Chaney); (2) The Caribbeanization of New York City and the Emergence of a Transnational Socio-Cultural System (Constance R. Sutton); (3) New York City and Its People: An Historical Perspective Up to World War II…

  1. 76 FR 39074 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-05

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA533 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council...., Isla Verde, Carolina, Puerto Rico 00979. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management...

  2. 75 FR 9391 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XU74 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council... Shoys, Lot 7, Christiansted, n St. Croix, U.S.V.I. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery...

  3. 75 FR 69054 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA026 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Catch Share Panel of the Caribbean...: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 268 Mu oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00918-2577...

  4. 78 FR 34046 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC707 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council...: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 270 Mu oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 401, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00918...

  5. 78 FR 41914 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC754 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council..., August 7, 2013, from 10 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. ADDRESSES: Caribbean Fishery Management Council Office, 270 Mu...

  6. 77 FR 26516 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council's (Council....S.V.I. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 268 Mu oz Rivera...

  7. 78 FR 33357 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC713 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council... Rico 00909. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 270 Mu oz Rivera...

  8. 75 FR 48309 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XY06 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council...: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 268 Munoz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00918-1920...

  9. From the past to the globalized future for Caribbean birds

    Treesearch

    Joseph Wunderle Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Extinctions of Caribbean animals were well underway during the period of Amerindian occupation and have continued since the arrival of Columbus. Despite high extinction rates, the Caribbean still retains high levels of terrestrial biodiversity and, for some taxa, exceptionally high levels of endemism relative to other parts of the world. The fate of the Caribbean’s...

  10. Caribbean basin framework, 4: Maracaibo basin, northwestern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Maracaibo basin is presently located in a topographic depression on the Maracaibo block, a triangular, fault-bounded block within the Caribbean-South America plate boundary of northwestern Venezuela. Intense oil exploration over the last 50 years has produced a large amount of seismic and well data that can be used to constrain four Jurassic to Recent tectonic and depositional events that affected the region: (1). Late Jurassic rift phase and subsidence along normal faults striking north-northeast across the floor of the basin; (2) Cretaceous to early Eocene subsidence recorded by shallow to deep marine carbonate and clastic rocks that thicken from south to north and completely cover Permian rocks of the Merida arch; (3) Eocene folding, thrusting, and initial reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as convergent strike-slip and reverse faults. Eocene clastic sediments are thickest in a narrow northwest-trending foredeep on the northeastern margin of the basin; (4) Late Miocene to Recent northwest-southeast convergence is marked by continued reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as reverse and left-lateral strike-slip faults, uplift of mountain ranges bordering the basin, and deposition of up to 10 km of clastic sediment.

  11. Commentary: homicide-suicide in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Maisha K; Campbell, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    With the exception of Guyana and Trinidad, suicide rates in the Caribbean are relatively low compared with those in other countries. Homicide rates, however, have increased over the past 15 years, especially in Jamaica and Trinidad. The link between suicide, homicide, and homicide followed by suicide (H-S) is not well established. A newspaper review of H-S events in a selection of Caribbean territories revealed a surprising number of these events. Characteristics of perpetrators were similar to those documented in the literature. The authors agree with Roma et al. that national tracking systems for H-S are needed. Empirical research on this topic in the Caribbean is also desperately needed.

  12. [Echinoderms (Echinodermata) of the Mexican Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Solis-Marín, Francisco A; Durán-González, Alicia; Ahearn, Cynthia Gust; Buitrón Sánchez, Blanca Estela; Torres-Vega, Juan

    2005-12-01

    A systematic list of the echinoderms of the Mexican Caribbean based on museum specimens of the Colección Nacional de Equinodermos, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. is presented. This list reveals an important echinoderm biodiversity in the Mexican Caribbean, where five of the six echinoderm classes are represented. A total of 178 echinoderm species is recorded, distributed in 113 genera, 51 families and 22 orders. 30 new records for the Mexican Caribbean are presents: Crínoidea (three), Asteroidea (two), Ophiuroidea (eleven), Echinoidea (one), Holothuroidea (thirteen).

  13. Combined Operations a Commonwealth Caribbean Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-03

    America and the Caribbeanr 0 exC~ S , slnl estnOC NORTH*,a* I SUEldraasI Cal slnd A. TO.-, T HE 󈧐 C., Sillsan BAHAMAS Olti BCAAS ," Great’ f, Ca...COMBINED OPERATIONS A COMMONWEALTH CARIBBEAN PERSPECTIVE A Thesis presented to the Faculty of the U. S . Army Command and General Staff College in... S A COMMONWEALTH CARIBBEAN PERSPECTIVE A Thesis presented to the Faculty of the U. S . Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment

  14. Drivers of Holocene sea-level change in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Nicole S.; Ashe, Erica; Horton, Benjamin P.; Dutton, Andrea; Kopp, Robert E.; Brocard, Gilles; Engelhart, Simon E.; Hill, David F.; Peltier, W. R.; Vane, Christopher H.; Scatena, Fred N.

    2017-01-01

    We present a Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) database for the Caribbean region (5°N to 25°N and 55°W to 90°W) that consists of 499 sea-level index points and 238 limiting dates. The database was compiled from multiple sea-level indicators (mangrove peat, microbial mats, beach rock and acroporid and massive corals). We subdivided the database into 20 regions to investigate the influence of tectonics and glacial isostatic adjustment on RSL. We account for the local-scale processes of sediment compaction and tidal range change using the stratigraphic position (overburden thickness) of index points and paleotidal modeling, respectively. We use a spatio-temporal empirical hierarchical model to estimate RSL position and its rates of change in the Caribbean over 1-ka time slices. Because of meltwater input, the rates of RSL change were highest during the early Holocene, with a maximum of 10.9 ± 0.6 m/ka in Suriname and Guyana and minimum of 7.4 ± 0.7 m/ka in south Florida from 12 to 8 ka. Following complete deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) by ∼7 ka, mid-to late-Holocene rates slowed to < 2.4 ± 0.4 m/ka. The hierarchical model constrains the spatial extent of the mid-Holocene highstand. RSL did not exceed the present height during the Holocene, except on the northern coast of South America, where in Suriname and Guyana, RSL attained a height higher than present by 6.6 ka (82% probability). The highstand reached a maximum elevation of +1.0 ± 1.1 m between 5.3 and 5.2 ka. Regions with a highstand were located furthest away from the former LIS, where the effects from ocean syphoning and hydro-isostasy outweigh the influence of subsidence from forebulge collapse.

  15. Drivers of Holocene sea-level change in the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Khan, Nicole; Ashe, Erica; Horton, Benjamin P.; Dutton, Andrea; Kopp, Robert E.; Brocard, Gilles; Engelhart, Simon E.; Hill, David F.; Peltier, W.R.; Vane, Christopher H.; Scatena, Fred N.

    2017-01-01

    We present a Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) database for the Caribbean region (5°N to 25°N and 55°W to 90°W) that consists of 499 sea-level index points and 238 limiting dates. The database was compiled from multiple sea-level indicators (mangrove peat, microbial mats, beach rock and acroporid and massive corals). We subdivided the database into 20 regions to investigate the influence of tectonics and glacial isostatic adjustment on RSL. We account for the local-scale processes of sediment compaction and tidal range change using the stratigraphic position (overburden thickness) of index points and paleotidal modeling, respectively. We use a spatio-temporal empirical hierarchical model to estimate RSL position and its rates of change in the Caribbean over 1-ka time slices. Because of meltwater input, the rates of RSL change were highest during the early Holocene, with a maximum of 10.9 ± 0.6 m/ka in Suriname and Guyana and minimum of 7.4 ± 0.7 m/ka in south Florida from 12 to 8 ka. Following complete deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet (LIS) by ∼7 ka, mid-to late-Holocene rates slowed to < 2.4 ± 0.4 m/ka. The hierarchical model constrains the spatial extent of the mid-Holocene highstand. RSL did not exceed the present height during the Holocene, except on the northern coast of South America, where in Suriname and Guyana, RSL attained a height higher than present by 6.6 ka (82% probability). The highstand reached a maximum elevation of +1.0 ± 1.1 m between 5.3 and 5.2 ka. Regions with a highstand were located furthest away from the former LIS, where the effects from ocean syphoning and hydro-isostasy outweigh the influence of subsidence from forebulge collapse.

  16. Genetic diversity of free-living Symbiodinium in the Caribbean: the importance of habitats and seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granados-Cifuentes, Camila; Neigel, Joseph; Leberg, Paul; Rodriguez-Lanetty, Mauricio

    2015-09-01

    Although reef corals are dependent of the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium, the large majority of corals spawn gametes that do not contain their vital symbiont. This suggests the existence of a pool of Symbiodinium in the environment, of which surprisingly little is known. Reefs around Curaçao (Caribbean) were sampled for free-living Symbiodinium at three time periods (summer 2009, summer 2010, and winter 2010) to characterize different habitats (water column, coral rubble, sediment, the macroalgae Halimeda spp., Dictyota spp., and Lobophora variegata, and the seagrass Thalassia testudinum) that could serve as environmental sources of symbionts for corals. We detected the common clades of Symbiodinium that engage in symbiosis with Caribbean coral hosts A, B, and C using Symbiodinium-specific primers of the hypervariable region of the chloroplast 23S ribosomal DNA gene. We also discovered clade G and, for the first time in the Caribbean, the presence of free-living Symbiodinium clades F and H. Additionally, this study expands the habitat range of free-living Symbiodinium as environmental Symbiodinium was detected in T. testudinum seagrass beds. The patterns of association between free-living Symbiodinium types and habitats were shown to be complex. An interesting, strong association was seen between some clade A sequence types and sediment, suggesting that sediment could be a niche where clade A radiated from a free-living ancestor. Other interesting relationships were seen between sequence types of Symbiodinium clade C with Halimeda spp. and clades B and F with T. testudinium. These relationships highlight the importance of some macroalgae and seagrasses in hosting free-living Symbiodinium. Finally, studies spanning beyond a 1-yr cycle are needed to further expand on our results in order to better understand the variation of Symbiodinium in the environment through time. All together, results presented here showed that the great diversity of free-living Symbiodinium has

  17. Contaminated Sediment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contaminated sediments are a significant problem in the Great Lakes basin. Persistent high concentrations of contaminants in the bottom sediments of rivers and harbors pose risks to aquatic organisms, wildlife, and humans.

  18. Aquatic Sediments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  19. Aquatic Sediments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanville, W. D.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of aquatic sediments and its effect upon water quality, covering publications of 1976-77. This review includes: (1) sediment water interchange; (2) chemical and physical characterization; and (3) heavy water in sediments. A list of 129 references is also presented. (HM)

  20. OCLC in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krzyzanowski, Rosaly Favero; Imperatriz, Ines Maria de Morais

    1998-01-01

    Focuses on academic and research library networking in Latin American and Caribbean countries (LAC), where a high level of library service has been achieved. Discusses the information challenges of the 1980s and 1990s to LAC countries; networking in LAC; Brazilian information services; the University of Sao Paulo integrated library system…

  1. Re-Examining Caribbean English Creole Continua.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winford, Donald

    1997-01-01

    Reexamines the history and contemporary structure of Caribbean English creole continua, with illustrations from the varied sociolinguistic situations in Belize, Guyana, Jamaica and Trinidad. Argues that continua existed there from the earliest period of contact and supports a coexistent systems approach to the contemporary structure of these…

  2. How American History Textbooks View the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Victor W.

    This paper examines: (1) the extent to which recently published textbooks used in United States history survey courses reflect a revised view of the historical relationship between the Caribbean region and the United States; and (2) whether recent shifts in research emphases and methodological expansions in the field of American history have…

  3. The Caribbean Bildungsroman: Notes on a Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Finch, Jacqueline Brice

    The universality of the childhood experience is a perspective that is useful in the classroom where the student body reflects the multiethnic, multicultural roots of American culture. The novels from the Caribbean can add new material to the body of world literature and should be included in a crosscultural study of the "bildungsroman"…

  4. The United States in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Ottie K., Comp.

    This reference work lists books, periodicals articles, Rand reports, and other documents in five subject areas: (1) the Caribbean and Central America, (2) the Continent, (3) Cuba, (4) the Dominican Republic, and (5) United States policies. The introductory section focuses on reference aids. The majority of the entries date from 1960 through 1969.…

  5. Coping Strategies of Caribbean "Problem Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Donna-Maria B.; Welch, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    The coping strategies of middle adolescents (14-16 years) generate interest amongst educators, parents, school psychologists and school counsellors. This study, using a phenomenological approach, examined the coping strategies of "problem" adolescents in the Caribbean in regard to their interactions with peers and teachers. Data were…

  6. Sociology of Education: Research in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony, Ed.; Ezenne, Austin, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the premises, standards, requirements, and consequences of education in the Caribbean. Chapters in the first section, "Gender, Education and EmploymentBroken Promises," are: (1) "Educational Management from a Perspective of Care: Women Teachers in Trinidad and Tobago" (Jeanette Morris);…

  7. Training Caribbean Trawlermen for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Equipped with two multi-purpose fishing vessels, the Caribbean Fishery Development Institute has begun training 45 persons in an 11-month course ranging from navigation to seamanship, from engineering to biology, law, andeconomics. The program description provided by the article is supplemented by figures offering specific curricular and…

  8. Sociology of Education: Research in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony, Ed.; Ezenne, Austin, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the premises, standards, requirements, and consequences of education in the Caribbean. Chapters in the first section, "Gender, Education and EmploymentBroken Promises," are: (1) "Educational Management from a Perspective of Care: Women Teachers in Trinidad and Tobago" (Jeanette Morris);…

  9. Forest fires in the insular Caribbean

    Treesearch

    A.M.J. Robbins; C.M. Eckelmann; M. Quinones

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a summary of the forest fire reports in the insular Caribbean derived from both management reports and an analysis of publicly available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrodiometer (MODIS) satellite active fire products from the region. A vast difference between the amount of fires reported by land managers and fire points in the MODIS Fire...

  10. Planning Functional Literacy Programmes in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jules, Didacus

    1988-01-01

    Examines the question of illiteracy in the Caribbean relative to international trends in adult education. Identifies Jamaica's JAMAL literacy program and Grenada's Centre for Popular Education as the dominant influences on the development of adult education programs. Views strategic planning, as found in these programs, as a necessity for success.…

  11. Caribbean Immigrants: A Black Success Story?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Model, Suzanne

    1991-01-01

    Compares the 1980 earnings and earning attainment process of Afro-Caribbean immigrants, Afro-Americans, native-born Whites, and foreign-born Whites. Results do not support the opinion that any West Indian group had higher earnings than native-born Blacks. (DM)

  12. Canada: psychosis in the immigrant Caribbean population.

    PubMed

    Seeman, Mary V

    2011-09-01

    Many reports from European countries suggest that acute episodes of psychosis are more frequent among immigrants from the Caribbean than among their non-immigrant peers. The aim of this selective review is to examine how the social correlates of migration to Canada interact with biological mechanisms to contribute to psychosis in the Caribbean population. PubMed and JSTOR social science databases (between 1966 and 2010) were searched using the following search terms: psychiatric genetics; dopamine pathways; Caribbean family structure and child rearing; cannabis and psychosis; obstetric complications and schizophrenia; social defeat; social capital; racial discrimination; urbanicity; immigration; assimilation; and immigration. This was followed by the cross-checking of references pertinent to Canada. There was no information about the prevalence of psychosis in Afro-Caribbean immigrant groups to Canada. There was a suggestion that the form the acute episode takes may differ, depending perhaps on the island of origin. Ethnicity and migration influence susceptibility and response to psychotic illness in a number of distinct and interacting ways depending both on the host country and the country of origin. Understanding the pathways can help to protect the health of immigrants.

  13. Recognizing and treating diseases in Caribbean trees

    Treesearch

    Deborah Jean Lodge

    2002-01-01

    Although the majority of tree problems in urban setting are not caused by disease organisms, there are some current and potential disease threats in the Caribbean. Symptoms are the expression of stress in the plant. Symptoms may appear to be identical in response to many different types of diseases and physical or chemical damage. It is therefore helpful to determine...

  14. How American History Textbooks View the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Victor W.

    This paper examines: (1) the extent to which recently published textbooks used in United States history survey courses reflect a revised view of the historical relationship between the Caribbean region and the United States; and (2) whether recent shifts in research emphases and methodological expansions in the field of American history have…

  15. Molecules and fossils reveal punctuated diversification in Caribbean “faviid” corals

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Even with well-known sampling biases, the fossil record is key to understanding macro-evolutionary patterns. During the Miocene to Pleistocene in the Caribbean Sea, the fossil record of scleractinian corals shows a remarkable period of rapid diversification followed by massive extinction. Here we combine a time-calibrated molecular phylogeny based on three nuclear introns with an updated fossil stratigraphy to examine patterns of radiation and extinction in Caribbean corals within the traditional family Faviidae. Results Concatenated phylogenetic analysis showed most species of Caribbean faviids were monophyletic, with the exception of two Manicina species. The time-calibrated tree revealed the stem group originated around the closure of the Tethys Sea (17.0 Ma), while the genus Manicina diversified during the Late Miocene (8.20 Ma), when increased sedimentation and productivity may have favored free-living, heterotrophic species. Reef and shallow water specialists, represented by Diploria and Favia, originate at the beginning of the Pliocene (5 – 6 Ma) as the Isthmus of Panama shoaled and regional productivity declined. Conclusions Later origination of the stem group than predicted from the fossil record corroborates the hypothesis of morphological convergence in Diploria and Favia genera. Our data support the rapid evolution of morphological and life-history traits among faviid corals that can be linked to Mio-Pliocene environmental changes. PMID:22831179

  16. Links between salinity variation in the Caribbean and North Atlantic thermohaline circulation.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Matthew W; Spero, Howard J; Lea, David W

    2004-03-11

    Variations in the strength of the North Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation have been linked to rapid climate changes during the last glacial cycle through oscillations in North Atlantic Deep Water formation and northward oceanic heat flux. The strength of the thermohaline circulation depends on the supply of warm, salty water to the North Atlantic, which, after losing heat to the atmosphere, produces the dense water masses that sink to great depths and circulate back south. Here we analyse two Caribbean Sea sediment cores, combining Mg/Ca palaeothermometry with measurements of oxygen isotopes in foraminiferal calcite in order to reconstruct tropical Atlantic surface salinity during the last glacial cycle. We find that Caribbean salinity oscillated between saltier conditions during the cold oxygen isotope stages 2, 4 and 6, and lower salinities during the warm stages 3 and 5, covarying with the strength of North Atlantic Deep Water formation. At the initiation of the Bølling/Allerød warm interval, Caribbean surface salinity decreased abruptly, suggesting that the advection of salty tropical waters into the North Atlantic amplified thermohaline circulation and contributed to high-latitude warming.

  17. Tectonic escape of the Caribbean plate since the Paleocene: a consequence of the Chicxulub meteor impact?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rangin, C.; Martinez-Reyes, J.; Crespy, A.; Zitter, T. A. C.

    2012-04-01

    The debate for Pacific exotic origin versus in situ inter American plate Atlantic origin of the Caribbean plate is active in the scientific community since decades. Independently of the origin of this plate, its fast motion towards the east at a present rate of 2cm/yr is accepted to have been initiated during the early-most Cenozoic. The Paleocene is a key period in the global evolution of Central America mainly marked also by the Chicxulub multiring meteor impact in Yucatan. We question here the genetic relationship between this impact event and the incipient tectonic escape of the Caribbean plate. The mostly recent published models suggest this impact has affected the whole crust down to the Moho, the upper mantle being rapidly and considerably uplifted. The crust was then fragmented 600km at least from the point of impact, and large circular depressions were rapidly filled by clastic sediments from Cantarell to Western Cuba via Chiapas and Belize. North of the impact, the whole Gulf of Mexico was affected by mass gravity sliding, initiated also during the Paleocene in Texas, remaining active in this basin up to present time. South of the impact, in the Caribbean plate, the Yucatan basin was rapidly opened, indicating a fast escape of the crustal material towards the unique free boundary, the paleo-Antilles subduction zone. Shear waves velocity data below the Caribbean plate suggest this crustal tectonic escape was enhanced by the fast eastward flowing mantle supporting a fragmented and stretched crust. The proposed model suggests Chicxulub impact (but also the hypothetic Beata impact) have fragmented brittle crust, then easily drifted towards the east. This could explain the Paleogene evolution of the Caribbean plate largely stretched during its early evolution. Geologically, this evolution could explain the absence of evident Paleogene oblique subduction along the Caribbean plate northern and southern margins, marked only by Mid Cretaceous dragged volcanic

  18. Subduction Along the South Caribbean Deformed Belt: Age of Initiation and Backthrust Origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.; Kroehler, M.; Escalona, A.; Magnani, B.; Christeson, G.

    2007-12-01

    The South Caribbean deformed belt (SCDB) represents a submarine prism formed at the interface between subducting oceanic material in the Colombian and Venezuelan basins and arc terranes along the northern edge of the South American continent. The SCDB and subducted Caribbean slab extends 1500 km from Panama to the Aves Ridge and is similar in scale to better studied magmatic subduction zones in the Lesser Antilles and Central America. The age of subduction of the Venezuelan basin at the SCDB has been examined by dating asymmetrical sediment wedges inferred to have formed above the bending and subducting slab of the Venezuelan basin. Ages are constrained by ties to DSDP wells drilled in the Venezuelan basin ~150 km north of the SCDB. Onlapping wedges are oldest in the western area near the Beata Ridge (middle Eocene), of intermediate age in the central area (early Miocene), and youngest in the east near the Aves Ridge (Mio- Pleistocene). Overlying younger wedges in all areas demonstrate that subduction continued following its initiation. Similar ages of deformed syn-thurst wedges are known from the now inactive continental foreland of northern South America in a belt from western Venezuela to Trinidad. Based on this correlation, we propose a simple back arc thrusting origin for the SCDB that is analogous to the eastern Sunda arc of Indonesia. The obliquity of convergence in the Caribbean case has produced a longlived, eastwardly-migrating backthrust that contrasts to more static backthrust in Sunda. The immediate onset of backthrusting following continental collision means that South America-Caribbean convergence was accommodated by newly organized and focussed subduction at the SCDB backthrust; the "collided" crust of intervening accreted arc terranes remains remarkably unaffected by regional shortening effects.

  19. Anaglyph with Landsat Virgin Islands, Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands (lower left to upper right) of this map-view anaglyph of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea. For this view, a nearly cloud-free Landsat image was draped over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and shading derived from the SRTM data was added to enhance the topographic expression. Coral reefs fringe the islands in many locations and appear as bright patterns in near-shore waters. Tropical vegetation appears fairly dark with smooth tones, as compared to the brighter speckled patterns of towns and other developments.

    As in much of the world, topography is the primary factor in the pattern of land use development in the Virgin Islands. Topography across most of the islands is quite rugged, and although the steep slopes create a scenic setting, they crowd most development into the small areas of low relief terrain, generally along the shoreline. The topographic pattern also affects water supply, wastewater disposal, landfill locations, road construction, and most other features of the development infrastructure. Topography also defines the natural drainage pattern, which is the major consideration in anticipating tropical storm water runoff dangers, as well as the dangers of heightened sediment impacts upon the adjacent coral reefs.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle

  20. Anaglyph with Landsat Virgin Islands, Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands (lower left to upper right) of this map-view anaglyph of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea. For this view, a nearly cloud-free Landsat image was draped over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and shading derived from the SRTM data was added to enhance the topographic expression. Coral reefs fringe the islands in many locations and appear as bright patterns in near-shore waters. Tropical vegetation appears fairly dark with smooth tones, as compared to the brighter speckled patterns of towns and other developments.

    As in much of the world, topography is the primary factor in the pattern of land use development in the Virgin Islands. Topography across most of the islands is quite rugged, and although the steep slopes create a scenic setting, they crowd most development into the small areas of low relief terrain, generally along the shoreline. The topographic pattern also affects water supply, wastewater disposal, landfill locations, road construction, and most other features of the development infrastructure. Topography also defines the natural drainage pattern, which is the major consideration in anticipating tropical storm water runoff dangers, as well as the dangers of heightened sediment impacts upon the adjacent coral reefs.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle

  1. Pollution by petroleum hydrocarbons in sediments from continental shelf of Tabasco State, Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Botello, A.V.; Gonzalez, C.; Diaz, G. )

    1991-10-01

    The Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil producing areas in the world. Major petroleum production areas include Louisiana and Texas, USA; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and Gulf of Paria, Trinidad; all of which are classified as production accident high-risk zones. About 5 million of barrels are transported every day in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 million barrels/year. For all those reasons petroleum pollution is considered as the major environmental problem in the Wider Caribbean area and increasing day to day due to the use of petroleum as the main energy source. On the other hand, the continental shelf of Tabasco state actually represents one of the most productive areas for crude oil in the Gulf of Mexico. Sediments were collected from this area and analyzed for hydrocarbons.

  2. Two opposed subduction modes at the southern Caribbean plate margin of Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kammer, Andreas; Piraquive, Alejandro

    2014-05-01

    Cretaceous to Paleogene convergence at the southern Caribbean plate margin is still little deciphered and a generalized interpretation is hindered by the absence of regionally correlatable tectonic elements, like magmatic arcs, time constraints and an intense crustal fragmentation brought about by Neogene strike-slip tectonics. In order to illustrate the diversity of these subduction settings and discuss possible tectonic controls on their subsequent collisional evolution, we outline the structural evolution along a thickened and a thinned continental segment. The first case is exemplified by the Sierra Nevada de Santa Marta, a triangular block that exposes an imbricated lower crustal section capped by nested plutons and a volcanic sequence of a Jurassic to Early Cretaceous arc. This exceptionally thick crustal section forms the upper plate of a continent-ward dipping main suture that is underlain by strongly sheared platform sediments and transitional basement rocks of a lower plate. Penetrative deformation developed under medium-grade conditions with a uniform top-to-the NE shear attests to a stable subduction interval of a still unknown duration. Onset of a collisional phase is marked by a crustal imbrication further inboard of the main suture, leading to a further crustal thickening, and links in the Paleogene to the emplacement of the dome-like Santa Marta batholith within the lower plate. It is likely that the juxtaposition of thickened continental Southamerican and thinner oceanic Caribbean crust triggered a crustal channel flow that fed the magmatic dome in the transitional part of these crustal realms, leading thus to some gravitational collapse of the continental crust. The opposite case of the juxtaposition of a continental platform, previously thinned by Jurassic to Early Cretaceous rifting and a relatively thick Caribbean crust is documented in the northwestern Guajira Peninsula. Here platform sequences and their corresponding basement were subducted

  3. A measure of acculturation for Afro-Caribbean youth.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Cynthia; Rhodd, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop and test a measure of acculturation for Afro-Caribbean teens who might be at high risk for Sexually Transmitted Disease including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Adaptation needs become challenging as many Caribbean immigrants to the United States who are undocumented or without financial fortitude, often live in substandard urban communities with highest rates of HIV and STDs. After obtaining permission to revise the instruments and participants' consents, two existing measures of acculturation were used in this instrument development. Eight Afro-Caribbean adolescents served as judges to revise the instruments for appropriateness to Afro-Caribbean culture; they developed a composite of the two instruments. Afro-Caribbean community experts and a researcher with instrument development expertise further checked for readability and content validity. The new instrument with good content validity and high reliability was tested among 42 Afro-Caribbean youth. The results are discussed.

  4. High dissolved organic carbon release by benthic cyanobacterial mats in a Caribbean reef ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocke, Hannah J.; Wenzhoefer, Frank; de Beer, Dirk; Mueller, Benjamin; van Duyl, Fleur C.; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2015-03-01

    Benthic cyanobacterial mats (BCMs) are increasing in abundance on coral reefs worldwide. However, their impacts on biogeochemical cycling in the surrounding water and sediment are virtually unknown. By measuring chemical fluxes in benthic chambers placed over sediment covered by BCMs and sediment with BCMs removed on coral reefs in Curaçao, Southern Caribbean, we found that sediment covered by BCMs released 1.4 and 3.5 mmol C m-2 h-1 of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) during day and night, respectively. Conversely, sediment with BCMs removed took up DOC, with day and night uptake rates of 0.9 and 0.6 mmol C m-2 h-1. DOC release by BCMs was higher than reported rates for benthic algae (turf and macroalgae) and was estimated to represent 79% of the total DOC released over a 24 h diel cycle at our study site. The high nocturnal release of DOC by BCMs is most likely the result of anaerobic metabolism and degradation processes, as shown by high respiration rates at the mat surface during nighttime. We conclude that BCMs are significant sources of DOC. Their increased abundance on coral reefs will lead to increased DOC release into the water column, which is likely to have negative implications for reef health.

  5. How transpressive is the northern Caribbean plate boundary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S.; Meyer, B.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Ellouz-Zimmermann, N.; Momplaisir, R.

    2016-04-01

    Transpressive deformation at the northern Caribbean plate boundary is accommodated mostly by two major strike-slip faults, but the amount and location of accommodation of the compressional component of deformation are still debated. We collected marine geophysical data including multibeam bathymetry and multichannel seismic reflection profiles along this plate boundary around Hispaniola, in the Jamaica Passage, and in the Gulf of Gonâve. The data set allows us to image the offshore active strike-slip faults as well as the compressional structures. We confirm that the Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ) in the Jamaica Passage has a primary strike-slip motion, as indicated by active left-lateral strike-slip-related structures, i.e., restraining bend, asymmetrical basin, en echelon pressures ridges, and horsetail splay. Based on topographic cross sections across the EPGFZ, we image a very limited compressional component, if any, for at least the western part of the Jamaica Passage. Toward the east of the Jamaica Passage, the fault trace becomes more complex, and we identify adjacent compressional structures. In the Gulf of Gonâve, distributed folding and thrust faulting of the most recent sediments indicate active pervasive compressional tectonics. Estimates of shortening in the Jamaica Passage and in the Gulf of Gonâve indicate an increase of the compressional component of deformation toward the east, which nonetheless remains very small compared to that inferred from block modeling based on GPS measurements.

  6. Caribbean Sea Region Pyrrhocoroidea (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae, Largidae).

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C W; Stehlík, J L

    2013-08-01

    A synopsis of the Pyrrhocoridae and Largidae (Pyrrhocoroidea) of the Caribbean Sea Region is given. Three new taxa are described: Dysdercus jamaicensis jindrai Stehlík n. subsp. (Dominican Republic); Largus fumosus fumosus Stehlík n. sp. (Panama-Barro Colorado Island); and Largus fumosus nigromembranaceus Stehlík n. subsp. (Panama). Largus pallidus Halstead is downgraded to a subspecies of Largus davisi Barber, i.e., L. davisi pallidus Halstead n. stat. The following new records are provided: Dysdercus (Dysdercus) andreae (Linnaeus) from Cayman Islands; Acinocoris elegans van Doesburg from Trinidad; Fibrenus pehlkei Schmidt and Largus maculatus Schmidt from Panama; and Largus obovatus (Barber) from Haiti. Altogether, we report 20 species and 3 subspecies of Pyrrhocoridae and 13 species and 2 subspecies of Largidae from the Caribbean Sea Region.

  7. Cenozoic rift formation in the northern Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rifts form in many different tectonic environments where the lithosphere is put into extension. An outline is provided of the distribution, orientation, and relative ages of 16 Cenozoic rifts along the northern edge of the Caribbean plate and it is suggested that these structures formed successively by localized extension as the Caribbean plate moved eastward past a continental promontory of North America. Evidence leading to this conclusion includes (1) recognition that the rifts become progressively younger westward; (2) a two-phase subsidence history in a rift exposed by upthrusting in Jamaica; (3) the absence of rifts east of Jamaica; and (4) the observation that removal of 1400 km of strike-slip displacement on the Cayman Trough fault system places the Paleogene rifts of Jamaica in an active area of extension south of Yucatan where the rifts of Honduras and Guatemala are forming today.

  8. Geology and petroleum potential of Saba Bank area, northeastern Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Despretz, J.M.; Daly, T.E.; Robinson, E.

    1985-02-01

    Recent exploratory activity on Saba Bank in the northeastern Caribbean has provided geologic information showing that this frontier area possesses all of the attributes necessary for the commercial accumulation of hydrocarbons. The first well drilled in the area penetrated 9370 ft (2856 m) of sediments including 3021 ft (921 m) of Eocene carbonates containing zones of good to excellent porosity. Geochemical studies show the presence of good but immature source rocks with the extractable hydrocarbons being migrated rather than indigenous. The geothermal gradient and vitrinite reflectance data indicated the threshold of the oil window would be reached around 10,000 ft (3048 m). The second well was drilled to test a postulated reef on a basement high at a sufficient depth to fall within the oil window. The well bottomed in Eocene andesite at 13,881 ft (4231 m). Reef carbonate was not encountered; the well penetrated turbidite sandstones and siltstones with low to moderate porosity and permeability. A test of gas shows recovered small amounts of C1-C5, but the formation is believed to have been badly damaged by severe mud loss during drilling. Geochemical studies confirm the presence of good source rocks. Reworked unmetamorphosed organic matter of probable early Eocene to Cretaceous age suggests that the Cretaceous cannot be considered economic basement in this area. Reinterpretation of the seismic data explains why the two wells were dry and indicates the presence of a submarine fan area, reefs within the oil window, and large structures in an area of thick sediments of probable Cretaceous age.

  9. [Population dynamics and development in the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Boland, B

    1995-12-01

    The impact is examined of socioeconomic factors on Caribbean population dynamics. This work begins by describing the socioeconomic context of the late 1980s and early 1990s, under the influence of the economic changes and crises of the 1980s. The small size, openness, dependency, and lack of diversification of the Caribbean economies have made them vulnerable to external pressures. The Bahamas and Belize had economic growth rates exceeding 5% annually during 1981-90, but most of the countries had low or negative growth. Unemployment, poverty, the structural adjustment measures adopted in the mid-1980s, and declines in social spending exacerbated general economic conditions. In broad terms, the population situation of the Caribbean is marked by diversity of sizes and growth rates. A few countries oriented toward services and tourism had demographic growth rates exceeding 3%, while at least 7 had almost no growth or negative growth. Population growth rates reflected different combinations of natural increase and migration. Crude death rates ranged from around 5/1000 to 11/1000, except in Haiti, and all countries of the region except Haiti had life expectancies of 70 years or higher. Despite fertility decline, the average crude birth rate was still relatively high at 26/1000, and the rate of natural increase was 1.8% annually for the region. Nearly half of the regional population was under 15 or over 65 years old. The body of this work provides greater detail on mortality patterns, variations by sex, infant mortality, causes of death, and implications for policy. The discussion of fertility includes general patterns and trends, age specific fertility rates, contraceptive prevalence, levels of adolescent fertility and age factors in adolescent sexual behavior, characteristics of adolescent unions, contraceptive usage, health and social consequences of adolescent childbearing, and the search for solutions. The final section describes the magnitude and causes of

  10. Regional Disease Vector Ecology Profile: Caribbean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-07-01

    jaundice, Mud fever, Swineherd disease) The spirochete bacterium Leptospira interrogans is the causative agent of this zoonotic disease. More than 200...leptospirosis of any island in the English-speaking Caribbean, thanks to a Leptospira laboratory that was established on the island in 1979 (see website...1995, and 253 cases were diagnosed. Transmission Cycle(s). Leptospira infect the kidneys and are transmitted in the urine of infected animals

  11. Montane Forest Management in the Insular Caribbean.

    Treesearch

    F. H. Wadsworth

    1999-01-01

    Two Elevations-above 800m and above 300m- define the montane forests of the caribbean islands. Of the 36 islands considered, 27 have mountains above 300m and 14, above 800m. of the 233,000 km2 of the island, at least 118,000 km2 are above 300m m, and 60,000 km2 are above 800 m.

  12. Characterization of Caribbean Meso-Scale Eddies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-09-30

    cacique.uprm.edu Grant Number: N000140310904 LONG-TERM GOALS Our long-term goal is to improve predictivity of physical, biogeochemical and...REPORT DATE 30 SEP 2006 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2006 to 00-00-2006 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Characterization of Caribbean Meso-Scale...using radiocarbon incubations on-deck to determine photosynthetic parameters and fast repetition rate fluorometry (FRRF) in situ. WORK COMPLETED

  13. Spatial structure of the Caribbean lobster ( Metanephrops binghami) in the Colombian Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramo, Jorge; Saint-Paul, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Crustaceans of the genus Metanephrops are of great commercial value in some tropical and subtropical regions. With the potential development of a new deep lobster fishery in the Colombian Caribbean Sea, the objective of this work is to describe for first time the patterns of spatial and bathymetric distribution, and diel migratory periodicity of the Caribbean lobster ( M. binghami). Data were collected by trawling in depths between 200 and 550 m (100 m strata intervals) in the Colombian Caribbean Sea. Higher biomass and size of these crustaceans were found between 250 and 350 m, with a maximum at about 300 m. The study offers diel patterns of M. binghami, which suggests nocturnal activity and burrowing during daylight hours.

  14. Stranded pumice in the western Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, J. A.; Henton De Angelis, S.; Toscano, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Floating and washed-up pumices have been reported by scientific expeditions along the Caribbean Sea coast of the Central American Isthmus and the northern coast of South America since at least 1947. Local coastal communities have been utilizing this resource for many years. The rounded and buffered morphology of hand specimens is consistent with water-borne transit. The volcanically active Caribbean and Central American regions provide a number of candidates for source volcanoes and eruptions. We have attempted to identify this source using samples collected from Carrie Bow Cay and Placencia Beach, Belize; Tulum Beach, Mexico; Morrosquillo Bay, Colombia; and Galeta Point, Panama. We have tracked possible transport routes through the use of river drainage and ocean current maps. The criteria for comparing the products of potential source volcanoes (including Atitlán Caldera in Guatemala and Caribbean sources such as Mt. Pelée, Martinique and Soufrière Hills, Montserrat) were developed from the whole rock major and trace element geochemistry and the compositional and textural characteristics of pumice and their constituent minerals and glasses. The largest pumice sample collected from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, was 18.5x12 cm with the typical, rounded morphology and distinctively stretched vesicles exhibited by this pumice collection.

  15. Aquatic sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Bonner, J.S.; Autenrieth, R.L.; Schreiber, L. )

    1990-06-01

    The authors present a literature review concerning sediment properties, interactions, and conditions. Topics of discussion include the following: biological activity and toxicity; nutrients; metals; organic compounds; dredging; radionuclides; oxygen demand and organic carbon; mathematical modeling; sediment transport and suspension; and paleolimnology.

