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Sample records for carie dental induzida

  1. Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Ralph C.

    1988-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases afflicting mankind. It reached a peak in the 1950s but has been declining drastically in recent years in children and young adults. This article describes the three contributing factors in dental caries: microbial plaque, tooth susceptibility, and diet, and discusses practical preventive measures which help to reduce caries incidence. Some of these, such as vaccines and antimicrobial varnishes, are still in the research stages, while others, such as sucrose substitutes, low-calorie sweeteners, and limitation of frequency of sugar snacks are well established and can be promoted by family physicians. PMID:21253193

  2. Dental caries.

    PubMed

    Pitts, Nigel B; Zero, Domenick T; Marsh, Phil D; Ekstrand, Kim; Weintraub, Jane A; Ramos-Gomez, Francisco; Tagami, Junji; Twetman, Svante; Tsakos, Georgios; Ismail, Amid

    2017-05-25

    Dental caries is a biofilm-mediated, sugar-driven, multifactorial, dynamic disease that results in the phasic demineralization and remineralization of dental hard tissues. Caries can occur throughout life, both in primary and permanent dentitions, and can damage the tooth crown and, in later life, exposed root surfaces. The balance between pathological and protective factors influences the initiation and progression of caries. This interplay between factors underpins the classification of individuals and groups into caries risk categories, allowing an increasingly tailored approach to care. Dental caries is an unevenly distributed, preventable disease with considerable economic and quality-of-life burdens. The daily use of fluoride toothpaste is seen as the main reason for the overall decline of caries worldwide over recent decades. This Primer aims to provide a global overview of caries, acknowledging the historical era dominated by restoration of tooth decay by surgical means, but focuses on current, progressive and more holistic long-term, patient-centred, tooth-preserving preventive care.

  3. DENTAL CARIES

    PubMed Central

    Boucher, George O.

    1951-01-01

    The most generally accepted theory as to the cause of dental caries is that certain bacteria in the mouth, in the presence of fermentable sugars, cause the formation of acids which in turn decalcify teeth. Physicians may help reduce the incidence of caries by recommending elimination of refined sugars from the diet, or at least control of the amount consumed. Cleaning the teeth with a well designed tooth brush after each meal will to a certain extent mechanically remove the fermentable sugar and debris from the teeth. One step further in oral hygiene that may be beneficial is to use a dentifrice with 5 per cent dibasic ammonium phosphate and 3 per cent urea to reduce the formation of acid. Anything that will increase salivation will aid in buffering any acids that may be present. A 2 per cent solution of sodium fluoride applied to the thoroughly dried “intact” enamel surface may prevent caries. Sodium fluoride added to drinking water to a concentration of 1 part per million is utilized by the body in formation of an enamel that is particularly resistant to caries. PMID:14801729

  4. Dental Calculus Arrest of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Keyes, Paul H.; Rams, Thomas E.

    2016-01-01

    Background An inverse relationship between dental calculus mineralization and dental caries demineralization on teeth has been noted in some studies. Dental calculus may even form superficial layers over existing dental caries and arrest their progression, but this phenomenon has been only rarely documented and infrequently considered in the field of Cariology. To further assess the occurrence of dental calculus arrest of dental caries, this study evaluated a large number of extracted human teeth for the presence and location of dental caries, dental calculus, and dental plaque biofilms. Materials and methods A total of 1,200 teeth were preserved in 10% buffered formal saline, and viewed while moist by a single experienced examiner using a research stereomicroscope at 15-25× magnification. Representative teeth were sectioned and photographed, and their dental plaque biofilms subjected to gram-stain examination with light microscopy at 100× magnification. Results Dental calculus was observed on 1,140 (95%) of the extracted human teeth, and no dental carious lesions were found underlying dental calculus-covered surfaces on 1,139 of these teeth. However, dental calculus arrest of dental caries was found on one (0.54%) of 187 evaluated teeth that presented with unrestored proximal enamel caries. On the distal surface of a maxillary premolar tooth, dental calculus mineralization filled the outer surface cavitation of an incipient dental caries lesion. The dental calculus-covered carious lesion extended only slightly into enamel, and exhibited a brown pigmentation characteristic of inactive or arrested dental caries. In contrast, the tooth's mesial surface, without a superficial layer of dental calculus, had a large carious lesion going through enamel and deep into dentin. Conclusions These observations further document the potential protective effects of dental calculus mineralization against dental caries. PMID:27446993

  5. Epidemiology of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Winter, G B

    1990-01-01

    The most recent epidemiological data on the prevalence of dental caries in children indicate a halting of the increasing levels in many developing countries and a continuing decrease in many highly industrialized countries of the world. However, a further fall in caries levels predicted for 5-yr-old children in the U.K. has not occurred and the decline in caries may have begun to level out. 'Polarization' of caries to a minority of high-risk individuals is occurring in the developed world, with 20-25% of children accounting for more than 50% of the disease. Socio-economic factors are important in determining the proportion of high-risk children in these countries. The multifactorial aetiology of caries allows a number of different interpretations to account for changes in the prevalence of the disease with time, in both the developing and developed countries. These changes are variously ascribed to alterations in dietary habits, especially the consumption of sugar; variations in the patterns of oral hygiene; increased contact with trace elements, especially fluoride, in the environment; changes in the ecology and/or virulence of oral and dental plaque microflora and alterations in the oral protective mechanisms including the immune status. The epidemiological evidence available on the relationship of all these social, environmental and other factors to changes in the prevalence levels of caries does not, however, fully explain all the changes that have been observed. The claim that caries is no longer a public health problem is premature, as it ignores the still high proportion of individuals with tooth decay throughout the world.

  6. Drugs that promote dental caries.

    PubMed

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries result from erosion of tooth enamel or cementum by acidic substances produced by bacteria found in dental plaque. Caries can lead to pulp necrosis and tooth loss. Risk factors include certain dietary habits, poor oral hygiene, and dry mouth. Diabetes and Sjogren's syndrome can also promote dental caries. Psychotropic substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, heroin and cannabis can promote dental caries. Many medicinal drugs facilitate the formation of dental caries, through various mechanisms; they include formulations with a high sugar content; drugs that cause dry mouth (especially antimuscarinics); drugs that lower the buccal pH (inhaled powders, etc.); and drugs that cause demineralisation (tetracyclines, etc.). In practice, patients (and parents) should be informed that some drugs can increase the risk of dental caries. They should be encouraged to adapt and reinforce dental hygiene, and advised to visit a dentist regularly.

  7. Epidemiological study of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, T; Kulkarni, V S; Nerurker, R A; Damle, S G; Patnekar, P N

    1998-01-01

    A total of 2000 children (1-14 year age group) attending pediatric OPD, school clinic & well body clinic of Dr. R.N. Cooper Municipal Hospital & K.E.M Hospital, Mumbai were examined for caries prevalence and 35.6% had dental caries. Parental income was not shown to have any bearing on caries prevalence. Parental literacy, particularly maternal literacy was shown to influence caries prevalence in children. The prevalence was low in well-nourished children and in those taking vegetarian type of diet. Frequency of sweet consumption was shown to be associated with prevalence of dental caries. In 1-4 year age group it was noted that bottle fed children were more affected by dental caries. Tooth brush with paste was the commonest method used for cleaning their teeth in all age groups in our study. Caries prevalence was low in those children using tooth brush than in those using tooth powder. Those children who were using neem datun were found to be less affected with dental caries. Dental caries was also found to be low in those who rinsed their mouth with water after food.

  8. Nutrition and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mobley, Connie C

    2003-04-01

    Promotion of sound dietary practices is an essential component of caries management, along with fluoride exposure and oral hygiene practices. Scientific discoveries have lead to better understanding of the caries process, the ever-expanding food supply, and the interaction between the two. Fermentable carbohydrates interact dynamically with oral bacteria and saliva, and these foods will continue to be a major part of a healthful diet. Dental health professionals can serve their patients and the public by providing comprehensive oral health care and by promoting lifestyle behaviors to improve oral and general health within the time constraints of their practice. Dietary advice given should not contradict general health principles when providing practical guidance to reduce caries risk. The following principles should guide messages: * Encourage balanced diets based on moderation and variety as depicted by the Food Guide Pyramid and the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to provide a sound approach. Avoid references to "bad" foods and focus on "good" diets that include a variety of foods. * Give examples of how combining and sequencing foods can enhance mastication, saliva production, and oral clearance at each eating occasion. Combining dairy foods with sugary foods, raw foods with cooked, and protein-rich foods with acidogenic foods are all good examples. Suggest that eating and drinking be followed by cariostatic foods such as xylitol chewing gum. * Drink water to satisfy thirst and hydration needs as often as possible. Restrict consumption of sweetened beverages to meal and snack times when they can be combined with other cariostatic foods. * When a patient reports excessive dietary intake of a fermentable carbohydrate to the point of displacing other important foods in the diet, identify alternatives that will help the patient maintain or achieve a healthy body weight, oral health status, and a nutrient-dense intake.

  9. Nature vs. nurture in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Mandel, I D

    1994-10-01

    Why are some people more resistant to dental caries than others? Certainly diet plays a part, but are there hereditary factors that affect caries development? This report explores genetic components that appear related to caries resistance and susceptibility.

  10. Salivary biomarkers for dental caries.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiaoli; Jiang, Shan; Koh, David; Hsu, Chin-Ying Stephen

    2016-02-01

    As a highly prevalent multifactorial disease, dental caries afflicts a large proportion of the world's population. As teeth are constantly bathed in saliva, the constituents and properties of this oral fluid play an essential role in the occurrence and progression of dental caries. Various inorganic (water and electrolytes) and organic (proteins and peptides) components may protect teeth from dental caries. This occurs via several functions, such as clearance of food debris and sugar, aggregation and elimination of microorganisms, buffering actions to neutralize acid, maintaining supersaturation with respect to tooth mineral, participation in formation of the acquired pellicle and antimicrobial defense. Modest evidence is available on the associations between dental caries and several salivary parameters, including flow rate, buffering capacity and abundance of mutans streptococci. Despite some controversial findings, the main body of the literature supports an elevated caries prevalence and/or incidence among people with a pathologically low saliva flow rate, compromised buffering capacity and early colonization or high titer of mutans streptococci in saliva. The evidence remains weak and/or inconsistent on the association between dental caries and other saliva parameters, such as other possible cariogenic species (Lactobacillus spp., Streptococcus sanguis group, Streptococcus salivarius, Actinomyces spp. and Candida albicans), diversity of saliva microbiomes, inorganic and organic constituents (electrolytes, immunoglobulins, other proteins and peptides) and some functional properties (sugar clearance rate, etc.). The complex interactions between salivary components and functions suggest that saliva has to be considered in its entirety to account for its total effects on teeth. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Caufield, P.W.; Schön, C.N.; Saraithong, P.; Li, Y.; Argimón, S.

    2015-01-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. PMID:25758458

  12. AUTHORITARIANISM AND DENTAL CARIES.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    in particular. If so, dental decay among nonauthoritarians might well progress further than among authoritarians. To determine whether or not there...is any relationship between dental decay and authoritarianism is the purpose of the present study. (Author)

  13. Dental Caries (Tooth Decay)

    MedlinePlus

    ... form does not collect any actual information. External Web Site Policy This graphic notice ( ) means that you are ... the link. Home Contact Us Viewers and Players Site Map FOIA Web Policies Privacy Policy National Institute of Dental and ...

  14. Dental caries in disabled children.

    PubMed

    Ivancić Jokić, Natasa; Majstorović, Martina; Bakarcić, Danko; Katalinić, Andrej; Szirovicza, Lajos

    2007-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate oral health conditions and dental caries status in disabled and healthy children. Two groups of randomly selected children 3-17 years old were examined. The first group comprised 80 children with disabilities (cerebral palsy, mental retardation, Down syndrome, autism and hearing-speaking disorders) and the second (control) group included 80 healthy children. Examined children were selected from several institutions which take care of disabled persons, kindergardens and four elementary schools. Clinical examination was performed by using a mirror and a probe and revealed the presence of dental caries, missing (extracted) and filled teeth. All clinically detected cavitations were registered as dental caries. The degree of oral hygiene was evaluated according to the OHI-S index values, which was determined by marking the plaque with 1% eozine solution. The values of OHI-S index ranged from 3.8-4.53 in disabled children and 2.73-2.84 in healthy children. In disabled children, the average dft values were 3.42 in deciduous teeth and 5.24 in mixed dentition. In healthy children, the average dft values were 1.43 in deciduous teeth and 5.1 in mixed dentition. The average DMFT index in disabled children was 1.41 for mixed and 6.39 for permanent dentitions. In healthy children, the average DMFT values were 1.23 in mixed and 4.76 in permanent dentitions. In general, the results revealed significantly poor level of oral hygiene and quite high level of caries prevalence in both disabled and healthy children, accentuating the need to reorganize preventive care measurements and improve dental care, particularly in disabled children in Croatia.

  15. Sealants and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    O’Donnell, Jean A.; Modesto, Adriana; Oakley, Marnie; Polk, Deborah E.; Valappil, Benita; Spallek, Heiko

    2013-01-01

    Background The authors conducted a qualitative study of private-practice dentists in their offices by using vignette-based interviews to assess barriers to the use of evidence-based clinical recommendations in the treatment of noncavitated carious lesions. Methods The authors recruited 22 dentists as a convenience sample and presented them with two patient vignettes involving noncavitated carious lesions. Interviewers asked participants to articulate their thought processes as they described treatment recommendations. Participants compared their treatment plans with the American Dental Association’s recommendations for sealing noncavitated carious lesions, and they described barriers to implementing these recommendations in their practices. The authors recorded and transcribed the sessions for accuracy and themes. Results Personal clinical experience emerged as the determining factor in dentists’ treatment decisions regarding noncavitated carious lesions. Additional factors were lack of reimbursement and mistrust of the recommendations. The authors found that knowledge of the recommendations did not lead to their adoption when the recommendation was incongruent with the dentist’s personal experience. Conclusions The authors found that ingrained practice behavior based on personal clinical experience that differed substantially from evidence-based recommendations resulted in a rejection of these recommendations. Practical Implications Attempts to improve the adoption of evidence-based practice must involve more than simple dissemination of information to achieve a balance between personal clinical experience and scientific evidence. PMID:23543700

  16. Dental caries in Victorian nursing homes.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Hopcraft, M; Morgan, M

    2014-09-01

    The poor oral health of nursing home residents is the cause of substantial morbidity and has major implications relating to health care policy. The aim of this study was to measure dental caries experience in Australians living in nursing homes, and investigate associations with resident characteristics. Clinical dental examinations were conducted on 243 residents from 19 nursing homes in Melbourne. Resident characteristics were obtained from nursing home records and interviews with residents, family and nursing home staff. Two dental examiners assessed coronal and root dental caries using standard ICDAS-II criteria. Residents were elderly, medically compromised and functionally impaired. Most required assistance with oral hygiene and professional dental care was rarely utilized. Residents had high rates of coronal and root caries, with a mean 2.8 teeth with untreated coronal caries and 5.0 root surfaces with untreated root caries. Functional impairment and irregular professional dental care were associated with higher rates of untreated tooth decay. There were no significant associations with medical conditions or the number of medications taken. Nursing home residents have high levels of untreated coronal and root caries, particularly those with high needs due to functional impairment but poor access to professional services. © 2014 Australian Dental Association.

  17. Detection of oral streptococci in dental biofilm from caries-active and caries-free children.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Andréa Cristina Barbosa; Cruz, Jader Dos Santos; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; de Araújo, Demetrius Antônio Machado

    2008-10-01

    This work correlated the presence of oral streptococci in dental biofilm with clinical indexes of caries and oral hygiene in caries-active and caries-free children. S. mutans and/or S. sobrinus in the dental biofilm does not indicate a direct risk for developing dental caries.

  18. Multimodal imaging system for dental caries detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Rongguang; Wong, Victor; Marcus, Michael; Burns, Peter; McLaughlin, Paul

    2007-02-01

    Dental caries is a disease in which minerals of the tooth are dissolved by surrounding bacterial plaques. A caries process present for some time may result in a caries lesion. However, if it is detected early enough, the dentist and dental professionals can implement measures to reverse and control caries. Several optical, nonionized methods have been investigated and used to detect dental caries in early stages. However, there is not a method that can singly detect the caries process with both high sensitivity and high specificity. In this paper, we present a multimodal imaging system that combines visible reflectance, fluorescence, and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) imaging. This imaging system is designed to obtain one or more two-dimensional images of the tooth (reflectance and fluorescence images) and a three-dimensional OCT image providing depth and size information of the caries. The combination of two- and three-dimensional images of the tooth has the potential for highly sensitive and specific detection of dental caries.

  19. Dental caries - A complete changeover (Part I)

    PubMed Central

    Usha, Carounanidy; R, Sathyanarayanan

    2009-01-01

    In spite of a knowledge explosion in cariology science, dental caries still remains a misunderstood phenomenon by the clinicians. In order to effectively use the wide range of preventive and management strategies, it is imperative to look beyond those black and white spots that manifest on the tooth surfaces. This paper focuses on the revised versions of the etiopathogenesis and definition of dental caries disease in the present century. PMID:20617066

  20. Approaches to Arresting Dental Caries: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Puranik, Manjunath P.; K.R., Sowmya

    2015-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic oral diseases across the globe that can be both treated and prevented. Preventive management strategies can effectively arrest and even completely reverse the caries process. This article aimed to review the literature on different approaches explored towards arresting caries progression. Materials and Methods Literature search of publications in Pubmed/Medline was carried out. Total 73 articles including clinical trials, invitro studies, case reports and review articles were reviewed. Results Twenty-two clinical trials and invitro studies were selected for review. Most studies suggested use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) as simple and effective caries arresting approach. Fluoride varnish treatment effectively arrests caries by inhibiting demineralization, resulting in highly significant caries reductions. Arginine with an insoluble calcium compound enhances arresting and reversing buccal, coronal and root caries. A few clinical studies have shown that sealants placed in caries fissures can arrest the caries process. Conclusion Various fluoride containing agents are clinically effective in arresting progression of carious lesion. However, these materials should be used appropriately understanding their scope and limitations to arrest dental caries. PMID:26155592

  1. Approaches to Arresting Dental Caries: An Update.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Gaurav; Puranik, Manjunath P; K R, Sowmya

    2015-05-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent chronic oral diseases across the globe that can be both treated and prevented. Preventive management strategies can effectively arrest and even completely reverse the caries process. This article aimed to review the literature on different approaches explored towards arresting caries progression. Literature search of publications in Pubmed/Medline was carried out. Total 73 articles including clinical trials, invitro studies, case reports and review articles were reviewed. Twenty-two clinical trials and invitro studies were selected for review. Most studies suggested use of Silver Diamine Fluoride (SDF) as simple and effective caries arresting approach. Fluoride varnish treatment effectively arrests caries by inhibiting demineralization, resulting in highly significant caries reductions. Arginine with an insoluble calcium compound enhances arresting and reversing buccal, coronal and root caries. A few clinical studies have shown that sealants placed in caries fissures can arrest the caries process. Various fluoride containing agents are clinically effective in arresting progression of carious lesion. However, these materials should be used appropriately understanding their scope and limitations to arrest dental caries.

  2. Genetic factors affecting dental caries risk.

    PubMed

    Opal, S; Garg, S; Jain, J; Walia, I

    2015-03-01

    This article reviews the literature on genetic aspects of dental caries and provides a framework for the rapidly changing disease model of caries. The scope is genetic aspects of various dental factors affecting dental caries. The PubMed database was searched for articles with keywords 'caries', 'genetics', 'taste', 'diet' and 'twins'. This was followed by extensive handsearching using reference lists from relevant articles. The post-genomic era will present many opportunities for improvement in oral health care but will also present a multitude of challenges. We can conclude from the literature that genes have a role to play in dental caries; however, both environmental and genetic factors have been implicated in the aetiology of caries. Additional studies will have to be conducted to replicate the findings in a different population. Identification of genetic risk factors will help screen and identify susceptible patients to better understand the contribution of genes in caries aetiopathogenesis. Information derived from these diverse studies will provide new tools to target individuals and/or populations for a more efficient and effective implementation of newer preventive measures and diagnostic and novel therapeutic approaches in the management of this disease.

