Science.gov

Sample records for caribbean

  1. Caribbean Connections: Moving North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sunshine, Catherine A., Ed; Warner, Keith Q., Ed.

    This anthology presents the voices of women and men of Caribbean backgrounds living in the United States. Focus is on five most prevalently represented groups: Puerto Ricans, West Indians, Cubans, Haitians, and Dominicans. The book is organized into five sections: (1) "A Primer on Caribbean Migration" presents an overview of Caribbean history and…

  2. Tectonic evolution of the Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, Kevin

    1988-01-01

    The development of the Caribbean is discussed in terms of modern tectonic theory. The nature of the site on which the Caribbean formed is examined, and the development of the rifted margins of the Caribbean is described. Constraints on Caribbean evolution from the relative motions of North and South America are briefly examined, and the Caribbean Oceanic Plateau is discussed. The great island-arc system of the Caribbean is addressed in detail, emphasizing the way the Great Arc of the Caribbean was segmented. The role of Central America in Caribbean history is briefly considered.

  3. A Caribbean Education Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jules, Didacus; Miller, Errol; Armstrong, L. Ancilla

    The 20 member countries of the Caribbean Group for Cooperation and Development (CGCED) share with the rest of the world the common goals of reforming their education systems to equip Caribbean people for productivity, wealth creation, and social and personal development, and have participated in several regional and global initiatives. This…

  4. Geology of the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dillon, William P.; Edgar, N.T.; Scanlon, K.M.; Klitgord, Kim D.

    1987-01-01

    The Venezuelan and Colombian basins are located on the Caribbean Plate whilst the Yucatan basin is on the North American Plate. The processes occurring at the boundaries between the Caribbean Plate and the adjacent North American, South American and Cocos Plates, and the resulting surface features and patterns of volcanic and earthquake activity are described. Most of the Caribbean area is floored by atypical oceanic crust and its most valuable main geologic resources identified so far are petroleum, together with sand and gravel. Geological research is being carried out with techniques for broad-range swath imaging of the seafloor, such as GLORIA, and for directly measuring the movement between plates. -J.G.Harvey

  5. Tsunamis in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farwell, J.; Kelly, A.; Mooney, W. D.

    2006-12-01

    The December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami increased global awareness to the destruction hazard posed by earthquakes and tsunamis around the world. The United States government has committed 37.5 million dollars toward the upgrade of earthquake and tsunami monitoring systems in the Caribbean region. Several historical earthquakes have caused considerable damage throughout the Caribbean, many causing tsunamis. The US Geological Survey is using a large part of this money to enhance capabilities for rapid detection and notification of earthquakes in the Caribbean in an attempt to warn the millions living in this area of possible tsunamis. The USGS is working with the Puerto Rico Seismic Network, the Seismological Research Unit at the University of West Indies, eight other host countries, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). These groups are in the process of installing or upgrading seismic monitoring sites in the earthquake zones of the region. NOAA is also installing four Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) buoys in support of a Caribbean-wide tsunami warning system. Planned seismic stations are located in Antigua/Barbuda, Barbados, Cuba (U.S. Naval Base at Guantanamo Bay), the Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Honduras, Panama, Turks and Caicos, and Grenada. Satellite telemetry will transmit data from these sites to NEIC, Golden, CO, where the data will be redistributed to NOAA, the University of Puerto Rico and the University of the West Indies, the IRIS Data Management Center and other agencies. The development of seismic monitoring operations began on January 9, 2006. This will improve seismic monitoring capabilities in the Caribbean and Central America, provide better real time data for global monitoring research and assessment activities, and improve understanding of historical tsunamis and their effects on the Caribbean.

  6. Psychotherapy in Caribbean Cultures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lefley, Harriet P.; Bestman, Evalina W.

    Caribbean mental health professionals are concerned with the types of psychotherapy that are relevant to the needs of their clients, and with the uses of psychotherapy in a political context. They appear to be divided into two schools: one seeking to promote in clients a change from a traditional world view to a modern one, and the other seeking…

  7. Geology of the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, William P.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes some of the geologic characteristics of the Caribbean region. Discusses the use of some new techniques, including broad-range swath imaging of the sea floor that produces photograph-like images, and satellite measurement of crustal movements, which may help to explain the complex geology of the region. (TW)

  8. Caribbean plate interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, M. )

    1993-02-01

    Vector analysis of plate motions, derived from studies of Atlantic magnetic lineations and fracture zone trends, indicates the following relative movements between the Caribbean, North American, and South American Plates. (1) During Early Jurassic to Early Cretaceous, the North American Plate moved 1900 km westward and 900 km northward relative to the South American Plate. A broad zone including the Caribbean region, i.e., the zone between the North and South America Plates, was a site of left-lateral shear and north-south extension. (2) During Early Cretaceous to Late Cretaceous, the North American Mate moved an additional 1200 km westward relative to South America across this zone. (3) During Late Cretaceous to the end of the Eocene, the North American Plate moved 200 km westward and 400 km northward relative to the South American Plate. (4) From the end of the Eocene to near the end of the Miocene, North America converged on South America some 200 km and moved 100 km eastward relative to it. Through the Mesozoic and earliest Tertiary history of the Caribbean, the region was a shear zone within which left-lateral displacement exceeded 3000 km and north-south extension exceeded 1300 km. In regard to time, 80% of the history of the Caribbean region is one of north-south extension and left-lateral shear. In terms of space, 97% of the shear is left-lateral and the ratio of divergence versus convergence is 7 to 1. Thus, characterizing the Caribbean region, and the Atlantic to its east, as a zone of north-south extension and left-lateral shear, is a fair generalization.

  9. Caribbean Sea Level Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Crespo Jones, H.

    2012-12-01

    Over the past 500 years almost 100 tsunamis have been observed in the Caribbean and Western Atlantic, with at least 3510 people having lost their lives to this hazard since 1842. Furthermore, with the dramatic increase in population and infrastructure along the Caribbean coasts, today, millions of coastal residents, workers and visitors are vulnerable to tsunamis. The UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunamis and other Coastal Hazards for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established in 2005 to coordinate and advance the regional tsunami warning system. The CARIBE EWS focuses on four areas/working groups: (1) Monitoring and Warning, (2) Hazard and Risk Assessment, (3) Communication and (4) Education, Preparedness and Readiness. The sea level monitoring component is under Working Group 1. Although in the current system, it's the seismic data and information that generate the initial tsunami bulletins, it is the data from deep ocean buoys (DARTS) and the coastal sea level gauges that are critical for the actual detection and forecasting of tsunamis impact. Despite multiple efforts and investments in the installation of sea level stations in the region, in 2004 there were only a handful of sea level stations operational in the region (Puerto Rico, US Virgin Islands, Bermuda, Bahamas). Over the past 5 years there has been a steady increase in the number of stations operating in the Caribbean region. As of mid 2012 there were 7 DARTS and 37 coastal gauges with additional ones being installed or funded. In order to reach the goal of 100 operational coastal sea level stations in the Caribbean, the CARIBE EWS recognizes also the importance of maintaining the current stations. For this, a trained workforce in the region for the installation, operation and data analysis and quality control is considered to be critical. Since 2008, three training courses have been offered to the sea level station operators and data analysts. Other

  10. Caribbean paleomagnetism and tectonic evolution

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    Approximately fifty papers treating diverse aspects of Caribbean paleomagnetism have appeared since Creer's pioneering work in the early 1960s. Apparently anomalous early results were initially attributed to anomalous geomagnetic field behavior, to unusual mineralogic effects in rock magnetism and to complex remagnetizations. Eventually the importance of structural and tectonic influences were recognized in paleomagnetic data of the Caribbean area, as elsewhere. Large tectonic rotation is evident from the unusual paleomagnetic declination found at many Caribbean localities. Latitudinal transport, with its plate motion implications, is more subtly expressed in the paleomagnetic inclination parameter, with its typically large relative variance. A review of Caribbean paleomagnetic data is given to form a basis for composing realistic tectonic models.

  11. Tides of the Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Kjerfve, B.

    1981-05-20

    Analysis of tidal characteristics from 45 gauge locations indicates that the Caribbean Sea has a microtidal range, for the most part between 10 and 20 cm. The tide is primarily either mixed semidiurnal or mixed diurnal but a substantial section from Puerto Rico to Venezuela experiences diurnal tides. Empirical charts of six component tides (M/sub 2/, S/sub 2/, N/sub 2/, K/sub 1/, O/sub 1/, and P/sub 1/) show local detail of phase and amplitude. Each of the semidiurnal component tides is characterized by anticlockwise rotating amphidromes centered in the eastern Caribbean. There is evidence of strong radiational forcing of the S/sub 2/ tide in the south-western Caribbean. The diurnal component tides are largely uniform in both phase and amplitude for most of the western and central Caribbean. However, the diurnal phases increase rapidly towards the northwest and the Yucatan Channel.

  12. Satellite Teleconferencing in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sankar, Hollis C.

    1985-01-01

    Discusses the need for, and the development, use, and future trends of, the University of the West Indies Distance Teaching Experiment, which utilizes telephone and communications satellite technology teleconferencing to extend educational opportunities to the peoples of the Caribbean. (MBR)

  13. The Socioeconomic Assimilation of Caribbean American Blacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalmijn, Matthijs

    1996-01-01

    Analysis of 1990 census data indicates that black British-Caribbean American men had significantly higher hourly earnings and occupational status than native African American men. However, blacks from the French- and Spanish-speaking Caribbean did worse than African Americans. Second- and later-generation British-Caribbean Americans had higher…

  14. 9th Caribbean Geological Conference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, Gren

    The ninth in a series of Caribbean Geological Conferences, which are held every 3 or 4 years, took place in Santo Domingo, capital of the Dominican Republic, from the 15th to 26th of August 1980. The conference, which was sponsored by the government of the Dominican Republic and the Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra, was preceded by 2 days of field trips and was opened by President Antonio Guzman on the evening of the 17th of August. Generous support was provided by Alcoa Exploration Co., Falconbridge Dominicana, and Rosario Dominicana.Geologists and geophysicists from 25 countries presented about 130 papers on a wide variety of topics ranging from geophysics to paleontology. While the whole Caribbean area was discussed, there was special emphasis on the northern Caribbean and Hispaniola, as befitted the site of the conference. The contribution of workers from the Dirección General de Mineriá was particularly notable.

  15. Caribbean Women Writers: Suggested Readings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saunders-Hamilton, Tanya

    This document is a bibliography of books written by Caribbean women writers. Authors and their works are organized by the country of their origin; these include: Antigua, Barbados/USA, Belize, Dominica, Grenada, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Haiti, Jamaica, Matinique, Puerto Rico, Trinidad/Tobago, and Trinidad/USA. Books of interest to children and young…

  16. 77 FR 26516 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-04

    ... INFORMATION: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council's Outreach and Education Advisory Panel will meet to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY.... ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. ] SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council's...

  17. Symbiodinium photosynthesis in Caribbean octocorals.

    PubMed

    Ramsby, Blake D; Shirur, Kartick P; Iglesias-Prieto, Roberto; Goulet, Tamar L

    2014-01-01

    Symbioses with the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium form the foundation of tropical coral reef communities. Symbiodinium photosynthesis fuels the growth of an array of marine invertebrates, including cnidarians such as scleractinian corals and octocorals (e.g., gorgonian and soft corals). Studies examining the symbioses between Caribbean gorgonian corals and Symbiodinium are sparse, even though gorgonian corals blanket the landscape of Caribbean coral reefs. The objective of this study was to compare photosynthetic characteristics of Symbiodinium in four common Caribbean gorgonian species: Pterogorgia anceps, Eunicea tourneforti, Pseudoplexaura porosa, and Pseudoplexaura wagenaari. Symbiodinium associated with these four species exhibited differences in Symbiodinium density, chlorophyll a per cell, light absorption by chlorophyll a, and rates of photosynthetic oxygen production. The two Pseudoplexaura species had higher Symbiodinium densities and chlorophyll a per Symbiodinium cell but lower chlorophyll a specific absorption compared to P. anceps and E. tourneforti. Consequently, P. porosa and P. wagenaari had the highest average photosynthetic rates per cm2 but the lowest average photosynthetic rates per Symbiodinium cell or chlorophyll a. With the exception of Symbiodinium from E. tourneforti, isolated Symbiodinium did not photosynthesize at the same rate as Symbiodinium in hospite. Differences in Symbiodinium photosynthetic performance could not be attributed to Symbiodinium type. All P. anceps (n = 9) and P. wagenaari (n = 6) colonies, in addition to one E. tourneforti and three P. porosa colonies, associated with Symbiodinium type B1. The B1 Symbiodinium from these four gorgonian species did not cluster with lineages of B1 Symbiodinium from scleractinian corals. The remaining eight E. tourneforti colonies harbored Symbiodinium type B1L, while six P. porosa colonies harbored type B1i. Understanding the symbioses between gorgonian corals and Symbiodinium will

  18. Changing climate and Caribbean coastlines

    SciTech Connect

    Gable, F.

    1987-01-01

    This paper examines the significance of rising relative sea level to the Caribbean region. The various factors contributing to rising relative sea level are explained -- rising eustatic sea level from atmospheric warming, natural subsidence, and manmade subsidence. The possibility of changes in storms is also raised. Possible impacts are discussed, for both wetlands and urban areas. Some developing government policies are described, such as restrictions on coastal development. International research agendas are described. A list of recommended tide-gage stations is presented.

  19. Symbiodinium Photosynthesis in Caribbean Octocorals

    PubMed Central

    Ramsby, Blake D.; Shirur, Kartick P.

    2014-01-01

    Symbioses with the dinoflagellate Symbiodinium form the foundation of tropical coral reef communities. Symbiodinium photosynthesis fuels the growth of an array of marine invertebrates, including cnidarians such as scleractinian corals and octocorals (e.g., gorgonian and soft corals). Studies examining the symbioses between Caribbean gorgonian corals and Symbiodinium are sparse, even though gorgonian corals blanket the landscape of Caribbean coral reefs. The objective of this study was to compare photosynthetic characteristics of Symbiodinium in four common Caribbean gorgonian species: Pterogorgia anceps, Eunicea tourneforti, Pseudoplexaura porosa, and Pseudoplexaura wagenaari. Symbiodinium associated with these four species exhibited differences in Symbiodinium density, chlorophyll a per cell, light absorption by chlorophyll a, and rates of photosynthetic oxygen production. The two Pseudoplexaura species had higher Symbiodinium densities and chlorophyll a per Symbiodinium cell but lower chlorophyll a specific absorption compared to P. anceps and E. tourneforti. Consequently, P. porosa and P. wagenaari had the highest average photosynthetic rates per cm2 but the lowest average photosynthetic rates per Symbiodinium cell or chlorophyll a. With the exception of Symbiodinium from E. tourneforti, isolated Symbiodinium did not photosynthesize at the same rate as Symbiodinium in hospite. Differences in Symbiodinium photosynthetic performance could not be attributed to Symbiodinium type. All P. anceps (n = 9) and P. wagenaari (n = 6) colonies, in addition to one E. tourneforti and three P. porosa colonies, associated with Symbiodinium type B1. The B1 Symbiodinium from these four gorgonian species did not cluster with lineages of B1 Symbiodinium from scleractinian corals. The remaining eight E. tourneforti colonies harbored Symbiodinium type B1L, while six P. porosa colonies harbored type B1i. Understanding the symbioses between gorgonian corals and Symbiodinium will

  20. Solar drying in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Headley, O. )

    1992-03-01

    The United Nations Food and Agricultural Organisation (FAO) has estimated that a quarter of crops are lost through inadequate handling after harvesting. The use of solar dryers can reduce these losses and improve the quality of food. Oliver Headley of the University of the West Indies overviews a range of dryers developed in the Caribbean region. Solar dryers have been used in various parts of the Caribbean for the past eighteen years. The main types are: closed cycle dryers with separate flat plate collector; open cycle dryers with roof vanes against direct sunlight; open cycle dryers with rockbed heat storage units; open cycle dryers with chimneys for air circulation; wire basket dryers with flow through ventilation; barn roof collectors feeding packed bed dryers. During the dry season (January to April), mean daily insolation in a typical Caribbean island is about 25 MJ/m{sup 2}. With such an abundant resource, solar crop drying emerged as a preferred method for the preservation of perishable commodities. In territories without fossil fuel reserves solar energy is an obvious alternative since it does not involve expenditure of scarce foreign exchange. Research and development work in solar crop drying was conducted both at experimental sites in the University and in rural districts throughout the region. Several types of dryer were designed and tested.

  1. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  2. Regional strategy tested in Caribbean.

    PubMed

    1984-01-01

    Barbados, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia have joined forces in the world's 1st regional Contraceptive Social Marketing (CSM) effort -- the Caribbean CSM. The Barbados Family Planning Association (BFPS) is overseeing the operation, which begins selling 2 contraceptive pills and a condom in early February. Costs and start-up times were shaved by adopting brand names and advertising materials from Jamaica's highly successful CSM project. Jamaica's popular "Panther" condom and "Perle" oral contraceptive (OC) are being used by the Caribbean CSM project. Perle's 9-year-old package has been redesigned and the Caribbean CSM project also is selling a 2nd, low-dose version called "Perle-LD." The products are manufactured in the US by Syntex as Noriday and Norminest, respectively. But the regional approach's financial gains also had a debit side, most notably a tripling of bureaucratic procedures. Part of project difficulties stem from differences among the 3 Caribbean countries. While sharing a common cultural heritage, St. Lucians speak a patois dialect in addition to the English prevalent on the other islands. The biggest hurdle was overcoming an economic disparity between Barbados and its less affluent neighbors, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. The CSM project decided to try a 2-tier product pricing strategy. In US currency, prices run $1.75 per cycle for both OCs on Barbados, but $1.26 on St. Vincent and St. Lucia. A Panther 3-pack costs 75 cents on Barbados and 42 cents on the othe 2 islands. The project is being promoted with generic family planning media advertisements. The project also has held physician orientation seminars on each island. The pilot program will be accompanied by retailer training seminars. In addition the project may introduce a spermicidal foaming tablet, once the US Food and Drug Administration approvs a new American-made product. The unique Caribbean CSM project may spread an idea as potent as the family planning message. Its success could transmit the

  3. Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davids, Melva P.

    2013-01-01

    The paper Languages in Contemporary Anglophone Caribbean Societies examines how language is treated in Jamaica and other Anglophone Caribbean societies and the effects of a haphazard approach to language planning on the social dynamics of the society as well as the individual. It briefly explores how Language is handled in Francophone or…

  4. Teaching and Learning with Caribbean Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Clement B. G.

    Presently, the most frequent point of contact between the United States and many Caribbean island states is the immigrant population. Incentives for immigration are provided by a tradition of colonialism, economies dependent upon agriculture, and problems resulting from rapidly increasing populations. The continuing influx of Caribbeans to the…

  5. British African Caribbean Women and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adkison-Bradley, Carla; Maynard, Donna; Johnson, Phillip; Carter, Stephaney

    2009-01-01

    Depression is a common condition among women in the United Kingdom. However, little is known about the context of depression among British African Caribbean women. This article offers a preliminary discussion regarding issues and information pertaining to depression among British African Caribbean women. Characteristics and symptoms of depression…

  6. Creating Research Culture in Caribbean Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Theodore; Simmons, Lynette

    2010-01-01

    Recent expansion of tertiary education in the Caribbean via the creation of two new universities invites reflection on what impedes the creation of research culture, and what enables it. We contend that research culture in the Caribbean comes up against the strictures of post-colonial dependence, university education in the region being largely a…

  7. Caribbean tectonics and relative plate motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burke, K.; Dewey, J. F.; Cooper, C.; Mann, P.; Pindell, J. L.

    1984-01-01

    During the last century, three different ways of interpreting the tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean have been proposed, taking into account the Bailey Willis School of a permanent pre-Jurassic deep sea basin, the Edward Suess School of a subsided continental terrain, and the Alfred Wegener School of continental separation. The present investigation is concerned with an outline of an interpretation which follows that of Pindell and Dewey (1982). An attempt is made to point out ways in which the advanced hypotheses can be tested. The fit of Africa, North America, and South America is considered along with aspects of relative motion between North and South America since the early Jurasic. Attention is given to a framework for reconstructing Caribbean plate evolution, the evolution of the Caribbean, the plate boundary zones of the northern and southern Caribbean, and the active deformation of the Caribbean plate.

  8. 50 CFR 622.493 - Landing Caribbean queen conch intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Landing Caribbean queen conch intact. 622... ATLANTIC Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.493 Landing Caribbean queen conch intact. (a) A Caribbean queen conch in or from the Caribbean EEZ must be maintained with meat...

  9. 50 CFR 622.493 - Landing Caribbean queen conch intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Landing Caribbean queen conch intact. 622... ATLANTIC Queen Conch Resources of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.493 Landing Caribbean queen conch intact. (a) A Caribbean queen conch in or from the Caribbean EEZ must be maintained with meat...

  10. Tsunami Risk for the Caribbean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozelkov, A. S.; Kurkin, A. A.; Pelinovsky, E. N.; Zahibo, N.

    2004-12-01

    The tsunami problem for the coast of the Caribbean basin is discussed. Briefly the historical data of tsunami in the Caribbean Sea are presented. Numerical simulation of potential tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea is performed in the framework of the nonlinear-shallow theory. The tsunami wave height distribution along the Caribbean Coast is computed. These results are used to estimate the far-field tsunami potential of various coastal locations in the Caribbean Sea. In fact, five zones with tsunami low risk are selected basing on prognostic computations, they are: the bay "Golfo de Batabano" and the coast of province "Ciego de Avila" in Cuba, the Nicaraguan Coast (between Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas), the border between Mexico and Belize, the bay "Golfo de Venezuela" in Venezuela. The analysis of historical data confirms that there was no tsunami in the selected zones. Also, the wave attenuation in the Caribbean Sea is investigated; in fact, wave amplitude decreases in an order if the tsunami source is located on the distance up to 1000 km from the coastal location. Both factors wave attenuation and wave height distribution should be taken into account in the planned warning system for the Caribbean Sea.

  11. Caribbean contributions to contemporary psychiatric psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Hickling, F W; Hutchinson, G

    2012-07-01

    The intellectual exploration of phenomenological and psychiatric discovery that has flowered in the Caribbean in the period of political independence from British colonization is a reflection of the scholarship that has emerged from the academic nurturance by The University of the West Indies. Burgeoning migration of Caribbean people to England in the twentieth century has resulted in high reported rates of psychosis for this migrant population. Caribbean research into this condition has revealed that there exist hostile racial and environmental challenges in Britain that have had a profound pathological effect on the mental health of African Caribbean migrants. These findings have significantly shifted the pendulum of understanding of the aetiology of this condition from a genetic to a biopsychosocial position. Research has also revealed longstanding psychopathological effects of slavery and colonialism in the Caribbean that have had significantly negative long term effects on the mental health of many within the Caribbean population. Current research suggests that there is a need to nurture protective strategies to enhance resilience and social capital, which would ensure the wellness and continued survival of Caribbean people in spite of the many challenges they face. PMID:23240483

  12. Is serious research possible in the Caribbean?

    PubMed

    Figueroa, J P

    1991-01-01

    This essay describes the rich tradition of research in the English-speaking Caribbean and the possibilities for meaningful collaboration between Caribbean researchers and scientists from developed countries. Significant contributions include work related to the human T-lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-I), Jamaican vomiting sickness, veno-occlusive disease of the liver, J-type diabetes, and the role of skin sepsis and streptococcal infection in the etiology of glomerulonephritis. In the fields of malnutrition, human metabolism, child development, and sickle cell anemia, the Caribbean has been at the forefront of medical research internationally. Many characteristics of the Caribbean population, including the disease profile, offer advantages and unique opportunities for significant research, despite difficulties related to the "brain drain" and weaknesses of the infrastructure.

  13. Total Solar Eclipse--A Caribbean Adventure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Steven; Tunstall, Louisa; Tunstall, Neil

    1999-01-01

    Describes the experiences of two high school students who traveled to the Caribbean island of Curacao to view a total solar eclipse and prepare methods for teaching classmates about the eclipse the following school year. (Author/WRM)

  14. Alternative energy technologies for the Caribbean islands

    SciTech Connect

    Pytlinski, J.T. )

    1992-01-01

    All islands in the Caribbean except Puerto Rico can be classified as developing islands. Of these islands, all except Trinidad and Tobago are oil importers. Uncertainties concerning uninterrupted oil supply and increasing oil prices causes economic, social and political instability and jeopardizes further development of these islands. The paper discusses the energy situation of the Caribbean islands and presents alternative energy options. Several alternative energy projects financed by local, federal and international organizations are presented. Present and future uses of alternative energy technologies are described in different islands. Barrier which handicap developing and implementing alternative energy sources in the Caribbean are discussed. The potential and possible applications of alternative energy technologies such as: solar-thermal energy, photovoltaics, wind energy, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), ocean currents and tides energy, biomass, peat energy, municipal solid wastes, bioconversion, hydropower, geothermal energy, nuclear energy and energy conservation are discussed in detail as means to alleviate the energy situation in the Caribbean islands.

  15. Forest fires in the insular Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Robbins, A Marcus J; Eckelmann, Claus-Martin; Quiñones, Maya

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a summary of the forest fire reports in the insular Caribbean derived from both management reports and an analysis of publicly available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrodiometer (MODIS) satellite active fire products from the region. A vast difference between the amount of fires reported by land managers and fire points in the MODIS Fire Information for Resource Management System data can be observed. Future research is recommended to better understand the nature of these differences. While there is a general lack of available statistical data on forest fires in the Caribbean, a few general observations can be made: Forest fires occur mainly in dry forest types (500 to 1000 mm of mean annual rainfall). These are also the areas where most human settlements are located. Lowland high forests and montane forests with higher rainfall (1000 and more mm y(-1)) are less susceptible to forest fire, but they can burn in exceptionally dry years. Most of the dry forest ecosystems in the Caribbean can be considered to be fire-sensitive ecosystems, while the pine forests in the Caribbean (Cuba, Dominican Republic, and the Bahamas) are maintained by wildfires. In fire-sensitive ecosystems, uncontrolled burning often encourages the spread of alien invasive species. A Caribbean Fire Management Cooperation Strategy was developed between 2005 and 2006 under auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. This regional strategy aims to strengthen Caribbean fire management networking by encouraging closer collaboration among countries with similar ecological conditions. The strategy for the Caribbean identifies a number of research, training, and management activities to improve wildfire management capacity in the Caribbean.

  16. Forest fires in the insular Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Robbins, A Marcus J; Eckelmann, Claus-Martin; Quiñones, Maya

    2008-12-01

    This paper presents a summary of the forest fire reports in the insular Caribbean derived from both management reports and an analysis of publicly available Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrodiometer (MODIS) satellite active fire products from the region. A vast difference between the amount of fires reported by land managers and fire points in the MODIS Fire Information for Resource Management System data can be observed. Future research is recommended to better understand the nature of these differences. While there is a general lack of available statistical data on forest fires in the Caribbean, a few general observations can be made: Forest fires occur mainly in dry forest types (500 to 1000 mm of mean annual rainfall). These are also the areas where most human settlements are located. Lowland high forests and montane forests with higher rainfall (1000 and more mm y(-1)) are less susceptible to forest fire, but they can burn in exceptionally dry years. Most of the dry forest ecosystems in the Caribbean can be considered to be fire-sensitive ecosystems, while the pine forests in the Caribbean (Cuba, Dominican Republic, and the Bahamas) are maintained by wildfires. In fire-sensitive ecosystems, uncontrolled burning often encourages the spread of alien invasive species. A Caribbean Fire Management Cooperation Strategy was developed between 2005 and 2006 under auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. This regional strategy aims to strengthen Caribbean fire management networking by encouraging closer collaboration among countries with similar ecological conditions. The strategy for the Caribbean identifies a number of research, training, and management activities to improve wildfire management capacity in the Caribbean. PMID:19205174

  17. The East Falcon Basin: Its Caribbean roots

    SciTech Connect

    Bartok, P.; Boesi, T.

    1996-08-01

    The East Falcon Basin has been described persistently in the context of the Maracaibo Basin tectonic framework. It is the objective of the present study to demonstrate that the Falcon Basin is, in effect, a Caribbean basin juxtaposed on South America and affected by Caribbean tectonics. The oldest rocks outcropping in the region are Late Paleozoic metamorphic and igneous rocks rafted from northcentral Colombia, Middle Jurassic ophiolite complexes, sediments and metasediments and Cretaceous ophiolites transported by a melange of late Cretaceous to early Tertiary sediments. The south vergence of the Caribbean Nappe province has been documented and extends to the present limit of the Andean uplift and to the southern limit of the Coastal Range. The migrating foredeep that developed during the Paleocene-Eocene deposited dominantly basinal shales and thin sandstones. During the Oligocene the Caribbean faults of the Oca system and conjugates began with a dominantly transtensional regime becoming progressively transpressional by Miocene time. The facies development of the Oligocene-Miocene documents the tectonic history. Unique blocks remained as resistant blocks creating ramparts and modifying the basin configuration. During transpression northward-verging thrusting progressively migrated towards the present coastline. The most evident structures of the region are Caribbean in affinity and combined with the sedimentary history of the region can serve to unravel the complex Caribbean-South American plate interaction.

  18. Origins of the Caribbean Rainfall Bimodal Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angeles, MoiséS. E.; GonzáLez, Jorge E.; RamíRez-BeltráN, Nazario D.; Tepley, Craig A.; Comarazamy, Daniel E.

    2010-06-01

    The annual precipitation pattern in the Caribbean basin shows a distinct bimodal behavior, where the first mode is called the Early Rainfall Season (April-July), and the second mode the Late Rainfall Season (August-November). The brief, relatively dry, period in July is usually referred to as the midsummer drought (MSD). It has been hypothesized that the migration through the Caribbean basin of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) and increases in aerosols due to the passing of Saharan Dust across the Caribbean in the summer months may result in the observed precipitation pattern. This paper focuses on determining the origins of the Caribbean MSD. Multiple regression analysis was carried-out to determine if the ITCZ, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, the Vertical Wind Shear (VWS), and different atmospheric particle (AP) concentrations transported from northern Africa correlate with the Caribbean MSD. It is shown that the ITCZ and NAO are weakly correlated with the Caribbean precipitation variability; however, the VWS and aerosol particles revealed an important contribution to rainfall during the summer months. Numerical experiments were then performed to quantify the influence of different VWS scenarios and different AP concentrations on the Caribbean precipitation bimodal behavior. The numerical approach uses the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System coupled with a new cloud microphysics module that allows discrimination between small and giant particles, as well as Cloud Concentration Nuclei (CCN) and Giant CCN activation. These numerical experiments support the statistical result that the VWS and the AP influence the rainfall production and pattern during the MSD. Results indicate that cloud microphysics play an important role in producing the observed climatological bimodal pattern, while variations in large-scale atmospheric dynamics (like the VWS) help explain variations in the strength and pattern of the bimodal events and behavior.

  19. Poverty, drug abuse fuel Caribbean AIDS outbreak.

    PubMed

    Kovaleski, S F

    1998-01-01

    Hatred and fear of homosexuals, together with a fear of losing tourism revenue, drove many high-level policymakers in the Caribbean to ignore the HIV/AIDS in its infancy. With an annual incidence rate of at least 146.6 people per 100,000, the Bahamas now has one of the highest AIDS rates in the world and the highest such rate in the English-speaking Caribbean. AIDS has become the major cause of death for men and women aged 20-44 in the Bahamas. Indeed, throughout the Caribbean, countries like the Bahamas must now cope with a growing AIDS epidemic. UN AIDS Program figures indicate that at least 310,000 people in the Caribbean have either HIV infection or AIDS, and that the prevalence rate among adults is almost 2%. This compares with an estimated 7.4% of the adult population of sub-Saharan Africa which is infected and 0.6% of adults in North America. 65% of reported AIDS cases in the region result from heterosexual intercourse. While the annual number of AIDS cases has been falling in North America over the last several years and rates in Latin America have leveled off, rates in the Caribbean are increasing sharply. Poverty, the population's lack of awareness, low levels of education, internal and international migration, crack cocaine use, promiscuity, high levels of STDs, prostitution, and tourism are also facilitating the spread of HIV in the Caribbean. Social conservatism, mainly in the English-Caribbean, about discussing sex impedes the implementation and success of HIV/AIDS prevention interventions.

  20. 77 FR 60381 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council (CFMC); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC257 Caribbean Fishery Management Council (CFMC); Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery...

  1. 78 FR 14078 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC531 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management...

  2. 78 FR 32623 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-31

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC706 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management...

  3. 77 FR 60380 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC264 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management...

  4. 76 FR 49452 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-10

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA622 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management...

  5. Tsunami Warning Services for the Caribbean Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitmore, P. M.; Ferris, J. C.; Weinstein, S. A.

    2007-05-01

    Tsunami warning and watch services are currently provided to the Caribbean region through a collaborative effort between the two NOAA Tsunami Warning Centers (TWCs): the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) in Ewa Beach, Hawaii, and the West Coast/Alaska Tsunami Warning Center (WCATWC) in Palmer, Alaska. The WCATWC, in coordination with the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), provides fast-response warning services to the U.S. territories of the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (PR/VI). The PTWC provides regional watch services to other countries throughout and surrounding the Caribbean Sea as part of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Caribbean Sea and Adjacent Regions. This collaboration is analogous to the TWC's responsibilities in the Pacific basin: the WCATWC provides fast-response warning services for the U.S. west coast states, Alaska, and British Columbia in Canada, while the PTWC provides regional services for countries throughout and surrounding the Pacific Ocean (as well as a fast-response service for the U.S. State of Hawaii). Caribbean seismic data are transmitted to the TWCs through several means. The PRSN directly exports data to the WCATWC, providing the Center sufficient seismic data for the PR/VI region. Additionally, the PRSN provides the TWCs with data gathered from other Caribbean nations. Using modern communication capabilities, the seismic data can be processed at the TWCs at the same time it is processed locally. Another source of high- quality seismic data is the new USGS nine-station array that circles the region. The Global Seismic Network maintains several stations in Caribbean, Central American, and South American nations which are available in real-time to the TWCs. Unfortunately, sea level data coverage is sporadic in the region. The PR/VI has a relatively dense array of coastal tide gages, but coastal tide gage coverage is very sparse for the rest of the Caribbean basin. Three deep-ocean pressure

  6. Medical tourism in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Ramírez de Arellano, Annette B

    2011-01-01

    Although travel for medical reasons has a long history, it has more recently evolved from a cottage industry to a worldwide enterprise. A number of countries are positioning themselves to attract visitors who are willing to travel to obtain health services that are more accessible, less expensive, or more available than in their countries of origin. This has in turn given rise to medical packages that combine tourism with health. Several Caribbean nations - including Cuba, Barbados, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico - hope to expand their revenues in this new market. Each country has selected specific service niches and promotes its services accordingly. While Cuba has been promoting its services to other countries for several decades, medical tourism is just beginning in the other islands. Ultimately, these nations' economic success will hinge on their comparative advantage vis-à-vis other options, while their success in terms of improving their own health care depends on the extent to which the services for tourists are also available to the islands' populations. PMID:21114073

  7. Caribbean Life in New York City: Sociocultural Dimensions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Constance R., Ed.; Chaney, Elsa M., Ed.

    This book comprises the following papers discussing Caribbean life in New York City: (1) The Context of Caribbean Migration (Elsa M. Chaney); (2) The Caribbeanization of New York City and the Emergence of a Transnational Socio-Cultural System (Constance R. Sutton); (3) New York City and Its People: An Historical Perspective Up to World War II…

  8. Researching Change in Caribbean Education: Curriculum, Teaching and Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, T. Ed.; Ezenne, A., Ed.

    The chapters of this collection deal with a number of issues and concerns at all levels of education in the Caribbean. Section 1, "Curriculum," contains: (1) "Science Education in the Caribbean: Analysis of Current Trends" (Aldrin E. Sweeney); (2) "A Decade of Research in Technology Education: Implications for Caribbean Education" (Glenda M.…

  9. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... must be treated as eligible products. In accordance with Section 201 (a)(3) of the Dominican Republic... country for purposes of the Caribbean Basin Economic Recovery Act, and is therefore no longer included in the definition of “Caribbean Basin country” for purposes of the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative....

  10. An Investigation into the Achievement of African-Caribbean Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Gloria

    1996-01-01

    The case study of an African Caribbean boy in a British preschool class illustrates the ways in which African Caribbean students are caught between a devalued culture and a culture with which they do not identify. Approaches to promote cultural sensitivity toward African Caribbean children are discussed. (SLD)

  11. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Caribbean Basin Trade... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that,...

  12. 48 CFR 25.405 - Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caribbean Basin Trade... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS FOREIGN ACQUISITION Trade Agreements 25.405 Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative. Under the Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative, the United States Trade Representative has determined that,...

  13. Commentary: homicide-suicide in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Emmanuel, Maisha K; Campbell, Michael H

    2012-01-01

    With the exception of Guyana and Trinidad, suicide rates in the Caribbean are relatively low compared with those in other countries. Homicide rates, however, have increased over the past 15 years, especially in Jamaica and Trinidad. The link between suicide, homicide, and homicide followed by suicide (H-S) is not well established. A newspaper review of H-S events in a selection of Caribbean territories revealed a surprising number of these events. Characteristics of perpetrators were similar to those documented in the literature. The authors agree with Roma et al. that national tracking systems for H-S are needed. Empirical research on this topic in the Caribbean is also desperately needed.

  14. [Echinoderms (Echinodermata) of the Mexican Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Laguarda-Figueras, Alfredo; Solis-Marín, Francisco A; Durán-González, Alicia; Ahearn, Cynthia Gust; Buitrón Sánchez, Blanca Estela; Torres-Vega, Juan

    2005-12-01

    A systematic list of the echinoderms of the Mexican Caribbean based on museum specimens of the Colección Nacional de Equinodermos, Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México and the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. is presented. This list reveals an important echinoderm biodiversity in the Mexican Caribbean, where five of the six echinoderm classes are represented. A total of 178 echinoderm species is recorded, distributed in 113 genera, 51 families and 22 orders. 30 new records for the Mexican Caribbean are presents: Crínoidea (three), Asteroidea (two), Ophiuroidea (eleven), Echinoidea (one), Holothuroidea (thirteen).

  15. Sociology of Education: Research in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony, Ed.; Ezenne, Austin, Ed.

    The chapters in this collection explore the premises, standards, requirements, and consequences of education in the Caribbean. Chapters in the first section, "Gender, Education and EmploymentBroken Promises," are: (1) "Educational Management from a Perspective of Care: Women Teachers in Trinidad and Tobago" (Jeanette Morris); (2) "Highly Educated,…

  16. How American History Textbooks View the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Victor W.

    This paper examines: (1) the extent to which recently published textbooks used in United States history survey courses reflect a revised view of the historical relationship between the Caribbean region and the United States; and (2) whether recent shifts in research emphases and methodological expansions in the field of American history have…

  17. Training Caribbean Trawlermen for the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Findlay, Peter

    1975-01-01

    Equipped with two multi-purpose fishing vessels, the Caribbean Fishery Development Institute has begun training 45 persons in an 11-month course ranging from navigation to seamanship, from engineering to biology, law, andeconomics. The program description provided by the article is supplemented by figures offering specific curricular and…

  18. Globalisation and Comparative Education: A Caribbean Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisy, Pearlette

    2001-01-01

    The phenomenon of globalization argues for a broader world view that makes allowances for cultural diversity. Caribbean states have a history of living and working with people from diverse backgrounds, and could make a contribution to the new perspective through closer engagement with the field of comparative education, which has always stressed…

  19. Origins of the Caribbean Bimodal Rainfall Pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, J. E.; Angeles, M.; Comarazamy, D.; Ramirez, N.; Tepley, C.

    2007-05-01

    The Caribbean region is geographically located along a relative land-free tropical band, where the Tropical Atlantic and Pacific equatorial regions influence the inter-annual variability of its rainy season. Its position in a middle tropical warm pool and the ageostrophic dynamic circulation also plays an important role in that variability. Past studies have ascertained that the Caribbean rainfall season has a bimodal nature, where the initial peak of this season, called the early rainfall season (ERS), begins in May and extends until June, with a brief dry period in July. The second half of the overall rainy season, or late rainfall season (LRS), spans from August to November. During the rainy season, the easterly waves and tropical storms begin to be frequent and the rainfall begins to increase. Intuitively, the rainfall should continue increasing, especially from the beginning of the rainy season until the end of this season. The actual data, however, shows an unexpected rainfall decrease in the month of July. The low rainfall peak during the rainy season defines the Caribbean bimodal behavior. The Caribbean rainfall bimodal structure has been reported in different studies over the Caribbean region. However, very little is known about this summer drought, its origins, and factors influencing it. It has been hypothesized that increases in giant aerosols concentration due to the Saharan Dust across the Caribbean in the summer months may result in precipitation suppression. AIn this paper, a multivariable analysis was carried to determine which climatological variables may correlate with the Caribbean summer drought that included Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, the Vertical Wind Shear (VWS) and the aerosol particles (AP) coming from northern Africa. The analysis shows that the ITCZ and the SST are weakly correlated with the Caribbean bimodal precipitation; however, the VWS and aerosol particles revealed an

  20. Cenozoic rift formation in the northern Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mann, P.; Burke, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rifts form in many different tectonic environments where the lithosphere is put into extension. An outline is provided of the distribution, orientation, and relative ages of 16 Cenozoic rifts along the northern edge of the Caribbean plate and it is suggested that these structures formed successively by localized extension as the Caribbean plate moved eastward past a continental promontory of North America. Evidence leading to this conclusion includes (1) recognition that the rifts become progressively younger westward; (2) a two-phase subsidence history in a rift exposed by upthrusting in Jamaica; (3) the absence of rifts east of Jamaica; and (4) the observation that removal of 1400 km of strike-slip displacement on the Cayman Trough fault system places the Paleogene rifts of Jamaica in an active area of extension south of Yucatan where the rifts of Honduras and Guatemala are forming today.

  1. Caribbean Sea Region Pyrrhocoroidea (Hemiptera: Pyrrhocoridae, Largidae).

    PubMed

    Schaefer, C W; Stehlík, J L

    2013-08-01

    A synopsis of the Pyrrhocoridae and Largidae (Pyrrhocoroidea) of the Caribbean Sea Region is given. Three new taxa are described: Dysdercus jamaicensis jindrai Stehlík n. subsp. (Dominican Republic); Largus fumosus fumosus Stehlík n. sp. (Panama-Barro Colorado Island); and Largus fumosus nigromembranaceus Stehlík n. subsp. (Panama). Largus pallidus Halstead is downgraded to a subspecies of Largus davisi Barber, i.e., L. davisi pallidus Halstead n. stat. The following new records are provided: Dysdercus (Dysdercus) andreae (Linnaeus) from Cayman Islands; Acinocoris elegans van Doesburg from Trinidad; Fibrenus pehlkei Schmidt and Largus maculatus Schmidt from Panama; and Largus obovatus (Barber) from Haiti. Altogether, we report 20 species and 3 subspecies of Pyrrhocoridae and 13 species and 2 subspecies of Largidae from the Caribbean Sea Region.

  2. New strategic directions for Caribbean CSM project.

    PubMed

    1986-01-01

    Recent changes in the strategy of the Caribbean Contraceptive Social Marketing Project emphasize the condom, under the brand name, Panther. Since 1984, CCSMP began marketing their Perle rand of oral contraceptive, since dropped, in Barbados, St. Vincent and St. Lucia. Now wider commercial connections are envisioned, with support by CCSMP to promote generic brands. The Panther condom campaign will include an array of mass media, point-of-purchase and sporting event advertising. Pharmacies report that Panther is selling as well as the leading commercial brand. CCSMP is looking to introduce an ultra-thin condom and a vaginal foaming tablet. Market research, involving physicians and users as well as retail audits, indicates that although population in numbers alone is not a serious problem in the Caribbean, early pregnancy is a concern in the area. PMID:12341467

  3. [Population dynamics and development in the Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Boland, B

    1995-12-01

    The impact is examined of socioeconomic factors on Caribbean population dynamics. This work begins by describing the socioeconomic context of the late 1980s and early 1990s, under the influence of the economic changes and crises of the 1980s. The small size, openness, dependency, and lack of diversification of the Caribbean economies have made them vulnerable to external pressures. The Bahamas and Belize had economic growth rates exceeding 5% annually during 1981-90, but most of the countries had low or negative growth. Unemployment, poverty, the structural adjustment measures adopted in the mid-1980s, and declines in social spending exacerbated general economic conditions. In broad terms, the population situation of the Caribbean is marked by diversity of sizes and growth rates. A few countries oriented toward services and tourism had demographic growth rates exceeding 3%, while at least 7 had almost no growth or negative growth. Population growth rates reflected different combinations of natural increase and migration. Crude death rates ranged from around 5/1000 to 11/1000, except in Haiti, and all countries of the region except Haiti had life expectancies of 70 years or higher. Despite fertility decline, the average crude birth rate was still relatively high at 26/1000, and the rate of natural increase was 1.8% annually for the region. Nearly half of the regional population was under 15 or over 65 years old. The body of this work provides greater detail on mortality patterns, variations by sex, infant mortality, causes of death, and implications for policy. The discussion of fertility includes general patterns and trends, age specific fertility rates, contraceptive prevalence, levels of adolescent fertility and age factors in adolescent sexual behavior, characteristics of adolescent unions, contraceptive usage, health and social consequences of adolescent childbearing, and the search for solutions. The final section describes the magnitude and causes of

  4. Movement of the Caribbean plate and its importance for biogeography in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durham, J. Wyatt

    1985-02-01

    Sykes et al. have demonstrated that the Caribbean plate has moved east-northeast about 1400 km since late Eocene time (38 Ma). This movement changes or affects the interpretation of many biogeographic problems of that region. For example, Woodring's 1965 “Middle Miocene Caribbean Province,” although slightly larger peripherally, includes the same area as the Caribbean plate; the migration route by which the North American terrestrial mammals reached the Panamanian area in the early Miocene may have been via the Nicaraguan Rise rather than through present-day Guatemala; Petuch's “relict Neogene gastropod fauna” from northern Colombia and Venezuela may have been carried along with the plate as it moved; the otherwise Pacific keyhole echinoid genus Mellitella's anomalous fossil occurrences in Venezuela and Colombia are explained by the plate movement.

  5. Spatial structure of the Caribbean lobster ( Metanephrops binghami) in the Colombian Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paramo, Jorge; Saint-Paul, Ulrich

    2012-03-01

    Crustaceans of the genus Metanephrops are of great commercial value in some tropical and subtropical regions. With the potential development of a new deep lobster fishery in the Colombian Caribbean Sea, the objective of this work is to describe for first time the patterns of spatial and bathymetric distribution, and diel migratory periodicity of the Caribbean lobster ( M. binghami). Data were collected by trawling in depths between 200 and 550 m (100 m strata intervals) in the Colombian Caribbean Sea. Higher biomass and size of these crustaceans were found between 250 and 350 m, with a maximum at about 300 m. The study offers diel patterns of M. binghami, which suggests nocturnal activity and burrowing during daylight hours.

  6. Stranded pumice in the western Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrick, J. A.; Henton De Angelis, S.; Toscano, M. A.

    2013-12-01

    Floating and washed-up pumices have been reported by scientific expeditions along the Caribbean Sea coast of the Central American Isthmus and the northern coast of South America since at least 1947. Local coastal communities have been utilizing this resource for many years. The rounded and buffered morphology of hand specimens is consistent with water-borne transit. The volcanically active Caribbean and Central American regions provide a number of candidates for source volcanoes and eruptions. We have attempted to identify this source using samples collected from Carrie Bow Cay and Placencia Beach, Belize; Tulum Beach, Mexico; Morrosquillo Bay, Colombia; and Galeta Point, Panama. We have tracked possible transport routes through the use of river drainage and ocean current maps. The criteria for comparing the products of potential source volcanoes (including Atitlán Caldera in Guatemala and Caribbean sources such as Mt. Pelée, Martinique and Soufrière Hills, Montserrat) were developed from the whole rock major and trace element geochemistry and the compositional and textural characteristics of pumice and their constituent minerals and glasses. The largest pumice sample collected from Carrie Bow Cay, Belize, was 18.5x12 cm with the typical, rounded morphology and distinctively stretched vesicles exhibited by this pumice collection.

  7. CARICOF - The Caribbean Regional Climate Outlook Forum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Meerbeeck, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    Regional Climate Outlook Forums (RCOFs) are viewed as a critical building block in the Global Framework for Climate Services (GFCS) of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). The GFCS seeks to extend RCOFs to all vulnerable regions of the world such as the Caribbean, of which the entire population is exposed to water- and heat-related natural hazards. An RCOF is initially intended to identify gaps in information and technical capability; facilitate research cooperation and data exchange within and between regions, and improve coordination within the climate forecasting community. A focus is given on variations in climate conditions on a seasonal timescale. In this view, the relevance of a Caribbean RCOF (CARICOF) is the following: while the seasonality of the climate in the Caribbean has been well documented, major gaps in knowledge exist in terms of the drivers in the shifts of amplitude and phase of seasons (as evidenced from the worst region-wide drought period in recent history during 2009-2010). To address those gaps, CARICOF has brought together National Weather Services (NWSs) from 18 territories under the coordination of the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH), to produce region-wide, consensus, seasonal climate outlooks since March 2012. These outlooks include tercile rainfall forecasts, sea and air surface temperature forecasts as well as the likely evolution of the drivers of seasonal climate variability in the region, being amongst others the El Niño Southern Oscillation or tropical Atlantic and Caribbean Sea temperatures. Forecasts for both the national-scale forecasts made by the NWSs and CIMH's regional-scale forecast amalgamate output from several forecasting tools. These currently include: (1) statistical models such as Canonical Correlation Analysis run with the Climate Predictability Tool, providing tercile rainfall forecasts at weather station scale; (2) a global outlooks published by the WMO appointed Global Producing

  8. Kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region since the Early Jurassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bochman, Lydian; van Hinsbergen, Douwe; Torsvik, Trond; Spakman, Wim; Pindell, James

    2014-05-01

    The Caribbean region results from a complex tectonic history governed by the interplay of the North American, South American and (Paleo-)Pacific plates, between which the Caribbean plate evolved since the early Cretaceous. During its entire tectonic evolution, the Caribbean plate was largely surrounded by subduction and transform boundaries, which hampers a quantitative integration into the global circuit of plate motions. In addition, reconstructions of the region have so far not resulted in a first order kinematic description of the main tectonic units in terms of Euler poles and finite rotation angles. Here, we present an updated, quantitatively described kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region back to 200 Ma integrated into the global plate circuit, and implemented with GPlates free software. Our analysis of Caribbean tectonic evolution incorporates an extensive literature review. To constrain the Caribbean plate motion between the American continents, we use a novel approach that takes structural geological observations rather than marine magnetic anomalies as prime input, and uses regionally extensive metamorphic and magmatic phenomena such as the Great Arc of the Caribbean, the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) and the Caribbean high-pressure belt as correlation markers. The resulting model restores the Caribbean plate back along the Cayman Trough and major strike-slip faults in Guatemala, offshore Nicaragua, offshore Belize and along the Northern Andes towards its position of origin, west of the North and South American continents in early Cretaceous time. We provide the paleomagnetic reference frame for the Caribbean region by rotating the Global Apparent Polar Wander Path into coordinates of the Caribbean plate interior, Cuba, and the Chortis Block. We conclude that a plate kinematic scenario for a Panthalassa/Pacific origin of Caribbean lithosphere leads to a much simpler explanation than a Proto-Caribbean/Atlantic origin. Placing our

  9. Monitoring Educational Performance in the Caribbean. World Bank Working Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    di Gropello, Emanuela

    This study represents a first attempt at providing a comprehensive quantification of educational outcomes in the Caribbean region. Its main objectives are: (1) to define a set of operationally relevant education indicators; (2) to provide a database of comparable education indicators in Caribbean countries where data is available, namely Belize,…

  10. 78 FR 69048 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-18

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC980 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council... Management Council, 270 Mu oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 401, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00918, telephone: (787)...

  11. Mental Retardation in the Caribbean: Needs, Resources, Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorburn, Marigold J., Ed.

    Presented are conference reports including an opening address on the economic benefits of programs for the mentally retarded (MR), and eight papers discussing the problem of mental retardation in the Caribbean. Two papers on preschool age children, respectively, consider the identification and assessment of MR children in the Caribbean and present…

  12. 75 FR 32081 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-07

    ... President of the United States of America A Proclamation Our Nation is linked to the Caribbean by our... bonds of slavery. All have strived to ensure their children could achieve something greater and have... of friendship between the United States and Caribbean countries. This year's devastating...

  13. Oraliteracy and Textual Opacity: Resisting Metropolitan Consumption of Caribbean Creole

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheller, Mimi

    2004-01-01

    The incorporation of "creole" vernacular languages into texts written in "standard" languages is an especially fraught crossroads of intercultural communication. This article considers the difference between a kind of literary tourism in which non-Caribbean readers "taste" the flavour of creole language within Caribbean literature versus an…

  14. Theorising African Caribbean Absences in Multicultural Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Paul

    2010-01-01

    This article looks at the learning of African Caribbean pupils in art and design classrooms in the United Kingdom. It proceeds from the proposition that African Caribbean pupils, as the descendants of enslaved peoples whose cultural lineage has been blurred by the skewed relationship with the white majority group, are uniquely disadvantaged in the…

  15. Teaching Reading to Bidialectal English-Speaking Caribbean American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    David Rodriguez, Ingrid

    2012-01-01

    There is little research on bidialectal teacher preparation for teaching bidialectal English-speaking Caribbean American students. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to understand teachers' perception of reading difficulties of Caribbean American children in a local district that has a large percentage of these students who…

  16. 76 FR 66041 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-25

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA762 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council... conducted in English. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Embassy Suites Hotel, 8000 Tartak...

  17. Language-Planning in the Creole-Speaking Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devonish, Hubert

    1984-01-01

    As a result of anticolonial movements in the Caribbean, Creole languages are becoming major languages of communication. Language planning has begun to focus on them. These languages must be taught to non-native speakers who want to participate fully in Caribbean culture. This is clearly demonstrated in the area of cinema. (VM)

  18. 78 FR 34046 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC707 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of a public meeting. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management Council's Outreach and Education Advisory Panel (OEAP) will hold a meeting. DATES: The OEAP meeting will...

  19. HIV/AIDS and Children in the English Speaking Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Barbara A., Ed.

    This collection of papers addresses the HIV/AIDS situation among English-speaking children in the Caribbean. Papers include: "Preface" (C. James Hospedales); "Introduction"; (Barbara A. Dicks); "HIV/AIDS: Challenging a Monster" (Brendan Bain); "HIV/AIDS in Caribbean Children and Adolescents" (Noreen Jack); "Social and Demographic Factors Affecting…

  20. 50 CFR 622.458 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.458 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There...

  1. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that apply to importation of...

  2. 50 CFR 622.458 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Spiny Lobster Fishery of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands § 622.458 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There...

  3. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that apply to importation of...

  4. 50 CFR 622.50 - Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Caribbean spiny lobster import... ATLANTIC Management Measures § 622.50 Caribbean spiny lobster import prohibitions. (a) Minimum size limits for imported spiny lobster. There are two minimum size limits that apply to importation of...

  5. Caribbean basin framework, 1: Introduction, Nicaraguan rise and Greater Antilles

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    Recent progress in lithologic description and microfossil dating of onshore basins from around the Caribbean has improved constraints on the age and tectonic setting of major basin-forming periods. The author presents an integrated tectonostratigraphic summary from the northern, western, and southwestern Caribbean and use this framework to interpret seismic profiles in offshore areas lacking wells.

  6. Health Care in the Caribbean and Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGlynn, Frank, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    This publication examines a range of public health issues in the Caribbean Basin including conditions responsible for the transmission of disease, folk palliatives, and factors affecting preventive and curative health services on the national level. Comparisons are also made among the various Caribbean countries. The book has seven chapters: (1)…

  7. Street Festivals in the Caribbean: Geography Lessons for Elementary Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockledge, Ann

    1992-01-01

    Describes holiday celebrations in the Caribbean as important contemporary social events with historical, geographical, and cultural significance. Discusses the origins, development, and customs of the major Caribbean street festivals. Suggests that the holidays can combine all social science disciplines into focus and emphasize the geographic…

  8. School Leadership in the Caribbean: Perceptions, Practices, Paradigms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul, Ed.