  16. Cenozoic oblique collision of South American and Caribbean plates: New evidence in the Coastal Cordillera of Venezuela and Trinidad

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.C. ); Russo, R.M. ); Foland, K.A. )

    1993-02-01

    The hinterland of the Caribbean Mts. orogen in Trinidad and Venezuela contains schist and gneiss whole protoliths are wholly or partly of continental provenance. The hinterland lies between the foreland thrust belt and terranes. The terranes are alien to continental South America (SA) and may have proto-Caribbean or Caribbean plate origins. The hinterland rocks were widely thought to come from sediments and granitoids of Mesozoic protolithic ages and to be of Cretaceous metamorphic age. Such rocks are now know to be of at least two or more types, as follows: (1) low grade, protoliths of pre-Mesozoic basement and shelfal cover of uncertain age range, inboard locus, Oligocene to mid-Miocene metamorphic ages younging eastward (Caracas, Paria, and Northern Range belts), and (2) higher grade including high P/T, varies protoliths of uncertain age range, Cretaceous and ( )early Paleogene metamorphic ages (Tacagua, Araya, Margarita). The geometry, protoliths, structures, and metamorphic ages of type 1 parautochthoneity and an origin as a thickened wedge of crust-cored passive margin cover. The wedge grew by accretion between about 35 and 20 Ma during oblique transport toward the foreland. The diachroneity of metamorphism implies, as does the timing of foreland deformation, that the wedge evolved in a right-oblique collision between northern SA and terranes moving wholly or partly with the Caribbean plate since the Eocene. Type 2 rocks probably came with the terranes and are products of convergent zone tectonics, either in the proto-Caribbean plate. The hinterland boundaries are brittle thrusts that are out of sequence and imply progressive contraction from mid-Cenozoic to the present.

  17. Is the Caribbean plate subducting underneath Hispaniola? Preliminary results from Caribe Norte wide-angle seismic experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanes Estrada, M.; ten Brink, U. S.; Carbo-Gorosabel, A.; Granja Bruña, J.; Flores, C. H.; Davila, J. M.; Pazos, A.; Quijano, J.

    2010-12-01

    A 200 km long, wide-angle seismic refraction transect was collected in the spring of 2009, across the widest part of the Muertos compressive margin (longitude 69°W). The transect was designed to test the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate’s interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc. Shots were fired every 90 seconds from the R/V Hesperides’ 3850 cubic inches water-gun array, which, towed at 5 knots, resulted in a shot spacing of ~ 230 m. The seismic signal was recorded by 5 ocean-bottom seismometers deployed at distances varying from 25 to 50 km. Gravity, bathymetry and magnetic data were also acquired along that transect. Published and reprocessed reflection seismic lines nearby provided an initial model of the sediment column and on the pattern of upper crustal reflectors. Preliminary results of a 2-D forward ray-tracing model have enabled us to outline the broad-scale crustal structure across the Muertos margin. The Caribbean oceanic slab shows considerable variations in crustal thickness in the Venezuelan basin area (Caribbean plate’s interior). Farther north, the slab is imaged underneath the Muertos margin to about 60 km north of the deformation front and up to 19 km depth,. A change in crustal p wave velocity at about 60 km from the deformation front (or 70 km from the southern coast of the Dominican Republic) is interpreted to be the boundary between the arc crust and the accretionary prism. Caribbean oceanic crust does not appear to extend farther north. We interpret the results to indicate limited overthrusting of the Caribbean slab in the muertos Trough, rather than subduction.

  18. CARICOF - The Caribbean Regional Climate Outlook Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meerbeeck, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs) are viewed as a critical building block in the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The GFCS seeks to extend RCOFs to all vulnerable regions of the world such as the Caribbean, of which the entire population is exposed to water- and heat-related natural hazards. An RCOF is initially intended to identify gaps in information and technical capability; facilitate research cooperation and data exchange within and between regions, and improve coordination within the climate forecasting community. A focus is given on variations in climate conditions on a seasonal timescale. In this view, the relevance of a Caribbean RCOF (CARICOF) is the following: while the seasonality of the climate in the Caribbean has been well documented, major gaps in knowledge exist in terms of the drivers in the shifts of amplitude and phase of seasons (as evidenced from the worst region-wide drought period in recent history during 2009-2010). To address those gaps, CARICOF has brought together National Weather Services (NWSs) from 18 territories under the coordination of the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH), to produce region-wide, consensus, seasonal climate outlooks since March 2012. These outlooks include tercile rainfall forecasts, sea and air surface temperature forecasts as well as the likely evolution of the drivers of seasonal climate variability in the region, being amongst others the El Niño Southern Oscillation or tropical Atlantic and Caribbean Sea temperatures. Forecasts for both the national-scale forecasts made by the NWSs and CIMH's regional-scale forecast amalgamate output from several forecasting tools. These currently include: (1) statistical models such as Canonical Correlation Analysis run with the Climate Predictability Tool, providing tercile rainfall forecasts at weather station scale; (2) a global outlooks published by the WMO appointed Global Producing

  19. Kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region since the Early Jurassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochman, Lydian; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Torsvik, Trond; Spakman, Wim; Pindell, James

    2014-05-01

    The Caribbean region results from a complex tectonic history governed by the interplay of the North American, South American and (Paleo-)Pacific plates, between which the Caribbean plate evolved since the early Cretaceous. During its entire tectonic evolution, the Caribbean plate was largely surrounded by subduction and transform boundaries, which hampers a quantitative integration into the global circuit of plate motions. In addition, reconstructions of the region have so far not resulted in a first order kinematic description of the main tectonic units in terms of Euler poles and finite rotation angles. Here, we present an updated, quantitatively described kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region back to 200 Ma integrated into the global plate circuit, and implemented with GPlates free software. Our analysis of Caribbean tectonic evolution incorporates an extensive literature review. To constrain the Caribbean plate motion between the American continents, we use a novel approach that takes structural geological observations rather than marine magnetic anomalies as prime input, and uses regionally extensive metamorphic and magmatic phenomena such as the Great Arc of the Caribbean, the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) and the Caribbean high-pressure belt as correlation markers. The resulting model restores the Caribbean plate back along the Cayman Trough and major strike-slip faults in Guatemala, offshore Nicaragua, offshore Belize and along the Northern Andes towards its position of origin, west of the North and South American continents in early Cretaceous time. We provide the paleomagnetic reference frame for the Caribbean region by rotating the Global Apparent Polar Wander Path into coordinates of the Caribbean plate interior, Cuba, and the Chortis Block. We conclude that a plate kinematic scenario for a Panthalassa/Pacific origin of Caribbean lithosphere leads to a much simpler explanation than a Proto-Caribbean/Atlantic origin. Placing our

  20. Health Care in the Caribbean and Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Frank, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This publication examines a range of public health issues in the Caribbean Basin including conditions responsible for the transmission of disease, folk palliatives, and factors affecting preventive and curative health services on the national level. Comparisons are also made among the various Caribbean countries. The book has seven chapters: (1)…

  1. Teaching Reading to Bidialectal English-Speaking Caribbean American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David Rodriguez, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    There is little research on bidialectal teacher preparation for teaching bidialectal English-speaking Caribbean American students. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand teachers' perception of reading difficulties of Caribbean American children in a local district that has a large percentage of these students who demonstrate…

  2. Incorporating Caribbean Immigration into the Social Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Murry

    1993-01-01

    Asserts that immigration into the United States from the Caribbean region receives much less attention in the social studies curriculum than immigration from Asia and Latin America. Reviews the coverage of recent Caribbean immigration in elementary and secondary textbooks. Recommends several elementary and secondary instructional units of study.…

  3. 78 FR 14981 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands: Compatible Trip and Bag ] Limits for the U.S. Caribbean.... Croix, U.S. Virgin Islands. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 270... compatible regulations with U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) territorial regulations for the harvest of queen conch...

  4. Photochemical Studies of the Eastern Caribbean: An Introductory Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-02-15

    seasonal variations in surface water photoreactivity, optical and biooptical characteristics over much of the Caribbean basin. These changes resulted...seasonal variations in surface water photoreactivity, optical and biooptical characteristics over much of the Caribbean basin. These changes resulted from...extent does seasonal variation of the Orinoco River Cooper, 1987; Blough and Zepp, 19901. plume influence optical and photochemical properties of the In

  5. Mental Retardation in the Caribbean: Needs, Resources, Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Marigold J., Ed.

    Presented are conference reports including an opening address on the economic benefits of programs for the mentally retarded (MR), and eight papers discussing the problem of mental retardation in the Caribbean. Two papers on preschool age children, respectively, consider the identification and assessment of MR children in the Caribbean and present…

  6. Researching Change in Caribbean Education: Curriculum, Teaching and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, T. Ed.; Ezenne, A., Ed.

    The chapters of this collection deal with a number of issues and concerns at all levels of education in the Caribbean. Section 1, "Curriculum," contains: (1) "Science Education in the Caribbean: Analysis of Current Trends" (Aldrin E. Sweeney); (2) "A Decade of Research in Technology Education: Implications for Caribbean…

  7. 78 FR 46578 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Scoping Meetings Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC731 Caribbean Fishery Management Council...: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council will hold scoping meetings to obtain input from fishers, the... management plans for Puerto Rico, St. Thomas/St. John, USVI and St. Croix, USVI. DATES AND ADDRESSES: Due...

  8. Lessons from CXC for Caribbean Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffith, Stafford Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to show how higher education institutions in the Caribbean may benefit from the quality assurance measures implemented by the Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC). Design/methodology/approach: The paper uses an outcomes model of quality assurance to analyse the measures implemented by the CXC to assure quality…

  9. The Caribbean Basin: Cradle, Crossroads, and Crucible of the Americas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlene, Vickie J.

    1991-01-01

    This ERIC Clearinghouse on Social Studies/Social Science Education column is an annotated bibliography of 10 documents, available through the ERIC system, that deal with the Caribbean. Focuses on social science research done on parts of the Caribbean, the region's economic development, history instruction (Virgin Islands), and analysis of…

  10. Empowering an Endangered Species: The African-Caribbean/Canadian Male.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boehm-Hill, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The powerlessness of African-Caribbean/Canadian males stems from racism, sexism, and the absence of acceptable models of manhood, and results in their numerous social and educational problems. Adult African-Caribbean/Canadian men serving as positive role models and mentors for boys in the school and community can encourage development of…

  11. Theorising African Caribbean Absences in Multicultural Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at the learning of African Caribbean pupils in art and design classrooms in the United Kingdom. It proceeds from the proposition that African Caribbean pupils, as the descendants of enslaved peoples whose cultural lineage has been blurred by the skewed relationship with the white majority group, are uniquely disadvantaged in the…

  12. Caribbean basin framework, 1: Introduction, Nicaraguan rise and Greater Antilles

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    Recent progress in lithologic description and microfossil dating of onshore basins from around the Caribbean has improved constraints on the age and tectonic setting of major basin-forming periods. The author presents an integrated tectonostratigraphic summary from the northern, western, and southwestern Caribbean and use this framework to interpret seismic profiles in offshore areas lacking wells.

  13. Health Care in the Caribbean and Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Frank, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This publication examines a range of public health issues in the Caribbean Basin including conditions responsible for the transmission of disease, folk palliatives, and factors affecting preventive and curative health services on the national level. Comparisons are also made among the various Caribbean countries. The book has seven chapters: (1)…

  14. 78 FR 33959 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... recognize men and women who trace their roots to the Caribbean. Through every chapter of our Nation's... arts, spurring our movements and answering the call to serve. Caribbean traditions have enriched our... descendants have reaffirmed America's promise as a land of opportunity-- a place where no matter who you...

  15. School Leadership in the Caribbean: Perceptions, Practices, Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Successful school leadership is an issue currently being debated up and down Caribbean territories. Key issues in the ongoing debate include: students' outcomes and participation in the regional Caribbean Secondary Examinations (CSEC); teacher recruitment and retention; teacher training and continuing professional development (upgrading); and…

  16. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that apply to importation of...

  17. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that apply to importation of...

  18. 50 CFR 622.458 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.458 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There...

  19. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that apply to importation of...

  20. Women and Education. Women in the Caribbean Project, Volume 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massiah, Joycelin, Ed.

    One of a series emanating from a three-year project concerned with the role of women in the English-speaking Caribbean, these papers discuss the history of Caribbean women's education. The project's objectives are to establish a data base for teaching, research, and planning purposes and to develop guidelines for a social policy that recognizes…

  1. Monitoring Educational Performance in the Caribbean. World Bank Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Gropello, Emanuela

    This study represents a first attempt at providing a comprehensive quantification of educational outcomes in the Caribbean region. Its main objectives are: (1) to define a set of operationally relevant education indicators; (2) to provide a database of comparable education indicators in Caribbean countries where data is available, namely Belize,…

  2. HIV/AIDS and Children in the English Speaking Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Barbara A., Ed.

    This collection of papers addresses the HIV/AIDS situation among English-speaking children in the Caribbean. Papers include: "Preface" (C. James Hospedales); "Introduction"; (Barbara A. Dicks); "HIV/AIDS: Challenging a Monster" (Brendan Bain); "HIV/AIDS in Caribbean Children and Adolescents" (Noreen Jack);…

  3. School Leadership in the Caribbean: Perceptions, Practices, Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Successful school leadership is an issue currently being debated up and down Caribbean territories. Key issues in the ongoing debate include: students' outcomes and participation in the regional Caribbean Secondary Examinations (CSEC); teacher recruitment and retention; teacher training and continuing professional development (upgrading); and…

  4. Researching Change in Caribbean Education: Curriculum, Teaching and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, T. Ed.; Ezenne, A., Ed.

    The chapters of this collection deal with a number of issues and concerns at all levels of education in the Caribbean. Section 1, "Curriculum," contains: (1) "Science Education in the Caribbean: Analysis of Current Trends" (Aldrin E. Sweeney); (2) "A Decade of Research in Technology Education: Implications for Caribbean…

  5. Teaching Reading to Bidialectal English-Speaking Caribbean American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David Rodriguez, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    There is little research on bidialectal teacher preparation for teaching bidialectal English-speaking Caribbean American students. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand teachers' perception of reading difficulties of Caribbean American children in a local district that has a large percentage of these students who demonstrate…

  6. Monitoring Educational Performance in the Caribbean. World Bank Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Gropello, Emanuela

    This study represents a first attempt at providing a comprehensive quantification of educational outcomes in the Caribbean region. Its main objectives are: (1) to define a set of operationally relevant education indicators; (2) to provide a database of comparable education indicators in Caribbean countries where data is available, namely Belize,…

  7. 75 FR 37390 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Hearings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ..., Caribbean coral reefs and their associated community experienced a major bleaching event and an above... these larger parrotfish have on the ecological health of the coral reefs and the testimony at Council.... Caribbean coral reefs. Alternative 3. Redefine management reference points or proxies for the snapper...

  8. HIV/AIDS and Children in the English Speaking Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Barbara A., Ed.

    This collection of papers addresses the HIV/AIDS situation among English-speaking children in the Caribbean. Papers include: "Preface" (C. James Hospedales); "Introduction"; (Barbara A. Dicks); "HIV/AIDS: Challenging a Monster" (Brendan Bain); "HIV/AIDS in Caribbean Children and Adolescents" (Noreen Jack);…

  9. 78 FR 67127 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Outreach & Education USVI Style'' --Caribbean Fisheries Teacher's Resource Book --Development of Visual...'s Outreach and Education Advisory Panel (OEAP) will meet. DATES: The meeting will be held on... Caribbean Exclusive Economic Zone --Other Business The OEAP meeting will convene on November 26, 2013, from...

  10. Integrating Latin America and the Caribbean into Global History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grahn, Lance

    1997-01-01

    Argues that global studies courses often leave out Third World countries, especially those in Latin America and the Caribbean. Presents a proposal for integrating Latin America and the Caribbean into global history curricula through the thematic categories of economics, politics, and ideas. Provides annotated reading lists. (16 citations) (AJL)

  11. 76 FR 2665 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Scoping Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... p.m. to 10 p.m. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 268 Mu oz... INFORMATION: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council will hold Scoping meetings to receive public input on... attempt to incorporate information on recreational catches in the USVI because the MRFSS does not provide...

  12. US Military interventions in the Caribbean from 1898 to 1998 Lessons for Caribbean Leaders

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-16

    of the sea route between the east and west coast of the United States. More who organized expeditions into Cuba and other Caribbean countries and...and Dominican Republic and the United States. The mandate of the OAS was to achieve an order of peace and justice , to promote solidarity, to...

  13. Teaching Caribbean Students: Research on Social Issues in the Caribbean and Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony, Ed.; Ezenne, Austin, Ed.

    The issues and findings in the research essays in this collection focus on two main themes: the identification of challenges in preparing Caribbean students for the new global network and the isolation of the challenges posed in developing these global relations. Part 1, "Socially Sensitive Pedagogies," contains: (1) "Domain-Specific Modern…

  14. Caribbean-American Perspectives. Proceedings and Papers from the Caribbean-American Exchange Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps-Stokes Fund, New York, NY.

    In this booklet, six essays presented at meetings of the Caribbean American Exchange Program are reprinted: (1) "Externally Propelled Economy" by Lloyd Best; (2) "Ethos for a Black Literature: Cultural Continuities and Patterns" by Martha Cobb; (3) "Parameters of Information and Communication among Afro-Americans and…

  15. True subduction vs. underthrusting of the Caribbean plate beneath Hispaniola, northern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llanes Estrada, P.; Ten Brink, U. S.; Granja Bruna, J.; Carbó-Gorosabel, A.; Flores, C. H.; Villasenor, A.; Pazos, A.; Martin Davila, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Eastern Greater Antilles arc (Hispaniola and Puerto Rico) is bounded by a north-verging accretionary prism on its north side and a south-verging thrust belt (Muertos thrust belt) on its south side. This bivergent geometry has been attributed for the last 30 years to opposing subduction of the North American plate and the Caribbean oceanic interior beneath the island arc at the Muertos margin. Recent observations of seafloor and shallow sub-seafloor deformational features at the Muertos compressive margin together with sandbox kinematic and gravity modeling question the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc. To further test the subduction hypothesis, we carried out in 2009 a wide-angle seismic transect across the widest part of the Muertos compressive margin at longitude 69°W. A 2-D forward ray-tracing model of the wide-angle transect outlines the broad-scale crustal structure across the Muertos margin. The Caribbean oceanic slab is imaged beneath the Muertos margin to about 50 km north of the deformation front and down to 19 km depth. A change in crustal p-wave velocity at ~60 km from the deformation front is interpreted as the boundary between the compressive deformed belt and the arc crust. The Caribbean oceanic crust is not seen extending farther north or penetrating the upper mantle. Modeling of ship's gravity data, acquired along the seismic profile, corroborates the seismic results. Any subduction model imply the existence of a regional mass deficit generated by the subducted Caribbean slab beneath the island arc and that variations in the geometry of the subduction angle and the depth are not able to compensate it. Earthquake hypocenter distribution in the Muertos Margin shows diffuse seismicity beneath the island arc, being very hard to identify different clusters and to assign them to different subducted slabs. The diffuse seismicity may be related to the transition between subduction

  16. African dust and the demise of Caribbean coral reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinn, E.A.; Smith, G.W.; Prospero, J.M.; Betzer, P.; Hayes, M.L.; Garrison, V.; Barber, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    The vitality of Caribbean coral reefs has undergone a continual state of decline since the late 1970s, a period of time coincidental with large increases in transatlantic dust transport. It is proposed that the hundreds of millions of tons/year of soil dust that have been crossing the Atlantic during the last 25 years could be a significant contributor to coral reef decline and may be affecting other ecosystems. Benchmark events, such as near synchronous Caribbean-wide mortalities of acroporid corals and the urchin Diadema in 1983, and coral bleaching beginning in 1987, correlate with the years of maximum dust flux into the Caribbean. Besides crustal elements, in particular Fe, Si, and aluminosilicate clays, the dust can serve as a substrate for numerous species of viable spores, especially the soil fungus Aspergillus. Aspergillus sydowii, the cause of an ongoing Caribbean-wide seafan disease, has been cultured from Caribbean air samples and used to inoculate sea fans.

  17. Kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region since the Early Jurassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschman, L. M.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Caribbean region has a complex tectonic history that resulted from the interplay of the North and South American, the Caribbean, and (Paleo-)Pacific plates. Being largely surrounded by long-lived subduction zones and transform boundaries, reconstructing Caribbean plate motion into the global plate circuit cannot be done using marine magnetic anomalies. Here, we present a fully quantitative, kinematically consistent tectonic reconstruction, back to 200 Ma, using the Atlantic plate circuit as boundary condition. This reconstruction is made in GPlates freeware and all reconstruction files are made available. To restore Caribbean plate motion between the American continents, we use a reconstruction hierarchy based on strike-slip and thrust belt records, using regionally extensive geological phenomena such as the Great Arc of the Caribbean, the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) and the Caribeana high-pressure belt as correlation markers. The resulting model restores the Caribbean plate back along the Cayman Trough and strike-slip faults in Guatemala, offshore Nicaragua, offshore Belize and along the Northern Andes towards its position of origin, west of the North and South American continents. Two plate kinematic scenarios for the origin of the Caribbean plate lithosphere are evaluated; an origin from Proto-Caribbean/Atlantic spreading, or from spreading within the Panthalassa domain: we conclude that the latter can provide a simpler explanation. Placing our reconstruction in the most recent mantle reference frames shows that the CLIP erupted 2-3000 km east of, and is probably not the result of the plume head stage of the Galápagos hotspot. Finally, our reconstruction suggests that all modern subduction zones surrounding the Caribbean plate probably formed by inversion of transform faults, two of these (along the southern Mexican and NW South American margins) strongly diachronously as a result of migrating trench-trench-transform triple junctions.

  18. Diabetes in the English-speaking Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Hennis, Anselm; Fraser, Henry S

    2004-02-01

    Rates of diabetes mellitus in the English-speaking Caribbean have been rising in recent years, and they are projected to continue climbing in the new millennium. Prevalence rates across countries of the African diaspora mirror levels of Western acculturation, and available data emphasize the importance of obesity as a modifiable risk factor. The population-based Barbados Eye Studies have provided new information about the burden of ocular complications of diabetes such as retinopathy and lens opacities. Diabetes was shown to increase the risk of lens opacities, and 14% of prevalent cataract was attributed to diabetes. Persons with type 1 diabetes were particularly at increased risk of retinopathy, as a result of longer durations of illness and poor glycemic control. Other Caribbean studies have suggested that glycemic control in patients evaluated in various clinical settings is suboptimal, which raises important concerns about quality of care. Diabetics are at increased risk of mortality compared with nondiabetics, and that mortality risk increases with higher baseline levels of glycosylated hemoglobin, even among nondiabetics. These data highlight the need for urgent attention to public health and clinical strategies to prevent diabetes in unaffected persons as well as to prevent or reduce the burden of complications among those who are affected. Among the measures that should be adopted to stem the flood of diabetes in the Caribbean region are lifestyle interventions to promote better nutrition and to increase exercise; patient education, particularly about the central role of diabetes self-management; and the multidisciplinary team approach in the provision of care.

  19. Caribbean plate tectonics from seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ten Brink, U. S.; Villasenor, A.

    2012-12-01

    New seismic tomography in the Caribbean shows close links between the geometry and dynamics of subducting slabs and the geology of the overriding plate. Unlike most oceanic plates, the Caribbean plate lacks identifiable seafloor magnetic anomalies and fracture zones. The plate's history has therefore been inferred primarily from land geology along the plate boundary, which is complicated by large-scale shear deformation, and from finite rotations of surrounding plates.We used more than 14 million arrival times from 300,000 earthquakes to identify P-wave velocity anomalies. We relate the anomalies to the geometry and dynamics of subducting slabs and to patterns of earthquake activity, volcanism, topographic relief, and tectonic deformation. For example, we detect two separate slabs belonging to the North and South American plates, respectively, which appear to be responsible for morphologic and tectonic differences between the arcs of the Northern (from Guadeloupe northward) and Southern (from Dominica southward) Lesser Antilles. Variations in earthquake activity between Haiti and the Dominican Republic can be explained by a change in slab geometry from an underplated slab beneath Haiti to a subducting slab under the Dominican Republic. A shallow tear in the slab may explain the anomalously deep Puerto Rico Trench and the frequent earthquake swarms there. The westward shift in volcanic activity in the Northern Lesser Antilles from the Miocene Limestone Caribbees to the present arc can be attributed to the limit on convective flow imposed by the 3-D geometry of the slab at depth. A thinned South America slab under the southern Lesser Antilles may result from traction imposed on the slab by a wide forearc wedge. Variations in tectonic deformation of northern South America could be related to the location of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province north of the Maracaibo Block.

  20. Caribbean Foresters take steps towards a network of permanent forest plots in the Caribbean: a meeting report

    Treesearch

    A.E. Lugo

    2016-01-01

    This manuscript contains an overview of the 16th meeting of Caribbean Foresters that resulted in the establishment of a network of forest plots throughout the region with the purpose of increasing understanding of the patterns of long-term forest dynamics. Research projects in the network will improve collaboration among those working in Caribbean forests and will...

  1. A comparison of Caribbean and non-Caribbean clients in a residential addiction treatment facility in Antigua, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Martin, Thomas C; Klinedinst, Michelle; Josiah-Martin, Judith A; Burke-Forde, Ashley

    2003-01-01

    The first 50 Caribbean clients admitted to a private, multicultural, not for profit addiction treatment center in Antigua, West Indies, were compared with the first 100 non-Caribbean clients admitted. There was no significant difference in age, 38 years (18-61 years) versus 40 years (22-63 years), or gender, 74% versus 67% male. Caribbean clients were more likely to be Black, 68% versus 2%, P < .001. Caribbean clients were less likely to have a prior psychiatric diagnosis, 18% versus 43%, P < .01, or to have been in prior treatment program, 22% versus 64%, P < .001. Caribbean and non-Caribbean clients were equally likely to be polydrug users, 48% versus 50%, and to use alcohol as a primary drug, 52% versus 51%. Caribbean clients were more likely to use cocaine, 30% versus 11%, P < .01, and marijuana, 12% versus 0%, P < .001, but less likely to use heroin, 6% versus 30%, P < .001 or pills, 0% versus 8%, P < .05. Caribbean clients were less likely to have elevated MCV, 24% versus 57%, P < .001 or serum transaminases, 23% versus 46%, P < .01. Differences between groups in this multicultural setting warrant further investigation.

  2. Large Earthquake Potential in the Southeast Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, D.; Mora-Paez, H.; Bilham, R. G.; Lafemina, P.; Mattioli, G. S.; Molnar, P. H.; Audemard, F. A.; Perez, O. J.

    2015-12-01

    The axis of rotation describing relative motion of the Caribbean plate with respect to South America lies in Canada near Hudson's Bay, such that the Caribbean plate moves nearly due east relative to South America [DeMets et al. 2010]. The plate motion is absorbed largely by pure strike slip motion along the El Pilar Fault in northeastern Venezuela, but in northwestern Venezuela and northeastern Colombia, the relative motion is distributed over a wide zone that extends from offshore to the northeasterly trending Mérida Andes, with the resolved component of convergence between the Caribbean and South American plates estimated at ~10 mm/yr. Recent densification of GPS networks through COLOVEN and COCONet including access to private GPS data maintained by Colombia and Venezuela allowed the development of a new GPS velocity field. The velocity field, processed with JPL's GOA 6.2, JPL non-fiducial final orbit and clock products and VMF tropospheric products, includes over 120 continuous and campaign stations. This new velocity field along with enhanced seismic reflection profiles, and earthquake location analysis strongly suggest the existence of an active oblique subduction zone. We have also been able to use broadband data from Venezuela to search slow-slip events as an indicator of an active subduction zone. There are caveats to this hypothesis, however, including the absence of volcanism that is typically concurrent with active subduction zones and a weak historical record of great earthquakes. A single tsunami deposit dated at 1500 years before present has been identified on the southeast Yucatan peninsula. Our simulations indicate its probable origin is within our study area. We present a new GPS-derived velocity field, which has been used to improve a regional block model [based on Mora and LaFemina, 2009-2012] and discuss the earthquake and tsunami hazards implied by this model. Based on the new geodetic constraints and our updated block model, if part of the

  3. Epilepsy care in the southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Gregory; Sandy, Sherry; Corbin, David O C; Bird-Compton, Jacqueline; Jack, Frances; Nelson, Beverly; Jalonen, Tuula O; Ali, Amza; Fortuné, Taryn; Clarke, Dave; Okolie, Jacqueline; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-10-01

    Very little has been reported about the health resources available for patients with epilepsy in the five English-speaking southern Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia. There is no comprehensive resource describing their health systems, access to specialty care, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and availability of brain imaging and EEG. The purpose of this study was to profile epilepsy care in these countries as an initial step toward improving the standard of care and identifying gaps in care to guide future policy changes. In each southern Caribbean country, we conducted study visits and interviewed health-care providers, government health ministers, pharmacy directors, hospital medical directors, pharmacists, clinic staff, radiologists, and radiology and EEG technicians. Health-care providers completed extensive epilepsy care surveys. The five countries all have integrated government health systems with clinics and hospitals that provide free or heavily subsidized care and AEDs for patients with epilepsy. Only Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, however, have neurology specialists. The three smaller countries lack government imaging and EEG facilities. Trinidad had up to one-year waits for public MRI/EEG. Government formularies in Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia are limited to first-generation AEDs. One or more second-line agents are formulary in Trinidad and Barbados. Nonformulary drugs may be obtained for individual patients in Barbados. Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines participate in an Organization of Eastern Caribbean States formulary purchasing system, which added levetiracetam following the survey. Newer generic AED formulations with the lowest risks for pregnancy malformation were not in use. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy in the southern Caribbean have excellent access to government clinics and hospitals, but AED choices

  4. The Siquisique basalts and gabbros, Los Algodones, Venezuela: late Cretaceous oceanic plateau formed within the proto-Caribbean plate?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, A. C.; Neill, I.; Urbani, F.; Spikings, R.; Barry, T.; Tarney, J.

    2009-12-01

    Basalts and gabbros, exposed near Siquisique, Venezuela have previously been interpreted as Jurassic mid-ocean ridge basalts, on the basis of an ammonite found in nearby, but not obviously intercalated, sediments (Bartok, 1985). This, combined with their current tectonic position, well within the continent, and because they accreted before the Cretaceous ‘Great Arc’ of the Caribbean, has led to the Siquisique igneous rocks being widely regarded as Jurassic ‘normal’ mid-ocean ridge basalts and gabbros formed as North and South America rifted apart. We present new geochemical and chronological data which shows that the Siquisique igneous rocks are 95-90Ma and have a chemistry which is more consistent with derivation from a deep mantle plume, than a mid-ocean ridge. It is clear that these basalts represent part of the original ocean floor of the Caribbean, which formed before the tectonic emplacement of the present-day Caribbean from the Pacific. Chemically similar basalts and gabbros at El Copey on Araya Peninsula and Sans Souci in northern Trinidad also accreted to the continental margin of South America before the ‘Great Arc’ of the Caribbean and may well be part of the same intra-Caribbean ‘plume event’. These exposures all indicate that the oceanic crust of the proto-Caribbean, was likely to have consisted (at least in part) of thickened oceanic crust formed by melting of a hot-mantle plume. Although the Siquisique rocks formed at a similar time to the Caribbean-Colombian oceanic plateau they were not derived from the same mantle plume. This supports previous suggestions (Kerr & Tarney, 2005; Snow et al. 2005) that the period around ~90Ma (like that around 120Ma) was marked by a significant upsurge in global plume-related magmatic activity. This activity is likely to have contributed significantly to the major worldwide oceanic anoxia event (OAE2) around the Cenomanian-Turonian boundary (93.4Ma)(Kerr, 1998; Snow et al. 2005). Significantly, this

  5. Simulation of the Caribbean Climate during the early and mid-Holocene with GCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Wei; Lohmann, Gerrit

    2010-05-01

    the topography change in high latitudes which is associated with change in glacial distribution and the corresponding albedo does not only influence the local climate but also have a cooling effect in the tropics. The simulated hydrological cycle reflects the wetter conditions of the Holocene (especially for the early Holocene) in the south Caribbean, which have been proved by marine and lake sediment records. The annual precipitation anomaly during the Holocene can be more than 500mm/a, similar to that for Africa over the same period. This long-term change can be attributed to orbitally forced variations in solar insolation, which led to a more northwards shift of the mean latitude of the Atlantic Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Meanwhile, the prevailing easterly trade wind gets weakened during the Holocene, which may reduce the water vapor transported from the tropical Atlantic to the western Pacific via the Caribbean. This provides another explanation of the wetter conditions in the Caribbean. The teleconnection pattern, which refers to the interannual variability of the Caribbean climate, ENSO and the Atlantic, does not have much change during the Holocene compared to the present. The Caribbean rainfall is positively correlated to the tropical Atlantic SST, while it shows a La Niña-like pattern with the western Pacific, as deciphered in research related to the modern Caribbean climate. Nevertheless, some proxy studies demonstrate the ENSO only became as active as it is at present after the mid-Holocene. From this point of view, more proxy and simulation comparisons are required as well as comparisons between different GCM results.

  6. Reconnaissance investigation of Caribbean extreme wave deposits--Preliminary observations, interpretations, and research directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2006-01-01

     This report presents an overview of preliminary geological investigations and recommended future research activities in the Caribbean region pertaining to coastal hazards with an emphasis on establishing tsunami risk for U.S. territories. Fieldwork was conducted in March 2006 on the islands of Bonaire, Puerto Rico, and Guadeloupe to evaluate the stratigraphic records of extreme wave deposits as possible indicators of paleotsunami recurrence. Morphological, sedimentological, and stratigraphic evidence indicate that shore-parallel coral rubble deposits composed of coarse clasts and sand that are 10s of meters wide and several meters thick are depositional complexes that have accumulated for a few centuries or millennia, and are not entirely the result of one or a few tsunamis as previously reported. The origins of boulder fields on elevated rock platforms of the Caribbean islands are more complicated than the origins of ridge complexes because boulder fields can be constructed by either storm waves or tsunamis. What is needed now for more conclusive interpretations is a systematic sedimentological approach to deposit analysis and a set of criteria for distinguishing between coarse clast storm and tsunami deposits. Assembling more field data from other Caribbean islands, analyzing stratigraphic deposits on Puerto Rico and Bonaire, and investigating boulder field deposits resulting from a historical tsunami can accomplish this. Also needed are improved sediment transport models for coarse clasts that can be used to estimate the competence and capacity of tsunamis and storms waves and to determine whether a deposit likely was created by a tsunami or extreme storm. Improved models may also be useful for reconstructing the magnitude of extreme wave events.

  7. Early Mesozoic reconstructions, tectonics and paleogeography of Caribbean-Gulf of Mexico-Atlantic area

    SciTech Connect

    Wiener, R.W.; Norton, I.O.

    1985-01-01

    Five plate reconstructions with paleogeography show the evolution of the Gulf of Mexico-Caribbean-Atlantic from Late Triassic through Late Jurassic time. The reconstructions are constrained by oceanic geophysical data, by the distribution of Paleozoic tectonic belts and early Mesozoic sedimentary and igneous rocks, and by restoration of post-Jurassic faulting. Late Triassic rifting formed grabens in which continental sediments and tholeiitic volcanics accumulated. Overlying salt was deposited from ingression of Tethyan waters into circum-Atlantic grabens. Oceanic crust formed in the Atlantic about 165 m.y. ago, followed by a spreading-center jump about 160 m.y. ago. The NA/SA-Africa plate boundary was a zone of intracontinental faulting from the left-lateral Bahama fracture zone to a zone of normal and strike-slip faulting in the Gulf, to the left-lateral Mojave-Sonora megashear. Sea-floor spread in began in the proto-Caribbean in the middle Jurassic, while only rifting occurred in the Gulf of Mexico, where the Louann salt was deposited from Pacific waters. In the late Jurassic, steepening of the Pacific subduction zone resulted ion back-arc extension in Mexico. At the same time, sea-floor spreading began in the Gulf of Mexico, resulting in marine transgression. In the late Oxfordian, spreading center reorganization occurred in the Gulf. Movement ceased on the Mojave-Sonora megashear and began on the Salina Cruz right-lateral fault. In latest Jurassic spreading ceased in the Gulf, but continued in the proto-Caribbean.

  8. Structure and tectonics of the Yucatan basin, Caribbean Sea, as determined from seismic reflection studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosencrantz, Eric

    1990-10-01

    The Yucatan Basin preserves a record of the Late Cretaceous to Paleogene Caribbean-North American convergent history that is largely unaffected by Neogene strike-slip tectonics of the current plate boundary. An examination of seismic basement within the Yucatan Basin, based upon available seismic reflection data including extensive multichannel data, shows that the basement comprises nine domains distinguished on the basis of internal reflection character and surface topography. These domains encompass three distinct crustal types or blocks. The first underlies the western flank of the basin and represents the offshore continuation of the adjacent Yucatan platform. The second includes the topographically heterogeneous domains of the eastern two-thirds of the basin, and is dominated by a subsided volcanic rise or arc (Cayman rise) resting upon probable oceanic crust of pre-Tertiary age. The eastern edge of the rise and adjacent basins dips northeast beneath the Cuban margin along a sediment filled trench. The third type of crust occupies a rectangular deep within the western third of the basin. Available evidence indicates that this crust is oceanic in character, and represents a large, mature pull-apart basin set within a wide paleo-transform zone between the western platform and eastern oceanic basin. This zone defines the northwestern portion of the Caribbean-North American convergent plate boundary. Paleocene to Middle Eocene transform motion was left-lateral along north-south to NNE-SSW trends, with a displacement of about 350 km. A long Middle Eocene transcurrent fault of about 50 km left-lateral displacement cuts the basin diagonally from SW to NE and continues onland in Cuba as La Trocha fault. This reconstruction is consistent with known Eocene regional tectonics, but the timing of regional events raises questions about present interpretations of plate geometry in the northwestern Caribbean.