  3. Biological approach of dental caries management.

    PubMed

    Grigalauskienė, Rūta; Slabšinskienė, Eglė; Vasiliauskienė, Ingrida

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease induced by dental plaque, which can be described as a community of microorganisms (biofilm). Because of genetic and environmental factors a number of changes in the oral microbiome takes place; in case of commensalism and mutualism between biofilm microorganisms and the host, homeostasis in oral microbiome is maintained. However, when a risk factor occurs parasitic relationship starts prevailing and activity of the pathogenic cariogenic microorganisms increases leading to a dental caries. According to the newest technologies of molecular microbiology new cariogenic microorganisms species have been determined. Each individual's oral microbiome is as unique as his/her immune system; therefore, commonly taken caries prevention measures cannot be of the same effectiveness for all individuals. Each person has his own caries risk which is determined by the oral microbiome and immune system influenced by the environmental and genetic factors. Early caries diagnostic, risk assessment and individualized caries prevention plan will allow us to control the disease and achieve a desirable effect. For the dentist the most important thing is not to treat the consequences of the disease - cavities - but be aware of the dental caries as a biological phenomenon.

  4. The systemic theory of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Southward, Ken

    2011-01-01

    There is growing awareness of oral/systemic links, especially with regard to periodontal disease, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, among others. The process of dental caries has similar links. Bacterial and other acids in the oral environment can erode enamel and potentially initiate an inflammatory response in the dentin. The body's own matrix metalloproteinases, mostly from within the dentin, become activated, resulting in the caries process. A simplified explanation of the oxidative stress causing inflammation is developed from three equations, namely Health, Disease, and Disease. The healthy tooth is nourished by a centrifugal dentinal fluid flow. This flow is controlled by signals from the hypothalamus that are relayed to the endocrine portion of the parotid gland. The first step in the caries process is the reversal of the dentinal fluid flow, rather than the acid attack from the oral environment. A systemic understanding of the actual cause and progression of dental caries creates opportunities for more effective approaches to preventive care.

  5. Palmistry: a tool for dental caries prediction!

    PubMed

    Madan, Nidhi; Rathnam, Arun; Bajaj, Neeti

    2011-01-01

    Dermatoglyphics can prove to be an extremely useful tool for preliminary investigations in conditions with a suspected genetic base. Since caries is a multifactorial disease with the influence of genetic pattern, early prediction for high-risk children can help in using effective and efficient caries preventive measures that are a part of the pedodontist arsenal. This study was done to determine the genetic aspect involved in the occurrence of dental caries through a cost-effective means, which can be used in field studies. 550 kindergarten school children in the age group 3-6 years were examined during a school examination camp. Of these, only 336 children were included in the study. They were divided into four groups as follows: caries-free males (df score=0), caries-free females, caries males (df score≥10), caries females. The handprints of each child were taken and the frequency of occurrence of type of dermatoglyphic pattern on fingertip of each digit was noted. Separate df scores were recorded. SPSS software and test of proportions were used for the analysis. Handprints of caries-free children, especially females, showed maximum ulnar loops. The caries group showed maximum occurrence of whorls (r=2:1), which were more prevalent in females on the left hand 3rd digit than in males where the whorls were found on the right hand 3 rd digit, and also low total ridge count, especially in males.

  6. [Dental health: relationship between dental caries and food consumption].

    PubMed

    González Sanz, Angel Miguel; González Nieto, Blanca Aurora; González Nieto, Esther

    2013-07-01

    Although the reduction and prevalence of dental caries in many countries has been largely associated with the use of fluorine and improving dental hygiene, eating habits also play a role in the development of caries. Fermentable carbohydrates characteristics of the food, rate of consumption, food protectors, the quality and quantity of saliva indices that determine the remineralization of teeth are factors to be considered. All these elements are analyzed through the sociodemographic, behavioral, physical and biological environment directly or indirectly with diet and caries.

  7. Obesity and dental caries: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Silva, Alexandre Emidio Ribeiro; Menezes, Ana Maria Baptista; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2013-08-01

    Identifying, through a systematic literature review, evidence of a possible association between obesity and dental caries. A search of articles published between 2005 and January 2012 was performed in the Medline/PubMed, LILACS and Web of Science databases. The quality of scientific evidence of the selected articles was assessed by the items proposed for observational studies in the Downs & Black instrument. Initially, 537 references were found; after checking the titles and abstracts by two independent researchers, twenty-eight articles were selected for complete reading. Ten of them that assessed the primary and/or permanent dentition observed a positive association between obesity and dental caries and one study found an inverse association. According to the Downs & Black classification, thirteen articles with good scientific evidence were found. The present review did not find sufficient evidence regarding the association between obesity and dental caries, and it did not clarify the possible role of diet and other possible effect modifiers on this association.

  8. [Dental caries in an ecological perspective].

    PubMed

    Twetman, Svante; Ekstrand, Kim; Qvist, Vibeke

    2010-11-01

    Dental caries affects the majority of the Danish population. Its aetiology is multi-factorial, but a pH-induced change in the homeostasis of the oral biofilm leading to overgrowth of acid-tolerating bacteria is a key event. A non-invasive concept for prevention and management is emerging based on the common risk factor approach. There is strong evidence that tooth brushing twice a day with fluoridated toothpaste is the most cost-effective way to prevent and control caries development. Physicians need to consider that a number of drugs may affect the saliva flow rate, which increases the caries risk.

  9. The Marketplace for New Caries Management Products: Dental Caries Detection and Caries Management by Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Berg, Joel H

    2006-01-01

    The number of new technologies emerging each year in the realm of dental caries management is growing at an exponential rate. Examining the patent literature, one can see that this growth rate will likely continue, with the outcome that dentistry will see an expanded growth in managing dental caries by risk assessment with medicinal therapeutic interventions. Restorative dentistry solutions, treating the results of dental caries, will continue to grow, while technologies to identify the caries process at its earliest stages will soon invade practices everywhere. The most interesting aspect of these changes will be how industry responds to the inexorable, yet slow change in dental professional demand for these new technologies, while trying to be the "first to market" within the various categories of this business opportunity. This paper will take a close look at how businesses with the core competence to be key players in this emerging growth category will assess the marketplace, and match up their business interests with the changing needs of the dental profession. The paper will also address the strategic planning and business processes that the dental industry will undertake to bring new technologies to market, and how these technologies will be positioned to health care professionals and consumers. The results of the key interactions between industry and the dental profession will determine the extent to which dental caries is managed as a disease, in addition to being managed by surgical restorative interventions. PMID:16934123

  10. Early detection of dental caries using photoacoustics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, K.; Witte, R.; Koh, I.; Ashkenazi, S.; O'Donnell, M.

    2006-02-01

    For decades, visual, tactile and radiographic examinations have been the standard for diagnosing caries. Nonetheless, the extent of variation in the diagnosis of dental caries is substantial among dental practitioners using these traditional techniques. Therefore, a more reliable standard for detecting incipient caries would be desirable. Using photoacoustics, near-infrared (NIR) optical contrast between sound and carious dental tissues can be relatively easily and accurately detected at ultrasound resolution. In this paper, a pulsed laser (Nd:YAG, Quanta-Ray) was used to probe extracted human molars at different disease stages determined from periapical radiographs. Both fundamental (1064nm) and first harmonic (532nm) pulses (15ns pulse length, 100mJ at fundamental and 9mJ at first harmonic , 10Hz pulse repetition rate) were used to illuminate the occlusal surface of tooth samples placed in a water tank. The photoacoustic signal was recorded with an unfocused wideband single-element piezoelectric transducer (centered at 12 MHz, bandwidth 15 MHz) positioned at small angle (less than 30 degrees) to the laser beam close to the occlusal surface. At the fundamental wavelength, total photoacoustic energy increases from normal to incipient stage disease by as much as a factor of 10. Differences between photoacoustic energy at the fundamental and first harmonic wavelength further indicate spectral absorption changes of the underlying structure with disease progression. Using a focused laser beam, an extracted molar with suspected incipient caries was scanned along the occulusal surface to help localize the caries inside enamel and dentin. The significantly increasing photoacoustic signal at a specific scan line both at fundamental and first harmonic indicates the local development of the incipient caries. The photoacoustic results compare well with visual inspection after layer by layer dissection. Preliminary results demonstrate the feasibility of detecting incipient

  11. Prevalence of dental caries in handicapped children of Calcutta.

    PubMed

    Gupta, D P; Chowdhury, R; Sarkar, S

    1993-03-01

    A total of 1042, 3-14-year-old children with different types of handicapping conditions when recorded for dental caries using WHO 1987 caries recording index revealed that dental caries experience was higher in handicapped children than normal children. The prevalence of dental caries was highest in mentally retarded children followed by cerebral palsied, blind, epileptic, physically handicapped, children with Down's syndrome and deaf and dumb. Higher deft+DMFT was recorded in mandibular teeth compared to maxillary teeth.

  12. Dental caries patterns in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Johnsen, D C

    1984-01-01

    Management of dental caries as a disease requires the same level of skill and broad perspective as managing many other diseases. Dental caries has several variations, four of which were presented here. Long-term outlook for children with two of the caries patterns (those secondary to fissure defects or hypoplastic defects) is good if the teeth are restored. Management of children with nursing caries often involves dealing with well-intentioned but overindulgent parents. Prevention of nursing caries goes beyond simply informing the parents of potential dangers from excessive feeding with the bottle. Hypoplastic defects can resemble nursing caries; the differentiation is important in treating the child. The child with extensive proximal molar lesions may be the most difficult to manage on a long-term basis. A successful prevention program will mean a change in life style for the parent and child. The child with a cleft lip and/or palate has the disadvantages of enamel defects and a significant medical condition inviting overindulgence.

  13. Relationship between caries and dental plaque composition.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Sule; Okte, Zeynep; Fidanci, Ulvi Reha

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the relationship between dental caries and the biochemical composition of dental plaque and to determine the effect of a 10% sucrose solution on the biochemical structure of dental plaque in children. 60 children grouped according to caries status took part in this study [Caries-free (CF), DMFS=0, df-s = 0; Caries-positive (CP), DMFS > or =10, df-s > or =10]. Dental plaque samples were collected before (baseline) and at 3 and 30 minutes after a 1-minute rinse with 10% sucrose. Fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), and inorganic phosphorus (Pi) levels were determined using ion chromatography, and insoluble polysaccharide (IEPS) concentrations were determined using colorimetric analysis. Although the mean baseline Ca and Pi levels in plaque were higher in the CF group than in the CP group, these differences were not statistically significant. Baseline IEPS levels were significantly higher in the CP group than in the CF group. Following exposure to sucrose, plaque F, Ca and Pi concentrations decreased significantly in both groups. However, insoluble polysaccharide concentrations increased significantly in the CF group only.

  14. Comparative study of dental caries and dental fluorosis in populations of different dental fluorosis prevalence.

    PubMed

    Kukleva, Maria P; Kondeva, Veselina K; Isheva, Alexandra V; Rimalovska, Sevda I

    2009-01-01

    There is evidence that the prevalence of dental fluorosis in many countries has increased over the last three decades along with a noted decrease of dental caries. To date no comparative studies of dental caries and dental fluorosis have been conducted in Bulgaria reflecting the present-day conditions of life. To study comparatively the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries and to establish what relationship, if any, there is between them. We performed a comparative analysis of three epidemiological studies carried out in Plovdiv and Dimitrovgrad in 2004, 2005 and 2008. The hypothesis tested was that dental caries was less frequent in populations with higher prevalence of dental fluorosis (with predominance of mild fluorosis cases). Dental fluorosis was diagnosed using Dean's criteria, and dental caries was scored using the WHO criteria. The results were analysed using the alternative analysis and analysis of variance at a level of significance P < 0.05. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in the studied populations in Dimitrovgrad in 2004 was 56.99%, in Plovdiv in 2005--7.80%, and in 2008--23.18%. The comparison of the studies in Dimitrovgrad and Plovdiv in 2005 showed lower prevalence of dental caries and lower DMFT values in all age groups (P < 0.001) in Dimitrovgrad, where the prevalence of dental fluorosis was greater than that in Plovdiv (P < 0.001). The comparison between the studies in Plovdiv alone in 2005 and 2008 showed an increase in dental fluorosis in 2008 (P < 0.001). The prevalence of dental caries was higher in almost all groups, but the differences failed to reach statistical significance (P < 0.001). The DMFT index was higher in 2008 (P < 0.001) with the exception of some age groups. The higher prevalence of dental fluorosis does not necessarily lead to low prevalence of dental caries and low DMFT values in the specific population.

  15. Dental caries: from infection to prevention.

    PubMed

    Islam, Barira; Khan, Shahper N; Khan, Asad U

    2007-11-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases in humans, second only to the common cold. It causes irreversible damage to the grinding machinery involved in the intake of food and hence causes great distress. The changes in the homeostasis of the oral cavity with an overgrowth of Streptococcus mutans is recognized as the primary cause of the disease. Most treatments are now aimed at either elimination of this bacterium or suppression of its virulence. S. mutans strongly adheres and releases acids by the fermentation of carbohydrates, leading to the demineralization of the tooth. This attachment is mediated mostly by the interaction of surface proteins and bacterial polysaccharides. Ambiguities in the basic treatment of dental caries, such as the use of fluoride and antibiotics, vitalize the deployment of probiotic therapies for its cure. The growing research in herbal treatments has led to the discovery of various phytochemicals to limit the virulence of S. mutans. This review focuses on the properties of S. mutans in cariogenicity and outlines ways to combat dental caries.

  16. [Dental caries of the developmental age as a civilization disease].

    PubMed

    Wójcicka, Anna; Zalewska, Magdalena; Czerech, Ewa; Jabłoński, Robert; Grabowska, Stanisława Zyta; Maciorkowska, Elzbieta

    2012-01-01

    According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), dental caries is a local pathological process of the extrasomatic background, leading to enamel decalcification, decomposition of dental hard tissue, and in consequence to formation of a dental cavity. Morbidity of dental caries increases with age, reaching 100% of children, aged from 6 to 7. Poland is one of few European countries where the incidence of dental caries in children did not decrease, despite recommendations of WHO for 2000 year, aimed at the decrease in the incidence of dental caries among 6-year-old children to the level of 50%. The recommendation of WHO for 2015 year is to reduce the incidence of dental caries to 30% among 6-year-olds, i.e., 70% of 6 year-old children should be free of dental caries. Apart from genetic conditioning, inappropriate health behaviors, nutritional habits and gastroesophageal reflux disease influence the development of dental caries. Consumption of 'fast food' and drinking sweetened beverages of low pH contribute markedly to the development of dental caries, decreasing simultaneously consumption of pro healthy foods, including milk and cereals. Taking into consideration perspective clinical examinations of children and adolescents, evaluating the relationship between dental caries and nutritional habits as well as environmental conditioning, the study shows current data about factors, contributing to the incidence of dental caries in children, collected from the literature. The attention was paid to the relationship between dental caries and gastroesophageal reflux disease and the necessity of its early diagnostics and proper treatment.

  17. Improved drug delivery systems for preventing dental caries.

    PubMed

    Hiorth, Marianne

    2016-10-13

    Dental caries: Dental caries and periodontitis were for many decades considered the most important global oral health burden. During the last 40 years when more focus was put on the prevention of dental caries by using products with fluoride, the problem decreased. However, our new lifestyle with more sugar has given rise to concern, and in US the amount of children being diagnosed with dental caries has increased [1]. In addition the increasing amount of elderly in the population using many different types of medicines giving dry mouth has a negative impact of the status of their teeth [2].

  18. Dental caries and head and neck cancers.

    PubMed

    Tezal, Mine; Scannapieco, Frank A; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Meurman, Jukka H; Marshall, James R; Rojas, Isolde Gina; Stoler, Daniel L; Genco, Robert J

    2013-10-01

    Dental caries is the demineralization of tooth structures by lactic acid from fermentation of carbohydrates by commensal gram-positive bacteria. Cariogenic bacteria have been shown to elicit a potent Th1 cytokine polarization and a cell-mediated immune response. To test the association between dental caries and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Case-control study in a comprehensive cancer center including all patients with newly diagnosed primary HNSCC between 1999 and 2007 as cases and all patients without a cancer diagnosis as controls. Those with a history of cancer, dysplasia, or immunodeficiency or who were younger than 21 years were excluded. Dental caries, fillings, crowns, and endodontic treatments, measured by the number of affected teeth; missing teeth. We also computed an index variable: decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT). Incident HNSCC. We included 620 participants (399 cases and 221 controls). Cases had a significantly lower mean (SD) number of teeth with caries (1.58 [2.52] vs 2.04 [2.15]; P = .03), crowns (1.27 [2.65] vs 2.10 [3.57]; P = .01), endodontic treatments (0.56 [1.24] vs 1.01 [2.04]; P = .01), and fillings (5.39 [4.31] vs 6.17 [4.51]; P = .04) but more missing teeth (13.71 [10.27] vs 8.50 [8.32]; P < .001) than controls. There was no significant difference in mean DMFT. After adjustment for age at diagnosis, sex, marital status, smoking status, and alcohol use, those in the upper tertiles of caries (odds ratio [OR], 0.32 [95% CI, 0.19-0.55]; P for trend = .001), crowns (OR, 0.46 [95% CI, 0.26-0.84]; P for trend = .03), and endodontic treatments (OR, 0.55 [95% CI, 0.30-1.01]; P for trend = .15) were less likely to have HNSCC than those in the lower tertiles. Missing teeth was no longer associated with HNSCC after adjustment for confounding. There is an inverse association between HNSCC and dental caries. This study provides insights for future studies to assess potential beneficial effects of lactic acid bacteria and the

  19. Dental caries: an updated medical model of risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kutsch, V Kim

    2014-04-01

    Dental caries is a transmissible, complex biofilm disease that creates prolonged periods of low pH in the mouth, resulting in a net mineral loss from the teeth. Historically, the disease model for dental caries consisted of mutans streptococci and Lactobacillus species, and the dental profession focused on restoring the lesions/damage from the disease by using a surgical model. The current recommendation is to implement a risk-assessment-based medical model called CAMBRA (caries management by risk assessment) to diagnose and treat dental caries. Unfortunately, many of the suggestions of CAMBRA have been overly complicated and confusing for clinicians. The risk of caries, however, is usually related to just a few common factors, and these factors result in common patterns of disease. This article examines the biofilm model of dental caries, identifies the common disease patterns, and discusses their targeted therapeutic strategies to make CAMBRA more easily adaptable for the privately practicing professional.

  20. Fluoridated milk for preventing dental caries.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C Albert; Chong, Lee Yee; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2015-08-31

    Dental caries remains a major public health problem in most industrialised countries, affecting 60% to 90% of schoolchildren and the vast majority of adults. Milk may provide a relatively cost-effective vehicle for fluoride delivery in the prevention of dental caries. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2005. To assess the effects of milk fluoridation for preventing dental caries at a community level. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (inception to November 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 10), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to November 2014) and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to November 2014). We also searched the U.S. National Institutes of Health Trials Register (https://clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (http://apps.who.int/trialsearch) for ongoing trials. We did not place any restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with an intervention and follow-up period of at least two years, comparing fluoridated milk with non-fluoridated milk. Two authors independently assessed trial risk of bias and extracted data. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included one unpublished RCT, randomising 180 children aged three years at study commencement. The setting was nursery schools in an area with high prevalence of dental caries and a low level of fluoride in drinking water. Data from 166 participants were available for analysis. The study carried a high risk of bias. After three years, there was a reduction of caries in permanent teeth (mean difference (MD) -0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.24 to -0.02) and in primary teeth (MD -1.14, 95% CI -1.86 to -0.42), as measured by the decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT for permanent teeth and dmft for primary teeth). For primary teeth

  1. Fluoridated milk for preventing dental caries.

    PubMed

    Yeung, C Albert; Chong, Lee Yee; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2015-09-03

    Dental caries remains a major public health problem in most industrialised countries, affecting 60% to 90% of schoolchildren and the vast majority of adults. Milk may provide a relatively cost-effective vehicle for fluoride delivery in the prevention of dental caries. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2005. To assess the effects of milk fluoridation for preventing dental caries at a community level. We searched the Cochrane Oral Health Group Trials Register (inception to November 2014), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (The Cochrane Library, 2014, Issue 10), MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to November 2014) and EMBASE via OVID (1980 to November 2014). We also searched the U.S. National Institutes of Health Trials Register (https://clinicaltrials.gov) and the WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (http://apps.who.int/trialsearch) for ongoing trials. We did not place any restrictions on the language or date of publication when searching the electronic databases. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), with an intervention and follow-up period of at least two years, comparing fluoridated milk with non-fluoridated milk. Two authors independently assessed trial risk of bias and extracted data. We used standard methodological procedures expected by The Cochrane Collaboration. We included one unpublished RCT, randomising 180 children aged three years at study commencement. The setting was nursery schools in an area with high prevalence of dental caries and a low level of fluoride in drinking water. Data from 166 participants were available for analysis. The study carried a high risk of bias. After three years, there was a reduction of caries in permanent teeth (mean difference (MD) -0.13, 95% confidence interval (CI) -0.24 to -0.02) and in primary teeth (MD -1.14, 95% CI -1.86 to -0.42), as measured by the decayed, missing and filled teeth index (DMFT for permanent teeth and dmft for primary teeth). For primary teeth

  2. Predicting Dental Caries Outcomes in Children

    PubMed Central

    Divaris, K.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, unprecedented gains in the understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying human health and disease have been made. In the domain of oral health, although much remains to be learned, the complex interactions between different systems in play have begun to unravel: host genome, oral microbiome with its transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, and more distal influences, including relevant behaviors and environmental exposures. A reasonable expectation is that this emerging body of knowledge can help improve the oral health and optimize care for individuals and populations. These goals are articulated by the National Institutes of Health as “precision medicine” and the elimination of health disparities. Key processes in these efforts are the discovery of causal factors or mechanistic pathways and the identification of individuals or population segments that are most likely to develop (any or severe forms of) oral disease. This article critically reviews the fundamental concepts of risk assessment and outcome prediction, as they relate to early childhood caries (ECC)—a common complex disease with significant negative impacts on children, their families, and the health system. The article highlights recent work and advances in methods available to estimate caries risk and derive person-level caries propensities. It further discusses the reasons for their limited utility in predicting individual ECC outcomes and informing clinical decision making. Critical issues identified include the misconception of defining dental caries as a tooth or surface-level condition versus a person-level disease; the fallacy of applying population-level parameters to individuals, termed privatization of risk; and the inadequacy of using frequentist versus Bayesian modeling approaches to derive individual disease propensity estimates. The article concludes with the notion that accurate caries risk assessment at the population level and “precision dentistry

  3. Dental caries in adolescents associated with caffeinated carbonated beverages.

    PubMed

    Majewski, R F

    2001-01-01

    Dental caries is an infectious disease involving all age groups. Adolescence is a period in which the risk for dental caries remains especially high. Many factors, some unique to the teenage years, contribute to the initiation and progression of dental caries in this age group. One factor with the potential for being significant is the adolescent diet, especially the high consumption of sugars. One product that tends to contribute to the amount of sugar ingested is carbonated beverages. Many soft drinks also contain significant amounts of caffeine. Regular caffeine ingestion may lead to increased, even habitual, usage. It is suggested that the combination of the consumption of highly sweetened soft drinks and habitual usage of caffeine may significantly increase a susceptible adolescent's potential for developing dental caries. Cases are presented demonstrating the early initiation and rapid progression of dental caries in three adolescents. A common factor is the ingestion of high amounts of caffeinated-carbonated soft drinks.