    2013-01-01

    Successful school leadership is an issue currently being debated up and down Caribbean territories. Key issues in the ongoing debate include: students' outcomes and participation in the regional Caribbean Secondary Examinations (CSEC); teacher recruitment and retention; teacher training and continuing professional development (upgrading); and…

  9. 76 FR 71939 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ... Participation in the Fisheries Management Process--Emily Muelhston. Yellowtail Update and Report on Data... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA829 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Notice of public meetings. SUMMARY: The Caribbean Fishery Management...

  10. Teaching Caribbean Students: Research on Social Issues in the Caribbean and Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony, Ed.; Ezenne, Austin, Ed.

    The issues and findings in the research essays in this collection focus on two main themes: the identification of challenges in preparing Caribbean students for the new global network and the isolation of the challenges posed in developing these global relations. Part 1, "Socially Sensitive Pedagogies," contains: (1) "Domain-Specific Modern…

  11. African dust and the demise of Caribbean coral reefs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinn, E.A.; Smith, G.W.; Prospero, J.M.; Betzer, P.; Hayes, M.L.; Garrison, V.; Barber, R.T.

    2000-01-01

    The vitality of Caribbean coral reefs has undergone a continual state of decline since the late 1970s, a period of time coincidental with large increases in transatlantic dust transport. It is proposed that the hundreds of millions of tons/year of soil dust that have been crossing the Atlantic during the last 25 years could be a significant contributor to coral reef decline and may be affecting other ecosystems. Benchmark events, such as near synchronous Caribbean-wide mortalities of acroporid corals and the urchin Diadema in 1983, and coral bleaching beginning in 1987, correlate with the years of maximum dust flux into the Caribbean. Besides crustal elements, in particular Fe, Si, and aluminosilicate clays, the dust can serve as a substrate for numerous species of viable spores, especially the soil fungus Aspergillus. Aspergillus sydowii, the cause of an ongoing Caribbean-wide seafan disease, has been cultured from Caribbean air samples and used to inoculate sea fans.

  12. Kinematic reconstruction of the Caribbean region since the Early Jurassic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschman, L. M.; Van Hinsbergen, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    The Caribbean region has a complex tectonic history that resulted from the interplay of the North and South American, the Caribbean, and (Paleo-)Pacific plates. Being largely surrounded by long-lived subduction zones and transform boundaries, reconstructing Caribbean plate motion into the global plate circuit cannot be done using marine magnetic anomalies. Here, we present a fully quantitative, kinematically consistent tectonic reconstruction, back to 200 Ma, using the Atlantic plate circuit as boundary condition. This reconstruction is made in GPlates freeware and all reconstruction files are made available. To restore Caribbean plate motion between the American continents, we use a reconstruction hierarchy based on strike-slip and thrust belt records, using regionally extensive geological phenomena such as the Great Arc of the Caribbean, the Caribbean Large Igneous Province (CLIP) and the Caribeana high-pressure belt as correlation markers. The resulting model restores the Caribbean plate back along the Cayman Trough and strike-slip faults in Guatemala, offshore Nicaragua, offshore Belize and along the Northern Andes towards its position of origin, west of the North and South American continents. Two plate kinematic scenarios for the origin of the Caribbean plate lithosphere are evaluated; an origin from Proto-Caribbean/Atlantic spreading, or from spreading within the Panthalassa domain: we conclude that the latter can provide a simpler explanation. Placing our reconstruction in the most recent mantle reference frames shows that the CLIP erupted 2-3000 km east of, and is probably not the result of the plume head stage of the Galápagos hotspot. Finally, our reconstruction suggests that all modern subduction zones surrounding the Caribbean plate probably formed by inversion of transform faults, two of these (along the southern Mexican and NW South American margins) strongly diachronously as a result of migrating trench-trench-transform triple junctions.

  13. Caribbean plate tectonics from seismic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ten Brink, U. S.; Villasenor, A.

    2012-12-01

    New seismic tomography in the Caribbean shows close links between the geometry and dynamics of subducting slabs and the geology of the overriding plate. Unlike most oceanic plates, the Caribbean plate lacks identifiable seafloor magnetic anomalies and fracture zones. The plate's history has therefore been inferred primarily from land geology along the plate boundary, which is complicated by large-scale shear deformation, and from finite rotations of surrounding plates.We used more than 14 million arrival times from 300,000 earthquakes to identify P-wave velocity anomalies. We relate the anomalies to the geometry and dynamics of subducting slabs and to patterns of earthquake activity, volcanism, topographic relief, and tectonic deformation. For example, we detect two separate slabs belonging to the North and South American plates, respectively, which appear to be responsible for morphologic and tectonic differences between the arcs of the Northern (from Guadeloupe northward) and Southern (from Dominica southward) Lesser Antilles. Variations in earthquake activity between Haiti and the Dominican Republic can be explained by a change in slab geometry from an underplated slab beneath Haiti to a subducting slab under the Dominican Republic. A shallow tear in the slab may explain the anomalously deep Puerto Rico Trench and the frequent earthquake swarms there. The westward shift in volcanic activity in the Northern Lesser Antilles from the Miocene Limestone Caribbees to the present arc can be attributed to the limit on convective flow imposed by the 3-D geometry of the slab at depth. A thinned South America slab under the southern Lesser Antilles may result from traction imposed on the slab by a wide forearc wedge. Variations in tectonic deformation of northern South America could be related to the location of the Caribbean Large Igneous Province north of the Maracaibo Block.

  14. Large Earthquake Potential in the Southeast Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mencin, D.; Mora-Paez, H.; Bilham, R. G.; Lafemina, P.; Mattioli, G. S.; Molnar, P. H.; Audemard, F. A.; Perez, O. J.

    2015-12-01

    The axis of rotation describing relative motion of the Caribbean plate with respect to South America lies in Canada near Hudson's Bay, such that the Caribbean plate moves nearly due east relative to South America [DeMets et al. 2010]. The plate motion is absorbed largely by pure strike slip motion along the El Pilar Fault in northeastern Venezuela, but in northwestern Venezuela and northeastern Colombia, the relative motion is distributed over a wide zone that extends from offshore to the northeasterly trending Mérida Andes, with the resolved component of convergence between the Caribbean and South American plates estimated at ~10 mm/yr. Recent densification of GPS networks through COLOVEN and COCONet including access to private GPS data maintained by Colombia and Venezuela allowed the development of a new GPS velocity field. The velocity field, processed with JPL's GOA 6.2, JPL non-fiducial final orbit and clock products and VMF tropospheric products, includes over 120 continuous and campaign stations. This new velocity field along with enhanced seismic reflection profiles, and earthquake location analysis strongly suggest the existence of an active oblique subduction zone. We have also been able to use broadband data from Venezuela to search slow-slip events as an indicator of an active subduction zone. There are caveats to this hypothesis, however, including the absence of volcanism that is typically concurrent with active subduction zones and a weak historical record of great earthquakes. A single tsunami deposit dated at 1500 years before present has been identified on the southeast Yucatan peninsula. Our simulations indicate its probable origin is within our study area. We present a new GPS-derived velocity field, which has been used to improve a regional block model [based on Mora and LaFemina, 2009-2012] and discuss the earthquake and tsunami hazards implied by this model. Based on the new geodetic constraints and our updated block model, if part of the

  15. Epilepsy care in the southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Gregory; Sandy, Sherry; Corbin, David O C; Bird-Compton, Jacqueline; Jack, Frances; Nelson, Beverly; Jalonen, Tuula O; Ali, Amza; Fortuné, Taryn; Clarke, Dave; Okolie, Jacqueline; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-10-01

    Very little has been reported about the health resources available for patients with epilepsy in the five English-speaking southern Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia. There is no comprehensive resource describing their health systems, access to specialty care, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and availability of brain imaging and EEG. The purpose of this study was to profile epilepsy care in these countries as an initial step toward improving the standard of care and identifying gaps in care to guide future policy changes. In each southern Caribbean country, we conducted study visits and interviewed health-care providers, government health ministers, pharmacy directors, hospital medical directors, pharmacists, clinic staff, radiologists, and radiology and EEG technicians. Health-care providers completed extensive epilepsy care surveys. The five countries all have integrated government health systems with clinics and hospitals that provide free or heavily subsidized care and AEDs for patients with epilepsy. Only Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, however, have neurology specialists. The three smaller countries lack government imaging and EEG facilities. Trinidad had up to one-year waits for public MRI/EEG. Government formularies in Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia are limited to first-generation AEDs. One or more second-line agents are formulary in Trinidad and Barbados. Nonformulary drugs may be obtained for individual patients in Barbados. Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines participate in an Organization of Eastern Caribbean States formulary purchasing system, which added levetiracetam following the survey. Newer generic AED formulations with the lowest risks for pregnancy malformation were not in use. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy in the southern Caribbean have excellent access to government clinics and hospitals, but AED choices

  16. Connectivity and management of caribbean coral reefs

    PubMed

    Roberts

    1997-11-21

    Surface current patterns were used to map dispersal routes of pelagic larvae from 18 coral reef sites in the Caribbean. The sites varied, both as sources and recipients of larvae, by an order of magnitude. It is likely that sites supplied copiously from "upstream" reef areas will be more resilient to recruitment overfishing, less susceptible to species loss, and less reliant on local management than places with little upstream reef. The mapping of connectivity patterns will enable the identification of beneficial management partnerships among nations and the design of networks of interdependent reserves.

  17. Epilepsy care in the southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Krauss, Gregory; Sandy, Sherry; Corbin, David O C; Bird-Compton, Jacqueline; Jack, Frances; Nelson, Beverly; Jalonen, Tuula O; Ali, Amza; Fortuné, Taryn; Clarke, Dave; Okolie, Jacqueline; Cervenka, Mackenzie C

    2015-10-01

    Very little has been reported about the health resources available for patients with epilepsy in the five English-speaking southern Caribbean countries of Trinidad and Tobago, Barbados, Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia. There is no comprehensive resource describing their health systems, access to specialty care, antiepileptic drug (AED) use, and availability of brain imaging and EEG. The purpose of this study was to profile epilepsy care in these countries as an initial step toward improving the standard of care and identifying gaps in care to guide future policy changes. In each southern Caribbean country, we conducted study visits and interviewed health-care providers, government health ministers, pharmacy directors, hospital medical directors, pharmacists, clinic staff, radiologists, and radiology and EEG technicians. Health-care providers completed extensive epilepsy care surveys. The five countries all have integrated government health systems with clinics and hospitals that provide free or heavily subsidized care and AEDs for patients with epilepsy. Only Trinidad and Tobago and Barbados, however, have neurology specialists. The three smaller countries lack government imaging and EEG facilities. Trinidad had up to one-year waits for public MRI/EEG. Government formularies in Grenada, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Saint Lucia are limited to first-generation AEDs. One or more second-line agents are formulary in Trinidad and Barbados. Nonformulary drugs may be obtained for individual patients in Barbados. Grenada, Saint Lucia, and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines participate in an Organization of Eastern Caribbean States formulary purchasing system, which added levetiracetam following the survey. Newer generic AED formulations with the lowest risks for pregnancy malformation were not in use. In conclusion, patients with epilepsy in the southern Caribbean have excellent access to government clinics and hospitals, but AED choices

  18. Tectonics and terranes of the Southeastern Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.C. )

    1993-02-01

    The southeastern Caribbean plate (Ca) is comprised of the following terranes: Tobago, Grenada Basin, St. Vincent, Araya-Margarita, and Paria-Trinidad-Barbardos (PTB). All are alient relative to South America (SA) east of Caracas except for PTB, which is of continental provenance and parautochthonous and lies within the principal movement zone of the Ca-Sa plate boundary. The Tobago terrane extends between the eastern Venezuelan coastline and the Grenada Basin. On its south, the Tobago terrane overrode PTB and the South American passive margin during Neogene oblique collision. The Mesozoic tectonostratigraphy of the Tobago terrane is not unlike that of the Colombian Basin, suggesting the Tobago may belong to the Pacific-derived Caribbean plate. The Grenada Basin terrane consists of Eocene and older oceanic crust that now occupies the southern Lesser Antilles arc platform and the southern Grenada Basin. Such crust abducted southward below the Tobago terrane in mid-Cenozoic time, probably taking up boundary-normal shortening during oblique collision of the Ca and Sa plates. The oceanic crust of the GB terrane arose by backarc spreading of unknown orientation. The St. Vincent terrane extends north in the Antilles from St. Vincent; it is defined by thick crust, perhaps an old arc basement. The Araya-Margarita terrane is a probable subduction complex of Mesozoic age of metamorphism that has been transported far eastward from an unknown site with the Ca plate.

  19. AIDS in Latin America and the Caribbean: current situation.

    PubMed

    1992-03-01

    HIV and AIDS first affected the countries of North America and the Caribbean. By now, all countries in the region have been affected, but the magnitude and distribution of HIV's impact vary between subregions and countries. Conservative estimates tally 750,000 infected with HIV in Brazil, 120,800 in the Latin Caribbean, 91,250 in the Andean area, 80,000 in Mexico, 41,400 in the Southern Cone, 30,800 in the Central American Isthmus, and 8300 in the Caribbean. 48,767 AIDS cases were reported in Latin America and the Caribbean by the end of 1991. 46.3% of cases were in Brazil, 18.6% in Mexico, 9.8% in Latin Caribbean, 8.4% in the Andean area, 7.0% in the Caribbean, 5.7% in the Central American Isthmus, and 4.3% in the Southern Cone. Compared to figures for 1990, incidence in the Southern Cone increased by 155%, 82% in the Central American Isthmus, 60% in Mexico, 40% in the Andean area, and 25% in Brazil. Incidence may have decreased by 9.7% in the Latin Caribbean and 0.3% in North America. Reporting remains delayed and incomplete for many of these countries. Further, only 50% of AIDS cases in Latin America may actually be reported. Incidence and prevalence data should, therefore, be treated with caution. HIV and AIDS are discussed in detail on a subregional basis.

  20. Estimation of Tsunami Risk for the Caribbean Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zahibo, N.

    2004-05-01

    The tsunami problem for the coast of the Caribbean basin is discussed. Briefly the historical data of tsunami in the Caribbean Sea are presented. Numerical simulation of potential tsunamis in the Caribbean Sea is performed in the framework of the nonlinear-shallow theory. The tsunami wave height distribution along the Caribbean Coast is computed. These results are used to estimate the far-field tsunami potential of various coastal locations in the Caribbean Sea. In fact, five zones with tsunami low risk are selected basing on prognostic computations, they are: the bay "Golfo de Batabano" and the coast of province "Ciego de Avila" in Cuba, the Nicaraguan Coast (between Bluefields and Puerto Cabezas), the border between Mexico and Belize, the bay "Golfo de Venezuela" in Venezuela. The analysis of historical data confirms that there was no tsunami in the selected zones. Also, the wave attenuation in the Caribbean Sea is investigated; in fact, wave amplitude decreases in an order if the tsunami source is located on the distance up to 1000 km from the coastal location. Both factors wave attenuation and wave height distribution should be taken into account in the planned warning system for the Caribbean Sea. Specially the problem of tsunami risk for Lesser Antilles including Guadeloupe is discussed.

  1. The Caribbean Basin: A prime market for renewables

    SciTech Connect

    Sklar, S.

    1989-04-01

    Countries in the Caribbean basin have high energy prices and need additional electrical generating capacity. Renewable energy and independent power sources could help meet that need. The Caribbean Basin and the Pacific Rim appear to offer the best total market opportunities considering government energy policies, prices of energy, and consumer attitudes on renewable energy applications. The Caribbean Basin was selected for an industry project opportunity review. This area was selected due to its proximity, renewable resource base, need for energy and growth, and potential for private and multidevelopment bank funding of projects. 3 figs.

  2. What Is in the Caribbean Baby? Assessing Prenatal Exposures and Potential Health Outcomes to Environmental Contaminants in 10 Caribbean Countries

    PubMed Central

    Forde, MS; Dewailly, E

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: To assess prenatal exposures and potential health outcomes to environmental toxicants such as persistent organic pollutants (POPs), commonly used pesticides, and two heavy metals – mercury (Hg) and lead (Pb) – in 10 Caribbean countries. Subjects and Methods: For each participating Caribbean island, approximately 50 maternal blood and urine samples were collected and analysed for POPs such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), other common classes of pesticides used in the Caribbean such as organophosphates (OP), carbamates, chlorophenols and pyrethroids, and for Hg and Pb. Data obtained from the participating countries were compared with those from the United States of America and Canada. Results: A total of 438 samples were analysed from 10 Caribbean countries. Persistent organic pollutants were detected in almost all samples, however, these were generally low compared with comparable North American results. Evidence of exposure to PBDEs, OPs, carbamates and chlorophenols was also established. Caribbean pyrethroid concentrations were generally much higher than those recorded for North American women. Caribbean Pb maternal blood levels were generally lower than in North America, whereas Hg blood levels were two to three times higher. In almost all of the samples taken in this study, exposures to multiple chemicals were taking place at the same time. Conclusion: This first Caribbean-wide exploratory biomonitoring study on the concentrations of several toxicants in maternal samples taken from 10 Caribbean countries clearly reinforces the need for Caribbean primary care physicians and other public health officials to encourage their patients, and in particular pregnant women, to reduce their exposures to these environmental contaminants as far as it is feasible to do so. PMID:26035812

  3. 78 FR 59917 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-30

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XC891 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration... Fisheries, National Marine Fisheries Service. BILLING CODE 3510-22-P...

  4. 75 FR 47274 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ...'s Advisory Panel (AP) will hold a meeting to discuss the topics contained in the agenda below. DATES... Caribbean Fishery Management Council's Advisory Panel will hold a meeting to discuss the topics contained...

  5. 76 FR 41454 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Scoping Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-14

    .... Dactylopterus volitans, Flying gurnard. Heteropriacanthus cruentatus, Glasseye snapper. Hypoplectrus unicolor... intermedius, Sand diver. Symphurus diomedianus, Caribbean tonguefish. Family Syngnathidae, Pipefishes and... Alpheaus armatus, Snapping shrimp Aiptasia tagetes, Pale anemone Astropecten spp., Sand stars...

  6. The Life of Hurricane Irene from Caribbean to Canada

    NASA Video Gallery

    An animation of satellite observations from August 21 through August 29 showing the birth of Hurricane Irene in the Caribbean and her track over Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, the Bahamas, the U.S. East ...

  7. Bridging Walls and Crossing Borders in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canino, Maria Josefa

    2002-01-01

    Describes how globalization and neoliberalism have altered higher education in the Spanish-Speaking Caribbean, introducing the entrepreneurship that has characterized North American institutions and encouraging cross-border collaboration. (EV)

  8. Mini-review: Obesity in Caribbean Youth

    PubMed Central

    Traboulay, EA; Hoyte, OPA

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: Our focus was on the determination of the growing number of youths of every race and ethnicity, diagnosed with obesity and its co-morbidities in the Caribbean. We reviewed the causes and strategies to combat obesity, and the implications of the fast food industry in enabling the escalation of obesity. Methods: We consulted several databases such as PubMed, MEDLINE, the Obesity Gene Map Database, and the USEPA Toxicity Reference Database. Organizations such as the World Health Organization (WHO), Centres for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) were used as information sources. Results: Transgenerational effects and triggers like obesogens, pathogens, environmental stress, antibiotics and gut microbiota are some of the causes of obesity, and some of these triggers are imprinted epigenetically early in embryonic development, leading to lifelong obesity. With an estimated population of 42 million in the Caribbean, the economic cost of obesity, including medical, absenteeism, presenteeism, insurance, disability, direct and indirect cost, was estimated at 68.5 billion USD with 88.2 million quality-adjusted life years lost. Conclusion: Genome-wide association studies have established that genetics play a role in the aetiology of this “non-communicable” disease. While the development of personalized interventions according to genotype is futuristic, we must focus on effective nutrition and physical education (PE) classes in schools and establishing monitoring programmes using simple tools such as scales and tape measures as suggested intervention. A Pigovian tax to control the fast food industry is mandatory. Nevertheless, lifestyle adjustment, including alterations in diet and increased physical activity, continues to be a sound recommendation. PMID:26426179

  9. African Dust Blows over the Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Shuttle astronauts frequently track Saharan dust storms as they blow from north Africa across the Atlantic Ocean. Dust palls blowing from Africa take about a week to cross the Atlantic. Recently, researchers have linked Saharan dust to coral disease, allergic reactions in humans, and red tides. The top photograph, a classic image showing African dust over the Caribbean, was taken at a time when few scientists had considered the possibility. The image was taken by Space Shuttle astronauts on July 11, 1994 (STS065-75-47). This photograph looks southwest over the northern edge of a large trans-Atlantic dust plume that blew off the Sahara desert in Africa. In this view, Caicos Island in the Bahamas and the mountainous spines of Haiti are partly obscured by the dust. Closer to the foreground, (about 26 degrees north latitude), the skies are clear. The lower photograph (STS105-723-7) was taken by Space Shuttle astronauts while docked to the International Space Station on August 19, 2001. The spacecraft is over the Atlantic Ocean at roughly 45oN, 60oW. The astronauts were looking obliquely to the south; the boundaries of the dust plumes can be traced visually by the abrupt change from clear to hazy atmosphere-the hazy line marks the northern edge of the dust pall near the Caribbean. Images provided by the Earth Sciences and Image Analysis Laboratory at Johnson Space Center. Additional images taken by astronauts and cosmonauts can be viewed at the NASA-JSC Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth.

  10. Tsunami probability in the Caribbean Region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parsons, T.; Geist, E.L.

    2008-01-01

    We calculated tsunami runup probability (in excess of 0.5 m) at coastal sites throughout the Caribbean region. We applied a Poissonian probability model because of the variety of uncorrelated tsunami sources in the region. Coastlines were discretized into 20 km by 20 km cells, and the mean tsunami runup rate was determined for each cell. The remarkable ???500-year empirical record compiled by O'Loughlin and Lander (2003) was used to calculate an empirical tsunami probability map, the first of three constructed for this study. However, it is unclear whether the 500-year record is complete, so we conducted a seismic moment-balance exercise using a finite-element model of the Caribbean-North American plate boundaries and the earthquake catalog, and found that moment could be balanced if the seismic coupling coefficient is c = 0.32. Modeled moment release was therefore used to generate synthetic earthquake sequences to calculate 50 tsunami runup scenarios for 500-year periods. We made a second probability map from numerically-calculated runup rates in each cell. Differences between the first two probability maps based on empirical and numerical-modeled rates suggest that each captured different aspects of tsunami generation; the empirical model may be deficient in primary plate-boundary events, whereas numerical model rates lack backarc fault and landslide sources. We thus prepared a third probability map using Bayesian likelihood functions derived from the empirical and numerical rate models and their attendant uncertainty to weight a range of rates at each 20 km by 20 km coastal cell. Our best-estimate map gives a range of 30-year runup probability from 0 - 30% regionally. ?? irkhaueser 2008.

  11. Deglaciation explains bat extinction in the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Dávalos, Liliana M; Russell, Amy L

    2012-01-01

    Ecological factors such as changing climate on land and interspecific competition have been debated as possible causes of postglacial Caribbean extinction. These hypotheses, however, have not been tested against a null model of climate-driven postglacial area loss. Here, we use a new Quaternary mammal database and deep-sea bathymetry to estimate species–area relationships (SARs) at present and during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) for bats of the Caribbean, and to model species loss as a function of area loss from rising sea level. Island area was a significant predictor of species richness in the Bahamas, Greater Antilles, and Lesser Antilles at all time periods, except for the Lesser Antilles during the LGM. Parameters of LGM and current SARs were similar in the Bahamas and Greater Antilles, but not the Lesser Antilles, which had fewer estimated species during the LGM than expected given their size. Estimated postglacial species losses in the Bahamas and Greater Antilles were largely explained by inferred area loss from rising sea level in the Holocene. However, there were more species in the Bahamas at present, and fewer species in the smaller Greater Antilles, than expected given island size and the end-Pleistocene/early Holocene SARs. Poor fossil sampling and ecological factors may explain these departures from the null. Our analyses illustrate the importance of changes in area in explaining patterns of species richness through time and emphasize the role of the SAR as a null hypothesis in explorations of the impact of novel ecological interactions on extinction. PMID:23301171

  12. The Caribbean conundrum of Holocene sea level.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Luke; Mound, Jon

    2014-05-01

    In the tropics, pre-historic sea-level curve reconstruction is often problematic because it relies upon sea-level indicators whose vertical relationship to the sea surface is poorly constrained. In the Caribbean, fossil corals, mangrove peats and shell material dominate the pre-historic indicator record. The common approach to reconstruction involves the use of modern analogues to these indicators to establish a fixed vertical habitable range. The aim of these reconstructions is to find spatial variability in the Holocene sea level in an area gradually subsiding (< 1.2 mm yr-1) due the water loading following the deglaciation of the Laurentide ice sheet. We construct two catalogues: one of published Holocene sea-level indicators and the other of published, modern growth rates, abundance and coverage of mangrove and coral species for different depths. We use the first catalogue to calibrate 14C ages to give a probabilistic age range for each indicator. We use the second catalogue to define a depth probability distribution function (pdf) for mangroves and each coral species. The Holocene indicators are grouped into 12 sub-regions around the Caribbean. For each sub-region we apply our sea-level reconstruction, which involves stepping a fixed-length time window through time and calculating the position (and rate) of sea-level (change) using a thousand realisations of the time/depth pdfs to define an envelope of probable solutions. We find that the sub-regional relative sea-level curves display spatio-temporal variability including a south-east to north-west 1500 year lag in the arrival of Holocene sea level to that of the present day. We demonstrate that these variations are primarily due to glacial-isostatic-adjustment induced sea-level change and that sub-regional variations (where sufficient data exists) are due to local uplift variability.

  13. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-12-01

    Sugarcane presents a tremendous potential as a renewable energy source for the non-oil producing countries of the Caribbean. The energy cane concept is sugarcane managed for maximum dry matter (total fermentable solids for alcohol fuel and combustible solids for electricity) rather than sucrose. The use of sugarcane as a renewable energy source can provide a solution, either partial or total, to the Caribbean energy problem. Sugar cane production and the use of this crop as a renewable energy source are described.

  14. Managed Migration: The Caribbean Approach to Addressing Nursing Services Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Salmon, Marla E; Yan, Jean; Hewitt, Hermi; Guisinger, Victoria

    2007-01-01

    Objective To (1) provide a contextual analysis of the Caribbean region with respect to forces shaping the current and emerging nursing workforce picture in the region; (2) discuss country-specific case(s) within the Caribbean; and (3) describe the Managed Migration Program as a potential framework for addressing regional and global nurse migration issues. Principal Findings The Caribbean is in the midst of a crisis of shortages of nurses with an average vacancy rate of 42 percent. Low pay, poor career prospects, and lack of education opportunities are among the reasons nurses resign. Many of these nurses look outside the region for job opportunities in the United Kingdom, Canada, the United States, and other countries. Compounding the situation is the lack of resources to train nurses to fill the vacancies. The Managed Migration Program of the Caribbean is a multilateral, cross-sector, multi-interventional, long-term strategy for developing and maintaining an adequate supply of nurses for the region. Conclusions The Managed Migration Program of the Caribbean has made progress in establishing regional support for addressing the nursing shortage crisis and developing a number of interesting initiatives such as training for export and temporary migration. Recommendations to move the Managed Migration Program of the Caribbean forward focus on advocacy, integration of the program into regional policy decisions, and integration of the program with regional health programming. PMID:17489919

  15. Latin American and Caribbean regional conference on population and development. Latin American and Caribbean Consensus on Population and Development.

    PubMed

    1994-01-01

    The Latin American and Caribbean Population and Development Conference was held in Mexico City from April 29 to May 4, 1993, during which discussions were held on population growth, structure, and distribution in the region; socioeconomic trends and implications; population dynamics and development in the Caribbean subregion; population policies and programs; population growth and distribution and their relation to development and the environment; women and population dynamics; and family planning, health, and family well-being. The conference adopted the Latin American and Caribbean Consensus on Population and Development which is presented in sections on the situation of population and development in Latin America and the Caribbean in the early 1990s, and recommendations on population growth and structure, population distribution, development, the environment, women and population dynamics, population policies and programs, health, family planning and well-being, international migration and development, training, data production, research, and international cooperation in the population field.

  16. How far have we come in Caribbean studies

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, K.

    1985-01-01

    Geological research in the Caribbean has achieved much. Stratigraphic characterization of lithounits is good, although correlation has proved difficult. Because much of the Cretaceous in both the N. and S. Caribbean is represented by parts of accretionary wedges from extinct arc-systems lithounit correlation is commonly impractical. The complexity of Caribbean Cretaceous tectonics is compounded on both the N. and S. sides by the effects of enormous strike-slip fault systems. Although this phenomenon was early recognized on the north side interpretation of Caribbean evolution embodying this critical observation has awaited synthesis of data related to other phenomena including: 1. Collision of Africa and North America. 2. Formation of the Gulf of Mexico. 3. Continental rupture on the north coast of South America. 4. Motion of South America with respect to North America. 5. Formation of shallow Caribbean ocean floor as an oceanic plateau in the Pacific. 6. Evolution of bounding Cretaceous arc-systems as this oceanic plateau swept into the Atlantic from the Pacific. 7. Collision of these bounding arcs. 8. 1500 km of motion of the Caribbean with respect to North America since the Early Oligocene. 9. 2000 km of motion of the Caribbean with respect to South America over the same interval. 10. Arc histories of Central America and the Lesser Antilles and 11. Northward motion of the Maracaibo block and other responses to the collision of Panama with Colombia within the last 10 Ma. There is no consensus about how the listed phenomena happened, but people are now at a time when testable hypotheses have been advanced about them.

  17. Surveillance of avian influenza in the Caribbean through the Caribbean Animal Health Network: surveillance tools and epidemiologic studies.

    PubMed

    Lefrançois, T; Hendrikx, P; Ehrhardt, N; Millien, M; Gomez, L; Gouyet, L; Gaidet, N; Gerbier, G; Vachiéry, N; Petitclerc, F; Carasco-Lacombe, C; Pinarello, V; Ahoussou, S; Levesque, A; Gongora, H V; Trotman, M

    2010-03-01

    The Caribbean region is considered to be at risk for avian influenza (AI) due to a large backyard poultry system, an important commercial poultry production system, the presence of migratory birds, and disparities in the surveillance systems. The Caribbean Animal Health Network (CaribVET) has developed tools to implement AI surveillance in the region with the goals to have 1) a regionally harmonized surveillance protocol and specific web pages for AI surveillance on www.caribvet.net, and 2) an active and passive surveillance for AI in domestic and wild birds. A diagnostic network for the Caribbean, including technology transfer and AI virus molecular diagnostic capability in Guadeloupe (real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction for the AI virus matrix gene), was developed. Between 2006 and 2009, 627 samples from four Caribbean countries were tested for three circumstances: importation purposes, following a clinical suspicion of AI, or through an active survey of wild birds (mainly waders) during the southward and northward migration periods in Guadeloupe. None of the samples tested were positive, suggesting a limited role of these species in the AI virus ecology in the Caribbean. Following low pathogenic H5N2 outbreaks in the Dominican Republic in 2007, a questionnaire was developed to collect data for a risk analysis of AI spread in the region through fighting cocks. The infection pathway of the Martinique commercial poultry sector by AI, through introduction of infected cocks, was designed, and recommendations were provided to the Caribbean Veterinary Services to improve cock movement control and biosecurity measures. The CaribVET and its organization allowed interaction between diagnostic and surveillance tools on the one hand and epidemiologic studies on the other, both of them developed in congruence with regional strategies. Together, these CaribVET activities contribute to strengthening surveillance of avian influenza virus (AIV) in the

  18. Regional diversity of amphipoda in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Martín, Alberto; Díaz, Yusbelly; Miloslavich, Patricia; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Guerra-García, José Manuel; Ortiz, Manuel; Valencia, Bellineth; Giraldo, Alan; Klein, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    The order Amphipoda is one of the most diverse within Peracarids, and comprises 6950 described marine species. Amphipod research in the Caribbean Sea began in the late 1800s, but has increased significantly since 1980. In this study, we analized the amphipod biodiversity (Caprellidea, Gammaridea, Hyperiidea, and Ingolfiellidea) of the Caribbean Sea. For this, we compiled available data on species diversity of marine amphipods (data bases: WoRMS and OBIS and published species lists) into a comprehensive taxonomic list by country for the ecoregions of the Caribbean. Additionally, we analized the relative contribution of each country to regional diversity and the rate of discovery of new species. The Caribbean amphipod fauna is composed of 535 species within 236 genera and 73 families for the higher taxon. The Western Caribbean ecoregion holds the largest diversity (282 species), while the Eastern Caribbean recorded the lowest one (73). Mexico and Venezuela recorded the largest number of species with 266 and 206, respectively. Twelve countries had less than 50 species. The richest suborder is the Gammaridea with 381 species followed by the suborder Hyperiidea with 116. From the total of 535 amphipod species reported for the Caribbean region, 218 have the Caribbean as the holotype locality, and 132 are endemic (about 25% of the total). Areas of higher diversity seem to be concentrated along the Mexican Caribbean, Cuba and the Northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia); however, such pattern is most likely reflecting local collection efforts and taxonomic expertise rather than actual distribution. Knowledge of amphipod species is mostly limited to shallow, near-shore waters, with little infonnation available on the deep sea fauna. Regional research priorities for this group should be focused on completing shallow water coastal inventories of species in Central America and the Greater and Lesser Antilles. In addition, sampling the deep sea ecosystems should

  19. Tsunamis from Tectonic Sources along Caribbean Plate Boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez, A. M.; Chacon, S.; Zamora, N.; Audemard, F. A.; Dondin, F. J. Y.; Clouard, V.; Løvholt, F.; Harbitz, C. B.; Vanacore, E. A.; Huerfano Moreno, V. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Working Group 2 (WG2) of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and Other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG/CARIBE-EWS) in charge of Tsunami Hazards Assessment, has generated a list of tsunami sources for the Caribbean region. Simulating these worst-case, most credible scenarios would provide an estimate of the resulting effects on coastal areas within the Caribbean. In the past few years, several publications have addressed this issue resulting in a collection of potential tsunami sources and scenarios. These publications come from a wide variety of sources; from government agencies to academic institutions. Although these provide the scientific community with a list of sources and scenarios, it was the interest of the WG2 to evaluate what has been proposed and develop a comprehensive list of sources, therefore leaving aside proposed scenarios. The seismo-tectonics experts of the Caribbean within the WG2 members were tasked to evaluate comprehensively which published sources are credible, worst-cases, and consider other sources that have been omitted from available reports. Among these published sources are the GEM Faulted Earth Subduction Characterization Project, and the LANTEX/Caribe Wave annual exercise publications (2009-2015). Caribbean tectonic features capable of generating tsunamis from seismic dislocation are located along the Northeastern Caribbean, the Lesser Antilles Trench, and the Panamá and Southern Caribbean Deformed Belts. The proposed sources have been evaluated based on historical and instrumental seismicity as well as geological and geophysical studies. This paper presents the sources and their justification as most-probable tsunami sources based on the context of crustal deformation due to Caribbean plate interacting with neighboring North and South America plates. Simulations of these sources is part of a subsequent phase in which effects of these tectonically induced tsunamis

  20. Regional diversity of amphipoda in the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Martín, Alberto; Díaz, Yusbelly; Miloslavich, Patricia; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Guerra-García, José Manuel; Ortiz, Manuel; Valencia, Bellineth; Giraldo, Alan; Klein, Eduardo

    2013-12-01

    The order Amphipoda is one of the most diverse within Peracarids, and comprises 6950 described marine species. Amphipod research in the Caribbean Sea began in the late 1800s, but has increased significantly since 1980. In this study, we analized the amphipod biodiversity (Caprellidea, Gammaridea, Hyperiidea, and Ingolfiellidea) of the Caribbean Sea. For this, we compiled available data on species diversity of marine amphipods (data bases: WoRMS and OBIS and published species lists) into a comprehensive taxonomic list by country for the ecoregions of the Caribbean. Additionally, we analized the relative contribution of each country to regional diversity and the rate of discovery of new species. The Caribbean amphipod fauna is composed of 535 species within 236 genera and 73 families for the higher taxon. The Western Caribbean ecoregion holds the largest diversity (282 species), while the Eastern Caribbean recorded the lowest one (73). Mexico and Venezuela recorded the largest number of species with 266 and 206, respectively. Twelve countries had less than 50 species. The richest suborder is the Gammaridea with 381 species followed by the suborder Hyperiidea with 116. From the total of 535 amphipod species reported for the Caribbean region, 218 have the Caribbean as the holotype locality, and 132 are endemic (about 25% of the total). Areas of higher diversity seem to be concentrated along the Mexican Caribbean, Cuba and the Northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia); however, such pattern is most likely reflecting local collection efforts and taxonomic expertise rather than actual distribution. Knowledge of amphipod species is mostly limited to shallow, near-shore waters, with little infonnation available on the deep sea fauna. Regional research priorities for this group should be focused on completing shallow water coastal inventories of species in Central America and the Greater and Lesser Antilles. In addition, sampling the deep sea ecosystems should

  1. Reproductive ecology of Caribbean reef corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szmant, Alina M.

    1986-08-01

    The last decade has seen a resurgence of interest in the processes of sexual reproduction by scleractinian reef corals. Earlier investigations had focused fortuitously on brooding (planulating) species, which resulted in the general misconception that brooding was the main form of larval development of reef corals. More recent work on Indo-Pacific species has shown broadcast spawning and short annual reproductive periods to predominate. This report presents the reproductive patterns of eleven Caribbean coral species and attempts to explain the adaptive features and selective pressures that have led to the evolution of the four reproductive patterns described to date: (a) hermaphroditic broadcasters; (b) gonochoric broadcasters; (c) hermaphroditic broadcasters; (b) gonochoric brooders. Both (a) and (b) correlate with large colony size and short annual spawning periods; and (c) and (d) correlate with small colony size, multiple planulating cycles per year, and occupation of unstable habitats. Selection for outcrossing between long-lived individuals is proposed as the reason for gonochorism and for synchronous spawning of hermaphroditic broadcasters, and also for the large amount of sperm produced by hermaphroditic brooders. Selection for high rates of local recruitment is proposed as the force behind the evolution of brooding by species inhabiting unstable habitats and suffering high rates of adult mortality.

  2. Eddy development and motion in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, Carlos A.; Barton, Eric D.

    2000-11-01

    Eddy motion in the Caribbean Sea is described on the basis of sea level anomalies deduced from ERS-1 altimetry data corrected with TOPEX/Poseidon data during the 15 months of the Exact Repeat Mission (October 1992 to December 1993). Both cyclones and anticyclones were observed in the satellite data as anomalies originating in the Venezuelan Basin or entering the Caribbean through the Antillean passages, mainly the St. Lucia Channel, Anegada Passage, and north of Trinidad. The diameter of the eddies ranged from a few tens of kilometers to 700 km. Advection speeds were typically 20-30 cm s-1 and the eddies were energetic (kinetic energy > 0.6 m2 s-2). Their lifetime of 3-4 months was determined, in general, by their interaction with topography. Most eddy activity was eroded and disappeared at the Central American Rise area, although a few eddies crossed into the Cayman Sea through the Chibcha Channel. Some eddies also entered the Cayman Sea from outside the Caribbean through the Windward Passage. The Panama-Colombia Gyre was evident only during the tropical rainy season. A large cyclonic eddy was formed there during the period of maximum precipitation, when strong meridional salinity and wind speed gradients occurred. Eddy production in the central Caribbean appears to be associated with the interaction of the meandering Caribbean Current and the strong wind curl.

  3. [Exogoninae (Polychaeta: Syllidae) from the Mexican Caribbean region with a key for the Gran Caribbean species].

    PubMed

    Ruíz-Ramírez, J D; Salazar-Vallejo, S I

    2001-03-01

    This paper identifies the Exogoninae (Syllidae) from the Mexican Caribbean coasts and includes a key to identify all the species recorded from the Grand Caribbean Sea. The classification of the family and the composition of Exogoninae are briefly examined; the correct names of the subfamilies are Syllinae Grube, 1850, Eusyllinae Malaquin, 1893, Autolytinae Malaquin, 1893 and Exogoninae Langerhans, 1879. Exogoninae includes Anguillosyllis Day, 1963, Brania de Quatrefages, 1866, Braniella Hartman, 1963, Exogone Ørsted, 1845, Exogonella Hartman, 1961, Exogonoides Day, 1963, Parapionosyllis Fauvel, 1923, Psammosyllis Westheide, 1990, Spermosyllis Claparède, 1864, and Sphaerosyllis Claparède, 1863. Pseudexogone Augener, 1922, formerly included in the group, is not a syllid; it belongs to Pilargidae. We collected 814 specimens belonging to 3 genera, 3 subgenera and 13 species as Brania (4), Exogone (4) and Sphaerosyllis (5); five new species are described: Brania russelli n. sp, Brania uebelackerae n. sp, Brania westheidei n. sp., Exogone (Exogone) bondi n. sp. and Exogone (Parexogone) sanmartini n. sp. For each species, selected references, diagnostic features, observations on morphological variability, distribution and illustrations are provided; new species also have an english diagnosis. Most abundant species were B. uebelackerae n. sp. (295), S. taylori Perkins (169), E. (E.) dispar Webster (76), and E. (E.) bondi n sp. (72).

  4. 3 CFR 8530 - Proclamation 8530 of May 28, 2010. National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2010

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2010 8530 Proclamation 8530 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8530 of May 28, 2010 Proc. 8530 National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2010By the President... as well as our shared past and common aspirations. During National Caribbean-American Heritage...

  5. The Caribbean Story on CNN World Report: Just What is Development News?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClean, Lisa A.; Stewart, Robert K.

    While Caribbean countries complained during the 1970s about negative coverage at the hands of Western journalists, scholars have observed that local Caribbean media were not providing adequate news coverage from the region either. A study examined 245 news stories sent by English-speaking Caribbean journalists to CNN World Report over a five-year…

  6. Marital Satisfaction among African Americans and Black Caribbeans: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryant, Chalandra M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Lincoln, Karen D.; Chatters, Linda M.; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines the correlates of marital satisfaction using data from a national probability sample of African Americans (N = 962) and Black Caribbeans (N = 560). Findings reveal differences between African Americans and Black Caribbeans, and men and women within those groups, in the predictors of marital satisfaction. Black Caribbean women…

  7. Afro-Caribbean International Students' Ethnic Identity Development: Fluidity, Intersectionality, Agency, and Performativity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Zaria T.; Mendoza, Pilar

    2014-01-01

    Afro-Caribbean international students (ACIS) often become engrossed in a complex racial and ethnic dialogue wherein they are thrust into homogenous categorizations forcing them to negotiate their Afro-Caribbean self with other identities perceived by others such as African American, first- and second-generation Caribbean immigrant, African, and…

  8. Balancing the Curricula in the Arts: The Caribbean Connection. Jamaica, Trinidad, and Tobago.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Fran R., Comp.; Henderson, Lana T., Comp.

    This curriculum unit evolves from a 5-week study program to the Caribbean by cultural arts teachers from North Carolina. The program was designed: (1) to enhance educators' knowledge of the Caribbean influence on Western culture; (2) to understand the history of the Caribbean and its impact on the arts; and (3) to infuse this information into the…

  9. 3 CFR 8990 - Proclamation 8990 of May 31, 2013. National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2013

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Caribbean have grown alongside each other as partners in progress. Separated by sea but united by a yearning... Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2013 8990 Proclamation 8990 Presidential Documents Proclamations Proclamation 8990 of May 31, 2013 Proc. 8990 National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2013By the...

  10. A Regional Information System Strategy for the Caribbean for the Year 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Durrant, Fay

    This document outlines the proposals for a regional information system strategy resulting from a project undertaken by the Caribbean Community Secretariat and the United Nations Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean Sub-regional Headquarters for the Caribbean. The document covers: (1) the role of information in the development…

  11. Caribbean Oceans: Utilizing NASA Earth Observations to Detect, Monitor, and Respond to Unprecedented Levels of Sargassum in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ped, Jordan; Scaduto, Erica; Accorsi, Emma; Torres-Perez, Juan (Editor)

    2016-01-01

    In 2011 and 2015, the nations of the Caribbean Sea were overwhelmed by the unprecedented quantity of Sargassum that washed ashore. This issue prompted international discussion to better understand the origins, distribution, and movement of Sargassum, a free-floating brown macro alga with ecological, environmental, and commercial importance. In the open ocean, Sargassum mats serve a vital ecological function. However, when large quantities appear onshore without warning, Sargassum threatens local tourist industries and nearshore ecosystems within the Caribbean. As part of the international response, this project investigated the proliferation of this macro alga within the Caribbean Sea from 2003-2015, and used NASA Earth observations to detect and model Sargassum growth across the region. The Caribbean Oceans team calculated the Floating Algal Index (FAI) using Terra Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data, and compared the FAI to various oceanic variables to determine the ideal pelagic environment for Sargassum growth. The project also examined the annual spread of Sargassum throughout the region by using Earth Trends Modeler (ETM) in Clark Labs' TerrSet software. As part of the international effort to better understand the life cycle of Sargassum in the Caribbean, the results of this project will help local economies promote sustainable management practices in the region.

  12. Cholera in Haiti and Other Caribbean Regions, 19th Century

    PubMed Central

    Szabo, Victoria

    2011-01-01

    Medical journals and other sources do not show evidence that cholera occurred in Haiti before 2010, despite the devastating effect of this disease in the Caribbean region in the 19th century. Cholera occurred in Cuba in 1833–1834; in Jamaica, Cuba, Puerto Rico, St. Thomas, St. Lucia, St. Kitts, Nevis, Trinidad, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, Granada, Anguilla, St. John, Tortola, the Turks and Caicos, the Grenadines (Carriacou and Petite Martinique), and possibly Antigua in 1850–1856; and in Guadeloupe, Cuba, St. Thomas, the Dominican Republic, Dominica, Martinique, and Marie Galante in 1865–1872. Conditions associated with slavery and colonial military control were absent in independent Haiti. Clustered populations, regular influx of new persons, and close quarters of barracks living contributed to spread of cholera in other Caribbean locations. We provide historical accounts of the presence and spread of cholera epidemics in Caribbean islands. PMID:22099117

  13. Petroleum in the Caribbean Basin: Further exploration justified?

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, E.

    1996-08-01

    After more than half a century of exploration for petroleum in that part of the Caribbean Basin covered by this review, the prospects for substantial discoveries remain low. Only Barbados has had modest but sustained production of oil and gas. In Hispaniola minor production from small prospects lasted briefly. Exploration in the northeast Caribbean has not resulted in discoveries. Similar exploration in Puerto Rico and, on a more extensive scale, in Jamaica, has also failed to show positive results. On the Nicaragua Rise (Mosquitia, Tela Basins) drilling has produced shows but no production, a situation also evident in Belize. Nevertheless, examination of these results, in the context of the regional geology of the Caribbean Basin, suggests there are areas where further exploration is justified.

  14. Bacterial diversity associated with the Caribbean tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Matos, Ana E; Rosado, William; Govind, Nadathur S

    2007-08-01

    The Caribbean tunicate, Ecteinascidia turbinata produces the anti-cancer agent ET-743 that could well be a metabolite of an associated bacterial strain. This current study aims at the analysis of bacteria that are persistently and specifically associated with this invertebrate. Utilizing techniques such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, DNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of bacteria from E. turbinata collected from different locations in the Caribbean Sea, we report here the identification of five possible persistently associated bacteria. Of these, only one organism, Candidatus Endoecteinascidia frumentensis, was found specifically associated to E. turbinata from the Caribbean and has also been found to be associated with E. turbinata from the Mediterranean. These experiments suggest that assessment of bacterial diversity associated with invertebrates from different geographical sites might be an effective way of identifying persistently and specifically associated bacteria.

  15. Religious Involvement among Caribbean Blacks in the United States.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M; Mattis, Jacqueline S; Joe, Sean

    2010-12-01

    This study examined demographic and denominational differences in religious involvement (i.e., organizational, non-organizational, subjective) among Caribbean Blacks (Black Caribbeans) residing in the U.S. using data from the National Survey of American Life. Caribbean Blacks who were born in the U.S. had lower levels of religious involvement than those who immigrated and respondents originating from Haiti (as compared to Jamaica) had higher levels of religious involvement, while persons from Trinidad-Tobago reported lower service attendance than did Jamaicans. Older persons, women and married persons generally demonstrated greater religious involvement than their counterparts, while highly educated respondents expressed lower levels of self-rated religiosity. Denominational differences indicated that Baptists reported high levels of religious involvement; however, in several cases, Pentecostals and Seventh Day Adventists reported greater involvement. PMID:21927509

  16. Petroleum pollution in the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Botello, A V; Villanueva, S; Díaz, G

    1997-01-01

    In 1976, IOC-UNESCO and UNEP convened a meeting in Port of Spain to analyze the marine pollution problems in the region, noting that petroleum pollution was of regionwide concern and recommended initiating a research and monitoring program to determine the severity of the problem and monitor its effects. The Wider Caribbean is potentially one of the largest oil-producing areas in the world. Major production sites include Louisiana and Texas in the U.S.; the Bay of Campeche, Mexico; Lake Maracaibo, Venezuela; and the Gulf of Paria, Trinidad. All these are classified as high-risk production accident zones. Main sources of petroleum pollution in the Wider Caribbean are production, exploitation, transportation, urban and municipal discharges, refining and chemical wastes, normal loading and unloading operations, and accidental spills. About 5 million barrels of crude oil are transported daily in the Caribbean, thus generating an intense tanker traffic. It has been estimated that oil discharges from tank washings within the Wider Caribbean could be as high as 7 million barrels/yr. The results of the Caribbean Pollution Regional Program (CARIPOL) conducted between 1980 and 1987 pointed out that significant levels of petroleum pollution exist throughout the Wider Caribbean, including serious tar contamination of windward exposed beaches, high levels of floating tar within the major current systems, and very high levels of dissolved and dispersed hydrocarbons in surface waters. Major adverse effects of this type of pollution include: high tar levels on many beaches that either prevent their recreational use or require very expensive cleanup operations, distress and death for marine life, and responses in the enzyme systems of marine organisms that have been correlated with declines in reproductive success. Finally, the presence of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in tissues of important economic species has been reported, creating a risk for public health because of

  17. Linking the Galapagos hotspot and the Caribbean Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nerlich, Rainer; Clark, Stuart R.; Bunge, Hans-Peter

    2014-05-01

    Wide agreement exists that the Caribbean plate has a Pacific origin and that parts of it depict an igneous Plateau of up to 20 km thick crust. However, the origin of this thickened crust remains debated. One of the first suggestions for its origin was the arrival of a plume, whose remnant might be the Galapagos hotspot. More recently, it has been argued that reconstruction models predicted the Galapagos hotspot a thousand or more kilometres away from the Caribbean plate at the time of Plateau formation (~88 ?? 94 Ma). These authors primarily relied on the Caribbean Plateau moving into its present position relative to the Americas only in the last few million years. Secondarily, the authors assumed that the hotspot was fixed in an Indian-Atlantic hotspot reference frame. Here, we explore the idea that the Plateau moved into position around the time of the initiation of convergence between the North and South America, about 54.5 Ma. In addition, we adopt a fixed Pacific hotspot reference frame and compare our results to the recently developed Global Moving Hotspot Reference Frame. We show that both frames lead to good correlations between the paleo-positions of the Caribbean Plate and the Galapagos hotspot. As this result is consistent with abundant geochemical evidence that lends support for both a plume origin as well as the similarity between the Galapagos hotspot and rocks from the Plateau itself, we argue that alternative mechanisms to explain the thickened crust of the Caribbean Plateau are unnecessary. Additionally, based on our new plate reconstruction model, we present an age distribution of the lithosphere underneath the thickened crust of the Caribbean Plateau that has remained speculative until now.

  18. Tracking Hurricane Wilma Across the Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Information on cloud top heights at different stages in the life cycle of the rapidly intensifying Hurricane Wilma may prove useful for evaluating the ability of numerical weather models to predict the intensity changes of hurricanes. NASA's Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) acquired this sequence of images and cloud-top height observations for Hurricane Wilma as it progressed across the Caribbean in October 2005. Each pair in the sequence has a photo-like view of the storm on the left and a matching color-coded image of cloud-top height on the right. Cloud-top heights range from 0 (purple) to 18 (red) kilometers altitude. Areas where cloud heights could not be determined are shown in dark gray.

    The pair on the left show Wilma on Tuesday, October 18, when Hurricane watches were posted for Cuba and Mexico. The central pair shows the eye of Hurricane Wilma just hours before the storm began to cross the Yucatan Peninsula on Friday, October 21. At that time, Wilma was a powerful Category 4 Hurricane on the Saffir-Simpson scale, and had a minimum recorded central pressure of 930 millibars. Hurricane Wilma surged from tropical storm to Category 5 hurricane status in record time, but the storm slowed and weakened considerably after battering Mexico's Yucatan Peninsula and the Caribbean. The right-hand image pair displays the eastern edges of a weakened Wilma, when Wilma had been reduced to Category 2 status and was just starting to reach southern Florida on the morning of Sunday, October 23. Wilma gathered speed and strengthened on Sunday night, crossing Florida as a Category 3 storm on Monday, October 24.

    On the 18th, Wilma looked a bit ragged. Its eye is located at the center of the left edge, and its outer bands of clouds appear to be dominated by a rather loose collection of thunderstorms. In the photo-like images, these look like areas of 'boiling clouds,' and in the cloud-height image, these appear as orange blobs, sometimes topped with

  19. Extension in Mona Passage, Northeast Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaytor, Jason D.; ten Brink, Uri S.

    2010-10-01

    As shown by the recent M w 7.0 Haiti earthquake, intra-arc deformation, which accompanies the subduction process, can present seismic and tsunami hazards to nearby islands. Spatially-limited diffuse tectonic deformation within the Northeast Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone likely led to the development of the submerged Mona Passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. GPS geodetic data and a moderate to high level of seismicity indicate that extension within the region is ongoing. Newly-collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles and previously-collected samples are used here to determine the tectonic evolution of the Mona Passage intra-arc region. The passage is floored almost completely by Oligocene-Pliocene carbonate platform strata, which have undergone submarine and subaerial erosion. Structurally, the passage is characterized by W- to NNW-trending normal faults that offset the entire thickness of the Oligo-Pliocene carbonate platform rocks. The orientation of these faults is compatible with the NE-oriented extension vector observed in GPS data. Fault geometry best fits an oblique extension model rather than previously proposed single-phase, poly-phase, bending-moment, or rotation extension models. The intersection of these generally NW-trending faults in Mona Passage with the N-S oriented faults of Mona Canyon may reflect differing responses of the brittle upper-crust, along an arc-forearc rheological boundary, to oblique subduction along the Puerto Rico trench. Several faults within the passage, if ruptured completely, are long enough to generate earthquakes with magnitudes on the order of M w 6.5-7.

  20. Caribbean basin framework, 2: Northern Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Tyburski, S.A.; Gordon, M.B.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    There are four Jurassic to Recent basin-forming periods in northern Central America (honduras, Honduran Borderlands, Belize, Guatemala, northern Nicaragua): (1) Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rifting and subsidence along normal faults in Honduras and Guatemala; rifts are suggested but are not well defined in Honduras by the distribution of clastic sediments and associated volcanic rocks. Rifting is attributed to the separation of Central America from the southern margin of the North American plate; (2) Cretaceous subsidence recorded by the development of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize; subsidence is attributed to thermal subsidence of the rifted margins of the various blocks; (3) Late Cretaceous-Recent development of a volcanic arc along the western margin of Middle America and the northern margin of Honduras; (4) Late Cretaceous large-scale folding in Honduras, ophiolite obduction, and formation of a foredeep basin in Guatemala (Sepur trough); deformation is attributed to the collision between a north-facing arc in northern Honduras and the Nicaraguan Rise and the passive margin of Guatemala and Belize; and (5) Eocene to Recent strike-slip faulting along the present-day North American-Caribbean plate boundary in Guatemala, northern Honduras, and Belize. Strike-slip faults and basins form a California-type borderlands characterized by elongate basins that appear as half-grabens in profile. Counterclockwise rotation of the central honduras plateau, a thicker and topographically higher-than-average block within the plate boundary zone, is accommodated by rifting or strike-slip faults at its edges.

