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Sample records for carica inhibits osteoclast

  1. Lipocalin-2 inhibits osteoclast formation by suppressing the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast lineage cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Yoon, Kyung-Ae; Gwon, Mi-Ri; Jin Seong, Sook; Suk, Kyoungho; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2015-06-10

    Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a member of the lipocalin superfamily and plays a critical role in the regulation of various physiological processes, such as inflammation and obesity. In this study, we report that LCN2 negatively modulates the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast precursors, resulting in impaired osteoclast formation. The overexpression of LCN2 in bone marrow-derived macrophages or the addition of recombinant LCN2 protein inhibits the formation of multinuclear osteoclasts. LCN2 suppresses macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-induced proliferation of osteoclast precursor cells without affecting their apoptotic cell death. Interestingly, LCN2 decreases the expression of the M-CSF receptor, c-Fms, and subsequently blocks its downstream signaling cascades. In addition, LCN2 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and attenuates the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), which are important modulators in osteoclastogenesis. Mechanistically, LCN2 inhibits NF-κB signaling pathways, as demonstrated by the suppression of IκBα phosphorylation, nuclear translocation of p65, and NF-κB transcriptional activity. Thus, LCN2 is an anti-osteoclastogenic molecule that exerts its effects by retarding the proliferation and differentiation of osteoclast lineage cells. - Highlights: • LCN2 expression is regulated during osteoclast development. • LCN2 suppresses M-CSF-mediated osteoclast precursor proliferation. • LCN2 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation.

  2. MECHANICAL VIBRATION INHIBITS OSTEOCLAST FORMATION BY REDUCING DC-STAMP RECEPTOR EXPRESSION IN OSTEOCLAST PRECURSOR CELLS

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, R.N.; Voglewede, P.A.; Liu, D.

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20 ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1 hour of mechanical vibration with 20 µm displacement at a frequency of 4 Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5 days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells were determined after 1 hour mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6 hours of post incubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduce DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. PMID:23994170

  3. Mechanical vibration inhibits osteoclast formation by reducing DC-STAMP receptor expression in osteoclast precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Rishikesh N; Voglewede, Philip A; Liu, Dawei

    2013-12-01

    It is well known that physical inactivity leads to loss of muscle mass, but it also causes bone loss. Mechanistically, osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption have recently been shown to be regulated by vibration. However, the underlying mechanism behind the inhibition of osteoclast formation is yet unknown. Therefore, we investigated whether mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells affects osteoclast formation by the involvement of fusion-related molecules such as dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and P2X7 receptor (P2X7R). RAW264.7 (a murine osteoclastic-like cell line) cells were treated with 20ng/ml receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). For 3 consecutive days, the cells were subjected to 1h of mechanical vibration with 20μm displacement at a frequency of 4Hz and compared to the control cells that were treated under the same condition but without the vibration. After 5days of culture, osteoclast formation was determined. Gene expression of DC-STAMP and P2X7R by RAW264.7 cells was determined after 1h of mechanical vibration, while protein production of the DC-STAMP was determined after 6h of postincubation after vibration. As a result, mechanical vibration of RAW264.7 cells inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Vibration down-regulated DC-STAMP gene expression by 1.6-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.4-fold in the absence of RANKL. Additionally, DC-STAMP protein production was also down-regulated by 1.4-fold in the presence of RANKL and by 1.2-fold in the absence of RANKL in RAW264.7 cells in response to mechanical vibration. However, vibration did not affect P2X7R gene expression. Mouse anti-DC-STAMP antibody inhibited osteoclast formation in the absence of vibration. Our results suggest that mechanical vibration of osteoclast precursor cells reduces DC-STAMP expression in osteoclast precursor cells leading to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Bropirimine inhibits osteoclast differentiation through production of interferon-β

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Hiroaki; Mochizuki, Ayako; Yoshimura, Kentaro; Miyamoto, Yoichi; Kaneko, Kotaro; Inoue, Tomio; Chikazu, Daichi; Takami, Masamichi; Kamijo, Ryutaro

    2015-11-06

    Bropirimine is a synthetic agonist for toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7). In this study, we investigated the effects of bropirimine on differentiation and bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts in vitro. Bropirimine inhibited osteoclast differentiation of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, it suppressed the mRNA expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1), a master transcription factor for osteoclast differentiation, without affecting BMM viability. Bropirimine also inhibited osteoclast differentiation induced in co-cultures of mouse bone marrow cells (BMCs) and mouse osteoblastic UAMS-32 cells in the presence of activated vitamin D{sub 3}. Bropirimine partially suppressed the expression of RANKL mRNA in UAMS-32 cells induced by activated vitamin D{sub 3}. Finally, the anti-interferon-β (IFN-β) antibody restored RANKL-dependent differentiation of BMMs into osteoclasts suppressed by bropirimine. These results suggest that bropirimine inhibits differentiation of osteoclast precursor cells into osteoclasts via TLR7-mediated production of IFN-β.

  5. Alpinia officinarum Stimulates Osteoblast Mineralization and Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Shim, Ki-Shuk; Lee, Chung-Jo; Yim, Nam-Hui; Gu, Min Jung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Alpinia officinarum rhizome has been used as a traditional herbal remedy to treat inflammatory and internal diseases. Based on the previously observed inhibitory effect of A. officinarum rhizome in an arthritis model, we evaluated whether a water extract of A. officinarum rhizome (WEAO) would enhance in vitro osteoblast mineralization using calvarial osteoblast precursor cells or would inhibit in vitro osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption using bone marrow derived macrophages. In osteoblasts, WEAO enhanced the mRNA levels of transcription factor (runt-related transcription factor 2, smad1, smad5, and junB) and marker (bone morphogenetic protein-2, collagen type 1alpha1, and osteocalcin) genes related to osteoblast mineralization, consistent with increased alizarin red S staining intensity. WEAO markedly inhibited osteoclast differentiation by suppressing the receptor activator for nuclear factor-[Formula: see text]B ligand-induced downregulation of inhibitor of DNA binding 2 and V-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene homolog B and the phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase, p38, nuclear factor-[Formula: see text]B, c-Src, and Bruton's tyrosine kinase to induce nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 expression. WEAO also suppressed the resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts by altering actin ring formation. Therefore, the results of this study demonstrate that WEAO stimulates osteoblast mineralization and inhibits osteoclast differentiation. Thus, WEAO may be a promising herbal candidate to treat or prevent pathological bone diseases by regulating the balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activity.

  6. Wogonin inhibits osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting NFATc1 translocation into the nucleus

    PubMed Central

    GENG, XIAOLIN; YANG, LIBIN; ZHANG, CHAO; QIN, HUA; LIANG, QIUDONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify a natural product with the ability to inhibit nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus by high-throughput screening, and to investigate the effect of the natural product upon osteoclast differentiation and its underlying mechanism. An NFATc1 antagonist redistribution assay was performed in U2OS-NFATc1 cells against a natural product library, and Wogonin was found to have the ability to inhibit the NFATc1 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. The effect of Wogonin on NFATc1 transcription activation was further determined by luciferase assay. An osteoclast differentiation assay was executed to evaluate the effect of Wogonin on osteoclast differentiation. The effect of Wogonin upon the vital genes in osteoclast differentiation was investigated using fluorescent quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis. The natural product Wogonin significantly inhibited the translocation of NFATc1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus and its transcriptional activation activity. Wogonin also significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation and decreased the transcription of osteoclast-associated immunoglobulin-like receptor, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and calcitonin receptor. In conclusion, the natural product Wogonin inhibited osteoclast differentiation through the inhibition of NFATc1 translocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus, and thus the downregulation of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation, which marked Wogonin as a potential treatment for osteoporosis. PMID:26622440

  7. Emodin suppresses cadmium-induced osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoclast formation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Ren, Shuai; Zhu, Guoying; Wang, Zhongqiu; Wen, Xiaolin

    2017-09-01

    Environmental level of cadmium (Cd) exposure can induce bone loss. Emodin, a naturally compound found in Asian herbal medicines, could influence osteoblast/osteoclast differentiation. However, the effects of emodin on Cd-induced bone damage are not clarified. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of emodin on Cd-induced osteoporosis. Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into three groups which were given 0mg/L, 50mg Cd/L and 50mg Cd/L plus emodin (50mg/kg body weight). Bone histological investigation, microCT analysis, metabolic biomarker determination and immunohistochemical staining were performed at the 12th week. The bone mass and bone microstructure index of rats treated with Cd were obviously lower than in control. Cd markedly enhanced the osteoclast formation compared with control. Emodin significantly abolished the Cd-induced bone microstructure damage (p<0.05), osteoclast formation and increase of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b level (p<0.05). Our data further showed that emodin attenuated the Cd-induced inhibition of osteoprotegerin expression and stimulation of receptor activator for nuclear factor-κ B ligand expression. Our data show that emodin suppresses the Cd-induced osteoporosis by inhibiting osteoclast formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Inhibition of osteoclast formation by 3-methylcholanthrene, a ligand for arylhydrocarbon receptor: suppression of osteoclast differentiation factor in osteogenic cells.

    PubMed

    Naruse, M; Otsuka, E; Naruse, M; Ishihara, Y; Miyagawa-Tomita, S; Hagiwara, H

    2004-01-01

    We investigated the effects of 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC), a ligand for arylhydrocarbon receptor (AhR), on osteoclastogenesis. Osteoclast-like cells, in cocultures with mouse spleen cells and clonal osteogenic stromal ST2 cells, are formed from spleen cells by a combination of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) produced by ST2 cells in response to 1alpha,25(OH)(2) Vitamin D(3). 3MC dose-dependently inhibited the formation of mono- and multinuclear osteoclast-like cells. However, 3MC did not inhibit the formation of osteoclast-like cells from mouse spleen cells which was supported by the exogenous soluble RANKL and M-CSF. 3MC did not affect the formation of an actin ring and pits on slices of dentine by osteoclast-like cells, both of which are typical indices of osteoclast activity. These results suggest that 3MC affects osteoclast-supporting cells such as ST2 cells but not osteoclast precursor cells and mature osteoclastic cells. When we measured the expression levels of RANKL mRNA in ST2 cells, 3MC dose-dependently decreased the level of this mRNA. However, 3MC did not affect levels of mRNAs for osteoprotegerin (OPG), M-CSF, and the receptor of 1alpha,25(OH)(2) Vitamin D(3) in ST2 cells. Furthermore, soluble RANKL was able to counteract the inhibitory effect of 3MC on the formation of osteoclast-like cells. Our findings indicate that 3MC inhibits osteoclastogenesis via the inhibition of RANKL expression in osteoblastic cells.

  9. Osteoclast-derived exosomal miR-214-3p inhibits osteoblastic bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Defang; Liu, Jin; Guo, Baosheng; Liang, Chao; Dang, Lei; Lu, Cheng; He, Xiaojuan; Cheung, Hilda Yeuk-Siu; Xu, Liang; Lu, Changwei; He, Bing; Liu, Biao; Shaikh, Atik Badshah; Li, Fangfei; Wang, Luyao; Yang, Zhijun; Au, Doris Wai-Ting; Peng, Songlin; Zhang, Zongkang; Zhang, Bao-Ting; Pan, Xiaohua; Qian, Airong; Shang, Peng; Xiao, Lianbo; Jiang, Baohong; Wong, Chris Kong-Chu; Xu, Jiake; Bian, Zhaoxiang; Liang, Zicai; Guo, De-an; Zhu, Hailong; Tan, Weihong; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2016-01-01

    Emerging evidence indicates that osteoclasts direct osteoblastic bone formation. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have a crucial role in regulating osteoclast and osteoblast function. However, whether miRNAs mediate osteoclast-directed osteoblastic bone formation is mostly unknown. Here, we show that increased osteoclastic miR-214-3p associates with both elevated serum exosomal miR-214-3p and reduced bone formation in elderly women with fractures and in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. Osteoclast-specific miR-214-3p knock-in mice have elevated serum exosomal miR-214-3p and reduced bone formation that is rescued by osteoclast-targeted antagomir-214-3p treatment. We further demonstrate that osteoclast-derived exosomal miR-214-3p is transferred to osteoblasts to inhibit osteoblast activity in vitro and reduce bone formation in vivo. Moreover, osteoclast-targeted miR-214-3p inhibition promotes bone formation in ageing OVX mice. Collectively, our results suggest that osteoclast-derived exosomal miR-214-3p transfers to osteoblasts to inhibit bone formation. Inhibition of miR-214-3p in osteoclasts may be a strategy for treating skeletal disorders involving a reduction in bone formation. PMID:26947250

  10. Ginsenoside Re Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation in Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages and Zebrafish Scale Model

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan-Mi; Kim, Hye-Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Han, Ho-Jin; Noh, Haneul; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Park, Soo-Hyun; Chae, Han-Jung; Chae, Soo-Wan; Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Sangku; Liu, Kangdong; Liu, Haidan; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Kim, Young Ock; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Soung, Nak-Kyun

    2016-01-01

    Ginsenosides, which are the active materials of ginseng, have biological functions that include anti-osteoporotic effects. Aqueous ginseng extract inhibits osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Aqueous ginseng extract produces chromatography peaks characteristic of ginsenosides. Among these peaks, ginsenoside Re is a major component. However, the preventive effects of ginsenoside Re against osteoclast differentiation are not known. We studied the effect of ginsenoside Re on osteoclast differentiation, RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, and formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vitro. Ginsenoside Re hampered osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. In an in vivo zebrafish model, aqueous ginseng extract and ginsenoside Re had anti-osteoclastogenesis effects. These findings suggest that both aqueous ginseng extract and ginsenoside Re prevent bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. Ginsenoside Re could be important for promoting bone health. PMID:27927007

  11. Ginsenoside Re Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation in Mouse Bone Marrow-Derived Macrophages and Zebrafish Scale Model.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Mi; Kim, Hye-Min; Kim, Dong Hyun; Han, Ho-Jin; Noh, Haneul; Jang, Jae-Hyuk; Park, Soo-Hyun; Chae, Han-Jung; Chae, Soo-Wan; Ryu, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Sangku; Liu, Kangdong; Liu, Haidan; Ahn, Jong-Seog; Kim, Young Ock; Kim, Bo-Yeon; Soung, Nak-Kyun

    2016-12-01

    Ginsenosides, which are the active materials of ginseng, have biological functions that include anti-osteoporotic effects. Aqueous ginseng extract inhibits osteoclast differentiation induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). Aqueous ginseng extract produces chromatography peaks characteristic of ginsenosides. Among these peaks, ginsenoside Re is a major component. However, the preventive effects of ginsenoside Re against osteoclast differentiation are not known. We studied the effect of ginsenoside Re on osteoclast differentiation, RANKL-induced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, and formation of multinucleated osteoclasts in vitro. Ginsenoside Re hampered osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner. In an in vivo zebrafish model, aqueous ginseng extract and ginsenoside Re had anti-osteoclastogenesis effects. These findings suggest that both aqueous ginseng extract and ginsenoside Re prevent bone resorption by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. Ginsenoside Re could be important for promoting bone health.

  12. Inhibition of the classical NF-kappaB pathway prevents osteoclast bone-resorbing activity.

    PubMed

    Soysa, Niroshani S; Alles, Neil; Shimokawa, Hitoyata; Jimi, Eijiro; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Ohya, Keiichi

    2009-01-01

    The classical NF-kappaB pathway plays an important role in osteoclast formation and differentiation; however, the role of NF-kappaB in osteoclast bone-resorbing activity is not well understood. To elucidate whether NF-kappaB is important for osteoclast bone-resorbing activity, we used a selective peptide inhibitor of the classical NF-kappaB pathway named the NBD peptide. Osteoclasts were generated using bone marrow macrophages in the presence of M-CSF and RANKL. The NBD peptide dose-dependently blocked the bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts by reducing area, volume (p < 0.001) and depths (p < 0.05) of pits. The reduced resorption by the peptide was due to reduced osteoclast bone-resorbing activity, but not reduced differentiation as the number of osteoclasts was similar in all groups. The peptide inhibited bone resorption by reducing TRAP activity, disrupting actin rings and preventing osteoclast migration. Gene expressions of a panel of bone resorption markers were significantly reduced. The NBD peptide dose-dependently reduced the RANKL-induced c-Src kinase activity, which is important for actin ring formation and osteoclast bone resorption. Therefore, these data suggest that the classical NF-kappaB pathway plays a pivotal role in osteoclast bone-resorbing activity.

  13. CD44 deficiency inhibits unloading-induced cortical bone loss through downregulation of osteoclast activity

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuheng; Zhong, Guohui; Sun, Weijia; Zhao, Chengyang; Zhang, Pengfei; Song, Jinping; Zhao, Dingsheng; Jin, Xiaoyan; Li, Qi; Ling, Shukuan; Li, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    The CD44 is cellular surface adhesion molecule that is involved in physiological processes such as hematopoiesis, lymphocyte homing and limb development. It plays an important role in a variety of cellular functions including adhesion, migration, invasion and survival. In bone tissue, CD44 is widely expressed in osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteocytes. However, the mechanisms underlying its role in bone metabolism remain unclear. We found that CD44 expression was upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. CD44 deficiency in vitro significantly inhibited osteoclast activity and function by regulating the NF-κB/NFATc1-mediated pathway. In vivo, CD44 mRNA levels were significantly upregulated in osteoclasts isolated from the hindlimb of tail-suspended mice. CD44 deficiency can reduce osteoclast activity and counteract cortical bone loss in the hindlimb of unloaded mice. These results suggest that therapeutic inhibition of CD44 may protect from unloading induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast activity. PMID:26530337

  14. Zap70 Inhibits Syk-mediated Osteoclast Function

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wei; Croke, Monica; Fukunaga, Tomohiro; Broekelmann, Thomas J.; Mecham, Robert P.; Teitelbaum, Steven L.

    2014-01-01

    The αvβ3 integrin stimulates the resorptive capacity of the differentiated osteoclast (OC) by organizing its cytoskeleton via the tyrosine kinase, Syk. Thus, Syk-deficient OCs fail to spread or form actin rings, in vitro and in vivo. The Syk family of tyrosine kinases consists of Syk itself and Zap70 which are expressed by different cell types. Because of their structural similarity, and its compensatory properties in other cells, we asked if Zap70 can substitute for absence of Syk in OCs. While expression of Syk, as expected, normalizes the cytoskeletal abnormalities of Syk-/- OCs, Zap70 fails do so. In keeping with this observation, Syk, but not Zap70, rescues αvβ3 integrin-induced SLP76 phosphorylation in Syk-/- OCs. Furthermore the kinase sequence of Syk partially rescues the Syk-/- phenotype but full normalization also requires its SH2 domains. Surprisingly, expression of Zap70 inhibits WT OC spreading, actin ring formation and bone resorptive activity, but not differentiation. In keeping with arrested cytoskeletal organization, Zap70 blocks integrin-activated endogenous Syk and Vav3, SLP76 phosphorylation. Such inhibition requires Zap70 kinase activity, as it is abolished by mutation of the Zap70 kinase domain. Thus, while the kinase domain of Syk is uniquely required for OC function, that of Zap70 inhibits it. PMID:23494777

  15. Dioscin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption though down-regulating the Akt signaling cascades

    SciTech Connect

    Qu, Xinhua; Zhai, Zanjing; Liu, Xuqiang; Li, Haowei; Ouyang, Zhengxiao; Wu, Chuanlong; Liu, Guangwang; Fan, Qiming; Tang, Tingting; Qin, An; Dai, Kerong

    2014-01-10

    Highlights: •A natural-derived compound, dioscin, suppresses osteoclast formation and bone resorption. •Dioscin inhibits osteolytic bone loss in vivo. •Dioscin impairs the Akt signaling cascades pathways during osteoclastogenesis. •Dioscin have therapeutic value in treating osteoclast-related diseases. -- Abstract: Bone resorption is the unique function of osteoclasts (OCs) and is critical for both bone homeostasis and pathologic bone diseases including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and tumor bone metastasis. Thus, searching for natural compounds that may suppress osteoclast formation and/or function is promising for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we for the first time demonstrated that dioscin suppressed RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro in a dose-dependent manner. The suppressive effect of dioscin is supported by the reduced expression of osteoclast-specific markers. Further molecular analysis revealed that dioscin abrogated AKT phosphorylation, which subsequently impaired RANKL-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling pathway and inhibited NFATc1 transcriptional activity. Moreover, in vivo studies further verified the bone protection activity of dioscin in osteolytic animal model. Together our data demonstrate that dioscin suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and function through Akt signaling cascades. Therefore, dioscin is a potential natural agent for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases.

  16. Water extract of the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone loss.

    PubMed

    Ha, Hyunil; Shim, Ki-Shuk; Kim, Taesoo; Lee, Chung-Jo; Park, Ji Hyung; Kim, Han Sung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-09-23

    Excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts causes pathological bone destruction, seen in various bone diseases. There is accumulating evidence that certain herbal extracts have beneficial effects on bone metabolism. The fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla has been traditionally used for the treatment of diarrhea and enuresis. In this study, we investigated the effects of water extract of the fruits of Alpinia oxyphylla (WEAO) on osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast-mediated bone destruction. For osteoclast differentiation assay, mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) were cultured in the presence of RANKL and M-CSF. RANKL signaling pathways and gene expression of transcription factors regulating osteoclast differentiation were investigated by real-time PCR and Western blotting. A constitutively active form of NFATc1 was retrovirally transduced into BMMs. Bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclast was examined on a plate coated with an inorganic crystalline calcium phosphate. The in vivo effect against bone destruction was assessed in a murine model of RANKL-induced osteoporosis by micro-computed tomography and bone metabolism marker analyses. WEAO dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from BMMs by targeting the early stages of osteoclast differentiation. WEAO inhibited RANKL-induced expression of NFATc1, the master regulator of osteoclast differentiation. Overexpression of a constitutively active form of NFATc1 blunted the inhibitory effect of WEAO on osteoclast differentiation, suggesting that NFATc1 is a critical target of the inhibitory action of WEAO. WEAO inhibited RANKL-induced expression of c-Fos, an upstream activator of NFATc1, by suppressing the classical NF-κB signaling pathway. WEAO also inhibited RANKL-induced down-regulation of Id2 and MafB, negative regulators of NFATc1. WEAO does not directly affect bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. In accordance with the in vitro results, WEAO attenuated RANKL

  17. Protein-tyrosine phosphatase activity regulates osteoclast formation and function: inhibition by alendronate.

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, A; Rutledge, S J; Endo, N; Opas, E E; Tanaka, H; Wesolowski, G; Leu, C T; Huang, Z; Ramachandaran, C; Rodan, S B; Rodan, G A

    1996-01-01

    Alendronate (ALN), an aminobisphosphonate used in the treatment of osteoporosis, is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption. Its molecular target is still unknown. This study examines the effects of ALN on the activity of osteoclast protein-tyrosine phosphatase (PTP; protein-tyrosine-phosphate phosphohydrolase, EC 3.1.3.48), called PTPepsilon. Using osteoclast-like cells generated by coculturing mouse bone marrow cells with mouse calvaria osteoblasts, we found by molecular cloning and RNA blot hybridization that PTPepsilon is highly expressed in osteoclastic cells. A purified fusion protein of PTPepsilon expressed in bacteria was inhibited by ALN with an IC50 of 2 microM. Other PTP inhibitors--orthovanadate and phenylarsine oxide (PAO)-inhibited PTPepsilon with IC50 values of 0.3 microM and 18 microM, respectively. ALN and another bisphosphonate, etidronate, also inhibited the activities of other bacterially expressed PTPs such as PTPsigma and CD45 (also called leukocyte common antigen). The PTP inhibitors ALN, orthovanadate, and PAO suppressed in vitro formation of multinucleated osteoclasts from osteoclast precursors and in vitro bone resorption by isolated rat osteoclasts (pit formation) with estimated IC50 values of 10 microM, 3 microM, and 0.05 microM, respectively. These findings suggest that tyrosine phosphatase activity plays an important role in osteoclast formation and function and is a putative molecular target of bisphosphonate action. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:8610169

  18. Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by polycyclic aryl hydrocarbons is dependent on cell density and RANKL concentration.

    PubMed

    Voronov, I; Heersche, J N M; Casper, R F; Tenenbaum, H C; Manolson, M F

    2005-07-15

    We investigated the effect of representative polycyclic aryl hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzo[a]pyrene (BaP), and 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) on osteoclast differentiation and function by using dispersed cancellous bone derived rabbit osteoclasts and the RAW264.7 cells. These cells differentiate into osteoclasts when exposed to receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). The rabbit osteoclasts were exposed to 10(-6) to 10(-9)M BaP or DMBA and the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive cells were counted. The effect of PAHs on osteoclast differentiation in dispersed rabbit osteoclast-containing stromal cell populations was cell density dependent, suggesting that the cell density of stromal cells, osteoclast precursors, and/or mature osteoclasts are factors regulating the effect of PAHs. To investigate the direct effect of BaP on osteoclast differentiation, RAW264.7 cells were exposed to 10(-5) to 10(-6) M BaP. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells cultured with 25 ng/ml soluble RANKL and 10(-5)M BaP for 5 days decreased osteoclast differentiation, TRAP activity levels, and resorption of bone-like substrata. The inhibition was prevented by 10(-6) to 10(-7) M resveratrol, an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) antagonist, and by higher concentrations of RANKL. To investigate the ability of RANKL to reverse BaP-mediated inhibition, gene expression was determined by RT-PCR. Cytochrome P450 1B1 (CYP1B1) mRNA, one of the genes activated by BaP, was present only in the groups exposed to BaP; the levels of CYP1B1 mRNA decreased in the presence of increasing concentrations of RANKL. These results suggest that the inhibitory effects of PAHs on osteoclastogenesis are direct and likely involve interaction of the RANKL and PAH signaling pathways.

  19. IL-37 inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vivo.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Jafari; Kitaura, Hideki; Kimura, Keisuke; Ishida, Masahiko; Sugisawa, Haruki; Ochi, Yumiko; Kishikawa, Akiko; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2016-07-01

    IL-37 is a newly defined member of the IL-1 cytokine family. It has been reported that IL-37 inhibited innate immunity and inflammatory responses in autoimmune diseases and tumors. IL-37 also inhibited Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced immunological reaction. LPS is a bacterial cell wall component that is capable of inducing osteoclast formation and pathological bone resorption. However, there is no study to investigate the effect of IL-37 on LPS-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of IL-37 in LPS-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. LPS was administrated with or without IL-37 by subcutaneous injection on mice calvariae. The number of osteoclasts, the level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K mRNA, the ratio of the bone resorption pits and the level of C-terminal telopeptide fragments of type I collagen cross-Links as a marker of bone resorption in mice administrated both LPS and IL-37 were lower than that in mice administrated LPS alone. Real-time RT-PCR was performed to analyze osteoclast related cytokines RANKL, TNF-α and IL-1β mRNA levels in vivo. RANKL, TNF-α and IL-1β mRNAs were increased in the LPS alone administrated mice as compared with PBS administrated groups. On the other hand, RANKL, TNF-α and IL-1β mRNAs were inhibited in the IL-37 and LPS administrated mice as compared with LPS alone administrated group. In vitro analysis, there was no effect of IL-37 in RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, TNF-α-induced osteoclast formation and cell viability from bone marrow macrophages as osteoclast precursor and LPS-induced RANKL expression from stromal cells. These results indicated that IL-37 inhibited LPS-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption via inhibition of LPS-induced osteoclast related cytokines, but might not directly inhibit osteoclast formation on osteoclast precursor and RANKL expression on stromal cells. Copyright © 2016

  20. Potentiation of osteoclast bone-resorption activity by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, T P; Collin-Osdoby, P; Patel, N; Osdoby, P; Krukowski, M; Misko, T P; Settle, S L; Currie, M G; Nickols, G A

    1994-01-01

    We have examined the effects of modulating nitric oxide (NO) levels on osteoclast-mediated bone resorption in vitro and the effects of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibitors on bone mineral density in vivo. Diaphorase-based histochemical staining for NOS activity of bone sections or highly enriched osteoclast cultures suggested that osteoclasts exhibit substantial NOS activity that may account for basal NO production. Chicken osteoclasts were cultured for 36 hr on bovine bone slices in the presence or absence of the NO-generating agent sodium nitroprusside or the NOS inhibitors N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester and aminoguanidine. Nitroprusside markedly decreased the number of bone pits and the average pit area in comparison with control cultures. On the other hand, NOS inhibition by N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester or aminoguanidine dramatically increased the number of bone pits and the average resorption area per pit. In a model of osteoporosis, aminoguanidine potentiated the loss of bone mineral density in ovariectomized rats. Aminoguanidine also caused a loss of bone mineral density in the sham-operated rats. Inhibition of NOS activity in vitro and in vivo resulted in an apparent potentiation of osteoclast activity. These findings suggest that endogenous NO production in osteoclast cultures may regulate resorption activity. The modulation of NOS and NO levels by cells within the bone microenvironment may be a sensitive mechanism for local control of osteoclast bone resorption. Images PMID:7513424

  1. Carvacrol Inhibits Osteoclastogenesis and Negatively Regulates the Survival of Mature Osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Vishwa; Kasonga, Abe; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina; Coetzee, Magdalena

    2016-07-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue that undergoes continuous remodeling coupled with the action of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Osteoclast activity is elevated during osteoporosis and periodontitis resulting in excessive loss of trabecular and alveolar bone. Osteoclasts are formed in an inflammatory response to cytokine production receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) and bacterial challenge lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Carvacrol, a monoterpenic phenol present in Origanum vulgare and Thymus vulgaris, is a natural compound with known medicinal properties. We investigated the effects of carvacrol on osteoclast formation induced by RANKL and LPS. Carvacrol suppressed RANKL-induced formation of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells in RAW264.7 macrophages and human CD14(+) monocytes. Furthermore, carvacrol inhibited LPS-induced osteoclast formation in RAW264.7 macrophages. Investigation of the underlying molecular mechanisms revealed that carvacrol downregulated RANKL-induced NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, the suppression of NF-κB activation correlated with inhibition of inhibitor of kappaB (IκB) kinase (IKK) activation and attenuation of inhibitor of NF-κB (IκBa) degradation. Carvacrol potentiated apoptosis in mature osteoclasts by caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Moreover, carvacrol did not affect the viability of proliferating MC3T3-E1 osteoblast-like cells. Collectively, these results demonstrate that carvacrol mitigates osteoclastogenesis by impairing the NF-κB pathway and induction of apoptosis in mature osteoclasts.

  2. IL-4 inhibits TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation by inhibition of RANKL expression in TNF-α-activated stromal cells and direct inhibition of TNF-α-activated osteoclast precursors via a T-cell-independent mechanism in vivo.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Toshiya; Kitaura, Hideki; Kimura, Keisuke; Hakami, Zaki Weli; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2012-10-01

    It has been reported that osteoclastogenesis is induced by tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α. Interleukin (IL)-4 is the most important cytokine involved in humoral immunity. However, no studies have investigated the effect of IL-4 on TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in vivo. In this study, we investigated the effect of IL-4 on TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in vivo. TNF-α was administered with and without IL-4 into the supracalvariae of mice. The number of osteoclasts and the levels of mRNA for cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphate, both osteoclast markers, in mice administered TNF-α and IL-4 were lower than those in mice administered TNF-α alone. The level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase form 5b (TRACP5b) as a marker of bone resorption in mice administered both TNF-α and IL-4 was also lower. We showed that IL-4 inhibited TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in osteoclast precursors in vitro. Expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) in TNF-α-activated stromal cells was also inhibited. Furthermore, we investigated whether IL-4 had effects on both stromal cells and osteoclast precursors in TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in vivo. Using mice whose stromal cells and osteoclast precursors were chimeric for the presence of TNF receptors, IL-4 inhibited TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in the presence of TNF-α-responsive stromal cells, and TNF-α-responsive osteoclast precursors in vivo. IL-4 also inhibited TNF-α-induced RANKL expression in the presence of TNF-α-responsive stromal cells in vivo. This event is dependent on p38 inhibition in vitro. Additionally, IL-4 inhibited TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation in T cell-depleted mice. In summary, we conclude that IL-4 inhibited TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation by inhibiting expression of RANKL in TNF-α-activated stromal cells, and directly inhibited TNF-α-activated osteoclast precursors in vivo via a T cell-independent mechanism.

  3. Inhibition of Osteoclast Formation and Function by Bicarbonate: Role of Soluble Adenylyl Cyclase

    PubMed Central

    Geng, Weidong; Hill, Kathy; Zerwekh, Joseph; Kohler, Thomas; Müller, Ralph; Moe, Orson W.

    2010-01-01

    High [HCO3−] inhibits and low [HCO3−] stimulates bone resorption which mediates part of the effect of chronic acidosis or acid feeding on bone. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a bicarbonate sensor that can potentially mediate the effect of bicarbonate on osteoclasts. Osteoclasts were incubated in 0, 12, 24 mM HCO3− at pH 7.4 for 7–8 days and assayed for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and vacuolar-ATPase expression, and H+ accumulation. Total number and area of TRAP (+) multinucleated osteoclasts was decreased by HCO3− in a dose-dependent manner. V-ATPase expression and H+ accumulation normalized to cell cross-sectional area or protein were not significantly changed. The HCO3−-induced inhibition of osteoclast growth and differentiation was blocked by either 2-hydroxyestradiol, an inhibitor of sAC or sAC knock-down by sAC specific siRNA. The model of HCO3− inhibiting osteoclast via sAC was further supported by the fact that the HCO3− dose-response on osteoclasts is flat when cells were saturated with 8-bromo-cAMP, a permeant cAMP analog downstream from sAC thus simulating sAC activation. To confirm our in vitro findings in intact bone, we developed a one-week mouse calvaria culture system where osteoclasts were shown to be viable. Bone volume density (BV/TV) determined by micro-computed tomography (µCT), was higher in 24mM HCO3− compared to 12 mM HCO3− treated calvaria. This HCO3− effect on BV/TV was blocked by 2-hydroxyestradiol. In summary, sAC mediates the inhibition of osteoclast function by HCO3−, by acting as a HCO3− sensor. PMID:19360717

  4. Inhibition of osteoclast formation and function by bicarbonate: role of soluble adenylyl cyclase.

    PubMed

    Geng, Weidong; Hill, Kathy; Zerwekh, Joseph E; Kohler, Thomas; Müller, Ralph; Moe, Orson W

    2009-08-01

    High [HCO(3)(-)] inhibits and low [HCO(3)(-)] stimulates bone resorption, which mediates part of the effect of chronic acidosis or acid feeding on bone. Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a bicarbonate sensor that can potentially mediate the effect of bicarbonate on osteoclasts. Osteoclasts were incubated in 0, 12, and 24 mM HCO(3)(-) at pH 7.4 for 7-8 days and assayed for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and vacuolar-ATPase expression, and H+ accumulation. Total number and area of TRAP (+) multinucleated osteoclasts was decreased by HCO(3)(-) in a dose-dependent manner. V-ATPase expression and H+ accumulation normalized to cell cross-sectional area or protein were not significantly changed. The HCO(3)(-) -induced inhibition of osteoclast growth and differentiation was blocked by either 2-hydroxyestradiol, an inhibitor of sAC or sAC knockdown by sAC specific siRNA. The model of HCO(3)(-) inhibiting osteoclast via sAC was further supported by the fact that the HCO(3)(-) dose-response on osteoclasts is flat when cells were saturated with 8-bromo-cAMP, a permeant cAMP analog downstream from sAC thus simulating sAC activation. To confirm our in vitro findings in intact bone, we developed a 1-week mouse calvaria culture system where osteoclasts were shown to be viable. Bone volume density (BV/TV) determined by micro-computed tomography (microCT), was higher in 24 mM HCO(3)(-) compared to 12 mM HCO(3)(-) treated calvaria. This HCO(3)(-) effect on BV/TV was blocked by 2-hydroxyestradiol. In summary, sAC mediates the inhibition of osteoclast function by HCO(3)(-), by acting as a HCO(3)(-) sensor.

  5. Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by overexpression of NDRG2 in monocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Kyeongah; Nam, Sorim; Kim, Bomi; Lim, Ji Hyun; Yang, Young; Lee, Myeong-Sok; Lim, Jong-Seok

    2015-12-25

    N-Myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2), a member of the NDRG family of differentiation-related genes, has been characterized as a regulator of dendritic cell differentiation from monocytes, CD34{sup +} progenitor cells, and myelomonocytic leukemic cells. In this study, we show that NDRG2 overexpression inhibits the differentiation of U937 cells into osteoclasts in response to stimulation with a combination of macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and soluble receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). U937 cells stably expressing NDRG2 are unable to differentiate into multinucleated osteoclast-like cells and display reduced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and resorption pit formation. Furthermore, NDRG2 expression significantly suppresses the expression of genes that are crucial for the proliferation, survival, differentiation, and function of osteoclasts, including c-Fos, Atp6v0d2, RANK, and OSCAR. The activation of ERK1/2 and p38 is also inhibited by NDRG2 expression during osteoclastogenesis, and the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by NDRG2 correlates with the down-regulation of the expression of the transcription factor PU.1. Taken together, our results suggest that the expression of NDRG2 potentially inhibits osteoclast differentiation and plays a role in modulating the signal transduction pathway responsible for osteoclastogenesis. - Highlights: • The expression of NDRG2 significantly impairs osteoclast differentiation. • PU.1 and p38 MAPK inhibitions by NDRG2 are critical for the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. • Knockdown of NDRG2 rescues the ability of monocytes to differentiate into osteoclasts. • NDRG2 expression in BM and primary macrophages also impairs osteoclast differentiation. • This study implies the potential of NDRG2 expression in the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis.

  6. Tanshinone IIA inhibits osteoclast differentiation through down-regulation of c-Fos and NFATc1.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Han Bok; Yang, Daum; Ha, Hyunil; Lee, Jong Ho; Kim, Ha Neui; Woo, Eun Ran; Lee, Seungbok; Kim, Hong Hee; Lee, Zang Hee

    2006-06-30

    Bone is a dynamic tissue that is regulated by the activity of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Excessive osteoclast formation causes diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Natural substances may be useful as therapeutic drugs to prevent many diseases in humans because they avoid the many side effects of treatment with chemical compounds. Here we show that tanshinone IIA isolated from Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge inhibits the receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast differentiation of osteoclast precursors. Tanshinone IIA suppressed the expression levels of c-Fos and NFATc1 induced by RANKL. However, retrovirus-mediated overexpression of c-Fos induced the expression of NFATc1 despite the presence of tanshinone IIA and reversed the inhibitory effect of tanshinone IIA on osteoclast differentiation. Also, the introduction of osteoclast precursors with the NFATc1 retrovirus led to osteoclast differentiation in the presence of tanshinone IIA. Our results suggest that tanshinone IIA may have a role as a therapeutic drug in the treatment of bone disease such as osteoporosis.

  7. Alpha-1 antitrypsin inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and functions.

    PubMed

    Akbar, Mohammad Ahsanul; Nardo, David; Chen, Mong-Jen; Elshikha, Ahmed S; Ahamed, Rubina; Elsayed, Eslam M; Bigot, Claire; Holliday, Lexie Shannon; Song, Sihong

    2017-03-21

    Osteoporosis is a global public health problem affecting more than 200 million people worldwide. We previously showed that treatment with alpha-1 antitrypsin (AAT), a multifunctional protein with anti-inflammatory properties, mitigated bone loss in an ovariectomized mouse model. However, the underlying mechanisms of the protective effect of AAT on bone tissue are largely unknown. In this study, we investigated the effect of AAT on osteoclast formation and function in vitro. Our results showed that AAT dose-dependently inhibited the formation of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand) induced osteoclasts derived from mouse bone marrow macrophages/monocyte (BMM) lineage cells and the murine macrophage cell line, RAW 264.7 cells. In order to elucidate the possible mechanisms underlying this inhibition, we tested the effect of AAT on the gene expression of cell surface molecules, transcription factors, and cytokines associated with osteoclast formation. We showed that AAT inhibited M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor) induced cell surface RANK expression in osteoclast precursor cells. In addition, AAT inhibited RANKL-induced TNF-α production, cell surface CD9 expression, and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) gene expression. Importantly, AAT treatment significantly inhibited osteoclast-associated mineral resorption. Together, these results uncovered new mechanisms for the protective effects of AAT and strongly support the notion that AAT has therapeutic potential for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  8. NFkappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides ameliorates osteoporosis through inhibition of activation and differentiation of osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, H; Nakagami, H; Tsukamoto, I; Morita, S; Kunugiza, Y; Tomita, T; Yoshikawa, H; Kaneda, Y; Ogihara, T; Morishita, R

    2006-06-01

    The transcription factor, nuclear factor-kappa B (NFkappaB), is believed to play a pivotal role in osteoclast formation. In this study, we focused on NFkappaB decoy oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) as a new therapeutic strategy to attenuate osteoporosis. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear osteoclasts formed in mononuclear cells including osteoclast precursors from neonatal rabbit bone marrow were increased in the presence of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, whereas transfection of NFkappaB decoy ODN decreased the number of TRAP-positive cells and attenuated RANKL and M-CSF-induced osteoclast formation. NFkappaB decoy ODN also inhibited the activity of osteoclasts, as assessed by pit formation. In rat ovariectomized model of estrogen deficiency, continuous administration of NFkappaB decoy ODN attenuated the increase of TRAP activity, accompanied by a significant increase in calcium concentration in tibia and femur and decrease in urinary deoxypyridinoline. In additional osteoporosis model using vitamin C-deficient rat, inhibition of NFkappaB by decoy ODN dramatically improved the bone length, weight, density as assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Overall, inhibition of NFkappaB by decoy strategy prevented osteoporosis through the inhibition of bone resorption. Targeting of NFkappaB might be potential therapy in various bone metabolic diseases.

  9. Endostatin inhibits VEGF-A induced osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Sipola, Annina; Nelo, Katri; Hautala, Timo; Ilvesaro, Joanna; Tuukkanen, Juha

    2006-01-01

    Background Endostatin is a C-terminal fragment of collagen XVIII which is a component of basement membranes with the structural properties of both collagens and proteoglycans. Endostatin has a major role in angiogenesis which is intimately associated with bone development and remodeling. Signaling between the endothelial cells and the bone cells, for example, may have a role in recruitment of osteoclastic precursor cells. Our study aims at exploring a possibility that endostatin, either as a part of basement membrane or as a soluble molecule, may control osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro. Methods Rat pit formation assay was employed in order to examine the effect of endostatin alone or in combination with vascular endothelial growth factor-A (VEGF-A) on bone resorption in vitro. Effect of these agents on osteoclast differentiation in vitro was also tested. Osteoclastogenesis and the number of osteoclasts were followed by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) staining and resorption was evaluated by measuring the area of excavated pits. Results Endostatin inhibited the VEGF-A stimulated osteoclastic bone resorption, whereas endostatin alone had no effect on the basal resorption level in the absence of VEGF-A. In addition, endostatin could inhibit osteoclast differentiation in vitro independent of VEGF-A. Conclusion Our in vitro data indicate that collagen XVIII/endostatin can suppress VEGF-A induced osteoclastic bone resorption to the basal level. Osteoclastogenesis is also inhibited by endostatin. The regulatory effect of endostatin, however, is not critical since endostatin alone does not modify the basal bone resorption. PMID:16839420

  10. TRPV1 deletion impaired fracture healing and inhibited osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation.

    PubMed

    He, Lin-Hai; Liu, Meng; He, Yang; Xiao, E; Zhao, Lu; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Hua-Qian; Zhang, Yi

    2017-02-22

    Fracture healing, in which osteoclasts and osteoblasts play important roles, has drawn much clinical attention. Osteoclast deficiency or decreased osteoblast activity will impair fracture healing. TRPV1 is a member of the Ca(2+) permeable cation channel subfamily, and pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss, which makes TRPV1 a potential target for osteoporosis. However, whether long term TRPV1 inhibition or TRPV1 deletion will affect the fracture healing process is unclear. In this study, we found that the wild-type mice showed a well-remodeled fracture callus, whereas TRPV1 knockout mice still had an obvious fracture gap with unresorbed soft-callus 4 weeks post-fracture. The number of osteoclasts was reduced in the TRPV1 knockout fracture callus, and osteoclast formation and resorption activity were also impaired in vitro. TRPV1 deletion decreased the calcium oscillation frequency and peak cytoplasmic concentration in osteoclast precursors, subsequently reducing the expression and nuclear translocation of NFATc1 and downregulating DC-stamp, cathepsin K, and ATP6V. In addition, TRPV1 deletion caused reduced mRNA and protein expression of Runx2 and ALP in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and reduced calcium deposition in vitro. Our results suggest that TRPV1 deletion impairs fracture healing, and inhibited osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis.

  11. ABD56 causes osteoclast apoptosis by inhibiting the NF{kappa}B and ERK pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Idris, Aymen; Mrak, Emanuela; Greig, Iain; Guidobono, Francesca; Ralston, Stuart H.; Hof, Rob van 't

    2008-06-20

    We have previously shown that the biphenylcarboxylic acid butanediol ester (ABD56) inhibits osteoclast formation and activity in vitro and in vivo. However, the mechanism of action of this compound is unknown. ABD56 inhibited osteoclast formation and caused osteoclast apoptosis, but had no effects on osteoblasts or macrophages. As the NF{kappa}B and MAPK pathways are essential for osteoclast formation and survival, we studied the effects of ABD56 on these pathways. ABD56 caused phosphorylation of p38, JNK and nuclear translocation of c-jun in osteoclasts. ABD56-induced apoptosis was prevented by the caspase inhibitor zVAD-fmk but was not prevented by the p38- or JNK-inhibitors. ABD56 completely abolished RANKL-induced I{kappa}B and ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Increasing the amount of RANKL partially rescued ABD56-induced apoptosis, indicating that the apoptosis is most probably due to the inhibition of survival signals such as ERK and NF{kappa}B, rather than activation of the p38 or Jnk MAPK pathways.

  12. TRPV1 deletion impaired fracture healing and inhibited osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    He, Lin-Hai; Liu, Meng; He, Yang; Xiao, E.; Zhao, Lu; Zhang, Ting; Yang, Hua-Qian; Zhang, Yi

    2017-01-01

    Fracture healing, in which osteoclasts and osteoblasts play important roles, has drawn much clinical attention. Osteoclast deficiency or decreased osteoblast activity will impair fracture healing. TRPV1 is a member of the Ca2+ permeable cation channel subfamily, and pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss, which makes TRPV1 a potential target for osteoporosis. However, whether long term TRPV1 inhibition or TRPV1 deletion will affect the fracture healing process is unclear. In this study, we found that the wild-type mice showed a well-remodeled fracture callus, whereas TRPV1 knockout mice still had an obvious fracture gap with unresorbed soft-callus 4 weeks post-fracture. The number of osteoclasts was reduced in the TRPV1 knockout fracture callus, and osteoclast formation and resorption activity were also impaired in vitro. TRPV1 deletion decreased the calcium oscillation frequency and peak cytoplasmic concentration in osteoclast precursors, subsequently reducing the expression and nuclear translocation of NFATc1 and downregulating DC-stamp, cathepsin K, and ATP6V. In addition, TRPV1 deletion caused reduced mRNA and protein expression of Runx2 and ALP in bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) and reduced calcium deposition in vitro. Our results suggest that TRPV1 deletion impairs fracture healing, and inhibited osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis. PMID:28225019

  13. Inhibition of differentiation and function of osteoclasts by dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO).

    PubMed

    Yang, Chunxi; Madhu, Vedavathi; Thomas, Candace; Yang, Xinlin; Du, Xeujun; Dighe, Abhijit S; Cui, Quanjun

    2015-12-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is an FDA-approved organosulfur solvent that is reported to have therapeutic value in osteoarthritis and osteopenia. DMSO is used as a cryoprotectant for the cryopreservation of bone grafts and mesenchymal stem cells which are later used for bone repair. It is also used as a solvent in the preparation of various scaffolds used for bone tissue engineering purposes. DMSO has been reported to inhibit osteoclast formation in vitro but the mechanism involved has remained elusive. We investigated the effect of DMSO on osteoclast differentiation and function using a conventional model system of RAW 264.7 cells. The differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells was induced by adding 50 ng/ml RANKL and the effect of DMSO (0.01 and 1% v/v) on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis was investigated. Addition of 1% DMSO significantly inhibited RANKL-induced formation of TRAP+, multinucleated, mature osteoclasts and osteoclast late-stage precursors (c-Kit(-) c-Fms(+) Mac-1(+) RANK(+)). While DMSO did not inhibit proliferation per se, it did inhibit the effect of RANKL on proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells. Key genes related to osteoclast function (TRAP, Integrin αVβ3, Cathepsin K and MMP9) were significantly down-regulated by DMSO. RANKL-induced expression of RANK gene was significantly reduced in the presence of DMSO. Our data, and reports from other investigators, that DMSO enhances osteoblastic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and also prevents bone loss in ovarietcomized rats, suggest that DMSO has tremendous potential in the treatment of osteoporosis and bone diseases arising from uncontrolled activities of the osteoclasts.

  14. Inhibition of osteoclast bone resorption activity through osteoprotegerin-induced damage of the sealing zone.

    PubMed

    Song, Ruilong; Gu, Jianhong; Liu, Xuezhong; Zhu, Jiaqiao; Wang, Qichao; Gao, Qian; Zhang, Jiaming; Cheng, Laiyang; Tong, Xishuai; Qi, Xinyi; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Zongping

    2014-09-01

    Bone remodeling is dependent on the dynamic equilibrium between osteoclast-mediated bone resorption and osteoblast-mediated osteogenesis. The sealing zone is an osteoclast-specific cytoskeletal structure, the integrity of which is critical for osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. To date, studies have focused mainly on the osteoprotegerin (OPG)‑induced inhibition of osteoclast differentiation through the OPG/receptor activator of the nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)/RANK system, which affects the bone resorption of osteoclasts. However, the effects of OPG on the sealing zone have not been reported to date. In this study, the formation of the sealing zone was observed by Hoffman modulation contrast (HMC) microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The effects of OPG on the existing sealing zone and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity, as well as the regulatory role of genes involved in the formation of the sealing zone were examined by immunofluorescence staining, HMC microscopy, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), western blot analysis and scanning electron microscopy. The sealing zone was formed on day 5, with belt-like protuberances at the cell edge and scattered distribution of cell nuclei, but no filopodia. The sealing zone was intact in the untreated control group. However, defects in the sealing zone were observed in the OPG-treated group (20 ng/ml) and the structure was absent in the groups treated with 40 and 80 ng/ml OPG. The podosomes showed a scattered or clustered distribution between the basal surface of the osteoclasts and the well surface. Furthermore, resorption lacunae were not detected in the 20 ng/ml OPG-treated group, indicating the loss of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption activity. Treatment with OPG resulted in a significant decrease in the expression of Arhgef8/Net1 and DOCK5 Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factors (RhoGEFs), 10 of 18 RhoGTPases (RhoA, RhoB, cdc42v1, cdc42v2

  15. Inositol Hexakisphosphate Inhibits Osteoclastogenesis on RAW 264.7 Cells and Human Primary Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Arriero, María del Mar; Ramis, Joana M.; Perelló, Joan; Monjo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Background Inoxitol hexakisphosphate (IP6) has been found to have an important role in biomineralization and a direct effect inhibiting mineralization of osteoblasts in vitro without impairing extracellular matrix production and expression of alkaline phosphatase. IP6 has been proposed to exhibit similar effects to those of bisphosphonates on bone resorption, however, its direct effect on osteoclasts (OCL) is presently unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of IP6 on the RAW 264.7 monocyte/macrophage mouse cell line and on human primary osteoclasts. On one hand, we show that IP6 decreases the osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells induced by RANKL, without affecting cell proliferation or cell viability. The number of TRAP positive cells and mRNA levels of osteoclast markers such as TRAP, calcitonin receptor, cathepsin K and MMP-9 was decreased by IP6 on RANKL-treated cells. On the contrary, when giving IP6 to mature osteoclasts after RANKL treatment, a significant increase of bone resorption activity and TRAP mRNA levels was found. On the other hand, we show that 1 µM of IP6 inhibits osteoclastogenesis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) and their resorption activity both, when given to undifferentiated and to mature osteoclasts. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate that IP6 inhibits osteoclastogenesis on human PBMNC and on the RAW264.7 cell line. Thus, IP6 may represent a novel type of selective inhibitor of osteoclasts and prove useful for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:22905230

  16. Inositol hexakisphosphate inhibits osteoclastogenesis on RAW 264.7 cells and human primary osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Arriero, María del Mar; Ramis, Joana M; Perelló, Joan; Monjo, Marta

    2012-01-01

    Inoxitol hexakisphosphate (IP6) has been found to have an important role in biomineralization and a direct effect inhibiting mineralization of osteoblasts in vitro without impairing extracellular matrix production and expression of alkaline phosphatase. IP6 has been proposed to exhibit similar effects to those of bisphosphonates on bone resorption, however, its direct effect on osteoclasts (OCL) is presently unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of IP6 on the RAW 264.7 monocyte/macrophage mouse cell line and on human primary osteoclasts. On one hand, we show that IP6 decreases the osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 cells induced by RANKL, without affecting cell proliferation or cell viability. The number of TRAP positive cells and mRNA levels of osteoclast markers such as TRAP, calcitonin receptor, cathepsin K and MMP-9 was decreased by IP6 on RANKL-treated cells. On the contrary, when giving IP6 to mature osteoclasts after RANKL treatment, a significant increase of bone resorption activity and TRAP mRNA levels was found. On the other hand, we show that 1 µM of IP6 inhibits osteoclastogenesis of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC) and their resorption activity both, when given to undifferentiated and to mature osteoclasts. Our results demonstrate that IP6 inhibits osteoclastogenesis on human PBMNC and on the RAW264.7 cell line. Thus, IP6 may represent a novel type of selective inhibitor of osteoclasts and prove useful for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  17. Interleukin-3 plays dual roles in osteoclastogenesis by promoting the development of osteoclast progenitors but inhibiting the osteoclastogenic process

    SciTech Connect

    Hong, Huixian; Shi, Zhenqi; Qiao, Ping; Li, Hui; McCoy, Erin M.; Mao, Ping; Xu, Hui; Feng, Xu; Wang, Shunqing

    2013-11-01

    Highlights: •IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells generates a population of hematopoietic cells. •IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells are capable of differentiating into osteoclasts. •Osteoclasts derived from IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells are functional. •IL-3 promotes the development of osteoclast progenitors. •IL-3 inhibits the osteoclastogenic process. -- Abstract: Interleukin (IL)-3, a multilineage hematopoietic growth factor, is implicated in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. However, the role of IL-3 in osteoclastogenesis remains controversial; whereas early studies showed that IL-3 stimulates osteoclastogenesis, recent investigations demonstrated that IL-3 inhibits osteoclast formation. The objective of this work is to further address the role of IL-3 in osteoclastogenesis. We found that IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells generated a population of cells capable of differentiating into osteoclasts in tissue culture dishes in response to the stimulation of the monocyte/macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). The IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells were able to further proliferate and differentiate in response to M-CSF stimulation and the resulting cells were also capable of forming osteoclasts with M-CSF and RANKL treatment. Interestingly, IL-3 inhibits M-CSF-/RANKL-induced differentiation of the IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells into osteoclasts. The flow cytometry analysis indicates that while IL-3 treatment of bone marrow cells slightly affected the percentage of osteoclast precursors in the surviving populations, it considerably increased the percentage of osteoclast precursors in the populations after subsequent M-CSF treatment. Moreover, osteoclasts derived from IL-3-dependent hematopoietic cells were fully functional. Thus, we conclude that IL-3 plays dual roles in osteoclastogenesis by promoting the development of osteoclast progenitors but inhibiting the

  18. Unfractionated Heparin Promotes Osteoclast Formation in Vitro by Inhibiting Osteoprotegerin Activity.

    PubMed

    Li, Binghan; Lu, Dan; Chen, Yuqing; Zhao, Minghui; Zuo, Li

    2016-04-22

    Heparin has been proven to enhance bone resorption and induce bone loss. Since osteoclasts play a pivotal role in bone resorption, the effect of heparin on osteoclastogenesis needs to be clarified. Since osteocytes are the key modulator during osteoclastogenesis, we evaluated heparin's effect on osteoclastogenesis in vitro by co-culturing an osteocyte cell line (MLO-Y4) and pre-osteoclasts (RAW264.7). In this co-culture system, heparin enhanced osteoclastogenesis and osteoclastic bone resorption while having no influence on the production of RANKL (receptor activator of NFκB ligand), M-CSF (macrophage colony-stimulating factor), and OPG (osteoprotegerin), which are three main regulatory factors derived from osteocytes. According to previous studies, heparin could bind specifically to OPG and inhibit its activity, so we hypothesized that this might be a possible mechanism of heparin activity. To test this hypothesis, osteoclastogenesis was induced using recombinant RANKL or MLO-Y4 supernatant. We found that heparin has no effect on RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis (contains no OPG). However, after incubation with OPG, the capacity of MLO-Y4 supernatant for supporting osteoclast formation was increased. This effect disappeared after OPG was neutralized and reappeared after OPG was replenished. These results strongly suggest that heparin promotes osteocyte-modulated osteoclastogenesis in vitro, at least partially, through inhibiting OPG activity.

  19. Rosmarinic acid and arbutin suppress osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting superoxide and NFATc1 downregulation in RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Omori, Akina; Yoshimura, Yoshitaka; Deyama, Yoshiaki; Suzuki, Kuniaki

    2015-07-01

    The present study investigated the effect of the natural polyphenols, rosmarinic acid and arbutin, on osteoclast differentiation in RAW 264.7 cells. Rosmarinic acid and arbutin suppressed osteoclast differentiation and had no cytotoxic effect on osteoclast precursor cells. Rosmarinic acid and arbutin inhibited superoxide production in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA expression of the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis, nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and the osteoclast marker genes, matrix metalloproteinase-9, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin-K, decreased following treatments with rosmarinic acid and arbutin. Furthermore, resorption activity decreased with the number of osteoclasts. These results suggest that rosmarinic acid and arbutin may be useful for the prevention and treatment of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, through mechanisms involving inhibition of superoxide and downregulation of NFATc1.

  20. Rosmarinic acid and arbutin suppress osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting superoxide and NFATc1 downregulation in RAW 264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    OMORI, AKINA; YOSHIMURA, YOSHITAKA; DEYAMA, YOSHIAKI; SUZUKI, KUNIAKI

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of the natural polyphenols, rosmarinic acid and arbutin, on osteoclast differentiation in RAW 264.7 cells. Rosmarinic acid and arbutin suppressed osteoclast differentiation and had no cytotoxic effect on osteoclast precursor cells. Rosmarinic acid and arbutin inhibited superoxide production in a dose-dependent manner. mRNA expression of the master regulator of osteoclastogenesis, nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and the osteoclast marker genes, matrix metalloproteinase-9, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and cathepsin-K, decreased following treatments with rosmarinic acid and arbutin. Furthermore, resorption activity decreased with the number of osteoclasts. These results suggest that rosmarinic acid and arbutin may be useful for the prevention and treatment of bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, through mechanisms involving inhibition of superoxide and downregulation of NFATc1. PMID:26171153

  1. Secretory clusterin inhibits osteoclastogenesis by attenuating M-CSF-dependent osteoclast precursor cell proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Bongkun; Kang, Soon-Suk; Kang, Sang-Wook; Min, Bon-Hong; Lee, Eun-Jin; Song, Da-Hyun; Kim, Sang-Min; Song, Youngsup; Yoon, Seung-Yong; Chang, Eun-Ju

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • We describe the expression and secretion of clusterin in osteoclasts. • Endogenous clusterin deficiency does not affect osteoclast formation. • Exogenous treatment with secretory clusterin decreases osteoclast differentiation. • Secretory clusterin attenuates osteoclast precursor cell proliferation by inhibiting M-CSF-mediated ERK activation. - Abstract: Secretory clusterin (sCLU)/apolipoprotein J is a multifunctional glycoprotein that is ubiquitously expressed in various tissues. Reduced sCLU in the joints of patients with bone erosive disease is associated with disease activity; however, its exact role has yet to be elucidated. Here, we report that CLU is expressed and secreted during osteoclastogenesis in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) that are treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). CLU-deficient BMMs obtained from CLU{sup −/−} mice exhibited no significant alterations in OC differentiation in comparison with BMMs obtained from wild-type mice. In contrast, exogenous sCLU treatment significantly inhibited OC formation in both BMMs and OC precursor cultures. The inhibitory effect of sCLU was more prominent in BMMs than OC precursor cultures. Interestingly, treating BMMs with sCLU decreased the proliferative effects elicited by M-CSF and suppressed M-CSF-induced ERK activation of OC precursor cells without causing apoptotic cell death. This study provides the first evidence that sCLU reduces OC formation by inhibiting the actions of M-CSF, thereby suggesting its protective role in bone erosion.

  2. Strontium inhibits titanium particle-induced osteoclast activation and chronic inflammation via suppression of NF-κB pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shijun; Hu, Xuanyang; Tao, Yunxia; Ping, Zichuan; Wang, Liangliang; Shi, Jiawei; Wu, Xiexing; Zhang, Wen; Yang, Huilin; Nie, Zhikui; Xu, Yaozeng; Wang, Zhirong; Geng, Dechun

    2016-01-01

    Wear-particle-induced chronic inflammation and osteoclastogenesis have been identified as critical factors of aseptic loosening. Although strontium is known to be involved in osteoclast differentiation, its effect on particle-induced inflammatory osteolysis remains unclear. In this study, we investigate the potential impact and underling mechanism of strontium on particle-induced osteoclast activation and chronic inflammation in vivo and in vitro. As expected, strontium significantly inhibited titanium particle-induced inflammatory infiltration and prevented bone loss in a murine calvarial osteolysis model. Interestingly, the number of mature osteoclasts decreased after treatment with strontium in vivo, suggesting osteoclast formation might be inhibited by strontium. Additionally, low receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL), tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6 and p65 immunochemistry staining were observed in strontium-treatment groups. In vitro, strontium obviously decreased osteoclast formation, osteoclastogenesis-related gene expression, osteoclastic bone resorption and pro-inflammatory cytokine expression in bone-marrow-derived macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, we demonstrated that strontium impaired osteoclastogenesis by blocking RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB pathway. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that strontium can significantly inhibit particle-induced osteoclast activation and inflammatory bone loss by disturbing the NF-κB pathway, and is an effective therapeutic agent for the treatment of wear particle-induced aseptic loosening. PMID:27796351

  3. (-)-Epigallocatechin gallate inhibition of osteoclastic differentiation via NF-{kappa}B

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, R.-W.; Chen, C.-H.; Wang, Y.-H.; Ho, M.-L.; Hung, S.-H.; Chen, I.-S. Wang, G.-J.

    2009-02-20

    People who regularly drink tea have been found to have a higher bone mineral density (BMD) and to be at less risk of hip fractures than those who do not drink it. Green tea catechins such as (-)-epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) have been reported to increase osteogenic functioning in mesenchymal stem cells. However, its effect on osteoclastogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of EGCG on RANKL-activation osteoclastogenesis and NF-{kappa}B in RAW 264.7, a murine preosteoclast cell line. EGCG (10-100 {mu}M) significantly suppressed the RANKL-induced differentiation of osteoclasts and the formation of pits in murine RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). EGCG appeared to target osteoclastic differentiation at an early stage but had no cytotoxic effect on osteoclast precursors. In addition, it significantly inhibited RANKL-induced NF-{kappa}B transcriptional activity and nuclear translocation. We conclude that EGCG inhibits osteoclastogenesis through its activation of NF-{kappa}B.

  4. Apolipoprotein E inhibits osteoclast differentiation via regulation of c-Fos, NFATc1 and NF-κB

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Woo-Shin; Kim, Hyung Joon; Lee, Zang Hee; Lee, Youngkyun; Kim, Hong-Hee

    2013-02-15

    Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) plays a major role in the transport and metabolism of lipid. Other functions of ApoE include modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. The expression of ApoE in osteoblasts and its relevance with bone formation have also been reported. However, the effect of ApoE on osteoclasts has not yet been examined. Here, we investigated the role of ApoE in osteoclast differentiation using bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and RAW264.7 cells. We found a down-regulation of ApoE gene expression during osteoclastic differentiation of those cells. Overexpression of ApoE in BMMs and RAW264.7 cells significantly blocked the induction of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc1), transcription factors critical for expression of osteoclast marker genes, by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL), the osteoclast differentiation factor. ApoE inhibited osteoclast differentiation, as measured by decreased number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinuclear cells (MNCs). In addition, ApoE reduced the expression of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) and ATPase, H{sup +} transporting, lysosomal 38 kDa, V0 subunit d2 (ATP6v0d2), genes involved in cell–cell fusion during osteoclastogenesis. Knock-down of ApoE using a specific siRNA promoted the RANKL-mediated induction of osteoclast differentiation. While ApoE did not affect the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK signaling pathways by RANKL, the phosphorylation of p65 trans-activation domain on serine 536 and transcription activity of NF-κB were reduced by ApoE overexpression. These findings suggest that ApoE plays an inhibitory role in osteoclast differentiation via the suppression of RANKL-dependent activation of NF-κB and induction of c-Fos and NFATc1. - Highlights: ► Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) significantly inhibited osteoclast differentiation and activation of NF-κB. ► ApoE decreased the induction of osteoclast marker

  5. Inhibition of CaMKK2 Stimulates Osteoblast Formation and Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Cary, Rachel L.; Waddell, Seid; Racioppi, Luigi; Long, Fanxin; Novack, Deborah V.; Voor, Michael J.; Sankar, Uma

    2013-01-01

    Bone remodeling, a physiological process characterized by bone formation by osteoblasts (OB) and resorption of pre-existing bone matrix by osteoclasts (OC), is vital for the maintenance of healthy bone tissue in adult humans. Imbalances in this vital process result in pathological conditions including osteoporosis. Owing to its initial asymptomatic nature, osteoporosis is often detected only after the patient has sustained significant bone loss or a fracture. Hence, anabolic therapeutics that stimulates bone accrual is in high clinical demand. Here we identify Ca2+/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) as a potential target for such therapeutics, as its inhibition enhances OB differentiation and bone growth and suppresses OC differentiation. Mice null for CaMKK2 possess higher trabecular bone mass in their long bones, along with significantly more OBs and fewer multinuclear OCs. Whereas Camkk2−/− MSCs yield significantly higher numbers of OBs, bone marrow cells from Camkk2−/− mice produce fewer multinuclear OCs, in vitro. Acute inhibition of CaMKK2 by its selective, cell-permeable pharmacological inhibitor STO-609 also results in increased OB and diminished OC formation. Further, we find phospho-protein kinase A (PKA) and Ser133 phosphorylated form of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (pCREB) to be markedly elevated in OB progenitors deficient in CaMKK2. On the other hand, genetic ablation of CaMKK2 or its pharmacological inhibition in OC progenitors results in reduced pCREB as well as significantly reduced levels of its transcriptional target, nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1). Moreover, in vivo administration of STO-609 results in increased OBs and diminished OCs, conferring significant protection from ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis in adult mice. Overall, our findings reveal a novel function for CaMKK2 in bone remodeling and highlight the potential for its therapeutic

  6. Pulsed electromagnetic fields inhibit human osteoclast formation and gene expression via osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    He, Zhiming; Selvamurugan, Nagarajan; Warshaw, Johanna; Partridge, Nicola C

    2017-09-28

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMFs) can be effective in promoting the healing of delayed union or nonunion fractures. We previously reported that PEMF (Spinal-Stim® by Orthofix, Inc., Lewisville, TX) stimulated proliferation, differentiation and mineralization of rat calvarial osteoblastic cells in culture. In the present work we investigated the effects of PEMF (Physio-Stim® by Orthofix, Inc., Lewisville, TX) on human bone marrow macrophages (hBMMs) differentiated to osteoclasts. PEMF had striking inhibitory effects on formation of osteoclasts from hBMMs from both younger and older women. There were significantly greater changes in gene expression as ascertained by RNAseq from cells from older women. Interestingly, all of the genes identified by RNAseq were upregulated, and all were genes of mesenchymal or osteoblastic cells and included members of the TGF-β signaling pathway and many extracellular matrix proteins, as well as RANKL and osteoprotegerin, indicating the mixed nature of these cultures. From these results, we suggest that PEMF can inhibit osteoclast formation via action on osteoblasts. Thus, PEMF may be very effective for bone mass maintenance in subjects with osteoporosis. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Gadolinium inhibits prostate cancer PC3 cell migration and suppresses osteoclast differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Zou, Xiao-Min; Huang, Jian; Zhang, Tian-Lan; Wang, Kui

    2011-11-01

    This study examined whether Gd (gadolinium) could suppress prostate cancer cell migration and prostate cancer cell-induced osteoclast differentiation. MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide] and colony forming assay showed that GdCl3 treatment inhibited both cell viability and colony forming ability in PC3 cells more significantly than that in DU145 cells. Annexin/PI (propidium iodide) staining showed an increase in apoptotic death of PC3 cells in the presence of GdCl3. Wound healing and adhesion assay indicated that GdCl3 suppressed PC3 cell migration. Western-blot analysis demonstrated that GdCl3 treatment inhibited phosphorylation of ERK (extracellular-signal-regulated kinase) and p38 MAPK (mitogen-activated protein kinase). Pretreatment with PTx (pertussis toxin), a Gi protein inhibitor, conferred resistance to GdCl3-induced colony formation, ERK and p38 phosphorylation in PC3 cells. Moreover, GdCl3 inhibited PC3 cell-induced osteoclast differentiation. RT-PCR (reverse transcription-PCR) indicated that GdCl3 decreased the expression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand) in PC3 cells, whereas it increased the expression of OPG (osteoprotegerin) in PC3 and DU145 cells. In conclusion, the present study indicated that GdCl3 inhibited PC3 cell migration mediated by the inactivation of both ERK and p38 MAPK pathways via PTx-sensitive G proteins, and also suppressed PC3 cell-induced osteoclast differentiation via regulating the mRNA expression of OPG and RANKL.

  8. Inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption through alendronate treatment in rats reduces severe osteoarthritis progression.

    PubMed

    Siebelt, M; Waarsing, J H; Groen, H C; Müller, C; Koelewijn, S J; de Blois, E; Verhaar, J A N; de Jong, M; Weinans, H

    2014-09-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a non-rheumatoid joint disease characterized by progressive degeneration of extra-cellular cartilage matrix (ECM), enhanced subchondral bone remodeling, osteophyte formation and synovial thickening. Alendronate (ALN) is a potent inhibitor of osteoclastic bone resorption and results in reduced bone remodeling. This study investigated the effects of pre-emptive use of ALN on OA related osteoclastic subchondral bone resorption in an in vivo rat model for severe OA. Using multi-modality imaging we measured effects of ALN treatment within cartilage and synovium. Severe osteoarthritis was induced in left rat knees using papain injections in combination with a moderate running protocol. Twenty rats were treated with subcutaneous ALN injections and compared to twenty untreated controls. Animals were longitudinally monitored for 12weeks with in vivo μCT to measure subchondral bone changes and SPECT/CT to determine synovial macrophage activation using a folate-based radiotracer. Articular cartilage was analyzed at 6 and 12weeks with ex vivo contrast enhanced μCT and histology to measure sulfated-glycosaminoglycan (sGAG) content and cartilage thickness. ALN treatment successfully inhibited subchondral bone remodeling. As a result we found less subchondral plate porosity and reduced osteophytosis. ALN treatment did not reduce subchondral sclerosis. However, after the OA induction phase, ALN treatment protected cartilage ECM from degradation and reduced synovial macrophage activation. Surprisingly, ALN treatment also improved sGAG content of tibia cartilage in healthy joints. Our data was consistent with the hypothesis that osteoclastic bone resorption might play an important role in OA and may be a driving force for progression of the disease. However, our study suggest that this effect might not solely be effects on osteoclastic activity, since ALN treatment also influenced macrophage functioning. Additionally, ALN treatment and physical activity

  9. Dual Effect of Chrysanthemum indicum Extract to Stimulate Osteoblast Differentiation and Inhibit Osteoclast Formation and Resorption In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Min; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Park, Sun-Hyang; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Oh, Jaemin; Lee, Myeung Su

    2014-01-01

    The risk of bone-related diseases increases due to the imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation by osteoclasts and osteoblasts, respectively. The goal in the development of antiosteoporotic treatments is an agent that will improve bone through simultaneous osteoblast stimulation and osteoclast inhibition without undesirable side effects. To achieve this goal, numerous studies have been performed to identify novel approaches using natural oriental herbs to treat bone metabolic diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Chrysanthemum indicum extract (CIE) on the differentiation of osteoclastic and osteoblastic cells. CIE inhibited the formation of TRAP-positive mature osteoclasts and of filamentous-actin rings and disrupted the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. CIE strongly inhibited Akt, GSK3β, and IκB phosphorylation in RANKL-stimulated bone marrow macrophages and did not show any effects on MAP kinases, including p38, ERK, and JNK. Interestingly, CIE also enhanced primary osteoblast differentiation via upregulation of the expression of alkaline phosphatase and the level of extracellular calcium concentrations during the early and terminal stages of differentiation, respectively. Our results revealed that CIE could have a potential therapeutic role in bone-related disorders through its dual effects on osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation. PMID:25530776

  10. Osteoclast-derived microRNA-containing exosomes selectively inhibit osteoblast activity

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Weijia; Zhao, Chenyang; Li, Yuheng; Wang, Liang; Nie, Guangjun; Peng, Jiang; Wang, Aiyuan; Zhang, Pengfei; Tian, Weiming; Li, Qi; Song, Jinping; Wang, Cheng; Xu, Xiaolong; Tian, Yanhua; Zhao, Dingsheng; Xu, Zi; Zhong, Guohui; Han, Bingxing; Ling, Shukuan; Chang, Yan-Zhong; Li, Yingxian

    2016-01-01

    MicroRNAs have an important role in bone homeostasis. However, the detailed mechanism of microRNA-mediated intercellular communication between bone cells remains elusive. Here, we report that osteoclasts secrete microRNA-enriched exosomes, by which miR-214 is transferred into osteoblasts to inhibit their function. In a coculture system, inhibition of exosome formation and secretion prevented miR-214 transportation. Exosomes specifically recognized osteoblasts through the interaction between ephrinA2 and EphA2. In osteoclast-specific miR-214 transgenic mice, exosomes were secreted into the serum, and miR-214 and ephrinA2 levels were elevated. Therefore, these exosomes have an inhibitory role in osteoblast activity. miR-214 and ephrinA2 levels in serum exosomes from osteoporotic patients and mice were upregulated substantially. These exosomes may significantly inhibit osteoblast activity. Inhibition of exosome secretion via Rab27a small interfering RNA prevented ovariectomized-induced osteoblast dysfunction in vivo. Taken together, these findings suggest that exosome-mediated transfer of microRNA plays an important role in the regulation of osteoblast activity. Circulating miR-214 in exosomes not only represents a biomarker for bone loss but could selectively regulate osteoblast function. PMID:27462462

  11. Inhibition of lipopolysaccharide-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo by cysteine proteinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Strålberg, Fredrik; Kassem, Ali; Kasprzykowski, Franciszek; Abrahamson, Magnus; Grubb, Anders; Lindholm, Catharina; Lerner, Ulf H

    2017-05-01

    Inflammation-induced bone destruction is a major treatment target in many inflammatory skeletal diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate if the cysteine proteinase inhibitors cystatin C, fungal cysteine proteinase inhibitor (E-64), and N-benzyloxycarbonyl-arginyl-leucyl-valyl-glycyl-diazomethane acetate (Z-RLVG-CHN2) can inhibit LPS-induced osteoclast formation. Mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) were isolated and primed with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) for 24 h, followed by stimulation with LPS, with and without inhibitors. Adult mice were injected locally with LPS and then treated with E-64 and osteoclast formation assessed by the number of cathepsin K(+) multinucleated cells. Cystatin C inhibited LPS-induced osteoclast formation time and concentration dependently (IC50 = 0.3 μM). The effect was associated with decreased mRNA and protein expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K and of the osteoclastogenic transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1. LPS-induced osteoclast formation on bone slices was also inhibited by cystatin C, resulting in decreased pit formation and release of bone matrix proteins. Similar data were obtained with E-64 and Z-RLVG-CHN2 Cystatin C was internalized in BMMs stimulated by LPS but not in unstimulated BMMs. Osteoclast formation induced by LPS was dependent on TNF-α, and the 3 inhibitors abolished LPS-induced TNF superfamily 2 (gene encoding TNF-α; Tnfsf2) mRNA expression without affecting Il1b, Il6, or oncostatin M (Osm) expression. Formation of osteoclasts in the skull bones after local LPS stimulation was inhibited by E-64. It is concluded that cysteine proteinase inhibitors effectively inhibit LPS-induced osteoclast formation in vivo and in vitro by inhibition of TNF-α expression. The targeting of cysteine proteinases might represent a novel treatment modality for prevention of inflammatory bone loss. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  12. Tributyltin and triphenyltin inhibit osteoclast differentiation through a retinoic acid receptor-dependent signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yonezawa, Takayuki; Hasegawa, Shin-ichi; Ahn, Jae-Yong; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Teruya, Toshiaki; Hagiwara, Hiromi; Nagai, Kazuo; Woo, Je-Tae; E-mail: jwoo@isc.chubu.ac.jp

    2007-03-30

    Organotin compounds, such as tributyltin (TBT) and triphenyltin (TPT), have been widely used in agriculture and industry. Although these compounds are known to have many toxic effects, including endocrine-disrupting effects, their effects on bone resorption are unknown. In this study, we investigated the effects of organotin compounds, such as monobutyltin (MBT), dibutyltin (DBT), TBT, and TPT, on osteoclast differentiation using mouse monocytic RAW264.7 cells. MBT and DBT had no effects, whereas TBT and TPT dose-dependently inhibited osteoclast differentiation at concentrations of 3-30 nM. Treatment with a retinoic acid receptor (RAR)-specific antagonist, Ro41-5253, restored the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis by TBT and TPT. TBT and TPT reduced receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) induced nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 expression, and the reduction in NFATc1 expression was recovered by Ro41-5253. Our results suggest that TBT and TPT suppress osteoclastogenesis by inhibiting RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression via an RAR-dependent signaling pathway.