  4. [Stevia in the fight against dental caries].

    PubMed

    Ma, M S; Blanksma, N G

    2015-01-01

    Stevia is a natural, non-caloric sweetener of plant origin. The sweetening power of stevia is several hundred times larger than that of table sugar (sucrose). On the basis of available research, the European Food Safety Authority concluded that stevia is safe for human consumption. Since then, stevia has been approved as a sweetener for the European market. As a substitute for sucrose, stevia can contribute to a reduced caloric intake and can play a role in the prevention and/or treatment of metabolic disorders. In addition, stevia is non-cariogenic and is, moreover, affordable. Promoting the consumption of stevia can therefore be a preventive means of fighting dental caries.

  5. [Factors associated with the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren living in a municipality with low prevalence of dental caries].

    PubMed

    Cypriano, Silvia; Hugo, Fernando Neves; Sciamarelli, Maria Cristina; Tôrres, Luísa Helena do Nascimento; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Wada, Ronaldo Seichi

    2011-10-01

    The literature has shown that poorer levels of oral health are more frequently related to lower socio-economic status, consequently this cross-sectional and exploratory study conducted in 2003 investigated the association between caries and socio-economic factors, access to care, self-perception and habits among 266 12-year-old schoolchildren living in a community with low prevalence of dental caries. World Health Organization dental caries diagnosis methodology was used, in addition to the application of socio-economic and behavioral questionnaires. To identify the factors associated with dental caries, multivariate logistic regression was used and the dependent variable was synthesized into DMFT=0 and DMFT>0. Bearing in mind the limitations of a cross-sectional study, disliking the appearance of teeth, seeking dental care because of pain, studying at a state school and the head of the family being a manual worker were independently associated with dental caries. Even in a municipality with low prevalence of caries, the socio-economic status, dental care and self-perception were important factors in the incidence of dental caries among schoolchildren, and it is recommended that many factors in the bio-psychosocial context of multi-factorial dental caries should be investigated.

  6. DENTAL CARIES AND SYSTEMIC STATUS. PAROTID FLUID FLOW RATE, PAROTID FLUID, AND SERUM CHLORIDE AS RELATED TO DENTAL CARIES EXPERIENCE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Chloride determinations were carried out on blood serum and parotid fluid obtained at a very low flow rate from 527 apparently healthy young adult...males classified as to dental caries experience (DMFS). There was no indication that parotid fluid flow rate or the chloride concentration of either of the fluids could be in any way related to dental caries experience. (Author)

  7. Diabetes Enhances Dental Caries and Apical Periodontitis in Caries-Susceptible WBN/KobSlc Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kodama, Yasushi; Matsuura, Masahiro; Sano, Tomoya; Nakahara, Yutaka; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Narama, Isao; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2011-01-01

    Many epidemiologic studies have suggested that diabetes may be an important risk factor for periodontal disease. To determine whether diabetes induces or enhances periodontal disease or dental caries, dental tissue from diabetic male and nondiabetic female WBN/KobSlc rats and male and female age-matched nondiabetic F344 rats was analyzed morphologically and morphometrically for these 2 types of lesions. Soft X-ray examination revealed that the incidence and severity of both molar caries and alveolar bone resorption were much higher in male WBN/KobSlc rats with chronic diabetes than in nondiabetic female rats of the same strain. Histopathologic examination showed that dental caries progressed from acute to subacute inflammation due to bacterial infections and necrosis in the pulp when the caries penetrated the dentin. In the most advanced stage of dental caries, inflammatory changes caused root abscess and subsequent apical periodontitis, with the formation of granulation tissue around the dental root. Inflammatory changes resulted in resorption of alveolar bone and correlated well with the severity of molar caries. Our results suggest that diabetic conditions enhance dental caries in WBN/KobSlc rats and that periodontal lesions may result from the apical periodontitis that is secondary to dental caries. PMID:21819682

  8. Laser induced fluorescence of dental caries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, S.; Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences between the optical spectra taken from sound regions of teeth and carious regions have been observed. These differences appear both in absorption and in laser induced fluorescence spectra. Excitation by the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser beam showed a peak in the emission intensity around 553 nm for the sound dental material while the emission peak from the carious region was red-shifted by approximately 40 nm. The relative absorption of carious region was significantly higher at 488 nm; however its fluorescence intensity peak was lower by an order of magnitude compared to the sound tooth. Implications of these results for a safe, reliable and early detection of dental caries are discussed.

  9. Laser induced fluorescence of dental caries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albin, S.; Byvik, C. E.; Buoncristiani, A. M.

    1988-01-01

    Significant differences between the optical spectra taken from sound regions of teeth and carious regions have been observed. These differences appear both in absorption and in laser induced fluorescence spectra. Excitation by the 488 nm line of an argon ion laser beam showed a peak in the emission intensity around 553 nm for the sound dental material while the emission peak from the carious region was red-shifted by approximately 40 nm. The relative absorption of carious region was significantly higher at 488 nm; however its fluorescence intensity peak was lower by an order of magnitude compared to the sound tooth. Implications of these results for a safe, reliable and early detection of dental caries are discussed.

  10. Dental assistants' ability to select caries risk-children and to prevent caries.

    PubMed

    Holst, A; Braune, K

    1994-01-01

    A new model for dental care in children has been used since 1987 in a small-town clinic in the county of Blekinge in southern Sweden. The model is based on early screening of caries risk, performed by dental assistants. The purpose is to obtain an individual assessment of the need of preventive dental care among pre-school children, in order to prevent dental caries and gingivitis. The aim was to 1) evaluate the dental assistants' selection of caries risk children up to the age of three by comparing dental health variables in 4 yr olds in the test clinic with those for the whole county and 2) compare the time spent by the dentists and the dental assistants in the test clinic and in the whole county per child up to the age of four. 102 children participated. Specially trained dental assistants screened children likely to develop caries lesions using background factors combined with clinical examinations at ages 1, 2 and 3. A systematized form for questioning the parents was used. Individual caries prevention was given. Dental health and time spent were analyzed. The proportion of children with caries lesions at four years and a caries risk assessment up to the age of three was 11/19 = 0.58 (sensitivity). The proportion of children with no caries lesions at four years and no caries risk assessment up to the age of three was 82/83 = 0.99 (specificity). The proportion of children with no caries lesions at 4 yr of age in the test clinic was 81.4% compared to a county mean of 77.2%.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Terahertz pulsed imaging study of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagoz, Burcu; Altan, Hakan; Kamburoglu, Kıvanç

    2015-07-01

    Current diagnostic techniques in dentistry rely predominantly on X-rays to monitor dental caries. Terahertz Pulsed Imaging (TPI) has great potential for medical applications since it is a nondestructive imaging method. It does not cause any ionization hazard on biological samples due to low energy of THz radiation. Even though it is strongly absorbed by water which exhibits very unique chemical and physical properties that contribute to strong interaction with THz radiation, teeth can still be investigated in three dimensions. Recent investigations suggest that this method can be used in the early identification of dental diseases and imperfections in the tooth structure without the hazards of using techniques which rely on x-rays. We constructed a continuous wave (CW) and time-domain reflection mode raster scan THz imaging system that enables us to investigate various teeth samples in two or three dimensions. The samples comprised of either slices of individual tooth samples or rows of teeth embedded in wax, and the imaging was done by scanning the sample across the focus of the THz beam. 2D images were generated by acquiring the intensity of the THz radiation at each pixel, while 3D images were generated by collecting the amplitude of the reflected signal at each pixel. After analyzing the measurements in both the spatial and frequency domains, the results suggest that the THz pulse is sensitive to variations in the structure of the samples that suggest that this method can be useful in detecting the presence of caries.

  12. Bluetooth technology for prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad

    2009-12-01

    Caries is caused when the pH at the tooth surface drops below 5.5. A miniaturized and autonomous pH monitoring nodes can be attached to the tooth surface, like a tooth jewel. This intelligent sensor includes three components: (a) digital micro pH meter, (b) power supply, (c) wireless communicating device. The micro pH meter facilitates long term tooth surface pH monitoring and providing real time feedback to the patients and dental experts. Power supply of this system will be microfabricated biocatalytic fuel cell (enzymatic micro-battery) using organic compounds (e.g. formate or glucose) as the fuel to generate electricity. When micro pH meter detects the pH lower than 5.5, wireless Bluetooth device sends a caution (e.g. "you are at risk of dental caries") to external monitoring equipment such as mobile phone or a hands-free heads. After reception of the caution, subjects should use routine brushing and flossing procedure or use a medicated chewing gum (e.g. chlorhexidine containing chewing gum) or rinse with a mouthwash.

  13. Prevalence and Measurement of Dental Caries in Young Children.

    PubMed

    Dye, Bruce A; Hsu, Kuei-Ling C; Afful, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries in preschool children was historically considered to have a unique and more intense pattern of decay and was known by a variety of terms. In 1999, the term early childhood caries (ECC), along with a classification system, was proposed to facilitate epidemiologic research of dental caries in young children. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of those early childhood caries recommendations on the prevalence and measurement of caries in preschool children. A systematic search of the MEDLINE database was performed. Key search words included: ECC, dental decay, dental caries, carious dentin, baby bottle tooth decay, nursing caries, maxillary anterior caries, and labial caries. English language studies and studies on more than 100 children younger than six years old were eligible for selection. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data collected from 1988 to 1994, 1999 to 2004, and 2011 to 2012 were used to assess ECC prevalence using different operational definitions. There were 87 articles selected for this review. The term ECC was used in 55 percent of the selected articles as the primary outcome measure. The majority of studies used a cross-section study design, but diagnostic criteria varied greatly. Caries experience in young children may be shifting away from majority of untreated surfaces to a majority of restored surfaces. Little difference was observed by dental surface type in the distribution of decayed and filled surfaces in primary teeth. Although the term early childhood caries is widely used, varied use of diagnostic criteria and operational definitions continue to limit comparability across studies. Emerging changes in the proportion of decayed and filled surfaces in the United States also raises questions regarding the ECC case definition limiting our ability to understand the epidemiology of dental caries in preschool children.

  14. Dental caries in rural and urban black preschoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Cleaton-Jones, P; Richardson, B D; Rantsho, J M

    1978-05-01

    The dentitions of 439 rural and 192 urban black children aged 1-5 years were examined with mirror and probe. Dental caries was common and the percentage prevalence and dmft values were similar in children of 1-3 years in both groups. At 4 years of age there was a twofold increase in dental caries in the urban children to reach a dmft score significantly greater than that in the rural children (P less than 0.01). Labial caries was common in rural children but rare in urban children while rampant caries (dmft greater than or equal to 5) exhibited the opposite pattern.

  15. Risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Braúna, Ana Paula Vasques Sales; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de; Resende, Vera Lúcia Silva; Castilho, Lia Silva de

    2016-06-14

    The aim of the present study was to investigate risk factors for dental caries in children with developmental disabilities who were treated at a clinical reference service for patients with special needs in Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. This is a retrospective cohort study that evaluated 401 dental charts of individuals without dental caries or restorations in their first dental appointment. The dependent variable was the time of occurrence of new dental caries or restorations and was measured in months. Gender, age, International Code of Diseases (ICD), mother´s education, sugar consumption, use of fluoride toothpaste, oral hygiene, mouth breathing, reports of xerostomia, gingival status, use of psychotropic or asthma drugs, and history of asthma were covariates. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate the raw and adjusted hazard ratios and their respective 95% confidence intervals. The average time that individuals remained free of dental caries/restoration was equal to 107.46 months (95%CI 95.41 to 119.51), with a median of caries-free children up to 94 months. For each point increase in the scale of sucrose consumption, the increase in caries risk was 1.07 (95%CI 1.01 to 1.15). Sucrose consumption was the only risk factor for dental caries found in this group of individuals with developmental disabilities.

  16. Sugar consumption and dental caries experience in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Macigo, Francis Githua; James, Regina Mutave; Ogunbodede, Eyitope; Gathece, Loice Warware

    2016-06-01

    There have been claims that dental caries experience and prevalence in Kenya has been increasing as a result of increased sugar consumption. A review of the literature in 1986 failed to link dental caries experience with an increase in gross national sugar consumption. Subsequently, a number of studies were conducted, necessitating further review to examine trends in dental caries experience and to relate this to changes in per capita sugar consumption. Studies conducted since 1980 for children 3-15 years of age were examined. Dental caries prevalence and experience for 3-5 years' (deciduous teeth) and 12 years' (permanent teeth) age groups were analysed. Calculation of per capita sugar consumption was performed using gross national annual sugar consumption for 1969-2009 national population census years. There was a gradual increase in per capita sugar consumption, from 35.5 g/day in 1969 to 60.8 g/day in 2009. Dental caries experience in deciduous teeth for children 3-5 years of age increased from a decayed, missing and filled teeth/decayed and filled teeth (dmft/dft) index of 1.5 in the 1980s to 2.95 in the 2000s. At 12 years of age, caries experience for permanent teeth increased from a DMFT of 0.2 to a DMFT of 0.92 over the same period. Dental caries prevalence for both deciduous and permanent teeth also increased with time. These observations suggest that dental caries prevalence and experience increased with time, in parallel to an increase in per capita sugar consumption. However, a clearer understanding can be derived from longitudinal studies, based on actual household age-specific sugar consumption and dental caries incidence. © 2016 FDI World Dental Federation.

  17. Dental Caries and Periodontal Status of Mentally Handicapped Institutilized Children

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Sarika; Arya, Astha

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most prevalent dental disease among mentally retarded children worldwide. Aims and Objectives: A study was carried out in Jodhpur city of Rajasthan state of India to assess the Dental caries and periodontal Status of Mentally handicapped attending special schools children in Jodhpur city. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 80 mentally handicapped subjects, attending a Special Needs school in Jodhpur City. Dental caries and Periodontal Status were recorded following the WHO basic oral health survey. Results: None of the subject had healthy periodontal status, dental caries was found in 79.2% of the subjects, Lymphadenopathy was observed in highest number of subjects 55 (76.3%). Conclusion: Health professionals should therefore be aware of the impact of mental illness and its treatment on oral health, Health personnel should receive training to support and provide all possible services to this population. PMID:25177632

  18. Dental caries and periodontal status of mentally handicapped institutilized children.

    PubMed

    Solanki, Jitender; Gupta, Sarika; Arya, Astha

    2014-07-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are the most prevalent dental disease among mentally retarded children worldwide. A study was carried out in Jodhpur city of Rajasthan state of India to assess the Dental caries and periodontal Status of Mentally handicapped attending special schools children in Jodhpur city. A cross-sectional descriptive survey was conducted in 80 mentally handicapped subjects, attending a Special Needs school in Jodhpur City. Dental caries and Periodontal Status were recorded following the WHO basic oral health survey. None of the subject had healthy periodontal status, dental caries was found in 79.2% of the subjects, Lymphadenopathy was observed in highest number of subjects 55 (76.3%). Health professionals should therefore be aware of the impact of mental illness and its treatment on oral health, Health personnel should receive training to support and provide all possible services to this population.

  19. Dental caries experience and use of dental services among preschool children in Ajman, UAE.

    PubMed

    Hashim, R; Thomson, W M; Ayers, K M S; Lewsey, J D; Awad, M

    2006-07-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence and severity of dental caries in the primary dentition of young children in Ajman, UAE, and investigate its association with sociodemographic characteristics and use of dental services. A cluster-sampling approach was used to randomly select children aged 5 or 6 years who were enrolled in public or private schools. Clinical examinations for caries were conducted by a single examiner using World Health Organization criteria. Parents completed questionnaires seeking information on socioeconomic background and dental service utilization. Zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression modelling was used to identify risk markers and risk indicators for caries experience. The prevalence of dental caries in the sample was high 76.1%. The average dmfs score 10.2. Caries severity was greater among older children and among male children of less educated mothers. Emirati (local) children had higher caries severity than others. Children who had higher level of caries visited the dentist more frequently than other children whose visits were for check-up only. Dental caries prevalence and severity in young children in Ajman are high, and socioeconomic characteristics and dental utilization are important determinants of their dental caries experience. There is an urgent need for oral health programmes targeted at the treatment and underlying causes of dental caries in these children.

  20. Lack of association between lactotransferrin polymorphism and dental caries.

    PubMed

    Volckova, M; Linhartova, P Borilova; Trefna, T; Vlazny, J; Musilova, K; Kukletova, M; Kukla, L; Holla, L Izakovicova

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is a complex, multifactorial disease and one of the most common illnesses worldwide. Its etiology is related to microbial, dietary and host factors. Recent evidence suggests a role of lactotransferrin (LTF) in caries. The purpose of this study was to determine the association between LTF gene polymorphism and dental caries. In this case-control study, 637 unrelated children, aged 11-13 years, were enrolled. The subjects were divided into two groups, i.e. caries-free (decayed/missing/filled teeth = 0) and caries-affected children (decayed/missing/filled teeth ≥ 1). The LTF rs1126478 (140A/G in exon 2, Lys/Arg) genotypes were determined by PCR with restriction analysis using the EarI enzyme. Of 637 children, 155 (24.3%) were caries free. There were no statistically significant differences between caries levels and allele or genotype distributions in the total cohort. When the caries-affected group (n = 482) was stratified into low (decayed/missing/filled teeth = 1), moderate (2 ≤ decayed/missing/filled teeth ≤ 3) and high (decayed/missing/filled teeth ≥ 4) caries experience, allele and genotype frequencies were similar among all subgroups. The LTF 140A/G (exon 2, Lys/Arg) polymorphism was not associated with the susceptibility to or severity of dental caries in the Czech population.

  1. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J; Cooper, Paul R

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo.