  1. Extension in Mona Passage, Northeast Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chaytor, J.D.; ten Brink, U.S.

    2010-01-01

    As shown by the recent Mw 7.0 Haiti earthquake, intra-arc deformation, which accompanies the subduction process, can present seismic and tsunami hazards to nearby islands. Spatially-limited diffuse tectonic deformation within the Northeast Caribbean Plate Boundary Zone likely led to the development of the submerged Mona Passage between Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. GPS geodetic data and a moderate to high level of seismicity indicate that extension within the region is ongoing. Newly-collected high-resolution multibeam bathymetry and multi-channel seismic reflection profiles and previously-collected samples are used here to determine the tectonic evolution of the Mona Passage intra-arc region. The passage is floored almost completely by Oligocene-Pliocene carbonate platform strata, which have undergone submarine and subaerial erosion. Structurally, the passage is characterized by W- to NNW-trending normal faults that offset the entire thickness of the Oligo-Pliocene carbonate platform rocks. The orientation of these faults is compatible with the NE-oriented extension vector observed in GPS data. Fault geometry best fits an oblique extension model rather than previously proposed single-phase, poly-phase, bending-moment, or rotation extension models. The intersection of these generally NW-trending faults in Mona Passage with the N-S oriented faults of Mona Canyon may reflect differing responses of the brittle upper-crust, along an arc-forearc rheological boundary, to oblique subduction along the Puerto Rico trench. Several faults within the passage, if ruptured completely, are long enough to generate earthquakes with magnitudes on the order of Mw 6.5-7. ?? 2010.

  2. Focused study of interweaving hazards across the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, John J.; Mattioli, Glen S.; Calais, Eric; Carlson, David; Dixon, Timothy H.; Jackson, Michael E.; Kursinski, E. Robert; Mora-Paez, Hector; Miller, M. Meghan; Pandya, Rajul; Robertson, Richard; Wang, Guoquan

    2012-02-01

    The Caribbean is a region of lush vegetation, beaches, active volcanoes, and significant mountain ranges, all of which create a natural aesthetic that is recognized globally. Yet these very same features, molded through geological, oceanic, and atmospheric processes, also pose natural hazards for the developing countries in the Caribbean. The rise in population density, migration to coastal areas, and substandard building practices, combined with the threat of natural hazards, put the region's human population at risk for particularly devastating disasters. These demographic and social characteristics exist against a backdrop of the threat of an evolving climate, which produces a more vigorous hurricane environment and a rising average sea level.

  3. Current research on transcultural psychiatry in the Anglophone Caribbean: epistemological, public policy, and epidemiological challenges.

    PubMed

    Hickling, Frederick W; Gibson, Roger C; Hutchinson, Gerard

    2013-12-01

    In this article, we review recent research on mental health in the Caribbean. Three major themes emerge: (a) the effects of colonialism on the Caribbean psyche; (b) decolonization of psychiatric public policy, including innovative treatment approaches, deinstitutionalization, and community and policy responses to mental health issues; and (c) the nature and epidemiology of psychiatric pathology among contemporary Caribbean people, with particular focus on migration, genetic versus social causation of psychosis and personality disorders, and mechanisms of resilience and social capital. Caribbean transcultural psychiatry illustrates the principles of equipoise unique to developing countries that protect the wellness and continued survival of postcolonial Caribbean people. PMID:24151148

  4. Which Fishers are Satisfied in the Caribbean? A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction Among Caribbean Lobster Fishers.

    PubMed

    Monnereau, Iris; Pollnac, Richard

    2012-10-01

    Lobster fishing (targeting the spiny lobster Panulirus argus) is an important economic activity throughout the Wider Caribbean Region both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. Due to the high unit prices of the product, international lobster trade provides a way to improve the livelihoods of fisheries-dependent populations. The specie harvested is identical throughout the region and end market prices are roughly similar. In this paper we wish to investigate to which extent lobster fishers' job satisfaction differs in three countries in the Caribbean and how these differences can be explained by looking at the national governance arrangements.

  5. Pedagogical Considerations for the Eastern Caribbean Center Telecommunications Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarken, Rodney H.; And Others

    Designed to promote the interchange of information and services among the people of the region, the Eastern Caribbean Center Telecommunications Project Network (ECCTP) utilizes a network of both audio and computer-linked nodes connected by telephone lines to deliver instruction to remote sites. This network has been used by ECCTP to conduct…

  6. The Current Status of Prison Education in Some Caribbean States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Niles, Bradley

    1997-01-01

    Discusses a study of prison education in six Caribbean states (Dominica, St. Lucia, Barbados, St. Vincent, Grenada, Trinidad), looks at how the programs fit into United Nations rules for treating prisoners, and makes recommendations for the improvement of those programs. (JOW)

  7. Heritage, Identity and Belonging: African Caribbean Students and Art Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dash, Paul

    2006-01-01

    This article addresses the issue of Caribbean cultural under-representation in school art departments. It argues that diasporic subjects are not seen and their cultures not recognised precisely because their contributions to the way we live are indivisible from the mainstream. This in contradistinction to some groups whose cultures and heritages…

  8. Solar energy and conservation technologies for Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The primary objectives of the Caribbean Tourist Facilities (CTF) project were to develop and publish materials and conduct workshops on solar energy and conservation technologies that would directly address the needs and interests of tourist facilities in the Caribbean basin. Past contacts with the Caribbean and US tourist industries indicated that decision-makers remained unconvinced that renewable technologies could have a significant impact on development and operation costs or that renewable energy products and services suited their needs. In order to assure that the materials and programs developed were responsive to the Caribbean tourist industry and US conservation and renewable energy industries, marketing research with potential end users and the organizations and associations that serve those users was included as an underlying task in the project. The tasks outlined in the CTF Statement of Work included conference planning, gathering of field data, development of educational materials, and conduct of workshop(s). In addition to providing a chronicle of the fulfillment of those tasks, this final report includes suggestions for distributing the documents developed during the project, venues for future workshops, and other technology transfer and market influence strategies. 3 refs.

  9. Education Theory and Practice: Caribbean Perspectives (Second Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bastick, Tony, Ed.

    Chapters in this collection provide the perspectives of Caribbean educators on a variety of issues related to the theory and practice of education. Section 1, "Professional Development," contains these chapters: (1) "Is There Still Room for the Model Teacher?" (Sonia Jones); (2) "Using an In-Service Programme To Develop as a Teacher: Working on…

  10. Unexpected evolutionary diversity in a recently extinct Caribbean mammal radiation.

    PubMed

    Brace, Selina; Turvey, Samuel T; Weksler, Marcelo; Hoogland, Menno L P; Barnes, Ian

    2015-05-22

    Identifying general patterns of colonization and radiation in island faunas is often hindered by past human-caused extinctions. The insular Caribbean is one of the only complex oceanic-type island systems colonized by land mammals, but has witnessed the globally highest level of mammalian extinction during the Holocene. Using ancient DNA analysis, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of one of the Caribbean's now-extinct major mammal groups, the insular radiation of oryzomyine rice rats. Despite the significant problems of recovering DNA from prehistoric tropical archaeological material, it was possible to identify two discrete Late Miocene colonizations of the main Lesser Antillean island chain from mainland South America by oryzomyine lineages that were only distantly related. A high level of phylogenetic diversification was observed within oryzomyines across the Lesser Antilles, even between allopatric populations on the same island bank. The timing of oryzomyine colonization is closely similar to the age of several other Caribbean vertebrate taxa, suggesting that geomorphological conditions during the Late Miocene facilitated broadly simultaneous overwater waif dispersal of many South American lineages to the Lesser Antilles. These data provide an important baseline by which to further develop the Caribbean as a unique workshop for studying island evolution.

  11. Graduate Programmes in Educational Administration: The Commonwealth Caribbean and Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olembo, Jotham Ombisi

    The availability and characteristics of graduate programs in educational administration offered by universities in African and Caribbean countries belonging to the Commonwealth are summarized in this paper. The programs reviewed are offered by universities in the West Indies, Guyana, Zimbabwe, Tanzania, Kenya, and Nigeria. The paper notes that…

  12. Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Association of Retired Persons, Washington, DC.

    Part I of this publication contains a background paper, "The Health and Socioeconomic Situation of Midlife and Older Women in Latin America and the Caribbean" (Sennott-Miller). Part II includes and introduction and the following presentations: "Opening Statement" (Crooks); "Empowering Older Women: An Agenda for the '90s" (de Alvarez);…

  13. 78 FR 33959 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2013

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... President of the United States of America A Proclamation For centuries, the United States and nations in the Caribbean have grown alongside each other as partners in progress. Separated by sea but united by a yearning... of slavery and segregation to widening the circle of opportunity for our sons and daughters....

  14. 76 FR 32855 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-07

    ... President of the United States of America A Proclamation The fabric of our Nation has been woven together... countries have come to America for centuries. Some came through the bondage of slavery. Others willfully... the United States and abroad, and we take pride in the contributions Caribbean Americans continue...

  15. 77 FR 33601 - National Caribbean-American Heritage Month, 2012

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-07

    ... the United States of America the two hundred and thirty-sixth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2012-13950... President of the United States of America A Proclamation Individuals and families from Caribbean countries... bonds of slavery. Some immigrated to America as children, clutching a parent's hand. Others came...

  16. Migration as an Agent of Change in Caribbean Island Ecosystems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Dawn

    1982-01-01

    There is need to assess the impact of migration on the Caribbean ecosystems. As a 150-year-old institution, emigration is related to the carrying capacity of the islands and the need to export the surplus population when capacity is threatened. Emigration, however, is a deterrent to development and individual independence. (KC)

  17. 75 FR 37390 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Hearings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-29

    ..., Caribbean coral reefs and their associated community experienced a major bleaching event and an above... Register (67 FR 63622). Alternative 2. (PREFERRED) Redefine management reference points or proxies for the... these larger parrotfish have on the ecological health of the coral reefs and the testimony at...

  18. Unexpected evolutionary diversity in a recently extinct Caribbean mammal radiation

    PubMed Central

    Brace, Selina; Turvey, Samuel T.; Weksler, Marcelo; Hoogland, Menno L. P.; Barnes, Ian

    2015-01-01

    Identifying general patterns of colonization and radiation in island faunas is often hindered by past human-caused extinctions. The insular Caribbean is one of the only complex oceanic-type island systems colonized by land mammals, but has witnessed the globally highest level of mammalian extinction during the Holocene. Using ancient DNA analysis, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of one of the Caribbean's now-extinct major mammal groups, the insular radiation of oryzomyine rice rats. Despite the significant problems of recovering DNA from prehistoric tropical archaeological material, it was possible to identify two discrete Late Miocene colonizations of the main Lesser Antillean island chain from mainland South America by oryzomyine lineages that were only distantly related. A high level of phylogenetic diversification was observed within oryzomyines across the Lesser Antilles, even between allopatric populations on the same island bank. The timing of oryzomyine colonization is closely similar to the age of several other Caribbean vertebrate taxa, suggesting that geomorphological conditions during the Late Miocene facilitated broadly simultaneous overwater waif dispersal of many South American lineages to the Lesser Antilles. These data provide an important baseline by which to further develop the Caribbean as a unique workshop for studying island evolution. PMID:25904660

  19. An Assessment of Caribbean Integrated Science Textbooks' Practical Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes the structure and skill level of the tasks in the practical activities prescribed in eight process-oriented integrated science textbooks for Caribbean students in grades seven through nine. Results indicate that most of the tasks are structured and deductive in approach. Contains 42 references. (DDR)

  20. Rethinking Education for the Caribbean: A Radical Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jules, Didacus

    2008-01-01

    The article reflects critically on the experience of the Caribbean Anglophone countries (CARICOM) in reforming their education systems to meet the challenges of the present era. It argues that education reform in the current conjuncture can no longer be incremental and that what is required is a fundamental rethinking of educational provision.…

  1. Educating the Special Child in the Caribbean and Central America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris-Stowe State Coll., St. Louis, MO. Teacher Education Dept.

    This paper represents the perspectives of 25 special education teacher scholarship students from 13 Caribbean and Central American countries (Barbados, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nevis, Nicaragua, El Salvador, Dominica, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Jamaica, Grenada, and Antigua) on the status of special education in their…

  2. Plant Conservation in the Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caribbean Islands, comprising the Bahamas, Greater and Lesser Antilles and some islands located off the northern coast of South America, represent the most important insular system of the New World. As one of the 34 biodiversity hotspots, these islands represent a global priority for conservatio...

  3. Red Palm Mite Situation in the Caribbean and Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The red palm mite (Raoiella indica Hirst Tenuipalpidae), a pest of coconuts and ornamental palms in Asia and Africa, was reported in the Caribbean in 2004. By 2008, it had spread to at least twelve islands, two counties in Florida and to Venezuela. Red palm mite causes yellowing and leaf necrosis wi...

  4. Measurement Invariance of the UTAUT Constructs in the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Troy D.; Singh, Lenandlar; Gaffar, Kemuel; Thakur, Dhanaraj; Jackman, Grace-Ann; Thomas, Michael; Gajraj, Roger; Allen, Claudine; Tooma, Keron

    2014-01-01

    This article employs confirmatory factor analysis to evaluate the factorial validity and the cross-national comparability of the UTAUT constructs with respect to mobile learning in higher education in four Caribbean countries. Except for the measurement of one factor, the UTAUT constructs exhibit adequate reliability and validity. Though full…

  5. 77 FR 40587 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    .... ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Doubletree by Hilton San Juan Hotel, 105 De Diego Avenue, San... oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00918-1920, telephone: (787) 766-5926..., Executive Director, Caribbean Fishery Management Council, 268 Mu oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San...

  6. Racial and Ego Identity Development in Black Caribbean College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanchez, Delida

    2013-01-01

    This study explored the relationships between racial identity attitudes and ego identity statuses among 255 Black Caribbean college students in the Northeast United States. Findings indicated that racial identity attitudes were predictive of ego identity statuses. Specifically, preencounter racial identity attitudes were predictive of lower scores…

  7. Gilligan's "Crisis of Connections": Contemporary Caribbean Women Writers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shea, Renee Hausmann

    1992-01-01

    Asserts that contemporary women novelists from the Caribbean are writing a new chapter in the literature of adolescence--a study of connections. Discusses the works of Carol Gilligan, and the idea of measuring women's development against a different truth than the male standard. Presents a 10-item annotated reading list. (PRA)

  8. Tectonic evolution of the southeastern Caribbean in Cenozoic time

    SciTech Connect

    Speed, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    Oblique collision between the southern Lesser Antilles arc and continental South America controlled tectonics from end Eocene to present in the S.E. Caribbean. There, terranes are from N to S: 1. magmatic arc platform (Margarita to Grenadines); 2. forearc basin; 3. ophiolite belt that may be basement to the forearc basin; 4. accretionary prism whose structurally shallow rocks near Barbados may be equivalent to formerly deep-seated metasediments exposed in Tobago, Trinidad, Paria, and Araya; 5. foreland thrust belt in the slope and shelf cover of S. America; 6. E. Venezuelan-Trinidad foreland basin; and 7. S. American shield. The boundary between terranes 4 and 5 is probably a N-dipping thrust. Early in the Eocene, the southern L.A. arc was probably intra-Atlantic, NE-trending, and positioned offshore of the N-facing passive margin of northern S. America. The arc moved SE relative to S. America, first consuming Mesozoic oceanic lithosphere and accreting sediment of S. American provenance to its forearc, then riding obliquely over the slope and outer shelf of the continental passive margin. Major effects of the collision are uplift of deep-seated arc rocks, imbrication of arc elements, generation of the El Pilar tear fault, and foreland contraction and basining. The southern Lesser Antilles arc was not attached to a far traveled Caribbean plate of Pacific provenance. This implies the existence of boundaries within the Caribbean between an exotic Caribbean plate and the southern Antillean arc.

  9. Paleoenvironmental evidence for first human colonization of the eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Peter E.; Jones, John G.; Pearsall, Deborah M.; Dunning, Nicholas P.; Farrell, Pat; Duncan, Neil A.; Curtis, Jason H.; Singh, Sushant K.

    2015-12-01

    Identifying and dating first human colonization of new places is challenging, especially when group sizes were small and material traces of their occupations were ephemeral. Generating reliable reconstructions of human colonization patterns from intact archaeological sites may be difficult to impossible given post-depositional taphonomic processes and in cases of island and coastal locations the inundation of landscapes resulting from post-Pleistocene sea-level rise. Paleoenvironmental reconstruction is proving to be a more reliable method of identifying small-scale human colonization events than archaeological data alone. We demonstrate the method through a sediment-coring project across the Lesser Antilles and southern Caribbean. Paleoenvironmental data were collected informing on the timing of multiple island-colonization events and land-use histories spanning the full range of human occupations in the Caribbean, from the initial forays into the islands through the arrival and eventual domination of the landscapes and indigenous people by Europeans. In some areas, our data complement archaeological, paleoecological, and historical findings from the Lesser Antilles and in others amplify understanding of colonization history. Here, we highlight data relating to the timing and process of initial colonization in the eastern Caribbean. In particular, paleoenvironmental data from Trinidad, Grenada, Martinique, and Marie-Galante (Guadeloupe) provide a basis for revisiting initial colonization models of the Caribbean. We conclude that archaeological programs addressing human occupations dating to the early to mid-Holocene, especially in dynamic coastal settings, should systematically incorporate paleoenvironmental investigations.

  10. The Teacher as a Professional in the Caribbean Today.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Confederation of Organizations of the Teaching Profession, Morges (Switzerland).

    The changing patterns of Caribbean society have affected and will continue to influence the concept of professionalism as it is applied to teaching. Teachers' organizations should promote the professional development of their members, as implied through acceptance of standards of personal conduct, competence on the job, and commitment to student…

  11. 76 FR 24463 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-XA406 Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public... held on May 24-25, 2011. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Hampton Inn Hotel, 6530 Isla...

  12. 78 FR 14981 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... representatives on the Draft Regulatory Amendment 2 to the Fishery Management Plan for Queen Conch Resources of... compatible regulations with U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI) territorial regulations for the harvest of queen conch. Fishing and possession of queen conch in the U.S. Caribbean exclusive economic zone (EEZ) is only...

  13. Adolescent Literacies in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartlett, Lesley; Lopez, Dina; Mein, Erika; Valdiviezo, Laura A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2000, approximately 36 million youth and adults living in Latin America and the Caribbean were reported to be unable to read or write basic texts. Of these, 20 million were women. According to official statistics, some countries in Central America (Guatemala, Nicaragua, El Salvador, and Honduras) have a youth and adult literacy rate of 80% or…

  14. Spanish? What Spanish? The Search for a 'Caribbean Standard.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hollingsworth, C.

    1978-01-01

    Variations in lexicon, phonology, morphology, and syntax of Spanish as spoken in Venezuela, Cuba, Mexico, and Castile have led to a diversity in the types of Spanish taught in Caribbean schools. The Programa Interamericano de Linguistica y Ensenanza de Idiomas is conducting a survey which will provide authoritative standards for Spanish teachers.…

  15. Caribbean Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Small Fruit in Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tephritid fruit flies are among the most important pests of fruits and vegetables worldwide. The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is a tephritid pest that became established in Florida following introduction in 1965. Populations of this fruit fly also occur in Puerto Rico and Cuba, ...

  16. 76 FR 12943 - Caribbean Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-09

    ... Fishery Management Council, 268 Mu oz Rivera Avenue, Suite 1108, San Juan, Puerto Rico 00918-1920.... Caribbean Marine Etiquette Video Project--Lisamarie Carrubba. Enforcement Reports. --Puerto Rico -DNER. --U..., Puerto Rico, 00918-1920, telephone: (787) 766-5926, at least 5 days prior to the meeting date....

  17. On Afro-American and Afro-Caribbean Cooperation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    London, Clement G. B.

    1980-01-01

    Cites negative stereotypes and cultural differences as barriers to unity among Black Americans and immigrants from the Caribbean islands. Calls for political unity of the two groups, based on the fact that they are perceived and discriminated against as one by the dominant White majority. (GC)

  18. Dust and Air Quality Forecasting in the Eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sealy, A. M.; Reyes, A.; Farrell, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    Significant amounts of dust travel across the northern tropical Atlantic to the Caribbean every year from the Sahara region. These dust concentrations in the Caribbean often exceed United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards for particulate matter of 2.5 microns or less (PM 2.5) which could have serious implications for human health in the region. Air pollution has become a major issue in the Caribbean because of urban development, increased vehicle emissions and growing industrialisation. However, the majority of territories in the Caribbean do not have routine air quality monitoring programmes and several do not have or enforce air quality standards for PM2.5 and PM10. As a result, the Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology (CIMH) has taken the initiative to provide dust and air quality forecasts for the Eastern Caribbean using the advanced WRF-Chem modeling system. The applications of the WRF-Chem modelling system at CIMH that are currently being focused on are the coupled weather prediction/dispersion model to simulate the release and transport of constituents, especially Saharan dust transport and concentration; and as a coupled weather/dispersion/air quality model with full interaction of chemical species with prediction of particulate matter (PM2.5 and PM10). This will include future applications in the prediction of ozone (O3) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation as well as examining dust radiative forcing and effects on atmospheric precipitation and dynamics. The simulations are currently initialised at 00Z for a seven day forecast and run at 36 km resolution with a planned second domain (at 12 km) for air quality forecasts. Preliminary results from this study will be presented and compared to other dust forecast models currently used in other regions. This work also complements in situ measurements at Ragged Point, Barbados (oldest dust record since 1965), Martinique, Guadeloupe, French Guiana and Puerto Rico. The goal of this study

  19. Educating and Preparing for Tsunamis in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Aliaga, B.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    The Caribbean and Adjacent Regions has a long history of tsunamis and earthquakes. Over the past 500 years, more than 75 tsunamis have been documented in the region by the NOAA National Geophysical Data Center. Just since 1842, 3446 lives have been lost to tsunamis; this is more than in the Northeastern Pacific for the same time period. With a population of almost 160 million, over 40 million visitors a year and a heavy concentration of residents, tourists, businesses and critical infrastructure along its shores (especially in the northern and eastern Caribbean), the risk to lives and livelihoods is greater than ever before. The only way to survive a tsunami is to get out of harm's way before the waves strike. In the Caribbean given the relatively short distances from faults, potential submarine landslides and volcanoes to some of the coastlines, the tsunamis are likely to be short fused, so it is imperative that tsunami warnings be issued extremely quickly and people be educated on how to recognize and respond. Nevertheless, given that tsunamis occur infrequently as compared with hurricanes, it is a challenge for them to receive the priority they require in order to save lives when the next one strikes the region. Close cooperation among countries and territories is required for warning, but also for education and public awareness. Geographical vicinity and spoken languages need to be factored in when developing tsunami preparedness in the Caribbean, to make sure citizens receive a clear, reliable and sound science based message about the hazard and the risk. In 2006, in the wake of the Indian Ocean tsunami and after advocating without success for a Caribbean Tsunami Warning System since the mid 90's, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO established the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS). Its purpose is to advance an end to end tsunami

  20. Marine Biodiversity in the Caribbean: Regional Estimates and Distribution Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela – Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of

  1. Shifting baselines and the extinction of the Caribbean monk seal.

    PubMed

    Baisre, Julio A

    2013-10-01

    The recent extinction of the Caribbean monk seal Monachus tropicalis has been considered an example of a human-caused extinction in the marine environment, and this species was considered a driver of the changes that have occurred in the structure of Caribbean coral reef ecosystems since colonial times. I searched archaeological records, historical data, and geographic names (used as a proxy of the presence of seals) and evaluated the use and quality of these data to conclude that since prehistoric times the Caribbean monk seal was always rare and vulnerable to human predation. This finding supports the hypothesis that in AD 1500, the Caribbean monk seal persisted as a small fragmented population in which individuals were confined to small keys, banks, or isolated islands in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. This hypothesis is contrary to the assumption that the species was widespread and abundant historically. The theory that the main driver of monk seal extinction was harvesting for its oil for use in the sugar cane industry of Jamaica during the 18th century is based primarily on anecdotal information and is overemphasized in the literature. An analysis of reported human encounters with this species indicates monk seal harvest was an occasional activity, rather than an ongoing enterprise. Nevertheless, given the rarity of this species and its restricted distribution, even small levels of hunting or specimen collecting must have contributed to its extinction, which was confirmed in the mid-20th century. Some sources had been overlooked or only partially reviewed, others misinterpreted, and a considerable amount of anecdotal information had been uncritically used. Critical examination of archaeological and historical records is required to infer accurate estimations of the historical abundance of a species. In reconstructing the past to address the shifting baseline syndrome, it is important to avoid selecting evidence to confirm modern prejudices.

  2. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-08-02

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of different

  3. Curie point depth estimation of the Eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia, Andreina; Orihuela Guevara, Nuris

    2013-04-01

    In this paper we present an estimation of the Curie point depth (CPD) on the Eastern Caribbean. The estimation of the CPD was done from satellite magnetic anomalies, by the application of the Centroid method over the studied area. In order to calculate the CPD, the area was subdivided in square windows of side equal to 2°, with an overlap distance of 1° to each other. As result of this research, it was obtained the Curie isotherm grid by using kriging interpolation method. Despite of the oceanic nature of the Eastern Caribbean plate, this map reveals important lateral variations in the interior of the plate and its boundaries. The lateral variations observed in CPD are related with the complexity of thermal processes in the subsurface of the region. From a global perspective, the earth's oceanic provinces show a CPD's smooth behavior, excepting plate boundaries of these oceanic provinces. In this case, the Eastern Caribbean plate's CPD variations are related to both: Plate's boundaries and plate's interior. The maximum CPD variations are observed in the southern boundary of Caribbean plate (9 to 35 km) and over the Lesser Antilles and Barbados prism (16 to 30 km). This behavior reflects the complex geologic evolution history of the studied area, in which has been documented the presence of extensive mantle of basalt and dolerite sills. These sills have been originated in various cycles of cretaceous mantle activity, and have been the main cause of the oceanic crust's thickening in the interior of the Caribbean plate. At the same time, this thickening of the oceanic plate explains the existence of a Mohorovičić discontinuity, with an average depth greater than other regions of the planet, with slight irregularities related to highs of the ocean floor (Nicaragua and Beata Crests, Aves High) but not similar to the magnitude of lateral variations revealed by the Curie isotherm map.

  4. Marine biodiversity in the Caribbean: regional estimates and distribution patterns.

    PubMed

    Miloslavich, Patricia; Díaz, Juan Manuel; Klein, Eduardo; Alvarado, Juan José; Díaz, Cristina; Gobin, Judith; Escobar-Briones, Elva; Cruz-Motta, Juan José; Weil, Ernesto; Cortés, Jorge; Bastidas, Ana Carolina; Robertson, Ross; Zapata, Fernando; Martín, Alberto; Castillo, Julio; Kazandjian, Aniuska; Ortiz, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the distribution patterns of marine biodiversity and summarizes the major activities of the Census of Marine Life program in the Caribbean region. The coastal Caribbean region is a large marine ecosystem (LME) characterized by coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrasses, but including other environments, such as sandy beaches and rocky shores. These tropical ecosystems incorporate a high diversity of associated flora and fauna, and the nations that border the Caribbean collectively encompass a major global marine biodiversity hot spot. We analyze the state of knowledge of marine biodiversity based on the geographic distribution of georeferenced species records and regional taxonomic lists. A total of 12,046 marine species are reported in this paper for the Caribbean region. These include representatives from 31 animal phyla, two plant phyla, one group of Chromista, and three groups of Protoctista. Sampling effort has been greatest in shallow, nearshore waters, where there is relatively good coverage of species records; offshore and deep environments have been less studied. Additionally, we found that the currently accepted classification of marine ecoregions of the Caribbean did not apply for the benthic distributions of five relatively well known taxonomic groups. Coastal species richness tends to concentrate along the Antillean arc (Cuba to the southernmost Antilles) and the northern coast of South America (Venezuela-Colombia), while no pattern can be observed in the deep sea with the available data. Several factors make it impossible to determine the extent to which these distribution patterns accurately reflect the true situation for marine biodiversity in general: (1) highly localized concentrations of collecting effort and a lack of collecting in many areas and ecosystems, (2) high variability among collecting methods, (3) limited taxonomic expertise for many groups, and (4) differing levels of activity in the study of different

  5. Shifting baselines and the extinction of the Caribbean monk seal.

    PubMed

    Baisre, Julio A

    2013-10-01

    The recent extinction of the Caribbean monk seal Monachus tropicalis has been considered an example of a human-caused extinction in the marine environment, and this species was considered a driver of the changes that have occurred in the structure of Caribbean coral reef ecosystems since colonial times. I searched archaeological records, historical data, and geographic names (used as a proxy of the presence of seals) and evaluated the use and quality of these data to conclude that since prehistoric times the Caribbean monk seal was always rare and vulnerable to human predation. This finding supports the hypothesis that in AD 1500, the Caribbean monk seal persisted as a small fragmented population in which individuals were confined to small keys, banks, or isolated islands in the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. This hypothesis is contrary to the assumption that the species was widespread and abundant historically. The theory that the main driver of monk seal extinction was harvesting for its oil for use in the sugar cane industry of Jamaica during the 18th century is based primarily on anecdotal information and is overemphasized in the literature. An analysis of reported human encounters with this species indicates monk seal harvest was an occasional activity, rather than an ongoing enterprise. Nevertheless, given the rarity of this species and its restricted distribution, even small levels of hunting or specimen collecting must have contributed to its extinction, which was confirmed in the mid-20th century. Some sources had been overlooked or only partially reviewed, others misinterpreted, and a considerable amount of anecdotal information had been uncritically used. Critical examination of archaeological and historical records is required to infer accurate estimations of the historical abundance of a species. In reconstructing the past to address the shifting baseline syndrome, it is important to avoid selecting evidence to confirm modern prejudices. PMID

  6. Which Fishers Are Satisfied in the Caribbean? A Comparative Analysis of Job Satisfaction among Caribbean Lobster Fishers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monnereau, Iris; Pollnac, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Lobster fishing (targeting the spiny lobster "Panulirus argus") is an important economic activity throughout the Wider Caribbean Region both as a source of income and employment for the local population as well as foreign exchange for national governments. Due to the high unit prices of the product, international lobster trade provides a way to…

  7. A proposal to conduct a Caribbean plate project involving the application of space technology to the study of Caribbean geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wadge, G.

    The Caribbean plate project is designed to improve current understanding of geological resources and geological hazards within the Caribbean region. Models of mineral occurrence and genesis (including energy resources) on a regional scale, which contribute to nonrenewable resource investigations. Models of lithospheric stress and strain on a regional scale, which contribute to forecasting geological hazards such as earthquakes and major volcanic eruptions are developed. Geological information is synthesize, and research tools provided by space technology the study of the Earth's crust are used. The project was organized in a thematic fashion, to focus on specific geological aspects of the Caribbean plate which are considered to be key factors in developing the types of models described. The project adopts a synoptic perspective in seeking to characterize the three dimensional structure, composition, state of stress, and evolution of the entire Caribbean plate. Geological information derived from analysis of space acquired data is combined with information provided by conventional methods to obtain insight into the structure, composition, and evolution of the Earth's crust. In addition, very long baseline interferometry and laser ranging techniques, which are also based upon the use of space technology, obtain information concerning crustal motion that, in turn, provides insight into the distribution and localization of crustal stress.

  8. A proposal to conduct a Caribbean plate project involving the application of space technology to the study of Caribbean geology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wadge, G. (Editor)

    1981-01-01

    The Caribbean plate project is designed to improve current understanding of geological resources and geological hazards within the Caribbean region. Models of mineral occurrence and genesis (including energy resources) on a regional scale, which contribute to nonrenewable resource investigations. Models of lithospheric stress and strain on a regional scale, which contribute to forecasting geological hazards such as earthquakes and major volcanic eruptions are developed. Geological information is synthesize, and research tools provided by space technology the study of the Earth's crust are used. The project was organized in a thematic fashion, to focus on specific geological aspects of the Caribbean plate which are considered to be key factors in developing the types of models described. The project adopts a synoptic perspective in seeking to characterize the three dimensional structure, composition, state of stress, and evolution of the entire Caribbean plate. Geological information derived from analysis of space acquired data is combined with information provided by conventional methods to obtain insight into the structure, composition, and evolution of the Earth's crust. In addition, very long baseline interferometry and laser ranging techniques, which are also based upon the use of space technology, obtain information concerning crustal motion that, in turn, provides insight into the distribution and localization of crustal stress.

  9. The Mental Health of Black Caribbean Immigrants: Results from the National Survey of American Life

    PubMed Central

    Williams, David R.; Haile, Rahwa; González, Hector M.; Neighbors, Harold; Baser, Raymond; Jackson, James S.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among Black Caribbean immigrant (“Caribbean Black”) and African American populations and the correlates of psychiatric disorders among the Caribbean Black population. Methods. We conducted descriptive and age-adjusted analyses of the data from the National Survey of American Life—an in-person household mental health survey of noninstitutionalized US Blacks. We assessed psychiatric disorders as defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria with the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Results. Compared with African American men, Caribbean Black men had higher risks for 12-month rates of psychiatric disorders. Caribbean Black women had lower odds for 12-month and lifetime psychiatric disorders compared with African American women. Risks varied by ethnicity, immigration history, and generation status within the Caribbean sample. First-generation Caribbean Blacks had lower rates of psychiatric disorders compared with second- or third-generation Caribbean Blacks, and, compared with first-generation Carribbean Blacks, third-generation Caribbean Blacks had markedly elevated rates of psychiatric disorders. Conclusions. Mental health risks were associated with ethnic diversity within the US Black population. Increased exposure to minority status in the United States was associated with higher risks for psychiatric disorders among Black Caribbean immigrants, which possibly reflects increased societal stress and downward social mobility associated with being Black in America. PMID:17138909

  10. Anaglyph with Landsat Virgin Islands, Caribbean

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    St. Thomas, St. John, Tortola, and Virgin Gorda are the four main islands (lower left to upper right) of this map-view anaglyph of the U.S. Virgin Islands and British Virgin Islands, along the northeast perimeter of the Caribbean Sea. For this view, a nearly cloud-free Landsat image was draped over elevation data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM), and shading derived from the SRTM data was added to enhance the topographic expression. Coral reefs fringe the islands in many locations and appear as bright patterns in near-shore waters. Tropical vegetation appears fairly dark with smooth tones, as compared to the brighter speckled patterns of towns and other developments.

    As in much of the world, topography is the primary factor in the pattern of land use development in the Virgin Islands. Topography across most of the islands is quite rugged, and although the steep slopes create a scenic setting, they crowd most development into the small areas of low relief terrain, generally along the shoreline. The topographic pattern also affects water supply, wastewater disposal, landfill locations, road construction, and most other features of the development infrastructure. Topography also defines the natural drainage pattern, which is the major consideration in anticipating tropical storm water runoff dangers, as well as the dangers of heightened sediment impacts upon the adjacent coral reefs.

    Landsat has been providing visible and infrared views of the Earth since 1972. SRTM elevation data matches the 30-meter (98-foot) resolution of most Landsat images and substantially helps in analyzing the large and growing Landsat image archive.

    Elevation data used in this image were acquired by the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission aboard the Space Shuttle Endeavour, launched on February 11, 2000. The mission used the same radar instrument that comprised the Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar that flew twice on the Space Shuttle

  11. Race and Ethnic Differences in Religious Involvement: African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    PubMed Central

    Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Bullard, Kai McKeever; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined differences in religious participation and spirituality among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks (Black Caribbeans) and non-Hispanic Whites. Data are taken from the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative study of African Americans, Black Caribbeans and non-Hispanic Whites. Selected measures of organizational, nonorganizational and subjective religious participation were examined. African American and Caribbean Blacks were largely similar in their reports of religious involvement; both groups generally indicated higher levels of religious participation than non-Hispanic Whites. African Americans were more likely than Black Caribbeans to be official members of their places of worship, engage in activities (choirs, church clubs) at their place of worship and request prayer from others. Black Caribbeans reported reading religious materials more frequently than African Americans. The discussion notes the importance of examining ethnic differences within the black American population of the United States. PMID:20975850

  12. Folliculinid ciliates: a new threat to Caribbean corals?

    PubMed

    Cróquer, Aldo; Bastidas, Carolina; Lipscomb, Diana

    2006-03-23

    This is the first report of a putative pathogenic ciliate protozoan that has been associated with Caribbean corals. Previously, only 2 species of the phylum Ciliophora had been linked to coral diseases, and they were exclusive to the Indo-Pacific region. In this study, a ciliate of the genus Halofolliculina was found on 10 hard coral species at the National Parks of Los Roques and Morrocoy, Venezuela. The general morphology of this ciliate is very similar to that of Halofolliculina corallasia from the Indo-Pacific, which is known to cause skeletal eroding band. None of the other 31 genera in the family Folliculinidae are known to cause diseases in corals or in any other animal species. The presence of this ciliate, which shows a prevalence comparable to that of other epizootics in the Caribbean, suggests it could be a new threat to the coral reefs of this region.

  13. Markets for renewable energy in Central America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Patil, P.G.; Sloop, J.L.

    1982-01-01

    For market studies of renewable energy and conservation equipment, Costa Rica was selected as the most favorable Central American country and representative of the rest. The Dominican Republic, Jamaica, Barbados, and Antigua were selected as representative of the Caribbean islands, from the largest to one of the smallest. Best markets in Costa Rica are judged to be micro and mini hydroelectric systems, heat pumps for large hot water users, photovoltaic systems for low-power remote devices, small distilleries for producing alcohol from sugar cane, solar dryers for bagasse, and energy conservation equipment. Market prospects for the Caribbean islands are very good, including micro and mini hydroelectric systems for those countries with water resources, solar drying of bagasse, solar water heaters, solar ponds/solar thermal systems for electric power or heat processes, wind-electric systems for utility grids and farms, photovoltaics for small power uses, and energy conservation equipment.

  14. The control of hookworm disease in Commonwealth Caribbean countries.

    PubMed

    Tikasingh, Elisha S; Chadee, Dave D; Rawlins, Samuel C

    2011-01-01

    Like other countries around the globe where conditions existed for the parasites causing hookworm disease to thrive, this disease was a serious problem to settlers in countries of the Commonwealth Caribbean, i.e. those countries that were formerly part of the British Empire. Early in the 20th century, the Rockefeller Foundation (RF) assisted the southern United States in controlling this disease. Soon other countries requested assistance and the Rockefeller Foundation responded by creating their International Health Commission to target the problem. Guyana (then British Guiana) was the first country where work was started. Through a system of chemotherapy, sanitation with the provision of latrines and health education the RF assisted the Commonwealth Caribbean countries during the period 1914-1925 in controlling the disease. Most countries continued the programmes started by the Rockefeller Foundation and this paper provides evidence through a series of surveys to show that hookworm disease is no longer a public health problem.

  15. Chikungunya Fever in Japan Imported from the Caribbean Islands.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kazuo; Nakayama, Eri; Maeda, Takuya; Mikita, Kei; Kobayashi, Yukiko; Mitarai, Aoi; Honma, Yasuko; Miyake, Satoru; Kaku, Koki; Miyahira, Yasushi; Kawana, Akihiko

    2016-01-01

    A 53-year-old Japanese woman who was working as a volunteer in the Commonwealth of Dominica in the Caribbean islands presented with a high-grade fever and severe incapacitating generalized arthralgia. The Asian genotype of the chikungunya virus was confirmed using reverse transcription-PCR and serology, based on the presence of a specific neutralization titer and immunoglobulin M antibodies. She was diagnosed with post-chikungunya chronic arthritis based on persistence of her polyarthritis for 3 months and the presence of rheumatoid factor, immunoglobulin G-rheumatoid factor, and matrix metalloproteinase-3. Chikungunya virus should be considered as a causative pathogen in travelers returning from Caribbean islands. Clinicians should consider chikungunya fever in the differential diagnosis of patients who complain of chronic arthritis and have a history of travel to an endemic area.

  16. African and African Caribbean users' perceptions of inpatient services.

    PubMed

    Secker, J; Harding, C

    2002-04-01

    It has been suggested that well-documented differences in African and African Caribbean people's contact with mental health services may stem from the organization, processes and practices of services themselves. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study which explored the inpatient experiences of a sample of African and African Caribbean people. Although some positive experiences were described, in the main, participants' accounts revolved around a sense of loss of control and around experiences of overt and implicit racism. Underpinning these experiences were relationships with staff that were perceived to be unhelpful. On the basis of both the positive and negative experiences described, we draw conclusions about the changes required to ensure that inpatient services more effectively meet the needs of this group.

  17. Raising the priority of chronic noncommunicable diseases in the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Hospedales, C James; Samuels, T Alafia; Cummings, Rudolph; Gollop, Gayle; Greene, Edward

    2011-10-01

    The Caribbean's long history of cooperation in health now focuses on noncommunicable diseases (NCDs), given that Caribbean Community (CARICOM) countries have the highest NCD burden in the Americas. The heads of government convened a first in the world one-day summit on NCDs, largely due to advocacy by George Alleyne and others, on the health, social, and economic impact of NCDs; the need for upstream multisectoral interventions to address the common, multifactoral risks; and the need for increased global attention to NCDs. Implementation of the NCD Summit Declaration mandates was most effective in larger countries with greater capacity, but countries of all sizes performed well, when they had regional or global support. Progress was limited in regional approaches to food security, labeling, and elimination of trans fats. Inadequate funding stymied several resource-dependent interventions. Monitoring mechanisms were established, but more concrete goals are needed, especially for actions of nonhealth government agencies.

  18. Venezuelan Caribbean Sea under the threat of TBT.

    PubMed

    Paz-Villarraga, César Augusto; Castro, Italo B; Miloslavich, Patricia; Fillmann, Gilberto

    2015-01-01

    Although environmental tributyltin (TBT) contamination is considered a solved problem, imposex occurrence in Plicopurpura patula as well as butyltins (BTs) contamination in sediments and tissues were detected along 700 km of the Caribbean coastal shore. Areas under the influence of five main ports of Venezuela were covered, as well as large marinas and sites located away from expected sources. Marinas were the most contaminated areas, whilst imposex incidence and TBT levels were relatively low in areas nearby commercial harbors. Thus, it is evident that marinas have become the main source of fresh TBT to the region. This might explain why imposex incidence seems to be widely distributed along the Venezuelan coast, since leisure boats are circulating along the whole coastal region. In fact, this could be the pattern for other areas of the Caribbean Sea.

  19. Outlook for hydropower in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez-Sierra, G. )

    1993-02-01

    In the last two decades, the Latin America/Carribean region has become increasingly dependent on electricity to meet growing demands for energy. Hydropower is the prevailing source for meeting this need. Hydroelectric generation increased at an annual average rate of nearly 9% between 1971 and 1989. HYdro now provides more than two-thirds of total electric power generated in Latin America and the Caribbean. The only other predominant source used for electric generation is fossil fuels. In this region there are several trends developing. They include: developing more small hydro facilities, opportunities for sharing water resources, an interest in changing the approach to water use regulation, and possibilities for more participation by the private sector. Overall, hydro appears to have a favorable competitive position in the power industry in the Latin America/Caribbean region.

  20. The 2009/2010 Caribbean drought: a case study.

    PubMed

    Peters, Everson J

    2015-10-01

    The impacts of drought in the Caribbean have not been as dramatic as in some other parts of world, but it is not exempt from the experiences of drought. As a result of the effects of a prolonged drought in 2009/2010, the agenda for the 21st Inter-Sessional Meeting of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) paid particular attention to the issue of drought. This paper reviews the management framework for responding to drought disasters in five CARICOM countries. The paper also reports on some of the effects of the 2009/2010 drought with particular reference to Grenada and the Grenadines. During the drought in these islands there were numerous bush fires with devastating effects on agriculture, severe water shortages that impacted on the tourism industry and other social effects. It is evident that there was inadequate preparation for the event. Greater planning and investment are therefore required to reduce future impacts. PMID:25754334

  1. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Steffen; Hansen, Bent T

    2015-01-01

    We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema). In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large lucinids because they

  2. South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Deal, C.

    1981-10-01

    Summaries of oil and gas drillings, well completions, production, exploratory wells, exploration activity and wildcat drilling were given for South America, Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico. The countries, islands, etc. included Argentina, Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Leeward and Windward Islands, Mexico, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Puerto Rico, El Salvador, Surinam, Trinidad and Venezuela. 16 figures, 120 tables. (DP)

  3. Structural and geophysical interpretation of Roatan Island, Honduras, Western Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutton, Daniel Scott

    Roatan Island is the largest of the Bay Islands of Honduras. These islands form an emergent crest off the Caribbean coast of Honduras called the Bonacca Ridge. The Bartlett Trough to the north and subsequent Bonacca Ridge were likely formed due to the transform fault system of the Motagua-Swan Islands Fault System. This fault system forms the tectonic plate boundary between the North American and Caribbean plates. Although the timing and kinematics are poorly constrained, the Bay Islands and the Bonacca Ridge were likely uplifted due to transpression along this left-lateral strike-slip system. With limited regional exposures along the adjacent tectonic boundary, this study aimed to present a structural interpretation for Roatan. This new interpretation is further explained through regional considerations for a suggested geologic history of the northwestern Caribbean. In order to better constrain the kinematics of uplift and exhumation of Roatan Island, structural, gravity, and magnetic surveys were conducted. Principal attention was directed to the structural relationship between the geologic units and their relationship to one another through deformation. Resulting geologic cross-sections from this study present the metamorphic basement exposed throughout the island to be in a normal structural order consisting of biotite schist and gneiss, with overlying units of chlorite schist, carbonate, and conglomerate. These units have relatively concordant strike and dip measurements, consistent with resultant magnetic survey readings. Additionally, large and irregular bodies of amphibolite and serpentinite throughout the island are interpreted to have been emplaced as mafic and ultra-mafic intrusions in weakness zones along Early Paleogene transform system fault planes. The interpretation and suggested geologic history from this study demonstrate the importance of transpressive tectonics both local to Roatan and regionally throughout geologic history. Consideration of

  4. Caribbean LNG project marks progress; LNG tanker launched

    SciTech Connect

    1997-10-20

    World LNG trade continues to expand as construction of a major LNG project in the Caribbean hits full stride this fall and another LNG carrier was launched earlier this year. Engineering is nearly complete and construction is nearing midway on Trinidad`s Atlantic LNG. In Japan, NKK Corp. launched another LNG tanker that employs the membrane-storage system. The 50-mile pipeline to move natural gas to the Atlantic LNG facility is also on track for completion by October 1998.

  5. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region.

    PubMed

    Kiel, Steffen; Hansen, Bent T

    2015-01-01

    We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted 'Joes River fauna' consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted 'Bath Cliffs fauna' containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema). In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman's Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical 'Cenozoic' lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large lucinids because they

  6. Belize--a last stronghold for manatees in the Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Shea, T.J.; Salisbury, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    Belize is a small country but it offers a safe haven for the largest number of manatees in the Caribbean. The authors' survey in 1989 revealed that there has been no apparent decline since the last study in 1977. However, there is no evidence for population growth either and as the Belize economy develops threats from fisheries, human pressure and declining habitat quality will increase. Recommendations are made to ensure that Belize safeguards its manatee populations.

  7. Rapidly spreading seagrass invades the Caribbean with unknown ecological consequences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rogers, Caroline S.; Willette, Demian A; Miller, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    The non-native seagrass Halophila stipulacea has spread rapidly throughout the Caribbean Sea (Willette et al. 2014); without additional research, the ecological ramifications of this invasion are difficult to predict. Biodiversity, connectivity of marine ecosystems, and recovery of degraded coral reefs could all be affected. The invasive seagrass, native to the Red Sea and Indian Ocean, has taken over sand bottoms and intermixed with or replaced native seagrasses, including Thalassia testudinum, Syringodium filiforme, and Halodule wrightii.

  8. Tectonic evolution of the Gulf of Mexico and Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Pindell, J.L.; Barrett, S.F.; Dewey, J.F.

    1985-01-01

    The authors propose a three-phase geologic-kinematic model for the evolution of the Gulf of Mexico/Caribbean region starting with a detailed Late Paleozoic (Alleghenian) plate reconstruction and using a revised relative-motion history for North America (NOAM) and South American (SOAM). The completely closed initial reconstruction incorporates the effects of Jurassic syn-rift crustal extension, an improved Equatorial Atlantic fit, and the post-rift accretion and deformation in northwestern South America. The Yucatan block and western Bahamas continental basement occupied the area of the present Gulf of Mexico. The three phases of evolution are: MIDDLE JURASSIC-CHAMPANIAN; SOAM migrated east-southeast from NOAM, and the Yucatan block rotated 43/sup 0/CCW about a pole in northern Florida reaching its present position by the Berriasian. Carbonate shelves formed along the rifted margins of the Gulf of Mexico and proto-Caribbean. Early Cretaceous crust of the Caribbean Plate (CARIB) formed in the Pacific Basin and was intruded by medial Cretaceous basalts (B'') somewhere to the west of South America. CARIB partially collided with southern Yucatan and northwest SOAM in the Late Cretaceous, and with the Bahamas in the late Paleocene-Middle Eocene. POST-MIDDLE EOCENE: Minor west-northwest NOAM-SOAM convergence occurred along preexisting Atlantic fracture zones. CARIB has migrated eastward by 1200 km, subducting proto-Caribbean crust and forming the Lesser Antilles arc. The original Greater Antilles-Aves Ridge arc has been dissected by anastomosing transforms connecting the Middle American and Lesser Antilles trenches.

  9. Exploring Emotional Intelligence in a Caribbean Medical School

    PubMed Central

    Sa, B; Baboolal, N; Williams, S; Ramsewak, S

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the emotional intelligence (EI) in medical students in a Caribbean medical school and investigate its association with gender, age, year of study and ethnicity. Design and Methods: A cross-sectional design using convenient sampling of 304 years two to five undergraduate medical students at the School of Medicine, The University of the West Indies (UWI), St Augustine campus, was conducted. The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT-V2.0) was administered to test four branches of EI: perceiving emotions, facilitating thought, understanding emotions and managing emotions. Data were analysed using SPSS version 19. T-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA) and r (product moment correlation) were calculated to establish the effects of selected variables (gender, age, year of study and ethnicity) on total and sub-scales EI scores and tested against 0.05 and 0.01 significance levels. Results: The total mean score for EI fell within the average according to MSCEIT standards. Gender analysis showed significantly higher scores for males and for younger age groups (< 25 years). Year of study and ethnicity did not yield any significant effect. Conclusions: These findings of higher EI scores in males and younger students are unusual, given the well-publicized stereotype of the Caribbean male and the perception that advancing age brings maturity and emotional stability. It would be valuable to widen this study by including other UWI campuses and offshore medical schools in the Caribbean. This preliminary study examined a sample of medical students from a well-established Caribbean medical school. Since EI is considered to be important in the assessment and training of medical undergraduates, consideration should be given to introducing interventions aimed at increasing EI. PMID:25303251

  10. Reconstructing the Population Genetic History of the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-Estrada, Andrés; Gravel, Simon; Zakharia, Fouad; McCauley, Jacob L.; Byrnes, Jake K.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Ortiz-Tello, Patricia A.; Martínez, Ricardo J.; Hedges, Dale J.; Morris, Richard W.; Eng, Celeste; Sandoval, Karla; Acevedo-Acevedo, Suehelay; Norman, Paul J.; Layrisse, Zulay; Parham, Peter; Martínez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Burchard, Esteban González; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Martin, Eden R.; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    The Caribbean basin is home to some of the most complex interactions in recent history among previously diverged human populations. Here, we investigate the population genetic history of this region by characterizing patterns of genome-wide variation among 330 individuals from three of the Greater Antilles (Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola), two mainland (Honduras, Colombia), and three Native South American (Yukpa, Bari, and Warao) populations. We combine these data with a unique database of genomic variation in over 3,000 individuals from diverse European, African, and Native American populations. We use local ancestry inference and tract length distributions to test different demographic scenarios for the pre- and post-colonial history of the region. We develop a novel ancestry-specific PCA (ASPCA) method to reconstruct the sub-continental origin of Native American, European, and African haplotypes from admixed genomes. We find that the most likely source of the indigenous ancestry in Caribbean islanders is a Native South American component shared among inland Amazonian tribes, Central America, and the Yucatan peninsula, suggesting extensive gene flow across the Caribbean in pre-Columbian times. We find evidence of two pulses of African migration. The first pulse—which today is reflected by shorter, older ancestry tracts—consists of a genetic component more similar to coastal West African regions involved in early stages of the trans-Atlantic slave trade. The second pulse—reflected by longer, younger tracts—is more similar to present-day West-Central African populations, supporting historical records of later transatlantic deportation. Surprisingly, we also identify a Latino-specific European component that has significantly diverged from its parental Iberian source populations, presumably as a result of small European founder population size. We demonstrate that the ancestral components in admixed genomes can be traced back to distinct sub

  11. Cenozoic Methane-Seep Faunas of the Caribbean Region

    PubMed Central

    Kiel, Steffen; Hansen, Bent T.

    2015-01-01

    We report new examples of Cenozoic cold-seep communities from Colombia, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Trinidad, and Venezuela, and attempt to improve the stratigraphic dating of Cenozoic Caribbean seep communities using strontium isotope stratigraphy. Two seep faunas are distinguished in Barbados: the late Eocene mudstone-hosted ‘Joes River fauna’ consists mainly of large lucinid bivalves and tall abyssochrysoid gastropods, and the early Miocene carbonate-hosted ‘Bath Cliffs fauna’ containing the vesicomyid Pleurophopsis, the mytilid Bathymodiolus and small gastropods. Two new Oligocene seep communities from the Sinú River basin in Colombia consist of lucinid bivalves including Elongatolucina, thyasirid and solemyid bivalves, and Pleurophopsis. A new early Miocene seep community from Cuba includes Pleurophopsis and the large lucinid Meganodontia. Strontium isotope stratigraphy suggests an Eocene age for the Cuban Elmira asphalt mine seep community, making it the oldest in the Caribbean region. A new basal Pliocene seep fauna from the Dominican Republic is characterized by the large lucinid Anodontia (Pegophysema). In Trinidad we distinguish two types of seep faunas: the mudstone-hosted Godineau River fauna consisting mainly of lucinid bivalves, and the limestone-hosted Freeman’s Bay fauna consisting chiefly of Pleurophopsis, Bathymodiolus, and small gastropods; they are all dated as late Miocene. Four new seep communities of Oligocene to Miocene age are reported from Venezuela. They consist mainly of large globular lucinid bivalves including Meganodontia, and moderately sized vesicomyid bivalves. After the late Miocene many large and typical ‘Cenozoic’ lucinid genera disappeared from the Caribbean seeps and are today known only from the central Indo-Pacific Ocean. We speculate that the increasingly oligotrophic conditions in the Caribbean Sea after the closure of the Isthmus of Panama in the Pliocene may have been unfavorable for such large lucinids

  12. Genetic species delineation among branching Caribbean Porites corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prada, C.; DeBiasse, M. B.; Neigel, J. E.; Yednock, B.; Stake, J. L.; Forsman, Z. H.; Baums, I. B.; Hellberg, M. E.