  13. Silk fibroin hydrolysate inhibits osteoclastogenesis and induces apoptosis of osteoclasts derived from RAW 264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Chon, Jeon-Woo; Kim, Hyeryeon; Jeon, Ha-Na; Park, Kyungho; Lee, Kwang-Gill; Yeo, Joo-Hong; Kweon, Haeyong; Lee, Heui-Sam; Jo, You-Young; Park, Yoo Kyoung

    2012-11-01

    Bone disease can be associated with bone resorption by osteoclasts, and interest in the development of antiresorptive agents has recently increased. The hydrolysate of silk fibroin has been studied with respect to such biomedical applications. In a previous study, silk fibroin showed indirect inhibitory effects on the differentiation of osteoclasts. To further evaluate the effect of a hydrolysate of silk fibroin on osteoclasts, we investigated the direct effects of the silk fibroin hydrolysate on osteoclastogenesis and apoptosis of osteoclasts induced by receptor activation of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). The silk fibroin hydrolysate inhibited RANKL-induced formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) in RAW 264.7 cells. The inhibitory effect of the silk fibroin hydrolysate resulted in the decreased expression of osteoclast marker genes, such as matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), cathepsin-K and calcitonin receptor (CTR). In addition, the silk fibroin hydrolysate blocked the signaling pathways of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and expression of transcription factors, such as nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and NF-κB. Finally, the silk fibroin hydrolysate induced apoptosis signaling cascades. Taken together, the present results indicate that silk fibroin hydrolysate has antiresorptive activity by both inhibiting osteoclastogenesis and inducing osteoclast apoptosis.

  14. Regulation of ITAM adaptor molecules and their receptors by inhibition of calcineurin-NFAT signalling during late stage osteoclast differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Zawawi, M.S.F.; Dharmapatni, A.A.S.S.K.; Cantley, M.D.; McHugh, K.P.; Haynes, D.R.; Crotti, T.N.

    2012-10-19

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Calcineurin/NFAT inhibitors FK506 and VIVIT treated human PBMC derived osteoclasts in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential regulation of ITAM receptors and adaptor molecules by calcineurin/NFAT inhibitors. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer FK506 and VIVIT suppress ITAM factors during late phase osteoclast differentiation. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts are specialised bone resorptive cells responsible for both physiological and pathological bone loss. Osteoclast differentiation and activity is dependent upon receptor activator NF-kappa-B ligand (RANKL) interacting with its receptor RANK to induce the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1). The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-dependent pathway has been identified as a co-stimulatory pathway in osteoclasts. Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) and triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells (TREM2) are essential receptors that pair with adaptor molecules Fc receptor common gamma chain (FcR{gamma}) and DNAX-activating protein 12 kDa (DAP12) respectively to induce calcium signalling. Treatment with calcineurin-NFAT inhibitors, Tacrolimus (FK506) and the 11R-VIVIT (VIVIT) peptide, reduces NFATc1 expression consistent with a reduction in osteoclast differentiation and activity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhibiting calcineurin-NFAT signalling on the expression of ITAM factors and late stage osteoclast genes including cathepsin K (CathK), Beta 3 integrin ({beta}3) and Annexin VIII (AnnVIII). Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were differentiated with RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) over 10 days in the presence or absence of FK506 or VIVIT. Osteoclast formation (as assessed by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)) and activity (assessed by dentine pit resorption) were significantly reduced with treatment. Quantitative real

  15. IL-33 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation through the regulation of Blimp-1 and IRF-8 expression

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyomiya, Hiroyasu; Ariyoshi, Wataru; Okinaga, Toshinori; Kaneuji, Takeshi; Mitsugi, Sho; Sakurai, Takuma; Habu, Manabu; Yoshioka, Izumi; Tominaga, Kazuhiro; and others

    2015-05-01

    Interleukin (IL)-33 is a recently discovered proinflammatory cytokine that belongs to the IL-1 family. Several studies have reported that IL-33 inhibits osteoclast differentiation. However, the mechanism of IL-33 regulation of osteoclastogenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of IL-33 on osteoclast formation in vitro. IL-33 suppressed osteoclast formation in both mouse bone marrow cells and monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 cells induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and/or macrophage stimulating factor (M-CSF). IL-33 also inhibited the expression of RANKL-induced nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), thereby decreasing the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker genes, including Cathepsin K, Osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (Oc-stamp) and Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap). Blockage of IL-33-ST2 binding suppressed the IL-33-mediated inhibition of NFATc1. RANKL-induced B-lymphocyte-induced maturation protein-1 (Blimp-1) expression was also suppressed by IL-33, which was followed by the stimulation of anti-osteoclastic genes such as interferon regulatory factor-8 (IRF-8). These results suggest that IL-33-ST2 interactions down-regulate both RANKL-induced NFATc1 activation and osteoclast differentiation via the regulation of Blimp-1 and IRF-8 expression. - Highlights: • IL-33 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast formation. • IL-33 has inhibitory effect on the RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression. • IL-33-induced NFATc1 suppression depends on the regulation of Blimp-1 and IRF-8.

  16. Amorphigenin inhibits Osteoclast differentiation by suppressing c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Bong Gyu; Kwak, Han Bok; Choi, Eun-Yong; Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Myung Hee; Kim, Seong Hwan; Choi, Min-Kyu; Chun, Churl Hong; Oh, Jaemin

    2010-01-01

    Among the several rotenoids, amorphigenin is isolated from the leaves of Amopha Fruticosa and it is known that has anti-proliferative effects and anti-cnacer effects in many cell types. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effects of amorphigenin on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and on LPS treated inflammatory bone loss model in vivo. We show here that amorphigenin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow macrophages in a dose dependent manner without cellular toxicity. Anti-osteoclastogenic properties of amorphigenin were based on a down-regulation of c-fos and NFATc1. Amorphigenin markedly inhibited RANKL-induced p38 and NF-κB pathways, but other pathways were not affected. Micro-CT analysis of the femurs showed that amorphigenin protected the LPS-induced bone loss. We concluded that amorphigenin can prevent inflammation-induced bone loss. Thus we expect that amorphigenin could be a treatment option for bone erosion caused by inflammation. PMID:21267405

  17. Imatinib mesylate suppresses bone metastases of breast cancer by inhibiting osteoclasts through the blockade of c-Fms signals.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Toru; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2009-01-01

    Imatinib mesylate (imatinib) is a potent and selective inhibitor of the tyrosine kinases, Bcr-Abl, c-Kit and platelet-derived growth factor receptors (PDGFRs). Recently, it has been reported that imatinib also targets the macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) receptor c-Fms. M-CSF signals are essential for the differentiation of osteoclasts. Bone metastases of breast cancer are frequently associated with osteoclastic bone destruction. Furthermore, several lines of evidence suggest that osteoclasts play central roles in the development and progression of bone metastases. Thus, in the present study, we examined the effects of imatinib on bone metastases of breast cancer. Coimmunoprecipitation assays showed that imatinib inhibited the M-CSF-induced phosphorylation of c-Fms in osteoclast precursor cells as well as the PDGF-induced PDGFR phosphorylation in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Imatinib also markedly reduced osteoclast formation in vitro. In contrast, those concentrations of imatinib did not affect osteoblast differentiation. We then examined the effects of imatinib on bone metastases of MDA-MB-231 cells in a nude mouse model. Radiographic and histomorphometric analyses demonstrated that imatinib significantly decreased bone metastases associated with the reduced number of osteoclasts. In support of the notion that the inhibition of c-Fms acts to suppress the development of bone metastases, we found that a specific inhibitor of c-Fms Ki20227 also decreased bone metastases. In conclusion, these results collectively suggest that imatinib reduced bone metastases, at least in part, by inhibiting osteoclastic bone destruction through the blockade of c-Fms signals. Our results also suggest that imatinib may have a protective effect against cancer treatment-induced bone loss.

  18. Rebamipide, an Amino Acid Analog of 2(1H)-Quinolinone, Inhibits the Formation of Human Osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Nanke, Yuki; Kobashigawa, Tsuyoshi; Yago, Toru; Kawamoto, Manabu; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Kotake, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Drug repositioning or drug reprofiling (DR) has recently been growing in importance. DR has a significant advantage over traditional drug development because the repositioned drug has already passed toxicity tests; its safety is known, and the risk of adverse toxicology is reduced. In the current study, we investigated the role of rebamipide, a mucosa-protecting agent, with recently reported anti-inflammatory function, in human osteoclastogenesis. Methods. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in the presence of M-CSF and sRANKL. Osteoclast formation was evaluated by immunohistological staining for CD51/61 (vitronectin receptors). Osteoclast formation, in the presence or absence of rebamipide (0, 1, and 3 mM), was observed by time-lapse photography and actin ring formation. The number of absorption sites and area of absorption were calculated using Osteologic™ plates. Pit formation was studied by 3D-SEM. Results. Rebamipide inhibited human osteoclast formation at 3 mM, a pharmacological concentration, and inhibited resorbing activity dose-dependently. Rebamipide induced the degradation of actin rings in mature osteoclasts. This mechanism may involve inhibiting the osteoclast fusion pathway through reducing the expression of DC-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP). Conclusions. The present study suggests that rebamipide would be useful as a novel agent for osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

  19. Rebamipide, an Amino Acid Analog of 2(1H)-Quinolinone, Inhibits the Formation of Human Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Kobashigawa, Tsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. Drug repositioning or drug reprofiling (DR) has recently been growing in importance. DR has a significant advantage over traditional drug development because the repositioned drug has already passed toxicity tests; its safety is known, and the risk of adverse toxicology is reduced. In the current study, we investigated the role of rebamipide, a mucosa-protecting agent, with recently reported anti-inflammatory function, in human osteoclastogenesis. Methods. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were cultured in the presence of M-CSF and sRANKL. Osteoclast formation was evaluated by immunohistological staining for CD51/61 (vitronectin receptors). Osteoclast formation, in the presence or absence of rebamipide (0, 1, and 3 mM), was observed by time-lapse photography and actin ring formation. The number of absorption sites and area of absorption were calculated using Osteologic™ plates. Pit formation was studied by 3D-SEM. Results. Rebamipide inhibited human osteoclast formation at 3 mM, a pharmacological concentration, and inhibited resorbing activity dose-dependently. Rebamipide induced the degradation of actin rings in mature osteoclasts. This mechanism may involve inhibiting the osteoclast fusion pathway through reducing the expression of DC-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP). Conclusions. The present study suggests that rebamipide would be useful as a novel agent for osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:27965978

  20. Inhibition of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation by pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ).

    PubMed

    Odkhuu, Erdenezaya; Koide, Naoki; Haque, Abedul; Tsolmongyn, Bilegtsaikhan; Naiki, Yoshikazu; Hashimoto, Shoji; Komatsu, Takayuki; Yoshida, Tomoaki; Yokochi, Takashi

    2012-02-29

    The effect of pyrroloquinoline quinine (PQQ) on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation was examined using RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells. RANKL led to the formation of osteoclasts identified as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells in the culture of RAW 264.7 cells. However, PQQ inhibited the appearance of osteoclasts and prevented the decrease of F4/80 macrophage maturation marker on RANKL-stimulated cells, suggesting a preventive action of PQQ on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. PQQ inhibited the activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1), a key transcription factor of osteoclastogenesis, in RANKL-stimulated cells. On the other hand, PQQ did not inhibit the signaling pathway from RANK/RANKL binding to NFATc1 activation, including NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). PQQ augmented the expression of type I interferon receptor (IFNAR) and enhanced the IFN-β-mediated janus kinase (JAK1) and signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT1) expression. Moreover, PQQ reduced the expression level of c-Fos leading to the activation of NFATc1. Taken together, PQQ was suggested to prevent RANKL-induced osteoclast formation via the inactivation of NFATc1 by reduced c-Fos expression. The reduced c-Fos expression might be mediated by the enhanced IFN-β signaling due to augmented IFNAR expression. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. miR-21 deficiency inhibits osteoclast function and prevents bone loss in mice

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Cheng-Hu; Sui, Bing-Dong; Du, Fang-Ying; Shuai, Yi; Zheng, Chen-Xi; Zhao, Pan; Yu, Xiao-Rui; Jin, Yan

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs emerge as critical post-transcriptional regulators in bone metabolism. We have previously reported in vitro that miR-21 promotes osteogenesis, while studies have also revealed miR-21 as a regulator of osteoclastogenesis and a promoter of osteoclast differentiation in vitro. However, in vivo data are still lacking in identifying skeletal function of miR-21, particularly its effects on osteoporosis. Here, using miR-21 knockout (miR-21−/−) mice, we investigated effects of miR-21 on bone development, bone remodeling and bone loss. Unexpectedly, miR-21−/− mice demonstrated normal skeletal phenotype in development and maintained osteoblastogenesis in vivo. Besides, miR-21−/− mice showed increased receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) and decreased osteoprotegerin (OPG) through miR-21 targeting Sprouty 1 (Spry1). Nevertheless, interestingly, miR-21 deficiency promoted trabecular bone mass accrual physiologically. Furthermore, in pathological states, the protection of bone mass was prominent in miR-21−/− mice. These skeletal effects were attributed to inhibition of bone resorption and osteoclast function by miR-21 deficiency through miR-21 targeting programmed cell death 4 (PDCD4), despite the existence of RANKL. As far as we know, this is the first in vivo evidence of a pro-osteoclastic microRNA. Together, these findings clarified function of miR-21 in bone metabolism, particularly uncovering osteo-protective potential of miR-21 inactivation in osteoporosis. PMID:28240263

  2. α-Tocotrienol inhibits osteoclastic bone resorption by suppressing RANKL expression and signaling and bone resorbing activity.

    PubMed

    Ha, Hyunil; Lee, Jong-Ho; Kim, Ha-Neui; Lee, Zang Hee

    2011-03-25

    Vitamin E, an essential nutrient with powerful antioxidant activity, is the mixture of two classes of compounds, tocopherols (TPs) and tocotrienols (TTs). Although TTs exhibit better bone protective activity than α-TP, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated whether α-TT and α-TP can modulate osteoclastic bone resorption. We found that α-TT but not α-TP inhibits osteoclastogenesis in coculture of osteoblasts and bone marrow cells induced by either IL-1 or combined treatment with 1α,25(OH)(2) vitamin D(3) and prostaglandin E(2). In accordance with this, only α-TT inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) expression in osteoblasts. In addition, α-TT but not α-TP inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from precursors by suppression of c-Fos expression, possibly through inhibiting ERK and NF-κB activation. This anti-osteoclastogenic effect was reversed when c-Fos or an active form of NFATc1, a critical downstream of c-Fos during osteoclastogenesis, was overexpressed. Furthermore, only α-TT reduced bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts without affecting their survival. Overall, our results demonstrate that α-TT but not α-TP has anti-bone resorptive properties by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and activation, suggesting that α-TT may have therapeutic value for treating and preventing bone diseases characterized by excessive bone destruction.

  3. Regulation of ITAM adaptor molecules and their receptors by inhibition of calcineurin-NFAT signalling during late stage osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zawawi, M S F; Dharmapatni, A A S S K; Cantley, M D; McHugh, K P; Haynes, D R; Crotti, T N

    2012-10-19

    Osteoclasts are specialised bone resorptive cells responsible for both physiological and pathological bone loss. Osteoclast differentiation and activity is dependent upon receptor activator NF-kappa-B ligand (RANKL) interacting with its receptor RANK to induce the transcription factor, nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1). The immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-dependent pathway has been identified as a co-stimulatory pathway in osteoclasts. Osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) and triggering receptor expressed in myeloid cells (TREM2) are essential receptors that pair with adaptor molecules Fc receptor common gamma chain (FcRγ) and DNAX-activating protein 12kDa (DAP12) respectively to induce calcium signalling. Treatment with calcineurin-NFAT inhibitors, Tacrolimus (FK506) and the 11R-VIVIT (VIVIT) peptide, reduces NFATc1 expression consistent with a reduction in osteoclast differentiation and activity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of inhibiting calcineurin-NFAT signalling on the expression of ITAM factors and late stage osteoclast genes including cathepsin K (CathK), Beta 3 integrin (β3) and Annexin VIII (AnnVIII). Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were differentiated with RANKL and macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) over 10days in the presence or absence of FK506 or VIVIT. Osteoclast formation (as assessed by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)) and activity (assessed by dentine pit resorption) were significantly reduced with treatment. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that FK506 treatment significantly (p<0.05) reduced the expression of NFATc1, CathK, OSCAR, FcRγ, TREM2 and DAP12 during the terminal stage of osteoclast formation. VIVIT treatment significantly (p<0.05) decreased CathK, OSCAR, FcRγ, and AnnVIII, gene expression. This data suggest FK506 and VIVIT act differently in targeting the

  4. Sodium hydrogen sulfide inhibits nicotine and lipopolysaccharide-induced osteoclastic differentiation and reversed osteoblastic differentiation in human periodontal ligament cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sun-Kyung; Chung, Jong-Hyuk; Choi, Sung-Chul; Auh, Q-Schick; Lee, Young-Man; Lee, Sang-Im; Kim, Eun-Cheol

    2013-05-01

    Although previous studies have demonstrated that hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) stimulated or inhibited osteoclastic differentiation, little is known about the effects of H(2)S on the differentiation of osteoblasts and osteoclasts. To determine the possible bioactivities of H(2)S on bone metabolism, we investigated the in vitro effects of H(2)S on cytotoxicity, osteoblastic, and osteoclastic differentiation as well as the underlying mechanism in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and nicotine-stimulated human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLCs). The H(2)S donor, NaHS, protected hPDLCs from nicotine and LPS-induced cytotoxicity and recovered nicotine- and LPS-downregulated osteoblastic differentiation, such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mRNA expression of osteoblasts, including ALP, osteopontin (OPN), and osteocalcin (OCN), and mineralized nodule formation. Concomitantly, NaHS inhibited the differentiation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclasts in mouse bone marrow cells and blocked nicotine- and LPS-induced osteoclastogenesis regulatory molecules, such as RANKL, OPG, M-CSF, MMP-9, TRAP, and cathepsin K mRNA. NaHS blocked nicotine and LPS-induced activation of p38, ERK, MKP-1, PI3K, PKC, and PKC isoenzymes, and NF-κB. The effects of H(2)S on nicotine- and LPS-induced osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiation were remarkably reversed by MKP-1 enzyme inhibitor (vanadate) and expression inhibitor (triptolide). Taken together, we report for the first time that H(2)S inhibited cytotoxicity and osteoclastic differentiation and recovered osteoblastic differentiation in a nicotine- and periodontopathogen-stimulated hPDLCs model, which has potential therapeutic value for treatment of periodontal and inflammatory bone diseases.

  5. Drugs Which Inhibit Osteoclast Function Suppress Tumor Growth through Calcium Reduction in Bone

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Liao, Jinhui; Park, Serk In; Koh, Amy J; Sadler, William D; Pienta, Kenneth J; Rosol, Thomas J; McCauley, Laurie K

    2011-01-01

    Prostate carcinoma frequently metastasizes to bone where the microenvironment facilitates its growth. Inhibition of bone resorption is effective in reducing tumor burden and bone destruction in prostate cancer. However, whether drugs that inhibit osteoclast function inhibit tumor growth independent of inhibition of bone resorption is unclear. Calcium is released during bone resorption and the calcium sensing receptor is an important regulator of cancer cell proliferation. The goal of this investigation was to elucidate the role of calcium released during bone resorption and to determine the impact of drugs which suppress bone resorption on tumor growth in bone. To compare tumor growth in a skeletal versus non-skeletal site, equal numbers of canine prostate cancer cells expressing luciferase (ACE-1luc) prostate cancer cells were inoculated into a simple collagen matrix, neonatal mouse vertebrae (vossicles), human de-proteinized bone, or a mineralized collagen matrix. Implants were placed subcutaneously into athymic mice. Luciferase activity was used to track tumor growth weekly and at one month tumors were dissected for histologic analysis. Luciferase activity and tumor size were greater in vossicles, de-proteinized bone and mineralized collagen matrix versus non-mineralized collagen implants. The human osteoblastic prostate carcinoma cell line C4-2b also grew better in a mineral rich environment with a greater proliferation of C4-2b cells reflected by Ki-67 staining. Zoledronic acid (ZA), a bisphosphonate, and recombinant OPG-Fc, a RANKL inhibitor, were administered to mice bearing vertebral implants (vossicles) containing ACE-1 osteoblastic prostate cancer cells. Vossicles or collagen matrices were seeded with ACE-1luc cells subcutaneously in athymic mice (2 vossicles, 2 collagen implants/mouse). Mice received ZA (5μg/mouse, twice/week), (OPG-Fc at 10mg/kg, 3 times/week) or vehicle, and luciferase activity was measured weekly. Histologic analysis of the tumors

  6. Deltamethrin inhibits osteoclast differentiation via regulation of heme oxygenase-1 and NFATc1.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakai, Eiko; Fumimoto, Reiko; Yamaguchi, Yu; Fukuma, Yutaka; Nishishita, Kazuhisa; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tsukuba, Takayuki

    2012-09-01

    Deltamethrin is a widely used pyrethroid pesticide. Although the cytotoxicity of deltamethrin has been reported, especially in neuronal cells, there is no information concerning the effects of deltamethrin on osteoclasts (OCLs). In this study, we showed that deltamethrin inhibited OCL differentiation in vitro. The effects of deltamethrin on OCL differentiation by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) were investigated in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) or the murine monocytic cell line RAW-D. Treatment with deltamethrin inhibited OCL formation and bone resorption and up-regulated expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an anti-oxidative stress enzyme. Deltamethrin also decreased the protein levels of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic-1 (NFATc1), which is a master regulator for OCL differentiation, and concomitantly reduced the expression levels of Src and cathepsin K, which are transcriptionally regulated by NFATc1. The effects of deltamethrin on intracellular signaling during the OCL differentiation of BMMs indicated that deltamethrin-treated OCLs displayed impaired phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, Jun N-terminal kinase, and Akt, and slightly delayed phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa B alpha (IκBα) compared with untreated OCLs. Thus, deltamethrin possibly affects bone metabolism by inhibiting OCL differentiation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Interleukin 18 inhibits osteoclast formation via T cell production of granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor.

    PubMed Central

    Horwood, N J; Udagawa, N; Elliott, J; Grail, D; Okamura, H; Kurimoto, M; Dunn, A R; Martin, T; Gillespie, M T

    1998-01-01

    IL-18 inhibits osteoclast (OCL) formation in vitro independent of IFN-gamma production, and this was abolished by the addition of neutralizing antibodies to GM-CSF. We now establish that IL-18 was unable to inhibit OCL formation in cocultures using GM-CSF-deficient mice (GM-CSF -/-). Reciprocal cocultures using either wild-type osteoblasts with GM-CSF -/- spleen cells or GM-CSF -/- osteoblasts with wild-type spleen cells were examined. Wild-type spleen cells were required to elicit a response to IL-18 indicating that cells of splenic origin were the IL-18 target. As T cells comprise a large proportion of the spleen cell population, the role of T cells in osteoclastogenesis was examined. Total T cells were removed and repleted in various combinations. Addition of wild-type T cells to a GM-CSF -/- coculture restored IL-18 inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. Major subsets of T cells, CD4+ and CD8+, were also individually depleted. Addition of either CD4+ or CD8+ wild-type T cells restored IL-18 action in a GM-CSF -/- background, while IL-18 was ineffective when either CD4+ or CD8+ GM-CSF -/- T cells were added to a wild-type coculture. These results highlight the involvement of T cells in IL-18-induced OCL inhibition and provide evidence for a new OCL inhibitory pathway whereby IL-18 inhibits OCL formation due to action upon T cells promoting the release of GM-CSF, which in turn acts upon OCL precursors. PMID:9449693

  8. The Type II Collagen N-propeptide, PIIBNP, inhibits cell survival and bone resorption of osteoclasts via integrin-mediated signaling

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Shinya; Wang, Zhepeng; Bryan, Jennifer; Kobayashi, Chikashi; Faccio, Roberta; Sandell, Linda J.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Type IIB procollagen is characteristic of cartilage, comprising 50% of the extracellular matrix. The NH2-propeptide of type IIB collagen, PIIBNP, can kill tumor cells via binding to integrins αVβ3 and αVβ5. As osteoclasts rely on αVβ3 integrins for function in bone erosion, we sought to determine whether PIIBNP could inhibit osteoclast function. Methods We undertook in vitro and in vivo experiments to evaluate both osteoblast and osteoclast function in the presence of recombinant PIIBNP. Adhesion of osteoclasts to PIIBNP was analyzed by staining of attached cells with crystal violet. PIIBNP-induced cell death was evaluated by cell counting Trypan Blue stained cells. The mechanism of cell death was evaluated by DNA fragmentation, TUNEL staining and western blotting to detect cleaved caspases. To determine the role of αVβ3 integrin, osteoclasts were pretreated with αV or β3 integrin specific siRNA before the treatment with PIIBNP. To explore PIIBNP function in vivo, a lipopolysaccharide-induced mouse calvaria lysis model was employed. Results Osteoclasts adhered to PIIBNP via an RGD-mediated mechanism. When osteoclasts were plated on extracellular matrix proteins, PIIBNP induced apoptosis of osteoclasts via caspase 3/8 activation. Osteoblasts and macrophages were not killed. Reduction of αV or β3 integrin levels on osteoclasts by siRNA reduced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. In vivo, PIIBNP could inhibit bone resorption. Conclusion We conclude that PIIBNP can inhibit osteoclast survival and bone resorption via signal transduction through the αVβ3 integrins. Because of this property and the cell specificity, we propose that PIIBNP may play a role in vivo in protecting cartilage from osteoclast invasion and also could be a new therapeutic strategy for decreasing bone loss. PMID:21708300

  9. Arctigenin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing both calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathways.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Teruhito; Uehara, Shunsuke; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Li, Feng; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Arctigenin, a lignan-derived compound, is a constituent of the seeds of Arctium lappa. Arctigenin was previously shown to inhibit osteoclastogenesis; however, this inhibitory mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Here, we showed that arctigenin inhibited the action of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a key transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis. NFATc1 in osteoclast precursors was activated through two distinct pathways: the calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent pathways. Among the several lignan-derived compounds examined, arctigenin most strongly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast-like cell formation in mouse bone marrow macrophage (BMM) cultures, in which the calcineurin-dependent NFATc1 pathway was activated. Arctigenin suppressed neither the activation of nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases nor the up-regulation of c-Fos expression in BMMs treated with RANKL. However, arctigenin suppressed RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression. Interestingly, the treatment of osteoclast-like cells with arctigenin converted NFATc1 into a lower molecular weight species, which was translocated into the nucleus even in the absence of RANKL. Nevertheless, arctigenin as well as cyclosporin A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor, suppressed the NFAT-luciferase reporter activity induced by ionomycin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in BMMs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that arctigenin inhibited the recruitment of NFATc1 to the promoter region of the NFATc1 target gene. Arctigenin, but not CsA suppressed osteoclast-like cell formation in co-cultures of osteoblastic cells and bone marrow cells, in which the osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathway was activated. The forced expression of constitutively active NFATc1 rescued osteoclastogenesis in BMM cultures treated with CsA, but not that treated with arctigenin. Arctigenin also suppressed the pit

  10. Arctigenin Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation and Function by Suppressing Both Calcineurin-Dependent and Osteoblastic Cell-Dependent NFATc1 Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Teruhito; Uehara, Shunsuke; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Li, Feng; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Esumi, Hiroyasu; Kobayashi, Yasuhiro; Takahashi, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    Arctigenin, a lignan-derived compound, is a constituent of the seeds of Arctium lappa. Arctigenin was previously shown to inhibit osteoclastogenesis; however, this inhibitory mechanism has yet to be elucidated. Here, we showed that arctigenin inhibited the action of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), a key transcription factor for osteoclastogenesis. NFATc1 in osteoclast precursors was activated through two distinct pathways: the calcineurin-dependent and osteoblastic cell-dependent pathways. Among the several lignan-derived compounds examined, arctigenin most strongly inhibited receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast-like cell formation in mouse bone marrow macrophage (BMM) cultures, in which the calcineurin-dependent NFATc1 pathway was activated. Arctigenin suppressed neither the activation of nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases nor the up-regulation of c-Fos expression in BMMs treated with RANKL. However, arctigenin suppressed RANKL-induced NFATc1 expression. Interestingly, the treatment of osteoclast-like cells with arctigenin converted NFATc1 into a lower molecular weight species, which was translocated into the nucleus even in the absence of RANKL. Nevertheless, arctigenin as well as cyclosporin A (CsA), a calcineurin inhibitor, suppressed the NFAT-luciferase reporter activity induced by ionomycin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate in BMMs. Chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed that arctigenin inhibited the recruitment of NFATc1 to the promoter region of the NFATc1 target gene. Arctigenin, but not CsA suppressed osteoclast-like cell formation in co-cultures of osteoblastic cells and bone marrow cells, in which the osteoblastic cell-dependent NFATc1 pathway was activated. The forced expression of constitutively active NFATc1 rescued osteoclastogenesis in BMM cultures treated with CsA, but not that treated with arctigenin. Arctigenin also suppressed the pit

  11. Rhus javanica Gall Extract Inhibits the Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Osteoclasts and Ovariectomy-Induced Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Park, Eui Kyun; Huh, Man-Il; Kim, Hong Kyun; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Lee, Sang-Han

    2016-01-01

    Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption is a therapeutic strategy for the management of postmenopausal bone loss. This study investigated the effects of Rhus javanica (R. javanica) extracts on bone marrow cultures to develop agents from natural sources that may prevent osteoclastogenesis. Extracts of R. javanica (eGr) cocoons spun by Rhus javanica (Bell.) Baker inhibited the osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The effects of aqueous extract (aeGr) or 100% ethanolic extract (eeGr) on ovariectomy- (OVX-) induced bone loss were investigated by various biochemical assays. Furthermore, microcomputed tomography (µCT) was performed to study bone remodeling. Oral administration of eGr (30 mg or 100 mg/kg/day for 6 weeks) augmented the inhibition of femoral bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and other factors involved in bone remodeling when compared to OVX controls. Additionally, eGr slightly decreased bone turnover markers that were increased by OVX. Therefore, it may be suggested that the protective effects of eGr could have originated from the suppression of OVX-induced increase in bone turnover. Collectively, the findings of this study indicate that eGr has potential to activate bone remodeling by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone loss. PMID:27313644

  12. A novel PPAR{gamma} agonist, KR62776, suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activity by inhibiting MAP kinase pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Ju-Young; Bae, Myung-Ae; Cheon, Hyae Gyeong; Kim, Sung Soo; Hong, Jung-Min; Kim, Tae-Ho; Choi, Je-Yong; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Lim, Jiwon; Choi, Chang-Hyuk; Shin, Hong-In; Kim, Shin-Yoon Park, Eui Kyun

    2009-01-16

    We investigated the effects of a novel peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, KR62776, on osteoclast differentiation and function, and on the underlying signaling pathways. KR62776 markedly suppressed differentiation into osteoclasts in various osteoclast model systems, including bone marrow mononuclear (BMM) cells and a co-culture of calvarial osteoblasts and BMM cells. KR62776 suppressed the activation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and the expression of genes associated with osteoclast differentiation, such as TRAP, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), and osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR). Furthermore, KR62776 reduced resorption pit formation in osteoclasts, and down-regulated genes essential for osteoclast activity, such as Src and {alpha}v{beta}3 integrin. An analysis of a signaling pathway showed that KR62776 inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL)-induced activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK), extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and nuclear factor-{kappa}B (NF-{kappa}B). Together, these results demonstrate that KR62776 negatively affects osteoclast differentiation and activity by inhibiting the RANKL-induced activation of MAP kinases and NF-{kappa}B.

  13. Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by tanshinones from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza bunge.

    PubMed

    Lee, Song-Yi; Choi, Doo-Youn; Woo, Eun-Rhan

    2005-08-01

    We screened natural products to find compounds with anti-osteoporotic potential using a coculture-based system by which osteoclast differentiation is effectively achieved. We found that methylene chloride soluble fraction of the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (Labiatae) suppressed osteoclast differentiation. Five tanshinones, tanshinone IIA (1), tanshinone 1 (2), cryptotanshinone (3), 15,16-dihydrotanshinone I (4), and ferruginol (5) were subsequently isolated from fraction. Among the five compounds, compounds 1-4 reduced the formation of TRAP-positive multinuclear osteoclasts. These results suggest that the identified tanshinones may be useful candidates for development of therapeutic agents to treat osteoporosis and other bone-resorptive diseases.

  14. Low dose of propranolol down-modulates bone resorption by inhibiting inflammation and osteoclast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, WF; Madeira, MFM; da Silva, TA; Clemente-Napimoga, JT; Miguel, CB; Dias-da-Silva, VJ; Barbosa-Neto, O; Lopes, AH; Napimoga, MH

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Bones are widely innervated, suggesting an important role for the sympathetic regulation of bone metabolism, although there are controversial studies. We investigated the effects of propranolol in a model of experimental periodontal disease. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Rats were assigned as follows: animals without ligature; ligated animals receiving vehicle and ligated animals receiving 0.1, 5 or 20 mg·kg−1 propranolol. After 30 days, haemodynamic parameters were measured by cardiac catheterization. Gingival tissues were removed and assessed for IL-1β, TNF-α and cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX) by elisa, or intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), receptor activator of NF-κ B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) by Western blot analysis. Sections from the mandibles were evaluated for bone resorption. Also, we analysed the ability of propranolol to inhibit osteoclastogenesis in vitro. RESULTS Propranolol at 0.1 and 5 mg·kg−1 reduced the bone resorption as well as ICAM-1 and RANKL expression. However, only 0.1 mg·kg−1 reduced IL-1β, TNF-α and CTX levels as well as increased the expression of OPG, but did not alter any of the haemodynamic parameters. Propranolol also suppressed in vitro osteoclast differentiation and resorptive activity by inhibiting the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc)1 pathway and the expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), cathepsin K and MMP-9. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Low doses of propranolol suppress bone resorption by inhibiting RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis as well as inflammatory markers without affecting haemodynamic parameters. PMID:21950592

  15. Low dose of propranolol down-modulates bone resorption by inhibiting inflammation and osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, W F; Madeira, M F M; da Silva, T A; Clemente-Napimoga, J T; Miguel, C B; Dias-da-Silva, V J; Barbosa-Neto, O; Lopes, A H; Napimoga, M H

    2012-04-01

    Bones are widely innervated, suggesting an important role for the sympathetic regulation of bone metabolism, although there are controversial studies. We investigated the effects of propranolol in a model of experimental periodontal disease. Rats were assigned as follows: animals without ligature; ligated animals receiving vehicle and ligated animals receiving 0.1, 5 or 20 mg·kg(-1) propranolol. After 30 days, haemodynamic parameters were measured by cardiac catheterization. Gingival tissues were removed and assessed for IL-1β, TNF-α and cross-linked carboxyterminal telopeptides of type I collagen (CTX) by elisa, or intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), receptor activator of NF-κ B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) by Western blot analysis. Sections from the mandibles were evaluated for bone resorption. Also, we analysed the ability of propranolol to inhibit osteoclastogenesis in vitro. Propranolol at 0.1 and 5 mg·kg(-1) reduced the bone resorption as well as ICAM-1 and RANKL expression. However, only 0.1 mg·kg(-1) reduced IL-1β, TNF-α and CTX levels as well as increased the expression of OPG, but did not alter any of the haemodynamic parameters. Propranolol also suppressed in vitro osteoclast differentiation and resorptive activity by inhibiting the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc)1 pathway and the expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), cathepsin K and MMP-9. Low doses of propranolol suppress bone resorption by inhibiting RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis as well as inflammatory markers without affecting haemodynamic parameters. © 2011 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology © 2011 The British Pharmacological Society.

  16. Immature and mature megakaryocytes enhance osteoblast proliferation and inhibit osteoclast formation.

    PubMed

    Ciovacco, Wendy A; Cheng, Ying-Hua; Horowitz, Mark C; Kacena, Melissa A

    2010-03-01

    Recent data suggest that megakaryocytes (MKs) play a role in skeletal homeostasis. In vitro and in vivo data show that MKs stimulate osteoblast (OB) proliferation and inhibit osteoclast (OC) formation, thus favoring net bone deposition. There are several mouse models with dysregulated megakaryopoiesis and resultant high bone mass phenotypes. One such model that our group has extensively studied is GATA-1 deficient mice. GATA-1 is a transcription factor required for normal megakaryopoiesis, and mice deficient in GATA-1 have increases in immature MK number and a striking increase in bone mass. While the increased bone mass could simply be a result of increased MK number, here we take a more in depth look at the MKs of these mice to see if there is a unique factor inherent to GATA-1 deficient MKs that favors increased bone deposition. We show that increased MK number does correspond with increased OB proliferation and decreased OC formation that stage of maturation does not alter the effect of MKs on bone cell lineages beyond the megakaryoblast stage, and that GATA-1 deficient MKs survive longer than wild-type controls. So while increased MK number in GATA-1 deficient mice likely contributes to the high bone mass phenotype, we propose that the increased longevity of this lineage also plays a role. Since GATA-1 deficient MKs live longer they are able to exert both more proliferative influence on OBs and more inhibitory influence on OCs. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Knee loading inhibits osteoclast lineage in a mouse model of osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xinle; Yang, Jing; Liu, Daquan; Li, Jie; Niu, Kaijun; Feng, Shiqing; Yokota, Hiroki; Zhang, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a whole joint disorder that involves cartilage degradation and periarticular bone response. Changes of cartilage and subchondral bone are associated with development and activity of osteoclasts from subchondral bone. Knee loading promotes bone formation, but its effects on OA have not been well investigated. Here, we hypothesized that knee loading regulates subchondral bone remodeling by suppressing osteoclast development, and prevents degradation of cartilage through crosstalk of bone-cartilage in osteoarthritic mice. Surgery-induced mouse model of OA was used. Two weeks application of daily dynamic knee loading significantly reduced OARSI scores and CC/TAC (calcified cartilage to total articular cartilage), but increased SBP (subchondral bone plate) and B.Ar/T.Ar (trabecular bone area to total tissue area). Bone resorption of osteoclasts from subchondral bone and the differentiation of osteoclasts from bone marrow-derived cells were completely suppressed by knee loading. The osteoclast activity was positively correlated with OARSI scores and negatively correlated with SBP and B.Ar/T.Ar. Furthermore, knee loading exerted protective effects by suppressing osteoclastogenesis through Wnt signaling. Overall, osteoclast lineage is the hyper responsiveness of knee loading in osteoarthritic mice. Mechanical stimulation prevents OA-induced cartilage degeneration through crosstalk with subchondral bone. Knee loading might be a new potential therapy for osteoarthritis patients. PMID:27087498

  18. Interleukin-15-activated natural killer cells kill autologous osteoclasts via LFA-1, DNAM-1 and TRAIL, and inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone erosion in vitro.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shan; Madsen, Suzi H; Viller, Natasja N; Neutzsky-Wulff, Anita V; Geisler, Carsten; Karlsson, Lars; Söderström, Kalle

    2015-07-01

    Osteoclasts reside on bone and are the main bone resorbing cells playing an important role in bone homeostasis, while natural killer (NK) cells are bone-marrow-derived cells known to play a crucial role in immune defence against viral infections. Although mature NK cells traffic through bone marrow as well as to inflammatory sites associated with enhanced bone erosion, including the joints of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, little is known about the impact NK cells may have on mature osteoclasts and bone erosion. We studied the interaction between human NK cells and autologous monocyte-derived osteoclasts from healthy donors in vitro. We show that osteoclasts express numerous ligands for receptors present on activated NK cells. Co-culture experiments revealed that interleukin-15-activated, but not resting, NK cells trigger osteoclast apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, resulting in drastically decreased bone erosion. Suppression of bone erosion requires contact between NK cells and osteoclasts, but soluble factors also play a minor role. Antibodies masking leucocyte function-associated antigen-1, DNAX accessory molecule-1 or tumour necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand enhance osteoclast survival when co-cultured with activated NK cells and restore the capacity of osteoclasts to erode bone. These results suggest that interleukin-15-activated NK cells may directly affect bone erosion under physiological and pathological conditions.

  19. Inhibition of Platelet Aggregation by the Leaf Extract of Carica papaya During Dengue Infection: An In Vitro Study.

    PubMed

    Chinnappan, Shobia; Ramachandrappa, Vijayakumar Shettikothanuru; Tamilarasu, Kadhiravan; Krishnan, Uma Maheswari; Pillai, Agiesh Kumar Balakrishna; Rajendiran, Soundravally

    2016-04-01

    Dengue cases were reported to undergo platelet activation and thrombocytopenia by a poorly understood mechanism. Recent studies suggested that Carica papaya leaf extract could recover the platelet count in dengue cases. However, no studies have attempted to unravel the mechanism of the plant extract in platelet recovery. Since there are no available drugs to treat dengue and considering the significance of C. papaya in dengue treatment, the current study aimed to evaluate two research questions: First one is to study if the C. papaya leaf extract exerts its action directly on platelets and second one is to understand if the extract can specifically inhibit the platelet aggregation during dengue viral infection. Sixty subjects with dengue positive and 60 healthy subjects were recruited in the study. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma were prepared from both the dengue-infected and healthy control blood samples. Effect of the leaf extract obtained from C. papaya leaves was assessed on plasma obtained as well as platelets collected from both healthy and dengue-infected individuals. Platelet aggregation was significantly reduced when leaf extract preincubated with dengue plasma was added into control PRP, whereas no change in aggregation when leaf extract incubated-control plasma was added into control PRP. Upon direct addition of C. papaya leaf extract, both dengue PRP and control PRP showed a significant reduction in platelet aggregation. Within the dengue group, PRP from severe and nonsevere cases showed a significant decrease in aggregation without any difference between them. From the study, it is evident that C. papaya leaf extract can directly act on platelet. The present study, the first of its kind, found that the leaf extract possesses a dengue-specific neutralizing effect on dengue viral-infected plasma that may exert a protective role on platelets.

  20. Estrogen inhibits RANKL-stimulated osteoclastic differentiation of human monocytes through estrogen and RANKL-regulated interaction of estrogen receptor-{alpha} with BCAR1 and Traf6

    SciTech Connect

    Robinson, Lisa J.; Yaroslavskiy, Beatrice B.; Griswold, Reed D.; Zadorozny, Eva V.; Guo, Lida; Tourkova, Irina L.; Blair, Harry C.

    2009-04-15

    The effects of estrogen on osteoclast survival and differentiation were studied using CD14-selected mononuclear osteoclast precursors from peripheral blood. Estradiol at {approx} 1 nM reduced RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation by 40-50%. Osteoclast differentiation was suppressed 14 days after addition of RANKL even when estradiol was withdrawn after 18 h. In CD14+ cells apoptosis was rare and was not augmented by RANKL or by 17-{beta}-estradiol. Estrogen receptor-{alpha} (ER{alpha}) expression was strongly down-regulated by RANKL, whether or not estradiol was present. Mature human osteoclasts thus cannot respond to estrogen via ER{alpha}. However, ER{alpha} was present in CD14+ osteoclast progenitors, and a scaffolding protein, BCAR1, which binds ER{alpha} in the presence of estrogen, was abundant. Immunoprecipitation showed rapid ({approx} 5 min) estrogen-dependent formation of ER{alpha}-BCAR1 complexes, which were increased by RANKL co-treatment. The RANKL-signaling intermediate Traf6, which regulates NF-{kappa}B activity, precipitated with this complex. Reduction of NF-{kappa}B nuclear localization occurred within 30 min of RANKL stimulation, and estradiol inhibited the phosphorylation of I{kappa}B in response to RANKL. Inhibition by estradiol was abolished by siRNA knockdown of BCAR1. We conclude that estrogen directly, but only partially, curtails human osteoclast formation. This effect requires BCAR1 and involves a non-genomic interaction with ER{alpha}.

  1. Changes in the phenolic and lipophilic composition, in the enzyme inhibition and antiproliferative activity of Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato fruits during maturation.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Menichini, Federica; Statti, Giancarlo A; Bonesi, Marco; Duez, Pierre; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2012-03-01

    Fruits of Ficus carica cultivar Dottato from Italy were examined to assess how the stage of ripeness influences their chemical composition, antioxidant activity, pancreatic lipase inhibition and antiproliferative properties on C32 melanoma cells. Fruits of the first harvest (June) showed a major content in furanocoumarins and pyranocoumarins whereas the fruits collected in September showed the highest polyphenolic content (11.9 mg/g of dried material). The total 70% ethanol extracts were portioned between methanol/water and n-hexane, dichloromethane and ethyl acetate, successively. Coumarins and fatty acid esters were the most abundant components of the n-hexane fractions. The dichloromethane fractions showed as major components 2 furanocoumarins (rutarenin and pimpinellin). The total extracts of F. carica cv. Dottato exhibited a significant dose-dependent antiradical and inhibition of lipid peroxidation activity, particularly fruits of the first harvest (June) that showed the highest activity with IC50 of 1.64 mg/mL and 0.004 mg/mL, respectively. Among single fractions, the ethyl acetate fraction from the second harvest (July) showed the highest antiradical activity with an IC50 value of 0.05 mg/mL while the dichloromethane fraction showed the best inhibition of lipid peroxidation with an IC50 value of 0.02 mg/mL. Dichloromethane fractions showed the highest photodynamic cytotoxicity with an IC50<5 μg/mL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Polyphosphate-mediated inhibition of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase and suppression of bone resorption of osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Harada, Kana; Itoh, Hiromichi; Kawazoe, Yumi; Miyazaki, Shuichi; Doi, Kazuya; Kubo, Takayasu; Akagawa, Yasumasa; Shiba, Toshikazu

    2013-01-01

    Inorganic polyphosphate (poly(P)) has recently been found to play an important role in bone formation. In this study, we found that tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), which is abundantly expressed in osteoclasts, has polyphosphatase activity that degrades poly(P) and yields Pi as well as shorter poly(P) chains. Since the TRAP protein that coprecipitated with anti-TRAP monoclonal antibodies exhibited both polyphosphatase and the original phosphatase activity, poly(P) degradation activity is dependent on TRAP and not on other contaminating enzymes. The ferrous chelator α, α'-bipyridyl, which inhibits the TRAP-mediated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), had no effect on such poly(P) degradation, suggesting that the degradation is not dependent on ROS. In addition, shorter chain length poly(P) molecules were better substrates than longer chains for TRAP, and poly(P) inhibited the phosphatase activity of TRAP depending on its chain length. The IC50 of poly(P) against the original phosphatase activity of TRAP was 9.8 µM with an average chain length more than 300 phosphate residues, whereas the IC50 of poly(P) with a shorter average chain length of 15 phosphate residues was 8.3 mM. Finally, the pit formation activity of cultured rat osteoclasts differentiated by RANKL and M-CSF were markedly inhibited by poly(P), while no obvious decrease in cell number or differentiation efficiency was observed for poly(P). In particular, the inhibition of pit formation by long chain poly(P) with 300 phosphate residues was stronger than that of shorter chain poly(P). Thus, poly(P) may play an important regulatory role in osteoclastic bone resorption by inhibiting TRAP activity, which is dependent on its chain length.

  3. Salicortin inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by down-regulating JNK and NF-κB/NFATc1 signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Nie, Shaobo; Xu, Jiawei; Zhang, Chenghua; Xu, Chen; Liu, Ming; Yu, Degang

    2016-01-29

    Receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL)-activated signaling is essential for osteoclast differentiation, activation, and survival. Salicortin is a phenolic glycoside that has been isolated from many plants such as Populus and Salix species, and has been shown to have anti-amnesic and anti-adipogenic effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of salicortin on RANKL-induced osteoclasts formation, bone resorption, and activation of osteoclast-related signaling pathways. Salicortin suppressed RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow macrophage cultures in a dose-dependent manner, and inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption activity without any cytotoxicity. Salicortin inhibited RANKL-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase and NF-κB activation, concomitant with retarded IκBα phosphorylation and inhibition of p65 nuclear translocation, leading to impaired transcription of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and expression of osteoclastic-specific genes. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that salicortin inhibits NF-κB and NFATc1 activation, leading to attenuation of osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Thus, salicortin may be of interest in developments of treatment for osteoclast related diseases. - Highlights: • Salicortin suppresses osteoclastogenesis in vitro. • Salicortin impairs the JNK and NF-κB/NFATc1 signaling pathway. • Salicortin may be of interest in developments of osteoporosis treatment.

  4. Characterization of vacuolar-ATPase and selective inhibition of vacuolar-H(+)-ATPase in osteoclasts

    SciTech Connect

    Yao, GuanFeng; Feng, HaoTian; Cai, YanLing; Qi, WeiLi; Kong, KangMei . E-mail: kangmeikong@21cn.com

    2007-06-15

    V-ATPase plays important roles in controlling the extra- and intra-cellular pH in eukaryotic cell, which is most crucial for cellular processes. V-ATPases are composed of a peripheral V{sub 1} domain responsible for ATP hydrolysis and integral V{sub 0} domain responsible for proton translocation. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells responsible for bone resorption and relate to many common lytic bone disorders such as osteoporosis, bone aseptic loosening, and tumor-induced bone loss. This review summarizes the structure and function of V-ATPase and its subunit, the role of V-ATPase subunits in osteoclast function, V-ATPase inhibitors for osteoclast function, and highlights the importance of V-ATPase as a potential prime target for anti-resorptive agents.

  5. A medium-chain fatty acid, capric acid, inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation via the suppression of NF-κB signaling and blocks cytoskeletal organization and survival in mature osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Yoon, Hye-Jin; Kim, Shin-Yoon; Yoon, Young-Ran

    2014-08-01

    Fatty acids, important components of a normal diet, have been reported to play a role in bone metabolism. Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that are responsible for many bone-destructive diseases such as osteoporosis. In this study, we investigated the impact of a medium-chain fatty acid, capric acid, on the osteoclast differentiation, function, and survival induced by receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (MCSF). Capric acid inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow-derived macrophages and suppressed RANKL-induced IκBα phosphorylation, p65 nuclear translocation, and NF-κB transcriptional activity. Capric acid further blocked the RANKL-stimulated activation of ERK without affecting JNK or p38. The induction of NFATc1 in response to RANKL was also attenuated by capric acid. In addition, capric acid abrogated M-CSF and RANKL-mediated cytoskeleton reorganization, which is crucial for the efficient bone resorption of osteoclasts. Capric acid also increased apoptosis in mature osteoclasts through the induction of Bim expression and the suppression of ERK activation by M-CSF. Together, our results reveal that capric acid has inhibitory effects on osteoclast development. We therefore suggest that capric acid may have potential therapeutic implications for the treatment of bone resorption-associated disorders.

  6. Anti–IL-20 monoclonal antibody inhibits the differentiation of osteoclasts and protects against osteoporotic bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Yu-Hsiang; Chen, Wei-Yu; Chan, Chien-Hui; Wu, Chih-Hsing; Sun, Zih-Jie

    2011-01-01

    IL-20 is a proinflammatory cytokine of the IL-10 family that is involved in psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, and stroke. However, little is known about the role of IL-20 in bone destruction. We explored the function of IL-20 in osteoclastogenesis and the therapeutic potential of anti–IL-20 monoclonal antibody 7E for treating osteoporosis. Higher serum IL-20 levels were detected in patients with osteopenia and osteoporosis and in ovariectomized (OVX) mice. IL-20 mediates osteoclastogenesis by up-regulating the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK) expression in osteoclast precursor cells and RANK ligand (RANKL) in osteoblasts. 7E treatment completely inhibited osteoclast differentiation induced by macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANKL in vitro and protected mice from OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. Furthermore, IL-20R1–deficient mice had significantly higher bone mineral density (BMD) than did wild-type controls. IL-20R1 deficiency also abolished IL-20–induced osteoclastogenesis and increased BMD in OVX mice. We have identified a pivotal role of IL-20 in osteoclast differentiation, and we conclude that anti–IL-20 monoclonal antibody is a potential therapeutic for protecting against osteoporotic bone loss. PMID:21844205

  7. Inhibition of Ca²⁺/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 stimulates osteoblast formation and inhibits osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cary, Rachel L; Waddell, Seid; Racioppi, Luigi; Long, Fanxin; Novack, Deborah V; Voor, Michael J; Sankar, Uma

    2013-07-01

    Bone remodeling, a physiological process characterized by bone formation by osteoblasts (OBs) and resorption of preexisting bone matrix by osteoclasts (OCs), is vital for the maintenance of healthy bone tissue in adult humans. Imbalances in this vital process result in pathological conditions including osteoporosis. Owing to its initial asymptomatic nature, osteoporosis is often detected only after the patient has sustained significant bone loss or a fracture. Hence, anabolic therapeutics that stimulate bone accrual is in high clinical demand. Here we identify Ca²⁺/calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase kinase 2 (CaMKK2) as a potential target for such therapeutics because its inhibition enhances OB differentiation and bone growth and suppresses OC differentiation. Mice null for CaMKK2 possess higher trabecular bone mass in their long bones, along with significantly more OBs and fewer multinuclear OCs. In vitro, although Camkk2⁻/⁻ mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) yield significantly higher numbers of OBs, bone marrow cells from Camkk2⁻/⁻ mice produce fewer multinuclear OCs. Acute inhibition of CaMKK2 by its selective, cell-permeable pharmacological inhibitor STO-609 also results in increased OB and diminished OC formation. Further, we find phospho-protein kinase A (PKA) and Ser¹³³ phosphorylated form of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (pCREB) to be markedly elevated in OB progenitors deficient in CaMKK2. On the other hand, genetic ablation of CaMKK2 or its pharmacological inhibition in OC progenitors results in reduced pCREB as well as significantly reduced levels of its transcriptional target, nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic (NFATc1). Moreover, in vivo administration of STO-609 results in increased OBs and diminished OCs, conferring significant protection from ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporosis in adult mice. Overall, our findings reveal a novel function for CaMKK2 in bone remodeling and

  8. Parthenolide inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorbing activity by down-regulation of NFATc1 induction and c-Fos stability, during RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ju-Young; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin

    2014-01-01

    Parthenolide, a natural product derived from Feverfew, prevents septic shock and inflammation. We aimed to identify the effects of parthenolide on the RANKL (receptor activator of NF-κB ligand)-induced differentiation and bone resorbing activity of osteoclasts. In this study, parthenolide dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in BMMs, without any evidence of cytotoxicity and the phosphorylation of p38, ERK, and IκB, as well as IκB degradation by RANKL treatment. Parthenolide suppressed the expression of NFATc1, OSCAR, TRAP, DC-STAMP, and cathepsin K in RANKL-treated BMMs. Furthermore, parthenolide down-regulated the stability of c-Fos protein, but could not suppress the expression of c-Fos. Overexpression of NFATc1 and c-Fos in BMMs reversed the inhibitory effect of parthenolide on RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Parthenolide also inhibited the bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. Parthenolide inhibits the differentiation and bone-resolving activity of osteoclast by RANKL, suggesting its potential therapeutic value for bone destructive disorders associated with osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. [BMB Reports 2014; 47(8): 451-456] PMID:24314143

  9. Commercial Honeybush (Cyclopia spp.) Tea Extract Inhibits Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption in RAW264.7 Murine Macrophages—An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Visagie, Amcois; Kasonga, Abe; Deepak, Vishwa; Moosa, Shaakirah; Marais, Sumari; Kruger, Marlena C.; Coetzee, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Honeybush tea, a sweet tasting caffeine-free tea that is indigenous to South Africa, is rich in bioactive compounds that may have beneficial health effects. Bone remodeling is a physiological process that involves the synthesis of bone matrix by osteoblasts and resorption of bone by osteoclasts. When resorption exceeds formation, bone remodeling can be disrupted resulting in bone diseases such as osteoporosis. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells derived from hematopoietic precursors of monocytic lineage. These precursors fuse and differentiate into mature osteoclasts in the presence of receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL), produced by osteoblasts. In this study, the in vitro effects of an aqueous extract of fermented honeybush tea were examined on osteoclast formation and bone resorption in RAW264.7 murine macrophages. We found that commercial honeybush tea extract inhibited osteoclast formation and TRAP activity which was accompanied by reduced bone resorption and disruption of characteristic cytoskeletal elements of mature osteoclasts without cytotoxicity. Furthermore, honeybush tea extract decreased expression of key osteoclast specific genes, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K. This study demonstrates for the first time that honeybush tea may have potential anti-osteoclastogenic effects and therefore should be further explored for its beneficial effects on bone. PMID:26516894

  10. The controlled release of simvastatin from TiO2 nanotubes to promote osteoblast differentiation and inhibit osteoclast resorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Min; Jin, Ziyang; Yang, Xinyi; Wang, Huaying; Xu, Kui

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to fabricate a novel drug-releasing bioactive platform that has excellent potential for improving osteoblast differentiation and inhibiting osteoclast resorption. TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) with an outer diameter of around 70 nm were prepared by an anodization method. TNTs were filled with simvastatin (SV) and then coated using chitosan/gelatin multilayers (TNT-SV-LBL). The successful fabrication of TNT-SV-LBL substrates was confirmed by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and contact angle measurement, respectively. The in vitro release behavior of simvastatin from TNT-SV-LBL substrates showed a sustained release as compared to the uncoated group. Osteoblasts adhering to TNT-SV-LBL substrates attached well and displayed significantly higher (p < 0.01) cell viability compared with the other substrates. More importantly, osteoblasts grown on TNT-SV-LBL substrates displayed a statistically significant (p < 0.01 or p < 0.05) increase in protein production levels of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), osteocalcin (OC) and mRNA expression of runt related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), ALP, collagen type I (Col I), osteopontin (OPN), OC and osteoprotegerin (OPG) compared to the other groups after 4, 7 and 14 days of culture, respectively. Additionally, multinuclear osteoclastic differentiation of RAW264.7 cells grown on TNT-SV-LBL substrates was inhibited as confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) analysis. These results demonstrated that bio-functionalized substrates with SV and chitosan/gelatin multilayers have great potential for improving osteoblast differentiation, as well as inhibiting osteoclast formation. Therefore, these advanced surface and chemical capabilities make this substrate well suited for the development of a drug-releasing Ti implant for bone regeneration.

  11. Effect of heparin and alendronate coating on titanium surfaces on inhibition of osteoclast and enhancement of osteoblast function

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, Ho-Jin; Yun, Young-Pil; Han, Choong-Wan; Kim, Min Sung; Kim, Sung Eun; Bae, Min Soo; Kim, Gyu-Tae; Choi, Yong-Suk; Hwang, Eui-Hwan; Lee, Joon Woo; Lee, Jin-Moo; Lee, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Duck-Su; Kwon, Il Keun

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} We examine bone metabolism of engineered alendronate attached to Ti surfaces. {yields} Alendronate-immobilized Ti enhances activation of osteoblast differentiation. {yields} Alendronate-immobilized Ti inhibits osteoclast differentiation. {yields} Alendronate-immobilized Ti may be a bioactive implant with dual functions. -- Abstract: The failure of orthopedic and dental implants has been attributed mainly to loosening of the implant from host bone, which may be due to weak bonding of the implant material to bone tissue. Titanium (Ti) is used in the field of orthopedic and dental implants because of its excellent biocompatibility and outstanding mechanical properties. Therefore, in the field of materials science and tissue engineering, there has been extensive research to immobilize bioactive molecules on the surface of implant materials in order to provide the implants with improved adhesion to the host bone tissue. In this study, chemically active functional groups were introduced on the surface of Ti by a grafting reaction with heparin and then the Ti was functionalized by immobilizing alendronate onto the heparin-grafted surface. In the MC3T3-E1 cell osteogenic differentiation study, the alendronate-immobilized Ti substrates significantly enhanced alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and calcium content. Additionally, nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells was inhibited with the alendronate-immobilized Ti as confirmed by TRAP analysis. Real time PCR analysis showed that mRNA expressions of osteocalcin and osteopontin, which are markers for osteogenesis, were upregulated in MC3T3-E1 cells cultured on alendronate-immobilized Ti. The mRNA expressions of TRAP and Cathepsin K, markers for osteoclastogenesis, in RAW264.7 cells cultured on alendronate-immobilized Ti were down-regulated. Our study suggests that alendronate-immobilized Ti may be a bioactive implant with dual functions to enhance

  12. The pathobiology of the osteoclast.

    PubMed Central

    Chambers, T J

    1985-01-01

    This article reviews recent information concerning the origin of osteoclasts and the local and systemic regulation of their activity. It appears that much of the environmental responsiveness of osteoclasts is mediated by cells of the osteoblastic lineage, which exert a major influence on the localisation, induction, stimulation, and inhibition of osteoclastic bone resorption. Some of the mechanisms by which osteoclast function may be disturbed by inflammatory and neoplastic diseases are discussed, and it is suggested that many pathological disturbances of osteoclastic bone resorption may be explicable as mimicry of physiological regulatory mechanisms by local hormones introduced into bone as the local regulators of the diseased tissue. Images PMID:2982920

  13. Inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by rotenone, through down-regulation of RANKL-induced c-Fos and NFATc1 expression.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Han Bok; Lee, Byeong Ki; Oh, Jaemin; Yeon, Jeong-Tae; Choi, Sik-Won; Cho, Hae Joong; Lee, Myeung Su; Kim, Jeong-Joong; Bae, Ji-Myung; Kim, Seong Hwan; Kim, Hun Soo

    2010-03-01

    Osteoclasts are responsible for bone erosion in diseases as diverse as osteoporosis, periodontitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Natural plant-derived products have received recent attention as potential therapeutic and preventative drugs in human disease. The effect of rotenone in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation was examined in this study. Rotenone inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner without any evidence of cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression of c-Fos, NFATc1, TRAP, and OSCAR in RANKL-treated BMMs was inhibited by rotenone treatment. Rotenone strongly inhibited p38 and ERK phosphorylation and I-kappaB degradation in RANKL-stimulated BMMs, and did not inhibit JNK phosphorylation. Further, RANKL-induced c-Fos and NFATc1 protein expression was suppressed by rotenone. Rotenone additionally inhibited the bone resorptive activity of differentiated osteoclasts. A lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone erosion study was also performed to assess the effects of rotenone in vivo. Mice treated with rotenone demonstrated marked attenuation of bone erosion based on Micro CT and histologic analysis of femurs. These results collectively suggested that rotenone demonstrated inhibitory effects on osteoclast differentiation in vitro and suppressed inflammatory bone loss in vivo. Rotenone may therefore serve as a useful drug in the prevention of bone loss.

  14. Earthworm (Pheretima aspergillum) extract stimulates osteoblast activity and inhibits osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yuan-Tsung; Chen, Kuo-Yu; Chen, Yueh-Sheng; Yao, Chun-Hsu

    2014-11-11

    The potential benefits of earthworm (Pheretima aspergillum) for healing have received considerable attention recently. Osteoblast and osteoclast activities are very important in bone remodeling, which is crucial to repair bone injuries. This study investigated the effects of earthworm extract on bone cell activities. Osteoblast-like MG-63 cells and RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were used for identifying the cellular effects of different concentrations of earthworm extract on osteoblasts and osteoclasts, respectively. The optimal concentration of earthworm extract was determined by mitochondrial colorimetric assay, alkaline phosphatase activity, matrix calcium deposition, Western blotting and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity. Earthworm extract had a dose-dependent effect on bone cell activities. The most effective concentration of earthworm extract was 3 mg/ml, significantly increasing osteoblast proliferation and differentiation, matrix calcium deposition and the expression levels of alkaline phosphatase, osteopontin and osteocalcin. Conversely, 3 mg/ml earthworm extract significantly reduced the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity of osteoclasts without altering cell viability. Earthworm extract has beneficial effects on bone cell cultures, indicating that earthworm extract is a potential agent for use in bone regeneration.

  15. Stimulation of Osteoclast Formation by RANKL Requires Interferon Regulatory Factor-4 and Is Inhibited by Simvastatin in a Mouse Model of Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Nakashima, Yoshiki; Haneji, Tatsuji

    2013-01-01

    Diseases of bone loss are a major public health problem. Here, we report the novel therapeutic action of simvastatin in osteoclastogenesis and osteoprotection, demonstrated by the ability of simvastatin to suppress osteoclast formation in vitro and in vivo. We found that in vitro, IRF4 expression is upregulated during osteoclast differentiation induced by RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand), while simvastatin blocks RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and decreases expression of NFATc1 (nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1), IRF4 and osteoclast markers. We also show that IRF4 acts in cooperation with NFATc2 and NF-κB on the promoter region of NFATc1 to accelerate its initial transcription during the early stage of osteoclastogenesis. Moreover, our study using IRF4 siRNA knockdown directly demonstrates the requirement for IRF4 in NFATc1 mRNA transcription and its necessity in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. Our results suggest that the reduction in osteoclastogenesis is partly due to the inhibition of IRF4 production in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. To investigate the in vivo effects of simvastatin in RANKL-treated mice, we examined the bone mineral density (BMD) of a mouse model of bone loss, and found that simvastatin significantly reduced bone loss by suppressing osteoclast numbers in vivo, even in the presence of high concentrations of RANKL. These results suggest that the depletion of osteoclasts is not due to the reduction in RANKL produced by osteoblasts in vivo. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that simvastatin blocks RANKL-induced IRF4 expression in osteoclastogenesis. We propose that the expression of IRF4 by osteoclasts could be a promising new therapeutic target in bone-loss diseases. PMID:24039733

  16. PPAR agonists stimulate adipogenesis at the expense of osteoblast differentiation while inhibiting osteoclast formation and activity.

    PubMed

    Patel, Jessal J; Butters, Oliver R; Arnett, Timothy R

    2014-06-01

    Drugs used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, specifically peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) agonists, have been reported to affect bone cell function and fracture risk. In this study, we assessed the direct effects of PPAR-γ agonists (rosiglitazone and troglitazone), used in the treatment of diabetes, and a PPAR-α agonist (fenofibrate), used to treat hyperlipidaemia, on the function of primary osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Formation of 'trabecular' bone structures by rat calvarial osteoblasts was reduced by up to 85% in cultures treated with rosiglitazone and by 45% in troglitazone-treated or fenofibrate-treated cultures; at the same time, lipid droplet formation was increased by 40-70%. The expression of key osteogenic markers was similarly downregulated in cultures treated with PPAR agonists, whereas adipogenesis markers were upregulated. Formation of osteoclasts in cultures derived from mouse marrow diminished with fenofibrate treatment, whereas both glitazones reduced resorptive activity without affecting osteoclast number. Metformin, although not a PPAR agonist, is also commonly used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. Here, metformin was found to have no effect on bone cell function. Taken together, these data suggest that PPAR-γ agonists may enhance bone loss via increased adipogenesis at the expense of osteoblast formation. In contrast, PPAR-α agonists may prevent bone loss. Given that the prevalence of diabetes and cardiovascular disease is expected to rise significantly, greater attention may need to be paid to the effects of PPAR agonists on bone homeostasis. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Geranylgeranylacetone inhibits formation and function of human osteoclasts and prevents bone loss in tail-suspended rats and ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Nanke, Y; Kotake, S; Ninomiya, T; Furuya, T; Ozawa, H; Kamatani, N

    2005-12-01

    Vitamin K is used for protecting against osteoporosis. Recently, it has been reported that the inhibitory effect of vitamin K(2) (menatetrenone) on bone resorption may be related to its side chain. Geranylgeranylacetone (GGA), known as teprenone, an antiulcer drug, has almost the same chemical structure as that of the side chain of menatetrenone. We hypothesized that GGA also has an inhibitory effect on osteoclastogenesis both in vitro and in vivo. GGA in pharmacological concentrations directly inhibited osteoclastogenesis from human monocytes induced by soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand. In addition, GGA induced degradation of actin rings in mature osteoclasts, which was reversed by adding geranylgeranylpyrophosphatase. Moreover, GGA increased the bone mineral density of total femur, proximal metaphysis, and diaphysis of femur in ovariectomized rats. GGA also prevented bone loss induced by hindlimb unloading in tail-suspended rats. These results indicate that GGA prevents bone loss by maintaining a positive balance of bone turnover through suppression of both the formation and the activity of osteoclasts. Thus, GGA could be used to prevent and improve osteoporosis.

  18. Aconine inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing NF-κB and NFATc1 activation and DC-STAMP expression

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Xiang-zhou; He, Long-gang; Wang, Song; Wang, Keng; Zhang, Yue-yang; Tao, Lei; Li, Xiao-juan; Liu, Shu-wen

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Aconiti Lateralis Radix Preparata is a traditional Chinese medicine used to treat chronic arthritis and is highly effective against rheumatoid arthritis. However, the effects of aconine, a derivative of aconitum alkaloids, on osteoclasts, which can absorb bone, remain unknown. Here, we investigated the effects of aconine on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption in vitro. Methods: The viability of mouse leukemic monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was measured using CCK-8 assays. Osteoclast differentiation was induced by incubation of RAW264.7 cells in the presence of RANKL, and assessed with TRAP staining assay. Bone resorption was examined with bone resorption pits assay. The expression of relevant genes and proteins was analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blots. The activation of NF-κB and nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) was examined using stable NF-κB and NFATc1 luciferase reporter gene systems, RT-PCR and Western blot analysis. Results: Aconine (0.125, 0.25 μmol/L) did not affect the viability of RAW264.7 cells, but dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorptive activity. Furthermore, aconine dose-dependently inhibited the RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB and NFATc1 in RAW264.7 cells, and subsequently reduced the expression of osteoclast-specific genes (c-Src, β3-Integrin, cathepsin K and MMP-9) and the expression of dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), which played an important role in cell-cell fusion. Conclusion: These findings suggest that aconine inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells by suppressing the activation of NF-κB and NFATc1 and the expression of the cell-cell fusion molecule DC-STAMP. PMID:26592521

  19. The study of mechanisms of protective effect of Rg1 against arthritis by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and maturation in CIA mice.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yanqing; Fan, Weimin; Yin, Guoyong

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is a natural product extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Although Rg1 protects tissue structure and functions by inhibiting local inflammatory reaction, the mechanism remains poorly understood. In vitro, Rg1 dose-dependently inhibited TRAP activity in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand- (RANKL-) induced osteoclasts and decreased the number of osteoclasts and osteoclast resorption area. Rg1 also significantly inhibited the RANK signaling pathway, including suppressing the expression of Trap, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and calcitonin receptor (CTR). In vivo, Rg1 dramatically decreased arthritis scores in CIA mice and effectively controlled symptoms of inflammatory arthritis. Pathologic analysis demonstrated that Rg1 significantly attenuated pathological changes in CIA mice. Pronounced reduction in synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell invasion were observed in CIA mice after Rg1 therapy. Alcian blue staining results illustrated that mice treated with Rg1 had significantly reduced destruction in the articular cartilage. TRAP and cathepsin K staining results demonstrated a significant reduction of numbers of OCs in the articular cartilage in proximal interphalangeal joints and ankle joints in Rg1-treated mice. In summary, this study revealed that Rg1 reduced the inflammatory destruction of periarticular bone by inhibiting differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts in CIA mice.

  20. The Study of Mechanisms of Protective Effect of Rg1 against Arthritis by Inhibiting Osteoclast Differentiation and Maturation in CIA Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Weimin; Yin, Guoyong

    2014-01-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 is a natural product extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Although Rg1 protects tissue structure and functions by inhibiting local inflammatory reaction, the mechanism remains poorly understood. In vitro, Rg1 dose-dependently inhibited TRAP activity in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand- (RANKL-) induced osteoclasts and decreased the number of osteoclasts and osteoclast resorption area. Rg1 also significantly inhibited the RANK signaling pathway, including suppressing the expression of Trap, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9), and calcitonin receptor (CTR). In vivo, Rg1 dramatically decreased arthritis scores in CIA mice and effectively controlled symptoms of inflammatory arthritis. Pathologic analysis demonstrated that Rg1 significantly attenuated pathological changes in CIA mice. Pronounced reduction in synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell invasion were observed in CIA mice after Rg1 therapy. Alcian blue staining results illustrated that mice treated with Rg1 had significantly reduced destruction in the articular cartilage. TRAP and cathepsin K staining results demonstrated a significant reduction of numbers of OCs in the articular cartilage in proximal interphalangeal joints and ankle joints in Rg1-treated mice. In summary, this study revealed that Rg1 reduced the inflammatory destruction of periarticular bone by inhibiting differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts in CIA mice. PMID:25214714

  1. TRK-530 inhibits accumulation of superoxide anions derived from human polymorphonuclear leukocytes and bone resorption induced by activated osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Tanahashi, M; Funaba, Y; Tateishi, A; Kawabe, N; Nakadate-Matsushita, T

    1998-03-01

    TRK-530, a newly synthesized bisphosphonate, was assessed for its effects on the accumulation of superoxide anions derived from human formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine-stimulated polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN), and for its effects on bone resorption using a pit formation assay. TRK-530 concentration-dependently inhibited superoxide accumulation derived from PMN and osteoclast pit formation stimulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. Incadronate and risedronate had a strong inhibitory effect on pit formation, but no antioxidative activity. These data suggest that the anti-bone resorption activities of TRK-530 are possibly unrelated to its antioxidant properties. However, it is difficult to conclude at present which mechanisms play the most important role in the anti-bone resorption activities of TRK-530.