  2. Dental Pulp Defence and Repair Mechanisms in Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Farges, Jean-Christophe; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Renard, Emmanuelle; Ducret, Maxime; Gaudin, Alexis; Smith, Anthony J.; Cooper, Paul R.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic infectious disease resulting from the penetration of oral bacteria into the enamel and dentin. Microorganisms subsequently trigger inflammatory responses in the dental pulp. These events can lead to pulp healing if the infection is not too severe following the removal of diseased enamel and dentin tissues and clinical restoration of the tooth. However, chronic inflammation often persists in the pulp despite treatment, inducing permanent loss of normal tissue and reducing innate repair capacities. For complete tooth healing the formation of a reactionary/reparative dentin barrier to distance and protect the pulp from infectious agents and restorative materials is required. Clinical and in vitro experimental data clearly indicate that dentin barrier formation only occurs when pulp inflammation and infection are minimised, thus enabling reestablishment of tissue homeostasis and health. Therefore, promoting the resolution of pulp inflammation may provide a valuable therapeutic opportunity to ensure the sustainability of dental treatments. This paper focusses on key cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in pulp responses to bacteria and in the pulpal transition between caries-induced inflammation and dentinogenic-based repair. We report, using selected examples, different strategies potentially used by odontoblasts and specialized immune cells to combat dentin-invading bacteria in vivo. PMID:26538821

  3. The effect of xylitol on dental caries and oral flora

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Prathibha Anand; Nayak, Ullal Anand; Khandelwal, Vishal

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, the most chronic disease affecting mankind, has been in the limelight with regard to its prevention and treatment. Professional clinical management of caries has been very successful in cases of different severities of disease manifestations. However, tertiary management of this disease has been gaining attention, with numerous methods and agents emerging on a daily basis. Higher intake of nutritive sweeteners can result in higher energy intake and lower diet quality and thereby predispose an individual to conditions like obesity, cardiovascular disorders, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Non-nutritive sweeteners have gained popularity as they are sweeter and are required in substantially lesser quantities. Xylitol, a five-carbon sugar polyol, has been found to be promising in reducing dental caries disease and also reversing the process of early caries. This paper throws light on the role and effects of various forms of xylitol on dental caries and oral hygiene status of an individual. PMID:25422590

  4. Clinical evaluation of sodium flouride chewable tablets in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Maddi, S S; Tandon, S; Aithal, K S

    1999-01-01

    Chewable tablets containing low dosage flouride content were prepared using two varities of celluloses and their in vitro parameters were evaluated. An eighteen month clinical trial revealed that both these formulations were effective in controlling the caries. However, ethyl cellulose is proved to be superior to methylcellulose as a controlled release matrix material in controlling caries. Thus this study recommends ethylcellulose matrix tablets containing low flouride content is an efficacious and cost effective drug device in controlling dental caries.

  5. Clinical evaluation of sodium fluoride chewable tablets in dental caries.

    PubMed

    Aithal, K S; Udupa, D N; Tandon, S

    1996-01-01

    Chewable tablets containing low dosage fluoride content were prepared using two varieties of celluloses and their in vitro parameters were evaluated. An eighteen month clinical trial revealed that both these formulations were effective in controlling the caries. However, ethyl cellulose is proved to be superior to methylcellulose as a controlled release matrix material in controlling caries. Thus this study recommends ethylcellulose matrix tablets containing low fluoride content is an efficacious and cost effective drug device in controlling dental caries.

  6. Dental caries pathogenicity: a genomic and metagenomic perspective.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Scott N; Snesrud, Erik; Schork, Nicholas J; Bretz, Walter A

    2011-08-01

    In this review we address the subject of dental caries pathogenicity from a genomic and metagenomic perspective. The application of genomic technologies is certain to yield novel insights into the relationship between the bacterial flora, dental health and disease. Three primary attributes of bacterial species are thought to have direct impact on caries development, these include: adherence on tooth surfaces (biofilm formation), acid production and acid tolerance. Attempts to define the specific aetiological agents of dental caries have proven to be elusive, supporting the notion that caries aetiology is perhaps complex and multi-faceted. The recently introduced Human Microbiome Project (HMP) that endeavors to characterise the micro-organisms living in and on the human body is likely to shed new light on these questions and improve our understanding of polymicrobial disease, microbial ecology in the oral cavity and provide new avenues for therapeutic and molecular diagnostics developments. © 2011 FDI World Dental Federation.

  7. On dental caries and caries-related factors in children and teenagers.

    PubMed

    Alm, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries is still a common disease among children and adolescents. The aims of the present thesis were therefore: 1) to investigate the approximal caries prevalence in posterior teeth in 15-year-olds, 2) to study past caries experience in the primary dentition in relation to future caries development and need for treatment, 3) to investigate factors during early childhood which are associated with caries development later in life, and 4) to study the association between age-specific body mass index (isoBMI) and approximal caries status in 15-year-olds. Paper I has a retrospective design and the analyses were based on record data from a randomly selected sample. Papers II, III and IV are based on radiographic analyses of posterior teeth in 15-year-olds followed longitudinally from 1 to 15 years of age. The data for these studies were selected from examinations, interviews and questionnaires from early childhood and school health care records at 15 years (isoBMI values). The result showed that the approximal caries prevalence in 15-year-olds is underestimated in official caries data, since initial caries lesions are not included in these statistics. Two thirds of all 15-year-olds had approximal caries and initial caries constituted 86% of the total number of caries lesions. There was a strong relationship between caries in early childhood and approximal caries prevalence in the posterior teeth at 15 years of age. Children with caries experience at 6 years received significantly more treatment in the primary dentition during the period from 7 to 12 years compared with children who were caries free at the same age. Further, it was pointed out that parents' attitudes to dental health and psychosocial factors during early childhood have an effect on approximal caries in 15-year-olds. Additionally, plaque on primary incisors at 1 year of age and infrequent toothbrushing at 3 years of age were associated with a high caries experience at 15 years. It was also

  8. Dental students' opinions and knowledge about caries management and prevention.

    PubMed

    Autio-Gold, Jaana T; Tomar, Scott L

    2008-01-01

    Students' attitudes toward caries prevention can impact their receptivity to training and subsequent involvement in preventive services in their future practices. The aim of this study was to evaluate dental students' opinions and knowledge regarding caries management and prevention at the University of Florida College of Dentistry. A twenty-six-item written survey instrument was administered to third- and fourth-year dental students. The response rate was 92.3 percent (72/78) for third-year and 45.5 percent (35/77) for fourth-year students. In their responses, 83 percent reported they would use chlorhexidine rinses for caries control, and 51 percent would use salivary tests for detecting cariogenic bacteria. Ninety-two percent reported they would use fluoride varnishes for caries control, and 40 percent were not sure if varnishes have associated dental or medical side effects. The majority of respondents felt that training and practice on caries prevention should be increased. Favorable responses to increasing education in preventive dentistry indicate that students may be receptive to modern caries management and prevention principles. This study suggests there is a need to update and integrate a more comprehensive caries prevention program into the predoctoral dental curriculum. Such programs should stress, in addition to actual training, the importance of prevention in students' future practice.

  9. Changes in dental fluorosis and dental caries in Newburgh and Kingston, New York.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J V; Swango, P A; Lininger, L L; Leske, G S; Green, E L; Haley, V B

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine whether the prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries had changed in a fluoridated community and a nonfluoridated community since an earlier study conducted in 1986. METHODS: Dental fluorosis and dental caries data were collected on 7- to 14-year-old lifelong residents (n = 1493) of Newburgh and Kingston, NY. RESULTS: Estimated dental fluorosis prevalence rates were 19.6% in Newburgh and 11.7% in Kingston. The greatest disparity in caries scores was observed between poor and nonpoor children in nonfluoridated Kingston. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of dental fluorosis has not declined in Newburgh and Kingston, whereas the prevalence of dental caries has continued to decline. PMID:9842391

  10. Dental caries in rural Alaska Native children--Alaska, 2008.

    PubMed

    2011-09-23

    In April 2008, the Arctic Investigations Program (AIP) of CDC was informed by the Alaska Department of Health and Social Services (DHSS) of a large number of Alaska Native (AN) children living in a remote region of Alaska who required full mouth dental rehabilitations (FMDRs), including extractions and/or restorations of multiple carious teeth performed under general anesthesia. In this remote region, approximately 400 FMDRs were performed in AN children aged <6 years in 2007; the region has approximately 600 births per year. Dental caries can cause pain, which can affect children's normal growth and development. AIP and Alaska DHSS conducted an investigation of dental caries and associated risk factors among children in the remote region. A convenience sample of children aged 4-15 years in five villages (two with fluoridated water and three without) was examined to estimate dental caries prevalence and severity. Risk factor information was obtained by interviewing parents. Among children aged 4-5 years and 12-15 years who were evaluated, 87% and 91%, respectively, had dental caries, compared with 35% and 51% of U.S. children in those age groups. Among children from the Alaska villages, those aged 4-5 years had a mean of 7.3 dental caries, and those aged 12-15 years had a mean of 5.0, compared with 1.6 and 1.8 dental caries in same-aged U.S. children. Of the multiple factors assessed, lack of water fluoridation and soda pop consumption were significantly associated with dental caries severity. Collaborations between tribal, state, and federal agencies to provide effective preventive interventions, such as water fluoridation of villages with suitable water systems and provision of fluoride varnishes, should be encouraged.

  11. Dental caries: strategies to control this preventable disease.

    PubMed

    Rugg-Gunn, Andrew

    2013-11-01

    To provide a brief commentary review of strategies to control dental caries. Dental decay is one of man's most prevalent diseases. In many counties, severity increased in parallel with importation of sugar, reaching its zenith about 1950s and 1960s. Since then, severity has declined in many countries, due to the wide use of fluoride especially in toothpaste, but dental caries remains a disease of medical, social and economic importance. Within the EU in 2011, the cost of dental treatment was estimated to be €79 billion. The pathogenesis is well understood: bacteria in dental plaque (biofilm) metabolise dietary sugars to acids which then dissolve dental enamel and dentine. Possible approaches to control caries development, therefore, involve: removal of plaque, reducing the acidogenic potential of plaque, reduction in sugar consumption, increasing the tooth's resistance to acid attack, and coating the tooth surface to form a barrier between plaque and enamel. At the present time, only three approaches are of practical importance: sugar control, fluoride, and fissure sealing. The evidence that dietary sugars are the main cause of dental caries is extensive, and comes from six types of study. Without sugar, caries would be negligible. Fluoride acts in several ways to aid caries prevention. Ways of delivering fluoride can be classed as: 'automatic', 'home care' and 'professional care': the most important of these are discussed in detail in four articles in this issue of the Acta Medica Academica. Dental caries is preventable - individuals, communities and countries need strategies to achieve this. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  12. Urinary catecholamine levels in children with and without dental caries.

    PubMed

    Vanderas, A P; Manetas, C; Papagiannoulis, L

    1995-10-01

    Urinary catecholamines have been used to measure emotionally stressful states which may affect the development of dental caries. This study investigates the hypothesis that children with and without dental caries do not differ significantly in the mean values of urinary catecholamines such as epinephrine, norepinephrine, and dopamine. As a test of this hypothesis, 314 children, males and females, aged from 6 to 8 years, were included in the study. Dental caries were recorded clinically and radiographically, and oral hygiene was evaluated by the recording of dental plaque. A 24-hour urine sample was collected for each subject, and a representative sample (25 mL) was analyzed by the HPLC technique to assay the catecholamine content. Socioeconomic factors such as parental age, education, and profession were recorded by a questionnaire distributed to the parents. Of the examined children, 38 (14 males and 24 females) were free of dental caries and constituted the case group. Two control groups, A and B, of 38 children each (14 males and 24 females) with dental caries were matched by age and gender. Differences in the quantitative and qualitative data were tested by the paired t test and the X2-test, respectively, while a regression analysis was applied to measure the effects of norepinephrine and dopamine on epinephrine. The logistic multiple-regression analysis was used to test, in the entire population, the impact of catecholamines and other related factors on the probability of subjects' developing dental caries. The 95% probability was used. The results showed statistically significant differences in epinephrine values between the case group and control groups A and B. The data suggest, therefore, that children with emotionally stressful states have higher probability of developing dental caries.

  13. [Difficulty influence factors of dental caries clinical treatment].

    PubMed

    Xuedong, Zhou; Junqi, Ling; Jingping, Liang; Jiyao, Li; Lei, Cheng; Qing, Yu; Yumei, Niu; Bin, Guo; Hui, Chen

    2017-02-01

    Dental caries is a major disease that threaten human's oral healthy severely with the characteristics of high incidence, low rate of treatment and high rate of retreatment. At present, restorative treatment remains the main method for caries treatment. With the development of the Minimally Invasive Cosmetic Dentistry (MICD), reasonable application of various treatment technologies, maximum preservation of tooth tissues and realizing the maximization of treatment effects become problems that call for immediate solution in dental clinics. In addition, there still exist a large number of old restorations that need standard retreatments. Here, some difficulty influence factors of dental caries clinical treatment such as systemic and oral factors, individual caries susceptibility, treatment technologies and materials, retreatment methods of old restorations and technique sensitivity are analyzed, and corresponding processing strategies are also put forward.

  14. Carbonated soft drinks and dental caries in the primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Sohn, W; Burt, B A; Sowers, M R

    2006-03-01

    We analyzed fluid intake data among children aged 2-10 years from a 24-hour dietary recall interview in the NHANES III (1988-94) to investigate the effect of high consumption of carbonated soft drinks on caries in the primary dentition. We used cluster analysis to determine fluid consumption patterns. Four distinct fluid consumption patterns were identified: high carbonated soft drinks, high juice, high milk, and high water. About 13% of children had a high carbonated soft drink consumption pattern; they also had a significantly higher dental caries experience in the primary dentition than did children with other fluid consumption patterns. A fluid intake pattern comprised mainly of milk, water, or juice was less likely to be associated with dental caries. Findings of this study suggest that high consumption of carbonated soft drinks by young children is a risk indicator for dental caries in the primary dentition and should be discouraged.

  15. Dental caries pathogenicity: a genomic and metagenomic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Scott N.; Snesrud, Erik; Schork, Nicholas J.; Bretz, Walter A.

    2013-01-01

    In this review we address the subject of dental caries pathogenicity from a genomic and metagenomic perspective. The application of genomic technologies is certain to yield novel insights into the relationship between the bacterial flora, dental health and disease. Three primary attributes of bacterial species are thought to have direct impact on caries development, these include: adherence on tooth surfaces (biofilm formation), acid production and acid tolerance. Attempts to define the specific aetiological agents of dental caries have proven to be elusive, supporting the notion that caries aetiology is perhaps complex and multi-faceted. The recently introduced Human Microbiome Project (HMP) that endeavors to characterise the micro-organisms living in and on the human body is likely to shed new light on these questions and improve our understanding of polymicrobial disease, microbial ecology in the oral cavity and provide new avenues for therapeutic and molecular diagnostics developments. PMID:21726221

  16. Dental caries amongst Royal Australian Navy recruits, 1988.

    PubMed

    Morgan, M V; Stonnill, A; Laslett, A M

    1992-06-01

    A sample of 1100 Royal Australian recruits were examined for dental caries in 1988. Socio-demographic data were also collected. The mean DMFT scores were 4.33, 6.85, and 8.87 teeth for the 15-19 year-olds, 20-24 year-olds, and 25-29 year-olds, respectively. Caries experience varied between the state of origin of recruitment with Victorian and Queensland subjects having the highest DMFT scores, and Tasmanian subjects, the lowest. Comparison with previous military studies indicated not only a decreased dental caries experience, but also that restoration of teeth rather than extraction is a more likely treatment outcome of dental caries in recent recruits.

  17. Methods used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) dentists to diagnose dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Gordan, Valeria V.; Riley, Joseph L; Carvalho, Ricardo M.; Snyder, John; Sanderson, James L; Anderson, Mary; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives To (1) identify the methods that dentists in The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN) use to diagnose dental caries; (2) quantify their frequency of use; and (3) test the hypothesis that certain dentist and dental practice characteristics are significantly associated with their use. Methods A questionnaire about methods used for caries diagnosis was sent to DPBRN dentists who reported doing at least some restorative dentistry; 522 dentists participated. Questions included use of dental radiographs, dental explorer, laser fluorescence, air-drying, fiber optic devices, and magnification, as used when diagnosing primary, secondary/recurrent, or non-specific caries lesions. Variations on the frequency of their use were tested using multivariate analysis and Bonferroni tests. Results Overall, the dental explorer was the instrument most commonly used to detect primary occlusal caries as well as to detect caries at the margins of existing restorations. In contrast, laser fluorescence was rarely used to help diagnose occlusal primary caries. For proximal caries, radiographs were used to help diagnose 75-100% of lesions by 96% of the DPBRN dentists. Dentists who use radiographs most often to assess proximal surfaces of posterior teeth, were significantly more likely to also report providing a higher percentage of patients with individualized caries prevention (p = .040) and seeing a higher percentage of pediatric patients (p = .001). Conclusion Use of specific diagnostic methods varied substantially. The dental explorer and radiographs are still the most commonly used diagnostic methods. PMID:21488724

  18. Modelling community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries.

    PubMed

    Duijster, Denise; van Loveren, Cor; Dusseldorp, Elise; Verrips, Gijsbert H W

    2014-04-01

    This cross-sectional study empirically tested a theoretical model of pathways and inter-relationships among community, family, and individual determinants of childhood dental caries in a sample of 630, 6-year-old children from the Netherlands. Children's decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) scores were extracted from dental records. A validated parental questionnaire was used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, psychosocial factors, and oral hygiene behaviours. Data on neighbourhood quality were obtained from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics. Structural equation modelling indicated that the model was valid after applying a few modifications. In the revised model, lower maternal education level was related to poorer family organization, lower levels of social support, lower dental self-efficacy, and an external dental health locus of control. These, in turn, were associated with poorer oral hygiene behaviours, which were linked to higher levels of childhood dental caries. In addition, lower maternal education level and poorer neighbourhood quality were directly associated with higher caries levels in children. This model advances our understanding of determinants of childhood dental caries and the pathways in which they operate. Conception of these pathways is essential for guiding the development of caries-preventive programmes for children. Clues for further development of the model are suggested. © 2014 Eur J Oral Sci.

  19. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Mary A.S.; Guedes, Sarah F.F.; Xu, Hockin H.K.; Rodrigues, Lidiany K.A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanotechnology has been applied to dental materials as an innovative concept for the development of materials with better properties and anticaries potential. In this review we discuss the current progress and future applications of functional nanoparticles incorporated in dental restorative materials as useful strategies to dental caries management. We also overview proposed antimicrobial and remineralizing mechanisms. Nanomaterials have great potential to decrease biofilm accumulation, inhibit the demineralization process, to be used for remineralizing tooth structure, and to combat caries-related bacteria. These results are encouraging and open the doors to future clinical studies that will allow the therapeutic value of nanotechnology-based restorative materials to be established. PMID:23810638

  20. Risk indicators and risk predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Tagliaferro, Elaine Pereira da Silva; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk indicators of high caries level at baseline (HCLB) based on cross-sectional data and predictors of high caries increment (HCI) based on a 7-year-follow-up examination in 6-8-year-old schoolchildren. Two hundred and six schoolchildren were examined in 1997 and in 2004 by the same two calibrated dentists, in Piracicaba, Brazil. At baseline, dental caries, presence of sealants, fluorosis, and oral hygiene status were recorded. The children's parents completed a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic level, fluoride use, dental service utilization, dietary and oral hygiene habits. HCLB and HCI were defined considering the upper quartile of the total caries experience distribution (dmfs+DMFS) and caries increment distribution, respectively. Logistic regression models were adjusted estimating the Odds Ratio (OR), 95% confidence intervals and p-values. Having white spot lesions (OR=5.25) was found to be a risk indicator of HCLB. Schoolchildren with dental fluorosis (OR=0.17) or those who brushed the teeth more than two times a day (OR=0.37) presented less probability of HCLB. The predictors of HCI were: dmfs>0 (OR=2.68) and mothers' educational level up to 8 years of schooling (OR=2.87). Clinical and socioeconomic variables were found to be risk indicators and/or predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren.

  1. Association between dental caries and obesity in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Yen, C E; Hu, S W

    2013-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity in preschool children. A total of 329 preschool children were recruited from nine day care centers. A qualified dentist examined the oral health of each child and a caries score was recorded. Anthropometric measurements included body weight, height, triceps skinfold thickness, and body fat. Body mass index, and weight-for-height index were calculated. Parents or guardians answered a questionnaire regarding their children's dietary patterns, oral hygiene habits, and medical history, as well as parental practices and attitudes towards their children's oral health. The prevalence of dental caries was 73% in this study. Fourteen percent of the children were overweight or obese. The caries scores were not significantly different according to weight-for-height index categories. After taking into account important factors in the multiple regression models, body mass index and weight-for-height index, respectively, were not significantly associated with dental caries. This study showed that obesity was not significantly associated with dental caries in preschool children.