  9. Tectonics and terranes of the Southeastern Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The southeastern Caribbean plate (Ca) is comprised of the following terranes: Tobago, Grenada Basin, St. Vincent, Araya-Margarita, and Paria-Trinidad-Barbardos (PTB). All are alient relative to South America (SA) east of Caracas except for PTB, which is of continental provenance and parautochthonous and lies within the principal movement zone of the Ca-Sa plate boundary. The Tobago terrane extends between the eastern Venezuelan coastline and the Grenada Basin. On its south, the Tobago terrane overrode PTB and the South American passive margin during Neogene oblique collision. The Mesozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Tobago terrane is not unlike that of the Colombian Basin, suggesting the Tobago may belong to the Pacific-derived Caribbean plate. The Grenada Basin terrane consists of Eocene and older oceanic crust that now occupies the southern Lesser Antilles arc platform and the southern Grenada Basin. Such crust abducted southward below the Tobago terrane in mid-Cenozoic time, probably taking up boundary-normal shortening during oblique collision of the Ca and Sa plates. The oceanic crust of the GB terrane arose by backarc spreading of unknown orientation. The St. Vincent terrane extends north in the Antilles from St. Vincent; it is defined by thick crust, perhaps an old arc basement. The Araya-Margarita terrane is a probable subduction complex of Mesozoic age of metamorphism that has been transported far eastward from an unknown site with the Ca plate.

  10. Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, R. Ricardo; Tsimplis, Michael N.

    2014-08-01

    Sea level extremes in the Caribbean Sea are analyzed on the basis of hourly records from 13 tide gauges. The largest sea level extreme observed is 83 cm at Port Spain. The largest nontidal residual in the records is 76 cm, forced by a category 5 hurricane. Storm surges in the Caribbean are primarily caused by tropical storms and stationary cold fronts intruding the basin. However, the seasonal signal and mesoscale eddies also contribute to the creation of extremes. The five stations that have more than 20 years of data show significant trends in the extremes suggesting that flooding events are expected to become more frequent in the future. The observed trends in extremes are caused by mean sea level rise. There is no evidence of secular changes in the storm activity. Sea level return periods have also been estimated. In the south Colombian Basin, where large hurricane-induced surges are rare, stable estimates can be obtained with 30 years of data or more. For the north of the basin, where large hurricane-induced surges are more frequent, at least 40 years of data are required. This suggests that the present data set is not sufficiently long for robust estimates of return periods. ENSO variability correlates with the nontidal extremes, indicating a reduction of the storm activity during positive ENSO events. The period with the highest extremes is around October, when the various sea level contributors' maxima coincide.

  11. Deglaciation explains bat extinction in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Dávalos, Liliana M; Russell, Amy L

    2012-12-01

    Ecological factors such as changing climate on land and interspecific competition have been debated as possible causes of postglacial Caribbean extinction. These hypotheses, however, have not been tested against a null model of climate-driven postglacial area loss. Here, we use a new Quaternary mammal database and deep-sea bathymetry to estimate species-area relationships (SARs) at present and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) for bats of the Caribbean, and to model species loss as a function of area loss from rising sea level. Island area was a significant predictor of species richness in the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and Lesser Antilles at all time periods, except for the Lesser Antilles during the LGM. Parameters of LGM and current SARs were similar in the Bahamas and Greater Antilles, but not the Lesser Antilles, which had fewer estimated species during the LGM than expected given their size. Estimated postglacial species losses in the Bahamas and Greater Antilles were largely explained by inferred area loss from rising sea level in the Holocene. However, there were more species in the Bahamas at present, and fewer species in the smaller Greater Antilles, than expected given island size and the end-Pleistocene/early Holocene SARs. Poor fossil sampling and ecological factors may explain these departures from the null. Our analyses illustrate the importance of changes in area in explaining patterns of species richness through time and emphasize the role of the SAR as a null hypothesis in explorations of the impact of novel ecological interactions on extinction.

  12. Neogene Proto-Caribbean porcupinefishes (Diodontidae)

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Orangel; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Machado, Alessandra Silveira; dos Santos, Thaís Maria; Marques, Gabriela; Bertucci, Thayse; Aguiar, Thayanne; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge; Rodriguez, Felix; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Fossil Diodontidae in Tropical America consist mostly of isolated and fused beak-like jawbones, and tooth plate batteries. These durophagous fishes are powerful shell-crushing predators on shallow water invertebrate faunas from Neogene tropical carbonate bottom, rocky reefs and surrounding flats. We use an ontogenetic series of high-resolution micro CT of fossil and extant species to recognize external and internal morphologic characters of jaws and tooth plate batteries. We compare similar sizes of jaws and/or tooth-plates from both extant and extinct species. Here, we describe three new fossil species including †Chilomycterus exspectatus n. sp. and †Chilomycterus tyleri n. sp. from the late Miocene Gatun Formation in Panama, and †Diodon serratus n. sp. from the middle Miocene Socorro Formation in Venezuela. Fossil Diodontidae review included specimens from the Neogene Basins of the Proto-Caribbean (Brazil: Pirabas Formation; Colombia: Jimol Formation, Panama: Gatun and Tuira formations; Venezuela: Socorro and Cantaure formations). Diodon is present in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, whereas the distribution of Chilomycterus is highly asymmetrical with only one species in the Pacific. It seems that Diodon was as abundant in the Caribbean/Western Atlantic during the Miocene as it is there today. We analyze the paleogeographic distribution of the porcupinefishes group in Tropical America, after the complete exhumation of the Panamanian isthmus during the Pliocene. PMID:28746370

  13. Women in Physics: A Caribbean Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanner, Kandice

    2009-03-01

    This paper is concerned with aspects of post-secondary education of women in physics in the Caribbean, focusing more specifically on the main university campuses in Trinidad and Tobago, Jamaica, and Barbados. Within this framework, there are three institutions of tertiary education that provide for undergraduate and post-graduate studies in physics. On average, the bachelor-level graduating class is roughly 40% female. A great majority of these students go on to seek master's degrees in engineering. Among those enrolled in graduate programs featuring research in astronomy, materials science, environmental physics, medical physics, and quantum physics, 58% are female. Significant numbers of women from the selected countries and from the Caribbean region are engaged in bachelor and doctoral programs in physics abroad, but no formal survey is available to provide the relevant quantitative information. However, an attempt will be made to quantify this component. Based in part on personal experience, a comparison will be made between domestic and foreign educational pathways, in terms of access to resources, level of research training, and occupational opportunities following graduation.

  14. Food and nutrition research in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Henry, F J

    2012-07-01

    Studies at the Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (CFNI) were conducted to provide information that would guide the prevention and management of major food and nutrition problems in the region. One of the Institutes mandates is to strengthen the capacity of countries to collect, analyse, interpret and use data to monitor develop, influence, strengthen or inform policy decisions, interventions and public education programmes. Over the years, numerous studies were done with countries at the individual level, however as a regional institution, the primary aim was (i) to identify the challenges and opportunities that have application across the region and (ii) to go beyond the descriptive work and elaborate the proximal and distal barriers and interventions that relate to the two major food and nutrition problems in the Caribbean -food insecurity and obesity. Central to all the research was the recognition that unless the studies are grounded in the context of poverty and inequity, the importance of the findings on food security and obesity will be consequently diminished.

  15. Neogene Proto-Caribbean porcupinefishes (Diodontidae).

    PubMed

    Aguilera, Orangel; Silva, Guilherme Oliveira Andrade; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Machado, Alessandra Silveira; Dos Santos, Thaís Maria; Marques, Gabriela; Bertucci, Thayse; Aguiar, Thayanne; Carrillo-Briceño, Jorge; Rodriguez, Felix; Jaramillo, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Fossil Diodontidae in Tropical America consist mostly of isolated and fused beak-like jawbones, and tooth plate batteries. These durophagous fishes are powerful shell-crushing predators on shallow water invertebrate faunas from Neogene tropical carbonate bottom, rocky reefs and surrounding flats. We use an ontogenetic series of high-resolution micro CT of fossil and extant species to recognize external and internal morphologic characters of jaws and tooth plate batteries. We compare similar sizes of jaws and/or tooth-plates from both extant and extinct species. Here, we describe three new fossil species including †Chilomycterus exspectatus n. sp. and †Chilomycterus tyleri n. sp. from the late Miocene Gatun Formation in Panama, and †Diodon serratus n. sp. from the middle Miocene Socorro Formation in Venezuela. Fossil Diodontidae review included specimens from the Neogene Basins of the Proto-Caribbean (Brazil: Pirabas Formation; Colombia: Jimol Formation, Panama: Gatun and Tuira formations; Venezuela: Socorro and Cantaure formations). Diodon is present in both the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, whereas the distribution of Chilomycterus is highly asymmetrical with only one species in the Pacific. It seems that Diodon was as abundant in the Caribbean/Western Atlantic during the Miocene as it is there today. We analyze the paleogeographic distribution of the porcupinefishes group in Tropical America, after the complete exhumation of the Panamanian isthmus during the Pliocene.

  16. Une coupe de la province volcanique Caraïbe : premiers résultats de la campagne sismique Casis 2A transect of the Caribbean volcanic province: first results of the seismic cruise CASIS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauffret, Alain; Leroy, Sylvie; d'Acremont, Élia; Maillard, Agnès; de Lépinay, Bernard Mercier; Dos Reis, Antonio Tadeu; Miller, Naghieb; Nercessian, Alexandre; Pérez-Vega, Roberto; Perez, Diorys

    2001-11-01

    The eastwards motion of the Caribbean plate is supposed to be related to a Cretaceous flip of subduction from eastwards to westwards vergence. However, we do not observe on the seismic profiles recorded during the CASIS 2 cruise any evidence of subduction beneath the Aves Ridge and Nicaragua Rise. Aves volcanic arc has been probably formed after the collision of the Caribbean volcanic plateau as shown by a wedge of volcanic-clastic sediments imaged by the seismic cruise CASIS 2. A recent left-lateral transtensional tectonics is observed in the lower Nicaragua Rise; the Colombia basin might have a motion towards the northeast relative to the rise.

  17. Estimation of Tsunami Risk for the Caribbean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahibo, N.

    2004-05-01

    The tsunami problem for the coast of the Caribbean basin is discussed. Briefly the historical data of tsunami in the Caribbean Sea are presented. Numerical simulation of potential tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea is performed in the framework of the nonlinear-shallow theory. The tsunami wave height distribution along the Caribbean Coast is computed. These results are used to estimate the far-field tsunami potential of various coastal locations in the Caribbean Sea. In fact, five zones with tsunami low risk are selected basing on prognostic computations, they are: the bay "Golfo de Batabano" and the coast of province "Ciego de Avila" in Cuba, the Nicaraguan Coast (between Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas), the border between Mexico and Belize, the bay "Golfo de Venezuela" in Venezuela. The analysis of historical data confirms that there was no tsunami in the selected zones. Also, the wave attenuation in the Caribbean Sea is investigated; in fact, wave amplitude decreases in an order if the tsunami source is located on the distance up to 1000 km from the coastal location. Both factors wave attenuation and wave height distribution should be taken into account in the planned warning system for the Caribbean Sea. Specially the problem of tsunami risk for Lesser Antilles including Guadeloupe is discussed.

  18. Late neogene history of the Pacific-Caribbean gateway

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keller, G.; Zenker, C.E.; Stone, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    Planktic foraminiferal provinces of Caribbean DSDP Hole 502A and East Pacific DSDP Hole 503A have been analyzed and compared with benthic and planktic isotope records, carbonate, hiatus events, and sea level changes. Four major events are evident in the closure history of the Pacific-Caribbean gateway, at 6.2, 4.2, 2.4 and 1.8 Ma. The faunal change at 6.2 Ma coincides with the ??13C shift and is primarily caused by upwelling in the western Caribbean. This suggests restricted circulation of intermediate water and deflection northeastward, strengthening the Gulf Stream as reflected in the first major erosion on Blake Plateau. The second faunal change, at 4.2 Ma, coincides with increased surface water salinity evident in ??18O data and indicates increasingly restricted surface water exchange. Divergence of faunal provinces beginning at 2.4 Ma is marked by increasing abundance of high salinity tolerant species (Globigerinoides ruber) in the Caribbean. This suggests that initial closure of the Pacific-Caribbean gateway and cessation of sustained surface current flow between the Pacific and Caribbean occurred as late as 2.4 Ma. Maximum divergence of faunal provinces begins at 1.8 Ma and continues to the present. This implies that at least incipient littoral-neritic leakage occurred across the Pacific-Caribbean gateway between 2.4 and 1.8 Ma, with final closure by 1.8 Ma. ?? 1989.

  19. Timing and magnitude of the Caribbean mid-Holocene highstand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashe, E.; Khan, N.; Horton, B.; Brocard, G. Y.; Dutton, A.; Engelhart, S. E.; Kopp, R. E.; Hill, D. F.; Peltier, W. R.; Scatena, F. N.

    2015-12-01

    We present a database of published and new relative sea-level (RSL) data for the past 13 ka, which constrains the Holocene sea-level histories of the Caribbean coast of Central and South America (Florida Keys, USA to Guyana) and the Bahamas and Greater and Lesser Antilles islands. Our evaluation of mangrove peat and Acropora palmata sea-level indicators from geological investigations provides 503 sea-level index points and 242 limiting dates. We subdivide the database into 21 regions based on the availability of data, tectonic setting, and distance from the former Laurentide ice sheet. Most index points (75%) and limiting dates (90%) are <8 ka, although there is an unusual temporal distribution with the greatest amount of the data (~28%) occurring between 6-8 ka. We reassess and screen radiocarbon and U/Th ages of mangrove peat and coral data. We use the stratigraphic position (overburden thickness) of index points account for sediment compaction, and use the paleotidal model of Hill et al. (2011) to account for Holocene changes in paleotidal range. A noisy-input Gaussian process regression model calculates that the rates of RSL change were highest during the early Holocene (3-8 mm/yr) and have decreased over time (< 2 mm/yr), which is related to the reduction of ice equivalent meltwater input and collapse of the proglacial forebulge during the Holocene. The sea-level reconstructions demonstrate that RSL did not exceed the present height (0 m) during the Holocene in the majority of locations, with the exception of a small highstand (<2 m) on the northern coast of South America along the Orinoco Delta and Suriname/Guyana located furthest away from the former Laurentide Ice Sheet. The different sea-level histories are an ongoing isostatic response to deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and suggest subsidence resulting from collapse of the proglacial forebulge reaches further south than previously considered.

  20. Migration and development in the Caribbean: relating policies and people.

    PubMed

    Pastor, R

    1985-01-01

    Throughout the 20th century, the US has feared that political instability in the Caribbean area could be exploited by adversaries; therefore, the US and the nations of the Caribbean share a compelling interest in the region's development. The dramatic increase in legal and illegal immigration to the US from the Caribbean in the last 2 decades has offered an additional human reason for US interest in the region. This migration has also created a new source of dependence and vulnerability for the region. Curtailment of migration would undoubtedly affect the region, and if the effect were social and political instability, then the US would also share those consequences. The 1984 Conference on Migration and Development in the Caribbean held discussions to 1) enhance the benefits of migration to Caribbean development, 2) identify development strategies, policies, and projects that would reduce pressures that have accelerated the rate of international migration, making it less manageable and more costly, and 3) identify ways to reduce dependence on migration by expanding employment and assisting economies in the region to become more self-reliant. The attitudes of both US and Caribbean participants seemed to reflect a considerable degree of ambivalence on the migration issue. The US views itself as "a nation of immigrants" and yet is troubled by the recent large influx of immigrants, particularly illegal migrants and refugees. While Americans recognize that the "brain" reduces the development capacity of developing countries, the US still needs and benefits from young immigrants trained in the sciences, engineering, and computers. Caribbean participants were also ambivalent about immigration. They consider immigration "a way of life" and a "right," but they also recognize that there are significant developmental costs to some types of migration. While many want the US to keep a wide open door to Caribbean immigrants, they are aware that most Caribbean Community (CARICOM

  1. Impact of Eastern Caribbean Circulation Seasonality on two Reef Organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubin, L. M.; Paris, C. B.; Baums, I. B.; Idrisi, N.

    2008-05-01

    The variability of the Caribbean current is under the influence of the fresh water input from the Orinoco and Amazon rivers. Sea Surface Salinity maps of the eastern Caribbean show the seasonal extension of the riverine fresh water across the Caribbean basin, from August to December (wet season). The plume is divided into two main cores: one flows into the Caribbean Sea mostly through the Grenada Passage where it merges with the Caribbean Current while the other core is formed further north by advection of the river plume by the North Brazil Current rings. Due to the presence of fresh water the Caribbean Sea mesoscale activity is strongly increased during the wet season. Therefore, both coral reef ecosystems and coastal flows are under the scope of the large scale flow seasonality. The impact of the flow mesoscale seasonality on reef organisms is studied through two reef organisms: (1) Reef-building coral: Genetic analyzes show that populations of the Caribbean reef-building coral, Acropora palmata, have experienced little or no recent genetic exchange between the western and eastern Caribbean. Western Puerto Rico is identified as an area of mixing between the two subregions. Using a bio- physical coupled model accounting for larvae life history traits, we verify the plausibility of a present day oceanographic barrier caused by the Caribbean Current seasonal variability in the vicinity of Mona Passage. (2) Grouper: Several grouper species form spawning aggregations at the shelf edge of the US Virgin Islands starting at the end of the wet season in December. Using ADCP current measurements and numerical simulations, unusual large 'dispersion' pulses are shown to be associated with the presence of sub-mesoscale coherent features more likely to be formed during the wet season. Spawning occurring during the dry season (January to April) is mostly tide driven, suggesting a limited dispersal.

  2. Giant submarine landslides on the Colombian margin and tsunami risk in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Stephen C.; Mann, Paul

    2016-09-01

    A series of three giant, previously unrecognized submarine landslides are defined on a 16,000 line km grid of multi-channel 2D seismic reflection profiles along the active margin of northern Colombia in the western Caribbean Sea. These deposits record the collapse and mobilization of immense segments (thousands of cubic kilometers) of the submarine slope and are comparable in scale to the largest known landslides on Earth. We show that the breakaway zone for these events corresponds to the tectonically over-steepened slopes of the Magdalena Fan, an extensive submarine fan composed of sediments sourced from the northern Andes and deposited by the Magdalena River. An over-pressured zone of weakness at the base of the gas-hydrate stability layer within the fan likely facilitates slope failure. Timing of these massive slope failures is constrained by well control and occurred from the mid-to-late Pliocene to mid-Pleistocene. To understand the tsunamigenic hazards posed by the recurrence of such an event today, we model the potential tsunami source created by a submarine landslide of comparable thickness (400 m) and lateral extent (1700 km2) derived from the over-steepened upper slopes of the present day Magdalena Fan. Our modeling indicates the recurrence of an analogous slope failure would result in a major tsunami that would impact population centers along the Caribbean coastlines of Colombia, Central America, and the Greater Antilles with little advance warning.

  3. Emigration to North America: the continuing option for the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Conway, D

    1990-01-01

    "A commonly held notion among Commonwealth Caribbean commentators on development prospects of the region, holds...that emigration options for the Caribbean are becoming more restrictive, and that traditional receiving countries such as Britain, the United States and Canada, have the will and purpose to restrict entry....Britain's effective immigration policies from 1962 to [the] present appear to amply demonstrate the situation, and exemplify a future restrictive international environment for future generations of Caribbean emigrant hopefuls seeking opportunities 'off the island' in traditional metropoles. This brief commentary argues the contrary."

  4. The Caribbean Basin: A prime market for renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Sklar, S.

    1989-04-01

    Countries in the Caribbean basin have high energy prices and need additional electrical generating capacity. Renewable energy and independent power sources could help meet that need. The Caribbean Basin and the Pacific Rim appear to offer the best total market opportunities considering government energy policies, prices of energy, and consumer attitudes on renewable energy applications. The Caribbean Basin was selected for an industry project opportunity review. This area was selected due to its proximity, renewable resource base, need for energy and growth, and potential for private and multidevelopment bank funding of projects. 3 figs.

  5. What Is in the Caribbean Baby? Assessing Prenatal Exposures and Potential Health Outcomes to Environmental Contaminants in 10 Caribbean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Forde, MS; Dewailly, E

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess prenatal exposures and potential health outcomes to environmental toxicants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), commonly used pesticides, and two heavy metals – mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) – in 10 Caribbean countries. Subjects and Methods: For each participating Caribbean island, approximately 50 maternal blood and urine samples were collected and analysed for POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), other common classes of pesticides used in the Caribbean such as organophosphates (OP), carbamates, chlorophenols and pyrethroids, and for Hg and Pb. Data obtained from the participating countries were compared with those from the United States of America and Canada. Results: A total of 438 samples were analysed from 10 Caribbean countries. Persistent organic pollutants were detected in almost all samples, however, these were generally low compared with comparable North American results. Evidence of exposure to PBDEs, OPs, carbamates and chlorophenols was also established. Caribbean pyrethroid concentrations were generally much higher than those recorded for North American women. Caribbean Pb maternal blood levels were generally lower than in North America, whereas Hg blood levels were two to three times higher. In almost all of the samples taken in this study, exposures to multiple chemicals were taking place at the same time. Conclusion: This first Caribbean-wide exploratory biomonitoring study on the concentrations of several toxicants in maternal samples taken from 10 Caribbean countries clearly reinforces the need for Caribbean primary care physicians and other public health officials to encourage their patients, and in particular pregnant women, to reduce their exposures to these environmental contaminants as far as it is feasible to do so. PMID:26035812

  6. Prehistoric earthquakes on the Caribbean-South American plate boundary, central Range Fault, Trinidad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Weber, John C.; Ragona, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Recent geodetic studies suggest that the Central Range fault is the principal plate-boundary structure accommodating strike-slip motion between the Caribbean and South American plates. Our study shows that the fault forms a topographically prominent lineament in central Trinidad. Results from a paleoseismic investigation at a site where Holocene sediments have been deposited across the Central Range fault indicate that it ruptured the ground surface most recently between 2710 and 550 yr B.P. If the geodetic slip rate of 9–15 mm/yr is representative of Holocene slip rates, our paleoseismic data suggest that at least 4.9 m of potential slip may have accumulated on the fault and could be released during a future large earthquake (M > 7).

  7. Prehistoric earthquakes on the Caribbean-South American plate boundary, central range fault, Trinidad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, C.S.; Weber, J.C.; Crosby, C.J.; Ragona, D.

    2010-01-01

    Recent geodetic studies suggest that the Central Range fault is the principal plate-boundary structure accommodating strike-slip motion between the Caribbean and South American plates. Our study shows that the fault forms a topographically prominent lineament in central Trinidad. Results from a paleoseismic investigation at a site where Holocene sediments have been deposited across the Central Range fault indicate that it ruptured the ground surface most recently between 2710 and 550 yr B.P. If the geodetic slip rate of 9-15 mm/yr is representative of Holocene slip rates, our paleoseismic data suggest that at least 4.9 m of potential slip may have accumulated on the fault and could be released during a future large earthquake (M > 7). ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  8. [Species of dinoflagellates of the genus Gambierdiscus (Dinophyceae) in the Mexican Caribbean Sea].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Becerril, D U; Almazán Becerril, A

    2004-09-01

    Some dinoflagellates with benthic habits are related to ciguatera intoxication by fish consumption, especially in tropical areas. In the Mexican Caribbean, ciguatera is relatively common, but only one paper seems to have been published on the subject, and there are very few publicactions on phytoplankton and benthic microalgae. Material collected along the coast of the State of Quintana Roo with phytoplankton net (54 mm) and directly from sediment and epiphytes of macroscopic plants, was searched for toxic and other associated dinoflagellates. Samples were studied by light and scanning electron microscopy. Morphological characters were useful for species identification, but eventually physiological, ecological and molecular characters could also be used. Three species of Gambierdiscus, related to the production of ciguatera toxins, were identified: G. belizeanus, G. toxicus and G. yasumotoi. They are distributed in shallow coastal areas, including coastal lagoons.

  9. Coral-gravel storm ridges: examples from the tropical Pacific and Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Morton, Robert A.

    2007-01-01

    Extreme storms in reef environments have long been recognized as a mechanism for depositing ridges of reef-derived coarse clastic sediment. This study revisits the storm ridges formed by Tropical Cyclone Bebe on Funafuti, Tuvalu and Tropical Cyclone Ofa on Upolu, Western Samoa in the South Pacific, and Hurricane Lenny on Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles in the Caribbean. Ridge characteristics produced by these storms include: heights of 1–4 m, widths of 8–50 m, and lengths up to 18 km. The ridges tend to be higher and steeper on their landward margins than on their seaward margins and are composed mostly of re-worked coral rubble derived from reef front settings with smaller amounts of fresh broken coral (5–30%). Characteristics of these modern gravel storm ridges can be used to help identify ancient storm deposits and to differentiate between other coarse-grained deposits such as those created by tsunamis.

  10. Middle Miocene near trench volcanism in northern Colombia: A record of slab tearing due to the simultaneous subduction of the Caribbean Plate under South and Central America?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, M.; Cardona, A.; Monsalve, G.; Yarce, J.; Montes, C.; Valencia, V.; Weber, M.; De La Parra, F.; Espitia, D.; López-Martínez, M.

    2013-08-01

    Field, geochemical, geochronological, biostratigraphical and sedimentary provenance results of basaltic and associated sediments northern Colombia reveal the existence of Middle Miocene (13-14 Ma) mafic volcanism within a continental margin setting usually considered as amagmatic. This basaltic volcanism is characterized by relatively high Al2O3 and Na2O values (>15%), a High-K calc-alkaline affinity, large ion lithophile enrichment and associated Nb, Ta and Ti negative anomalies which resemble High Al basalts formed by low degree of asthenospheric melting at shallow depths mixed with some additional slab input. The presence of pre-Cretaceous detrital zircons, tourmaline and rutile as well as biostratigraphic results suggest that the host sedimentary rocks were deposited in a platform setting within the South American margin. New results of P-wave residuals from northern Colombia reinforce the view of a Caribbean slab subducting under the South American margin. The absence of a mantle wedge, the upper plate setting, and proximity of this magmatism to the trench, together with geodynamic constraints suggest that the subducted Caribbean oceanic plate was fractured and a slab tear was formed within the oceanic plate. Oceanic plate fracturing is related to the splitting of the subducting Caribbean Plate due to simultaneous subduction under the Panama-Choco block and northwestern South America, and the fast overthrusting of the later onto the Caribbean oceanic plate.

  11. Organic matter degradation drives benthic cyanobacterial mat abundance on Caribbean coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Brocke, Hannah J; Polerecky, Lubos; de Beer, Dirk; Weber, Miriam; Claudet, Joachim; Nugues, Maggy M

    2015-01-01

    Benthic cyanobacterial mats (BCMs) are impacting coral reefs worldwide. However, the factors and mechanisms driving their proliferation are unclear. We conducted a multi-year survey around the Caribbean island of Curaçao, which revealed highest BCM abundance on sheltered reefs close to urbanised areas. Reefs with high BCM abundance were also characterised by high benthic cover of macroalgae and low cover of corals. Nutrient concentrations in the water-column were consistently low, but markedly increased just above substrata (both sandy and hard) covered with BCMs. This was true for sites with both high and low BCM coverage, suggesting that BCM growth is stimulated by a localised, substrate-linked release of nutrients from the microbial degradation of organic matter. This hypothesis was supported by a higher organic content in sediments on reefs with high BCM coverage, and by an in situ experiment which showed that BCMs grew within days on sediments enriched with organic matter (Spirulina). We propose that nutrient runoff from urbanised areas stimulates phototrophic blooms and enhances organic matter concentrations on the reef. This organic matter is transported by currents and settles on the seabed at sites with low hydrodynamics. Subsequently, nutrients released from the organic matter degradation fuel the growth of BCMs. Improved management of nutrients generated on land should lower organic loading of sediments and other benthos (e.g. turf and macroalgae) to reduce BCM proliferation on coral reefs.

  12. Organic Matter Degradation Drives Benthic Cyanobacterial Mat Abundance on Caribbean Coral Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Brocke, Hannah J.; Polerecky, Lubos; de Beer, Dirk; Weber, Miriam; Claudet, Joachim; Nugues, Maggy M.

    2015-01-01

    Benthic cyanobacterial mats (BCMs) are impacting coral reefs worldwide. However, the factors and mechanisms driving their proliferation are unclear. We conducted a multi-year survey around the Caribbean island of Curaçao, which revealed highest BCM abundance on sheltered reefs close to urbanised areas. Reefs with high BCM abundance were also characterised by high benthic cover of macroalgae and low cover of corals. Nutrient concentrations in the water-column were consistently low, but markedly increased just above substrata (both sandy and hard) covered with BCMs. This was true for sites with both high and low BCM coverage, suggesting that BCM growth is stimulated by a localised, substrate-linked release of nutrients from the microbial degradation of organic matter. This hypothesis was supported by a higher organic content in sediments on reefs with high BCM coverage, and by an in situ experiment which showed that BCMs grew within days on sediments enriched with organic matter (Spirulina). We propose that nutrient runoff from urbanised areas stimulates phototrophic blooms and enhances organic matter concentrations on the reef. This organic matter is transported by currents and settles on the seabed at sites with low hydrodynamics. Subsequently, nutrients released from the organic matter degradation fuel the growth of BCMs. Improved management of nutrients generated on land should lower organic loading of sediments and other benthos (e.g. turf and macroalgae) to reduce BCM proliferation on coral reefs. PMID:25941812

  13. Sediment Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-09-30

    the sediment column. These measurements provide the “ground truth ” for assessing the validity and usefulness of the basic geoacoustic model. APPROACH...obtain porosity, grain size distribution and other fundamental properties, the objective being to establish the ground truth at each Report Documentation

  14. Sediment Acoustics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-30

    the sediment column. These measurements provide the “ground truth ” for assessing the validity and usefulness of the basic geoacoustic model. APPROACH...properties, the objective being to establish the ground truth at each test location and develop correlations between such quantities as in-situ shear

  15. Coastal sediment elevation change following anthropogenic mangrove clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Heather L.; Granek, Elise F.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal mangrove forests along tropical shorelines serve as an important interface between land and sea. They provide a physical buffer protecting the coastline from erosion and act as sediment "traps" catching terrestrial sediment, thus preventing smothering of subtidal coral reefs. Coastal development that removes mangrove habitat may impact adjacent nearshore coral reefs through sedimentation and nutrient loading. We examined differences in sediment elevation change between patches of open-coast intact and anthropogenically cleared red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) on the east side of Turneffe Atoll, Belize, to quantify changes following mangrove clearing. Samples were collected over a 24 month period at five study sites, each containing paired intact (+mangrove) and cleared (-mangrove) plots. Five sediment elevation pins were deployed in each plot: behind areas cleared of mangroves (-mangrove) and behind adjacent intact mangroves (+mangrove). Sediment elevation increased at intact mangrove sites (M = +3.83 mm, SE = 0.95) whereas cleared mangrove areas suffered elevation loss (M = -7.30 mm, SE = 3.38). Mangroves inshore of partial or continuous gaps in the adjacent fringing reefs had higher rates of elevation loss (M = -15.05 mm) than mangroves inshore of continuous fringing reefs (M = -1.90 mm). Our findings provide information on potential effects of mangrove clearing and the role of offshore habitat characteristics on coastal sediment trapping and maintenance of sediment elevation by mangroves. With implications for coastline capacity to adjust to sea level rise, these findings are relevant to management of coastal fringing mangrove forests across the Caribbean.

  16. Sediment Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment toxicity testing has become a fundamental component of regulatory frameworks for assessing the risks posed by contaminated sediments and for development of chemical sediment quality guidelines. Over the past two decades, sediment toxicity testing methods have advanced co...

  17. Sediment Toxicity Testing

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sediment toxicity testing has become a fundamental component of regulatory frameworks for assessing the risks posed by contaminated sediments and for development of chemical sediment quality guidelines. Over the past two decades, sediment toxicity testing methods have advanced co...

  18. EPA Efforts in Latin America and the Caribbean

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Latin America and Caribbean (LAC) program provides environmental tools and information to build the capacity of LAC governments and civil society organizations to reduce environmental degradation and its impacts on public health.

  19. Introduction: Caribbean forest dynamics and regional forestry initiatives

    Treesearch

    Tamara Heartsill Scalley; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2016-01-01

    Herein we provide the context within which the 16th Caribbean Foresters Meeting took place, some background information about the meeting, and a general introduction to this Special Issue focused on that meeting.

  20. 76 FR 35857 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-20

    .... SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council's Advisory Panel (AP) will hold a meeting. DATES: The AP..., Puerto Rico 00918-1920; telephone: (787) 766-5926. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The AP will meet to...

  1. The Life of Hurricane Irene from Caribbean to Canada

    NASA Image and Video Library

    An animation of satellite observations from August 21 through August 29 showing the birth of Hurricane Irene in the Caribbean and her track over Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, the Bahamas, the U.S. East ...

  2. 75 FR 47274 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...'s Advisory Panel (AP) will hold a meeting to discuss the topics contained in the agenda below. DATES... Caribbean Fishery Management Council's Advisory Panel will hold a meeting to discuss the topics contained...

  3. Wilma Trek Through Warm Caribbean/Gulf Waters

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2005-10-21

    This sea surface height map of the Gulf of Mexico and the northwestern Caribbean Sea, with the Florida peninsula on the upper right, is based on altimeter data from three satellites including NASA Jason-1.

  4. Development of alternative energy science and engineering in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, J. A., Jr.

    1983-12-01

    The conclusions and recommendations of the Solar Energy Utilization Workshop for the Caribbean Basin were summarized. Wind power utilization and biomass energy production were discussed briefly. Solar energy conversion research at the University of Florida was presented.

  5. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...—Central America—United States Free Trade Implementation Act (Pub. L. 109-53), when the CAFTA-DR agreement... Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that, for...

  6. Giant Mass Transport Deposits of the Caribbean Margin and their Tsunamigenic Potential, Offshore Northern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, S.; Mann, P.; Carvajal, L. C.

    2014-12-01

    Three large (170-290 m thick, >1000 km3) Mass Transport Deposits (MTDs) are recognized on seismic lines offshore northern Colombia covering a combined area of 27,000 km2, an area the size of the state of Massachusetts. These deposits record a number of massive slope failure events along the Northern Colombian Margin proximal to the actively prograding delta and fan of the Magdalena River, the 26th largest river in the world by discharge volume . The largest MTD covers an area >15,000 km2 outboard of the toe of the continental slope on the abyssal sea floor; the two smaller MTDs range from 5000 to 7000 km2 in area. The volume of the largest deposited measured from >160 km of seismic reflection data ranges from 2000 and 5000 km3, comparable in size to the giant Storegga Slide offshore Norway (3500 km3) and the Nuuanu slide offshore the island of Oahu, Hawai'i (~3000 km3). The timing of the MTDs can be constrained from sparse wells and seismic data to be mid to late Miocene (15-5.3 Ma) through the Plio-Pleistocene (2.6 Ma). Likely causative factors for the MTDs include: 1) elevated pore pressure due to generation of biogenic gas in the sediment column of the continental slopes as observed on seismic reflection data; 2) rapid sedimentation related to the Magdalena delta that has produced oversteepened slopes since the late Miocene (7-10 Ma); and 3) tectonic uplift and infrequent large earthquakes related to shallow, southeastward subduction beneath the nearby Southern Caribbean Fold Belt. Preliminary models of inferred tsunamis and their projected run-ups around the Caribbean Sea are presented.

  7. Geochemical Signature of Land-based Activities in Caribbean Coral Surface Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prouty, N. G.; Hughen, K.; Carilli, J.

    2007-12-01

    Anthropogenic threats to the Mesoamerican Caribbean Reef Ecoregion, resulting from increased sedimentation, agrochemical run-off, coastal development, tourism and overfishing, are of great concern for future coral reef health and sustainability. Abundances of trace metal in corals can be used to monitor and identify the impact of land-based activities on the reef itself. In this study we demonstrate that surface coral samples from four sites in the Mesoamerican Caribbean Reef Ecoregion, Turneffe Atoll, Sapodilla Cayes and Honduras Bay Islands (Utila and Cayos Cochinos), yield statistically different chemical signatures due to their water quality and relative distance from pollution sources. Specifically, samples from the Sapodilla Cayes and the Bay Islands of Honduras yield elevated Ba/Ca and Mn/Ca levels, indicative of greater exposure to sediment-laden runoff form the south. In a similar manner, elevated coral Pb/Ca and Zn/Ca, and Sb/Ca and Cu/Ca values can be linked to mining activities and the use of antifouling paints, respectively. In addition, site heterogeneity was investigated by analyzing replicate cores at a single site from different colonies. We show that regional variability within the Sapodilla Cayes Marine Reserve can be explained by relative location and orientation within the reef and distance from the continental shelf. Our results indicate good reproducibility for the majority of trace metals investigated (not including Sr/Ca or Mg/Ca), suggesting that local environmental changes such as seawater chemistry, and not climate, is the dominant influence on the metal/Ca ratios.

  8. Mini-review: Obesity in Caribbean Youth.

    PubMed

    Traboulay, E A; Hoyte, O P-A

    2015-06-01

    Our focus was on the determination of the growing number of youths of every race and ethnicity, diagnosed with obesity and its co-morbidities in the Caribbean. We reviewed the causes and strategies to combat obesity, and the implications of the fast food industry in enabling the escalation of obesity. We consulted several databases such as PubMed, MEDLINE, the Obesity Gene Map Database, and the USEPA Toxicity Reference Database. Organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) were used as information sources. Transgenerational effects and triggers like obesogens, pathogens, environmental stress, antibiotics and gut microbiota are some of the causes of obesity, and some of these triggers are imprinted epigenetically early in embryonic development, leading to lifelong obesity. With an estimated population of 42 million in the Caribbean, the economic cost of obesity, including medical, absenteeism, presenteeism, insurance, disability, direct and indirect cost, was estimated cost of 68.5 billion USD with 88.2 million quality-adjusted life years lost. Genome-wide association studies have established that genetics play a role in the aetiology of this "non-communicable" disease. While the development of personalized interventions according to genotype is futuristic, we must focus on effective nutrition and physical education classes in schools and establishing monitoring programmes using simple tools such as scales and tape measures as suggested intervention. A Pigovian tax to control the fast food industry is mandatory. Nevertheless, lifestyle adjustment, including alterations in diet and increased physical activity, continues to be a sound recommendation.