  2. Pyrroloquinoline quinone prevents testosterone deficiency-induced osteoporosis by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xuan; Li, Jie; Zhang, Hengwei; Wang, Hui; Yin, Guoyong; Miao, Dengshun

    2017-01-01

    Accumulating evidences suggest that oxidative stress caused and deteriorated the aging related osteoporosis and pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) is a powerful antioxidant. However, it is unclear whether PQQ can prevent testosterone deficiency-induced osteoporosis. In this study, the orchidectomized (ORX) mice were supplemented in diet with/without PQQ for 48 weeks, and compared with each other and with sham mice. Results showed that bone mineral density, trabecular bone volume, collagen deposition and osteoblast number were decreased significantly in ORX mice compared with shame mice, whereas PQQ supplementation largely prevented these alterations. In contrast, osteoclast surface and ratio of RANKL and OPG mRNA relative expression levels were increased significantly in ORX mice compared with shame mice, but were decreased significantly by PQQ supplementation. Furthermore, we found that CFU-f and ALP positive CFU-f forming efficiency and the proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells were reduced significantly in ORX mice compared with shame mice, but were increased significantly by PQQ supplementation. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in thymus were increased, antioxidant enzymes SOD-1, SOD-2, Prdx I and Prdx IV protein expression levels in bony tissue were down-regulated, whereas the protein expression levels of DNA damage response related molecules including γ-H2AX, p53, Chk2 and NFκB-p65 in bony tissue were up-regulated significantly in ORX mice compared with shame mice, whereas PQQ supplementation largely rescued these alterations observed in ORX mice. Our results indicate that PQQ supplementation can prevent testosterone deficiency-induced osteoporosis by inhibiting oxidative stress and DNA damage, stimulating osteoblastic bone formation and inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption. PMID:28386349

  3. The natural flavonoid galangin inhibits osteoclastic bone destruction and osteoclastogenesis by suppressing NF-κB in collagen-induced arthritis and bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Huh, Jeong-Eun; Jung, In-Tae; Choi, Junyoung; Baek, Yong-Hyeon; Lee, Jae-Dong; Park, Dong-Suk; Choi, Do-Young

    2013-01-05

    We investigated the effect of galangin, a natural flavonoid, on osteoclastic bone destruction in collagen-induced arthritis and examined the molecular mechanisms by which galangin affects osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow derived macrophages. In mice with collagen-induced arthritis, administration of galangin significantly reduced the arthritis clinical score, edema and severity of disease without toxicity. Interestingly, galangin treatment during a later stage of collagen-induced arthritis, using mice with a higher clinical arthritis score, still significantly slowed the progression of the disease. Extensive cartilage and bone erosive changes as well as synovial inflammation, synovial hyperplasia and pannus formation were dramatically inhibited in arthritic mice treated with galangin. Furthermore, galangin-treated arthritic mice showed a significant reduction in the concentrations of IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-17. We found that galangin inhibited osteoclastogenic factors and osteoclast formation in bone marrow-derived macrophages and osteoblast co-cultured cells, and increased osteoprotegerin (OPG) levels in osteoblasts. Galangin and NF-κB siRNA suppressed RANKL-induced phosphorylation of the c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), but not AKT and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). Also, the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and p38 inhibitor SB203580 reduced RANKL-induced expressions of phospho-c-Jun, c-fos and NFATc1 genes during osteoclast development. In addition, galangin suppressed RANKL-induced phosphorylation of NF-κB, phospho-IκBα, inflammatory cytokines and osteoclast formation in bone marrow-derived macrophages. Our data suggest that galangin prevented osteoclastic bone destruction and osteoclastogenesis in osteoclast precursors as well as in collagen-induced arthritis mice without toxicity via attenuation of RANKL-induced activation of JNK, p38 and NF-κB pathways.

  4. Celastrol attenuates bone erosion in collagen-Induced arthritis mice and inhibits osteoclast differentiation and function in RANKL-induced RAW264.7.

    PubMed

    Gan, Ke; Xu, Lingxiao; Feng, Xiaoke; Zhang, Qiande; Wang, Fang; Zhang, Miaojia; Tan, Wenfeng

    2015-02-01

    Recently, the traditional Chinese medicine Tripterygium wilfordii Hook f (TwHF) of the Celastraceae family has attracted increasing attention for its potential therapeutic application in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). It is well accepted that TwHF exerts the antirheumatic activity and mainly depends on its potent anti-inflammatory property. To further explore the therapeutic potential of the well-defined TwHF-derived single compound - celastrol in RA, we study the therapeutic efficacy of celastrol on bone erosion in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mice and delineate its effects on osteoclast differentiation and functions in RANKL-induced osteoclast precursors RAW264.7 cell line. In CIA mice, daily injection of celastrol (beginning on day 28 after arthritis induction) markedly suppressed arthritis, and reduced bone damage in the joints as demonstrated by histology and bone micro-computed tomography (CT). The effects were accompanied by reductions of osteoclast cells in joints, serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) 5b, and expression of osteoclastic genes (Trap, Ctsk, Ctr, Mmp-9) and transcriptional factors (c-Fos, c-Jun and NFATc1). When RAW264.7 cells were treated with RANKL, celastrol inhibited the formation of TRAP+ multinucleated cells and the bone-resorbing activity in dose-dependent manners. Furthermore, celastrol reduced the RANKL-induced expression of osteoclastic genes and transcriptional factors, as well as phosphorylation of NF-kB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK). These findings show that celastrol could directly inhibit osteoclast formation and function, suggesting a novel therapeutic strategy of celastrol for managing RA, especially in preventing bone destruction.

  5. Inhibition of Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption by Bisphosphonate-conjugated Gold Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Donghyun; Heo, Dong Nyoung; Kim, Han-Jun; Ko, Wan-Kyu; Lee, Sang Jin; Heo, Min; Bang, Jae Beum; Lee, Jung Bok; Hwang, Deok-Sang; Do, Sun Hee; Kwon, Il Keun

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, gold nanoparticles (GNPs) have been reported to affect the regeneration of bone tissue. The goal of this study was to improve bone tissue regeneration by using targeted GNPs. We fabricated a functionalized GNPs conjugated with alendronate (ALD), of the bisphosphonate group. Subsequently, the ALD, GNPs, and ALD conjugated GNPs (GNPs-ALD) were analyzed by ultraviolet-visible absorbance (UV-vis) spectrophotometer, Attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (ATR-FTIR), and thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA). The prepared GNPs-ALD were used to investigate their inhibitory effects on the receptor activator of nuclear factor- κb ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Additionally, the GNPs-ALD were applied to ovariectomy (OVX)-induced osteoporotic mice and the experiments were evaluated. ALD was found to be successfully conjugated to the GNPs surface, and it displayed significant adhesion onto the bone surface. The in-vitro study indicated that the GNPs, ALD and GNPs-ALD suppressed osteoclast formation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, in the OVX mouse model, the mice treated GNPs-ALD had higher bone density as compared to other OVX mice groups. The results from these tests indicated that GNPs-ALD can be useful agents for preventing and treating osteoporosis. PMID:27251863

  6. NRROS Negatively Regulates Osteoclast Differentiation by Inhibiting RANKL-Mediated NF-κB and Reactive Oxygen Species Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Ha; Kim, Kabsun; Kim, Inyoung; Seong, Semun; Kim, Nacksung

    2015-01-01

    Negative regulator of reactive oxygen species (NRROS) is known to repress ROS generation in phagocytes. In this study, we examined the roles of NRROS in both osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Our results demonstrate that NRROS negatively regulates the differentiation of osteoclasts, but not osteoblasts. Further, overexpression of NRROS in osteoclast precursor cells attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. Conversely, osteoclast differentiation is enhanced upon siRNA-mediated knockdown of NRROS. Additionally, NRROS attenuates RANKL-induced NF-κB activation, as well as degradation of the NOX1 and NOX2 proteins, which are required for ROS generation. Based on our observations, we present NRROS as a novel negative regulator of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. PMID:26442864

  7. Inhibition of matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity by doxycycline ameliorates RANK ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Franco, Gilson C.N.; Nakanishi, Tadashi; Ohta, Kouji; Rosalen, Pedro L.; Groppo, Francisco C.; Bartlett, John D.; Stashenko, Philip; Taubman, Martin A.; Kawai, Toshihisa

    2011-06-10

    Tetracycline antibiotics, including doxycycli/e (DOX), have been used to treat bone resorptive diseases, partially because of their activity to suppress osteoclastogenesis induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL). However, their precise inhibitory mechanism remains unclear. Therefore, the present study examined the effect of Dox on osteoclastogenesis signaling induced by RANKL, both in vitro and in vivo. Although Dox inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and down-modulated the mRNA expression of functional osteoclast markers, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) and cathepsin K, Dox neither affected RANKL-induced MAPKs phosphorylation nor NFATc1 gene expression in RAW264.7 murine monocytic cells. Gelatin zymography and Western blot analyses showed that Dox down-regulated the enzyme activity of RANKL-induced MMP-9, but without affecting its protein expression. Furthermore, MMP-9 enzyme inhibitor also attenuated both RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and up-regulation of TRAP and cathepsin K mRNA expression, indicating that MMP-9 enzyme action is engaged in the promotion of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. Finally, Dox treatment abrogated RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and TRAP activity in mouse calvaria along with the suppression of MMP9 enzyme activity, again without affecting the expression of MMP9 protein. These findings suggested that Dox inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by its inhibitory effect on MMP-9 enzyme activity independent of the MAPK-NFATc1 signaling cascade.

  8. Pulsed electromagnetic field inhibits RANKL-dependent osteoclastic differentiation in RAW264.7 cells through the Ca(2+)-calcineurin-NFATc1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jie; Xu, Haixia; Han, Zhongyu; Chen, Ping; Yu, Qiang; Lei, Yutian; Li, Zongze; Zhao, Ming; Tian, Jing

    2017-01-08

    Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) has been reported to improve bone healing in osteoporosis patients. However, the precise mechanism has remained largely unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effects of PEMF on nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-dependent osteoclastic differentiation and the Ca(2+)-calcineurin-NFATc1 signaling pathway in RAW264.7 cells in vitro. Treating RAW264.7 cells with RANKL for 4 days induced osteoclastic differentiation in vitro, and the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts, bone resorption-pit formation, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity and the protein levels of cathepsin K, TRAP, Nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9) were significantly decreased. The mRNA levels of specific genes related to osteoclastogenesis (TRAP, NFATc1, CTSK and MMP-9) were also reduced. Moreover, the oscillations of intracellular Ca(2+) in RANKL-dependent RAW264.7 cells were suppressed by PEMF, as well as by inhibitors of membrane and store-operated Ca(2+) channels. Meanwhile, calcineurin activity was increased, although its protein level was not changed. PEMF increased phospho-NFATc1 in the cytosol while suppressing the nuclear translocation of NFATc1, thus inhibiting osteoclastic differentiation by suppressing the Ca(2+)-calcineurin-NFATc1 signaling pathway. Although many questions remain unresolved, to our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating that PEMF is beneficial against RANKL-dependent osteoclastic differentiation in RAW264.7 cells in vitro via inhibiting the Ca(2+)-calcineurin-NFATc1 signaling pathway. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Expression of CD38 in myeloma bone niche: A rational basis for the use of anti-CD38 immunotherapy to inhibit osteoclast formation.

    PubMed

    Costa, Federica; Toscani, Denise; Chillemi, Antonella; Quarona, Valeria; Bolzoni, Marina; Marchica, Valentina; Vescovini, Rosanna; Mancini, Cristina; Martella, Eugenia; Campanini, Nicoletta; Schifano, Chiara; Bonomini, Sabrina; Accardi, Fabrizio; Horenstein, Alberto L; Aversa, Franco; Malavasi, Fabio; Giuliani, Nicola

    2017-08-22

    It is known that multiple myeloma (MM) cells express CD38 and that a recently developed human anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody Daratumumab mediates myeloma killing. However, the expression of CD38 and other functionally related ectoenzymes within the MM bone niche and the potential effects of Daratumumab on bone cells are still unknown. This study firstly defines by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry the expression of CD38 by bone marrow cells in a cohort of patients with MM and indolent monoclonal gammopathies. Results indicate that only plasma cells expressed CD38 at high level within the bone niche. In addition, the flow cytometry analysis shows that CD38 was also expressed by monocytes and early osteoclast progenitors but not by osteoblasts and mature osteoclasts. Indeed, CD38 was lost during in vitro osteoclastogenesis. Consistently, we found that Daratumumab reacted with CD38 expressed on monocytes and its binding inhibited in vitro osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption activity from bone marrow total mononuclear cells of MM patients, targeting early osteoclast progenitors. The inhibitory effect was not observed from purified CD14(+) cells, suggesting an indirect inhibitory effect of Daratumumab. Interestingly, all-trans retinoic acid treatment increased the inhibitory effect of Daratumumab on osteoclast formation. These observations provide a rationale for the use of an anti-CD38 antibody-based approach as treatment for multiple myeloma-induced osteoclastogenesis.

  10. Expression of CD38 in myeloma bone niche: A rational basis for the use of anti-CD38 immunotherapy to inhibit osteoclast formation

    PubMed Central

    Chillemi, Antonella; Quarona, Valeria; Bolzoni, Marina; Marchica, Valentina; Vescovini, Rosanna; Mancini, Cristina; Martella, Eugenia; Campanini, Nicoletta; Schifano, Chiara; Bonomini, Sabrina; Accardi, Fabrizio; Horenstein, Alberto L.; Aversa, Franco; Malavasi, Fabio; Giuliani, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    It is known that multiple myeloma (MM) cells express CD38 and that a recently developed human anti-CD38 monoclonal antibody Daratumumab mediates myeloma killing. However, the expression of CD38 and other functionally related ectoenzymes within the MM bone niche and the potential effects of Daratumumab on bone cells are still unknown. This study firstly defines by flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry the expression of CD38 by bone marrow cells in a cohort of patients with MM and indolent monoclonal gammopathies. Results indicate that only plasma cells expressed CD38 at high level within the bone niche. In addition, the flow cytometry analysis shows that CD38 was also expressed by monocytes and early osteoclast progenitors but not by osteoblasts and mature osteoclasts. Indeed, CD38 was lost during in vitro osteoclastogenesis. Consistently, we found that Daratumumab reacted with CD38 expressed on monocytes and its binding inhibited in vitro osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption activity from bone marrow total mononuclear cells of MM patients, targeting early osteoclast progenitors. The inhibitory effect was not observed from purified CD14+ cells, suggesting an indirect inhibitory effect of Daratumumab. Interestingly, all-trans retinoic acid treatment increased the inhibitory effect of Daratumumab on osteoclast formation. These observations provide a rationale for the use of an anti-CD38 antibody-based approach as treatment for multiple myeloma-induced osteoclastogenesis. PMID:28915615

  11. Nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin; Kim, Ju-Young

    2017-01-01

    The adipokine nicotinamide phosphoribosyltransferase (Nampt), also known as pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor or the insulin-mimetic hormone visfatin, has a crucial role in the conversion of nicotinamide to nicotinamide mononucleotide during biosynthesis of the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Previous reports have demonstrated the inhibitory effects of Nampt on osteoclast formation from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and CD14+ monocytes. However, the effects of Nampt on bone marrow macrophage (BMM)-derived osteoclastogenesis and its precise role in the process remain unclear. The present in vitro study used recombinant Nampt and BMMs as osteoclast precursors demonstrated that Nampt suppresses receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis by decreasing the phosphorylation of various early signal transducers, including c-Jun N-terminal kinase, Akt, glycogen synthase kinase-3 β, Bruton's tyrosine kinase and phospholipase C γ-2. In addition, western blotting and reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that Nampt downregulates the mRNA and protein expression levels of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1, leading to a decrease in the expression of osteoclast-specific genes including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, osteoclast-associated receptor and cathepsin K. However, the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts treated with Nampt was similar to untreated control osteoclasts. This finding indicates that Nampt exerts its anti-osteoclastogenic activity by targeting osteoclast precursor cells rather than mature osteoclasts. Consequently, the present study demonstrated that Nampt acts as a negative regulator of RANKL-mediated differentiation of BMMs into osteoclasts, suggesting the potential therapeutic targets to treat bone-related disorders such as osteoporosis. PMID:28035412

  12. Melittin inhibits osteoclast formation through the downregulation of the RANKL-RANK signaling pathway and the inhibition of interleukin-1β in murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Choe, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2017-03-01

    Melittin is a major toxic component of bee venom (Apis mellifera). It is not known whether melittin is involved in bone metabolism and osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of melittin in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. In vitro osteoclastogenesis assays were performed using mouse RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Morphologic and functional analyses for osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs) were performed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, F-actin staining and pit formation methods. The gene expression of TRAP, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and carbonic anhydrase II was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The protein expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), c-Fos, c-Jun, nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), TNF receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were assessed by western blot analysis. Melittin inhibited the mRNA expression of TRAP, cathepsin K, MMP-9 and carbonic anhydrase II in RANKL-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The increased protein expression of TRAF6, p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p-JNK, p-p65, p-c-Fos and NFATc1 induced by RANKL was significantly suppressed in the RAW 264.7 cells treated with melittin. A synergistic effect of IL-1β on the formation of RANKL-induced osteoclast-like MNCs was found in two experimental cells. The increased expression of IL-1β following the stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with RANKL activated TRAF6, p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p65, p-c-Fos and NFATc1. These effects were attenuated by the downregulation of IL-1β using siRNA against IL-1β, and also by treatment with melittin. On the whole, the findings of this study demonstrate that melittin

  13. Melittin inhibits osteoclast formation through the downregulation of the RANKL-RANK signaling pathway and the inhibition of interleukin-1β in murine macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Jung-Yoon; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2017-01-01

    Melittin is a major toxic component of bee venom (Apis mellifera). It is not known whether melittin is involved in bone metabolism and osteoclastogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the role of melittin in the regulation of osteoclastogenesis. In vitro osteoclastogenesis assays were performed using mouse RAW 264.7 cells and bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF). Morphologic and functional analyses for osteoclast-like multinucleated cells (MNCs) were performed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining, F-actin staining and pit formation methods. The gene expression of TRAP, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and carbonic anhydrase II was measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR. The protein expression levels of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), the p65 subunit of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), c-Fos, c-Jun, nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), TNF receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF6), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) were assessed by western blot analysis. Melittin inhibited the mRNA expression of TRAP, cathepsin K, MMP-9 and carbonic anhydrase II in RANKL-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. The increased protein expression of TRAF6, p-extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), p-JNK, p-p65, p-c-Fos and NFATc1 induced by RANKL was significantly suppressed in the RAW 264.7 cells treated with melittin. A synergistic effect of IL-1β on the formation of RANKL-induced osteoclast-like MNCs was found in two experimental cells. The increased expression of IL-1β following the stimulation of RAW 264.7 cells with RANKL activated TRAF6, p-ERK, p-JNK, p-p65, p-c-Fos and NFATc1. These effects were attenuated by the downregulation of IL-1β using siRNA against IL-1β, and also by treatment with melittin. On the whole, the findings of this study demonstrate that melittin inhibits the formation

  14. In vitro antioxidant, collagenase inhibition, and in vivo anti-wrinkle effects of combined formulation containing Punica granatum, Ginkgo biloba, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract

    PubMed Central

    Ghimeray, Amal Kumar; Jung, Un Sun; Lee, Ha Youn; Kim, Young Hoon; Ryu, Eun Kyung; Chang, Moon Sik

    2015-01-01

    Background In phytotherapy, the therapeutic potential is based on the combined action of different herbal drugs. Our objective was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-collagenase (in vitro), and anti-wrinkle (in vivo) effect of combined formulation containing Ginkgo biloba, Punica granatum, Ficus carica, and Morus alba fruits extract. Methods Antioxidant evaluation was based on the scavenging activity of free radicals (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, H2O2, and O2−) and the anti-collagenase activity was based on the reduction of collagenase enzyme in vitro. In an in vivo study, 21 female subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled trail. Facial wrinkle, especially the crow’s feet region of eyes, was treated with topical formulated 2% cream for 56 days and compared with the placebo. Results In the in vitro study, the combination of fruits extract showed a higher antioxidant activity which was comparable with the positive standard (ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole, and Trolox). The data also showed a dose-dependent inhibition of collagenase. In the in vivo study, treatment with 2% formulated cream for 56 days significantly reduced the percentage of wrinkle depth, length, and area with 11.5, 10.07, and 29.55, respectively. Conclusion The combined formulation of fruit extracts showed excellent antioxidative and anti-collagenase activity as well as a significant effect on anti-wrinkle activity on human skin. PMID:26203268

  15. Inhibition of inducible nitric oxide synthase and osteoclastic differentiation by Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba extract

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Ho; Kim, Sung-Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background: Atractylodis Rhizoma Alba (ARA) has been used in Korean folk medicine for constipation, dizziness, and anticancer agent. In the present study, we performed to test whether the methanolic extract of ARA has antioxidant and antiosteoclastogenesis activity in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Materials and Methods: Antioxidant capacities were tested by measuring free radical scavenging activity, nitric oxide (NO) levels, reducing power, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in response to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Antiosteoclastogenesis activity was evaluated by performing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase assay in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Results: The extract exerted significant 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl and NO radical scavenging activity, and it exerted dramatic reducing power. Induction of iNOS and NO by LPS in RAW 264.7 cells was significantly inhibited by the extract, suggesting that the ARA extract inhibits NO production by suppressing iNOS expression. Strikingly, the ARA extracts substantially inhibited the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-induced osteclastic differentiation of LPS-activated RAW 264.7 cells. The ARA extract contains a significant amount of antioxidant components, including phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanins. Conclusion: These results suggest that the methanolic extract of ARA exerts significant antioxidant activities potentially via inhibiting free radicals and iNOS induction, thereby leading to the inhibition of osteoclastogenesis. PMID:25298665

  16. A possible new role for vitamin D-binding protein in osteoclast control: inhibition of extracellular Ca2+ sensing at low physiological concentrations.

    PubMed

    Adebanjo, O A; Moonga, B S; Haddad, J G; Huang, C L; Zaidi, M

    1998-08-28

    Upon removal of its sialic acid or galactose residue, vitamin D-binding protein (DBP) becomes a potent macrophage-activating factor, DBP-MAF. Here we document a new function of DBP-MAF and its parent molecule, DBP, in osteoclast control. We show that all DBPs potently inhibit extracellular Ca2+ (cation) sensing at low nanomolar concentrations with the following rank order of potency: native DBP = sialidase-treated DBP > beta-galactosidase-treated DBP. This attenuation remains unaffected despite co-incubation either with the native DBP ligand, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, or with an asialoglycoprotein receptor modulator, asialoorosomucoid. Taken together, the results suggest that circulating DBP may play a role in the systemic control of osteoclastic bone resorption, a hitherto unrecognized action of the protein.

  17. Microgravity Induces Pelvic Bone Loss through Osteoclastic Activity, Osteocytic Osteolysis, and Osteoblastic Cell Cycle Inhibition by CDKN1a/p21

    PubMed Central

    Blaber, Elizabeth A.; Dvorochkin, Natalya; Lee, Chialing; Alwood, Joshua S.; Yousuf, Rukhsana; Pianetta, Piero; Globus, Ruth K.; Burns, Brendan P.; Almeida, Eduardo A. C.

    2013-01-01

    Bone is a dynamically remodeled tissue that requires gravity-mediated mechanical stimulation for maintenance of mineral content and structure. Homeostasis in bone occurs through a balance in the activities and signaling of osteoclasts, osteoblasts, and osteocytes, as well as proliferation and differentiation of their stem cell progenitors. Microgravity and unloading are known to cause osteoclast-mediated bone resorption; however, we hypothesize that osteocytic osteolysis, and cell cycle arrest during osteogenesis may also contribute to bone loss in space. To test this possibility, we exposed 16-week-old female C57BL/6J mice (n = 8) to microgravity for 15-days on the STS-131 space shuttle mission. Analysis of the pelvis by µCT shows decreases in bone volume fraction (BV/TV) of 6.29%, and bone thickness of 11.91%. TRAP-positive osteoclast-covered trabecular bone surfaces also increased in microgravity by 170% (p = 0.004), indicating osteoclastic bone degeneration. High-resolution X-ray nanoCT studies revealed signs of lacunar osteolysis, including increases in cross-sectional area (+17%, p = 0.022), perimeter (+14%, p = 0.008), and canalicular diameter (+6%, p = 0.037). Expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) 1, 3, and 10 in bone, as measured by RT-qPCR, was also up-regulated in microgravity (+12.94, +2.98 and +16.85 fold respectively, p<0.01), with MMP10 localized to osteocytes, and consistent with induction of osteocytic osteolysis. Furthermore, expression of CDKN1a/p21 in bone increased 3.31 fold (p<0.01), and was localized to osteoblasts, possibly inhibiting the cell cycle during tissue regeneration as well as conferring apoptosis resistance to these cells. Finally the apoptosis inducer Trp53 was down-regulated by −1.54 fold (p<0.01), possibly associated with the quiescent survival-promoting function of CDKN1a/p21. In conclusion, our findings identify the pelvic and femoral region of the mouse skeleton as an active site of rapid bone

  18. Silicate modulates the cross-talk between osteoblasts (SaOS-2) and osteoclasts (RAW 264.7 cells): inhibition of osteoclast growth and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H C; Wang, X H; Wiens, M; Diehl-Seifert, B; Kropf, K; Schloßmacher, U; Müller, W E G

    2012-10-01

    It has been shown that inorganic monomeric and polymeric silica/silicate, in the presence of the biomineralization cocktail, increases the expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG) in osteogenic SaOS-2 sarcoma cells in vitro. In contrast, silicate does not affect the steady-state gene expression level of the osteoclastogenic ligand receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL). In turn it can be expected that the concentration ratio of the mediators OPG/RANKL increases in the presence of silicate. In addition, silicate enhances the growth potential of SaOS-2 cells in vitro, while it causes no effect on RAW 264.7 cells within a concentration range of 10-100 µM. Applying a co-cultivation assay system, using SaOS-2 cells and RAW 264.7 cells, it is shown that in the presence of 10 µM silicate the number of RAW 264.7 cells in general, and the number of TRAP(+) RAW 264.7 cells in particular markedly decreases. The SaOS-2 cells retain their capacity of differential gene expression of OPG and RANKL in favor of OPG after exposure to silicate. It is concluded that after exposure of the cells to silicate a factor(s) is released from SaOS-2 cells that causes a significant inhibition of osteoclastogenesis of RAW 264.7 cells. It is assumed that it is an increased secretion of the cytokine OPG that is primarily involved in the reduction of the osteoclastogenesis of the RAW 264.7 cells. It is proposed that silicate might have the potential to stimulate osteogenesis in vivo and perhaps to ameliorate osteoporotic disorders. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Methanol Extract of Croton Pycnanthus Benth. Inhibits Osteoclast Differentiation by Suppressing the MAPK and NF-κB Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jiyeon

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts are differentiated from monocytes/macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). Croton pycnanthus Benth. (CPB) is a herbal plant that belongs to Euphorbiaceae family. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of CPB on osteoclastogenesis and RANKL-dependent signaling pathways. Methods Methanol extract of CPB was obtained from International Biological Material Research Center. Osteoclast differentiation was achieved by culturing mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with M-CSF and RANKL. Osteoclast numbers were evaluated by counting multinuclear cells positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and Western blotting, respectively. The activation of signaling molecules were assessed after acute stimulation of cells with high dose of RANKL by Western blotting with phospho-specific antibodies. Results CPB reduced the generation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells and the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and NF-κB signaling pathways. The induction of the expression of c-Fos, nuclear factor-activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP) by RANKL was also suppressed. Conclusions CPB exerts negative effects on osteoclast differentiation in response to the RANKL. The inhibitory mechanism involves the suppression of MAPK and NF-κB signaling pathways and subsequently the down-regulation of c-Fos and NFATc1 transcription factors. PMID:25489576

  20. Antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid inhibits osteoclast differentiation by reducing nuclear factor-kappaB DNA binding and prevents in vivo bone resorption induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand and tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyon Jong; Chang, Eun-Ju; Kim, Hyun-Man; Lee, Seung Bok; Kim, Hyun-Duck; Su Kim, Ghi; Kim, Hong-Hee

    2006-05-01

    The relationship between oxidative stress and bone mineral density or osteoporosis has recently been reported. As bone loss occurring in osteoporosis and inflammatory diseases is primarily due to increases in osteoclast number, reactive oxygen species (ROS) may be relevant to osteoclast differentiation, which requires receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) frequently present in inflammatory conditions has a profound synergy with RANKL in osteoclastogenesis. In this study, we investigated the effects of alpha-lipoic acid (alpha-LA), a strong antioxidant clinically used for some time, on osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. At concentrations showing no growth inhibition, alpha-LA potently suppressed osteoclastogenesis from bone marrow-derived precursor cells driven either by a high-dose RANKL alone or by a low-dose RANKL plus TNF-alpha (RANKL/TNF-alpha). alpha-LA abolished ROS elevation by RANKL or RANKL/TNF-alpha and inhibited NF-kappaB activation in osteoclast precursor cells. Specifically, alpha-LA reduced DNA binding of NF-kappaB but did not inhibit IKK activation. Furthermore, alpha-LA greatly suppressed in vivo bone loss induced by RANKL or TNF-alpha in a calvarial remodeling model. Therefore, our data provide evidence that ROS plays an important role in osteoclast differentiation through NF-kappaB regulation and the antioxidant alpha-lipoic acid has a therapeutic potential for bone erosive diseases.

  1. Chlorogenic acid inhibits osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption by down-regulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand-induced nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 expression.

    PubMed

    Kwak, Sung Chul; Lee, Cheol; Kim, Ju-Young; Oh, Hyun Mee; So, Hong-Seob; Lee, Myeung Su; Rho, Mun Chual; Oh, Jaemin

    2013-01-01

    Excessive osteoclastic bone resorption plays a critical role in inflammation-induced bone loss such as rheumatoid arthritis and periodontal bone erosion. Therefore, identification of osteoclast targeted-agents may be a therapeutic approach to the treatment of pathological bone loss. In this study, we isolated chlorogenic acid (CGA) from fructus of Gardenia jasminoides to discover anti-bone resorptive agents. CGA is a polyphenol with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities, however, its effects on osteoclast differentiation is unknown. Thus, we investigated the effect of CGA in receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and RANKL signaling. CGA dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) without any evidence of cytotoxicity. CGA inhibited the phosphorylation of p38, Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK), and inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappa B (IκB), and IκB degradation by RANKL treatment. CGA suppressed the mRNA expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1), TRAP and OSCAR in RANKL-treated bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). Also, overexpression of NFATc1 in BMMs blocked the inhibitory effect of CGA on RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Furthermore, to evaluate the effects of CGA in vivo, lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone erosion study was carried out. CGA remarkably attenuated LPS-induced bone loss based on micro-computed tomography and histologic analysis of femurs. Taken together, our findings suggest that CGA may be a potential treatment option for osteoclast-related diseases with inflammatory bone destruction.

  2. Glucocorticoids suppress bone formation via the osteoclast.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyun-Ju; Zhao, Haibo; Kitaura, Hideki; Bhattacharyya, Sandip; Brewer, Judson A; Muglia, Louis J; Ross, F Patrick; Teitelbaum, Steven L

    2006-08-01

    The pathogenesis of glucocorticoid-induced (GC-induced) bone loss is unclear. For example, osteoblast apoptosis is enhanced by GCs in vivo, but they stimulate bone formation in vitro. This conundrum suggests that an intermediary cell transmits a component of the bone-suppressive effects of GCs to osteoblasts in the intact animal. Bone remodeling is characterized by tethering of the activities of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Hence, the osteoclast is a potential modulator of the effect of GCs on osteoblasts. To define the direct impact of GCs on bone-resorptive cells, we compared the effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on WT osteoclasts with those derived from mice with disruption of the GC receptor in osteoclast lineage cells (GRoc-/- mice). While the steroid prolonged longevity of osteoclasts, their bone-degrading capacity was suppressed. The inhibitory effect of DEX on bone resorption reflects failure of osteoclasts to organize their cytoskeleton in response to M-CSF. DEX specifically arrested M-CSF activation of RhoA, Rac, and Vav3, each of which regulate the osteoclast cytoskeleton. In all circumstances GRoc-/- mice were spared the impact of DEX on osteoclasts and their precursors. Consistent with osteoclasts modulating the osteoblast-suppressive effect of DEX, GRoc-/- mice are protected from the steroid's inhibition of bone formation.

  3. Triterpenoid Saponin W3 from Anemone flaccida Suppresses Osteoclast Differentiation through Inhibiting Activation of MAPKs and NF-κB Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Kong, Xiangying; Yang, Yue; Wu, Wenbin; Wan, Hongye; Li, Xiaomin; Zhong, Michun; Su, Xiaohui; Jia, Shiwei; Lin, Na

    2015-01-01

    Excessive bone resorption by osteoclasts within inflamed joints is the most specific hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis. A. flaccida has long been used for the treatment of arthritis in folk medicine of China; however, the active ingredients responsible for the anti-arthritis effects of A. flaccida are still elusive. In this study, W3, a saponin isolated from the extract of A. flaccida was identified as the major active ingredient by using an osteoclast formation model induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL). W3 dose-dependently suppressed the actin ring formation and lacunar resorption. Mechanistic investigation revealed that W3 inhibited the RANKL-induced TRAF6 expression, decreased phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) and IκB-α, and suppressed NF-κB p65 DNA binding activity. Furthermore, W3 almost abrogated the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1). Therefore, our results suggest that W3 is a potential agent for treating lytic bone diseases although further evaluation in vivo and in clinical trials is needed. PMID:26327814

  4. The genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 signalling is beneficial for the restoration of quiescent osteoclast activity in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Rossi, F; Bellini, G; Torella, M; Tortora, C; Manzo, I; Giordano, C; Guida, F; Luongo, L; Papale, F; Rosso, F; Nobili, B; Maione, S

    2014-05-01

    Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by a decrease in bone density, which decreases its strength and results in fragile bones. The endocannabinoid/endovanilloid system has been shown to be involved in the regulation of skeletal remodelling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible modulation of bone mass mediated by the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1) in vivo and in vitro. A multidisciplinary approach, including biomolecular, biochemical and morphological analysis, was used to investigate the involvement of TRPV1 in changes in bone density in vivo and osteoclast activity in vitro, in wild-type and Trpv1(-/-) mice, that had undergone ovariectomy or had a sham operation. Genetic deletion of Trpv1 as well as pharmacological inhibition/desensitization of TRPV1 signalling dramatically reduced the osteoclast activity in vitro and prevented the ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo, whereas the expression of cannabinoid type 2 (CB2 ) receptors was increased. These findings highlight the pivotal role TRPV1 channels play in bone resorption and suggest a possible cross-talk between TRPV1 and CB2 receptors. Based on these results, hybrid compounds acting on both TRPV1 and CB2 receptors in an opposite manner could provide a future pharmacological tool for the treatment of diseases associated with disturbances in the bone remodelling process. © 2013 The British Pharmacological Society.

  5. The Free Fatty Acid Receptor G Protein-coupled Receptor 40 (GPR40) Protects from Bone Loss through Inhibition of Osteoclast Differentiation*

    PubMed Central

    Wauquier, Fabien; Philippe, Claire; Léotoing, Laurent; Mercier, Sylvie; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Guicheux, Jérôme; Pilet, Paul; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Poitout, Vincent; Alquier, Thierry; Coxam, Véronique; Wittrant, Yohann

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms linking fat intake to bone loss remain unclear. By demonstrating the expression of the free fatty acid receptor G-coupled protein receptor 40 (GPR40) in bone cells, we hypothesized that this receptor may play a role in mediating the effects of fatty acids on bone remodeling. Using micro-CT analysis, we showed that GPR40−/− mice exhibit osteoporotic features suggesting a positive role of GPR40 on bone density. In primary cultures of bone marrow, we showed that GW9508, a GRP40 agonist, abolished bone-resorbing cell differentiation. This alteration of the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation occurred via the inhibition of the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway as demonstrated by decrease in gene reporter activity, inhibitor of κB kinase (IKKα/β) activation, inhibitor of κB (IkBα) phosphorylation, and nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1) expression. The GPR40-dependent effect of GW9508 was confirmed using shRNA interference in osteoclast precursors and GPR40−/− primary cell cultures. In addition, in vivo administration of GW9508 counteracted ovariectomy-induced bone loss in wild-type but not GPR40−/− mice, enlightening the obligatory role of the GPR40 receptor. Then, in a context of growing prevalence of metabolic and age-related bone disorders, our results demonstrate for the first time in translational approaches that GPR40 is a relevant target for the design of new nutritional and therapeutic strategies to counter bone complications. PMID:23335512

  6. The genetic ablation or pharmacological inhibition of TRPV1 signalling is beneficial for the restoration of quiescent osteoclast activity in ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, F; Bellini, G; Torella, M; Tortora, C; Manzo, I; Giordano, C; Guida, F; Luongo, L; Papale, F; Rosso, F; Nobili, B; Maione, S

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Osteoporosis is a condition characterized by a decrease in bone density, which decreases its strength and results in fragile bones. The endocannabinoid/endovanilloid system has been shown to be involved in the regulation of skeletal remodelling. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible modulation of bone mass mediated by the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 channel (TRPV1) in vivo and in vitro. Experimental Approach A multidisciplinary approach, including biomolecular, biochemical and morphological analysis, was used to investigate the involvement of TRPV1 in changes in bone density in vivo and osteoclast activity in vitro, in wild-type and Trpv1−/− mice, that had undergone ovariectomy or had a sham operation. Key Results Genetic deletion of Trpv1 as well as pharmacological inhibition/desensitization of TRPV1 signalling dramatically reduced the osteoclast activity in vitro and prevented the ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo, whereas the expression of cannabinoid type 2 (CB2) receptors was increased. Conclusions and Implications These findings highlight the pivotal role TRPV1 channels play in bone resorption and suggest a possible cross-talk between TRPV1 and CB2 receptors. Based on these results, hybrid compounds acting on both TRPV1 and CB2 receptors in an opposite manner could provide a future pharmacological tool for the treatment of diseases associated with disturbances in the bone remodelling process. Linked Articles This article is part of a themed section on the pharmacology of TRP channels. To view the other articles in this section visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bph.2014.171.issue-10 PMID:24308803

  7. Cyclolinopeptides, cyclic peptides from flaxseed with osteoclast differentiation inhibitory activity.

    PubMed

    Kaneda, Toshio; Yoshida, Haruka; Nakajima, Yuki; Toishi, Minako; Nugroho, Alfarius Eko; Morita, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    Flaxseed (Linum usitatissimum seed) is widely used in food and natural health products. In our search for osteoclast differentiation inhibitors, some cyclic peptides isolated from flaxseed, known as the cyclolinopeptides, were discovered to have osteoclast differentiation inhibition activity. The osteoclast differentiation inhibition activity of cyclolinopeptides A-I (1-9) and their related derivatives (10-14) are described herein. Cyclolinopeptides F, H and I (6, 8 and 9), in particular, showed potent osteoclast differentiation inhibition activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Sanguiin H-6, a constituent of Rubus parvifolius L., inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption in vitro and prevents tumor necrosis factor-α-induced osteoclast formation in vivo.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Eiko; Aoki, Yuri; Yoshimatsu, Masako; Nishishita, Kazuhisa; Iwatake, Mayumi; Fukuma, Yutaka; Okamoto, Kuniaki; Tanaka, Takashi; Tsukuba, Takayuki

    2016-07-15

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated bone-resorbing cells that differentiate in response to receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL). Enhanced osteoclastogenesis contributes to bone diseases, such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Rubus parvifolius L. is traditionally used as an herbal medicine for rheumatism; however, its detailed chemical composition and the molecular mechanisms responsible for its biological action have not been elucidated. To investigate the mechanisms by which R. parvifolius L. extract and its major constituent sanguiin H-6, inhibit osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. Cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and bone resorption were detected in vitro. Inhibition of signaling pathways, marker protein expression, and protein nuclear translocation were evaluated by western blot analysis. Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-mediated osteoclastogenesis was examined in vivo. R. parvifolius L. extract inhibited the bone-resorption activity of osteoclasts. In addition, sanguiin H-6 markedly inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, reduced reactive oxygen species production, and inhibited the phosphorylation of inhibitor of NF-κB alpha (IκBα) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase. Sanguiin H-6 also decreased the protein levels of nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic-1 (NFATc1), cathepsin K, and c-Src. Moreover, sanguiin H-6 inhibited the nuclear translocation of NFATc1, c-Fos, and NF-κB in vitro, as well as TNF-α-mediated osteoclastogenesis in vivo. Our data revealed that R. parvifolius L. has anti-bone resorption activity and suggest that its constituent, sanguiin H-6, can potentially be used for the prevention and treatment of bone diseases associated with excessive osteoclast formation and subsequent bone destruction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  9. Treatment with hydrogen molecules prevents RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation associated with inhibition of ROS formation and inactivation of MAPK, AKT and NF-kappa B pathways in murine RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Dong-Zhu; Zhang, Qing-Xiang; Dong, Xiao-Xian; Li, Huai-Dong; Ma, Xin

    2014-09-01

    The bone protective effects of the hydrogen molecule (H2) have been demonstrated in several osteoporosis models while the underlying molecular mechanism has remained unclear. Osteoclast differentiation is an important factor related to the pathogenesis of bone-loss related diseases. In this work, we evaluated the effects of incubation with H2 on receptor activator of NFκB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation. We found that treatment with H2 prevented RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in RAW264.7 cells and BMMs. Treatment with H2 inhibits the ability to form resorption pits of BMMs stimulated by RANKL. Treatment with H2 reduced mRNA levels of osteoclast-specific markers including tartrate resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, cathepsin K, metalloproteinase-9, carbonic anhydrase typeII, and vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase. Treatment with H2 decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, suppressed NADPH oxidase activity, down-regulated Rac1 activity and Nox1 expression, reduced mitochondrial ROS formation, and enhanced nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 nuclear translocation and heme oxygenase-1 activity. In addition, treatment with H2 suppressed RANKL-induced expression of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 and c-Fos. Furthermore, treatment with H2 suppressed NF-κB activation and reduced phosphorylation of p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun-N-terminal kinase, and protein kinases B (AKT) stimulated with RANKL. In conclusion, hydrogen molecules prevented RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation associated with inhibition of reactive oxygen species formation and inactivation of NF-κB, mitogen-activated protein kinase and AKT pathways.

  10. ERK5 Activation Is Essential for Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Amano, Shigeru; Chang, Yu-Tzu; Fukui, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    The MEK/ERK pathways are critical for controlling cell proliferation and differentiation. In this study, we show that the MEK5/ERK5 pathway participates in osteoclast differentiation. ERK5 was activated by M-CSF, which is one of the essential factors in osteoclast differentiation. Inhibition of MEK5 by BIX02189 or inhibition of ERK5 by XMD 8-92 blocked osteoclast differentiation. MEK5 knockdown inhibited osteoclast differentiation. RAW264.7D clone cells, which are monocytic cells, differentiate into osteoclasts after stimulation with sRANKL. ERK5 was activated without any stimulation in these cells. Inhibition of the MEK5/ERK5 pathway by the inhibitors also blocked the differentiation of RAW264.7D cells into osteoclasts. Moreover, expression of the transcription factor c-Fos, which is indispensable for osteoclast differentiation, was inhibited by treatment with MEK5 or ERK5 inhibitors. Therefore, activation of ERK5 is required for the induction of c-Fos. These events were confirmed in experiments using M-CSF-dependent bone marrow macrophages. Taken together, the present results show that activation of the MEK5/ERK5 pathway with M-CSF is required for osteoclast differentiation, which may induce differentiation through the induction of c-Fos. PMID:25885811

  11. Reactive oxygen species are required for zoledronic acid-induced apoptosis in osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclast-like cells

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Ta-Wei; Chen, Ching-Yu; Su, Fong-Chin; Tu, Yuan-Kun; Tsai, Tsung-Ting; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Jou, I.-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Inhibiting osteoclasts and osteoclast precursors to reduce bone resorption is an important strategy to treat osteoclast-related diseases, such as osteoporosis, inflammatory bone loss, and malignant bone metastasis. However, the mechanism by which apoptosis is induced in the osteoclasts and their precursors are not completely understood. Here, we used nitrogen-containing bisphosphonate zoledronic acid (ZA) to induce cell apoptosis in human and murine osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclast-like cells. Caspase-3-mediated cell apoptosis occurred following the ZA (100 μM) treatment. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also generated in a time-dependent manner. Following knock-down of the p47phox expression, which is required for ROS activation, or co-treatment with the ROS inhibitor, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, ZA-induced apoptosis was significantly suppressed in both osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclast-like cells. The ROS-activated mitogen-activated protein kinases pathways did not trigger cell apoptosis. However, a ROS-regulated Mcl-1 decrease simultaneously with glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3β promoted cell apoptosis. These findings show that ZA induces apoptosis in osteoclast precursors and mature osteoclast-like cells by triggering ROS- and GSK-3β-mediated Mcl-1 down-regulation. PMID:28281643

  12. Dissolution of the inorganic phase of bone leading to release of calcium regulates osteoclast survival.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Rasmus H; Karsdal, Morten A; Sørensen, Mette G; Dziegiel, Morten H; Henriksen, Kim

    2007-09-07

    Osteoclasts are the sole cells possessing the ability to resorb calcified bone matrix. This occurs via secretion of hydrochloric acid mediated by the V-ATPase and the chloride channel ClC-7. Loss of acidification leads to osteopetrosis characterized by ablation of bone resorption and increased osteoclast numbers, indicating increased life span of the osteoclasts. To investigate the role of the inorganic phase of bone with respect to osteoclast life span, we used the V-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin and the calcium uptake antagonist ryanodine on human osteoclasts cultured on calcified and decalcified bone slices. Bafilomycin inhibited bone resorption and increased osteoclast survival on calcified but not decalcified bones. Ryanodine attenuated calcium uptake and thereby augmented osteoclast survival on calcified bones. In summary, we found that acidification leading to calcium release from bone during resorption controls osteoclast survival, potentially explaining the increased numbers of osteoclasts in patients with osteopetrosis.

  13. Ligand trap of the activin receptor type IIA inhibits osteoclast stimulation of bone remodeling in diabetic mice with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Sugatani, Toshifumi; Agapova, Olga A.; Fang, Yifu; Berman, Alycia G.; Wallace, Joseph M.; Malluche, Hartmut H.; Faugere, Marie-Claude; Smith, William; Sung, Victoria; Hruska, Keith A.

    2017-01-01

    Dysregulation of skeletal remodeling is a component of renal osteodystrophy. Previously, we showed that activin receptor signaling is differentially affected in various tissues in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We tested whether a ligand trap for the activin receptor type 2A (RAP-011) is an effective treatment of the osteodystrophy of the CKD-mineral bone disorder. With a 70% reduction in the glomerular filtration rate, CKD was induced at 14 weeks of age in the ldlr−/− high fat-fed mouse model of atherosclerotic vascular calcification and diabetes. Twenty mice with CKD, hyperphosphatemia, hyperparathyroidism, and elevated activin A were treated with RAP-011, wherease 19 mice were given vehicle twice weekly from week 22 until the mice were killed at 28 weeks of age. The animals were then evaluated by skeletal histomorphometry, micro-computed tomography, mechanical strength testing, and ex vivo bone cell culture. Results in the CKD groups were compared with those of the 16 sham-operated ldlr−/− high fat-fed mice. Sham-operated mice had low-turnover osteodystrophy and skeletal frailty. CKD stimulated bone remodeling with significant increases in osteoclast and osteoblast numbers and bone resorption. Compared with mice with CKD and sham-operated mice, RAP-011 treatment eliminated the CKD-induced increase in these histomorphometric parameters and increased trabecular bone fraction. RAP-011 significantly increased cortical bone area and thickness. Activin A-enhanced osteoclastogenesis was mediated through p-Smad2 association with c-fos and activation of nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1). Thus, an ActRIIA ligand trap reversed CKD-stimulated bone remodeling, likely through inhibition of activin-A induced osteoclastogenesis. PMID:27666759

  14. Inhibition of key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and sodium nitroprusside-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas by water-extractable phytochemicals from unripe pawpaw fruit (Carica papaya).

    PubMed

    Oboh, Ganiyu; Olabiyi, Ayodeji A; Akinyemi, Ayodele J; Ademiluyi, Adedayo O

    2014-02-01

    Various parts of unripe pawpaw (Carica papaya Linn) fruit have been reportedly used for the management or treatment of diabetes mellitus in folklore medicine. Therefore, the present study sought to investigate the inhibitory effects of the aqueous extract of different parts of unripe pawpaw fruit on key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP)-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro. The aqueous extracts of the unripe pawpaw (C. papaya) fruit parts were prepared (1:20 w/v) and the ability of the extracts to inhibit α-amylase, α-glucosidase and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas in vitro was investigated. The results revealed that all the extracts inhibited α-amylase (IC50=0.87-1.11 mg/mL), α-glucosidase (IC50=1.76-2.64 mg/mL) and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation (IC50=1.99-2.42 mg/mL) in a dose-dependent manner. However, combination of the flesh, seed and peel in equal amounts had the highest inhibitory effect on α-amylase and α-glucosidase activities. Strong inhibitory activities of the unripe pawpaw fruit against key enzymes linked to type 2 diabetes and SNP-induced lipid peroxidation in rat pancreas could be part of the mechanism by which unripe pawpaw is used in the management/prevention of diabetes mellitus in folk medicine. However, combining the unripe pawpaw fruit parts in equal amounts exhibited synergistic properties on α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities.

  15. Notch signaling promotes osteoclast maturation and resorptive activity

    PubMed Central

    Ashley, Jason W; Ahn, Jaimo; Hankenson, Kurt D

    2015-01-01

    The role of Notch signaling in osteoclast differentiation is controversial with conflicting experimental evidence indicating both stimulatory and inhibitory roles. Differences in experimental protocols and in vivo versus in vitro models may explain the discrepancies between studies. In this study, we investigated cell autonomous roles of Notch signaling in osteoclast differentiation and function by altering Notch signaling during osteoclast differentiation using stimulation with immobilized ligands Jagged1 or Delta-like1 or by suppression with γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT or transcriptional inhibitor SAHM1. Stimulation of Notch signaling in committed osteoclast precursors resulted in larger osteoclasts with a greater number of nuclei and resorptive activity whereas suppression resulted in smaller osteoclasts with fewer nuclei and suppressed resorptive activity. Conversely, stimulation of Notch signaling in osteoclast precursors prior to induction of osteoclastogenesis resulted in fewer osteoclasts. Our data support a mechanism of context-specific Notch signaling effects wherein Notch stimulation inhibits commitment to osteoclast differentiation, but enhances the maturation and function of committed precursors. PMID:25914241

  16. Methyl Gallate Inhibits Osteoclast Formation and Function by Suppressing Akt and Btk-PLCγ2-Ca2+ Signaling and Prevents Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Bone Loss

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Jong Min; Kim, Ju-Young; Lee, Chang Hoon; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Myeung Su

    2017-01-01

    In the field of bone research, various natural derivatives have emerged as candidates for osteoporosis treatment by targeting abnormally elevated osteoclastic activity. Methyl gallate, a plant-derived phenolic compound, is known to have numerous pharmacological effects against inflammation, oxidation, and cancer. Our purpose was to explore the relation between methyl gallate and bone metabolism. Herein, we performed screening using methyl gallate by tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and revealed intracellular mechanisms responsible for methyl gallate-mediated regulation of osteoclastogenesis by Western blotting and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Furthermore, we assessed the effects of methyl gallate on the characteristics of mature osteoclasts. We found that methyl gallate significantly suppressed osteoclast formation through Akt and Btk-PLCγ2-Ca2+ signaling. The blockade of these pathways was confirmed through transduction of cells with a CA-Akt retrovirus and evaluation of Ca2+ influx intensity (staining with Fluo-3/AM). Indeed, methyl gallate downregulated the formation of actin ring-positive osteoclasts and resorption pit areas. In agreement with in vitro results, we found that administration of methyl gallate restored osteoporotic phenotype stimulated by acute systemic injection of lipopolysaccharide in vivo according to micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. Our data strongly indicate that methyl gallate may be useful for the development of a plant-based antiosteoporotic agent. PMID:28272351

  17. Suppression of T cell-induced osteoclast formation

    SciTech Connect

    Karieb, Sahar; Fox, Simon W.

    2013-07-12

    Highlights: •Genistein and coumestrol prevent activated T cell induced osteoclast formation. •Anti-TNF neutralising antibodies prevent the pro-osteoclastic effect of activated T cells. •Phytoestrogens inhibit T cell derived TNF alpha and inflammatory cytokine production. •Phytoestrogens have a broader range of anti-osteoclastic actions than other anti-resorptives. -- Abstract: Inhibition of T cell derived cytokine production could help suppress osteoclast differentiation in inflammatory skeletal disorders. Bisphosphonates are typically prescribed to prevent inflammatory bone loss but are not tolerated by all patients and are associated with an increased risk of osteonecrosis of the jaw. In light of this other anti-resorptives such as phytoestrogens are being considered. However the effect of phytoestrogens on T cell-induced osteoclast formation is unclear. The effect of genistein and coumestrol on activated T cell-induced osteoclastogenesis and cytokine production was therefore examined. Concentrations of genistein and coumestrol (10{sup −7} M) previously shown to directly inhibit osteoclast formation also suppressed the formation of TRAP positive osteoclast induced by con A activated T cells, which was dependent on inhibition of T cell derived TNF-α. While both reduced osteoclast formation their mechanism of action differed. The anti-osteoclastic effect of coumestrol was associated with a dual effect on con A induced T cell proliferation and activation; 10{sup −7} M coumestrol significantly reducing T cell number (0.36) and TNF-α (0.47), IL-1β (0.23) and IL-6 (0.35) expression, whereas genistein (10{sup −7} M) had no effect on T cell number but a more pronounced effect on T cell differentiation reducing expression of TNF-α (0.49), IL-1β (0.52), IL-6 (0.71) and RANKL (0.71). Phytoestrogens therefore prevent the pro-osteoclastic action of T cells suggesting they may have a role in the control of inflammatory bone loss.

  18. Regulation of RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation by vascular cells.

    PubMed

    Tintut, Yin; Abedin, Moeen; Cho, John; Choe, Andrea; Lim, Jina; Demer, Linda L

    2005-08-01

    Vascular calcification is a regulated process of biomineralization resembling osteogenesis. Many bone-related factors, including resorptive osteoclast-like cells, although in low abundance, have been found in calcified atherosclerotic lesions. The regulatory mechanisms governing them in the vasculature, however, are not clear. Previously, we found that calcifying vascular cells (CVC), a subpopulation of bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMC), undergo osteoblastic differentiation and form mineralized nodules. Since osteoblasts and marrow stromal preosteoblasts regulate osteoclastic differentiation in bone, we hypothesized that vascular cells also regulate differentiation of osteoclastic precursors in the artery wall. Peripheral blood monocytes, which are osteoclast precursors, were co-cultured with CVC or BASMC. Results showed that monocytes co-cultured with both of the vascular cells yielded fewer resorption pits than monocytes cultured alone. Furthermore, monocytes co-cultured with CVC had fewer resorption pits than those co-cultured with BASMC. Conditioned media from the vascular cells also inhibited resorptive activity of monocytes suggesting that the inhibitory effect was mediated in part by soluble factors. Compared with BASMC, CVC had lower mRNA expression for osteopontin, which promotes osteoclast attachment, but greater mRNA expression for the soluble inhibitory cytokine, IL-18. Increased osteoclastic differentiation was observed when neutralizing antibody to IL-18 receptor was added to the cultures of preosteoclasts with CVC conditioned media. Osteoprotegerin, another osteoclast inhibitory cytokine, was expressed at similar levels in both cultures. These results suggest that vascular cells inhibit osteoclastic differentiation, and that CVC have greater inhibitory effects than BASMC.

  19. Retinoid X receptors orchestrate osteoclast differentiation and postnatal bone remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Menéndez-Gutiérrez, María P.; Rőszer, Tamás; Fuentes, Lucía; Núñez, Vanessa; Escolano, Amelia; Redondo, Juan Miguel; De Clerck, Nora; Metzger, Daniel; Valledor, Annabel F.; Ricote, Mercedes

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells that are important for maintenance of bone remodeling and mineral homeostasis. Regulation of osteoclast differentiation and activity is important for the pathogenesis and treatment of diseases associated with bone loss. Here, we demonstrate that retinoid X receptors (RXRs) are key elements of the transcriptional program of differentiating osteoclasts. Loss of RXR function in hematopoietic cells resulted in formation of giant, nonresorbing osteoclasts and increased bone mass in male mice and protected female mice from bone loss following ovariectomy, which induces osteoporosis in WT females. The increase in bone mass associated with RXR deficiency was due to lack of expression of the RXR-dependent transcription factor v-maf musculoaponeurotic fibrosarcoma oncogene family, protein B (MAFB) in osteoclast progenitors. Evaluation of osteoclast progenitor cells revealed that RXR homodimers directly target and bind to the Mafb promoter, and this interaction is required for proper osteoclast proliferation, differentiation, and activity. Pharmacological activation of RXRs inhibited osteoclast differentiation due to the formation of RXR/liver X receptor (LXR) heterodimers, which induced expression of sterol regulatory element binding protein-1c (SREBP-1c), resulting in indirect MAFB upregulation. Our study reveals that RXR signaling mediates bone homeostasis and suggests that RXRs have potential as targets for the treatment of bone pathologies such as osteoporosis. PMID:25574839

  20. Response of human rheumatoid arthritis osteoblasts and osteoclasts to adiponectin.

    PubMed

    Krumbholz, Grit; Junker, Susann; Meier, Florian M P; Rickert, Markus; Steinmeyer, Jürgen; Rehart, Stefan; Lange, Uwe; Frommer, Klaus W; Schett, Georg; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Neumann, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Adiponectin is an effector molecule in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis, e.g. by inducing cytokines and matrix degrading enzymes in synovial fibroblasts. There is growing evidence that adiponectin affects osteoblasts and osteoclasts although the contribution to the aberrant bone metabolism in rheumatoid arthritis is unclear. Therefore, the adiponectin effects on rheumatoid arthritis-derived osteoblasts and osteoclasts were evaluated. Adiponectin and its receptors were examined in bone tissue. Primary human osteoblasts and osteoclasts were stimulated with adiponectin and analysed using realtime polymerase chain-reaction and immunoassays. Effects on matrix-production by osteoblasts and differentiation and resorptive activity of osteoclasts were examined. Immunohistochemistry of rheumatoid arthritis bone tissue showed adiponectin expression in key cells of bone remodelling. Adiponectin altered gene expression and cytokine release in osteoblasts and increased IL-8 secretion by osteoclasts. Adiponectin inhibited osterix and induced osteoprotegerin mRNA in osteoblasts. In osteoclasts, MMP-9 and tartrate resistant acid phosphatase expression was increased. Accordingly, mineralisation capacity of osteoblasts decreased whereas resorptive activity of osteoclasts increased. The results confirm the proinflammatory potential of adiponectin and support the idea that adiponectin influences rheumatoid arthritis bone remodelling through alterations in osteoblast and osteoclast.

  1. Effects of cadmium on osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao; Zhu, Guoying; Gu, Shuzhu; Jin, Taiyi; Shao, Chunlin

    2009-09-01

    Cadmium (Cd) may have direct effects on bone metabolism and the mechanism is not fully understood. To investigate the effects of Cd on bone metabolism, effects of Cd on osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro were observed at cellular and molecular levels. Osteoblasts were cultured by sequential enzyme digestion from Sprague-Dawley rats calvarial bone and osteoclasts were isolated from long bones of new-born male and female Sprague-Dawley rats, and then cells were exposed to different concentrations of Cd (0-2.0 μ mol/L for osteoblasts; 0.03 μmol/L for osteoclasts). As for osteoblasts, cell viability, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, and mineralization were determined. Osteoprotegerin (OPG) and receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) were studied via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). For osteoclasts, after exposure to Cd (0.03 μmol/L) for 72 h and 120 h, number of osteoclasts and pits formation was observed. Cd inhibited the viability, ALP activity, mineralization and up-regulated RANKL mRNA expression in osteoblasts. But Cd had no obvious effect on OPG mRNA expression. For osteoclasts, cadmium (0.03 μmol/L) could increase the numbers of osteoclasts (p<0.05) and enhance pits formation (p<0.05). These results suggested that Cd could inhibit bone formation at high concentrations and enhance bone resorption at low level. OPG/RANKL may constitute an important pathway of Cd effects on bone.

  2. Augmented LPS Responsiveness in Type 1 Diabetes-Derived Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Catalfamo, Dana L.; Calderon, Nadia L.; Harden, Scott W.; Sorenson, Heather L.; Neiva, Kathleen G.; Wallet, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    Bone abnormalities are frequent co-morbidities of type 1 diabetes [T1D] and are principally mediated by osteoblasts and osteoclasts which in turn are regulated by immunologic mediators. While decreased skeletal health in T1D involves alterations in osteoblast maturation and function, the affect of altered immune function on osteoclasts in T1D-associated bone and joint pathologies is less understood. Here T1D-associated osteoclast-specific differentiation and function in the presence and absence of inflammatory mediators was characterized utilizing bone marrow-derived osteoclasts [BM-OCs] isolated from non-obese diabetic [NOD] mice, a model for spontaneous autoimmune diabetes with pathology similar to individuals with T1D. Differentiation and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption were evaluated along with cathepsin K, MMP-9, and immune soluble mediator expression. The affect of LPS, a pro-inflammatory cytokine cocktail, and NOD-derived conditioned supernatants on BM-OC function was also determined. Although NOD BM-OCs cultures contained smaller osteoclasts, they resorbed more bone concomitant with increased cathepsin K, MMP-9 and pro-osteoclastogenic mediator expression. NOD BM-OCs also displayed an inhibition of LPS-induced deactivation that was not a result of soluble mediators produced by NOD BM-OCs, although a pro-inflammatory milieu did enhance NOD BM-OCs bone resorption. Together these data indicate that osteoclasts from a T1D mouse model hyper-respond to RANK-L resulting in excessive bone degradation via enhanced cathepsin K and MMP-9 secretion concomitant with an increased expression of pro-osteoclastic soluble mediators. Our data also suggest that inhibition of LPS-induced deactivation in NOD-derived BM-OC cultures is most likely due to NOD osteoclast responsiveness rather than LPS-induced expression of soluble mediators. PMID:22718269

  3. Runx1-Mediated Regulation of Osteoclast Differentiation and Function

    PubMed Central

    Soung, Do Y.; Kalinowski, Judith; Baniwal, Sanjeev K.; Jacome-Galarza, Christian E.; Frenkel, Baruch

    2014-01-01

    Excessive bone resorption is the cause of several metabolic bone diseases including osteoporosis. Thus, identifying factors that can inhibit osteoclast formation and/or activity may define new drug targets that can be used to develop novel therapies for these conditions. Emerging evidence demonstrates that the master regulator of hematopoiesis, Runx1, is expressed in preosteoclasts and may influence skeletal health. To examine the potential role of Runx1 in osteoclast formation and function, we deleted its expression in myeloid osteoclast precursors by crossing Runx1 floxed mice (Runx1F/F) with CD11b-Cre transgenic mice. Mice lacking Runx1 in preosteoclasts (CD11b-Cre;Runx1F/F) exhibited significant loss of femoral trabecular and cortical bone mass compared with that in Cre-negative mice. In addition, serum levels of collagen type 1 cross-linked C-telopeptide, a biomarker of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, were significantly elevated in CD11b-Cre;Runx1F/F mice compared with those in Runx1F/F mice. Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase–positive osteoclasts that differentiated from bone marrow cells of CD11b-Cre;Runx1F/F mice in vitro were larger, were found in greater numbers, and had increased bone resorbing activity than similarly cultured cells from Runx1F/F mice. CD11b-Cre;Runx1F/F bone marrow cells that were differentiated into osteoclasts in vitro also had elevated mRNA levels of osteoclast-related genes including vacuolar ATPase D2, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase 9, calcitonin receptor, osteoclast-associated receptor, nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, and cFos. These data indicate that Runx1 expression in preosteoclasts negatively regulates osteoclast formation and activity and contributes to overall bone mass. PMID:24606124

  4. Resolvin E1 regulates osteoclast fusion via DC-STAMP and NFATc1.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Min; Van Dyke, Thomas E; Gyurko, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Interactions between the immune and skeletal systems in inflammatory bone diseases are well appreciated, but the underlying molecular mechanisms that coordinate the resolution phase of inflammation and bone turnover have not been unveiled. Here we investigated the direct actions of the proresolution mediator resolvin E1 (RvE1) on bone-marrow-cell-derived osteoclasts in an in vitro murine model of osteoclast maturation and inflammatory bone resorption. Investigation of the actions of RvE1 treatment on the specific stages of osteoclast maturation revealed that RvE1 targeted late stages of osteoclast maturation to decrease osteoclast formation by 32.8%. Time-lapse vital microscopy and migration assays confirmed that membrane fusion of osteoclast precursors was inhibited. The osteoclast fusion protein DC-STAMP was specifically targeted by RvE1 receptor binding and was down-regulated by 65.4%. RvE1 did not affect the induction of the essential osteoclast transcription factor nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) or its nuclear translocation; however, NFATc1 binding to the DC-STAMP promoter was significantly inhibited by 60.9% with RvE1 treatment as shown in electrophoresis mobility shift assay. Our findings suggest that proresolution mediators act directly on osteoclasts, in addition to down-regulation of inflammation, providing a novel mechanism for modulating osteoclast signaling in osteolytic inflammatory disease.

  5. The roles of interferons in osteoclasts and osteoclastogenesis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qi; Zhang, Lihai; Ge, Wei; Tang, Peifu

    2016-05-01

    Interferons (IFNs) play essential roles in regulating osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Over the last decade, we have seen tremendous developments in our understanding of the mechanisms by which interferons regulate osteoclastogenesis. Of the type I interferons, IFN-β inhibits osteoclastogenesis via autoregulatory or exogenous regulatory mechanisms, while IFN-α was recently shown to participate in regulating osteoclast formation. And the only member of type II interferons, IFN-γ, has biphasic effects on osteoclastogenesis. Type III interferons have also been shown to be involved in osteoclast bone resorption, although no direct regulatory mechanism has been demonstrated. In this review, we provide an update account of the current knowledge on these recently revealed novel roles of interferons in the regulation of a variety of signaling pathways in osteoclast differentiation and function. The potential clinical applications are also discussed. Copyright © 2015 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Enhancing Osteoclastic Resorption for the Prevention and Treatment of Heterotopic Ossification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    titration of OPG for inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclast formation by RAW264.7 cells. TRAP stain (violet) for osteoclast formation. Multinuclear...caALK2 HO model (Figures 2A & B and Figures 3A & B). We have adopted a sensitive passive range-of-motion assay based on one presented by Paul Yu2...orthotopic bone), were stained for the osteoclast marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) (Figure 4

  7. Talin1 and Rap1 are critical for osteoclast function.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wei; Izawa, Takashi; Zhu, Tingting; Chappel, Jean; Otero, Karel; Monkley, Susan J; Critchley, David R; Petrich, Brian G; Morozov, Alexei; Ginsberg, Mark H; Teitelbaum, Steven L

    2013-02-01

    To determine talin1's role in osteoclasts, we mated TLN1(fl/fl) mice with those expressing cathepsin K-Cre (CtsK-TLN1) to delete the gene in mature osteoclasts or with lysozyme M-Cre (LysM-TLN1) mice to delete TLN1 in all osteoclast lineage cells. Absence of TLN1 impairs macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF)-stimulated inside-out integrin activation and cytoskeleton organization in mature osteoclasts. Talin1-deficient precursors normally express osteoclast differentiation markers when exposed to M-CSF and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (RANK) ligand but attach to substrate and migrate poorly, arresting their development into mature resorptive cells. In keeping with inhibited resorption, CtsK-TLN1 mice exhibit an ∼5-fold increase in bone mass. Osteoclast-specific deletion of Rap1 (CtsK-Rap1), which promotes talin/β integrin recognition, yields similar osteopetrotic mice. The fact that the osteopetrosis of CtsK-TLN1 and CtsK-Rap1 mice is substantially more severe than that of those lacking αvβ3 is likely due to added failed activation of β1 integrins. In keeping with osteoclast dysfunction, mice in whom talin is deleted late in the course of osteoclastogenesis are substantially protected from ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis and the periarticular osteolysis attending inflammatory arthritis. Thus, talin1 and Rap1 are critical for resorptive function, and their selective inhibition in mature osteoclasts retards pathological bone loss.

  8. The Effect of Fig Tree Latex (Ficus carica) on Stomach Cancer Line.

    PubMed

    Hashemi, S A; Abediankenari, S; Ghasemi, M; Azadbakht, M; Yousefzadeh, Y; Dehpour, A A

    2011-04-01

    The therapeutic effect of herbal materials in inhibition of cancer cell growth was shown. This study investigates the effect of fig tree latex (Ficus carica) on stomach cancer line. The in vitro effect of different doses of fig tree latex on stomach cancer cell line and the peripheral blood mononuclear cells was evaluated after 72 hours. Fig tree latex could inhibit the proliferation of cancer cell line without any cytotoxic effect on human normal cells. Five mg/ml was the optimum concentration in inhibition of cell line growth. Cancer cell line was more sensitive to Ficus carica latex than normal cells. This anticancer activity might be due to presence of its proteolytic enzymes.

  9. Granulocyte Colony-Stimulating Factor Induces Osteoblast Inhibition by B Lymphocytes and Osteoclast Activation by T Lymphocytes during Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cell Mobilization.

    PubMed

    Li, Sidan; Li, Tianshou; Chen, Yongbing; Nie, Yinchao; Li, Changhong; Liu, Lanting; Li, Qiaochuan; Qiu, Lugui

    2015-08-01

    In the bone marrow (BM), hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) reside in specialized niches near osteoblast cells at the endosteum. HSPCs that egress to peripheral blood are widely used for transplant, and mobilization is most commonly performed with recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF). However, the cellular targets of G-CSF that initiate the mobilization cascade and bone remodeling are not completely understood. Here, we examined whether T and B lymphocytes modulate the bone niche and influence HSPC mobilization. We used T and B defective mice to show that G-CSF-induced mobilization of HSPCs correlated with B lymphocytes but poorly with T lymphocytes. In addition, we found that defective B lymphocytes prevent G-CSF-mediated osteoblast disruption, and further study showed BM osteoblasts were reduced coincident with mobilization, induced by elevated expression of dickkopf1 of BM B lymphocytes. BM T cells were also involved in G-CSF-induced osteoclast activation by regulating the Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-κ B Ligand/Osteoprotegerin (RANKL/OPG) axis. These data provide evidence that BM B and T lymphocytes play a role in G-CSF-induced HSPC mobilization by regulating bone remodeling.

  10. Implications of osteoblast-osteoclast interactions in the management of osteoporosis by antiresorptive agents denosumab and odanacatib.

    PubMed

    Sims, Natalie A; Ng, Kong Wah

    2014-03-01

    Antiresorptive agents, used in the treatment of osteoporosis, inhibit either osteoclast formation or function. However, with these approaches, osteoblast activity is also reduced because of the loss of osteoclast-derived coupling factors that serve to stimulate bone formation. This review discusses how osteoclast inhibition influences osteoblast function, comparing the actions of an inhibitor of osteoclast formation [anti-RANKL/Denosumab (DMAB)] with that of a specific inhibitor of osteoclastic cathepsin K activity [Odanacatib (ODN)]. Denosumab rapidly and profoundly, but reversibly, reduces bone formation. In contrast, preclinical studies and clinical trials of ODN showed that bone formation at some skeletal sites was preserved although resorption was reduced. This preservation of bone formation appears to be due to effects of coupling factors, secreted by osteoclasts and released from demineralized bone matrix. This indicates that bone resorptive activities of osteoclasts are separable from their coupling activities.

  11. Secretion of L-glutamate from osteoclasts through transcytosis

    PubMed Central

    Morimoto, Riyo; Uehara, Shunsuke; Yatsushiro, Shouki; Juge, Narinobu; Hua, Zhaolin; Senoh, Shigenori; Echigo, Noriko; Hayashi, Mitsuko; Mizoguchi, Toshihide; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Omote, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Edwards, Robert H; Moriyama, Yoshinori

    2006-01-01

    Osteoclasts are involved in the catabolism of the bone matrix and eliminate the resulting degradation products through transcytosis, but the molecular mechanism and regulation of transcytosis remain poorly understood. Upon differentiation, osteoclasts express vesicular glutamate transporter 1 (VGLUT1), which is essential for vesicular storage and subsequent exocytosis of glutamate in neurons. VGLUT1 is localized in transcytotic vesicles and accumulates L-glutamate. Osteoclasts secrete L-glutamate and the bone degradation products upon stimulation with KCl or ATP in a Ca2+-dependent manner. KCl- and ATP-dependent secretion of L-glutamate was absent in osteoclasts prepared from VGLUT1−/− knockout mice. Osteoclasts express mGluR8, a class III metabotropic glutamate receptor. Its stimulation by a specific agonist inhibits secretion of L-glutamate and bone degradation products, whereas its suppression by a specific antagonist stimulates bone resorption. Finally, it was found that VGLUT1−/− mice develop osteoporosis. Thus, in bone-resorbing osteoclasts, L-glutamate and bone degradation products are secreted through transcytosis and the released L-glutamate is involved in autoregulation of transcytosis. Glutamate signaling may play an important role in the bone homeostasis. PMID:16957773

  12. Cytokine expression in feline osteoclastic resorptive lesions.

    PubMed

    DeLaurier, A; Allen, S; deFlandre, C; Horton, M A; Price, J S

    2002-01-01

    Feline osteoclastic resorptive lesions (FORL) of the teeth are common in cats, and lead to pain, destruction of the periodontal ligament, and tooth loss. The expression of interleukin (IL)-1 beta and IL-6 mRNA was higher in teeth with FORL than in normal teeth (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively), but no such differences were found between pathological and normal gingival tissue samples. There were no differences between teeth affected with FORL and normal teeth in respect of the expression of receptor activator of NF kappa B ligand (RANKL) mRNA or osteoprotegerin (OPG) mRNA. However, OPG mRNA expression was higher in gingival tissue associated with teeth affected with FORL than in normal gingival tissue (P<0.05), whereas the reverse was true of RANKL mRNA expression (P<0.05). OPG mRNA expression was significantly higher in teeth than in femoral and alveolar bone (P<0.001). RANKL and OPG mRNAs were detected in all tissues examined. The data suggest that the elevated expression of IL-l beta and IL-6 mRNA plays a role in the mediation of osteoclast activity in advanced FORL. In contrast, OPG and RANKL do not appear to regulate osteoclasts in advanced disease. The results also suggest that OPG and RANKL mRNA play a role in mediating inflammatory responses in gingival cells, and that OPG has an inhibiting effect on tooth resorption.