  2. RISK INDICATORS AND RISK PREDICTORS OF DENTAL CARIES IN SCHOOLCHILDREN

    PubMed Central

    Tagliaferro, Elaine Pereira da Silva; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Pereira, Antonio Carlos

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify risk indicators of high caries level at baseline (HCLB) based on cross-sectional data and predictors of high caries increment (HCI) based on a 7-year-follow-up examination in 6-8-year-old schoolchildren. Two hundred and six schoolchildren were examined in 1997 and in 2004 by the same two calibrated dentists, in Piracicaba, Brazil. At baseline, dental caries, presence of sealants, fluorosis, and oral hygiene status were recorded. The children's parents completed a questionnaire concerning socioeconomic level, fluoride use, dental service utilization, dietary and oral hygiene habits. HCLB and HCI were defined considering the upper quartile of the total caries experience distribution (dmfs+DMFS) and caries increment distribution, respectively. Logistic regression models were adjusted estimating the Odds Ratio (OR), 95% confidence intervals and p-values. Having white spot lesions (OR=5.25) was found to be a risk indicator of HCLB. Schoolchildren with dental fluorosis (OR=0.17) or those who brushed the teeth more than two times a day (OR=0.37) presented less probability of HCLB. The predictors of HCI were: dmfs>0 (OR=2.68) and mothers' educational level up to 8 years of schooling (OR=2.87). Clinical and socioeconomic variables were found to be risk indicators and/or predictors of dental caries in schoolchildren. PMID:19082400

  3. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Methods Study subjects were children aged 6 to 15 years who participated in the school-based dental sealant program through the mobile dental clinic operated by the Institute for Rural Health at Western Kentucky University between September 2006 and May 2011 (n = 2,453). Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and urban versus rural residential location) and caries status. We used chi-square tests to compare sociodemographic differences of children stratified by caries and no caries status as well as three levels of caries severity. We developed a logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Results The proportion of children having untreated dental caries was 49.7% and the mean number of untreated dental caries was 2.0. The proportion of untreated dental caries was higher in older children, children with no insurance and living in rural residential locations, and caries severity was also higher in these groups. Odds ratio indicated that older ages, not having private insurance (having only public, government-sponsored insurance or no insurance at all) and rural residential location were associated with having untreated dental caries after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of children. Conclusions Untreated dental caries was more likely to be present in older children living in rural areas without

  4. Dental caries among children visiting a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky: a pooled cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dawkins, Erika; Michimi, Akihiko; Ellis-Griffith, Gregory; Peterson, Tina; Carter, Daniel; English, Gary

    2013-05-02

    Dental caries is one of the most common chronic childhood diseases affecting a large portion of children in the United States. The prevalence of childhood dental caries in Kentucky is among the highest in the nation. The purposes of this study are to (1) compare sociodemographic differences between caries and no caries groups and (2) investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries among children who visited a mobile dental clinic in South Central Kentucky. Study subjects were children aged 6 to 15 years who participated in the school-based dental sealant program through the mobile dental clinic operated by the Institute for Rural Health at Western Kentucky University between September 2006 and May 2011 (n = 2,453). Descriptive statistics were calculated for sociodemographic factors (age, gender, race/ethnicity, insurance status, and urban versus rural residential location) and caries status. We used chi-square tests to compare sociodemographic differences of children stratified by caries and no caries status as well as three levels of caries severity. We developed a logistic regression model to investigate factors associated with untreated dental caries while controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. The proportion of children having untreated dental caries was 49.7% and the mean number of untreated dental caries was 2.0. The proportion of untreated dental caries was higher in older children, children with no insurance and living in rural residential locations, and caries severity was also higher in these groups. Odds ratio indicated that older ages, not having private insurance (having only public, government-sponsored insurance or no insurance at all) and rural residential location were associated with having untreated dental caries after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics of children. Untreated dental caries was more likely to be present in older children living in rural areas without insurance. Health interventionists may use

  5. Are fluoride releasing dental materials clinically effective on caries control?

    PubMed

    Cury, Jaime Aparecido; de Oliveira, Branca Heloisa; dos Santos, Ana Paula Pires; Tenuta, Livia Maria Andaló

    2016-03-01

    (1) To describe caries lesions development and the role of fluoride in controlling disease progression; (2) to evaluate whether the use of fluoride-releasing pit and fissure sealants, bonding orthodontic agents and restorative materials, in comparison to a non-fluoride releasing material, reduces caries incidence in children or adults, and (3) to discuss how the anti-caries properties of these materials have been evaluated in vitro and in situ. The search was performed on the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and on Medline via Pubmed. Caries is a biofilm-sugar dependent disease and as such it provokes progressive destruction of mineral structure of any dental surface - intact, sealed or restored - where biofilm remains accumulated and is regularly exposed to sugar. The mechanism of action of fluoride released from dental materials on caries is similar to that of fluoride found in dentifrices or other vehicles of fluoride delivery. Fluoride-releasing materials are unable to interfere with the formation of biofilm on dental surfaces adjacent to them or to inhibit acid production by dental biofilms. However, the fluoride released slows down the progression of caries lesions in tooth surfaces adjacent to dental materials. This effect has been clearly shown by in vitro and in situ studies but not in randomized clinical trials. The anti-caries effect of fluoride releasing materials is still not based on clinical evidence, and, in addition, it can be overwhelmed by fluoride delivered from dentifrices. Copyright © 2015 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Ethnic inequalities in dental caries among adults in East London.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Angulo, Elsa K; Bernabé, Eduardo; Marcenes, Wagner

    2016-06-01

    This study explored ethnic inequalities in dental caries among adults and assessed the role of socioeconomic position (SEP) in explaining those inequalities. We analysed data on 2013 adults aged 16-65 years, from the East London Oral Health Inequality (ELOHI) Study, which included a random sample of adults and children living in East London in 2009-10. Participants completed a questionnaire and were clinically examined for dental caries at home. Dental caries was measured using the number of decayed, missing and filled teeth or DMFT index. Ethnic inequalities in dental caries were assessed in negative binomial regression models before and after adjustment for demographic (sex and age groups) and SEP measures (education and socioeconomic classification). White Eastern European and White Other had higher DMFT, whereas all Asian (Pakistani, Indian, Bangladeshi and Other) and all Black (African, Caribbean and Other) ethnic groups had lower DMFT than White British. Similar inequalities were found for the number of filled and missing teeth, but there were no differences in the number of decayed teeth between ethnic groups. This study showed considerable disparities in dental caries between and within the major ethnic categories, which were independent of demographics and SEP. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. The implications of the new paradigm of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Edwina

    2011-12-01

    The caries process is the ubiquitous, natural metabolism in the biofilm that causes numerous fluctuations in pH. The interaction of this biofilm with the dental tissues may result in a caries lesion. However, lesion formation and progression can be controlled, particularly by disturbing plaque regularly with a fluoride containing toothpaste. This paradigm implies that everyone with teeth is at risk to lesion development. Treatment of caries is principally non-operative, involving plaque control, fluoride and a sensible diet. Operative dentistry repairs un-cleansable cavities and is part of plaque control. A diagnosis is a mental resting place on the way to a treatment decision. The relevant diagnostic features with respect to caries are lesion activity (active lesions require active management) and un-cleansable cavities. When teaching undergraduates, it is important that they are credited for the non-operative treatment of caries as well as for operative dentistry. This is equally important in dental practice where an appropriate skills mix of the dental team is required to deliver dental health cost-effectively. Training more dentists may be an expensive mistake as far as disease control is concerned. It is ironic that dentists make most money from operative care and specialist treatment when disease control could be delivered relatively cheaply. The key to dental health is regular and effective plaque control with a fluoride containing toothpaste, from cradle to grave. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Evidence-based prevention, management, and monitoring of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Barber, Lois Rigmont; Wilkins, Esther M

    2002-01-01

    Dental caries, not unlike periodontal diseases, is now recognized as an infectious, transmissible, multifactorial disease of bacterial origin. Current evidence-based emphasis is on the need to recognize a carious lesion in its earliest stage before demineralization has produced a cavitated lesion that requires restoration by a dentist. As a result of current understanding of caries control, the dental hygienist's role as a prevention specialist is to determine the dental caries risk factors for patients of all ages and to introduce remineralization strategies into the patient's dental hygiene care plan. Conservative strategies of a concentrated program include initial infection control with a chlorhexidine rinse; extra daily fluoride exposures; placement of pit and fissure sealants where indicated; control of sucrose exposures; use of sugar substitutes, particularly xylitol-containing sugar-free chewing gum; and an emphasis on a daily bacterial plaque removal routine. Evidence supports the management and monitoring of dental caries. Caries risk level must be reevaluated at each maintenance appointment. Appropriate in-office strategies to preserve tooth structure should be carried out and followed by applicable home regimens that are based on need, not age.

  9. Has dental caries prevalence some connection with caries index values in adults?

    PubMed

    Larmas, M

    2010-01-01

    DMF index values have been used for 70 years and were originally meant to describe both dental status and treatment need in elementary school children. Since then its application to caries experience and severity determination has expanded. Today, WHO has standardized its use in oral health surveys in describing past and present caries experience in adults and the elderly as well. This expansion to all age cohorts creates some problems if the index is limited to dental caries, which can be easily avoided when individual values are not combined. This has been performed in some of the 7,187 DMF index publications included in PubMed. The high number of scientific articles using this index underlines its leading role in the present epidemiological caries research. On the other hand, WHO uses different determinations for clinical dental caries and missing teeth in ICD-10, the 10th revision of International Classification of Diseases, which does not include dental restorations. Combining the individual parameters of Oral Health Surveys and diseases of ICD-10, and analyzing the mean value of each parameter separately, will give a precise picture of dental health at different ages. Copyright 2010 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Dental caries, age and anxiety: factors influencing sedation choice for children attending for emergency dental care.

    PubMed

    Carson, P; Freeman, R

    2001-02-01

    The aim of the study was to examine how physical (dental caries) and psychosocial (age, dental anxiety and dental health behaviour) factors, associated with child and parent, influenced dentists' sedation choice when a child presents in pain. 600 parents whose children were aged between 5 and 11 years took part: 200 attended for routine dental care (RDC); the remaining 400 attended as emergency patients and were offered either dental general anaesthesia (DGA) or relative analgesia (RA). The subjects were approached and invited to take part. The researcher was blind as to the child's pattern of dental attendance and the type of sedation offered. All parents and children completed self-reported ratings of dental anxiety. The children's teeth were examined to determine past and present dental caries experience. The results showed that children who were offered DGA had greater experience of dentinal caries, were younger and dentally anxious. The children offered RA were older, had a higher frequency of brushing their teeth with fluoride toothpaste and were also dentally anxious. Discriminant analysis showed that 2 canonical functions provided clear categorisation of the three treatment groups. Function 1 was a physical (dental caries) factor, which was related to the child's experience of dentinal caries. Function 2 was a psychosocial factor, which was related to the child's age, dental anxiety and frequency of tooth brushing. A greater proportion of the variance in the treatment offered was explained by Function 1, suggesting that the most important factor in the decision to offer DGA was dentinal caries. Function 2 was of lesser importance. The findings have implications for the type of sedation offered to children presenting for emergency care. These children may not otherwise receive treatment and the need to provide less anxiety provoking forms of sedation must be promoted. By doing so, parents who have only brought their children when in pain may take advantage

  11. Dental caries imaging using hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zi; Zheng, Wei; Jian, Lin; Huang, Zhiwei

    2016-03-01

    We report the development of a polarization-resolved hyperspectral stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging technique based on a picosecond (ps) laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator system for label-free imaging of dental caries. In our imaging system, hyperspectral SRS images (512×512 pixels) in both fingerprint region (800-1800 cm-1) and high-wavenumber region (2800-3600 cm-1) are acquired in minutes by scanning the wavelength of OPO output, which is a thousand times faster than conventional confocal micro Raman imaging. SRS spectra variations from normal enamel to caries obtained from the hyperspectral SRS images show the loss of phosphate and carbonate in the carious region. While polarization-resolved SRS images at 959 cm-1 demonstrate that the caries has higher depolarization ratio. Our results demonstrate that the polarization resolved-hyperspectral SRS imaging technique developed allows for rapid identification of the biochemical and structural changes of dental caries.

  12. The Use of Quaternary Ammonium to Combat Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yang; Wang, Suping; Zhou, Xuedong; Wang, Haohao; Xu, Hockin H. K.; Cheng, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Resin composites and adhesives are increasingly popular in dental restorations, but secondary caries is one of the main reasons for restoration failure. Quaternary ammonium monomers (QAMs) have an anti-microbial effect and are widely used in many fields. Since the concept of the immobilized antibacterial effect was put forward, dental restorations containing QAMs have been studied to reduce secondary caries. Previous studies have been struggling to develop novel anti-caries materials which might have triple benefits: good mechanical properties, antibacterial effects and remineralization potentials. Different kinds of QAMs have been proven to be effective in inhibiting the growth and metabolism of biofilms. Combination of QAMs and other nanoparticles in resin composites and adhesives could enhance their anti-caries capability. Therefore, QAMs are promising to show significant impact on the future of restorative and preventive dentistry. PMID:26635932

  13. A tissue-dependent hypothesis of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Simón-Soro, A; Belda-Ferre, P; Cabrera-Rubio, R; Alcaraz, L D; Mira, A

    2013-01-01

    Current understanding of dental caries considers this disease a demineralization of the tooth tissues due to the acid produced by sugar-fermenting microorganisms. Thus, caries is considered a diet- and pH-dependent process. We present here the first metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities present at different stages of caries development, with the aim of determining whether the bacterial composition and biochemical profile are specific to the tissue affected. The data show that microbial composition at the initial, enamel-affecting stage of caries is significantly different from that found at subsequent stages, as well as from dental plaque of sound tooth surfaces. Although the relative proportion of Streptococcus mutans increased from 0.12% in dental plaque to 0.72% in enamel caries, Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus sanguinis were the dominant streptococci in these lesions. The functional profile of caries-associated bacterial communities indicates that genes involved in acid stress tolerance and dietary sugar fermentation are overrepresented only at the initial stage (enamel caries), whereas other genes coding for osmotic stress tolerance as well as collagenases and other proteases enabling dentin degradation are significantly overrepresented in dentin cavities. The results support a scenario in which pH and diet are determinants of the disease during the degradation of enamel, but in dentin caries lesions not only acidogenic but also proteolytic bacteria are involved. We propose that caries disease is a process of varying etiology, in which acid-producing bacteria are the vehicle to penetrate enamel and allow dentin degrading microorganisms to expand the cavity. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  14. Prevention of dental caries: A review of effective treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sicca, Claudio; Bobbio, Elena; Quartuccio, Natale; Nicolò, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    Background The objective of this study is to review medical and non medical treatments for prevention of caries. Material and Methods A comprehensive literature search of the most relevant and updated published studies from 01/01/2002 through December 2015 in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases regarding the efficacy of strategies and treatments aiming to prevent the development of caries was performed selecting papers on the basis of the Evidence-based Medicine Criteria. Results We identified thirty systematic reviews on prevention of caries. Analyzing the data the retrieved literature, performance of prevention treatments seems to be high. Conclusions Prevention treatments may have a relevant impact on the avoiding the development of caries planning. Key words:Dental caries, prevention, fluoride. PMID:27957278

  15. Dental caries prevalence and treatment levels in Arizona preschool children.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, J M; Altman, D S; Robertson, D C; O'Sullivan, D M; Douglass, J M; Tinanoff, N

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of dental caries in a large group of preschool children, to determine the extent to which the children received dental treatment, to examine the association between demographic and socioeconomic factors and the prevalence of caries, and to compare these findings with those from previous studies of preschool populations in the United States. METHODS: Dental caries exams were performed on 5171 children ages 5 months through 4 years, and a parent or other caregiver was asked to complete a questionnaire giving information about the child and her or his household. The children were recruited from Head Start programs; Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) nutrition programs; health fairs; and day care centers in a representative sample of Arizona communities with populations of more than 1000 people. RESULTS: Of the 994 one-year-old children examined, 6.4% had caries, with a mean dmft (decayed, missing [extracted due to caries], and filled teeth) score of 0.18. Nearly 20% of the 2-year-olds had caries, with a mean dmft of 0.70. Thirty-five percent of the 3-year-olds had caries, with a mean dmft of 1.35, and 49% of the 4-year-olds had caries, with a mean dmft of 2.36. Children whose caregivers fell into the lowest education category had a mean dmft score three times higher than those with caregivers in the highest education category. Children with caregivers in the lowest income category had a mean dmft score four times higher than those with caregivers in the highest category. Children younger than age 3 had little evidence of dental treatment, and most of the children with caries in each age group had no filled or extracted teeth. CONCLUSIONS: The data show that dental caries is highly prevalent in this preschool population, with little of the disease being treated. Timing of diagnostic examinations and prevention strategies for preschool children need to be reconsidered, especially for children identified as having a high risk of

  16. Salivary Lysozyme in Relation to Dental Caries among Thai Preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Lertsirivorakul, J; Petsongkram, B; Chaiyarit, P; Klaynongsruang, S; Pitiphat, W

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze salivary lysozyme levels and activities in Thai preschoolers with different dental caries status. Unstimulated saliva samples were collected from 64 preschoolers, divided into a caries free group (n = 32) and a severe early childhood caries (S-ECC) group (n = 32). Both groups were similar regarding gender, age, dental caries status, salivary flow rate, and salivary protein concentrations. No differences were also in the caregivers' characteristics, oral health behaviors, and feeding habits. Only professional fluoride application was less frequently found in the S-ECC group (p < 0.03). Western blotting and lysoplate assays revealed that salivary lysozyme levels and activities were significantly increased in the S-ECC group compared with the caries free group (p< 0.001; p = 0.008, respectively). The up-regulated expression of salivary lysozyme and the increased lysozyme activity in S-ECC preschoolers suggests a possible connection between salivary lysozyme and oral immunity in response to early childhood dental caries.

  17. The epidemiology of dental caries and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Sheiham, A

    1979-12-01

    Dental caries and periodontal disease are common in industrialized countries and caries is increasing in non-industrialized countries. The predominant method of coping with the disease problem has been to treat rather than prevent the diseases, an approach which has obviously failed to cope with the problem as shown by the results of the International Collaborative Study of Dental Manpower Systems (58). Epidemiological evidence suggests that a food policy directed at lowering the refined sugar consumption level to about 10 kg per person per year in conjunction with fluoride supplementation of the diet would virtually eliminate dental caries in industrialized countries. Health education to improve the effectiveness of toothbrushing will reduce the progression of periodontal disease to a rate compatible with keeping teeth for a life-time.

  18. Reactionary Dentinogenesis and Neuroimmune Response in Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Couve, E; Osorio, R; Schmachtenberg, O

    2014-08-01

    Reactionary dentin formation is an adaptive secretory response mediated by odontoblasts to moderate dentin injury. The implications of this process for neuroimmune interactions operating to contain pathogens have not been fully appreciated. The purpose of the present study was to describe the relationship between reactionary dentinogenesis, the neurogenic changes of dental pulp innervation, and dendritic cell recruitment to caries progression, using a comparative immunohistochemical approach in human teeth from young adult individuals. Reactionary dentin formation during dentin caries progression is associated with changes in the integrity of junctional complexes within the odontoblast layer. Diminished coexpression of Cx43 and zonula occludens 1 implies a reduced level of intercellular connectivity between odontoblasts. Dentin caries also causes overexpression of growth-associated protein 43, a modulator of neural plasticity that promotes extensive sprouting of nerve endings into the reactionary dentin matrix. At the same time, an elevated number of HLA-DR-positive dendritic cells infiltrate the odontoblast layer and subsequently invade reactionary dentin formed underneath the early caries-affected regions. Simultaneous odontoblast layer remodeling, nerve fiber sprouting, and activation of dendritic cells during caries progression suggest a coordinated neuroimmune response to fight caries pathogen invasion and to promote dentin-pulp healing. We propose that reactionary dentin formation hinders pathogen invasion and supports defensive neuroimmune interactions against infection. The eventual understanding of this complex scenario may contribute to the development of novel approaches to dental caries treatment.