  9. African Dust Blows over the Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Shuttle astronauts frequently track Saharan dust storms as they blow from north Africa across the Atlantic Ocean. Dust palls blowing from Africa take about a week to cross the Atlantic. Recently, researchers have linked Saharan dust to coral disease, allergic reactions in humans, and red tides. The top photograph, a classic image showing African dust over the Caribbean, was taken at a time when few scientists had considered the possibility. The image was taken by Space Shuttle astronauts on July 11, 1994 (STS065-75-47). This photograph looks southwest over the northern edge of a large trans-Atlantic dust plume that blew off the Sahara desert in Africa. In this view, Caicos Island in the Bahamas and the mountainous spines of Haiti are partly obscured by the dust. Closer to the foreground, (about 26 degrees north latitude), the skies are clear. The lower photograph (STS105-723-7) was taken by Space Shuttle astronauts while docked to the International Space Station on August 19, 2001. The spacecraft is over the Atlantic Ocean at roughly 45oN, 60oW. The astronauts were looking obliquely to the south; the boundaries of the dust plumes can be traced visually by the abrupt change from clear to hazy atmosphere-the hazy line marks the northern edge of the dust pall near the Caribbean. Images provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  10. Deglaciation explains bat extinction in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Dávalos, Liliana M; Russell, Amy L

    2012-01-01

    Ecological factors such as changing climate on land and interspecific competition have been debated as possible causes of postglacial Caribbean extinction. These hypotheses, however, have not been tested against a null model of climate-driven postglacial area loss. Here, we use a new Quaternary mammal database and deep-sea bathymetry to estimate species–area relationships (SARs) at present and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) for bats of the Caribbean, and to model species loss as a function of area loss from rising sea level. Island area was a significant predictor of species richness in the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and Lesser Antilles at all time periods, except for the Lesser Antilles during the LGM. Parameters of LGM and current SARs were similar in the Bahamas and Greater Antilles, but not the Lesser Antilles, which had fewer estimated species during the LGM than expected given their size. Estimated postglacial species losses in the Bahamas and Greater Antilles were largely explained by inferred area loss from rising sea level in the Holocene. However, there were more species in the Bahamas at present, and fewer species in the smaller Greater Antilles, than expected given island size and the end-Pleistocene/early Holocene SARs. Poor fossil sampling and ecological factors may explain these departures from the null. Our analyses illustrate the importance of changes in area in explaining patterns of species richness through time and emphasize the role of the SAR as a null hypothesis in explorations of the impact of novel ecological interactions on extinction. PMID:23301171

  11. Tsunami probability in the Caribbean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, T.; Geist, E. L.

    2008-12-01

    We calculated tsunami runup probability at coastal sites throughout the Caribbean region. We applied a Poissonian probability model because of the variety of uncorrelated tsunami sources in the region. Coastlines were discretized into 20km by 20km cells, and the mean tsunami runup rate was determined for each cell. A remarkable ~500-year empirical record was used to calculate an empirical tsunami probability map, the first of three constructed for this study. However, it's unclear whether the 500-year record is complete, so we conducted a seismic moment-balance exercise using a finite element model of the Caribbean-North American plate boundaries and the earthquake catalog, and found that moment could be balanced if the seismic coupling coefficient is c=0.32. Modeled moment release was therefore used to generate synthetic earthquake sequences to calculate 50 tsunami runup scenarios for 500-year periods. We made a second probability map from numerically-calculated runup rates in each cell. Differences between the first two probability maps based on empirical and numerical-modeled rates suggest that each captured different aspects of tsunami generation; the empirical model may be deficient in primary plate-boundary events, whereas numerical model rates lack back-arc fault and landslide sources. We thus prepared a third probability map using Bayesian likelihood functions derived from the empirical and numerical rate models and their attendant uncertainty to weight a range of rates at each 20km by 20km coastal cell. Our best-estimate map gives a range of 30-year runup probability from 0-30 percent regionally.

  12. African Dust Blows over the Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Shuttle astronauts frequently track Saharan dust storms as they blow from north Africa across the Atlantic Ocean. Dust palls blowing from Africa take about a week to cross the Atlantic. Recently, researchers have linked Saharan dust to coral disease, allergic reactions in humans, and red tides. The top photograph, a classic image showing African dust over the Caribbean, was taken at a time when few scientists had considered the possibility. The image was taken by Space Shuttle astronauts on July 11, 1994 (STS065-75-47). This photograph looks southwest over the northern edge of a large trans-Atlantic dust plume that blew off the Sahara desert in Africa. In this view, Caicos Island in the Bahamas and the mountainous spines of Haiti are partly obscured by the dust. Closer to the foreground, (about 26 degrees north latitude), the skies are clear. The lower photograph (STS105-723-7) was taken by Space Shuttle astronauts while docked to the International Space Station on August 19, 2001. The spacecraft is over the Atlantic Ocean at roughly 45oN, 60oW. The astronauts were looking obliquely to the south; the boundaries of the dust plumes can be traced visually by the abrupt change from clear to hazy atmosphere-the hazy line marks the northern edge of the dust pall near the Caribbean. Images provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  13. Tsunami probability in the Caribbean Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Geist, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    We calculated tsunami runup probability (in excess of 0.5 m) at coastal sites throughout the Caribbean region. We applied a Poissonian probability model because of the variety of uncorrelated tsunami sources in the region. Coastlines were discretized into 20 km by 20 km cells, and the mean tsunami runup rate was determined for each cell. The remarkable ???500-year empirical record compiled by O'Loughlin and Lander (2003) was used to calculate an empirical tsunami probability map, the first of three constructed for this study. However, it is unclear whether the 500-year record is complete, so we conducted a seismic moment-balance exercise using a finite-element model of the Caribbean-North American plate boundaries and the earthquake catalog, and found that moment could be balanced if the seismic coupling coefficient is c = 0.32. Modeled moment release was therefore used to generate synthetic earthquake sequences to calculate 50 tsunami runup scenarios for 500-year periods. We made a second probability map from numerically-calculated runup rates in each cell. Differences between the first two probability maps based on empirical and numerical-modeled rates suggest that each captured different aspects of tsunami generation; the empirical model may be deficient in primary plate-boundary events, whereas numerical model rates lack backarc fault and landslide sources. We thus prepared a third probability map using Bayesian likelihood functions derived from the empirical and numerical rate models and their attendant uncertainty to weight a range of rates at each 20 km by 20 km coastal cell. Our best-estimate map gives a range of 30-year runup probability from 0 - 30% regionally. ?? irkhaueser 2008.

  14. Mini-review: Obesity in Caribbean Youth

    PubMed Central

    Traboulay, EA; Hoyte, OPA

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Our focus was on the determination of the growing number of youths of every race and ethnicity, diagnosed with obesity and its co-morbidities in the Caribbean. We reviewed the causes and strategies to combat obesity, and the implications of the fast food industry in enabling the escalation of obesity. Methods: We consulted several databases such as PubMed, MEDLINE, the Obesity Gene Map Database, and the USEPA Toxicity Reference Database. Organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) were used as information sources. Results: Transgenerational effects and triggers like obesogens, pathogens, environmental stress, antibiotics and gut microbiota are some of the causes of obesity, and some of these triggers are imprinted epigenetically early in embryonic development, leading to lifelong obesity. With an estimated population of 42 million in the Caribbean, the economic cost of obesity, including medical, absenteeism, presenteeism, insurance, disability, direct and indirect cost, was estimated at 68.5 billion USD with 88.2 million quality-adjusted life years lost. Conclusion: Genome-wide association studies have established that genetics play a role in the aetiology of this “non-communicable” disease. While the development of personalized interventions according to genotype is futuristic, we must focus on effective nutrition and physical education (PE) classes in schools and establishing monitoring programmes using simple tools such as scales and tape measures as suggested intervention. A Pigovian tax to control the fast food industry is mandatory. Nevertheless, lifestyle adjustment, including alterations in diet and increased physical activity, continues to be a sound recommendation. PMID:26426179

  15. Survey of 2,11-cyclized cembranoids from Caribbean sources.

    PubMed

    Cóbar, Oscar M

    2009-01-01

    This review covers the literature published since the report of the first compound to December 2006, for marine natural 2,11-cyclized cembranoids isolated from Caribbean sources, with 30 citations, most of them from 2000 to 2006, referring to compounds isolated from the Caribbean gorgonian octocorals Briareum asbestinum, Briareum polyanthes, and Erithropodiun caribaeorum. The emphasis is on all of these natural compounds isolated to date, with an overview of their biogenetic pathway and relevant biological activity.

  16. Common wood decay fungi found in the Caribbean Basin

    Treesearch

    D. Jean. Lodge

    2016-01-01

    There are hundreds of wood-decay fungi in the Caribbean Basin, but relatively few of these are likely to grow on manmade structures built of wood or wood-composites. The wood-decay fungi of greatest concern are those that cause brown-rot, and especially brown-rot fungi that are resistant to copper-based wood preservatives. Some fungi that grow in the Caribbean and...

  17. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-12-01

    Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.

  18. Ciguatera fish poisoning in the Caribbean islands and Western Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Pottier, I; Vernoux, J P; Lewis, R J

    2001-01-01

    Ciguatera fish poisoning (ciguatera), a common poisoning caused by fish ingestion, is reviewed in the Western Atlantic and the Caribbean waters. It is endemic from Florida coasts (northern limit) to Martinique Island (southern limit), with outbreaks occurring from time to time. In the Caribbean, ciguatera causes a polymorphic syndrome with gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, and neurological signs and symptoms. Neurological and muscular dysfunctions can be treated by intravenous injection of D-mannitol. The lipid-soluble toxins involved are ciguatoxins that are likely produced by the dinoflagellate Gambierdiscus toxicus. G. toxicus strains are endemic in the Caribbean Sea and in theWestern Atlantic. Although it is likely that blooms of G. toxicus are ingested by herbivorous fishes, they are not implicated in ciguatera in the Caribbean. Rather, large carnivores (barracudas, jacks, snappers, groupers), consumers of smaller benthic fish, are often involved in ciguatera. Fish toxicity depends on fishing area and depth, fish size and tissues, and climatic disturbances. Ciguatoxins have been isolated and purified from Caribbean fish species. The structure of two epimers, C-CTX-1 and C-CTX-2 from horse-eye jack, comprise 14 trans-fused ether-linked rings and a hemiketal in terminal ring. Caribbean ciguatoxins are mainly detected in the laboratory by chicken, mouse, mosquito, or cell bioassays, and by analytical HPLC/tandem mass spectrometry down to parts per billion (ppb). A ciguatera management plan that integrates epidemiology, treatment, and a simple method of detection is required to ensure the protection of consumers.

  19. Managed Migration: The Caribbean Approach to Addressing Nursing Services Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Marla E; Yan, Jean; Hewitt, Hermi; Guisinger, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Objective To (1) provide a contextual analysis of the Caribbean region with respect to forces shaping the current and emerging nursing workforce picture in the region; (2) discuss country-specific case(s) within the Caribbean; and (3) describe the Managed Migration Program as a potential framework for addressing regional and global nurse migration issues. Principal Findings The Caribbean is in the midst of a crisis of shortages of nurses with an average vacancy rate of 42 percent. Low pay, poor career prospects, and lack of education opportunities are among the reasons nurses resign. Many of these nurses look outside the region for job opportunities in the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, and other countries. Compounding the situation is the lack of resources to train nurses to fill the vacancies. The Managed Migration Program of the Caribbean is a multilateral, cross-sector, multi-interventional, long-term strategy for developing and maintaining an adequate supply of nurses for the region. Conclusions The Managed Migration Program of the Caribbean has made progress in establishing regional support for addressing the nursing shortage crisis and developing a number of interesting initiatives such as training for export and temporary migration. Recommendations to move the Managed Migration Program of the Caribbean forward focus on advocacy, integration of the program into regional policy decisions, and integration of the program with regional health programming. PMID:17489919

  20. Latin American and Caribbean regional conference on population and development. Latin American and Caribbean Consensus on Population and Development.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean Population and Development Conference was held in Mexico City from April 29 to May 4, 1993, during which discussions were held on population growth, structure, and distribution in the region; socioeconomic trends and implications; population dynamics and development in the Caribbean subregion; population policies and programs; population growth and distribution and their relation to development and the environment; women and population dynamics; and family planning, health, and family well-being. The conference adopted the Latin American and Caribbean Consensus on Population and Development which is presented in sections on the situation of population and development in Latin America and the Caribbean in the early 1990s, and recommendations on population growth and structure, population distribution, development, the environment, women and population dynamics, population policies and programs, health, family planning and well-being, international migration and development, training, data production, research, and international cooperation in the population field.

  1. Recycling and transport of continental material through the mantle wedge above subduction zones: A Caribbean example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Garcia-Casco, Antonio; Kemp, Anthony; Kröner, Alfred; Proenza, Joaquín A.; Lázaro, Concepción; Liu, Dunyi

    2016-02-01

    Estimates of global growth rates of continental crust critically depend upon knowledge of the rate at which crustal material is delivered back into the mantle at subduction zones and is then returned to the crust as a component of mantle-derived magma. Quantification of crustal recycling by subduction-related magmatism relies on indirect chemical and isotopic tracers and is hindered by the large range of potential melt sources (e.g., subducted oceanic crust and overlying chemical and clastic sediment, sub-arc lithospheric mantle, arc crust), whose composition may not be accurately known. There is also uncertainty about how crustal material is transferred from subducted lithosphere and mixed into the mantle source of arc magmas. We use the resilient mineral zircon to track crustal recycling in mantle-derived rocks of the Caribbean (Greater Antilles) intra-oceanic arc of Cuba, whose inception was triggered after the break-up of Pangea. Despite juvenile Sr and Nd isotope compositions, the supra-subduction zone ophiolitic and volcanic arc rocks of this Cretaceous (∼135-70 Ma) arc contain old zircons (∼200-2525 Ma) attesting to diverse crustal inputs. The Hf-O isotope systematics of these zircons suggest derivation from exposed crustal terranes in northern Central America (e.g. Mexico) and South America. Modeling of the sedimentary component in the most mafic lavas suggests a contribution of no more than 2% for the case of source contamination or less than 4% for sediment assimilation by the magma. We discuss several possibilities for the presence of inherited zircons and conclude that they were transported as detrital grains into the mantle beneath the Caribbean Plate via subduction of oceanic crust. The detrital zircons were subsequently entrained by mafic melts that were rapidly emplaced into the Caribbean volcanic arc crust and supra-subduction mantle. These findings suggest transport of continental detritus, through the mantle wedge above subduction zones, in

  2. Sedimentation Survey of Lago Icacos, Puerto Rico, March 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soler-López, Luis R.

    2007-01-01

    The Lago Icacos, a small reservoir built in 1930 and owned by the Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority, is part of the Rio Blanco Hydroelectric Power System. The reservoir is located in Naguabo, within the Caribbean National Forest in eastern Puerto Rico. The original storage capacity of the reservoir was 19,119 cubic meters in 1930. The bathymetric survey conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey in March 2004 indicates a storage capacity of 7,435 cubic meters or 39 percent of the original storage capacity, and a maximum depth of 5.3 meters. The reservoir has been dredged several times to restore lost storage capacity caused by high sediment loads and the frequent landslides that occur upstream from the dam, which have partially or completely filled the Lago Icacos. Because sediment removal activities have not been documented, sedimentation rates could not be determined using storage volume comparisons. A reservoir sedimentation rate was calculated using the daily sediment load data gathered at the U.S. Geological Survey Rio Icacos streamflow station upstream of the reservoir, the estimated Lago Icacos sediment trapping efficiency, and the estimated sediment yield of the Lago Icacos basin extrapolated from the Rio Icacos sediment load data. Using these properties, the Lago Icacos sedimentation rate was estimated as 71 cubic meters per year, equivalent to about 1 percent of the original storage capacity per year. The Lago Icacos 7.47-square-kilometer drainage area sediment yield was estimated as 7,126 tonnes per year or about 954 tonnes per square kilometer per year. Based on the current estimated sedimentation rate of 71 cubic meters per year, Lago Icacos has a useful life of about 105 years or to year 2109.

  3. The tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Imbert Formation, northern Dominican Republic: a record of syn-collisional basin development and ophiolite emplacement during Caribbean island arc-North America continent collision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, J.; Suárez-Rodríguez, Á.; Gabites, J.; Pérez-Estaún, A.

    2015-12-01

    Located in northern Dominican Republic, the Imbert Formation (Fm) has been interpreted as an orogenic mélange originally deposited as trench-fill sediments, an accretionary complex formed above a SW-dipping subduction zone, or the sedimentary result of the early oblique collision of the Caribbean plate with the Bahama Platform in the middle Eocene. However, new stratigraphical, structural, geochemical and geochronological data indicate that the Imbert Fm constitutes a coarsening-upward tectono-stratigraphic sequence that records the transition of the sedimentation from a pre-collisional forearc to a syn-collisional piggy-back basin during the Caribbean island arc-North America continent collision. The Imbert Fm unconformably overlies different structural levels of the Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism, including a supra-subduction zone ophiolite (the Puerto Plata complex) and a serpentinite subduction channel (the Río San Juan complex), and consists of three laterally discontinuous units that record the exhumation of the underlying basement. The distal turbiditic lower unit includes the latest volcanic activity of the Caribbean island arc; the more proximal turbiditic intermediate unit is moderately affected by syn-sedimentary faulting; and the upper unit is a (chaotic) olistostromic unit, composed of serpentinite-rich polymictic breccias, conglomerates and sandstones, strongly deformed by syn-sedimentary faulting, slumping and sliding processes. The Imbert Fm is followed by subsidence and turbiditic deposition of the overlying El Mamey Group. The 40Ar/39Ar plagioclase plateau ages obtained in gabbroic rocks from the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex indicate its exhumation at ~45-40 Ma (lower-to-middle Eocene), contemporaneously to the sedimentation of the overlying Imbert Fm. These cooling ages imply the uplift to the surface and submarine erosion of the complex to be the source of the ophiolitic fragments in the Imbert Fm, during of shortly after the

  4. How far have we come in Caribbean studies

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, K.

    1985-01-01

    Geological research in the Caribbean has achieved much. Stratigraphic characterization of lithounits is good, although correlation has proved difficult. Because much of the Cretaceous in both the N. and S. Caribbean is represented by parts of accretionary wedges from extinct arc-systems lithounit correlation is commonly impractical. The complexity of Caribbean Cretaceous tectonics is compounded on both the N. and S. sides by the effects of enormous strike-slip fault systems. Although this phenomenon was early recognized on the north side interpretation of Caribbean evolution embodying this critical observation has awaited synthesis of data related to other phenomena including: 1. Collision of Africa and North America. 2. Formation of the Gulf of Mexico. 3. Continental rupture on the north coast of South America. 4. Motion of South America with respect to North America. 5. Formation of shallow Caribbean ocean floor as an oceanic plateau in the Pacific. 6. Evolution of bounding Cretaceous arc-systems as this oceanic plateau swept into the Atlantic from the Pacific. 7. Collision of these bounding arcs. 8. 1500 km of motion of the Caribbean with respect to North America since the Early Oligocene. 9. 2000 km of motion of the Caribbean with respect to South America over the same interval. 10. Arc histories of Central America and the Lesser Antilles and 11. Northward motion of the Maracaibo block and other responses to the collision of Panama with Colombia within the last 10 Ma. There is no consensus about how the listed phenomena happened, but people are now at a time when testable hypotheses have been advanced about them.

  5. CCID - Making Caribbean Climate Data Accessible to the Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crosbourne, R. F.; Taylor, M. A.

    2006-05-01

    Arising out of an AIACC sponsored project investigating the link between climate and the incidence of dengue in the Caribbean, was a realization that a number of deficiencies existed when it came to access to and use of Caribbean climate data. Caribbean climate data are notoriously difficult to acquire, exist neither in a centralized location nor bundled in available data packages, and often require coding into sophisticated data analysis software for the generation of even simple plots. This has proven to be a deterrent to the pursuit of climate and climate related research in and about the region, and the development of interest in climate science at the primary and secondary school levels. The development of CCID - The Caribbean Climate Interactive Database - is an attempt to overcome these deficiencies. It does so by making available a subset of Caribbean station data in a format which facilitates easy use by technical and non-technical users. CCID Version 1 is a one-stop Caribbean climate database packaged within an easy to use interface which facilitates: (i) the storage of daily maximum and minimum temperatures and rainfall station data for at least one station for 24 Caribbean territories (ii) quick and easy retrieval of subsets of the data as specified by the users through a web interface (iii) simple statistical manipulations, and (iv) easy update of the database as new data becomes available. This study details the five modules which comprise CCID's design and gives an overview of each, as well as the supporting protocols. Examples of CCID's use are also offered, as are plans for its pilot testing within the region and its future development.

  6. 76 FR 22385 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... for Caribbean silk snapper, queen snapper and redtail parrotfish. SUMMARY: The SEDAR assessments of the Caribbean stocks of silk snapper, queen snapper and redtail parrotfish will consist of a series...

  7. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  8. Regional Examination for Nurse Registration, Commonwealth Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Reid, U V

    2000-09-01

    In 1990, a Regional Examination for Nurse Registration was approved by the Conference of Ministers Responsible for Health in the Commonwealth Caribbean. The examination allows for standardization and improvement of nursing education, as well as reciprocity and ease-of-movement for Registered Nurses among the countries of the region. A Planning Committee and a Blueprint Committee were established to develop the examination process. Committee membership included the Principal/Chief Nursing Officers, Nurse Tutors, and General Nursing Council representatives of each country, as well as educators from the two universities of the region. The accepted model, based on mutually agreed competencies for the Registered Nurse to practice in the region, forms the basis for the elaboration of the blueprint and the administrative manuals. The treatment of test items, assembling and conducting the examinations, which consist of four papers, as well as scoring the examination results, and notifying students of the results, are the responsibility of each General Nursing Council. The 13 General Nursing Councils with responsibility for Schools of Nursing meet annually as a regional committee to prepare the examinations, using a different country for each meeting; countries are rotated alphabetically. There is no permanent site for the administration of the examination. Membership to the regional committee, known as the Regional General Nursing Councils (RGNCs), is for 3 years. This staggering of membership allows for continuity.

  9. The immunisation programme in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Irons, B; Smith, H C; Carrasco, P A; De Quadros, C

    1999-10-01

    The Directing Council of Pan American Health Organization approved a resolution concerning the formal inauguration of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in the Americas in October 1977. Subsequently, the EPI entered full implementation in those countries that were members of the Caribbean Epidemiology Center (CAREC) during 1978-80. All 19 CAREC Member Countries (CMC) were conducting routine immunization with diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis, measles and BCG vaccines by 1980. The establishment of the program in these countries resulted in focused activities, including training and the development of operational guidelines. Health education has been primarily used to encourage mothers to have their children vaccinated at optimum age, and to advise parents and guardians about adverse reaction to vaccines. Great efforts have been made in immunization coverage in all the CMCs for the six vaccine preventable diseases. The eradication of poliomyelitis, the interruption of measles transmission (8 years measles-free), and the implementation of strategies for the elimination of rubella and CRS have presented many challenges to public health practitioners in the region. The success of all these initiatives is a reflection of the deep commitment and strong partnerships, which have been developed between the governments, health practitioners, and people of the region. Moreover, technical and financial support from both international agencies and service clubs played a major role in the success of the program.

  10. Ambient Noise Tomography in the Eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaiz-Rodriguez, M. S.; Niu, F.; Schmitz, M.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the upper mantle velocity structure beneath the eastern Caribbean with ambient seismic noise data recorded by broadband stations deployed around the region. We first compute the Rayleigh wave Green's functions between each pair of stations by cross-correlating ambient seismic noises. We then estimate fundamental mode group velocities with the FTAN analysis technique. The group velocities are further inverted into 0.5x0.5 degrees rectangular mesh grids. Finally, the dispersion curve of each grid point is linearly inverted into shear wave velocity at different depths. The shear wave variations show a high velocity anomaly in the center of the Venezuela Basin that can be related to a previously unreported igneous body. Two different sections of the mantle wedge related to the Atlantic subduction are identified. One is highly developed under the northern portion of the Lesser Antilles Arc. Another one is which is poorly developed on the southern portion of the arc. The differentiation of the mantle wedge could be attributed to segmentation of the slab produced by the Tiburon Transform Fault Zone. Finally, a low velocity anomaly at 100 km depth could be related to a small hydrous cold plume formed on the northern side of the Atlantic slab.

  11. [Occupational leptospirosis in a Colombian Caribbean area].

    PubMed

    Nájera, Saholeth; Alvis, Nelson; Babilonia, David; Alvarez, Ligia; Máttar, Salim

    2005-01-01

    To establish the seroprevalence of infection by Leptospira in an occupational setting in Cordoba. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 334 farmworkers, butchers, and garbage collectors, to identify the presence of anti-leptospira IgM antibodies, in the Department of Cordoba, Colombia. Stratified sampling proportional to the number of inhabitants and occupation was used to select the sample population (confidence level 99.9%, error 0.5%, prevalence 72%). The SPSS software 11.0 version was used to perform non parametric tests with p < 0.05, as well as odds ratios with confidence intervals. The prevalence of previous infection by Leptospira was high (13.1%). No differences among areas were found, however, higher infection was associated with living in Cienaga de Oro municipality (OR = 3.52 Cl 1.70-7.26) (p = 0,00283). Being a farmer was also a risk factor for infection (OR = 2.04 Cl 1.080-3.85) (p = 0.025), as well as drinking water from a dam (OR = 2.4 CI 1.24-4.70) (p = 0.00787). The rate of infection is important and a significant public health problem in this area of the Colombian Caribbean coast.

  12. Tsunamis from Tectonic Sources along Caribbean Plate Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, A. M.; Chacon, S.; Zamora, N.; Audemard, F. A.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Clouard, V.; Løvholt, F.; Harbitz, C. B.; Vanacore, E. A.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Working Group 2 (WG2) of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and Other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG/CARIBE-EWS) in charge of Tsunami Hazards Assessment, has generated a list of tsunami sources for the Caribbean region. Simulating these worst-case, most credible scenarios would provide an estimate of the resulting effects on coastal areas within the Caribbean. In the past few years, several publications have addressed this issue resulting in a collection of potential tsunami sources and scenarios. These publications come from a wide variety of sources; from government agencies to academic institutions. Although these provide the scientific community with a list of sources and scenarios, it was the interest of the WG2 to evaluate what has been proposed and develop a comprehensive list of sources, therefore leaving aside proposed scenarios. The seismo-tectonics experts of the Caribbean within the WG2 members were tasked to evaluate comprehensively which published sources are credible, worst-cases, and consider other sources that have been omitted from available reports. Among these published sources are the GEM Faulted Earth Subduction Characterization Project, and the LANTEX/Caribe Wave annual exercise publications (2009-2015). Caribbean tectonic features capable of generating tsunamis from seismic dislocation are located along the Northeastern Caribbean, the Lesser Antilles Trench, and the Panamá and Southern Caribbean Deformed Belts. The proposed sources have been evaluated based on historical and instrumental seismicity as well as geological and geophysical studies. This paper presents the sources and their justification as most-probable tsunami sources based on the context of crustal deformation due to Caribbean plate interacting with neighboring North and South America plates. Simulations of these sources is part of a subsequent phase in which effects of these tectonically induced tsunamis

  13. Regional diversity of amphipoda in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Martín, Alberto; Díaz, Yusbelly; Miloslavich, Patricia; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Guerra-García, José Manuel; Ortiz, Manuel; Valencia, Bellineth; Giraldo, Alan; Klein, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    The order Amphipoda is one of the most diverse within Peracarids, and comprises 6950 described marine species. Amphipod research in the Caribbean Sea began in the late 1800s, but has increased significantly since 1980. In this study, we analized the amphipod biodiversity (Caprellidea, Gammaridea, Hyperiidea, and Ingolfiellidea) of the Caribbean Sea. For this, we compiled available data on species diversity of marine amphipods (data bases: WoRMS and OBIS and published species lists) into a comprehensive taxonomic list by country for the ecoregions of the Caribbean. Additionally, we analized the relative contribution of each country to regional diversity and the rate of discovery of new species. The Caribbean amphipod fauna is composed of 535 species within 236 genera and 73 families for the higher taxon. The Western Caribbean ecoregion holds the largest diversity (282 species), while the Eastern Caribbean recorded the lowest one (73). Mexico and Venezuela recorded the largest number of species with 266 and 206, respectively. Twelve countries had less than 50 species. The richest suborder is the Gammaridea with 381 species followed by the suborder Hyperiidea with 116. From the total of 535 amphipod species reported for the Caribbean region, 218 have the Caribbean as the holotype locality, and 132 are endemic (about 25% of the total). Areas of higher diversity seem to be concentrated along the Mexican Caribbean, Cuba and the Northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia); however, such pattern is most likely reflecting local collection efforts and taxonomic expertise rather than actual distribution. Knowledge of amphipod species is mostly limited to shallow, near-shore waters, with little infonnation available on the deep sea fauna. Regional research priorities for this group should be focused on completing shallow water coastal inventories of species in Central America and the Greater and Lesser Antilles. In addition, sampling the deep sea ecosystems should

  14. Toward a Caribbean psychology: an African-centered approach.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, Marcia Elizabeth

    2011-01-01

    Although the Americas and Caribbean region are purported to comprise different ethnic groups, this article’s focus is on people of African descent, who represent the largest ethnic group in many countries. The emphasis on people of African descent is related to their family structure, ethnic identity, cultural, psychohistorical, and contemporary psychosocial realities. This article discusses the limitations of Western psychology for theory, research, and applied work on people of African descent in the Americas and Caribbean region. In view of the adaptations that some people of African descent have made to slavery, colonialism, and more contemporary forms of cultural intrusions, it is argued that when necessary, notwithstanding Western psychology’s limitations, Caribbean psychologists should reconstruct mainstream psychology to address the psychological needs of these Caribbean people. The relationship between theory and psychological interventions for the optimal development of people of African descent is emphasized throughout this article. In this regard, the African-centered and constructionist viewpoint is argued to be of utility in addressing the psychological growth and development of people of African descent living in the Americas and Caribbean region.

  15. Regional variations of the Caribbean mid-summer drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, S.; Gamble, D. W.

    2008-09-01

    Pentad satellite-based precipitation estimates were input into a wavelet analysis to quantify the length, timing, and strength of the mid-summer drought (MSD) for the Caribbean Sea and surrounding regions. For most of the Caribbean the time between the first and second summer precipitation maxima is 98 to 117 days (˜3 to 4 months). The MSD appears in early-June over Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, and develops progressively later in the summer season towards the west, finally occurring in early-October over the Gulf of Mexico. The MSD is most intense in the eastern Pacific, strong and significant in the western Caribbean, and almost nonexistent in the eastern Caribbean. Forcing mechanisms are examined to help explain the regional variability in the Caribbean. A July increase in surface pressure and surface divergence, caused by the changing wind field, appears to contribute to a strong concurrent MSD over the waters bounded by Jamaica, Cuba, and the Yucatan peninsula. Finally, the island of Jamaica itself appears to block the flow of the tradewinds as they migrate northward and intensify into mid-summer, thus enhancing the divergence, and in turn MSD, immediately to the west.

  16. Regional Variations of the Caribbean Mid-Summer Drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curtis, S.; Gamble, D. W.

    2007-05-01

    Pentad satellite-based precipitation estimates were input into a wavelet analysis to quantify the length, timing, and strength of the mid-summer drought (MSD) for the Caribbean Sea and surrounding regions. For most of the Caribbean the time between the first and second summer precipitation maxima is 98 to 177 days (3 to 6 months). The MSD appears in early-June over Puerto Rico and Hispaniola, and develops progressively later in the summer season towards the west, finally occurring in early-October over the Gulf of Mexico. The MSD is most intense in the eastern Pacific, strong and significant in the western Caribbean, and almost nonexistent in the eastern Caribbean. Forcing mechanisms are examined to help explain the regional variability in the Caribbean. A July increase in surface pressure and surface divergence, caused by the changing wind field, appears to contribute to a strong concurrent MSD over the waters bounded by Jamaica, Cuba, and the Yucatan peninsula. Finally, the island of Jamaica itself appears to block the flow of the tradewinds as they migrate northward and intensify into mid-summer, thus enhancing the divergence, and in turn MSD, immediately to the west.

  17. [Exogoninae (Polychaeta: Syllidae) from the Mexican Caribbean region with a key for the Gran Caribbean species].

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Ramírez, J D; Salazar-Vallejo, S I

    2001-03-01

    This paper identifies the Exogoninae (Syllidae) from the Mexican Caribbean coasts and includes a key to identify all the species recorded from the Grand Caribbean Sea. The classification of the family and the composition of Exogoninae are briefly examined; the correct names of the subfamilies are Syllinae Grube, 1850, Eusyllinae Malaquin, 1893, Autolytinae Malaquin, 1893 and Exogoninae Langerhans, 1879. Exogoninae includes Anguillosyllis Day, 1963, Brania de Quatrefages, 1866, Braniella Hartman, 1963, Exogone Ørsted, 1845, Exogonella Hartman, 1961, Exogonoides Day, 1963, Parapionosyllis Fauvel, 1923, Psammosyllis Westheide, 1990, Spermosyllis Claparède, 1864, and Sphaerosyllis Claparède, 1863. Pseudexogone Augener, 1922, formerly included in the group, is not a syllid; it belongs to Pilargidae. We collected 814 specimens belonging to 3 genera, 3 subgenera and 13 species as Brania (4), Exogone (4) and Sphaerosyllis (5); five new species are described: Brania russelli n. sp, Brania uebelackerae n. sp, Brania westheidei n. sp., Exogone (Exogone) bondi n. sp. and Exogone (Parexogone) sanmartini n. sp. For each species, selected references, diagnostic features, observations on morphological variability, distribution and illustrations are provided; new species also have an english diagnosis. Most abundant species were B. uebelackerae n. sp. (295), S. taylori Perkins (169), E. (E.) dispar Webster (76), and E. (E.) bondi n sp. (72).

  18. Gendered Perceptions of Schooling: Classroom Dynamics and Inequalities within Four Caribbean Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Mike; Cobbett, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out to interrogate the reality of secondary schooling in one part of the Caribbean, through a case study exploration of the "gender regimes" of four secondary schools in the small Eastern Caribbean nation state of Antigua and Barbuda. In Antigua, as in the Caribbean region more broadly, the focus of attention has been on…

  19. Competing Meanings of Childhood and the Social Construction of Child Sexual Abuse in the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…

  20. A Regional Information System Strategy for the Caribbean for the Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrant, Fay

    This document outlines the proposals for a regional information system strategy resulting from a project undertaken by the Caribbean Community Secretariat and the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean Sub-regional Headquarters for the Caribbean. The document covers: (1) the role of information in the development…

  1. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  2. Afro-Caribbean International Students' Ethnic Identity Development: Fluidity, Intersectionality, Agency, and Performativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Zaria T.; Mendoza, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Afro-Caribbean international students (ACIS) often become engrossed in a complex racial and ethnic dialogue wherein they are thrust into homogenous categorizations forcing them to negotiate their Afro-Caribbean self with other identities perceived by others such as African American, first- and second-generation Caribbean immigrant, African, and…

  3. Competing Meanings of Childhood and the Social Construction of Child Sexual Abuse in the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pasura, Dominic; Jones, Adele D.; Hafner, James A. H.; Maharaj, Priya E.; Nathaniel-DeCaires, Karene; Johnson, Emmanuel Janagan

    2013-01-01

    This article examines the dynamic interplay between competing meanings of childhood and the social construction of sexual abuse in the Caribbean. Drawing on qualitative data from a study undertaken in six Caribbean countries, the article suggests that Caribbean childhoods are neither wholly global nor local but hybrid creations of the region's…

  4. Communication from the Information Sharing Working Group: Agreement for Data Sharing Among Caribbean Foresters

    Treesearch

    Tamara Heartsill Scalley; Saara DeWalt; François Korysko; Guy Van Laere; Kasey Jacobs; Seth Panka; Joseph Torres

    2016-01-01

    We presented a new information-sharing platform at the 16th Caribbean Foresters Meeting in August 2013 to facilitate and promote collaboration among Caribbean foresters. The platform can be accessed through the Caribbean Foresters website where information and data on forest research sites can be shared. There is a special focus on identifying potential collaborations...

  5. Gendered Perceptions of Schooling: Classroom Dynamics and Inequalities within Four Caribbean Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Mike; Cobbett, Mary

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out to interrogate the reality of secondary schooling in one part of the Caribbean, through a case study exploration of the "gender regimes" of four secondary schools in the small Eastern Caribbean nation state of Antigua and Barbuda. In Antigua, as in the Caribbean region more broadly, the focus of attention has been on…

  6. Afro-Caribbean International Students' Ethnic Identity Development: Fluidity, Intersectionality, Agency, and Performativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Zaria T.; Mendoza, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Afro-Caribbean international students (ACIS) often become engrossed in a complex racial and ethnic dialogue wherein they are thrust into homogenous categorizations forcing them to negotiate their Afro-Caribbean self with other identities perceived by others such as African American, first- and second-generation Caribbean immigrant, African, and…

  7. Hydraulic piston coring of late Neogene and Quaternary sections in the Caribbean and equatorial Pacific: Preliminary results of Deep Sea Drilling Project leg 68.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prell, W.L.; Gardner, James V.; Adelseck, Charles; Blechschmidt, Gretchen; Fleet, Andrew J.; Keigwin, Lloyd D.; Kent, Dennis V.; Ledbetter, Michael T.; Mann, Ulrich; Mayer, Larry; Reidel, William R.; Sancetta, Constance; Spariosu, Dann J.; Zimmerman, Herman B.