  13. Inhibitor of DASH proteases affects expression of adhesion molecules in osteoclasts and reduces myeloma growth and bone disease.

    PubMed

    Pennisi, Angela; Li, Xin; Ling, Wen; Khan, Sharmin; Gaddy, Dana; Suva, Larry J; Barlogie, Bart; Shaughnessy, John D; Aziz, Nazneen; Yaccoby, Shmuel

    2009-06-01

    Dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP) IV activity and/or structure homologues (DASH) are serine proteases implicated in tumourigenesis. We previously found that a DASH protease, fibroblast activation protein (FAP), was involved in osteoclast-induced myeloma growth. Here we further demonstrated expression of various adhesion molecules in osteoclasts cultured alone or cocultured with myeloma cells, and tested the effects of DASH inhibitor, PT-100, on myeloma cell growth, bone disease, osteoclast differentiation and activity, and expression of adhesion molecules in osteoclasts. PT-100 had no direct effects on viability of myeloma cells or mature osteoclasts, but significantly reduced survival of myeloma cells cocultured with osteoclasts. Real-time PCR array for 85 adhesion molecules revealed upregulation of 17 genes in osteoclasts after coculture with myeloma cells. Treatment of myeloma/osteoclast cocultures with PT-100 significantly downregulated 18 of 85 tested genes in osteoclasts, some of which are known to play roles in tumourigenesis and osteoclastogenesis. PT-100 also inhibited osteoclast differentiation and subsequent pit formation. Resorption activity of mature osteoclasts and differentiation of osteoblasts were not affected by PT-100. In primary myelomatous severe combined immunodeficient (SCID)-hu mice PT-100 reduced osteoclast activity, bone resorption and tumour burden. These data demonstrated that DASH proteases are involved in myeloma bone disease and tumour growth.

  14. Lutein, a carotenoid, suppresses osteoclastic bone resorption and stimulates bone formation in cultures.

    PubMed

    Tominari, Tsukasa; Matsumoto, Chiho; Watanabe, Kenta; Hirata, Michiko; Grundler, Florian M W; Inada, Masaki; Miyaura, Chisato

    2017-02-01

    Lutein, a member of the xanthophyll family of carotenoids, suppressed IL-1-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. The survival of mature osteoclasts was also suppressed by lutein in cultures. When lutein was added to the cultures of osteoblasts, lutein enhanced the formation of mineralized bone nodules by elevating BMP2 expression and inhibiting sclerostin expression. Lutein may be beneficial for bone health.

  15. In vitro antimicrobial activity of four Ficus carica latex fractions against resistant human pathogens (antimicrobial activity of Ficus carica latex).

    PubMed

    Aref, Houda Lazreg; Salah, Karima Bel Hadj; Chaumont, Jean Pierre; Fekih, Abdelwaheb; Aouni, Mahjoub; Said, Khaled

    2010-01-01

    Methanolic, hexanoïc, chloroformic and ethyl acetate extracts of Ficus carica latex were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial proprieties against five bacteria species and seven strains of fungi. The green fruit latex was collected from Chott Mariam Souse, Middle East coast of Tunisia. The antimicrobial activity of the extracts was evaluated and based respectively on the inhibition zone using the disc-diffusion assay, minimal inhibition concentration (MIC) for bacterial testing and the method by calculating inhibition percentage (I%) for fungi-inhibiting activities. The methanolic extract had no effect against bacteria except for Proteus mirabilis while the ethyl acetate extract had inhibition effect on the multiplication of five bacteria species (Enterococcus fecalis, Citobacter freundei, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Echerchia coli and Proteus mirabilis). For the opportunist pathogenic yeasts, ethyl acetate and chlorophormic fractions showed a very strong inhibition (100%); methanolic fraction had a total inhibition against Candida albicans (100%) at a concentration of 500 microg/ml and a negative effect against Cryptococcus neoformans. Microsporum canis was strongly inhibited with methanolic extract (75%) and totally with ethyl acetate extract at a concentration of 750 microg/ml. Hexanoïc extract showed medium results.

  16. Paxillin Contracts the Osteoclast Cytoskeleton

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wei; DeSelm, Carl J.; Broekelmann, Thomas J.; Mecham, Robert P.; Pol, Scott Vande; Choi, Kyunghee; Teitelbaum, Steven L.

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclastic bone resorption depends upon the cell’s ability to organize its cytoskeleton via the αvβ3 integrin and osteoclastogenic cytokines. Since paxillin associates with αvβ3, we asked if it participates in skeletal degradation. Unlike deletion of other αvβ3-associated cytoskeleton-regulating molecules, which impairs the cell’s ability to spread, paxillin-deficient (Pax−/−) osteoclasts, generated from embryonic stem cells, “superspread” in response to RANK ligand (RANKL) and form large, albeit dynamically atypical, actin bands. Despite their increased size, Pax−/− osteoclasts resorb bone poorly, excavating pits approximately 1/3 normal depth. Ligand-occupied αvβ3 or RANKL promotes paxillin serine and tyrosine phosphorylation, the latter via c-Src. The abnormal Pax−/− phenotype is rescued by WT paxillin but not that lacking its LD4 domain. In keeping with the appearance of mutant osteoclasts, WT paxillin, overexpressed in WT cells, contracts the cytoskeleton. Most importantly, the abnormal phenotype of Pax−/− osteoclasts likely represents failed RANKL-mediated delivery of myosin IIA to the actin cytoskeleton via the paxillin LD4 domain but is independent of tyrosine phosphorylation. Thus, in response to RANKL, paxillin associates with myosin IIA to contract the osteoclast cytoskeleton thereby promoting its bone-degrading capacity. PMID:22807029

  17. Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators Suppress Hif1α Protein Accumulation in Mouse Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, Ryotaro; Kobayashi, Tami; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Oike, Takatsugu; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Kawana, Hiromasa; Nakagawa, Taneaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    Anti-bone resorptive drugs such as bisphosphonates, the anti-RANKL antibody (denosumab), or selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) have been developed to treat osteoporosis. Mechanisms underlying activity of bisphosphonates or denosumab in this context are understood, while it is less clear how SERMs like tamoxifen, raloxifene, or bazedoxifene inhibit bone resorption. Recently, accumulation of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (Hif1α) in osteoclasts was shown to be suppressed by estrogen in normal cells. In addition, osteoclast activation and decreased bone mass seen in estrogen-deficient conditions was found to require Hif1α. Here, we used western blot analysis of cultured osteoclast precursor cells to show that tamoxifen, raloxifene, or bazedoxifene all suppress Hif1α protein accumulation. The effects of each SERM on osteoclast differentiation differed in vitro. Our results suggest that interventions such as the SERMs evaluated here could be useful to inhibit Hif1α and osteoclast activity under estrogen-deficient conditions. PMID:27802325

  18. RIP140 in monocytes/macrophages regulates osteoclast differentiation and bone homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Bomi; Iwaniec, Urszula T.; Turner, Russell T.; Lin, Yi-Wei; Clarke, Bart L.; Gingery, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Osteolytic bone diseases, such as osteoporosis, are characterized by diminished bone quality and increased fracture risk. The therapeutic challenge remains to maintain bone homeostasis with a balance between osteoclast-mediated resorption and osteoblast-mediated formation. Osteoclasts are formed by the fusion of monocyte/macrophage-derived precursors. Here we report, to our knowledge for the first time, that receptor-interacting protein 140 (RIP140) expression in osteoclast precursors and its protein regulation are crucial for osteoclast differentiation, activity, and coupled bone formation. In mice, monocyte/macrophage–specific knockdown of RIP140 (mϕRIP140KD) resulted in a cancellous osteopenic phenotype with significantly increased bone resorption and reduced bone formation. Osteoclast precursors isolated from mϕRIP140KD mice had significantly increased differentiation potential. Furthermore, conditioned media from mϕRIP140KD primary osteoclast cultures significantly suppressed osteoblast differentiation. This suppressive activity was effectively and rapidly terminated by specific Syk-stimulated RIP140 protein degradation. Mechanistic analysis revealed that RIP140 functions primarily by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation through forming a transcription-suppressor complex with testicular receptor 4 (TR4) to repress osteoclastogenic genes. These data reveal that monocyte/macrophage RIP140/TR4 complexes may serve as a critical transcription regulatory complex maintaining homeostasis of osteoclast differentiation, activity, and coupling with osteoblast formation. Accordingly, we propose a potentially novel therapeutic strategy, specifically targeting osteoclast precursor RIP140 protein in osteolytic bone diseases. PMID:28405613

  19. Gallium modulates osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro without affecting osteoblasts

    PubMed Central

    Verron, Elise; Masson, Martial; Khoshniat, Solmaz; Duplomb, Laurence; Wittrant, Yohann; Baud'huin, Marc; Badran, Zahi; Bujoli, Bruno; Janvier, Pascal; Scimeca, Jean-Claude; Bouler, Jean-Michel; Guicheux, Jérôme

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Gallium (Ga) has been shown to be effective in the treatment of disorders associated with accelerated bone loss, including cancer-related hypercalcemia and Paget's disease. These clinical applications suggest that Ga could reduce bone resorption. However, few studies have studied the effects of Ga on osteoclastic resorption. Here, we have explored the effects of Ga on bone cells in vitro. Experimental approach: In different osteoclastic models [osteoclasts isolated from long bones of neonatal rabbits (RBC), murine RAW 264.7 cells and human CD14-positive cells], we have performed resorption activity tests, staining for tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis, viability and apoptotic assays. We also evaluated the effect of Ga on osteoblasts in terms of proliferation, viability and activity by using an osteoblastic cell line (MC3T3-E1) and primary mouse osteoblasts. Key results: Gallium dose-dependently (0–100 µM) inhibited the in vitro resorption activity of RBC and induced a significant decrease in the expression level of transcripts coding for osteoclastic markers in RAW 264.7 cells. Ga also dramatically reduced the formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells. Ga down-regulated in a dose-dependant manner the expression of the transcription factor NFATc1. However, Ga did not affect the viability or activity of primary and MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts. Conclusions and implications: Gallium exhibits a dose-dependent anti-osteoclastic effect by reducing in vitro osteoclastic resorption, differentiation and formation without negatively affecting osteoblasts. We provide evidence that this inhibitory mechanism involves down-regulation of NFATc1 expression, a master regulator of RANK-induced osteoclastic differentiation. PMID:20397300

  20. Estrogens maintain bone mass by regulating expression of genes controlling function and life span in mature osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Imai, Yuuki; Youn, Ming-Young; Kondoh, Shino; Nakamura, Takashi; Kouzmenko, Alexander; Matsumoto, Takahiro; Takada, Ichiro; Takaoka, Kunio; Kato, Shigeaki

    2009-09-01

    Estrogens play a key role in regulation of bone mass and strength by controlling activity of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts. Cellular effects of estrogens are mediated predominantly by the action of estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha). In earlier studies, ablation of the ERalpha gene in mice did not result in osteoporotic phenotypes due to systemic endocrine disturbance and compensatory effects of elevated levels of testosterone. Despite the relatively well-established effects in osteoblasts, little is known about the direct action of estrogen in osteoclasts. Development in the last decade of more sophisticated genetic manipulation approaches opened new possibilities to explore cell-specific roles of nuclear receptors in bone tissue. Recently, we have generated osteoclast-specific ERalpha gene knockout mice and shown that in vivo estrogens directly regulate the life span of mature osteoclasts by inducing the expression of pro-apoptotic Fas ligand (FasL). Inhibitory effects of estrogens on osteoclast function were further studied in vitro. We observed sufficiently detectable ERalpha expression in osteoclasts differentiating from primary bone marrow cells or RAW264 cells, although levels of ERalpha were decreasing during progression of the differentiation into mature osteoclasts. Treatment with estrogens led to reduction in expression of osteoclast-specific genes controlling bone resorption activity. However, estrogens did not affect the size of multinucleated osteoclasts or number of nuclei in a mature osteoclast. In conclusion, in osteoclasts, estrogens function to inhibit bone resorption activity and vitality rather than differentiation.

  1. Hyperglycemia Induced and Intrinsic Alterations in Type 2 Diabetes-Derived Osteoclast Function

    PubMed Central

    Catalfamo, Dana L.; Britten, Todd M.; Storch, Douglas I.; Calderon, Nadia L.; Sorenson, Heather L.; Wallet, Shannon M.

    2012-01-01

    Periodontal disease-associated alveolar bone loss is a co-morbidity of type-2-diabetes, where the roles of osteoclasts are poorly understood. Objective To evaluate osteoclast differentiation and function in the context of type-2-diabetes. Materials/Methods Bone marrow-derived osteoclasts from db/db mice, a model of type-2-diabetes, as well as human osteoclasts derived from peripheral blood of individuals with type-2-diabetes were evaluated for differentiation, resorption, and soluble mediator expression. Results While db/db mice were hyperglycemic at time of cell harvest, human participants were glycemically controlled. Although db/db cultures resulted in a higher number of larger osteoclasts, individual cell RANKL-mediated bone resorption was similar to that observed in diabetes-free OCs. Osteoclasts derived from individuals with type-2-diabetes differentiated similarly to controls with again no difference in bone resorbing capacity. Murine and human type-2-diabetes cultures both displayed inhibition of LPS-induced deactivation and increased pro-osteoclastogenic mediator expression. Conclusions Hyperglycemia plays a role in aberrant osteoclast differentiation leading to an increased capacity for bone resorption. Osteoclasts derived from murine models of and individuals with type-2-diabetes are unable to be inhibited by LPS, again leading to increased capacity for bone resorption. Here environmental and intrinsic mechanisms associated with the increased alveolar bone loss observed in periodontal patients with type-2-diabetes are described. PMID:24079914

  2. CD147 promotes the formation of functional osteoclasts through NFATc1 signalling

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioku, Tsuyoshi; Terasawa, Mariko; Baba, Misaki; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2016-04-29

    CD147, a membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is highly upregulated during dynamic cellular events including tissue remodelling. Elevated CD147 expression is present in the joint of rheumatoid arthritis patients. However, the role of CD147 in bone destruction remains unclear. To determine whether CD147 is involved in osteoclastogenesis, we studied its expression in mouse osteoclasts and its role in osteoclast differentiation and function. CD147 expression was markedly upregulated during osteoclast differentiation. To investigate the role of CD147 in receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption activity, osteoclast precursor cells were transfected with CD147 siRNA. Decreased CD147 expression inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption, inhibited RANKL-induced nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 and decreased the expression of the d2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase Vo domain and cathepsin K. Therefore, CD147 plays a critical role in the differentiation and function of osteoclasts by upregulating NFATc1 through the autoamplification of its expression in osteoclastogenesis. - Highlights: • CD147 expression was markedly upregulated during osteoclast differentiation. • Downregulation of CD147 expression inhibited osteoclastgenesis and bone resorption. • Decreased CD147 expression inhibited RANKL-induced nuclear translocation of NFATc1.

  3. Ficus carica L.: Metabolic and biological screening.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Valentão, Patrícia; Pereira, José A; Silva, Branca M; Tavares, Fernando; Andrade, Paula B

    2009-11-01

    Ficus carica L. is one of the earliest cultivated fruit trees. In this work, metabolite profiling was performed on the leaves, pulps and peels of two Portuguese white varieties of F. carica (Pingo de Mel and Branca Tradicional). Phenolics and organic acids profiles were determined by HPLC/DAD and HPLC/UV, respectively. All samples presented a similar phenolic profile composed by 3-O- and 5-O-caffeoylquinic acids, ferulic acid, quercetin-3-O-glucoside, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside, psoralen and bergapten. 3-O-Caffeoylquinic acid and quercetin-3-O-glucoside are described for the first time in this species. Leaves' organic acids profile presented oxalic, citric, malic, quinic, shikimic and fumaric acids, while in pulps and peels quinic acid was absent. The antioxidant potential of the different plant parts was checked. All materials exhibited activity against DPPH and nitric oxide radicals in a concentration-dependent way. However, only the leaves presented capacity to scavenge superoxide radical. Leaves were always the most effective part, which seems to be related with phenolics compounds. Additionally, acetylcholinesterase inhibitory capacity was evaluated, but no effect was observed. Antimicrobial potential was also assessed against several bacterial species, although no activity was noticed. This is the first study comparing the chemical composition and biological potential of F. carica pulps, peels and leaves.

  4. Effect of radiation on the expression of osteoclast marker genes in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Bing; Zhou, Hui; Zhang, Xiao-Dong; Liu, Zheng; Fan, Fei-Yue; Sun, Yuan-Ming

    2012-04-01

    Cancer radiation therapy can cause skeletal complications, such as osteopenia and osteoporosis. To understand the mechanism responsible for the skeletal complications, the expression profiles of osteoclast marker genes in RAW264.7 cells were observed. Osteoclast formation was established by RAW264.7 cells that were treated with the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL) and detected using immunochemistry and morphological observations. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the expression of a panel of osteoclast markers, including the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), integrin β3 and the calcitonin receptor (CTR). RANKL-induced osteoclasts were TRAP-positive and multinucleated, and displayed a distinct morphology. RANKL-induced osteoclast precursor cells had increased TRAP and RANK expression and decreased CTR expression compared to the control cells not treated with RANKL. RAW264.7 cells irradiated with 2-Gy γ-rays had upregulated integrin β3 and RANK expression and downregulated CTR expression compared to the control RAW264.7 cells. The effect of radiation on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation enhanced the expression of CTR and inhibited the expression of RANK and TRAP. Therefore, radiation damage from 2-Gy γ-rays can promote the activities of osteoclast precursor cells, but not those of osteoclasts.

  5. Sympathetic Neurotransmitters Modulate Osteoclastogenesis and Osteoclast Activity in the Context of Collagen-Induced Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Muschter, Dominique; Schäfer, Nicole; Stangl, Hubert; Straub, Rainer H.; Grässel, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    Excessive synovial osteoclastogenesis is a hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Concomitantly, local synovial changes comprise neuronal components of the peripheral sympathetic nervous system. Here, we wanted to analyze if collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) alters bone marrow-derived macrophage (BMM) osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast activity, and how sympathetic neurotransmitters participate in this process. Therefore, BMMs from Dark Agouti rats at different CIA stages were differentiated into osteoclasts in vitro and osteoclast number, cathepsin K activity, matrix resorption and apoptosis were analyzed in the presence of acetylcholine (ACh), noradrenaline (NA) vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) and assay-dependent, adenylyl cyclase activator NKH477. We observed modulation of neurotransmitter receptor mRNA expression in CIA osteoclasts without affecting protein level. CIA stage-dependently altered marker gene expression associated with osteoclast differentiation and activity without affecting osteoclast number or activity. Neurotransmitter stimulation modulated osteoclast differentiation, apoptosis and activity. VIP, NA and adenylyl cyclase activator NKH477 inhibited cathepsin K activity and osteoclastogenesis (NKH477, 10-6M NA) whereas ACh mostly acted pro-osteoclastogenic. We conclude that CIA alone does not affect metabolism of in vitro generated osteoclasts whereas stimulation with NA, VIP plus specific activation of adenylyl cyclase induced anti-resorptive effects probably mediated via cAMP signaling. Contrary, we suggest pro-osteoclastogenic and pro-resorptive properties of ACh mediated via muscarinic receptors. PMID:26431344

  6. Effect of radiation on the expression of osteoclast marker genes in RAW264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    YANG, BING; ZHOU, HUI; ZHANG, XIAO-DONG; LIU, ZHENG; FAN, FEI-YUE; SUN, YUAN-MING

    2012-01-01

    Cancer radiation therapy can cause skeletal complications, such as osteopenia and osteoporosis. To understand the mechanism responsible for the skeletal complications, the expression profiles of osteoclast marker genes in RAW264.7 cells were observed. Osteoclast formation was established by RAW264.7 cells that were treated with the receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-κB ligand (RANKL) and detected using immunochemistry and morphological observations. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to assess the expression of a panel of osteoclast markers, including the receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), integrin β3 and the calcitonin receptor (CTR). RANKL-induced osteoclasts were TRAP-positive and multinucleated, and displayed a distinct morphology. RANKL-induced osteoclast precursor cells had increased TRAP and RANK expression and decreased CTR expression compared to the control cells not treated with RANKL. RAW264.7 cells irradiated with 2-Gy γ-rays had upregulated integrin β3 and RANK expression and downregulated CTR expression compared to the control RAW264.7 cells. The effect of radiation on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation enhanced the expression of CTR and inhibited the expression of RANK and TRAP. Therefore, radiation damage from 2-Gy γ-rays can promote the activities of osteoclast precursor cells, but not those of osteoclasts. PMID:22294242

  7. Schisantherin A suppresses osteoclast formation and wear particle-induced osteolysis via modulating RANKL signaling pathways

    SciTech Connect

    He, Yi; Zhang, Qing; Shen, Yi; Chen, Xia; Zhou, Feng; Peng, Dan

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • Schisantherin A suppresses osteoclasts formation and function in vitro. • Schisantherin A impairs RANKL signaling pathway. • Schisantherin A suppresses osteolysis in vivo. • Schisantherin A may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases. - Abstract: Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) plays critical role in osteoclastogenesis. Targeting RANKL signaling pathways has been a promising strategy for treating osteoclast related bone diseases such as osteoporosis and aseptic prosthetic loosening. Schisantherin A (SA), a dibenzocyclooctadiene lignan isolated from the fruit of Schisandra sphenanthera, has been used as an antitussive, tonic, and sedative agent, but its effect on osteoclasts has been hitherto unknown. In the present study, SA was found to inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. The osteoclastic specific marker genes induced by RANKL including c-Src, SA inhibited OSCAR, cathepsin K and TRAP in a dose dependent manner. Further signal transduction studies revealed that SA down-regulate RANKL-induced nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) signaling activation by suppressing the phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα, and subsequently preventing the NF-κB transcriptional activity. Moreover, SA also decreased the RANKL-induced MAPKs signaling pathway, including JNK and ERK1/2 posphorylation while had no obvious effects on p38 activation. Finally, SA suppressed the NF-κB and MAPKs subsequent gene expression of NFATc1 and c-Fos. In vivo studies, SA inhibited osteoclast function and exhibited bone protection effect in wear-particle-induced bone erosion model. Taken together, SA could attenuate osteoclast formation and wear particle-induced osteolysis by mediating RANKL signaling pathways. These data indicated that SA is a promising therapeutic natural compound for the treatment of osteoclast-related prosthesis loosening.

  8. Regulation of Osteoclast Growth and Fusion by mTOR/raptor and mTOR/rictor/Akt.

    PubMed

    Tiedemann, Kerstin; Le Nihouannen, Damien; Fong, Jenna E; Hussein, Osama; Barralet, Jake E; Komarova, Svetlana V

    2017-01-01

    Osteoclasts are giant bone cells formed by fusion from monocytes and uniquely capable of a complete destruction of mineralized tissues. Previously, we have demonstrated that in energy-rich environment not only osteoclast fusion index (the number of nuclei each osteoclast contains), but also cytoplasm volume per single nucleus was increased. The goal of this study was to investigate the regulation of metabolic sensor mTOR during osteoclast differentiation in energy-rich environment simulated by addition of pyruvate. We have found that in the presence of pyruvate, the proportion of mTOR associated with raptor increased, while mTOR-rictor-mediated Akt phosphorylation decreased. Inhibition of mTOR with rapamycin (10 nM) significantly interfered with all aspects of osteoclastogenesis. However, rapamycin at 1 nM, which preferentially targets mTOR-raptor complex, was only effective in control cultures, while in the presence of pyruvate osteoclast fusion index was successfully increased. Inhibition of Akt drastically reduced osteoclast fusion, however in energy-rich environment, osteoclasts of comparable size were formed through increased cytoplasm growth. These data suggest that mTOR-rictor mediated Akt signaling regulates osteoclast fusion, while mTOR-raptor regulation of protein translation contributes to fusion-independent cytoplasm growth. We demonstrate that depending on the bioenergetics microenvironment osteoclastogenesis can adjust to occur through preferential multinucleation or through cell growth, implying that attaining large cell size is part of the osteoclast differentiation program.

  9. Fatty acids, coumarins and polyphenolic compounds of Ficus carica L. cv. Dottato: variation of bioactive compounds and biological activity of aerial parts.

    PubMed

    Marrelli, Mariangela; Statti, Giancarlo A; Tundis, Rosa; Menichini, Francesco; Conforti, Filomena

    2014-01-01

    Leaves, bark and woody part of Ficus carica L. cultivar Dottato collected in different months were examined to assess their chemical composition, antioxidant activity and phototoxicity on C32 human melanoma cells after UVA irradiation. The phytochemical investigation revealed different composition in the coumarin, fatty acid, polyphenol and flavonoid content. The second harvest of leaves and the first harvest of the bark possessed the highest antiradical activity with IC50 values of 64.00 ± 0.59 and 67.00 ± 1.09 μg/mL, respectively. Harvest III of leaves showed the best inhibition of lipid peroxidation (IC50 = 1.48 ± 0.04 μg/mL). Leaf samples of F. carica showed also the best antiproliferative activity in comparison with bark and woody part of F. carica.

  10. Berberine Sulfate Attenuates Osteoclast Differentiation through RANKL Induced NF-κB and NFAT Pathways.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lin; Song, Fangming; Liu, Qian; Yang, Mingli; Zhao, Jinmin; Tan, Renxiang; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Ge; Quinn, Julian M W; Tickner, Jennifer; Xu, Jiake

    2015-11-13

    Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, is characterized by an excessive formation and activation of osteoclasts. Anti-catabolic treatment using natural compounds has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy against the osteoclast related osteolytic diseases. In this study, the activity of berberine sulfate (an orally available form of berberine) on osteoclast differentiation and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action were investigated. Using bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) derived osteoclast culture system, we showed that berberine sulfate at the dose of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μM significantly inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Notably, berberine sulfate at these doses did not affect the BMM viability. In addition, we observed that berberine sulfate inhibited the expression of osteoclast marker genes, including cathepsin K (Ctsk), nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP, Acp5) and Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase V0 subunit D2 (V-ATPase d2). Luciferase reporter gene assay and Western blot analysis further revealed that berberine sulfate inhibits receptor for activation of nuclear factor ligand (RANKL)-induced NF-κB and NFAT activity. Taken together, our results suggest that berberine sulfate is a natural compound potentially useful for the treatment of osteoporosis.

  11. Berberine Sulfate Attenuates Osteoclast Differentiation through RANKL Induced NF-κB and NFAT Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lin; Song, Fangming; Liu, Qian; Yang, Mingli; Zhao, Jinmin; Tan, Renxiang; Xu, Jun; Zhang, Ge; Quinn, Julian M. W.; Tickner, Jennifer; Xu, Jiake

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, is characterized by an excessive formation and activation of osteoclasts. Anti-catabolic treatment using natural compounds has been proposed as a potential therapeutic strategy against the osteoclast related osteolytic diseases. In this study, the activity of berberine sulfate (an orally available form of berberine) on osteoclast differentiation and its underlying molecular mechanisms of action were investigated. Using bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) derived osteoclast culture system, we showed that berberine sulfate at the dose of 0.25, 0.5 and 1 μM significantly inhibited the formation of osteoclasts. Notably, berberine sulfate at these doses did not affect the BMM viability. In addition, we observed that berberine sulfate inhibited the expression of osteoclast marker genes, including cathepsin K (Ctsk), nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP, Acp5) and Vacuolar-type H+-ATPase V0 subunit D2 (V-ATPase d2). Luciferase reporter gene assay and Western blot analysis further revealed that berberine sulfate inhibits receptor for activation of nuclear factor ligand (RANKL)-induced NF-κB and NFAT activity. Taken together, our results suggest that berberine sulfate is a natural compound potentially useful for the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:26580592

  12. Down-regulation of miR-21 biogenesis by estrogen action contributes to osteoclastic apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Sugatani, Toshifumi; Hruska, Keith A

    2013-06-01

    Estrogen inhibits osteoclastogenesis and induces osteoclastic apoptosis; however, the molecular mechanisms remain controversial. Recently, a group has demonstrated that osteoclasts are a direct target for estrogen because estrogen stimulates transcription of the Fas Ligand (FasL) gene in osteoclasts, which in turn causes cell death through an autocrine mechanism. In contrast, other groups have shown that the cells are an indirect target for estrogen because estrogen fails to stimulate the transcription of that in osteoclasts. Thus, two quite different molecular mechanisms have been suggested to explain the effects of estrogen in osteoclastic apoptosis. Here we show that the proapoptotic effect of estrogen during osteoclastogenesis is regulated by a posttranscriptional increase in FasL production by down-regulated microRNA-21 (miR-21) biogenesis. Previously, we reported that miR-21 is highly expressed in osteoclastogenesis. We found that estrogen down-regulates miR-21 biogenesis so that FasL, the targets of miR-21, protein levels are posttranscriptionally increased that induce osteoclastic apoptosis. Moreover, the gain-of-function of miR-21 rescued the apoptosis. In addition, we failed to detect estrogen-enhanced FasL levels at mRNA levels. Thus, osteoclastic survival is controlled by autocrine actions of FasL regulated by estrogen and miR-21 plays a central role during estrogen-controlled osteoclastogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Tetraspanin 7 regulates sealing zone formation and the bone-resorbing activity of osteoclasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Jun-Oh; Lee, Yong Deok; Kim, Haemin; Kim, Min Kyung; Song, Min-Kyoung; Lee, Zang Hee; Kim, Hong-Hee

    2016-09-02

    Tetraspanin family proteins regulate morphology, motility, fusion, and signaling in various cell types. We investigated the role of the tetraspanin 7 (Tspan7) isoform in the differentiation and function of osteoclasts. Tspan7 was up-regulated during osteoclastogenesis. When Tspan7 expression was reduced in primary precursor cells by siRNA-mediated gene knock-down, the generation of multinuclear osteoclasts was not affected. However, a striking cytoskeletal abnormality was observed: the formation of the podosome belt structure was inhibited and the microtubular network were disrupted by Tspan7 knock-down. Decreases in acetylated microtubules and levels of phosphorylated Src and Pyk2 in Tspan7 knock-down cells supported the involvement of Tspan7 in cytoskeletal rearrangement signaling in osteoclasts. This cytoskeletal defect interfered with sealing zone formation and subsequently the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts on dentin surfaces. Our results suggest that Tspan7 plays an important role in cytoskeletal organization required for the bone-resorbing function of osteoclasts by regulating signaling to Src, Pyk2, and microtubules. - Highlights: • Tspan7 expression is up-regulated during osteoclastogenesis. • Tspan7 regulates podosome belt organization in osteoclasts. • Tspan7 is crucial for sealing zone formation and bone-resorption by osteoclasts. • Src and Pyk2 phosphorylation and microtubule acetylation mediate Tspan7 function.

  14. Regulation of osteoclast differentiation and actin ring formation by the cytolinker protein plectin.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Takuma; Kinbara, Masayuki; Maeda, Toshihiro; Yoshizawa, Mitsuhiro; Kokabu, Shoichiro; Takano Yamamoto, Teruko

    2017-08-05

    Osteoclasts are cells that resorb the bone matrix and maintain bone and calcium homeostasis. An actin ring is a characteristic actin structure that is essential for bone resorption by osteoclasts. Tyrosine kinase Src deficient osteoclasts do not form actin rings; thus, Src is a key molecule for actin ring formation in osteoclasts. However, how Src regulates actin ring formation is not fully understood. We identified the cytolinker protein plectin as a Src-binding protein by immunoprecipitation and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. Plectin is a huge protein (>500 kDa) and regulates the cytoskeleton by binding to actin and tubulin. We assessed the expression and role of plectin in osteoclasts. Plectin was expressed and co-localized with Src close to the actin ring in osteoclasts. Moreover, plectin was tyrosine-phosphorylated by Src. Differentiation and actin ring formation were inhibited by downregulation of plectin. These results suggest an important role for plectin in osteoclast differentiation and actin ring formation through Src binding. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Osteoclast spreading kinetics are correlated with an oscillatory activation of a calcium-dependent potassium current.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, Leon; Paret, Laurent; Ojeda, Carlos; Tourneur, Yves; Delmas, Pierre D; Chenu, Chantal

    2002-10-01

    Cell movement and spreading involve calcium-dependent processes and ionic channel activation. During bone resorption, osteoclasts alternate between spread, motile and resorptive phases. We investigated whether the electrical membrane properties of osteoclasts were linked to their membrane morphological changes. Rabbit osteoclasts were recorded by time-lapse videomicroscopy performed simultaneously with patch-clamp whole cell and single channel recordings. Original image analysis methods were developed and used to demonstrate for the first time an oscillatory activation of a spontaneous membrane current in osteoclasts, which is directly correlated to the membrane movement rate. This current was identified as a calcium-dependent potassium current (IK(Ca)) that is sensitive to both charybdotoxin and apamin and was generated by a channel with unitary conductance of approximately 25+/-2 pS. Blockade of this current also decreased osteoclast spreading and inhibited bone resorption in vitro, demonstrating a physiological role for this current in osteoclast activity. These results establish for the first time a temporal correlation between lamellipodia formation kinetics and spontaneous peaks of IK(Ca), which are both involved in the control of osteoclast spreading and bone resorption.

  16. Intracellular regulation of enzyme secretion from rat osteoclasts and evidence for a functional role in bone resorption.

    PubMed Central

    Moonga, B S; Moss, D W; Patchell, A; Zaidi, M

    1990-01-01

    1. Osteoclasts are known to secrete acid phosphatase, an iron-containing phosphohydrolase. We have investigated (a) the possibility that acid phosphatase has a functional role in bone resorption and (b) the factors controlling enzyme secretion from isolated rat osteoclasts. 2. Osteoclasts were freshly disaggregated from neonatal rat long bones and dispersed at low densities on devitalized cortical bone slices or on plastic substrate. The levels of acid phosphatase in culture medium were measured spectrophotometrically using 4-nitrophenyl phosphate as hydrolysable substrate. The total plan area of bone resorbed was quantified by scanning electron microscopy in combination with image processing and analysis. 3. Ninety-three per cent of the total enzyme activity detected in the supernatant exposed to bone-osteoclast preparations was resistant to inhibition by D-tartaric acid and was bound to an antibody known to be highly specific for the osteoclast-derived isoenzyme, showing that it originated from osteoclasts. 4. A diminution in the level of supernatant enzyme activity achieved by incubating bone-osteoclast preparations with an antiserum specifically binding the osteoclast isoenzyme, or with a non-competitive inhibitor, molybdate or with competitive inhibitors, disphosphonates, led to a marked reduction of osteoclastic bone resorption. 5. The rate of the enzyme released into the culture supernatant, whether from resorbing (cultured on bone) or non-resorbing (cultured on plastic) osteoclasts declined gradually over 22 h, but that from the former was significantly depressed within the first 30 min of incubation. The supernatant enzyme concentration increased linearly up to 3 h; the levels released from resorbing osteoclasts remained consistently lower than those from non-resorbing cells. 6. Exposure of osteoclasts for 18 h to elevated [Ca2+]o levels produced a concentration-dependent inhibition of supernatant acid phosphatase levels. In the presence of 20 mM [Ca2+]o

  17. Sinomenine induces apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cell-derived osteoclasts in vitro via caspase-3 activation

    PubMed Central

    He, Long-gang; Li, Xiang-lian; Zeng, Xiang-zhou; Duan, Heng; Wang, Song; Lei, Lin-sheng; Li, Xiao-juan; Liu, Shu-wen

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Sinomenine (SIN) is an alkaloid found in the roots and stems of Sinomenium acutum, which has been used to treat rheumatic arthritis in China and Japan. In this study we investigated the effects of SIN on osteoclast survival in vitro and the mechanisms of the actions. Methods: Mature osteoclasts were differentiated from murine monocyte/macrophage cell line RAW264.7 through incubation in the presence of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL, 100 ng/mL) for 4 d. The cell viability was detected using the CCK-8 method. The survival and actin ring construction of the osteoclasts were scored using TRACP staining and phalloidin-FITC staining, respectively. The apoptosis of the osteoclasts was detected by DNA fragmentation and Hoechst 33258 staining, and the cell necrosis was indicated by LDH activity. The activation of caspase-3 in osteoclasts was measured using Western blotting and the caspase-3 activity colorimetric method. Results: SIN (0.25–2 mmol/L) inhibited the viability of mature osteoclasts in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners, but did not affect that of RAW264.7 cells. Consistently, SIN dose-dependently suppressed the survival of mature osteoclasts. The formation of actin ring, a marker associated with actively resorbing osteoclasts, was also impaired by the alkaloid. SIN (0.5 mmol/L) induced the apoptosis of mature osteoclasts, which was significantly attenuated in the presence of the caspase-3 inhibitor Ac-DEVD-CHO. SIN increased the cleavage of caspase-3 in mature osteoclasts in dose-dependent and time-dependent manners. Furthermore, SIN dose-dependently enhanced caspase-3 activity, which was blocked in the presence of Ac-DEVD-CHO. Conclusion: Sinomenine inhibits osteoclast survival in vitro through caspase-3-mediated apoptosis, thus it is a potential agent for treating excessive bone resorption diseases. PMID:24362325

  18. Contributions to osteoclast biology from Japan

    PubMed Central

    Suda, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Naoyuki

    2008-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue, in which bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts continue throughout life. In 1998, we molecularly cloned osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), a long-thought factor responsible for osteoclast formation. This review article describes how Japanese scientists contributed to osteoclast biology before and after the discovery of ODF. This review article is based on the Louis V. Avioli Memorial Lecture of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research (ASBMR) held in Honolulu in September, 2007. PMID:19075515

  19. PKCβII-mediated cross-talk of TRPV1/CB2 modulates the glucocorticoid-induced osteoclast overactivity.

    PubMed

    Bellini, Giulia; Torella, Marco; Manzo, Iolanda; Tortora, Chiara; Luongo, Livio; Punzo, Francesca; Colacurci, Nicola; Nobili, Bruno; Maione, Sabatino; Rossi, Francesca

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the role of the endovanilloid/endocannabinoid system in the glucocorticoid-induced osteoclast overactivity. Receptorial and enzymatic component of the endovanilloid/endocannabinoid system are expressed in bone cells, and dysregulated when bone mass is reduced. Moreover, blockade or desensitization of vanilloid receptor 1 (TRPV1) and/or stimulation of cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) are beneficial for reducing number and activity of the bone cells modulating resorption, the osteoclasts. We have treated in vitro healthy woman derived osteoclasts with methylprednisolone in presence or not of CB2 or TRPV1 agonists/antagonists, analysing the effect on osteoclast function and morphology through a multidisciplinary approach. Moreover, a treatment with a protein kinase C inhibitor to evaluate osteoclast activity and endovanilloid/endocannabinoid component expression levels was performed in osteoclasts derived from healthy subjects in presence of not of methylprednisolone. Our results show, for the first time, that the endovanilloid/endocannabinoid system is dysregulated by the treatment with methylprednisolone, that the osteoclast activity is increased and that pharmacological compounds stimulating CB2 or inhibiting TRPV1 might reduce, possible inhibiting protein kinase C beta II, the methylprednisolone-induced osteoclast over-activation, suggesting their therapeutic use for protecting from the glucocorticoid-induced bone mass loss.

  20. Antiulcerogenic activity of Carica papaya seed in rats.

    PubMed

    Pinto, Lorraine Aparecida; Cordeiro, Kátia Wolff; Carrasco, Viviane; Carollo, Carlos Alexandre; Cardoso, Cláudia Andréa Lima; Argadoña, Eliana Janet Sanjinez; Freitas, Karine de Cássia

    2015-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the gastroprotective and healing effects of the methanolic extract of the seed of the papaya Carica papaya L. (MECP) in rats. Models of acute gastric ulcer induction by ethanol and indomethacin and of chronic ulcer by acetic acid were used. The gastric juice and mucus parameters were evaluated using the pylorus ligation model, and the involvement of sulfhydryl compounds (GSH) and nitric oxide in the gastroprotective effect was analyzed using the ethanol model. The toxicity was assessed through toxicity tests. No signs of toxicity were observed when the rats received a single dose of 2000 mg/kg of extract. The MECP in doses of 125, 250, and 500 mg/kg significantly reduced the gastric lesion with 56, 76, and 82 % inhibition, respectively, and a dose of 30 mg/kg lansoprazole showed 79 % inhibition in the ethanol model. MECP (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion in the indomethacin model, with 62, 67, 81, and 85 % inhibition, respectively. The MECP (500 mg/kg) and cimetidine (200 mg/kg) treatments showed a reduction in ulcerative symptoms induced by acetic acid by 84 and 73 %, respectively. The antiulcerogenic activity seems to involve GSH because the inhibition dropped from 72 to 13 % in the presence of a GSH inhibitor. Moreover, the MECP showed systemic action, increasing the mucus production and decreasing gastric acidity. Treatments with MECP induce gastroprotection without signs of toxicity. This effect seems to involve sulfhydryl compounds, increased mucus, and reduced gastric acidity.

  1. Pressure regulates osteoclast formation and MCSF expression in marrow culture.

    PubMed

    Rubin, J; Biskobing, D; Fan, X; Rubin, C; McLeod, K; Taylor, W R

    1997-01-01

    One of the forces generated during skeletal loading is hydrostatic pressure. In the work presented here, the ability of increased pressure to influence recruitment of osteoclasts was evaluated. Murine marrow cultures, with pO2 and pCO2 kept constant, were subjected to either control (1.0 atm) or elevated (1.37 or 2.0 atm) hydrostatic pressure. As compared to control, cultures pressurized for 6 days at 1.37 atm formed less osteoclast-like cells (OCLC) (71 +/- 6% of control, P < 0.0001). A similar degree of inhibition occurred in cultures exposed to pressure during days 2-4 only (62 +/- 6%), while treatment during days 5-7 failed to inhibit the OCLC number relative to control (99 +/- 5%). Delivery of 2.0 atm pressure on days 2-4 generated 52 +/- 4% OCLC compared to control. Since macrophage colony stimulating factor (MCSF)-dependent proliferation of osteoclast precursors occurs during the pressure-sensitive period, semiquantitative RT-PCR for MCSF mRNA was performed after 3 days in 1.37 atm (days 2-4). As compared to controls, pressure caused a decrease in mRNA coding for the membrane bound form of MCSF (71.2 +/- 4% (n = 25, P < or = 0.05), while the MCSF RT-PCR product representing the secreted form showed no consistent change. This lack of response of the soluble MCSF RT-PCR product was expected, as levels of bioassayable MCSF were not altered by pressure. Extrapolating these data to in vivo conditions suggests that load-bearing will inhibit the formation of osteoclasts.

  2. Inhibitory regulation of osteoclast differentiation by interleukin-3 via regulation of c-Fos and Id protein expression.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jaemin; Lee, Myeung Su; Yeon, Jeong-Tae; Choi, Sik-Won; Kim, Hun Soo; Shim, Hyeok; Lee, Sam Youn; Youn, Byung Soo; Yokota, Yoshifumi; Kim, Jung Ha; Kwak, Han Bok

    2012-05-01

    Interleukin-3 (IL-3) is produced under various pathological conditions and is thought to be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases; however, its function in bone homeostasis under normal conditions or nature of the downstream molecular targets remains unknown. Here we examined the effect of IL-3 on osteoclast differentiation from mouse and human bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Although IL-3 can induce osteoclast differentiation of multiple myeloma bone marrow cells, IL-3 greatly inhibited osteoclast differentiation of human BMMs isolated from healthy donors. These inhibitory effects of IL-3 were only observed at early time points (days 0 and 1). IL-3 inhibited the expression of c-Fos and NFATc1 in BMMs treated with RANKL. However, IL-3-mediated inhibition of osteoclast differentiation was not completely reversed by ectopic expression of c-Fos or NFATc1. Importantly, IL-3 induced inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation (Id)1 in hBMMs, while Id2 were sustained during osteoclast differentiation of mBMMs treated with IL-3. Ectopic expression of NFATc1 in Id2-deficient BMMs completely reversed the inhibitory effect of IL-3 on osteoclast differentiation. Furthermore, inflammation-induced bone erosion was markedly inhibited by IL-3 administration. Taken together, our results suggest that IL-3 plays an inhibitory role in osteoclast differentiation by regulating c-Fos and Ids, and also exerts anti-bone erosion effects.

  3. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Carica papaya Linn. seed essential oil against Candida spp.

    PubMed

    He, X; Ma, Y; Yi, G; Wu, J; Zhou, L; Guo, H

    2017-05-01

    In recent years, the incidence of clinical yeast infections has increased dramatically. Due to the extensive use of broad-spectrum antifungal agents, there has been a notable increase in drug resistance among infections yeast species. As one of the most popular natural antimicrobial agents, essential oils (EOs) have attracted a lot of attention from the scientific community. The aim of this study was to analyse the chemical composition and examine the antifungal activity of the EO extracted from the seeds of Carica papaya Linn. The papaya seed EO was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The major constituent is benzyl isothiocyanate (99·36%). The filter paper disc diffusion method and broth dilution method were employed. The EO showed inhibitory effect against all the tested Candida strains including C. albicans, C. glabrata, C. krusei, C. parapsilosis and C. tropical with inhibition zone diameters in the range of 14·2-33·2 mm, the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) in the range of 4·0-16·0 μg ml(-1) and the minimum fungicidal concentrations (MFCs) in the range of 16·0-64·0 μg ml(-1) . Here, we found that the papaya seed EO has promising anticandida activity and identify C. papaya L. as a potential natural source of antifungal agents. The chemical composition and antifungal activity of essential oil of Carica papaya seeds were studied. The oil of papaya seeds could inhibit the growth of Candida spp. for the first report. Carica Papaya may be recognized as a possible new source of natural antifungal agents. © 2017 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. CD147 promotes the formation of functional osteoclasts through NFATc1 signalling.

    PubMed

    Nishioku, Tsuyoshi; Terasawa, Mariko; Baba, Misaki; Yamauchi, Atsushi; Kataoka, Yasufumi

    2016-04-29

    CD147, a membrane glycoprotein of the immunoglobulin superfamily, is highly upregulated during dynamic cellular events including tissue remodelling. Elevated CD147 expression is present in the joint of rheumatoid arthritis patients. However, the role of CD147 in bone destruction remains unclear. To determine whether CD147 is involved in osteoclastogenesis, we studied its expression in mouse osteoclasts and its role in osteoclast differentiation and function. CD147 expression was markedly upregulated during osteoclast differentiation. To investigate the role of CD147 in receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption activity, osteoclast precursor cells were transfected with CD147 siRNA. Decreased CD147 expression inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption, inhibited RANKL-induced nuclear translocation of the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT) c1 and decreased the expression of the d2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase Vo domain and cathepsin K. Therefore, CD147 plays a critical role in the differentiation and function of osteoclasts by upregulating NFATc1 through the autoamplification of its expression in osteoclastogenesis.

  5. Herba epimedii flavonoids suppress osteoclastic differentiation and bone resorption by inducing G2/M arrest and apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dawei; Zhang, Jinchao; Fong, Chichun; Yao, Xinsheng; Yang, Mengsu

    2012-12-01

    Accumulating evidences suggest that Herba epimedii has the potential benefits against osteoporosis. However, previous studies were focused on the crude extract, total flavonoids (TF) and icariin (ICA), and the detailed molecular mechanisms of action and structure-activity relationship (SAR) remain unclear. Herein we aimed to systematically investigate the effects of Herba epimedii flavonoids (HEF) on the activity of osteoclasts, and explore the potential SAR. Both ICA and baohuoside-1 (BS) significantly inhibited the proliferation of RAW 264.7 cells (IC(50) 25 μM and 67 μM, respectively). Treatment of ICA resulted in G2/M arrest and apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells as early as 12 h. Besides, HEF remarkably suppressed vitamin D-induced differentiation of osteoclasts in rabbit bone marrow cells and the bone resorption of rabbit mature osteoclasts in vitro. It is notable that the inhibitory effect of 100 μM ICA and BS on osteoclast formation is almost 90%; and the inhibition rate on bone resorption is 50% and 80%, respectively. Besides, RANKL-induced osteoclast formation from RAW 264.7 cells and the expression of TRAP, CA II, CTSK and MMP-9 was significantly reduced by the treatment of 25 μM HEF and 17β-estradiol (ES), and the inhibitory strength increases in the order TF < ES < ICA < BS, which was blocked by ICI182780 suggesting that the regulation of osteoclast activity might be ER dependent. Furthermore, the free hydroxyl group at C-7 of BS played an important role in the SAR for anti-osteoclast action. To conclude, HEF could regulate the formation and activity of osteoclasts by inhibiting the proliferation and differentiation, inducing apoptosis and cell cycle arrest and suppressing bone resorption of osteoclasts. Changes in osteoclast activity are probably mediated predominantly by interaction with nuclear estrogen receptors and via mitochondrial pathway. HEF, especially BS, has great potential for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  6. The origin of the non-recombining region of sex chromosomes in Carica and Vasconcellea

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Carica and Vasconcellea are two closely related sister genera in the family Caricaceae, and were once classified as two sections under Carica. After the section Vasconcellea with 21 species was reinstated as a separate genus based on molecular marker data, papaya became the sole species in Carica. S...

  7. Decreased Ferroportin Promotes Myeloma Cell Growth and Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Zhimin; Wang, He; Xia, Jiliang; Yang, Ye; Jin, Zhendong; Xu, Hongwei; Shi, Jumei; De Domenico, Ivana; Tricot, Guido; Zhan, Fenghuang

    2016-01-01

    Iron homeostasis is disrupted in multiple myeloma, a difficult-to-cure plasma cell malignancy with lytic bone lesions. Here, we systematically analyzed iron gene expression signature and demonstrated that mRNA expression of iron exporter ferroportin (FPN1) is significantly downregulated in myeloma cells and correlates negatively with clinic outcome. Restoring expression of FPN1 reduces intracellular liable iron pool, inhibits STAT3-MCL-1 signaling, and suppresses myeloma cells growth. Furthermore, we demonstrated that mRNA of FPN1 is also downregulated at the initial stages of osteoclast differentiation and suppresses myeloma cell–induced osteoclast differentiation through regulating iron regulator TFRC, NF-κB, and JNK pathways. Altogether, we demonstrated that downregulation of FPN1 plays critical roles in promoting myeloma cell growth and bone resorption in multiple myeloma. PMID:25855377

  8. Anther culture of papaya (Carica papaya L.).

    PubMed

    Tsay, H S; Su, C Y

    1985-02-01

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) anther containing microspores in tetrad to early-binucleate stages were successfully cultured on 1/2 strength MS salts and vitamins with full strength Na-Fe-EDTA supplemented with 2 mg/l NAA, 1 mg/l BA and 6% sucrose for callus initiation and formation. Highest frequencies of callus induction were obtained when anthers at the uninucleate stage were cultured in the dark. Haploid plantlets and pollen-derived embryoids were obtained from anthers cultured at the uninucleate stage on solidified MS medium containing 3% sucrose without any growth regulators under a low light intensity (1,500 lux). Large quantities of embryoids were obtained when the original embryoids were transferred to MS medium with 3% sucrose and no growth regulators. Cytology of root tips of embryoid-derived plants confirmed the haploid chromosome number of 9 indicating that the embryoids originated from pollen.

  9. Disturbed MEK/ERK signaling increases osteoclast activity via the Hedgehog-Gli pathway in postmenopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaojie; Jie, Qiang; Zhang, Hongyang; Zhao, Yantao; Lin, Yangjing; Du, Junjie; Shi, Jun; Wang, Long; Guo, Kai; Li, Yong; Wang, Chunhui; Gao, Bo; Huang, Qiang; Liu, Jian; Yang, Liu; Luo, Zhuojing

    2016-11-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis is a worldwide health problem and is characterized by increased and activated osteoclasts. However, the mechanism by which osteoclasts are dysregulated in postmenopausal osteoporosis is not fully understood. In this study, we found that the Hedgehog-Gli pathway was upregulated in postmenopausal osteoporotic osteoclasts and that 17β-estradiol both inhibited osteoclastogenesis and induced osteoclast apoptosis by downregulating Hedgehog-Gli signaling. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the Hedgehog-Gli pathway was negatively regulated by MEK/ERK signaling and that this effect was Sonic Hedgehog (SHH)-dependent and was partially blocked by an anti-SHH antibody. Moreover, we found that the stimulatory effect of Hedgehog signaling on osteoclastogenesis and the inhibitory effect on osteoclast apoptosis were dependent on the Gli family of transcription factors. The pathways and molecules that contribute to the regulation of osteoclastogenesis and apoptosis represent potential new strategies for designing molecular drugs for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  10. Siglec-15, a member of the sialic acid-binding lectin, is a novel regulator for osteoclast differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hiruma, Yoshiharu; Hirai, Takehiro; Tsuda, Eisuke

    2011-06-10

    Highlights: {yields} Siglec-15 was identified as a gene overexpressed in giant cell tumor. {yields} Siglec-15 mRNA expression increased in association with osteoclast differentiation. {yields} Polyclonal antibody to Siglec-15 inhibited osteoclast differentiation in vitro. -- Abstract: Osteoclasts are tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells derived from monocyte/macrophage-lineage precursors and are critically responsible for bone resorption. In giant cell tumor of bone (GCT), numerous TRAP-positive multinucleated giant cells emerge and severe osteolytic bone destruction occurs, implying that the emerged giant cells are biologically similar to osteoclasts. To identify novel genes involved in osteoclastogenesis, we searched genes whose expression pattern was significantly different in GCT from normal and other bone tumor tissues. By screening a human gene expression database, we identified sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-like lectin 15 (Siglec-15) as one of the genes markedly overexpressed in GCT. The mRNA expression level of Siglec-15 increased in association with osteoclast differentiation in cultures of mouse primary unfractionated bone marrow cells (UBMC), RAW264.7 cells of the mouse macrophage cell line and human osteoclast precursors (OCP). Treatment with polyclonal antibody to mouse Siglec-15 markedly inhibited osteoclast differentiation in primary mouse bone marrow monocyte/macrophage (BMM) cells stimulated with receptor activator of nuclear factor {kappa}B ligand (RANKL) or tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-{alpha}. The antibody also inhibited osteoclast differentiation in cultures of mouse UBMC and RAW264.7 cells stimulated with active vitamin D{sub 3} and RANKL, respectively. Finally, treatment with polyclonal antibody to human Siglec-15 inhibited RANKL-induced TRAP-positive multinuclear cell formation in a human OCP culture. These results suggest that Siglec-15 plays an important role in osteoclast differentiation.

  11. Distinctive and selective route of PI3K/PKCα-PKCδ/RhoA-Rac1 signaling in osteoclastic cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Man; Kim, Mi Yeong; Lee, Kyunghee; Jeong, Daewon

    2016-12-05

    Cell migration during specialized stages of osteoclast precursors, mononuclear preosteoclasts, and multinucleated mature osteoclasts remain uncertain. M-CSF- and osteopontin-induced osteoclastic cell migration was inhibited by function-blocking monoclonal antibodies specific to the integrin αv and β3 subunits, suggesting that integrin αvβ3 mediates migratory signaling induced by M-CSF and osteopontin. M-CSF and osteopontin stimulation was shown to regulate two branched signaling processes, PI3K/PKCα/RhoA axis and PI3K/PKCδ/Rac1 axis. Interestingly, inactivation of RhoA or Rac1 blocked preosteoclast and mature osteoclast migration but not osteoclast precursor migration in a transwell-based cell migration assay. Moreover, the inhibitory effect on preosteoclast and mature osteoclast migration induced by Rac1 inactivation was more effective than that by RhoA inactivation. Collectively, our findings suggest that osteoclast precursor migration depends on PI3K/PKCα-PKCδ signaling mediated via integrin αvβ3 bypassing RhoA and Rac1, whereas preosteoclast and mature osteoclast migration relies on PI3K/PKCα-PKCδ/RhoA-Rac1 axis signaling mediated via integrin αvβ3 with increased dependency on PKCδ/Rac1 signaling route as differentiation progresses.

  12. Regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 protein expression by 1α, 25-(OH)₂D₃ during osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Jian-Hong; Tong, Xi-Shuai; Chen, Guo-Hong; Liu, Xue-Zhong; Bian, Jian-Chun; Yuan, Yan; Liu, Zong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    To investigate 1α,25-(OH)₂D₃ regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein expression during osteoclast formation and differentiation, receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) were administered to induce the differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into osteoclasts. The cells were incubated with different concentrations of 1α,25-(OH)₂D₃ during culturing, and cell proliferation was measured using the methylthiazol tetrazolium method. Osteoclast formation was confirmed using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and assessing bone lacunar resorption. MMP-9 protein expression levels were measured with Western blotting. We showed that 1α,25-(OH)₂D₃ inhibited RAW264.7 cell proliferation induced by RANKL and M-CSF, increased the numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and their nuclei, enhanced osteoclast bone resorption, and promoted MMP-9 protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings indicate that 1α,25-(OH)₂D₃ administered at a physiological relevant concentration promoted osteoclast formation and could regulate osteoclast bone metabolism by increasing MMP-9 protein expression during osteoclast differentiation.

  13. Osteoclast-gene expression profiling reveals osteoclast-derived CCR2 chemokines promoting myeloma cell migration

    PubMed Central

    Moreaux, Jérôme; Hose, Dirk; Kassambara, Alboukadel; Rème, Thierry; Moine, Philippe; Requirand, Guilhem; Goldschmidt, Hartmut; Klein, Bernard

    2011-01-01

    Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the clonal expansion of malignant plasma cells (multiple myeloma cells, MMC), primarily in the bone marrow (BM). Osteolytic bone lesions are detected in 80% of patients, due to increased osteoclastic bone resorption and reduced osteoblastic bone formation. MMC are found closely associated to sites of increased bone resorption. Osteoclasts strongly support MMC survival and vice versa in vitro. To further elucidate the mechanisms involved in osteoclast/MMC interaction, we have identified 552 genes overexpressed in osteoclasts compared to other BM cell subpopulations. Osteoclasts express specifically genes coding for four CCR2-targeting chemokines, and genes coding for MMC growth factors (IGF-1, APRIL). An anti-CCR2 MoAb blocked osteoclast chemoattractant activity for MMC and CCR2-chemokines are also MMC growth factors, promoting MAPK activation in MMC. An anti-IGF-1 receptor MoAb completely blocked the osteoclast-induced survival of MMC suppressing both osteoclast and MMC survival. Specific APRIL or IL-6 inhibitors partially blocked osteoclast-induced MMC survival. These in-vitro data may explain why newly-diagnosed patients whose MMC express high levels of CCR2 present numerous bone lesions. Taken together, this study displays additional mechanisms involved in osteoclast/MMC interaction and suggests using CCR2 and/or IGF-1 targeting strategies to block this interaction and prevent drug resistance. PMID:21097672

  14. Decursin from Angelica gigas suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone loss.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Zheng, Ting; Kang, Ju-Hee; Li, Hua; Cho, Hyewon; Jeon, Raok; Ryu, Jae-Ha; Yim, Mijung

    2016-03-05

    Osteoclasts are the only cells capable of breaking down bone matrix, and excessive activation of osteoclasts is responsible for bone-destructive diseases. In this study, we investigated the effects of decursin from extract of Angelica gigas root on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation using mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs). Decursin inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation without cytotoxicity. In particular, decursin maintains the characteristics of macrophages by blocking osteoclast differentiation by RANKL. Furthermore, the RANKL-stimulated bone resorption was diminished by decursin. Mechanistically, decursin blocked the RANKL-triggered ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) phosphorylation, which results in suppression of c-Fos and the nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1) expression. In accordance with the in vitro study, decursin reduced lipopolysaccharide (LPS)- or ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in vivo. Therefore, decursin exerted an inhibitory effect on osteoclast formation and bone loss in vitro and in vivo. Decursin could be useful for the treatment of bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption.

  15. Curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast formation by attenuating the JNK signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Mingxiang; Chen, Xianying; Lv, Chaoyang; Yi, Xilu; Zhang, Yao; Xue, Mengjuan; He, Shunmei; Zhu, Guoying; Wang, Hongfu

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Curcumol suppresses osteoclasts differentiation in vitro. • Curcumol impairs JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway. • Curcumol may be used for treating osteoclast related diseases. - Abstract: Osteoclasts, derived from hemopoietic progenitors of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, have a unique role in bone resorption, and are considered a potential therapeutic target in the treatment of such pathologic bone diseases as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and periodontitis. In the present study, we demonstrate that curcumol, one of the major components of the essential oil of Rhizoma Curcumae, exhibits an inhibitory effect on receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation with both bone marrow-derived macrophages and RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, RANKL-induced mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, calcitonin receptor, and cathepsin K, is prominently reduced in the presence of curcumol. Furthermore, the molecular mechanism of action was investigated, and curcumol inhibited osteoclastogenesis by specifically impairing RANKL-induced c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/activator protein-1 (AP-1) signaling, which was further identified in rescue studies by means of anisomycin, a JNK signaling-specific activator. Taken together, these findings suggest that curcumol suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation through the JNK/AP-1 signaling pathway, and may be useful as a therapeutic treatment for bone resorption-associated diseases.

  16. Pharmacological blocking of the osteoclastic biocorrosion of surgical stainless steel in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lionetto, S; Little, A; Moriceau, G; Heymann, D; Decurtins, M; Plecko, M; Filgueira, L; Cadosch, D

    2013-04-01

    In vitro studies suggest that human osteoclasts (OC) are able to corrode surgical stainless steel 316L (SS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether osteoclastic biocorrosion can be blocked pharmacologically. Human OCs were generated in vitro from peripheral blood monocytic cells (PBMCs) in the presence of OC differentiation cytokines. The osteoclastic viability, differentiation, and resorptive function (on both bone and SS) were assessed using standard colorimetric cell viability assay 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5-(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenil)-2H-tetrazolium, inner salt (MTS), fluorescence microscopy, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase expression (flow cytometry), and scanning electron microscopy. OCs cultured on SS were exposed to nontoxic concentrations of bafilomycin A1, amiloride hydrochloride, or zoledronic acid. The extent of biocorrosion was quantified using atomic emission spectrometry (to measure the concentration of metal ions released into the supernatant) and scanning electron microscopy. PBMCs differentiated into mature and functional OC in the presence of all the drugs used. Osteoclastic resorption of SS was noted with differences in the resorption pattern for all drug treatments. Under the drug treatments, single areas of osteoclastic resorption were larger in size but less abundant when compared with positive controls. None of the drugs used were able to inhibit osteoclastic biocorrosion of SS. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Role of FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) in osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Miho; Nagai, Tatsuo; Matsushita, Reiko; Hashimoto, Atsushi; Miyashita, Toshiyuki; Hirohata, Shunsei

    2013-11-01

    We previously disclosed the enhanced expression of FK506 binding protein 5 (FKBP5) messenger RNA (mRNA) in bone marrow (BM) CD34(+) cells in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in which systemic osteoporosis takes place. Since BM CD34(+) cells are precursors of osteoclasts, it is possible that FKBP5 overexpression might lead to osteoporosis by affecting osteoclastogenesis. We therefore explore the influences of FKBP5 in osteoclast differentiation. Stable transfectants of RAW264.7 overexpressing murine FKBP5 gene were established. Osteoclast differentiation was induced by receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) ligand and was evaluated by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and pit formation assay. FKBP5 transfectants of RAW264.7 generated higher numbers of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells with increased activity of pit formation on calcium phosphate-coated culture slides than mock transfectants. The enhancement of osteoclast differentiation of FKBP5 transfectants was only partially inhibited by N-acetyl L-cysteine. Finally, glucocorticoid enhanced FKBP5 mRNA expression as well as osteoclast differentiation of RAW264.7 cells in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicate that FKBP5 promotes osteoclast differentiation by a mechanism distinct from NF-κB activation. Moreover, the data suggest that FKBP5 might play a role in bone destruction and development of osteoporosis in RA as well as in glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.

  18. Plasma membrane calcium ATPase regulates bone mass by fine-tuning osteoclast differentiation and survival.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyung Joon; Prasad, Vikram; Hyung, Seok-Won; Lee, Zang Hee; Lee, Sang-Won; Bhargava, Aditi; Pearce, David; Lee, Youngkyun; Kim, Hong-Hee

    2012-12-24

    The precise regulation of Ca(2+) dynamics is crucial for proper differentiation and function of osteoclasts. Here we show the involvement of plasma membrane Ca(2+) ATPase (PMCA) isoforms 1 and 4 in osteoclastogenesis. In immature/undifferentiated cells, PMCAs inhibited receptor activator of NF-κB ligand-induced Ca(2+) oscillations and osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Interestingly, nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc1) directly stimulated PMCA transcription, whereas the PMCA-mediated Ca(2+) efflux prevented NFATc1 activation, forming a negative regulatory loop. PMCA4 also had an anti-osteoclastogenic effect by reducing NO, which facilitates preosteoclast fusion. In addition to their role in immature cells, increased expression of PMCAs in mature osteoclasts prevented osteoclast apoptosis both in vitro and in vivo. Mice heterozygous for PMCA1 or null for PMCA4 showed an osteopenic phenotype with more osteoclasts on bone surface. Furthermore, PMCA4 expression levels correlated with peak bone mass in premenopausal women. Thus, our results suggest that PMCAs play important roles for the regulation of bone homeostasis in both mice and humans by modulating Ca(2+) signaling in osteoclasts.

  19. Strategies of leaf expansion in Ficus carica under semiarid conditions.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, A M; Peters, J

    2010-05-01

    Leaf area expansion, thickness and inclination, gas exchange parameters and relative chlorophyll content were analysed in field-grown fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves over time, from emergence until after full leaf expansion (FLE). Ficus carica leaves showed a subtle change in shape during the early stages of development, and FLE was reached within ca. 30 days after emergence. Changes in leaf thickness and inclination after FLE demonstrated good adaptation to environmental conditions during summer in areas with a Mediterranean climate. Changes in gas exchange parameters and relative chlorophyll content showed that F. carica is a delayed-greening species, reaching maximum values 20 days after FLE. Correlation analysis of datasets collected during leaf expansion, confirmed dependence among structural and functional traits in F. carica. Pn was directly correlated with stomatal conductance (Gs), transpiration (E), leaf area (LA) and relative chlorophyll content up to FLE. The effect of pruning on leaf expansion, a cultural technique commonly applied in this fruit tree, was also evaluated. Although leaf development in pruned branches gave a significantly higher relative leaf area growth rate (RGR(l)) and higher LA than non-pruned branches, no significant differences were found in other morphological and physiological traits, indicating no pruning effect on leaf development. All studied morphological and physiological characteristics indicate that F. carica is well adapted to semiarid conditions. The delayed greening strategy of this species is discussed.

  20. The inhibitory effect of vitamin K on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption.

    PubMed

    Wu, Wei-Jie; Kim, Min Seuk; Ahn, Byung-Yong

    2015-10-01

    To further understand the correlation between vitamin K and bone metabolism, the effects of vitamins K1, menaquinone-4 (MK-4), and menaquinone-7 (MK-7) on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption were comparatively investigated. Vitamin K2 groups (MK-4 and MK-7) were found to significantly inhibit RANKL-medicated osteoclast cell formation of bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner, without any evidence of cytotoxicity. The mRNA expression of specific osteoclast differentiation markers, such as c-Fos, NFATc1, OSCAR, and TRAP, as well as NFATc1 protein expression and TRAP activity in RANKL-treated BMMs were inhibited by vitamin K2, although MK-4 exhibited a significantly greater efficiency compared to MK-7. In contrast, the same dose of vitamin K1 had no inhibitory effect on RANKL-induced osteoclast cell formation, but increased the expression of major osteoclastogenic genes. Interestingly, vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 all strongly inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption (p < 0.01) in a dose dependent manner. These results suggest that vitamins K1, MK-4 and MK-7 have anti-osteoporotic properties, while their regulation effects on osteoclastogenesis are somewhat different.

  1. DMSO regulates osteoclast development in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Lemieux, Justin M.; Wu, Gary; Morgan, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) is routinely used in the laboratory as a solvent and vehicle for organic molecules. Although it has been used in previous studies involving myeloid cells and macrophages, we are unaware of data demonstrating the effects of DMSO alone on osteoclast development. Recently, we were using DMSO as a vehicle and included a non-vehicle control. Surprisingly, we observed a marked change in osteoclast development, and therefore designed this study to examine the effects of DMSO on osteoclast development. Osteoclasts were generated from two sources: bone marrow macrophages and an osteoclast progenitor cell line. Cells were cultured with DMSO for various durations and at differing concentrations and mature, multinucleated (>3 nuclei) TRAP+ cells were assessed in terms of cell number, cell surface area, and number of nuclei/cell. Osteoclast surface area increased in 5 μM DMSO to a mean of 156,422 pixels from a mean of 38,510 pixels in control culture, and subsequently decreased in 10 μM DMSO to a mean of 18,994 pixels. With serial addition of DMSO over 5 d, a significant increase in mean surface area, and number of nuclei/cell was also observed, while the opposite was true when DMSO was serially removed from culture. These findings show that DMSO exerts a marked effect on osteoclast differentiation. Since many investigators use DMSO to solubilize compounds for treatment of osteoclasts, caution is warranted as altering DMSO concentrations may have a profound effect on the final data, especially if osteoclast differentiation is being assessed. PMID:21359822

  2. TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) induced by RANKL negatively regulates osteoclasts survival and function.

    PubMed

    Wu, Mengrui; Wang, Yiping; Deng, Lianfu; Chen, Wei; Li, Yi-Ping

    2012-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the principle bone-resorbing cells. Precise control of balanced osteoclast activity is indispensable for bone homeostasis. Osteoclast activation mediated by RANK-TRAF6 axis has been clearly identified. However, a negative regulation-machinery in osteoclast remains unclear. TRAF family member-associated NF-κB activator (TANK) is induced by about 10 folds during osteoclastogenesis, according to a genome-wide analysis of gene expression before and after osteoclast maturation, and confirmed by western blot and quantitative RT-PCR. Bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) transduced with lentivirus carrying tank-shRNA were induced to form osteoclast in the presence of RANKL and M-CSF. Tank expression was downregulated by 90% by Tank-shRNA, which is confirmed by western blot. Compared with wild-type (WT) cells, osteoclastogenesis of Tank-silenced BMMs was increased, according to tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) stain on day 5 and day 7. Number of bone resorption pits by Tank-silenced osteoclasts was increased by 176% compared with WT cells, as shown by wheat germ agglutinin (WGA) stain and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) analysis. Survival rate of Tank-silenced mature osteoclast is also increased. However, acid production of Tank-knockdown cells was not changed compared with control cells. IκBα phosphorylation is increased in tank-silenced cells, indicating that TANK may negatively regulate NF-κB activity in osteoclast. In conclusion, Tank, whose expression is increased during osteoclastogenesis, inhibits osteoclast formation, activity and survival, by regulating NF-κB activity and c-FLIP expression. Tank enrolls itself in a negative feedback loop in bone resorption. These results may provide means for therapeutic intervention in diseases of excessive bone resorption.

  3. Comparison of direct and indirect radiation effects on osteoclast formation from progenitor cells derived from different hemopoietic sources

    SciTech Connect

    Scheven, B.A.; Wassenaar, A.M.; Kawilarang-de Haas, E.W.; Nijweide, P.J.

    1987-07-01

    Hemopoietic stem and progenitor cells from different sources differ in radiosensitivity. Recently, we have demonstrated that the multinucleated cell responsible for bone resorption and marrow cavity formation, the osteoclast, is in fact of hemopoietic lineage. In this investigation we have studied the radiosensitivity of osteoclast formation from two different hemopoietic tissues: fetal liver and adult bone marrow. Development of osteoclasts from hemopoietic progenitors was induced by coculture of hemopoietic cell populations with fetal mouse long bones depleted of their own osteoclast precursor pool. During culture, osteoclasts developed from the exogenous cell population and invaded the calcified hypertrophic cartilage of the long bone model, thereby giving rise to the formation of a primitive marrow cavity. To analyze the radiosensitivity of osteoclast formation, either the hemopoietic cells or the bone rudiments were irradiated before coculture. Fetal liver cells were found to be less radiosensitive than bone marrow cells. The D0, Dq values and extrapolation numbers were 1.69 Gy, 5.30 Gy, and 24.40 for fetal liver cells and 1.01 Gy, 1.85 Gy, and 6.02 for bone marrow cells. Irradiation of the (pre)osteoclast-free long bone rudiments instead of the hemopoietic sources resulted in a significant inhibition of osteoclast formation at doses of 4 Gy or more. This indirect effect appeared to be more prominent in the cocultures with fetal than with adult hemopoietic cells. Furthermore, radiation doses of 8.0-10.0 Gy indirectly affected the appearance of other cell types (e.g., granulocytes) in the newly formed but underdeveloped marrow cavity. The results indicate that osteoclast progenitors from different hemopoietic sources exhibit a distinct sensitivity to ionizing irradiation. Radiation injury to long bone rudiments disturbs the osteoclast-forming capacity as well as the hemopoietic microenvironment.

  4. Antifungal Activity in Ethanolic Extracts of Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol Leaves and Seeds.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Quintal, Pedro; González-Flores, Tania; Rodríguez-Buenfil, Ingrid; Gallegos-Tintoré, Santiago

    2011-01-01

    Bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. An ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. Both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. The effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identification of the compounds present in the lowest and highest yield extracts. Analysis of the leaf extract with phytochemical tests showed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids and terpenes. Antifungal effectiveness was determined by challenging the extracts (LE, SRE, SUE) from the best extraction treatment against three phytopathogenic fungi: Rhizopus stolonifer, Fusarium spp. and Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. The leaf extract exhibited the broadest action spectrum. The MIC(50) for the leaf extract was 0.625 mg ml(-1) for Fusarium spp. and >10 mg ml(-1) for C. gloeosporioides, both equal to approximately 20% mycelial growth inhibition. Ethanolic extracts from Carica papaya L. cv. Maradol leaves are a potential source of secondary metabolites with antifungal properties.

  5. In Vitro and In Vivo Effects of Gracilaria verrucosa Extracts on Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kwang-Jin; Lee, Yong-Jin; Hwang, Yun-Ho; Kang, Kyung-Yun; Yee, Sung-Tae; Son, Young-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Bone remodeling, a physiological process characterized by bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts, is important for the maintenance of healthy bone in adult humans. Osteoclasts play a critical role in bone erosion and osteoporosis and are bone-specific multinucleated cells generated through differentiation of monocyte/macrophage lineage precursors. Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) has been reported to induce osteoclast differentiation. In this study, we explored whether Gracilaria verrucosa extracts (GE) could affect RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation. GE significantly inhibited RANKL-activated osteoclast differentiation by inhibiting protein expression of c-fos and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), vital factors in RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis. In addition, GE attenuated ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice. In summary, GE can prevent osteoclastogenesis and hormone-related bone loss via blockage of c-fos-NFATc1 signaling. Our results suggest that GE may have therapeutic potential in the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:28335442

  6. Anticancer activity of Carica papaya: a review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Thao T T; Shaw, Paul N; Parat, Marie-Odile; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2013-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely cultivated in tropical and subtropical countries and is used as food as well as traditional medicine to treat a range of diseases. Increasing anecdotal reports of its effects in cancer treatment and prevention, with many successful cases, have warranted that these pharmacological properties be scientifically validated. A bibliographic search was conducted using the key words "papaya", "anticancer", and "antitumor" along with cross-referencing. No clinical or animal cancer studies were identified and only seven in vitro cell-culture-based studies were reported; these indicate that C. papaya extracts may alter the growth of several types of cancer cell lines. However, many studies focused on specific compounds in papaya and reported bioactivity including anticancer effects. This review summarizes the results of extract-based or specific compound-based investigations and emphasizes the aspects that warrant future research to explore the bioactives in C. papaya for their anticancer activities. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Incorporation of RANKL promotes osteoclast formation and osteoclast activity on β-TCP ceramics.