  19. Dental caries and beverage consumption in young children.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Teresa A; Levy, Steven M; Broffitt, Barbara; Warren, John J; Eichenberger-Gilmore, Julie M; Burns, Trudy L; Stumbo, Phyllis J

    2003-09-01

    Dental caries is a common, chronic disease of childhood. The impact of contemporary changes in beverage patterns, specifically decreased milk intakes and increased 100% juice and soda pop intakes, on dental caries in young children is unknown. We describe associations among caries experience and intakes of dairy foods, sugared beverages, and nutrients and overall diet quality in young children. Subjects (n = 642) are members of the Iowa Fluoride Study, a cohort followed from birth. Food and nutrient intakes were obtained from 3-day diet records analyzed at 1 (n = 636), 2 (n = 525), 3 (n = 441), 4 (n = 410), and 5 (n = 417) years and cumulatively for 1 through 5 (n = 396) years of age. Diet quality was defined by nutrient adequacy ratios (NARs) and calculated as the ratio of nutrient intake to Recommended Dietary Allowance/Adequate Intake. Caries were identified during dental examinations by 2 trained and calibrated dentists at 4 to 7 years of age. Examinations were visual, but a dental explorer was used to confirm questionable findings. Caries experience was assessed at both the tooth and the surface levels. Data were analyzed using SAS. The Wilcoxon rank sum test was used to compare food intakes, nutrient intakes, and NARs of subjects with and without caries experience. Logistic and Tobit regression analyses were used to identify associations among diet variables and caries experience and to develop models to predict caries experience. Not all relationships between food intakes and NARs and caries experience were linear; therefore, categorical variables were used to develop models to predict caries experience. Food and beverage intakes were categorized as none, low, and high intakes, and NARs were categorized as inadequate, low adequate, and high adequate. Subjects with caries had lower median intakes of milk at 2 and 3 years of age than subjects without caries. Subjects with caries had higher median intakes of regular (sugared) soda pop at 2, 3, 4, and 5 years

  20. Comparison of dental hygienists and dentists: clinical and teledentistry identification of dental caries in children.

    PubMed

    Daniel, S J; Kumar, S

    2016-06-03

    Teledentistry is an effective and efficient means of increasing access to care for screening, referral and treatment. Practice restrictions and the undocumented concern that dental hygienists do not have the skill or knowledge to identify or diagnose a carious lesion impede access to care. This study compared the identification of dental caries by both dental hygienists and dentists and by both clinical and teledentistry methods. A sample of 82 children 4-7 years of age attending an elementary school in Memphis, Tennessee, was selected for the study. Two clinical examiners, a dental hygienist and dentist, independently examined and charted dental caries and existing restorations separately on the children. Two teledentistry examiners, a dental hygienist and dentist, independently reviewed and charted dental caries and restorations from photographs obtained with the iPhone 4S. Dental charts for each child were converted to a decayed filled surface (DFS) score resulting in four scores for analyses. Seventy-eight children met the inclusion criteria. The clinical dentist's and clinical dental hygienist's DFS scores resulted in Spearman's correlation of r = 0.99. Friedman's analysis of the four examiners' DFS scores found no significant difference (P > 0.10) between the teledentistry dental hygienist's and the clinical dentist's scores. A dental hygienist can identify dental caries in children 4-7 years of age from photographs as accurately as a dentist in the clinical setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Dental fluorosis, dental caries, and quality of life factors among schoolchildren in a Colombian fluorotic area.

    PubMed

    Tellez, M; Santamaria, R M; Gomez, J; Martignon, S

    2012-03-01

    To assess dental fluorosis, dental caries and quality of life factors associated with dental fluorosis among schoolchildren living in a Colombian endemic dental fluorosis area. 110 12-year olds were visually examined for dental caries (ICDAS) and dental fluorosis (TF) and a self-administered quality of life and fluorosis questionnaire was applied. The prevalence of dental fluorosis reached 100% in this sample with most children falling within the TF 3 severity category. Varying degrees of severity were observed as follows for TF 1 to 6: 1%, 16%, 62%, 16%, 4%, 2%. The prevalence of caries experience (DF-S2) was 54%. The DF-S2 mean was 4.4 (sd 4.3). The principal contributor to the DF-S2 outcome was the decayed component. When initial caries lesions were included (ICDAS-scores 1-3) the mean DF-S1,2 increased to 10 (sd 5.1). The association between fluorosis and dental caries was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Children not only detected the presence of something abnormal in their teeth but also reported feeling embarrassed, and worried due to their dental appearance. Almost 60% of the children reported avoiding smiling because of their teeth's appearance. The high prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries combined with the schoolchildren's negative perception about their dental health reflects the need to propose effective dental public health policies to regulate multiple exposures to fluoride at an early age, and to improve health outcomes in a highly vulnerable population.

  2. Contemporary fluid intake and dental caries in Australian children.

    PubMed

    Lee, J G; Brearley Messer, L J

    2011-06-01

    In Australia, caries experience of 6-year-old and 12-year-old children has increased since the mid to late 1990s. Previously, caries rates had declined, attributable to community water fluoridation. The recent caries increase has been attributed speculatively to changes in fluid intake, including increased consumption of sweet drinks and bottled waters. Increasing urbanization and globalization have altered children's diets worldwide, promoting availability and access to processed foods and sweet drinks. Studies in Australia and internationally have demonstrated significant associations between sweet drink intake and caries experience. Despite widespread fluoride availability in contemporary Australian society, the relationship between sugar consumption and caries development continues and restricting sugar intake remains key to caries prevention. Caries risk assessment should be included in treatment planning for all children; parents should be advised of their child's risk level and given information on oral health promotion. Readily-implemented caries risk assessment tools applicable to parents and clinicians are now available. Public health information should increase awareness that consuming sweet drinks can have deleterious effects on the dentition as well as the potential for promoting systemic disease. Restricting sales of sweet drinks and sweet foods and providing healthy food and drinks for purchase in schools is paramount. © 2011 Australian Dental Association.

  3. Fluoride supplements, dental caries and fluorosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amid I; Hasson, Hana

    2008-11-01

    In this review, the authors examine evidence regarding the effectiveness of fluoride supplements in preventing caries and their association with dental fluorosis. Using tested search filters, the authors searched MEDLINE, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, OVID Evidence-based Reviews and EMBASE. The authors agreed on the inclusion of 20 reports from 12 trials that met defined criteria. They also included five studies published since 1997 regarding the association between dental fluorosis and supplements. Eleven of the reports evaluated dosage schedules similar to that recommended by the American Dental Association. One potentially highly biased study of primary teeth of children during the first three years of life reported a 47.2 percent reduction in dental caries experience. Investigators in one trial involving 3- to 6-year-old children found a 43.0 percent difference, and another trial of children in this age group did not find a significant benefit. Researchers in several studies involving older children detected a significant reduction in caries increments in permanent teeth with the use of fluoride supplements. Fifteen of the studies had withdrawal rates of 30 percent or higher. All of the five included studies that evaluated the association between use of fluoride supplements and dental fluorosis found that use of the supplements increased the risk of mild-to-moderate fluorosis. There is weak and inconsistent evidence that the use of fluoride supplements prevents dental caries in primary teeth. There is evidence that such supplements prevent caries in permanent teeth. Mild-to-moderate dental fluorosis is a significant side effect. The current recommendations for use of fluoride supplements during the first six years of life should be re-examined.

  4. Dental caries, its surface susceptibility and dental fluorosis in South India.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Shashidhar

    2005-12-01

    To correlate water fluoride levels with dental caries and dental fluorosis in areas with different levels of fluoride in the drinking water and to establish the surface susceptibility of dental caries in an endemic fluoride area. 544 schoolchildren 12 to 15 years of age from the Davangere region of India were examined. The DMFS index was used to measure dental caries, which was further differentiated into smooth surface and pit and fissure lesions. Dean's index was used to diagnose dental fluorosis. Five villages with fluoride levels ranging from 0.43 ppm to 3.41 ppm were studied. There was a highly significant negative correlation (r = -0.16) between water fluoride levels and dental caries. Dental fluorosis increased from 16% at 0.43 ppm to 100% at 3.41 ppm. Pit and fissure lesions made up the vast majority of the lesions in all the villages and showed a decreasing trend with increasing fluoride levels, however no such trend was seen for smooth surface lesions. Water fluoride was an important factor responsible for the low caries prevalence. The prevalence of fluorosis and low caries even in low fluoride areas may point to a halo effect.

  5. Dental caries - not just holes in teeth! A perspective.

    PubMed

    Bowen, W H

    2016-06-01

    Cavitation in teeth results from a pathogenic process termed dental caries that has occurred on the tooth surface for weeks or even years. Accumulation of dental plaque (biofilm) on the tooth is usually the first manifestation of the disease. Although acid production is the immediate and proximal cause of dissolution of teeth; it is the milieu within which the acid is formed that should be of primary concern. Focusing on the 'critical pH' has detracted attention from the more biological aspects (biofilm formation) of dental caries. Dental caries is unique; it is a biological process occurring on essentially an inert surface. Investigation of the multitude of interactions occurring in plaque ranging from enamel interfaces to surfaces of bacteria and matrices poses challenges worthy of the best scientific minds. The mouth clearly offers unique opportunities to investigate the multi facets of biofilm formation in vivo, generating data that have relevance way beyond the mouth. Prevention of this ubiquitous disease, dental caries, continues to present serious challenges. The public health benefits of fluoride delivered in its various formats are well recognized. Nevertheless, additional preventive approaches are required. Overcoming the rapid clearance of agents from the mouth is particularly challenging. Building on the polymerizing capacity of glucosyltransferases it may be possible to incorporate a therapeutic agent into the matrix plaque, thereby delivering therapeutic agents precisely to where they are needed. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. A Review of Emerging Technologies for the Detection and Diagnosis of Dental Caries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    Selwitz et al, 2007). The disease state of dental caries is a progression or continuum of disease states with increasing severity ranging from sub...remineralization, and factors that contribute to potential reversal of caries. The bacteria essential to the disease process are identified as being... disease process (Featherstone, 1983). Prevalence and impact of dental caries Dental caries persists as one of the most prevalent chronic diseases

  7. Challenges of Iranian Adolescents for Preventing Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Fallahi, Arezoo; Ghofranipour, Fazlollah; Ahmadi, Fazlollah; Malekafzali, Beheshteh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral health plays a vital role in people’s general health and well-being. With regard to the costly treatments of oral diseases, preventive programs need to be designed for dental caries based on children’s perspectives. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to describe and explore challenges for caring dental health based on children’s perspectives. Patients and Methods: A qualitative design with content analysis approach was applied to collect and analyze the perspectives of students about factors influencing oral and dental care. Eighteen Iranian students in 8 guidance schools were chosen through the purposive sampling. Semi-structured interviews were held for data gathering. In order to support the validity and rigor of the data, different criteria such as acceptability, confirmability, and transferability were utilized. Results: During data analysis, four main themes developed: “barriers to dental health,” “maintaining dental health,” “uncertainty in decision-making” and “supportive factors”. “Uncertainty in decision-making” and “barriers to dental health” were the main challenges for preventing dental caries among adolescents. Conclusions: “Certainty in decision-making” to maintain dental health depends on overcoming the barriers of dental health. Further research is needed to confirm the findings of this study. PMID:25593720

  8. Parents' perception of dental caries in intellectually disabled children.

    PubMed

    Weckwerth, Solange Aparecida Modesto; Weckwerth, Giovana Maria; Ferrairo, Bunna Mota; Chicrala, Gabriela Moura; Ambrosio, Alexandre Macedo Natitucci; Toyoshima, Guilherme Hideki Lima; Bastos, José Roberto Magalhães; Pinto, Edu Cassiano; Velasco, Sofia Rafaela Maito; Bastos, Roosevelt Silva

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the parents' perception of dental caries in children with intellectual disability. This cross-sectional study was conducted with 6 to 14 years old schoolchildren: Group 1 (50 children diagnosed with intellectual disabilities) and Group 2 (50 children without it). The dental caries was assessed by the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for primary and permanent teeth. Parents' psychosocial perception was assessed by Early Childhood Oral Health Impact Scale (ECOHIS). Similar prevalence of caries free children was found between groups in both dentitions. In primary dentition the caries index was higher in Group 2, and the opposite occurred in permanent teeth. Group 1 presented higher impact (p < .05) in the dimension drinking, eating and pronunciation, whereas in Group 2 there was higher impact (p = .01) on pain, sleep, irritation, the smile and family finances. Findings showed significant impact of dental caries on parents' perception of the oral health related quality of life of children with intellectual disabilities. © 2016 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry.

  10. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries.

    PubMed

    Duijster, Denise; Verrips, G H W; van Loveren, Cor

    2014-06-01

    This study investigated the relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries. Further objectives were (i) to explore whether oral hygiene behaviours could account for a possible association between family functioning dimensions and childhood dental caries and (ii) to explore whether family functioning could mediate the relationship between sociodemographic factors and childhood dental caries. A random sample of 630 5- to 6-year-old children was recruited from six large paediatric dental centres in the Netherlands. Children's dmft scores were extracted from personal dental records. A parental questionnaire and the Gezinsvragenlijst (translation: Family Questionnaire) were used to collect data on sociodemographic characteristics, oral hygiene behaviours and family functioning. Family functioning was assessed on five dimensions: responsiveness, communication, organization, partner-relation and social network. Associations with dmft were analysed using multilevel modelling. Bivariate analysis showed that children from normal functioning families on the dimensions responsiveness, communication, organization and social network had significantly lower dmft scores compared with children from dysfunctional families. Poorer family functioning on all dimensions was associated with an increased likelihood of engaging in less favourable oral hygiene behaviours. Children with lower educated mothers, immigrant children and children of higher birth order were more likely to come from poorer functioning families. In multivariate analysis, organization remained a significant predictor of dmft after adjusting for the other family functioning dimensions and the mother's education level, but it lost statistical significance after adjustment for oral hygiene behaviours. A relationship between family functioning and childhood dental caries was found, which may have operated via oral hygiene behaviours. Family functioning modestly explained socioeconomic inequalities in

  11. [Effect of chewing sugar-free gum on dental caries].

    PubMed

    Szóke, Judit; Proskin, Howard M; Bánóczy, Jolán

    2002-02-01

    Previous in vivo studies have demonstrated that chewing sugar-free gum after eating reduces the development of dental caries. To investigate the extrapolation of these findings, a two-year clinical study was conducted on 547 schoolchildren in Budapest. Subjects in the "gum" (test) group were instructed to chew one stick of commercially available sorbitol-sweetened chewing gum for 15-20 minutes after meals, three times daily. The "control" group was not provided with chewing gum. After two years, excluding white spots, the "gum" group exhibited a 38.7% caries increment reduction compared to the "control" group. Including white spots, a corresponding 33.1% reduction was indicated. These results clearly suggest that even in a population with moderate caries prevalence and normal oral hygiene habits (including the use of fluoride dentifrices), an after-meal gum chewing regimen can significantly reduce the rate of caries development.

  12. The Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Dental Caries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, M. Lisa

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the development of tooth decay and the diet includes a multitude of variables other than sugar. However, the frequency with which food is consumed and its consistency or stickiness may be primary contributors to the development of dental caries. (JN)

  13. Preventing dental caries: part 2. Case studies in prevention.

    PubMed

    Blinkhorn, Anthony S; Davies, Robin M

    2013-12-01

    This article seeks to bring together the preventive messages given in Paper 1 and apply them to specific individual patients. The key elements are the appropriate advice on fluorides, fissure sealants, diet and formulating advice in terms of an individual's educational background. This article offers practical advice on the prevention of dental caries using individual patient-based scenarios.

  14. The Relationship Between Dietary Factors and Dental Caries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, M. Lisa

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between the development of tooth decay and the diet includes a multitude of variables other than sugar. However, the frequency with which food is consumed and its consistency or stickiness may be primary contributors to the development of dental caries. (JN)

  15. Managing dental caries in children in Turkey - a discussion paper

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background This paper describes the oral healthcare system and disease situation amongst children in Turkey. Considering the high prevalence and severity of dental caries, a proposal for improvement of oral health in this population group is formulated. Discussion A virtual absence of palliative, preventive and restorative care characterises juvenile oral healthcare in Turkey. Consequently, carious cavities remain untreated, which may lead to pain, discomfort and functional limitation and, further, may impact negatively upon general health and cognitive development. As a first step to controlling dental caries, a national health programme including promotional, preventive and minimal intervention approaches for managing dental caries is proposed. The pros and cons of community-oriented caries-preventive measures are discussed. Daily tooth brushing with fluoridated toothpaste at home, in mother- and child-care centres, kindergartens, and schools is highlighted. Summary The dental profession, government, university officials and other stakeholders need to meet and determine how best the oral health of children in Turkey can be improved. The present proposed plan is considered a starting point. PMID:19939240

  16. Overweight and dental caries: the association among German children.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Ghalib; Alkilzy, Mohammed; Feng, You-Shan; Splieth, Christian

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between iso-body mass index (iso-BMI) and both dental caries status and caries increment among German school children. Six hundred and ninety-four students (age range 9-12 years, mean 10.34 ± 0.56, 48% females) were recruited from the fifth grade of 18 primary schools. Weight, height, and oral health data number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) as well as parent/legal guardian questionnaire (measuring SES) were collected during school dental examination at baseline and after one and a half-year follow-up. The body mass index (BMI) was calculated using the international classification system for childhood overweight and obesity (iso-BMI). Statistical analyses were performed using Poisson regression models. Iso-BMI was significantly associated with dental caries prevalence and severity in the permanent dentition (P = 0.039). Low-normal weight children had a lower mean DMFT (0.56) than did overweight/obese children (0.70). In addition, a border-line significant association was found between overweight/obese children and caries increment (P = 0.055). Although iso-BMI was associated with dental caries prevalence and severity, the association between caries increment and iso-BMI did not reach a statistical significance. Overweight/obese children however acquired more additional carious lesions during the follow-up period than children with low-normal weight. © 2014 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Sense of coherence modifies the association between untreated dental caries and dental pain in low-social status women.

    PubMed

    da Silva, A Neiva; Vettore, M V

    2016-03-01

    Evidence of the link between sense of coherence (SOC), dental caries and dental pain is scarce. To explore the relationship of SOC and dental caries with dental pain prevalence in low-social status women. A cross-sectional study. A convenience sample of 190 women whose children attended a selected school in São João de Meriti, Brazil. Socioeconomic, demographic and oral health behaviour data were collected through interviews. SOC was assessed using the Antonovsky scale. Dental caries was evaluated through oral examinations. Multivariate logistic regression models were used to obtain Odds Ratio (OR) and 95% Confidence Intervals (CI). Dental pain in the past 6 months. Dental pain prevalence was 26% (95% CI 20, 33). DMFT and decayed teeth means were 14.3 (SD 7.2) and 2.4 (SD 2.6), respectively. The odds of having dental pain was higher for women with moderate dental caries and low SOC (OR 3.3, 95%CI 1.1, 9.3) and women with high caries and low SOC (OR 4.0, 95% CI 1.7, 9.5) compared with women with low caries and high SOC. Dental caries and lower SOC were factors associated with dental pain. SOC appeared to buffer the effect of dental caries on dental pain in women from low-socioeconomic status.

  18. Factors for determining dental anxiety in preschool children with severe dental caries.

    PubMed

    Abanto, Jenny; Vidigal, Evelyn Alvarez; Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Sá, Stella Núbia Coelho de; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2017-01-16

    The aim of this study was to assess the clinical and socioeconomic indicators associated with dental anxiety in preschool children with severe dental caries. A total of 100 children between 3 and 5 years of age were selected during a dental screening procedure. The selection criteria were having at least one tooth with dental caries and a visible pulpal involvement, ulceration, fistula, and abscess (PUFA) index of ≥1 in primary teeth. Before the clinical examination or any treatment procedure was performed, we evaluated the children's dental anxiety using the Facial Image Scale (FIS). Parents completed a questionnaire on socioeconomic conditions, which included the family structure, number of siblings, parental level of education, and family income. A dentist blinded to FIS and socioeconomic data performed the clinical examination. Poisson regressions associate clinical and socioeconomic conditions with the outcome. Most of the children (53%) experienced extensive dental caries (dmf-t ≥ 6), and all children had severe caries lesions, with a PUFA index of ≥1 in 41% and that of ≥2 in 59%. The multivariate adjusted model showed that older children (4-5-year old) experienced lower dental anxiety levels compared with younger children (3-year old) (RR = 0.35; 95%CI: 0.17-0.72 and RR = 0.18; 95%CI: 0.04-0.76, respectively), and children with three or more siblings were associated with higher levels of dental anxiety (RR = 2.27; 95%CI: 1.06-4.87). Older age is associated with low dental anxiety, and more number of siblings is associated with high dental anxiety in preschool children, whereas the severity or extent of dental caries is not associated with dental anxiety.