    1980-01-01

    The sediment of Site 502 (W.Caribbean) is primarily foram-bearing nanno marl which accumulated at c.3 to 4 cm/thousand yr. The bottom of Site 502 (228.7 m) is about 8 m.y. old. The sediment of Site 503 (Equatorial Pacific) is primarily siliceous calcareous ooze which accumulated at about 2 to 3 cm/thousand yr. The bottom of Site 503 (235.0 m) is about 8 m.y. old. The sediment at both sites shows a distinct cyclicity of CaCO3 content. These relatively high accumulation rate, continuous, undisturbed HPC cores will enable a wide variety of high-resolution biostratigraphic, paleoclimatic, and paleoceanographic studies.- from Authors

  8. Caribbean Oceans: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Detect, Monitor, and Respond to Unprecedented Levels of Sargassum in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ped, Jordan; Scaduto, Erica; Accorsi, Emma; Torres-Perez, Juan (Editor)

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 and 2015, the nations of the Caribbean Sea were overwhelmed by the unprecedented quantity of Sargassum that washed ashore. This issue prompted international discussion to better understand the origins, distribution, and movement of Sargassum, a free-floating brown macro alga with ecological, environmental, and commercial importance. In the open ocean, Sargassum mats serve a vital ecological function. However, when large quantities appear onshore without warning, Sargassum threatens local tourist industries and nearshore ecosystems within the Caribbean. As part of the international response, this project investigated the proliferation of this macro alga within the Caribbean Sea from 2003-2015, and used NASA Earth observations to detect and model Sargassum growth across the region. The Caribbean Oceans team calculated the Floating Algal Index (FAI) using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and compared the FAI to various oceanic variables to determine the ideal pelagic environment for Sargassum growth. The project also examined the annual spread of Sargassum throughout the region by using Earth Trends Modeler (ETM) in Clark Labs' TerrSet software. As part of the international effort to better understand the life cycle of Sargassum in the Caribbean, the results of this project will help local economies promote sustainable management practices in the region.

  9. Analyzing sources to sedimentary organic carbon in the Gulf of Urabá, southern Caribbean, using carbon stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rúa, Alex; Liebezeit, Gerd; Grajales, Heazel; Palacio, Jaime

    2017-10-01

    Carbon stable isotopes analysis serve reconstruction of the origin of organic matter (OM) deposited onto sediments. They also allow tracing vegetation change at different time scales. This study weighs the contribution of both marine and terrestrial sources to sedimentary organic carbon (OC) from a southwestern Caribbean Gulf partly surrounded by large Musa acuminata (banana) croplands. The δ13C values in three sediment cores from the gulf have slightly decreased over 1000 yrs BP, indicating enhanced terrestrial input of detrital carbon owing to river discharge. A two-end mixing model fed with these δ13C values showed that averaged terrestrial contribution of OC to sediment was 52.0% at prodelta, 76.4% at delta front, and 64.2% at Colombia Bay. This agrees well with sediment dynamics. The main source of sedimentary OC within the gulf was terrestrial instead of marine. In fact, a distorted trend in δ13C values for one of the coring sites could be the result of banana crop expansion through the 20th century.

  10. Cholera in Haiti and other Caribbean regions, 19th century.

    PubMed

    Jenson, Deborah; Szabo, Victoria

    2011-11-01

    Medical journals and other sources do not show evidence that cholera occurred in Haiti before 2010, despite the devastating effect of this disease in the Caribbean region in the 19th century. Cholera occurred in Cuba in 1833-1834; in Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Nevis, Trinidad, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, Granada, Anguilla, St. John, Tortola, the Turks and Caicos, the Grenadines (Carriacou and Petite Martinique), and possibly Antigua in 1850-1856; and in Guadeloupe, Cuba, St. Thomas, the Dominican Republic, Dominica, Martinique, and Marie Galante in 1865-1872. Conditions associated with slavery and colonial military control were absent in independent Haiti. Clustered populations, regular influx of new persons, and close quarters of barracks living contributed to spread of cholera in other Caribbean locations. We provide historical accounts of the presence and spread of cholera epidemics in Caribbean islands.

  11. Petroleum in the Caribbean Basin: Further exploration justified?

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, E.

    1996-08-01

    After more than half a century of exploration for petroleum in that part of the Caribbean Basin covered by this review, the prospects for substantial discoveries remain low. Only Barbados has had modest but sustained production of oil and gas. In Hispaniola minor production from small prospects lasted briefly. Exploration in the northeast Caribbean has not resulted in discoveries. Similar exploration in Puerto Rico and, on a more extensive scale, in Jamaica, has also failed to show positive results. On the Nicaragua Rise (Mosquitia, Tela Basins) drilling has produced shows but no production, a situation also evident in Belize. Nevertheless, examination of these results, in the context of the regional geology of the Caribbean Basin, suggests there are areas where further exploration is justified.

  12. Cholera in Haiti and Other Caribbean Regions, 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Medical journals and other sources do not show evidence that cholera occurred in Haiti before 2010, despite the devastating effect of this disease in the Caribbean region in the 19th century. Cholera occurred in Cuba in 1833–1834; in Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Nevis, Trinidad, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, Granada, Anguilla, St. John, Tortola, the Turks and Caicos, the Grenadines (Carriacou and Petite Martinique), and possibly Antigua in 1850–1856; and in Guadeloupe, Cuba, St. Thomas, the Dominican Republic, Dominica, Martinique, and Marie Galante in 1865–1872. Conditions associated with slavery and colonial military control were absent in independent Haiti. Clustered populations, regular influx of new persons, and close quarters of barracks living contributed to spread of cholera in other Caribbean locations. We provide historical accounts of the presence and spread of cholera epidemics in Caribbean islands. PMID:22099117

  13. Bacterial diversity associated with the Caribbean tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Matos, Ana E; Rosado, William; Govind, Nadathur S

    2007-08-01

    The Caribbean tunicate, Ecteinascidia turbinata produces the anti-cancer agent ET-743 that could well be a metabolite of an associated bacterial strain. This current study aims at the analysis of bacteria that are persistently and specifically associated with this invertebrate. Utilizing techniques such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of bacteria from E. turbinata collected from different locations in the Caribbean Sea, we report here the identification of five possible persistently associated bacteria. Of these, only one organism, Candidatus Endoecteinascidia frumentensis, was found specifically associated to E. turbinata from the Caribbean and has also been found to be associated with E. turbinata from the Mediterranean. These experiments suggest that assessment of bacterial diversity associated with invertebrates from different geographical sites might be an effective way of identifying persistently and specifically associated bacteria.

  14. Caribbean hurricanes: changes of intensity and track prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark R.; Rios-Berrios, Rosimar; García, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    The meteorological conditions of hurricanes passing near Puerto Rico (18N, 68W) are analyzed using composite daily reanalysis and satellite data. When an intense hurricane is present, the regional circulation is dominated by upper easterly flow over the Caribbean and central Atlantic and a surge of low-level westerly anomalies across the tropics. Warm SST anomalies extend along the coast of Venezuela, doubling the convective energy available to Caribbean hurricanes. Intensifying hurricanes tend to propagate westward with an atmospheric ridge over the Gulf Stream, in an environment with aerosol optical depth <0.6. Hurricanes form and strengthen in the east-shear phase of the Madden Julian Oscillation. Sinking motions and dry air appear in an anti-cyclonic gyre behind intensifying hurricanes. Numerical model 48-h forecasts of Caribbean hurricane tracks are analyzed over the period 2000-2010. A "slow right" bias is found east of Puerto Rico in comparison with observed.

  15. Caribbean hurricanes: case study of interacting easterly and westerly waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2011-11-01

    This observational study considers Caribbean cyclogenesis in the period 2003-2009. Numerous events are identified from maximum of low-level relative vorticity and rain rate, and a case study is analyzed. Although fast moving tropical cyclones (TC) pose dangers to Caribbean Islands, it is the slower moving TC that inflict flood damage. The Atlantic warm pool enlarges through October as steering winds slacken. African easterly waves move over the warm pool and draw moist unstable air, while near-equatorial Kelvin waves from the Pacific surge into the Caribbean. The westerly flow accelerates around the northern Andes and is drawn into TC Omar 13-15 October 2008. A combination of warm pool air and cyclonic vorticity provided by transient zonal waves sets off the process of cyclogenesis.

  16. Petroleum pollution in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Botello, A V; Villanueva, S; Díaz, G

    1997-01-01

    In 1976, IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region, noting that petroleum pollution was of regionwide concern and recommended initiating a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. The Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil-producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas in the U.S.; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad. All these are classified as high-risk production accident zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading and unloading operations, and accidental spills. About 5 million barrels of crude oil are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 million barrels/yr. The results of the Caribbean Pollution Regional Program (CARIPOL) conducted between 1980 and 1987 pointed out that significant levels of petroleum pollution exist throughout the Wider Caribbean, including serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major current systems, and very high levels of dissolved and dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major adverse effects of this type of pollution include: high tar levels on many beaches that either prevent their recreational use or require very expensive cleanup operations, distress and death for marine life, and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tissues of important economic species has been reported, creating a risk for public health because of

  17. Zinc Deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Cediel, Gustavo; Olivares, Manuel; Brito, Alex; Cori, Héctor; López de Romaña, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Zinc deficiency affects multiple vital functions in the life cycle, especially growth. Limited information is available on the magnitude of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. To examine the latest available information on both the prevalence of zinc deficiency and the risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean. The prevalence of zinc deficiency was identified through a systematic review looking for the latest available data on serum zinc concentrations from surveys or studies with national representativeness conducted in Latin America and the Caribbean. The risk of zinc deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean was estimated based on dietary zinc inadequacy (according to the 2011 National Food Balance Sheets) and stunting in children under 5 years of age. Only four countries had available national biochemical data. Mexican, Colombian, Ecuadorian, and Guatemalan children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age had a high prevalence of zinc deficiency (19.1% to 56.3%). The countries with the highest risk of zinc deficiency (estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake > 25% plus prevalence of stunting > 20%) were Belize, Bolivia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Nicaragua, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines. Zinc dietary inadequacy was directly correlated with stunting (r = 0.64, p < .001). Prevalence data from the four available Latin America and Caribbean national surveys indicate a high prevalence of zinc deficiency in children under 6 years of age and women 12 to 49 years of age. High rates of both estimated zinc dietary inadequacy and stunting were also reported in most Latin America and Caribbean countries.

  18. Tracking Hurricane Wilma Across the Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Information on cloud top heights at different stages in the life cycle of the rapidly intensifying Hurricane Wilma may prove useful for evaluating the ability of numerical weather models to predict the intensity changes of hurricanes. NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) acquired this sequence of images and cloud-top height observations for Hurricane Wilma as it progressed across the Caribbean in October 2005. Each pair in the sequence has a photo-like view of the storm on the left and a matching color-coded image of cloud-top height on the right. Cloud-top heights range from 0 (purple) to 18 (red) kilometers altitude. Areas where cloud heights could not be determined are shown in dark gray.

    The pair on the left show Wilma on Tuesday, October 18, when Hurricane watches were posted for Cuba and Mexico. The central pair shows the eye of Hurricane Wilma just hours before the storm began to cross the Yucatan Peninsula on Friday, October 21. At that time, Wilma was a powerful Category 4 Hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale, and had a minimum recorded central pressure of 930 millibars. Hurricane Wilma surged from tropical storm to Category 5 hurricane status in record time, but the storm slowed and weakened considerably after battering Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and the Caribbean. The right-hand image pair displays the eastern edges of a weakened Wilma, when Wilma had been reduced to Category 2 status and was just starting to reach southern Florida on the morning of Sunday, October 23. Wilma gathered speed and strengthened on Sunday night, crossing Florida as a Category 3 storm on Monday, October 24.

    On the 18th, Wilma looked a bit ragged. Its eye is located at the center of the left edge, and its outer bands of clouds appear to be dominated by a rather loose collection of thunderstorms. In the photo-like images, these look like areas of 'boiling clouds,' and in the cloud-height image, these appear as orange blobs, sometimes topped with

  19. Tracking Hurricane Wilma Across the Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Information on cloud top heights at different stages in the life cycle of the rapidly intensifying Hurricane Wilma may prove useful for evaluating the ability of numerical weather models to predict the intensity changes of hurricanes. NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) acquired this sequence of images and cloud-top height observations for Hurricane Wilma as it progressed across the Caribbean in October 2005. Each pair in the sequence has a photo-like view of the storm on the left and a matching color-coded image of cloud-top height on the right. Cloud-top heights range from 0 (purple) to 18 (red) kilometers altitude. Areas where cloud heights could not be determined are shown in dark gray.

    The pair on the left show Wilma on Tuesday, October 18, when Hurricane watches were posted for Cuba and Mexico. The central pair shows the eye of Hurricane Wilma just hours before the storm began to cross the Yucatan Peninsula on Friday, October 21. At that time, Wilma was a powerful Category 4 Hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale, and had a minimum recorded central pressure of 930 millibars. Hurricane Wilma surged from tropical storm to Category 5 hurricane status in record time, but the storm slowed and weakened considerably after battering Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and the Caribbean. The right-hand image pair displays the eastern edges of a weakened Wilma, when Wilma had been reduced to Category 2 status and was just starting to reach southern Florida on the morning of Sunday, October 23. Wilma gathered speed and strengthened on Sunday night, crossing Florida as a Category 3 storm on Monday, October 24.

    On the 18th, Wilma looked a bit ragged. Its eye is located at the center of the left edge, and its outer bands of clouds appear to be dominated by a rather loose collection of thunderstorms. In the photo-like images, these look like areas of 'boiling clouds,' and in the cloud-height image, these appear as orange blobs, sometimes topped with

  20. Extension in Mona Passage, Northeast Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaytor, J.D.; ten Brink, U.S.

    2010-01-01

    As shown by the recent Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake, intra-arc deformation, which accompanies the subduction process, can present seismic and tsunami hazards to nearby islands. Spatially-limited diffuse tectonic deformation within the Northeast Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone likely led to the development of the submerged Mona Passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. GPS geodetic data and a moderate to high level of seismicity indicate that extension within the region is ongoing. Newly-collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles and previously-collected samples are used here to determine the tectonic evolution of the Mona Passage intra-arc region. The passage is floored almost completely by Oligocene-Pliocene carbonate platform strata, which have undergone submarine and subaerial erosion. Structurally, the passage is characterized by W- to NNW-trending normal faults that offset the entire thickness of the Oligo-Pliocene carbonate platform rocks. The orientation of these faults is compatible with the NE-oriented extension vector observed in GPS data. Fault geometry best fits an oblique extension model rather than previously proposed single-phase, poly-phase, bending-moment, or rotation extension models. The intersection of these generally NW-trending faults in Mona Passage with the N-S oriented faults of Mona Canyon may reflect differing responses of the brittle upper-crust, along an arc-forearc rheological boundary, to oblique subduction along the Puerto Rico trench. Several faults within the passage, if ruptured completely, are long enough to generate earthquakes with magnitudes on the order of Mw 6.5-7. ?? 2010.

  1. Southeastern United States and Caribbean Sea from Apollo 8 spacecraft

    NASA Image and Video Library

    1968-12-22

    AS08-16-2581 (21-27 Dec. 1968) --- This photograph of Earth was taken from the Apollo 8 spacecraft while it was in Earth orbit. Most of the southeastern United States and the Caribbean Sea area, the U.S. coastline from Chesapeake Bay to the Florida Peninsula can be seen. The Bahamas and the islands of Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola and Puerto Rico extend across the Caribbean, the light blue of the shallow Bahama banks contrasting sharply with the darker hue of the deeper water, especially in the Tongue of the Ocean area.

  2. Pigment distribution in the Caribbean sea: Observations from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Karger, F. E.; McClain, C. R.; Fisher, T. R.; Esaias, W. E.; Varela, R.

    The Caribbean is a semi-enclosed tropical sea which is generally considered oligotrophic, but that is influenced by nearly 20% of the annual discharge of the world's rivers (Amazon and Orinoco Rivers) and by seasonal upwelling along the southern margin. To investigate the role of these nutrient sources on the productivity of the region, we mapped the distribution of pigments in the eastern Caribbean (east of 80° W) using a series of Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) images collected between November 1978 and December 1982. Five additional images were examined for the period 1983-1986. The images revealed a seasonal cycle in the spatial structure of near-surface pigment. During January-May, there were high pigment concentrations (> 0.5 mg m -3) along the continental margin (south of 14°N), where upwelling occurred. Very little pigment (< 0.2 mg m -3) was found in the northern half of the Caribbean at this time. The frequency of upwelling-related blooms decreased after July, but the seasonally-expanding plume of the Orinoco River dispersed pigment over a large area of the Caribbean (> 3 × 10 5 km 2). This plume reached Puerto Rico around September-October and drifted westward, slowly losing its color signature. We estimate that the discharge of the Orinoco contributes 2-12% of the daily nitrogen requirements of the phytoplankton growing in the river plume, and leads to the fixation of 7-29 × 10 5 tons of carbon per year. The rest of the nitrogen demand appears to be met by nitrogen cycling. The large-scale (> 100 km) pigment distribution patterns in the Caribbean Sea seem to be controlled by wind stress, flux of water through the basin, and river discharge. Westward advection of Atlantic water probably dominates the flow during the first half of the year, restricting the dispersal of blooms to the southern half of the Caribbean while flushing the central and northern portions. As the influx of Atlantic water decreases in the second half of the year, local Ekman

  3. Focused study of interweaving hazards across the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, John J.; Mattioli, Glen S.; Calais, Eric; Carlson, David; Dixon, Timothy H.; Jackson, Michael E.; Kursinski, E. Robert; Mora-Paez, Hector; Miller, M. Meghan; Pandya, Rajul; Robertson, Richard; Wang, Guoquan

    2012-02-01

    The Caribbean is a region of lush vegetation, beaches, active volcanoes, and significant mountain ranges, all of which create a natural aesthetic that is recognized globally. Yet these very same features, molded through geological, oceanic, and atmospheric processes, also pose natural hazards for the developing countries in the Caribbean. The rise in population density, migration to coastal areas, and substandard building practices, combined with the threat of natural hazards, put the region's human population at risk for particularly devastating disasters. These demographic and social characteristics exist against a backdrop of the threat of an evolving climate, which produces a more vigorous hurricane environment and a rising average sea level.

  4. Current research on transcultural psychiatry in the Anglophone Caribbean: epistemological, public policy, and epidemiological challenges.

    PubMed

    Hickling, Frederick W; Gibson, Roger C; Hutchinson, Gerard

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we review recent research on mental health in the Caribbean. Three major themes emerge: (a) the effects of colonialism on the Caribbean psyche; (b) decolonization of psychiatric public policy, including innovative treatment approaches, deinstitutionalization, and community and policy responses to mental health issues; and (c) the nature and epidemiology of psychiatric pathology among contemporary Caribbean people, with particular focus on migration, genetic versus social causation of psychosis and personality disorders, and mechanisms of resilience and social capital. Caribbean transcultural psychiatry illustrates the principles of equipoise unique to developing countries that protect the wellness and continued survival of postcolonial Caribbean people.

  5. Is there evidence for Cretaceous-Tertiary boundary-age deep-water deposits in the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keller, G.; MacLeod, N.; Lyons, J. B.; Officer, C. B.

    1993-09-01

    Over most of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean a hiatus is present between the lower upper Maastrichtian and lowermost Tertiary deposits; sedimentation resumed ˜200 ka (upper zone Pla) after the K-T boundary. Current-bedded volcaniclastic sedimentary rocks at Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) Sites 536 and 540, which were previously interpreted as impact-generated megawave deposits of K-T boundary age, are biostratigraphically of pre-K-T boundary age and probably represent turbidite or gravity-How deposits. The top 10 to 20 cm of this deposit at Site 536 contains very rare Micula prinsii, the uppermost Maastrichtian index taxon, as well as low values of Ir (0.6 pbb) and rare Ni-rich spinels. These indicate possible reworking of sediments of K-T boundary age at the hiatus. Absence of continuous sediment accumulation across the K-T boundary in the 16 Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean sections examined prevents their providing evidence of impact-generated megawave deposits in this region. Our study indicates that the most complete trans-K-T stratigraphic records may be found in onshore marine sections of Mexico, Cuba, and Haiti. The stratigraphic records of these areas should be investigated further for evidence of impact deposits.

  6. Which Fishers are Satisfied in the Caribbean? A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction Among Caribbean Lobster Fishers.

    PubMed

    Monnereau, Iris; Pollnac, Richard

    2012-10-01

    Lobster fishing (targeting the spiny lobster Panulirus argus) is an important economic activity throughout the Wider Caribbean Region both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. Due to the high unit prices of the product, international lobster trade provides a way to improve the livelihoods of fisheries-dependent populations. The specie harvested is identical throughout the region and end market prices are roughly similar. In this paper we wish to investigate to which extent lobster fishers' job satisfaction differs in three countries in the Caribbean and how these differences can be explained by looking at the national governance arrangements.

  7. Cenozoic tectonic and sedimentary development of the North American-Caribbean transform boundary

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, P.; Debalko, D.; Grote, D.; Tyburski, S. )

    1990-05-01

    The North American-Caribbean plate boundary consists of strike-slip deformation extending 3,200 km from the Middle American volcanic arc in western Guatemala to the northern Lesser Antilles. The authors have reconstructed the complex sedimentary and tectonic evolution of this zone over the past 65 m.y. by integration of onshore geologic data and offshore geophysical data. Onshore geologic data consists mainly of detailed structural maps and biostratigraphic studies from uplifted sedimentary basins in Hispaniola and Jamaica. Offshore data consists of single and multichannel seismic profiles and side-scan sonar maps. Both onshore and offshore data have been synthesized into a set of computer-based, paleogeographic maps for the following Cenozoic periods: late Paleocene, middle Eocene, late Oligocene, early Miocene, late Miocene, Pliocene, and Holocene. These data allow them to generalize the tectonic evolution of the boundary into three stages. Stage 1: Paleocene to early Eocene rifting and bimodal volcanism associated with formation of the Cayman Trough pullapart basin. Nonmarine to shallow marine sedimentation was controlled by northwest-northeast-striking normal faults formed at a high angle to the direction of plate motion. Stage 2: middle Eocene to early Miocene strike-slip faulting across a broad, California Borderlands-type margin. Shallow marine to marine sedimentation was controlled by strike-slip faults parallel or at a low angle to the direction of plate motion. Stage 3: middle Miocene to present strike-slip faulting along a single major fault. Deep-marine sedimentation was controlled by a major strike-slip fault scarp formed approximately parallel to the direction of plate motion over most of the length of the boundary. Eustatic sea level effects are recognizable in all three stages.

  8. Palaeo-tsunami in the southern Caribbean: clarity through new geological archives?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, M.; Brückner, H.; Messenzehl, K.; Frenzel, P.; Wennrich, V.; May, S. M.; Daut, G.; Willershäuser, T.; Scheffers, A.; Scheffers, S.; Vött, A.; Kelletat, D.

    2010-12-01

    A general lack of accounts of palaeo-tsunami deposits in back barrier environments throughout the Caribbean and diverging and conflicting interpretation of onshore coarse-clast deposits and landforms on the Leeward Netherlands Antilles (Bonaire, Curaçao, Aruba) encouraged the investigation of coastal stratigraphies along the coast of Bonaire. This work was conducted in order to (i) identify overwash deposits and reconstruct the regional history of high-energy wave events and (ii) provide a scientific basis for local hazard assessment. Vibracores and push cores at the windward (Playa Grandi, Lagun) and leeward coast (Saliña Tam, Klein Bonaire) were analyzed in terms of sedimentary characteristics, geochemical composition and fossil content. The coring sites in exposure to wave energy, foreshore morphology, sediment budgets, relief gradient and vegetation cover. Accordingly the pattern of subsurface overwash deposits varies significantly from site to site depending on exposure direction. For instance, although a prominent layer of sand and shell debris identified at the Lagun embayment (2000-1700 BP) has a counterpart at the sheltered lagoon of Saliña Tam, it is obviously absent at the northern coast. Along the entire island major layers of extreme wave deposits were radiocarbon dated to around 3300 BP, 2000-1700 BP and >500 BP. Sedimentary characteristics, bedforms and geochemical signatures did not provide unequivocal evidence for either tsunami or hurricane storm surge. However, evidence from the taphonomic characteristics of mollusc shells (articulation, fragmentation, rounding, encrustations, abrasion/dissolution) found within candidate coarse sediment layers and by comparison with the marginal sediment input of recent category 4/5 hurricane storm surges, the deposits were classified as representatives for palaeo-tsunami events.

  9. Racial and Ego Identity Development in Black Caribbean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses among 255 Black Caribbean college students in the Northeast United States. Findings indicated that racial identity attitudes were predictive of ego identity statuses. Specifically, preencounter racial identity attitudes were predictive of lower scores…

  10. Caribbean Crazy Ants and their look-alikes in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Caribbean crazy ant (Nylanderia pubens) continues to grow as a nuisance pest problem in Florida. Homeowners and pest management professionals alike have difficulty in controlling the huge populations that can occur on infested properties. Key to dealing with any pest ant problem is to identify...

  11. Immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean: A Socioeconomic Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumbaut, Ruben G.

    This paper seeks to make sense of the new diversity in the United States, with a focus on immigrants from Latin America and the Caribbean. Some key facts and figures about contemporary immigrants are presented, looking at their patterns of settlement and comparing their distinctive social and economic characteristics to major U.S. racial-ethnic…

  12. Graduate Programmes in Educational Administration: The Commonwealth Caribbean and Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olembo, Jotham Ombisi

    The availability and characteristics of graduate programs in educational administration offered by universities in African and Caribbean countries belonging to the Commonwealth are summarized in this paper. The programs reviewed are offered by universities in the West Indies, Guyana, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Kenya, and Nigeria. The paper notes that…

  13. Women of the World: Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaney, Elsa M.

    The first in a series of five handbooks designed to present and analyze statistical data on women in various regions of the world, this handbook focuses on women in 21 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean. Beginning with an overview of population characteristics of the regions, the analysis continues with a description of women's literacy…

  14. Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this publication contains a background paper, "The Health and Socioeconomic Situation of Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean" (Sennott-Miller). Part II includes and introduction and the following presentations: "Opening Statement" (Crooks); "Empowering Older Women: An Agenda for the…

  15. Solar energy and conservation technologies for Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The primary objectives of the Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF) project were to develop and publish materials and conduct workshops on solar energy and conservation technologies that would directly address the needs and interests of tourist facilities in the Caribbean basin. Past contacts with the Caribbean and US tourist industries indicated that decision-makers remained unconvinced that renewable technologies could have a significant impact on development and operation costs or that renewable energy products and services suited their needs. In order to assure that the materials and programs developed were responsive to the Caribbean tourist industry and U.S. conservation and renewable energy industries, marketing research with potential end users and the organizations and associations that serve those users was included as an underlying task in the project. The tasks outlined in the CTF Statement of Work included conference planning, gathering of field data, development of educational materials, and conduct of workshop(s). In addition to providing a chronicle of the fulfillment of those tasks, this final report includes suggestions for distributing the documents developed during the project, venues for future workshops, and other technology transfer and market influence strategies.

  16. Education Theory and Practice: Caribbean Perspectives (Second Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony, Ed.

    Chapters in this collection provide the perspectives of Caribbean educators on a variety of issues related to the theory and practice of education. Section 1, "Professional Development," contains these chapters: (1) "Is There Still Room for the Model Teacher?" (Sonia Jones); (2) "Using an In-Service Programme To Develop as…

  17. On Afro-American and Afro-Caribbean Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Clement G. B.

    1980-01-01

    Cites negative stereotypes and cultural differences as barriers to unity among Black Americans and immigrants from the Caribbean islands. Calls for political unity of the two groups, based on the fact that they are perceived and discriminated against as one by the dominant White majority. (GC)

  18. Education Theory and Practice: Caribbean Perspectives (Second Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony, Ed.

    Chapters in this collection provide the perspectives of Caribbean educators on a variety of issues related to the theory and practice of education. Section 1, "Professional Development," contains these chapters: (1) "Is There Still Room for the Model Teacher?" (Sonia Jones); (2) "Using an In-Service Programme To Develop as…

  19. Red Palm Mite Situation in the Caribbean and Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The red palm mite (Raoiella indica Hirst Tenuipalpidae), a pest of coconuts and ornamental palms in Asia and Africa, was reported in the Caribbean in 2004. By 2008, it had spread to at least twelve islands, two counties in Florida and to Venezuela. Red palm mite causes yellowing and leaf necrosis wi...

  20. Unexpected evolutionary diversity in a recently extinct Caribbean mammal radiation.

    PubMed

    Brace, Selina; Turvey, Samuel T; Weksler, Marcelo; Hoogland, Menno L P; Barnes, Ian

    2015-05-22

    Identifying general patterns of colonization and radiation in island faunas is often hindered by past human-caused extinctions. The insular Caribbean is one of the only complex oceanic-type island systems colonized by land mammals, but has witnessed the globally highest level of mammalian extinction during the Holocene. Using ancient DNA analysis, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of one of the Caribbean's now-extinct major mammal groups, the insular radiation of oryzomyine rice rats. Despite the significant problems of recovering DNA from prehistoric tropical archaeological material, it was possible to identify two discrete Late Miocene colonizations of the main Lesser Antillean island chain from mainland South America by oryzomyine lineages that were only distantly related. A high level of phylogenetic diversification was observed within oryzomyines across the Lesser Antilles, even between allopatric populations on the same island bank. The timing of oryzomyine colonization is closely similar to the age of several other Caribbean vertebrate taxa, suggesting that geomorphological conditions during the Late Miocene facilitated broadly simultaneous overwater waif dispersal of many South American lineages to the Lesser Antilles. These data provide an important baseline by which to further develop the Caribbean as a unique workshop for studying island evolution. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Regional variation in Caribbean dry forest tree species composition

    Treesearch

    Janet Franklin; Julie Ripplinger; Ethan H. Freid; Humfredo Marcano-Vega; David W. Steadman

    2015-01-01

    How does tree species composition vary in relation to geographical and environmental gradients in a globally rare tropical/subtropical broadleaf dry forest community in the Caribbean? We analyzed data from 153 Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) plots from Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), along with 42 plots that we sampled in the Bahamian Archipelago (...

  2. Solar energy and conservation technologies for Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF) project were to develop and publish materials and conduct workshops on solar energy and conservation technologies that would directly address the needs and interests of tourist facilities in the Caribbean basin. Past contacts with the Caribbean and US tourist industries indicated that decision-makers remained unconvinced that renewable technologies could have a significant impact on development and operation costs or that renewable energy products and services suited their needs. In order to assure that the materials and programs developed were responsive to the Caribbean tourist industry and US conservation and renewable energy industries, marketing research with potential end users and the organizations and associations that serve those users was included as an underlying task in the project. The tasks outlined in the CTF Statement of Work included conference planning, gathering of field data, development of educational materials, and conduct of workshop(s). In addition to providing a chronicle of the fulfillment of those tasks, this final report includes suggestions for distributing the documents developed during the project, venues for future workshops, and other technology transfer and market influence strategies. 3 refs.

  3. Rethinking Education for the Caribbean: A Radical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jules, Didacus

    2008-01-01

    The article reflects critically on the experience of the Caribbean Anglophone countries (CARICOM) in reforming their education systems to meet the challenges of the present era. It argues that education reform in the current conjuncture can no longer be incremental and that what is required is a fundamental rethinking of educational provision.…

  4. Educating the Special Child in the Caribbean and Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Stowe State Coll., St. Louis, MO. Teacher Education Dept.

    This paper represents the perspectives of 25 special education teacher scholarship students from 13 Caribbean and Central American countries (Barbados, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nevis, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Dominica, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Jamaica, Grenada, and Antigua) on the status of special education in their…

  5. Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this publication contains a background paper, "The Health and Socioeconomic Situation of Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean" (Sennott-Miller). Part II includes and introduction and the following presentations: "Opening Statement" (Crooks); "Empowering Older Women: An Agenda for the…

  6. The Educational Experience of Afro-Caribbean Student Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmore, Keiana; Vazquez-Montilla, Elia; Greene, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    The following article summarizes a research study which involved an investigation of the educational experiences of Afro-Caribbean student immigrants who were academically successful in the United States (U.S.). Although immigrants of African descent experience barriers such as immigrant status and racial minority status which leads to a double…

  7. 76 FR 10562 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... (former Pierre Hotel), De Diego Avenue, Santurce, Puerto Rico. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 268 Mu oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00918-1920..., 268 Mu oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00918-1920, telephone: (787) 766-5926,...

  8. Caribbean dry forest networking: an opportunity for conservation

    Treesearch

    K. Banda-Rodriguez; J. Weintritt; R.T. Pennington

    2016-01-01

    Seasonally dry tropical forest is the most threatened tropical forest in the world. Though its overall plant species diversity is lower than in neighboring biomes such as rain forest, species endemism can be high, and its conservation has often been neglected. Caribbean dry forests face diverse threats including tourism, agriculture, and climate change. The Latin...

  9. 77 FR 33601 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... President of the United States of America A Proclamation Individuals and families from Caribbean countries have journeyed to America's shores for centuries. Some were brought here against their will in the bonds of slavery. Some immigrated to America as children, clutching a parent's hand. Others came as...

  10. 75 FR 32081 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our Nation is linked to the Caribbean by our... Month, we pay tribute to the diverse cultures and immeasurable contributions of all Americans who trace... preserved the promise of America for future generations. During the month of June, we also honor the bonds...

  11. Racial and Ego Identity Development in Black Caribbean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses among 255 Black Caribbean college students in the Northeast United States. Findings indicated that racial identity attitudes were predictive of ego identity statuses. Specifically, preencounter racial identity attitudes were predictive of lower scores…

  12. On Afro-American and Afro-Caribbean Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Clement G. B.

    1980-01-01

    Cites negative stereotypes and cultural differences as barriers to unity among Black Americans and immigrants from the Caribbean islands. Calls for political unity of the two groups, based on the fact that they are perceived and discriminated against as one by the dominant White majority. (GC)

  13. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, C.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  14. Rethinking Education for the Caribbean: A Radical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jules, Didacus

    2008-01-01

    The article reflects critically on the experience of the Caribbean Anglophone countries (CARICOM) in reforming their education systems to meet the challenges of the present era. It argues that education reform in the current conjuncture can no longer be incremental and that what is required is a fundamental rethinking of educational provision.…

  15. Pursuing CPD in the Caribbean: Individual Quest versus Organizational Goal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gosine-Boodoo, Meerabai; Mc Nish, Mark

    2009-01-01

    This study explores Caribbean librarians' perceptions on continuing professional development (CPD) as it relates to employer support, personal interest and motivation. CPD literature was reviewed and a questionnaire designed. Hypotheses were tested based upon the following questions: do clearly defined CPD policies motivate librarians to pursue…

  16. Achievement of Black Caribbean Pupils: Good Practice in Lambeth Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demie, Feyisa

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research article is to investigate how pupils from Black Caribbean backgrounds are helped to achieve high standards in British schools and to identify a number of significant common themes for success in raising the achievement. It draws evidence of good practice from 13 case study schools in the local education authority (LEA).…

  17. Nature and Needs of Educational Administration in the Commonwealth Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Errol

    Education in general and educational administration in particular are functions of the interplay of social, political, and economic forces operative in society. Although the Commonwealth Caribbean consists of 16 unique and sovereign nations, these nations are sufficiently similar socially, culturally, politically, and economically to permit this…

  18. The Case of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palacio, Jairo

    1993-01-01

    Reviews the history of population education programs in Latin America and the Caribbean from 1970 to 1992 and changes in fertility, mortality, and migration during that period. Considers issues such as government styles and motivations, staff shortages, cooperation among administrators, teacher training, distance education, and new management…

  19. Freshwater resources in the insular Caribbean: an environmental perspective

    Treesearch

    T. Heartsill Scalley

    2012-01-01

    From islands with no permanent flowing streams to those with navigable inland waters, the insular Caribbean contains a great range of conditions regarding the access to freshwater resources. Because of the variation in topography and size, the ability of islands to retain freshwater also varies widely. The usage of freshwater in this region is being led by two major...

  20. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  1. Amblyomma variegatum ticks and heartwater on three Caribbean Islands.

    PubMed

    Vachiéry, Nathalie; Jeffery, Helena; Pegram, Rupert; Aprelon, Rosalie; Pinarello, Valérie; Kandassamy, Ranleen Lloyd Yane; Raliniaina, Modestine; Molia, Sophie; Savage, Hazel; Alexander, Randolph; Frebling, Mathieu; Martinez, Dominique; Lefrançois, Thierry

    2008-12-01

    Amblyomma variegatum tick infestation, tick infection by Ehrlichia ruminantium (ER), and ER genetic diversity were studied in the Caribbean Islands of Guadeloupe, Marie-Galante, and Antigua between 2003 and 2005. Nested PCR for pCS20 was used to detect ER, while ER strains were characterized by sequencing or by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) profiles of map-1 PCR products. In 2003 in Guadeloupe, the prevalence of tick-infested herds was 35.6%. In Marie-Galante 79.1% of herds in 2003 and 73.8% in 2005 were infested, while only an average of 2.2% of the herds were infected in Antigua between this same period. In Marie-Galante, 19.1% of ticks were ER positive, and ER-infected ticks were found in 33.3% of the herds. In Antigua only 5.8% of the ticks were ER positive. High ER tick infection rate combined with a very high level of tick infestation highlight the risk of heartwater in Marie-Galante and Guadeloupe more than in Antigua. The three islands still represent a reservoir for tick and heartwater in the Caribbean. Nine different African and Caribbean map-1 ER genotypes were identified. This diversity was observed even in restricted areas, and identical map-1 genotypes were observed on all three islands. This high genetic diversity of ER strains suggests that there was a simultaneous introduction of several strains from African countries into the Caribbean region.