    PubMed

    Choy, John; Albers, Christoph E; Siebenrock, Klaus A; Dolder, Silvia; Hofstetter, Wilhelm; Klenke, Frank M

    2014-12-01

    β-Tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) ceramics are approved for the repair of osseous defects. In large defects, however, the substitution of the material by authentic bone is inadequate to provide sufficient long-term mechanical stability. We aimed to develop composites of β-TCP ceramics and receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL) to enhance the formation of osteoclasts and promote cell mediated calcium phosphate resorption. RANKL was adsorbed superficially onto β-TCP ceramics or incorporated into a crystalline layer of calcium phosphate by the use of a co-precipitation technique. Murine osteoclast precursors were seeded onto the ceramics. After 15 days, the formation of osteoclasts was quantified cytologically and colorimetrically with tartrate-resistant acidic phosphatase (TRAP) staining and TRAP activity measurements, respectively. Additionally, the expression of transcripts encoding the osteoclast gene products cathepsin K, calcitonin receptor, and of the sodium/hydrogen exchanger NHA2 were quantified by real-time PCR. The activity of newly formed osteoclasts was evaluated by means of a calcium phosphate resorption assay. Superficially adsorbed RANKL did not induce the formation of osteoclasts on β-TCP ceramics. When co-precipitated onto β-TCP ceramics RANKL supported the formation of mature osteoclasts. The development of osteoclast lineage cells was further confirmed by the increased expression of cathepsin K, calcitonin receptor, and NHA2. Incorporated RANKL stimulated the cells to resorb crystalline calcium phosphate. Our in vitro study shows that RANKL incorporated into β-TCP ceramics induces the formation of active, resorbing osteoclasts on the material surface. Once formed, osteoclasts mediate the release of RANKL thereby perpetuating their differentiation and activation. In vivo, the stimulation of osteoclast-mediated resorption may contribute to a coordinated sequence of material resorption and bone formation. Further in vivo studies

  8. Anti-ulcerogenic activity of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed on indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Oloyede, Hussein O B; Adaja, Matthew C; Ajiboye, Taofeek O; Salawu, Musa O

    2015-03-01

    Carica papaya is an important fruit with its seeds used in the treatment of ulcer in Nigeria. This study investigated the anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed against indomethacin-induced peptic ulcer in male rats. Thirty male rats were separated into 6 groups (A-F) of five rats each. For 14 d before ulcer induction with indomethacin, groups received once daily oral doses of vehicle (distilled water), cimetidine 200 mg/kg body weight (BW), or aqueous extract of C. papaya seed at doses of 100, 150 or 200 mg/kg BW (groups A, B, C, D, E and F, respectively). Twenty-four hours after the last treatment, groups B, C, D, E and F were treated with 100 mg/kg BW of indomethacin to induce ulcer formation. Carica papaya seed extract significantly (P< 0.05) increased gastric pH and percentage of ulcer inhibition relative to indomethacin-induced ulcer rats. The extract significantly (P< 0.05) decreased gastric acidity, gastric acid output, gastric pepsin secretion, ulcer index and gastric secretion volume relative to group B. These results were similar to that achieved by pretreatment with cimetidine. Specific activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in the extract-treated groups (D, E and F) were increased significantly over the group B (P< 0.05). Pretreatment with the seed extract protected rats from the indomethacin-mediated decrease in enzyme function experienced by the group B. Similarly, indomethacin-mediated decrease in reduced glutathione level and indomethacin-mediated increase in malondialdehyde were reversed by Carica papaya extract. In this study, pretreatment with aqueous extract of Carica papaya seed exhibited anti-ulcerogenic and antioxidant effects, which may be due to the enhanced antioxidant enzymes.

  9. Clodronate acts on human osteoclastic cell proliferation, differentiation and function in a bioreversible manner

    PubMed Central

    Recenti, Raffaella; Leone, Giuseppe; Simi, Lisa; Orfei, Marco; Pinzani, Pamela; Pieraccini, Giuseppe; Moneti, Gloriano; Carossino, Anna Maria; Franchi, Alessandro; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Carbonell Sala, Silvia; Ginanneschi, Mauro; Tanini, Annalisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2007-01-01

    Background. Clodronate is used in high bone resorption diseases. Its action was defined as “cytotoxic” based on the induced cellular ATP loss, without any experimental verification of reversibility. In the present report the reversibility of clodronate action was tested on cultured human osteoclastic cell cultures. As “in vitro” bioeffects of clodronate are reversible, this compound should not be defined as “cytotoxic”. Introduction. Bisphosphonates are pyrophosphate analogs able to inhibit osteoclast-mediated bone resorption widely used in the treatment of diseases with high bone turnover. Several evidences have shown that bisphosphonates can be divided into two groups with distinct molecular mechanisms of action depending on the nature of the R2side chain. The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates act on osteoclasts by preventing protein prenylation, while non-nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates, like clodronate, are metabolized intracellularly to a β-γ-methylene analog of ATP that induces inhibition of the ADP/ATP translocase. Materials and Methods. In order to evaluate clodronate effects on osteoclastic cells and the bioreversibility of its action, we have used a human preosteoclastic (FLG 29.1) cell line and primary cultures of human osteoclast-like (HOC) cells. Functional and differentiative modifications were evaluated with immunocytochemical tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity (TRAcP) assay and with rapid quantitative detection of the complex “matrix metalloproteinase 9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase” (MMP9/TIMP1) by RT-PCR analysis based on “TaqMan” technology. The apoptosis phenomenon were detected by DNA ladder analysis and quantified by counting apoptotic cells with Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) analysis. Adenosine-5’-[ β - γ -dichloromethylene] triphosphate (AppCCl2p) was detected and identified in cell extract by HPLC-ESI-MS-MS Mass Spectrometry. Intracellular ATP modulation in the presence of

  10. Post-irradiation identification of papaya ( Carica papaya L.) fruit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Suchandra; Variyar, Prasad S.; Sharma, Arun

    2012-03-01

    Impact of radiation processing on the volatile essential oil profile of papaya ( Carica papaya) was investigated. Gamma-radiation processing resulted in the appearance of a new peak in the GLC profile that was identified as phenol. The observed dose dependent increase in phenol content suggested possible use of this compound as a marker for radiation processed papaya.

  11. Ecophysiology of papaya Carica papaya L.: a review

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a principal horticultural crop of tropical and subtropical regions. Knowledge of how papaya responds to environmental factors provides a scientific basis to develop management strategies to optimize fruit yield and quality. A better understanding of genotypic responses t...

  12. Disulfiram attenuates osteoclast differentiation in vitro: a potential antiresorptive agent.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hua; Qin, An; Cheng, Tak S; Pavlos, Nathan J; Rea, Sarah; Dai, Kerong; Zheng, Ming H

    2015-01-01

    Disulfiram (DSF), a cysteine modifying compound, has long been clinically employed for the treatment of alcohol addiction. Mechanistically, DSF acts as a modulator of MAPK and NF-κB pathways signaling pathways. While these pathways are crucial for osteoclast (OC) differentiation, the potential influence of DSF on OC formation and function has not been directly assessed. Here, we explore the pharmacological effects of DSF on OC differentiation, activity and the modulation of osteoclastogenic signaling cascades. We first analyzed cytotoxicity of DSF on bone marrow monocytes isolated from C57BL/6J mice. Upon the establishment of optimal dosage, we conducted osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption assays in the presence or absence of DSF treatment. Luciferase assays in RAW264.7 cells were used to examine the effects of DSF on major transcription factors activation. Western blot, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, intracellular acidification and proton influx assays were employed to further dissect the underlying mechanism. DSF treatment dose-dependently inhibited both mouse and human osteoclastogenesis, especially at early stages of differentiation. This inhibition correlated with a decrease in the expression of key osteoclastic marker genes including CtsK, TRAP, DC-STAMP and Atp6v0d2 as well as a reduction in bone resorption in vitro. Suppression of OC differentiation was found to be due, at least in part, to the blockade of several key receptor activators of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-signaling pathways including ERK, NF-κB and NFATc1. On the other hand, DSF failed to suppress intracellular acidification and proton influx in mouse and human osteoclasts using acridine orange quenching and microsome-based proton transport assays. Our findings indicate that DSF attenuates OC differentiation via the collective suppression of several key RANKL-mediated signaling cascades, thus making it an attractive agent for the treatment of OC

  13. Disulfiram Attenuates Osteoclast Differentiation In Vitro: A Potential Antiresorptive Agent

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Tak S.; Pavlos, Nathan J.; Rea, Sarah; Dai, Kerong; Zheng, Ming H.

    2015-01-01

    Disulfiram (DSF), a cysteine modifying compound, has long been clinically employed for the treatment of alcohol addiction. Mechanistically, DSF acts as a modulator of MAPK and NF-κB pathways signaling pathways. While these pathways are crucial for osteoclast (OC) differentiation, the potential influence of DSF on OC formation and function has not been directly assessed. Here, we explore the pharmacological effects of DSF on OC differentiation, activity and the modulation of osteoclastogenic signaling cascades. We first analyzed cytotoxicity of DSF on bone marrow monocytes isolated from C57BL/6J mice. Upon the establishment of optimal dosage, we conducted osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption assays in the presence or absence of DSF treatment. Luciferase assays in RAW264.7 cells were used to examine the effects of DSF on major transcription factors activation. Western blot, reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, intracellular acidification and proton influx assays were employed to further dissect the underlying mechanism. DSF treatment dose-dependently inhibited both mouse and human osteoclastogenesis, especially at early stages of differentiation. This inhibition correlated with a decrease in the expression of key osteoclastic marker genes including CtsK, TRAP, DC-STAMP and Atp6v0d2 as well as a reduction in bone resorption in vitro. Suppression of OC differentiation was found to be due, at least in part, to the blockade of several key receptor activators of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-signaling pathways including ERK, NF-κB and NFATc1. On the other hand, DSF failed to suppress intracellular acidification and proton influx in mouse and human osteoclasts using acridine orange quenching and microsome-based proton transport assays. Our findings indicate that DSF attenuates OC differentiation via the collective suppression of several key RANKL-mediated signaling cascades, thus making it an attractive agent for the treatment of OC

  14. C3 Rho-Inhibitor for Targeted Pharmacological Manipulation of Osteoclast-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Tautzenberger, Andrea; Förtsch, Christina; Zwerger, Christian; Dmochewitz, Lydia; Kreja, Ludwika; Ignatius, Anita; Barth, Holger

    2013-01-01

    The C3 toxins from Clostridium botulinum (C3bot) and Clostridium limosum (C3lim) as well as C3-derived fusion proteins are selectively taken up into the cytosol of monocytes/macrophages where the C3-catalyzed ADP-ribosylation of Rho results in inhibition of Rho-signalling and characteristic morphological changes. Since the fusion toxin C2IN-C3lim was efficiently taken up into and inhibited proliferation of murine macrophage-like RAW 264.7 cells, its effects on RAW 264.7-derived osteoclasts were investigated. C2IN-C3lim was taken up into differentiated osteoclasts and decreased their resorption activity. In undifferentiated RAW 264.7 cells, C2IN-C3lim-treatment significantly decreased their differentiation into osteoclasts as determined by counting the multi-nucleated, TRAP-positive cells. This inhibitory effect was concentration- and time-dependent and most efficient when C2IN-C3lim was applied in the early stage of osteoclast-formation. A single-dose application of C2IN-C3lim at day 0 and its subsequent removal at day 1 reduced the number of osteoclasts in a comparable manner while C2IN-C3lim-application at later time points did not reduce the number of osteoclasts to a comparable degree. Control experiments with an enzymatically inactive C3 protein revealed that the ADP-ribosylation of Rho was essential for the observed effects. In conclusion, the results indicate that Rho-activity is crucial during the early phase of osteoclast-differentiation. Other bone cell types such as pre-osteoblastic cells were not affected by C2IN-C3lim. Due to their cell-type selective and specific mode of action, C3 proteins and C3-fusions might be valuable tools for targeted pharmacological manipulation of osteoclast formation and activity, which could lead to development of novel therapeutic strategies against osteoclast-associated diseases. PMID:24386487

  15. Inhibitory effect of menaquinone-7 (vitamin K2) on osteoclast-like cell formation and osteoclastic bone resorption in rat bone tissues in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, M; Ma, Z J

    2001-12-01

    The effect of menaquinone-7 (MK-7; vitamin K2) on osteoclast-like cell formation and osteoclastic bone resorption in rat femoral tissues in vitro was investigated. The bone marrow cells were cultured for 7 days in a a-minimal essential medium (alpha-MEM) containing a well-known bone resorbing agent [parathyroid hormone (1-34) (PTH) or prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)] with an effective concentration. Osteoclast-like cells were estimated by staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP), a marker enzyme of osteoclasts. The presence of PTH (10(-8) M) or PGE2 (10(-6) M) induced a remarkable increase in osteoclast-like multinucleated cells. These increases were significantly inhibited by MK-7 (10(-8) - 10(-5) M). MK-7 (10(-7) and 10(-6) M) significantly inhibited phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced osteoclast-like cell formation, whereas MK-7 did not inhibit dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (DcAMP) (10(-5) M)-induced osteoclast-like cell formation. These results suggest that the inhibitory action of MK-7 is partly involved in protein kinase C signaling. The bone cells isolated from rat femoral tissues were cultured for 48 h in an alpha-MEM containing either vehicle or MK-7 (10(-8) - 10(-5) M). The presence of MK-7 (10(-6) and 10(-5) M) caused a significant decrease in the number of mature osteoclasts. Such a decrease was also seen in the presence of calcitonin (10(-10) - 10(-8) M), DcAMP (10(-6) and 10(-5) M), or calcium chloride (10(-4) and 10(-3) M). The effect of MK-7 (10(-6) M) in decreasing the number of osteoclasts was not further enhanced in the presence of calcitonin (10(-8) M), DcAMP (10(-5) M), or calcium chloride (10(-3) M), and was completely abolished by the presence of dibucaine (10(-6) M) or staurosporine (10(-7) M), which are inhibitors of Ca2+-dependent protein kinases. These results suggested that MK-7 has a suppressive effect on osteoclasts. Moreover, the femoral-metaphyseal tissues obtained from rats were cultured for 48 h in Dulbecco

  16. Relationship between fluoride exposure and osteoclast markers during RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Junrui, Pei; Bingyun, Li; Yanhui, Gao; Xu, Jiaxun; Darko, Gottfried M; Dianjun, Sun

    2016-09-01

    Skeletal fluorosis is a metabolic bone disease caused by excessive accumulation of fluoride. Although the cause of this disease is known, the mechanism by which fluoride accumulates on the bone has not been clearly defined, thus there are no markers that can be used for screening skeletal fluorosis in epidemiology. In this study, osteoclasts were formed from bone marrow cells of C57BL/6 mice-treated with macrophage colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand. The mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRAP5b), osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), calcitonin receptor (CTR), matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and cathepsin K (CK) were detected using real-time PCR (RT-PCR). Results showed that fluoride between 0.5 and 8mg/l had no effect on osteoclast formation. However fluoride at 0.5mg/l level significantly decreased the activity of osteoclast bone resorption. Fluoride concentration was negatively correlated with the activity of osteoclast bone resorption. On day 5 of osteoclast differentiation maturity, MMP9 and CK mRNA expression were not only negatively correlated with fluoride concentration, but directly correlated with the activity of osteoclast bone resorption. TRAP5b, CTR and OSCAR mRNA expression were positively correlated with the number of osteoclast and they had no correlation with the activity of osteoclast bone resorption. Thus, it can be seen that MMP9 and CK may reflect the change of activity of bone resorption as well the degree of fluoride exposure. TRAP5b, CTR and OSCAR can represent the change of number of osteoclast formed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Osteoclastic miR-214 targets TRAF3 to contribute to osteolytic bone metastasis of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin; Li, Defang; Dang, Lei; Liang, Chao; Guo, Baosheng; Lu, Cheng; He, Xiaojuan; Cheung, Hilda Y. S.; He, Bing; Liu, Biao; Li, Fangfei; Lu, Jun; Wang, Luyao; Shaikh, Atik Badshah; Jiang, Feng; Lu, Changwei; Peng, Songlin; Zhang, Zongkang; Zhang, Bao-Ting; Pan, Xiaohua; Xiao, Lianbo; Lu, Aiping; Zhang, Ge

    2017-01-01

    The role of osteoclastic miRNAs in regulating osteolytic bone metastasis (OBM) of breast cancer is still underexplored. Here, we examined the expression profiles of osteoclastogenic miRNAs in human bone specimens and identified that miR-214-3p was significantly upregulated in breast cancer patients with OBM. Consistently, we found increased miR-214-3p within osteoclasts, which was associated with the elevated bone resorption, during the development of OBM in human breast cancer xenografted nude mice (BCX). Furthermore, genetic ablation of osteoclastic miR-214-3p in nude mice prevent the development of OBM. Conditioned medium from MDA-MB-231 cells dramatically stimulated miR-214-3p expression to promote osteoclast differentiation. Mechanistically, a series of in vitro study showed that miR-214-3p directly targeted Traf3 to promote osteoclast activity and bone-resorbing activity. In addition, osteoclast-specific miR-214-3p knock-in mice showed remarkably increased bone resorption when compared to the littermate controls, which was attenuated after osteoclast-targeted treatment with Traf3 3′UTR-containing plasmid. In BCX nude mice, osteoclast-targeted antagomir-214-3p delivery could recover the TRAF3 protein expression and attenuate the development of OBM, respectively. Collectively, inhibition of osteoclastic miR-214-3p may be a potential therapeutic strategy for breast cancer patients with OBM. Meanwhile, the intraosseous TRAF3 could be a promising biomarker for evaluation of the treatment response of antagomir-214-3p. PMID:28071724

  18. Beta-glycerophosphate accelerates RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in the presence of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Noh, A Long Sae Mi; Yim, Mijung

    2011-03-01

    Despite numerous reports of the synergistic effects of beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid in inducing the differentiation of osteoblasts, little is known about their roles in osteoclastic differentiation. Therefore, we investigated the effect of beta-glycerophosphate on osteoclastogenesis in the presence of ascorbic acid using primary mouse bone marrow cultures treated with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB ligand (RANKL). Beta-Glycerophosphate dose-dependently increased RANKL-induced osteoclast formation in the presence of ascorbic acid. This stimulatory effect was apparent when beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid were only added during the late stages of the culture period, indicating that they influence later events in osteoclastic differentiation. While the combination of beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid inhibited RANKL-stimulated activation of ERK and p38, and degradation of IkappaB, it increased the induction of c-Fos and NFATc1. In addition, beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid together enhanced the induction of COX-2 following RANKL stimulation. Taken together, our data suggest that beta-glycerophosphate and ascorbic acid have synergistic effects on osteoclast formation, increasing RANKL-mediated induction of c-Fos, NFATc1 and COX-2 in osteoclast precursors.

  19. [Separation of osteoclasts by lectin affinity chromatography].

    PubMed

    Itokazu, M; Tan, A; Tanaka, S

    1991-09-01

    Newborn rat calvaria bone cells obtained by digestion were fractionated on columns of wheat-germ agglutinin (WGA) sepharose 6MB for osteoclast isolation. The initial nonspecific binding cells which were passed through the WGA sepharose column by a buffer acquired a high enzyme activity of alkaline phosphatase, but not that of acid phosphatase. However, elution of cells using a buffer with the addition of N-acetyl-D-glucosamine resulted in a high acid phosphatase activity but no alkaline phosphatase activity. The former WGA binding negative fraction enriched osteoblasts averaging 30 microns in size. The latter WGA binding positive fraction enriched osteoclasts ranging from 20 microns to 60 microns in size. The electron-microscope clearly demonstrated the cellular details of osteoclasts. Isolated cell counts showed a ratio of six to four. These results indicate that our method of osteoclast isolation is simple and useful in lectin affinity chromatography because all cells have sugar moieties on their surface and the binding of osteoclasts can be reversed by the addition of specific lectin-binding sugars to the eluting buffer.

  20. The role of chloride channels in osteoclasts: ClC-7 as a target for osteoporosis treatment.

    PubMed

    Schaller, S; Henriksen, K; Sørensen, M G; Karsdal, M A

    2005-10-01

    Chloride ions play a major role in osteoclast biology and bone homeostasis. In addition to its general cellular roles, chloride is involved in the specific bone resorption activity of osteoclasts. The chloride channel ClC-7 has been shown to be mandatory for bone resorption. It is necessary for the acidification of the resorption lacunae. In addition to ClC-7, other chloride channels and exchangers have been identified in osteoclasts. The bicarbonate-chloride exchanger at the plasma membrane of osteoclasts is important for regulating the cytoplasmic pH during bone resorption. The role of the additional chloride channels or putative chloride channels identified in osteoclasts, volume-regulated anion channel, Chlor.62 and CLIC1 has not been established. To date, ClC-7 is the only known chloride channel whose disruption or mutation leads to a bone disease: osteopetrosis, which is characterized by an increased bone mass. Inhibition of ClC-7 constitutes a new potential way to treat osteoporosis. The expression of ClC-7 is restricted to few tissues with very high expression in the osteoclasts in bone. Pharmacologically, inhibitors of acidification of the resorption lacunae have proved to be unique, as inhibition leads to a decrease in bone resorption without affecting bone formation, suggesting that the coupling principle has been challenged. Thus, ClC-7 inhibitors may prove to be potent for prevention and treatment of osteoporosis.

  1. Inhibitory effects of eugenol on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation via attenuation of NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

    PubMed

    Deepak, Vishwa; Kasonga, Abe; Kruger, Marlena C; Coetzee, Magdalena

    2015-06-01

    Bone loss diseases are often associated with increased receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. Compounds that can attenuate RANKL-mediated osteoclast formation are of great biomedical interest. Eugenol, a phenolic constituent of clove oil possesses medicinal properties; however, its anti-osteoclastogenic potential is unexplored hitherto. Here, we found that eugenol dose-dependently inhibited the RANKL-induced multinucleated osteoclast formation and TRAP activity in RAW264.7 macrophages. The underlying molecular mechanisms included the attenuation of RANKL-mediated degradation of IκBα and subsequent activation of NF-κB pathway. Furthermore, increase in phosphorylation and activation of RANKL-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase pathways (MAPK) was perturbed by eugenol. RANKL-induced expression of osteoclast-specific marker genes such as TRAP, cathepsin K (CtsK) and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) was remarkably downregulated by eugenol. These findings provide the first line of evidence that eugenol mediated attenuation of RANKL-induced NF-κB and MAPK pathways could synergistically contribute to the inhibition of osteoclast formation. Eugenol could be developed as therapeutic agent against diseases with excessive osteoclast activity.

  2. Are Osteoclasts Needed for the Bone Anabolic Response to Parathyroid Hormone?

    PubMed Central

    Pierroz, Dominique D.; Bonnet, Nicolas; Baldock, Paul A.; Ominsky, Michael S.; Stolina, Marina; Kostenuik, Paul J.; Ferrari, Serge L.

    2010-01-01

    PTH stimulates osteoblastic cells to form new bone and to produce osteoblast-osteoclast coupling factors such as RANKL. Whether osteoclasts or their activity are needed for PTH anabolism remains uncertain. We treated ovariectomized huRANKL knock-in mice with a human RANKL inhibitor denosumab (DMAb), alendronate (Aln), or vehicle for 4 weeks, followed by co-treatment with intermittent PTH for 4 weeks. Loss of bone mass and microarchitecture was prevented by Aln and further significantly improved by DMAb. PTH improved bone mass, microstructure, and strength, and was additive to Aln but not to DMAb. Aln inhibited biochemical and histomorphometrical indices of bone turnover, -i.e. osteocalcin and bone formation rate (BFR) on cancellous bone surfaces-, and Dmab inhibited them further. However Aln increased whereas Dmab suppressed osteoclast number and surfaces. PTH significantly increased osteocalcin and bone formation indices, in the absence or presence of either antiresorptive, although BFR remained lower in presence of Dmab. To further evaluate PTH effects in the complete absence of osteoclasts, high dose PTH was administered to RANK−/− mice. PTH increased osteocalcin similarly in RANK−/− and WT mice. It also increased BMD in RANK−/− mice, although less than in WT. These results further indicate that osteoclasts are not strictly required for PTH anabolism, which presumably still occurs via stimulation of modeling-based bone formation. However the magnitude of PTH anabolic effects on the skeleton, in particular its additive effects with antiresorptives, depends on the extent of the remodeling space, as determined by the number and activity of osteoclasts on bone surfaces. PMID:20558734

  3. Complementary interplay between matrix metalloproteinase-9, vascular endothelial growth factor and osteoclast function drives endochondral bone formation

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, Nathalie; Wang, Ke; Ferrara, Napoleone; Werb, Zena; Vu, Thiennu H.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Long bone development depends on endochondral bone formation, a complex process requiring exquisite balance between hypertrophic cartilage (HC) formation and its ossification. Dysregulation of this process may result in skeletal dysplasias and heterotopic ossification. Endochondral ossification requires the precise orchestration of HC vascularization, extracellular matrix remodeling, and the recruitment of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and osteoclasts have all been shown to regulate endochondral ossification, but how their function interrelates is not known. We have investigated the functional relationship among these regulators of endochondral ossification, demonstrating that they have complementary but non-overlapping functions. MMP-9, VEGF and osteoclast deficiency all cause impaired growth plate ossification resulting in the accumulation of HC. VEGF mRNA and protein expression are increased at the MMP-9−/− growth plate, and VEGF activity contributes to endochondral ossification since sequestration of VEGF by soluble receptors results in further inhibition of growth plate vascularization and ossification. However, VEGF bioavailability is still limited in MMP-9 deficiency, as exogenous VEGF is able to rescue the MMP-9−/− phenotype, demonstrating that MMP-9 may partially, but not fully, regulate VEGF bioavailability. The organization of the HC extracellular matrix at the MMP-9−/− growth plate is altered, supporting a role for MMP-9 in HC remodeling. Inhibition of VEGF impairs osteoclast recruitment, whereas MMP-9 deficiency leads to an accumulation of osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous junction. Growth plate ossification in osteoclast-deficient mice is impaired in the presence of normal MMP-9 expression, indicating that other osteoclastic functions are also necessary. Our data delineate the complementary interplay between MMP-9, VEGF and osteoclast function that is

  4. Complementary interplay between matrix metalloproteinase-9, vascular endothelial growth factor and osteoclast function drives endochondral bone formation.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Nathalie; Wang, Ke; Ferrara, Napoleone; Werb, Zena; Vu, Thiennu H

    2010-01-01

    Long bone development depends on endochondral bone formation, a complex process requiring exquisite balance between hypertrophic cartilage (HC) formation and its ossification. Dysregulation of this process may result in skeletal dysplasias and heterotopic ossification. Endochondral ossification requires the precise orchestration of HC vascularization, extracellular matrix remodeling, and the recruitment of osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and osteoclasts have all been shown to regulate endochondral ossification, but how their function interrelates is not known. We have investigated the functional relationship among these regulators of endochondral ossification, demonstrating that they have complementary but non-overlapping functions. MMP-9, VEGF and osteoclast deficiency all cause impaired growth plate ossification resulting in the accumulation of HC. VEGF mRNA and protein expression are increased at the MMP-9-/- growth plate, and VEGF activity contributes to endochondral ossification since sequestration of VEGF by soluble receptors results in further inhibition of growth plate vascularization and ossification. However, VEGF bioavailability is still limited in MMP-9 deficiency, as exogenous VEGF is able to rescue the MMP-9-/- phenotype, demonstrating that MMP-9 may partially, but not fully, regulate VEGF bioavailability. The organization of the HC extracellular matrix at the MMP-9-/- growth plate is altered, supporting a role for MMP-9 in HC remodeling. Inhibition of VEGF impairs osteoclast recruitment, whereas MMP-9 deficiency leads to an accumulation of osteoclasts at the chondro-osseous junction. Growth plate ossification in osteoclast-deficient mice is impaired in the presence of normal MMP-9 expression, indicating that other osteoclastic functions are also necessary. Our data delineate the complementary interplay between MMP-9, VEGF and osteoclast function that is necessary for normal

  5. Osteoclast cytosolic calcium, regulated by voltage-gated calcium channels and extracellular calcium, controls podosome assembly and bone resorption

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyauchi, A.; Hruska, K. A.; Greenfield, E. M.; Duncan, R.; Alvarez, J.; Barattolo, R.; Colucci, S.; Zambonin-Zallone, A.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Teti, A.

    1990-01-01

    The mechanisms of Ca2+ entry and their effects on cell function were investigated in cultured chicken osteoclasts and putative osteoclasts produced by fusion of mononuclear cell precursors. Voltage-gated Ca2+ channels (VGCC) were detected by the effects of membrane depolarization with K+, BAY K 8644, and dihydropyridine antagonists. K+ produced dose-dependent increases of cytosolic calcium ([Ca2+]i) in osteoclasts on glass coverslips. Half-maximal effects were achieved at 70 mM K+. The effects of K+ were completely inhibited by dihydropyridine derivative Ca2+ channel blocking agents. BAY K 8644 (5 X 10(-6) M), a VGCC agonist, stimulated Ca2+ entry which was inhibited by nicardipine. VGCCs were inactivated by the attachment of osteoclasts to bone, indicating a rapid phenotypic change in Ca2+ entry mechanisms associated with adhesion of osteoclasts to their resorption substrate. Increasing extracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]e) induced Ca2+ release from intracellular stores and Ca2+ influx. The Ca2+ release was blocked by dantrolene (10(-5) M), and the influx by La3+. The effects of [Ca2+]e on [Ca2+]i suggests the presence of a Ca2+ receptor on the osteoclast cell membrane that could be coupled to mechanisms regulating cell function. Expression of the [Ca2+]e effect on [Ca2+]i was similar in the presence or absence of bone matrix substrate. Each of the mechanisms producing increases in [Ca2+]i, (membrane depolarization, BAY K 8644, and [Ca2+]e) reduced expression of the osteoclast-specific adhesion structure, the podosome. The decrease in podosome expression was mirrored by a 50% decrease in bone resorptive activity. Thus, stimulated increases of osteoclast [Ca2+]i lead to cytoskeletal changes affecting cell adhesion and decreasing bone resorptive activity.

  6. Esculetin attenuates receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand-mediated osteoclast differentiation through c-Fos/nuclear factor of activated T-cells c1 signaling pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, Jong Min; Park, Sun-Hyang; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin; Kim, Ju-Young

    2015-05-29

    Esculetin exerts various biological effects on anti-oxidation, anti-tumors, and anti-inflammation. However, the involvement of esculetin in the bone metabolism process, particularly osteoclast differentiation has not yet been investigated. In the present study, we first confirmed the inhibitory effect of esculetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. We then revealed the relationship between esculetin and the expression of osteoclast-specific molecules to elucidate its underlying mechanisms. Esculetin interfered with the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cell c1 (NFATc1) both at the mRNA and protein level with no involvement in osteoclast-associated early signaling pathways, suppressing the expression of various transcription factors exclusively expressed in osteoclasts such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (Trap), osteoclast-associated receptor (Oscar), dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein (Dcstamp), osteoclast stimulatory transmembrane protein (Ocstamp), cathepsin K, αvβ3 integrin, and calcitonin receptor (Ctr). Additionally, esculetin inhibited the formation of filamentous actin (F-actin) ring-positive osteoclasts during osteoclast differentiation. However, the development of F-actin structures and subsequent bone resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts, which are observed in osteoclast/osteoblast co-culture systems were not affected by esculetin. Taken together, our results indicate for the first time that esculetin inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis via direct suppression of c-Fos and NFATc1 expression and exerts an inhibitory effect on actin ring formation during osteoclastogenesis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the effects of esculetin on osteoclast differentiation and function. • Our data demonstrate for the first time that esculetin can suppress osteoclastogenesis in vitro. • Esculetin acts as an inhibitor of c-Fos and NFATc1 activation.

  7. The Foreign Body Giant Cell Cannot Resorb Bone, But Dissolves Hydroxyapatite Like Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    ten Harkel, Bas; Schoenmaker, Ton; Picavet, Daisy I.; Davison, Noel L.; de Vries, Teun J.; Everts, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    cathepsin K, which was hardly expressed by FBGCs. Functionally, the latter cells were able to dissolve a biomimetic hydroxyapatite coating in vitro, which was blocked by inhibiting v-ATPase enzyme activity. These results show that FBGCs have the capacity to dissolve the mineral phase of bone, similar to osteoclasts. However, they are not able to digest the matrix fraction of bone, likely due to the lack of a ruffled border and cathepsin K. PMID:26426806

  8. The Foreign Body Giant Cell Cannot Resorb Bone, But Dissolves Hydroxyapatite Like Osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    ten Harkel, Bas; Schoenmaker, Ton; Picavet, Daisy I; Davison, Noel L; de Vries, Teun J; Everts, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    cathepsin K, which was hardly expressed by FBGCs. Functionally, the latter cells were able to dissolve a biomimetic hydroxyapatite coating in vitro, which was blocked by inhibiting v-ATPase enzyme activity. These results show that FBGCs have the capacity to dissolve the mineral phase of bone, similar to osteoclasts. However, they are not able to digest the matrix fraction of bone, likely due to the lack of a ruffled border and cathepsin K.

  9. Bovine parathyroid hormone enhances osteoclast bone resorption by modulating V-ATPase through PTH1R

    PubMed Central

    LIU, SHUANGXIN; ZHU, WEIPING; LI, SIJIA; MA, JIANCHAO; ZHANG, HUITAO; LI, ZHONGHE; ZHANG, LI; ZHANG, BIN; LI, ZHUO; LIANG, XINLING; SHI, WEI

    2016-01-01

    The vacuolar-type H+ adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) plays an important role in cellular acidification and bone resorption by osteoclasts. However, the direct effect of bovine parathyroid hormone (bPTH) on V-ATPase has not yet been elucidated. The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of bPTH on V-ATPase and osteoclasts. Osteoclasts from bone marrow (BM)-derived monocytes of C57BL/6 mice were cultured with or without bPTH. The mRNA and protein expression levels of the V-ATPase a3-subunit and d2-subunit (by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis), V-ATPase activity (using the V type ATPase Activity Assay kit) and the bone resorption function of osteoclasts (by bone resorption assay) were examined following treatment with various concentrations of bPTH (0.1, 1.0, 10 and 100 ng/ml) alone or with bPTH and its inhibitor, bafilomycin A1. Furthermore, the expression of parathyroid hormone (PTH) receptors in osteoclasts was also detected. The results revealed that the mRNA and protein expression levels of V-ATPase a3-subunit and d2-subunit increased in a dose-dependent manner, paralleling the level of bPTH present. In addition, an increase in the concentration of bPTH was accompanied by the increased resorption capability of osteoclasts, whereas bone resorption was inhibited in the presence of bafilomycin A1. In addition, we confirmed the existence of parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) in osteoclasts using three different methods (RT-qPCR, western blot analysis and immunofluorescence staining). We found that bPTH enhanced the bone resorption capability of osteoclasts by modulating the expression of V-ATPase subunits, intracellular acidification and V-ATPase activity. Thus, we propose that PTH has a direct effect on osteoblasts and osteoclasts, and that this effect is mediated through PTH1R, thus contributing to bone remodeling. PMID:26647715

  10. Methanolic Extract of Ficus carica Linn. Leaves Exerts Antiangiogenesis Effects Based on the Rat Air Pouch Model of Inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Eteraf-Oskouei, Tahereh; Allahyari, Saeideh; Akbarzadeh-Atashkhosrow, Arezu; Delazar, Abbas; Pashaii, Mahdiyeh; Gan, Siew Hua; Najafi, Moslem

    2015-01-01

    The antiangiogenesis effect of Ficus carica leaves extract in an air pouch model of inflammation was investigated in rat. Inflammation was induced by injection of carrageenan into pouches. After antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) investigations, the extract was administered at 5, 25, and 50 mg/pouch, and then the volume of exudates, the cell number, TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF levels were measured. Angiogenesis of granulation tissues was determined by measuring hemoglobin content. Based on the DPPH assay, the extract had significant antioxidant activity with TPC of 11.70 mg GAE/100 g dry sample. In addition, leukocyte accumulation and volume of exudate were significantly inhibited by the extract. Moreover, it significantly decreased the production of TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF, while angiogenesis was significantly inhibited by all administered doses. Interestingly, attenuation of angiogenesis and inflammatory parameters (except leukocyte accumulation) by the extract was similar to that shown by diclofenac. The extract has anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorated cell influx and exudation to the site of the inflammatory response which may be related to the local inhibition of TNFα, PGE2, and VEGF levels as similarly shown by diclofenac. The antiangiogenesis and anti-VEGF effects of Ficus carica may be correlated with its significant antioxidant potentials. PMID:25977699

  11. Effect of Cornus Officinalis on Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor-kappaB Ligand (RANKL)-induced Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Young; Kim, Yun-Kyung; Choi, Min Kyu; Oh, Jaemin; Kwak, Han Bok

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Osteoporosis is a disease of bones that is thought to result from an imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation. Although osteoporosis itself has no symptoms, osteoporosis caused by osteoclasts leads to an increased risk of fracture. Here we examined the effects of cornus officinalis on receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast differentiation. Methods We evaluated the effects of cornus officinalis on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) and performed a cytotoxicity assay, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and Western blot analysis. Results Cornus officinalis significantly inhibits RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in a dose-dependent manner, but without cytotoxicity against BMMs. The mRNA expression of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), c-Fos, and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) in BMMs treated with RANKL was considerably inhibited by cornus officinalis treatment. Also, cornus officinalis inhibits the protein expression of c-Fos and NFATc1. Cornus officinalis greatly inhibits RANKL-induced phosphorylation of p38 and c-JUN N-terminal kinase (JNK). Also, cornus officinalis significantly suppresses RANKL-induced degradation of I-κB. Conclusions Taken together, our results suggest that cornus officinalis may be a useful the treatment of osteoporosis. PMID:24524042

  12. Bisphosphonate-induced differential modulation of immune cell function in gingiva and bone marrow in vivo: role in osteoclast-mediated NK cell activation.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Han-Ching; Kanayama, Keiichi; Kaur, Kawaljit; Park, So-Hyun; Park, Sil; Kozlowska, Anna; Sun, Shuting; McKenna, Charles E; Nishimura, Ichiro; Jewett, Anahid

    2015-08-21

    The aim of this study is to establish osteoclasts as key immune effectors capable of activating the function of Natural Killer (NK) cells, and expanding their numbers, and to determine in vivo and in vitro effect of bisphosphonates (BPs) during NK cell interaction with osteoclasts and on systemic and local immune function. The profiles of 27 cytokines, chemokines and growth factors released from osteoclasts were found to be different from dendritic cells and M1 macrophages but resembling to untreated monocytes and M2 macrophages. Nitrogen-containing BPs Zoledronate (ZOL) and Alendronate (ALN), but not non-nitrogen-containing BPs Etidronate (ETI), triggered increased release of pro-inflammatory mediators from osteoclasts while all three BPs decreased pit formation by osteoclasts. ZOL and ALN mediated significant release of IL-6, TNF-` and IL-1β, whereas they inhibited IL-10 secretion by osteoclasts. Treatment of osteoclasts with ZOL inhibited NK cell mediated cytotoxicity whereas it induced significant secretion of cytokines and chemokines. NK cells lysed osteoclasts much more than their precursor cells monocytes, and this correlated with the decreased expression of MHC class I expression on osteoclasts. Intravenous injection of ZOL in mice induced pro-inflammatory microenvironment in bone marrow and demonstrated significant immune activation. By contrast, tooth extraction wound of gingival tissues exhibited profound immune suppressive microenvironment associated with dysregulated wound healing to the effect of ZOL which could potentially be responsible for the pathogenesis of Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ). Finally, based on the data obtained in this paper we demonstrate that osteoclasts can be used as targets for the expansion of NK cells with superior function for immunotherapy of cancer.

  13. Regulation of osteoclast homeostasis and inflammatory bone loss by MFG-E81

    PubMed Central

    Abe, Toshiharu; Shin, Jieun; Hosur, Kavita; Udey, Mark C.; Chavakis, Triantafyllos; Hajishengallis, George

    2014-01-01

    The glycoprotein milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (MFG-E8) is expressed in several tissues and mediates diverse homeostatic functions. However, whether MFG-E8 plays a role in bone homeostasis has not been established. Here we show for the first time that osteoclasts express and are regulated by MFG-E8. Bone marrow-derived osteoclast precursors (OCPs) from MFG-E8–deficient (Mfge8−/−) mice underwent increased RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis leading to enhanced resorption pit formation as compared with wild-type controls. Consistently, exogenously added MFG-E8 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis from mouse or human OCPs. Upon induction of experimental periodontitis, an oral inflammatory disease characterized by loss of bone support of the dentition, Mfge8−/− mice exhibited higher numbers of osteoclasts and more bone loss than wild-type controls. Accordingly, local microinjection of anti-MFG-E8 mAb exacerbated periodontal bone loss in wild-type mice. Conversely, microinjection of MFG-E8 inhibited bone loss in experimental mouse periodontitis. In comparison to wild-type controls, Mfge8−/− mice also experienced >60% more naturally occurring chronic periodontal bone loss. In conclusion, MFG-E8 is a novel homeostatic regulator of osteoclasts and could be exploited therapeutically to treat periodontitis and perhaps other immunological disorders associated with inflammatory bone loss. PMID:24958900

  14. Nitidine chloride prevents OVX-induced bone loss via suppressing NFATc1-mediated osteoclast differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Wang, Tao; Zhou, Lin; Song, Fangming; Qin, An; Feng, Hao Tian; Lin, Xi Xi; Lin, Zhen; Yuan, Jin Bo; Tickner, Jennifer; Liu, Hua Gang; Zheng, Ming Hao; Xu, Jiake; Zhao, Jin Min

    2016-01-01

    Nitidine chloride (NC), a bioactive alkaloid isolated from Zanthoxylum nitidum, has been used as a herbal ingredient in toothpaste that prevents cavities for decades. It also displays potential antitumor and anti-inflammation properties. However, its anticatabolic effect on bone is not known. We investigated the effect of NC on osteoclastogenesis, bone resorption and RANKL-induced NF-κB and NFATc1 signalling. In mouse-derived bone marrow monocytes (BMMs), NC suppressed RANKL-induced multinucleated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive osteoclast formation and bone resorption in a dose dependent manner. NC attenuated the expression of osteoclast marker genes including cathepsin K, D2, calcitonin receptor, NFATc1, and TRAP. Further, NC inhibited RANKL-activated NF-κB and NFATc1 signalling pathways. In vivo study revealed that NC abrogated oestrogen deficiency-induced bone loss in ovariectomized mice. Histological analysis showed that the number of osteoclasts was significantly lower in NC-treated groups. Collectively, our data demonstrate that NC suppressed osteoclastogenesis and prevented OVX-induced bone loss by inhibiting RANKL-induced NF-κB and NFATc1 signalling pathways. NC may be a natural and novel treatment for osteoclast-related bone lytic diseases. PMID:27821837

  15. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): Phytochemistry, Traditional Uses and Biological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mawa, Shukranul; Husain, Khairana; Jantan, Ibrahim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the botanical features of Ficus carica L. (Moraceae), its wide variety of chemical constituents, its use in traditional medicine as remedies for many health problems, and its biological activities. The plant has been used traditionally to treat various ailments such as gastric problems, inflammation, and cancer. Phytochemical studies on the leaves and fruits of the plant have shown that they are rich in phenolics, organic acids, and volatile compounds. However, there is little information on the phytochemicals present in the stem and root. Reports on the biological activities of the plant are mainly on its crude extracts which have been proven to possess many biological activities. Some of the most interesting therapeutic effects include anticancer, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and antimicrobial activities. Thus, studies related to identification of the bioactive compounds and correlating them to their biological activities are very useful for further research to explore the potential of F. carica as a source of therapeutic agents. PMID:24159359

  16. Comparison of the ability of chondroitin sulfate derived from bovine, fish and pigs to suppress human osteoclast activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cantley, M D; Rainsford, K D; Haynes, D R

    2013-12-01

    Chondroitin sulfate (CS) compounds are commonly used to manage OA symptoms. Recent literature has indicated that abnormal subchondral bone metabolism may have a role in the pathogenesis of OA. The aim of this study was to access the effects of chondroitin sulfate obtained from bovine, fish and porcine sources on human osteoclast formation and activity in vitro. Human osteoclasts were generated from blood mononuclear cells. Cells were cultured over 17 days with the addition of macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and then stimulated with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand from day 7. Cells were treated with the CS commencing from day 7 onwards. To assess effects on osteoclasts, tartrate resistant acid phosphatate (TRAP) expression and resorption of whale dentine assays were used. Bovine-derived CS consistently suppressed osteoclast activity at concentrations as low as 1 μg/ml. Fish and porcine CS was less consistent in their effects varying with different donor cells. All CS compounds had little effect on TRAP activity. mRNA analysis using real-time PCR of bovine CS treated cells indicated that the inhibition of activity was not due to inhibition of the late stage NFATc1 transcription factor (p > 0.05). These results are consistent with CS inhibition of mature osteoclast activity rather than the formation of mature osteoclasts. It would appear that there are differences in activity of the different CS compounds with bovine-derived CS being the most consistently effective inhibitor of osteoclast resorption, but the results need to be confirmed.

  17. Nano-topography sensing by osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Geblinger, Dafna; Addadi, Lia; Geiger, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Bone resorption by osteoclasts depends on the assembly of a specialized, actin-rich adhesive ‘sealing zone’ that delimits the area designed for degradation. In this study, we show that the level of roughness of the underlying adhesive surface has a profound effect on the formation and stability of the sealing zone and the associated F-actin. As our primary model substrate, we use ‘smooth’ and ‘rough’ calcite crystals with average topography values of 12 nm and 530 nm, respectively. We show that the smooth surfaces induce the formation of small and unstable actin rings with a typical lifespan of ~8 minutes, whereas the sealing zones formed on the rough calcite surfaces are considerably larger, and remain stable for more than 6 hours. It was further observed that steps or sub-micrometer cracks on the smooth surface stimulate local ring formation, raising the possibility that similar imperfections on bone surfaces may stimulate local osteoclast resorptive activity. The mechanisms whereby the physical properties of the substrate influence osteoclast behavior and their involvement in osteoclast function are discussed. PMID:20375065

  18. Voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs, porin) expressed in the plasma membrane regulate the differentiation and function of human osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Kotake, Shigeru; Yago, Toru; Kawamoto, Manabu; Nanke, Yuki

    2013-01-01

    Fewer molecules have been identified on human than murine osteoclasts, the former differing from murine osteoclasts in many ways. We show that voltage-dependent anion channels (VDACs, porin) are expressed in the plasma membrane of human osteoclasts. A search for novel proteins expressed in the plasma membrane of human osteoclasts identified VDAC. Anti-VDAC antibodies inhibited human osteoclastogenesis in vitro. VDAC expression was detected in membranes by immunoelectron microscopy and immunocytochemical double staining. The VDAC protein functions as a Cl(-) channel. VDACs regulate bone resorption, which show using Osteologic™ plates. The epitope of the antibody lay within a 10-amino acid sequence in the VDAC. The findings suggest that the VDAC is, at least partly, a novel Cl(-) channel regulating the differentiation and function of human osteoclasts. VDACs may play a crucial role in acidifying the resorption lacunae between osteoclasts and bone. Inhibitors of VDACs could be used to treat diseases involving increased resorption, such as osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and Paget's disease. © 2012 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  19. Arctigenin suppresses receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kim, A-Ram; Kim, Hyuk Soon; Lee, Jeong Min; Choi, Jung Ho; Kim, Se Na; Kim, Do Kyun; Kim, Ji Hyung; Mun, Se Hwan; Kim, Jie Wan; Jeon, Hyun Soo; Kim, Young Mi; Choi, Wahn Soo

    2012-05-05

    Osteoclasts, multinucleated bone-resorbing cells, are closely associated with bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Osteoclasts are derived from hematopoietic precursor cells, and their differentiation is mediated by two cytokines, including macrophage colony stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL). Previous studies have shown that arctigenin exhibits an anti-inflammatory effect. However, the effect of arctigenin on osteoclast differentiation is yet to be elucidated. In this study, we found that arctigenin inhibited RANKL-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages in a dose-dependent manner and suppressed RANKL-mediated bone resorption. Additionally, the expression of typical marker proteins, such as NFATc1, c-Fos, TRAF6, c-Src, and cathepsin K, were significantly inhibited. Arctigenin inhibited the phosphorylation of Erk1/2, but not p38 and JNK, in a dose-dependent manner. Arctigenin also dramatically suppressed immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif-mediated costimulatory signaling molecules, including Syk and PLCγ2, and Gab2. Notably, arctigenin inhibited the activation of Syk through RANKL stimulation. Furthermore, arctigenin prevented osteoclast differentiation in the calvarial bone of mice following stimulation with lipopolysaccharide. Our results show that arctigenin inhibits osteoclast differentiation in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, arctigenin may be useful for treating rheumatoid arthritis and osteoporosis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Conditional abrogation of Atm in osteoclasts extends osteoclast lifespan and results in reduced bone mass.

    PubMed

    Hirozane, Toru; Tohmonda, Takahide; Yoda, Masaki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Kanai, Yae; Matsumoto, Morio; Morioka, Hideo; Nakamura, Masaya; Horiuchi, Keisuke

    2016-09-28

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is a central component involved in the signal transduction of the DNA damage response (DDR) and thus plays a critical role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Although the primary functions of ATM are associated with the DDR, emerging data suggest that ATM has many additional roles that are not directly related to the DDR, including the regulation of oxidative stress signaling, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial homeostasis, and lymphocyte development. Patients and mice lacking ATM exhibit growth retardation and lower bone mass; however, the mechanisms underlying the skeletal defects are not fully understood. In the present study, we generated mutant mice in which ATM is specifically inactivated in osteoclasts. The mutant mice did not exhibit apparent developmental defects but showed reduced bone mass due to increased osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteoclasts lacking ATM were more resistant to apoptosis and showed a prolonged lifespan compared to the controls. Notably, the inactivation of ATM in osteoclasts resulted in enhanced NF-κB signaling and an increase in the expression of NF-κB-targeted genes. The present study reveals a novel function for ATM in regulating bone metabolism by suppressing the lifespan of osteoclasts and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.

  1. Conditional abrogation of Atm in osteoclasts extends osteoclast lifespan and results in reduced bone mass

    PubMed Central

    Hirozane, Toru; Tohmonda, Takahide; Yoda, Masaki; Shimoda, Masayuki; Kanai, Yae; Matsumoto, Morio; Morioka, Hideo; Nakamura, Masaya; Horiuchi, Keisuke

    2016-01-01

    Ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) kinase is a central component involved in the signal transduction of the DNA damage response (DDR) and thus plays a critical role in the maintenance of genomic integrity. Although the primary functions of ATM are associated with the DDR, emerging data suggest that ATM has many additional roles that are not directly related to the DDR, including the regulation of oxidative stress signaling, insulin sensitivity, mitochondrial homeostasis, and lymphocyte development. Patients and mice lacking ATM exhibit growth retardation and lower bone mass; however, the mechanisms underlying the skeletal defects are not fully understood. In the present study, we generated mutant mice in which ATM is specifically inactivated in osteoclasts. The mutant mice did not exhibit apparent developmental defects but showed reduced bone mass due to increased osteoclastic bone resorption. Osteoclasts lacking ATM were more resistant to apoptosis and showed a prolonged lifespan compared to the controls. Notably, the inactivation of ATM in osteoclasts resulted in enhanced NF-κB signaling and an increase in the expression of NF-κB-targeted genes. The present study reveals a novel function for ATM in regulating bone metabolism by suppressing the lifespan of osteoclasts and osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. PMID:27677594

  2. CHIP Regulates Osteoclast Formation through Promoting TRAF6 Protein Degradation

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shan; Shu, Bing; Zhang, Yanquan; Li, Jia; Guo, Junwei; Wang, Yinyin; Ren, Fangli; Xiao, Guozhi; Chang, Zhijie; Chen, Di

    2014-01-01

    Objective Carboxyl terminus of Hsp70-interacting protein (CHIP or STUB1) is an E3 ligase and regulates the stability of several proteins which are involved in tumor growth and metastasis. However, the role of CHIP in bone growth and bone remodeling in vivo has not been reported. The objective of this study is to investigate the role and mechanism of CHIP in regulation of bone mass and bone remodeling. Methods The bone phenotype of Chip−/− mice was examined by histology, histomorphometry and micro-CT analyses. The regulatory mechanism of CHIP on the degradation of TRAF6 and the inhibition of NF-κB signaling was examined by immunoprecipitation (IP), western blotting and luciferase reporter assays. Results In this study, we found that deletion of the Chip gene leads to osteopenic phenotype and increased osteoclast formation. We further found that TRAF6, as a novel substrate of CHIP, is up-regulated in Chip−/− osteoclasts. TRAF6 is critical for RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. TRAF6 is an adaptor protein which functions as an E3 ligase to regulate the activation of TAK1 and the I-κB kinase (IKK) and is a key regulator of NF-κB signaling. CHIP interacts with TRAF6 to promote TRAF6 ubiquitination and proteasome degradation. CHIP inhibits p65 nuclear translocation, leading to the repression of the TRAF6-mediated NF-κB transcription. Conclusion CHIP inhibits NF-κB signaling via promoting TRAF6 degradation and plays an important role in osteoclastogenesis and bone remodeling, suggesting that it may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of bone loss associated diseases. PMID:24578159

  3. High throughput, quantitative analysis of human osteoclast differentiation and activity.

    PubMed

    Diepenhorst, Natalie A; Nowell, Cameron J; Rueda, Patricia; Henriksen, Kim; Pierce, Tracie; Cook, Anna E; Pastoureau, Philippe; Sabatini, Massimo; Charman, William N; Christopoulos, Arthur; Summers, Roger J; Sexton, Patrick M; Langmead, Christopher J

    2017-02-15

    Osteoclasts are multinuclear cells that degrade bone under both physiological and pathophysiological conditions. Osteoclasts are therefore a major target of osteoporosis therapeutics aimed at preserving bone. Consequently, analytical methods for osteoclast activity are useful for the development of novel biomarkers and/or pharmacological agents for the treatment of osteoporosis. The nucleation state of an osteoclast is indicative of its maturation and activity. To date, activity is routinely measured at the population level with only approximate consideration of the nucleation state (an 'osteoclast population' is typically defined as cells with ≥3 nuclei). Using a fluorescent substrate for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), a routinely used marker of osteoclast activity, we developed a multi-labelled imaging method for quantitative measurement of osteoclast TRAP activity at the single cell level. Automated image analysis enables interrogation of large osteoclast populations in a high throughput manner using open source software. Using this methodology, we investigated the effects of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANK-L) on osteoclast maturation and activity and demonstrated that TRAP activity directly correlates with osteoclast maturity (i.e. nuclei number). This method can be applied to high throughput screening of osteoclast-targeting compounds to determine changes in maturation and activity.

  4. The role of microRNAs in osteoclasts and osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Peifu; Xiong, Qi; Ge, Wei; Zhang, Lihai

    2014-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the exclusive cells of bone resorption. Abnormally activating osteoclasts can lead to low bone mineral density, which will cause osteopenia, osteoporosis, and other bone disorders. To date, the mechanism of how osteoclast precursors differentiate into mature osteoclasts remains elusive. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are novel regulatory factors that play an important role in numerous cellular processes, including cell differentiation and apoptosis, by post-transcriptional regulation of genes. Recently, a number of studies have revealed that miRNAs participate in bone homeostasis, including osteoclastic bone resorption, which sheds light on the mechanisms underlying osteoclast differentiation. In this review, we highlight the miRNAs involved in regulating osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, and their roles in osteoporosis.

  5. WHI-131 Promotes Osteoblast Differentiation and Prevents Osteoclast Formation and Resorption in Mice.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Kim, Ju-Young; Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Jun, Hong Young; Erkhembaatar, Munkhsoyol; Kim, Min Seuk; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin

    2016-02-01

    The small molecule WHI-131 is a potent therapeutic agent with anti-inflammatory, antiallergic, and antileukemic potential. However, the regulatory effects of WHI-131 on osteoblast and osteoclast activity are unclear. We examined the effects of WHI-131 on osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation with respect to bone remodeling. The production of receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) by osteoblasts in response to interleukin (IL)-1 or IL-6 stimulation decreased by 56.8% or 50.58%, respectively, in the presence of WHI-131. WHI-131 also abrogated the formation of mature osteoclasts induced by IL-1 or IL-6 stimulation. Moreover, WHI-131 treatment decreased RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation of bone marrow-derived macrophages, and reduced the resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. WHI-131 further decreased the mRNA and protein expression levels of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) by almost twofold, and significantly downregulated the mRNA expression of the following genes: tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR), DC-STAMP, OC-STAMP, ATP6v0d2, and cathepsin K (CtsK) compared with the control group. WHI-131 further suppressed the phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt) and degradation of inhibitor of kappa B (IκB); Ca(2+) oscillation was also affected, and phosphorylation of the C-terminal Src kinase (c-Src)-Bruton agammaglobulinemia tyrosine kinase (Btk)-phospholipase C gamma 2 (PLCγ2) (c-Src-Btk-PLCg2 calcium signaling pathway) was inhibited following WHI-131 treatment. The Janus kinase-signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK-STAT) signaling pathway was activated by WHI-131, accompanied by phosphorylation of STAT3 Ser727 and dephosphorylation of STAT6. In osteoblasts, WHI-131 caused an approximately fourfold increase in alkaline phosphatase activity and Alizarin Red staining intensity. Treatment with WHI-131 increased the mRNA expression

  6. Osteoblasts of calvaria induce higher numbers of osteoclasts than osteoblasts from long bone.

    PubMed

    Wan, Qilong; Schoenmaker, Ton; Jansen, Ineke D C; Bian, Zhuan; de Vries, Teun J; Everts, Vincent

    2016-05-01

    Several studies have demonstrated the existence of functional differences between osteoclasts harbored in different bones. The mechanisms involved in the occurrence of such a heterogeneity are not yet understood. Since cells of the osteoblast lineage play a critical role in osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast heterogeneity may be due to osteoblasts that differ at the different bone sites. In the present study we evaluated possible differences in the capacity of calvaria and long bone osteoblasts to induce osteoclastogenesis. Osteoblasts were isolated from calvaria and long bone of mice and co-cultured with osteoclast precursors obtained from bone marrow of both types of bone, spleen and peripheral blood. Irrespective of the source of the precursors, a significantly higher number of TRACP-positive multinucleated cells were formed with calvaria osteoblasts. The expression of osteoclastogenesis related genes was analyzed by qPCR. OPG was significantly higher expressed by long bone osteoblasts. The RANKL/OPG ratio and TNF-α gene expression were significantly higher in calvaria osteoblast cultures. OPG added to the culture system inhibited osteoclastogenesis in both groups. Blocking TNF-α had no effect on osteoclastogenesis. Calvaria and long bone osteoblasts were pre-stimulated with VitD3 for 5days. Subsequently, osteoclast precursors were added to these cultures. After a co-culture of 6days, it was shown that VitD3 pre-stimulation of long bone osteoblasts strongly improved their capacity to induce osteoclast formation. This coincided with an increased ratio of RANKL/OPG. Taken together, the data demonstrated differences in the capacity of calvaria and long bone osteoblasts to induce osteoclastogenesis. This appeared to be due to differences in the expression of RANKL and OPG. VitD3 pre-stimulation improved the ability of long bone osteoblasts to induce osteoclast formation. Our findings demonstrate bone-site specific differences in osteoblast-mediated formation of

  7. Evidence that activation of ASIC1a by acidosis increases osteoclast migration and adhesion by modulating integrin/Pyk2/Src signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, X; Ye, J-X; Xu, M-H; Zhao, M-D; Yuan, F-L

    2017-07-01

    Activated acid-sensing ion channel 1a (ASIC1a) is involved in acid-induced osteoclastogenesis by regulating activation of the transcription factor NFATc1. These results indicated that ASIC1a activation by extracellular acid may cause osteoclast migration and adhesion through Ca(2+)-dependent integrin/Pyk2/Src signaling pathway. Osteoclast adhesion and migration are responsible for osteoporotic bone loss. Acidic conditions promote osteoclastogenesis. ASIC1a in osteoclasts is associated with acid-induced osteoclastogenesis through modulating transcription factor NFATc1 activation. However, the influence and the detailed mechanism of ASIC1a in regulating osteoclast adhesion and migration, in response to extracellular acid, are not well characterized. In this study, knockdown of ASIC1a was achieved in bone marrow macrophage cells using small interfering RNA (siRNA). The adhesion and migration abilities of osteoclast precursors and osteoclasts were determined by adhesion and migration assays, in vitro. Bone resorption was performed to measure osteoclast function. Cytoskeletal changes were assessed by F-actin ring formation. αvβ3 integrin expression in osteoclasts was measured by flow cytometry. Western blotting and co-immunoprecipitation were performed to measure alterations in integrin/Pyk2/Src signaling pathway. Our results showed that blockade of ASIC1a using ASIC1a-siRNA inhibited acid-induced osteoclast precursor migration and adhesion, as well as osteoclast adhesion and bone resorption; we also demonstrated that inhibition of ASIC1a decreased the cell surface αvβ3 integrin and β3 protein expression. Moreover, blocking of ASIC1a inhibited acidosis-induced actin ring formation and reduced Pyk2 and Src phosphorylation in osteoclasts and also inhibited the acid-induced association of the αvβ3 integrin/Src/Pyk2. Together, these results highlight a key functional role of ASIC1a/αvβ3 integrin/Pyk2/Src signaling pathway in migration and adhesion of osteoclasts.

  8. Lysophosphatidic acid receptor type 1 (LPA1) plays a functional role in osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption activity.

    PubMed

    David, Marion; Machuca-Gayet, Irma; Kikuta, Junichi; Ottewell, Penelope; Mima, Fuka; Leblanc, Raphael; Bonnelye, Edith; Ribeiro, Johnny; Holen, Ingunn; Lopez Vales, Rùben; Jurdic, Pierre; Chun, Jerold; Clézardin, Philippe; Ishii, Masaru; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2014-03-07

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a natural bioactive lipid that acts through six different G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1-6) with pleiotropic activities on multiple cell types. We have previously demonstrated that LPA is necessary for successful in vitro osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow cells. Bone cells controlling bone remodeling (i.e. osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes) express LPA1, but delineating the role of this receptor in bone remodeling is still pending. Despite Lpar1(-/-) mice displaying a low bone mass phenotype, we demonstrated that bone marrow cell-induced osteoclastogenesis was reduced in Lpar1(-/-) mice but not in Lpar2(-/-) and Lpar3(-/-) animals. Expression of LPA1 was up-regulated during osteoclastogenesis, and LPA1 antagonists (Ki16425, Debio0719, and VPC12249) inhibited osteoclast differentiation. Blocking LPA1 activity with Ki16425 inhibited expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein and interfered with the fusion but not the proliferation of osteoclast precursors. Similar to wild type osteoclasts treated with Ki16425, mature Lpar1(-/-) osteoclasts had reduced podosome belt and sealing zone resulting in reduced mineralized matrix resorption. Additionally, LPA1 expression markedly increased in the bone of ovariectomized mice, which was blocked by bisphosphonate treatment. Conversely, systemic treatment with Debio0719 prevented ovariectomy-induced cancellous bone loss. Moreover, intravital multiphoton microscopy revealed that Debio0719 reduced the retention of CX3CR1-EGFP(+) osteoclast precursors in bone by increasing their mobility in the bone marrow cavity. Overall, our results demonstrate that LPA1 is essential for in vitro and in vivo osteoclast activities. Therefore, LPA1 emerges as a new target for the treatment of diseases associated with excess bone loss.

  9. Lysophosphatidic Acid Receptor Type 1 (LPA1) Plays a Functional Role in Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption Activity*

    PubMed Central

    David, Marion; Machuca-Gayet, Irma; Kikuta, Junichi; Ottewell, Penelope; Mima, Fuka; Leblanc, Raphael; Bonnelye, Edith; Ribeiro, Johnny; Holen, Ingunn; Vales, Rùben Lopez; Jurdic, Pierre; Chun, Jerold; Clézardin, Philippe; Ishii, Masaru; Peyruchaud, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a natural bioactive lipid that acts through six different G protein-coupled receptors (LPA1–6) with pleiotropic activities on multiple cell types. We have previously demonstrated that LPA is necessary for successful in vitro osteoclastogenesis of bone marrow cells. Bone cells controlling bone remodeling (i.e. osteoblasts, osteoclasts, and osteocytes) express LPA1, but delineating the role of this receptor in bone remodeling is still pending. Despite Lpar1−/− mice displaying a low bone mass phenotype, we demonstrated that bone marrow cell-induced osteoclastogenesis was reduced in Lpar1−/− mice but not in Lpar2−/− and Lpar3−/− animals. Expression of LPA1 was up-regulated during osteoclastogenesis, and LPA1 antagonists (Ki16425, Debio0719, and VPC12249) inhibited osteoclast differentiation. Blocking LPA1 activity with Ki16425 inhibited expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein and interfered with the fusion but not the proliferation of osteoclast precursors. Similar to wild type osteoclasts treated with Ki16425, mature Lpar1−/− osteoclasts had reduced podosome belt and sealing zone resulting in reduced mineralized matrix resorption. Additionally, LPA1 expression markedly increased in the bone of ovariectomized mice, which was blocked by bisphosphonate treatment. Conversely, systemic treatment with Debio0719 prevented ovariectomy-induced cancellous bone loss. Moreover, intravital multiphoton microscopy revealed that Debio0719 reduced the retention of CX3CR1-EGFP+ osteoclast precursors in bone by increasing their mobility in the bone marrow cavity. Overall, our results demonstrate that LPA1 is essential for in vitro and in vivo osteoclast activities. Therefore, LPA1 emerges as a new target for the treatment of diseases associated with excess bone loss. PMID:24429286

  10. Daily intake of β-cryptoxanthin prevents bone loss by preferential disturbance of osteoclastic activation in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Kakeru; Okamoto, Maika; Fukasawa, Kazuya; Iezaki, Takashi; Onishi, Yuki; Yoneda, Yukio; Sugiura, Minoru; Hinoi, Eiichi

    2015-09-01

    Although β-cryptoxanthin, a xanthophyll carotenoid, has been shown to exert an anabolic effect on bone calcification, little attention has been paid thus far to the precise mechanism of bone remodeling. Daily oral administration of β-cryptoxanthin significantly inhibited osteoclastic activation as well as reduction of bone volume in ovariectomized mice. In vitro studies revealed that β-cryptoxanthin inhibited differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts by repression of the nuclear factor-κB-dependent transcriptional pathway. Our results suggest that supplementation with β-cryptoxanthin would be beneficial for prophylaxis and for therapy of metabolic bone diseases associated with abnormal osteoclast activation. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Effects of cyclic tension stress on the apoptosis of osteoclasts in vitro

    PubMed Central

    LI, FENGBO; SUN, XIAOLEI; ZHAO, BIN; MA, JIANXIONG; ZHANG, YANG; LI, SHUANG; LI, YANJUN; MA, XINLONG

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cyclic tension stress on osteoclast apoptosis in vitro using murine RAW264.7 cells treated with receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB. Using the EF3200 mechanical testing instrument with BioDynamic bioreactor system, cultured osteoclasts which were seeded in a silicone rubber membrane load carrier, were loaded with periodic cyclic stretch microstrain. The induced osteoclasts were subjected to 0, 5, 10 and 15% stretch microstrain for 1 h daily for three days. The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts and the resorption area were assessed. Osteoclast apoptosis was detected by the Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide binding assay. The mRNA expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and cytochrome c was detected following force loading using reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. Compared with the cells under no cyclic tension stress, the number of osteoclasts and the resorption area were increased in the cells under 10 and 15% stretch microstrain. The Annexin V binding assay showed that the early apoptosis rate of the 5, 10 and 15% stretch microstrain groups was decreased compared with that of the control group. RT-qPCR results showed that the Bcl-2/Bax ratio was significantly increased in the cells subjected to 5, 10 and 15% stretch microstrain compared with that in the control cells (P<0.05), while the expression of cytochrome c in the 10 and 15% stretch microstrain groups was decreased significantly (P<0.05). No significant difference was observed between the cytochrome c expression of the 5% stretch microstrain group and that of the control group (P>0.05). The expression of caspase-3 in the 5, 10 and 15% stretch microstrain groups was decreased significantly compared with that in the control group (P<0.05). These data suggest that cyclic tension stress can inhibit apoptosis in osteoclasts, possibly by increasing

  12. Osteopontin regulates macrophage activation and osteoclast formation in hypertensive patients with vascular calcification

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Qian; Ruan, Cheng-Chao; Ma, Yu; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Wu, Qi-Hong; Wang, Ji-Guang; Zhu, Ding-Liang; Gao, Ping-Jin

    2017-01-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a highly regulated ectopic mineral deposition process involving immune cell infiltration in the vasculatures, which has been recognized to be promoted by hypertension. The matricellular glycoprotein osteopontin (OPN) is strongly induced in myeloid cells as a potential inflammatory mediator of vascular injury. This study aims to examine whether OPN is involved in the regulation of macrophage activation and osteoclast formation in hypertensive subjects with VC. We firstly found an increased proportion of CD11c+CD163- pro-inflammatory peripheral monocytes in hypertensive subjects with VC compared to those without VC by flow cytometric analysis. Primary cultured macrophages from hypertensive subjects with VC also showed altered expression profile of inflammatory factors and higher serum OPN level. Exogenous OPN promoted the differentiation of peripheral monocytes into an alternative, anti-inflammatory phenotype, and inhibited macrophage-to-osteoclast differentiation from these VC patients. In addition, calcified vessels showed increased osteoclasts accumulation accompanied with decreased macrophages infiltration in the of hypertensive subjects. Taken together, these demonstrated that OPN exerts an important role in the monocytes/macrophage phenotypic differentiation from hypertensive patients with VC, which includes reducing inflammatory factor expression and attenuating osteoclast formation. PMID:28091516

  13. Cell fusion in osteoclasts plays a critical role in controlling bone mass and osteoblastic activity

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, Ryotaro; Ninomiya, Ken; Miyamoto, Kana; Suzuki, Toru; Sato, Yuiko

    2008-12-19

    The balance between osteoclast and osteoblast activity is central for maintaining the integrity of bone homeostasis. Here we show that mice lacking dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein (DC-STAMP), an essential molecule for osteoclast cell-cell fusion, exhibited impaired bone resorption and upregulation of bone formation by osteoblasts, which do not express DC-STAMP, which led to increased bone mass. On the contrary, DC-STAMP over-expressing transgenic (DC-STAMP-Tg) mice under the control of an actin promoter showed significantly accelerated cell-cell fusion of osteoclasts and bone resorption, with decreased osteoblastic activity and bone mass. Bone resorption and formation are known to be regulated in a coupled manner, whereas DC-STAMP regulates bone homeostasis in an un-coupled manner. Thus our results indicate that inhibition of a single molecule provides both decreased osteoclast activity and increased bone formation by osteoblasts, thereby increasing bone mass in an un-coupled and a tissue specific manner.

  14. PSTPIP2 deficiency in mice causes osteopenia and increased differentiation of multipotent myeloid precursors into osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Nacu, Viorel; Charles, Julia F.; Henne, William M.; McMahon, Harvey T.; Nandi, Sayan; Ketchum, Halley; Harris, Renee; Nakamura, Mary C.

    2012-01-01

    Missense mutations that reduce or abrogate myeloid cell expression of the F-BAR domain protein, proline serine threonine phosphatase-interacting protein 2 (PSTPIP2), lead to autoinflammatory disease involving extramedullary hematopoiesis, skin and bone lesions. However, little is known about how PSTPIP2 regulates osteoclast development. Here we examined how PSTPIP2 deficiency causes osteopenia and bone lesions, using the mouse PSTPIP2 mutations, cmo, which fails to express PSTPIP2 and Lupo, in which PSTPIP2 is dysfunctional. In both models, serum levels of the pro-osteoclastogenic factor, MIP-1α, were elevated and CSF-1 receptor (CSF-1R)–dependent production of MIP-1α by macrophages was increased. Treatment of cmo mice with a dual specificity CSF-1R and c-Kit inhibitor, PLX3397, decreased circulating MIP-1α and ameliorated the extramedullary hematopoiesis, inflammation, and osteopenia, demonstrating that aberrant myelopoiesis drives disease. Purified osteoclast precursors from PSTPIP2-deficient mice exhibit increased osteoclastogenesis in vitro and were used to probe the structural requirements for PSTPIP2 suppression of osteoclast development. PSTPIP2 tyrosine phosphorylation and a functional F-BAR domain were essential for PSTPIP2 inhibition of TRAP expression and osteoclast precursor fusion, whereas interaction with PEST-type phosphatases was only required for suppression of TRAP expression. Thus, PSTPIP2 acts as a negative feedback regulator of CSF-1R signaling to suppress inflammation and osteoclastogenesis. PMID:22923495

  15. Polarity and membrane transport in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Baron, R

    1989-01-01

    The osteoclast is a highly polarized non-epithelial cell. The apical pole of the cell is determined by the cell's attachment to the extracellular matrix. This attachment forms the sealing zone, delimiting the subosteoclastic bone resorbing compartment. The apical membrane of the cell forms the ruffled-border, which contains some specific membrane proteins and a proton pump ATPase, which acidifies the apical compartment. Newly synthesized lysosomal enzymes are vectorially transported into this apical compartment bound to mannose-6-phosphate receptors. The basolateral membrane is highly enriched in sodium pumps with beta and alpha 1 subunits. Associated with the acidification process is the carbonic anhydrase found in the cytoplasm and membrane-associated and a bicarbonate-chloride exchanger in the membrane.2 These features put the osteoclast in the same functional category as the kidney tubule intercalated cell and the gastric oxyntic cell, both of epithelial origin, which secrete acid in a polarized fashion.