  19. Gene-environment Interactions in the Etiology of Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, G; Ermis, R B; Calapoglu, N S; Celik, E U; Türel, G Y

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease that can be conceptualized as an interaction between genetic and environmental risk factors. The aim of this study is to examine the effects of AMELX, CA6, DEFB1, and TAS2R38 gene polymorphism and gene-environment interactions on caries etiology and susceptibility in adults. Genomic DNA was extracted from the buccal mucosa, and adults aged 20 to 60 y were placed into 1 of 2 groups: low caries risk (DMFT ≤ 5; n = 77) and high caries risk (DMFT ≥ 14; n = 77). The frequency of AMELX (+522), CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) single-nucleotide polymorphisms was genotyped with the polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. Environmental risk factors examined in the study included plaque amount, toothbrushing frequency, dietary intake between meals, saliva secretion rate, saliva buffer capacity, mutans streptococci counts, and lactobacilli counts. There was no difference between the caries risk groups in relation to AMELX (+522) polymorphism (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). The distribution of CA6 genotype and allele frequencies in the low caries risk group did not differ from the high caries risk group (χ(2) test, P > 0.05). Polymorphism of DEFB1 (G-20A) was positively associated, and TAS2R38 (A49P) negatively associated, with caries risk (χ(2) test, P = 0.000). There were significant differences between caries susceptibility and each environmental risk factor, except for the saliva secretion rate (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.000). Based on stepwise multiple linear regression analyses, dental plaque amount, lactobacilli count, age, and saliva buffer capacity, as well as DEFB1 (G-20A), TAS2R38 (A49P), and CA6 (T55M) gene polymorphism, explained a total of 87.8% of the variations in DMFT scores. It can be concluded that variation in CA6 (T55M), DEFB1 (G-20A), and TAS2R38 (A49P) may be associated with caries experience in Turkish adults with a high level of dental plaque, lactobacilli count

  20. Impact of dental caries on preschool children's quality of life: an update.

    PubMed

    Bönecker, Marcelo; Abanto, Jenny; Tello, Gustavo; Oliveira, Luciana Butini

    2012-01-01

    The literature reports that dental caries can cause functional, physical and aesthetic impairment, often with repercussions on children's general health at an early age. Moreover, recent studies have investigated how caries lesions can compromise children's quality of life. This paper aims to describe the current situation of dental caries prevalence in children and how this oral health disease can impact their quality of life.

  1. Caries Experience Evidenced in Children having Dental Fluorosis

    PubMed Central

    A, Tuli; U, Rehani; A, Aggrawal

    2009-01-01

    Background and objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in children aged 8-13 years having dental fluorosis and to determine the correlation between the grades of dental fluorosis and caries. Material and methods: 451 school children in the age group of 8-13 years were selected for the study and were divided into six age groups. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to Dean’s criteria Index of fluorosis, and dental caries according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by DMFT index. Results: The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of grade 2 fluorosis was the highest and grade 5 fluorosis was the lowest in all the age groups. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in the age group between 12-13 years followed by the age group between 13-14 years. The overall DMFT increased as the age of the children increased in the different age groups. The DMFT increased as the severity of fluorosis increased upto grade 2 and then decreased from grade 3 to grade 5. PMID:25206108

  2. Indigenous Australian dental health: a brief review of caries experience.

    PubMed

    Martin-Iverson, N; Pacza, T; Phatouros, A; Tennant, M

    2000-03-01

    The indigenous community in Australia is an at risk population for oral diseases such as dental caries. The majority of communities are isolated and dental services in these areas are limited. Oral hygiene standards are poor and this combined with a diet rich in refined carbohydrates has led to high incidences of dental caries. In addition, diabetes, which is related to obesity (and a diet high in sugar and fat) has been linked to increases in oral disease. Caries prevalence was found to be low in areas where fluoridation levels in the water were high. The fact that the fluoride supplementation appears to improve oral health to a significant degree suggests that implementation of fluoride treatment programmes for school children and, where viable, fluoridation of water sources would be appropriate. In addition, dental education programmes should receive high priority. As with the rest of the community, these preventive measures will result in less need for emergency dental treatment in the future, better oral health for the community and reduced financial burden on the State. It is under these circumstances that oral health planners and providers must, in consultation with the relevant community representatives, develop appropriate mechanisms to address the needs of this group. The development of strategies that integrate with the plethora of general health strategies currently being implemented is just one means of achieving improved oral health outcomes for indigenous Australians.

  3. Caries Experience Evidenced in Children having Dental Fluorosis.

    PubMed

    A, Tuli; U, Rehani; A, Aggrawal

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of caries in children aged 8-13 years having dental fluorosis and to determine the correlation between the grades of dental fluorosis and caries. 451 school children in the age group of 8-13 years were selected for the study and were divided into six age groups. The children were assessed for dental fluorosis according to Dean's criteria Index of fluorosis, and dental caries according to WHO basic survey guidelines. The overall oral health status of the child was assessed by DMFT index. The results of the present study revealed that the prevalence of grade 2 fluorosis was the highest and grade 5 fluorosis was the lowest in all the age groups. Number of children having dental fluorosis was highest in the age group between 12-13 years followed by the age group between 13-14 years. The overall DMFT increased as the age of the children increased in the different age groups. The DMFT increased as the severity of fluorosis increased upto grade 2 and then decreased from grade 3 to grade 5.

  4. [Prophylaxis of dental caries using sugar substitutes].

    PubMed

    Eberle, G

    1984-12-01

    Among the three measures, which are capable of producing a preventive effect against caries only when applied combined, i.e. adequate fluoride supply, proper mouth hygiene and healthy nutrition, the latter is dealt with in greater detail. The use of sugar substitutes is discussed under the aspects of caries prevention, substitute composition and production technology as well as from a medical point of view. Among the presently available sugar substitutes with nutritive value are mentioned Xylite, Lycasine, Mannite, Sorbite, Palatinite, the non-calorific substitutes such as the natural Aspartame as well as the synthetic sweetening agents Saccharine and Cyclamate. The possibilities and limitations of using these sugar substitutes in the prevention of caries in adults and children are presented.

  5. Nanotechnology-based restorative materials for dental caries management.

    PubMed

    Melo, Mary A S; Guedes, Sarah F F; Xu, Hockin H K; Rodrigues, Lidiany K A

    2013-08-01

    Nanotechnology has been applied to dental materials as an innovative concept for the development of materials with better properties and anticaries potential. In this review we discuss the current progress and future applications of functional nanoparticles incorporated in dental restorative materials as useful strategies to dental caries management. We also overview proposed antimicrobial and remineralizing mechanisms. Nanomaterials have great potential to decrease biofilm accumulation, inhibit the demineralization process, to be used for remineralizing tooth structure, and to combat caries-related bacteria. These results are encouraging and open the doors to future clinical studies that will allow the therapeutic value of nanotechnology-based restorative materials to be established. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The relationship of dental caries and dental fear in Malaysian adolescents: a latent variable approach

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To investigate the role of geography (place of residence) as a moderator in the relationship between dental caries disease and treatment experience and dental fear in 16-year-olds living in Malaysia. Methods A multi-stage-stratified sampling method was employed. Five hundred and three, 16-year-olds from 6 government secondary schools participated in this study. The questionnaire examined participants’ demographic profile and assessed their dental fear using the Dental Fear Survey (DFS). The clinical examination consisted of the DMFT as the outcome measure of dental caries disease and treatment experience by a single examiner (ICC = 0.98). Structural equation modelling inspected the relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience. Results The mean DMFT was 2.76 (SD 3.25). The DT, MT and FT components were 0.64 (SD 1.25), 0.14 (SD 0.56) and 1.98 (SD 2.43) respectively. Rural compared with urban adolescents had significantly greater mean numbers of decayed and missing teeth. The mean DFS score was 40.8 (SD 12.4). Rural compared with urban adolescents had significantly higher mean scores for physical symptoms of dental fear. The correlation between dental fear (DFS) and dental caries disease and treatment experience (DMFT) was 0.29, p < 0.0001. The structural equation model fitted the raw data well (χ2 = 9.20, df = 8, p = 0.34). All components of DMFT were closely associated in equal strength to the unidimensional hypothetical latent variable of dental caries disease and treatment experience. The strength of the relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience varied in accordance with place of residence. Conclusion In conclusion a relationship between dental fear and dental caries disease and treatment experience was shown to exist in 16-year-old adolescents living in Malaysia. This study showed that the rural–urban dichotomy acted as a moderator upon this

  7. Measuring quality of dental care: Caries prevention services for children.

    PubMed

    Herndon, Jill Boylston; Tomar, Scott L; Catalanotto, Frank A; Rudner, Nancy; Huang, I-Chan; Aravamudhan, Krishna; Shenkman, Elizabeth A; Crall, James J

    2015-08-01

    The authors conducted a study to validate the following 3 evidence-based, process-of-care quality measures focused on dental caries prevention for children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries: sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds, sealants for 10- to 14-year-olds, and topical fluoride. Using evidence-based guidelines, the Dental Quality Alliance developed measures for implementation with administrative data at the plan and program levels. To validate the measures, the authors used data from the Florida and Texas Medicaid programs and Children's Health Insurance Programs and from national commercial dental benefit plans. Data were extracted from 414 randomly selected dental office records to validate the use of administrative data to accurately calculate the measures. The authors also assessed statistically significant variations in overall measure performance. Agreement between administrative data and dental records was 95% for sealants (κ = 0.82) and 90% for topical fluoride (κ = 0.78). Sensitivity and specificity were 90.7% and 88.5% for topical fluoride and 77.8% and 98.8% for sealants, respectively. Variation in overall measure performance was greatest for topical fluoride (χ(2) = 5,887.1; P < .01); 18% to 37% of children with an elevated risk of experiencing caries received at least 2 topical fluoride applications during the reporting year. Although there was greater variation in performance for sealants for 6- to 9-year-olds (range, 21.0-31.3%; χ(2) = 548.6; P < .01) compared with sealants for 10- to 14-year-olds (range, 8.4-11.1%; χ(2) = 22.7; P < .01), overall sealant placement rates were lower for 10- to 14-year-olds. These evidence-based, caries prevention process-of-care quality measures can be implemented feasibly and validly using administrative claims data. The measures can be used to assess, monitor, and improve the proportion of children with an elevated risk of experiencing dental caries who receive evidence-based caries prevention

  8. [Dental caries and early childhood development: a pilot study].

    PubMed

    Núñez, F Loreto; Sanz, B Javier; Mejía, L Gloria

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the association between dental caries and early childhood development in 3-year-olds from Talca, Chile. A pilot study with a convenience sample of 3-year-olds from Talca (n = 39) who attend public healthcare centers. Child development was measured by the Psychomotor Development Index (PDI), a screening tool used nationally among pre-school children to assess language development, fine motor skills and coordination areas. Dental caries prevalence was evaluated by decayed, missing, filled teeth (DFMT) and decayed, missing, filled tooth surfaces (DFMS) ceo-d and ceo-s indexes. The children were divided into two groups according to the PDIscore: those with a score of 40 or more were considered developmentally normal (n = 32), and those with a score below 40 were considered as having impaired development (n = 7). The severity of caries (DMFT) was negatively correlated with PDI (r = -0.82), and children with the lowest TEPSI score had the highest DFMT values. The average DMFT in children with normal development was 1.31, and 3.57 for those with impaired development. This pilot study indicates that the severity of dental caries is correlated with early childhood development. Copyright © 2015. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U.

  9. Hyperspectral laser-induced autofluorescence imaging of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentine and pulp. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Laser induced autofluorescence was shown to be a useful method for early detection of demineralization. The existing studies involved either a single point spectroscopic measurements or imaging at a single spectral band. In the case of spectroscopic measurements, very little or no spatial information is acquired and the measured autofluorescence signal strongly depends on the position and orientation of the probe. On the other hand, single-band spectral imaging can be substantially affected by local spectral artefacts. Such effects can significantly interfere with automated methods for detection of early caries lesions. In contrast, hyperspectral imaging effectively combines the spatial information of imaging methods with the spectral information of spectroscopic methods providing excellent basis for development of robust and reliable algorithms for automated classification and analysis of hard dental tissues. In this paper, we employ 405 nm laser excitation of natural caries lesions. The fluorescence signal is acquired by a state-of-the-art hyperspectral imaging system consisting of a high-resolution acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and a highly sensitive Scientific CMOS camera in the spectral range from 550 nm to 800 nm. The results are compared to the contrast obtained by near-infrared hyperspectral imaging technique employed in the existing studies on early detection of dental caries.

  10. Assessing risk factors for dental caries: a statistical modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Trottini, Mario; Bossù, Maurizio; Corridore, Denise; Ierardo, Gaetano; Luzzi, Valeria; Saccucci, Matteo; Polimeni, Antonella

    2015-01-01

    The problem of identifying potential determinants and predictors of dental caries is of key importance in caries research and it has received considerable attention in the scientific literature. From the methodological side, a broad range of statistical models is currently available to analyze dental caries indices (DMFT, dmfs, etc.). These models have been applied in several studies to investigate the impact of different risk factors on the cumulative severity of dental caries experience. However, in most of the cases (i) these studies focus on a very specific subset of risk factors; and (ii) in the statistical modeling only few candidate models are considered and model selection is at best only marginally addressed. As a result, our understanding of the robustness of the statistical inferences with respect to the choice of the model is very limited; the richness of the set of statistical models available for analysis in only marginally exploited; and inferences could be biased due the omission of potentially important confounding variables in the model's specification. In this paper we argue that these limitations can be overcome considering a general class of candidate models and carefully exploring the model space using standard model selection criteria and measures of global fit and predictive performance of the candidate models. Strengths and limitations of the proposed approach are illustrated with a real data set. In our illustration the model space contains more than 2.6 million models, which require inferences to be adjusted for 'optimism'.

  11. Dental caries and childhood obesity: analysis of food intakes, lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Costacurta, M; DiRenzo, L; Sicuro, L; Gratteri, S; De Lorenzo, A; Docimo, R

    2014-12-01

    The aims of this cross-sectional statistical study were to evaluate the association between obesity and dental caries and to assess the impact of food intake, oral hygiene and lifestyle on the incidence of dental caries in obese paediatric patients, analysed by Dual X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA). A sample of 96 healthy patients, aged between 6 and 11 years (mean age 8.58±1.43) was classified in relation to body composition assessment and McCarthy growth charts and cut- offs. Body composition analysis, to obtain body fat mass (FM) and body fat free mass (FFM) measurements, was determined by means of a DXA fan beam scanner. The subjects underwent dental examination to assess the dmft/DMFT, and completed a questionnaire on food intake, oral hygiene habits and lifestyle. The sample was subsequently subdivided into four groups: Group A (normal weight - caries-free), Group B (normal weight with caries), Group C (pre-obese/obese - caries-free), Group D (pre-obese/obese with caries). The statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 16; SPSS Inc., Chicago IL, USA). Spearman's correlation was performed to evaluate the correlation between dmft/DMFT and FM%. The chi-square test was performed to assess the categorical variables, while the non-parametric Kruskal Wallis test and the Mann Whitney test were employed for the quantitive variables. Statististical significance was set at a P-value of 0.05. The preobese-obese children had higher indexes of dental caries than normal weight subjects, both for deciduous teeth (dmft 2.5 ± 0.54 vs 1.4 ± 0.38; p=0.030) and permanent teeth (DMFT 2.8 ± 0.24 vs 1.93 ± 1.79; p=0.039). The correlations between dmft/DMFT indexes and body composition parameters were analysed and a significant correlation between dmft/DMFT indexes and FM% was observed (p=0.031 for dmft, p=0.022 for DMFT). According to the data recorded, there was no statistically significant difference between Groups A, B, C and D in terms of food intake between

  12. [Validity of self-perceived dental caries as a diagnostic test and associated factors in adults].

    PubMed

    Haikal, Desirée Sant'Ana; Roberto, Luana Leal; Martins, Andréa Maria Eleutério de Barros Lima; Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista de; Ferreira, Efigênia Ferreira E

    2017-08-21

    This study aimed to analyze the validity of self-perceived dental caries and associated factors in a sample of 795 adults (35-44 years). The dependent variable was self-perceived dental caries, and the independent variables were combined in blocks. Three logistic models were performed: (1) all adults; (2) adults with a formal diagnosis of caries; and (3) adults without such caries. Self-perceived dental caries showed 77.7% sensitivity, 58% specificity, 65% accuracy, 52% positive predictive value, and 81% negative predictive value. In Model 1, self-perceived dental caries was associated with time of use of dental services, access to information, flossing, formal diagnosis of caries, self-perceived need for treatment, toothache, and dissatisfaction with oral health and general health. In Model 2, self-perceived dental caries was associated with time of use of dental services, self-perceived need for treatment, and dissatisfaction with oral health and general health. In Model 3, self-perceived dental caries was associated with time of use of dental services, access to information, flossing, self-perceived need for treatment, and dissatisfaction with oral health. Self-perceived dental caries showed limited utility as a diagnostic method.

  13. Conceptualization of dental caries by undergraduate dental students from the first to the last year.

    PubMed

    Ferreira-Nóbilo, Naiara de Paula; Sousa, Maria da Luz Rosário de; Cury, Jaime Aparecido

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries, still one of the most common diseases affecting people around the world, has a multifactorial nature encompassing necessary (biofilm accumulation), determinant (exposure to sugars and fluoride) and modulating factors (biological and social). The concepts about caries learned at dental schools may directly influence the conduct of the future dentists regarding the control and treatment of this disease. The aim of this study was to determine the concept that students at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, have about dental caries. In this cross-sectional descriptive study, 274 students answered the discursive question "Conceptualize dental caries". Students' answers were analyzed by a content analysis technique that allowed the creation of response categories and classification of the concepts in categories. Frequencies were expressed as absolute numbers and percentages. Differences between the responses according to the students' class years were tested by the chi-square test. Differences with p<0.05 were considered statistically significant. The response categories were: biological concept (53.6%), restrictive multifactorial concept (12.1%), comprehensive multifactorial concept (8.1%), transmissibility concept (15.8%), and other (10.4%). Differences in response category frequencies were seen between the class years (p<0.001). There was no consensus on the disease definition, although students predominantly had a biological concept of dental caries.

  14. The International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS): an integrated system for measuring dental caries.

    PubMed

    Ismail, A I; Sohn, W; Tellez, M; Amaya, A; Sen, A; Hasson, H; Pitts, N B

    2007-06-01

    This paper describes early findings of evaluations of the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) conducted by the Detroit Center for Research on Oral Health Disparities (DCR-OHD). The lack of consistency among the contemporary criteria systems limits the comparability of outcomes measured in epidemiological and clinical studies. The ICDAS criteria were developed by an international team of caries researchers to integrate several new criteria systems into one standard system for caries detection and assessment. Using ICDAS in the DCR-OHD cohort study, dental examiners first determined whether a clean and dry tooth surface is sound, sealed, restored, crowned, or missing. Afterwards, the examiners classified the carious status of each tooth surface using a seven-point ordinal scale ranging from sound to extensive cavitation. Histological examination of extracted teeth found increased likelihood of carious demineralization in dentin as the ICDAS codes increased in severity. The criteria were also found to have discriminatory validity in analyses of social, behavioral and dietary factors associated with dental caries. The reliability of six examiners to classify tooth surfaces by their ICDAS carious status ranged between good to excellent (kappa coefficients ranged between 0.59 and 0.82). While further work is still needed to define caries activity, validate the criteria and their reliability in assessing dental caries on smooth surfaces, and develop a classification system for assessing preventive and restorative treatment needs, this early evaluation of the ICDAS platform has found that the system is practical; has content validity, correlational validity with histological examination of pits and fissures in extracted teeth; and discriminatory validity.

  15. Progress toward understanding the contribution of alkali generation in dental biofilms to inhibition of dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ya-Ling; Nascimento, Marcelle; Burne, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Alkali production by oral bacteria is believed to have a major impact on oral microbial ecology and to be inibitory to the initiation and progression of dental caries. A substantial body of evidence is beginning to accumulate that indicates the modulation of the alkalinogenic potential of dental biofilms may be a promising strategy for caries control. This brief review highlights recent progress toward understanding molecular genetic and physiologic aspects of important alkali-generating pathways in oral bacteria, and the role of alkali production in the ecology of dental biofilms in health and disease. PMID:22996271

  16. Use of fluorides in dental caries management.

    PubMed

    Chu, C H; Mei, May L; Lo, Edward C M

    2010-01-01

    Fluoride is commonly and widely used to prevent and even arrest caries. The clinical effects of fluorides depend on the chemical compounds utilized and the methods used to apply the fluoride ion to the surface of the tooth. Fluorosis has been reported in conjunction with increased doses of fluoride. A coordinated approach to fluoride delivery is essential to avoid the risk of fluorosis.