    2014-12-01

    Coral species are difficult to discern because of their morphological plasticity, long generation times, and slow rates of mitochondrial DNA evolution. Among Caribbean representatives of the genus Porites are three named species ( P. divaricata, P. furcata, and P. porites) with branching colony morphologies whose validity as genetically isolated species has been debated. We present sequence data from the mitochondrial control region, nuclear ITS, and nine single-copy nuclear loci for the Caribbean Porites and a related eastern Pacific species. mtDNA sequences were nearly invariant among the three branching species and their crustose sister P. branneri, and ITS sequences from these four were intermingled. An information theoretic analysis provided no support for upholding the three named Caribbean branching species. Both a clustering analysis and an analysis of molecular variance showed that sequence variation from the three branching forms is partitioned more by geography than by taxonomy. Multi-locus coalescent phylogenetic analysis provided a calibrated estimate for the nuclear DNA substitution rate (0.14 % Ma-1) close to that for other corals. Because no generalities have emerged from genetic investigations of the validity of morphologically defined coral species, the use of single-copy nuclear data is likely to be important in testing problematic species designations.

  13. Annotated bibliography of coal in the Caribbean region. [Lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Orndorff, R.C.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of preparing this annotated bibliography was to compile information on coal localities for the Caribbean region used for preparation of a coal map of the region. Also, it serves as a brief reference list of publications for future coal studies in the Caribbean region. It is in no way an exhaustive study or complete listing of coal literature for the Caribbean. All the material was gathered from published literature with the exception of information from Cuba which was supplied from a study by Gordon Wood of the US Geological Survey, Branch of Coal Resources. Following the classification system of the US Geological Survey (Wood and others, 1983), the term coal resources has been used in this report for reference to general estimates of coal quantities even though authors of the material being annotated may have used the term coal reserves in a similar denotation. The literature ranges from 1857 to 1981. The countries listed include Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, and the countries of Central America.

  14. Renewable power production in a Pan-Caribbean energy grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, David

    The Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean are victims of geography and geopolitics. Lacking access to large fossil fuel reserves, they are forced to import fuel at prices they have no control over. Renewable energy resources, particularly wind, have the potential to help break the Caribbean dependency on fossil fuels and allow for increased development at the same time. Working from a sustainable development point of view, this project discusses the history of the area, the theoretical background for the idea of large scale renewable power production, the regional initiatives already in place that address both the cost of fossil fuels and the policy hurdles that need to be overcome to assist the region in gaining energy independence. Haiti is highlighted as a special case in the region and the potential use of several renewable resources are discussed, along with a potential business model based on the idea of the Internet. Power storage is covered, specifically the potential of battery operated vehicles to have a positive impact on the Caribbean region and other developing states. The role of government regulation and policy comes into play next, followed by a discussion on the need for developed states to change patterns of behavior in order to achieve sustainability. Finally, nuclear power and liquefied natural gas are reviewed and rejected as power options for the region.

  15. Oil spills in the Caribbean: a matter of time

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, M.P.

    1981-09-01

    Hurricanes increase the risk of oil spills in the Caribbean region, a situation which the United Nations and affected islands recognize as requiring cooperative efforts to prevent and control. As shipping activity increases in the Caribbean, the threat is intensified by the small size and poverty of the area's islands, which depend heavily on tourist and fishing industries. The annual 250 million tons of crude oil shipped to or through the Caribbean can be expected to average 21 spills of 1000 tons within 50 miles of land and pose serious ecological and economic threats. A contingency plan based on cooperation and shared resources to deal with spills would not be expensive because the liability laws and compensation rights are clearly defined. The technologies available to combat oil spills range from biological agents to sweeping equipment. Response can be prompt, but the political and economic aspects are more delicate. A regional plan formulated by the islands and countries involved still needs to have formal intergovernmental agreements signed. (DCK)

  16. Caribbean Shallow-water Black Corals (Cnidaria: Anthozoa: Antipatharia)

    SciTech Connect

    Opresko, Dennis M; Sanchez, Juan Armando

    2005-01-01

    Our aim is to provide a complete key and guide to the species of black corals from the Caribbean reefs at depths shallower than about 100 m. The key to the species is mostly based on colonial features that are recognized in the field, although some closely related species can only be differentiated by microscopic skeletal features. Each species is illustrated with one or more photos showing the size and shape of the colony; many photos were taken in the natural environment to facilitate underwater identification. Additionally, a short description is provided of each species and their microscopic diagnostic characters are illustrated with the aid of the Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Fifteen black coral species are found in relatively shallow-water in the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and other parts of the tropical western Atlantic; these belong to the families Myriopathidae [Tanacetipathes hirta (Gray), T. tanacetum (Pourtales), T. barbadensis (Brook), T. thamnea (Warner), and Plumapathes pennacea (Pallas)]; Antipathidae [Antipathes lenta Pourtales, A. rubusifonnis Warner and Opresko, A. furcata Gray, A. umbratica Opresko, A. atlantica Gray, A. gracilis Gray, A. caribbeana Opresko, Stichopathes lutkeni Brook, and S. accidentalis (Gray)]; and Aphanipathidae [Rhipidipathes colombiana (Opresko and Sinchez)]. We hope that this guide will facilitate research on black corals on Caribbean reefs, where population surveys are urgently needed to evaluate or modify conservation policies.

  17. Strengthening integrated research and capacity development within the Caribbean region

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Caribbean region, like other developing regions of the world, faces significant challenges in conducting research, especially in the context of limited resource capacities and capabilities. Further, due to its diverse and multiple island states, research capacity is scattered and unevenly spread within the region. The Caribbean EcoHealth Programme (CEHP) is a research program that is structured to improve the capacity and capability of health professionals in the Caribbean region to respond in integrative and innovative ways to on-going and emerging environmental health challenges by means of multi-sectoral interventions. Methods Core parts of the CEHP’s mission are to (1) conduct collaborative research in areas that the region has identified as critical; (2) build and strengthening integrated approaches to research; and (3) develop and enhance basic research capacity within the Caribbean region. Fundamental to the success of the CEHP’s human and resource development mission has been its use of the Atlantis Mobile Laboratory (AML). The AML has allowed the CEHP program to move throughout the Caribbean and be able to respond to calls for specific research and capacity building opportunities. Results The CEHP’s five main research projects have generated the following results: (1) the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) study has evaluated human exposures to POPs, heavy metals, pesticides, and zoonotic infections; (2) the Burden of Illness (BOI) studies have developed protocols for the testing of foodborne microorganisms, strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities, and determined the prevalence and incidence of food-borne illness; (3) the Rainwater Harvesting (RWH) study has evaluated the microbial and chemical quality of rainwater harvesting systems; (4) the Ecotoxicology Water (ETW) studies have provided much needed data on the quality of recreational and drinking water supplies, and (5) the Food Safety Training Program has developed Diploma

  18. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Benthem, Steven; Govers, Rob; Spakman, Wim; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-04-01

    In the broad context of investigating the relationship between deep structure & processes and surface expressions, we study the Caribbean plate and underlying mantle. We investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P-wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico. These anomalies are interpreted as remnants of Atlantic lithosphere subduction and confirm tectonic reconstructions that suggest at least 1100 km of convergence at the Lesser Antilles island arc during the past ~45 Myr. The imaged Lesser-Antilles slab consists of a northern and southern anomaly, separated by a low velocity anomaly across most of the upper mantle, which we interpret as the subducted North-South America plate boundary. The southern edge of the imaged Lesser Antilles slab agrees with vertical tearing of South America lithosphere. The northern Lesser Antilles slab is continuous with the Puerto Rico slab along the northeastern plate boundary. This results in an amphitheater-shaped slab and it is interpreted as westward subducting North America lithosphere that remained attached to the surface along the northern boundary. At the Muertos Trough, however, material is imaged until a depth of only 100 km, suggesting a small amount of subduction. The location and length of the imaged South Caribbean slab agrees with proposed subduction of Caribbean lithosphere under the northern South America plate. An anomaly related to proposed Oligocene subduction at the Nicaragua rise is absent in the tomographic model. Beneath Panama, a subduction window exists across the upper mantle, which is related to the cessation of subduction of the Nazca plate under Panama since 9.5 Ma and possibly the preceding subduction of the extinct Cocos-Nazca spreading center. In the lower mantle two large anomaly patterns are

  19. Tectonic evolution and mantle structure of the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benthem, Steven; Govers, Rob; Spakman, Wim; Wortel, Rinus

    2013-06-01

    investigate whether predictions of mantle structure from tectonic reconstructions are in agreement with a detailed tomographic image of seismic P wave velocity structure under the Caribbean region. In the upper mantle, positive seismic anomalies are imaged under the Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico. These anomalies are interpreted as remnants of Atlantic lithosphere subduction and confirm tectonic reconstructions that suggest at least 1100 km of convergence at the Lesser Antilles island arc during the past ~45 Myr. The imaged Lesser Antilles slab consists of a northern and southern anomaly, separated by a low-velocity anomaly across most of the upper mantle, which we interpret as the subducted North America-South America plate boundary. The southern edge of the imaged Lesser Antilles slab agrees with vertical tearing of South America lithosphere. The northern Lesser Antilles slab is continuous with the Puerto Rico slab along the northeastern plate boundary. This results in an amphitheater-shaped slab, and it is interpreted as westward subducting North America lithosphere that remained attached to the surface along the northeastern boundary of the Caribbean plate. At the Muertos Trough, however, material is imaged until a depth of only 100 km, suggesting a small amount of subduction. The location and length of the imaged South Caribbean slab agrees with proposed subduction of Caribbean lithosphere under the northern South America plate. An anomaly related to proposed Oligocene subduction at the Nicaragua rise is absent in the tomographic model. Beneath Panama, a subduction window exists across the upper mantle, which is related to the cessation of subduction of the Nazca plate under Panama since 9.5 Ma and possibly the preceding subduction of the extinct Cocos-Nazca spreading center. In the lower mantle, two large anomaly patterns are imaged. The westernmost anomaly agrees with the subduction of Farallon lithosphere. The second lower mantle anomaly is found east of

  20. Vertical distribution of CCN properties in the Caribbean during SALTRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dollner, Maximilian; Weinzierl, Bernadett; Walser, Adrian; Kristensen, Thomas; Groß, Silke; Chouza, Fernando; Freudenthaler, Volker; Schäfler, Andreas; Sauer, Daniel; Kujukovic, Melanie

    2015-04-01

    Mineral dust is an important component of the atmosphere and the climate system since mineral dust acts as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) as well as ice nuclei (IN) and contributes significantly to the global annual particle emissions by mass. Every year, huge amounts of Saharan mineral dust is transported westward across the Atlantic Ocean into the Caribbean. During transport, the chemical and microphysical properties of the mineral dust may be modified thereby changing the CCN properties of the dust aerosol. During the Saharan Aerosol Long-range Transport and Aerosol-Cloud-Interaction Experiment (SALTRACE: http://www.pa.op.dlr.de/saltrace) in June/July 2013, CCN measurements were performed on the DLR Falcon research aircraft with a dual column Cloud Condensation Nuclei Counter (CCNC) first at Cape Verde then at the Caribbean. The CCNC provides information about concentration of CCN at two different supersaturations at the same time. For SALTRACE, one column of the CCNC was set to 0.2% supersaturation, whereas the second column was operated in scanning mode at different supersaturations between 0.1 and 0.5%. Additional CCN measurements by a ground-based single column CCNC were performed at Ragged Point, Barbados. During SALTRACE five mineral dust outbreaks were investigated. The CCN measurements in the Caribbean showed three layers with different CCN characteristics during these outbreaks. In the upper part (2.5 to 4.5 km) of the Saharan Air Layer (SAL) in the Caribbean the aerosol properties are similar to the ones measured in the dust layer over Cape Verde and the CCNC measurements show low CCN concentrations and little activated fraction. In contrast, a higher variability was detected in the lower part (0.7 to 2.5 km) of the SAL. Within this layer a much higher CCN activation leads to a larger CCN concentration and cumulus clouds were frequently observed. Below 0.7 km also a high variability in activated fraction was observed, but CCN concentration was lower

  1. Eradication of the tropical bont tick in the Caribbean: is the Caribbean amblyomma program in a crisis?

    PubMed

    Pegram, Rupert G; Gersabeck, Edward F; Wilson, David; Hansen, Jorgen W

    2002-10-01

    The progress and problems in the Caribbean Amblyomma Program (CAP) are reviewed since its inception in 1995. During 1998, there were funding and administrative management problems. USDA resolved the acute funding crisis, and after three years of negotiation, the CAP has now secured an additional euro 1.5 million from the European Community. Changes in administration in 1998 included the withdrawal of IICA from the program, and the transition during the decentralization of administrative and financial management from FAO headquarters to the Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, based in Chile. A general overview of technical progress and one case study, St. Kitts, is presented. One major concern that emerged during 2000 is that the elimination of the small remaining tropical bont tick (TBT) "hot spots" in both St. Kitts and St. Lucia remained elusive. Why is this so? Egrets? Alternative residual hosts? Or is it fatigue in both technical and administrative management functions? Of even greater concern is the finding of two, apparently new, foci in St. Croix (USVI) in the north and St. Vincent in the south. A critical overview of the program has identified one major remaining constraint-an appropriate management support function at both regional and, in some countries, at the national level. A proposal for a revised management strategy, coupled with the identification of a future strategy to succeed the CAP, namely a Caribbean Animal Resources Management (CARM) Program. PMID:12381609

  2. Eradication of the tropical bont tick in the Caribbean: is the Caribbean amblyomma program in a crisis?

    PubMed

    Pegram, Rupert G; Gersabeck, Edward F; Wilson, David; Hansen, Jorgen W

    2002-10-01

    The progress and problems in the Caribbean Amblyomma Program (CAP) are reviewed since its inception in 1995. During 1998, there were funding and administrative management problems. USDA resolved the acute funding crisis, and after three years of negotiation, the CAP has now secured an additional euro 1.5 million from the European Community. Changes in administration in 1998 included the withdrawal of IICA from the program, and the transition during the decentralization of administrative and financial management from FAO headquarters to the Regional Office for Latin America and the Caribbean, based in Chile. A general overview of technical progress and one case study, St. Kitts, is presented. One major concern that emerged during 2000 is that the elimination of the small remaining tropical bont tick (TBT) "hot spots" in both St. Kitts and St. Lucia remained elusive. Why is this so? Egrets? Alternative residual hosts? Or is it fatigue in both technical and administrative management functions? Of even greater concern is the finding of two, apparently new, foci in St. Croix (USVI) in the north and St. Vincent in the south. A critical overview of the program has identified one major remaining constraint-an appropriate management support function at both regional and, in some countries, at the national level. A proposal for a revised management strategy, coupled with the identification of a future strategy to succeed the CAP, namely a Caribbean Animal Resources Management (CARM) Program.

  3. Teacher Attitudes toward and Perceptions of Student Performance on the Design Component of the Caribbean CXC Examination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crossfield, Philbert J.; Daugherty, Michael K.; Merril, Chris

    2004-01-01

    The Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC) is a regional examining body that provides examinations for secondary and postsecondary students in Caribbean countries. The CXC administers the mechanical engineering technology examination for secondary students in the Caribbean, which includes Barbados, Trinidad and Tobago, Guyana, Jamaica,…

  4. 33 CFR 334.1470 - Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1470 Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques... Caribbean, U.S. Naval Station, Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, and such agencies and subordinate commands...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1470 - Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1470 Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques... Caribbean, U.S. Naval Station, Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, and such agencies and subordinate commands...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1470 - Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1470 Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques... Caribbean, U.S. Naval Station, Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, and such agencies and subordinate commands...

  7. 76 FR 19380 - Notice of Entry Into Effect of MARPOL Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-07

    ... SA, including the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea, in July 1991. The SA entered into force in... SECURITY Coast Guard Notice of Entry Into Effect of MARPOL Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area... effect of discharge requirements from ships in the Wider Caribbean Region (WCR) special area (SA)...

  8. 33 CFR 334.1470 - Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1470 Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques... Caribbean, U.S. Naval Station, Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, and such agencies and subordinate commands...

  9. 33 CFR 334.1470 - Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques; bombing and gunnery target area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound... RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1470 Caribbean Sea and Vieques Sound, in vicinity of Eastern Vieques... Caribbean, U.S. Naval Station, Roosevelt Roads, Puerto Rico, and such agencies and subordinate commands...

  10. CARISPLAN Abstracts. 07-001--07-377. Caribbean Information System for Economic and Social Planning. No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CARISPLAN Abstracts, 1983

    1983-01-01

    This quarterly abstracting journal disseminates bibliographic information on Caribbean planning and development literature available through the Caribbean Information System for Economic and Social Planning (CARISPLAN), a cooperative effort of the Caribbean countries. It provides annotated listings of serial publications, books, and other…

  11. 77 FR 19537 - MARPOL Annex V Special Areas: Wider Caribbean Region

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... Homeland Security FR Federal Register IMO International Maritime Organization ISM International Safety... MARPOL Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area'' in the Federal Register (74 FR 39334). This notice... Annex V Wider Caribbean Region Special Area'' in the Federal Register (76 FR 19380). That...

  12. Intercultural-Bilingual Education for an Interethnic-Plurilingual Society? The Case of Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeland, Jane

    2003-01-01

    Latin American models of "intercultural-bilingual" education may be inappropriate for multilingual, interethnic regions such as Nicaragua's Caribbean Coast, where five indigenous and Afro-Caribbean minorities interact in overlapping territories. Examination of one such program and of Coast people's complex linguistic and cultural practices…

  13. Caribbean Families: Diversity among Ethnic Groups. Advances in Applied Developmental Psychology, Volume 14.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L., Ed.; Brown, Janet, Ed.

    Little is known about the development and function of families in major Caribbean communities, an area composed of diverse ethnic and political groups, the majority of whom live on the edge of poverty. This edited book provides an interdisciplinary examination of Caribbean families, each chapter detailing studies dealing with family structures and…

  14. The Onset of Early Season Rainfall and its Mid-Summer Cessation in the Caribbean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T. L.; Mapes, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    The annual rainfall cycle for the Caribbean basin reveals a distinct bimodal pattern with peaks during the late spring and late summer months. A relative minimum during the mid-summer, known as the mid-summer drought (MSD) separates the early rainfall season (ERS) from the late rainfall season. Accumulated rainfall totals during the ERS appear as a quasi-stationary rain-belt stretching across the Caribbean from the southwest to the northeast. We place late spring rains in the Caribbean in context of other subtropical convergence zones in order to address the onset and cessation of the ERS while also offering an explanation of a Caribbean rain-belt pattern. Upper tropospheric westerlies, mid-tropospheric positive temperature advection, and moist low level poleward flow are the three primary ingredients that conspire to produce the first peak of the annual bimodal rain signal and the related Caribbean early season rain-belt. The MSD ensues as the primary ingredients weaken across the Caribbean and enhanced rainfall shifts north along the North Atlantic Convergence Zone (NACZ). Seasonal rainfall totals from the ERS through the MSD periods reveal a continuous rain-belt that extends from the Caribbean to the NACZ termed the Caribbean Atlantic Rain-belt (CAR-belt). The Car-belt is present in the long term mean, but has signs of interannual variability.

  15. Improving Parental Involvement and Reading Achievement of Caribbean Immigrant Adolescents through Differentiated Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Joshua

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this applied dissertation study was to determine the relative impact of parental involvement, parental school perception, student generation status, and Caribbean adolescents' own attitudes and behavior towards academic achievement and reading comprehension skills. For this study, 45 Caribbean parents from Grenadian, Guyanese,…

  16. Indo Caribbean Immigrant Beliefs about Play and Its Impact on Early Academic Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roopnarine, Jaipaul L.; Jin, Bora

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the authors use psycho-cultural models of ethnic parental theories and acculturation to look at Indo Caribbean immigrant beliefs concerning the relationship between the amount of time children play and their early academic performance. During home interviews, fifty-seven Indo Caribbean couples offered their opinions about the…

  17. Foreign Providers in the Caribbean. Pillagers or Preceptors? Perspectives on Distance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Stewart, Ed.; Brandon, Ed, Ed.; Thomas, Michael, Ed.; Kanwar, Asha, Ed.; Lyngra, Tove, Ed.

    2008-01-01

    The growing phenomenon of cross-border higher education (CBHE) will not help developing countries unless it is accessible, available, affordable, relevant and of acceptable quality. Foreign Providers in the Caribbean: Pillagers or Preceptors? focuses on the trends of CBHE in the Caribbean, which has its own unique characteristics. Following a…

  18. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Areas E Appendix E to Part 622 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FISHERIES OF THE CARIBBEAN, GULF, AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas Table 1...

  19. Folate and vitamin B12 status in Latin America and the Caribbean: An update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: The current magnitude of folate and vitamin B12 deficiency in Latin America and the Caribbean is uncertain. Objective: To summarize data on plasma or serum vitamin B12 and folate concentrations in Latin America and the Caribbean reported since 1990, a period that covers the era before an...

  20. The CTTP--An Innovative and Successful Caribbean Project Using Distance Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Helen

    The Comprehensive Teacher Training Project (CTTP) was an innovative and successful Caribbean project in distance learning designed to assist prospective or untrained teachers to qualify for entry to training colleges, to produce four Caribbean Examinations Council (CXC) "O" level courses, to develop a delivery and distribution system, and to…

  1. Functional Patterns in International Organizations for University Cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Daniel A.; Lopez, Daniel C.; Andrade, Lorenzo I.; Lopez, Boris A.

    2011-01-01

    This study analyzes the coverage, organizational patterns, problems and trends of international organizations for university cooperation in Latin America and the Caribbean. More than 30 international organizations for cooperation currently operating in Latin America and the Caribbean were identified. Two groups of institutions with more than 60%…

  2. Early Childhood in the Caribbean. Working Papers in Early Childhood Development, No. 47

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barrow, Christine

    2008-01-01

    This report looks at the development and socialisation of children under 5 years of age in two Caribbean countries, Trinidad and Tobago and Dominica. It involved fieldwork in four very different communities as well as extensive discussion with academics and professionals. Too little is known about child socialisation in the Caribbean, and this…

  3. 33 CFR 334.1490 - Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas. 334.1490 Section 334.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1490 Caribbean...

  4. 33 CFR 334.1490 - Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas. 334.1490 Section 334.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1490 Caribbean...

  5. 33 CFR 334.1490 - Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas. 334.1490 Section 334.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1490 Caribbean...

  6. 33 CFR 334.1490 - Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas. 334.1490 Section 334.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1490 Caribbean...

  7. 33 CFR 334.1490 - Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Caribbean Sea, at St. Croix, V.I.; restricted areas. 334.1490 Section 334.1490 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.1490 Caribbean...

  8. Caribbean Immigration to the United States. RIIES Occasional Papers No. 1. Second Printing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryce-Laporte, Roy S., Ed.; Mortimer, Delores M., Ed.

    Twelve research papers on Caribbean immigrants to the United States are collected in this volume. Their titles (and authors) are the following: (1) "The United States' Role in Caribbean Migration: Background to the Problem" (Roy S. Bryce-Laporte); (2) "International Migration and the Political Economy of Underdevelopment: Aspects of the…

  9. Migration, remittances and development: a study of Caribbean cane cutters in Florida.

    PubMed

    Wood, C H

    1985-01-01

    The results of a 1981 survey of 302 Caribbean sugarcane cutters who were temporary immigrants in Florida are presented. The focus is on remittances to the islands of origin. The results provide "no evidence that seasonal stateside employment expands agricultural output, or enhances the productive capacity of small farmers in the Caribbean." PMID:12280257

  10. 78 FR 34042 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Comprehensive Fishery Management...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... management. For example, the 2010 Caribbean Annual Catch Limit (ACL) Amendment (76 FR 82404, December 30, 2011) and the 2011 Caribbean ACL Amendment (76 FR 82414, December 30, 2011) established ACLs by island... FMP of Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands (Coral FMP), and the FMP for the Queen Conch...

  11. Educating for Sustainable Development: An Overview of Environmental Education Programmes in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Calvin A.

    1995-01-01

    Traditional approaches to formal education in the Caribbean have not achieved sufficiently high levels of sensitivity towards the environment. Nontraditional approaches and new strategies for sustainable development are needed. This paper reviews some approaches being undertaken in the English-speaking Caribbean designed to foster positive change…

  12. On the Atlantic inflow to the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, William E.; Townsend, Tamara L.; Fratantoni, David M.; Wilson, W. Douglas

    2002-02-01

    New observations are summarized that lead to the first comprehensive description of the mean inflow distribution in the passages connecting the Atlantic Ocean with the Caribbean Sea. The total Caribbean inflow of 28 Sv is shown to be partitioned approximately equally between the Windward Islands Passages (˜ 10 Sv), Leeward Islands Passages (˜ 8 Sv) , and the Greater Antilles Passages (˜ 10 Sv) . These results are compared to a numerical model study using a 6-layer, 1/4° resolution Atlantic Basin version of the NRL Layered Ocean Model. Results from two simulations are described, including a purely wind-forced model driven by Hellerman and Rosenstein (J. Phys. Oceanogr. 13 (1983) 1093) monthly winds, and a model with an additional 14 Sv meridional overturning cell driven by inflow/outflow ports at the northern (65°N) and southern (20°S) model boundaries. The purely wind-driven version of the model exhibits a total Caribbean inflow of 17 Sv, consistent with expectations from steady, non-topographic Sverdrup theory. Nearly all of the wind-driven inflow occurs north of Martinique at latitude ˜15°N. The net transport through the Lesser Antilles passages south of 15°N (Grenada, St. Vincent, and St. Lucia passages) is nearly zero when the model is forced by winds alone. The addition of a 14 Sv meridional cell in the model increases the net Caribbean inflow to 28 Sv, with nearly all of the additional 11 Sv of inflow entering through the southern Lesser Antilles passages. The modeled inflow distribution resulting from the combined wind and overturning forced experiment is found to compare favorably with the observations. The seasonal cycle of the total inflow in the combined forcing experiment has a mixed annual/semiannual character with maximum in spring and summer and minimum in fall, with a total range of about 4 Sv. The seasonal cycle of the Florida Current resulting from this inflow variation is in good qualitative agreement with observations. Most of the

  13. Saharan dust, climate variability, and asthma in Grenada, the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Martin, Francis E; Behr, Joshua G; Diaz, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    Saharan dust is transported across the Atlantic and interacts with the Caribbean seasonal climatic conditions, becoming respirable and contributing to asthma presentments at the emergency department. This study investigated the relationships among dust, climatic variables, and asthma-related visits to the emergency room in Grenada. All asthma visits to the emergency room (n = 4411) over 5 years (2001-2005) were compared to the dust cover and climatic variables for the corresponding period. Variation in asthma was associated with change in dust concentration (R(2) = 0.036, p < 0.001), asthma was positively correlated with rainfall (R(2) = 0.055, p < 0.001), and rainfall was correlated with dust (R(2) = 0.070, p = 0.003). Despite the similarities and the short distance between Trinidad, Barbados, and Grenada, they have markedly different geographies, cultures, population sizes, industrialization level, and economies. Therefore, different than from the studies in Trinidad and Barbados, Grenada is a non-industrialized low-income small island without major industrialized air pollution addition; asthma visits were inversely related to mean sea level pressure (R(2) = 0.123, p = 0.006) and positively correlated with relative humidity (R(2) = 0.593, p = 0.85). Saharan dust in conjunction with seasonal humidity allows for inhalable particulate matter that exacerbates asthma among residents in the Caribbean island of Grenada. These findings contribute evidence suggesting a broader public health impact from Saharan dust. Thus, this research may inform strategic planning of resource allocation among the Caribbean public health agencies.

  14. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale.

    PubMed

    Serafy, Joseph E; Shideler, Geoffrey S; Araújo, Rafael J; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1) Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2) Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as "mangrove-dependent". Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year) citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation) and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1) focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2) consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3) quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i.e., the Wider

  15. Hospice and palliation in the English-speaking Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Macpherson, Cheryl Cox; Chiochankitmun, Nina; Akpinar-Elci, Muge

    2014-07-01

    This article presents empirical data on the limited availability of hospice and palliative care to the 6 million people of the English-speaking Caribbean. Ten of the 13 nations therein responded to a survey and reported employing a total of 6 hospice or palliative specialists, and having a total of 15 related facilities. The evolving socioeconomic and cultural context in these nations bears on the availability of such care, and on the willingness to report, assess, and prioritize pain, and to prescribe opiates for pain. Socioeconomics and culture also impinge on what medications and modalities of care are routinely available for pain or other conditions and can challenge professionalism, empathy, and responsiveness to patients' unrelieved pain. Although all respondents report having a protocol for pain management, hospice, or end-of-life care, their annual medical use of opiates is well below the global mean. The International Narcotics Control Board (INCB), which monitors such use, encourages Caribbean and other low- and middle-income countries to increase their use of opiates to treat pain, and to overcome both unfounded fears of addiction and overly restrictive interpretation of related laws and regulations. Contextual considerations like those described here are important to the success of policies and capacity-building programs aiming to increase access to hospice and palliation, and perhaps to improving other aspects of health and healthcare. Exploring and responding to the realities of socioeconomic and cultural conditions will enhance public and policy dialogue and improve the design of interventions to increase access to palliative and hospice care. Improving access to palliative and hospice care in the Caribbean demonstrates beneficence and helps to fulfill human rights conventions.

  16. Saharan dust, climate variability, and asthma in Grenada, the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Martin, Francis E.; Behr, Joshua G.; Diaz, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    Saharan dust is transported across the Atlantic and interacts with the Caribbean seasonal climatic conditions, becoming respirable and contributing to asthma presentments at the emergency department. This study investigated the relationships among dust, climatic variables, and asthma-related visits to the emergency room in Grenada. All asthma visits to the emergency room ( n = 4411) over 5 years (2001-2005) were compared to the dust cover and climatic variables for the corresponding period. Variation in asthma was associated with change in dust concentration ( R 2 = 0.036, p < 0.001), asthma was positively correlated with rainfall ( R 2 = 0.055, p < 0.001), and rainfall was correlated with dust ( R 2 = 0.070, p = 0.003). Despite the similarities and the short distance between Trinidad, Barbados, and Grenada, they have markedly different geographies, cultures, population sizes, industrialization level, and economies. Therefore, different than from the studies in Trinidad and Barbados, Grenada is a non-industrialized low-income small island without major industrialized air pollution addition; asthma visits were inversely related to mean sea level pressure ( R 2 = 0.123, p = 0.006) and positively correlated with relative humidity ( R 2 = 0.593, p = 0.85). Saharan dust in conjunction with seasonal humidity allows for inhalable particulate matter that exacerbates asthma among residents in the Caribbean island of Grenada. These findings contribute evidence suggesting a broader public health impact from Saharan dust. Thus, this research may inform strategic planning of resource allocation among the Caribbean public health agencies.

  17. Saharan dust, climate variability, and asthma in Grenada, the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Martin, Francis E; Behr, Joshua G; Diaz, Rafael

    2015-11-01

    Saharan dust is transported across the Atlantic and interacts with the Caribbean seasonal climatic conditions, becoming respirable and contributing to asthma presentments at the emergency department. This study investigated the relationships among dust, climatic variables, and asthma-related visits to the emergency room in Grenada. All asthma visits to the emergency room (n = 4411) over 5 years (2001-2005) were compared to the dust cover and climatic variables for the corresponding period. Variation in asthma was associated with change in dust concentration (R(2) = 0.036, p < 0.001), asthma was positively correlated with rainfall (R(2) = 0.055, p < 0.001), and rainfall was correlated with dust (R(2) = 0.070, p = 0.003). Despite the similarities and the short distance between Trinidad, Barbados, and Grenada, they have markedly different geographies, cultures, population sizes, industrialization level, and economies. Therefore, different than from the studies in Trinidad and Barbados, Grenada is a non-industrialized low-income small island without major industrialized air pollution addition; asthma visits were inversely related to mean sea level pressure (R(2) = 0.123, p = 0.006) and positively correlated with relative humidity (R(2) = 0.593, p = 0.85). Saharan dust in conjunction with seasonal humidity allows for inhalable particulate matter that exacerbates asthma among residents in the Caribbean island of Grenada. These findings contribute evidence suggesting a broader public health impact from Saharan dust. Thus, this research may inform strategic planning of resource allocation among the Caribbean public health agencies. PMID:25707919

  18. Mangroves Enhance Reef Fish Abundance at the Caribbean Regional Scale

    PubMed Central

    Serafy, Joseph E.; Shideler, Geoffrey S.; Araújo, Rafael J.; Nagelkerken, Ivan

    2015-01-01

    Several studies conducted at the scale of islands, or small sections of continental coastlines, have suggested that mangrove habitats serve to enhance fish abundances on coral reefs, mainly by providing nursery grounds for several ontogenetically-migrating species. However, evidence of such enhancement at a regional scale has not been reported, and recently, some researchers have questioned the mangrove-reef subsidy effect. In the present study, using two different regression approaches, we pursued two questions related to mangrove-reef connectivity at the Caribbean regional scale: (1) Are reef fish abundances limited by mangrove forest area?; and (2) Are mean reef fish abundances proportional to mangrove forest area after taking human population density and latitude into account? Specifically, we tested for Caribbean-wide mangrove forest area effects on the abundances of 12 reef fishes that have been previously characterized as “mangrove-dependent”. Analyzed were data from an ongoing, long-term (20-year) citizen-scientist fish monitoring program; coastal human population censuses; and several wetland forest information sources. Quantile regression results supported the notion that mangrove forest area limits the abundance of eight of the 12 fishes examined. Linear mixed-effects regression results, which considered potential human (fishing and habitat degradation) and latitudinal influences, suggested that average reef fish densities of at least six of the 12 focal fishes were directly proportional to mangrove forest area. Recent work questioning the mangrove-reef fish subsidy effect likely reflects a failure to: (1) focus analyses on species that use mangroves as nurseries, (2) consider more than the mean fish abundance response to mangrove forest extent; and/or (3) quantitatively account for potentially confounding human impacts, such as fishing pressure and habitat degradation. Our study is the first to demonstrate at a large regional scale (i.e., the Wider

  19. Phylogeography of Pinus subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Jardón-Barbolla, Lev; Delgado-Valerio, Patricia; Geada-López, Gretel; Vázquez-Lobo, Alejandra; Piñero, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Four species of Pinus subsection Australes occur in the Caribbean Basin: P. caribaea, P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis. This study analyses the phylogeography of these species to assess possible colonization events from Central America to the islands and subsequent population expansions during glacial periods driven by both drier climate and larger emerged land areas. Methods Allele size data were obtained for plastid microsatellites for 314 individuals from 24 populations, covering the distribution range of subsection Australes in the Caribbean Basin. Key Results In total, 113 plastid haplotypes were identified. The highest genetic diversity was found in populations of P. caribaea. Overall, Caribbean Basin populations fit the isolation by distance model. Significant phylogeographical structure was found (RST = 0·671 > permuted RST = 0·101; P < 0·0001). The haplotype network and a Bayesian analysis of population structure (BAPS) indicated different Central American origins for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea plastids, with Central America populations in northern and south-eastern groups. Sudden expansion times for BAPS clusters were close to three glacial maxima. Conclusions Central America contains ancestral plastid haplotypes. Population expansion has played a major role in the distribution of genetic diversity in P. caribaea var. hondurensis. Two colonization events gave rise to the P. caribaea var. bahamensis and P. caribaea var. caribaea lineages. Plastid variation in the eastern species (P. cubensis, P. maestrensis and P. occidentalis) evolved independently from that in P. caribaea var. caribaea. Incomplete lineage sorting between P. cubensis and P. maestrensis is apparent. Inferred expansion times for P. caribaea var. bahamensis and for the eastern lineages correspond to glacial maxima, whereas those for P. caribaea var. hondurensis correspond to the beginning of the temperature decrease that

  20. Areas of Unsolved Problems in Caribbean Active Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    I review some unsolved problems in Caribbean active tectonics. At the regional and plate scale: 1) confirm the existence of intraplate deformation zones of the central Caribbean plate that are within the margin of error of ongoing GPS measurements; 2) carry out field studies to evaluate block models versus models for distributed fault shear on the densely populated islands of Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; 3) carry out paleoseismological research of key plate boundary faults that may have accumulated large strains but have not been previously studied in detail; 4) determine the age of onset and far-field effects of the Cocos ridge and the Central America forearc sliver; 4) investigate the origin and earthquake-potential of obliquely-sheared rift basins along the northern coast of Venezuela; 5) determine the age of onset and regional active, tectonic effects of the Panama-South America collision including the continued activation of the Maracaibo block; and 6) validate longterm rates on active subduction zones with improving, tomographic maps of subducted slabs. At the individual fault scale: 1) determine the mode of termination of large and active strike -slip faults and application of the STEP model (Septentrional, Polochic, El Pilar, Bocono, Santa Marta-Bucaramanaga); 2) improve the understanding of the earthquake potential on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone given "off-fault" events such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake; how widespread is this behavior?; and 3) estimate size of future tsunamis from studies of historic or prehistoric slump scars and mass transport deposits; what potential runups can be predicted from this information?; and 4) devise ways to keep rapidly growing, circum-Caribbean urban populations better informed and safer in the face of inevitable and future, large earthquakes.

  1. Prodigal daughters: portraying lesbians in Hispanic Caribbean cinema.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Reyes, Consuelo

    2012-01-01

    During the last twenty years, Hispanic Caribbean cinema has slowly developed roles to represent lesbians. In order to draw a conceptual map and to examine the un/successfulness of this new lesbian "public image," I analyze both independent films that challenge the status quo by portraying openly lesbian characters and mainstream films that insist on denying autonomy to same-sex love. Whereas commercial markets may deem an openly lesbian role transgressive, queer female roles can be considered "appropriate." Gender-queering functions as a symbolically transitional stage toward lesbian visibility and inclusion.

  2. Potential production of energy cane for fuel in the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Samuels, G.

    1984-08-01

    Sugarcane grown as energy cane presents a new potential to the Caribbean countries to provide their own energy needs and to reduce or eliminate fuel oil imports. The use of proper agronomic techniques can convert conventional sugarcane growing to a crop capable of giving energy feedstocks in the form of fiber for boiler fuel for electricity and fermentable solids for alcohol for motor fuel. Sugarcane can still be obtained from the energy cane for domestic consumption and export if desired. The aerable land now devoted to sugarcane can utilized for energy-cane production without causing any serious imbalance in food crop production.

  3. Kinematics of the Southwestern Caribbean from New Geodetic Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, G.; La Femina, P. C.; Tapia, A.; Camacho, E.; Chichaco, E.; Mora-Paez, H.; Geirsson, H.

    2014-12-01

    The interaction of the Caribbean, Cocos, Nazca, and South American plates has resulted in a complex plate boundary zone and the formation of second order tectonic blocks (e.g., the North Andean, Choco and Central America Fore Arc blocks). The Panama Region [PR], which is bounded by these plates and blocks, has been interpreted and modeled as a single tectonic block or deformed plate boundary. Previous research has defined the main boundaries: 1) The Caribbean plate subducts beneath the isthmus along the North Panama Deformed Belt, 2) The Nazca plate converges at very high obliquity with the PR and motion is assumed along a left lateral transform fault and the South Panama Deformed Belt, 3) The collision of PR with NW South America (i.e., the N. Andean and Choco blocks) has resulted in the Eastern Panama Deformed Belt, and 4) collision of the Cocos Ridge in the west is accommodated by crustal shortening, Central American Fore Arc translation and deformation across the Central Costa Rican Deformed Belt. In addition, there are several models that suggest internal deformation of this region by cross-isthmus strike-slip faults. Recent GPS observations for the PR indicates movement to the northeast relative to a stable Caribbean plate at rates of 6.9±4.0 - 7.8±4.8 mm a-1 from southern Costa Rica to eastern Panama, respectively (Kobayashi et al., 2014 and references therein). However, the GPS network did not have enough spatial density to estimate elastic strain accumulation across these faults. Recent installation and expansion of geodetic networks in southwestern Caribbean (i.e., Costa Rica, Panama, and Colombia) combined with geological and geophysical observations provide a new input to investigate crustal deformation processes in this complex tectonic setting, specifically related to the PR. We use new and existing GPS data to calculate a new velocity field for the region and to investigate the kinematics of the PR, including elastic strain accumulation on the

  4. Latin American and Caribbean intercomparison of surface contamination monitoring equipment.

    PubMed

    Cabral, T S; Ramos, M M O; Laranjeira, A S; Santos, D S; Suarez, R C

    2011-03-01

    In October 2009, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) sponsored an intercomparison exercise of surface contamination monitoring equipment, which was held at the Laboratório Nacional de Metrologia das Radiações Ionizantes, from the Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria, IRD/CNEN, Rio de Janeiro. This intercomparison was performed to evaluate the calibration accessibility in Latin America and the Caribbean. Thirteen countries within the region and IAEA have sent instruments to be compared, but only five countries and IAEA were considered apt to participate. Analysis of instruments, results and discussions are presented and recommendations are drawn. PMID:21051429

  5. Modal analysis and sound radiation from Caribbean steelpans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrison, Andrew

    2003-04-01

    The Caribbean steelpan is one of the most interesting acoustic musical instruments invented in the last century. Although simple in design, the acoustic properties of the steelpan are surprisingly complicated. Holographic interferometry was used to determine the modes of vibration of a double second and a low tenor steelpan. Sound intensity measurements were taken to explore the relationship between the modes of vibration and the radiated sound field. The pan was placed in an anechoic chamber, and selected notes were excited electromagnetically with a swept sinusoid signal. A two-microphone probe was used to gather sound intensity measurements. Sound intensity maps and animations were constructed for the first three harmonics.

  6. Long-Term Drop in Caribbean Marine Export Productivity with the Demise of the Central American Seaway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, R. D.; Trumbo, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    The progressive closing of the Central American Seaway ~3-7 Ma substantially altered the surface ocean salinity, nutrient content, and biology of the Caribbean Sea and Eastern Equatorial Pacific Ocean. Data from fossil plankton, reef development and oceanographic models of the shoaling Central American Seaway suggest that there was a distinct change in Caribbean productivity with closure of the seaway, but there has not been a detailed comparison of export production between the two ocean basins. Here we show that export production gradually decreased in the Caribbean starting about 2.7 Ma while remaining relatively stable in the eastern equatorial Pacific. Data are derived from 0-5.3 Ma XRF records of Caribbean Site ODP 999 and Pacific Site ODP 846 at ~600-1000 year resolution. Caribbean export production falls during glacial phases in response to ventilation of the tropical thermocline by increasingly nutrient-starved Glacial North Atlantic Intermediate Water. In contrast, Caribbean production peaks during interglacials when nutrient-rich Antarctic Intermediate Water ventilates the tropical thermocline. Export production in both the eastern Pacific and Caribbean is governed mostly by high latitude nutrient sources as seen in the dominance of high latitude orbital forcing. The gradual intensification of Caribbean oligotrophy may be responsible for the well documented delay in extinction of Caribbean reef associated fauna relative to closure of the central American Seaway. The increasing nutrient starvation of the Caribbean during glacial events may also have rendered Caribbean reef corals unusually susceptible to anthropogenic nutrient loads in modern times.

  7. Towards establishing MS prevalence in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Melcon, M O; Melcon, C M; Bartoloni, L; Cristiano, E; Duran, J C; Grzesiuk, A K; Fragoso, Y D; Brooks, J B Bidin; Díaz, V; Romero García, K M; Cabrera Gomez, J A; Abad, P; Islas, M A Macías; Gracia, F; Diaz de Bedoya, V F Hamuy; Ruiz, M E Córdova; Hackembruch, J H; Oehninger, C; Ketzoian, C N; Soto, A

    2013-02-01

    A very high prevalence of multiple sclerosis (MS) has been reported in some Western European and North American countries. The few surveys of MS epidemiology in South America reveal lower prevalence rates, implying that susceptibility varies between distinct ethnic groups, thus forming an important determinant of the geographic distribution of the disease. The objective of this study is to review MS prevalence estimates in different Latin American and Caribbean countries. We reviewed surveys of regional MS prevalence from 1991 to 2011. Sources included an online database, authors' reports and proceedings or specific lectures from regional conferences. We obtained a total of 30 prevalence surveys from 15 countries, showing low/medium MS prevalence rates. Both the number and the quality of prevalence surveys have greatly improved in this region over recent decades. This is the first collaborative study to map the regional frequency of MS. Establishment of standardized methods and joint epidemiological studies will advance future MS research in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  8. Central America and the Caribbean: No place for the unwary

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, L.M.

    1994-11-15

    Central America and the Caribbean have not enjoyed the same high profile as more prominent independent power markets like India and China. Indeed, only one country in the region appeared in a recent survey of the 20 most promising markets: Panama, with a projected demand for 2,040 megawatts (MW) of new capacity, was ranked twentieth. Nevertheless, taken as a whole, Central America and the Caribbean offer significant opportunities for new development. Projected incremental capacity needs in some of the larger markets in the region include: Costa Rica (700-1,000 MW), Dominican Republic (1,100 MW), Guatemala (450 MW), Honduras (225 MW), Jamaica (729 MW), Panama (2,040 MW), and Trinidad & Tobago (200 MW). These markets represent an aggregate potential demand of 5,750 MW - more than the projected demand in Colombia, one of South America`s most active markets. Yet although its need for capacity is significant, the region presents developers with unique challenges because it comprises so many relatively small countries, each with its own special needs and characteristics.

  9. Caribbean small-island tourism styles and sustainable strategies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Albuquerque, Klaus; McElroy, Jerome L.

    1992-09-01

    This article focuses on developing a sustainable tourism in small Caribbean islands, defined here as those that have populations of fewer than 500,000. Such islands share a very fragile ecology and a high dependence on tourism. They differ in their degree of tourist penetration and visitor density and the related degree of environmental degradation. To explain the link between tourism intensity and ecological vulnerability, the so-called “destination life-cycle model” is presented. This suggests that islands pass through three primary stages of tourist development low-density exploration, rapid growth and consolidation, and high-density maturation involving the substitution of man-made for natural attractions. A broad empirical test of the model is performed through a quantitative examination of the tourism characteristics and visitor densities of a cross section of 23 small Caribbean islands. The three basic stages or tourism styles are identified: low-impact emerging areas, high-density mass-market mature destinations, and rapidly growing intermediate islands in between. Some broad strategies consistent with the systems framework for a sustainable tourism with moderate densitites are briefly explored.

  10. Mass coral bleaching in 2010 in the southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Alemu I, Jahson Berhane; Clement, Ysharda

    2014-01-01

    Ocean temperatures are increasing globally and the Caribbean is no exception. An extreme ocean warming event in 2010 placed Tobago's coral reefs under severe stress resulting in widespread coral bleaching and threatening the livelihoods that rely on them. The bleaching response of four reef building taxa was monitored over a six month period across three major reefs systems in Tobago. By identifying taxa resilient to bleaching we propose to assist local coral reef managers in the decision making process to cope with mass bleaching events. The bleaching signal (length of exposure to high ocean temperatures) varied widely between the Atlantic and Caribbean reefs, but regardless of this variation most taxa bleached. Colpophyllia natans, Montastraea faveolata and Siderastrea siderea were considered the most bleaching vulnerable taxa. Interestingly, reefs with the highest coral cover showed the greatest decline reef building taxa, and conversely, reefs with the lowest coral cover showed the most bleaching but lowest change in coral cover with little algal overgrowth post-bleaching.

  11. Strategies to eradicate rubella in the English-speaking Caribbean.

    PubMed Central

    Irons, B; Lewis, M J; Dahl-Regis, M; Castillo-Solórzano, C; Carrasco, P A; de Quadros, C A

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This report presents the strategies used to eradicate rubella in the Caribbean region and the challenges faced by that effort. METHODS: Using the surveillance system for measles cases that was instituted in all countries in the Caribbean Community (CARICOM), 12 countries confirmed cases of rubella between 1992 and 1996. Rubella infections occurred in epidemic proportions in 6 countries during that period. RESULTS: On the basis of the rubella prevalence data, rubella-congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) cost-benefit analysis, and cost-effectiveness of the mass campaign, the Council for Human and Social Development of CARICOM resolved, on April 21, 1998, that every effort would be made to eradicate rubella, as well as to prevent the occurrence of new cases of CRS by the end of 2000. Using the Pan American Health Organization's template for measles eradication, CARICOM proposed and implemented the main strategies for rubella and CRS eradication, and rubella mass campaigns were conducted in 18 countries. The target population, which included males and females (aged 20-40 years), was approximately 2.2 million. CONCLUSION: The major challenges for rubella eradication are attaining high vaccine coverage in the adult population and maintaining an effective surveillance system able to detect rubella activity. PMID:11029986

  12. Training of trainers in the Caribbean Basin Water Management Project.

    PubMed

    France, R W

    1982-01-01

    This article discusses the Caribbean Basin Water Management Project, a joint venture of 10 Caribbean countries, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA), the Government of the Netherlands, and PAHO. In 1977 an assessment of the project revealed that though training activities were carried out, most of them were designed for engineers and technicians-a small percentage of all employees-who did not pass on their knowledge to their coworkers. The training of trainers program was initiated to encourage improved communication among staff members. The fundamental precept of this program is that training should be a basic component of management activities. The article outlines the criteria for selecting participants for the training workshops, stressing that the prospective candidates should be in supervisory positions where training is part of their job. Instructors should also be carefully selected, and, as in the case of the participants, should have a long-term commitment to the water utility. At the end of the workshop series, the trainees should be able to make a task analysis, write and evaluate performance objectives, demonstrate communication techniques, use training aids, develop and implement an instructional sequence, and apply evaluation mechanisms. The article summarizes the benefits of the program, such as increased productivity of the supervisors, better communication between supervisors and the staff, and improved attitudes on the part of the staff toward their work.

  13. Mass Coral Bleaching in 2010 in the Southern Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Alemu I, Jahson Berhane; Clement, Ysharda

    2014-01-01

    Ocean temperatures are increasing globally and the Caribbean is no exception. An extreme ocean warming event in 2010 placed Tobago's coral reefs under severe stress resulting in widespread coral bleaching and threatening the livelihoods that rely on them. The bleaching response of four reef building taxa was monitored over a six month period across three major reefs systems in Tobago. By identifying taxa resilient to bleaching we propose to assist local coral reef managers in the decision making process to cope with mass bleaching events. The bleaching signal (length of exposure to high ocean temperatures) varied widely between the Atlantic and Caribbean reefs, but regardless of this variation most taxa bleached. Colpophyllia natans, Montastraea faveolata and Siderastrea siderea were considered the most bleaching vulnerable taxa. Interestingly, reefs with the highest coral cover showed the greatest decline reef building taxa, and conversely, reefs with the lowest coral cover showed the most bleaching but lowest change in coral cover with little algal overgrowth post-bleaching. PMID:24400078

  14. Seismicity of the Subducted Caribbean Plate in Panama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, E.; Pacheco, J. F.; Hutton, W.

    2007-05-01

    The Panama microplate is bounded by convergent boundaries to the north (North Panama deformed belt; NPDB) and south (South Panama deformed belt; SPDB and Middle American Trench; MAT), suturing with South America along the Atrato valley to the east and the Central Costa Rica deformed belt (CCRDB) to the west. GPS measured convergence rates between the NPDB and the Caribbean plate are to the southwest at 7 mm/a. Seismicity of the portion of the NPDB along the isthmus of Panama is poorly understood, even though the largest recorded earthquake in Panama (7 September, 1882 (M7.9)) occurred on this boundary. This earthquake caused extensive damage in central Panama and produced a tsunami that killed 75 people in Comarca de San Blas. A preliminary study of seismicity in the area, using high quality seismic data recorded by local stations between 1996-2006, suggests that most events were of intermediate depth (40-70km) with a geometry indicative of a subducted plate. We also note that focal mechanisms show a complex stress field in this area possibly due to activation of pre-existing faults and internal deformation of the Caribbean plate being subducted. The existence of a well-defined Wadati-Bennioff zone below northern Panama should be included in future risk assessment evaluations.

  15. Capacity Building for Caribbean Tsunami Warnings: A Regional Training Course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelly, A.; Robertson, R.; Kong, L.; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; McCreery, C.; Yamamoto, M.; Mooney, W. D.; Lynch, L.

    2007-12-01

    Between June 25 and June 30 the Seismic Research Unit (SRU) of the University of the West Indies (UWI) hosted a Caribbean regional training program in Seismology and Tsunami Warnings. A total of 43 participants from 21 countries and territories, representing meteorological, emergency management, and seismological institutions in the region, attended this training aimed at developing their understanding of the science of tsunamis, hazard and risk assessment, preparedness, education, and outreach, and operational best practices. As an outcome of the course the participants drafted six recommendations (outlined on the poster) that they felt were priority action items for expeditious realization of a Tsunami Early Warning and Mitigation System. The program was conducted under the UNESCO IOC banner in response to a call for such a training program at the Second Session of the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for Tsunami and Other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (ICG/CARIBE-EWS II), held in Cumanã, Venezuela, March 12-14, 2007. The majority of funding for the course was provided by the Office of Foreign Disaster Assistance (ODFA) of the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the Disaster Reduction Center of the UWI, and the US Geological Survey (USGS).

  16. Health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, R; Chellaraj, G; Murray, C J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study commissioned by the Latin American and Caribbean Technical Department of the World Bank to document and analyze health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 1990, the countries of this region spent US$ 69 billion on health, with an average per capita health expenditure of US$ 162. On average, the countries spent 6.2% of their GDP on health, with the expenditures divided about equally between the public and private sectors. In both the public and private sectors, per capita health expenditures were positively and significantly correlated with per capita income. However, this relationship holds only for the public sector, when health expenditures are measured as a proportion of GDP. While several poorer countries were dependent on external assistance, with increasing income, the countries relied more on public expenditures to finance health care. Based on the limited time series data, it is evident that there was a considerable variation among countries regarding the proportion spent on capital investments, primary health care, and drugs, but not on salaries. Looking ahead, with increasing economic development, the proportion of GDP spent on health, along with public health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure, is likely to increase rapidly, while aid dependency is likely to decline. PMID:9015869

  17. Health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Govindaraj, R; Chellaraj, G; Murray, C J

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a study commissioned by the Latin American and Caribbean Technical Department of the World Bank to document and analyze health expenditures in Latin America and the Caribbean. In 1990, the countries of this region spent US$ 69 billion on health, with an average per capita health expenditure of US$ 162. On average, the countries spent 6.2% of their GDP on health, with the expenditures divided about equally between the public and private sectors. In both the public and private sectors, per capita health expenditures were positively and significantly correlated with per capita income. However, this relationship holds only for the public sector, when health expenditures are measured as a proportion of GDP. While several poorer countries were dependent on external assistance, with increasing income, the countries relied more on public expenditures to finance health care. Based on the limited time series data, it is evident that there was a considerable variation among countries regarding the proportion spent on capital investments, primary health care, and drugs, but not on salaries. Looking ahead, with increasing economic development, the proportion of GDP spent on health, along with public health expenditure as a proportion of total health expenditure, is likely to increase rapidly, while aid dependency is likely to decline.

  18. Wind Energy Resource Assessment of the Caribbean and Central America

    SciTech Connect

    DL Elliott; CI Aspliden; GL Gower; CG Holladay, MN Schwartz

    1987-04-01

    A wind energy resource assessment of the Caribbean and Central America has identified many areas with good to outstanding wind resource potential for wind turbine applications. Annual average wind resource maps and summary tables have been developed for 35 island/country areas throughout the Caribbean and Central America region. The wind resource maps highlight the locations of major resource areas and provide estimates of the wind energy resource potential for typical well-exposed sites in these areas. The average energy in the wind flowing in the layer near the ground is expressed as a wind power class: the greater the average wind energy, the higher the wind power class. The summary tables that are included with each of the 35 island/country wind energy maps provide information on the frequency distribution of the wind speeds (expressed as estimates of the Weibull shape factor, k) and seasonal variations in the wind resource for the major wind resource areas identified on the maps. A new wind power class legend has been developed for relating the wind power classes to values of mean wind power density, mean wind speed, and Weibull k. Guidelines are presented on how to adjust these values to various heights above ground for different roughness and terrain characteristics. Information evaluated in preparing the assessment included existing meteorological data from airports and other weather stations, and from ships and buoys in offshore and coastal areas. In addition, new data from recent measurement sites established for wind energy siting studies were obtained for a few areas of the Caribbean. Other types of information evaluated in the assessment were climatological data and maps on winds aloft, surface pressure, air flow, and topography. The various data were screened and evaluated for their usefulness in preparing the wind resource assessment. Much of the surface data from airports and other land-based weather stations were determined to be from sheltered

  19. CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX Caribbean and Western Atlantic Tsunami Exercises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Hillebrandt-Andrade, C.; Whitmore, P.; Aliaga, B.; Huerfano Moreno, V.