  2. The Current Status of Prison Education in Some Caribbean States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, Bradley

    1997-01-01

    Discusses a study of prison education in six Caribbean states (Dominica, St. Lucia, Barbados, St. Vincent, Grenada, Trinidad), looks at how the programs fit into United Nations rules for treating prisoners, and makes recommendations for the improvement of those programs. (JOW)

  3. The Educational Experience of Afro-Caribbean Student Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desmore, Keiana; Vazquez-Montilla, Elia; Greene, Jackie

    2016-01-01

    The following article summarizes a research study which involved an investigation of the educational experiences of Afro-Caribbean student immigrants who were academically successful in the United States (U.S.). Although immigrants of African descent experience barriers such as immigrant status and racial minority status which leads to a double…

  4. The Teacher as a Professional in the Caribbean Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    The changing patterns of Caribbean society have affected and will continue to influence the concept of professionalism as it is applied to teaching. Teachers' organizations should promote the professional development of their members, as implied through acceptance of standards of personal conduct, competence on the job, and commitment to student…

  5. Oraliteracy and Textual Opacity: Resisting Metropolitan Consumption of Caribbean Creole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheller, Mimi

    2004-01-01

    The incorporation of "creole" vernacular languages into texts written in "standard" languages is an especially fraught crossroads of intercultural communication. This article considers the difference between a kind of literary tourism in which non-Caribbean readers "taste" the flavour of creole language within…

  6. Cultural Inversion in Afro-Caribbean Children in the Netherlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kromhout, Mariska; Vedder, Paul

    1996-01-01

    The applicability of Ogbu's theory of cultural inversion to so-called involuntary minorities in the Netherlands is examined. Some features of cultural inversion were found in the Afro-Caribbean children, but the role of a culture of resistance remains unclear. It is suggested that Ogbu's theory needs elaboration and differentiation. (Author/MMU)

  7. Dusty air masses transport between Amazon Basin and Caribbean Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Euphrasie-Clotilde, Lovely; Molinie, Jack; Prospero, Joseph; Feuillard, Tony; Brute, Francenor; Jeannot, Alexis

    2015-04-01

    Depend on the month, African desert dust affect different parts of the North Atlantic Ocean. From December to April, Saharan dust outbreaks are often reported over the amazon basin and from May to November over the Caribbean islands and the southern regions of USA. This annual oscillation of Saharan dust presence, related to the ITCZ position, is perturbed some time, during March. Indeed, over Guadeloupe, the air quality network observed between 2007 and 2012 several dust events during March. In this paper, using HISPLIT back trajectories, we analyzed air masses trajectories for March dust events observed in Guadeloupe, from 2007 to 2012.We observed that the high pressure positions over the Atlantic Ocean allow the transport of dusty air masses from southern region of West Africa to the Caribbean Sea with a path crossing close to coastal region of French Guyana. Complementary investigations including the relationship between PM10 concentrations recorded in two sites Pointe-a-Pitre in the Caribbean, and Cayenne in French Guyana, have been done. Moreover we focus on the mean delay observed between the times arrival. All the results show a link between pathway of dusty air masses present over amazon basin and over the Caribbean region during several event of March. The next step will be the comparison of mineral dust composition for this particular month.

  8. 77 FR 40587 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    .... ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Doubletree by Hilton San Juan Hotel, 105 De Diego Avenue, San... oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00918-1920, telephone: (787) 766-5926..., Executive Director, Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 268 Mu oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San Juan...

  9. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  10. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, C.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  11. Migration as an Agent of Change in Caribbean Island Ecosystems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Dawn

    1982-01-01

    There is need to assess the impact of migration on the Caribbean ecosystems. As a 150-year-old institution, emigration is related to the carrying capacity of the islands and the need to export the surplus population when capacity is threatened. Emigration, however, is a deterrent to development and individual independence. (KC)

  12. Migration as an Agent of Change in Caribbean Island Ecosystems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Dawn

    1982-01-01

    There is need to assess the impact of migration on the Caribbean ecosystems. As a 150-year-old institution, emigration is related to the carrying capacity of the islands and the need to export the surplus population when capacity is threatened. Emigration, however, is a deterrent to development and individual independence. (KC)

  13. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  14. 78 FR 68818 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council... Model for Socio-Economic Considerations in Closed Seasons to Comply With ACL --Discussion...

  15. 76 FR 2672 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-14

    ... educational workshop, ``Exploring Tools for Improving Management of Data Poor Stocks.'' The intent of this... will be an educational forum to discuss data collection and management for data poor stocks. The 2006... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 068-XA145 Caribbean Fishery Management Council;...

  16. Unexpected evolutionary diversity in a recently extinct Caribbean mammal radiation

    PubMed Central

    Brace, Selina; Turvey, Samuel T.; Weksler, Marcelo; Hoogland, Menno L. P.; Barnes, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Identifying general patterns of colonization and radiation in island faunas is often hindered by past human-caused extinctions. The insular Caribbean is one of the only complex oceanic-type island systems colonized by land mammals, but has witnessed the globally highest level of mammalian extinction during the Holocene. Using ancient DNA analysis, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of one of the Caribbean's now-extinct major mammal groups, the insular radiation of oryzomyine rice rats. Despite the significant problems of recovering DNA from prehistoric tropical archaeological material, it was possible to identify two discrete Late Miocene colonizations of the main Lesser Antillean island chain from mainland South America by oryzomyine lineages that were only distantly related. A high level of phylogenetic diversification was observed within oryzomyines across the Lesser Antilles, even between allopatric populations on the same island bank. The timing of oryzomyine colonization is closely similar to the age of several other Caribbean vertebrate taxa, suggesting that geomorphological conditions during the Late Miocene facilitated broadly simultaneous overwater waif dispersal of many South American lineages to the Lesser Antilles. These data provide an important baseline by which to further develop the Caribbean as a unique workshop for studying island evolution. PMID:25904660

  17. Heritage, Identity and Belonging: African Caribbean Students and Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of Caribbean cultural under-representation in school art departments. It argues that diasporic subjects are not seen and their cultures not recognised precisely because their contributions to the way we live are indivisible from the mainstream. This in contradistinction to some groups whose cultures and heritages…

  18. Mesoscale Variability of the Caribbean Sea from GEOSAT

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    Archipielago de San Andres con base en los Cruceros OCEANO. submitted to the Boletin Cientifico CIOH, January 1990. Atwood, D.K., P.N. Froelich, M.E.Q...Roemmich, D., Circulation of the Caribbean Sea: A well-resolved inverse problem. Journal of Geophysical Research, V.86 ( C9 ), 7993-8005, September 1981

  19. Dust and Air Quality Forecasting in the Eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sealy, A. M.; Reyes, A.; Farrell, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Significant amounts of dust travel across the northern tropical Atlantic to the Caribbean every year from the Sahara region. These dust concentrations in the Caribbean often exceed United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for particulate matter of 2.5 microns or less (PM 2.5) which could have serious implications for human health in the region. Air pollution has become a major issue in the Caribbean because of urban development, increased vehicle emissions and growing industrialisation. However, the majority of territories in the Caribbean do not have routine air quality monitoring programmes and several do not have or enforce air quality standards for PM2.5 and PM10. As a result, the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH) has taken the initiative to provide dust and air quality forecasts for the Eastern Caribbean using the advanced WRF-Chem modeling system. The applications of the WRF-Chem modelling system at CIMH that are currently being focused on are the coupled weather prediction/dispersion model to simulate the release and transport of constituents, especially Saharan dust transport and concentration; and as a coupled weather/dispersion/air quality model with full interaction of chemical species with prediction of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). This will include future applications in the prediction of ozone (O3) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation as well as examining dust radiative forcing and effects on atmospheric precipitation and dynamics. The simulations are currently initialised at 00Z for a seven day forecast and run at 36 km resolution with a planned second domain (at 12 km) for air quality forecasts. Preliminary results from this study will be presented and compared to other dust forecast models currently used in other regions. This work also complements in situ measurements at Ragged Point, Barbados (oldest dust record since 1965), Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana and Puerto Rico. The goal of this study

  20. Educating and Preparing for Tsunamis in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Aliaga, B.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Caribbean and Adjacent Regions has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 75 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Just since 1842, 3446 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million, over 40 million visitors a year and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along its shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. The only way to survive a tsunami is to get out of harm's way before the waves strike. In the Caribbean given the relatively short distances from faults, potential submarine landslides and volcanoes to some of the coastlines, the tsunamis are likely to be short fused, so it is imperative that tsunami warnings be issued extremely quickly and people be educated on how to recognize and respond. Nevertheless, given that tsunamis occur infrequently as compared with hurricanes, it is a challenge for them to receive the priority they require in order to save lives when the next one strikes the region. Close cooperation among countries and territories is required for warning, but also for education and public awareness. Geographical vicinity and spoken languages need to be factored in when developing tsunami preparedness in the Caribbean, to make sure citizens receive a clear, reliable and sound science based message about the hazard and the risk. In 2006, in the wake of the Indian Ocean tsunami and after advocating without success for a Caribbean Tsunami Warning System since the mid 90's, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO established the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). Its purpose is to advance an end to end tsunami

  1. Shifting baselines and the extinction of the Caribbean monk seal.

    PubMed

    Baisre, Julio A

    2013-10-01

    The recent extinction of the Caribbean monk seal Monachus tropicalis has been considered an example of a human-caused extinction in the marine environment, and this species was considered a driver of the changes that have occurred in the structure of Caribbean coral reef ecosystems since colonial times. I searched archaeological records, historical data, and geographic names (used as a proxy of the presence of seals) and evaluated the use and quality of these data to conclude that since prehistoric times the Caribbean monk seal was always rare and vulnerable to human predation. This finding supports the hypothesis that in AD 1500, the Caribbean monk seal persisted as a small fragmented population in which individuals were confined to small keys, banks, or isolated islands in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. This hypothesis is contrary to the assumption that the species was widespread and abundant historically. The theory that the main driver of monk seal extinction was harvesting for its oil for use in the sugar cane industry of Jamaica during the 18th century is based primarily on anecdotal information and is overemphasized in the literature. An analysis of reported human encounters with this species indicates monk seal harvest was an occasional activity, rather than an ongoing enterprise. Nevertheless, given the rarity of this species and its restricted distribution, even small levels of hunting or specimen collecting must have contributed to its extinction, which was confirmed in the mid-20th century. Some sources had been overlooked or only partially reviewed, others misinterpreted, and a considerable amount of anecdotal information had been uncritically used. Critical examination of archaeological and historical records is required to infer accurate estimations of the historical abundance of a species. In reconstructing the past to address the shifting baseline syndrome, it is important to avoid selecting evidence to confirm modern prejudices.

  2. Curie point depth estimation of the Eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Andreina; Orihuela Guevara, Nuris

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we present an estimation of the Curie point depth (CPD) on the Eastern Caribbean. The estimation of the CPD was done from satellite magnetic anomalies, by the application of the Centroid method over the studied area. In order to calculate the CPD, the area was subdivided in square windows of side equal to 2°, with an overlap distance of 1° to each other. As result of this research, it was obtained the Curie isotherm grid by using kriging interpolation method. Despite of the oceanic nature of the Eastern Caribbean plate, this map reveals important lateral variations in the interior of the plate and its boundaries. The lateral variations observed in CPD are related with the complexity of thermal processes in the subsurface of the region. From a global perspective, the earth's oceanic provinces show a CPD's smooth behavior, excepting plate boundaries of these oceanic provinces. In this case, the Eastern Caribbean plate's CPD variations are related to both: Plate's boundaries and plate's interior. The maximum CPD variations are observed in the southern boundary of Caribbean plate (9 to 35 km) and over the Lesser Antilles and Barbados prism (16 to 30 km). This behavior reflects the complex geologic evolution history of the studied area, in which has been documented the presence of extensive mantle of basalt and dolerite sills. These sills have been originated in various cycles of cretaceous mantle activity, and have been the main cause of the oceanic crust's thickening in the interior of the Caribbean plate. At the same time, this thickening of the oceanic plate explains the existence of a Mohorovičić discontinuity, with an average depth greater than other regions of the planet, with slight irregularities related to highs of the ocean floor (Nicaragua and Beata Crests, Aves High) but not similar to the magnitude of lateral variations revealed by the Curie isotherm map.

  3. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-08-02

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of different

  4. Marine Biodiversity in the Caribbean: Regional Estimates and Distribution Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela – Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of

  5. Curie point depth in Venezuela and the Eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaiz-Rodríguez, Mariano S.; Orihuela, Nuris

    2013-04-01

    We estimate the Curie point depth (CPD) variations of Venezuela (continental crust, South American plate) and the Eastern Caribbean (oceanic crust, Caribbean Plate) by using spectral analysis of the magnetic anomalies, extracted from the 2010 Enhanced Magnetic Model (EMM2010), available at the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). To test the reliability of the spectral content of this model, for a small region, we compare he CPD derived from the EMM2010 against the one from aeromagnetic data. We also compile heat flow data from previous studies to correlate them with the CPD lateral variations. The estimations show that the CPD in Venezuela and the Eastern Caribbean ranges between 54 and 17 km. The mean depth value within the continental crust is around 38 km. On the Guayana Shield, it has a mean value of 42 km and reaches a maximum of 54 km. As the Moho depth is at most 50 km, the upper mantle beneath the craton is magnetized. Continental lateral variations appear to be linked to the isostatic state and age of the different provinces, and mark the limit between the Precambrian and the Paleozoic provinces. The Maracaibo Basin is revealed as a thermally stable one with a constant CPD, while the Eastern Venezuela Basin is thermally affected. Most of the Eastern Caribbean seems stable, with a large non-perturbed area with a mean CPD value of 23 km. As the crustal thickness is at most 20 km, the isotherm is located within the upper mantle. A CPD minimum located on the Lesser Antilles arc is concentrated in its northern part, and can be related to the subduction zone that is most active. Finally, a shallow area within the Eastern Caribbean corresponds to the thin crust region in the Venezuela Basin, although it might be linked to mantle dynamics.

  6. An anthropological genetic perspective on Creolization in the Anglophone Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Torres, Jada Benn; Stone, Anne C; Kittles, Rick

    2013-05-01

    Variable socio-cultural influences developed in the colonial Caribbean as a result of competing European hegemonic rule. In this study, we examine how colonial regulations regarding social hierarchies and mate choice worked to influence the genetic landscape of contemporary African Caribbean populations. To this end, 420 individuals from Dominica, Grenada, St. Kitts, St. Lucia, St. Thomas, St. Vincent, Jamaica, and Trinidad were genotyped for 105 autosomal ancestry informative markers. Based on these data, population substructure and admixture were assessed using an exact test, a model-based clustering method, and principal components analysis. On average, individual admixture estimates of the pooled African Caribbean sample were 77% (SD ± 18%) West African, 15% (SD ± 15%) European, and 7.7% (SD ± 8%) Native American. In general, ancestry estimates were significantly different between Dominica and all other islands. Genetic structure analyses indicated subdivision into two subpopulations on most islands. Finally, unlike all of the other Caribbean populations that clustered adjacent to African populations, the Dominican population was more intermediate between the three parental groups in the principal components plot. As a result of the significant French influence throughout Dominican history, Dominica did not have the same cultural influences that typified other Anglophone colonies. Consequently, there were different social hierarchies and resulting mate choices on Dominica compared with the other considered islands. This study highlights the complex socio-cultural history of a broad region of the Caribbean and attests to the interplay between social and biological factors in shaping the genetic diversity present in present-day communities.

  7. Seafaring Capabilities in the Pre-Columbian Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzpatrick, Scott M.

    2013-06-01

    At historic contact Europeans remarked on the skill and proficiency of native Caribbean Amerindians to build and travel in dugout canoes. While archaeological examples of these have been recorded throughout the circum-Caribbean, very few exist in the Antillean chain of islands. Despite this deficiency, indirect evidence of seafaring along with archaeological data has suggested to many that the sea was an artery that linked prehistoric communities together between islands and continents through exchange networks and settlement `lifelines'. It is clear that frequent interaction was taking place prehistorically in the region, but examination of seafaring capabilities and the general lack of hard archaeological evidence for contacts in many places suggest this was largely restricted to interaction between the islands and with South America. The fact remains that seafaring in the Caribbean, as one of the smaller aquatic realms inhabited by humans in the past, was highly influenced and largely structured by oceanographic and anemological effects that limited the development of various watercraft designs and navigational techniques which are seen in many of the other world's seas and oceans. In this paper I: (1) synthesize what is currently known about the antiquity and development of early seafaring in the Caribbean; (2) highlight debates about the level of technologies found in the region; (3) discuss how environmental conditions likely influenced seafaring capabilities and settlement patterns; (4) outline the possible evidence for connections between the different surrounding mainland areas; and (5) provide a comparison with seafaring technologies found in the Pacific to help contextualize the Caribbean into the broader context of global seafaring.

  8. Late Neogene benthic stable isotope record of ODP Site 999: Implications for Caribbean paleoceanography, organic carbon burial and the Messininian salinity crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bickert, T.; Haug, G.; Tiedemann, R.

    2003-04-01

    The late Neogene closure of the seaway between the North and South American continents is thought to have caused extensive changes in ocean circulation and Northern Hemisphere climate. The timing and consequences of the emergence of the Isthmus of Panama for the ocean circulation have been addressed in several papers which indicate a marked reorganization of surface and deep ocean circulation starting 4.6 million years ago. However, the biogeographic development of marine faunas and floras on both sides of the Panama Isthmus suggests that the paleoceanographic changes related to the closing of the isthmus started much earlier. Furthermore, the closing history of the Panama Seaway overlaps with the tectonic evolution of other ocean gateways in the late Miocene, especially the closure of the Strait of Gibraltar, which led to a transient isolation of the Mediterranean Sea from the Atlantic Ocean, known as the Messinian Salinity Crisis. We report on epibenthic foraminiferal d18O and d13C and percentage sand records of the carbonate fraction from Caribbean ODP Site 999 (12°44´N, 78° 44´W, water depth 2828 m) spanning the interval from 8.6 to 5.3 Ma. Low epibenthic d13C values and low sand contents indicate a poorly ventilated deep Caribbean throughout the late Miocene. At this time the deep Caribbean was dominated by a nutrient-rich Southern Ocean water mass. A mostly constant d13C gradient between the Caribbean and deep Atlantic records suggests that the fluctuations in d13C reflect rather global changes in d13C of the dissolved inorganic carbon due to varying erosion of organic carbon from terrigenous soils and shelf sediments. The observed 100-ky cyclicity of epibenthic d13C is in well accordance with the variability of the terrigenous input to the equatorial Atlantic as recorded by susceptibility records of the Ceara Rise. However, some gradient changes between 6.8 and 5.6 Ma indicate a poorer ventilation of the deep Atlantic related to a reduced production of

  9. Reconstruction of multiple tectonic events in continental margins by integrated tectonostratigraphic and geochronological analysis: the Mesozoic to Paleogene Caribbean-South American interaction in northeastern Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cardona, Agustin; Montes, Camilo; Bayona, German; Valencia, Victor; Ramirez, Diego; Zapata, Sebastian; Lara, Mario; Lopez-Martinez, Margarita; Thomson, Stuart; Weber, Marion

    2013-04-01

    Although the older record and successive tectonic scenarios experienced by a continental margin is commonly fragmentary, integrated field, petrological and geochronological analysis can reconstruct the long term tectonic evolution of continental margins and characterized major controls on the orogenic style. We present new geochronological constraints from igneous and low to very low grade metasedimentary rocks from the Caribbean continental margin of northeastern Colombia (Guajira region) in order to reconstruct the different tectonic events recorded by the margin before, during and following the arc-continent collision with the front of the Caribbean plate. Zircon U-Pb LA-ICP-MS geochronology results from leucogranites associated with garnet amphibolites, tonalites and volcanic rocks that made the continental basement of northeastern Colombia reveals and Early to Middle Mesozoic tectonic activity with peaks at ca. 220-230 Ma and 170-180 Ma. This magmatic record is related to a collisional belt link to the final agglutination of Pangea and was followed by an overimposed far field back-arc setting associated to the subduction of the Pacific (Farrallon) plate under the Pangea supercontinent. Muscovite and biotite Ar-Ar geochronology from basement rocks and low grade Mesozoic metasediments also reveals the existence of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous thermal events link to the final opening of the proto-Caribbean ocean. The South American continental margin was subsequently affected by an arc-continent collisional event with the front of the Caribbean plate. This event is recorded by the growth of a Banda-type collisional melange that mixed South American continental margin sediments with mafic and ultramafic blocks of intra-oceanic arc origin, the formation of a coherent metasedimentary belt also made of South American margin sediments, and the mylonitization of the continental basement. Ar-Ar temporal constraints on the low grade metasedimentary rocks and

  10. A proposal to conduct a Caribbean plate project involving the application of space technology to the study of Caribbean geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadge, G. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The Caribbean plate project is designed to improve current understanding of geological resources and geological hazards within the Caribbean region. Models of mineral occurrence and genesis (including energy resources) on a regional scale, which contribute to nonrenewable resource investigations. Models of lithospheric stress and strain on a regional scale, which contribute to forecasting geological hazards such as earthquakes and major volcanic eruptions are developed. Geological information is synthesize, and research tools provided by space technology the study of the Earth's crust are used. The project was organized in a thematic fashion, to focus on specific geological aspects of the Caribbean plate which are considered to be key factors in developing the types of models described. The project adopts a synoptic perspective in seeking to characterize the three dimensional structure, composition, state of stress, and evolution of the entire Caribbean plate. Geological information derived from analysis of space acquired data is combined with information provided by conventional methods to obtain insight into the structure, composition, and evolution of the Earth's crust. In addition, very long baseline interferometry and laser ranging techniques, which are also based upon the use of space technology, obtain information concerning crustal motion that, in turn, provides insight into the distribution and localization of crustal stress.

  11. Which Fishers Are Satisfied in the Caribbean? A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Caribbean Lobster Fishers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnereau, Iris; Pollnac, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Lobster fishing (targeting the spiny lobster "Panulirus argus") is an important economic activity throughout the Wider Caribbean Region both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. Due to the high unit prices of the product, international lobster trade provides a…

  12. Which Fishers Are Satisfied in the Caribbean? A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Caribbean Lobster Fishers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnereau, Iris; Pollnac, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Lobster fishing (targeting the spiny lobster "Panulirus argus") is an important economic activity throughout the Wider Caribbean Region both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. Due to the high unit prices of the product, international lobster trade provides a…

  13. Internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans, US-born Caribbean Blacks, and foreign-born Caribbean Blacks.

    PubMed

    Mouzon, Dawne M; McLean, Jamila S

    2017-02-01

    The tripartite model of racism includes personally mediated racism, institutionalized racism, and the less-oft studied internalized racism. Internalized racism - or negative beliefs about one's racial group - results from cultural racism that is endemic in American society. In this project, we studied whether these negative stereotypes are associated with mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Using secondary data from the National Survey of American Life, we investigated the association between internalized racism and mental health (measured by depressive symptoms and serious psychological distress (SPD)) among these two groups. We also explored whether ethnicity/nativity and mastery moderate the association between internalized racism and mental health among African-Americans and Caribbean Blacks. Internalized racism was positively associated with depressive symptoms and SPD among all Black subgroups. However, internalized racism was a weaker predictor of SPD among foreign-born Caribbean Blacks than US-born Caribbean Blacks and US-born African-Americans. Additionally, higher mastery was protective against distress associated with internalized racism. Internalized racism is an important yet understudied determinant of mental health among Blacks. Future studies should take into account additional heterogeneity within the Black population (e.g. African-born individuals) and other potential protective mechanisms in addition to mastery (e.g. self-esteem and racial identity).

  14. Linking Terrigenous Sediment Delivery to Declines in Coral ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Worldwide coral reef conditions continue to decline despite the valuable socioeconomic benefits of these ecosystems. There is growing recognition that quantifying reefs in terms reflecting what stakeholders value is vital for comparing inherent tradeoffs among coastal management decisions. Terrestrial sediment runoff ranks high as a stressor to coral reefs and is a key concern in Puerto Rico where reefs are among the most threatened in the Caribbean. This research aimed to identify the degree to which sediment runoff impacts production of coral reef ecosystem services and the potential for watershed management actions to improve these services. Ecosystem service production functions were applied to map and translate metrics of ecological reef condition into ecosystem service production under a gradient of increasing sediment delivery. We found that higher sediment delivery decreased provisioning of most ecosystem services, including ecosystem integrity, bioprospecting discovery, and reef-based recreational opportunities and fisheries production. However, shoreline protection and services with a strong contribution from non-reef habitats (e.g., mangroves, seagrasses) were higher in locations with high sediment delivery, although there was a strong inshore effect suggesting the influence of distance to shore, depth, and inshore habitats. Differences among services may indicate potential tradeoffs and the need to consider habitat connectivity, nursery habitat, acce

  15. Linking Terrigenous Sediment Delivery to Declines in Coral ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Worldwide coral reef conditions continue to decline despite the valuable socioeconomic benefits of these ecosystems. There is growing recognition that quantifying reefs in terms reflecting what stakeholders value is vital for comparing inherent tradeoffs among coastal management decisions. Terrestrial sediment runoff ranks high as a stressor to coral reefs and is a key concern in Puerto Rico where reefs are among the most threatened in the Caribbean. This research aimed to identify the degree to which sediment runoff impacts production of coral reef ecosystem services and the potential for watershed management actions to improve these services. Ecosystem service production functions were applied to map and translate metrics of ecological reef condition into ecosystem service production under a gradient of increasing sediment delivery. We found that higher sediment delivery decreased provisioning of most ecosystem services, including ecosystem integrity, bioprospecting discovery, and reef-based recreational opportunities and fisheries production. However, shoreline protection and services with a strong contribution from non-reef habitats (e.g., mangroves, seagrasses) were higher in locations with high sediment delivery, although there was a strong inshore effect suggesting the influence of distance to shore, depth, and inshore habitats. Differences among services may indicate potential tradeoffs and the need to consider habitat connectivity, nursery habitat, acce

  16. Study of the diversity of culturable actinomycetes in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Solano, Godofredo; Rojas-Jiménez, Keilor; Jaspars, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    In this study, 137 actinomycetes were isolated from subtidal marine sediments in the North Pacific and Caribbean coasts of Costa Rica. Bioinformatics analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned the isolates to 15 families and 21 genera. Streptomyces was the dominant genus while the remaining 20 genera were poorly represented. Nearly 70% of the phylotypes presented a coastal-restricted distribution whereas the other 30% were common inhabitants of both shores. The coastal tropical waters of Costa Rica showed a high diversity of actinomycetes, both in terms of the number of species and phylogenetic composition, although significant differences were observed between and within shores. The observed pattern of species distribution might be the result of several factors including the characteristics of the ecosystems, presence of endemic species and the influence of terrestrial runoff. PMID:19365710

  17. Two new Beggiatoa species inhabiting marine mangrove sediments in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Jean, Maïtena R N; Gonzalez-Rizzo, Silvina; Gauffre-Autelin, Pauline; Lengger, Sabine K; Schouten, Stefan; Gros, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Beggiatoaceae, giant sulphur-oxidizing bacteria, are well known to occur in cold and temperate waters, as well as hydrothermal vents, where they form dense mats on the floor. However, they have never been described in tropical marine mangroves. Here, we describe two new species of benthic Beggiatoaceae colonizing a marine mangrove adjacent to mangrove roots. We combined phylogenetic and lipid analysis with electron microscopy in order to describe these organisms. Furthermore, oxygen and sulphide measurements in and ex situ were performed in a mesocosm to characterize their environment. Based on this, two new species, Candidatus Maribeggiatoa sp. and Candidatus Isobeggiatoa sp. inhabiting tropical marine mangroves in Guadeloupe were identified. The species identified as Candidatus Maribeggiatoa group suggests that this genus could harbour a third cluster with organisms ranging from 60 to 120 μm in diameter. This is also the first description of an Isobeggiatoa species outside of Arctic and temperate waters. The multiphasic approach also gives information about the environment and indications for the metabolism of these bacteria. Our study shows the widespread occurrence of members of Beggiatoaceae family and provides new insight in their potential role in shallow-water marine sulphide-rich environments such as mangroves.

  18. Two New Beggiatoa Species Inhabiting Marine Mangrove Sediments in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Jean, Maïtena R. N.; Gonzalez-Rizzo, Silvina; Gauffre-Autelin, Pauline; Lengger, Sabine K.; Schouten, Stefan; Gros, Olivier

    2015-01-01

    Beggiatoaceae, giant sulphur-oxidizing bacteria, are well known to occur in cold and temperate waters, as well as hydrothermal vents, where they form dense mats on the floor. However, they have never been described in tropical marine mangroves. Here, we describe two new species of benthic Beggiatoaceae colonizing a marine mangrove adjacent to mangrove roots. We combined phylogenetic and lipid analysis with electron microscopy in order to describe these organisms. Furthermore, oxygen and sulphide measurements in and ex situ were performed in a mesocosm to characterize their environment. Based on this, two new species, Candidatus Maribeggiatoa sp. and Candidatus Isobeggiatoa sp. inhabiting tropical marine mangroves in Guadeloupe were identified. The species identified as Candidatus Maribeggiatoa group suggests that this genus could harbour a third cluster with organisms ranging from 60 to 120 μm in diameter. This is also the first description of an Isobeggiatoa species outside of Arctic and temperate waters. The multiphasic approach also gives information about the environment and indications for the metabolism of these bacteria. Our study shows the widespread occurrence of members of Beggiatoaceae family and provides new insight in their potential role in shallow-water marine sulphide-rich environments such as mangroves. PMID:25689402

  19. The Imbert Formation of northern Hispaniola: a tectono-sedimentary record of arc-continent collision and ophiolite emplacement in the northern Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escuder-Viruete, J.; Suárez-Rodríguez, Á.; Gabites, J.; Pérez-Estaún, A.

    2016-01-01

    In northern Hispaniola, the Imbert Formation (Fm) has been interpreted as an orogenic "mélange" originally deposited as trench-fill sediments, an accretionary (subduction) complex formed above a SW-dipping subduction zone, or the sedimentary result of the early oblique collision of the Caribbean plate with the Bahama Platform in the middle Eocene. However, new stratigraphical, structural, geochemical and geochronological data from northern Hispaniola indicate that the Imbert Fm constitutes a coarsening-upward stratigraphic sequence that records the transition of the sedimentation from a pre-collisional forearc to a syn-collisional basin. This basin was transported on top of the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex slab and structurally underlying accreted units of the Rio San Juan complex, as it was emplaced onto the North America continental margin units.

    The Imbert Fm unconformably overlies different structural levels of the Caribbean subduction-accretionary prism, including a supra-subduction zone ophiolite, and consists of three laterally discontinuous units that record the exhumation of the underlying basement. The distal turbiditic lower unit includes the latest volcanic activity of the Caribbean island arc; the more proximal turbiditic intermediate unit is moderately affected by syn-sedimentary faulting; and the upper unit is a (chaotic) olistostromic unit, composed of serpentinite-rich polymictic breccias, conglomerates and sandstones, strongly deformed by syn-sedimentary faulting, slumping and sliding processes. The Imbert Fm is followed by subsidence and turbiditic deposition of the overlying El Mamey Group.

    The 40Ar / 39Ar plagioclase plateau ages obtained in gabbroic rocks from the Puerto Plata ophiolitic complex indicate its exhumation at ˜ 45-40 Ma (lower-to-middle Eocene), contemporaneously to the sedimentation of the overlying Imbert Fm. These cooling ages imply the uplift to the surface and submarine erosion of the complex to

  20. Accretionary margin of north-western Hispaniola: morphology, structure and development of part of the northern Caribbean plate boundary

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Austin, James A.; Scanlon, K.M.; Terence, Edgar N.; Parson, L.M.

    1992-01-01

    Broad-range side-scan sonar (GLORIA) images and single- and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles demonstrate that the margin of north-western Hispaniola has experienced compression as a consequence of oblique North American-Caribbean plate convergence. Two principal morphological or structural types of accretionary wedges are observed along this margin. The first type is characterized by a gently sloping (???4??) sea floor and generally margin-parallel linear sets of sea-floor ridges that gradually deepen towards the flat Hispaniola Basin floor to the north. The ridges are caused by an internal structure consisting of broad anticlines bounded by thrust faults that dip southwards beneath Hispaniola. Anticlines form at the base of the slope and are eventually sheared and underthrust beneath the slope. In contrast, the second type of accretionary wedge exhibits a steeper (???6-16??) sea-floor slope characterized by local slumping and a more abrupt morphological transition to the adjacent basin. The internal structure appears chaotic on seismic reflection profiles and probably consists of tight folds and closely spaced faults. We suggest that changes in sea-floor declivity and internal structure may result from variations in the dip or frictional resistance of the de??collement, or possibly from changes in the cohesive strength of the wedge sediments. The observed pattern of thickening of Hispaniola Basin turbidites towards the insular margin suggests differential southwards tilting of the Hispaniola Basin strata, probably in response to North America-Caribbean plate interactions since the Early Tertiary. Based upon indirect age control from adjacent parts of the northern caribbean plate boundary, we infer a Late Eocene to Early Miocene episode of transcurrent motion (i.e. little or no tilting), an Early Miocene to Late Pliocene period of oblique convergence (i.e. increased tilt) during which the accretionary wedge began to be constructed, and a Late Pliocene to

  1. Reproductive health: Caribbean women in New York City, 1980-1984.

    PubMed

    Chavkin, W; Busner, C; Mclaughlin, M

    1987-01-01

    "People from the Caribbean represent one of the largest immigrant groups in New York City. This study focuses on the reproductive health of first generation Caribbean immigrants. Birth and death certificate data were used to generate descriptive profiles of risk-factor prevalence and reproductive outcomes to Caribbean and comparison populations." Data on single live births for 1980-1984 take into consideration ethnic differences, age, place of birth, parity, mother's education, method of payment for health care, prenatal care, and birth weight.

  2. Postglacial expansion pathways of red mangrove, Rhizophora mangle, in the Caribbean Basin and Florida.

    PubMed

    Kennedy, John Paul; Pil, Maria W; Proffitt, C Edward; Boeger, Walter A; Stanford, Alice M; Devlin, Donna J

    2016-02-01

    The Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) was a period of massive range contraction. Post-LGM, water-dispersed coastal species, including the red mangrove (Rhizophora mangle), expanded poleward as propagules were transported by ocean currents. We assessed postglacial marine expansion pathways for R. mangle within the Caribbean Basin and Florida. Six microsatellite loci were used to genotype 237 individuals from nine R. mangle populations in the Caribbean, Florida, and Northwest Africa. We evaluated genetic variation, population structure, gene flow along alternative post-LGM expansion pathways to Florida, and potential long-distance dispersal (LDD) from West Africa to Caribbean islands. These R. mangle populations had substantial genetic structure (FST = 0.37, P < 0.0001) with three discrete population clusters (Caribbean mainland, Caribbean islands, and Florida). Genetic connectivity along the mainland pathway (Caribbean mainland to Florida) vs. limited gene dispersal along the Antilles Island pathway (Caribbean islands to Florida) supported Florida recolonization from Caribbean mainland sources. Genetic similarity of Northwest Africa and two Caribbean islands provided evidence for trans-Atlantic LDD. We did not find a pattern of decreasing genetic diversity with latitude. We outline a complex expansion history for R. mangle, with discrete pathways of recolonization for Florida and Caribbean islands. Contrary to expectation, connectivity to putative Caribbean mainland refugial populations via ocean currents, and not latitude, appears to dictate genetic diversity within Caribbean island and Florida R. mangle. These findings provide a framework for further investigation of additional water-dispersed neotropical species, and insights for management initiatives. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  3. African-Caribbean ethnicity is associated with a hypercoagulable state as measured by thrombin generation.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Lara N; Patel, Raj K; Chitongo, Paradzai; Bonner, Lynda; Arya, Roopen

    2013-01-01

    African-Caribbean ethnicity is associated with an increased risk of both first and recurrent venous thromboembolism (VTE). The aim of this study was to evaluate thrombin generation in African-Caribbeans compared with whites in patients with deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and healthy volunteers. Thrombin generation was measured in a case-control study of 80 patients who had completed anticoagulation therapy for a first DVT (50 white and 30 African-Caribbean) and 66 controls. Peak thrombin with and without thrombomodulin was significantly higher in African-Caribbeans with DVT compared with whites with DVT (P < 0.001 for both comparisons) and African-Caribbean controls (P < 0.001, 0.003, respectively). Endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) with and without thrombomodulin was significantly higher in African-Caribbeans with DVT than whites with DVT (P ≤ 0.001 for both comparisons). Maximum velocity and ETP ratio were increased in African-Caribbeans with DVT compared with whites with DVT (P < 0.001 and 0.030, respectively) and African-Caribbean controls (P < 0.001 and 0.019, respectively). Within the control group, peak thrombin was significantly increased in African-Caribbeans compared with whites (P = 0.017). ETP, peak thrombin with thrombomodulin and maximum velocity were also increased in African-Caribbeans compared with white controls (P = 0.045 for all comparisons). African-Caribbeans with DVT had significantly higher factor VIII levels compared with whites with DVT and controls. African-Caribbean ethnicity confers a hypercoagulable state as measured by thrombin generation. This supports epidemiological findings of increased risk of first and recurrent VTE. Thrombin generation requires adjustment for ethnicity in studies undertaken in ethnically diverse populations.

  4. Biologic and geologic responses to physical processes: examples from modern reef systems of the Caribbean-Atlantic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Harry H.; Wilson, Paul A.; Lugo-Fernández, Alexis

    1992-07-01

    Coral reefs and associated depositional environments of the Caribbean-Atlantic region have characteristics that reflect control by physical processes, both oceanic and atmospheric. Wave direction and wave power help determine sites for productive reef development and shape reef morphology as well as community structure. Spur and groove orientations reflect changes in direction of waves as they refract across a reef-dominated shelf. Abrupt topography of reef-dominated shelf margins interacts with tidally modulated flows to create an energetic and productive deep reef environment which is buffered from the modifying effects of forceful wave action. Shallow wave-reef interactions involve dissipative effects of wave breaking, turbulence, and friction, resulting in measured wave energy transformations ranging from 72 to 97% depending on reef configuration and water depth. Dissipative processes produce strong reef-normal surge currents that transport sediment lagoonward, drive backreef lagoon circulation, and influence fluid flow and diagenesis within the reef. The intensity of these processes is modulated at the tidal frequency. Other long period waves (infragravity) are important agents of mass transport of water and fine sediment. Low speed, long duration currents forced by long waves are potentially important for transporting larvae as well as fine sediment out of a given reef-lagoon system. Ocean-scale currents impinging on steep island and continental margin topography may cause reef-limiting upwelling and nutrient loading. The Caribbean Current upwells on the Nicaragua shelf and carbonate platforms of the Nicaraguan Rise. High trophic resources favor algal rather than coral communities and large (20-30 m relief) Halimeda biotherms occupy niches normally reserved for coral reefs. Thermodynamic air-sea interactions (heat, moisture and momentum flux) regulate the physical properties of reef lagoon and bank top waters. In extra-tropical reef settings (e.g. Bermuda

  5. Assessing the short- and long-term effects of land development on watershed erosion and sediment delivery to marine ecosystems of the U.S. Virgin Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Scharron, C. E.; Gray, S. C.; Sears, W.; Brooks, G.; Larson, R. A.