  16. ADAM8 Enhances Osteoclast Precursor Fusion and Osteoclast Formation In Vitro and In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ishizuka, Hisako; García-Palacios, Verónica; Lu, Ganwei; Subler, Mark A; Zhang, Heju; Boykin, Christina S; Choi, Sun Jin; Zhao, Liena; Patrene, Kenneth; Galson, Deborah L; Blair, Harry C; Hadi, Tamer M; Windle, Jolene J; Kurihara, Noriyoshi; Roodman, G David

    2011-01-01

    ADAM8 expression is increased in the interface tissue around a loosened hip prosthesis and in the pannus and synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, but its potential role in these processes is unclear. ADAM8 stimulates osteoclast (OCL) formation, but the effects of overexpression or loss of expression of ADAM8 in vivo and the mechanisms responsible for the effects of ADAM8 on osteoclastogenesis are unknown. Therefore, to determine the effects of modulating ADAM expression, we generated tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)–ADAM8 transgenic mice that overexpress ADAM8 in the OCL lineage and ADAM8 knockout (ADAM8 KO) mice. TRAP-ADAM8 mice developed osteopenia and had increased numbers of OCL precursors that formed hypermultinucleated OCLs with an increased bone-resorbing capacity per OCL. They also had an enhanced differentiation capacity, increased TRAF6 expression, and increased NF-κB, Erk, and Akt signaling compared with wild-type (WT) littermates. This increased bone-resorbing capacity per OCL was associated with increased levels of p-Pyk2 and p-Src activation. In contrast, ADAM8 KO mice did not display a bone phenotype in vivo, but unlike WT littermates, they did not increase RANKL production, OCL formation, or calvarial fibrosis in response to tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) in vivo. Since loss of ADAM8 does not inhibit basal bone remodeling but only blocks the enhanced OCL formation in response to TNF-α, these results suggest that ADAM8 may be an attractive therapeutic target for preventing bone destruction associated with inflammatory disease. © 2011 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research. PMID:20683884

  17. Advances in osteoclast biology reveal potential new drug targets and new roles for osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Boyce, Brendan F

    2013-04-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated myeloid lineage cells formed in response to macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) by fusion of bone marrow-derived precursors that circulate in the blood and are attracted to sites of bone resorption in response to factors, such as sphingosine-1 phosphate signaling. Major advances in understanding of the molecular mechanisms regulating osteoclast functions have been made in the past 20 years, mainly from mouse and human genetic studies. These have revealed that osteoclasts express and respond to proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Some of these cytokines activate NF-κB and nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling to induce osteoclast formation and activity and also regulate communication with neighboring cells through signaling proteins, including ephrins and semaphorins. Osteoclasts also positively and negatively regulate immune responses and osteoblastic bone formation. These advances have led to development of new inhibitors of bone resorption that are in clinical use or in clinical trials; and more should follow, based on these advances. This article reviews current understanding of how bone resorption is regulated both positively and negatively in normal and pathologic states. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  18. Icariin influences adipogenic differentiation of stem cells affected by osteoblast-osteoclast co-culture and clinical research adipogenic.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuncong; Feng, Pengbo; Mo, Guoye; Li, Daxing; Li, Yongxian; Mo, Ling; Yang, Zhidong; Liang, De

    2017-04-01

    To build mouse osteoblast MC3T3-E1 and mouse osteoclast RAW264.7 co-culture system and to study the effect of icariin on the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in the co-culture system. In vitro acquisition and cultivation of mouse osteoblasts MC3T3-E1 and mouse RAW264.7 cells were conducted. Osteoblast and osteoclast activities of cells were detected by CCK-8 staining experiment, alizarin red staining and tartaric-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. We used different concentrations of icariin to interfere in osteoblast-osteoclast co-culture system. The effects of icariin on various genes were detected by PCR and Western blot methods The correction between the expression of PPARγ and BMD was analyzed in patients with osteoporosis. Mouse osteoblast-osteoclast co-culture system was built, and the osteogenic differentiation effect was enhanced. Icariin can improve the MC3T3-E1 osteogenic differentiation activity, enhance the expression of OPG and RANKL gene protein, reduce the NF-κb gene and protein expression, increase of ALP, TGF-b1 and RANKL gene expression level and reduce RANK gene expression. Icariin can act on MC3T3-E1 cells-RAW264.7 cells co-culture system, and promote the osteogenic activity of MC3T3-E1 cells, inhibit the osteoclast activity of RAW264.7 cells and reduce the level of BMSCs adipogenic differentiation. The expression level of PPAR-γ gene was negatively correlated with the level of BMD. Mouse MC3T3-E1 cells and mouse RAW264.7 cells could be co-cultured in vitro, and icariin could improve the osteogenic activity of MC3T3 cells-RAW264.7 cells and decrease the osteoclast activity. Icariin could inhibit adipogenic differentiation of BMSCs in the osteoblast-osteoclast co-culture, promoting osteogenic differentiation and inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. In vitro cytotoxic and antiviral activities of Ficus carica latex extracts.

    PubMed

    Lazreg Aref, Houda; Gaaliche, Badii; Fekih, Abdelwaheb; Mars, Massoud; Aouni, Mahjoub; Pierre Chaumon, Jean; Said, Khaled

    2011-02-01

    The latex of fig fruit (Ficus carica) is used in traditional medicine for the treatment of skin infections such as warts and also diseases of possible viral origin. Five extracts (methanolic, hexanic, ethyl acetate, hexane-ethyl acetate (v/v) and chloroformic) of this species were investigated in vitro for their antiviral potential activity against herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1), echovirus type 11 (ECV-11) and adenovirus (ADV). To evaluate the capacity of the extracts to inhibit the replication of viruses, the following assays were performed: adsorption and penetration, intracellular inhibition and virucidal activity. Observation of cytopathic effects was used to determine the antiviral action. The hexanic and hexane-ethyl acetate (v/v) extracts inhibited multiplication of viruses by tested techniques at concentrations of 78 µg mL(-1). These two extracts were possible candidates as herbal medicines for herpes virus, echovirus and adenovirus infectious diseases. All extracts had no cytotoxic effect on Vero cells at all tested concentrations.

  20. The small molecule harmine regulates NFATc1 and Id2 expression in osteoclast progenitor cells.

    PubMed

    Egusa, Hiroshi; Doi, Masanori; Saeki, Makio; Fukuyasu, Sho; Akashi, Yoshihiro; Yokota, Yoshifumi; Yatani, Hirofumi; Kamisaki, Yoshinori

    2011-08-01

    Small molecule compounds that potently affect osteoclastogenesis could be useful as chemical probes for elucidating the mechanisms of various biological phenomena and as effective therapeutic strategies against bone resorption. An osteoclast progenitor cell-based high-throughput screening system was designed to target activation of NFAT, which is a key event for osteoclastogenesis. Orphan ligand library screening using this system identified the β-carboline derivative harmine, which is a highly potent inhibitor of dual-specificity tyrosine-phosphorylation regulated kinase 1A (DYRK1A), to be an NFAT regulator in osteoclasts. RAW264.7 cells highly expressed DYRK1A protein, and in vitro phosphorylation assay demonstrated that harmine directly inhibited the DYRK1A-mediated phosphorylation (in-activation) of NFATc1. Harmine promoted the dephosphorylation (activation) of NFATc1 in RAW264.7 cells within 24h, and it significantly increased the expression of NFATc1 in RAW264.7 cells and mouse primary bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) both in the presence and absence of RANKL stimulation. Although harmine promoted NFATc1 expression and stimulated target genes for osteoclastogenesis, cell-cell fusion and the formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated osteoclasts from RAW264.7 cells and BMMs was significantly inhibited by harmine treatment. Meanwhile, harmine remarkably promoted the expression of inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation-2 (Id2), which is a negative regulator for osteoclastogenesis, in RAW264.7 cells and BMMs. An Id2-null-mutant showed slightly increased osteoclast formation from BMMs, and the harmine-mediated inhibition of osteoclast formation was abolished in the BMMs of Id2-null-mutant mice. These results suggest that harmine is a potent activator of NFATc1 that interferes with the function of DYRK1A in osteoclast precursors and also up-regulates Id2 protein, which may dominantly inhibit expression pathways associated with cell-cell fusion, thereby leading to

  1. Scoparone attenuates RANKL-induced osteoclastic differentiation through controlling reactive oxygen species production and scavenging

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jang, Hae-Dong

    2015-02-15

    Scoparone, one of the bioactive components of Artemisia capillaris Thunb, has various biological properties including immunosuppressive, hepatoprotective, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, and antioxidant effects. This study aims at evaluating the anti-osteoporotic effect of scoparone and its underlying mechanism in vitro. Scoparone demonstrated potent cellular antioxidant capacity. It was also found that scoparone inhibited the receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and suppressed cathepsin K and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) expression via c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/p38-mediated c-Fos–nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) signaling pathway. During osteoclast differentiation, the production of general reactive oxygen species (ROS) and superoxide anions was dose-dependently attenuated by scoparone. In addition, scoparone diminished NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate) oxidase 1 (Nox1) expression and activation via the tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6)–cSrc–phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3k) signaling pathway and prevented the disruption of mitochondrial electron transport chain system. Furthermore, scoparone augmented the expression of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and catalase (CAT). The overall results indicate that the inhibitory effect of scoparone on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is attributed to the suppressive effect on ROS and superoxide anion production by inhibiting Nox1 expression and activation and protecting the mitochondrial electron transport chain system and the scavenging effect of ROS resulting from elevated SOD1 and CAT expression. - Highlights: • Scoparone dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation. • Scoparone diminished general ROS and superoxide anions in a dose-dependent manner. • Scoparone inhibited Nox1 expression and

  2. Enhancing Osteoclastic Resorption for the Prevention and Treatment of Heterotopic Ossification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-01

    Public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions...searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and completing and reviewing this collection of information. Send...key osteoclast formation cytokine. A second approach is by antibody inhibition of OPG, the natural antagonist of RANKL. Results from the second

  3. Further insight into the latex metabolite profile of Ficus carica.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Andreia P; Silva, Luís R; Andrade, Paula B; Valentão, Patrícia; Silva, Branca M; Gonçalves, Rui F; Pereira, José A; Guedes de Pinho, Paula

    2010-10-27

    Latex is a sticky emulsion that exudes upon damage from specialized canals from several plants. It contains several biologically active compounds, such as phytosterols, fatty acids, and amino acids. In plants, these compounds are involved in the interaction between plants, insects, and the environment. Despite its chemical, biological, and ecological importance, Ficus carica latex is still poorly studied. To improve the knowledge on the metabolite profile of this matrix, a targeted metabolite analysis was performed in a representative sample from F. carica latex. Seven phytosterols were determined by gas chromatography-ion trap mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS) and high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to diode array detection (HPLC-DAD), with β-sitosterol and lupeol being the compounds present in higher concentrations (ca. 54 and 14%, respectively). A total of 18 fatty acids were characterized by GC-ITMS, being essentially represented by saturated fatty acids (ca. 86.4% of total fatty acids). A total of 13 free amino acids were also identified by high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (HPLC/UV-vis), and cysteine and tyrosine were the major ones (ca. 38.7 and 31.4%, respectively). In humans, phytosterols and some polyunsaturated fatty acids, such as linoleic acid, are known for their anticarcinogenic properties. With regard to amino acids, some of them, such as glycine, are neurotransmitters. Our results reveal the presence of a wide diversity of compounds, from distinct classes, in F. carica latex, possessing various potential pharmacological activities; thus, its biological potential appears to be worth further exploring.

  4. Osteoclast Inhibitory Peptide-1 Therapy for Paget’s Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    1 (SQSTM1/p62) gene have been widely identified in PDB patients. We previously detected expression of measles virus nucleocapsid (MVNP) transcripts...high bone turnover in PDB. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Paget’s Disease, measles virus nucleocapsid, sequestosome1 , osteoclast, osteoclast inhibitory peptide...detected expression of measles virus nucleocapsid (MVNP) transcripts in osteoclasts from patients with PDB. Also, we have shown that MVNP gene

  5. Plant lipases: partial purification of Carica papaya lipase.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Ivanna; Mateos-Díaz, Juan Carlos; Sandoval, Georgina

    2012-01-01

    Lipases from plants have very interesting features for application in different fields. This chapter provides an overview on some of the most important aspects of plant lipases, such as sources, applications, physiological functions, and specificities. Lipases from laticifers and particularly Carica papaya lipase (CPL) have emerged as a versatile autoimmobilized biocatalyst. However, to get a better understanding of CPL biocatalytic properties, the isolation and purification of individual C. papaya lipolytic enzymes become necessary. In this chapter, a practical protocol for partial purification of the latex-associated lipolytic activity from C. papaya is given.

  6. Caspase-2 Maintains Bone Homeostasis by Inducing Apoptosis of Oxidatively-Damaged Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Ramaswamy; Callaway, Danielle; Vanegas, Difernando; Bendele, Michelle; Lopez-Cruzan, Marisa; Horn, Diane; Guda, Teja; Fajardo, Roberto; Abboud-Werner, Sherry; Herman, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a silent disease, characterized by a porous bone micro-structure that enhances risk for fractures and associated disabilities. Senile, or age-related osteoporosis (SO), affects both men and women, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying senile osteoporosis are not fully known. Recent studies implicate the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased oxidative stress as key factors in SO. Herein, we show that loss of caspase-2, a cysteine aspartate protease involved in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, results in total body and femoral bone loss in aged mice (20% decrease in bone mineral density), and an increase in bone fragility (30% decrease in fracture strength). Importantly, we demonstrate that genetic ablation or selective inhibition of caspase-2 using zVDVAD-fmk results in increased numbers of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and enhanced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Conversely, transfection of osteoclast precursors with wild type caspase-2 but not an enzymatic mutant, results in a decrease in TRAP activity. We demonstrate that caspase-2 expression is induced in osteoclasts treated with oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and that loss of caspase-2 enhances resistance to oxidants, as measured by TRAP activity, and decreases oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of osteoclasts. Moreover, oxidative stress, quantified by assessment of the lipid peroxidation marker, 4-HNE, is increased in Casp2-/- bone, perhaps due to a decrease in antioxidant enzymes such as SOD2. Taken together, our data point to a critical and novel role for caspase-2 in maintaining bone homeostasis by modulating ROS levels and osteoclast apoptosis during conditions of enhanced oxidative stress that occur during aging. PMID:24691516

  7. Caspase-2 maintains bone homeostasis by inducing apoptosis of oxidatively-damaged osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ramaswamy; Callaway, Danielle; Vanegas, Difernando; Bendele, Michelle; Lopez-Cruzan, Marisa; Horn, Diane; Guda, Teja; Fajardo, Roberto; Abboud-Werner, Sherry; Herman, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a silent disease, characterized by a porous bone micro-structure that enhances risk for fractures and associated disabilities. Senile, or age-related osteoporosis (SO), affects both men and women, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality. However, cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying senile osteoporosis are not fully known. Recent studies implicate the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased oxidative stress as key factors in SO. Herein, we show that loss of caspase-2, a cysteine aspartate protease involved in oxidative stress-induced apoptosis, results in total body and femoral bone loss in aged mice (20% decrease in bone mineral density), and an increase in bone fragility (30% decrease in fracture strength). Importantly, we demonstrate that genetic ablation or selective inhibition of caspase-2 using zVDVAD-fmk results in increased numbers of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and enhanced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Conversely, transfection of osteoclast precursors with wild type caspase-2 but not an enzymatic mutant, results in a decrease in TRAP activity. We demonstrate that caspase-2 expression is induced in osteoclasts treated with oxidants such as hydrogen peroxide and that loss of caspase-2 enhances resistance to oxidants, as measured by TRAP activity, and decreases oxidative stress-induced apoptosis of osteoclasts. Moreover, oxidative stress, quantified by assessment of the lipid peroxidation marker, 4-HNE, is increased in Casp2-/- bone, perhaps due to a decrease in antioxidant enzymes such as SOD2. Taken together, our data point to a critical and novel role for caspase-2 in maintaining bone homeostasis by modulating ROS levels and osteoclast apoptosis during conditions of enhanced oxidative stress that occur during aging.

  8. Reduced RANKL expression impedes osteoclast activation and tooth eruption in alendronate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Bradaschia-Correa, Vivian; Moreira, Mariana M; Arana-Chavez, Victor E

    2013-07-01

    The creation of the eruption pathway requires the resorption of the occlusal alveolar bone by osteoclasts and signaling events between bone and dental follicle are necessary. The aim of the present study has been to evaluate the effect of alendronate on osteoclastogenesis and the expression of the regulator proteins of osteoclast activation, namely RANK, RANKL and OPG, in the bone that covers the first molar germ. Newborn Wistar rats were treated daily with 2.5 mg/kg alendronate for 4, 8, 14, 21 and 28 days, whereas controls received sterile saline solution. At the time points cited, maxillae were fixed, decalcified and processed for light and electron microscopic analysis. TRAP histochemistry was performed on semi-serial sections and the osteoclasts in the occlusal half of the bony crypt surface were counted. TUNEL analysis was carried out on paraffin sections. The occlusal bone that covers the upper first molar was removed in additional 4- and 8-day-old alendronate-treated and control rats in which the expression of RANK, RANKL and OPG was analyzed by SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and Western blotting. TRAP-positive osteoclasts were more numerous in the alendronate group at all time points, despite their unactivated phenotype and the presence of apoptotic cells. RANKL expression in the alendronate specimens was inhibited at all time points, unlike in controls. Our findings indicate that the expression of RANKL in the occlusal portion of the bony crypt is unrelated to osteoclast recruitment and differentiation but is crucial to their activation during the creation of the eruption pathway.

  9. Deletion of Orai1 alters expression of multiple genes during osteoclast and osteoblast maturation.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sung-Yong; Foley, Julie; Numaga-Tomita, Takuro; Petranka, John G; Bird, Gary S; Putney, James W

    2012-12-01

    Store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) is a major Ca(2+) influx pathway in most non-excitable cell types and Orai1 was recently identified as an essential pore-subunit of SOCE channels. Here we investigate the physiological role of Orai1 in bone homeostasis using Orai1-deficient mice (Orai1(-/-)). Orai1(-/-) mice developed osteopenia with decreased bone mineral density and trabecular bone volume. To identify the nature and origin of the bone defect, bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts from Orai1(-/-) mice were examined. Orai1-mediated SOCE was completely abolished in Orai1(-/-) osteoclast precursor cells and osteoclastogenesis in vitro from Orai1(-/-) mice was impaired due to a defect in cell fusion of pre-osteoclasts. Also, resorption activity in vitro was comparable but the size of pits formed by Orai1(-/-) osteoclasts was smaller. We next assessed the role of Orai1 in osteoblast differentiation and function by using a pre-osteoblast cell line, as well as primary osteoblasts from wild-type and Orai1(-/-) mice. SOCE in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells was inactivated by lentiviral overexpression of a pore-dead Orai1 mutant. Lack of SOCE in MC3T3-E1 had no effect on alkaline phosphatase staining and expression but substantially inhibited mineralized nodule formation. Consistent with this finding, Orai1-mediated SOCE was markedly reduced in Orai1(-/-) osteoblast precursor cells and osteoblastogenesis in vitro from Orai1(-/-) stromal cells showed impaired mineral deposition but no change in differentiation. This indicates that Orai1 is involved in the function but not in the differentiation of osteoblasts. Together, these results suggest that Orai1 plays a critical role in bone homeostasis by regulating both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Published by Elsevier India Pvt Ltd.

  10. Deletion of Orai1 Alters Expression of Multiple Genes during Osteoclast and Osteoblast Maturation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Sung-Yong; Foley, Julie; Numaga-Tomita, Takuro; Petranka, John G.; Bird, Gary S.; Putney, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE) is a major Ca2+ influx pathway in most non-excitable cell types and Orai1 was recently identified as an essential pore-subunit of SOCE channels. Here we investigate the physiological role of Orai1 in bone homeostasis using Orai1-deficient mice (Orai1−/−). Orai1−/− mice developed osteopenia with decreased bone mineral density and trabecular bone volume. To identify the nature and origin of the bone defect, bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts from Orai1−/− mice were examined. Orai1-mediated SOCE was completely abolished in Orai1−/− osteoclast precursor cells and osteoclastogenesis in vitro from Orai1−/− mice was impaired due to a defect in cell fusion of pre-osteoclasts. Also, resorption activity in vitro was comparable but the size of pits formed by Orai1−/− osteoclasts was smaller. We next assessed the role of Orai1 in osteoblast differentiation and function by using a pre-osteoblast cell line, as well as primary osteoblasts from wild-type and Orai1−/− mice. SOCE in MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblastic cells was inactivated by lentiviral overexpression of a pore-dead Orai1 mutant. Lack of SOCE in MC3T3-E1 had no effect on alkaline phosphatase staining and expression but substantially inhibited mineralized nodule formation. Consistent with this finding, Orai1-mediated SOCE was markedly reduced in Orai1−/− osteoblast precursor cells and osteoblastogenesis in vitro from Orai1−/− stromal cells showed impaired mineral deposition but no change in differentiation. This indicates that Orai1 is involved in the function but not in the differentiation of osteoblasts. Together, these results suggest that Orai1 plays a critical role in bone homeostasis by regulating both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. PMID:23122304

  11. Positive regulation of osteoclastic differentiation by growth differentiation factor 15 upregulated in osteocytic cells under hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Hinoi, Eiichi; Ochi, Hiroki; Takarada, Takeshi; Nakatani, Eri; Iezaki, Takashi; Nakajima, Hiroko; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Hidano, Shinya; Kobayashi, Takashi; Takeda, Shu; Yoneda, Yukio

    2012-04-01

    Osteocytes are thought to play a role as a mechanical sensor through their communication network in bone. Although osteocytes are the most abundant cells in bone, little attention has been paid to their physiological and pathological functions in skeletogenesis. Here, we have attempted to delineate the pivotal functional role of osteocytes in regulation of bone remodeling under pathological conditions. We first found markedly increased osteoclastic differentiation by conditioned media (CM) from osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells previously exposed to hypoxia in vitro. Using microarray and real-time PCR analyses, we identified growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) as a key candidate factor secreted from osteocytes under hypoxia. Recombinant GDF15 significantly promoted osteoclastic differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner, with concomitant facilitation of phosphorylation of both p65 and inhibitory-κB in the presence of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand. To examine the possible functional significance of GDF15 in vivo, mice were subjected to ligation of the right femoral artery as a hypoxic model. A significant increase in GDF15 expression was specifically observed in tibias of the ligated limb but not in tibias of the normally perfused limb. Under these experimental conditions, in cancellous bone of proximal tibias in the ligated limb, a significant reduction was observed in bone volume, whereas a significant increase was seen in the extent of osteoclast surface/bone surface when determined by bone histomorphometric analysis. Finally, the anti-GDF15 antibody prevented bone loss through inhibiting osteoclastic activation in tibias from mice with femoral artery ligation in vivo, in addition to suppressing osteoclastic activity enhanced by CM from osteocytes exposed to hypoxia in vitro. These findings suggest that GDF15 could play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of bone loss relevant to hypoxia through promotion of osteoclastogenesis after

  12. Bisphosphonate action. Alendronate localization in rat bone and effects on osteoclast ultrastructure.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, M; Grasser, W; Endo, N; Akins, R; Simmons, H; Thompson, D D; Golub, E; Rodan, G A

    1991-01-01

    Studies of the mode of action of the bisphosphonate alendronate showed that 1 d after the injection of 0.4 mg/kg [3H]alendronate to newborn rats, 72% of the osteoclastic surface, 2% of the bone forming, and 13% of all other surfaces were densely labeled. Silver grains were seen above the osteoclasts and no other cells. 6 d later the label was 600-1,000 microns away from the epiphyseal plate and buried inside the bone, indicating normal growth and matrix deposition on top of alendronate-containing bone. Osteoclasts from adult animals, infused with parathyroid hormone-related peptide (1-34) and treated with 0.4 mg/kg alendronate subcutaneously for 2 d, all lacked ruffled border but not clear zone. In vitro alendronate bound to bone particles with a Kd of approximately 1 mM and a capacity of 100 nmol/mg at pH 7. At pH 3.5 binding was reduced by 50%. Alendronate inhibited bone resorption by isolated chicken or rat osteoclasts when the amount on the bone surface was around 1.3 x 10(-3) fmol/microns 2, which would produce a concentration of 0.1-1 mM in the resorption space if 50% were released. At these concentrations membrane leakiness to calcium was observed. These findings suggest that alendronate binds to resorption surfaces, is locally released during acidification, the rise in concentration stops resorption and membrane ruffling, without destroying the osteoclasts. Images PMID:1661297

  13. Noncanonical Wnt signaling promotes osteoclast differentiation and is facilitated by the human immunodeficiency virus protease inhibitor ritonavir

    SciTech Connect

    Santiago, Francisco; Oguma, Junya; Brown, Anthony M.C.; Laurence, Jeffrey

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer First demonstration of direct role for noncanonical Wnt in osteoclast differentiation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Demonstration of Ryk as a Wnt5a/b receptor in inhibition of canonical Wnt signaling. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Modulation of noncanonical Wnt signaling by a clinically important drug, ritonavir. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Establishes a mechanism for an important clinical problem: HIV-associated bone loss. -- Abstract: Wnt proteins that signal via the canonical Wnt/{beta}-catenin pathway directly regulate osteoblast differentiation. In contrast, most studies of Wnt-related effects on osteoclasts involve indirect changes. While investigating bone mineral density loss in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and its treatment with the protease inhibitor ritonavir (RTV), we observed that RTV decreased nuclear localization of {beta}-catenin, critical to canonical Wnt signaling, in primary human and murine osteoclast precursors. This occurred in parallel with upregulation of Wnt5a and Wnt5b transcripts. These Wnts typically stimulate noncanonical Wnt signaling, and this can antagonize the canonical Wnt pathway in many cell types, dependent upon Wnt receptor usage. We now document RTV-mediated upregulation of Wnt5a/b protein in osteoclast precursors. Recombinant Wnt5b and retrovirus-mediated expression of Wnt5a enhanced osteoclast differentiation from human and murine monocytic precursors, processes facilitated by RTV. In contrast, canonical Wnt signaling mediated by Wnt3a suppressed osteoclastogenesis. Both RTV and Wnt5b inhibited canonical, {beta}-catenin/T cell factor-based Wnt reporter activation in osteoclast precursors. RTV- and Wnt5-induced osteoclast differentiation were dependent upon the receptor-like tyrosine kinase Ryk, suggesting that Ryk may act as a Wnt5a/b receptor in this context. This is the first demonstration of a direct role for Wnt signaling pathways and Ryk in

  14. A Comprehensive Review of Immunoreceptor Regulation of Osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Humphrey, Mary Beth; Nakamura, Mary C

    2016-08-01

    Osteoclasts require coordinated co-stimulation by several signaling pathways to initiate and regulate their cellular differentiation. Receptor activator for NF-κB ligand (RANKL or TNFSF11), a tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily member, is the master cytokine required for osteoclastogenesis with essential co-stimulatory signals mediated by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-signaling adaptors, DNAX-associated protein 12 kDa size (DAP12) and FcεRI gamma chain (FcRγ). The ITAM-signaling adaptors do not have an extracellular ligand-binding domain and, therefore, must pair with ligand-binding immunoreceptors to interact with their extracellular environment. DAP12 pairs with a number of different immunoreceptors including triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2), myeloid DAP12-associated lectin (MDL-1), and sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectin 15 (Siglec-15); while FcRγ pairs with a different set of receptors including osteoclast-specific activating receptor (OSCAR), paired immunoglobulin receptor A (PIR-A), and Fc receptors. The ligands for many of these receptors in the bone microenvironment remain unknown. Here, we will review immunoreceptors known to pair with either DAP12 or FcRγ that have been shown to regulate osteoclastogenesis. Co-stimulation and the effects of ITAM-signaling have turned out to be complex, and now include paradoxical findings that ITAM-signaling adaptor-associated receptors can inhibit osteoclastogenesis and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) receptors can promote osteoclastogenesis. Thus, co-stimulation of osteoclastogenesis continues to reveal additional complexities that are important in the regulatory mechanisms that seek to maintain bone homeostasis.

  15. Osteoclast precursor interaction with bone matrix induces osteoclast formation directly by an interleukin-1-mediated autocrine mechanism.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhenqiang; Xing, Lianping; Qin, Chunlin; Schwarz, Edward M; Boyce, Brendan F

    2008-04-11

    Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) mediate bone resorption in a variety of diseases affecting bone. Like TNF, IL-1 is secreted by osteoclast precursors (OCPs), but unlike TNF, it does not induce osteoclast formation directly from OCPs in vitro. TNF induces IL-1 expression and activates c-Fos, a transcription factor required in OCPs for osteoclast formation. Here, we examined whether IL-1 can induce osteoclast formation directly from OCPs overexpressing c-Fos and whether interaction with bone matrix affects OCP cytokine expression. We infected OCPs with c-Fos or green fluorescent protein retrovirus, cultured them with macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-1 on bone slices or plastic dishes, and assessed osteoclast and resorption pit formation and expression of IL-1 by OCPs. We used a Transwell assay to determine whether OCPs secrete IL-1 when they interact with bone matrix. IL-1 induced osteoclast formation directly from c-Fos-expressing OCPs on plastic. c-Fos-expressing OCPs formed osteoclasts spontaneously on bone slices without addition of cytokines. OCPs on bone secreted IL-1, which induced osteoclast formation from c-Fos-expressing OCPs in the lower Transwell dishes. The bone matrix proteins dentin sialoprotein and osteopontin, but not transforming growth factor-beta, stimulated OCP expression of IL-1 and induced c-Fos-expressing OCP differentiation into osteoclasts. Osteoclasts eroding inflamed joints have higher c-Fos expression compared with osteoclasts inside bone. We conclude that OCPs expressing c-Fos may induce their differentiation directly into osteoclasts by an autocrine mechanism in which they produce IL-1 through interaction with bone matrix. TNF could induce c-Fos expression in OCPs at sites of inflammation in bone to promote this autocrine mechanism and thus amplify bone loss.

  16. Effect of wine inhibitors on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya L. latex.

    PubMed

    Benucci, Ilaria; Esti, Marco; Liburdi, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The influence of potential inhibitors naturally present in wine on the proteolytic activity of papain from Carica papaya latex was investigated to evaluate its applicability in white wine protein haze stabilization. Enzymatic activity was tested against a synthetic tripeptide chromogenic substrate in wine-like acidic medium that consisted of tartaric buffer (pH 3.2) supplemented with ethanol, free sulfur dioxide (SO2 ), grape skin and seed tannins within the average ranges of concentrations that are typical in wine. The diagnosis of inhibition type, performed with the graphical method, demonstrated that all of tested wine constituents were reversible inhibitors of papain. The strongest inhibition was exerted by free SO2 , which acted as a mixed-type inhibitor, similar to grape skin and seed tannins. Finally, when tested in table white wines, the catalytic activity of papain, even when if it was ascribable to the hyperbolic behavior of Michaelis-Menten equation, was determined to be strongly affected by free SO2 and total phenol level. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  17. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes induce apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cell-derived osteoclasts through mitochondria-mediated death pathway.

    PubMed

    Ye, Shefang; Jiang, Yuanqin; Zhang, Honggang; Wang, Yifang; Wu, Yihui; Hou, Zhenqing; Zhang, Qiqing

    2012-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have attracted great interest with respect to biomaterials, particularly for use as an implant material in bone-tissue engineering. Accordingly, the bone-tissue compatibility of CNTs and their influence on new bone formation are important issues. In the present study, we examined the effects of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) on the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL)-supported osteoclastogenesis using a murine monocytic cell line RAW 264.7. MWCNTs significantly suppressed the differentiation of RAW 264.7 cells into osteoclasts. Treatment with MWCNTs induced apoptosis in osteoclasts as characterized by nuclear condensation, DNA fragmentation, caspase-3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage, but did not decrease the cell viability of the osteoblast-like cell line MC3T3-E1. MWCNTs also induced loss of the mitochondrial membrane potential (deltapsim) by regulating expression of Bcl-2 family proteins and caused release of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol. MWCNTs-induced apoptosis in osteoclasts was inhibited both by cyclosporin A, a blocker of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore, and by DEVD-CHO, a cell-permeable inhibitor of caspase-3. The present study suggests that MWCNTs suppresse osteoclastogenesis via the inhibition of osteoclast differentiation and the induction of apoptosis in osteoclasts, rendering them promising candidate for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases.

  18. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  19. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/µL, 8.10×103/µL, 84.0% to 55×103/µL, 3.7×103/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/µL to 168×103/µL, WBC from 3.7×103/µL to 7.7×103/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases. PMID:23569787

  20. Visualization of acidic compartments in cultured osteoclasts by use of an acidotrophic amine as a marker for low pH.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Yoshida, H; Akisaka, T

    1999-12-01

    Using the acidotrophic amine 3-(2,4-dinitroanillino)-3'-amino-N-methyldipropylamine (DAMP) as a marker for low pH and immunofluorescence cytochemistry, we examined acidic compartments of osteoclasts cultured on cover glasses or bone slices, where they could resorb the bone surface, forming resorptive lacunae. DAMP-positive structures were seen as vesicular and tubular forms in the cytoplasm, indicating lysosomes and endosomes. Not only the osteoclastic cytoplasm but also the extracellular area around the ruffled border and resorptive lacunae were stained with DAMP, suggesting acidic regions. Immunofluorescence was localized predominantly on the substratum side of actively resorbing osteoclasts, whereas an evenly distributed staining pattern was seen in the nonactive cell. The most intensive reaction was seen at the advancing front of resorptive lacunae within the actively resorbing osteoclasts. The distribution pattern of DAMP seemed to be correlated with the osteoclastic activity, since osteoclasts exhibit alternating resorption and migration phases during the bone-remodeling cycle. In this culture system, the resorptive lacunae were left behind after the osteoclasts had completed resorption and migrated along the bone surface. These exposed resorptive lacunae were also stained with DAMP, which were presumably kept at an acidic pH. The effect of treatment with monensin, chloroquine, ammonium chloride, or nigericin was varied in terms of the immunoreactivity for DAMP, but not complete abolition of the staining was obtained. Weak bases such as chloroquine or ammonium chloride inhibited both intra- and extracellular immunoreactivity. Immunoreactivity for the vacuolar type of proton ATPase (V-ATPase) was demonstrable in the cytoplasm of the osteoclasts but was weakened by the addition of bafilomycin. Immunofluorescence of the resorptive lacunae was still retained even after the treatment with bafilomycin and acetazolamide. Besides, both bafilomycin and acetazolamide

  1. Nicotine Affects Bone Resorption and Suppresses the Expression of Cathepsin K, MMP-9 and Vacuolar-Type H+-ATPase d2 and Actin Organization in Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Hideki; Tanabe, Natsuko; Kawato, Takayuki; Nakai, Kumiko; Kariya, Taro; Matsumoto, Sakurako; Zhao, Ning; Motohashi, Masafumi; Maeno, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Tobacco smoking is an important risk factor for the development of several cancers, osteoporosis, and inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis. Nicotine is one of the major components of tobacco. In previous study, we showed that nicotine inhibits mineralized nodule formation by osteoblasts, and the culture medium from osteoblasts containing nicotine and lipopolysaccharide increases osteoclast differentiation. However, the direct effect of nicotine on the differentiation and function of osteoclasts is poorly understood. Thus, we examined the direct effects of nicotine on the expression of nicotine receptors and bone resorption-related enzymes, mineral resorption, actin organization, and bone resorption using RAW264.7 cells and bone marrow cells as osteoclast precursors. Cells were cultured with 10−5, 10−4, or 10−3 M nicotine and/or 50 µM α-bungarotoxin (btx), an 7 nicotine receptor antagonist, in differentiation medium containing the soluble RANKL for up 7 days. 1–5, 7, 9, and 10 nicotine receptors were expressed on RAW264.7 cells. The expression of 7 nicotine receptor was increased by the addition of nicotine. Nicotine suppressed the number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase positive multinuclear osteoclasts with large nuclei(≥10 nuclei), and decreased the planar area of each cell. Nicotine decreased expression of cathepsin K, MMP-9, and V-ATPase d2. Btx inhibited nicotine effects. Nicotine increased CA II expression although decreased the expression of V-ATPase d2 and the distribution of F-actin. Nicotine suppressed the planar area of resorption pit by osteoclasts, but did not affect mineral resorption. These results suggest that nicotine increased the number of osteoclasts with small nuclei, but suppressed the number of osteoclasts with large nuclei. Moreover, nicotine reduced the planar area of resorption pit by suppressing the number of osteoclasts with large nuclei, V-ATPase d2, cathepsin K and MMP-9 expression and actin organization. PMID

  2. Cytoskeletal dysfunction dominates in DAP12-deficient osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Zou, Wei; Zhu, Tingting; Craft, Clarissa S.; Broekelmann, Thomas J.; Mecham, Robert P.; Teitelbaum, Steven L.

    2010-01-01

    Despite evidence that DAP12 regulates osteoclasts, mice lacking the ITAM-bearing protein exhibit only mild osteopetrosis. Alternatively, Dap12−/− mice, also lacking FcRγ, are severely osteopetrotic, suggesting that FcRγ compensates for DAP12 deficiency in the bone-resorbing polykaryons. Controversy exists, however, as to whether these co-stimulatory molecules regulate differentiation of osteoclasts or the capacity of the mature cell to degrade bone. We find that Dap12−/− osteoclasts differentiate normally when generated on osteoblasts but have a dysfunctional cytoskeleton, impairing their ability to transmigrate through the osteoblast layer and resorb bone. To determine whether the FcRγ co-receptor, OSCAR mediates osteoclast function in the absence of DAP12, we overexpressed OSCAR fused to FLAG (OSCAR-FLAG), in Dap12−/− osteoclasts. OSCAR-FLAG partially rescues the abnormal cytoskeleton of Dap12−/− osteoclasts grown on bone, but not those grown on osteoblasts. Thus, cytoskeletal dysfunction, and not arrested differentiation, is the dominant consequence of DAP12 deficiency in osteoclasts. The failure of osteoblasts to normalize Dap12−/− osteoclasts indicates that functionally relevant quantities of OSCAR ligand do not reside in bone-forming cells. PMID:20720152

  3. New methodology for evaluating osteoclastic activity induced by orthodontic load

    PubMed Central

    ARAÚJO, Adriele Silveira; FERNANDES, Alline Birra Nolasco; MACIEL, José Vinicius Bolognesi; NETTO, Juliana de Noronha Santos; BOLOGNESE, Ana Maria

    2015-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is a dynamic process of bone modeling involving osteoclast-driven resorption on the compression side. Consequently, to estimate the influence of various situations on tooth movement, experimental studies need to analyze this cell. Objectives The aim of this study was to test and validate a new method for evaluating osteoclastic activity stimulated by mechanical loading based on the fractal analysis of the periodontal ligament (PDL)-bone interface. Material and Methods The mandibular right first molars of 14 rabbits were tipped mesially by a coil spring exerting a constant force of 85 cN. To evaluate the actual influence of osteoclasts on fractal dimension of bone surface, alendronate (3 mg/Kg) was injected weekly in seven of those rabbits. After 21 days, the animals were killed and their jaws were processed for histological evaluation. Osteoclast counts and fractal analysis (by the box counting method) of the PDL-bone interface were performed in histological sections of the right and left sides of the mandible. Results An increase in the number of osteoclasts and in fractal dimension after OTM only happened when alendronate was not administered. Strong correlation was found between the number of osteoclasts and fractal dimension. Conclusions Our results suggest that osteoclastic activity leads to an increase in bone surface irregularity, which can be quantified by its fractal dimension. This makes fractal analysis by the box counting method a potential tool for the assessment of osteoclastic activity on bone surfaces in microscopic examination. PMID:25760264

  4. Vitamin D endocrine system and osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naoyuki; Udagawa, Nobuyuki; Udagawa, Naoyuki; Suda, Tatsuo

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin D was discovered as an anti-rachitic agent preventing a failure in bone mineralization, but it is now established that the active form of vitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) induces bone resorption. Discovery of the receptor activator of nuclear factor -κB ligand (RANKL) uncovered the molecular mechanism by which 1α,25(OH)2D3 stimulates bone resorption. Treating osteoblastic cells with 1α,25(OH)2D3 stimulates RANKL expression, which in turn induces osteoclastogenesis. Nevertheless, active vitamin D compounds such as calcitriol (1α,25(OH)2D3), alfacalcidol (1α(OH)D3) and eldecalcitol (1α,25-dihydroxy-2β-(3-hydroxypropoxy) vitamin D3) have been used as therapeutic drugs for osteoporosis, as they increase bone mineral density (BMD) in osteoporotic patients. Paradoxically, the increase in BMD is caused by the suppression of bone resorption. Several studies have been performed to elucidate the mechanism by which active vitamin D compounds suppress bone resorption in vivo. Our study showed that daily administration of eldecalcitol to mice suppressed neither the number of osteoclast precursors in the bone marrow nor the number of osteoclasts formed in ex vivo cultures. Eldecalcitol administration suppressed RANKL expression in osteoblasts. This review discusses how the difference between in vitro and in vivo effects of active vitamin D compounds on bone resorption is induced.

  5. The proliferative human monocyte subpopulation contains osteoclast precursors.

    PubMed

    Lari, Roya; Kitchener, Peter D; Hamilton, John A

    2009-01-01

    Immediate precursors of bone-resorbing osteoclasts are cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage. Particularly during clinical conditions showing bone loss, it would appear that osteoclast precursors are mobilized from bone marrow into the circulation prior to entering tissues undergoing such loss. The observed heterogeneity of peripheral blood monocytes has led to the notion that different monocyte subpopulations may have special or restricted functions, including as osteoclast precursors. Human peripheral blood monocytes were sorted based upon their degree of proliferation and cultured in macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF or CSF-1) and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa-B ligand (RANKL). The monocyte subpopulation that is capable of proliferation gave rise to significantly more multinucleated, bone-resorbing osteoclasts than the bulk of the monocytes. Human peripheral blood osteoclast precursors reside in the proliferative monocyte subpopulation.

  6. Osteoclastic resorption of biomimetic calcium phosphate coatings in vitro.

    PubMed

    Leeuwenburgh, S; Layrolle, P; Barrère, F; de Bruijn, J; Schoonman, J; van Blitterswijk, C A; de Groot, K

    2001-08-01

    A new biomimetic method for coating metal implants enables the fast formation of dense and homogeneous calcium phosphate coatings. Titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) disks were coated with a thin, carbonated, amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) by immersion in a saturated solution of calcium, phosphate, magnesium, and carbonate. The ACP-coated disks then were processed further by incubation in calcium phosphate solutions to produce either crystalline carbonated apatite (CA) or octacalcium phosphate (OCP). The resorption behavior of these three biomimetic coatings was studied using osteoclast-enriched mouse bone-marrow cell cultures for 7 days. Cell-mediated degradation was observed for both carbonated apatite and octacalcium phosphate coatings. Numerous resorption lacunae characteristic of osteoclastic resorption were found on carbonated apatite after cell culture. The results showed that carbonated apatite coatings are resorbed by osteoclasts in a manner consistent with normal osteoclastic resorption. Osteoclasts also degraded the octacalcium phosphate coatings but not by classical pit formation.

  7. RANKL, osteopontin, and osteoclast homeostasis in a hyperocclusion mouse model

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, Cameron G.; Ito, Yoshihiro; Dangaria, Smit; Luan, Xianghong; Diekwisch, Thomas G.H.

    2009-10-21

    The biological mechanisms that maintain the position of teeth in their sockets establish a dynamic equilibrium between bone resorption and apposition. In order to reveal some of the dynamics involved in the tissue responses towards occlusal forces on periodontal ligament (PDL) and alveolar bone homeostasis, we developed the first mouse model of hyperocclusion. Swiss-Webster mice were kept in hyperocclusion for 0, 3, 6, and 9 d. Morphological and histological changes in the periodontium were assessed using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and ground sections with fluorescent detection of vital dye labels. Sections were stained for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) and osteopontin (OPN) was analyzed by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Traumatic occlusion resulted in enamel surface abrasion, inhibition of alveolar bone apposition, significant formation of osteoclasts at 3, 6 and 9 d, and upregulation of OPN and RANKL. Data from this study suggest that both OPN and RANKL contribute to the stimulation of bone resorption in the hyperocclusive state. In addition, we propose that the inhibition of alveolar bone apposition by occlusal forces is an important mechanism for the control of occlusal height that might work in synergy with RANKL-induced bone resorption to maintain normal occlusion.

  8. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-06-01

    To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes.

  9. Reduction of hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage by Carica papaya leaf extract

    PubMed Central

    Okoko, Tebekeme; Ere, Diepreye

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro antioxidant potential of Carica papaya (C. papaya) leaf extract and its effect on hydrogen peroxide-induced erythrocyte damage assessed by haemolysis and lipid peroxidation. Methods Hydroxyl radical scavenging activities, hydrogen ion scavenging activity, metal chelating activity, and the ferrous ion reducing ability were assessed as antioxidant indices. In the other experiment, human erythrocytes were treated with hydrogen peroxide to induce erythrocyte damage. The extract (at various concentrations) was subsequently incubated with the erythrocytes and later analysed for haemolysis and lipid peroxidation as indices for erythrocyte damage. Results Preliminary investigation of the extract showed that the leaf possessed significant antioxidant and free radical scavenging abilities using in vitro models in a concentration dependent manner (P<0.05). The extract also reduced hydrogen peroxide induced erythrocyte haemolysis and lipid peroxidation significantly when compared with ascorbic acid (P<0.05). The IC50 values were 7.33 mg/mL and 1.58 mg/mL for inhibition of haemolysis and lipid peroxidation, respectively. In all cases, ascorbic acid (the reference antioxidant) possessed higher activity than the extract. Conclusions The findings show that C. papaya leaves possess significant bioactive potential which is attributed to the phytochemicals which act in synergy. Thus, the leaves can be exploited for pharmaceutical and nutritional purposes. PMID:23569948

  10. 5-Azacytidine-induced Protein 2 (AZI2) Regulates Bone Mass by Fine-tuning Osteoclast Survival*

    PubMed Central

    Maruyama, Kenta; Fukasaka, Masahiro; Uematsu, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Osamu; Kondo, Takeshi; Saitoh, Tatsuya; Martino, Mikaël M.; Akira, Shizuo

    2015-01-01

    5-Azacytidine-induced protein 2 (AZI2) is a TNF receptor (TNFR)-associated factor family member-associated NF-κB activator-binding kinase 1-binding protein that regulates the production of IFNs. A previous in vitro study showed that AZI2 is involved in dendritic cell differentiation. However, the roles of AZI2 in immunity and its pleiotropic functions are unknown in vivo. Here we report that AZI2 knock-out mice exhibit normal dendritic cell differentiation in vivo. However, we found that adult AZI2 knock-out mice have severe osteoporosis due to increased osteoclast longevity. We revealed that the higher longevity of AZI2-deficient osteoclasts is due to an augmented activation of proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Src (c-Src), which is a critical player in osteoclast survival. We found that AZI2 inhibits c-Src activity by regulating the activation of heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90), a chaperone involved in c-Src dephosphorylation. Furthermore, we demonstrated that AZI2 indirectly inhibits c-Src by interacting with the Hsp90 co-chaperone Cdc37. Strikingly, administration of a c-Src inhibitor markedly prevented bone loss in AZI2 knock-out mice. Together, these findings indicate that AZI2 regulates bone mass by fine-tuning osteoclast survival. PMID:25691576

  11. Glycosaminoglycan-mediated loss of cathepsin K collagenolytic activity in MPS I contributes to osteoclast and growth plate abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Susan; Hashamiyan, Saadat; Clarke, Lorne; Saftig, Paul; Mort, John; Dejica, Valeria M; Brömme, Dieter

    2009-11-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of lysosomal storage diseases characterized by the build-up of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and severe skeletal abnormalities. As GAGs can regulate the collagenolytic activity of the major osteoclastic protease cathepsin K, we investigated the presence and activity of cathepsin K and its co-localization with GAGs in mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type I bone. The most dramatic difference between MPS I and wild-type mice was an increase in the amount of cartilage in the growth plates in MPS I bones. Though the number of cathepsin K-expressing osteoclasts was increased in MPS I mice, these mice revealed a significant reduction in cathepsin K-mediated cartilage degradation. As excess heparan and dermatan sulfates inhibit type II collagen degradation by cathepsin K and the spatial overlap between cathepsin K and heparan sulfate strongly increased in MPS I mice, the build up of subepiphyseal cartilage is speculated to be a direct consequence of cathepsin K inhibition by MPS I-associated GAGs. Moreover, isolated MPS I and Ctsk(-/-) osteoclasts displayed fewer actin rings and formed fewer resorption pits on dentine disks, as compared with wild-type cells. These results suggest that the accumulation of GAGs in murine MPS I bone has an inhibitory effect on cathepsin K activity, resulting in impaired osteoclast activity and decreased cartilage resorption, which may contribute to the bone pathology seen in MPS diseases.

  12. Inhibitory effects of French pine bark extract, Pycnogenol®, on alveolar bone resorption and on the osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Watanabe, Kiyoko; Toyama, Toshizo; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Sugiyama, Shuta; Lee, Masaichi-Chang-il; Hamada, Nobushiro

    2015-02-01

    Pycnogenol(®) (PYC) is a standardized bark extract from French maritime pine (Pinus pinaster Aiton). We examined the inhibitory effects of PYC on alveolar bone resorption, which is a characteristic feature of periodontitis, induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) and osteoclast differentiation. In rat periodontitis model, rats were divided into four groups: group A served as the non-infected control, group B was infected orally with P. gingivalis ATCC 33277, group C was administered PYC in the diet (0.025%: w/w), and group D was infected with P. gingivalis and administered PYC. Administration of PYC along with P. gingivalis infection significantly reduced alveolar bone resorption. Treatment of P. gingivalis with 1 µg/ml PYC reduced the number of viable bacterial cells. Addition of PYC to epithelial cells inhibited adhesion and invasion by P. gingivalis. The effect of PYC on osteoclast formation was confirmed by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. PYC treatment significantly inhibited osteoclast formation. Addition of PYC (1-100 µg/ml) to purified osteoclasts culture induced cell apoptosis. These results suggest that PYC may prevent alveolar bone resorption through its antibacterial activity against P. gingivalis and by suppressing osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, PYC may be useful as a therapeutic and preventative agent for bone diseases such as periodontitis.

  13. Glycosaminoglycan-Mediated Loss of Cathepsin K Collagenolytic Activity in MPS I Contributes to Osteoclast and Growth Plate Abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Susan; Hashamiyan, Saadat; Clarke, Lorne; Saftig, Paul; Mort, John; Dejica, Valeria M.; Brömme, Dieter

    2009-01-01

    Mucopolysaccharidoses are a group of lysosomal storage diseases characterized by the build-up of glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and severe skeletal abnormalities. As GAGs can regulate the collagenolytic activity of the major osteoclastic protease cathepsin K, we investigated the presence and activity of cathepsin K and its co-localization with GAGs in mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) type I bone. The most dramatic difference between MPS I and wild-type mice was an increase in the amount of cartilage in the growth plates in MPS I bones. Though the number of cathepsin K-expressing osteoclasts was increased in MPS I mice, these mice revealed a significant reduction in cathepsin K-mediated cartilage degradation. As excess heparan and dermatan sulfates inhibit type II collagen degradation by cathepsin K and the spatial overlap between cathepsin K and heparan sulfate strongly increased in MPS I mice, the build up of subepiphyseal cartilage is speculated to be a direct consequence of cathepsin K inhibition by MPS I-associated GAGs. Moreover, isolated MPS I and Ctsk−/− osteoclasts displayed fewer actin rings and formed fewer resorption pits on dentine disks, as compared with wild-type cells. These results suggest that the accumulation of GAGs in murine MPS I bone has an inhibitory effect on cathepsin K activity, resulting in impaired osteoclast activity and decreased cartilage resorption, which may contribute to the bone pathology seen in MPS diseases. PMID:19834056

  14. The effects of Lycii Radicis Cortex on RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and activation in RAW 264.7 cells

    PubMed Central

    KIM, JAE-HYUN; KIM, EUN-YOUNG; LEE, BINA; MIN, JU-HEE; SONG, DEA-UK; LIM, JEONG-MIN; EOM, JI WHAN; YEOM, MIJUNG; JUNG, HYUK-SANG; SOHN, YOUNGJOO

    2016-01-01

    Post-menopausal osteoporosis is a serious age-related disease. After the menopause, estrogen deficiency is common, and excessive osteoclast activity causes osteoporosis. Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells generated from the differentiation of monocyte/macrophage precursor cells such as RAW 264.7 cells. The water extract of Lycii Radicis Cortex (LRC) is made from the dried root bark of Lycium chinense Mill. and is termed 'Jigolpi' in Korea. Its effects on osteoclastogenesis and post-menopausal osteoporosis had not previously been tested. In the present study, the effect of LRC on receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was demonstrated using a tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) assay and pit formation assay. Moreover, in order to analyze molecular mechanisms, we studied osteoclastogenesis-related markers such as nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), c-Fos, receptor activator of NF-κB (RANK), TRAP, cathepsin K (CTK), matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9), calcitonin receptor (CTR) and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) using RT-qPCR and western blot analysis. Additionally, we also determined the effect of LRC on an ovariectomized (OVX) rat model. We noted that LRC inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation via suppressing osteoclastogenesis-related markers. It also inhibited osteoporosis in the OVX rat model by decreasing loss of bone density and trabecular area. These results suggest that LRC exerts a positive effect on menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:26848104

  15. Glucocorticoids mediate circadian timing in peripheral osteoclasts resulting in the circadian expression rhythm of osteoclast-related genes.

    PubMed

    Fujihara, Yuko; Kondo, Hisataka; Noguchi, Toshihide; Togari, Akifumi

    2014-04-01

    Circadian rhythms are prevalent in bone metabolism. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are poorly understood. Recently, we suggested that output signals from the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) are transmitted from the master circadian rhythm to peripheral osteoblasts through β-adrenergic and glucocorticoid signaling. In this study, we examined how the master circadian rhythm is transmitted to peripheral osteoclasts and the role of clock gene in osteoclast. Mice were maintained under 12-hour light/dark periods and sacrificed at Zeitgeber times 0, 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20. mRNA was extracted from femur (cancellous bone) and analyzed for the expression of osteoclast-related genes and clock genes. Osteoclast-related genes such as cathepsin K (CTSK) and nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) showed circadian rhythmicity like clock genes such as period 1 (PER1), PER2 and brain and muscle Arnt-like protein 1 (BMAL1). In an in vitro study, not β-agonist but glucocorticoid treatment remarkably synchronized clock and osteoclast-related genes in cultured osteoclasts. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay showed the interaction between BMAL1 proteins and promoter region of CTSK and NFATc1. To examine whether endogenous glucocorticoids influence the osteoclast circadian rhythms, mice were adrenalectomized (ADX) and maintained under 12-hour light/dark periods at least two weeks before glucocorticoid injection. A glucocorticoid injection restarted the circadian expression of CTSK and NFATc1 in ADX mice. These results suggest that glucocorticoids mediate circadian timing to peripheral osteoclasts and osteoclast clock contributes to the circadian expression of osteoclast-related genes such as CTSK and NFATc1.

  16. Transforming Growth Factor β1/Smad4 Signaling Affects Osteoclast Differentiation via Regulation of miR-155 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongying; Zhang, Jun; Shao, Haiyu; Liu, Jianwen; Jin, Mengran; Chen, Jinping; Huang, Yazeng

    2017-01-01

    Transforming growth factor β1 (TGFβ1)/Smad4 signaling plays a pivotal role in maintenance of the dynamic balance between bone formation and resorption. The microRNA miR-155 has been reported to exert a significant role in the differentiation of macrophage and dendritic cells. The goal of this study was to determine whether miR-155 regulates osteoclast differentiation through TGFβ1/Smad4 signaling. Here, we present that TGFβ1 elevated miR-155 levels during osteoclast differentiation through the stimulation of M-CSF and RANKL. Additionally, we found that silencing Smad4 attenuated the upregulation of miR-155 induced by TGFβ1. The results of luciferase reporter experiments and ChIP assays demonstrated that TGFβ1 promoted the binding of Smad4 to the miR-155 promoter at a site located in 454 bp from the transcription start site in vivo, further verifying that miR-155 is a transcriptional target of the TGFβ1/Smad4 pathway. Subsequently, TRAP staining and qRT-PCR analysis revealed that silencing Smad4 impaired the TGFβ1-mediated inhibition on osteoclast differentiation. Finally, we found that miR-155 may target SOCS1 and MITF to suppress osteoclast differentiation. Taken together, we provide the first evidence that TGFβ1/Smad4 signaling affects osteoclast differentiation by regulation of miR-155 expression and the use of miR-155 as a potential therapeutic target for osteoclast-related diseases shows great promise. PMID:28359146

  17. Bajijiasu Abrogates Osteoclast Differentiation via the Suppression of RANKL Signaling Pathways through NF-κB and NFAT

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Guoju; Zhou, Lin; Shi, Xuguang; He, Wei; Wang, Haibin; Wei, Qiushi; Chen, Peng; Qi, Longkai; Tickner, Jennifer; Lin, Li; Xu, Jiake

    2017-01-01

    Pathological osteolysis is commonly associated with osteoporosis, bone tumors, osteonecrosis, and chronic inflammation. It involves excessive resorption of bone matrix by activated osteoclasts. Suppressing receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) signaling pathways has been proposed to be a good target for inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. Bajijiasu—a natural compound derived from Morinda officinalis F. C. How—has previously been shown to have anti-oxidative stress property; however, its effect and molecular mechanism of action on osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption remains unclear. In the present study, we found that Bajijiasu dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption from 0.1 mM, and reached half maximal inhibitory effects (IC50) at 0.4 mM without toxicity. Expression of RANKL-induced osteoclast specific marker genes including cathepsin K (Ctsk), nuclear factor of activated T-cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAcP), vacuolar-type H+-ATPase V0 subunit D2 (V-ATPase d2), and (matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) was inhibited by Bajijiasu treatment. Luciferase reporter gene studies showed that Bajijiasu could significantly reduce the expression and transcriptional activity of NFAT as well as RANKL-induced NF-κB activation in a dose-dependent manner. Further, Bajijiasu was found to decrease the RANKL-induced phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), inhibitor of κB-α (IκB-α), NFAT, and V-ATPase d2. Taken together, this study revealed Bajijiasu could attenuate osteoclast formation and bone resorption by mediating RANKL signaling pathways, indicative of a potential effect of Bajijiasu on osteolytic bone diseases. PMID:28106828

  18. Runx1 Regulates Myeloid Precursor Differentiation Into Osteoclasts Without Affecting Differentiation Into Antigen Presenting or Phagocytic Cells in Both Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Paglia, David N.; Yang, Xiaochuan; Kalinowski, Judith; Jastrzebski, Sandra

    2016-01-01

    Runt-related transcription factor 1 (Runx1), a master regulator of hematopoiesis, is expressed in preosteoclasts. Previously we evaluated the bone phenotype of CD11b-Cre Runx1fl/fl mice and demonstrated enhanced osteoclasts and decreased bone mass in males. However, an assessment of the effects of Runx1 deletion in female osteoclast precursors was impossible with this model. Moreover, the role of Runx1 in myeloid cell differentiation into other lineages is unknown. Therefore, we generated LysM-Cre Runx1fl/fl mice, which delete Runx1 equally (∼80% deletion) in myeloid precursor cells from both sexes and examined the capacity of these cells to differentiate into osteoclasts and phagocytic and antigen-presenting cells. Both female and male LysM-Cre Runx1fl/fl mice had decreased trabecular bone mass (72% decrease in bone volume fraction) and increased osteoclast number (2–3 times) (P < .05) without alteration of osteoblast histomorphometric indices. We also demonstrated that loss of Runx1 in pluripotential myeloid precursors with LysM-Cre did not alter the number of myeloid precursor cells in bone marrow or their ability to differentiate into phagocytizing or antigen-presenting cells. This study demonstrates that abrogation of Runx1 in multipotential myeloid precursor cells significantly and specifically enhanced the ability of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand to stimulate osteoclast formation and fusion in female and male mice without affecting other myeloid cell fates. In turn, increased osteoclast activity in LysM-Cre Runx1fl/fl mice likely contributed to a decrease in bone mass. These dramatic effects were not due to increased osteoclast precursors in the deleted mutants and argue that inhibition of Runx1 in multipotential myeloid precursor cells is important for osteoclast formation and function. PMID:27267711

  19. Identification of phenylpropanoids in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Saito, Keita; Kohno, Masahiro

    2014-10-15

    In this study, the phenylpropanoid composition and antioxidant activity of identified components in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves were examined. Known polyphenols rutin, isoschaftoside, isoquercetin, and chlorogenic acid were identified. Furthermore, caffeoylmalic acid (CMA) was the most abundant polyphenol and was identified for the first time. CMA exhibited antioxidant activity similar to that of vitamin C or catechin. Psoralen and bergapten were identified as known furanocoumarins, with psoralen being the most abundant. Moreover, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG) was identified for the first time. As a precursor of psoralen, PAG content was equivalent to the psoralen content in moles. Notably, the content of these compounds varied between the five fig varieties, and the furanocoumarin and PAG contents varied more than that of the polyphenols. Further investigations concerning the influence of CMA and PAG on human health are necessary to elucidate functionalities of fig leaves.

  20. Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of Carica papaya.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Saurabh; Cabot, Peter J; Shaw, P Nicholas; Hewavitharana, Amitha K

    2016-07-01

    Chronic inflammation is linked with the generation and progression of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes and atherosclerosis, and anti-inflammatory drugs therefore have the potential to assist in the treatment of these conditions. Carica papaya is a tropical plant that is traditionally used in the treatment of various ailments including inflammatory conditions. A literature search was conducted by using the keywords "papaya", "anti-inflammatory and inflammation" and "immunomodulation and immune" along with cross-referencing. Both in vitro and in vivo investigation studies were included. This is a review of all studies published since 2000 on the anti-inflammatory activity of papaya extracts and their effects on various immune-inflammatory mediators. Studies on the anti-inflammatory activities of recognized phytochemicals present in papaya are also included. Although in vitro and in vivo studies have shown that papaya extracts and papaya-associated phytochemicals possess anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties, clinical studies are lacking.

  1. Direct microsensor measurement of nitric oxide production by the osteoclast.

    PubMed

    Silverton, S F; Adebanjo, O A; Moonga, B S; Awumey, E M; Malinski, T; Zaidi, M

    1999-05-27

    Nitric oxide (NO) triggers marked osteoclast retraction which closely resembles that due to Ca2+. The effect of Ca2+ has been attributed to a stimulated release of NO. Here, we show for the first time, by direct measurement with a microsensor, that osteoclasts do indeed produce NO and that this production is enhanced by a high Ca2+. We also show that the Ca2+ ionophore, A23187, mimics the latter. Furthermore, osteoclasts on dentine produce more NO than osteoclasts on glass and NO release from dentine-plated osteoclasts is much less sensitive to stimulation by Ca2+. Finally, the microsomal Ca2+ store-depleting agent, thapsigargin, attenuates NO release only from osteoclasts on glass, suggesting that stored Ca2+ has the dominant effect in modulating NO release from non-resorbing cells. NO is a powerful inhibitor of bone resorption: a direct demonstration of its production is therefore strong evidence for a role in modulating osteoclast function. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  2. Extracts of marine algae show inhibitory activity against osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that play a crucial role in bone resorption. The imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation results in osteoporosis. Therefore, substances that can suppress osteoclast formation are potential candidate materials for drug development or functional foods. There have been reports that extracts or purified compounds from marine micro- and macroalgae can suppress osteoclast differentiation. Symbioimine, isolated from the cultured dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp., had suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation in osteoclast-like cells. Norzoanthamine, isolated from the colonial zoanthid Zoanthas sp., has been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice. With regard to marine extracts, the fucoxanthin-rich component from brown algae has been shown to have suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation. An extract of Sargassum fusiforme has recently been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity. This extract suppressed both osteoclast differentiation and accelerated osteoblast formation in separate in vitro experiments. It also showed antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice by regulating the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. These marine algae and their extracts may be sources of marine medicinal foods for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  3. Generation of avian cells resembling osteoclasts from mononuclear phagocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, J. I.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Blair, H. C.; Greenfield, E. M.; Athanasou, N. A.; Ross, F. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several lines of indirect evidence suggest that a monocyte family precursor gives rise to the osteoclast, although this hypothesis is controversial. Starting with a uniform population of nonspecific esterase positive, tartrate-sensitive, acid phosphatase-producing, mannose receptor-bearing mononuclear cells, prepared from dispersed marrow of calcium-deprived laying hens by cell density separation and selective cellular adherence, we generated multinucleated cells in vitro. When cultured with devitalized bone, these cells show, by electron microscopy, the characteristic osteoclast morphology in that they are mitochondria-rich, multinucleated, and, most importantly, develop characteristic ruffled membranes at the matrix attachment site. Moreover, as documented by scanning electron microscopy, these cells pit bone slices in a manner identical to freshly isolated osteoclasts. In addition, isoenzymes of acid phosphatase from generated osteoclasts, separated by 7.5% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 4, are identical to those of mature osteoclasts in migration pattern and tartrate resistance, although the precursor cells from which the osteoclasts are generated produce an entirely different isoenzyme, which is tartrate-sensitive and migrates less rapidly at pH 4. The fused cells also exhibit a cAMP response to prostaglandin E2. Therefore, osteoclast-like cells can be derived by in vitro culture of a marrow-derived monocyte cell population.

  4. Generation of avian cells resembling osteoclasts from mononuclear phagocytes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alvarez, J. I.; Teitelbaum, S. L.; Blair, H. C.; Greenfield, E. M.; Athanasou, N. A.; Ross, F. P.

    1991-01-01

    Several lines of indirect evidence suggest that a monocyte family precursor gives rise to the osteoclast, although this hypothesis is controversial. Starting with a uniform population of nonspecific esterase positive, tartrate-sensitive, acid phosphatase-producing, mannose receptor-bearing mononuclear cells, prepared from dispersed marrow of calcium-deprived laying hens by cell density separation and selective cellular adherence, we generated multinucleated cells in vitro. When cultured with devitalized bone, these cells show, by electron microscopy, the characteristic osteoclast morphology in that they are mitochondria-rich, multinucleated, and, most importantly, develop characteristic ruffled membranes at the matrix attachment site. Moreover, as documented by scanning electron microscopy, these cells pit bone slices in a manner identical to freshly isolated osteoclasts. In addition, isoenzymes of acid phosphatase from generated osteoclasts, separated by 7.5% polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis at pH 4, are identical to those of mature osteoclasts in migration pattern and tartrate resistance, although the precursor cells from which the osteoclasts are generated produce an entirely different isoenzyme, which is tartrate-sensitive and migrates less rapidly at pH 4. The fused cells also exhibit a cAMP response to prostaglandin E2. Therefore, osteoclast-like cells can be derived by in vitro culture of a marrow-derived monocyte cell population.

  5. ATPase pumps in osteoclasts and osteoblasts.

    PubMed

    Francis, Martin J O; Lees, Rita L; Trujillo, Elisa; Martín-Vasallo, Pablo; Heersche, Johan N M; Mobasheri, Ali

    2002-05-01

    Osteoblasts, osteocytes and osteoclasts are specialised cells of bone that play crucial roles in the formation, maintenance and resorption of bone matrix. Bone formation and resorption critically depend on optimal intracellular calcium and phosphate homeostasis and on the expression and activity of plasma membrane transport systems in all three cell types. Osteotropic agents, mechanical stimulation and intracellular pH are important parameters that determine the fate of bone matrix and influence the activity, expression, regulation and cell surface abundance of plasma membrane transport systems. In this paper the role of ATPase pumps is reviewed in the context of their expression in bone cells, their contribution to ion homeostasis and their relation to other transport systems regulating bone turnover.

  6. The Effect of Everolimus in an In Vitro Model of Triple Negative Breast Cancer and Osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Mercatali, Laura; Spadazzi, Chiara; Miserocchi, Giacomo; Liverani, Chiara; De Vita, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Alberto; Recine, Federica; Amadori, Dino; Ibrahim, Toni

    2016-11-01

    Metastatic bone disease has a major impact on morbidity of breast cancer (BC) patients. Alterations in mTOR signaling are involved both in cancer progression and in osteoclast differentiation. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of mTOR inhibitor Everolimus (Eve) on osteoclastogenesis induced by triple negative BC cells. To this aim, we developed an in vitro human model of osteoclastogenesis from peripheral blood monocytes co-cultured with the triple negative SCP2 and the hormonal receptor positive MCF7 cell lines. Osteoclastogenesis was evaluated by TRAP staining, evaluation of F actin rings and Calcitonin Receptor expression. Eve significantly reduced differentiation induced by cancer cells and resulted more effective when evaluated in combination with Denosumab and Zoledronic Acid (Zol). Combination with Zol showed a total abrogation of osteoclast differentiation induced by the triple negative cell line, not by MCF7. Finally, we observed that Eve was active in the inhibition of the crosstalk between cancer cells and osteoclasts reproduced by our model, highlighting a new therapeutic choice for the subsetting of triple negative BC patients. We observed a difference in the response to bone-targeted therapy with respect to BC subtypes. Our model may represent a valid platform for preclinical trials on bone-targeted drugs and for the study of the interplay of BC with bone stromal cells.

  7. The Effect of Everolimus in an In Vitro Model of Triple Negative Breast Cancer and Osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Mercatali, Laura; Spadazzi, Chiara; Miserocchi, Giacomo; Liverani, Chiara; De Vita, Alessandro; Bongiovanni, Alberto; Recine, Federica; Amadori, Dino; Ibrahim, Toni

    2016-01-01

    Metastatic bone disease has a major impact on morbidity of breast cancer (BC) patients. Alterations in mTOR signaling are involved both in cancer progression and in osteoclast differentiation. The purpose of this study was to assess the role of mTOR inhibitor Everolimus (Eve) on osteoclastogenesis induced by triple negative BC cells. To this aim, we developed an in vitro human model of osteoclastogenesis from peripheral blood monocytes co-cultured with the triple negative SCP2 and the hormonal receptor positive MCF7 cell lines. Osteoclastogenesis was evaluated by TRAP staining, evaluation of F actin rings and Calcitonin Receptor expression. Eve significantly reduced differentiation induced by cancer cells and resulted more effective when evaluated in combination with Denosumab and Zoledronic Acid (Zol). Combination with Zol showed a total abrogation of osteoclast differentiation induced by the triple negative cell line, not by MCF7. Finally, we observed that Eve was active in the inhibition of the crosstalk between cancer cells and osteoclasts reproduced by our model, highlighting a new therapeutic choice for the subsetting of triple negative BC patients. We observed a difference in the response to bone-targeted therapy with respect to BC subtypes. Our model may represent a valid platform for preclinical trials on bone-targeted drugs and for the study of the interplay of BC with bone stromal cells. PMID:27809291

  8. Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor Inhibitor Therapy on Osteoclasts Precursors in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Ana Maria; Campanilho-Marques, Raquel; Ponte, Cristina; Canhão, Helena; Ainola, Mari

    2017-01-01

    Objective. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) increases circulating osteoclast (OC) precursors numbers by promoting their proliferation and differentiation. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of TNF inhibitors (TNFi) on the differentiation and activity of OC in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients. Methods. Seventeen RA patients treated with TNFi were analyzed at baseline and after a minimum follow-up period of 6 months. Blood samples were collected to assess receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) surface expression on circulating leukocytes and frequency and phenotype of monocyte subpopulations. Quantification of serum levels of bone turnover markers, in vitro OC differentiation assays, and qRT-PCR for OC specific genes was performed. Results. After TNFi therapy, patients had reduced RANKL surface expression in B-lymphocytes and the frequency of circulating classical CD14brightCD16− monocytes was decreased. Serum levels of sRANKL, sRANKL/OPG ratio, and CTX-I were reduced in RA patients after TNFi treatment. Moreover, after exposure to TNFi, osteoclast differentiation and activity were decreased, as well as the expression of TRAF6 and cathepsin K. Conclusion. We propose that TNFi arrests bone loss and erosion, through two pathways: direct reduction of osteoclast precursor numbers and inhibition of intracellular signaling pathways acting through TRAF6. PMID:28286757

  9. Inhibitory effect of bisphosphonate on osteoclast function contributes to improved skeletal pain in ovariectomized mice.

    PubMed

    Abe, Yasuhisa; Iba, Kousuke; Sasaki, Koichi; Chiba, Hironori; Kanaya, Kumiko; Kawamata, Tomoyuki; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio; Sasaki, Muneteru; Yamashita, Toshihiko

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate skeletal pain associated with osteoporosis and to examine the inhibitory effect of bisphosphonate (BP) on pain in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model. We evaluated skeletal pain in OVX mice through an examination of pain-like behavior as well as immunohistochemical findings. In addition, we assessed the effects of alendronate (ALN), a potent osteoclast inhibitor, on those parameters. The OVX mice showed a decrease in the pain threshold value, and an increase in the number of c-Fos immunoreactive neurons in laminae I-II of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. Alendronate caused an increase in the pain threshold value and inhibited c-Fos expression. The serum level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, a marker of osteoclast activity, was significantly negatively correlated with the pain threshold value. Furthermore, we found that an antagonist of the transient receptor potential channel vanilloid subfamily member 1, which is an acid-sensing nociceptor, improved pain-like behavior in OVX mice. These results indicated that the inhibitory effect of BP on osteoclast function might contribute to an improvement in skeletal pain in osteoporosis patients.

  10. Glucosamines Attenuate Bone Loss Due to Menopause by Regulating Osteoclast Function in Ovariectomized Mice.

    PubMed

    Asai, Hironobu; Nakatani, Sachie; Kato, Takuya; Shimizu, Tatsuo; Mano, Hiroshi; Kobata, Kenji; Wada, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    The effect of glucosamine (GlcN) and N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) on bone metabolism in ovariectomized (OVX) mice was studied. After 12 weeks of feeding with 0.2% GlcN and 0.2% GlcNAc, the femoral bone mineral density in OVX mice was significantly increased compared with that in OVX mice fed the control diet. Histomorphometric analysis of the tibia indicated that the rates of osteogenesis and bone resorption were reduced due to the GlcN diet. The erosion depth of osteoclasts on the tibia in GlcN- and GlcNAc-fed OVX mice was significantly lower than that in the control OVX mice. The number of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts induced from bone marrow stem cells isolated from GlcN-fed OVX mice was significantly lower than that from control OVX mice. A loss of uterine weight and higher serum calcium concentration in the GlcN- and GlcNAc-fed OVX mice were observed. The results suggest that the intake of GlcN suppresses bone loss by inhibiting osteoclast differentiation and activity in a nonestrogenic manner.

  11. Acid-inducible proton influx currents in the plasma membrane of murine osteoclast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Kuno, Miyuki; Li, Guangshuai; Moriura, Yoshie; Hino, Yoshiko; Kawawaki, Junko; Sakai, Hiromu

    2016-05-01

    Acidification of the resorption pits, which is essential for dissolving bone, is produced by secretion of protons through vacuolar H(+)-ATPases in the plasma membrane of bone-resorbing cells, osteoclasts. Consequently, osteoclasts face highly acidic extracellular environments, where the pH gradient across the plasma membrane could generate a force driving protons into the cells. Proton influx mechanisms during the acid exposure are largely unknown, however. In this study, we investigated extracellular-acid-inducible proton influx currents in osteoclast-like cells derived from a macrophage cell line (RAW264). Decreasing extracellular pH to <5.5 induced non-ohmic inward currents. The reversal potentials depended on the pH gradients across the membrane and were independent of concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-), and HCO3 (-), suggesting that they were carried largely by protons. The acid-inducible proton influx currents were not inhibited by amiloride, a widely used blocker for cation channels/transporters, or by 4,4'-diisothiocyanato-2,2'-stilbenesulfonate(DIDS) which blocks anion channels/transporters. Additionally, the currents were not significantly affected by V-ATPase inhibitors, bafilomycin A1 and N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide. Extracellular Ca(2+) (10 mM) did not affect the currents, but 1 mM ZnCl2 decreased the currents partially. The intracellular pH in the vicinity of the plasma membrane was dropped by the acid-inducible H(+) influx currents, which caused overshoot of the voltage-gated H(+) channels after removal of acids. The H(+) influx currents were smaller in undifferentiated, mononuclear RAW cells and were negligible in COS7 cells. These data suggest that the acid-inducible H(+) influx (H(+) leak) pathway may be an additional mechanism modifying the pH environments of osteoclasts upon exposure to strong acids.