    2013-12-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions over the past 500 years. While most have been generated by local earthquakes, distant generated tsunamis can also affect the region. For example, waves from the 1755 Lisbon earthquake and tsunami were observed in Cuba, Dominican Republic, British Virgin Islands, as well as Antigua, Martinique, Guadalupe and Barbados in the Lesser Antilles. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Although the tsunami generated by the 2010 Haiti earthquake claimed only a few lives, in the 1530 El Pilar, Venezuela; 1602 Port Royale, Jamaica; 1918 Puerto Rico; and 1946 Samaná, Dominican Republic tsunamis the death tolls ranged to over a thousand. Since then, there has been an explosive increase in residents, visitors, infrastructure, and economic activity along the coastlines, increasing the potential for human and economic loss. It has been estimated that on any day, upwards of more than 500,000 people could be in harm's way just along the beaches, with hundreds of thousands more working and living in the tsunamis hazard zones. Given the relative infrequency of tsunamis, exercises are a valuable tool to test communications, evaluate preparedness and raise awareness. Exercises in the Caribbean are conducted under the framework of the UNESCO IOC Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) and the US National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. On March 23, 2011, 34 countries and territories participated in the first CARIBE WAVE/LANTEX regional tsunami exercise, while in the second exercise on March 20, 2013 a total of 45 countries and territories participated. 481 organizations (almost 200 more than in 2011) also registered to receive the bulletins issued by the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC), West Coast and Alaska Tsunami Warning Center and/or the Puerto Rico

  20. Control of iron and other micronutrient deficiencies in the English-speaking Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Simmons, W K

    1994-12-01

    Most micronutrient deficiencies affect relatively few people in the Caribbean; however, many Caribbean residents are affected by anemia that appears due primarily to a lack of dietary iron. While generally substantial, the prevalences of such anemia have differed a good deal from place to place and study to study, observed rates ranging from 27% to 75% in pregnant women, 19% to 55% in lactating women, and 15% to 80% in young children. Severe anemia, defined by a blood hemoglobin concentration below 8 g/dl, has been found in approximately 6% of the pregnant women and 11% of the preschool children in some Caribbean countries. The principal ways of controlling iron deficiency anemia are through food fortification, control of intestinal parasites, direct oral supplementation, and dietary modification. Progress has been made in iron fortification of wheat flour and wheat products (the principal foodstuffs consumed by the general public in most of the English-speaking Caribbean). Data on control of relevant parasites in the Caribbean (primarily hookworm and to a lesser extent whipworm) are limited. Health services throughout the English-speaking Caribbean have been providing direct iron supplementation for pregnant women, but high levels of anemia during pregnancy still exist because of coverage, monitoring, and compliance problems. All the Caribbean countries also have education programs, which mainly advise pregnant women about iron-rich foods and iron absorption inhibitors and enhancers.

  1. Rigidity and definition of Caribbean plate motion from COCONet and campaign GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, Glen; Miller, Jamie; DeMets, Charles; Jansma, Pamela

    2014-05-01

    The currently accepted kinematic model of the Caribbean plate presented by DeMets et al. (2007) is based on velocities from 6 continuous and 14 campaign GPS sites. COCONet is a multi-hazard GPS-Met observatory, which extends the existing infrastructure of the Plate Boundary Observatory in North America into the Caribbean basin. In 2010, UNAVCO in collaboration with UCAR, was funded by NSF to design, build, and initially maintain a network of 50 new cGPS/Met sites and include data from another 50 existing sites in the Caribbean region. The current COCONet siting plan calls for 46 new stations, 21 refurbished stations, and 77 existing stations across 26 nations in the Caribbean region. Data from all COCONet sites flow into the UNAVCO archive and are processed by the PBO analysis centers and are also processed independently by the UTA Geodesy Lab using GIPSY-OASISII (v.6.2) using an absolute point positioning strategy and final, precise orbits, clocks, and Earth orientation parameters from JPL in the IGS08 frame. We present here our refined estimate of Caribbean plate motion by evaluating data from an expanded number of stations with an improved spatial distribution. In order to better constrain the eastern margin of the plate near the Lesser Antilles subduction interface, campaign GPS observations have been collected on the island of Dominica over the last decade. These are combined with additional campaign observations from the western Caribbean, specifically from Honduras and Nicaragua. We have analyzed a total of 117 sites from the Caribbean region, including campaign data and the data from the cGPS stations that comprise COCONet. An updated velocity field for the Caribbean plate is presented and an inversion of the velocities for 24 sites yields a plate angular velocity that differs from previously published models. Our best fitting inversion to GPS velocities from these 24 sites suggests that 2-plate model for the Caribbean is required to fit the GPS

  2. Rigidity and definition of Caribbean plate motion from COCONet and campaign GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, J. A.; DeMets, C.; Jansma, P. E.

    2015-12-01

    The kinematic model of the Caribbean plate presented by DeMets et al. (2007) is based on velocities from 6 continuous and 14 campaign GPS sites. COCONet is a multi-hazard GPS-Met observatory, which extends the existing infrastructure of the PBO in North America into the Caribbean basin. In 2010, UNAVCO in collaboration with UCAR, was funded by NSF to design, build, and initially maintain a network of 50 new cGPS/Met sites and include data from another 50 existing sites in the Caribbean region. The COCONet siting plan is for 46 new stations, 21 refurbished stations, and 77 existing stations across 26 nations in the Caribbean region. Data from all COCONet sites flow into the UNAVCO archive and are processed by the PBO analysis centers and are also processed independently by the UTA Geodesy Lab using GIPSY-OASISII (v.6.3) using an APP strategy and final, precise orbits, clocks, and EOP from JPL in the IGS08r frame. We present a refined estimate of Caribbean plate motion by evaluating data from an expanded number of stations with an improved spatial distribution. In order to better constrain the eastern margin of the plate near the Lesser Antilles subduction interface, campaign GPS observations have been collected on the island of Dominica over the last decade. These are combined with additional campaign observations from the western Caribbean, specifically from Honduras and Nicaragua. We have analyzed a total of 117 sites from the Caribbean region, including campaign data and the data from the cGPS stations that comprise COCONet. An updated velocity field for the Caribbean plate is presented and an inversion of the velocities for 24 sites yields a plate angular velocity that differs from previously published models. Our best fitting inversion to GPS velocities from these 24 sites suggests that 2-plate model for the Caribbean is required to fit the GPS observations, which implies that the Caribbean is undergoing modest (1-3 mm/yr) deformation within its interior. Some

  3. The mesoscale variability in the Caribbean Sea. Part II: Energy sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouanno, Julien; Sheinbaum, Julio; Barnier, Bernard; Molines, Jean-Marc

    The processes which drive the production and the growth of the strong mesoscale eddy field in the Caribbean Sea are examined using a general circulation model. Diagnostics of the simulations suggest that: (1) The mean currents in the Caribbean Sea are intrinsically unstable. The nature of the instability and its strength vary spatially due to strong differences of current structure among basins. (2) The greatest and most energetic eddies of the Caribbean Sea originate in the Venezuela Basin by mixed barotropic-baroclinic instability of an intense jet, formed with waters mostly from the surface return flow of the Meridional Overturning Circulation and the North Equatorial Current which converge and accelerate through the Grenada Passage. The vertical shear of this inflow is enhanced by an eastward undercurrent, which flows along the south American Coast between 100 and 250 m depth. The shallow eddies (less than 200 m depth) formed in the vicinity of the Grenada Passage get rapidly deeper (down to 1000 m depth) and stronger by their interaction with the deep interior flow of the Subtropical Gyre, which enters through passages north of St. Lucia. These main eastern Caribbean inflows merge and form the southern Caribbean Current, whose baroclinic instability is responsible for the westward growth and strengthening of these eddies from the Venezuela to the Colombia Basin. (3) Eddies of lesser strength are produced in other regions of the Caribbean Sea. Their generation and growth is also linked with instability of the local currents. First, cyclones are formed in the cyclonic shear of the northern Caribbean Current, but appear to be rapidly dissipated or absorbed by the large anticyclones coming from the southern Caribbean. Second, eddies in the Cayman Sea, which impact the Yucatan region, are locally produced and enhanced by barotropic instability of the deep Cayman Current. (4) The role of the North Brazil Current (NBC) rings is mostly to act as a finite perturbation

  4. The Mimallonidae (Lepidoptera, Mimallonoidea) of the Caribbean Basin,
    with the descriptions of two new species.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Ryan A St; Mccabe, Timothy L

    2016-01-01

    Mimallonidae of the Caribbean Basin are discussed, with attention primarily given to species endemic to the Caribbean islands and the northern coast of Venezuela. The Caribbean Basin is a political term for tropical regions circumscribed by the Gulf of Mexico. Cicinnus bahamensis sp. n. is described from the Bahamas, the first species of Mimallonidae from this country. The Cuban species Cicinnus packardii (Grote, 1865), the closest relative of C. bahamensis sp. n., is figured and compared. A third, similar, species from northern coastal Venezuela, C. falcoargenteus sp. n., is described and compared to the previous two species. PMID:27394281

  5. COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) - A multihazard GPS/Met observatory: Enhancing geodetic infrastructure and the scientific community in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feaux, K.; Braun, J. J.; Calais, E.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.; Normandeau, J.; Sandru, J.; Wang, G.

    2013-05-01

    The COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network) project was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with the aim of developing a large-scale geodetic and atmospheric infrastructure in the Caribbean that will form the backbone for a broad range of geoscience, atmospheric, and sea-level investigations and enable research on process-oriented science questions with direct relevance to geohazards. The current COCONet network construction plan consists of the installation of 47 new GPS and meteorological stations throughout the Caribbean region, 21 existing stations refurbished with new receivers, antennas, and meteorological instruments, and will also incorporate data from at least 61 existing operational GPS stations. COCONet engineers will also install 2 new collocated GPS and tide gauge sites and GPS instruments at two existing tide gauge sites in the Caribbean region. In October 2012, the third COCONet workshop was held in Tulum, Mexico in which a number of recommendations were made concerning capacity building in the region, network sustainability, high-rate data, and developing a data center in the Caribbean region. We present the status of the construction phase of the project to date, as well as the status of some of the recommendations from the third COCONet workshop focusing on capacity building and outreach elements of the project.

  6. 76 FR 22385 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ...The SEDAR assessments of the Caribbean stocks of silk snapper, queen snapper and redtail parrotfish will consist of a series of three workshops: a Data Workshop, an Assessment Workshop, and a Review Workshop. See SUPPLEMENTARY...

  7. Is Jamaica a good model for understanding Caribbean coral reef dynamics?

    PubMed

    Côté, Isabelle M; Precht, William F; Aronson, Richard B; Gardner, Toby A

    2013-11-15

    Caribbean reefs have experienced unprecedented changes in the past 40 years. A major hypothesis to explain shifts in reef community composition relates to declining herbivory. This hypothesis was developed largely based on observations of Jamaican reefs from the 1980s onward, but it is widely held to be relevant regionally. We use a region-wide dataset on benthic composition to examine how well the pattern of ecological change on Jamaican reefs is mirrored by other Caribbean reefs. The extent to which macroalgal cover exceeds coral cover on Jamaican reefs is an order of magnitude more extreme than seen elsewhere. We suggest that Jamaican reefs are not representative of the degradation trajectory of Caribbean reefs and management based on the Jamaican experience may not be relevant elsewhere. However, the recovery of Jamaican reefs following the return of urchins gives us hope that Caribbean reefs are more resilient to catastrophic disturbances than previously thought.

  8. Assessment of undiscovered conventional oil and gas resources of South America and the Caribbean, 2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Cook, Troy A.; Klett, Timothy R.; Kirschbaum, Mark A.; Pitman, Janet K.; Pollastro, Richard M.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.

    2012-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 126 billion barrels of oil and 679 trillion cubic feet of undiscovered natural gas in 31 geologic provinces of South America and the Caribbean.

  9. Updated velocity field for the Caribbean plate from COCONet GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J. A.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.

    2013-05-01

    The currently accepted kinematic model of the Caribbean plate presented by DeMets et al., 2007, is based on velocities from 6 continuous and 14 campaign GPS sites. Our work attempts to refine the current plate model by evaluating data from the 60+ continuous GPS stations that comprise COCONet. COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean Observation Network) is an NSF-funded collaborative natural hazards research effort that has enhanced the geodetic infrastructure in the region surrounding the Caribbean plate. Data for this study was obtained from the open data archive at UNAVCO. GPS data have been processed with an absolute point positioning strategy using GIPSY-OASIS II, using the non-fiducial, final precise clock and orbit parameters provided by JPL. An updated velocity field for the Caribbean plate will be presented and co-seismic and post-seismic slip, recorded by network stations will be examined for earthquakes that have occurred within the COCONet footprint.

  10. 77 FR 68105 - Fisheries of the Caribbean; Southeast Data, Assessment, and Review (SEDAR); Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... May 7, 2012 (77 FR 26746). The Gulf of Mexico, South Atlantic, and Caribbean Fishery Management... provided the assessment reports of each species, review them according to the Terms of Reference (TOR),...

  11. Pilot Testing HIV Prevention in an Afro Caribbean Faith-Based Community.

    PubMed

    Archibald, Cynthia M; Newman, David

    2015-01-01

    This research attempted to test an HIV prevention intervention for Afro-Caribbean female teens. The purpose was to improve knowledge and attitudes concerning HIV/AIDS, improve mother-daughter sexual communication, and to reduce risky sexual behaviors. Using a community-based approach, sixty mother and daughter pairs were randomly assigned. One condition was experimental using the Making Proud Choices Caribbean Style (MPCCS); another was a comparison of General Health Education. Independent t-tests were used for analysis between the pretest, posttest and 90 days posttests. MPCCS indicated clear usage with other Caribbean teens. This study helped to support the theory when Afro-Caribbean (AC) teens feel they need to become sexually active (subjective norm), and have referent support (parental support), they may blend values, knowledge, and skills (control beliefs), and are likely to make proud choices to reduce risky sexual behavior in minimizing HIV in their communities. PMID:26197635

  12. Isotopic paleoceanography of the Caribbean and east Pacific: role of Panama uplift in late Neogene time

    SciTech Connect

    Keigwin, L.

    1982-07-23

    Comparisons of carbon isotopic data on benthic foraminifera from Deep Sea Drilling Project sites 502 (western Caribbean) and 503 (eastern Pacific) indicate that the difference between the Atlantic and the Pacific in the per mil enrichment in carbon-13 of total dissolved carbon dioxide increased about 6 million years ago and again 3 million years ago, when the difference reached the modern level (1 per mil). Comparisons of planktonic foraminiferal oxygen isotopic data for the Caribbean and the Pacific suggest that the salinity of Caribbean surface waters began increasing 4 million years ago, possibly in response to shoaling of the Panama isthmus. These results suggest that modern circulation patterns in the Caribbean and eastern Pacific developed by 3 million years ago in concert with changing tectonic, climatic, and biogeographic patterns.

  13. Global Trends in Tertiary Education Quality Assurance: Implications for the Anglophone Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Vivienne

    2001-01-01

    Review of literature on trends in quality-assurance systems for tertiary education throughout the world followed by a discussion of the implications of these trends for tertiary education in the Caribbean. (Contains 26 references.) (PKP)

  14. First case of Mycobacterium heckeshornense cavitary lung disease in the Latin America and Caribbean region

    PubMed Central

    Coitinho, C.; Greif, G.; van Ingen, J.; Laserra, P.; Robello, C.; Rivas, C.

    2015-01-01

    A case of cavitary pulmonary disease caused by Mycobacterium heckeshornense in Uruguay is described. This is the first case reported in the Latin America and Caribbean region, showing that this species is a worldwide opportunistic human pathogen. PMID:26909156

  15. In Brief: Coral bleaching likely in Caribbean and other regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-08-01

    Conditions are favorable for significant coral bleaching and infectious coral disease outbreaks in the Caribbean, especially in the Lesser Antilles, scientists from the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Coral Reef Watch Program indicated in a 22 July announcement. Scientists are concerned that bleaching could reach or exceed the levels recorded in 2005, when up to 90% of corals there were bleached and more than half of those died. The forecast is based on the agency's July Coral Reef Watch outlook, which expects continued high water temperatures through October 2009. Other areas of concern are the central Pacific region including the equatorial Line Islands and Kiribati, according to NOAA. Coral bleaching is associated with increased ocean temperatures, among other factors, which causes the coral to expel symbiotic microalgae and causes coral tissue to appear to be bleached. For more information, visit http://coralreefwatch.noaa.gov.

  16. Smokefree Policies in Latin America and the Caribbean: Making Progress

    PubMed Central

    Sebrié, Ernesto M.; Schoj, Verónica; Travers, Mark J.; McGaw, Barbara; Glantz, Stanton A.

    2012-01-01

    We reviewed the adoption and implementation of smokefree policies in all Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries. Significant progress has been achieved among LAC countries since the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was adopted in 2005. Both national and sub-national legislation have provided effective mechanisms to increase the fraction of the population protected from secondhand tobacco smoke. Civil society has actively promoted these policies and played a main role in enacting them and monitoring their enforcement. The tobacco industry, while continuing to oppose the approval and regulation of the laws at legislative and executive levels, has gone a step further by litigating against them in the Courts. As in the US and elsewhere, this litigation has failed to stop the legislation. PMID:22754484

  17. Recent improvements in earthquake and tsunami monitoring in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gee, L.; Green, D.; McNamara, D.; Whitmore, P.; Weaver, J.; Huang, P.; Benz, H.

    2007-12-01

    Following the catastrophic loss of life from the December 26, 2004, Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake and tsunami, the U.S. Government appropriated funds to improve monitoring along a major portion of vulnerable coastal regions in the Caribbean Sea, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Atlantic Ocean. Partners in this project include the United States Geological Survey (USGS), the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Puerto Rico Seismic Network (PRSN), the Seismic Research Unit of the University of the West Indies, and other collaborating institutions in the Caribbean region. As part of this effort, the USGS is coordinating with Caribbean host nations to design and deploy nine new broadband and strong-motion seismic stations. The instrumentation consists of an STS-2 seismometer, an Episensor accelerometer, and a Q330 high resolution digitizer. Six stations are currently transmitting data to the USGS National Earthquake Information Center, where the data are redistributed to the NOAA's Tsunami Warning Centers, regional monitoring partners, and the IRIS Data Management Center. Operating stations include: Isla Barro Colorado, Panama; Gun Hill Barbados; Grenville, Grenada; Guantanamo Bay, Cuba; Sabaneta Dam, Dominican Republic; and Tegucigalpa, Honduras. Three additional stations in Barbuda, Grand Turks, and Jamaica will be completed during the fall of 2007. These nine stations are affiliates of the Global Seismographic Network (GSN) and complement existing GSN stations as well as regional stations. The new seismic stations improve azimuthal coverage, increase network density, and provide on-scale recording throughout the region. Complementary to this network, NOAA has placed Deep-ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) stations at sites in regions with a history of generating destructive tsunamis. Recently, NOAA completed deployment of 7 DART stations off the coasts of Montauk Pt, NY; Charleston, SC; Miami, FL; San Juan, Puerto Rico; New

  18. In Brief: Volcanic vents found in deep Caribbean waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2010-04-01

    Scientists surveying the Cayman Trough in the Caribbean Sea have discovered the world's deepest undersea volcanic vents, or “black smokers,” the National Oceanography Center (NOC) in Southampton, UK, announced on 11 April. The vents were found at a depth of 5000 meters, about 800 meters deeper than any previously discovered. Jon Copley, a marine biologist at the University of Southampton's School of Ocean and Earth Science, said, “Seeing the world's deepest black-smoker vents looming out of the darkness was awe-inspiring.” Geochemist Doug Connelly of NOC, principal scientist of the expedition, noted, “We hope our discovery will yield new insights into biogeochemically important elements in one of the most extreme naturally occurring environments on our planet.” Researchers used an NOC-developed Autosub6000 robot submarine, which was remotely controlled from the Royal Research Ship James Cook. For more information, visit http://www.thesearethevoyages.net/.

  19. Atmospheric microbiology in the northern Caribbean during African dust events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Kellogg, C.A.; Garrison, V.H.; Lisle, J.T.; Borden, T.C.; Shinn, E.A.

    2003-01-01

    Between July 2000 and August 2001 forty-three air samples were collected in the northern Caribbean: Twenty-six in the US Virgin Islands, and 17 samples aboard ship during two 1-week cruises. Samples were collected during African dust events and non-dust conditions and screened for the presence of culturable bacteria and fungi. A total of 3,652 liters of air were collected during non-dust conditions, with 19 bacteria and 28 fungi being recovered. During dust conditions a total of 2,369 liters of air were screened resulting in the recovery of 171 bacteria and 76 fungi. A statistically significant difference was found between the two data sets. These results support previous African dust research and further demonstrate that dust particles can serve as a vessel for the global dispersion of bacteria and fungi. Dustborne microorganisms may play a significant role in the ecology and health of downwind ecosystems.

  20. Smokefree policies in Latin America and the Caribbean: making progress.

    PubMed

    Sebrié, Ernesto M; Schoj, Verónica; Travers, Mark J; McGaw, Barbara; Glantz, Stanton A

    2012-05-01

    We reviewed the adoption and implementation of smokefree policies in all Latin American and the Caribbean (LAC) countries. Significant progress has been achieved among LAC countries since the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) was adopted in 2005. Both national and sub-national legislation have provided effective mechanisms to increase the fraction of the population protected from secondhand tobacco smoke. Civil society has actively promoted these policies and played a main role in enacting them and monitoring their enforcement. The tobacco industry, while continuing to oppose the approval and regulation of the laws at legislative and executive levels, has gone a step further by litigating against them in the Courts. As in the US and elsewhere, this litigation has failed to stop the legislation.

  1. The role of aviation technology in the Caribbean Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Aviation technology can play a significant role in the development of the countries of the Caribbean Basin. A variety of applications of rotorcraft in the region, the benefits, both economic and political which can result from utilization of rotorcraft in both a public service and commercial role are presented. A computer simulation of rotorcraft used as emergency medical vehicles is applied to compare and evaluate the advantages of using rotorcraft technology such as civil derivatives of the new tiltrotor. It is concluded that by using a civil derivative of the tiltrotor, significant improvements can be obtained in the level of health service in the region. The potential for cargo and passenger transport applications are currently being investigated and a second computer simulation is being developed to be used to evaluate the potential benefits to be derived from such applications.

  2. Cembranoid diterpenes from the Caribbean sea whip Eunicea knighti.

    PubMed

    Tello, Edisson; Castellanos, Leonardo; Arevalo-Ferro, Catalina; Duque, Carmenza

    2009-09-01

    Three new cembranoid diterpenes, knightol (1), knightol acetate (2), and knightal (3), along with the known asperdiol (4) and asperdiol acetate (5), were isolated as major compounds from the sea whip Eunicea knighti collected from the Colombian Caribbean. The structures and absolute configurations of 1-5 were determined on the basis of spectroscopic analyses and by a combination of chemical and NMR methods, multiple correlations observed in a ROESY experiment, and using the modified Mosher method. Additionally, five semisynthetic compounds, 6-10, obtained during the chemical transformations of the natural compounds are here reported for the first time. All compounds were tested for antimicrobial activity against marine bacteria associated with heavily fouled surfaces and were also screened for antiquorum sensing (QS) activity. Compounds 1, 3, and 8 showed significant antimicrobial activity against bacterial isolates, and 1, 3, 7, and 8 showed excellent anti-QS inhibition activity measured by means of bioluminescence inhibition with biosensor model systems.

  3. Status of Caribbean coral reefs in seven countries in 1986.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Clive; Nowak, Madeleine; Miller, Ian; Baker, Valonna

    2013-05-15

    There are few long-term datasets available to make reliable statements about trends in cover and structure in many coral reefs around the world. We present 27year old summary data of the cover of corals and other biota on Caribbean and Western Atlantic coral reefs in 7 countries collected in late 1985 and early 1986. These data were collected to support research on sponge populations and show relatively low coral cover on many of these reefs with particularly low cover of Acropora spp. We present these summaries to encourage other researchers to compare with current conditions or repeat the surveys to show long-term trends; the raw data will be supplied on request.

  4. BOLIVAR & GEODINOS: Investigations of the Southern Caribbean Plate Boundary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levander, A.; Schmitz, M.; Working Groups, B.

    2006-12-01

    The southern Caribbean-South American plate boundary has many similarities to California's San Andreas system: 1) The CAR-SA system consists of a series of strands of active right lateral strike-slip faults extending >1000 km from the Antilles subduction zone. This system has several names and includes the El Pilar, Coche, San Sebastian, Moron, and Oca faults. 2) The CAR-SA relative velocity has been about 20 mm/yr of mostly right lateral motion since about 55 Ma, giving a total displacement on the CAR-SA plate boundary similar to that of the San Andreas system. 3) The plate boundary has about 10% convergence in western SA, with less as one moves eastward due to relative convergence between North and South America. 4) The CAR-SA system has fold and thrust belts best developed continentward of the strike-slip faults, similar to the San Andreas. 5) There is a big bend in the CAR plate boundary at approximately the same distance from the Antilles trench as the big bend in Southern California is from the Cascadia subduction zone. The tectonic origins of the CAR-SA plate boundary and the San Andreas are very different, however, despite the similarities between the systems. Rather than impingement of a ridge on a trench, the CAR-SA system is thought to have resulted from a continuous oblique collision of the southern end of a Cretaceous island arc system with the northern edge of South America. During this process the CAR island arc and the modern CAR plate overrode a proto-Caribbean plate and destroyed a Mesozoic passive margin on the northern edge of SA. BOLIVAR and GEODINOS are multi-disciplinary investigations of the lithosphere and deeper structures associated with the diffuse CAR-SA plate boundary zone. We review a number of observations regarding the plate boundary obtained or confirmed from these studies: 1) The Caribbean Large Igneous Province, being overridden by the Maracaibo block in western Venezuela, can be identified beneath Aruba and coastal Venezuela

  5. Characterizing Dust Inputs to the Caribbean Region Using Radiogenic Isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pett-Ridge, J. C.; Derry, L. A.

    2007-12-01

    The long-range transport of mineral aerosols (dust) in the atmosphere influences radiative transfer in the atmosphere and affects ocean productivity via Fe fertilization. Dust transport also affects terrestrial systems by contributing to geochemical fluxes of both sediments and solutes, adding nutrients and nutrient-holding capacity to ecosystems, and neutralizing acidic components of atmospheric deposition. The largest atmospheric dust source is the Sahara-Sahel region of Northern Africa. Of the dust derived from the Sahara-Sahel region, 50 million tons are transported west each year on the trade winds into the Caribbean atmosphere1. Ratios of relatively immobile trace elements provide geochemical evidence that confirms the expected presence of African dust in soils of the Caribbean region. However, estimates of dust deposition fluxes to land in the Caribbean are lacking2. A promising approach for calculating deposition fluxes is to quantify the streamwater Sr flux for a small monolithologic catchment, and then quantify contributions from local substrate, sea salt aerosols, volcanic ash, and long-range transported dust using their unique isotopic signatures. This approach has the advantage of giving a spatially and temporally integrated estimate of the dust deposition flux, which is necessary for assessing the importance of dust to geochemical fluxes and biogeochemical cycling. Many factors will control the importance of dust inputs for a given site. Local soil characteristics will determine the rate at which dust weathers once it enters the soil, and the extent to which dust may contribute to the nutrient budget of the ecosystem. The amount and style of rainfall will affect the rate at which dust particles are scrubbed from the atmosphere. Further, local erosion rates will determine the extent of dust accumulation over time. 87Sr/86Sr ratios are used to calculate the deposition flux of African dust into the small montane Rio Icacos watershed in Puerto Rico of 13

  6. Development of alternative energy science and engineering in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonnet, J. A., Jr.; Koehler, W. C., Jr.

    1983-11-01

    A pilot designed to improve the capabilities of Caribbean universities and research institutes in helping solve the energy problems of the region is discussed. Most of the region is almost entirely dependent on imported petroleum to satisfy its energy needs. That dependency has exascerbated economic problems with the escalation of petroleum prices in the past ten years. A potential solution to reduce both the high degree of dependence and economic costs is to develop other energy systems. A project to foster cooperative research efforts to assist in the introduction of alternative energy solutions was developed. A network of scientists and engineers working in energy was established to promote cooperation, interchange of technical information and development of joint projects.

  7. Status of Caribbean coral reefs in seven countries in 1986.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Clive; Nowak, Madeleine; Miller, Ian; Baker, Valonna

    2013-05-15

    There are few long-term datasets available to make reliable statements about trends in cover and structure in many coral reefs around the world. We present 27year old summary data of the cover of corals and other biota on Caribbean and Western Atlantic coral reefs in 7 countries collected in late 1985 and early 1986. These data were collected to support research on sponge populations and show relatively low coral cover on many of these reefs with particularly low cover of Acropora spp. We present these summaries to encourage other researchers to compare with current conditions or repeat the surveys to show long-term trends; the raw data will be supplied on request. PMID:23602263

  8. Logging while drilling application in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Husband, F.J.; Palomo M., R.; Roca R., L.

    1994-12-31

    The commercial use of Logging While Drilling (LWD) technology in Latin America and the Caribbean has grown significantly in the last two years as national and international oil and gas companies implement more efficient systems to locate and extract hydrocarbons. This technology has been applied to optimize drilling projects as LWD measurements are now routinely used for improved log quality, geosteering into complex horizontal targets, insurance logging in difficult drilling environments, and where operating rig costs create a financial need. Case field applications are presented including drilling and logging depleted gas sands in high concentration LCM mud systems, 3-dimensional geosteering techniques, and time lapsed overlays for identification of moved fluids and wellbore stability. The examples and discussion that follow represent field experience utilizing Compensated Dual Resistivity (CDR) and Compensated Density Neutron (CDN) measurements to more efficiently find and produce oil and gas in Latin America.

  9. Satellites as Shared Resources for Caribbean Climate and Health Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maynard, Nancy G.

    2002-01-01

    Remotely-sensed data and observations are providing powerful new tools for addressing climate and environment-related human health problems through increased capabilities for monitoring, risk mapping, and surveillance of parameters useful to such problems as vector-borne and infectious diseases, air and water quality, harmful algal blooms, UV (ultraviolet) radiation, contaminant and pathogen transport in air and water, and thermal stress. Remote sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), improved computational capabilities, and interdisciplinary research between the Earth and health science communities are being combined in rich collaborative efforts resulting in more rapid problem-solving, early warning, and prevention in global health issues. Collaborative efforts among scientists from health and Earth sciences together with local decision-makers are enabling increased understanding of the relationships between changes in temperature, rainfall, wind, soil moisture, solar radiation, vegetation, and the patterns of extreme weather events and the occurrence and patterns of diseases (especially, infectious and vector-borne diseases) and other health problems. This increased understanding through improved information and data sharing, in turn, empowers local health and environmental officials to better predict health problems, take preventive measure, and improve response actions. This paper summarizes the remote sensing systems most useful for climate, environment and health studies of the Caribbean region and provides several examples of interdisciplinary research projects in the Caribbean currently using remote sensing technologies. These summaries include the use of remote sensing of algal blooms, pollution transport, coral reef monitoring, vectorborne disease studies, and potential health effects of African dust on Trinidad and Barbados.

  10. Disentangling trophic interactions inside a Caribbean marine reserve.

    PubMed

    Kellner, Julie B; Litvin, Steven Y; Hastings, Alan; Micheli, Fiorenza; Mumby, Peter J

    2010-10-01

    Recent empirical studies have demonstrated that human activities such as fishing can strongly affect the natural capital and services provided by tropical seascapes. However, policies to mitigate anthropogenic impacts can also alter food web structure and interactions, regardless of whether the regulations are aimed at single or multiple species, with possible unexpected consequences for the ecosystems and their associated services. Complex community response to management interventions have been highlighted in the Caribbean, where, contrary to predictions from linear food chain models, a reduction in fishing intensity through the establishment of a marine reserve has led to greater biomass of herbivorous fish inside the reserve, despite an increased abundance of large predatory piscivores. This positive multi-trophic response, where both predators and prey benefit from protection, highlights the need to take an integrated approach that considers how numerous factors control species coexistence in both fished and unfished systems. In order to understand these complex relationships, we developed a general model to examine the trade-offs between fishing pressure and trophic control on reef fish communities, including an exploration of top-down and bottom-up effects. We then validated the general model predictions by parameterizing the model for a reef system in the Bahamas in order to tease apart the wide range of species responses to reserves in the Caribbean. Combining the development of general theory and site-specific models parameterized with field data reveals the underlying driving forces in these communities and enables us to make better predictions about possible population and community responses to different management schemes.

  11. Measuring surface energy and evapotranspiration across Caribbean mangrove forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagomasino, D.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.; Price, R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal mangroves lose large amounts of water through evapotranspiration (ET) that can be equivalent to the amount of annual rainfall in certain years. Satellite remote sensing has been used to estimate surface energy and ET variability in many forested ecosystems, yet has been widely overlooked in mangrove forests. Using a combination of long-term datasets (30-year) acquired from the NASA Landsat 5 and 7 satellite databases, the present study investigated ET and surface energy balance variability between two mangrove forest sites in the Caribbean: 1) Everglades National Park (ENP; Florida, USA) and 2) Sian Ka'an Biosphere Reserve (SKBR; Quintana Roo, Mexico). A satellite-derived surface energy balance model was used to estimate ET in tall and scrub mangroves environments at ENP and SKBR. Results identified significant differences in soil heat flux measurements and ET between the tall and scrub mangrove environments. Scrub mangroves exhibited the highest soil heat flux coincident with the lowest biophysical indices (i.e., Fractional Vegetation Cover, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, and Soil-Adjusted Vegetation Index) and ET rates. Mangrove damage and mortality was observed on the satellite images following strong tropical storms and associated with anthropogenic modifications and resulted in low values in spectral vegetation indices, higher soil heat flux, and higher ET. Recovery of the spectral characteristics, soil heat flux and ET was within 1-2 years following hurricane disturbance while, degradation caused by human disturbance persisted for many years. Remotely sensed ET of mangrove forests can provide estimates over a few decades and provide us with some understanding of how these environments respond to disturbances to the landscape in periods where no ground data exists or in locations that are difficult to access. Moreover, relationships between energy and water balance components developed for the coastal mangroves of Florida and Mexico could be

  12. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Navas-Camacho, Raúl; Gil-Agudelo, Diego Luis; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto; Reyes-Nivia, María Catalina; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC) has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá). The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10 x 2m) with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters) are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2), and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2). Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD), and White Plague Disease (WPD) were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A. grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years) variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few long

  13. Parenting and depressive symptoms among adolescents in four Caribbean societies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The strategies that parents use to guide and discipline their children may influence their emotional health. Relatively little research has been conducted examining the association of parenting practices to depressive symptoms among Caribbean adolescents. This project examines the association of parenting styles to levels of depressive symptoms among adolescents in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Kitts and Nevis, and St. Vincent. Methods Adolescents attending grade ten of academic year 2006/2007 in Jamaica, the Bahamas, St. Vincent, and St. Kitts and Nevis were administered the Parenting Practices Scale along with the BDI-II. Authoritative, Authoritarian, Permissive and Neglectful parenting styles were created using a median split procedure of the monitoring and nurturance subscales of the Parenting Practices Scale. Multiple regression analyses were used to examine the relationships of parenting styles to depressive symptoms. Results A wide cross-section of tenth grade students in each nation was sampled (n = 1955; 278 from Jamaica, 217 from the Bahamas, 737 St. Kitts and Nevis, 716 from St. Vincent; 52.1% females, 45.6% males and 2.3% no gender reported; age 12 to 19 years, mean = 15.3 yrs, sd = .95 yrs). Nearly half (52.1%) of all adolescents reported mild to severe symptoms of depression with 29.1% reporting moderate to severe symptoms of depression. In general, authoritative and permissive parenting styles were both associated with lower levels of depressive symptoms in adolescents. However, the relationship of parenting styles to depression scores was not consistent across countries (p < .05). In contrast to previous research on Caribbean parenting, caregivers in this study used a mixture of different parenting styles with the two most popular styles being authoritative and neglectful parenting. Conclusions There appears to be an association between parenting styles and depressive symptoms that is differentially manifested across the

  14. The cost of diabetes in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed Central

    Barceló, Alberto; Aedo, Cristian; Rajpathak, Swapnil; Robles, Sylvia

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To measure the economic burden associated with diabetes mellitus in Latin America and the Caribbean. METHODS: Prevalence estimates of diabetes for the year 2000 were used to calculated direct and indirect costs of diabetes mellitus. Direct costs included costs due to drugs, hospitalizations, consultations and management of complications. The human capital approach was used to calculate indirect costs and included calculations of forgone earnings due to premature mortality and disability attributed to diabetes mellitus. Mortality and disability attributed to causes other than diabetes were subtracted from estimates to consider only the excess burden due to diabetes. A 3% discount rate was used to convert future earnings to current value. FINDINGS: The annual number of deaths in 2000 caused by diabetes mellitus was estimated at 339,035. This represented a loss of 757,096 discounted years of productive life among persons younger than 65 years (> billion US dollars). Permanent disability caused a loss of 12,699,087 years and over 50 billion US dollars, and temporary disability caused a loss of 136,701 years in the working population and over 763 million US dollars. Costs associated with insulin and oral medications were 4720 million US dollars, hospitalizations 1012 million US dollars, consultations 2508 million US dollars and care for complications 2,480 million US dollars. The total annual cost associated with diabetes was estimated as 65,216 million US dollars (direct 10,721 US dollars; indirect 54,496 US dollars). CONCLUSION: Despite limitations of the data, diabetes imposes a high economic burden to individuals and society in all countries and to Latin American and the Caribbean as whole. PMID:12640472

  15. Oceanographic coral records from South Western Caribbean: Isla Fuerte, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, G.; Qiceno, M.; Hughen, K.; Urrego, L.

    2009-04-01

    The southwestern corner of the Caribbean Sea is considered a coastal warm pool oceanographically linked to the Panama Colombia Gyre. The atmosphere - ocean variability there is influenced by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITZC), the Andean river runoff, the northeasterly trade winds, and a tropical low level jet (San Andrés jet), all of them connected to global variability. This warm pool has a significant (>95%) warming trend (0.6°C between 1981 and 2000), with the warmest record just in front of the Sinu River, where Isla Fuerte is located, 11 km from the coast, to the western of Sinu Delta. Sea surface temperature (SST) and the Multivariate ENSO index have a significant (>95%) correlation of 0.4 with a 7 months lag. The Sinu River flow does not show a long trend between 1985 and 2000, but has a significant correlation with ENSO (0.5) with no lag. Two corals from Isla Fuerte, a Siderastrea siderea colony with a maximum length of 72.5 cm and a Montastrea annularis colony of 30.5 cm, were studied in order to test the climatic potential of these records and to understand the oceanographic variability at the SW Caribbean. Fluorescence has better resolution than density bands in both corals. Chronology based on them indicates an age of 127 and 32 years respectively. We present and discuss growth and Sr/Ca series. The signal is produced by the interaction between the river flow and local winds. The river reaches the island when northeastern winds deflect their plume to the east. However, there are not in situ instrumental records for calibration and interpretation of the signals and we used world data bases with low spatial resolution.

  16. Photochemical studies of the Eastern Caribbean: An introductory overview

    SciTech Connect

    Zika, R.G.; Milne, P.J. ); Zafiriou, O.C. )

    1993-02-15

    This special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research reports a multi-investigator study of a number of sunlight-initiated photoprocesses taking place in the varied biogeochemical and oceanographic environment found in the tropical Eastern Caribbean and Orinoco River delta in the spring and fall of 1988. Principal conceptual themes that were addressed by the program included (1) the characterization of the role of dissolved organic matter as the main chromophore initiating photoprocesses in surface seawater, (2) the determination of the fluxes and pathways of reactants and transient species involved in oxygen photoredox chemistry, and (3) the continuing development of chemical mapping strategies, including observing and modelling reactive phototransient distribution in terms of their sources, mixing, and fates. Ancillary supporting studies included observation of water mass tracers, dissolved trace gases, atmospheric components, nutrients and the geochemistry of estuarine mixing processes in an important continental margin. The observational and mechanistic investigations reported here feature a number of novel or improved methods allied with some advanced underway sampling, sensing and computing facilities that were implemented aboard the R/V Columbus Iselin. Results from the study showed large-scale ([approximately]1,000 km) seasonal variations in surface water photoreactivity, optical and biooptical characteristics over much of the Caribbean basin. These changes resulted from seasonally varying riverine inputs of organic chromophores, nutrients and suspended material. Smaller scale (10-100 km) studies carried out in the Orinoco delta and the Gulf of Paria showed that estuarine mixing processes did not affect major net removal of dissolved organic matter, consistent with the hypothesis that riverine chromophore input plays a dominant role in open-water photochemistry. 56 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Dengue in an area of the Colombian Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Barreto, Heidi; Mattar-Velilla, Salim

    2015-01-01

    Background: In Colombia, dengue is an endemic disease and the four serotypes have been reported. Objective: To describe the frequency and severity of dengue in an area of the Colombian Caribbean (Department of Cordoba) Methods: A retrospective study was conducted. Two data sources were analysed: The database from the Direction of Health in Córdoba, and clinical registers of patients diagnosed with haemorrhagic fevers and fevers of unknown origin in reference hospitals. Results: The mean incidence of dengue between 2003-2010 was 36.5 cases/105 inhabitants (CI95%: 34.3-37.5) and adjusted for sub-reporting, could be between 178.5 and 521.6. The mean incidence of severe dengue was 4.7 cases/105 inhabitants (CI95%: 4.3-5.0). Mean mortality rate due to dengue was 0.3 cases/105 inhabitants. The fatality rate was below 1%. The mean total leukocyte count in patients with dengue was 6,181 mm3 (CI95%: 5,973-6,389) and with severe Dengue was 4,729 mm3 (CI95%: 4,220-5,238). The average platelet count in patients with Dengue was 118,793/mm3 (CI95%: 107,255-130,331) and in patients with Severe Dengue 77,655 (CI95%: 59,640-95,670). Both differences were statistically significant (p <0.05). The frequency of laboratories test per patient in patients with Dengue and severe Dengue were different. Conclusion: The department of Cordoba is a highly endemic zone of Dengue and severe Dengue in the Colombian Caribbean. Moreover, the results show significant differences between dengue and severe dengue so much in tests as in frequency of use of healthcare services. PMID:26019378

  18. Giant Upper Cretaceous oysters from the Gulf coast and Caribbean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sohl, Norman F.; Kauffman, Erle G.

    1964-01-01

    Two unusually massive ostreid species, representing the largest and youngest Mesozoic members of their respective lineages, occur in Upper Cretaceous sediment of the gulf coast and Caribbean areas. Their characteristics and significance, as well as the morphologic terminology of ostreids in general, are discussed. Crassostrea cusseta Sohl and Kauffman n. sp. is the largest known ostreid from Mesozoic rocks of North America; it occurs sporadically in the Cusseta Sand and rarely in the Blufftown Formation of the Chattahoochee River region in Georgia and Alabama. It is especially notable in that it lacks a detectable posterior adductor muscle scar on large adult shells. C. cusseta is the terminal Cretaceous member of the C. soleniscus lineage in gulf coast sediments; the lineage continues, however, with little basic modification, throughout the Cenozoic, being represented in the Eocene by C. gigantissima (Finch) and probably, in modern times, by C. virginica (Gmelin). The C. soleniscus lineage is the first typically modern crassostreid group recognized in the Mesozoic. Arctostrea aguilerae (Böse) occurs in Late Campanian and Early Maestrichtian sediments of Alabama, Mississippi, Texas(?), Mexico, and Cuba. The mature shell of this species is larger and more massive than that of any other known arctostreid. Arctostrea is well represented throughout the Upper Jurassic and Cretaceous of Europe, but in North America, despite the great numbers and diversity of Cretaceous oysters, only A. aguilerae and the Albian form A. carinata are known. The presence of A. aquilerae in both the Caribbean and gulf coast faunas is exceptional, as the Late Cretaceous faunas of these provinces are generally distinct and originated in different faunal realms.

  19. Collisional zones in Puerto Rico and the northern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laó-Dávila, Daniel A.

    2014-10-01

    Puerto Rico is an amalgamation of island arc terranes that has recorded the deformational and tectonic history of the North American-Caribbean Plate boundary. Four collisional zones indicate the contractional events that have occurred at the plate boundary. Metamorphism and deformation of Middle Jurassic to Early Cretaceous oceanic lithosphere during the Early Cretaceous indicate the earliest collisional event. Then, an ophiolitic mélange, mostly comprised of blocks of the metamorphosed oceanic lithosphere, was formed and emplaced in the backarc region during the Turonian-Coniacian deformational event. A possible collision with a buoyant block in the North American Plate caused late Maastrichtian-early Paleocene contraction that created fold-and-thrust belts and the remobilization and uplift of serpentinite bodies in the Southwest Block. Late Eocene-early Oligocene transpression was localized along the Southern and Northern Puerto Rico fault zones, which occur north and south of large granodiorite intrusions in the strong Central Block. The deformation was accommodated in pure shear domains of fold-and-thrust belts and conjugate strike-slip faults, and simple shear domains of large mostly left-lateral faults. In addition, it reactivated faults in the weak Southwest Block. This island-wide transpression is the result of a Greater Antilles arc and continental North American collision. The kinematic model of the structures described in Puerto Rico correlate with some structures in Hispaniola and Cuba, and shows how the northern boundary of the Caribbean Plate was shortened by collisions with continental lithosphere of the North American Plate throughout its history. The tectonic evolution of the Greater Antilles shows a history of collisions, in which the latest collision accretes Cuba to the North American Plate, reorganizes the plate boundary, and deforms with transpression Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. The latest collision in Puerto Rico shows the case in which an

  20. Revision of the species of Centris (Xanthemisia) Moure, 1945 (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Centridini) from the Caribbean island.

    PubMed

    Vivallo, Felipe

    2014-01-01

    A revision of the species of Centris subgenus Xanthemisia Moure from the Caribbean islands is presented. The species identified are C. aethiops Cresson, C. domingensis Dalla Torre nom. rev. and C. caymanensis, a new species from the Cayman Islands, Lesser Antilles. Figures, morphological characters of both sexes and the description of the male of C. domingensis are given. New distribution records and an identification key for the three species of the subgenus that occur in the Caribbean islands are also provided.

  1. Defining and Dividing the Greater Caribbean: Insights from the Biogeography of Shorefishes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, “Carolinian” biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1) a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2) a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii) a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves), and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the Tropical

  2. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management... St. Thomas/St. John island group to Point C C 18°13′59.0606″ 65°05′33.058″ D 18°01′16.9636″...

  3. 50 CFR Appendix E to Part 622 - Caribbean Island/Island Group Management Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 12 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Caribbean Island/Island Group Management..., AND SOUTH ATLANTIC Pt. 622, App. E Appendix E to Part 622—Caribbean Island/Island Group Management... St. Thomas/St. John island group to Point C C 18°13′59.0606″ 65°05′33.058″ D 18°01′16.9636″...

  4. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2007, Caribbean Plate and Vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benz, Harley M.; Tarr, Arthur C.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio; Furlong, Kevin P.; Dart, Richard L.; Rhea, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The depth profile panels on this map portray earthquakes that extend from the Middle America Trench axis in the west to depths as great as 300 km beneath Guatemala, and from the Lesser Antilles Trench axis in the east to depths of approximately 200 km beneath Guadeloupe and the northeast Caribbean. In contrast, seismicity along the segments of the Caribbean plate margins from Guatemala to Hispaniola and from Trinidad to western Venezuela is indicative of transform fault tectonics.

  5. Three new Nannastacidae (Crustacea: Cumacea) species from a Caribbean mesophotic ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Petrescu, Iorgu; Chatterjee, Tapas; Schizas, Nikolaos V

    2014-02-19

    Examination of substrata from the mesophotic reefs of Mona Island, Puerto Rico yielded 3 new species of cumaceans, all from the family Nannastacidae: Cumella achimae sp. nov., C. victoriae sp. nov. and Nannastacus craciuni sp. nov. The 3 new species bring the total of new cumacean taxa described from the mesophotic reefs of US Caribbean to 9, highlighting the potential of mesophotic reefs as a biodiversity hotspot. For the first time we report the genus Nannastacus from the Caribbean Sea. 

  6. Defining and dividing the greater Caribbean: insights from the biogeography of shorefishes.

    PubMed

    Robertson, D Ross; Cramer, Katie L

    2014-01-01

    The Greater Caribbean biogeographic region is the high-diversity heart of the Tropical West Atlantic, one of four global centers of tropical marine biodiversity. The traditional view of the Greater Caribbean is that it is limited to the Caribbean, West Indies, southwest Gulf of Mexico and tip of Florida, and that, due to its faunal homogeneity, lacks major provincial subdivisions. In this scenario the northern 2/3 of the Gulf of Mexico and southeastern USA represent a separate temperate, "Carolinian" biogeographic region. We completed a comprehensive re-assessment of the biogeography of the Greater Caribbean by comparing the distributions of 1,559 shorefish species within 45 sections of shelf waters of the Greater Caribbean and adjacent areas. This analysis shows that that the Greater Caribbean occupies a much larger area than usually thought, extending south to at least Guyana, and north to encompass the entire Carolinian area. Rather than being homogenous, the Greater Caribbean is divided into three major provinces, each with a distinctive, primarily tropical fauna: (1) a central, tropical province comprising the West Indies, Bermuda and Central America; (2) a southern, upwelling-affected province spanning the entire continental shelf of northern South America; and (iii) a northern, subtropical province that includes all of the Gulf of Mexico, Florida and southeastern USA. This three-province pattern holds for both reef- and soft bottom fishes, indicating a general response by demersal fishes to major variation in provincial shelf environments. Such environmental differences include latitudinal variation in sea temperature, availability of major habitats (coral reefs, soft bottom shorelines, and mangroves), and nutrient additions from upwelling areas and large rivers. The three-province arrangement of the Greater Caribbean broadly resembles and has a similar environmental basis to the provincial arrangement of its sister biogeographic region, the Tropical Eastern

  7. Seismic Monitoring Capabilities of the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions Tsunami Warning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saurel, Jean-Marie; von Hillebrandt-Andrade, Christa; Crespo, Hector; McNamara, Dan; Huerfano, Victor

    2014-05-01

    Over 75 tsunamis have been documented in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions during the past 500 years. Since 1500, at least 4484 people are reported to have perished in these killer waves. Hundreds of thousands are currently threatened along the Caribbean coastlines. In 2005 the Intergovernmental Coordination Group for the Tsunami and other Coastal Hazards Warning System for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions (CARIBE EWS) was established. It recommended the following minimum seismic performance standards for the detection and analysis of earthquakes: 1) Earthquake detection within 1 minute, 2) Minimum magnitude threshold = M4.5, and 3) Initial hypocenter error of <30 km. The implementation plan of the CARIBE EWS currently includes 115 seismic stations in the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions. The NOAA National Weather Service Caribbean Tsunami Warning Program prepares and distributes monthly reports on real time and archived seismic data availability of the contributing stations at the US Tsunami Warning Centers, the Puerto Rico Seismic Network and IRIS. As of early 2014, 99 of the proposed stations are being contributed by national, regional and international seismological institutions. Recent network additions (Nicaragua, Colombia, Mexico, Cayman Islands, and Venezuela) have reduced detection threshold, time and location error throughout much of the Caribbean region and Central America. Specifically, earthquakes (>M4.0) can be detected within 1 minute throughout much of the Caribbean. The remaining exceptions to this standard for detection are portions of northern South America and Mexico. Another performance criterion is 90% data availability. Currently 60-70% of the stations meet this standard. The presentation will further report on the status of the CARIBE EWS seismic capability for the timely and accurate detection and analysis of earthquakes for tsunami warning purposes for the Caribbean and Adjacent Regions.

  8. 48 CFR 25.504-2 - WTO GPA/Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative/FTAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false WTO GPA/Caribbean Basin... 25.504-2 WTO GPA/Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative/FTAs. Example 1. Offer A 304,000 U.S.-made end... the acquisition is covered by the WTO GPA and there is an offer of a U.S.-made or an eligible...

  9. 48 CFR 25.504-2 - WTO GPA/Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative/FTAs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false WTO GPA/Caribbean Basin... 25.504-2 WTO GPA/Caribbean Basin Trade Initiative/FTAs. Example 1. Offer A 304,000 U.S.-made end... the acquisition is covered by the WTO GPA and there is an offer of a U.S.-made or an eligible...

  10. A Revised Caribbean Plate Motion Model: GPS Geodetic Results From the Dominica NSF- REU Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fauria, K.; Styron, R. H.; James, S.; Turner, H. L.; Ashlock, A.; Cavness, C. L.; Collier, X.; Feinstein, R.; Murphy, R.; Staisch, L.; Williams, B.; Demets, C.; Mattioli, G. S.; Jansma, P. E.; Cothren, J.

    2007-12-01

    Velocities from sixteen campaign GPS sites on the Caribbean island of Dominica are analyzed in combination with fifteen existing Caribbean GPS sites to further constrain Caribbean plate motion. High precision GPS geodesy was used to determine the site positions of 16 sites in Dominica between 2000 and 2007. All observations were obtained using dual-frequency, code-phase receivers and geodetic-quality antennae, primarily choke rings. Generally, three consecutive 24 hour observation days were acquired for each site at every epoch. Absolute point positions were obtained using GIPSY-OASIS II along with final, precise orbits, clocks, earth orientation parameters, and x-files from JPL. All site velocities are calculated relative to ITRF05 and legacy site velocities from elsewhere in the eastern and western stable Caribbean were transformed from ITRF00 to ITRF05 before inversion. The addition of Dominican GPS data from the 16 new sites resulted in no statistically significant (the 95% confidence level) change in the Caribbean Euler pole as recently published by DeMets et al., 2007. Our calculated pole is 35.929°N, 102.536° E, and rotating at a rate of .2610 degrees/m.yr. The updated rotation model verifies the previously published pole and supports the conclusion that within current error bounds, Dominica is part of the stable Caribbean plate, with residual motions on the order of only a few mm/yr.