    2014-12-01

    Throughout history, significant portions of the native vegetation of many Caribbean islands were replaced by cropland. Even though most islands eventually underwent reforestation, sediment yields and deposition rates appear to be higher now than throughout the past millennia, and this suggests that coral reef systems are experiencing an unprecedented level of sediment-related stress. Given the present-day emphasis on erosion control projects to restore coral reefs of the US Caribbean, it is of utmost importance to develop a quantitative understanding of the effects of both land development and watershed restoration activities on sediment delivery at various spatio-temporal scales. Efforts to measure contemporary erosion, sediment delivery and deposition rates have been conducted on the island of St. John-USVI since 2009. Sediment yields under natural conditions from the small (<10 km2) watersheds in this dry sub-tropical setting are between 1 and 10 Mg km-2 yr-1. Current sediment yields are 2 - 50 times higher than background depending on unpaved road network abundance and characteristics. Our efforts indicate that a watershed restoration program implemented in 2010-2011 within the 13-km2 Coral Bay watershed resulted in the reduction of annual sediment delivery rates from 445 Mg yr-1 to 327 Mg yr-1. Marine sedimentation rates of terrigenous materials based on sediment trap data were 6 - 24 times greater below developed watersheds relative to undeveloped catchments and were consistent with spatial comparisons of modeled sediment yields. At sites located within reef systems, total and silt deposition rates during sampling periods with major storms exceeded rates shown to harm corals more frequently in developed areas. Terrigenous sedimentation rates during periods with equivalent storms were reduced following watershed restoration. These results suggest that targeted watershed restoration may be effective in reducing sedimentation where land development and sediments

  6. Pteropods from the Caribbean Sea: variations in calcification as an indicator of past ocean carbonate saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall-Palmer, D.; Hart, M. B.; Smart, C. W.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Le Friant, A.; Boudon, G.; Deplus, C.; Komorowski, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    The aragonite shell-bearing thecosome pteropods are an important component of the oceanic plankton. However, with increasing pCO2 and the associated reduction in oceanic pH (ocean acidification), thecosome pteropods are thought to be particularly vulnerable to shell dissolution. The distribution and preservation of pteropods over the last 250 000 years have been investigated in marine sediment cores from the Caribbean Sea close to the island of Montserrat. Using the Limacina Dissolution Index (LDX), fluctuations in pteropod calcification through the most recent glacial/interglacial cycles are documented. By comparison to the oxygen isotope record (global ice volume), we show that pteropod calcification is closely linked to global changes in pCO2 and pH and is, therefore, a global signal. These data are in agreement with the findings of experiments upon living pteropods, which show that variations in pH can greatly affect aragonitic shells. The results of this study provide information which may be useful in the prediction of future changes to the pteropod assemblage caused by ocean acidification.

  7. Pteropods from the Caribbean Sea: dissolution as an indicator of past ocean acidification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall-Palmer, D.; Hart, M. B.; Smart, C. W.; Sparks, R. S. J.; Le Friant, A.; Boudon, G.; Deplus, C.; Komorowski, J. C.

    2011-07-01

    The aragonite shell-bearing thecosome pteropods are an important component of the oceanic plankton. However, with increasing pCO2 and the associated reduction in oceanic pH (ocean acidification), thecosome pteropods are thought to be particularly vulnerable to shell dissolution. The distribution and preservation of pteropods over the last 250,000 years have been investigated in marine sediment cores from the Caribbean Sea close to the island of Montserrat. Using the Limacina Dissolution Index (LDX), fluctuations in pteropod dissolution through the most recent glacial/interglacial cycles is documented. By comparison to the oxygen isotope record (global sea ice volume), we show that pteropod dissolution is closely linked to global changes in pCO2 and pH and is, therefore, a global signal. These data are in agreement with the findings of experiments upon living pteropods, which show that variations in pH can greatly affect aragonitic shells. The results of this study provide information which may be useful in the prediction of future changes to the pteropod assemblage caused by ocean acidification.

  8. Climate-related global changes in the southern Caribbean: Trinidad and Tobago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhawan

    1997-10-01

    A climate change deriving from the atmospheric build up of greenhouse gases (GHG) is supposed to become evident by the middle of the next century. This GHG-induced climate change would supposedly lead to a global warming of about 2 to 4°C and a rise in mean sea level of about 60 cm towards the end of the next century. This study focuses on the field measurements and interpretations of a number of, supposedly, climate-driven regional changes, including shifts in climate and hydrology, coastal erosion and sedimentation, salinisation of coastal aquifers and estuaries, and also coral bleaching, in Trinidad and Tobago, in the southern Caribbean. The results show significant changes and shifts in temperature and rainfall, severe coastal erosion, approaching 2 to 4 m per year for certain beaches, appreciable salinisation of a number of coastal aquifers and an estuary along the Caroni swamp, in Trinidad, and what appears to be partial coral bleaching, at the Culloden Reef in Tobago. These field-observed regional changes may conceivably be interpreted as early signals of a GHG-induced climate change. However, in view of the uncertainty surrounding GHG-induced climate change and sea level rise and the limitations of our data, especially the length of record, caution must be exercised in the interpretation of these results.

  9. The Latin America and the Caribbean search strategy proposal.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Eloy F; Proaño, Alvaro; Proaño, Diego; Torres-Román, Junior Smith; Miranda, J Jaime

    2016-08-04

    Latin America and the Caribbean's public health literature is not widely recognized. Science in this region has even been compared to a night sky with just a few specks of light. To make those lights as reachable as possible, we developed the Latin America and the Caribbean Search Strategy (LACSS). This is a new method to utilize our region's health promotion results within MEDLINE/PubMed. In contrast to a typical MeSH query, LACSS retrieves up to six times more publication results regarding non-communicable diseases, neglected tropical diseases, injuries and other important public health relevant topics in the region. We believe that global health promotion will be improved in this region by improving its visibility, and this search strategy will contribute to this. © The Author(s) 2016.

  10. Markets for renewable energy in Central America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, P.G.; Sloop, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    For market studies of renewable energy and conservation equipment, Costa Rica was selected as the most favorable Central American country and representative of the rest. The Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Barbados, and Antigua were selected as representative of the Caribbean islands, from the largest to one of the smallest. Best markets in Costa Rica are judged to be micro and mini hydroelectric systems, heat pumps for large hot water users, photovoltaic systems for low-power remote devices, small distilleries for producing alcohol from sugar cane, solar dryers for bagasse, and energy conservation equipment. Market prospects for the Caribbean islands are very good, including micro and mini hydroelectric systems for those countries with water resources, solar drying of bagasse, solar water heaters, solar ponds/solar thermal systems for electric power or heat processes, wind-electric systems for utility grids and farms, photovoltaics for small power uses, and energy conservation equipment.

  11. Outlook for hydropower in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Sierra, G. )

    1993-02-01

    In the last two decades, the Latin America/Carribean region has become increasingly dependent on electricity to meet growing demands for energy. Hydropower is the prevailing source for meeting this need. Hydroelectric generation increased at an annual average rate of nearly 9% between 1971 and 1989. HYdro now provides more than two-thirds of total electric power generated in Latin America and the Caribbean. The only other predominant source used for electric generation is fossil fuels. In this region there are several trends developing. They include: developing more small hydro facilities, opportunities for sharing water resources, an interest in changing the approach to water use regulation, and possibilities for more participation by the private sector. Overall, hydro appears to have a favorable competitive position in the power industry in the Latin America/Caribbean region.

  12. Approaches to primary health care in the Commonwealth Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Garrett, E J; Kumar, A K; Standard, K L

    1981-01-01

    In this article, the authors present a brief review of the health problems of the Commonwealth Caribbean and of the primary care activities being implemented to solve them. Special attention is given to programs which develop new categories of health workers and direct health manpower toward learning a technology appropriate to the conditions in which they work. These programs enable the health worker and allied health personnel to adapt their roles and functions accordingly and thus provide quality health care within limited resources. The main programs are: development of new categories of health workers such as the community health aide and the nurse practitioner; education and training of allied health personnel; the training of primary health care physicians. An account is also given of primary health care in Jamaica and in the smaller territories of the Caribbean.

  13. The Caribbean Rossby Whistle: Mesoscale Influence on Coastal Sea Level.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, J.; Hughes, C. W.; Hibbert, A.; Boening, C.; Oram, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    We show that there is a resonant baroclinic Rossby basin mode in the Caribbean Sea, with a period of 120 days. The mode is excited by mesoscale instability of the Caribbean Current, so is analogous in operation to a whistle. It consists of a wavenumber 2 Rossby wave propagating to the west across the basin. The wave interacts with topographically-steered currents along the continental slope, meaning that as it fades on the west of the basin, it is reborn on the east. This interaction with boundary currents leads to the mode being a major source of coastal sea level variability. Because the basin is not closed, it also produces a basinwide bottom pressure signal which dominates bottom pressure variability in the region.

  14. Precipitation Contribution of Tropical Cyclone in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WANG, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Heavy rainfall from tropical cyclones (TC) can be destructive. Past studies have examined variations in global TC rainfall. Given the complexity of tropical cyclones, further studies of TC precipitation are needed at the sub-basin scale. The Caribbean is vulnerable to the tropical cyclones and the related extreme precipitation. This study will evaluate inter-annual, seasonal and monthly variations in tropical cyclone precipitation in the Caribbean, detect trends and develop a TC precipitation climatology. Precipitation data from Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 will be used to evaluate the spatial and temporal variations in TC precipitation. Then a comparative analysis between the rainfall from gauges and satellites will be performed. TC information derived from the National Hurricane Center will also be used to identify the influence of TC intensity and frequency on TC precipitation. The high spatial and temporal resolution used in this research will help to assess TC precipitation at a more local scale.

  15. Chikungunya Fever in Japan Imported from the Caribbean Islands.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kazuo; Nakayama, Eri; Maeda, Takuya; Mikita, Kei; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Mitarai, Aoi; Honma, Yasuko; Miyake, Satoru; Kaku, Koki; Miyahira, Yasushi; Kawana, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old Japanese woman who was working as a volunteer in the Commonwealth of Dominica in the Caribbean islands presented with a high-grade fever and severe incapacitating generalized arthralgia. The Asian genotype of the chikungunya virus was confirmed using reverse transcription-PCR and serology, based on the presence of a specific neutralization titer and immunoglobulin M antibodies. She was diagnosed with post-chikungunya chronic arthritis based on persistence of her polyarthritis for 3 months and the presence of rheumatoid factor, immunoglobulin G-rheumatoid factor, and matrix metalloproteinase-3. Chikungunya virus should be considered as a causative pathogen in travelers returning from Caribbean islands. Clinicians should consider chikungunya fever in the differential diagnosis of patients who complain of chronic arthritis and have a history of travel to an endemic area.

  16. The control of hookworm disease in Commonwealth Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Tikasingh, Elisha S; Chadee, Dave D; Rawlins, Samuel C

    2011-01-01

    Like other countries around the globe where conditions existed for the parasites causing hookworm disease to thrive, this disease was a serious problem to settlers in countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean, i.e. those countries that were formerly part of the British Empire. Early in the 20th century, the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) assisted the southern United States in controlling this disease. Soon other countries requested assistance and the Rockefeller Foundation responded by creating their International Health Commission to target the problem. Guyana (then British Guiana) was the first country where work was started. Through a system of chemotherapy, sanitation with the provision of latrines and health education the RF assisted the Commonwealth Caribbean countries during the period 1914-1925 in controlling the disease. Most countries continued the programmes started by the Rockefeller Foundation and this paper provides evidence through a series of surveys to show that hookworm disease is no longer a public health problem.

  17. A test of alternative Caribbean plate relative motion models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, Seth; Demets, Charles; Gordon, Richard G.; Brodholt, John; Argus, Don

    1988-01-01

    The new NUVEL-1 data set for global relative plate motions is used here to discriminate between the two prevailing models for Caribbean plate motion. One model, by Jordan (1975), assumes that North America-Caribbean motion is reflected by the spreading rate inferred from magnetic anomalies at the Cayman Spreading Center and the azimuths of nearby transforms. The other model, by Sykes et al. (1982), uses rates and azimuths inferred from the geometry of the Lesser Antilles Wadati-Benioff zone. Overall, it is found that the data fit the Jordan geometry better, that the data used in global plate motion models are more suitable than rates and azimuths inferred from the geometry of the Wadati-Benioff zone for determining relative motions, and that incorporation of all relevant plate boundaries is essential.

  18. The 2009/2010 Caribbean drought: a case study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Everson J

    2015-10-01

    The impacts of drought in the Caribbean have not been as dramatic as in some other parts of world, but it is not exempt from the experiences of drought. As a result of the effects of a prolonged drought in 2009/2010, the agenda for the 21st Inter-Sessional Meeting of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) paid particular attention to the issue of drought. This paper reviews the management framework for responding to drought disasters in five CARICOM countries. The paper also reports on some of the effects of the 2009/2010 drought with particular reference to Grenada and the Grenadines. During the drought in these islands there were numerous bush fires with devastating effects on agriculture, severe water shortages that impacted on the tourism industry and other social effects. It is evident that there was inadequate preparation for the event. Greater planning and investment are therefore required to reduce future impacts.

  19. Geochemical signature of land-based activities in Caribbean coral surface samples

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prouty, N.G.; Hughen, K.A.; Carilli, J.

    2008-01-01

    Anthropogenic threats, such as increased sedimentation, agrochemical run-off, coastal development, tourism, and overfishing, are of great concern to the Mesoamerican Caribbean Reef System (MACR). Trace metals in corals can be used to quantify and monitor the impact of these land-based activities. Surface coral samples from the MACR were investigated for trace metal signatures resulting from relative differences in water quality. Samples were analyzed at three spatial scales (colony, reef, and regional) as part of a hierarchical multi-scale survey. A primary goal of the paper is to elucidate the extrapolation of information between fine-scale variation at the colony or reef scale and broad-scale patterns at the regional scale. Of the 18 metals measured, five yielded statistical differences at the colony and/or reef scale, suggesting fine-scale spatial heterogeneity not conducive to regional interpretation. Five metals yielded a statistical difference at the regional scale with an absence of a statistical difference at either the colony or reef scale. These metals are barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and antimony (Sb). The most robust geochemical indicators of land-based activities are coral Ba and Mn concentrations, which are elevated in samples from the southern region of the Gulf of Honduras relative to those from the Turneffe Islands. These findings are consistent with the occurrence of the most significant watersheds in the MACR from southern Belize to Honduras, which contribute sediment-laden freshwater to the coastal zone primarily as a result of human alteration to the landscape (e.g., deforestation and agricultural practices). Elevated levels of Cu and Sb were found in samples from Honduras and may be linked to industrial shipping activities where copper-antimony additives are commonly used in antifouling paints. Results from this study strongly demonstrate the impact of terrestrial runoff and anthropogenic activities on coastal water

  20. Geochemical signature of land-based activities in Caribbean coral surface samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prouty, N. G.; Hughen, K. A.; Carilli, J.

    2008-12-01

    Anthropogenic threats, such as increased sedimentation, agrochemical run-off, coastal development, tourism, and overfishing, are of great concern to the Mesoamerican Caribbean Reef System (MACR). Trace metals in corals can be used to quantify and monitor the impact of these land-based activities. Surface coral samples from the MACR were investigated for trace metal signatures resulting from relative differences in water quality. Samples were analyzed at three spatial scales (colony, reef, and regional) as part of a hierarchical multi-scale survey. A primary goal of the paper is to elucidate the extrapolation of information between fine-scale variation at the colony or reef scale and broad-scale patterns at the regional scale. Of the 18 metals measured, five yielded statistical differences at the colony and/or reef scale, suggesting fine-scale spatial heterogeneity not conducive to regional interpretation. Five metals yielded a statistical difference at the regional scale with an absence of a statistical difference at either the colony or reef scale. These metals are barium (Ba), manganese (Mn), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and antimony (Sb). The most robust geochemical indicators of land-based activities are coral Ba and Mn concentrations, which are elevated in samples from the southern region of the Gulf of Honduras relative to those from the Turneffe Islands. These findings are consistent with the occurrence of the most significant watersheds in the MACR from southern Belize to Honduras, which contribute sediment-laden freshwater to the coastal zone primarily as a result of human alteration to the landscape (e.g., deforestation and agricultural practices). Elevated levels of Cu and Sb were found in samples from Honduras and may be linked to industrial shipping activities where copper-antimony additives are commonly used in antifouling paints. Results from this study strongly demonstrate the impact of terrestrial runoff and anthropogenic activities on coastal water

  1. Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approach combining chemical manipulations and aquatic toxicity testing, generally with whole organisms, to systematically characterize, identify and confirm toxic substances causing toxicity in whole sediments and sediment interstitial waters. The approach is divided into thre...

  2. Contaminated Sediment Core Profiling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the environmental risk of sites containing contaminated sediments often poses major challenges due in part to the absence of detailed information available for a given location. Sediment core profiling is often utilized during preliminary environmental investigations ...

  3. Sediment Toxicity Identification Evaluation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approach combining chemical manipulations and aquatic toxicity testing, generally with whole organisms, to systematically characterize, identify and confirm toxic substances causing toxicity in whole sediments and sediment interstitial waters. The approach is divided into thre...

  4. Indicators: Sediment Enzymes

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Sediment enzymes are proteins that are produced by microorganisms living in the sediment or soil. They are indicators of key ecosystem processes and can help determine which nutrients are affecting the biological community of a waterbody.

  5. Contaminated Sediment Core Profiling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Evaluating the environmental risk of sites containing contaminated sediments often poses major challenges due in part to the absence of detailed information available for a given location. Sediment core profiling is often utilized during preliminary environmental investigations ...

  6. Fluvial sediment concepts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guy, Harold P.

    1970-01-01

    This report is the first of a series concerned with the measurement of and recording of information about fluvial sediment and with related environmental data needed to maintain and improve basic sediment knowledge. Concepts presented in this report involve (1) the physical characteristics of sediment which include aspects relative 'to weathering, soils, resistance to erosion, and particle size, (2) sediment erosion, transport, and deposition characteristics, which include aspects relative to fine sediment and overland flow, coarse sediment and streamflow, variations in stream sediment concentration, deposition, and denudation, (3) geomorphic considerations, which include aspects relative to the drainage basin, mass wasting, and channel properties, (4) economic aspects, and (5) data needs and program objectives to be attained through the use of several kinds of sediment records.

  7. Superfund: Contaminated Sediments

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Contaminated sediments are a significant environmental problem and contribute to the over 3,200 fish consumption advisories nationwide. The Superfund program cleans up sediment sites that present an unacceptable risk to human health or the environment.

  8. Leading Causes of Cancer Mortality - Caribbean Region, 2003-2013.

    PubMed

    Razzaghi, Hilda; Quesnel-Crooks, Sarah; Sherman, Recinda; Joseph, Rachael; Kohler, Betsy; Andall-Brereton, Glennis; Ivey, Marsha A; Edwards, Brenda K; Mery, Les; Gawryszewski, Vilma; Saraiya, Mona

    2016-12-16

    Cancer is one of the leading causes of deaths worldwide (1); in 2012, an estimated 65% of all cancer deaths occurred in the less developed regions of the world (2). In the Caribbean region, cancer is the second leading cause of mortality, with an estimated 87,430 cancer-related deaths reported in 2012 (3). The Pan American Health Organization defines the Caribbean region as a group of 27 countries that vary in size, geography, resources, and surveillance systems.* CDC calculated site- and sex-specific proportions of cancer deaths and age-standardized mortality rates (ASMR) for 21 English- and Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries, the United States, and two U.S. territories (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands [USVI]), using the most recent 5 years of mortality data available from each jurisdiction during 2003-2013. The selection of years varied by availability of the data from the countries and territories in 2015. ASMR for all cancers combined ranged from 46.1 to 139.3 per 100,000. Among males, prostate cancers were the leading cause of cancer deaths, followed by lung cancers; the percentage of cancer deaths attributable to prostate cancer ranged from 18.4% in Suriname to 47.4% in Dominica, and the percentage of cancer deaths attributable to lung cancer ranged from 5.6% in Barbados to 24.4% in Bermuda. Among females, breast cancer was the most common cause of cancer deaths, ranging from 14.0% of cancer deaths in Belize to 29.7% in the Cayman Islands, followed by cervical cancer. Several of the leading causes of cancer deaths in the Caribbean can be reduced through primary and secondary preventions, including prevention of exposure to risk factors, screening, early detection, and timely and effective treatment.

  9. Bioactive guanidine alkaloids from two Caribbean marine sponges.

    PubMed

    Laville, Rémi; Thomas, Olivier P; Berrué, Fabrice; Marquez, Diana; Vacelet, Jean; Amade, Philippe

    2009-09-01

    Seven new guanidine alkaloids (1-7) together with the known batzelladines A, F, H, and L, ptilomycalin A, and fromiamycalin were isolated from the Caribbean marine sponges Monanchora arbuscula and Clathria calla. Molecular structures were assigned on the basis of detailed analysis of 1D and 2D NMR spectra and mass spectrometry data, and bioactivities of the alkaloids were evaluated against human cancer cell lines and malaria protozoa.

  10. South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, C.

    1981-10-01

    Summaries of oil and gas drillings, well completions, production, exploratory wells, exploration activity and wildcat drilling were given for South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. The countries, islands, etc. included Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward and Windward Islands, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Surinam, Trinidad and Venezuela. 16 figures, 120 tables. (DP)

  11. Exploring Emotional Intelligence in a Caribbean Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Sa, B; Baboolal, N; Williams, S; Ramsewak, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the emotional intelligence (EI) in medical students in a Caribbean medical school and investigate its association with gender, age, year of study and ethnicity. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional design using convenient sampling of 304 years two to five undergraduate medical students at the School of Medicine, The University of the West Indies (UWI), St Augustine campus, was conducted. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-V2.0) was administered to test four branches of EI: perceiving emotions, facilitating thought, understanding emotions and managing emotions. Data were analysed using SPSS version 19. T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and r (product moment correlation) were calculated to establish the effects of selected variables (gender, age, year of study and ethnicity) on total and sub-scales EI scores and tested against 0.05 and 0.01 significance levels. Results: The total mean score for EI fell within the average according to MSCEIT standards. Gender analysis showed significantly higher scores for males and for younger age groups (< 25 years). Year of study and ethnicity did not yield any significant effect. Conclusions: These findings of higher EI scores in males and younger students are unusual, given the well-publicized stereotype of the Caribbean male and the perception that advancing age brings maturity and emotional stability. It would be valuable to widen this study by including other UWI campuses and offshore medical schools in the Caribbean. This preliminary study examined a sample of medical students from a well-established Caribbean medical school. Since EI is considered to be important in the assessment and training of medical undergraduates, consideration should be given to introducing interventions aimed at increasing EI. PMID:25303251

  12. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Steffen; Hansen, Bent T

    2015-01-01

    We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema). In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large lucinids because they

  13. Tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Pindell, J.L.; Barrett, S.F.; Dewey, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The authors propose a three-phase geologic-kinematic model for the evolution of the Gulf of Mexico/Caribbean region starting with a detailed Late Paleozoic (Alleghenian) plate reconstruction and using a revised relative-motion history for North America (NOAM) and South American (SOAM). The completely closed initial reconstruction incorporates the effects of Jurassic syn-rift crustal extension, an improved Equatorial Atlantic fit, and the post-rift accretion and deformation in northwestern South America. The Yucatan block and western Bahamas continental basement occupied the area of the present Gulf of Mexico. The three phases of evolution are: MIDDLE JURASSIC-CHAMPANIAN; SOAM migrated east-southeast from NOAM, and the Yucatan block rotated 43/sup 0/CCW about a pole in northern Florida reaching its present position by the Berriasian. Carbonate shelves formed along the rifted margins of the Gulf of Mexico and proto-Caribbean. Early Cretaceous crust of the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) formed in the Pacific Basin and was intruded by medial Cretaceous basalts (B'') somewhere to the west of South America. CARIB partially collided with southern Yucatan and northwest SOAM in the Late Cretaceous, and with the Bahamas in the late Paleocene-Middle Eocene. POST-MIDDLE EOCENE: Minor west-northwest NOAM-SOAM convergence occurred along preexisting Atlantic fracture zones. CARIB has migrated eastward by 1200 km, subducting proto-Caribbean crust and forming the Lesser Antilles arc. The original Greater Antilles-Aves Ridge arc has been dissected by anastomosing transforms connecting the Middle American and Lesser Antilles trenches.

  14. Belize--a last stronghold for manatees in the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Salisbury, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Belize is a small country but it offers a safe haven for the largest number of manatees in the Caribbean. The authors' survey in 1989 revealed that there has been no apparent decline since the last study in 1977. However, there is no evidence for population growth either and as the Belize economy develops threats from fisheries, human pressure and declining habitat quality will increase. Recommendations are made to ensure that Belize safeguards its manatee populations.

  15. Rapidly spreading seagrass invades the Caribbean with unknown ecological consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Caroline S.; Willette, Demian A; Miller, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The non-native seagrass Halophila stipulacea has spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Sea (Willette et al. 2014); without additional research, the ecological ramifications of this invasion are difficult to predict. Biodiversity, connectivity of marine ecosystems, and recovery of degraded coral reefs could all be affected. The invasive seagrass, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, has taken over sand bottoms and intermixed with or replaced native seagrasses, including Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, and Halodule wrightii.

  16. Cancer burden in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Curado, Maria Paula; de Souza, Dyego Leandro Bezerra

    2014-01-01

    In Latin America and the Caribbean, the epidemiological transition has been occurring in an unequal manner. Infectious-contagious diseases share space with the increase of chronic nontransmissible diseases, such as cancer, which already represents the second most common cause of death, after cardiovascular illnesses. This study provides a global picture of the burden of cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as the challenges faced when controlling this disease in these regions. Epidemiological information on cancer in Latin America originates mainly from mortality registries and from a limited number of population-based cancer registries. Estimates indicate increases of 72% in the incidence of cancer and 78% in the mortality of men between 2012 and 2030, and for women the rates are 62% and 74%, respectively. These increases in incidence rates, accompanied by disproportionally high mortality rates, when compared with other regions of the world, reveal the magnitude of the challenge of controlling cancer in Latin America and the Caribbean. Although neoplasms are among the main causes of death, the control strategies are faced with issues such as organization and development of the health system, and the public policy formulation mechanism. Establishing knowledge on the real impact of incidence, mortality, and survival in Latin America and the Caribbean is quite a challenge due to the lack of an updated and dynamic information system on mortality and incidence, although some improvement has been made in the information systems of some countries within the most recent decade. Other obstacles for cancer control are the uneven allocation of resources, lack of investments in equipment and infrastructure, and the concentration of health care professionals in large urban centers, which contribute to the reproduction of socioeconomic iniquities in the assistance of populations that suffer from cancer. Copyright © 2014 Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai

  17. Disparities in diabetes mellitus among Caribbean populations: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Nadia R; Francis, Damian K; Ferguson, Trevor S; Hennis, Anselm J M; Wilks, Rainford J; Harris, Eon Nigel; MacLeish, Marlene M Y; Sullivan, Louis W

    2015-02-25

    Despite the large body of research on racial/ethnic disparities in health, there are limited data on health disparities in Caribbean origin populations. This review aims to analyze and synthesize published literature on the disparities in diabetes mellitus (DM) and its complications among Afro-Caribbean populations. A detailed protocol, including a comprehensive search strategy, was developed and used to identify potentially relevant studies. Identified studies were then screened for eligibility using pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria. An extraction form was developed to chart data and collate study characteristics including methods and main findings. Charted information was tagged by disparity indicators and thematic analysis performed. Disparity indicators evaluated include ethnicity, sex, age, socioeconomic status, disability and geographic location. Gaps in the literature were identified and extrapolated into a gap map. A total of 1009 diabetes related articles/manuscripts, published between 1972 and 2013, were identified and screened. Forty-three studies met inclusion criteria for detailed analysis. Most studies were conducted in the United Kingdom, Trinidad and Tobago and Jamaica, and used a cross-sectional study design. Overall, studies reported a higher prevalence of DM among Caribbean Blacks compared to West African Blacks and Caucasians but lower when compared to South Asian origin groups. Morbidity from diabetes-related complications was highest in persons with low socioeconomic status. Gap analysis showed limited research data reporting diabetes incidence by sex and socioeconomic status. No published literature was found on disability status or sexual orientation as it relates to diabetes burden or complications. Prevalence and morbidity were the most frequently reported outcomes. Literature on diabetes health disparities in Caribbean origin populations is limited. Future research should address these knowledge gaps and develop approaches

  18. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatan Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Daniel Scott

    Roatan Island is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras. These islands form an emergent crest off the Caribbean coast of Honduras called the Bonacca Ridge. The Bartlett Trough to the north and subsequent Bonacca Ridge were likely formed due to the transform fault system of the Motagua-Swan Islands Fault System. This fault system forms the tectonic plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Although the timing and kinematics are poorly constrained, the Bay Islands and the Bonacca Ridge were likely uplifted due to transpression along this left-lateral strike-slip system. With limited regional exposures along the adjacent tectonic boundary, this study aimed to present a structural interpretation for Roatan. This new interpretation is further explained through regional considerations for a suggested geologic history of the northwestern Caribbean. In order to better constrain the kinematics of uplift and exhumation of Roatan Island, structural, gravity, and magnetic surveys were conducted. Principal attention was directed to the structural relationship between the geologic units and their relationship to one another through deformation. Resulting geologic cross-sections from this study present the metamorphic basement exposed throughout the island to be in a normal structural order consisting of biotite schist and gneiss, with overlying units of chlorite schist, carbonate, and conglomerate. These units have relatively concordant strike and dip measurements, consistent with resultant magnetic survey readings. Additionally, large and irregular bodies of amphibolite and serpentinite throughout the island are interpreted to have been emplaced as mafic and ultra-mafic intrusions in weakness zones along Early Paleogene transform system fault planes. The interpretation and suggested geologic history from this study demonstrate the importance of transpressive tectonics both local to Roatan and regionally throughout geologic history. Consideration of

  19. Reconstructing the population genetic history of the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gravel, Simon; Zakharia, Fouad; McCauley, Jacob L; Byrnes, Jake K; Gignoux, Christopher R; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia A; Martínez, Ricardo J; Hedges, Dale J; Morris, Richard W; Eng, Celeste; Sandoval, Karla; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Norman, Paul J; Layrisse, Zulay; Parham, Peter; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Burchard, Esteban González; Cuccaro, Michael L; Martin, Eden R; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2013-11-01

    The Caribbean basin is home to some of the most complex interactions in recent history among previously diverged human populations. Here, we investigate the population genetic history of this region by characterizing patterns of genome-wide variation among 330 individuals from three of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola), two mainland (Honduras, Colombia), and three Native South American (Yukpa, Bari, and Warao) populations. We combine these data with a unique database of genomic variation in over 3,000 individuals from diverse European, African, and Native American populations. We use local ancestry inference and tract length distributions to test different demographic scenarios for the pre- and post-colonial history of the region. We develop a novel ancestry-specific PCA (ASPCA) method to reconstruct the sub-continental origin of Native American, European, and African haplotypes from admixed genomes. We find that the most likely source of the indigenous ancestry in Caribbean islanders is a Native South American component shared among inland Amazonian tribes, Central America, and the Yucatan peninsula, suggesting extensive gene flow across the Caribbean in pre-Columbian times. We find evidence of two pulses of African migration. The first pulse--which today is reflected by shorter, older ancestry tracts--consists of a genetic component more similar to coastal West African regions involved in early stages of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The second pulse--reflected by longer, younger tracts--is more similar to present-day West-Central African populations, supporting historical records of later transatlantic deportation. Surprisingly, we also identify a Latino-specific European component that has significantly diverged from its parental Iberian source populations, presumably as a result of small European founder population size. We demonstrate that the ancestral components in admixed genomes can be traced back to distinct sub-continental source

  20. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Steffen; Hansen, Bent T.

    2015-01-01

    We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted ‘Joes River fauna’ consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted ‘Bath Cliffs fauna’ containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema). In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman’s Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical ‘Cenozoic’ lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large lucinids

  1. Caribbean LNG project marks progress; LNG tanker launched

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-20

    World LNG trade continues to expand as construction of a major LNG project in the Caribbean hits full stride this fall and another LNG carrier was launched earlier this year. Engineering is nearly complete and construction is nearing midway on Trinidad`s Atlantic LNG. In Japan, NKK Corp. launched another LNG tanker that employs the membrane-storage system. The 50-mile pipeline to move natural gas to the Atlantic LNG facility is also on track for completion by October 1998.

  2. 'Caribbean Creep' chills out: climate change and marine invasive species.

    PubMed

    Canning-Clode, João; Fowler, Amy E; Byers, James E; Carlton, James T; Ruiz, Gregory M

    2011-01-01

    New marine invasions have been recorded in increasing numbers along the world's coasts due in part to the warming of the oceans and the ability of many invasive marine species to tolerate a broader thermal range than native species. Several marine invertebrate species have invaded the U.S. southern and mid-Atlantic coast from the Caribbean and this poleward range expansion has been termed 'Caribbean Creep'. While models have predicted the continued decline of global biodiversity over the next 100 years due to global climate change, few studies have examined the episodic impacts of prolonged cold events that could impact species range expansions. A pronounced cold spell occurred in January 2010 in the U.S. southern and mid-Atlantic coast and resulted in the mortality of several terrestrial and marine species. To experimentally test whether cold-water temperatures may have caused the disappearance of one species of the 'Caribbean Creep' we exposed the non-native crab Petrolisthes armatus to different thermal treatments that mimicked abnormal and severe winter temperatures. Our findings indicate that Petrolisthes armatus cannot tolerate prolonged and extreme cold temperatures (4-6 °C) and suggest that aperiodic cold winters may be a critical 'reset' mechanism that will limit the range expansion of other 'Caribbean Creep' species. We suggest that temperature 'aberrations' such as 'cold snaps' are an important and overlooked part of climate change. These climate fluctuations should be accounted for in future studies and models, particularly with reference to introduced subtropical and tropical species and predictions of both rates of invasion and rates of unidirectional geographic expansion. © 2011 Canning-Clode et al.

  3. BIREME: Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Information Center.

    PubMed Central

    Bonham, M D

    1990-01-01

    In the twenty years of its existence, BIREME has grown and evolved to meet the increasing information needs of health professionals in Latin America and the Caribbean. Recent emphasis has been on the adoption of new methods based on information technologies (including microcomputers, CD-ROMs, and advanced telecommunications) to improve and enhance services. Services discussed are bibliographic control, bibliographic searches, document delivery, selective dissemination of information (SDI), training, and publications. PMID:2183902

  4. Proactive Ecological Reef Rehabilitation for Caribbean Coral Reefs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dustan, P.; Wheeler, L.

    2016-02-01

    Coral reef formation is a function of deposition and erosion modulated by biological and physical forcing functions. In 1982-4, the Caribbean-wide mass mortality of Diadema antillarum, the long-spine sea urchin phase-shifted coral reefs into algal gardens. With few exceptions, Diadema's ecological role has not been replaced and coral cover and recruitment have dropped precipitously. Additional local to global stressors have accelerated the decline and Caribbean reefs are losing their three-dimensionality and ecological integrity. Most are mere ghosts of their luxuriant past as bioerosion is overtaking accretion melting them into carbonate sand. In some shallow reef habitats Diadema populations have regenerated and their herbivory cleans the reef substrate of micro and macro algae. These reefs have high rates of recruitment and are showing signs of regeneration. The deeper reefs, without D. antillarum are mired in algae and show no potential for recovery without increased herbivory. We transplanted shallow water D. antillarum to the deeper fore reef slopes of Jamaican and Belizean reefs in an attempt to understand why the species is restricted to the shallows. The urchins were initially caged at densities of 5-20/m2 for three days to protect them while acclimating to their new habitat and to track their algal consumption. Upon cage removal, we found that the Diadema had efficiently removed the complex algal community from the substratum and the edges of live corals. Over the next week, the urchins remained together and continued foraging out from their previously caged area. Algal overgrowth is widespread throughout the Caribbean and Western Atlantic and is generally agreed upon to be one of the major drivers of Caribbean coral reef collapse. While D. antillarum may eventually extend its range deeper, the current rates of degradation highlight the need for proactive reef restoration efforts to prevent collapse of the deeper reefs.

  5. Reconstructing the Population Genetic History of the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gravel, Simon; Zakharia, Fouad; McCauley, Jacob L.; Byrnes, Jake K.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia A.; Martínez, Ricardo J.; Hedges, Dale J.; Morris, Richard W.; Eng, Celeste; Sandoval, Karla; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Norman, Paul J.; Layrisse, Zulay; Parham, Peter; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Burchard, Esteban González; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Martin, Eden R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean basin is home to some of the most complex interactions in recent history among previously diverged human populations. Here, we investigate the population genetic history of this region by characterizing patterns of genome-wide variation among 330 individuals from three of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola), two mainland (Honduras, Colombia), and three Native South American (Yukpa, Bari, and Warao) populations. We combine these data with a unique database of genomic variation in over 3,000 individuals from diverse European, African, and Native American populations. We use local ancestry inference and tract length distributions to test different demographic scenarios for the pre- and post-colonial history of the region. We develop a novel ancestry-specific PCA (ASPCA) method to reconstruct the sub-continental origin of Native American, European, and African haplotypes from admixed genomes. We find that the most likely source of the indigenous ancestry in Caribbean islanders is a Native South American component shared among inland Amazonian tribes, Central America, and the Yucatan peninsula, suggesting extensive gene flow across the Caribbean in pre-Columbian times. We find evidence of two pulses of African migration. The first pulse—which today is reflected by shorter, older ancestry tracts—consists of a genetic component more similar to coastal West African regions involved in early stages of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The second pulse—reflected by longer, younger tracts—is more similar to present-day West-Central African populations, supporting historical records of later transatlantic deportation. Surprisingly, we also identify a Latino-specific European component that has significantly diverged from its parental Iberian source populations, presumably as a result of small European founder population size. We demonstrate that the ancestral components in admixed genomes can be traced back to distinct sub

  6. Rise of China in the Caribbean: Impacts for Regional Security

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-13

    undermine United States (US) geopolitical dominance in the Basin which has the potential to create gaps in the areas of traditional security cooperation...expansion of China may undermine United States (US) geopolitical dominance in the Basin which has the potential to create gaps in the areas of traditional...helped me to span the gap from the Caribbean to the United States and all the way to China, and to whom I give all the credit for my successful

  7. Exploring emotional intelligence in a Caribbean medical school.

    PubMed

    Sa, B; Baboolal, N; Williams, S; Ramsewak, S

    2014-03-01

    To explore the emotional intelligence (EI) in medical students in a Caribbean medical school and investigate its association with gender, age, year of study and ethnicity. A cross-sectional design using convenient sampling of 304 years two to five undergraduate medical students at the School of Medicine, the University of the West Indies (UWI), St Augustine campus, was conducted. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-V2.0) was administered to test four branches of EI: perceiving emotions, facilitating thought, understanding emotions and managing emotions. Data were analysed using SPSS version 19. T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and r (product moment correlation) were calculated to establish the effects of selected variables (gender, age, year of study and ethnicity) on total and sub-scales EI scores and tested against 0.05 and 0.01 significance levels. The total mean score for EI fell within the average according to MSCEIT standards. Gender analysis showed significantly higher scores for males and for younger age groups (< 25 years). Year of study and ethnicity did not yield any significant effect. These findings of higher EI scores in males and younger students are unusual, given the well-publicized stereotype of the Caribbean male and the perception that advancing age brings maturity and emotional stability. It would be valuable to widen this study by including other UWI campuses and offshore medical schools in the Caribbean. This preliminary study examined a sample of medical students from a well-established Caribbean medical school. Since EI is considered to be important in the assessment and training of medical undergraduates, consideration should be given to introducing interventions aimed at increasing EI.