  12. Alteration of Homeostasis in Pre-osteoclasts Induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans CDT.

    PubMed

    Kawamoto, Dione; Ando-Suguimoto, Ellen S; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; DiRienzo, Joseph M; Mayer, Marcia P A

    2016-01-01

    The dysbiotic microbiota associated with aggressive periodontitis includes Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, the only oral species known to produce a cytolethal distending toxin (AaCDT). Give that CDT alters the cytokine profile in monocytic cells, we aimed to test the hypothesis that CDT plays a role in bone homeostasis by affecting the differentiation of precursor cells into osteoclasts. Recombinant AaCDT was added to murine bone marrow monocytes (BMMC) in the presence or absence of RANKL and the cell viability and cytokine profile of osteoclast precursor cells were determined. Multinucleated TRAP(+) cell numbers, and relative transcription of genes related to osteoclastogenesis were also evaluated. The addition of AaCDT did not lead to loss in cell viability but promoted an increase in the average number of TRAP(+) cells with 1-2 nuclei in the absence or presence of RANKL (Tukey, p < 0.05). This increase was also observed for TRAP(+) cells with ≥3nuclei, although this difference was not significant. Levels of TGF-β, TNF-α, and IL-6, in the supernatant fraction of cells, were higher when in AaCDT exposed cells, whereas levels of IL-1β and IL-10 were lower than controls under the same conditions. After interaction with AaCDT, transcription of the rank (encoding the receptor RANK), nfatc1 (transcription factor), and ctpK (encoding cathepsin K) genes was downregulated in pre-osteoclastic cells. The data indicated that despite the presence of RANKL and M-CSF, AaCDT may inhibit osteoclast differentiation by altering cytokine profiles and repressing transcription of genes involved in osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, the CDT may impair host defense mechanisms in periodontitis.

  13. Alteration of Homeostasis in Pre-osteoclasts Induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans CDT

    PubMed Central

    Kawamoto, Dione; Ando-Suguimoto, Ellen S.; Bueno-Silva, Bruno; DiRienzo, Joseph M.; Mayer, Marcia P. A.

    2016-01-01

    The dysbiotic microbiota associated with aggressive periodontitis includes Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, the only oral species known to produce a cytolethal distending toxin (AaCDT). Give that CDT alters the cytokine profile in monocytic cells, we aimed to test the hypothesis that CDT plays a role in bone homeostasis by affecting the differentiation of precursor cells into osteoclasts. Recombinant AaCDT was added to murine bone marrow monocytes (BMMC) in the presence or absence of RANKL and the cell viability and cytokine profile of osteoclast precursor cells were determined. Multinucleated TRAP+ cell numbers, and relative transcription of genes related to osteoclastogenesis were also evaluated. The addition of AaCDT did not lead to loss in cell viability but promoted an increase in the average number of TRAP+ cells with 1-2 nuclei in the absence or presence of RANKL (Tukey, p < 0.05). This increase was also observed for TRAP+ cells with ≥3nuclei, although this difference was not significant. Levels of TGF-β, TNF-α, and IL-6, in the supernatant fraction of cells, were higher when in AaCDT exposed cells, whereas levels of IL-1β and IL-10 were lower than controls under the same conditions. After interaction with AaCDT, transcription of the rank (encoding the receptor RANK), nfatc1 (transcription factor), and ctpK (encoding cathepsin K) genes was downregulated in pre-osteoclastic cells. The data indicated that despite the presence of RANKL and M-CSF, AaCDT may inhibit osteoclast differentiation by altering cytokine profiles and repressing transcription of genes involved in osteoclastogenesis. Therefore, the CDT may impair host defense mechanisms in periodontitis. PMID:27064424

  14. Experimental tooth movement-induced osteoclast activation is regulated by sympathetic signaling.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Mayo; Kondo, Hisataka; Miyazawa, Ken; Goto, Shigemi; Togari, Akifumi

    2013-01-01

    Experimental tooth movement (ETM) changes the distribution of sensory nerve fibers in periodontal ligament and the bone architecture through the stimulation of bone remodeling. As the sympathetic nervous system is involved in bone remodeling, we examined whether ETM is controlled by sympathetic signaling or not. In male mice, elastic rubber was inserted between upper left first molar (M1) and second molar (M2) for 3 or 5 days. Nerve fibers immunoreactive for not only sensory neuromarkers, such as calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), but also sympathetic neuromarkers, such as tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) were increased in the periodontal ligament during ETM. To elucidate the effect of the sympathetic signal mediated by ETM, mice were intraperitoneally injected with a β-antagonist, propranolol (PRO: 20 μg/g/day), or a β-agonist, isoproterenol (ISO: 5 μg/g/day) from 7 days before ETM. PRO treatment suppressed the amount of tooth movement by 12.9% in 3-day ETM and by 32.2% in 5-day ETM compared with vehicle treatment. On the other hand, ISO treatment increased it. Furthermore, ETM remarkably increased the osteoclast number on the bone surface (alveolar socket) (Oc.N/BS) in all drug treatments. PRO treatment suppressed Oc.N/BS by 39.4% in 3-day ETM, while ISO treatment increased it by 32.1% in 3-day ETM compared with vehicle treatment. Chemical sympathectomy using 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA: 250 μg/g) showed results similar to those for PRO treatment in terms of both the amount of tooth movement and osteoclast parameters. Our data showed that blockade of sympathetic signaling inhibited the tooth movement and osteoclast increase induced by ETM, and stimulation of sympathetic signaling accelerated these responses. These data suggest that the mechano-adaptive response induced by ETM is controlled by sympathetic signaling through osteoclast activation. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Osteoclasts promote immune suppressive microenvironment in multiple myeloma: therapeutic implication.

    PubMed

    An, Gang; Acharya, Chirag; Feng, Xiaoyan; Wen, Kenneth; Zhong, Mike; Zhang, Li; Munshi, Nikhil C; Qiu, Lugui; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2016-09-22

    The number and activity of osteoclasts (OCs) are strongly enhanced by myeloma cells, leading to significant bone lesions in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Mechanisms remain elusive as to whether myeloma-supporting OCs also induce suppressive immune bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Here, we first show that OCs significantly protect MM cells against T-cell-mediated cytotoxicity via direct inhibition of proliferating CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. The immune checkpoint molecules programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), Galectin-9, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), and CD200, as well as T-cell metabolism regulators indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), and CD38 are significantly upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. Importantly, the levels of these molecules, except CD38, are higher in OCs than in MM cells. Anti-PD-L1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and IDO inhibitor partly overcome OC-inhibited T-cell responses against MM cells, confirming their roles in OC-suppressed MM cell lysis by cytotoxic T cells. In addition, Galectin-9 and a proliferation-induced ligand (APRIL), secreted by OCs, are significantly upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. Galectin-9 specifically induces apoptosis of T cells while sparing monocytes and MM cells. APRIL induces PD-L1 expression in MM cells, providing additional immune inhibition by OCs. Moreover, CD38 is significantly upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. When targeted by an anti-CD38 mAb, suppressive T-cell function by OCs is alleviated, associated with downregulation of HVEM and IDO. Taken together, these results define the expression of multiple immune proteins and cytokines in OCs essential for suppressive MM BM milieu. These results further support the combination of targeting these molecules to improve anti-MM immunity. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  16. Osteoclasts promote immune suppressive microenvironment in multiple myeloma: therapeutic implication

    PubMed Central

    An, Gang; Acharya, Chirag; Feng, Xiaoyan; Wen, Kenneth; Zhong, Mike; Zhang, Li; Munshi, Nikhil C.; Qiu, Lugui; Tai, Yu-Tzu

    2016-01-01

    The number and activity of osteoclasts (OCs) are strongly enhanced by myeloma cells, leading to significant bone lesions in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). Mechanisms remain elusive as to whether myeloma-supporting OCs also induce suppressive immune bone marrow (BM) microenvironment. Here, we first show that OCs significantly protect MM cells against T-cell–mediated cytotoxicity via direct inhibition of proliferating CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. The immune checkpoint molecules programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1), Galectin-9, herpesvirus entry mediator (HVEM), and CD200, as well as T-cell metabolism regulators indoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase (IDO), and CD38 are significantly upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. Importantly, the levels of these molecules, except CD38, are higher in OCs than in MM cells. Anti–PD-L1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and IDO inhibitor partly overcome OC-inhibited T-cell responses against MM cells, confirming their roles in OC-suppressed MM cell lysis by cytotoxic T cells. In addition, Galectin-9 and a proliferation-induced ligand (APRIL), secreted by OCs, are significantly upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. Galectin-9 specifically induces apoptosis of T cells while sparing monocytes and MM cells. APRIL induces PD-L1 expression in MM cells, providing additional immune inhibition by OCs. Moreover, CD38 is significantly upregulated during osteoclastogenesis. When targeted by an anti-CD38 mAb, suppressive T-cell function by OCs is alleviated, associated with downregulation of HVEM and IDO. Taken together, these results define the expression of multiple immune proteins and cytokines in OCs essential for suppressive MM BM milieu. These results further support the combination of targeting these molecules to improve anti-MM immunity. PMID:27418644

  17. Glycosylation of immunoglobulin G determines osteoclast differentiation and bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Harre, Ulrike; Lang, Stefanie C.; Pfeifle, René; Rombouts, Yoann; Frühbeißer, Sabine; Amara, Khaled; Bang, Holger; Lux, Anja; Koeleman, Carolien A.; Baum, Wolfgang; Dietel, Katharina; Gröhn, Franziska; Malmström, Vivianne; Klareskog, Lars; Krönke, Gerhard; Kocijan, Roland; Nimmerjahn, Falk; Toes, René E. M.; Herrmann, Martin; Scherer, Hans Ulrich; Schett, Georg

    2015-01-01

    Immunglobulin G (IgG) sialylation represents a key checkpoint that determines the engagement of pro- or anti-inflammatory Fcγ receptors (FcγR) and the direction of the immune response. Whether IgG sialylation influences osteoclast differentiation and subsequently bone architecture has not been determined yet, but may represent an important link between immune activation and bone loss. Here we demonstrate that desialylated, but not sialylated, immune complexes enhance osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, we find that the Fc sialylation state of random IgG and specific IgG autoantibodies determines bone architecture in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. In accordance with these findings, mice treated with the sialic acid precursor N-acetylmannosamine (ManNAc), which results in increased IgG sialylation, are less susceptible to inflammatory bone loss. Taken together, our findings provide a novel mechanism by which immune responses influence the human skeleton and an innovative treatment approach to inhibit immune-mediated bone loss. PMID:25825024

  18. Biosynthesis of AgNPs using Carica Papaya peel extract and evaluation of its antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Kokila, T; Ramesh, P S; Geetha, D

    2016-12-01

    Waste fruit peel mediated synthesis of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) is a green chemistry approach that links nanotechnology and biotechnology. Using biological medium such as peel extract for the biosynthesis of nanoparticles is an ecofriendly and emerging scientific trend. With this back drop the present study focused on the biosynthesis of AgNPs using Carica Papaya peel extract (CPPE) and evaluation of its antimicrobial potentials of the nanoparticles against different human pathogens and to investigate the free radical scavenging activity. Water soluble antioxidant constituents present in Carica Papaya peel extract were mainly responsible for the reduction of silver ions to nanosized Ag particles. UV-vis spectral analysis shows surface plasmon resonance band at 430nm. The presence of active proteins and phenolic groups present in the biomass before and after reduction was identified by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. X-ray diffraction study shows the average size of the silver nanoparticles is in the range of 28nm, as well as revealed their face centered cubic structure. Atomic force microscope image gives the 3D topological characteristic of silver nanoparticles and the particle size ranges from 10 to 30nm. The average particle size distribution of silver nanoparticles is 161nm (Dynamic light scattering) and the corresponding average zeta potential value is -20.5mV, suggesting higher stability of silver nanoparticles. Biologically synthesized nanoparticles efficiently inhibited pathogenic organisms both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. The biosynthesized nanoparticles might serve as a potent antioxidant as revealed by DPPH and ABT(S+)assay. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Osteoblast protects osteoclast devoid of sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters from oxidative cytotoxicity of ascorbic acid.

    PubMed

    Takarada, Takeshi; Hinoi, Eiichi; Kambe, Yuki; Sahara, Koichi; Kurokawa, Shintaro; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2007-12-01

    The view that ascorbic acid indirectly benefits osteoclastogenesis through expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) ligand (RANKL) by osteoblasts is prevailing. In this study, we have examined the direct effect of ascorbic acid on osteoclastogenesis in cultured mouse osteoclasts differentiated from bone marrow precursors. The absence of alkaline phosphatase and osteoblastic marker genes validated the usefulness of isolation procedures. Sustained exposure to ascorbic acid, but not to dehydroascorbic acid, significantly reduced the number of multinucleated cells positive to tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining. In cultured osteoclasts, mRNA expression was seen for glucose transporter-1 involved in membrane transport of dehydroascorbic acid, but not for sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters-1 and -2 that are both responsible for the transport of ascorbic acid. The inhibition by ascorbic acid was completely prevented by catalase, while ascorbic acid or hydrogen peroxide drastically increased the number of cells stained with propidium iodide and the generation of reactive oxygen species, in addition to inducing mitochondrial membrane depolarization in cultured osteoclasts. In pre-osteoclastic cell line RAW264.7 cells, ascorbic acid similarly inhibited the formation of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells, with a significant decrease in RANKL-induced NF-kappaB transactivation. Moreover, co-culture with osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells significantly prevented the ascorbic acid-induced decrease in the number of TRAP-positive multinucleated cells in RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that ascorbic acid may play a dual repulsive role in osteoclastogenesis toward bone remodeling through the direct cytotoxicity mediated by oxidative stress to osteoclasts, in addition to the indirect trophism mediated by RANKL from osteoblasts.

  20. The origin of the non-recombining region of sex chromosomes in Carica and Vasconcellea.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xia; Wang, Jianping; Na, Jong-Kuk; Yu, Qingyi; Moore, Richard C; Zee, Francis; Huber, Steven C; Ming, Ray

    2010-09-01

    Carica and Vasconcellea are two closely related sister genera in the family Caricaceae, and were once classified as two sections under Carica. Sex chromosomes have been found in papaya and originated approximately 2-3 million years ago. The objectives of this study were to determine whether sex chromosomes have evolved in Vasconcellea. Six X/Y gene pairs were cloned, sequenced and analyzed from three dioecious, one trioecious and one monoecious species of Vasconcellea. The isolation of distinctive X and Y alleles in dioecious and trioecious species of Vasconcellea demonstrated that sex chromosomes have evolved in this genus. Phylogenetic analyses indicated a monophyletic relationship between the X/Y alleles of Carica and those of Vasconcellea. Distinctive clusters of X/Y alleles were documented in V. parviflora and V. pulchra for all available gene sequences, and in V. goudatinana and V. cardinamarcensis for some X/Y alleles. The X and Y alleles within each species shared most single nucleotide polymorphism haplotypes that differed from other species. Limited evidence of gene conversion was documented among the X/Y alleles of some species, but was not sufficient to cause the evolutionary patterns reported herein. The Carica and Vasconcellea sex chromosomes may have originated from the same autosomes bearing the X allelic form that still exist in the monoecious species V. monoica, and have evolved independently after the speciation event that separated Carica from Vasconcellea. Within Vasconcellea, sex chromosomes have evolved at the species level, at least for some species.

  1. Role of the osteoclast at the bone-implant interface.

    PubMed

    Minkin, C; Marinho, V C

    1999-06-01

    A thorough understanding of the processes of healing, repair, and remodeling of bone is critical for the establishment and maintenance of osseointegration of dental implants. In this regard, much attention has been paid to the anabolic aspects of bone remodeling, including the cell biology of the osteoblast and the various cytokines and growth factors which regulate these processes. In contrast, there is little information on the bone-resorptive activity that occurs around implants during osseointegration, and of the role of osteoclasts, macrophages, and stromal cells in those catabolic processes associated with bone remodeling. This paper reviews osteoclast cell biology, the interaction of osteoclasts and biomaterials, and the information available on osteoclasts and dental implants, and poses some questions for future research.

  2. Minireview: Nuclear Receptor Regulation of Osteoclast and Bone Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Zixue; Li, Xiaoxiao

    2015-01-01

    Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing cells essential for skeletal remodeling and regeneration. However, excessive osteoclasts often contribute to prevalent bone degenerative diseases such as osteoporosis, arthritis, and cancer bone metastasis. Osteoclast dysregulation is also associated with rare disorders such as osteopetrosis, pycnodysostosis, Paget's disease, and Gorham-Stout syndrome. The nuclear receptor (NR) family of transcription factors functions as metabolic sensors that control a variety of physiological processes including skeletal homeostasis and serves as attractive therapeutic targets for many diseases. In this review, we highlight recent findings on the new players and the new mechanisms for how NRs regulate osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. An enhanced understanding of NR functions in osteoclastogenesis will facilitate the development of not only novel osteoprotective medicine but also prudent strategies to minimize the adverse skeletal effects of certain NR-targeting drugs for a better treatment of cancer and metabolic diseases. PMID:25549044

  3. Podosome organization drives osteoclast-mediated bone resorption

    PubMed Central

    Georgess, Dan; Machuca-Gayet, Irma; Blangy, Anne; Jurdic, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Osteoclasts are the cells responsible for physiological bone resorption. A specific organization of their most prominent cytoskeletal structures, podosomes, is crucial for the degradation of mineralized bone matrix. Each podosome is constituted of an F-actin-enriched central core surrounded by a loose F-actin network, called the podosome cloud. In addition to intrinsic actin dynamics, podosomes are defined by their adhesion to the extracellular matrix, mainly via core-linking CD44 and cloud-linking integrins. These properties allow podosomes to collectively evolve into different patterns implicated in migration and bone resorption. Indeed, to resorb bone, osteoclasts polarize, actively secrete protons, and proteases into the resorption pit where these molecules are confined by a podosome-containing sealing zone. Here, we review recent advancements on podosome structure and regulatory pathways in osteoclasts. We also discuss the distinct functions of different podosome patterns during the lifespan of a single osteoclast. PMID:24714644

  4. Antiosteoclastogenic activity of silicate-based materials antagonizing receptor activator for nuclear factor kappaB ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation of murine marcophages.

    PubMed

    Hung, Chi-Jr; Kao, Chia-Tze; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Shie, Ming-You; Huang, Tsui-Hsien

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether calcium silicate cement extract exerted antiosteoclastogenic actions in murine RAW 264.7 macrophages cultured with receptor activator for nuclear factor kappaB (RANKL). The RAW 264.7 macrophage cell was treated with RANKL to osteoclastogenesis. Then, cell viability, cell death, and cathepsin K expression were examined. The silicon (Si)-inhibited RANKL-induced formation of osteoclasts during the osteoclast differentiation process. It was also found that ≥4 mmol/L Si reduced RANKL-enhanced tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, Si diminished the expression and secretion of cathepsin K elevated by RANKL and was concurrent with the inhibition of TRAF6 induction and nuclear factor kappaB activation. The current report shows that silicate abrogated RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by retarding osteoclast differentiation. The Si can modulate every cell through dose-dependent in vitro RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, such as the proliferation and fusion of preosteoclasts, and the function of osteoclasts. Therefore, silicate-based materials may be a potential therapeutic agent targeting osteoclast differentiation in bone defects. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dual-specificity tyrosine phosphorylation-regulated kinase 2 regulates osteoclast fusion in a cell heterotypic manner.

    PubMed

    Guterman-Ram, Gali; Pesic, Milena; Orenbuch, Ayelet; Czeiger, Tal; Aflalo, Anastasia; Levaot, Noam

    2018-01-01

    Monocyte fusion into osteoclasts, bone resorbing cells, plays a key role in bone remodeling and homeostasis; therefore, aberrant cell fusion may be involved in a variety of debilitating bone diseases. Research in the last decade has led to the discovery of genes that regulate osteoclast fusion, but the basic molecular and cellular regulatory mechanisms underlying the fusion process are not completely understood. Here, we reveal a role for Dyrk2 in osteoclast fusion. We demonstrate that Dyrk2 down regulation promotes osteoclast fusion, whereas its overexpression inhibits fusion. Moreover, Dyrk2 also promotes the fusion of foreign-body giant cells, indicating that Dyrk2 plays a more general role in cell fusion. In an earlier study, we showed that fusion is a cell heterotypic process initiated by fusion-founder cells that fuse to fusion-follower cells, the latter of which are unable to initiate fusion. Here, we show that Dyrk2 limits the expansion of multinucleated founder cells through the suppression of the fusion competency of follower cells. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Bovine dentine organic matrix down-regulates osteoclast activity.

    PubMed

    Sriarj, Wantida; Aoki, Kazuhiro; Ohya, Keiichi; Takagi, Yuzo; Shimokawa, Hitoyata

    2009-01-01

    Physiological root resorption is a phenomenon that normally takes place in deciduous teeth; root resorption of permanent teeth occurs only under pathological conditions. The molecular mechanisms underlying these processes are still unclear. Our previous study showed that osteoclasts cultured on deciduous dentine exhibited a higher degree of resorption and higher levels of cathepsin K and MMP-9 mRNA than osteoclasts cultured on permanent dentine. These results could be because of different susceptibilities to acid and the different organic matrices between deciduous and permanent dentine. Thus, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dentine extracts from bovine deciduous and permanent dentine on osteoclast activity. Osteoclasts, obtained from mouse bone marrow cells co-cultured with an osteoblast-rich fraction in the presence of 1,25-(OH)(2)-vitamin D3 and PGE2, were incubated with or without 0.6 M HCl extracts from bovine deciduous or permanent dentine for 48 h. TRAP positive cell number, TRAP activity, the areas of resorption pits, and mRNA levels of TRAP, v-ATPase, calcitonin receptor, cathepsin K, and MMP-9 were examined. The results illustrated that TRAP activity, the resorbed area, and the mRNA levels of osteoclast marker genes seemed to be suppressed by both deciduous and permanent dentine extracts. These findings indicate that some factors that suppress osteoclast activity are contained in both deciduous and permanent dentine extracts. Although there was no significant difference in osteoclast activity between deciduous and permanent dentine extracts, osteoclasts incubated with permanent dentine extracts tend to exhibit less resorption activity than those incubated with deciduous dentine extracts. However, we could not clearly explain the causes of this.

  7. Measles Virus Nucleocapsid (MVNP) Gene Expression and RANK Receptor Signaling in Osteoclast Precursors, Osteoclast Inhibitors Peptide Therapy for Pagets Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    of bone. Bone 27: 417–421 14 Kurihara N., Reddy S. V., Menaa C., Anderson D. and Roodman G. D. (2000) Osteoclasts expressing the measles virus nucleo ...of osteoclasts and other mononuclear cells in pagetic bone specimens. Similarly, caninedistempervirus (CDV) nucleo - capsid antigens were also...the paramyxoviral nucleo - capsid gene that is expressed in patients with Paget’s disease. Mouse models of MV infection were also developed in which CD46

  8. Measles Virus Nucleocapsid (MJVNP) Gene Expression and RANK Receptor Signaling in Osteoclast Precursors. Osteoclast Inhibitors Peptide Therapy for Pagets Disease

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-10-31

    Determine the sensitivity of MVNP transduced osteoclast precursors to RANK Ligand (RANKL) and TNF- alpha stimulation to form pagetic osteoclasts. -- Paget’s...herpesvirus (CLONTECH) (pVP16- hVDR) (13). To examine the interaction of TAFII-17 and VDR, 0.5 g of pM-TAFII-17, 0.5 g of pVP -16-hVDR, and 0.5 g of

  9. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of Ficus carica Linn. leaves.

    PubMed

    Ali, B; Mujeeb, M; Aeri, V; Mir, S R; Faiyazuddin, M; Shakeel, F

    2012-01-01

    Ficus carica Linn. (Moraceae) is commonly known as edible fig. The leaves, roots, fruits and latex of the plant are medicinally used in different diseases. The leaves are claimed to be effective in various inflammatory conditions like painful or swollen piles, insect sting and bites. However, there has been no report on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of F. carica leaves. Our study validated the traditional claim with pharmacological data. Anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity of the drug could be due to the presence of steroids and flavanoids, respectively, which are reported to be present in the drug. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the drug could be due to its free radical scavenging activity. Further work is also required to isolate and characterise the active constituents responsible for the anti-inflammatory activities.

  10. RANK ligand signaling modulates the matrix metalloproteinase-9 gene expression during osteoclast differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Sundaram, Kumaran; Nishimura, Riko; Senn, Joseph; Youssef, Rimon F.; London, Steven D.; Reddy, Sakamuri V. . E-mail: reddysv@musc.edu

    2007-01-01

    Osteoclast differentiation is tightly regulated by receptor activator of NF-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) signaling. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), a type IV collagenase is highly expressed in osteoclast cells and plays an important role in degradation of extracellular matrix; however, the molecular mechanisms that regulate MMP-9 gene expression are unknown. In this study, we demonstrate that RANKL signaling induces MMP-9 gene expression in osteoclast precursor cells. We further show that RANKL regulates MMP-9 gene expression through TRAF6 but not TRAF2. Interestingly, blockade of p38 MAPK activity by pharmacological inhibitor, SB203580 increases MMP-9 activity whereas ERK1/2 inhibitor, PD98059 decreases RANKL induced MMP-9 activity in RAW264.7 cells. These data suggest that RANKL differentially regulates MMP-9 expression through p38 and ERK signaling pathways during osteoclast differentiation. Transient expression of MMP-9 gene (+ 1 to - 1174 bp relative to ATG start codon) promoter-luciferase reporter plasmids in RAW264.7 cells and RANKL stimulation showed significant increase (20-fold) of MMP-9 gene promoter activity; however, there is no significant change with respect to + 1 bp to - 446 bp promoter region and empty vector transfected cells. These results indicated that MMP-9 promoter sequence from - 446 bp to - 1174 bp relative to start codon is responsive to RANKL stimulation. Sequence analysis of the mouse MMP-9 gene promoter region further identified the presence of binding motif (- 1123 bp to - 1153 bp) for the nuclear factor of activated T cells 1 (NFATc1) transcription factor. Inhibition of NFATc1 using siRNA and VIVIT peptide inhibitor significantly decreased RANKL stimulation of MMP-9 activity. We further confirm by oligonucleotide pull-down assay that RANKL stimuli enhanced NFATc1 binding to MMP-9 gene promoter element. In addition, over-expression of constitutively active NFAT in RAW264.7 cells markedly increased (5-fold) MMP-9 gene promoter activity

  11. Effect of low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration on osteocytes in the regulation of osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Lau, Esther; Al-Dujaili, Saja; Guenther, Axel; Liu, Dawei; Wang, Liyun; You, Lidan

    2010-06-01

    soluble factors that inhibit osteoclast formation.

  12. Effect of low-magnitude, high-frequency vibration on osteocytes in the regulation of osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Esther; Al-Dujaili, Saja; Guenther, Axel; Liu, Dawei; Wang, Liyun; You, Lidan

    2010-01-01

    factors that inhibit osteoclast formation. PMID:20211285

  13. Fas Binding to Calmodulin Regulates Apoptosis in Osteoclasts*

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiaojun; Ahn, Eun-Young; McKenna, Margaret A.; Yeo, Hyeonju; McDonald, Jay M.

    2005-01-01

    Promotion of osteoclast apoptosis is one therapeutic approach to osteoporosis. Calmodulin, the major intracellular Ca2+ receptor, modulates both osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption. The calmodulin antagonist, trifluoperazine, rescues bone loss in ovariectomized mice (Zhang, L., Feng, X., and McDonald, J. M. (2003) Endocrinology 144, 4536–4543). We show here that a 3-h treatment of mouse osteoclasts with either of the calmodulin antagonists, tamoxifen or trifluoperazine, induces osteoclast apoptosis dose-dependently. Tamoxifen, 10 μm, and trifluoperazine, 10 μm, induce 7.3 ± 1.8-fold and 5.3 ± 0.9-fold increases in osteoclast apoptosis, respectively. In Jurkat cells, calmodulin binds to Fas, the death receptor, and this binding is regulated during Fas-mediated apoptosis (Ahn, E. Y., Lim, S. T., Cook, W. J., and McDonald, J. M. (2004) J. Biol. Chem. 279, 5661–5666). In osteoclasts, calmodulin also binds Fas. When osteoclasts are treated with 10 μm trifluoperazine, the binding between Fas and calmodulin is dramatically decreased at 15 min and gradually recovers by 60 min. A point mutation of the Fas death domain in the Lpr−cg mouse renders Fas inactive. Using glutathione S-transferase fusion proteins, the human Fas cytoplasmic domain is shown to bind calmodulin, whereas a point mutation (V254N) comparable with the Lpr−cg mutation in mice has markedly reduced calmodulin binding. Osteoclasts derived from Lpr−cg mice have diminished calmodulin/Fas binding and are more sensitive to calmodulin antagonist-induced apoptosis than those from wild-type mice. Both tamoxifen- and trifluoperazine-induced apoptosis are increased 1.6 ± 0.2-fold in Lpr−cg-derived osteoclasts compared with osteoclasts derived from wild-type mice. In summary, calmodulin antagonists induce apoptosis in osteoclasts by a mechanism involving interference with calmodulin binding to Fas. The effects of calmodulin/Fas binding on calmodulin antagonist-induced apoptosis may open a new

  14. A vitronectin-derived peptide reverses ovariectomy-induced bone loss via regulation of osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Min, Seung-Ki; Kang, Hyun Ki; Jung, Sung Youn; Jang, Da Hyun; Min, Byung-Moo

    2017-09-22

    Osteoporosis affects millions of people worldwide by promoting bone resorption and impairing bone formation. Bisphosphonates, commonly used agents to treat osteoporosis, cannot reverse the substantial bone loss that has already occurred by the time of diagnosis. Moreover, their undesirable side-effects, including osteonecrosis of the jaw, have been reported. Here, we demonstrated that a new bioactive core vitronectin-derived peptide (VnP-16) promoted bone formation by accelerating osteoblast differentiation and activity through direct interaction with β1 integrin followed by FAK activation. Concomitantly, VnP-16 inhibited bone resorption by restraining JNK-c-Fos-NFATc1-induced osteoclast differentiation and αvβ3 integrin-c-Src-PYK2-mediated resorptive function. Moreover, VnP-16 decreased the bone resorbing activity of pre-existing mature osteoclasts without changing their survival rate. Furthermore, VnP-16 had a strong anabolic effect on bone regeneration by stimulating osteoblast differentiation and increasing osteoblast number, and significantly alleviated proinflammatory cytokine-induced bone resorption by restraining osteoclast differentiation and function in murine models. Moreover, VnP-16 could reverse ovariectomy-induced bone loss by both inhibiting bone resorption and promoting bone formation. Given its dual role in promoting bone formation and inhibiting bone resorption, our results suggest that VnP-16 could be an attractive therapeutic agent for treating osteoporosis.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 22 September 2017; doi:10.1038/cdd.2017.153.

  15. Xanthohumol modulates the expression of osteoclast-specific genes during osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Suh, Kwang Sik; Rhee, Sang Youl; Kim, Young Seol; Lee, Young Soon; Choi, Eun Mi

    2013-12-01

    RANKL has been shown to play a critical role in osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Thus, agents that suppress RANKL signaling have a potential to suppress bone loss. In this study, we examined the ability of xanthohumol, a structurally simple prenylated chalcone, to suppress RANKL signaling during osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells. Xanthohumol markedly inhibited RANKL-induced TRAP activity, multinucleated osteoclasts formation, and resorption-pit formation. In experiments to elucidate its mechanism of action, xanthohumol was found to suppress RANKL-induced expression of TRAF6, GAB2, ERK, c-Src, PI3K, and Akt genes. Moreover, RANKL-induced expressions of c-Fos and NFATc1, which are crucial transcription factors for osteoclastogenesis, were reduced by treatment with xanthohumol. Xanthohumol also inhibited RANKL-induced expression of bone-resorption related osteoclast-specific genes (carbonic anhydrase II, TCIRG, CLCN7, OSTM1, cathepsin K, and MMP-9). These data demonstrate that xanthohumol inhibits osteoclastogenesis by modulating RANKL signaling and may be useful for the prevention of bone-destructive diseases such as osteoporosis, arthritis and periodontitis.

  16. Ficus carica L. (Moraceae): an ancient source of food and health.

    PubMed

    Barolo, Melisa I; Ruiz Mostacero, Nathalie; López, Silvia N

    2014-12-01

    Since early in the man history, common fig was appreciated as food and for its medicinal properties. This review explores some aspects about the importance of Ficus carica L., an amazing and ancient source of medicines and food. Topics regarding chemistry, biological activity, ethno-pharmacological uses, and its nutritional value are discussed, as well as the potential of the species as a source of new and different chemical scaffolds. Very important in the past, appreciated in our time and extremely promising in the future, F. carica represents an interesting example of healthy foods and bioproducts.

  17. Thyroid-stimulating hormone maintains bone mass and strength by suppressing osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenwen; Zhang, Yanling; Liu, Yuantao; Wang, Jie; Gao, Ling; Yu, Chunxiao; Yan, Huili; Zhao, Jiajun; Xu, Jin

    2014-04-11

    It has been suggested that pituitary hormone might be associated with bone metabolism. To investigate the role of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in bone metabolism, we designed the present study as follows. After weaning, TSH receptor (TSHR) null mice (Tshr(-/-)) were randomly divided into a thyroxine treatment group (n=10) or non-treatment group (n=10); the treatment group received a dose of desiccated thyroid extract at 100 ppm daily for 5 weeks. Age-matched wild-type (Tshr(+/+), n=10) and heterozygote mice (Tshr(+/-), n=10) served as controls. After 5 weeks, the animals were sacrificed, and the femurs were collected for histomorphometrical and biomechanical analyses. In addition, the effect of TSH on osteoclastogenesis was examined in the RAW264.7 osteoclast cell line. We found that compared with Tshr(+/+) mice, Tshr(-/-) and Tshr(+/-) mice had lower bone strength. The histomorphometric results showed that trabecular bone volume, osteoid surface, osteoid thickness and osteoblast surface were significantly decreased, whereas the osteoclast surface was significantly increased in both Tshr(-/-) and Tshr(+/-) mice compared with Tshr(+/+) mice. Bone resorption and formation in Tshr(-/-) mice were further enhanced by thyroxine replacement. bTSH inhibited osteoclast differentiation in vitro, as demonstrated by reduced development of TRAP-positive cells and down-regulation of differentiation markers, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, matrix metallo-proteinase-9 and cathepsin K in RAW264.7 cells. Our results confirm that TSH increased bone volume and improved bone microarchitecture and strength at least partly by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis.

  18. Fibrodysplasia Ossificans Progressiva-related Activated Activin-like Kinase Signaling Enhances Osteoclast Formation during Heterotopic Ossification in Muscle Tissues*

    PubMed Central

    Yano, Masato; Kawao, Naoyuki; Okumoto, Katsumi; Tamura, Yukinori; Okada, Kiyotaka; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva is characterized by extensive ossification within muscle tissues, and its molecular pathogenesis is responsible for the constitutively activating mutation (R206H) of the bone morphogenetic protein type 1 receptor, activin-like kinase 2 (ALK2). In this study, we investigated the effects of implanting ALK2 (R206H)-transfected myoblastic C2C12 cells into nude mice on osteoclast formation during heterotopic ossification in muscle and subcutaneous tissues. The implantation of ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells with BMP-2 in nude mice induced robust heterotopic ossification with an increase in the formation of osteoclasts in muscle tissues but not in subcutaneous tissues. The implantation of ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells in muscle induced heterotopic ossification more effectively than that of empty vector-transfected cells. A co-culture of ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells as well as the conditioned medium from ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells enhanced osteoclast formation in Raw264.7 cells more effectively than those with empty vector-transfected cells. The transfection of ALK2 (R206H) into C2C12 cells elevated the expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β, whereas the inhibition of TGF-β signaling suppressed the enhanced formation of osteoclasts in the co-culture with ALK2 (R206H)-transfected C2C12 cells and their conditioned medium. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the causal mutation transfection of fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva in myoblasts enhanced the formation of osteoclasts from its precursor through TGF-β in muscle tissues. PMID:24798338

  19. IL21R expressing CD14(+)CD16(+) monocytes expand in multiple myeloma patients leading to increased osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Bolzoni, Marina; Ronchetti, Domenica; Storti, Paola; Donofrio, Gaetano; Marchica, Valentina; Costa, Federica; Agnelli, Luca; Toscani, Denise; Vescovini, Rosanna; Todoerti, Katia; Bonomini, Sabrina; Sammarelli, Gabriella; Vecchi, Andrea; Guasco, Daniela; Accardi, Fabrizio; Palma, Benedetta Dalla; Gamberi, Barbara; Ferrari, Carlo; Neri, Antonino; Aversa, Franco; Giuliani, Nicola

    2017-04-01

    Bone marrow monocytes are primarily committed to osteoclast formation. It is, however, unknown whether potential primary alterations are specifically present in bone marrow monocytes from patients with multiple myeloma, smoldering myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We analyzed the immunophenotypic and transcriptional profiles of bone marrow CD14(+) monocytes in a cohort of patients with different types of monoclonal gammopathies to identify alterations involved in myeloma-enhanced osteoclastogenesis. The number of bone marrow CD14(+)CD16(+) cells was higher in patients with active myeloma than in those with smoldering myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Interestingly, sorted bone marrow CD14(+)CD16(+) cells from myeloma patients were more pro-osteoclastogenic than CD14(+)CD16-cells in cultures ex vivo Moreover, transcriptional analysis demonstrated that bone marrow CD14(+) cells from patients with multiple myeloma (but neither monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance nor smoldering myeloma) significantly upregulated genes involved in osteoclast formation, including IL21RIL21R mRNA over-expression by bone marrow CD14(+) cells was independent of the presence of interleukin-21. Consistently, interleukin-21 production by T cells as well as levels of interleukin-21 in the bone marrow were not significantly different among monoclonal gammopathies. Thereafter, we showed that IL21R over-expression in CD14(+) cells increased osteoclast formation. Consistently, interleukin-21 receptor signaling inhibition by Janex 1 suppressed osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow CD14(+) cells of myeloma patients. Our results indicate that bone marrow monocytes from multiple myeloma patients show distinct features compared to those from patients with indolent monoclonal gammopathies, supporting the role of IL21R over-expression by bone marrow CD14(+) cells in enhanced osteoclast formation. Copyright© Ferrata Storti

  20. IL21R expressing CD14+CD16+ monocytes expand in multiple myeloma patients leading to increased osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Bolzoni, Marina; Ronchetti, Domenica; Storti, Paola; Donofrio, Gaetano; Marchica, Valentina; Costa, Federica; Agnelli, Luca; Toscani, Denise; Vescovini, Rosanna; Todoerti, Katia; Bonomini, Sabrina; Sammarelli, Gabriella; Vecchi, Andrea; Guasco, Daniela; Accardi, Fabrizio; Palma, Benedetta Dalla; Gamberi, Barbara; Ferrari, Carlo; Neri, Antonino; Aversa, Franco; Giuliani, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Bone marrow monocytes are primarily committed to osteoclast formation. It is, however, unknown whether potential primary alterations are specifically present in bone marrow monocytes from patients with multiple myeloma, smoldering myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. We analyzed the immunophenotypic and transcriptional profiles of bone marrow CD14+ monocytes in a cohort of patients with different types of monoclonal gammopathies to identify alterations involved in myeloma-enhanced osteoclastogenesis. The number of bone marrow CD14+CD16+ cells was higher in patients with active myeloma than in those with smoldering myeloma or monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance. Interestingly, sorted bone marrow CD14+CD16+ cells from myeloma patients were more pro-osteoclastogenic than CD14+CD16-cells in cultures ex vivo. Moreover, transcriptional analysis demonstrated that bone marrow CD14+ cells from patients with multiple myeloma (but neither monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance nor smoldering myeloma) significantly upregulated genes involved in osteoclast formation, including IL21R. IL21R mRNA over-expression by bone marrow CD14+ cells was independent of the presence of interleukin-21. Consistently, interleukin-21 production by T cells as well as levels of interleukin-21 in the bone marrow were not significantly different among monoclonal gammopathies. Thereafter, we showed that IL21R over-expression in CD14+ cells increased osteoclast formation. Consistently, interleukin-21 receptor signaling inhibition by Janex 1 suppressed osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow CD14+ cells of myeloma patients. Our results indicate that bone marrow monocytes from multiple myeloma patients show distinct features compared to those from patients with indolent monoclonal gammopathies, supporting the role of IL21R over-expression by bone marrow CD14+ cells in enhanced osteoclast formation. PMID:28057743

  1. Large osteoclasts in pediatric osteogenesis imperfecta patients receiving intravenous pamidronate.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Moira S; Glorieux, Francis H; Rauch, Frank

    2009-04-01

    Intravenous pamidronate is widely used to treat children with moderate to severe osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Changes in the appearance of osteoclasts have previously been noted in children receiving pamidronate and have been interpreted as signs of toxicity. In this study, we analyzed osteoclast parameters in paired iliac bone specimens before and after 2-4 yr of cyclical intravenous pamidronate therapy in 44 pediatric OI patients (age range: 1.4-17.5 yr; 21 girls). During pamidronate treatment, average osteoclast diameter and the mean number of nuclei present per osteoclast increased by 18% (p = 0.02) and 43% (p < 0.001), respectively. The number of samples containing large osteoclasts (LOcs, diameter > 50 mum) increased from 6 (14%) before treatment to 23 (52%) after pamidronate therapy (p < 0.001 by chi(2) test). Post-treatment samples containing LOcs had a greater core width (p = 0.04) and a higher cancellous bone volume per tissue volume (p < 0.001), because cancellous bone volume had increased more during pamidronate treatment (p < 0.001). Osteoclast number and surface were higher in samples with LOcs, but there was no difference in cancellous bone formation parameters. The presence of LOcs was independent of OI type, type of collagen type I mutation, lumbar spine BMD, and other clinical or biochemical measures. In conclusion, this study did not show any indication that LOcs during pamidronate treatment are indicative of toxicity. It seems more likely that the observed abnormalities in osteoclast morphology are part of the mechanism of action of this drug.

  2. Osteoclast formation and function in pigmented villonodular synovitis.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Richard; Kashima, Takesh G; Knowles, Helen; Gibbons, C L Max H; Whitwell, Duncan; Athanasou, Nicholas A

    2011-09-01

    Pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS) is a synovial tumour-like lesion that frequently causes osteolysis. PVNS contains numerous macrophages and osteoclast-like giant cells. In this study, we have analysed the cytochemical and functional characteristics of mononuclear and multinucleated cells in PVNS and determined the cellular and humoral mechanisms underlying giant cell formation and resorption in PVNS. Giant cells and CD14(+) and CD14(-) mononuclear cell populations were isolated from PVNS synovial tissue and cultured alone or in the presence and absence of the osteoclastogenic factors, RANKL and M-CSF. Osteoclast formation and activity was assessed by expression of TRAP and evidence of lacunar resorption. Giant cells in PVNS expressed an osteoclast-phenotype (CD51(+) , TRAP(+) , CD14(-) , HLA-DR(-) ) and were formed only in cultures of mononuclear cells that expressed the macrophage marker CD14. Osteoclast formation required RANKL and occurred in both the presence and absence of exogenous M-CSF. CD14(-) cells in PVNS expressed RANKL. Lacunar resorption by PVNS-derived giant cells was abolished by the addition of the bisphosphonate, zoledronate. Our findings indicate that osteoclasts form by a RANKL-dependent mechanism from CD14(+) mononuclear phagocytes in PVNS. Osteoclast formation occurred even in the absence of exogenous M-CSF, a finding which is in keeping with over-expression of M-CSF playing a pathogenic role in this condition. Anti-osteoclast resorptive treatment may be useful to control osteolysis in PVNS. Copyright © 2011 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Identification of a new phospholipase D in Carica papaya latex.

    PubMed

    Abdelkafi, Slim; Abousalham, Abdelkarim; Fendri, Imen; Ogata, Hiroyuki; Barouh, Nathalie; Fouquet, Benjamin; Scheirlinckx, Frantz; Villeneuve, Pierre; Carrière, Frédéric

    2012-05-15

    Phospholipase D (PLD) is a lipolytic enzyme involved in signal transduction, vesicle trafficking and membrane metabolism. It catalyzes the hydrolysis and transphosphatidylation of glycerophospholipids at the terminal phosphodiester bond. The presence of a PLD in the latex of Carica papaya (CpPLD1) was demonstrated by transphosphatidylation of phosphatidylcholine (PtdCho) in the presence of 2% ethanol. Although the protein could not be purified to homogeneity due to its presence in high molecular mass aggregates, a protein band was separated by SDS-PAGE after SDS/chloroform-methanol/TCA-acetone extraction of the latex insoluble fraction. This material was digested with trypsin and the amino acid sequences of the tryptic peptides were determined by micro-LC/ESI/MS/MS. These sequences were used to identify a partial cDNA (723 bp) from expressed sequence tags (ESTs) of C. papaya. Based upon EST sequences, a full-length gene was identified in the genome of C. papaya, with an open reading frame of 2424 bp encoding a protein of 808 amino acid residues, with a theoretical molecular mass of 92.05 kDa. From sequence analysis, CpPLD1 was identified as a PLD belonging to the plant phosphatidylcholine phosphatidohydrolase family. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. A polymorphic pseudoautosomal boundary in the Carica papaya sex chromosomes.

    PubMed

    Lappin, Fiona M; Medert, Charles M; Hawkins, Kevin K; Mardonovich, Sandra; Wu, Meng; Moore, Richard C

    2015-08-01

    Sex chromosomes are defined by a non-recombining sex-determining region (SDR) flanked by one or two pseudoautosomal regions (PARs). The genetic composition and evolutionary dynamics of the PAR is also influenced by its linkage to the differentiated non-recombining SDR; however, understanding the effects of this linkage requires a precise definition of the PAR boundary. Here, we took a molecular population genetic approach to further refine the location of the PAR boundary of the evolutionary young sex chromosomes of the tropical plant, Carica papaya. We were able to map the position of the papaya PAR boundary A to a 100-kb region between two genetic loci approximately 2 Mb upstream of the previously genetically identified PAR boundary. Furthermore, this boundary is polymorphic within natural populations of papaya, with an approximately 100-130 kb expansion of the non-recombining SDR found in 16 % of individuals surveyed. The expansion of the PAR boundary in one Y haplotype includes at least one additional gene. Homologs of this gene are involved in male gametophyte and pollen development in other plant species.

  5. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract

    PubMed Central

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress. PMID:24795765

  6. Phenylpropanoid composition in fig (Ficus carica L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Toru; Okiura, Aya; Kohno, Masahiro

    2017-06-06

    The leaves of fig (Ficus carica L.) have been used for traditional and Chinese medicine. We determined the composition of phenylpropanoids (polyphenols and furanocoumarins) as a functional agent in the leaves of 37 cultivars of fig. The most abundant polyphenol was caffeoylmalic acid (12.0-26.6 mg/g dry weight), followed by rutin (4.7-14.6 mg/g dry weight) and isoschaftoside (2.5-6.4 mg/g dry weight). Psoralen (3.8-23.0 mg/g dry weight) was dominant in the furanocoumarins. In molar amounts, psoralic acid glucoside (PAG), a precursor of psoralen, was equivalent to psoralen. Furanocoumarins and PAG were not detected in the leaves of only one cultivar, Grise de Tarascon. Fig leaves are potentially an excellent source of polyphenols such as caffeoylmalic acid and rutin. From the result of cluster analysis, some cultivars that contained large amount of polyphenols, and a small amount (e.g., Grise de Saint Jean) or no (Grise de Tarascon) furanocoumarins, were found. These cultivars are considered suitable for functional foods or medicinal products.

  7. Administration Dependent Antioxidant Effect of Carica papaya Seeds Water Extract.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Elisa; Dwikat, Majdi; Mariano, Stefania; Vergallo, Cristian; Dini, Luciana

    2014-01-01

    Carica papaya is widely used in folk medicine as herbal remedy to prevent, protect against, and cure several diseases. These curative properties are based on the presence in different parts of the plant of phytochemical nutrients with antioxidant effect. Seeds are the less exploited part; thus this study is aimed at assessing the antioxidant activities of the C. papaya seeds water extract against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidative stress in human skin Detroit 550 fibroblasts. C. papaya seeds water extract is not toxic and acts as a potent free radical scavenger, providing protection to Detroit 550 fibroblasts that underwent H2O2 oxidative stress. Data show that (i) the maximum protective effect is achieved by the simultaneous administration of the extract with 1 mM H2O2; (ii) the extract in presence of an oxidative stress does not increase catalase activity and prevents the release of cytochrome C and the inner mitochondrial transmembrane potential (Δψ m ) loss; (iii) the extract is more efficient than vitamin C to hamper the oxidative damage; (iv) the purified subfractions of the seeds water extract exert the same antioxidant effect of whole extract. In conclusion, C. papaya seeds water extract is potentially useful for protection against oxidative stress.

  8. Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths.

    PubMed

    Porter, Brad W; Zhu, Yun J; Webb, David T; Christopher, David A

    2009-04-01

    Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch-regulated genes. The genes and novel touch

  9. Novel thigmomorphogenetic responses in Carica papaya: touch decreases anthocyanin levels and stimulates petiole cork outgrowths

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Brad W.; Zhu, Yun J.; Webb, David T.; Christopher, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Because of its rapid growth rate, relative ease of transformation, sequenced genome and low gene number relative to Arabidopsis, the tropical fruit tree, Carica papaya, can serve as a complementary genetic model for complex traits. Here, new phenotypes and touch-regulated gene homologues have been identified that can be used to advance the understanding of thigmomorphogenesis, a multigenic response involving mechanoreception and morphological change. Methods Morphological alterations were quantified, and microscopy of tissue was conducted. Assays for hypocotyl anthocyanins, lignin and chlorophyll were performed, and predicted genes from C. papaya were compared with Arabidopsis touch-inducible (TCH) and Mechanosensitive channel of Small conductance-like genes (MscS-like or MSL). In addition, the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues was characterized. Key Results On the abaxial side of petioles, treated plants were found to have novel, hypertrophic outgrowths associated with periderm and suberin. Touched plants also had higher lignin, dramatically less hypocotyl anthocyanins and chlorophyll, increased hypocotyl diameter, and decreased leaf width, stem length and root fresh weight. Papaya was found to have fewer MSL genes than Arabidopsis, and four touch-regulated genes in Arabidopsis had no counterparts in papaya. Water-spray treatment was found to enhance the expression of two papaya TCH1 homologues whereas induction following touch was only slightly correlated. Conclusions The novel petiole outgrowths caused by non-wounding, mechanical perturbation may be the result of hardening mechanisms, including added lignin, providing resistance against petiole movement. Inhibition of anthocyanin accumulation following touch, a new phenotypic association, may be caused by diversion of p-coumaroyl CoA away from chalcone synthase for lignin synthesis. The absence of MSL and touch-gene homologues indicates that papaya may have a smaller set of touch

  10. Partial characterization of a novel amylase activity isolated from Tunisian Ficus carica latex.

    PubMed

    Aref, Houda Lazreg; Mosbah, Habib; Louati, Hanen; Said, Khaled; Selmi, Boulbaba

    2011-11-01

    A large number of plants still need to be investigated through screening of amylases suitable for industry. In the present study, and for the first time, we describe the amylolytic activity of Saint Pedro Ficus carica L. (Moraceae) crude latex of Kahli and Bidhi varieties. Effects of temperature, pH, metal ions, and inhibitors and compatibility with some commercial detergents were investigated for amylase activity. Amylase activity was screened in crude latex using the DNS method and potato starch as a substrate. Analyses of amylolytic reaction products by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) were performed. Bidhi and Kahli amylases were active in optimal pH of 6.5 and 7 at 45°C, respectively, displaying a half life of 85 and 60 min, respectively, at 80°C, and they were very stable in a wide range of pH (4-12). Bidhi amylase activity increased to 260% by addition of 10(-3) mM Fe(2+) or 10(-2) mM Cu(2+), and was strongly inhibited by Mg(2+) and EDTA. In the presence of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+), Kahli amylase activity was dramatically enhanced by 220 and 260%, respectively. The compatibility of both amylases with certain commercial detergents was also shown to be good as enzymes retained up to 98% of their activities after 30 min of incubation at 80°C. Analysis of amylolytic reaction products by TLC and HPLC suggested that Kahli amylase was an amyloglucosidase and Bidhi amylase was β-fructose, α(1-4) glucose. Bidhi amylase is a good choice for application in starch, food, detergents and medical industries.

  11. Sinomenine Suppresses Osteoclast Formation and Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra-Induced Bone Loss by Modulating RANKL Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojuan; He, Longgang; Hu, Yiping; Duan, Heng; Li, Xianglian; Tan, Suiyi; Zou, Min; Gu, Chunping; Zeng, Xiangzhou; Yu, Le; Xu, Jiake; Liu, Shuwen

    2013-01-01

    Receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) is essential for osteoclastogenesis. Targeting RANKL signaling pathways has been an encouraging strategy for treating lytic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Sinomenine (SIN), derived from Chinese medicinal plant Sinomenioumacutum, is an active compound to treat RA, but its effect on osteoclasts has been hitherto unknown. In the present study, SIN was found to ameliorate M. tuberculosis H37Ra (Mt)-induced bone loss in rats with a decreased serum level of TRACP5b and RANKL, and an increased level of osteoprotegerin (OPG). In vitro study also showed that SIN could inhibit RANKL-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption. The osteoclastic specific marker genes induced by RANKL including c-Src, MMP-9, TRACP were inhibited by SIN in a dose dependent manner. Signal transduction studies showed that SIN could obviously reduce the expression of RANK adaptor molecule TRAF6 and down-regulate RANKL-induced NF-κB activation. It decreased the RANKL-induced p38, JNK posphorylation but not ERK1/2 posphorylation. SIN could also reduce RANKL-mediated calcium influx which is associated with TRAF6/c-Src complex. Finally, SIN suppressed RANKL induced AP-1 and NFAT transcription, as well as the gene expression of NFATc1 and AP-1 components (Fra-1, Fra-2, c-Fos). The protein expression of c-Fos and TRAF6 were also inhibited by SIN after RANKL stimulation. Taken together, SIN could attenuate osteoclast formation and Mt-induced bone loss by mediating RANKL signaling pathways. PMID:24066131

  12. Simultaneous delivery of BMP-2 factor and anti-osteoporotic drugs using hyaluronan-assembled nanocomposite for synergistic regulation on the behaviors of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yarong; Hu, Yan; Luo, Zhong; Shen, Xinkun; Mu, Caiyun; Cai, Kaiyong

    2015-01-01

    To treat the osteoporosis and regulate the biological behaviors of both osteoblasts and osteoclasts, we prepared a natural polysaccharide-derived nanocomposite, containing alendronate-grafted hyaluronate (HA-Aln) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) and investigated its synergistic regulation on the behaviors of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro. The HA-Aln/BMP-2 nanocomposite was fabricated through the electrostatic interactions between the HA-Aln molecule and BMP-2 molecule. Here, BMP-2 was used to improve the osteoblast-mediated bone formation. Alendronate (Aln), a targeting ligand to bone matrix, was used to inhibit the osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. In vitro results showed that HA-Aln/BMP-2 nanocomposite could effectively maintain the bioactivity of loaded drugs. The osteoblasts that treated with the HA-Aln/BMP-2 nanocomposite presented a higher level of cell motility, alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization capacity, and osteoblast-related gene expressions (runt-related transcription factor 2, osterix, ALP, collagen type I, osteocalcin, and osteopontin), as compared to that of control group. Besides, the RAW264.7 cells that were treated with HA-Aln/BMP-2 nanocomposite showed a lower level of osteoclastic differentiation. Overall, the HA-Aln/BMP-2 nanocomposite exhibits promising potential as an efficient carrier for co-delivery of anti-osteoporotic drug and growth factors to promote osteoblastic differentiation and bone formation while suppressing osteoclastic activity.

  13. Mammalian target of rapamycin signaling is crucial for joint destruction in experimental arthritis and is activated in osteoclasts from patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Cejka, Daniel; Hayer, Silvia; Niederreiter, Birgit; Sieghart, Wolfgang; Fuereder, Thorsten; Zwerina, Jochen; Schett, Georg

    2010-08-01

    Activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway is important for immune cell activation and bone metabolism. To date, the contribution of mTOR signaling to joint inflammation and structural bone and cartilage damage is unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of inhibiting mTOR as a treatment of inflammatory arthritis. Human tumor necrosis factor-transgenic mice in which inflammatory arthritis was developing were treated with 2 different mTOR inhibitors, sirolimus or everolimus. The effects of treatment on clinical disease activity, inflammation, and localized joint and cartilage destruction were studied. In addition, the effects of mTOR inhibition on osteoclast survival and expression of key molecules of osteoclast function were analyzed in vitro. Moreover, synovial tissue from patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) was assessed for activation of the mTOR pathway. Inhibition of mTOR by sirolimus or everolimus reduced synovial osteoclast formation and protected against local bone erosions and cartilage loss. Clinical signs of arthritis improved after mTOR inhibition, and histologic evaluation showed a decrease in synovitis. In vitro, mTOR inhibition down-regulated the expression of digestive enzymes and led to osteoclast apoptosis. Moreover, mTOR signaling was shown to be active in the synovial membrane of patients with RA, particularly in synovial osteoclasts. Signaling through mTOR is an important link between synovitis and structural damage in inflammatory arthritis. Current pharmacologic inhibitors of mTOR could be effective in protecting joints against structural damage.

  14. Synergistic toxicity of gentamicin- and nanosilver-doped polymethylmethacrylate bone cement on primary human osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Pauksch, Linda; Franke, Jörg; Schnettler, Reinhard; Lips, Katrin S

    2014-01-01

    Bacterial colonization of implant surfaces is a feared complication in surgery and orthopedics. Due to the increasing number of periprosthetic infections caused by multidrug-resistant microorganisms, new antibacterial coatings for biomaterials must be developed. The excellent antibacterial properties of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against multidrug-resistant bacteria, for example, have been repeatedly described. For this reason, we tested a nanosilver-doped polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) bone cement and a nanosilver-coated titanium alloy regarding their influence on osteoclastogenesis of primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Both implant variants did not inhibit osteoclast differentiation. Excellent cell attachment and unaltered podosomal structures were confirmed. Additionally, no induction of oxidative or endoplasmic reticulum stress could be observed. However, PMMA loaded with gentamicin and nanosilver inhibited preosteoclast fusion and further osteoclastogenesis. The material also led to decreased clathrin-dependent endocytosis as well as decreased levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress. Therefore, biomaterial functionalization with AgNPs did not disturb osteoclastogenesis, while addition of gentamicin reduced the cytocompatibility of nanosilver-doped materials towards human osteoclasts.

  15. Minodronic acid induces morphological changes in osteoclasts at bone resorption sites and reaches a level required for antagonism of purinergic P2X2/3 receptors.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Makoto; Hosoya, Akihiro; Mori, Hiroshi; Kayasuga, Ryoji; Nakamura, Hiroaki; Ozawa, Hidehiro

    2017-02-27

    Minodronic acid is an aminobisphosphonate that is an antagonist of purinergic P2X2/3 receptors involved in pain. The aim of this study was to investigate the action and distribution of minodronic acid and the potential for P2X2/3 receptor antagonism based on the estimated concentration of minodronic acid. Microlocalization of radiolabeled minodronic acid was examined in the femur of neonatal rats. The bone-binding characteristics of minodronic acid and morphological changes in osteoclasts were analyzed in vitro. The minodronic acid concentration around bone resorption lacunae was predicted based on bone binding and the shape of lacunae. In microautoradiography, radioactive silver grains were abundant in bone-attached osteoclasts and were detected in calcified and ossification zones and in the cytoplasm of osteoclasts but not in the hypertrophic cartilage zone. In an osteoclast culture with 1 µM minodronic acid, 65% of minodronic acid was bound to bone, and C-terminal cross-linking telopeptide release was inhibited by 96%. Cultured osteoclasts without minodronic acid treatment formed ruffled borders and bone resorption lacunae and had rich cytoplasm, whereas those treated with 1 µM minodronic acid were not multinucleated, stained densely with toluidine blue, and were detached from the bone surface. In the 1 µM culture, the estimated minodronic acid concentration in resorption lacunae was 880 µM, which is higher than the IC50 for minodronic acid antagonism of P2X2/3 receptors. Thus, inhibition of P2X2/3 receptors around osteoclasts may contribute to the analgesic effect of minodronic acid.

  16. The vitamin D analogue ED71 but Not 1,25(OH)2D3 targets HIF1α protein in osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yuiko; Miyauchi, Yoshiteru; Yoshida, Shigeyuki; Morita, Mayu; Kobayashi, Tami; Kanagawa, Hiroya; Katsuyama, Eri; Fujie, Atsuhiro; Hao, Wu; Tando, Toshimi; Watanabe, Ryuichi; Miyamoto, Kana; Morioka, Hideo; Matsumoto, Morio; Toyama, Yoshiaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Although both an active form of the vitamin D metabolite, 1,25(OH)2D3, and the vitamin D analogue, ED71 have been used to treat osteoporosis, anti-bone resorbing activity is reportedly seen only in ED71- but not in 1,25(OH)2D3 -treated patients. In addition, how ED71 inhibits osteoclast activity in patients has not been fully characterized. Recently, HIF1α expression in osteoclasts was demonstrated to be required for development of post-menopausal osteoporosis. Here we show that ED71 but not 1,25(OH)2D3, suppress HIF1α protein expression in osteoclasts in vitro. We found that 1,25(OH)2D3 or ED71 function in osteoclasts requires the vitamin D receptor (VDR). ED71 was significantly less effective in inhibiting M-CSF and RANKL-stimulated osteoclastogenesis than was 1,25(OH)2D3 in vitro. Downregulation of c-Fos protein and induction of Ifnβ mRNA in osteoclasts, both of which reportedly block osteoclastogenesis induced by 1,25(OH)2D3 in vitro, were both significantly higher following treatment with 1,25(OH)2D3 than with ED71. Thus, suppression of HIF1α protein activity in osteoclasts in vitro, which is more efficiently achieved by ED71 rather than by 1,25(OH)2D3, could be a reliable read-out in either developing or screening reagents targeting osteoporosis.

  17. Proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein N-terminus is a novel osteoclast antagonist that counteracts bone loss.

    PubMed

    Rucci, Nadia; Capulli, Mattia; Ventura, Luca; Angelucci, Adriano; Peruzzi, Barbara; Tillgren, Viveka; Muraca, Maurizio; Heinegård, Dick; Teti, Anna

    2013-09-01

    (hbd) PRELP is a peptide corresponding to the N-terminal heparin binding domain of the matrix protein proline/arginine-rich end leucine-rich repeat protein (PRELP). (hbd) PRELP inhibits osteoclastogenesis entering pre-fusion osteoclasts through a chondroitin sulfate- and annexin 2-dependent mechanism and reducing the nuclear factor-κB transcription factor activity. In this work, we hypothesized that (hbd) PRELP could have a pharmacological relevance, counteracting bone loss in a variety of in vivo models of bone diseases induced by exacerbated osteoclast activity. In healthy mice, we demonstrated that the peptide targeted the bone and increased trabecular bone mass over basal level. In mice treated with retinoic acid to induce an acute increase of osteoclast formation, the peptide consistently antagonized osteoclastogenesis and prevented the increase of the serum levels of the osteoclast-specific marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase. In ovariectomized mice, in which osteoclast activity was chronically enhanced by estrogen deficiency, (hbd) PRELP counteracted exacerbated osteoclast activity and bone loss. In mice carrying osteolytic bone metastases, in which osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption were enhanced by tumor cell-derived factors, (hbd) PRELP reduced the incidence of osteolytic lesions, both preventively and curatively, with mechanisms involving impaired tumor cell homing to bone and tumor growth in the bone microenvironment. Interestingly, in tumor-bearing mice, (hbd) PRELP also inhibited breast tumor growth in orthotopic sites and development of metastatic disease in visceral organs, reducing cachexia and improving survival especially when administered preventively. (hbd) PRELP was retained in the tumor tissue and appeared to affect tumor growth by interacting with the microenvironment rather than by directly affecting the tumor cells. Because safety studies and high-dose treatments revealed no adverse effects, (hbd) PRELP could be employed as a

  18. The component of Carica papaya seed toxic to A. aegypti and the identification of tegupain, the enzyme that generates it.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Natalia N dos S; Santana, Lucimeire A; Sampaio, Misako U; Lemos, Francisco J A; Oliva, Maria Luiza

    2013-07-01

    As Aedes aegypti transmits the etiologic agents of both yellow and dengue fever; vector control is considered essential to minimise their incidence. The aim of this work was to identify the component of Carica papaya seed toxic to A. aegypti, and the identification of tegupain, the enzyme that generates it. Aqueous extracts (1%, w/v) of the seed tegument and cotyledon of C. papaya are not larvicidal isolately. However, a mixture of 17μgmL(-1) tegument extract and 27μgmL(-1) cotyledon extract caused 100% larval mortality in a bioassay. The mixture was no longer larvicidal after the tegument extract was pre-treated at 100°C for 10min. The enzyme tegupain efficiently hydrolysed the substrate Z-Phe-Arg-pNan (Km 58.8μM, Kcat 28020s(-1), Kcat/Km 5×10(8)M(-1) s(-1)), and its activity increased with 2mM dithiothreitol (DTT), at 37°C, pH 5.0. The chelating agent EDTA did not modify the enzyme activity. Inhibition of tegupain by cystatin (Kiapp 2.43nM), E64 (3.64nM, 83% inhibition), and the propeptide N-terminal sequence indicate that the toxic activity is due to a novel cysteine proteinase-like enzyme, rendered active upon the hydrolysis of a cotyledon component of C. papaya seeds. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Content determination of benzyl glucosinolate and anti-cancer activity of its hydrolysis product in Carica papaya L.

    PubMed

    Li, Ze-You; Wang, Yong; Shen, Wen-Tao; Zhou, Peng

    2012-03-01

    To determine the content of benzyl glucosinolate (BG) in the pulp and the seed and investigate the anti-cancer activity of its hydrolysis product in Carica papaya L. Determination of BG was performed on an Hypersil BDS C(18) column at the wavelength of 214 nm with 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) aqueous solution (A) and 0.1%TFA acetonitrile (B) as the mobile phase. In vitro activity test was adopted with cultured human lung cancer H69 cell in vitro to investigate the inhibition rate of cell proliferation of benzyl isothiocyanate (BITC) against H69 cell. The pulp has more BG before the maturation of papaya and it nearly disappeared after papaya matured, while the seed contains BG at every stage. Activity test demonstrated that the a higher concentration of BITC would have better inhibition rate of cell proliferation on H69 cell, and the IC(50) was 6.5 μmol/L. BG also can be produced in the pulp of papaya and it will be stored in the seed after the fruit has been matured. The hydrolysis product of BG has certain cancer-prevention anti-cancer activities for human. Copyright © 2012 Hainan Medical College. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Immunological reaction in TNF-α-mediated osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Kitaura, Hideki; Kimura, Keisuke; Ishida, Masahiko; Kohara, Haruka; Yoshimatsu, Masako; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko

    2013-01-01

    Tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF- α ) is a cytokine produced by monocytes, macrophages, and T cells and is induced by pathogens, endotoxins, or related substances. TNF- α may play a key role in bone metabolism and is important in inflammatory bone diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis. Cells directly involved in osteoclastogenesis include macrophages, which are osteoclast precursor cells, osteoblasts, or stromal cells. These cells express receptor activator of NF- κ B ligand (RANKL) to induce osteoclastogenesis, and T cells, which secrete RANKL, promote osteoclastogenesis during inflammation. Elucidating the detailed effects of TNF- α on bone metabolism may enable the identification of therapeutic targets that can efficiently suppress bone destruction in inflammatory bone diseases. TNF- α is considered to act by directly increasing RANK expression in macrophages and by increasing RANKL in stromal cells. Inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin- (IL-) 12, IL-18, and interferon- γ (IFN- γ ) strongly inhibit osteoclast formation. IL-12, IL-18, and IFN- γ induce apoptosis in bone marrow cells treated with TNF- α   in vitro, and osteoclastogenesis is inhibited by the interactions of TNF- α -induced Fas and Fas ligand induced by IL-12, IL-18, and IFN- γ . This review describes and discusses the role of cells concerned with osteoclast formation and immunological reactions in TNF- α -mediated osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo.

  1. The Beneficial Effect of Praeruptorin C on Osteoporotic Bone in Ovariectomized Mice via Suppression of Osteoclast Formation and Bone Resorption.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xuqiang; Chin, Jie-Fen; Qu, Xinhua; Bi, Haidi; Liu, Yuan; Yu, Ziqiang; Zhai, Zanjing; Qin, An; Zhang, Bin; Dai, Min

    2017-01-01

    Being a highly prevalent disease, osteoporosis causes metabolism defects. Low bone density, compromised bone strength, and an increased danger of fragility fracture are its main characteristics. Natural compounds have been considered as potential alternative therapeutic agents for treating osteoporosis. In this study, we demonstrated that a natural compound, praeruptorin C (Pra-C), derived from the dried roots of Peucedanum praeruptorum, has beneficial effects in suppressing osteoclast formation and resorption function via attenuating the activation of nuclear factor kappa B as well as c-Jun N-terminal kinase/mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Moreover, Pra-C was tested in the ovariectomized (OVX) mice, a well-established model of post-menopausal bone loss, and the results indicated Pra-C exerted beneficial effects on inhibiting excessive osteoclast activity and increasing bone mass of OVX mice. Therefore, the protective effects of Pra-C on OVX mice bone are related to its inhibition of osteoclast formation and bone resorption, suggesting that Pra-C is a good potential candidate for osteoporosis treatment.

  2. Central nervous system activity of an aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica L. in mice

    PubMed Central

    Bhanushali, Mittal M.; Makhija, Dinesh T.; Joshi, Yadunath M.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Ficus carica Linn. is reported to possess variety of activities, but its potential in CNS disorders is still to be explored. Objective: The present study was carried out to evaluate the CNS depressant activity of aqueous acetonic extract of Ficus carica Linn on different models in mice. Materials and Methods: The aerial parts of the plant Ficus carica L. were extracted with aqueous acetone and the solvent was removed by rotary vacuum evaporator under reduced pressure. A crude extract was given orally and its effects were tested on ketamine-induced sleeping time, muscle-coordination, anxiety (elevated-plus maze and Staircase test), convulsions [maximal electroshock (MES) and pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced seizures], and nociception. In addition, we determined the levels of neurotransmitters, norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT). Results: Results from the experimental models tested showed: (1) a delay on onset and prolongation of sleep of ketamine-induced sleeping time; (2) significant muscle relaxant activity; (3) a significant attenuation in the anxiety-response (4) a delay in the onset of seizures and reduction in duration of seizures and mortality induced by MES and PTZ; (5) a reduction in the licking time in nociception test and (6) increased levels of NE and 5-HT. Conclusion: This suggests that Ficus carica L. exerts its CNS depressive effect by modulating the neurotransmitters NE and 5-HT in the brain. PMID:24948859

  3. Designing and characterizing of tramadol hydrochloride transdermal patches prepared with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and povidone.

    PubMed

    Ahad, Hindustan Abdul; Ishaq, Beludari Mohammed; Shaik, Muneer; Bandagisa, Faheem

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to prepare matrix type transdermal patches of Tramadol HCl using various ratios of Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The matrix type transdermal patches were prepared using Tramadol HCl with Ficus carica fruit mucilage and Povidone. The interactions between Tramadol HCl with F. carica fruit mucilage and Povidone were performed by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The prepared patches were examined for physicochemical characterization and in vitro drug permeation studies (using a Keshary-Chien diffusion cell across hairless Albino rat skin), skin irritation studies and accelerated stability studies. The drug was found to be free from negligible interactions with the polymers used. The formulated patches possessed satisfactory physicochemical properties, in vitro drug permeation and devoid of serious skin irritation. The selected formulation (F-5) was retains the characteristics even after the accelerated environmental conditions. The study concludes that F. carica fruit mucilage with Povidone is a good combination for preparing transdermal patches.

  4. The micromorphology and protein characterization of rubber particles in Ficus carica, Ficus benghalensis and Hevea brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Singh, Adya P; Wi, Seung Gon; Chung, Gap Chae; Kim, Yoon Soo; Kang, Hunseung

    2003-03-01

    Rubber biosynthesis takes place on the surface of rubber particles. These particles are surrounded by a monolayer membrane in which the rubber transferase is anchored. In order to gain better insight into whether rubber particles from different plant species share common structural characteristics, the micromorphology of rubber particles from Ficus carica, Ficus benghalensis, and Hevea brasiliensis was examined by electron microscopy. Rubber particles of all three species were spherical in shape, and the size of rubber particles of H. brasiliensis was much smaller than those of F. carica and F. benghalensis. In addition, investigations were undertaken to compare the cross-reactivity of the antibody raised against either the H. brasiliensis small rubber particle protein (SRPP) which is suggested to be involved in rubber biosynthesis, or the cis-prenyltransferase (CPT) which has an activity similar to rubber transferase. Both western analysis and TEM-immunogold labelling studies showed that rubber particles of F. carica and F. benghalensis do not contain the SRPP. None of the rubber particles in F. carica, F. benghalensis and H. brasiliensis contained the CPT, suggesting that the CPT itself could not catalyse the formation of high molecular weight rubber. These results indicate that rubber particles in the three different plant species investigated share some degree of similarity in architecture, and that the SRPP and CPT themselves are not the core proteins necessary for rubber biosynthesis.

  5. Mechanical regulation of osteoclastic genes in human osteoblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Kreja, Ludwika Liedert, Astrid; Hasni, Sofia; Claes, Lutz; Ignatius, Anita

    2008-04-11

    Bone adaptation to mechanical load is accompanied by changes in gene expression of bone-forming cells. Less is known about mechanical effects on factors controlling bone resorption by osteoclasts. Therefore, we studied the influence of mechanical loading on several key genes modulating osteoclastogenesis. Human osteoblasts were subjected to various cell stretching protocols. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to evaluate gene expression. Cell stretching resulted in a significant up-regulation of receptor activator of nuclear factor-{kappa}B ligand (RANKL) immediate after intermittent loading (3 x 3 h, 3 x 6 h, magnitude 1%). Continuous loading, however, had no effect on RANKL expression. The expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), macrophage-colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), and osteoclast inhibitory lectin (OCIL) was not significantly altered. The data suggested that mechanical loading could influence osteoclasts recruitment by modulating RANKL expression in human osteoblasts and that the effects might be strictly dependent on the quality of loading.