  11. Extinction rate, historical population structure and ecological role of the Caribbean monk seal

    PubMed Central

    McClenachan, Loren; Cooper, Andrew B

    2008-01-01

    The productivity and biomass of pristine coral reef ecosystems is poorly understood, particularly in the Caribbean where communities have been impacted by overfishing and multiple other stressors over centuries. Using historical data on the spatial distribution and abundance of the extinct Caribbean monk seal (Monachus tropicalis), this study reconstructs the population size, structure and ecological role of this once common predator within coral reef communities, and provides evidence that historical reefs supported biomasses of fishes and invertebrates up to six times greater than those found on typical modern Caribbean reefs. An estimated 233 000–338 000 monk seals were distributed among 13 colonies across the Caribbean. The biomass of reef fishes and invertebrates required to support historical seal populations was 732–1018 g m−2 of reefs, which exceeds that found on any Caribbean reef today and is comparable with those measured in remote Pacific reefs. Quantitative estimates of historically dense monk seal colonies and their consumption rates on pristine reefs provide concrete data on the magnitude of decline in animal biomass on Caribbean coral reefs. Realistic reconstruction of these past ecosystems is critical to understanding the profound and long-lasting effect of human hunting on the functioning of coral reef ecosystems. PMID:18348965

  12. Religious Coping Among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites.

    PubMed

    Chatters, Linda M; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S; Lincoln, Karen D

    2008-04-01

    This study examined demographic predictors of attitudes regarding religious coping (i.e., prayer during stressful times and look to God for support, strength and guidance) within a national sample of African American, Caribbean Blacks and non-Hispanic Whites (National Survey of American Life). The findings demonstrate significant Black-White differences in attitudes regarding religious coping with higher endorsements of religious coping among African Americans and Black Caribbeans (Caribbean Blacks). Comparisons of African Americans and Black Caribbeans revealed both similar and divergent patterns of demographic effects. For both African Americans and Black Caribbeans, women were more likely to utilize religious coping than men and married respondents were more likely than never married respondents to report utilizing prayer when dealing with a stressful situation. Further, for both groups, higher levels of education were associated with lower endorsements of the importance of prayer in dealing with stressful situations. Among African Americans only, Southerners were more likely than respondents who resided in other regions to endorse religious coping. Among Black Caribbeans, those who emigrated from Haiti were more likely than Jamaicans to utilize religious coping when dealing with a stressful episode. PMID:21048887

  13. Extinction rate, historical population structure and ecological role of the Caribbean monk seal.

    PubMed

    McClenachan, Loren; Cooper, Andrew B

    2008-06-22

    The productivity and biomass of pristine coral reef ecosystems is poorly understood, particularly in the Caribbean where communities have been impacted by overfishing and multiple other stressors over centuries. Using historical data on the spatial distribution and abundance of the extinct Caribbean monk seal (Monachus tropicalis), this study reconstructs the population size, structure and ecological role of this once common predator within coral reef communities, and provides evidence that historical reefs supported biomasses of fishes and invertebrates up to six times greater than those found on typical modern Caribbean reefs. An estimated 233,000-338,000 monk seals were distributed among 13 colonies across the Caribbean. The biomass of reef fishes and invertebrates required to support historical seal populations was 732-1018 gm(-2) of reefs, which exceeds that found on any Caribbean reef today and is comparable with those measured in remote Pacific reefs. Quantitative estimates of historically dense monk seal colonies and their consumption rates on pristine reefs provide concrete data on the magnitude of decline in animal biomass on Caribbean coral reefs. Realistic reconstruction of these past ecosystems is critical to understanding the profound and long-lasting effect of human hunting on the functioning of coral reef ecosystems.

  14. Extinction rate, historical population structure and ecological role of the Caribbean monk seal.

    PubMed

    McClenachan, Loren; Cooper, Andrew B

    2008-06-22

    The productivity and biomass of pristine coral reef ecosystems is poorly understood, particularly in the Caribbean where communities have been impacted by overfishing and multiple other stressors over centuries. Using historical data on the spatial distribution and abundance of the extinct Caribbean monk seal (Monachus tropicalis), this study reconstructs the population size, structure and ecological role of this once common predator within coral reef communities, and provides evidence that historical reefs supported biomasses of fishes and invertebrates up to six times greater than those found on typical modern Caribbean reefs. An estimated 233,000-338,000 monk seals were distributed among 13 colonies across the Caribbean. The biomass of reef fishes and invertebrates required to support historical seal populations was 732-1018 gm(-2) of reefs, which exceeds that found on any Caribbean reef today and is comparable with those measured in remote Pacific reefs. Quantitative estimates of historically dense monk seal colonies and their consumption rates on pristine reefs provide concrete data on the magnitude of decline in animal biomass on Caribbean coral reefs. Realistic reconstruction of these past ecosystems is critical to understanding the profound and long-lasting effect of human hunting on the functioning of coral reef ecosystems. PMID:18348965

  15. The Continuously Operating Caribbean Observational Network (COCONet): Supporting Regional Development of Geoscience Research Across the Circum-Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, J.; Miller, M. M.; Mattioli, G. S.; Wang, G.; Feaux, K.; Rowan, L.; La Femina, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Continuously Operating Caribbean Observational Network (COCONet) is a National Science Foundation (NSF) funded infrastructure project that stretches across the circum-Caribbean to include Central America and the northern portions of South America. Its objective is to develop a large-scale network of geodetic and atmospheric infrastructure to support a broad range of geoscience and atmospheric investigations and enable research on process-oriented science with direct relevance to geo-hazards. The network includes over 60 new and refurbished continuously operating Global Positioning System (GPS) and surface meterology stations. It will also include data from at least 60 existing stations that are being operated by one of our more than 40 regional partners. As COCONet approaches the completion of its build-out phase, it is appropriate to evaluate the activities associated with the project that facilitate capacity building. These activities include three workshops to solicit feedback from regional partners regarding science objectives, station location, and long-term network operation. COCONet graduate research fellowships have been used to support nine students, with seven from countries within the COCONet footprint. The establishment of three regional data and archive centers to foster access to data and promote free and open data standards. Lastly, two Pan American Advanced Studies Institute (PASI) workshops on topics that are central to the main goals of COCONet were also organized to engage early career scientists who are interested in working on topics that are directly relevant to the region. Perhaps the most significant effort on expanding capacity in the region is the recent deployment of a station in Camaguey, Cuba with full support from both the U.S. and Cuban governments. This presentation summarizes the activities of the COCONet project to enhance and support both the human resource development and technical capabilities within the region.

  16. Oceanic Remnants In The Caribbean Plate: Origin And Loss Of Related LIPs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giunta, G.

    2005-12-01

    The modern Caribbean Plate is an independent lithospheric entity, occupying more than 4 Mkm2 and consisting of the remnants of little deformed Cretaceous oceanic plateau of the Colombia and Venezuela Basins (almost 1 Mkm2) and the Palaeozoic-Mesozoic Chortis continental block (about 700,000 km2), both bounded by deformed marginal belts. The northern (Guatemala and Greater Antilles) and the southern (northern Venezuela) plate margins are marked by collisional zones, whereas the western (Central America Isthmus) and the eastern (Lesser Antilles) margins are represented by convergent boundaries and their magmatic arcs, all involving ophiolitic terranes. The evolutionary history of the Caribbean Plate since the Jurassic-Early Cretaceous encompasses plume, accretionary, and collisional tectonics, the evidence of which has been recorded in the oceanic remnants of lost LIPs, as revealed in: i) the MORB to OIB thickened crust of the oceanic plateau, including its un-deformed or little deformed main portion, and scattered deformed tectonic units; ii) ophiolitic tectonic units of MORB affinity and the rock blocks in ophiolitic melanges; iii) intra-oceanic, supra subduction magmatic sequences with IAT and CA affinities. The Mesozoic oceanic LIPs, from which the remnants of the Caribbean Plate have been derived, have been poorly preserved during various episodes of the intra-oceanic convergence, either those related to the original proto-Caribbean oceanic realm or those connected with two eo-Caribbean stages of subduction. The trapped oceanic plateau of the Colombia and Venezuela Basins is likely to be an unknown portion of a bigger crustal element of a LIP, similar to the Ontong-Java plateau. The Jurassic-Early Cretaceous proto-Caribbean oceanic domain consists of oceanic crust generated at multiple spreading centres; during the Cretaceous, part of this crust was thickened to form an oceanic plateau with MORB and OIB affinities. At the same time, both South and North American

  17. The perspectives of Caribbean high school students' experiences in American science classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Renae Luenell

    The purpose of this study was to describe the perspectives of Caribbean high school students' experiences in American science classrooms. Research suggests that psychological, cultural, and socioeconomic perspectives influence the science experiences of African Americans or Blacks; the result of which is under-representation (Lewis et al., 2000). Nonetheless, what is uncertain is if these and other perspectives are similar to the science experiences of Caribbeans who also are majority black by race and rank as the 3 rd largest immigrant population in America's schools (Suarez-Orozco, 2000). Questions guiding this study were: (1) What are the perspectives of Caribbean high school students' experiences in American science classrooms? (2) What can we learn from the perspectives of Caribbean high school students' science experiences that may address issues of participation and interest; consequently, influencing the overall performance of ethnic minorities in school science? Sociocultural theory provides the framework for the analysis of the study. Four Caribbean born students in an American high school participated in this naturalistic qualitative research. A constant comparative method was used to categorize and analyze the data and uncover meaningful patterns that emerged from the four interviews and written documents. Although there were similarities between African Americans' science experiences as documented in the literature and that of Caribbeans in this study, the Caribbean participants relied on prior native experiences to dictate their perspectives of their science experiences in America. According to Caribbean students, American science high schools classrooms utilize an objective style of assessments; are characterized by a lack of teacher support; allow behavioral problems in the classroom; and function through different communication styles than the native Caribbean science classroom environment. This study implies science educators should be sensitive

  18. The CAMI Project - Weather and Climate Services for Caribbean Food Security

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trotman, Adrian; Van Meerbeeck, Cedric

    2013-04-01

    Food security is major focus of Caribbean governments, with production being of particular concern. For the past three decades, Caribbean agriculture has been declining in relative importance, both in terms of its contribution to GDP and its share of the labour force. One of the problems Caribbean agriculture faces is the destructive impacts from weather and climate extremes. These include flood, drought, extreme temperatures, and strong winds from tropical cyclones. Other potential disasters, such as from pests and diseases attacks, are also weather and climate driven. These make weather and climate information critically important to decision-making in agriculture in the Caribbean region. In an effort to help reduce weather and climate related risks to the food security sector, The Caribbean Institute for Meteorology and Hydrology, along with its partners the Caribbean Agricultural Research and Development Institute, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and ten National Meteorological Services from within the Caribbean Community launched and implemented the Caribbean Agrometeorological Initiative (CAMI). From 2010 to 2013, CAMI set out to provide relevant information to farmers, and the industry in general, for decision and policy making. The project is funded by the European Union through the Science and Technology Programme of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group of Countries' (ACP). The overarching objective of CAMI was to increase and sustain agricultural productivity at the farm level in the Caribbean region through improved applications of weather and climate information, using an integrated and coordinated approach. Currently, this is done through (i) provision of relevant climate information appropriately disseminated, (ii) predictions on seasonal rainfall and temperature, (iii) support for improved irrigation management, (iv) the development of strategically selected weather-driven pest and disease models, (v) use of crop simulation models

  19. Status and trends of Caribbean coral reefs: 1970-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, Jeremy; Donovan, Mary; Cramer, Katie; Lam, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    vigorously communicate results in simple and straightforward terms to foster more effective conservation and management. This and subsequent reports will focus on separate biogeographic regions in a stepwise fashion and combine all of the results for a global synthesis in the coming years. We began in the wide Caribbean region because the historical data are so extensive and to refine methods of analysis before moving on to other regions. This report documents quantitative trends for Caribbean reef corals, macroalgae, sea urchins, and fishes based on data from 90 reef locations over the past 43 tears. This is the first report to combine all these disparate kinds of data in a single place to explore how the different major components of coral reef ecosystems interact on a broadly regional oceanic scale. We obtained data from more than 35,000 ecological surveys carried out by 78 principal investigators (PIs) and some 200 colleagues working in 34 countries, states, and territories throughout the wide Caribbean region. We conducted two workshops in Panama and Brisbane, Australia to bring together people who provided the data to assist in data quality control, analysis, and synthesis. The first workshop at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in the Republic of Panama 29 April to 5 May, 2012 included scientists from 18 countries and territories to verify and expand the database and to conduct exploratory analyses of status and trends. Preliminary results based on the Panama workshop were presented to the DC Marine Community and Smithsonian Institution Senate of Scientists in May 2012 and at the International Coral Reef Symposium (ICRS) and annual ICRI meeting in Cairns, Australia in July 2012. The second workshop in Brisbane, Australia in December 2012 brought together eight coral reef scientists for more detailed data analysis and organization of results for this report and subsequent publications. Subsequent presentations to solicit comments while the report was

  20. Parrotfish Size: A Simple yet Useful Alternative Indicator of Fishing Effects on Caribbean Reefs?

    PubMed Central

    Vallès, Henri; Oxenford, Hazel A.

    2014-01-01

    There is great need to identify simple yet reliable indicators of fishing effects within the multi-species, multi-gear, data-poor fisheries of the Caribbean. Here, we investigate links between fishing pressure and three simple fish metrics, i.e. average fish weight (an estimate of average individual fish size), fish density and fish biomass, derived from (1) the parrotfish family, a ubiquitous herbivore family across the Caribbean, and (2) three fish groups of “commercial” carnivores including snappers and groupers, which are widely-used as indicators of fishing effects. We hypothesize that, because most Caribbean reefs are being heavily fished, fish metrics derived from the less vulnerable parrotfish group would exhibit stronger relationships with fishing pressure on today’s Caribbean reefs than those derived from the highly vulnerable commercial fish groups. We used data from 348 Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA) reef-surveys across the Caribbean to assess relationships between two independent indices of fishing pressure (one derived from human population density data, the other from open to fishing versus protected status) and the three fish metrics derived from the four aforementioned fish groups. We found that, although two fish metrics, average parrotfish weight and combined biomass of selected commercial species, were consistently negatively linked to the indices of fishing pressure across the Caribbean, the parrotfish metric consistently outranked the latter in the strength of the relationship, thus supporting our hypothesis. Overall, our study highlights that (assemblage-level) average parrotfish size might be a useful alternative indicator of fishing effects over the typical conditions of most Caribbean shallow reefs: moderate-to-heavy levels of fishing and low abundance of highly valued commercial species. PMID:24466009

  1. Parrotfish size: a simple yet useful alternative indicator of fishing effects on Caribbean reefs?

    PubMed

    Vallès, Henri; Oxenford, Hazel A

    2014-01-01

    There is great need to identify simple yet reliable indicators of fishing effects within the multi-species, multi-gear, data-poor fisheries of the Caribbean. Here, we investigate links between fishing pressure and three simple fish metrics, i.e. average fish weight (an estimate of average individual fish size), fish density and fish biomass, derived from (1) the parrotfish family, a ubiquitous herbivore family across the Caribbean, and (2) three fish groups of "commercial" carnivores including snappers and groupers, which are widely-used as indicators of fishing effects. We hypothesize that, because most Caribbean reefs are being heavily fished, fish metrics derived from the less vulnerable parrotfish group would exhibit stronger relationships with fishing pressure on today's Caribbean reefs than those derived from the highly vulnerable commercial fish groups. We used data from 348 Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA) reef-surveys across the Caribbean to assess relationships between two independent indices of fishing pressure (one derived from human population density data, the other from open to fishing versus protected status) and the three fish metrics derived from the four aforementioned fish groups. We found that, although two fish metrics, average parrotfish weight and combined biomass of selected commercial species, were consistently negatively linked to the indices of fishing pressure across the Caribbean, the parrotfish metric consistently outranked the latter in the strength of the relationship, thus supporting our hypothesis. Overall, our study highlights that (assemblage-level) average parrotfish size might be a useful alternative indicator of fishing effects over the typical conditions of most Caribbean shallow reefs: moderate-to-heavy levels of fishing and low abundance of highly valued commercial species. PMID:24466009

  2. Building the Weather to Climate Bridge: The Caribbean Rain-Belt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, T. L.

    2015-12-01

    An annual bimodal rainfall cycle with peaks during the late spring and late summer is observed throughout the Intra-American Sea. A rainfall minimum occurs after the late spring early rainfall season (ERS) and is known as the "mid-summer drought" (MSD). Despite the interest in the well-studied MSD, there is a lack of research describing the onset and variability of the ERS. Rainfall during the ERS is important for Caribbean farmers as it moistens the soil after the dry season and can provide a catalyst for significant agricultural success. Contrary to the acceptance of long term regional anecdotal evidence, heavy rainfall during the ERS is not simply the result of mid-latitude fronts. Instead, heavy rainfall during the ERS arises through a series of storms or "weather events" that result from the simultaneous occurrence of two primary ingredients over the region: upper tropospheric uplift dynamics and lower tropospheric tropical moisture advection steered by the "Panama Low". A seasonal rainfall pattern emerges during the late spring in the western Caribbean, known as the Caribbean rain-belt, from the accumulated rainfall of each weather event during the ERS. During some years the Caribbean rain-belt is weak or absent, however, it remains a climatological rainfall feature that is shaped by the consistency of late spring weather events. Sub-daily rainfall time series' from the COCONet rain gauge network are used to construct the pattern of daily weather events that are then used to decompose the climatological Caribbean rain-belt. In addition, sub-daily rainfall observations are used to calculate the percent of seasonal rainfall that originates from the Caribbean rain-belt. Farmers depend on the succession of ERS weather events that shape the Caribbean rain-belt, but deadly flooding and landslides have also been recorded along the its path

  3. Materials science and metallurgy of the Caribbean steel drum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreyra Tello, Everaldo

    The fabrication of a steel drum (or steelpan), especially the sinking of the drum head by hand with a hammer, has been examined in detail utilizing light metallography (LM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Residual microstructures corresponding to reductions in thickness of up to 50% at the bottom of the drum-head indicate that dislocation densities in the low carbon (0.04 to 0.09% C), ferritic steels, can exceed 1010 cm -2. This substructure in conjunction with a grain structure consisting of elongated grains produces hardness increases of up to 45% at the bottom of the drum head. The heat treatment (or ``burning'') of the Caribbean steel drum is an essential stage in the fabrication process and has been found to involve strain aging, which increases the hardness by an additional 5 to 20%. This is especially prominent in drum steels containing from 0.04 to 0.09% C. The strain aging combined with the strain hardening applied to the drum head sinking and note fabrication process, produces a requisite elastic-plastic interaction which allows for multi-harmonic tuning and the creation of the unique chromatic tones and harmonic overtones which are characteristic of the various instruments. These unique features of note vibrations were observed by comparing impact hardness profiles with the corresponding static Vickers hardness measurements for actual, tuned notes and the same, corresponding notes extracted from the drum head, respectively. Elastic-plastic and plastic hardness profiles were compared in unique color maps. In an effort to understand the influence of deformation on the sound of the steel drum, circular disks simulating free, ideal notes, and utilizing 316 stainless steel plates (0.05% C), were cold rolled to reductions up to 40%. Disks were hung on a wire through a hole drilled on the edge of the disk, and hit with a heavy (tungsten alloy) mallet to record the acoustic sound spectra. Requisite amounts of carbon interact with dislocations in

  4. Octocoral Species Assembly and Coexistence in Caribbean Coral Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Johanna; Sánchez, Juan A.

    2015-01-01

    Background What are the determinant factors of community assemblies in the most diverse ecosystem in the ocean? Coral reefs can be divided in continental (i.e., reefs that develop on the continental shelf, including siliciclastic reefs) and oceanic (i.e., far off the continental shelf, usually on volcanic substratum); whether or not these habitat differences impose community-wide ecological divergence or species exclusion/coexistence with evolutionary consequences, is unknown. Methods Studying Caribbean octocorals as model system, we determined the phylogenetic community structure in a coral reef community, making emphasis on species coexistence evidenced on trait evolution and environmental feedbacks. Forty-nine species represented in five families constituted the species pool from which a phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using mtDNA. We included data from 11 localities in the Western Caribbean (Colombia) including most reef types. To test diversity-environment and phenotype-environment relationships, phylogenetic community structure and trait evolution we carried out comparative analyses implementing ecological and evolutionary approaches. Results Phylogenetic inferences suggest clustering of oceanic reefs (e.g., atolls) contrasting with phylogenetic overdispersion of continental reefs (e.g., reefs banks). Additionally, atolls and barrier reefs had the highest species diversity (Shannon index) whereas phylogenetic diversity was higher in reef banks. The discriminant component analysis supported this differentiation between oceanic and continental reefs, where continental octocoral species tend to have greater calyx apertures, thicker branches, prominent calyces and azooxanthellate species. This analysis also indicated a clear separation between the slope and the remaining habitats, caused by the presence or absence of Symbiodinium. K statistic analysis showed that this trait is conserved as well as the branch shape. Discussion There was strong octocoral

  5. 350 Year Cloud Reconstruction Deduced from Northeast Caribbean Coral Proxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, A.; Sammarco, P. W.; Mikolajewicz, U.; Jury, M.; Zanchettin, D.

    2014-12-01

    Clouds are a major factor influencing the global climate and its response to external forcing through their implications for the global hydrological cycle, and hence for the planetary radiative budget. Clouds also contribute to regional climates and their variability through, e.g., the changes they induce in regional precipitation patterns. There have been very few studies of decadal and longer-term changes in cloud cover in the tropics and sub-tropics, both over land and the ocean. In the tropics, there is great uncertainty regarding how global warming will affect cloud cover. Observational satellite data are too short to unambiguously discern any temporal trends in cloud cover. Corals generally live in well-mixed coastal regions and can often record environmental conditions of large areas of the upper ocean. This is particularly the case at low latitudes. Scleractinian corals are sessile, epibenthic fauna, and the type of environmental information recorded at the location where the coral has been living is dependent upon the species of coral considered and proxy index of interest. Skeletons of scleractinian corals are considered to provide among the best records of high-resolution (sub-annual) environmental variability in the tropical and sub-tropical oceans. Zooxanthellate hermatypic corals in tropical and sub-tropical seas precipitate CaCO3 skeletons as they grow. This growth is made possible through the manufacture of CaCO3crystals, facilitated by the zooxanthellae. During the process of crystallization, the holobiont binds carbon of different isotopes into the crystals. Stable carbon isotope concentrations vary with a variety of environmental conditions. In the Caribbean, d13C in corals of the species Montastraea faveolata can be used as a proxy for changes in cloud cover. In this contribution, we will demonstrate that the stable isotope 13C varies concomitantly with cloud cover for the northeastern Caribbean region. Using this proxy we have been able to

  6. Migration transition in small Northern and Eastern Caribbean states.

    PubMed

    Mcelroy, J L; De Albuquerque, K

    1988-01-01

    1 area of intra-Caribbean migration that has been overlooked is the "migration transition"--the transformation of rapidly modernizing societies from net labor exporters to net labor importers. This article assembles 8 case studies to 1) briefly present a spectrum of migration experiences in the Caribbean, 2) uncover some transitions under way, 3) pinpoint the forces that underlie the migration transition, and 4) point out some of the more important policy implications of labor migration reversals. The 8 island societies sampled for illustration purposes include 1) the Bahamas and the US Virgin Islands as post-migration transition societies (Zelinsky's advanced society), 2) the British Virgin Islands and the Cayman Islands as undergoing transition (Zelinsky's late transitional society), and 3) Anguilla, St. Kitts-Nevis, Turks and Caicos, and Montserrat as premigration transition societies (Zelinsky's early transitional society). Population data for the islands were derived primarily from the West Indian censuses and government statistics. These 8 historical sketches reveal certain commonalities. All are at various stages in a long-term economic restructuring to displace traditional staple crops with more income elastic, high value export services. In such societies, population growth and progress along the migration transition is an increasing function of this kind of successful export substitution. In addition, along the migration and economic transitions, such insular economies exhibit a relatively large public sector (20-30% of all activity), declining unemployment, increasing fiscal autonomy, and are committed to a development strategy remarkably similar to the "successful" model of the Bahamas and the US Virgin Islands. Cursory evidence suggests that, because of intersectoral competition for land and labor, there is an inverse relationship between farm effort/manufacturing employment and tourism intensity. This review suggests that small islands undergoing

  7. Photochemical free radical production rates in the eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dister, Brian; Zafiriou, Oliver C.

    1993-02-01

    Potential photochemical production rates of total (NO-scavengeable) free radicals were surveyed underway (> 900 points) in the eastern Caribbean and Orinoco delta in spring and fall 1988. These data document seasonal trends and large-scale (˜ 10-1000 km) variability in the pools of sunlight-generated reactive transients, which probably mediate a major portion of marine photoredox transformations. Radical production potential was detectable in all waters and was reasonably quantifiable at rates above 0.25 nmol L-1 min-1 sun-1. Radical production rates varied from ˜ 0.1-0.5 nmol L-1 min-1 of full-sun illumination in "blue water" to > 60 nmol L-1 min-1 in some estuarine waters in the high-flow season. Qualitatively, spatiotemporal potential rate distributions strikingly resembled that of "chlorophyll" (a riverine-influence tracer of uncertain specificity) in 1979-1981 CZCS images of the region [Müller-Karger et al., 1988] at all scales. Basin-scale occurrence of greatly enhanced rates in fall compared to spring is attributed to terrestrial chromophore inputs, primarily from the Orinoco River, any contributions from Amazon water and nutrient-stimulus effects could not be resolved. A major part of the functionally photoreactive colored organic matter (COM) involved in radical formation clearly mixes without massive loss out into high-salinity waters, although humic acids may flocculate in estuaries. A similar conclusion applies over smaller scales for COM as measured optically [Blough et al., this issue]. Furthermore, optical absorption and radical production rates were positively correlated in the estuarine region in fall. These cruises demonstrated that photochemical techniques are now adequate to treat terrestrial photochemical chromophore inputs as an estuarine mixing problem on a large scale, though the ancillary data base does not currently support such an analysis in this region. Eastern Caribbean waters are not markedly more reactive at comparable salinities

  8. Magnetic vector data from the western Caribbean reveal possible origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barckhausen, U.; Engels, U.

    2013-12-01

    During a cruise with RV Meteor in the spring of 2010, magnetic measurements were carried out in the central and western Caribbean with up to six magnetic sensors deployed at the same time. These were i) a towed gradiometer consisting of two Overhauser sensors, ii) two towed vector magnetometers, and iii) two shipboard oriented vector magnetometers. While the gradiometer data provide total field magnetic anomalies free from external variations, the vector data can be analyzed with different methods in the space and wavenumber domains. In the case of the towed vector data, attitude control is challenging whereas shipboard data require a very thorough compensation for the ship's magnetic field. The data were analyzed with the goal to gain insight into the origin of the basement rocks especially of the western Caribbean. Position and strike direction of magnetic anomalies in the Columbia basin possibly hold the key to distinguish between an origin of the crust in the Pacific ocean and an alternative in situ formation between the Americas. On six long profiles in the Columbia basin and adjacent regions we find consistently strike directions of the magnetic anomalies around N100°E which seems to be incompatible with a Pacific origin of the crust. Three Project Magnet aeromagnetic vector profiles crossing the research area at different angles were analyzed with the same method and yield very similar results. In our interpretation, the crust underlying the Columbia basin formed during the Cretaceous at a roughly E-W trending spreading center between the Americas. Since the crust likely formed during the Cretaceous Superchron (C 34), the strike direction we find in our data probably does not represent typical seafloor spreading anomalies. Instead we believe it is related to changes in the intensity of the Earth's magnetic field which are known to have left correlated traces in oceanic crust formed during this period. The analysis methods we used are sensitive to intensity

  9. Perspectives on communication problems in the English-speaking Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Okwesa, B A

    1984-03-01

    The Caribbean is experiencing a host of serious socioeconomic problems that prevent the majority of the population from realizing and maintaining a satisfactory standard of living. Food and Nutrition Surveys of some countries identified a lack of information on health, food, and nutrition as a primary reason for the prevalence of malnutrition, infectious diseases, and nutrition related diseases. "Misinformation" creates an often insurmountable barrier to effective communication between source and receiver, in this case the health, food, and nutrition sector and the wider community. Misinformation occurs when the message is either incorrect, incomplete, inconsistent with other messages in the same program, or contradictory. This element of "misinformation" can negate the effectiveness of the message and an entire communication program. Some examples are cited which show that in programs aimed at effecting change in attitude or behavior it is essential to ensure that messages are clearly communicated to avoid misunderstanding and the right infrastructure is in place for the innovation proposed by the message to be carried out. In the Jamaica Nutrition Education Program (JNEP) were used to communicate the messages. Evaluation revealed that health staff were providing incorrect and contradictory advice about breastfeeding, which showed that they lacked basic information on the subject. In Barbados, despite an intensified health education campaign, face to face instruction in the clinics, and extensive use of the Caribbean Food and Nutrition Institute (CFNI) Breastfeeding Package as well as other locally developed materials, a marked decline in breastfeeding was recorded over the 1969-81 survey period. Misinformation and misunderstanding among mothers were identified as the key reasons for the failure of breastfeeding. In relation to the decline in breaastfeeding and incorrect weaning practices, mass media was implicated as luring mothers away from natural feeding

  10. Coral diseases and bleaching on Colombian Caribbean coral reefs.

    PubMed

    Navas-Camacho, Raúl; Gil-Agudelo, Diego Luis; Rodríguez-Ramírez, Alberto; Reyes-Nivia, María Catalina; Garzón-Ferreira, Jaime

    2010-05-01

    Since 1998 the National Monitoring System for the Coral Reefs of Colombia (SIMAC) has monitored the occurrence of coral bleaching and diseases in some Colombian coral reefs (permanent stations at San Andres Island, Rosario Islands, Tayrona, San Bernardo Islands and Urabá). The main purpose is to evaluate their health status and to understand the factors that have been contributing to their decline. To estimate these occurrences, annual surveys in 126 permanent belt transects (10 x 2m) with different depth intervals (3-6 meters, 9-12 meters and 15-18 meters) are performed at all reef sites. Data from the 1998-2004 period, revealed that San Andrés Island had many colonies with diseases (38.9 colonies/m2), and Urabá had high numbers with bleaching (54.4 colonies/m2). Of the seven reported coral diseases studied, Dark Spots Disease (DSD), and White Plague Disease (WPD) were noteworthy because they occurred in all Caribbean monitored sites, and because of their high interannual infection incidence. Thirty five species of scleractinian corals were affected by at least one disease and a high incidence of coral diseases on the main reef builders is documented. Bleaching was present in 34 species. During the whole monitoring period, Agaricia agaricites and Siderastrea siderea were the species most severely affected by DSD and bleaching, respectively. Diseases on species such as Agaricia fragilis, A. grahamae, A. humilis, Diploria clivosa, Eusmilia fastigiata, Millepora complanata, and Mycetophyllia aliciae are recorded for first time in Colombia. We present bleaching and disease incidences, kinds of diseases, coral species affected, reef localities studied, depth intervals of surveys, and temporal (years) variation for each geographic area. This variation makes difficult to clearly determine defined patterns or general trends for monitored reefs. This is the first long-term study of coral diseases and bleaching in the Southwestern Caribbean, and one of the few long

  11. Sedimentary archives of extreme flooding events in the Northeastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodruff, J. D.; Donnelly, J. P.; Scileppi, E.

    2004-12-01

    Flooding associated with both hurricanes and tsunamis can be extremely hazardous to coastal communities. Accurately reconstructing the past history and intensity of these extreme events is valuable when assessing future risks to specific coastal regions. Overwash deposits preserved within backbarrier lagoons and salt ponds can provide a means for documenting previous flooding activity; however, the details of how these individual flooding events are recorded within these environments is still not completely understood. An analysis of sediment cores collected from a lagoon system in the Northeastern Caribbean (Laguna Playa Grande, Vieques, Puerto Rico) reveal coarse-grained deposits interlaminated within fine-grain lagoon sediments. These coarse-grained laminae consist of beach and nearshore sediments and can be mapped across the lagoon. These coarse-grained strata are likely overwash deposits that may provide a high-resolution record of extreme flooding events in the region over the last 5000 years. Understanding the sedimentary record of historical events of known intensity and duration is necessary, however, in order to make inferences about the cause of prehistoric coarse-grained layers. Vieques has experienced relatively little coastal development and contains a well documented history of storm and tsunami activity since its colonization in the 16th century. The island thus provides an excellent opportunity to study how recent extreme flooding events have been preserved in a natural lagoon system. Overwash deposits preserved at Laguna Playa Grande over the last 200 years are analyzed in order to identify which historically documented flooding events appear to have left a sedimentological record. These deposits are initially identified based on high resolution grain-size analysis and x-radiographic imaging. Activity levels for Pb-210 and C-137 are measured to date recent sediments (over the past 200 yrs) and to link individual coarse-grained strata with

  12. Hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia hydrochemical aspects of major Pacific and caribbean rivers of colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Restrepo, J. D.

    2003-04-01

    Although the South American continent includes three of the largest river basins of the world, the Amazon, the Orinoco, and the Paraná, with some of the highest discharges and sediment loads, a number of comparatively smaller systems in Colombia carry a significant share of sediment and dissolved loads from the continent. Fifteen rivers west of the Cordilleras in South America discharge a combined 254 km3 yr-1 or 8020 m3 s-1 of water into the Pacific. The San Juan River has the highest water discharge (2550 m3 s-1), sediment load (16 x 106 t yr-1), and basin-wide sediment yield (1150 t km-2 yr-1) on the entire west coast of South America. The best estimate of total sediment load into the Pacific Ocean from both gauged and ungauged rivers is 96 x 106 t yr-1. These results in a sediment yield estimate of 1,260 t km-2 yr-1. Analysis of 22 rivers draining into the Caribbean Sea indicate that the combined water discharge and sediment load are 338 km3 yr-1 and 168 x 106 t yr-1, respectively, corresponding to a sediment yield for the Colombia Caribbean drainage basins of 541 t km-2 yr-1, or approximately half of the yield for the Pacific basins of Colombia. The Magdalena River, the largest river system in Colombia, has an annual discharge of 7,232 m3 s-1. Load measurements during the 21 year period yielded an annual sediment load of 144 x 106 t yr-1. The Magdalena has the highest sediment yield (559 t km-2 yr-1) of any medium-sized or large river along the entire east coast of South America and contributes 9% of the total sediment load discharged into the Atlantic Ocean from eastern South America. The concentrations of major dissolved constituents and mass transport rates for major Colombian rivers were based on averages calculated from monthly samples from 1990-1993. Ca2+ and Mg2+ are the dominant ions, indicating that the water corresponds to the rock-dominated type. Dissolved inorganic carbon, present mostly as bicarbonate ions, constitutes almost 50% of the total

  13. School and Work: Does the Eastern Caribbean Education System Adequately Prepare Youth for the Global Economy? Skill Challenges in the Caribbean: Phase I Report. Report No. 38555

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Bank Publications, 2007

    2007-01-01

    As the global economy rapidly changes and new technologies are introduced, more highly skilled workers are required. In the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS), firms struggle to fill skilled positions due to a lack of qualified candidates, while the number of unemployed low skilled workers is growing. This paradox especially affects…

  14. The Cultural Constructs of Race, Gender, and Class: A Study of How Afro Caribbean and Indo Caribbean Women Academics Negotiate Their Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gregory, Sheila T.

    Women in the Caribbean share many different commonalities, but their experiences vary by culture and the socioeconomic development and infrastructure of the country in which they reside. The 44 women who participated in a study were all full-time faculty from the University of the West Indies, Mona, St. Augustine, and Cave Hill campuses located in…

  15. Late Jurassic breakup of the Proto-Caribbean and circum-global circulation across Pangea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgartner, Peter O.; Rojas-Agramonte, Yamirka; Sandoval-Gutierrez, Maria; Urbani, Franco; García-Delgado, Dora; Garban, Grony; Pérez Rodríguez, Mireya

    2013-04-01

    Based on earlier plate reconstructions, many authors have postulated a circum-global equatorial current system flowing through the Pangea breakup, the Tethys - Atlantic - Caribbean Seaway, to explain changes in global climate during the Middle and Late Jurassic. While a Toarcian (late Early Jurassic) breakup is well constrained for the Central Atlantic, the place and timing of initial ocean crust formation between the Americas (Gulf of Mexico or Proto-Caribbean?) is still poorly constrained. Ar/Ar ages (190 to 154 Ma) in the Tinaquillo ultramafic complex (NW-Venezuela) have been interpreted as a result of initial Proto-Caribbean rifting. However, the Tinaquillo is clearly a subconinental block and the cited ages age cannot be related with breakup. The Siquisique Ophiolite (NW-Venezuela), long known for the occurrence of Bajocian-early Bathonian ammonite fragments found in interpilow sediments, has previously been interpreted as an early Proto-Caribbean remnant. However, the ammonite fragments were recovered from blocks in a Paleogene tectonic mélange, whereas the main Siquisique ophiolite body seems to be of middle Cretaceous age, based on a few Ar/Ar dates and poorly preserved middle to late Cretaceous radiolarians, which we recovered from black cherts interbedded with volcanics. The best record of Proto-Caribbean rifting and breakup is preserved in the Guaniguanico Terrane of NW-Cuba, which represents a distal Yucatan (N-American) passive margin segment telescoped by Tertiary nappe tectonics. In this terrane middle to upper Oxfordian pelagic limestones encroach on the E-MORB type El Sabalo Basalts which represent the oldest known remnants of oceanic crust clearly identifiable as Proto-Caribbean. Older, syn-rift sediments in the Proto-Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico are known to be deltaic to shallow marine detrital, and evaporitic. Although oceanic crust seemingly started to form in the early Late Jurassic (158 my), recent plate tectonic reconstructions show

  16. Extreme-wave deposits in the Caribbean - towards an improved tsunami hazard assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engel, Max; Oetjen, Jan; May, S. Matthias; Brückner, Helmut

    2016-04-01

    Coastal zones worldwide experience considerable population pressure and demand for a management of hazards such as tsunamis. Tsunami hazard assessment is the initial step of the management process and requires reliable information on frequency and magnitude. In areas with short historical documentation, these long-term frequency-magnitude patterns, which are best explained by inverse power-law functions, mainly rely on geological traces. According to the historical record covering the last 520 years, Caribbean tsunami hazard is demonstrated by more than 80 mostly regional or local seismically induced events. However, based on two numerical hydrodynamic models of tsunamis spawning at the Muertos Trough and the South Caribbean Deformed Belt (SCBD), two trigger scenarios only marginally considered so far, we show that pan-Caribbean tsunamis can be taken into account as well. We furthermore review more than 50 studies for possible geological evidence of tsunamis in the Caribbean including fine-grained subsurface deposits and subaerial coarse clasts, and re-evaluate their implications for tsunami hazard assessment against state-of-the-art models of tsunami deposition. Only a limited number of reliable palaeotsunami records with consistent and robust age control were identified, hampering inter-island or interregional correlation of deposits. Separating between storm and tsunami transport of solitary boulders is very difficult in most cases. Those arranged in ridges or incorporated into polymodal ridge complexes or ramparts, respectively, which line many windward coasts of the Caribbean, can mainly be attributed to long-term formation during strong storms implying the overprinting of potential tsunami signatures. The quantification of parameters of tsunami flooding based on tsunami deposits, such as flow depth, inundation distance or flow velocity, by applying inverse and forward numerical models of sediment transport is still underdeveloped in the Caribbean and needs to

  17. The isolation and purification of a caribbean maitotoxin

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.E.; Knoepp, S.M.; Lanoue, B.A.

    1994-12-31

    The phenomenon known as red tide has been a topic of great interest in that there is concern that the scale and complexity of this natural phenomenon are expanding. It is known that the benthic dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus toxicus, produces a variety of polyether toxins that contaminate seafood and result in human illness. Maitotoxin (MTX) is one of the toxins that have been implicated in ciguatera seafood poisoning. There is a need for the development of a much broader understanding of the nature of the poisoning toxins. MTX cogeners can be difficult to isolate due to its size and chemical nature. A major goal is to obtain a purified standard of a Caribbean MTX so that more efficient assays can be developed to test seafood for the presence of toxins and thus avoid human harm. The primary goal of this project is to obtain large amounts of pure maitotoxin. The procedure described is also useful as a starting point for the purification of other toxins.

  18. Nursing empire: travel letters from Africa and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Howell, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    This essay analyses colonial nurses' travel letters, written from West Africa and the Caribbean between the turn of the century and 1920, in order to better understand the role of nurses in forming satellite versions of home. Though their primary function was to 'nurse empire' by helping to repair and maintain the bodies needed for imperial labour, nurses also contributed to written discourses supporting Britain's economic interests and political goals. Through careful consideration of primary archival material, this essay analyses the rhetorical modes that may have helped nurses gain professional and personal authority abroad. It considers nurses as moving within several kinds of imperial networks - geographical, institutional and discursive - and traces the shifts in their written self-representation according to these different contexts. In order to reform nursing, in the mid-nineteenth century Florence Nightingale defined the 'New Nurse's' ideal personality as well as her duties. Ever since, the nurse's 'character' has often been essentialised in literature and culture. As Julia Hallam observes in Nursing the Image (2000), the nurse is commonly portrayed as ministering angel, potential seductress, battleaxe or doctor's helpmate. The goal of this essay is to resist simplifying nurses' cultural significance, motivations or experiences by studying the multiple influences to which colonial nurses were subject and the shifting registers in their writing. PMID:24764748

  19. Post-settlement survivorship in two Caribbean broadcasting corals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Margaret W.

    2014-12-01

    The post-settlement phase of broadcast-spawned coral life histories is poorly known due to its almost complete undetectability and, hence, presumed low abundance in the field. We used lab-cultured settled polyps of two important Caribbean reef-building species with negligible larval recruitment to quantify early post-settlement survivorship (6-9 weeks) over multiple years/cohorts and differing orientation on a reef in the Florida Keys. Orbicella faveolata showed significantly and consistently better survivorship in vertical rather than horizontal orientation, but no discernable growth overall. Meanwhile, Acropora palmata showed no significant difference in survivorship between orientations, but significantly greater growth in the horizontal orientation. Both species showed significant variation in mean survivorship between cohorts of different years; 0-47 % for O. faveolata and 12-49 % for A. palmata over the observed duration. These results demonstrate wide variation in success of cohorts and important differences in the larval recruitment capacities of these two important but imperiled reef-building species.

  20. Late Pleistocene carbonate dissolution in the Venezuela Basin, Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Cofer-Shabica, N.B.; Peterson, L.C.

    1985-01-01

    Piston cores from water depths greater than 4000 m in the Venezuela Basin (Caribbean Sea) provide continuous late Pleistocene records of carbonate dissolution and accumulation. The authors examination of multiple dissolution indices indicate that, at least for the last 150,000 years, dissolution of carbonate in the Venezuela Basin has been more intense during interglacial than glacial periods, a pattern opposite to more general observations from the deep Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico. By virtue of its shallow sill depth (1815 m), the Venezuela Basin is relatively isolated from the mainstream of Atlantic thermohaline circulation, and presently is filled with homogeneous, relatively warm (3.8/sup 0/C) waters primarily derived from Upper North Atlantic Deep Water. During the last glacial, the enhanced preservation of carbonate in the Venezuela Basin suggests the presence of a less corrosive, more oxygenated water mass in the Atlantic near sill depth. However, this simple interpretations is potentially complicated by past changes in the rain of biogenic materials from surface waters to the deep basin in what must be an essentially closed system below sill depth. Their observations of increased interglacial dissolution may help to explain previously noted discrepancies in the local glacial to interglacial amplitude of delta/sup 18/O variations recorded by coccoliths and planktonic foraminifera.

  1. African Dust Concentrations in the Caribbean Island of Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayol-Bracero, O. L.; Morales-Garcia, F.; Santos-Figueroa, G.; Custals, L.; Izaguirre, M.; Prospero, J. M.; McDowell, W. H.

    2015-12-01

    African dust carried to the Tropical Atlantic and Caribbean was measured during the summer months of 2015. Atmospheric particles during dust events were collected at Cape San Juan, Puerto Rico on stacked-filter units and a high-volume sampler for the fine and coarse fractions and on a low-pressure impactor for size-resolved characterization. The filter ash gravimetric method was used to determine bulk dust mass concentrations for the first time in Puerto Rico. The method was validated analyzing same filter portions at CIAM/ACAR University of Puerto Rico and at RSMAS/MAC University of Miami. Filter's extracts were analyzed for ionic species measured by ion chromatography. The water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was determined with a total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer. Mineral dust concentrations in Puerto Rico were compared to those reported at Miami during summer periods. Comparison between dust concentration and regional PM10 data and results on size-resolved dust concentration will also be presented.

  2. Disease-related mutations among Caribbean Hispanics with familial dementia

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Joseph H; Kahn, Amanda; Cheng, Rong; Reitz, Christiane; Vardarajan, Badri; Lantigua, Rafael; Medrano, Martin; Jiménez-Velázquez, Ivonne Z; Williamson, Jennifer; Nagy, Peter; Mayeux, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic mutations in the three known genes – the amyloid precursor protein (APP), presenilin 1 (PSEN1), presenilin 2 (PSEN2) – are known to cause familial Alzheimer's disease (AD) and tend to be associated with early-onset AD. However, the frequency and risk associated with these mutations vary widely. In addition, mutations in the frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) genes – the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT), granulin (GRN) – have also been found to be associated with clinical AD. Here, we conducted targeted resequencing of the exons in genes encoding APP, PSEN1, PSEN2, GRN, and MAPT in 183 individuals from families with four or more affected relatives, presumed to be AD, and living in the Dominican Republic and Puerto Rico. We then performed linkage and family-based association analyses in carrier families, and genotyped 498 similarly aged unrelated controls from the same ethnic background. Twelve potentially pathogenic mutations were found to be associated with disease in 53 individuals in the five genes. The most frequently observed mutation was the p.Gly206Ala variant in PSEN1 present in 30 (57%) of those sequenced. In the combined linkage and association analyses several rare variants were associated with dementia. In Caribbean Hispanics with familial AD, potentially pathogenic variants were present in 29.2%, four were novel mutations, while eight had been previously observed. In addition, some family members carried variants in the GRN and MAPT genes which are associated with FTLD. PMID:25333068

  3. Caribbean mesophotic coral ecosystems are unlikely climate change refugia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler B; Gyory, Joanna; Brandt, Marilyn E; Miller, William J; Jossart, Jonathan; Nemeth, Richard S

    2016-08-01

    Deeper coral reefs experience reduced temperatures and light and are often shielded from localized anthropogenic stressors such as pollution and fishing. The deep reef refugia hypothesis posits that light-dependent stony coral species at deeper depths are buffered from thermal stress and will avoid bleaching-related mass mortalities caused by increasing sea surface temperatures under climate change. This hypothesis has not been tested because data collection on deeper coral reefs is difficult. Here we show that deeper (mesophotic) reefs, 30-75 m depth, in the Caribbean are not refugia because they have lower bleaching threshold temperatures than shallow reefs. Over two thermal stress events, mesophotic reef bleaching was driven by a bleaching threshold that declines 0.26 °C every +10 m depth. Thus, the main premise of the deep reef refugia hypothesis that cooler environments are protective is incorrect; any increase in temperatures above the local mean warmest conditions can lead to thermal stress and bleaching. Thus, relatively cooler temperatures can no longer be considered a de facto refugium for corals and it is likely that many deeper coral reefs are as vulnerable to climate change as shallow water reefs.

  4. Coral identity underpins architectural complexity on Caribbean reefs.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Filip, Lorenzo; Dulvy, Nicholas K; Côte, Isabelle M; Watkinson, Andrew R; Gill, Jennifer A

    2011-09-01

    The architectural complexity of ecosystems can greatly influence their capacity to support biodiversity and deliver ecosystem services. Understanding the components underlying this complexity can aid the development of effective strategies for ecosystem conservation. Caribbean coral reefs support and protect millions of livelihoods, but recent anthropogenic change is shifting communities toward reefs dominated by stress-resistant coral species, which are often less architecturally complex. With the regionwide decline in reef fish abundance, it is becoming increasingly important to understand changes in coral reef community structure and function. We quantify the influence of coral composition, diversity, and morpho-functional traits on the architectural complexity of reefs across 91 sites at Cozumel, Mexico. Although reef architectural complexity increases with coral cover and species richness, it is highest on sites that are low in taxonomic evenness and dominated by morpho-functionally important, reef-building coral genera, particularly Montastraea. Sites with similar coral community composition also tend to occur on reefs with very similar architectural complexity, suggesting that reef structure tends to be determined by the same key species across sites. Our findings provide support for prioritizing and protecting particular reef types, especially those dominated by key reef-building corals, in order to enhance reef complexity.

  5. Nursing empire: travel letters from Africa and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Howell, Jessica

    2012-01-01

    This essay analyses colonial nurses’ travel letters, written from West Africa and the Caribbean between the turn of the century and 1920, in order to better understand the role of nurses in forming satellite versions of home. Though their primary function was to ‘nurse empire’ by helping to repair and maintain the bodies needed for imperial labour, nurses also contributed to written discourses supporting Britain's economic interests and political goals. Through careful consideration of primary archival material, this essay analyses the rhetorical modes that may have helped nurses gain professional and personal authority abroad. It considers nurses as moving within several kinds of imperial networks – geographical, institutional and discursive – and traces the shifts in their written self-representation according to these different contexts. In order to reform nursing, in the mid-nineteenth century Florence Nightingale defined the ‘New Nurse's’ ideal personality as well as her duties. Ever since, the nurse's ‘character’ has often been essentialised in literature and culture. As Julia Hallam observes in Nursing the Image (2000), the nurse is commonly portrayed as ministering angel, potential seductress, battleaxe or doctor's helpmate. The goal of this essay is to resist simplifying nurses’ cultural significance, motivations or experiences by studying the multiple influences to which colonial nurses were subject and the shifting registers in their writing. PMID:24764748

  6. Status and trends of Caribbean coral reefs: 1970-2012

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jackson, Jeremy; Donovan, Mary; Cramer, Katie; Lam, Vivian

    2014-01-01

    vigorously communicate results in simple and straightforward terms to foster more effective conservation and management. This and subsequent reports will focus on separate biogeographic regions in a stepwise fashion and combine all of the results for a global synthesis in the coming years. We began in the wide Caribbean region because the historical data are so extensive and to refine methods of analysis before moving on to other regions. This report documents quantitative trends for Caribbean reef corals, macroalgae, sea urchins, and fishes based on data from 90 reef locations over the past 43 tears. This is the first report to combine all these disparate kinds of data in a single place to explore how the different major components of coral reef ecosystems interact on a broadly regional oceanic scale. We obtained data from more than 35,000 ecological surveys carried out by 78 principal investigators (PIs) and some 200 colleagues working in 34 countries, states, and territories throughout the wide Caribbean region. We conducted two workshops in Panama and Brisbane, Australia to bring together people who provided the data to assist in data quality control, analysis, and synthesis. The first workshop at the Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute (STRI) in the Republic of Panama 29 April to 5 May, 2012 included scientists from 18 countries and territories to verify and expand the database and to conduct exploratory analyses of status and trends. Preliminary results based on the Panama workshop were presented to the DC Marine Community and Smithsonian Institution Senate of Scientists in May 2012 and at the International Coral Reef Symposium (ICRS) and annual ICRI meeting in Cairns, Australia in July 2012. The second workshop in Brisbane, Australia in December 2012 brought together eight coral reef scientists for more detailed data analysis and organization of results for this report and subsequent publications. Subsequent presentations to solicit comments while the report was

  7. Rotorcraft-based emergency medical services in the Caribbean Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, R. W.; Alton, L. R.

    1987-01-01

    There is a pressing need for improved health care in general and emergency health care in particular throughout the Caribbean Basin. The importance of rotorcraft as an integral part of the needed system of emergency medical care in the region was investigated. Many of the larger countries in the region currently have the needed infrastructure to implement a national system of rotorcraft-based emergency medical centers within their borders. By helping to establish a system of rotorcraft based health care centers in strategic locations in the Lesser Antilles, the U.S. can assist the islands of the region by demonstrating the concept and establishing a potential training site for the other larger countries of the region. There is sufficient demand for rotorcraft based emergency health care within the Lesser Antilles to locate one center on the island of Puerto Rico and another one of the southern-most islands. With the use of fixed wing aircraft or long range helicopters, the two rotorcraft based centers could provide the region with rapid and efficient emergency health care. The superior speed and range of the XV-15 Tilt Rotor aircraft make it an attractive possibility for emergency transport and rescue in this region.

  8. Caribbean mesophotic coral ecosystems are unlikely climate change refugia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Tyler B; Gyory, Joanna; Brandt, Marilyn E; Miller, William J; Jossart, Jonathan; Nemeth, Richard S

    2016-08-01

    Deeper coral reefs experience reduced temperatures and light and are often shielded from localized anthropogenic stressors such as pollution and fishing. The deep reef refugia hypothesis posits that light-dependent stony coral species at deeper depths are buffered from thermal stress and will avoid bleaching-related mass mortalities caused by increasing sea surface temperatures under climate change. This hypothesis has not been tested because data collection on deeper coral reefs is difficult. Here we show that deeper (mesophotic) reefs, 30-75 m depth, in the Caribbean are not refugia because they have lower bleaching threshold temperatures than shallow reefs. Over two thermal stress events, mesophotic reef bleaching was driven by a bleaching threshold that declines 0.26 °C every +10 m depth. Thus, the main premise of the deep reef refugia hypothesis that cooler environments are protective is incorrect; any increase in temperatures above the local mean warmest conditions can lead to thermal stress and bleaching. Thus, relatively cooler temperatures can no longer be considered a de facto refugium for corals and it is likely that many deeper coral reefs are as vulnerable to climate change as shallow water reefs. PMID:26648385

  9. Decline and Local Extinction of Caribbean Eusocial Shrimp

    PubMed Central

    Duffy, J. Emmett; Macdonald III, Kenneth S.; Hultgren, Kristin M.; Chak, Tin Chi Solomon; Rubenstein, Dustin R.

    2013-01-01

    The tropical shrimp genus Synalpheus includes the only eusocial marine animals. In much of the Caribbean, eusocial species have dominated the diverse fauna of sponge-dwelling shrimp in coral rubble for at least the past two decades. Here we document a recent, dramatic decline and apparent local extinction of eusocial shrimp species on the Belize Barrier Reef. Our collections from shallow reefs in central Belize in 2012 failed to locate three of the four eusocial species formerly abundant in the area, and showed steep declines in colony size and increases in frequency of queenless colonies prior to their disappearance. Concordant with these declines, several nonsocial, pair-forming Synalpheus species increased in frequency. The decline in eusocial shrimp is explained in part by disappearance of two sponge species on which they specialize. Eusocial shrimp collections from Jamaica in 2012 showed similar patterns of decline in colony size and increased queenlessness compared with prior Jamaican collections. The decline and local extinction of eusocial shrimp happened against a backdrop of changes in coral assemblages during recent decades, and may reflect changes in abundance and quality of dead coral substratum and succession of the diverse cryptic organisms living within it. These changes document potentially worrisome declines in a unique taxon of eusocial marine animals. PMID:23418429

  10. How transpressive is the northern Caribbean plate boundary?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbeau, J.; Rolandone, F.; Leroy, S.; Meyer, B.; Mercier de Lépinay, B.; Ellouz-Zimmermann, N.; Momplaisir, R.

    2016-04-01

    Transpressive deformation at the northern Caribbean plate boundary is accommodated mostly by two major strike-slip faults, but the amount and location of accommodation of the compressional component of deformation are still debated. We collected marine geophysical data including multibeam bathymetry and multichannel seismic reflection profiles along this plate boundary around Hispaniola, in the Jamaica Passage, and in the Gulf of Gonâve. The data set allows us to image the offshore active strike-slip faults as well as the compressional structures. We confirm that the Enriquillo-Plantain-Garden Fault Zone (EPGFZ) in the Jamaica Passage has a primary strike-slip motion, as indicated by active left-lateral strike-slip-related structures, i.e., restraining bend, asymmetrical basin, en echelon pressures ridges, and horsetail splay. Based on topographic cross sections across the EPGFZ, we image a very limited compressional component, if any, for at least the western part of the Jamaica Passage. Toward the east of the Jamaica Passage, the fault trace becomes more complex, and we identify adjacent compressional structures. In the Gulf of Gonâve, distributed folding and thrust faulting of the most recent sediments indicate active pervasive compressional tectonics. Estimates of shortening in the Jamaica Passage and in the Gulf of Gonâve indicate an increase of the compressional component of deformation toward the east, which nonetheless remains very small compared to that inferred from block modeling based on GPS measurements.

  11. Nursing empire: travel letters from Africa and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Howell, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    This essay analyses colonial nurses' travel letters, written from West Africa and the Caribbean between the turn of the century and 1920, in order to better understand the role of nurses in forming satellite versions of home. Though their primary function was to 'nurse empire' by helping to repair and maintain the bodies needed for imperial labour, nurses also contributed to written discourses supporting Britain's economic interests and political goals. Through careful consideration of primary archival material, this essay analyses the rhetorical modes that may have helped nurses gain professional and personal authority abroad. It considers nurses as moving within several kinds of imperial networks - geographical, institutional and discursive - and traces the shifts in their written self-representation according to these different contexts. In order to reform nursing, in the mid-nineteenth century Florence Nightingale defined the 'New Nurse's' ideal personality as well as her duties. Ever since, the nurse's 'character' has often been essentialised in literature and culture. As Julia Hallam observes in Nursing the Image (2000), the nurse is commonly portrayed as ministering angel, potential seductress, battleaxe or doctor's helpmate. The goal of this essay is to resist simplifying nurses' cultural significance, motivations or experiences by studying the multiple influences to which colonial nurses were subject and the shifting registers in their writing.