  8. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  9. Cardiovascular risk factors in South America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Dominguez, L J; Barbagallo, M; Sowers, J R

    1999-01-01

    Facing the conclusion of the twentieth century, cardiovascular disease (CVD) remains a major cause of morbidity and a leading contributor to mortality worldwide. Developing countries, including those in South America and the Caribbean, contribute substantially to the global burden of CVD. Indeed, 8 to 9 million deaths attributable to CVD (63% of world total) occurred in developing countries in 1990, compared to 5.3 million deaths in developed nations. Over the next 25 years, it is projected that there will be a rise in CVD mortality rates in the developing countries, linked not only to demographic changes (expansion and aging of the population), but also to progressive urbanization and lifestyle modifications. As such, the ratio of deaths from CVD to deaths from infectious disease is likely to triple during the next 20 years in South America and the Caribbean. The identification of major risk factors and the implementation of control strategies (eg, community education and target of high risk individuals) have contributed to the fall in CVD mortality rates observed in industrialized nations. Most countries of South America and the Caribbean lack an efficient health care system, and the medical and socio-economic consequences of the projected rise in CVD will further strain financial resources. Therefore, appropriate strategies based on knowledge extrapolated from research among other populations should be initiated. The agenda of any lifestyle-related disease control program should include the promotion of healthy diet, exercise, and should encourage decreasing tobacco and alcohol usage.

  10. Astronomy - The Caribbean View From The Ground Up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haque, S.

    2006-08-01

    This presentation reviews the historical development of Astronomy in the Caribbean within its cultural and environmental framework. The present status of Astronomy in education, research and at the popular level will be presented as well. The focus will be on its development in the island of Trinidad & Tobago in particular. The presentation will review what works in small developing islands versus larger developed countries and the peculiar trials and tribulations of our circumstances as well as the rewards of such efforts. The critical role of students and volunteer effort will be highlighted. The psychological and cultural aspect of the human response to its development in the Caribbean will also be examined in the paper. Based on an examination of the impacting variables on its development, a proposal will be presented for the next 10 - year development of this area in the Caribbean, with consideration of the importance of the development of the Third World Institute of Astronomy and the possibility of it being located in this region of the world.

  11. Genetic species delineation among branching Caribbean Porites corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prada, C.; DeBiasse, M. B.; Neigel, J. E.; Yednock, B.; Stake, J. L.; Forsman, Z. H.; Baums, I. B.; Hellberg, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Coral species are difficult to discern because of their morphological plasticity, long generation times, and slow rates of mitochondrial DNA evolution. Among Caribbean representatives of the genus Porites are three named species ( P. divaricata, P. furcata, and P. porites) with branching colony morphologies whose validity as genetically isolated species has been debated. We present sequence data from the mitochondrial control region, nuclear ITS, and nine single-copy nuclear loci for the Caribbean Porites and a related eastern Pacific species. mtDNA sequences were nearly invariant among the three branching species and their crustose sister P. branneri, and ITS sequences from these four were intermingled. An information theoretic analysis provided no support for upholding the three named Caribbean branching species. Both a clustering analysis and an analysis of molecular variance showed that sequence variation from the three branching forms is partitioned more by geography than by taxonomy. Multi-locus coalescent phylogenetic analysis provided a calibrated estimate for the nuclear DNA substitution rate (0.14 % Ma-1) close to that for other corals. Because no generalities have emerged from genetic investigations of the validity of morphologically defined coral species, the use of single-copy nuclear data is likely to be important in testing problematic species designations.

  12. Oil spills in the Caribbean: a matter of time

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, M.P.

    1981-09-01

    Hurricanes increase the risk of oil spills in the Caribbean region, a situation which the United Nations and affected islands recognize as requiring cooperative efforts to prevent and control. As shipping activity increases in the Caribbean, the threat is intensified by the small size and poverty of the area's islands, which depend heavily on tourist and fishing industries. The annual 250 million tons of crude oil shipped to or through the Caribbean can be expected to average 21 spills of 1000 tons within 50 miles of land and pose serious ecological and economic threats. A contingency plan based on cooperation and shared resources to deal with spills would not be expensive because the liability laws and compensation rights are clearly defined. The technologies available to combat oil spills range from biological agents to sweeping equipment. Response can be prompt, but the political and economic aspects are more delicate. A regional plan formulated by the islands and countries involved still needs to have formal intergovernmental agreements signed. (DCK)

  13. Caribbean Shallow-water Black Corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M; Sanchez, Juan Armando

    2005-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a complete key and guide to the species of black corals from the Caribbean reefs at depths shallower than about 100 m. The key to the species is mostly based on colonial features that are recognized in the field, although some closely related species can only be differentiated by microscopic skeletal features. Each species is illustrated with one or more photos showing the size and shape of the colony; many photos were taken in the natural environment to facilitate underwater identification. Additionally, a short description is provided of each species and their microscopic diagnostic characters are illustrated with the aid of the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Fifteen black coral species are found in relatively shallow-water in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and other parts of the tropical western Atlantic; these belong to the families Myriopathidae [Tanacetipathes hirta (Gray), T. tanacetum (Pourtales), T. barbadensis (Brook), T. thamnea (Warner), and Plumapathes pennacea (Pallas)]; Antipathidae [Antipathes lenta Pourtales, A. rubusifonnis Warner and Opresko, A. furcata Gray, A. umbratica Opresko, A. atlantica Gray, A. gracilis Gray, A. caribbeana Opresko, Stichopathes lutkeni Brook, and S. accidentalis (Gray)]; and Aphanipathidae [Rhipidipathes colombiana (Opresko and Sinchez)]. We hope that this guide will facilitate research on black corals on Caribbean reefs, where population surveys are urgently needed to evaluate or modify conservation policies.

  14. Caribbean coral growth influenced by anthropogenic aerosol emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwiatkowski, Lester; Cox, Peter M.; Economou, Theo; Halloran, Paul R.; Mumby, Peter J.; Booth, Ben B. B.; Carilli, Jessica; Guzman, Hector M.

    2013-05-01

    Coral growth rates are highly dependent on environmental variables such as sea surface temperature and solar irradiance. Multi-decadal variability in coral growth rates has been documented throughout the Caribbean over the past 150-200 years, and linked to variations in Atlantic sea surface temperatures. Multi-decadal variability in sea surface temperatures in the North Atlantic, in turn, has been linked to volcanic and anthropogenic aerosol forcing. Here, we examine the drivers of changes in coral growth rates in the western Caribbean between 1880 and 2000, using previously published coral growth chronologies from two sites in the region, and a numerical model. Changes in coral growth rates over this period coincided with variations in sea surface temperature and incoming short-wave radiation. Our model simulations show that variations in the concentration of anthropogenic aerosols caused variations in sea surface temperature and incoming radiation in the second half of the twentieth century. Before this, variations in volcanic aerosols may have played a more important role. With the exception of extreme mass bleaching events, we suggest that neither climate change from greenhouse-gas emissions nor ocean acidification is necessarily the driver of multi-decadal variations in growth rates at some Caribbean locations. Rather, the cause may be regional climate change due to volcanic and anthropogenic aerosol emissions.

  15. [Euphausiids (Crustacea: Melacostraca) from the southern Mexican Caribbean Sea].

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Iván; Gasca, Rebeca

    2002-03-01

    The composition, abundance and distribution of euphausiids from the southern part of the Mexican Caribbean Sea (August 1986) were sampled during the ARCOMM I cruise on board the R/V "Justo Sierra" of UNAM. Sampling was done using a Bongo-net (0.5 mm mesh size) performing oblique hauls from 200 m to the surface at 28 stations. Of the total euphausiid numbers, the most abundant species was Stylocheiron carinatum (49%), followed by Euphausia americana (9.8%) and E. tenera with (7.8%). The highest total density and that of the three most abundant species occurred during the night sampling, and probably was related to vertical migration patterns. The Bray-Curtis index revealed three station assemblages, related to the day-night variations of the euphausiid community. Species were distributed mainly in the oceanic area, and were absent in the neritic zones. The local fauna shows a strong affinity for the euphausiid community of the Gulf of Mexico and other areas of the Caribbean Sea. Four species are considered to be new records for the western Caribbean Sea.

  16. Renewable power production in a Pan-Caribbean energy grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David

    The Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean are victims of geography and geopolitics. Lacking access to large fossil fuel reserves, they are forced to import fuel at prices they have no control over. Renewable energy resources, particularly wind, have the potential to help break the Caribbean dependency on fossil fuels and allow for increased development at the same time. Working from a sustainable development point of view, this project discusses the history of the area, the theoretical background for the idea of large scale renewable power production, the regional initiatives already in place that address both the cost of fossil fuels and the policy hurdles that need to be overcome to assist the region in gaining energy independence. Haiti is highlighted as a special case in the region and the potential use of several renewable resources are discussed, along with a potential business model based on the idea of the Internet. Power storage is covered, specifically the potential of battery operated vehicles to have a positive impact on the Caribbean region and other developing states. The role of government regulation and policy comes into play next, followed by a discussion on the need for developed states to change patterns of behavior in order to achieve sustainability. Finally, nuclear power and liquefied natural gas are reviewed and rejected as power options for the region.

  17. Metals in sediments and mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) from the Caroni Swamp, Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Kanhai, La Daana K; Gobin, Judith F; Beckles, Denise M; Lauckner, Bruce; Mohammed, Azad

    2014-03-01

    Metals can have significant impacts on inhabitants of mangrove swamps as well as consumers of mangrove-associated fauna. Yet, for several Caribbean islands, assessments regarding the impact of metals on such ecosystems are particularly sparse. The present study investigated the distribution and potential impact of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn in the Caroni Swamp, Trinidad and Tobago's largest mangrove ecosystem. Surface sediments and mangrove oysters (Crassostrea rhizophorae) from 10 sites in the swamp were analysed for the 6 identified metals. The concentration ranges (in μg/g dry wt.) of metals in sediments from Caroni Swamp were: Zn (113.4-264.6), Cr (27-69.7), Ni (10.7-41.1) and Cu (11-40.7). Based on Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines (CSQGs), metals in sediments posed a low to medium risk to aquatic life. The concentration ranges (in μg/g wet wt.) for metals in Crassostrea rhizophorae tissues were: Zn (123.2-660), Cu (4.2-12.3), Ni (0.1-5.5), Pb (0.1-0.9), Cr (0.2-0.3) and Cd (0.1-0.2). Multiple evaluations indicated that zinc posed a potential threat to the health of oyster consumers. Information from this study is vital for managing the Caroni Swamp, safeguarding the health of consumers of shellfish on this Caribbean island and serving as a useful baseline for future local and regional risk assessments.

  18. Water Discharge and Sediment Load from the Western Slopes of the Colombian Andes with Focus on Rio San Juan.

    PubMed

    Restrepo; Kjerfve

    2000-01-01

    Small rivers draining high-rainfall basins and mountainous terrain west of the Cordilleras in South America have disproportionately high water discharge and sediment load. Fifteen rivers in western Colombia discharge a combined 254 km3 yr-1 or 8020 m3 s-1 of water into the Pacific. Sediment yield is strongly correlated with basin area (R2=0.97), and sediment load is correlated with water discharge (R2=0.73). Rio San Juan occupies a 16,465-km2 basin with a mean annual rainfall of 7277 mm. It has the highest water discharge (2550 m3 s-1), sediment load (16x106 t yr-1), and basin-wide sediment yield (1150 t km-2 yr-1) on the entire west coast of South America. Rio Patía drains a 23,700-km2 basin with a mean annual rainfall of 2821 mm. Its water discharge, sediment load, and basin-wide sediment yield are 1291 m3 s-1, 14 t yr-1, and 972 t km-2 yr-1, respectively. Rio San Juan and Rio Patía deliver 30x106 t of suspended sediment annually into the Pacific. Analysis of data for an additional 22 rivers in Colombia that drain into the Caribbean Sea indicates that the Pacific rivers have at least twice the sediment yield compared with the larger Rio Magdalena. Our results confirm that the Pacific rivers of Colombia need to be accounted for in global sediment budgets.

  19. Diagnosing Sources of Caribbean Early Season Rainfall and Its End of Century Projection: Changes in the Caribbean-Rain Belt Pattern.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    The climate of the Caribbean is projected to become hotter and drier by the end of the 21st century. Average annual rainfall in the Caribbean is predicted to decrease by 20% within the next 80 years. A drier wet season (May-Sept.) will account for the majority of the annual rainfall decrease compared to changes in dry season rainfall (Dec.-Apr.). But, what exactly does "climate" represent and how is this translated to future projections? Climate is nothing more than an average of weather events. Weather events that contribute to the Caribbean early season rainfall are diagnosed from 2 ingredients: low level tropical moisture transport and uplift dynamics from upper level troughs that dig deep into the Caribbean during the late spring. Heavy rainfall is observed where these two conditions occur simultaneously. Accumulated rainfall during this time contributes to a quasi-stationary "Caribbean rain-belt" pattern that accounts for the first peak of the annual bimodal Caribbean rainfall pattern. Rather than thinking of a general drier Caribbean at the end of this century, we should instead consider changes in circulation that will alter the wet season weather events between May and June, including the "Caribbean rain-belt". Altering expected weather events over time ultimately causes a change in anticipated climate by the end of the 21st century. Farmers who depend on a predictable series of familiar late spring rains and the "Caribbean rain-belt" may need to adjust to a new normal that includes fewer rainfall events and an overall drier wet season.

  20. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthem, Steven; Govers, Rob; Spakman, Wim; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-06-01

    investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico. These anomalies are interpreted as remnants of Atlantic lithosphere subduction and confirm tectonic reconstructions that suggest at least 1100 km of convergence at the Lesser Antilles island arc during the past ~45 Myr. The imaged Lesser Antilles slab consists of a northern and southern anomaly, separated by a low-velocity anomaly across most of the upper mantle, which we interpret as the subducted North America-South America plate boundary. The southern edge of the imaged Lesser Antilles slab agrees with vertical tearing of South America lithosphere. The northern Lesser Antilles slab is continuous with the Puerto Rico slab along the northeastern plate boundary. This results in an amphitheater-shaped slab, and it is interpreted as westward subducting North America lithosphere that remained attached to the surface along the northeastern boundary of the Caribbean plate. At the Muertos Trough, however, material is imaged until a depth of only 100 km, suggesting a small amount of subduction. The location and length of the imaged South Caribbean slab agrees with proposed subduction of Caribbean lithosphere under the northern South America plate. An anomaly related to proposed Oligocene subduction at the Nicaragua rise is absent in the tomographic model. Beneath Panama, a subduction window exists across the upper mantle, which is related to the cessation of subduction of the Nazca plate under Panama since 9.5 Ma and possibly the preceding subduction of the extinct Cocos-Nazca spreading center. In the lower mantle, two large anomaly patterns are imaged. The westernmost anomaly agrees with the subduction of Farallon lithosphere. The second lower mantle anomaly is found east of

  1. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Benthem, Steven; Govers, Rob; Spakman, Wim; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-04-01

    In the broad context of investigating the relationship between deep structure & processes and surface expressions, we study the Caribbean plate and underlying mantle. We investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P-wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico. These anomalies are interpreted as remnants of Atlantic lithosphere subduction and confirm tectonic reconstructions that suggest at least 1100 km of convergence at the Lesser Antilles island arc during the past ~45 Myr. The imaged Lesser-Antilles slab consists of a northern and southern anomaly, separated by a low velocity anomaly across most of the upper mantle, which we interpret as the subducted North-South America plate boundary. The southern edge of the imaged Lesser Antilles slab agrees with vertical tearing of South America lithosphere. The northern Lesser Antilles slab is continuous with the Puerto Rico slab along the northeastern plate boundary. This results in an amphitheater-shaped slab and it is interpreted as westward subducting North America lithosphere that remained attached to the surface along the northern boundary. At the Muertos Trough, however, material is imaged until a depth of only 100 km, suggesting a small amount of subduction. The location and length of the imaged South Caribbean slab agrees with proposed subduction of Caribbean lithosphere under the northern South America plate. An anomaly related to proposed Oligocene subduction at the Nicaragua rise is absent in the tomographic model. Beneath Panama, a subduction window exists across the upper mantle, which is related to the cessation of subduction of the Nazca plate under Panama since 9.5 Ma and possibly the preceding subduction of the extinct Cocos-Nazca spreading center. In the lower mantle two large anomaly patterns are

  2. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Benthem, Steven; Govers, Rob; Spakman, Wim; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-06-01

    investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico. These anomalies are interpreted as remnants of Atlantic lithosphere subduction and confirm tectonic reconstructions that suggest at least 1100 km of convergence at the Lesser Antilles island arc during the past 45 Myr. The imaged Lesser Antilles slab consists of a northern and southern anomaly, separated by a low-velocity anomaly across most of the upper mantle, which we interpret as the subducted North America-South America plate boundary. The southern edge of the imaged Lesser Antilles slab agrees with vertical tearing of South America lithosphere. The northern Lesser Antilles slab is continuous with the Puerto Rico slab along the northeastern plate boundary. This results in an amphitheater-shaped slab, and it is interpreted as westward subducting North America lithosphere that remained attached to the surface along the northeastern boundary of the Caribbean plate. At the Muertos Trough, however, material is imaged until a depth of only 100 km, suggesting a small amount of subduction. The location and length of the imaged South Caribbean slab agrees with proposed subduction of Caribbean lithosphere under the northern South America plate. An anomaly related to proposed Oligocene subduction at the Nicaragua rise is absent in the tomographic model. Beneath Panama, a subduction window exists across the upper mantle, which is related to the cessation of subduction of the Nazca plate under Panama since 9.5 Ma and possibly the preceding subduction of the extinct Cocos-Nazca spreading center. In the lower mantle, two large anomaly patterns are imaged. The westernmost anomaly agrees with the subduction of Farallon lithosphere. The second lower mantle anomaly is found east of

  3. Strengthening integrated research and capacity development within the Caribbean region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Caribbean region, like other developing regions of the world, faces significant challenges in conducting research, especially in the context of limited resource capacities and capabilities. Further, due to its diverse and multiple island states, research capacity is scattered and unevenly spread within the region. The Caribbean EcoHealth Programme (CEHP) is a research program that is structured to improve the capacity and capability of health professionals in the Caribbean region to respond in integrative and innovative ways to on-going and emerging environmental health challenges by means of multi-sectoral interventions. Methods Core parts of the CEHP’s mission are to (1) conduct collaborative research in areas that the region has identified as critical; (2) build and strengthening integrated approaches to research; and (3) develop and enhance basic research capacity within the Caribbean region. Fundamental to the success of the CEHP’s human and resource development mission has been its use of the Atlantis Mobile Laboratory (AML). The AML has allowed the CEHP program to move throughout the Caribbean and be able to respond to calls for specific research and capacity building opportunities. Results The CEHP’s five main research projects have generated the following results: (1) the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) study has evaluated human exposures to POPs, heavy metals, pesticides, and zoonotic infections; (2) the Burden of Illness (BOI) studies have developed protocols for the testing of foodborne microorganisms, strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities, and determined the prevalence and incidence of food-borne illness; (3) the Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) study has evaluated the microbial and chemical quality of rainwater harvesting systems; (4) the Ecotoxicology Water (ETW) studies have provided much needed data on the quality of recreational and drinking water supplies, and (5) the Food Safety Training Program has developed Diploma

  4. Vertical distribution of CCN properties in the Caribbean during SALTRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollner, Maximilian; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Walser, Adrian; Kristensen, Thomas; Groß, Silke; Chouza, Fernando; Freudenthaler, Volker; Schäfler, Andreas; Sauer, Daniel; Kujukovic, Melanie

    2015-04-01

    Mineral dust is an important component of the atmosphere and the climate system since mineral dust acts as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) as well as ice nuclei (IN) and contributes significantly to the global annual particle emissions by mass. Every year, huge amounts of Saharan mineral dust is transported westward across the Atlantic Ocean into the Caribbean. During transport, the chemical and microphysical properties of the mineral dust may be modified thereby changing the CCN properties of the dust aerosol. During the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE: http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/saltrace) in June/July 2013, CCN measurements were performed on the DLR Falcon research aircraft with a dual column Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (CCNC) first at Cape Verde then at the Caribbean. The CCNC provides information about concentration of CCN at two different supersaturations at the same time. For SALTRACE, one column of the CCNC was set to 0.2% supersaturation, whereas the second column was operated in scanning mode at different supersaturations between 0.1 and 0.5%. Additional CCN measurements by a ground-based single column CCNC were performed at Ragged Point, Barbados. During SALTRACE five mineral dust outbreaks were investigated. The CCN measurements in the Caribbean showed three layers with different CCN characteristics during these outbreaks. In the upper part (2.5 to 4.5 km) of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) in the Caribbean the aerosol properties are similar to the ones measured in the dust layer over Cape Verde and the CCNC measurements show low CCN concentrations and little activated fraction. In contrast, a higher variability was detected in the lower part (0.7 to 2.5 km) of the SAL. Within this layer a much higher CCN activation leads to a larger CCN concentration and cumulus clouds were frequently observed. Below 0.7 km also a high variability in activated fraction was observed, but CCN concentration was lower

  5. Spatiotemporal variability of sedimentary organic matter supply and recycling processes in coral reefs of Tayrona National Natural Park, Colombian Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayraktarov, E.; Wild, C.

    2013-12-01

    Sediments are fundamental for the functioning of oligotrophic coral reef ecosystems, because they are major places for organic matter recycling. In Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP), Colombian Caribbean, located between the population center Santa Marta (>455 000 inhabitants) in the southwest and several river mouths in the east, coral reef sediments experience pronounced changes in environmental conditions due to seasonal coastal upwelling, but knowledge on relevant spatiotemporal effects on organic matter supply to sediments and recycling processes is not available. Therefore, sediment traps were monthly deployed over 14 months complemented by assessment of sedimentary properties and sedimentary O2 demand (SOD) at water current-exposed and -sheltered sites along distance gradients (12-20 km) to Santa Marta and the eastern river mouths (17-27 km). Findings revealed that seasonal upwelling delivered strong (75-79% of annual supply) pulses of labile organic matter mainly composed of fresh phytoplankton detritus (C : N ratio 6-8) to the seafloor. Sedimentary chlorophyll contents and SOD increased significantly with decreasing distance to the eastern rivers, but only during upwelling. This suggests sedimentary organic matter supply control by nutrient-enriched upwelling waters and riverine runoff rather than by the countercurrent-located city of Santa Marta. Organic matter pulses caused C turnover rates of 4.4% h-1 that were more than 2-fold higher at water current-exposed compared to -sheltered sites. This indicates intense advective pore water exchange and ensuing rapid recycling of the supplied labile organic matter, particularly in the highly permeable water current-exposed silicate reef sands.

  6. Spatiotemporal variability of sedimentary organic matter supply and recycling processes in coral reefs of Tayrona National Natural Park, Colombian Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayraktarov, E.; Wild, C.

    2014-06-01

    Sediments are fundamental for the function of oligotrophic coral reef ecosystems because they are major places for organic matter recycling. The Tayrona National Natural Park (TNNP, Colombian Caribbean) is located between the population center Santa Marta (>455 000 inhabitants) in the southwest and several river mouths in the east. Here, coral reef sediments experience pronounced changes in environmental conditions due to seasonal coastal upwelling, but knowledge of relevant spatiotemporal effects on organic matter supply to the sediments and recycling processes is not available. Therefore, sediment traps were deployed monthly over 14 months complemented by assessment of sedimentary properties (e.g., porosity, grain size, content of particulate organic matter and pigments) and sedimentary O2 demand (SOD) at water-current-exposed and sheltered sites along distance gradients (12-20 km) to Santa Marta and the eastern river mouths (17-27 km). Findings revealed that seasonal upwelling delivered strong (75-79% of annual supply) pulses of labile organic matter mainly composed of fresh phytoplankton detritus (C : N ratio 6-8) to the seafloor. Sedimentary chlorophyll a contents and SOD increased significantly with decreasing distance to the eastern rivers, but only during upwelling. This suggests sedimentary organic matter supply controlled by nutrient-enriched upwelling waters and riverine runoff rather than by the countercurrent-located city of Santa Marta. Organic matter pulses led to significantly higher SOD (more than 30%) at the water-current-sheltered sites as compared to the exposed sites, ensuing a rapid recycling of the supplied labile organic matter in the permeable silicate reef sands.

  7. 33 CFR 334.1470 - Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1470 Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques... Caribbean, U.S. Naval Station, Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, and such agencies and subordinate commands...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1470 - Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1470 Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques... Caribbean, U.S. Naval Station, Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, and such agencies and subordinate commands...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1470 - Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1470 Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques... Caribbean, U.S. Naval Station, Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, and such agencies and subordinate commands...

  10. 76 FR 19380 - Notice of Entry Into Effect of MARPOL Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... SA, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, in July 1991. The SA entered into force in... SECURITY Coast Guard Notice of Entry Into Effect of MARPOL Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area... effect of discharge requirements from ships in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) special area (SA)...

  11. 33 CFR 334.1470 - Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1470 Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques... Caribbean, U.S. Naval Station, Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, and such agencies and subordinate commands...

  12. Teacher Attitudes toward and Perceptions of Student Performance on the Design Component of the Caribbean CXC Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossfield, Philbert J.; Daugherty, Michael K.; Merril, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC) is a regional examining body that provides examinations for secondary and postsecondary students in Caribbean countries. The CXC administers the mechanical engineering technology examination for secondary students in the Caribbean, which includes Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Jamaica,…

  13. Variability of coastal suprabenthic assemblages from sandy beaches of the Caribbean coast of Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Ileana; Martín, Alberto; Díaz, Yusbelly J

    2014-06-01

    The suprabenthos or hyperbenthos is the macrofaunal assemblage of small-sized organisms that interact for some time in the benthic boundary layer. Information about the taxonomic composition and role of suprabenthic species, especially in littoral zones, is scarce and scattered. This work attempts to contribute alleviate this problem. We analyze the temporal and spatial variations of suprabenthic assemblages in the swash-zone from four beaches of the littoral coast of Venezuela. For each beach, two sites were chosen, and special attention was given to water and sediment characteristics. 12 environmental variables were measured: Dissolved oxygen, oxygen saturation percentage, pH, salinity, surface temperature, total, organic and inorganic suspended solids, total organic carbon, organic matter in sediment, grain size of sediment, and amount of dragged material of sample. All faunal samples were taken on a monthly basis during 2011; these were extracted using a manual suprabenthic sledge towed parallel to the shoreline. Samples were sorted and identified to their lowest possible taxonomic level. A total of 24 141 specimens (mean abundance: 26.16 +/- 55.35 ind./m2) belonging to 21 taxonomic groups were identified. Analysis suggests that seasonality does not explain observed changes either in fauna or environmental variables. It was found that suprabenthic assemblages, total suprabenthos density, richness and environmental variables changed in a dissimilar fashion between months and beaches. The most frequent groups were amphipods and decapods; and at the species/categories level post-larval shrimp (Penaeidae), Grapsidae crab megalopae and Arenaeus cribarius megalopae were common. Dissimilarity between months in each beach was primarily explained by the abundance of amphipods, ctenophores, decapods and mysids. For particular months and selected beaches very high abundances of ctenophores were found. This group dominated the sample even though it is not usually a

  14. [Mangrove dynamics in the Cispata lagoon system (Colombian Caribbean) during last 900 years].

    PubMed

    Castaño, Ana; Urrego, Ligia; Bernal, Gladys

    2010-12-01

    The lagoon complex of Cispatá (old Sinú river delta) located at the Northwestern coast of the Colombian Caribbean, encloses one of the biggest mangrove areas in this region. This area has changed during the last 330 years because of several environmental and climatic causes, mainly changes in the position of the delta (Sinú River), which is the main freshwater source in this area, and sea level rise. We hypothesized that the climatic and geomorphologic dynamics has caused changes in the extension and composition of mangrove vegetation, especially during last 150 years. The dynamics of mangroves during the last 900 years was reconstructed based on the changes in the stratigraphy, pollen record, calcite concentrations (CaCO3) and C/N ratio, along two sediment cores from La Flotante and Navio lagoons, located in Cispatá complex. The age model was built based on lineal interpolation of 210Pb ages and changes in granulometry. Establishment and expansion of mangrove forests during the last 900 years were related to fluviomarine dynamics in the area and the lagoon formation. During the period encompassed between 1064 and 1762 A.D., the Mestizos spit was formed when marine conditions predominated in the surroundings of La Flotante Lagoon. At the site of Navío, a river dominated lagoon, terrigenous conditions dominated since 1830. Although the colonization of herbaceous pioneer vegetation started between 1142 and 1331 A.D., mangrove colonization only took place since 1717 A.D. Mangrove colonization was a result of the delta progradation. In 1849 A.D. the Sinú river delta migrated to the Cispatá bay. The eustatic sea level rise, the increase in river discharges and sedimentation rates produced the establishment of mangrove forests dominated by Rhizophora since 1849. Since 1900 a marine intrusion was recorded in both lagoons. In 1938, the migration of the delta toward its actual location in Tinajones gave place to the formation of the present lagoon system and to the

  15. Migration, remittances and development: a study of Caribbean cane cutters in Florida.

    PubMed

    Wood, C H

    1985-01-01

    The results of a 1981 survey of 302 Caribbean sugarcane cutters who were temporary immigrants in Florida are presented. The focus is on remittances to the islands of origin. The results provide "no evidence that seasonal stateside employment expands agricultural output, or enhances the productive capacity of small farmers in the Caribbean."

  16. Caribbean Migration as a Structural Reality. Occasional Papers Series, Dialogues #13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maingot, Anthony P.

    Demographic and economic conditions in the Caribbean region combine with social and historical factors to create a structural migration situation: direction and magnitude of the flow might shift, pressures pushing Caribbean Islanders toward migration are constant. Five structural "pull" features encourage migration: (2) the…

  17. Caribbean Immigration to the United States. RIIES Occasional Papers No. 1. Second Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce-Laporte, Roy S., Ed.; Mortimer, Delores M., Ed.

    Twelve research papers on Caribbean immigrants to the United States are collected in this volume. Their titles (and authors) are the following: (1) "The United States' Role in Caribbean Migration: Background to the Problem" (Roy S. Bryce-Laporte); (2) "International Migration and the Political Economy of Underdevelopment: Aspects of…

  18. The Caribbean: Its Implications for the United States. Headline Series No. 253.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dominguez, Virginia R.; Dominguez, Jorge I.

    This booklet examines the historical roots from which today's Caribbean societies evolved, and the wide variety of social, economic and political entities that make up the Caribbean region today. Separate chapters discuss and compare the economies of the region, its political systems, and the increasingly important phenomenon of Caribbean…

  19. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  20. Caribbean Families: Diversity among Ethnic Groups. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; Brown, Janet, Ed.

    Little is known about the development and function of families in major Caribbean communities, an area composed of diverse ethnic and political groups, the majority of whom live on the edge of poverty. This edited book provides an interdisciplinary examination of Caribbean families, each chapter detailing studies dealing with family structures and…

  1. The Onset of Early Season Rainfall and its Mid-Summer Cessation in the Caribbean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T. L.; Mapes, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    The annual rainfall cycle for the Caribbean basin reveals a distinct bimodal pattern with peaks during the late spring and late summer months. A relative minimum during the mid-summer, known as the mid-summer drought (MSD) separates the early rainfall season (ERS) from the late rainfall season. Accumulated rainfall totals during the ERS appear as a quasi-stationary rain-belt stretching across the Caribbean from the southwest to the northeast. We place late spring rains in the Caribbean in context of other subtropical convergence zones in order to address the onset and cessation of the ERS while also offering an explanation of a Caribbean rain-belt pattern. Upper tropospheric westerlies, mid-tropospheric positive temperature advection, and moist low level poleward flow are the three primary ingredients that conspire to produce the first peak of the annual bimodal rain signal and the related Caribbean early season rain-belt. The MSD ensues as the primary ingredients weaken across the Caribbean and enhanced rainfall shifts north along the North Atlantic Convergence Zone (NACZ). Seasonal rainfall totals from the ERS through the MSD periods reveal a continuous rain-belt that extends from the Caribbean to the NACZ termed the Caribbean Atlantic Rain-belt (CAR-belt). The Car-belt is present in the long term mean, but has signs of interannual variability.

  2. Educating for Sustainable Development: An Overview of Environmental Education Programmes in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Calvin A.

    1995-01-01

    Traditional approaches to formal education in the Caribbean have not achieved sufficiently high levels of sensitivity towards the environment. Nontraditional approaches and new strategies for sustainable development are needed. This paper reviews some approaches being undertaken in the English-speaking Caribbean designed to foster positive change…

  3. Foreign Providers in the Caribbean. Pillagers or Preceptors? Perspectives on Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stewart, Ed.; Brandon, Ed, Ed.; Thomas, Michael, Ed.; Kanwar, Asha, Ed.; Lyngra, Tove, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The growing phenomenon of cross-border higher education (CBHE) will not help developing countries unless it is accessible, available, affordable, relevant and of acceptable quality. Foreign Providers in the Caribbean: Pillagers or Preceptors? focuses on the trends of CBHE in the Caribbean, which has its own unique characteristics. Following a…

  4. Early Childhood in the Caribbean. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Christine

    2008-01-01

    This report looks at the development and socialisation of children under 5 years of age in two Caribbean countries, Trinidad and Tobago and Dominica. It involved fieldwork in four very different communities as well as extensive discussion with academics and professionals. Too little is known about child socialisation in the Caribbean, and this…

  5. Whole genome structural analysis of Caribbean hair sheep reveals quantitative link to west african ancestry

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hair sheep of Caribbean origin have become an important part of the U.S. sheep industry. Lack of wool eliminates a number of health concerns and drastically reduces the cost of production. More importantly, Caribbean hair sheep demonstrate robust performance even in the presence of drug resistant ga...

  6. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Areas E Appendix E to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas Table 1...

  7. Language Planning and Development in the Caribbean: Multi-Ethnic Suriname.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St-Hilaire, Aonghas

    1999-01-01

    Examines language planning and development in Suriname in reference to a Caribbean-wide phenomenon arising from movements of cultural nationalism in the region after the Second World War. During this period, people throughout the Caribbean began to question local supremacy of European languages and cultures and denigration of creole language and…

  8. Indo Caribbean Immigrant Beliefs about Play and Its Impact on Early Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Jin, Bora

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors use psycho-cultural models of ethnic parental theories and acculturation to look at Indo Caribbean immigrant beliefs concerning the relationship between the amount of time children play and their early academic performance. During home interviews, fifty-seven Indo Caribbean couples offered their opinions about the…

  9. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  10. Caribbean Migration as a Structural Reality. Occasional Papers Series, Dialogues #13.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maingot, Anthony P.

    Demographic and economic conditions in the Caribbean region combine with social and historical factors to create a structural migration situation: direction and magnitude of the flow might shift, pressures pushing Caribbean Islanders toward migration are constant. Five structural "pull" features encourage migration: (2) the…

  11. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  12. Friendship Networks, Social Capital and Ethnic Identity: Researching the Perspectives of Caribbean Young People in Britain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Tracey

    2007-01-01

    This article examines the perspectives of Caribbean young people in Britain in order to examine the issue of friendship networks. The research shows that the young people interviewed have a vast array of friendship networks across diverse ethnic groups. However, the majority of the Caribbean young people in the study acknowledged that their three…

  13. Building a collaborative network to understand regional forest dynamics and advance forestry initiatives in the Caribbean

    Treesearch

    Grizelle Gonzalez; Tamara Heartsill Scalley

    2016-01-01

    Herein we provide concluding remarks drawn from and inspired by the discussions of the 5 working groups of the 16th Caribbean Foresters Meeting (CFM) about the needs, challenges, and recommendations to advance forestry in the Caribbean region. We also list key considerations and potential future research directions as presented in the various manuscripts contained in...

  14. Caribbean Immigration to the United States. RIIES Occasional Papers No. 1. Second Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce-Laporte, Roy S., Ed.; Mortimer, Delores M., Ed.

    Twelve research papers on Caribbean immigrants to the United States are collected in this volume. Their titles (and authors) are the following: (1) "The United States' Role in Caribbean Migration: Background to the Problem" (Roy S. Bryce-Laporte); (2) "International Migration and the Political Economy of Underdevelopment: Aspects of…

  15. 33 CFR 334.1490 - Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas. 334.1490 Section 334.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1490 Caribbean...

  16. 33 CFR 334.1490 - Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas. 334.1490 Section 334.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1490 Caribbean...

  17. 33 CFR 334.1490 - Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas. 334.1490 Section 334.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1490 Caribbean...

  18. 33 CFR 334.1490 - Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas. 334.1490 Section 334.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1490 Caribbean...

  19. 33 CFR 334.1490 - Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas. 334.1490 Section 334.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1490 Caribbean...

  20. Caribbean Families: Diversity among Ethnic Groups. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; Brown, Janet, Ed.

    Little is known about the development and function of families in major Caribbean communities, an area composed of diverse ethnic and political groups, the majority of whom live on the edge of poverty. This edited book provides an interdisciplinary examination of Caribbean families, each chapter detailing studies dealing with family structures and…