  6. Characterization of inorganic phosphate transport in osteoclast-like cells.

    PubMed

    Ito, Mikiko; Matsuka, Naoko; Izuka, Michiyo; Haito, Sakiko; Sakai, Yuko; Nakamura, Rie; Segawa, Hiroko; Kuwahata, Masashi; Yamamoto, Hironori; Pike, Wesley J; Miyamoto, Ken-ichi

    2005-04-01

    Osteoclasts possess inorganic phosphate (Pi) transport systems to take up external Pi during bone resorption. In the present study, we characterized Pi transport in mouse osteoclast-like cells that were obtained by differentiation of macrophage RAW264.7 cells with receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL). In undifferentiated RAW264.7 cells, Pi transport into the cells was Na+ dependent, but after treatment with RANKL, Na+-independent Pi transport was significantly increased. In addition, compared with neutral pH, the activity of the Na+-independent Pi transport system in the osteoclast-like cells was markedly enhanced at pH 5.5. The Na+-independent system consisted of two components with Km of 0.35 mM and 7.5 mM. The inhibitors of Pi transport, phosphonoformic acid, and arsenate substantially decreased Pi transport. The proton ionophores nigericin and carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone as well as a K+ ionophore, valinomycin, significantly suppressed Pi transport activity. Analysis of BCECF fluorescence indicated that Pi transport in osteoclast-like cells is coupled to a proton transport system. In addition, elevation of extracellular K+ ion stimulated Pi transport, suggesting that membrane voltage is involved in the regulation of Pi transport activity. Finally, bone particles significantly increased Na+-independent Pi transport activity in osteoclast-like cells. Thus, osteoclast-like cells have a Pi transport system with characteristics that are different from those of other Na+-dependent Pi transporters. We conclude that stimulation of Pi transport at acidic pH is necessary for bone resorption or for production of the large amounts of energy necessary for acidification of the extracellular environment.

  7. Substance P stimulates bone marrow stromal cell osteogenic activity, osteoclast differentiation, and resorption activity in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liping; Zhao, Rong; Shi, Xiaoyou; Wei, Tzuping; Halloran, Bernard P.; Clark, David J.; Jacobs, Christopher R.; Kingery, Wade S.

    2009-01-01

    Introduction SP is a neuropeptide distributed in the sensory nerve fibers that innervate the medullar tissues of bone, as well as the periosteum. Previously we demonstrated that inhibition of neuropeptide signaling after capsaicin treatment resulted in a loss of bone mass and we hypothesized that SP contributes to bone integrity by stimulating osteogenesis. Materials and Methods Osteoblast precursors (bone marrow stromal cells, BMSCs) and osteoclast precursors (bone marrow macrophages, BMMs) derived from C57BL/6 mice were cultured. Expression of the SP receptor (NK1) was detected by using immunocytochemical staining and PCR. Effects of SP on proliferation and differentiation of BMSCs were studied by measuring BrdU incorporation, gene expression, alkaline phosphatase activity, and osteocalcin and Runx2 protein levels with EIA and western blot assays, respectively. Effects of SP on BMMs were determined using a BrdU assay, counting multinucleated cells staining positive for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP+), measuring pit erosion area, and evaluating RANKL protein production and NF-κB activity with ELISA and western blot. Results The NK1 receptor was expressed in both BMSCs and BMMs. SP stimulated the proliferation of BMSCs in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations (10−12 M) of SP stimulated alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin expression, increased alkaline phosphatase activity, and up-regulated Runx2 protein levels, and higher concentrations of SP (10−8 M) enhanced mineralization in differentiated BMSCs. SP also stimulated BMSCs to produce RANKL, but at concentrations too low to evoke osteoclastogenesis in co-culture with macrophages in the presence of SP. SP also activated NF-κB in BMMs and directly facilitate RANKL induced macrophage osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption activity. Conclusions NK1 receptors are expressed by osteoblast and osteoclast precursors and SP stimulates osteoblast and osteoclast differentiation and function in

  8. The protein kinase 2 inhibitor CX-4945 regulates osteoclast and osteoblast differentiation in vitro.

    PubMed

    Son, You Hwa; Moon, Seong Hee; Kim, Jiyeon

    2013-11-01

    Drug repositioning can identify new therapeutic applications for existing drugs, thus mitigating high R&D costs. The Protein kinase 2 (CK2) inhibitor CX-4945 regulates human cancer cell survival and angiogenesis. Here we found that CX-4945 significantly inhibited the RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation, but enhanced the BMP2-induced osteoblast differentiation in a cell culture model. CX-4945 inhibited the RANKL-induced activation of TRAP and NFATc1 expression accompanied with suppression of Akt phosphorylation, but in contrast, it enhanced the BMP2-mediated ALP induction and MAPK ERK1/2 phosphorylation. CX-4945 is thus a novel drug candidate for bone-related disorders such as osteoporosis.

  9. Osteoclastogenesis and Osteoclastic Resorption of Tricalcium Phosphate: Effect of Strontium and Magnesium Doping

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Mangal; Bose, Susmita

    2012-01-01

    Bone substitute materials are required to support the remodeling process, which consists of osteoclastic resorption and osteoblastic synthesis. Osteoclasts, the bone resorbing cells, generate from differentiation of hemopoietic mononuclear cells. In the present study we have evaluated the effects of 1.0 wt% strontium (Sr) and 1.0 wt% magnesium (Mg) doping in beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) on the differentiation of mononuclear cells into osteoclast-like cells and its resorptive activity. In vitro osteoclast-like cell formation, adhesion, and resorption were studied using osteoclast precursor RAW 264.7 cell, supplemented with receptor activator of nuclear factor κβ ligand (RANKL). Osteoclast-like cell formation was noticed on pure and Sr doped β-TCP samples at day 8 which was absent on Mg doped β-TCP samples indicating decrease in initial osteoclast differentiation due to Mg doping. After 21 days of culture, osteoclast-like cell formation was evident on all samples with osteoclastic markers such as actin ring, multiple nuclei, and presence of vitronectin receptor αvβ3 integrin. After osteoclast differentiation, all substrates showed osteoclast-like cell mediated degradation, however; significantly restricted for Mg doped β-TCP samples. Our present results indicated substrate chemistry controlled osteoclast differentiation and resorptive activity which can be used in designing TCP based resorbable bone substitutes with controlled degradation properties. PMID:22566212

  10. Antiosteoclastogenesis activity of a CO2 laser antagonizing receptor activator for nuclear factor kappaB ligand-induced osteoclast differentiation of murine macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Chun-Liang; Kao, Chia-Tze; Fang, Hsin-Yuan; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Chen, Yi-Wen; Shie, Ming-You

    2015-03-01

    Macrophage cells are the important effector cells in the immune reaction which are indispensable for osteoclastogenesis; their heterogeneity and plasticity renders macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. In recent years, there have been very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteoclastogenesis. In this study, RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were treated with RANKL to regulate osteoclastogenesis. We used a CO2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of osteoclastogenic. We also evaluated cell viability, cell death and cathepsin K expression. The CO2 laser inhibited a receptor activator of the NF-ĸB ligand (RANKL)-induced formation of osteoclasts during the osteoclast differentiation process. It was also found that irradiation for two times reduced RANKL-enhanced TRAP activity in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, CO2 laser-treatment diminished the expression and secretion of cathepsin K elevated by RANKL and was concurrent with the inhibition of TRAF6 induction and NF-ĸB activation. The current report demonstrates that CO2 laser abrogated RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by retarding osteoclast differentiation. The CO2 laser can modulate every cell through dose-dependent in vitro RANKL-mediated osteoclastogenesis, such as the proliferation and fusion of preosteoclasts and the maturation of osteoclasts. Therefore, the current results serve as an improved explanation of the cellular roles of macrophage cell populations in osteoclastogenesis as well as in alveolar bone remodeling by CO2 laser-treatment.

  11. Effects of extracellular magnesium extract on the proliferation and differentiation of human osteoblasts and osteoclasts in coculture.

    PubMed

    Wu, Lili; Feyerabend, Frank; Schilling, Arndt F; Willumeit-Römer, Regine; Luthringer, Bérengère J C

    2015-11-01

    developed as an in vitro cytocompatibility model for magnesium implants. Parameters in terms of cellular proliferation and differentiation behaviors were investigated and we conclude that high concentration of magnesium extract could lead to a promotion in osteoblastogenesis but an inhibition in osteoclastogenesis. It could contribute to the repeated observations of enhanced bone growth adjacent to degradable magnesium alloys. More interestingly, it demonstrates that compared to monoculture, osteoclasts in cocultures with osteoblasts exhibited higher tolerance to the culture environment with high magnesium extract. It might attribute to the neutralization process of the alkaline medium by acid generated by increased amount of osteoblasts in the condition with high concentration of Mg extract. The submitted work could be of significant importance to other researchers working in the related field(s), thus appealing to the readership of Acta Biomaterialia. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Methionine down-regulates TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signalling in osteoclast precursors to reduce bone loss during osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Vijayan, V; Khandelwal, M; Manglani, K; Gupta, S; Surolia, A

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Studies have demonstrated that a moderate intake of amino acids is associated with development of bone health. Methionine, a sulphur-containing essential amino acid, has been largely implicated for improving cartilage formation, however its physiological significance on bone integrity and functionality have not been elucidated. We investigated whether methionine can prevent osteoporotic bone loss. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH The anti-resorptive effect of methionine, (250 mg kg−1 body wt administered in drinking water for 10 weeks), was evaluated in ovariectomized (OVX) rats by monitoring changes in bone turnover, formation of osteoclasts from blood-derived mononuclear cells and changes in the synthesis of pro-osteoclastogenic cytokines. KEY RESULTS Methionine improved bone density and significantly decreased the degree of osteoclast development from blood mononuclear cells in OVX rats, as indicated by decreased production of osteoclast markers tartarate resistant acid phosphatase b (TRAP5b) and MIP-1α. siRNA-mediated knockdown of myeloid differentiation primary response 88 [MyD88], a signalling molecule in the toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling cascade, abolished the synthesis of both TRAP5b and MIP-1α in developing osteoclasts. Methionine supplementation disrupted osteoclast development by inhibiting TLR-4/MyD88/NF-κB pathway. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS TLR-4/MyD88/NF-κB signalling pathway is integral for osteoclast development and this is down-regulated in osteoporotic system on methionine treatment. Methionine treatment could be beneficial for the treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:24111943

  13. Vascular expression of the chemokine CX3CL1 promotes osteoclast recruitment and exacerbates bone resorption in an irradiated murine model.

    PubMed

    Han, Ki Hoon; Ryu, Jae Won; Lim, Kyung-Eun; Lee, Soo-Han; Kim, Yuna; Hwang, Chang Sun; Choi, Je-Yong; Han, Ki Ok

    2014-04-01

    Circulating osteoclast precursor cells highly express CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1), which is the only receptor for the unique CX3C membrane-anchored chemokine, fractalkine (CX3CL1). An irradiated murine model was used to evaluate the role of the CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis in osteoclast recruitment and osteoclastogenesis. Ionizing radiation (IR) promoted the migration of circulating CD11b+ cells to irradiated bones and dose-dependently increased the number of differentiated osteoclasts in irradiated bones. Notably, CX3CL1 was dramatically upregulated in the vascular endothelium after IR. IR-induced production of CX3CL1 by skeletal vascular endothelium promoted chemoattraction of circulating CX3CR1+/CD11b+ cells and triggered homing of these osteoclast precursor cells toward the bone remodeling surface, a specific site for osteoclast differentiation. CX3CL1 also increased the endothelium-derived expression of other chemokines including stromal cell-derived factor-1 (CXCL12) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (CXCL2) by activating the hypoxia-inducible factor-1 α pathway. These effects may further enhance osteoclastogenesis. A series of in vivo experiments confirmed that knockout of CX3CR1 in bone marrow-derived cells and functional inhibition of CX3CL1 using a specific neutralizing antibody significantly ameliorated osteoclastogenesis and prevented bone loss after IR. These results demonstrate that the de novo CX3CL1-CX3CR1 axis plays a pivotal role in osteoclast recruitment and subsequent bone resorption, and verify its therapeutic potential as a new target for anti-resorptive treatment.

  14. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand-induced mouse osteoclast differentiation is associated with switching between NADPH oxidase homologues.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hideyuki; Yamamoto, Hironori; Tominaga, Kumiko; Masuda, Kiyoshi; Kawai, Tomoko; Teshima-Kondo, Shigetada; Matsuno, Kuniharu; Yabe-Nishimura, Chihiro; Rokutan, Kazuhito

    2009-07-15

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been suggested to regulate receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-stimulated osteoclast differentiation. Stimulation of wild-type mouse bone marrow monocyte/macrophage lineage (BMM) cells by RANKL down-regulated NADPH oxidase 2 (Nox2) mRNA expression by half. RANKL reciprocally increased Nox1 mRNA levels and newly induced Nox4 transcript expression. BMM cells from Nox1 knockout (Nox1(-/-)) as well as Nox2(-/-) mice generated ROS in response to RANKL and differentiated into osteoclasts in the same way as wild-type BMM cells, which was assessed by the appearance of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive, multinucleated cells having the ability to form resorption pits and by the expression of osteoclast marker genes. A small interfering RNA (siRNA) targeting Nox1 or Nox2 failed to inhibit the RANKL-stimulated ROS generation and osteoclast formation in wild-type cells, whereas Nox1 and Nox2 siRNAs significantly suppressed the ROS generation and osteoclast formation in Nox2(-/-) and Nox1(-/-) cells, respectively. We also confirmed that Nox4 siRNA did not affect the RANKL-dependent events in Nox2(-/-) cells, whereas p22(phox) siRNA suppressed the events in both wild-type and Nox1(-/-) cells. Collectively, our results suggest that there may be a flexible compensatory mechanism between Nox1 and Nox2 for RANKL-stimulated ROS generation to facilitate osteoclast differentiation.

  15. DC-STAMP: A Key Regulator in Osteoclast Differentiation

    PubMed Central

    CHIU, YA-HUI; RITCHLIN, CHRISTOPHER T.

    2016-01-01

    Osteoimmunology research is a new emerging research field that investigates the links between the bone and immune responses. Results from osteoimmunology studies suggest that bone is not only an essential component of the musculoskeletal system, but is also actively involved in immune regulation. Many important factors involved in immune regulation also participate in bone homeostasis. Bone homeostasis is achieved by a coordinated action between bone synthesizing osteoblasts and bone degrading osteoclasts. An imbalanced action between osteoblasts and osteoclasts often results in pathological bone diseases: osteoporosis is caused by an excessive osteoclast activity, whereas osteopetrosis results from an increased osteoblast activity. This review focuses on dendritic cell specific transmembrane protein (DC STAMP), an important protein currently considered as a master regulator of osteoclastogenesis. Of clinical relevance, the frequency of circulating DC STAMPþ cells is elevated during the pathogenesis of psoriatic diseases. Intriguingly, recent results suggest that DC STAMP also plays an imperative role in bone homeostasis by regulating the differentiation of both osteoclasts and osteoblasts. This article summarizes our current knowledge on DC STAMP by focusing on its interacting proteins, its regulation on osteoclastogenesis related genes, its possible involvement in immunoreceptor tyrosine based inhibitory motif (ITIM) mediated signaling cascade, and its potential of developing therapeutics for clinical applications. PMID:27018136

  16. Evening primrose oil effects on osteoclasts during tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Taweechaisupapong, Suwimol; Srisuk, Nitipavee; Nimitpornsuko, Chawalit; Vattraphoudes, Thepharith; Rattanayatikul, Charunee; Godfrey, Keith

    2005-05-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the influence of supplemented evening primrose oil (EPO) on osteoclast expression during experimental tooth movement in rats. Forty-eight 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into experimental and control groups. Animals in the experiment group were fed a 7.25 g/kg daily dose of EPO orally by gastric intubation for 20 days before orthodontic tooth movement. The animals in the control group received an equivalent volume of distilled water by the same method. On day 21, a 40-g mesial tipping force was applied to the maxillary right first molar of each rat. After loading, six animals in each group were sacrificed on days 0, 3, 7, and 14 with the appliance in situ. On day 3, the number of osteoclasts on the appliance side of the experimental group was significantly increased compared with the control group (P < .05). On day 7, the number of osteoclasts on the non-appliance side of the experimental group was significantly increased compared with the control group (P < .05). This study indicates that oral administration of EPO can increase the number of osteoclasts and may accelerate orthodontic tooth movement.

  17. Active NMDA glutamate receptors are expressed by mammalian osteoclasts

    PubMed Central

    Espinosa, Leon; Itzstein, Cécile; Cheynel, Hervé; Delmas, Pierre D; Chenu, Chantal

    1999-01-01

    The N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptor, widely distributed in the mammalian nervous system, has recently been identified in bone. In this study, we have investigated whether NMDA receptors expressed by osteoclasts have an electrophysiological activity. Using the patch clamp technique two agonists of the NMDA receptor, L-glutamate (Glu) and NMDA, were shown to activate whole-cell currents recorded in isolated rabbit osteoclasts. The current-voltage (I-V) relationships of the currents induced by Glu (IGlu) and NMDA (INMDA) were studied using Mg2+-free solutions. The agonist-induced currents had a linear I-V relationship with a reversal potential near 0 mV, as expected for a voltage independent and non-selective cationic current. IGlu and INMDA were sensitive to specific blockers of NMDA subtype glutamate receptors, such as magnesium ions, (5R, 10S)-(+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a, d]cyclohepten -5,10-imine (MK-801) and 1-(1,2-diphenylethyl) piperidine (DEP). The block of IGlu and INMDA by these specific antagonists was voltage dependent, strong for negative potentials (inward current) and absent for positive potentials (outward current). These results demonstrate that NMDA receptors are functional in rabbit osteoclasts, and that their electrophysiological and pharmacological properties in these cells are similar to those documented for neuronal cells. Active NMDA receptors expressed by osteoclasts may represent a new target for regulating bone resorption. PMID:10373688

  18. Artemisia capillaris Alleviates Bone Loss by Stimulating Osteoblast Mineralization and Suppressing Osteoclast Differentiation and Bone Resorption.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chung-Jo; Shim, Ki-Shuk; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2016-01-01

    Artemisia capillaris has been used to treat jaundice and relieve high liver-heat in traditional medicine. In this study, we found that the administration of a water extract from A. capillaris (WEAC) to the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-induced bone loss model significantly prevents osteoporotic bone loss, increasing bone volume/trabecular volume by 22% and trabecular number by 24%, and decreasing trabecular separation by 29%. WEAC stimulated in vitro osteoblast mineralization from primary osteoblasts in association with increasing expression of osterix, nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1, and activator protein-1, as well as phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase. In contrast to the anabolic effect of WEAC, WEAC significantly suppressed in vitro osteoclast formation from bone marrow macrophages by inhibiting the RANKL signaling pathways and bone resorption by downregulating the expression of resorption markers. Therefore, this study demonstrated that WEAC has a beneficial effect on bone loss through the regulation of osteoblast mineralization, as well as osteoclast formation and bone resorption. These results suggest that A. capillaris may be a promising herbal candidate for therapeutic agents to treat or prevent osteoporotic bone diseases.

  19. Identification, purification and characterization of a novel collagenolytic serine protease from fig (Ficus carica var. Brown Turkey) latex.

    PubMed

    Raskovic, Brankica; Bozovic, Olga; Prodanovic, Radivoje; Niketic, Vesna; Polovic, Natalija

    2014-12-01

    A novel collagenolytic serine protease was identified and then purified (along with ficin) to apparent homogeneity from the latex of fig (Ficus carica, var. Brown Turkey) by two step chromatographic procedure using gel and covalent chromatography. The enzyme is a monomeric protein of molecular mass of 41 ± 9 kDa as estimated by analytical gel filtration chromatography. It is an acidic protein with a pI value of approximately 5 and optimal activity at pH 8.0-8.5 and temperature 60°C. The enzymatic activity was strongly inhibited by PMSF and Pefabloc SC, indicating that the enzyme is a serine protease. The enzyme showed specificity towards gelatin and collagen (215 GDU/mg and 24.8 CDU/mg, respectively) and non-specific protease activity (0.18 U/mg against casein). The enzyme was stable and retained full activity over a broad range of pH and temperature. The fig latex collagenolytic protease is potentially useful as a non-microbial enzyme with collagenolytic activity for various applications in the fields of biochemistry, biotechnology and medicine.

  20. Transcriptional Modulator Ifrd1 Regulates Osteoclast Differentiation through Enhancing the NF-κB/NFATc1 Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Iezaki, Takashi; Fukasawa, Kazuya; Park, Gyujin; Horie, Tetsuhiro; Kanayama, Takashi; Ozaki, Kakeru; Onishi, Yuki; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Nakamura, Yukari; Takarada, Takeshi; Yoneda, Yukio; Nakamura, Takashi; Vacher, Jean

    2016-01-01

    Bone homeostasis is maintained by the synergistic actions of bone-resorbing osteoclasts and bone-forming osteoblasts. Here, we show that the transcriptional coactivator/repressor interferon-related developmental regulator 1 (Ifrd1) is expressed in osteoclast lineages and represents a component of the machinery that regulates bone homeostasis. Ifrd1 expression was transcriptionally regulated in preosteoclasts by receptor activator of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) ligand (RANKL) through activator protein 1. Global deletion of murine Ifrd1 increased bone formation and decreased bone resorption, leading to a higher bone mass. Deletion of Ifrd1 in osteoclast precursors prevented RANKL-induced bone loss, although no bone loss was observed under normal physiological conditions. RANKL-dependent osteoclastogenesis was impaired in vitro in Ifrd1-deleted bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). Ifrd1 deficiency increased the acetylation of p65 at residues K122 and K123 via the inhibition of histone deacetylase-dependent deacetylation in BMMs. This repressed the NF-κB-dependent transcription of nuclear factor of activated T cells, cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), an essential regulator of osteoclastogenesis. These findings suggest that an Ifrd1/NF-κB/NFATc1 axis plays a pivotal role in bone remodeling in vivo and represents a therapeutic target for bone diseases. PMID:27381458

  1. Glow discharge plasma pretreatment enhances osteoclast differentiation and survival on titanium plates.

    PubMed

    Kawai, Hiroyuki; Shibata, Yo; Miyazaki, Takashi

    2004-05-01

    Despite the fact that several reports have demonstrated osteoclast activity on various bioactive ceramics, osteoclast functions on surface-modified titanium have not come under focus. This study aimed to examine whether the increasing surface energy of glow discharge plasma (GDP) involved in protein adhesion containing the RGD (Arg-Gly-Asp) sequence affects osteoclast responses on titanium plates. We examined osteoclast differentiation and survival rates on titanium plates with and without GDP. The amounts of osteoclasts on titanium plates were not increased by GDP after 1 week. However, osteoclast differentiation was greatly activated by GDP pretreatment, as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase synthesis significantly increased on the titanium plates with GDP. Additionally, since the presence of osteoclasts was detected only on the titanium plates with GDP, even after 4h cultivation in a coculture test, the osteoclasts survival rate was increased by GDP pretreatment. As osteoclast responses were affected even on surface modified metallic materials, we concluded that novel approaches are needed not only for osteoclastic resorption on ceramic materials but also for osteoclast responses on surface-modified metallic materials.

  2. The natural polyamines spermidine and spermine prevent bone loss through preferential disruption of osteoclastic activation in ovariectomized mice

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Tomomi; Hinoi, Eiichi; Fujita, Hiroyuki; Iezaki, Takashi; Takahata, Yoshifumi; Takamori, Misa; Yoneda, Yukio

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Although naturally occurring polyamines are indispensable for a variety of cellular events in eukaryotic cells, little attention has been paid to their physiological and pathological significance in bone remodelling to date. In this study, we evaluated the pharmacological properties of several natural polyamines on the functionality and integrity of bone in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Mice were subjected to ovariectomy (OVX) and subsequent oral supplementation with either spermidine or spermine for determination of the bone volume together with different parameters regarding bone formation and resorption by histomorphometric analyses in vivo. Pre-osteoclasts were cultured with receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL), with or without spermidine and spermine to determine cellular maturation by tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and cellular viability by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide reduction in vitro. KEY RESULTS Spermidine or spermine, given in drinking water for 28 days, significantly prevented the increased osteoclast surface/bone surface ratio and the reduced bone volume following OVX in mice. Either spermidine or spermine significantly inhibited the increased number of multinucleated TRAP-positive cells in osteoclasts cultured with RANKL in a concentration-dependent manner without affecting cell survival. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS The natural polyamines spermidine and spermine prevented OVX-induced bone loss through the disruption of differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts, rather than affecting osteoblasts. The supplementation with these natural polyamines could be beneficial for the prophylaxis as well as therapy of metabolic bone diseases such as post-menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:22250848

  3. STAT5 is a key transcription factor for IL-3-mediated inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jongwon; Seong, Semun; Kim, Jung Ha; Kim, Kabsun; Kim, Inyoung; Jeong, Byung-chul; Nam, Kwang-Il; Kim, Kyung Keun; Hennighausen, Lothar; Kim, Nacksung

    2016-01-01

    Among the diverse cytokines involved in osteoclast differentiation, interleukin (IL)-3 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. However, the mechanism underlying IL-3-mediated inhibition of osteoclast differentiation is not fully understood. Here we demonstrate that the activation of signal transducers and activators of transcription 5 (STAT5) by IL-3 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis through the induction of the expression of Id genes. We found that STAT5 overexpression inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. However, RANKL did not regulate the expression or activation of STAT5 during osteoclast differentiation. STAT5 deficiency prevented IL-3-mediated inhibition of osteoclastogenesis, suggesting a key role of STAT5 in IL-3-mediated inhibition of osteoclast differentiation. In addition, IL-3-induced STAT5 activation upregulated the expression of Id1 and Id2, which are negative regulators of osteoclastogenesis. Overexpression of ID1 or ID2 in STAT5-deficient cells reversed osteoclast development recovered from IL-3-mediated inhibition. Importantly, microcomputed tomography and histomorphometric analysis revealed that STAT5 conditional knockout mice showed reduced bone mass, with an increased number of osteoclasts. Furthermore, IL-3 inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation less effectively in the STAT5 conditional knockout mice than in the wild-type mice after RANKL injection. Taken together, our findings indicate that STAT5 contributes to the remarkable IL-3-mediated inhibition of RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by activating Id genes and their associated pathways. PMID:27485735

  4. Enoxacin directly inhibits osteoclastogenesis without inducing apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Toro, Edgardo J; Zuo, Jian; Ostrov, David A; Catalfamo, Dana; Bradaschia-Correa, Vivian; Arana-Chavez, Victor; Caridad, Aliana R; Neubert, John K; Wronski, Thomas J; Wallet, Shannon M; Holliday, L Shannon

    2012-05-18

    Enoxacin has been identified as a small molecule inhibitor of binding between the B2-subunit of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) and microfilaments. It inhibits bone resorption by calcitriol-stimulated mouse marrow cultures. We hypothesized that enoxacin acts directly and specifically on osteoclasts by disrupting the interaction between plasma membrane-directed V-ATPases, which contain the osteoclast-selective a3-subunit of V-ATPase, and microfilaments. Consistent with this hypothesis, enoxacin dose-dependently reduced the number of multinuclear cells expressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity produced by RANK-L-stimulated osteoclast precursors. Enoxacin (50 μM) did not induce apoptosis as measured by TUNEL and caspase-3 assays. V-ATPases containing the a3-subunit, but not the "housekeeping" a1-subunit, were isolated bound to actin. Treatment with enoxacin reduced the association of V-ATPase subunits with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton. Quantitative PCR revealed that enoxacin triggered significant reductions in several osteoclast-selective mRNAs, but levels of various osteoclast proteins were not reduced, as determined by quantitative immunoblots, even when their mRNA levels were reduced. Immunoblots demonstrated that proteolytic processing of TRAP5b and the cytoskeletal protein L-plastin was altered in cells treated with 50 μM enoxacin. Flow cytometry revealed that enoxacin treatment favored the expression of high levels of DC-STAMP on the surface of osteoclasts. Our data show that enoxacin directly inhibits osteoclast formation without affecting cell viability by a novel mechanism that involves changes in posttranslational processing and trafficking of several proteins with known roles in osteoclast function. We propose that these effects are downstream to blocking the binding interaction between a3-containing V-ATPases and microfilaments.

  5. Enoxacin Directly Inhibits Osteoclastogenesis without Inducing Apoptosis*

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Edgardo J.; Zuo, Jian; Ostrov, David A.; Catalfamo, Dana; Bradaschia-Correa, Vivian; Arana-Chavez, Victor; Caridad, Aliana R.; Neubert, John K.; Wronski, Thomas J.; Wallet, Shannon M.; Holliday, L. Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Enoxacin has been identified as a small molecule inhibitor of binding between the B2-subunit of vacuolar H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) and microfilaments. It inhibits bone resorption by calcitriol-stimulated mouse marrow cultures. We hypothesized that enoxacin acts directly and specifically on osteoclasts by disrupting the interaction between plasma membrane-directed V-ATPases, which contain the osteoclast-selective a3-subunit of V-ATPase, and microfilaments. Consistent with this hypothesis, enoxacin dose-dependently reduced the number of multinuclear cells expressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity produced by RANK-L-stimulated osteoclast precursors. Enoxacin (50 μm) did not induce apoptosis as measured by TUNEL and caspase-3 assays. V-ATPases containing the a3-subunit, but not the “housekeeping” a1-subunit, were isolated bound to actin. Treatment with enoxacin reduced the association of V-ATPase subunits with the detergent-insoluble cytoskeleton. Quantitative PCR revealed that enoxacin triggered significant reductions in several osteoclast-selective mRNAs, but levels of various osteoclast proteins were not reduced, as determined by quantitative immunoblots, even when their mRNA levels were reduced. Immunoblots demonstrated that proteolytic processing of TRAP5b and the cytoskeletal protein l-plastin was altered in cells treated with 50 μm enoxacin. Flow cytometry revealed that enoxacin treatment favored the expression of high levels of DC-STAMP on the surface of osteoclasts. Our data show that enoxacin directly inhibits osteoclast formation without affecting cell viability by a novel mechanism that involves changes in posttranslational processing and trafficking of several proteins with known roles in osteoclast function. We propose that these effects are downstream to blocking the binding interaction between a3-containing V-ATPases and microfilaments. PMID:22474295

  6. Anti-inflammatory activities of ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves.

    PubMed

    Owoyele, Bamidele V; Adebukola, Olubori M; Funmilayo, Adeoye A; Soladoye, Ayodele O

    2008-08-01

    The anti-inflammatory activity of an ethanolic extract of Carica papaya leaves was investigated in rats using carrageenan induced paw oedema, cotton pellet granuloma and formaldehyde induced arthritis models. Experimental animals received 25-200 mg/Kg (orally) of the extracts or saline (control group) and the reference group received 5 mg/ Kg of indomethacin. The ulcerogenic activity of the extract was also investigated. The results show that the extracts significantly (p <0.05) reduced paw oedema in the carrageenan test. Likewise the extract produced significant reduction in the amount of granuloma formed from 0.58 +/-0.07 to 0.22 +/-0.03 g. In the formaldehyde arthritis model, the extracts significantly reduced the persistent oedema from the 4th day to the 10th day of the investigation. The extracts also produced slight mucosal irritation at high doses. The study establishes the anti-inflammatory activity of Carica papaya leaves.

  7. Inhibition of Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Resorption in vitro and in vivo by a prenylflavonoid xanthohumol from hops

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jing; Zeng, Li; Xie, Juan; Yue, Zhiying; Deng, Huayun; Ma, Xueyun; Zheng, Chunbing; Wu, Xiushan; Luo, Jian; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-01-01

    Excessive RANKL signaling leads to superfluous osteoclast formation and bone resorption, is widespread in the pathologic bone loss and destruction. Therefore, targeting RANKL or its signaling pathway has been a promising and successful strategy for this osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of xanthohumol (XN), an abundant prenylflavonoid from hops plant, on osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast resorption, and RANKL-induced signaling pathway using both in vitro and in vivo assay systems. In mouse and human, XN inhibited osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast formation at the early stage. Furthermore, XN inhibited osteoclast actin-ring formation and bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner. In ovariectomized-induced bone loss mouse model and RANKL-injection-induced bone resorption model, we found that administration of XN markedly inhibited bone loss and resorption by suppressing osteoclast activity. At the molecular level, XN disrupted the association of RANK and TRAF6, resulted in the inhibition of NF-κB and Ca2+/NFATc1 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis. As a results, XN suppressed the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker genes, including CtsK, Nfatc1, Trap, Ctr. Therefore, our data demonstrated that XN inhibits osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption through RANK/TRAF6 signaling pathways. XN could be a promising drug candidate in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:26620037

  8. Inhibition of Osteoclastogenesis and Bone Resorption in vitro and in vivo by a prenylflavonoid xanthohumol from hops.

    PubMed

    Li, Jing; Zeng, Li; Xie, Juan; Yue, Zhiying; Deng, Huayun; Ma, Xueyun; Zheng, Chunbing; Wu, Xiushan; Luo, Jian; Liu, Mingyao

    2015-12-01

    Excessive RANKL signaling leads to superfluous osteoclast formation and bone resorption, is widespread in the pathologic bone loss and destruction. Therefore, targeting RANKL or its signaling pathway has been a promising and successful strategy for this osteoclast-related diseases. In this study, we examined the effects of xanthohumol (XN), an abundant prenylflavonoid from hops plant, on osteoclastogenesis, osteoclast resorption, and RANKL-induced signaling pathway using both in vitro and in vivo assay systems. In mouse and human, XN inhibited osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast formation at the early stage. Furthermore, XN inhibited osteoclast actin-ring formation and bone resorption in a dose-dependent manner. In ovariectomized-induced bone loss mouse model and RANKL-injection-induced bone resorption model, we found that administration of XN markedly inhibited bone loss and resorption by suppressing osteoclast activity. At the molecular level, XN disrupted the association of RANK and TRAF6, resulted in the inhibition of NF-κB and Ca(2+)/NFATc1 signaling pathway during osteoclastogenesis. As a results, XN suppressed the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related marker genes, including CtsK, Nfatc1, Trap, Ctr. Therefore, our data demonstrated that XN inhibits osteoclastogenesis and bone resorption through RANK/TRAF6 signaling pathways. XN could be a promising drug candidate in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as postmenopausal osteoporosis.

  9. Jolkinolide B inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the activation NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiaojun; Liu, Yupeng; Zhang, Yao; Yu, Xiaobing; Wang, Weiming; Zhao, Dewei

    2014-03-07

    Osteoclasts together with osteoblasts play pivotal roles in bone remodeling. The unique function and ability of osteoclasts to resorb bone makes them critical in both normal bone homeostasis and pathologic bone diseases such as osteoporosis and rheumatoid arthritis. Thus, new compounds that may inhibit osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function may be of great value in the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. In the present study, we examined the effect of jolkinolide B (JB), isolated from the root of Euphorbia fischeriana Steud on receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation. We found that JB inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation from bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) without cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the expression of osteoclastic marker genes, such as tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), cathepsin K (CtsK), and calcitonin receptor (CTR), was significantly inhibited. JB inhibited RANKL-induced activation of NF-κB by suppressing RANKL-mediated IκBα degradation. Moreover, JB inhibited RANKL-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (p38, JNK, and ERK). This study thus identifies JB as an inhibitor of osteoclast formation and provides evidence that JB might be an alternative medicine for preventing and treating osteolysis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Carpeloidy in flower evolution and diversification: a comparative study in Carica papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Ronse De Craene, Louis; Tréhin, Christophe; Morel, Patrice; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Bisexual flowers of Carica papaya range from highly regular flowers to morphs with various fusions of stamens to the ovary. Arabidopsis thaliana sup1 mutants have carpels replaced by chimeric carpel–stamen structures. Comparative analysis of stamen to carpel conversions in the two different plant systems was used to understand the stage and origin of carpeloidy when derived from stamen tissues, and consequently to understand how carpeloidy contributes to innovations in flower evolution. Methods Floral development of bisexual flowers of Carica was studied by scanning electron microscopy and was compared with teratological sup mutants of A. thaliana. Key Results In Carica development of bisexual flowers was similar to wild (unisexual) forms up to locule initiation. Feminization ranges from fusion of stamen tissue to the gynoecium to complete carpeloidy of antepetalous stamens. In A. thaliana, partial stamen feminization occurs exclusively at the flower apex, with normal stamens forming at the periphery. Such transformations take place relatively late in development, indicating strong developmental plasticity of most stamen tissues. These results are compared with evo-devo theories on flower bisexuality, as derived from unisexual ancestors. The Arabidopsis data highlight possible early evolutionary events in the acquisition of bisexuality by a patchy transformation of stamen parts into female parts linked to a flower axis-position effect. The Carica results highlight tissue-fusion mechanisms in angiosperms leading to carpeloidy once bisexual flowers have evolved. Conclusions We show two different developmental routes leading to stamen to carpel conversions by late re-specification. The process may be a fundamental aspect of flower development that is hidden in most instances by developmental homeostasis. PMID:21504912

  11. Carpeloidy in flower evolution and diversification: a comparative study in Carica papaya and Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Ronse De Craene, Louis; Tréhin, Christophe; Morel, Patrice; Negrutiu, Ioan

    2011-06-01

    Bisexual flowers of Carica papaya range from highly regular flowers to morphs with various fusions of stamens to the ovary. Arabidopsis thaliana sup1 mutants have carpels replaced by chimeric carpel-stamen structures. Comparative analysis of stamen to carpel conversions in the two different plant systems was used to understand the stage and origin of carpeloidy when derived from stamen tissues, and consequently to understand how carpeloidy contributes to innovations in flower evolution. Floral development of bisexual flowers of Carica was studied by scanning electron microscopy and was compared with teratological sup mutants of A. thaliana. In Carica development of bisexual flowers was similar to wild (unisexual) forms up to locule initiation. Feminization ranges from fusion of stamen tissue to the gynoecium to complete carpeloidy of antepetalous stamens. In A. thaliana, partial stamen feminization occurs exclusively at the flower apex, with normal stamens forming at the periphery. Such transformations take place relatively late in development, indicating strong developmental plasticity of most stamen tissues. These results are compared with evo-devo theories on flower bisexuality, as derived from unisexual ancestors. The Arabidopsis data highlight possible early evolutionary events in the acquisition of bisexuality by a patchy transformation of stamen parts into female parts linked to a flower axis-position effect. The Carica results highlight tissue-fusion mechanisms in angiosperms leading to carpeloidy once bisexual flowers have evolved. We show two different developmental routes leading to stamen to carpel conversions by late re-specification. The process may be a fundamental aspect of flower development that is hidden in most instances by developmental homeostasis.

  12. Effects of Different Concentrations of Collagenous Peptide from Fish Scales on Osteoblast Proliferation and Osteoclast Resorption.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chung-Hsuan; Yao, Chun-Hsu; Chan, Tzu-Min; Huang, Teng-Le; Sen, Yang; Huang, Chih-Yang; Ho, Chien-Yi

    2016-08-31

    The incidence of osteoporosis has increased among the elderly population. Establishing a model of bone remodeling for screening new drugs is critical to identify safe and effective treatments for osteoporosis. In this study, we established a platform to investigate the therapeutic effects of collagenous peptides extracted from scales of two kinds of fish, namely, sparidae and chanos. These peptides were prepared using seven concentrations of collagenous peptide: 100, 80, 60, 40, 20, 10 and 1 mg/ml. Experimental results indicated that collagenous peptides promoted the proliferation of osteoblasts and inhibited the proliferation of mature osteoclasts; the effective concentration of collagenous peptide-sparidae was 10 mg/ml and that of collagenous peptide-chanos was 40 mg/ml. These findings demonstrate that, to a certain extent, collagenous peptides extracted from fish scales can be used to prevent osteoporosis to assist bone remodeling.

  13. An Arg-Gly-Asp peptide stimulates Ca2+ efflux from osteoclast precursors through a novel mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yamakawa, K.; Duncan, R.; Hruska, K. A.

    1994-01-01

    We examined the effect of a peptide containing the Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) sequence on 45Ca2+ efflux from osteoclast precursors. 45Ca(2+)-loaded osteoclast precursors were treated with GRGDSP (170 microM) for 10 min after 30 min of basal perfusion with a bicarbonate-containing buffer. GRGDSP significantly increased fractional efflux of Ca2+ from treated cells compared with vehicle-treated cells (P < 0.01) or cells treated with up to 200 micrograms/ml of a control peptide containing GRGESP. The effect of RGD was sustained for 15 min after the peptide was removed from the perfusate, but control levels of Ca2+ efflux returned by 1 h. The Ca2+ efflux effect of GRGDSP was most likely due to activation of the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-adenosinetriphosphatase (Ca(2+)-ATPase) pump, as indicated by its inhibition with vanadate and a calmodulin antagonist, N-(4-aminobutyl)-5-chloro-2-naphthalenesulfonamide, and the absence of an effect of Na+/Ca2+ exchange inhibition. An inhibitor of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases, N-[2-(methylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinoline-sulfonamide (0.1 mM), failed to inhibit GRGDSP-stimulated Ca2+ efflux. However, genistein and herbimycin A, inhibitors of protein-tyrosine kinases, blocked Ca2+ efflux stimulated by GRGDSP. The results indicate that RGD sequences of matrix proteins may stimulate Ca2+ efflux from osteoclasts through activation of protein-tyrosine kinases and suggest that GRGDSP-stimulated Ca2+ efflux is mediated via the plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase.

  14. Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves.

    PubMed

    Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC(50) of 6.88 μg/ml and 3.58 μg/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC(50) of 2.96 ± 0.14 μg/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds.

  15. Resorption-cycle-dependent polarization of mRNAs for different subunits of V-ATPase in bone-resorbing osteoclasts.

    PubMed Central

    Laitala-Leinonen, T; Howell, M L; Dean, G E; Väänänen, H K

    1996-01-01

    Protein sorting in eukaryotic cells is mainly done by specific targeting of polypeptides. The present evidence from oocytes, neurons, and some other polarized cells suggests that protein sorting can be further facilitated by concentrating mRNAs to their corresponding subcellular areas. However, very little is known about the mechanism(s) involved in mRNA targeting, or how widespread and dynamic such mRNA sorting might be. In this study, we have used an in vitro cell culture system, where large multinucleated osteoclasts undergo continuous structural and functional changes from polarized (resorbing) to a nonpolarized (resting) stage. We demonstrate here, using a nonradioactive in situ hybridization technique and confocal microscopy, that mRNAs for several vacuolar H(+)-ATPase subunits change their localization and polarity in osteoclasts according to the resorption cycle, whereas mRNA for cytoplasmic carbonic anhydrase II is found diffusely located throughout the osteoclast during the whole resorption cycle. Antisense RNA against the 16-kDa or 60-kDa V-ATPase subunit inhibits polarization of the osteoclasts, as determined by cytoskeleton staining. Antisense RNA against carbonic anhydrase II, however, has no such effect. Images PMID:8741845

  16. Effects of Inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate on Osteoclast Differentiation in RANKL-induced Osteoclastogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Son, Aran; Kim, Min Seuk; Jo, Hae; Byun, Hae Mi

    2012-01-01

    The receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) signal is an activator of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6), which leads to the activation of NF-κB and other signal transduction pathways essential for osteoclastogenesis, such as Ca2+ signaling. However, the intracellular levels of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and IP3-mediated cellular function of RANKL during osteoclastogenesis are not known. In the present study, we determined the levels of IP3 and evaluated IP3-mediated osteoclast differentiation and osteoclast activity by RANKL treatment of mouse leukemic macrophage cells (RAW 264.7) and mouse bone marrow-derived monocyte/macrophage precursor cells (BMMs). During osteoclastogenesis, the expression levels of Ca2+ signaling proteins such as IP3 receptors (IP3Rs), plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase, and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase type2 did not change by RANKL treatment for up to 6 days in both cell types. At 24 h after RANKL treatment, a higher steady-state level of IP3 was observed in RAW264.7 cells transfected with green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged pleckstrin homology (PH) domains of phospholipase C (PLC) δ, a probe specifically detecting intracellular IP3 levels. In BMMs, the inhibition of PLC with U73122 [a specific inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC)] and of IP3Rs with 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate (2APB; a non-specific inhibitor of IP3Rs) inhibited the generation of RANKL-induced multinucleated cells and decreased the bone-resorption rate in dentin slice, respectively. These results suggest that intracellular IP3 levels and the IP3-mediated signaling pathway play an important role in RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis. PMID:22416217

  17. Structural basis of collagen recognition by human osteoclast-associated receptor and design of osteoclastogenesis inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Haywood, Joel; Qi, Jianxun; Chen, Chun-Chi; Lu, Guangwen; Liu, Yingxia; Yan, Jinghua; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F.

    2016-01-01

    Human osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is an immunoglobulin (Ig)-like collagen receptor that is up-regulated on osteoclasts during osteoclastogenesis and is expressed in a range of myeloid cells. As a member of the leukocyte receptor complex family of proteins, OSCAR shares a high degree of sequence and structural homology with other collagen receptors of this family, including glycoprotein VI, leukocyte-associated Ig-like receptor-1, and leukocyte Ig-like receptor B4, but recognizes a unique collagen sequence. Here, we present the crystal structures of OSCAR in its free form and in complex with a triple-helical collagen-like peptide (CLP). These structures reveal that the CLP peptide binds only one of the two Ig-like domains, the membrane-proximal domain (domain 2) of OSCAR, with the middle and trailing chain burying a total of 661 Å2 of solvent-accessible collagen surface. This binding mode is facilitated by the unusual topography of the OSCAR protein, which displays an obtuse interdomain angle and a rotation of domain 2 relative to the membrane-distal domain 1. Moreover, the binding of the CLP to OSCAR appears to be mediated largely by tyrosine residues and conformational changes at a shallow Phe pocket. Furthermore, we investigated CLP peptides as inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis and found that a peptide length of 40 amino acids is required to ensure adequate inhibition of osteoclastogenesis in vitro. These findings provide valuable structural insights into the mode of collagen recognition by OSCAR and into the use of synthetic peptide matrikines for osteoclastogenesis inhibition. PMID:26744311

  18. Structural basis of collagen recognition by human osteoclast-associated receptor and design of osteoclastogenesis inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Haywood, Joel; Qi, Jianxun; Chen, Chun-Chi; Lu, Guangwen; Liu, Yingxia; Yan, Jinghua; Shi, Yi; Gao, George F

    2016-01-26

    Human osteoclast-associated receptor (OSCAR) is an immunoglobulin (Ig)-like collagen receptor that is up-regulated on osteoclasts during osteoclastogenesis and is expressed in a range of myeloid cells. As a member of the leukocyte receptor complex family of proteins, OSCAR shares a high degree of sequence and structural homology with other collagen receptors of this family, including glycoprotein VI, leukocyte-associated Ig-like receptor-1, and leukocyte Ig-like receptor B4, but recognizes a unique collagen sequence. Here, we present the crystal structures of OSCAR in its free form and in complex with a triple-helical collagen-like peptide (CLP). These structures reveal that the CLP peptide binds only one of the two Ig-like domains, the membrane-proximal domain (domain 2) of OSCAR, with the middle and trailing chain burying a total of 661 Å(2) of solvent-accessible collagen surface. This binding mode is facilitated by the unusual topography of the OSCAR protein, which displays an obtuse interdomain angle and a rotation of domain 2 relative to the membrane-distal domain 1. Moreover, the binding of the CLP to OSCAR appears to be mediated largely by tyrosine residues and conformational changes at a shallow Phe pocket. Furthermore, we investigated CLP peptides as inhibitors of osteoclastogenesis and found that a peptide length of 40 amino acids is required to ensure adequate inhibition of osteoclastogenesis in vitro. These findings provide valuable structural insights into the mode of collagen recognition by OSCAR and into the use of synthetic peptide matrikines for osteoclastogenesis inhibition.

  19. TULA-2, a novel histidine phosphatase regulates bone remodeling by modulating osteoclast function

    PubMed Central

    Back, Steven H.; Adapala, Naga Suresh; Barbe, Mary F.; Carpino, Nick C.; Tsygankov, Alexander Y.; Sanjay, Archana

    2013-01-01

    Bone is a dynamic tissue that depends on the intricate relationship between protein tyrosine kinases (PTK) and protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTP) for maintaining homeostasis. PTKs and PTPs act like molecular on and off switches and help modulate differentiation and the attachment of osteoclasts to bone matrix regulating bone resorption. The novel protein T-cell Ubiquitin Ligand-2 (TULA-2), which is abundantly expressed in osteoclasts, is a novel histidine phosphatase. Our results show that of the two family members only TULA-2 is expressed in osteoclasts and that its expression is sustained throughout the course of osteoclast differentiation suggesting that TULA-2 may play a role during early as well late stages of osteoclast differentiation. Skeletal analysis of mice that do not express TULA or TULA-2 proteins (DKO Mice) revealed that there was a decrease in bone volume due to increased osteoclast numbers and function. Furthermore, in vitro experiments indicated that bone marrow precursor cells from DKO mice have an increased potential to form osteoclasts. At the molecular level, the absence of TULA-2 in osteoclasts results in increased Syk phosphorylation at the Y352 and Y525/526 residues and activation of phospholipase C gamma 2 (PLCγ2) upon engagement of Immune-receptor-Tyrosine-based-Activation-Motif (ITAM)–mediated signaling. Furthermore, expression of a phosphatase-dead TULA-2 leads to increased osteoclast function. Taken together, these results suggest that TULA-2 negatively regulates osteoclast differentiation and function. PMID:23149425

  20. Increased apoptosis in osteoclasts and decreased RANKL immunoexpression in periodontium of cimetidine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Longhini, Renata; de Oliveira, Priscila Aparecida; de Souza Faloni, Ana Paula; Sasso-Cerri, Estela; Cerri, Paulo Sérgio

    2013-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that histamine interferes with the recruitment, formation and activity of osteoclasts via H(1)- and H(2)-receptors. Cimetidine is a H(2)-receptor antagonist used for treatment of gastric ulcers that seems to prevent bone resorption. In this study, a possible cimetidine interference was investigated in the number of alveolar bone osteoclasts. The incidence of osteoclast apoptosis and immunoexpression of RANKL (receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand) was also evaluated. Adult male rats were treated with 100 mg kg(-1) of cimetidine for 50 days (CimG); the sham group (SG) received saline. Maxillary fragments containing the first molars and alveolar bone were fixed, decalcified and embedded in paraffin. The sections were stained by H&E or submitted to tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) method. TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling) method and immunohistochemical reactions for detecting caspase-3 and RANKL were performed. The number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts, the frequency of apoptotic osteoclasts and the numerical density of RANKL-positive cells were obtained. Osteoclast death by apoptosis was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In CimG, TRAP-positive osteoclasts with TUNEL-positive nuclei and caspase-3-immunolabeled osteoclasts were found. A significant reduction in the number of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and a high frequency of apoptotic osteoclasts were observed in CimG. Under TEM, detached osteoclasts from the bone surface showed typical features of apoptosis. Moreover, a significant reduction in the numerical density of RANKL-positive cells was observed in CimG. The significant reduction in the number of osteoclasts may be due to cimetidine-induced osteoclast apoptosis. However, RANKL immunoexpression reduction also suggests a possible interference of cimetidine treatment in the osteoclastogenesis.

  1. Osteoclast-like cells in soft tissue leiomyosarcomas.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, C L M H; Sun, S G; Vlychou, M; Kliskey, K; Lau, Y S; Sabokbar, A; Athanasou, N A

    2010-03-01

    Giant cell-rich leiomyosarcoma of soft tissues is an unusual variant of malignant smooth muscle tumor characterized by the presence of numerous multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs). The nature of MNGCs and the cellular mechanisms underlying their accumulation in this tumor are poorly understood. Analysis of the expression of osteoclast, macrophage, and smooth muscle markers in two cases of giant cell-rich leiomyosarcoma revealed that the MNGCs in giant cell-rich leiomyosarcoma were negative for smooth muscle markers and that these cells expressed an osteoclast-like phenotype, being positive for CD45, CD68, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and CD51 but negative for CD14 and HLA-DR. Scattered tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) also expressed this phenotype. Leiomyosarcoma tumor cells strongly reacted for CD51 but were negative for CD14, CD45, and CD68. An analysis of 25 conventional (nongiant cell-containing) leiomyosarcomas found isolated CD68(+) MNGCs in three cases (12%), all of which were grade II/III leiomyosarcomas containing a prominent TAM infiltrate. Leiomyosarcoma-derived TAMs in the presence of receptor activator for nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor were capable of differentiating into osteoclast-like cells capable of resorbing bone. Reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction studies showed that RANKL, osteoprotegerin, and TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand were expressed by leiomyosarcoma cells. Our findings indicate that the giant cells found in leiomyosarcomas are osteoclast-like and that they are formed from TAMs by a RANKL-dependent mechanism.

  2. Engineered Osteoclasts for the Treatment and Prevention of Heterotopic Ossification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    stereotaxic microinjection protocol that will allow us to induce HO lesions in the calf midbelly in a highly reproducible manner. The stereotaxic... protocol for the collection and storage of human HO specimens. During the next year we will begin collecting human HO samples. HO samples will be fixed...treated with AP20187 or 0.1% EtOH for 5 days. Cells were then fixed and stained for TRAP. Validation of osteoclast differentiation protocol for

  3. Engineered Osteoclasts for the Treatment and Prevention of Heterotopic Ossification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-01

    stereotaxic microinjection protocol that will allow us to induce HO lesions in the calf midbelly in a highly reproducible manner. The stereotaxic...traumatic bone injuries. Subtask 1: Collection of human HO samples (PI: Sangeorzan, Harborview) We have currently established a protocol for...with AP20187 or 0.1% EtOH for 5 days. Cells were then fixed and stained for TRAP. Validation of osteoclast differentiation protocol for human iPS

  4. Biocorrosion and uptake of titanium by human osteoclasts.

    PubMed

    Cadosch, Dieter; Al-Mushaiqri, Mohamed S; Gautschi, Oliver P; Meagher, James; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Filgueira, Luis

    2010-12-15

    All metals in contact with a biological system undergo corrosion through an electrochemical redox reaction. This study investigated whether human osteoclasts (OC) are able to grow on titanium and aluminum, and directly corrode the metals leading to the release of corresponding metal ions, which are believed to cause inflammatory reactions and activate osteoclastic differentiation. Scanning electron microscopy analysis demonstrated long-term viable OC cultures on the surface of titanium and aluminum foils. Atomic emission spectrometry investigations showed significantly increased levels of aluminum in the supernatant of OC cultured on aluminum; however, all measurements in the supernatants of cell cultures on titanium were below detection limits. Despite this, confocal microscopy analysis with Newport Green DCF diacetate ester staining depicted intense fluorescence throughout the cytoplasm and nucleolus of OC cultured on titanium foils. Comparable fluorescence intensities were not observed in monocytes and control cells cultured on glass. The present study demonstrated that human osteoclast precursors are able to grow and differentiate toward mature OC on titanium and aluminum. Furthermore, it established that the mature cells are able to directly corrode the metal surface and take up corresponding metal ions, which subsequently may be released and thereby induce the formation of osteolytic lesions in the periprosthetic bone, contributing to the loosening of the implant. Copyright © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The protective effects of aqueous extract of Carica papaya seeds in paracetamol induced nephrotoxicity in male wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Naggayi, Madinah; Mukiibi, Nozmo; Iliya, Ezekiel

    2015-06-01

    Oxidative stress plays a crucial role in the development of drug induced nephrotoxicity. The study aimed to determine the nephroprotective and ameliorative effects of Carica papaya seed extract in paracetamol-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. To carry out phytochemical screening of Carica papaya, measure serum urea, creatinine and uric acid and describe the histopathological status of the kidneys in the treated and untreated groups. Phytochemical screening of the extract was done. Thirty two adult male Wistar rats were divided into four groups (n= 8 in each group). Group A (control) animals received normal saline for seven days, group B (paracetamol group) received normal saline, and paracetamol single dose on the 8th day. Group C received Carica papaya extract (CPE) 500 mg/kg, and paracetamol on the 8th day, while group D, rats were pretreated with CPE 750 mg/kg/day,and paracetamol administration on the 8th day. Samples of kidney tissue were removed for histopathological examination. Screening of Carica papaya showed presence of nephroprotective pytochemicals. Paracetamol administration resulted in significant elevation of renal function markers. CPE ameliorated the effect of paracetamol by reducing the markers as well as reversing the paracetamol-induced changes in kidney architecture. Carica papaya contains nephroprotective phytochemicals and may be useful in preventing kidney damage induced by paracetamol.

  6. Evaluation of anxiolytic and sedative effects of 80% ethanolic Carica papaya L. (Caricaceae) pulp extract in mice.

    PubMed

    Kebebew, Zerihun; Shibeshi, Workineh

    2013-11-25

    Carica papaya has been used in the Ethiopian traditional medicine to relieve stress and other disease conditions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the anxiolytic and sedative effects of 80% ethanolic Carica papaya (Caricaceae) pulp extract in mice. Carica papaya pulp extract was screened for anxiolytic effect by using elevated plus maze, staircase and open field tests, and ketamine-induced sleeping time test for sedation at doses of 50, 100, 200, 400 mg/kg. Distilled water and Diazepam were employed as negative and positive control groups, respectively. Carica papaya pulp extract 100 mg/kg significantly increased the percentage of open arm time and entry, and reduced the percentage of entry and time spent in closed arm in elevated plus maze test; reduced the number of rearing in the staircase test; and increased the time spent and entries in the central squares while the total number of entries into the open field were not significantly affected, suggesting anxiolytic activity without altering locomotor and sedative effects. A synergistic reduction in the number of rearing and an inverted U-shaped dose response curves were obtained with important parameters of anxiety The results of this study established a support for the traditional usage of Carica papaya as anxiolytic medicinal plant. © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Frontiers in Live Bone Imaging Researches. Intravital imaging of osteoclast dynamics].

    PubMed

    Kikuta, Junichi; Ishii, Masaru

    2015-06-01

    Osteoclasts are bone-resorbing giant polykaryons that differentiate from mononuclear macrophage/monocyte-lineage hematopoietic precursors. Upon the stimulation of essential factors such as M-CSF and RANKL, osteoclast precursor monocytes attach to the bone surface ( "migration" ), fuse with each other to form giant cells ( "differentiation" ) and mediate bone resorption ( "function" ). To reveal the regulatory mechanism of these three dynamic steps of osteoclastic activity, we have originally established an advanced imaging system for visualizing living bone tissues with intravital multiphoton microscopy. By means of the system, we have recently succeeded in visualization of osteoclast migration, differentiation, and function in living bone tissues in vivo. In this review we summarize the latest data of intravital imaging of osteoclast dynamics, and discuss novel lines of osteoclast-targeted therapies that will impact future treatment of bone destructive diseases.

  8. Differential intensity-dependent effects of pulsed electromagnetic fields on RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, apoptosis, and bone resorbing ability in RAW264.7 cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pan; Liu, Juan; Yang, Yuefan; Zhai, Mingming; Shao, Xi; Yan, Zedong; Zhang, Xuhui; Wu, Yan; Cao, Lu; Sui, Bingdong; Luo, Erping; Jing, Da

    2017-07-24

    Pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) have been proven to be effective for promoting bone mass and regulating bone turnover both experimentally and clinically. However, the exact mechanisms for the regulation of PEMF on osteoclastogenesis as well as optical exposure parameters of PEMF on inhibiting osteoclastic activities and functions remain unclear, representing significant limitations for extensive scientific application of PEMF in clinics. In this study, RAW264.7 cells incubated with RANKL were exposed to 15 Hz PEMF (2 h/day) at various intensities (0.5, 1, 2, and 3 mT) for 7 days. We demonstrate that bone resorbing capacity was significantly decreased by 0.5 mT PEMF mainly by inhibiting osteoclast formation and maturation, but enhanced at 3 mT by promoting osteoclast apoptosis. Moreover, gene expression of RANK, NFATc1, TRAP, CTSK, BAX, and BAX/BCL-2 was significantly decreased by 0.5 mT PEMF, but increased by 3 mT. Our findings reveal a significant intensity window for low-intensity PEMF in regulating bone resorption with diverse nature for modulating osteoclastogenesis and apoptosis. This study not only enriches our basic knowledge for the regulation of PEMF in osteoclastogenesis, but also may lead to more efficient and scientific clinical application of PEMF in regulating bone turnover and inhibiting osteopenia/osteoporosis. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. High glucose alters the secretome of mechanically stimulated osteocyte-like cells affecting osteoclast precursor recruitment and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Maycas, Marta; Portolés, María Teresa; Matesanz, María Concepción; Buendía, Irene; Linares, Javier; Feito, María José; Arcos, Daniel; Vallet-Regí, María; Plotkin, Lilian I; Esbrit, Pedro; Gortázar, Arancha R

    2017-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) induces bone deterioration, while mechanical stimulation promotes osteocyte-driven bone formation. We aimed to evaluate the interaction of acute exposure (24 h) to high glucose (HG) with both the pro-survival effect conferred to osteocytic MLO-Y4 cells and osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 cells by mechanical stimulation and the interaction of these cells with osteoclast precursor RAW264.7 cells. We found that 24 h of HG (25 mM) pre-exposure prevented both cell survival and ERK and β-catenin nuclear translocation upon mechanical stimulation by fluid flow (FF) (10 min) in both MLO-Y4 and MC3T3-E1 cells. However, migration of RAW 264.7 cells was inhibited by MLO-Y4 cell-conditioned medium (CM), but not by MC3T3-E1 cell-CM, with HG or FF. This inhibitory effect was associated with consistent changes in VEGF, RANTES, MIP-1α, MIP-1β MCP-1, and GM-CSF in MLO-Y4 cell-CM. RAW264.7 proliferation was inhibited by MLO-Y4 CM under static or HG conditions, but it increased by FF-CM with or without HG. In addition, both FF and HG abrogated the capacity of RAW 264.7 cells to differentiate into osteoclasts, but in a different manner. Thus, HG-CM in static condition allowed formation of osteoclast-like cells, which were unable to resorb hydroxyapatite. In contrast, FF-CM prevented osteoclastogenesis even in HG condition. Moreover, HG did not affect basal RANKL or IL-6 secretion or their inhibition induced by FF in MLO-Y4 cells. In conclusion, this in vitro study demonstrates that HG exerts disparate effects on osteocyte mechanotransduction, and provides a novel mechanism by which DM disturbs skeletal metabolism through altered osteocyte-osteoclast communication. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Attenuation of RANKL-induced Osteoclast Formation via p38-mediated NFATc1 Signaling Pathways by Extract of Euphorbia Lathyris L

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Ju-Hee; Lim, Hyojung; Jeong, Ji-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Background Osteoclasts are the only cell type capable of breaking down bone matrix, and its excessive activation is responsible for the development of bone-destructive diseases. Euphorbia lathyris L. (ELL) is an herbal plant that belongs to the Euphorbiaceae family. This study investigated the effects of the methanol extract of the aerial part of ELL on receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast formation and signaling pathways. Methods Osteoclasts were formed by co-culturing mouse bone marrow with osteoblasts or by culturing mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) with macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) and RANKL. Bone resorption assays were performed using dentine slices. The expression level of mRNA was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or reverse transcription (RT)-PCR. Western blotting assays were performed to detect the expression or activation level of proteins. Results ELL inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast formation without cytotoxicity. Furthermore, the RANKL-stimulated bone resorption was diminished by ELL. Mechanistically, ELL blocked the RANKL-triggered p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation, which resulted in the suppression of the expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFATc1). In osteoblasts, ELL had little effect on the mRNA expression of RANKL and osteoprotegerin (OPG). Conclusions The present data suggest that ELL has an inhibitory effect on osteoclast differentiation and function via downregulation of the p38/c-Fos/NFATc1 signaling pathways. Thus, ELL could be useful for the treatment of bone diseases associated with excessive bone resorption. PMID:27965942

  11. Stochastic differentiation into an osteoclast lineage from cloned macrophage-like cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hayashi, Shin-Ichi; Murata, Akihiko; Okuyama, Kazuki; Shimoda, Yuhki; Hikosaka, Mari; Yasuda, Hisataka; Yoshino, Miya

    2012-11-16

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The frequency of C7 differentiation into osteoclast was low and constant. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Only extended C7 cell cultures exponentially increased osteoclast+ cultures. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C7 cell differentiation into committed osteoclast precursors is on 'autopilot'. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The system may maintain the stem cell self-renewal and differentiation. -- Abstract: Differentiation into osteoclasts is induced by a macrophage colony-stimulating factor and receptor activator of nuclear-factor {kappa}B ligand. The macrophage-like cell line, C7 has the potential to differentiate into osteoclasts when it is cultured with both factors for 6 days. Although C7 is an established cell line, the frequency of differentiation into this lineage was less than 10%, and the ratio was maintained at a constant level, even after repeated cloning. In this study, to increase the differentiation of C7 cells to osteoclasts, C7 derivative treatments with several activators and/or inhibitors were performed for 3 days prior to setting osteoclast induction analysis; however, a reagent to significantly up-regulate the frequency of differentiation was not found. Only extended cultures for osteoclastogenesis exponentially increased the frequency of osteoclast precursors. It is likely that C7 cell differentiation into committed osteoclast precursors is on 'autopilot' rather than requiring specific signals to drive this process.

  12. Role of Protein-Tyrosine Phosphatases in Regulation of Osteoclastic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Matilda H.-C.; Lau, K.-H. William

    2009-01-01

    Osteoclasts, the primary cell type mediating bone resorption, are multinucleated, giant cells derived from hematopoietic cells of monocyte-macrophage lineage. Osteoclast activity is, in a large part, regulated by protein-tyrosine phosphorylation. While information about functional roles of several protein-tyrosine kinases (PTK), including c-Src, in osteoclastic resorption has been accumulated, little is known about the roles of protein-tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs) in regulation of osteoclast activity. Recent evidence implicates important regulatory roles for four PTPs (SHP-1, cyt-PTP-ε, PTP-PEST, and PTP-oc) in osteoclasts. Cyt-PTP-ε, PTP-PEST, and PTP-oc are positive regulators of osteoclast activity, while SHP-1 is a negative regulator. Of these PTPs in osteoclasts, only PTP-oc is a positive regulator of c-Src PTK through dephosphorylation of the inhibitory phosphotyrosine-527 residue. Although some information about mechanisms of action of these PTPs to regulate osteoclast activity is reviewed in this article, much additional work is required to provide more comprehensive details about their functions in osteoclasts. PMID:19189046

  13. Thymus-expressed chemokine enhances Porphyromonas gingivalis LPS-induced osteoclast formation via NFATc1 activation.

    PubMed

    Usui, Michihiko; Okamatsu, Yoshimasa; Sato, Tsuyoshi; Hanatani, Tomoya; Moritani, Yuki; Sano, Kotaro; Yamamoto, Matsuo; Nakashima, Keisuke

    2016-06-01

    P. gingivalis is a gram-negative anaerobic bacterium and a major periodontal pathogen. LPS produced by P. gingivalis promotes osteoclast formation. TECK is a CC chemokine whose expression is increased in gingival epithelial cells exposed to P. gingivalis LPS. In this study, we investigated the effect of TECK in osteoclastogenesis induced by P. gingivalis LPS. Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) analysis and western blotting were performed to confirm TECK in MG63, human osteoblast cell line and primary murine osteoblasts and CCR9 in RAW 264.7 cells and murine bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) as osteoclast precursors. P. gingivalis LPS-treated BMMs and Raw 264.7 cells were cultured with or without TECK or TECK antibody to examine the effect of TECK on osteoclast formation. Cocultures with murine osteoblasts and bone marrow cells were also treated with or without TECK or TECK antibody. Luciferase assay and western blotting were used to determine whether TECK-CCR9 induced osteoclastogenesis was mediated through NFATc1 or NF-kB signaling. TECK was shown to be expressed by osteoblasts, and its receptor, CCR9, by osteoclast precursors. TECK increased P. gingivalis LPS-induced osteoclast numbers in an in vitro osteoclast formation assay using osteoclast precursors. The enhanced osteoclast formation by TECK was mediated by NFATc1, but not by NF-kB signaling. TECK may be a novel regulator of osteoclast formation induced by P. gingivalis LPS in periodontitis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic modification of ER-Hoxb8 osteoclast precursors using CRISPR/Cas9 as a novel way to allow studies on osteoclast biology.

    PubMed

    Di Ceglie, Irene; van den Akker, Guus G H; Ascone, Giuliana; Ten Harkel, Bas; Häcker, Hans; van de Loo, Fons A J; Koenders, Marije I; van der Kraan, Peter M; de Vries, Teun J; Vogl, Thomas; Roth, Johannes; van Lent, Peter L E M

    2017-04-01

    Osteoclasts are cells specialized in bone resorption. Currently, studies on murine osteoclasts are primarily performed on bone marrow-derived cells with the use of many animals and limited cells available. ER-Hoxb8 cells are conditionally immortalized monocyte/macrophage murine progenitor cells, recently described to be able to differentiate toward functional osteoclasts. Here, we produced an ER-Hoxb8 clonal cell line from C57BL/6 bone marrow cells that strongly resembles phenotype and function of the conventional bone marrow-derived osteoclasts. We then used CRISPR/Cas9 technology to specifically inactivate genes by biallelic mutation. The CRISPR/Cas9 system is an adaptive immune system in Bacteria and Archaea and uses small RNAs and Cas nucleases to degrade foreign nucleic acids. Through specific-guide RNAs, the nuclease Cas9 can be redirected toward any genomic location to genetically modify eukaryotic cells. We genetically modified ER-Hoxb8 cells with success, generating NFATc1(-/-) and DC-STAMP(-/-) ER-Hoxb8 cells that lack the ability to differentiate into osteoclasts or to fuse into multinucleated osteoclasts, respectively. In conclusion, this method represents a markedly easy highly specific and efficient system for generating potentially unlimited numbers of genetically modified osteoclast precursors. © Society for Leukocyte Biology.

  15. The effects of the cathepsin K inhibitor odanacatib on osteoclastic bone resorption and vesicular trafficking.

    PubMed

    Leung, P; Pickarski, M; Zhuo, Y; Masarachia, P J; Duong, L T

    2011-10-01

    Odanacatib (ODN) is a selective, potent and reversible inhibitor of cathepsin K (CatK) that inhibits bone loss in postmenopausal osteoporosis. Evidence from osteoclast (OC) formation from bone marrow of CatK(-/-) mice or human OC progenitors treated with ODN, demonstrated that CatK inhibition has no effect on osteoclastogenesis or survival of OCs. Although having no impact on OC activation, ODN reduces resorption activity as measured by CTx release (IC(50)=9.4 nM) or resorption area (IC(50)=6.5 nM). While untreated cells generate deep trail-like resorption lacunae, treated OCs form small discrete shallow pits. ODN leads to significant accumulation of intracellular vesicles intensely stained for CatK and TRAP. CatK (+) vesicles localize toward the basolateral and functional secretory membranes of the polarized OC and TRAP(+) vesicles evenly distribute in the cytoplasm, suggesting that ODN disrupts multiple vesicular trafficking pathways. Intracellular levels of both precursor and mature TRAP were increased by 2-fold and the pre-pro and mature CatK by 6- and 2-fold in ODN-treated OCs compared to untreated controls. ODN treated OC accumulates labeled degraded bone matrix proteins in CatK containing vesicles. In summary, ODN treatment inhibits bone resorption by blocking degradation of demineralized collagen in the resorption lacunae, and retarding transcytosis for further processing of degraded proteins. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Rational Identification of Enoxacin as a Novel V-ATPase-Directed Osteoclast Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Edgardo J; Ostrov, David A; Wronski, Thomas J; Holliday, L Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Binding between vacuolar H+-ATPases (V-ATPases) and microfilaments is mediated by an actin binding domain in the B-subunit. Both isoforms of mammalian B-subunit bind microfilaments with high affinity. A similar actin-binding activity has been demonstrated in the B-subunit of yeast. A conserved “profilin-like” domain in the B-subunit mediates this actin-binding activity, named due to its sequence and structural similarity to an actin-binding surface of the canonical actin binding protein profilin. Subtle mutations in the “profilin-like” domain eliminate actin binding activity without disrupting the ability of the altered protein to associate with the other subunits of V-ATPase to form a functional proton pump. Analysis of these mutated B-subunits suggests that the actin-binding activity is not required for the “housekeeping” functions of V-ATPases, but is important for certain specialized roles. In osteoclasts, the actin-binding activity is required for transport of V-ATPases to the plasma membrane, a prerequisite for bone resorption. A virtual screen led to the identification of enoxacin as a small molecule that bound to the actin-binding surface of the B2-subunit and competitively inhibited B2-subunit and actin interaction. Enoxacin disrupted osteoclastic bone resorption in vitro, but did not affect osteoblast formation or mineralization. Recently, enoxacin was identified as an inhibitor of the virulence of Candida albicans and more importantly of cancer growth and metastasis. Efforts are underway to determine the mechanisms by which enoxacin and other small molecule inhibitors of B2 and microfilament binding interaction selectively block bone resorption, the virulence of Candida, cancer growth, and metastasis. PMID:22044158

  17. Immune complex-induced inhibition of osteoclastogenesis is mediated via activating but not inhibitory Fcγ receptors on myeloid precursor cells.

    PubMed

    Grevers, Lilyanne C; de Vries, Teun J; Everts, Vincent; Verbeek, J Sjef; van den Berg, Wim B; van Lent, Peter L E M

    2013-02-01

    To investigate the role of Fcγ receptors (FcγRs) in osteoclastogenesis and osteoclast function. Bone destruction was analysed in arthritic knee joints of several FcγR-knockout mouse strains. Unfractionated bone marrow cells were differentiated in vitro towards osteoclasts in the absence or presence of immune complexes (ICs) and stimulated thereafter for 24 h with tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). In addition, mature osteoclasts were stimulated with ICs. Experiments were analysed for osteoclast formation, bone resorption and the expression of FcγRs and osteoclast markers. Bone destruction was significantly increased in arthritic knee joints of FcγRIIB-deficient mice. All FcγR classes were highly expressed on osteoclast precursors. Expression of the inhibitory FcγRIIB was similar on mature osteoclasts compared to macrophages, whereas activating FcγR levels were significantly lower. IC stimulation of mature osteoclasts did not affect their number or their bone resorptive capacity. ICs significantly inhibited differentiation of unfractionated bone marrow cells towards osteoclasts, bone resorption and expression of osteoclast markers. In the presence of ICs, osteoclastogenesis of FcγRIIB(-/-) precursors and bone resorption remained inhibited. In contrast, ICs could not inhibit osteoclast formation or bone resorption of FcRγ-chain(-/-) precursors. When IC-inhibited osteoclastogenesis was followed by stimulation with TNFα or LPS, the inhibitory effects of ICs were overruled. Activating FcγRs mediate IC-induced inhibition of osteoclastogenesis, which might be overruled in the presence of proinflammatory mediators. This suggests that the balance of FcγR-mediated inflammation, through proinflammatory cytokine production, as well as the direct inhibitory effect of ICs on osteoclastogenesis determines the net effect on bone loss.

  18. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract

    PubMed Central

    THAM, CHING S.; CHAKRAVARTHI, SRIKUMAR; HALEAGRAHARA, NAGARAJA; DE ALWIS, RANJIT

    2013-01-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis. PMID:23403524

  19. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract.

    PubMed

    Tham, Ching S; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; DE Alwis, Ranjit

    2013-02-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 m