  12. Cladistic biogeographic analysis suggests an early Caribbean diversification in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Tania; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Cao, Nathanaël; Ebach, Malte C; Morrone, Juan J

    2007-07-01

    The Great American Biotic Interchange has been the predominant paradigm for explaining biotic diversification in the Nearctic/Neotropical overlap or Mexican Transition Zone, which is commonly explained by the collision of the North and South American continental plates, which began in the Oligocene and fused both landmasses. In the most far-reaching cladistic biogeographical analysis of the area to date, evidence has been found supporting the existence of a remnant Caribbean region extending from eastern Mexico to southeastern USA, a hypothesis that challenges current views of the Great American Biotic Interchange and the Mexican Transition Zone. We show herein that an older terrane, which has drifted to the present day positions of Yucatan and Cuba, may be biogeographically linked to an early 'Gondwanan' biota of the Paleocene (ca. 60 Ma). The evidence indicates an east-west biotic divide in Mexico, existing before the collision and formation of Central America. The south-north division of the country, previously recognized by several authors as associated with the Great American Biotic Interchange and the Mexican Transition Zone, is of a younger age. PMID:17340118

  13. Planning cancer control in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Goss, Paul E; Lee, Brittany L; Badovinac-Crnjevic, Tanja; Strasser-Weippl, Kathrin; Chavarri-Guerra, Yanin; St Louis, Jessica; Villarreal-Garza, Cynthia; Unger-Saldaña, Karla; Ferreyra, Mayra; Debiasi, Márcio; Liedke, Pedro E R; Touya, Diego; Werutsky, Gustavo; Higgins, Michaela; Fan, Lei; Vasconcelos, Claudia; Cazap, Eduardo; Vallejos, Carlos; Mohar, Alejandro; Knaul, Felicia; Arreola, Hector; Batura, Rekha; Luciani, Silvana; Sullivan, Richard; Finkelstein, Dianne; Simon, Sergio; Barrios, Carlos; Kightlinger, Rebecca; Gelrud, Andres; Bychkovsky, Vladimir; Lopes, Gilberto; Stefani, Stephen; Blaya, Marcelo; Souza, Fabiano Hahn; Santos, Franklin Santana; Kaemmerer, Alberto; de Azambuja, Evandro; Zorilla, Andres Felipe Cardona; Murillo, Raul; Jeronimo, Jose; Tsu, Vivien; Carvalho, Andre; Gil, Carlos Ferreira; Sternberg, Cinthya; Dueñas-Gonzalez, Alfonso; Sgroi, Dennis; Cuello, Mauricio; Fresco, Rodrigo; Reis, Rui Manuel; Masera, Guiseppe; Gabús, Raúl; Ribeiro, Raul; Knust, Renata; Ismael, Gustavo; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Roth, Berta; Villa, Luisa; Solares, Argelia Lara; Leon, Marta Ximena; Torres-Vigil, Isabel; Covarrubias-Gomez, Alfredo; Hernández, Andrés; Bertolino, Mariela; Schwartsmann, Gilberto; Santillana, Sergio; Esteva, Francisco; Fein, Luis; Mano, Max; Gomez, Henry; Hurlbert, Marc; Durstine, Alessandra; Azenha, Gustavo

    2013-04-01

    Non-communicable diseases, including cancer, are overtaking infectious disease as the leading health-care threat in middle-income and low-income countries. Latin American and Caribbean countries are struggling to respond to increasing morbidity and death from advanced disease. Health ministries and health-care systems in these countries face many challenges caring for patients with advanced cancer: inadequate funding; inequitable distribution of resources and services; inadequate numbers, training, and distribution of health-care personnel and equipment; lack of adequate care for many populations based on socioeconomic, geographic, ethnic, and other factors; and current systems geared toward the needs of wealthy, urban minorities at a cost to the entire population. This burgeoning cancer problem threatens to cause widespread suffering and economic peril to the countries of Latin America. Prompt and deliberate actions must be taken to avoid this scenario. Increasing efforts towards prevention of cancer and avoidance of advanced, stage IV disease will reduce suffering and mortality and will make overall cancer care more affordable. We hope the findings of our Commission and our recommendations will inspire Latin American stakeholders to redouble their efforts to address this increasing cancer burden and to prevent it from worsening and threatening their societies.

  14. Cladistic biogeographic analysis suggests an early Caribbean diversification in Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escalante, Tania; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Cao, Nathanaël; Ebach, Malte C.; Morrone, Juan J.

    2007-07-01

    The Great American Biotic Interchange has been the predominant paradigm for explaining biotic diversification in the Nearctic/Neotropical overlap or Mexican Transition Zone, which is commonly explained by the collision of the North and South American continental plates, which began in the Oligocene and fused both landmasses. In the most far-reaching cladistic biogeographical analysis of the area to date, evidence has been found supporting the existence of a remnant Caribbean region extending from eastern Mexico to southeastern USA, a hypothesis that challenges current views of the Great American Biotic Interchange and the Mexican Transition Zone. We show herein that an older terrane, which has drifted to the present day positions of Yucatan and Cuba, may be biogeographically linked to an early ‘Gondwanan’ biota of the Paleocene (ca. 60 Ma). The evidence indicates an east west biotic divide in Mexico, existing before the collision and formation of Central America. The south north division of the country, previously recognized by several authors as associated with the Great American Biotic Interchange and the Mexican Transition Zone, is of a younger age.

  15. Cladistic biogeographic analysis suggests an early Caribbean diversification in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Escalante, Tania; Rodríguez, Gerardo; Cao, Nathanaël; Ebach, Malte C; Morrone, Juan J

    2007-07-01

    The Great American Biotic Interchange has been the predominant paradigm for explaining biotic diversification in the Nearctic/Neotropical overlap or Mexican Transition Zone, which is commonly explained by the collision of the North and South American continental plates, which began in the Oligocene and fused both landmasses. In the most far-reaching cladistic biogeographical analysis of the area to date, evidence has been found supporting the existence of a remnant Caribbean region extending from eastern Mexico to southeastern USA, a hypothesis that challenges current views of the Great American Biotic Interchange and the Mexican Transition Zone. We show herein that an older terrane, which has drifted to the present day positions of Yucatan and Cuba, may be biogeographically linked to an early 'Gondwanan' biota of the Paleocene (ca. 60 Ma). The evidence indicates an east-west biotic divide in Mexico, existing before the collision and formation of Central America. The south-north division of the country, previously recognized by several authors as associated with the Great American Biotic Interchange and the Mexican Transition Zone, is of a younger age.

  16. Energy and sustainable development in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Suding, P.H.

    1995-12-31

    There is a marked difference between the perception of the sustainable development problem in the industrialized countries and that prevailing in the countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LA&C). Whereas the industrialized countries seem concerned about the sustainability of their development in view of global climate change, developing countries in LA&C are looking for a sustainable development course that will lead them out of poverty and away from the destruction of the local environment. The industrialized countries perspective is apparent in the titles of the papers being presented at the IAEE Conference under the topic: Harmonizing Energy Policy, Environment, and Sustainable Economic Growth. A great number of titles and sessions focus on the apparent antagonism between economic growth and the environment. By environment one seems to primarily mean emissions into the air, especially greenhouse gas emissions. Probably the majority of the energy community of the industrial countries regards Latin America, on the one hand, as a holder of a large CO{sub 2} sink in danger of extinction and, on the other hand, as a potential new large contributor to greenhouse gas emissions.

  17. Caribbean basin framework, 4: Maracaibo basin, northwestern Venezuela

    SciTech Connect

    Lugo, J. )

    1991-03-01

    The Maracaibo basin is presently located in a topographic depression on the Maracaibo block, a triangular, fault-bounded block within the Caribbean-South America plate boundary of northwestern Venezuela. Intense oil exploration over the last 50 years has produced a large amount of seismic and well data that can be used to constrain four Jurassic to Recent tectonic and depositional events that affected the region: (1). Late Jurassic rift phase and subsidence along normal faults striking north-northeast across the floor of the basin; (2) Cretaceous to early Eocene subsidence recorded by shallow to deep marine carbonate and clastic rocks that thicken from south to north and completely cover Permian rocks of the Merida arch; (3) Eocene folding, thrusting, and initial reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as convergent strike-slip and reverse faults. Eocene clastic sediments are thickest in a narrow northwest-trending foredeep on the northeastern margin of the basin; (4) Late Miocene to Recent northwest-southeast convergence is marked by continued reactivation of Jurassic normal faults as reverse and left-lateral strike-slip faults, uplift of mountain ranges bordering the basin, and deposition of up to 10 km of clastic sediment.

  18. Health and entrepreneurship in four Caribbean Basin countries.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Cornelius A; Bailey, Henry; Hessels, Jolanda; van der Zwan, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The literature dealing with health and entrepreneurship has focused on developed countries. We use a sample of almost 5000 business owners and wage-workers from four Caribbean Basin countries to study this relationship. Analyses are performed using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor along with the Visual Analogue Scale of the EQ-5D-5L instrument as an overall health rating. The results show that business owners are healthier than wage-workers, which is in line with the findings from studies in developed countries. Furthermore, better health is associated with a lower likelihood for fear of business failure to be a deterrent to new business formation, a greater likelihood of self-belief in having the skills to run a business, and an increased recognition of start-up business opportunities among wage-workers. These positive associations between health and entrepreneurial perceptions provide new evidence about why less healthy individuals refrain from entrepreneurship. Finally, we find that the healthiest business owners run the companies with the highest growth expectations. PMID:26794274

  19. Marine managed areas and associated fisheries in the US Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Schärer-Umpierre, Michelle T; Mateos-Molina, Daniel; Appeldoorn, Richard; Bejarano, Ivonne; Hernández-Delgado, Edwin A; Nemeth, Richard S; Nemeth, Michael I; Valdés-Pizzini, Manuel; Smith, Tyler B

    2014-01-01

    The marine managed areas (MMAs) of the U.S. Caribbean are summarized and specific data-rich cases are examined to determine their impact upon fisheries management in the region. In this region, the productivity and connectivity of benthic habitats such as mangroves, seagrass and coral reefs is essential for many species targeted by fisheries. A minority of the 39 MMAs covering over 4000km(2) serve any detectable management or conservation function due to deficiencies in the design, objectives, compliance or enforcement. Fifty percent of the area within MMA boundaries had no-take regulations in the U.S. Virgin Islands, while Puerto Rico only had 3%. Six case studies are compared and contrasted to better understand the potential of these MMAs for fisheries management. Signs of success were associated with including sufficient areas of essential fish habitat (nursery, spawning and migration corridors), year-round no-take regulations, enforcement and isolation. These criteria have been identified as important in the conservation of marine resources, but little has been done to modify the way MMAs are designated and implemented in the region. Site-specific monitoring to measure the effects of these MMAs is needed to demonstrate the benefits to fisheries and gain local support for a greater use as a fisheries management tool. PMID:25358299

  20. [Arbovirus diseases in South America and Caribbean Islands (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Lhuillier, M; Pajot, F X; Mouchet, J; Robin, Y

    1981-01-01

    Historically, yellow fever has dominated arboviral diseases in South America and the Caribbean and sylvatic cases still occur every year (more than 200 in 1979). The dengue, by the very large number of cases occurring in the area during successive epidemics--the most important being the last one in 1977-1978--is a serious problem for public health, an epidemic of hemorrhagic dengue being a constant threat. Encephalitides are the third syndrome of arboviral etiology observed in the South American subcontinent. Some which preferably attack horses have been known for a long time whereas the one due to the Rocio virus of an even graver prognosis, was recently discovered. These diseases present a large range of epidemiological forms. Dengue is an example of an urban illness transmitted from man to man through the mosquito, Aedes aegypti. But most of the viruses circulate between vectors and wild vertebrates in sylvatic cycle. For some viruses, both mechanisms can be involved. It is the case for Oropouche virus and yellow fever even if at present the urban form is the only recorded for the latter.

  1. Does Dark-Spot Syndrome Experimentally Transmit among Caribbean Corals?

    PubMed Central

    Randall, Carly J.; Jordán-Garza, Adán G.; Muller, Erinn M.; van Woesik, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Over the last half-century, coral diseases have contributed to the rapid decline of coral populations throughout the Caribbean region. Some coral diseases appear to be potentially infectious, yet little is known about their modes of transmission. This study experimentally tested whether dark-spot syndrome on Siderastrea siderea was directly or indirectly transmissible to neighboring coral colonies. We also tested whether open wounds were necessary to facilitate disease transmission. At the completion of the experiments, we sampled bacterial communities on diseased, exposed, and healthy coral colonies to determine whether bacterial pathogens had transmitted to the susceptible colonies. We saw no evidence of either direct or waterborne transmission of dark-spot syndrome, and corals that received lesions by direct contact with diseased tissue, healed and showed no signs of infection. There were no significant differences among bacterial communities on healthy, exposed, and diseased colonies, although nine individual ribotypes were significantly higher in diseased corals compared with healthy and exposed corals, indicating a lack of transmission. Although our experiments do not fully refute the possibility that dark-spot syndrome is infectious and transmissible, our results suggest that in situ macroscopic signs of dark-spot syndrome are not always contagious. PMID:26788918

  2. Marine managed areas and associated fisheries in the US Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Schärer-Umpierre, Michelle T; Mateos-Molina, Daniel; Appeldoorn, Richard; Bejarano, Ivonne; Hernández-Delgado, Edwin A; Nemeth, Richard S; Nemeth, Michael I; Valdés-Pizzini, Manuel; Smith, Tyler B

    2014-01-01

    The marine managed areas (MMAs) of the U.S. Caribbean are summarized and specific data-rich cases are examined to determine their impact upon fisheries management in the region. In this region, the productivity and connectivity of benthic habitats such as mangroves, seagrass and coral reefs is essential for many species targeted by fisheries. A minority of the 39 MMAs covering over 4000km(2) serve any detectable management or conservation function due to deficiencies in the design, objectives, compliance or enforcement. Fifty percent of the area within MMA boundaries had no-take regulations in the U.S. Virgin Islands, while Puerto Rico only had 3%. Six case studies are compared and contrasted to better understand the potential of these MMAs for fisheries management. Signs of success were associated with including sufficient areas of essential fish habitat (nursery, spawning and migration corridors), year-round no-take regulations, enforcement and isolation. These criteria have been identified as important in the conservation of marine resources, but little has been done to modify the way MMAs are designated and implemented in the region. Site-specific monitoring to measure the effects of these MMAs is needed to demonstrate the benefits to fisheries and gain local support for a greater use as a fisheries management tool.

  3. Urban air pollution in Latin America and the Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Romieu, I.; Weitzenfeld, H.; Finkelman, J. )

    1991-09-01

    Urban air pollution has become an increasing problem in Latin America and the Caribbean. One reason is the rapid expansion in the size of the urban population. This phenomenon is associated with an increase in the number of vehicles and in energy utilization which, in addition to industrial processes often concentrated in the cities, are the primary sources of air pollution i n Latin American cities. The air quality standards established in such countries are frequently exceeded although control programs have been implemented. The urban areas more affected by anthropogenic pollutant emissions are Sao Paulo, Brazil; Santiago, Chile; and Mexico City. In Latin America, the population of cities with high priority air pollution problems include approximately 81 million people or 26.5 percent of the total urban population of Latin America, corresponding to 30 million children (<15 years), 47 million adults (15-59 years) and 4 million elderly people ({ge}60 years) who are exposed to air pollutant levels that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines for adequate health protection.

  4. Critical Decline of the Eastern Caribbean Sperm Whale Population

    PubMed Central

    Whitehead, Hal

    2016-01-01

    Sperm whale (Physeter macrocephalus) populations were expected to rebuild following the end of commercial whaling. We document the decline of the population in the eastern Caribbean by tracing demographic changes of well-studied social units. We address hypotheses that, over a ten-year period of dedicated effort (2005–2015), unit size, numbers of calves and/or calving rates have each declined. Across 16 units, the number of adults decreased in 12 units, increased in two, and showed no change in two. The number of adults per unit decreased at -0.195 individuals/yr (95% CI: -0.080 to -0.310; P = 0.001). The number of calves also declined, but the decline was not significant. This negative trend of -4.5% per year in unit size started in about 2010, with numbers being fairly stable until then. There are several natural and anthropogenic threats, but no well-substantiated cause for the decline. PMID:27706153

  5. Health and entrepreneurship in four Caribbean Basin countries.

    PubMed

    Rietveld, Cornelius A; Bailey, Henry; Hessels, Jolanda; van der Zwan, Peter

    2016-05-01

    The literature dealing with health and entrepreneurship has focused on developed countries. We use a sample of almost 5000 business owners and wage-workers from four Caribbean Basin countries to study this relationship. Analyses are performed using data from the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor along with the Visual Analogue Scale of the EQ-5D-5L instrument as an overall health rating. The results show that business owners are healthier than wage-workers, which is in line with the findings from studies in developed countries. Furthermore, better health is associated with a lower likelihood for fear of business failure to be a deterrent to new business formation, a greater likelihood of self-belief in having the skills to run a business, and an increased recognition of start-up business opportunities among wage-workers. These positive associations between health and entrepreneurial perceptions provide new evidence about why less healthy individuals refrain from entrepreneurship. Finally, we find that the healthiest business owners run the companies with the highest growth expectations.

  6. Cyclonic Eddy Entrains Orinoco River Plume in Eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corredor, Jorge E.; Morell, Julio M.; Lopez, Jose M.; Capella, Jorge E.; Armstrong, Roy A.

    2004-05-01

    ``Mesoscale'' eddies are large whirlpools in the ocean with diameters of hundreds of kilometers. Their influence can extend to depths of 1000 m or greater. Oceanographers are only now beginning to document the prevalence, extent, and influence of such features in the world ocean. The availability of third-generation ocean color imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-MODIS sensors aboard NASA's AQUA and TERRA platforms, and support for direct observation at sea, have now allowed characterization of such an eddy interacting with the Orinoco River plume (ORP) while traversing the eastern Caribbean basin. The ORP extends seasonally across the basin from August through November, 3 to 4 months after the peak of the seasonal rains across northeastern South America. At this time, a thin plume of relatively low-salinity water, rich in phytoplankton and bearing significant amounts of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), covers a large swath of the basin, offering a striking contrast to the intensely blue oceanic waters of the adjacent northwest Atlantic Ocean.

  7. Saharan dust - A carrier of persistent organic pollutants, metals and microbes to the Caribbean?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Garrison, V.H.; Foreman, W.T.; Genualdi, S.; Griffin, Dale W.; Kellogg, C.A.; Majewski, M.S.; Mohammed, A.; Ramsubhag, A.; Shinn, E.A.; Simonich, S.L.; Smith, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    An international team of scientists from government agencies and universities in the United States, U.S. Virgin Islands (USVI), Trinidad & Tobago, the Republic of Cape Verde, and the Republic of Mali (West Africa) is working together to elucidate the role Saharan dust may play in the degradation of Caribbean ecosystems. The first step has been to identify and quantify the persistent organic pollutants (POPs), trace metals, and viable microorganisms in the atmosphere in dust source areas of West Africa, and in dust episodes at downwind sites in the eastern Atlantic (Cape Verde) and the Caribbean (USVI and Trinidad & Tobago). Preliminary findings show that air samples from Mali contain a greater number of pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and in higher concentrations than the Caribbean sites. Overall, POP concentrations were similar in USVI and Trinidad samples. Trace metal concentrations were found to be similar to crustal composition with slight enrichment of lead in Mali. To date, hundreds of cultureable microorganisms have been identified from Mali, Cape Verde, USVI, and Trinidad air samples. The sea fan pathogen, Aspergillus sydowii, has been identified in soil from Mali and in air samples from dust events in the Caribbean. We have shown that air samples from a dust-source region contain orders of magnitude more cultureable microorganisms per volume than air samples from dust events in the Caribbean, which in turn contain 3-to 4-fold more cultureable microbes than during non-dust conditions.

  8. Tectonic events recorded in the sediments and crust of the Caribbean sea floor

    SciTech Connect

    Holcombe, T.L.

    1985-01-01

    A reconnaissance review of reflection-seismic sections from the Caribbean, together with limited information derived from dredged rocks, sediment cores, and drillholes, yields or contributes to first-order conclusions regarding the tectonic history of the water-covered Caribbean. Broadly speaking, tectonic episodes for which there is some evidence are: (1) late Cenozoic convergence and accretion along deformed continental or island margins off Panama, Colombia/Venezuela, and Hispaniola/Puerto Rico; (2) late Cenozoic generation of oceanic crust within the Cayman Trough; (3) late Cenozoic secondary deformation along the Caribbean-North American plate boundary zone, in the form of small pull-apart basins, transcurrent faults, tensional rift basins, and compressional features; (4) late Cenozoic slow disintegration of the western part of the Caribbean plate; (5) Cenozoic rift-basin formation on the upper Nicaraguan rise; (6) early Cenozoic or late Cretaceous opening of the Yucatan Basin; (7) late Cretaceous through early Cenozoic island arc formation; and (8) late Cretaceous and earlier emplacement of flow basalts in the northwestern Venezuelan Basin and possibly beneath large areas of the Caribbean. There is no evidence that except along their active margins, the Venezuelan Basin, Beata Ridge, Colombian Basin, and Nicaraguan rise areas have been sites for large-scale relative movements which created or destroyed plate material since late Cretaceous time - or earlier.

  9. Genetic Diversity in the Lesser Antilles and Its Implications for the Settlement of the Caribbean Basin

    PubMed Central

    Benn Torres, Jada; Vilar, Miguel G.; Torres, Gabriel A.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Bharath Hernandez, Ricardo; Browne, Zoila E.; Stevenson, Marlon; Walters, Wendell; Schurr, Theodore G.

    2015-01-01

    Historical discourses about the Caribbean often chronicle West African and European influence to the general neglect of indigenous people’s contributions to the contemporary region. Consequently, demographic histories of Caribbean people prior to and after European contact are not well understood. Although archeological evidence suggests that the Lesser Antilles were populated in a series of northward and eastern migratory waves, many questions remain regarding the relationship of the Caribbean migrants to other indigenous people of South and Central America and changes to the demography of indigenous communities post-European contact. To explore these issues, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome diversity in 12 unrelated individuals from the First Peoples Community in Arima, Trinidad, and 43 unrelated Garifuna individuals residing in St. Vincent. In this community-sanctioned research, we detected maternal indigenous ancestry in 42% of the participants, with the remainder having haplotypes indicative of African and South Asian maternal ancestry. Analysis of Y-chromosome variation revealed paternal indigenous American ancestry indicated by the presence of haplogroup Q-M3 in 28% of the male participants from both communities, with the remainder possessing either African or European haplogroups. This finding is the first report of indigenous American paternal ancestry among indigenous populations in this region of the Caribbean. Overall, this study illustrates the role of the region’s first peoples in shaping the genetic diversity seen in contemporary Caribbean populations. PMID:26447794

  10. Gravity modeling of the Muertos Trough and tectonic implications (north-eastern Caribbean)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Granja, Bruna J. L.; Munoz-Martin, A.; ten Brink, U.S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Llanes, Estrada P.; Martin-Davila, J.; Cordoba-Barba, D.; Catalan, Morollon M.

    2010-01-01

    The Muertos Trough in the northeast Caribbean has been interpreted as a subduction zone from seismicity, leading to infer a possible reversal subduction polarity. However, the distribution of the seismicity is very diffuse and makes definition of the plate geometry difficult. In addition, the compressive deformational features observed in the upper crust and sandbox kinematic modeling do not necessarily suggest a subduction process. We tested the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc using gravity modeling. Gravity models simulating a subduction process yield a regional mass deficit beneath the island arc independently of the geometry and depth of the subducted slab used in the models. This mass deficit results from sinking of the less dense Caribbean slab beneath the lithospheric mantle replacing denser mantle materials and suggests that there is not a subducted Caribbean plateau beneath the island arc. The geologically more realistic gravity model which would explain the N-S shortening observed in the upper crust requires an overthrusted Caribbean slab extending at least 60 km northward from the deformation front, a progressive increase in the thrusting angle from 8?? to 30?? reaching a maximum depth of 22 km beneath the insular slope. This new tectonic model for the Muertos Margin, defined as a retroarc thrusting, will help to assess the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. The use of gravity modeling has provided targets for future wide-angle seismic surveys in the Muertos Margin. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

  11. 19 CFR 10.199 - Duty-free entry for certain beverages produced in Canada from Caribbean rum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Duty-free entry for certain beverages produced in... RATE, ETC. Caribbean Basin Initiative § 10.199 Duty-free entry for certain beverages produced in Canada from Caribbean rum. (a) General. A spirituous beverage that is imported directly from the territory...

  12. 19 CFR 10.199 - Duty-free entry for certain beverages produced in Canada from Caribbean rum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Duty-free entry for certain beverages produced in... RATE, ETC. Caribbean Basin Initiative § 10.199 Duty-free entry for certain beverages produced in Canada from Caribbean rum. (a) General. A spirituous beverage that is imported directly from the territory...

  13. 19 CFR 10.199 - Duty-free entry for certain beverages produced in Canada from Caribbean rum.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Duty-free entry for certain beverages produced in... RATE, ETC. Caribbean Basin Initiative § 10.199 Duty-free entry for certain beverages produced in Canada from Caribbean rum. (a) General. A spirituous beverage that is imported directly from the territory...

  14. Many Hands, Few Jobs: Population, Unemployment and Emigration in Mexico and the Caribbean. Center for Immigration Studies Paper 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bouvier, Leon; Simcox, David E.

    Between 1940 and 1980, Mexico and other Caribbean nations grew by an annual average of three percent, doubling in population every 21 years. Mexico's population will reach 109 million and the Caribbean nations will top 250 million by 2000. The projected U.S. population in 2000 is 266 million. This dynamic growth has serious implications for Mexico…

  15. Comparison of African American and Afro-Caribbean Older Adults' Self-Reported Health Status, Function, and Substance Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keane, Florence; Tappen, Ruth M.; Williams, Christine L.; Rosselli, Monica

    2009-01-01

    African American and Afro-Caribbean elders differ in regard to ethnic group membership, place of birth, and years of residence in the United States. In this study, the authors compare self-rated health status, function, and reports of substance use in these two groups. Fifty low-income African American and fifty low-income Afro-Caribbean adults…

  16. 76 FR 23907 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Queen Conch Fishery of Puerto...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-29

    ... conch in or from the Caribbean exclusive economic zone (EEZ) east of 64 34' W. longitude, which includes... waters in the area east of 64 34' W. longitude, which includes Lang Bank east of St. Croix, USVI (Lang... the Caribbean EEZ, in the area east of 64E34' W. longitude which includes Lang Bank east of St....

  17. In the Shadow of the Cold War: The Caribbean and Central America in U.S. Foreign Policy. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malkasian, Mark; Davidson, Louise K.

    In this document, students examine the economic and military concerns that linked the history of the Caribbean and Central America to the United States. Organized into four chapters, the first chapter examines the history of U.S. relations with the Caribbean and Central America from the early 19th century to 1961. The second chapter focuses on the…

  18. Secondary Education in Latin America and the Caribbean: The Challenge of Growth and Reform. Sustainable Development Department Technical Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolff, Laurence; Castro, Claudio de Moura

    This paper synthesizes the issues, problems, research, and current best practice in secondary education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Overall, Latin America and the Caribbean enroll much lower percentages of school age children in secondary education than the region's chief competitors, and the region's secondary education is inadequate by…

  19. 75 FR 11843 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Amendment 10 to the Fishery...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-12

    ..., and South Atlantic; Amendment 10 to the Fishery Management Plan for Spiny Lobster Resources of the... amendment to the Fishery Management Plan for the Spiny Lobster Resources of the Gulf of Mexico and South... accountability measures (AMs) for Caribbean spiny lobster; delegate management of Caribbean spiny lobster...

  20. 78 FR 20496 - Fisheries of the Caribbean, Gulf of Mexico, and South Atlantic; Commercial Trap Sectors of the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... Spiny Lobster Fisheries in the U.S. Caribbean; Control Date AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... fish and spiny lobster fisheries operating in the exclusive economic zone (EEZ) of the U.S. Caribbean... trap sectors of the reef fish and spiny lobster fisheries should be controlled. DATES: Written...

  1. Distribution, prevalence, and genetic analysis of Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1) from the Caribbean Sea.

    PubMed

    Moss, Jessica; Behringer, Donald; Shields, Jeffrey D; Baeza, Antonio; Aguilar-Perera, Alfonso; Bush, Phillippe G; Dromer, Clement; Herrera-Moreno, Alejandro; Gittens, Lester; Matthews, Thomas R; McCord, Michael R; Schärer, Michelle T; Reynal, Lionel; Truelove, Nathanial; Butler, Mark J

    2013-05-27

    The pathogenic virus Panulirus argus virus 1 (PaV1) was first discovered in Caribbean spiny lobsters Panulirus argus from the Florida Keys (USA) in 1999 and has since been reported in Belize, Mexico, and Cuba; its distribution in the wider Caribbean is unknown. We collected tissue samples from adult spiny lobsters from 30 locations in 14 countries bordering the Caribbean Sea and used molecular diagnostics to assay for the presence of PaV1. PaV1 occurred primarily in the northern areas of the Caribbean, where its prevalence was highest. The virus was not found in lobsters from the southeastern Caribbean, and its prevalence was lowest in the southwestern Caribbean. DNA sequence analysis was performed on a fragment of the viral DNA to examine the genetic diversity of PaV1 on a Caribbean-wide scale. Sequence variation in the viral DNA fragment was high, with 61 unique alleles identified from 9 areas. The sharing of viral alleles in lobsters from distant locations supports the hypothesis of a strong genetic connectivity among lobsters within the Caribbean, and further supports the hypothesis that postlarvae infected with PaV1 may serve to disperse the virus over long distances.

  2. Romantic Relationships among Unmarried African Americans and Caribbean Blacks: Findings from the National Survey of American Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the correlates of relationship satisfaction, marriage expectations, and relationship longevity among unmarried African American and Black Caribbean (Caribbean Black) adults who are in a romantic relationship. The study used data from the National Survey of American Life, a national representative sample of African Americans…

  3. The Major Project in the Field of Education in the Latin American and Caribbean Region. OREALC Bulletin 17.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and Caribbean.

    Four articles comprise this issue of the bulletin. "The Situation of Teachers in the English-Speaking Caribbean" (A. B. Alleyne) examines the position of Caribbean teachers with respect to salaries, social security, the teacher shortage, the adequacy of educational objectives and policies, preparation for the profession, and further education.…

  4. Changes in Late Cretaceous-Quaternary Caribbean plate motion directions inferred from paleostress measurements from striated fault planes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batbayar, K.; Mann, P.; Hippolyte, J.

    2013-12-01

    We compiled paleostress analyses from previous research works collected at 591 localities of striated fault planes in rocks ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to Quaternary in the circum-Caribbean and Mexico. The purpose of the study is to quantify a progressive clockwise rotation of the Caribbean plate during its Late Cretaceous to recent subduction of the Proto-Caribbean seaway. Paleostress analysis is based on the assumption that slickenside lineations indicate both the direction and sense of maximum resolved shear stress on that fault plane. We have plotted directions of maximum horizontal stress onto plate tectonic reconstructions of the circum-Caribbean plate boundaries and infer that these directions are proxies for paleo-plate motion directions of the Caribbean plate. Plotting these stress directions onto reconstructions provided a better visualization of the relation of stress directions to blocks at their time of Late Cretaceous to recent deformation. Older, more deformed rocks of Late Cretaceous to Eocene ages yield a greater scatter in derived paleostress directions as these rocks have steeper dips, more pervasive faulting, and were likely affected by large rotations as known from previous paleomagnetic studies of Caribbean plate margins. Despite more scatter in measurements from older rock units, four major events that affected the Caribbean plate and the Great Arc of the Caribbean (GAC) are recognizable from changing orientations of stress directions: 1) Late Cretaceous collision of the GAC with southern Mexico and Colombia is consistent with NE directions of maximum compression in rocks of this age range in southern Mexico and EW directions in Colombia as the GAC approached the Proto-Caribbean seaway; 2) Paleocene-Eocene collision of the GAC with the Bahamas platform in Cuba and Hispaniola and with the South American plate in Venezuela is consistent with CW rotations of stress directions in rocks of these ages in the northern Caribbean and CCW

  5. A Rossby whistle: A resonant basin mode observed in the Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Chris W.; Williams, Joanne; Hibbert, Angela; Boening, Carmen; Oram, James

    2016-07-01

    We show that an important source of coastal sea level variability around the Caribbean Sea is a resonant basin mode. The mode consists of a baroclinic Rossby wave which propagates westward across the basin and is rapidly returned to the east along the southern boundary as coastal shelf waves. Almost two wavelengths of the Rossby wave fit across the basin, and it has a period of 120 days. The porous boundary of the Caribbean Sea results in this mode exciting a mass exchange with the wider ocean, leading to a dominant mode of bottom pressure variability which is almost uniform over the Grenada, Venezuela, and Colombia basins and has a sharp spectral peak at 120 day period. As the Rossby waves have been shown to be excited by instability of the Caribbean Current, this resonant mode is dynamically equivalent to the operation of a whistle.

  6. Non-native seagrass Halophila stipulacea forms dense mats under eutrophic conditions in the Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Tussenbroek, B. I.; van Katwijk, M. M.; Bouma, T. J.; van der Heide, T.; Govers, L. L.; Leuven, R. S. E. W.

    2016-09-01

    Seagrasses comprise 78 species and are rarely invasive. But the seagrass Halophila stipulacea, firstly recorded in the Caribbean in the year 2002, has spread quickly throughout the region. Previous works have described this species as invasive in the Caribbean, forming dense mats that exclude native seagrass species. During a reconnaissance field survey of Caribbean seagrass meadows at the islands of Bonaire and Sint Maarten in 2013, we observed that this species was only extremely dense at 5 out of 10 studied meadows. Compared to areas with sparse growth of H. stipulacea, these dense meadows showed consistently higher nutrient concentrations, as indicated by higher leaf tissue N contents of the seagrass Thalassia testudinum (dense when C:N < 22.5) and sediments (dense when %N > 11.3). Thus, the potential invasiveness of this non-native seagrass most likely depends on the environmental conditions, especially the nutrient concentrations.

  7. Correlation of Tectonic Provinces of South America and the Caribbean Region with MAGSAT Anomalies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lidiak, E. G.; Hinze, W. J.; Keller, G. R. (Principal Investigator); Yuan, D. W.; Longacre, M. B.

    1984-01-01

    Intensities of MAGSAT scalar magnetic anomaly data correlate with the main tectonic provinces of South America and the Caribbean region. Magnetic anomalies of the continents generally have higher amplitudes than oceanic anomalies. This is particularly evident in Central America and in the shield areas of South America. The Caribbean Sea and Gulf of Mexico are underlain by prominent magnetic minima. Within these oceanic areas, linear magnetic highs correlate with topographic ridges which separate the Gulf of Mexico, the Colombian Basin, and the Venezuelan Basin. The boundaries of the Caribbean plate occur along magnetic gradients which are particularly sharp along the northern and western margins of the plate, but gradational along the southern margin where they merge with the Andean Cordillera. The anomalies along the western margin of the South American plate are also distinct and appear to be separate from those of the adjacent ocean basin. Eastern South America is characterized by magnetic anomalies which commonly extend into the Atlantic Ocean.

  8. Ethnic Differences in Family Stress Processes Among African-Americans and Black Caribbeans

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard; Bellatorre, Anna; Jackson, James S.

    2012-01-01

    Several theories of stress exposure, including the stress process and the family stress model for economically disadvantaged families, suggest that family processes work similarly across race/ethnic groups. Much of this research, however, treats African-Americans as a monolithic group and ignores potential differences in family stress processes within race that may emerge across ethnic groups. This study examines whether family stress processes differ intraracially in African-American and Black Caribbean families. Using data from the National Survey of American Life, a national representative data set of African-American and Black Caribbean families, we assess the extent to which parents’ stress appraisals and psychological adjustment are related to their adolescent children’s stress appraisals, psychological adjustment, and depressive symptoms. Our study illustrates that stress processes differ by ethnicity and operate through varying pathways in African-American and Black Caribbean families. The implications of intraracial variations in stress processes are discussed. PMID:23349643

  9. ‘Fight TB with BCG’: Mass Vaccination Campaigns in the British Caribbean, 1951–6

    PubMed Central

    Altink, Henrice

    2014-01-01

    Based on a wide range of primary materials, including WHO reports and Colonial Office correspondence, this article examines the UNICEF/WHO-funded mass BCG campaigns that were carried out in seven Caribbean colonies between 1951 and 1956. It explores the reasons behind them, their nature and aftermath and also compares them to those in other non-European countries and discusses them within a context of decolonisation. In doing so, it not only adds to the scholarship on TB in non-European contexts, which had tended to focus on Africa and Asia, but also to the relatively new field of Caribbean medical history and the rapidly expanding body of work on international health, which has paid scant attention to the Anglophone Caribbean and the pre-independence period. PMID:25284891

  10. Marine climate influences on interannual variability of tropical cyclones in the eastern Caribbean: 1979-2008

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2015-04-01

    Interannual variability of tropical cyclones (TCs) in the eastern Caribbean is studied using MIT-Hurdat fields during the July-October season from 1979 to 2008. TC intensity shows local climate sensitivity particularly for upper ocean currents, salinity and mixed-layer depth, and 200-850 mb wind shear. Remote influences from the Southern Oscillation, Saharan dust, and the South American monsoon are also identified as important. Ocean currents diminish along the coast of South America, so interbasin transfer between the North Brazil and Caribbean Currents declines in seasons of frequent and intense TCs. This is related to a dipole pattern in the sea surface height formed mainly by reduced trade wind upwelling northeast of Venezuela. A low-salinity plume from the Orinoco River spreads across the eastern Caribbean. It is the weaker currents and shallower mixed layer that conspire with surplus heat to build thermodynamic energy available for TC intensification.

  11. Accessory Inferior Sulci of the Liver in an Afro-Caribbean Population

    PubMed Central

    O. Cawich, Shamir; T. Gardner, Michael; Shetty, Ramnanand; W. Pearce, Neil; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: There have been no previous reports on the anatomic variations that exist on inferior surface of the liver in Caribbean populations. This information is important to optimize radiology and hepatobiliary surgical services in the region. Methods: Two investigators independently observed 69 cadaveric dissections over five years and described the variations in surface anatomy. Results: In this population 88% of cadaveric livers had conventional hepatic surface anatomy. However, 12% had accessory sulci present on the visceral surface of the liver, with a 7:1 male preponderance. When present, there was 100% correlation between the presence of Rouvière’s sulcus and the right branch of portal pedicle. Conclusion: Abnormal surface anatomy is present in 12% of unselected specimens in this Caribbean population. Interventional radiologists and hepatobiliary surgeons practicing in the Caribbean must be cognizant of these differences in order to minimize morbidity during invasive procedures. PMID:27493591

  12. Experiences of and responses to HIV among African and Caribbean communities in Toronto, Canada.

    PubMed

    Gardezi, F; Calzavara, L; Husbands, W; Tharao, W; Lawson, E; Myers, T; Pancham, A; George, C; Remis, R; Willms, D; McGee, F; Adebajo, S

    2008-07-01

    African and Caribbean communities in Canada and other developed countries are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. This qualitative study of African and Caribbean communities in Toronto sought to understand HIV-related stigma, discrimination, denial and fear, and the effects of multiple intersecting factors that influence responses to the disease, prevention practices and access to treatment and support services. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 30 HIV-positive men and women and focus groups were conducted with 74 men and women whose HIV status was negative or unknown. We identified a range of issues faced by African and Caribbean people that may increase the risk for HIV infection, create obstacles to testing and treatment and lead to isolation of HIV-positive people. Our findings suggest the need for greater sensitivity and knowledge on the part of healthcare providers; more culturally specific support services; community development; greater community awareness; and expanded efforts to tackle housing, poverty, racism and settlement issues.

  13. HIV/AIDS and tourism in the Caribbean: an ecological systems perspective.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Mark B; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida; Reyes, Armando Matiz

    2010-01-01

    The Caribbean has the highest HIV rates outside of sub-Saharan Africa. In recent decades, tourism has become the most important Caribbean industry. Studies suggest that tourism areas are epicenters of demographic and social changes linked to HIV risk, such as transactional sex, elevated alcohol and substance use, and internal migration. Despite this, no formative HIV-prevention studies have examined tourism areas as ecologies that heighten HIV vulnerability. HIV/AIDS research needs to place emphasis on the ecological context of sexual vulnerability in tourism areas and develop multilevel interventions that are sensitive to this context. From our review and integration of a broad literature across the social and health sciences, we argue for an ecological approach to sexual health in Caribbean tourism areas, point to gaps in knowledge, and provide direction for future research.

  14. Religious Media Use Among African Americans, Black Caribbeans, and Non-Hispanic Whites

    PubMed Central

    Chatters, Linda M.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the correlates of watching religious television programs and listening to religious radio programs. Data are taken from the National Survey of American Life, a nationally representative study of African Americans, Black Caribbeans, and non-Hispanic Whites. Several significant findings were noted. Both African Americans and Black Caribbeans watched religious television programs and listened to religious radio programs significantly more frequently than non-Hispanic whites. These differences in electronic religious media consumption were particularly large, especially listening to religious radio programming. Among African Americans and Black Caribbeans, several significant demographic differences in frequency of consuming religious programming (e.g., age, gender, region, marital status, immigration status) emerged. Lastly, our analysis found that consuming electronic religious programming did not substitute for attending church service but, instead, complemented weekly service attendance. PMID:26045698

  15. Investigating the Link Between Climate and Leptospirosis in the Caribbean Using Wavelet Analysis.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchelor, T. W.; Amarakoon, D.; Taylor, M. A.; Stephenson, T.

    2009-05-01

    The Caribbean has shown changes in its climate (temperature and rainfall) as a result of urbanisation, population growth and industrialisation. The climatic changes have implications for the emergence and re- emergence of rodent-borne diseases such as leptospirosis. In this paper wavelet analysis is used to investigate the relationship between the incidence of leptospirosis in the Caribbean and climate variables such as temperature and precipitation. Wavelet analysis takes into account characteristics unique to climate and epidemiological data which other spectral techniques failed to do. The analysis reveals 2-3 year periodic signals in both the wavelet power spectrum and wavelet coherency. There is also a correlation between incidence of leptospirosis and late season Caribbean rainfall.

  16. Reinstatement of three species of the Marphysa sanguinea complex (Polychaeta: Eunicidae) from the Grand Caribbean Region.

    PubMed

    Molina-Acevedo, Isabel C; Carrera-Parra, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    As part of a study on Marphysa de Quatrefages, 1865 from the Grand Caribbean, three species regarded as junior synonyms of M. sanguinea (Montagu, 1913) were studied to clarify their taxonomic status. The examination of type and additional materials collected in the southern Gulf of Mexico and the Mexican Caribbean regions, allowed us to clarify that M. acicularum Webster, 1884, M. nobilis Treadwell, 1917 and M. viridis Treadwell, 1917 are distinct species. Therefore, the three species were redescribed and some important morphological features such as maxillary apparatus, shape of parapodial lobes, shape of ventral cirri and pectinate chaetae, among others, were described and evaluated. Furthermore, we consider that previous records of M. sanguinea for the Grand Caribbean are doubtful and it is necessary to reassess those specimens to clarify their taxonomic identity. PMID:25781729

  17. Composite focal mechanism for microearthquakes along the northeastern border of the Caribbean plate

    SciTech Connect

    Frankel, A.

    1982-05-01

    Seismograms from a local seismic network in the Virgin Islands portion of the northeastern Caribbean are used to determine a composite focal mechanism for 26 microearthquakes along the North America--Caribbean plate boundary. Only one nodal plane of the focal mechanism could be constrained from P-wave first motion data alone. P/SV amplitude ratios observed for these events were compared to theoretical amplitude ratios calculated for different focal mechanisms. This procedure constrained the dip of the second nodal plane to be shallower than about 50/sup 0/, ruling out the possibility of a transform fault in this portion of the plate boundary. The resulting focal mechanism indicates that oblique underthrusting of the North American plate beneath the Caribbean plate occurs in the area. This oblique motion is accommodated along a thrust plane that dips at a relatively shallow angle beneath the Virgin Islands platform.

  18. Correlates of Emotional Support and Negative Interaction Among African Americans and Caribbean Blacks

    PubMed Central

    Lincoln, Karen D.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Chatters, Linda M.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the relationship of family and demographic factors to the frequency of receiving emotional support and the frequency of engaging in negative interactions with family members (i.e., criticism, burden, and being taken advantage of). The study uses the ambivalence framework and data from the National Survey of American Life, a national sample of African Americans and Caribbean Blacks (Caribbean Blacks). Overall, no significant differences were found between African Americans and Caribbean Blacks in the frequency of emotional support or negative interaction; several significant correlates (e.g., age, family closeness) were found for both groups. However, a number of unique associations were also demonstrated (e.g., marital status, frequency of family contact), indicating differences in the ways that these variables operate within the two populations. These and other findings are discussed in relation to the ambivalence framework and subgroup differences in family phenomena within the Black population. PMID:26617426

  19. [The chikungunya epidemic in the Caribbean: implications for travellers and physicians].

    PubMed

    Cleton, Natalie B; Reusken, Chantal B E M; van Gorp, Eric C M

    2014-01-01

    In 2013, the first autochthonous cases of the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) were reported on the Caribbean island of Saint Martin. The chikungunya virus has since become endemic in the Caribbean due to autochthonous transmission. In the presence of fever and joint symptoms in any traveller returning from the Caribbean, CHIKV should be considered. Although symptoms resemble those of dengue fever, the course of chikungunya is milder. Chikungunya much more commonly causes chronic joint pain. Laboratory tests for the chikungunya virus may give false positive results due to cross reactions with closely related viruses, so taking a full disease and travel history from the patient is necessary in order to interpret these test results correctly. There is no specific treatment for the chikungunya virus. A correct diagnosis can prevent unnecessary additional tests and unjustified treatment. The chikungunya virus can be prevented by the use of insect-repelling substances, nets and air-conditioning.

  20. HIV/AIDS and Tourism in the Caribbean: An Ecological Systems Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Bouris, Alida; Reyes, Armando Matiz

    2010-01-01

    The Caribbean has the highest HIV rates outside of sub-Saharan Africa. In recent decades, tourism has become the most important Caribbean industry. Studies suggest that tourism areas are epicenters of demographic and social changes linked to HIV risk, such as transactional sex, elevated alcohol and substance use, and internal migration. Despite this, no formative HIV-prevention studies have examined tourism areas as ecologies that heighten HIV vulnerability. HIV/AIDS research needs to place emphasis on the ecological context of sexual vulnerability in tourism areas and develop multilevel interventions that are sensitive to this context. From our review and integration of a broad literature across the social and health sciences, we argue for an ecological approach to sexual health in Caribbean tourism areas, point to gaps in knowledge, and provide direction for future research. PMID:19910343

  1. Population Genetics of a Trochid Gastropod Broadens Picture of Caribbean Sea Connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Ferguson, Edgardo; Haney, Robert; Wares, John; Silliman, Brian

    2010-01-01

    Background Regional genetic connectivity models are critical for successful conservation and management of marine species. Even though rocky shore invertebrates have been used as model systems to understand genetic structure in some marine environments, our understanding of connectivity in Caribbean communities is based overwhelmingly on studies of tropical fishes and corals. In this study, we investigate population connectivity and diversity of Cittarium pica, an abundant rocky shore trochid gastropod that is commercially harvested across its natural range, from the Bahamas to Venezuela. Methodology/Principal Findings We tested for genetic structure using DNA sequence variation at the mitochondrial COI and 16S loci, AMOVA and distance-based methods. We found substantial differentiation among Caribbean sites. Yet, genetic differentiation was associated only with larger geographic scales within the Caribbean, and the pattern of differentiation only partially matched previous assessments of Caribbean connectivity, including those based on larval dispersal from hydrodynamic models. For instance, the Bahamas, considered an independent region by previous hydrodynamic studies, showed strong association with Eastern Caribbean sites in our study. Further, Bonaire (located in the east and close to the meridional division of the Caribbean basin) seems to be isolated from other Eastern sites. Conclusions/Significance The significant genetic structure and observed in C. pica has some commonalities in pattern with more commonly sampled taxa, but presents features, such as the differentiation of Bonaire, that appear unique. Further, the level of differentiation, together with regional patterns of diversity, has important implications for the application of conservation and management strategies in this commercially harvested species. PMID:20844767

  2. Isolation and characterisation of Caribbean ciguatoxins from the horse-eye jack (Caranx latus).

    PubMed

    Vernoux, J P; Lewis, R J

    1997-06-01

    The toxins involved in ciguatera (fish poisoning) in the Caribbean Sea were isolated from Caranx latus, a pelagic fish often implicated in ciguatera in the Caribbean region, and purified by mouse bioassay directed fractionation. Five toxins were separated by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). In order of increasing hydrophobicity, these toxins included a sleep-inducing fraction (< 1% of total toxicity), a major Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1, 65% of toxicity), a minor Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-2, 13% of toxicity), a minor toxin (approximately 1% of toxicity) and a hydrophobic, fast-acting toxin (approximately 19% of toxicity). The i.p. injection into mice of each toxin induced signs typical of site-5 sodium channel activator toxins such as the Pacific ciguatoxins and brevetoxins. C-CTX-1 and C-CTX-2 were purified to homogeneity (LD50 = 3.6 and approximately 1 microgram/kg, respectively) and subjected to ion spray mass spectrometry. Both lost up to five H2O molecules and each had a [M+H]+ ion, m/z 1141.7, suggesting that C-CTX-1 and -2 are diastereomers that differ from the Pacific family of ciguatoxins. Turbo-assisted HPLC-mass spectrometry identified C-CTX-1, C-CTX-2 and three C-CTX-1-related compounds in an enriched fraction but no Pacific ciguatoxins were detected. The presence of different families of ciguatoxins in ciguateric fish from the Caribbean Sea and Pacific Ocean probably underlies the clinical differences in the ciguatera syndrome reported in these two regions. A Caribbean strain of the benthic dinoflagellate, Gambierdiscus toxicus, is suspected as source of these ciguatoxins. The extent to which these toxins are biotransformed as they pass through the marine food chain remains to be determined. PMID:9241783

  3. Rules of engagement: predictors of Black Caribbean immigrants' engagement with African American culture.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Nancy; Watson, Natalie N; Wang, Zhenni; Case, Andrew D; Hunter, Carla D

    2013-10-01

    The cultural context in the United States is racialized and influences Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation processes, but what role it plays in Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturation into specific facets of American society (e.g., African American culture) has been understudied in the field of psychology. The present study extends research on Black Caribbean immigrants' acculturative process by assessing how this group's experience of the racial context (racial public regard, ethnic public regard, and cultural race-related stress) influences its engagement in African American culture (i.e., adoption of values and behavioral involvement). Data were collected from 93 Black participants of Caribbean descent, ranging in age from 13 to 45 and analyzed using a stepwise hierarchical regression. The findings highlighted that when Black Caribbean-descended participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their racial group they were more likely to engage in African American culture. In contrast, when participants perceived that the public held a favorable view of their ethnic group (e.g., Haitian) they were less likely to engage in African American culture. Furthermore, among participants experiencing low levels of cultural race-related stress, the associations between racial public regard and engagement with African American culture were amplified. However, for participants experiencing high cultural race-related stress, their engagement in African American culture did not change as a function of racial public regard. These findings may suggest that, for Black Caribbean immigrants, the experience of the racial context influences strategies that serve to preserve or bolster their overall social status and psychological well-being in the United States.

  4. Eastward Mantle Drag on the Caribbean Plate: Insights from Neotectonic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negredo, A.; Jimenez-Munt, I.; Villase¤or, A.

    2003-12-01

    Thin-shell finite element techniques have been applied to study the neotectonics of the Caribbean plate. Model domain comprises the entire Caribbean plate and it is outlined by fault elements. Kinematic conditions applied at the lateral boundaries represent motion of Cocos, Nazca, South America and North America plates with respect to the Caribbean plate. The velocity of this plate was not fixed, so its predicted velocity was used as a test of the model quality. We also included major intraplate active or potentially active faults in order to provide some estimates of slip rates, which is relevant for their relative long-term seismic hazard evaluation. We have obtained different sets of models varying the lateral and basal boundary conditions. Velocity conditions applied at grid sides were computed assuming poles and rotation velocities deduced from global plate model NUVEL-1A and from a number of published geodetic studies. We have also considered different possibilities for shear tractions from lower mantle flow acting on the base of the Caribbean plate. We have tried the following basal boundary condition: (1) no basal traction; (2) a lower mantle static with respect to Africa; (3) an eastward lower mantle flow. Different models have been computed with systematic variation of the fault friction coefficient. The quality of the models has been evaluated by comparing their predictions of anelastic strain rates, vertically-integrated stresses and velocity fields to data on seismic strain rate, most compressive horizontal principal stress direction, horizontal velocity deduced from geodetic studies and estimates of fault slip rates. Best results are obtained assuming low fault friction coefficient and boundary conditions at model sides deduced from geodetic studies. Our validation datasets require velocities of North America and South America plates relative to the Caribbean plate higher than those of model NUVEL-1A. Moreover our results clearly indicate that the

  5. Vestiges of the proto-Caribbean seaway: Origin of the San Souci Volcanic Group, Trinidad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neill, Iain; Kerr, Andrew C.; Chamberlain, Kevin R.; Schmitt, Axel K.; Urbani, Franco; Hastie, Alan R.; Pindell, James L.; Barry, Tiffany L.; Millar, Ian L.

    2014-06-01

    Outcrops of volcanic-hypabyssal rocks in Trinidad document the opening of the proto-Caribbean seaway during Jurassic-Cretaceous break-up of the Americas. The San Souci Group on the northern coast of Trinidad comprises the San Souci Volcanic Formation (SSVF) and passive margin sediments of the ~ 130-125 Ma Toco Formation. The Group was trapped at the leading edge of the Pacific-derived Caribbean Plate during the Cretaceous-Palaeogene, colliding with the para-autochthonous margin of Trinidad during the Oligocene-Miocene. In-situ U-Pb ion probe dating of micro-zircons from a mafic volcanic breccia reveal the SSVF crystallised at 135.0 ± 7.3 Ma. The age of the SSVF is within error of the age of the Toco Formation. Assuming a conformable contact, geodynamic models indicate a likely origin for the SSVF on the passive margin close to the northern tip of South America. Immobile element and Nd-Hf radiogenic isotope signatures of the mafic rocks indicate the SSVF was formed by ≪10% partial melting of a heterogeneous spinel peridotite source with no subduction or continental lithospheric mantle component. Felsic breccias within the SSVF are more enriched in incompatible elements, with isotope signatures that are less radiogenic than the mafic rocks of the SSVF. The felsic rocks may be derived from re-melting of mafic crust. Although geochemical comparisons are drawn here with proto-Caribbean igneous outcrops in Venezuela and elsewhere in the Caribbean more work is needed to elucidate the development of the proto-Caribbean seaway and its rifted margins. In particular, ion probe dating of micro-zircons may yield valuable insights into magmatism and metamorphism in the Caribbean, and in altered basaltic terranes more generally.

  6. Behavioral Immunity Suppresses an Epizootic in Caribbean Spiny Lobsters

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Mark J.; Behringer, Donald C.; Dolan, Thomas W.; Moss, Jessica; Shields, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of “behavioral immunity”; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics) practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA) resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system. PMID:26061629

  7. Non-stationary background intensity and Caribbean seismic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valmy, Larissa; Vaillant, Jean

    2014-05-01

    We consider seismic risk calculation based on models with non-stationary background intensity. The aim is to improve predictive strategies in the framework of seismic risk assessment from models describing at best the seismic activity in the Caribbean arc. Appropriate statistical methods are required for analyzing the volumes of data collected. The focus is on calculating earthquakes occurrences probability and analyzing spatiotemporal evolution of these probabilities. The main modeling tool is the point process theory in order to take into account past history prior to a given date. Thus, the seismic event conditional intensity is expressed by means of the background intensity and the self exciting component. This intensity can be interpreted as the expected event rate per time and / or surface unit. The most popular intensity model in seismology is the ETAS (Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence) model introduced and then generalized by Ogata [2, 3]. We extended this model and performed a comparison of different probability density functions for the triggered event times [4]. We illustrate our model by considering the CDSA (Centre de Données Sismiques des Antilles) catalog [1] which contains more than 7000 seismic events occurred in the Lesser Antilles arc. Statistical tools for testing the background intensity stationarity and for dynamical segmentation are presented. [1] Bengoubou-Valérius M., Bazin S., Bertil D., Beauducel F. and Bosson A. (2008). CDSA: a new seismological data center for the French Lesser Antilles, Seismol. Res. Lett., 79 (1), 90-102. [2] Ogata Y. (1998). Space-time point-process models for earthquake occurrences, Annals of the Institute of Statistical Mathematics, 50 (2), 379-402. [3] Ogata, Y. (2011). Significant improvements of the space-time ETAS model for forecasting of accurate baseline seismicity, Earth, Planets and Space, 63 (3), 217-229. [4] Valmy L. and Vaillant J. (2013). Statistical models in seismology: Lesser Antilles arc case

  8. Focus on Youth in the Caribbean: Beyond the Numbers

    PubMed Central

    Deveaux, Lynette; Lunn, Sonja; Mae Bain, Rosa; Gomez, Perry; Kelly, Tanya; Brathwaite, Nanika; Russell-Rolle, Glenda; Li, Xiaoming; Stanton, Bonita

    2011-01-01

    In the 1990s, an interdisciplinary group including pediatricians, anthropologists, health educators, psychologists, and statisticians developed and evaluated an HIV prevention intervention targeting early adolescents living in public housing developments in the USA. The intervention, “Focus on Kids,” (FOK) was effective in reducing risk behaviors, intentions, and perceptions and ultimately was included in the Center for Disease Control’s portfolio of effective adolescent programs, “Programs that Work.” Learning about FOK and concerned about the need for a structured program to address high rates of teen pregnancy and risk for HIV, professionals from the Ministries of Health of The Bahamas approached the researchers about collaborating to develop a program for Bahamian youth. A partnership developed which has spanned over a decade and led to the development of an intervention program targeting Bahamian children in grade six, a 10-session adolescent HIV prevention program entitled “Focus on Youth in the Caribbean” (FOYC). Two programs including a video and parent discussion were developed for their parents. Caribbean Informed Parents and Children Together (CImPACT) emphasizes the importance of parent-child communication about sexuality and Goal for It” (GFI) emphasizes the importance of planning ahead. The US-Bahamian team evaluated these interventions through a randomized, controlled 3-celled longitudinal trial (36 months follow-up) involving 15 elementary schools in The Bahamas. The programs have been shown to be effective. This article describes the context in which the epidemic occurred, events leading up to the collaboration and the issues, decisions, processes, and relationships that we have developed that have allowed it to succeed. PMID:21430238

  9. Geology and petroleum potential of Saba Bank area, northeastern Caribbean

    SciTech Connect

    Despretz, J.M.; Daly, T.E.; Robinson, E.

    1985-02-01

    Recent exploratory activity on Saba Bank in the northeastern Caribbean has provided geologic information showing that this frontier area possesses all of the attributes necessary for the commercial accumulation of hydrocarbons. The first well drilled in the area penetrated 9370 ft (2856 m) of sediments including 3021 ft (921 m) of Eocene carbonates containing zones of good to excellent porosity. Geochemical studies show the presence of good but immature source rocks with the extractable hydrocarbons being migrated rather than indigenous. The geothermal gradient and vitrinite reflectance data indicated the threshold of the oil window would be reached around 10,000 ft (3048 m). The second well was drilled to test a postulated reef on a basement high at a sufficient depth to fall within the oil window. The well bottomed in Eocene andesite at 13,881 ft (4231 m). Reef carbonate was not encountered; the well penetrated turbidite sandstones and siltstones with low to moderate porosity and permeability. A test of gas shows recovered small amounts of C1-C5, but the formation is believed to have been badly damaged by severe mud loss during drilling. Geochemical studies confirm the presence of good source rocks. Reworked unmetamorphosed organic matter of probable early Eocene to Cretaceous age suggests that the Cretaceous cannot be considered economic basement in this area. Reinterpretation of the seismic data explains why the two wells were dry and indicates the presence of a submarine fan area, reefs within the oil window, and large structures in an area of thick sediments of probable Cretaceous age.

  10. Microphytoplankton variations during coral spawning at Los Roques, Southern Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Cavada-Blanco, Francoise; Zubillaga, Ainhoa L; Bastidas, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Phytoplankton drives primary productivity in marine pelagic systems. This is also true for the oligotrophic waters in coral reefs, where natural and anthropogenic sources of nutrients can alter pelagic trophic webs. In this study, microphytoplankton assemblages were characterized for the first time in relation to expected coral spawning dates in the Caribbean. A hierarchical experimental design was used to examine these assemblages in Los Roques archipelago, Venezuela, at various temporal and spatial scales for spawning events in both 2007 and 2008. At four reefs, superficial water samples were taken daily for 9 days after the full moon of August, including days before, during and after the expected days of coral spawning. Microphytoplankton assemblages comprised 100 microalgae taxa at up to 50 cells per mL (mean ± 8 SD) and showed temporal and spatial variations related to the coral spawning only in 2007. However, chlorophyll a concentrations increased during and after the spawning events in both years, and this was better matched with analyses of higher taxonomical groups (diatoms, cyanophytes and dinoflagellates), that also varied in relation to spawning times in 2007 and 2008, but asynchronously among reefs. Heterotrophic and mixotrophic dinoflagellates increased in abundance, correlating with a decrease of the diatom Cerataulina pelagica and an increase of the diatom Rhizosolenia imbricata. These variations occurred during and after the coral spawning event for some reefs in 2007. For the first time, a fresh-water cyanobacteria species of Anabaena was ephemerally found (only 3 days) in the archipelago, at reefs closest to human settlements. Variability among reefs in relation to spawning times indicated that reef-specific processes such as water residence time, re-mineralization rates, and benthic-pelagic coupling can be relevant to the observed patterns. These results suggest an important role of microheterotrophic grazers in re-mineralization of organic

  11. Epizoic zoanthids reduce pumping in two Caribbean vase sponges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, T. B.; Finelli, C. M.

    2015-03-01

    Sponges are common sessile benthic suspension feeders that play a critical role in carbon and nitrogen cycling within reef ecosystems via their filtration capabilities. Due to the contribution of sponges in benthic-pelagic coupling, it is critical to assess factors that may affect their role in the healthy function of coral reefs. Several factors can influence the rate at which an individual sponge pumps water, including body size, environmental conditions, mechanical blockage, and reduction of inhalant pores (ostia). Symbiotic zoanthid colonization is a common occurrence on Caribbean sponges, and the presence of zoanthids on the surface of a sponge may occlude or displace the inhalant ostia. We quantified pumping rates of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta ( N = 22 uncolonized, 37 colonized) and the common vase sponge, Niphates digitalis ( N = 21 uncolonized, 17 colonized), with and without zoanthid symbionts, Parazoanthus catenularis and Parazoanthus parasiticus, respectively. For X. muta, biovolume-normalized pumping rates of individuals colonized by zoanthids were approximately 75 % lower than those of uncolonized sponges. Moreover, colonization with zoanthids was related to a difference in morphology relative to uncolonized individuals: Colonized sponges exhibited an osculum area to biovolume ratio that was nearly 65 % less than uncolonized sponges. In contrast, the presence of zoanthids on N. digitalis resulted in only a marginal decrease in pumping rates and no detectable difference in morphology. The difference in zoanthid effects between X. muta and N. digitalis is likely due to the differences in wall thickness and architecture between the two species. The probable cause of reduced pumping in affected sponges is occupation of the sponge surface that leads to blockage or displacement of inhalant ostia. To partially test this hypothesis, zoanthid colonization on specimens of X. muta was simulated by wrapping sponges with plastic mesh of varying

  12. Microphytoplankton variations during coral spawning at Los Roques, Southern Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    Zubillaga, Ainhoa L.; Bastidas, Carolina

    2016-01-01

    Phytoplankton drives primary productivity in marine pelagic systems. This is also true for the oligotrophic waters in coral reefs, where natural and anthropogenic sources of nutrients can alter pelagic trophic webs. In this study, microphytoplankton assemblages were characterized for the first time in relation to expected coral spawning dates in the Caribbean. A hierarchical experimental design was used to examine these assemblages in Los Roques archipelago, Venezuela, at various temporal and spatial scales for spawning events in both 2007 and 2008. At four reefs, superficial water samples were taken daily for 9 days after the full moon of August, including days before, during and after the expected days of coral spawning. Microphytoplankton assemblages comprised 100 microalgae taxa at up to 50 cells per mL (mean ± 8 SD) and showed temporal and spatial variations related to the coral spawning only in 2007. However, chlorophyll a concentrations increased during and after the spawning events in both years, and this was better matched with analyses of higher taxonomical groups (diatoms, cyanophytes and dinoflagellates), that also varied in relation to spawning times in 2007 and 2008, but asynchronously among reefs. Heterotrophic and mixotrophic dinoflagellates increased in abundance, correlating with a decrease of the diatom Cerataulina pelagica and an increase of the diatom Rhizosolenia imbricata. These variations occurred during and after the coral spawning event for some reefs in 2007. For the first time, a fresh-water cyanobacteria species of Anabaena was ephemerally found (only 3 days) in the archipelago, at reefs closest to human settlements. Variability among reefs in relation to spawning times indicated that reef-specific processes such as water residence time, re-mineralization rates, and benthic-pelagic coupling can be relevant to the observed patterns. These results suggest an important role of microheterotrophic grazers in re-mineralization of organic

  13. A screening for antimicrobial activities of Caribbean herbal remedies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The TRAMIL program aims to understand, validate and expand health practices based on the use of medicinal plants in the Caribbean, which is a “biodiversity hotspot” due to high species endemism, intense development pressure and habitat loss. The antibacterial activity was examined for thirteen plant species from several genera that were identified as a result of TRAMIL ethnopharmacological surveys or were reported in ethnobotanical accounts from Puerto Rico. The aim of this study was to validate the traditional use of these plant species for the treatment of bacterial infections, such as conjunctivitis, fever, otitis media and furuncles. Methods An agar disc diffusion assay was used to examine five bacterial strains that are associated with the reported infections, including Staphylococcus saprophyticus (ATCC 15305), S. aureus (ATCC 6341), Escherichia coli (ATCC 4157), Haemophilus influenzae (ATCC 8142), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 7700) and Proteus vulgaris (ATCC 6896), as well as the fungus Candida albicans (ATCC 752). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values were determined for each of the extracts that showed inhibitory activity. Results The decoctions of Pityrogramma calomelanos, Tapeinochilus ananassae, and Syzygium jambos, as well as the juice of Gossypium barbadense, showed > 20% growth inhibition against several bacteria relative to the positive control, which was the antibiotic Streptomycin. Extracts with the best antimicrobial activities were S. jambos that showed MIC = 31 μg/mL and MBC = 1.0 mg/mL against P. vulgaris and T. ananassae that showed MIC = 15 μg/mL against S. aureus. Conclusion This report confirms the traditional use of P. calomelanos for the treatment of kidney infections that are associated with stones, as well as the antimicrobial and bactericidal effects of T. ananassae against P. vulgaris and S. saprophyticus and the effects of S. jambos against S

  14. A comparative study of atmospheric corrosion in the Caribbean area

    SciTech Connect

    Maldonado, L.; Castro, P.; Echeverria, M.

    1995-10-01

    Atmospheric corrosion is a phenomenon of such a magnitude that has been cause of study in several countries for decades. Nevertheless, in Mexico, it became of recent interest due to new economic factors that have involved the Peninsula of Yucatan too. The Yucatan Peninsula is limited to the North and West by the Gulf of Mexico and to the East by the Caribbean Sea. This is a non industrialized region so that in the past very little importance was given to the atmospheric corrosion damage or to the quantification of the high corrosion rates, empirically observed. However, in recent times increased tourism, industrial growth and petroleum extraction have exhibited the need for a better understanding of the atmospheric corrosion processes, as well as a realistic correlation to parameters such as time-of-wetness, levels of pollution by airborne salinity, atmospheric S0{sub 2} and corrosivity categories for the metals. To evaluate these parameters, five tests sites were selected following ISO recommendations. Three sites are marines atmospheres, one urban and one rural. Corrosion rates for commercial laminated Cu and carbon steel, as well as deposition rates of pollutants, were determined after one year exposure in the test sites. Applying the standard practice ISO 9223 a categorization of the corrosivity and of the level of pollutants was carried out. The marine environments were classified as of atmospheric corrosivity C{sub 5}, while the urban and the rural could be classified as C{sub 3}, respectively. The pollution values showed that the exposure sites were essentially contaminated with chloride with classification S{sub 1} for the rural site and S{sub 3} for the marine atmosphere.

  15. Timing and magnitude of the Caribbean mid-Holocene highstand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashe, E.; Khan, N.; Horton, B.; Brocard, G. Y.; Dutton, A.; Engelhart, S. E.; Kopp, R. E.; Hill, D. F.; Peltier, W. R.; Scatena, F. N.

    2015-12-01

    We present a database of published and new relative sea-level (RSL) data for the past 13 ka, which constrains the Holocene sea-level histories of the Caribbean coast of Central and South America (Florida Keys, USA to Guyana) and the Bahamas and Greater and Lesser Antilles islands. Our evaluation of mangrove peat and Acropora palmata sea-level indicators from geological investigations provides 503 sea-level index points and 242 limiting dates. We subdivide the database into 21 regions based on the availability of data, tectonic setting, and distance from the former Laurentide ice sheet. Most index points (75%) and limiting dates (90%) are <8 ka, although there is an unusual temporal distribution with the greatest amount of the data (~28%) occurring between 6-8 ka. We reassess and screen radiocarbon and U/Th ages of mangrove peat and coral data. We use the stratigraphic position (overburden thickness) of index points account for sediment compaction, and use the paleotidal model of Hill et al. (2011) to account for Holocene changes in paleotidal range. A noisy-input Gaussian process regression model calculates that the rates of RSL change were highest during the early Holocene (3-8 mm/yr) and have decreased over time (< 2 mm/yr), which is related to the reduction of ice equivalent meltwater input and collapse of the proglacial forebulge during the Holocene. The sea-level reconstructions demonstrate that RSL did not exceed the present height (0 m) during the Holocene in the majority of locations, with the exception of a small highstand (<2 m) on the northern coast of South America along the Orinoco Delta and Suriname/Guyana located furthest away from the former Laurentide Ice Sheet. The different sea-level histories are an ongoing isostatic response to deglaciation of the Laurentide Ice Sheet and suggest subsidence resulting from collapse of the proglacial forebulge reaches further south than previously considered.

  16. Radium isotopes in the Orinoco estuary and Eastern Caribbean Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, W.S.; Todd, J.F. )

    1993-02-15

    Radium isotopes provide a means of identifying the source of freshened waters in the ocean and determining the time elapsed since these waters were in the estuary. The authors present evidence that during April, waters from the Amazon mixing zone pass within 50 km of the mouth of the Orinoco River. These Amazon waters are characterized by a lower [sup 228]Ra/[sup 226]Ra activity ratio (AR) than are waters from the Orinoco at similar salinities. During autumn, the increased discharge of the Orinoco displaces the freshened Amazon waters seaward, yet the two can be distinguished clearly. Within the Caribbean Sea, waters of Orinoco origin carry a characteristic radium signature including excess activities of [sup 224]Ra. This isotope may be used to estimate the time elapsed since the waters were removed from contact with sediments. Current speeds based on [sup 224]Ra dating ranged from 15 to 33 cm/s during April. The radium isotopes also provide an assessment of sediment mixing in the estuary. During low discharge (April), considerable mixing of older sediment by physical or biological processes or dredging maintained high activities of [sup 228]Ra in the estuary and produced the highest [sup 228]Ra/[sup 226]Ra AR's yet measured in any estuary. During high discharge (September), a large fraction of the [sup 228]Ra was derived from desorption from fresh sediment rather than mixing of older sediments. Activities of [sup 224]Ra were high in the estuary during both high and low discharge, indicating that considerable mixing of recently introduced sediment must occur during each period. During April, [sup 224]Ra and [sup 228]Ra activities in the water were about equal, indicating that most of the sediment being resuspended had been stored in the estuary long enough to reestablish radioactive equilibrium in the [sup 232]Th decay series (i.e., 20 years). 19 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Sea surface temperature variability in the Colombian Basin, Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Ochoa, Mauricio; Beier, Emilio; Bernal, Gladys; Barton, Eric Desmond

    2012-06-01

    Daily sea surface temperature (SST) data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) database with ∼4 km of spatial resolution were analyzed for the period 1985-2009 in the Colombian Basin using harmonic and empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis. The data were compared with observational records in the Rosario Island National Park at 10 m depth (T10) from March 2003 to August 2005. SST values were higher than T10 from June to October (rainy season), but similar from December to February (dry season); both data sets have similar coefficient of variation. The mean SST distribution varies spatially, with minimum SST values in the coastal zone of La Guajira Peninsula and maximum values in the Darien and Mosquitos Gulfs. The seasonal variability explains up to 75% of the total variability in La Guajira, a high value compared with 40% in the Mosquitos Gulf. The most important feature of the splitting of SST variation into annual and semiannual harmonics in La Guajira is the relationship between their amplitudes. These are of the same order, which is not common in other ocean zones, where the semiannual component is only a small fraction of the annual dominated by the solar warming. The river water discharge, highest from August to November, produces low density surface water, reduces vertical mixing and limits the absorption of solar radiation to a thin surface layer, explaining the discrepancy between SST and T10 in the rainy season. The decomposition of the SST in EOFs indicated that the dominant mode of the basin is a uniform interannual variation in phase with the North Tropical Atlantic Index. The second mode, representing the variability of the Guajira upwelling, covaried strongly with the second mode of wind stress curl. The third mode reflected the role of the vertical atmospheric circulation cell associated with the Caribbean Low Level Jet off Central America.

  18. Behavioral Immunity Suppresses an Epizootic in Caribbean Spiny Lobsters.

    PubMed

    Butler, Mark J; Behringer, Donald C; Dolan, Thomas W; Moss, Jessica; Shields, Jeffrey D

    2015-01-01

    Sociality has evolved in a wide range of animal taxa but infectious diseases spread rapidly in populations of aggregated individuals, potentially negating the advantages of their social interactions. To disengage from the coevolutionary struggle with pathogens, some hosts have evolved various forms of "behavioral immunity"; yet, the effectiveness of such behaviors in controlling epizootics in the wild is untested. Here we show how one form of behavioral immunity (i.e., the aversion of diseased conspecifics) practiced by Caribbean spiny lobsters (Panulirus argus) when subject to the socially transmitted PaV1 virus, appears to have prevented an epizootic over a large seascape. We capitalized on a "natural experiment" in which a die-off of sponges in the Florida Keys (USA) resulted in a loss of shelters for juvenile lobsters over a ~2500km2 region. Lobsters were thus concentrated in the few remaining shelters, presumably increasing their exposure to the contagious virus. Despite this spatial reorganization of the population, viral prevalence in lobsters remained unchanged after the sponge die-off and for years thereafter. A field experiment in which we introduced either a healthy or PaV1-infected lobster into lobster aggregations in natural dens confirmed that spiny lobsters practice behavioral immunity. Healthy lobsters vacated dens occupied by PaV1-infected lobsters despite the scarcity of alternative shelters and the higher risk of predation they faced when searching for a new den. Simulations from a spatially-explicit, individual-based model confirmed our empirical results, demonstrating the efficacy of behavioral immunity in preventing epizootics in this system. PMID:26061629

  19. The Rossby whistle: A resonant basin mode in the Caribbean Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Christopher W.; Williams, Joanne; Hibbert, Angela; Boening, Carmen; Oram, James

    2016-04-01

    We present a a leaky, resonant Rossby basin mode in the Caribbean Sea, excited by instability of the Caribbean Current. The mode is seen at the surface as westward-propagating Rossby waves with period 120 days, but it is most distinctive in ocean bottom pressure where it is seen in both observations and in a wide variety of ocean models. This bottom pressure mode is a product of the leakiness of the basin, which allows for mass exchange with the surrounding ocean. The mode is found to dominate sea level variability on parts of the South American coast.

  20. Metallurgical and acoustical characterization of a hydroformed, 304 stainless steel, Caribbean-style musical pan

    SciTech Connect

    Murr, L.E. Gaytan, S.M.; Lopez, M.I.; Bujanda, D.E.; Martinez, E.Y.; Whitmyre, G.; Price, H.

    2008-03-15

    We report herein the metallurgical and acoustical characterization of hydroformed 304 stainless steel, Caribbean pans. These pans were fully tuned to chromatic tones and compared to a manufactured, low-carbon, Caribbean steel pan standard. Hydroformed platforms had a Vickers microindentation hardness of HV 345, which was reduced by annealing during pan fabrication to HV 270. Skirts welded to the hydroformed head had a microindentation hardness of HV 440. Microstructural characterization by light optical metallography and transmission electron microscopy illustrated microstructures (including grain structures) characteristic of these pan microindentation hardnesses.

  1. Research conducted on Caribbean women's perceived human immunodeficiency virus risks: A narrative review and methodological critique

    PubMed Central

    Charlery, Su-Anne Robyn

    2014-01-01

    Background: Caribbean women have the highest human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection rates among women in the Americas; however, their self-assessment of HIV risk is alarmingly low. This reflects a low perceived risk for HIV. English-speaking Caribbean countries are typically understudied in this area. It is important for health researchers and practitioners to understand the underlying perceptions of women who are now driving this epidemic. This review discusses and critiques the published literature that examines Caribbean women's perceived HIV risks. Methods: Medline, PsycINFO, Global Health, Women's Studies International, and Academic Search Complete databases were searched using various combinations of the following keywords: Caribbean, women, HIV, STD, AIDS, risk, perceived risk, risk perception, and sex. Searches were restricted to English. A total of 69 peer-reviewed studies were obtained from the initial 239 records. The reviewer screened the peer-reviewed articles and excluded 50 studies that did not directly assess perceived HIV risks in Caribbean women. An additional 12 studies were excluded based on the following exclusion criteria: an undetermined proportion or more than 50% of the sample consisted of pregnant women, sex workers, drug users, Latinas, and/or people living with HIV/AIDS. Results: Seven studies on perceived HIV risk in Caribbean women were reviewed. Jamaican women were the most represented ethnic demographic (43%). All studies assessed perceived risk as a subset of HIV psychosocial factors, sexual-risk behaviors, HIV knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs. Four studies used cross-sectional research design and two studies used qualitative methodology. Only one study described items used to measure perceived risk. General findings indicate overall perceptions of invulnerability among Caribbean women, despite high sexual-risk behaviors. Conclusions: Published studies that specifically assess Caribbean women's HIV risk perceptions are

  2. Using DNA Barcoding to Assess Caribbean Reef Fish Biodiversity: Expanding Taxonomic and Geographic Coverage

    PubMed Central

    Weigt, Lee A.; Baldwin, Carole C.; Driskell, Amy; Smith, David G.; Ormos, Andrea; Reyier, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    This paper represents a DNA barcode data release for 3,400 specimens representing 521 species of fishes from 6 areas across the Caribbean and western central Atlantic regions (FAO Region 31). Merged with our prior published data, the combined efforts result in 3,964 specimens representing 572 species of marine fishes and constitute one of the most comprehensive DNA barcoding “coverages” for a region reported to date. The barcode data are providing new insights into Caribbean shorefish diversity, allowing for more and more accurate DNA-based identifications of larvae, juveniles, and unknown specimens. Examples are given correcting previous work that was erroneous due to database incompleteness. PMID:22815912

  3. Substance use, mental disorders and physical health of Caribbeans at-home compared to those residing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Krim K; Sears, Karen Powell; Govia, Ishtar O; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S

    2015-01-01

    This study compares the health conditions of domestic Caribbeans with those living in the United States to explore how national context and migration experiences might influence substance use (i.e., alcohol or drug) and other mental and physical health conditions. The study is based upon probability samples of non-institutionalized Caribbeans living in the United States (1621), Jamaica (1216) and Guyana (2068) 18 years of age and over. Employing descriptive statistics and multivariate analytic procedures, the results revealed that substance use and other physical health conditions and major depressive disorder and mania vary by national context, with higher rates among Caribbeans living in the United States. Context and generation status influenced health outcomes. Among first generation black Caribbeans, residing in the United States for a longer length of time is linked to poorer health outcomes. There were different socio-demographic correlates of health among at-home and abroad Caribbeans. The results of this study support the need for additional research to explain how national context, migratory experiences and generation status contribute to understanding substance use and mental disorders and physical health outcomes among Caribbean first generation and descendants within the United States, compared to those remaining in the Caribbean region. PMID:25590147

  4. Substance use, mental disorders and physical health of Caribbeans at-home compared to those residing in the United States.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Krim K; Sears, Karen Powell; Govia, Ishtar O; Forsythe-Brown, Ivy; Matusko, Niki; Jackson, James S

    2015-01-13

    This study compares the health conditions of domestic Caribbeans with those living in the United States to explore how national context and migration experiences might influence substance use (i.e., alcohol or drug) and other mental and physical health conditions. The study is based upon probability samples of non-institutionalized Caribbeans living in the United States (1621), Jamaica (1216) and Guyana (2068) 18 years of age and over. Employing descriptive statistics and multivariate analytic procedures, the results revealed that substance use and other physical health conditions and major depressive disorder and mania vary by national context, with higher rates among Caribbeans living in the United States. Context and generation status influenced health outcomes. Among first generation black Caribbeans, residing in the United States for a longer length of time is linked to poorer health outcomes. There were different socio-demographic correlates of health among at-home and abroad Caribbeans. The results of this study support the need for additional research to explain how national context, migratory experiences and generation status contribute to understanding substance use and mental disorders and physical health outcomes among Caribbean first generation and descendants within the United States, compared to those remaining in the Caribbean region.

  5. Who Succeeds in Mathematics? Caribbean Perspectives on the Mix of Schools and Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    Within the Caribbean, there has been a perception that students are underachieving in mathematics. This assessment has seemingly been based amongst other things upon the proportion of students who are successful in mathematics compared to other subjects in external examinations. This notion was investigated in a case study of secondary schools in…

  6. Universities of the Caribbean Region--Struggles to Democratize. An Annotated Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waggoner, Barbara Ashton; Waggoner, George R.

    An annotated bibliography on universities in the Caribbean region for the period since World War II is presented. The focus is on access to universities. For book citations, each annotation contains the author's name, publication title, place of publication, publisher, date, and number of pages. Journal references consist of author, title of…

  7. 8.2 ky event associated with high precipitation in the eastern Caribbean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, A.; Vieten, R.; Miller, T.; Mangini, A.; Scholz, D.

    2013-12-01

    We present data from speleothems collected in Venezuela and Puerto Rico showing that the eastern Caribbean was anomalously moist during the 8.2ka event. Evidence from high-resolution analyses of Greenland ice core (GISP2) shows that at the same time northern Europe and the north Atlantic were cooler by 3 - 6° C. The trigger for the 8.2ka event is thought to be pulsed meltwater discharges from a multi-event drainage of proglacial lakes associated with the decaying Laurentide Ice Sheet margin. The meltwater apparently slowed the thermohaline circulation decreasing warmth to northern Europe. At the same time moisture transfer to the northern latitudes may have slowed resulting in the observed lower latitude precipitation patterns. The eastern Caribbean seems to be especially sensitive to the changes in the strength of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC). Higher precipitation values may also have increased lowland flooding along the coastal areas of north eastern South America, already affected by early Holocene sea-level change, and are linked to social territory reshuffling which stimulated the earliest migrations into the Caribbean Archipelago shortly afterwards. Our age models based on precise MC-ICPMS 230Th/U-dating indicate that the eastern Caribbean stalagmites all grew at about the same rate of 15 cm through the 8.2 ka event, much faster than during any other growth period, except today when they are also growing at an accelerated rate.

  8. Developing Food-Based Dietary Guidelines to Promote Healthy Diets and Lifestyles in the Eastern Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albert, Janice L.; Samuda, Pauline M.; Molina, Veronika; Regis, Theresa Marietta; Severin, Merlyn; Finlay, Betty; Prevost, Jacqueline Lancaster

    2007-01-01

    Obesity, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes are becoming leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the Eastern Caribbean countries of St. Vincent and the Grenadines, Saint Lucia, Grenada, and Dominica. To promote healthful diets and lifestyles and encourage behavioral changes, Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) were developed for the…

  9. Exploring the Global/Local Boundary in Education in Developing Countries: The Case of the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, June; Lewis, Theodore

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on education in developing countries in the context of globalization and with specific reference to the Caribbean. It examines the concept of globalization and related concepts and positions developing countries within this context. It explores the possibility of the creation of a third space where the local and the global can…

  10. Stress in Teaching: A Study of Elementary School Teachers in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Arthur G.

    The goal of this study was to discover the sources of stress in elementary school teachers in the Caribbean. The study sought the answers to three questions which focus on teachers' perceptions of: (1) the most stressful classroom activity/condition; (2) differences in sources of stress between male and female teachers; and (3) differences in…

  11. The Professional Preparation of Senior Education Administrators in the Caribbean Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodridge, Rudolph V.

    This paper outlines the historical evolution of the post of Chief Education Officer in the education systems of the English-speaking Caribbean, looks at the demands placed on office holders over the last several years, and, against this background, suggests areas in the preparation of senior educational administrators that seem to merit attention…

  12. HIV-1 Epidemic in the Caribbean Is Dominated by Subtype B

    PubMed Central

    Nadai, Yuka; Eyzaguirre, Lindsay M.; Sill, Anne; Cleghorn, Farley; Nolte, Claudine; Charurat, Manhattan; Collado-Chastel, Santiago; Jack, Noreen; Bartholomew, Courtenay; Pape, Jean W.; Figueroa, Peter; Blattner, William A.; Carr, Jean K.

    2009-01-01

    Background The molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 in the Caribbean has been described using partial genome sequencing; subtype B is the most common subtype in multiple countries. To expand our knowledge of this, nearly full genome amplification, sequencing and analysis was conducted. Methodology/Principal Findings Virion RNA from sera collected in Haiti, Dominican Republic, Jamaica and Trinidad and Tobago were reverse transcribed, PCR amplified, sequenced and phylogenetically analyzed. Nearly full genomes were completed for 15 strains; partial pol was done for 67 strains. All but one of the 67 strains analyzed in pol were subtype B; the exception was a unique recombinant of subtypes B and C collected in the Dominican Republic. Of the nearly full genomes of 14 strains that were subtype B in pol, all were subtype B from one end of the genome to the other and not inter-subtype recombinants. Surprisingly, the Caribbean subtype B strains clustered significantly with each other and separate from subtype B from other parts of the pandemic. Conclusions The more complete analysis of HIV-1 from 4 Caribbean countries confirms previous research using partial genome analysis that the predominant subtype in circulation was subtype B. The Caribbean strains are phylogenetically distinct from other subtype B strains although the biological meaning of this finding is unclear. PMID:19279683

  13. Religious Coping among African Americans, Caribbean Blacks and Non-Hispanic Whites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatters, Linda M.; Taylor, Robert Joseph; Jackson, James S.; Lincoln, Karen D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined demographic predictors of attitudes regarding religious coping (i.e., prayer during stressful times and look to God for support, strength and guidance) within a national sample of African Americans, Caribbean Blacks, and non-Hispanic Whites (National Survey of American Life). The findings demonstrate significant Black-White…

  14. Immigrants and Refugees: The Caribbean and South Florida. Occasional Papers Series, Dialogues #2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida International Univ., Miami. Latin American and Caribbean Center.

    Six papers on Caribbean immigrants and refugees in south Florida are presented in this document. Their titles (and authors) are: (1) "Let's Welcome the Refugees" (Bryan O. Walsh); (2) "The Haitians and America's 'Pull'" (Anthony P. Maingot); (3) "Estimates of Haitian International Migration for the 1950-1980 Period" (James Allman); (4) "West…

  15. A limited assessment and characterization of the solar radiation energy resources in the Caribbean region

    SciTech Connect

    Hulstrom, R.L.

    1988-02-01

    The objective of our work was to produce a preliminary assessment and characterization of the Caribbean region (Barbados, Dominican Republic, Guatemala, Jamaica, and Panama) solar radiation energy resources. Such information will be used to estimate the performance of, and identify the most promising applications of, solar heat technologies in the Caribbean region. We expect the solar radiation resources in the Caribbean region to be very location specific. Sunny areas will have an annual direct-beam resource of about 3,000 kWhm/sup /minus 2// and a global solar radiation resource of about 2,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2//. Cloud-covered areas will have annual solar radiation resources of about 1,500 kWhm/sup /minus 2/ for both the direct-beam and the global solar radiation. Monthly levels of solar radiaion will vary markedly, ranging from an average of 9 to 3 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the direct-beam and from an average of 7 to 4 kWhm/sup /minus 2//day/sup /minus 1// for the global solar radiation. The Caribbean region is comparable to the Great Plains region of the US, in terms of annual solar radiation resources; however, thorough ''prospecting'' is required to avoid areas having very low amounts of solar radiation.

  16. The Changing Face of HIV in Latin America and the Caribbean

    PubMed Central

    García, Patricia J; Bayer, Angela; Cárcamo, César P

    2014-01-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is a region with similarities and important disparities. In recent years LAC has witnessed achievements, with HIV prevalence rates relatively stable for LA and decreasing for the Caribbean. However average values hide differences. General population HIV prevalence in LAC is 0.4% in average. In the Caribbean there are fewer new HIV infections but HIV prevalence among adults exceeds 1% in several countries. It is estimated that 31% of adults living with HIV in LA and 52% of adults in the Caribbean are women. Unprotected sex is the main route of HIV transmission in LAC. Men who have sex with men and transgender women are the populations with the highest prevalence (10.6% and 17.7% respectively); however other key populations such as female sex workers (4.9%), drug users (range 1%-49.7% for intravenous drug users). Prisoners and indigenous populations are also important. LAC has the highest anti-retroviral treatment coverage of any low- and middle-income region in the world, but women and children are less likely than men to receive treatment. There is an important pending agenda to address the gaps in information, prevention and care for HIV in LAC. PMID:24824881

  17. Changing Fatherhood: An Exploratory Qualitative Study with African and African Caribbean Men in England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Robert; Hewison, Alistair; Wildman, Stuart; Roskell, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents findings from a qualitative study undertaken with 46 African and African Caribbean men exploring their experiences of fatherhood. Data analysis was informed by Connell's theoretical work on changing gender relations. Findings indicate that fathers' lives were mediated by masculinities, racism, gender, migration and…

  18. Regional integration and south-south cooperation in health in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Carrillo Roa, Alejandra; Santana, José Paranaguá de

    2012-11-01

    This paper analyzes whether south-south cooperation is legitimately a recent practice or merely an improved version of previous regional integration processes in Latin America and the Caribbean. The authors reviewed and systematized the historic development of subregional integration processes in Latin America and the Caribbean and focused on health cooperation in the following contexts: the Central American Integration System, the Andean Community of Nations, the Caribbean Community, the Amazon Cooperation Treaty Organization, the Southern Common Market, and the Union of South American Nations. The study concludes that the conceptual and methodologic foundations of south-south cooperation in health were born from and nurtured by the processes of regional integration in Latin America and the Caribbean. This paper posits that regional political and economic integration initiatives bring potential benefits to the health sector and act as an important mechanism to develop south-south cooperation in this domain. The study recommends furthering this type of research to provide information that will allow national and multilateral agencies, or other stakeholders, to formulate and implement better policies for international health cooperation that target reducing inequities and promoting health and well-being for all people. PMID:23338694

  19. Women and Politics in Barbados, 1948-1981. Women in the Caribbean Project, Volume 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Neville; O'Brien, Kenneth

    One in a series emanating from a three-year project concerned with the role of women in the English-speaking Caribbean, this publication discusses female participation in politics in Barbados. Project objectives are to establish in the region a data base for teaching, research, and planning purposes and to develop guidelines for a cohesive social…

  20. Absolute dating of Caribbean cores p6304-8 and p6304-9.

    PubMed

    Rona, E; Emiliani, C

    1969-01-01

    Two deep-sea cores from the central Caribbean have been dated by the thorium-230/ protactinium-231 method. The ages obtained are in agreement with the ages previously obtained from other deep-sea cores from the same area. Because of their greater precision, the new dates provide a more accurate time scale for the past 170,000 years.

  1. Demographic history of Diadema antillarum, a keystone herbivore on Caribbean reefs.

    PubMed Central

    Lessios, H. A.; Garrido, M. J.; Kessing, B. D.

    2001-01-01

    The sea urchin Diadema antillarum was the most important herbivore on Caribbean reefs until 1983, when mass mortality reduced its populations by more than 97%. Knowledge of its past demography is essential to reconstruct reef ecology as it was before human impact, which has been implicated as having caused high pre-mortality Diadema abundance. To determine the history of its population size, we sequenced the ATPase 6 and 8 region of mitochondrial DNA from populations in the Caribbean and in the eastern Atlantic (which was not affected by the mass mortality), as well as from the eastern Pacific D. mexicanum. The Caribbean population harbours an order of magnitude more molecular diversity than those of the eastern Pacific or the eastern Atlantic and, despite the recent mass mortality, its DNA sequences bear the genetic signature of a previous population expansion. By estimating mutation rates from divergence between D. antillarum and D. mexicanum, that were separated at a known time by the Isthmus of Panama, and by using estimates of effective population size derived from mismatch distributions and a maximum likelihood coalescence algorithm, we date the expansion as having occurred no more recently than 100 000 years before the present. Thus, Diadema was abundant in the Caribbean long before humans could have affected ecological processes; the genetic data contain no evidence of a recent, anthropogenically caused, population increase. PMID:11703875

  2. Absolute dating of Caribbean cores p6304-8 and p6304-9.

    PubMed

    Rona, E; Emiliani, C

    1969-01-01

    Two deep-sea cores from the central Caribbean have been dated by the thorium-230/ protactinium-231 method. The ages obtained are in agreement with the ages previously obtained from other deep-sea cores from the same area. Because of their greater precision, the new dates provide a more accurate time scale for the past 170,000 years. PMID:17780174

  3. Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) Education Reform Strategy: Report on Country Consultations and Work Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charles, Hubert J.

    In 1991 a working group from the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) released a report, the OECS Education Reform Strategy (OERS), which detailed proposed reform strategies for the region. This document summarizes the report's nine recommendations and responses to the report. The report was distributed to Ministries of Education and…

  4. Evaluation of Small-Group Teaching in Human Gross Anatomy in a Caribbean Medical School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Lap Ki; Ganguly, Pallab K.

    2008-01-01

    Although there are a number of medical schools in the Caribbean islands, very few reports have come out so far in the literature regarding the efficacy of small-group teaching in them. The introduction of small-group teaching in the gross anatomy laboratory one and a half years ago at St. Matthew's University (SMU) on Grand Cayman appears to have…

  5. Exploring the Use of Information Communication Technologies by Selected Caribbean Extension Officers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strong, Robert; Ganpat, Wayne; Harder, Amy; Irby, Travis L.; Lindner, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to describe selected Caribbean extension officers' technology preferences and examine factors that may affect their technology preferences. Design/methodology/approach: The sample consisted of extension officers (N = 119) participating in professional development training sessions in Grenada, Belize and…

  6. Developmental Characteristics of African American and Caribbean Black Adolescents' Attributions regarding Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.; Sellers, Robert M.; Jackson, James S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined discrimination attributions in the psychological well-being of Black adolescents. Findings are based on a representative sample of 810 African American and 360 Caribbean Black youth, aged 13-17, who participated in the National Survey of American Life. Youth completed measures of perceived discrimination, discrimination…

  7. The White British-Black Caribbean Achievement Gap: Tests, Tiers and Teacher Expectations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strand, Steve

    2012-01-01

    A recent analysis of the Longitudinal Study of Young People in England (LSYPE) indicates a White British-Black Caribbean achievement gap at age 14 which cannot be accounted for by socio-economic variables or a wide range of contextual factors. This article uses the LSYPE to analyse patterns of entry to the different tiers of national mathematics…

  8. A Caribbean Pre-Service Mathematics Teacher's Impetus to Integrate Computer Technology in His Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clarke, Pier Junor

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a case study of one pre-service secondary school mathematics (PSSM) teacher taken from a larger study within an English-speaking Caribbean context. The major goal of the larger study was to investigate the experiences and perceptions of the PSSM teachers as they explored the graphing calculator and mathematics software in…

  9. 75 FR 15446 - Agency Information Collection Activities: United States-Caribbean Basin Trade Partnership Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-29

    ... trade benefits to countries in the Caribbean Basin. For preferential treatment under CBTPA, importers are required to have CBTPA Certification of Origin (Form 450) in their possession at the time of the... burden hours. ] Affected Public: Businesses. Estimated Number of Respondents: 84. Estimated Number...

  10. The changing face of HIV in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    García, Patricia J; Bayer, Angela; Cárcamo, César P

    2014-06-01

    Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) is a region with similarities and important disparities. In recent years LAC has witnessed achievements, with HIV prevalence rates relatively stable for LA and decreasing for the Caribbean. However average values hide differences. General population HIV prevalence in LAC is 0.4 % on average. In the Caribbean there are fewer new HIV infections but HIV prevalence among adults exceeds 1 % in several countries. It is estimated that 31 % of adults living with HIV in LA and 52 % of adults in the Caribbean are women. Unprotected sex is the main route of HIV transmission in LAC. Men who have sex with men and transgender women are the populations with the highest prevalence (10.6 % and 17.7 % respectively); however other key populations such as female sex workers (4.9 %), drug users (range 1 %-49.7 % for intravenous drug users), prisoners and indigenous populations are also important. LAC has the highest anti-retroviral treatment coverage of any low- and middle-income region in the world, but women and children are less likely than men to receive treatment. There is an important pending agenda to address the gaps in information, prevention, and care for HIV in LAC. PMID:24824881

  11. The Features of Development in the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cuenca Garcia, Eduardo; Rodriguez Martin, Jose Antonio; Navarro Pabsdorf, Margarita

    2010-01-01

    In this article we present a new proposal for the measurement of development, applied to the Pacific Countries of the African, Caribbean and Pacific Group (ACP), conditional on their insularity, and with privileged relations with the European Union. Our index has been constructed attending to the criteria defined in the Goals of the Millennium…

  12. Poverty and Policy in Latin America and the Caribbean. World Bank Technical Paper No. 467.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wodon, Quentin T.

    Although the progress toward poverty reduction remains sluggish, other dimensions of social welfare in the Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) region show signs of improvement. Adult literacy and school enrollment rates, life expectancy at birth, access to safe water, and nutrition indicators are improving. However, other factors demonstrate that…

  13. Characteristics of a French African Caribbean Epidemiological Psychiatric Sample with a History of Suicide Attempt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slama, Frederic; Dehurtevent, Benedicte; Even, Jean-Daniel; Charles-Nicolas, Aime; Ballon, Nicolas; Slama, Remy

    2008-01-01

    Research on vulnerability factors among ethnic groups, independent of primary psychiatric diagnosis, may help to identify groups at risk of suicidal behavior. French African Caribbean general psychiatric patients (N = 362) were recruited consecutively and independently of the primary psychiatric diagnosis. Demographic and clinical characteristics…

  14. Contrasts in Blue: Life on the Caribbean Coral Reef and the Rocky Coast of Maine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Art to Zoo: Teaching with the Power of Objects, 1996

    1996-01-01

    Ecosystem contrasts between the Caribbean Coral Reef and the Rocky coast of Maine are the focus of this instructional resource. The publication, issued four times a year, explores single topics through an interdisciplinary, multicultural approach. The activities presented in this issue encourage students to consider the role of temperature,…

  15. Challenges to Seventh-Day Adventist Tertiary Education in the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Trevor George

    2010-01-01

    The article briefly summarizes seven challenges that faces the Seventh Day Adventist (SDA) tertiary institutions in the Caribbean. There is no exhaustive discussion of the challenges but each is clearly articulated. There is no attempt to address solution but the discussion of each challenge, however, provides opportunity for several inferences…

  16. French and Spanish Communication for Caribbean Professionals: Innovative Foreign Language Course Developments from UTech, Jamaica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boufoy-Bastick, Beatrice

    Economic globalization make it increasingly important for Caribbean professionals to be able to communicate effectively in English, French, and Spanish. Accordingly, the University of Technology in Jamaica is developing French and Spanish courses designed to teach culturally appropriate and successful communication for specific professions. The…

  17. The Major Project in the Field of Education in Latin America and the Caribbean. Bulletin #12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Santiago (Chile). Regional Office for Education in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    The first segment of this bulletin is a summary presentation of the Second Meeting of the Regional Intergovernmental Committee of the Major Project in the Field of Education and the Sixth Regional Conference of Ministers of Education and Ministers Responsible for Economic Planning of the Member States in Latin America and the Caribbean (Bogota,…

  18. A Study of Public Library Users in Some Countries of Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guevara, Alvaro Agudo

    This user survey was part of a three-part diagnostic study that sought to obtain information on how public libraries operate in Latin America (Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Panama, and Venezuela) and the Caribbean (Barbados, Grenada, Jamaica, and Surinam) and the social role performed by this type of service in the region.…

  19. A Historical Review of the Evolution of Early Childhood Care and Education in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Rose

    This paper reviews the development of early childhood care and education in the Caribbean region since World War II. Despite the growth of private early childhood facilities throughout the region in the immediate post-war period, supply was inadequate to satisfy demand. Governments, pressured by rising social and economic problems, were to varying…

  20. Molecular Systematics of Threatened Seed Plant Species Endemic in the Caribbean Islands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A review of available Caribbean Island red-lists species (CR and EN categories based on the IUCN guidelines from 2001, and E category established according to the IUCN guidelines from 1980) is presented. A database of at least 1,300 endemic species that are either Critically Endangered or Endangered...

  1. Caribbean American Scholars Exchange Program: A Program of the Phelps-Stokes Fund.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hofstra Univ., Hempstead, NY. Center for the Study of Higher Education.

    This booklet comprises eleven articles selected from a set of papers delivered by a number of professional educators and researchers during seminars arranged in the West Indies and the United States in compliance with the goals of the Caribbean American Scholars Exchange Program. The 11 articles are grouped in 4 sections. The first section…

  2. Closing the Gap in Education and Technology. World Bank Latin American and Caribbean Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Ferranti, David; Perry, Guillermo E.; Gill, Indermit; Guasch, J. Luis; Maloney, William F.; Sanchez-Paramo, Carolina; Schady, Norbert

    This document examines the gap between the Latin America and Caribbean region and the world's developed nations in the areas of education and technology. It also examines policies and strategies to close the gap. The following are among the specific topics discussed: (1) skills upgrading and innovation policies (the major actors; the role of…

  3. Medical tourism in the Caribbean region: a call to consider environmental health equity.

    PubMed

    Johnston, R; Crooks, V A

    2013-03-01

    Medical tourism, which is the intentional travel by private-paying patients across international borders for medical treatment, is a sector that has been targeted for growth in many Caribbean countries. The international development of this industry has raised a core set of proposed health equity benefits and drawbacks for host countries. These benefits centre on the potential investment in health infrastructure and opportunities for health labour force development while drawbacks focus on the potential for reduced access to healthcare for locals and inefficient use of limited public resources to support the growth of the medical tourism industry. The development of the medical tourism sector in Caribbean countries raises additional health equity questions that have received little attention in existing international debates, specifically in regard to environmental health equity. In this viewpoint, we introduce questions of environmental health equity that clearly emerge in relation to the developing Caribbean medical tourism sector These questions acknowledge that the growth of this sector will have impacts on the social and physical environments, resources, and waste management infrastructure in countries. We contend that in addition to addressing the wider health equity concerns that have been consistently raised in existing debates surrounding the growth of medical tourism, planning for growth in this sector in the Caribbean must take environmental health equity into account in order to ensure that local populations, environments, and ecosystems are not harmed by facilities catering to international patients.

  4. The Barriers to Achievement for White/Black Caribbean Pupils in English Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haynes, Jo; Tikly, Leon; Caballero, Chamion

    2006-01-01

    Pupils of White and Black Caribbean descent make up the largest category of mixed heritage pupils in the United Kingdom. As a group they are at risk of underachieving and are proportionally over-represented in school exclusions. Yet little is known to date about the barriers to their achievement. The common-sense explanation for their…

  5. Identification and analysis of the major yolk polypeptide from the caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single major yolk polypeptide (YP) having a molecular mass of approximately 48,000 daltons (Da), was identified in the ovaries and oviposited eggs of the Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa. The polypeptide was partially purified from oviposited eggs using gel permeation and ion-exchange chro...

  6. Return Migration and Remittances: Developing a Caribbean Perspective. RIIES Occasional Papers No. 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, William F., Ed.; And Others

    The 13 papers in this volume discuss issues relating to Caribbeans who have migrated to the United States and then returned to their home countries. The last three papers focus on remittances, migrants' ongoing remitting of cash and other economic resources to the home society. Paper titles (and authors) are the following: (1) "Introductory Essay:…

  7. Life Cycle and Legacy of the Educational Reforms in Latin America and the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Benjamin

    1998-01-01

    Examines implementation of educational reforms in the Latin American-Caribbean region during the 1990s, based on national case studies (Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Jamaica, and Paraguay), descriptions of nationally supported projects, and discussions with reformers and researchers. Despite similarities in reforms' origins and components, each…

  8. [Commercial capture with long line in the exclusive economic zone in La Guajira, Colombian Caribbean Sea].

    PubMed

    Alvarez-León, Ricardo

    2002-03-01

    Pelagic fish were collected with long line in the 20-22 degrees C isotherms from 1986 to 1988 off Guajira, Colombia. Thirteen species of pelagic fish were found including four new records: Lampris guttatus, Lepidocybium flavobrunneum, Tetrapturus pfluegeri, Eumegistius brevorti. The occurrence of the orca (Orcinus orca Linnaeus) is confirmed in the Colombian Caribbean waters. PMID:12298249

  9. Factors Caribbean Overseas Students Perceive Influence Their Academic Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards-Joseph, Arline; Baker, Stanley

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated factors that influenced the academic self-efficacy of Caribbean overseas students attending universities in the United States, and the themes that emerged from their perceptions of variables impacting their academic self-efficacy. Seven major themes (educational background, faith in God, finances, age and maturity,…

  10. Themes Caribbean Overseas Students Perceive Influence Their Levels of Culture Shock

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards-Joseph, Arline; Baker, Stanley B.

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether or not Caribbean overseas students, attending universities in the United States, perceived that they experienced culture shock and what themes emerged explaining their experiences. Thirty-eight participants indicated having experienced culture shock, and 20 did not. Five major themes (loneliness and feelings of not…

  11. Social Capital, Health and HIV Awareness of Girls in a Rural Caribbean Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Sharon D.; Howard, Rosalyn; Hardy, Christina; Stinson, Betria

    2005-01-01

    Girls and young women are bearing the heaviest burden of the rising HIV epidemic in the English-speaking Caribbean. Previous research has highlighted the importance of understanding geographical and sociocultural factors in the spread of HIV among this population. This paper reports an exploratory case study which assessed the role of social…

  12. International trends in health science librarianship. Part 5 Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Berry, Beverley; Rodrííguez-Jiménez, Teresa M

    2013-03-01

    This is the 5th in a series of articles exploring international trends in health science librarianship in Latin America and the Caribbean in the first decade of the 21st century. The invited authors are from Argentina, Bermuda and Mexico. Future issues will track trends in Central Europe and the Middle East. JM.

  13. Whose Context for What Quality? Informing Education Strategies for the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Louisy, Dame Pearlette

    2004-01-01

    An enduring tenet of the comparative education tradition is the significance of cultural context, of the distinctive features that characterise a society or social group. The close link that has been established between culture and development has prompted Caribbean leaders to place more emphasis on an appreciation of the region's cultural assets,…

  14. Evidences of the Presence of Methane Seeps in the Colombian Caribbean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gracia, Adriana; Rangel-Buitrago, Nelson; Sellanes, Javier

    2010-05-01

    For the first time in the southern Caribbean Sea Margin of Colombia (between 450 - 700 m deep) we confirm the presence of methane seep communities near the deltas of the Magdalena and Sinu rivers. Some evidences of the occurrence of those communities include: i) bivalves constituents of marine chemosynthesis-based communities, which are indicators of reducing environments as vesicomyid and lucinid bivalves (Vesicomya caribbea, Calyptogena ponderosa, Ectenagena modioliforma, Lucinoma spp. and Graecina colombiensis), together with the rare solemyid clam Acharax caribbaea, ii) other seep-associated fauna such as the trochid snail Cataegis meroglypta, iii) the first report of vestimentiferan tubeworms for the area and, iv) the presence of authigenic carbonates; these constructions form hard substrates colonized by sessile fauna. Additionally, more than 20 species of benthic non-seep fauna were found associated in the area. The collected fauna exhibits an elevated taxonomic similarity to other modern and fossil seep communities from the Caribbean (Barbados Prism, Gulf of Mexico, Cenozoic seep taxa from Barbados, Trinidad and Venezuela). The presence of these chemosymbiotic species seems to be related to mud diapirism activity in the South West of the Colombian coast, this geologic characteristic indicates tectonic and depositional processes associated with the aforementioned deltas. Further research is necessary to establish biological and geological interactions, geochemical and geophysical controls, and organization of cold seeps communities in this unexplored area of the Caribbean. Keywords: Methane, Chemosynthesis-based communities,Bivalves, Mud diapirs, Colombian Caribbean Sea

  15. Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Diptera:Tephritidae): Life history and laboratory rearing methods.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Caribbean fruit fly, Anastrepha suspensa (Loew), is and agricultural pest established throughout south Florida, where it poses a threat to commercial citrus, guava, and other tropical and subtropical fruit crops. This poster outlines the protocols used at the USDA-ARS laboratory in Miami, FL, fo...

  16. Caribbean and Central American Women's Feminist Inquiry through Theater-Based Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sánchez Ares, Rocío

    2015-01-01

    Feminist action research interrogates gendered dynamics in the development of a collective consciousness. A group of immigrant Latina women (Latinas) from the Caribbean and Central America employed community-based theater as an instrument to mobilize diverse audiences against discriminatory practices and policies. Based on their theater work, I…

  17. "Educational Regionalization" and the Gated Global: The Construction of the Caribbean Educational Policy Space

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jules, Tavis D.

    2015-01-01

    This article draws on "regime theory," particularly on the concepts of cooperation, compatibility of interests, and proclivity to compromise, to examine the rise of the Caribbean Educational Policy Space (CEPS). In making this argument, with the aid of a content analysis of 26 educational policies from the 15 member states of the…

  18. From Cutlass to Agribusiness: Caribbean Food and Agriculture in Transition within a Global System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Michael J.

    This examination of the future role of food and agriculture in world peace and prosperity presents a regional cross-country view of the Caribbean countries with emphasis on the Caricom English speaking countries within a global food system environment. Following an introductory section, the second of six sections focuses on two broad agricultural…

  19. [Crustaceans associated to macroalgae in Bajo Pepito, Isla Mujeres, Mexican Caribbean].

    PubMed

    Campos Vázquez, C

    2000-01-01

    Crustaceans associated with macroalgae were collected for one year by scuba diving in Bajo Pepito, Isla Mujeres, mexican Caribbean. A total of 148 organisms were found: three orders, 11 families, 18 genera and 19 species in nine types of associations. The order with highest abundance was Isopoda (112), followed by Amphipoda (20) and Decapoda (16).

  20. A new species of Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia (Hymenoptera, Apidae)

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Victor H.; Engel, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A new species of the Neotropical stingless bee genus Geotrigona Moure from the Caribbean coast of Colombia is described and figured. Geotrigona joearroyoi sp. n. belongs to the fulvohirta species group and is distinguished on the basis of color and type of pubescence on the metasomal terga. New geographical records and an updated key to the species of Geotrigona are provided. PMID:22448115