  17. Association between dental caries and body mass in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Pikramenou, V; Dimitraki, D; Zoumpoulakis, M; Verykouki, E; Kotsanos, N

    2016-06-01

    This was to explore the association between dental caries and body mass index (BMI) by conducting a cross-sectional study of a sample of preschool children from a major Greek city. The sample consisted of 2180 children aged 2.5-5.9 years from 33 private day care centres of Thessaloniki. The examinations were performed on site in ample day light by one examiner using disposable dental mirrors and a penlight. Oral examinations included recording of dental caries by dmfs index. Subject's height and weight were measured using a portable measuring unit and a digital scale, respectively. The overall prevalence of underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese children in each BMI-based weight category was 11.8, 72.2, 12.8, and 3.2 %, respectively. The mean age of the total sample was 50.09 (±10.28) months, mean dmfs was 0.36 (±1.9) and the caries-free children were 90.0 %. Overweight children were 1.36 times and obese children 1.99 times more likely to have higher dmfs than normal weight children. The mean dmfs values of underweight children did not significantly differ than that of children with normal weight. The relatively higher dmfs of the obese and overweight children was mostly evident in the older (60-71 months) age group. Caries prevalence in this sample of Greek children attending private day care centres was low. Overweight and obese preschool children were at higher risk of dental caries than normal- and underweight children.

  18. Factors associated with dental caries in Brazilian children: a multilevel approach.

    PubMed

    Martins, M T; Sardenberg, F; Abreu, M H; Vale, M P; Paiva, S M; Pordeus, I A

    2014-08-01

    The aims of the present study were to assess caries experience among Brazilian children aged eight to 10 years and determine social factors of this disease, through a multilevel approach. This is a cross-sectional study in which a representative sample of 1204 eight-to-ten-year-old children were randomly selected from 19 public and private schools in the city of Belo Horizonte, Brazil. After formal authorization from the parents, the children were clinically examined at school by two calibrated examiners (Kappa=0.78). Individual socioeconomic status was determined using household income, number of residents in the home and parents'/caregivers' schooling. The social vulnerability index and type of school were used as contextual variables. The outcome variables were severity score of dental caries in permanent teeth (DMFT index), dental caries experience in permanent teeth (DMFT = 0 or ≠ 0), severity score of dental caries in primary teeth (dmft index) and dental caries experience in primary teeth (dmft = 0 or ≠ 0). The minority of children (37.2%) had dental caries experience. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney tests showed that age, parents'/caregivers' schooling, household income and type of school were associated with dental caries experience in permanent and primary teeth (P < 0.05). Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis tests and Spearman correlation coefficient showed that age, parents'/caregivers' schooling, household income, and type of school were associated with severity score of dental caries in permanent and primary teeth (P < 0.05). In multilevel approach, the individual variables, age and household income demonstrated association with dental caries experience and with severity score of dental caries in primary teeth (P < 0.05). Type of school was also associated with dental caries experience and with severity score of dental caries in these teeth (P < 0.05). In the Poisson multilevel approach, the analysis of the final estimation of variance components of the

  19. SCHOOL DIETARY HABITS AND INCIDENCE OF DENTAL CARIES.

    PubMed

    Monteagudo, Celia; Téllez, Francisco; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibañez-Peinado, Diana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima

    2015-07-01

    Introducción: los hábitos alimentarios saludables influyen sobre la salud oral. El tratamiento de la caries comprende la restauración dental con selladores y composites dentales, la mayoría con bisfenol A (BPA). Hipótesis: a) el desayuno y hábitos de higiene oral son factores importantes en el desarrollo de caries; b) el tratamiento de la caries con epoxirresinas conlleva riesgo de exposición oral a monómeros plásticos. Objetivo: relacionar la ingesta del desayuno y los hábitos de higiene oral con la caries dental y determinar la presencia de selladores/composites como fuentes potenciales de exposición al BPA. Métodos: se analizaron 582 niños/as en edad escolar de Granada (sur de España) de 7 años de edad (7,55 [0,64] años). Se empleó un cuestionario de frecuencia de consumo de alimentos, 3 recordatorios de 24 h y variables de estilo de vida, incluyendo la higiene bucodental. La calidad del desayuno fue estimada con el Breakfast Quality Index (BQI). Resultados: se detectó un 21,7% de caries. El valor medio del BQI fue 5,18 (1,29). El 24% de la población realizó un desayuno con alimentos ricos en azúcares simples (> 5% de la energía total), asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries en el análisis de regresión logística. El 35,8% de los participantes tomaron galletas; asociado significativamente con la frecuencia de caries. La ingesta de productos de panadería, cereales y lácteos mostró una asociación inversamente significativa con la frecuencia de caries. Conclusión: se necesitan más investigaciones para aclarar el papel de la dieta en la caries y el riesgo de exposición a xenobióticos estrogénicos, como el BPA.

  20. Incidence of dental caries in primary dentition and risk factors: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Corrêa-Faria, Patrícia; Paixão-Gonçalves, Suzane; Paiva, Saul Martins; Pordeus, Isabela Almeida

    2016-05-20

    The objectives of this prospective, longitudinal, population-based study were to estimate the incidence of dental caries in the primary dentition, identify risk factors and determine the proportion of children receiving dental treatment, through a two-year follow up. The first dental exam was conducted with 381 children aged one to five years, at health centers during immunization campaigns; 184 of them had dental caries and 197 had no caries experience. The second exam was carried out two years later at a nursery or at home with the same individuals who participated in the first exam. The diagnosis of dental caries was performed using the dmft criteria. Parents were interviewed regarding socioeconomic indicators. Descriptive, bivariate and adjusted Poisson regression analyses were performed. Among the 381 children, 234 were reexamined after two years (non-exposed: 139; exposed: 95). The overall incidence of dental caries was 46.6%. The greatest incidence of dental caries was found in the group of children with previous caries experience (61.1%). Among the children without dental caries in the first exam, 36.7% exhibited caries in the second exam. The majority of children (72.6%) received no treatment for carious lesions in the two-year interval between examinations. Children with previous dental caries (RR: 1.52, 95%CI: 1.12-2.05) had a greater risk of developing new lesions, compared with the children without previous dental caries. The incidence of dental caries was high and most of children's caries were untreated. Previous caries experience is a risk factor for developing new carious lesions in children.

  1. A Randomized Controlled Trial of Caries Prevention in Dental Practice.

    PubMed

    Tickle, M; O'Neill, C; Donaldson, M; Birch, S; Noble, S; Killough, S; Murphy, L; Greer, M; Brodison, J; Verghis, R; Worthington, H V

    2017-07-01

    We conducted a parallel group randomized controlled trial of children initially aged 2 to 3 y who were caries free, to prevent the children becoming caries active over the subsequent 36 mo. The setting was 22 dental practices in Northern Ireland, and children were randomly assigned by a clinical trials unit (CTU) (using computer-generated random numbers, with allocation concealed from the dental practice until each child was recruited) to the intervention (22,600-ppm fluoride varnish, toothbrush, 50-mL tube of 1,450 ppm fluoride toothpaste, and standardized, evidence-based prevention advice) or advice-only control at 6-monthly intervals. The primary outcome measure was conversion from caries-free to caries-active states. Secondary outcome measures were number of decayed, missing, or filled teeth (dmfs) in caries-active children, number of episodes of pain, and number of extracted teeth. Adverse reactions were recorded. Calibrated external examiners, blinded to the child's study group, assessed the status of the children at baseline and after 3 y. In total, 1,248 children (624 randomized to each group) were recruited, and 1,096 (549 intervention, 547 control) were included in the final analyses. Eighty-seven percent of intervention and 86% of control children attended every 6-mo visit ( P = 0.77). A total of 187 (34%) in the intervention group converted to caries active compared to 213 (39%) in the control group (odds ratio, 0.81; 95% confidence interval, 0.64-1.04; P = 0.11). Mean dmfs of those with caries in the intervention group was 7.2 compared to 9.6 in the control group ( P = 0.007). There was no significant difference in the number of episodes of pain between groups ( P = 0.81) or in the number of teeth extracted in caries-active children ( P = 0.95). Ten children in the intervention group had adverse reactions of a minor nature. This well-conducted trial failed to demonstrate that the intervention kept children caries free, but there was evidence that once

  2. Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Iheozor-Ejiofor, Zipporah; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya; O'Malley, Lucy; Clarkson, Jan E; Macey, Richard; Alam, Rahul; Tugwell, Peter; Welch, Vivian; Glenny, Anne-Marie

    2015-06-18

    Dental caries is a major public health problem in most industrialised countries, affecting 60% to 90% of school children. Community water fluoridation was initiated in the USA in 1945 and is currently practised in about 25 countries around the world; health authorities consider it to be a key strategy for preventing dental caries. Given the continued interest in this topic from health professionals, policy makers and the public, it is important to update and maintain a systematic review that reflects contemporary evidence. To evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on the prevention of dental caries.To evaluate the effects of water fluoridation (artificial or natural) on dental fluorosis. We searched the following electronic databases: The Cochrane Oral Health Group's Trials Register (to 19 February 2015); The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; Issue 1, 2015); MEDLINE via OVID (1946 to 19 February 2015); EMBASE via OVID (1980 to 19 February 2015); Proquest (to 19 February 2015); Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 19 February 2015); ZETOC Conference Proceedings (1993 to 19 February 2015). We searched the US National Institutes of Health Trials Registry (ClinicalTrials.gov) and the World Health Organization's WHO International Clinical Trials Registry Platform for ongoing trials. There were no restrictions on language of publication or publication status in the searches of the electronic databases. For caries data, we included only prospective studies with a concurrent control that compared at least two populations - one receiving fluoridated water and the other non-fluoridated water - with outcome(s) evaluated at at least two points in time. For the assessment of fluorosis, we included any type of study design, with concurrent control, that compared populations exposed to different water fluoride concentrations. We included populations of all ages that received fluoridated water (naturally or artificially

  3. Dental caries is associated with dental fear in childhood: findings from a birth cohort study.

    PubMed

    Torriani, D D; Ferro, R L; Bonow, M L M; Santos, I S; Matijasevich, A; Barros, A J; Demarco, F F; Peres, K G

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of dental fear in preschool children and to estimate its association with maternal and children characteristics. The study was nested in a population-based birth cohort from Pelotas, Brazil, started in 2004. A sample of 1,129 children aged 5 years was dentally examined, and their mothers were interviewed. Dental fear was investigated using a validated instrument through the question ‘Do you think that your child is afraid of going to the dentist?'. The possible answers were (1) ‘no', (2) ‘yes, a little', (3) ‘yes' and (4) ‘yes, a lot'. The outcome was dichotomized as ‘children without dental fear' (answers 1 and 2) and ‘children with dental fear' (answers 3 and 4). Exploratory variables included demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, maternal oral health status and maternal behaviors. The main explanatory variables were caries and dental pain. Data were analyzed using multivariable Poisson regression. The prevalence of dental fear was 16.8% (95% confidence interval 14.6-19.0). Multivariate analysis showed that the lower the family income at birth and the higher the severity of dental caries, the higher the prevalence of dental fear. Children who never visited the dentist and those who frequently experienced dental pain were positively associated with higher dental fear prevalence. Presence of dental caries and dental pain were associated with dental fear regardless of socioeconomic origin and lack of dental service use in childhood. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Risk factors and prevalence of dental fluorosis and dental caries in school children of North India.

    PubMed

    Plaka, Kavita; Ravindra, Khaiwal; Mor, Suman; Gauba, Krishan

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the prevalence of dental fluorosis, dental caries, and associated risk factors in the school children of district Fatehgarh Sahib, Punjab, India, using a cross-sectional study design. Oral health status of children aged between 8 and 15 years was assessed using World Health Organization (WHO) 2013 criteria. Dental fluorosis was assessed using Dean's index, and dental caries were recorded using decayed, missing, filled/decayed, extracted, filled (DMF/def) indices. Four hundred school children were examined, of which 207 were in the 8-11-year-old group and 193 were in the 12-15-year-old group. The overall prevalence of dental fluorosis was 4.1%, which might be linked to a high concentration of fluoride in drinking water at certain locations of rural Punjab. The prevalence of dental caries was 36.5% with a mean DMF score of 0.3 and def score of 0.6. Risk factors for dental caries include oral hygiene behavior and sugar consumption patterns. The study highlights the need to increase awareness about the oral health and hygiene among the school children in India.

  5. Diagnosing dental caries in populations with different levels of dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Nyvad, Bente; Machiulskiene, Vita; Fejerskov, Ole; Baelum, Vibeke

    2009-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the reliability of the Nyvad visual-tactile caries-diagnostic criteria when used among children who have been lifelong residents in areas with 'optimal' or low concentrations of fluoride in the drinking water. In each of two areas with drinking water fluoride concentrations of 0.3 and 1.1 ppm (0.3 and 1.1 mg/l) fluoride, respectively, 150 children were clinically examined twice, 2 wk apart, for dental fluorosis, using the Thylstrup-Fejerskov index (TF index), and for dental caries using the Nyvad visual-tactile caries criteria. The prevalence of dental fluorosis was 45% in the 1.1 ppm fluoride area and 21% in the 0.3 ppm fluoride area. When the results of the duplicate caries recordings were compared at the surface level, only minute differences were observed in the percentage agreement (91.7 and 90.7%, respectively) and in the kappa values (0.73 and 0.72, respectively). When individual DFS counts were compared across examinations using Bland-Altman plots and estimation of prediction intervals for the differences, we observed a greater variability of the differences between recordings among children from the low-fluoride area. Contrary to our expectations, a pronounced dental fluorosis background did not reduce the reliability of the caries recordings, which appeared to be slightly less reliable at very low levels of dental fluorosis.

  6. A regression model analysis of longitudinal dental caries data.

    PubMed

    Ringelberg, M L; Tonascia, J A

    1976-03-01

    Longitudinal data on caries experience were derived from the reexamination and interview of a cohort of 306 subjects with an average follow-up period of 33 years after the baseline examination. Analysis of the data was accomplished by the use of contingency tables utilizing enumeration statistics compared with a multiple regression analysis. The analyses indicated a strong association of caries experience at one point in time with the caries experience of that same person earlier in life. The regression model approach offers adjustment of any given independent variable for the effect of all other independent variables, providing a powerful means of bias reduction. The model is also useful in separating out the specific effect of an independent variable over and above the contribution of other variables. The model used explained 35% of the variability in the DMFS scores recorded. Similar models could be useful adjuncts in the analyses of dental epidemiologic data.

  7. Mothers' taste perceptions and their preschool children's dental caries experiences.

    PubMed

    Alanzi, Abrar; Minah, Glenn; Romberg, Elaine; Catalanotto, Frank; Bartoshuk, Linda; Tinanoff, Norman

    2013-01-01

    This study's purpose was to determine the caries experiences of preschool children whose mothers exhibited various genetic taste sensitivities to sweet foods, as reflected by their ability to taste the chemical 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP). A convenience sample of 38 healthy two- to three-year-old preschool children and their mothers was selected. Data regarding maternal demographics and children's oral hygiene practices were obtained by questionnaires. Children received oral clinical examinations. Mothers received a PROP test to determine their taste type. Twenty mothers were PROP supertasters (disliking sweet food), and 18 mothers were PROP nontasters (liking sweet food). Children of nontaster mothers were found to have a greater prevalence of dental caries and a greater number of decayed, missing, and filled surfaces (dmfs) of maxillary anterior teeth than those of supertaster mothers (P<.05). Children of nontaster mothers whose grandparents reportedly lived in the same household had increased dmfs vs. those without grandparents in the household (P<.05). The prevalence of dental caries in two- to three-year-old-children was significantly greater in children of mothers who couldn't taste the chemical 6-n-propylthiouracil than those of mothers who could. A mother's PROP type could be an important variable related to the caries experience of preschool children.

  8. Efficacy of Laser Fluorescence in Dental Caries Diagnosis: A Meta-Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    dental caries in a young adult population. Community Dent Oral Epi 2005; 33(2): 212-218. 22. Costa A, de Paula L, Bezerra A...iii     EFFICACY OF LASER FLUORESCENCE IN DENTAL CARIES DIAGNOSIS: A META-ANALYSIS by Derek T. Fagen LCDR...not be re-printed without the expressed written permission of the author. vi     ABSTRACT EFFICACY OF LASER FLUORESCENCE IN DENTAL CARIES

  9. Longitudinal Association between Obesity and Dental Caries in Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; McGrath, Colman P

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the longitudinal association between obesity and dental caries among adolescents. The present cohort study was conducted among a random sample of 12-year-old adolescents in Hong Kong. Two rounds of follow-up were performed when the participants were aged 15 and 18 years. A total of 668 participants were included at age 12 years, and 282 of them completed all 3 phases of data collection. Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip (WHR) ratio, waist-to-height ratio, and triceps skinfold thickness were measured as indices of obesity. Dental caries were assessed by the number of decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT). The percentage of underweight adolescents increased significantly from 6.0% to 23.8% during the observation period (P <.001). Body mass index, waist circumference, waist-to-hip ratio, and waist-to-height ratio were related to frequency of tooth brushing at age 15 and 18 years. The prevalence of dental caries was 25.5%, 53.2%, and 62.1% at 12, 15 and 18 years, respectively. At age 18 years, mean DMFT of participants whose WHR at age 15 years was below the median value was 0.707 times (ie, 29.3%) lower than the DMFT of those whose WHR was above the median (P = .028). Participants with greater DMFT at age 15 demonstrated significantly increased probability of having WHR above the median (OR 1.135; 95% CI 1.01-1.28; P = .041) at age 18 years. There is longitudinal association between central obesity and dental caries experience among adolescents aged 15-18 years. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Rampant dental caries in the treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Bassuk, E; Schoonover, S

    1978-02-01

    Dental Caries are an uncommon, but significant side effect of the tricyclic antidepressants and other anticholinergic psychoactive drugs. The authors trace the etiological aspects of this syndrome including the effects of depression and antidepressant medication on salivary properties. A typical clinical presentation of the syndrome is described and the side effect profiles of the various tricyclic antidepressants are compared. With this clinical background guidelines for the management of dry mouth are presented, emphasizing the importance of technical skill, safety and continuity of care.

  11. Assessment of dental-caries using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jihoon; Baek, Jae H.; Choi, Eun S.; Ryu, Seon Y.; Chang, Ju-wan; Lee, Chang S.; Lee, Byeong H.

    2006-02-01

    We employed OCT imaging technique to study the human teeth infected with the caries lesion in fit and fissure. A time domain OCT system using a rapid-scanning optical delay line enabled high speed imaging of extracted teeth. The OCT images presented the morphological feature and caries-involved area of the dental structure with a high resolution of ~14 μm. The OCT images could be utilized to diagnose the disease, while a signal along the axial direction could provide quantitative analysis of the disease based on the reflectivity differences in the specimen. We investigated the influence of caries in human teeth with several imaging tools such as light illuminating exam, digital intra-oral radiography and electron probe micro analyzer, which provided the distributions of chemical compositions, mainly calcium and phosphate in hard tissues. The biochemical changes acquired from EPMA and the morphological features acquired from OCT in the early stage of caries were compared and analyzed to present more objectively practical index for translating the degree of caries.

  12. Topical fluoride for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Miller, Faith Y; Campus, Guglielmo; Giuliana, Giovanna; Piscopo, Maria R; Pizzo, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    The use of topically applied fluoride has been widely researched as a means to reduce the risk of dental caries in conjunction with other treatment modalities (mechanical oral hygiene, dietary control, antimicrobial intervention, pit and fissure sealants). There is overwhelming evidence that reports not only the significance and importance of the use of fluoride as a caries-preventive agent, but also how safe fluoride application is when used appropriately, particularly in higher risk individuals and populations. This paper reviews the caries-protective benefits of topical fluoride application in children and adolescents, with an emphasis on the clinical efficacy and safety of the vehicles by which fluoride is topically delivered. Fluoride toothpaste represents today the most cost-effective fluoride-delivery system in the oral cavity and its use should be the centerpiece in all caries-preventive strategies. On the other hand, mouthrinses, gels and varnishes currently represent adjuncts to toothpaste use and should be targeted towards individuals and groups at high risk of caries.

  13. Diagnosis of dental caries using quantitative light-induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaechi, Bennett T.; Higham, Susan M.

    2001-10-01

    Current dental diagnostic methods can detect caries but cannot quantify the mineral status of the lesion. Quantitative Light-induced Fluorescence (QLF) measures the percentage fluorescence radiance change of demineralised enamel with respect to surround sound enamel, and related it directly to the amount of mineral lost during demineralisation. Demineralisation of teeth to produce caries-like lesions and the subsequent remineralisation of the lesions were monitored quantitatively and longitudinally with QLF. The influence of factors such as presence of plaque or saliva, lesion staining, lesion magnification, tooth thickness and developmental hypomineralisation, on the reproducibility of QLF imaging and analysis were investigated, Results showed that the integrated fluorescence change (hence the mineral loss) increased linearly with demineralisation time and decreased with increasing remineralisation time. Caries detection was limited by saliva or plaque, but enhanced by staining. QLF could not discriminate between developmental hypomineralisation and caries. Neither the variation in tooth thickness nor lesion magnification within the limit of a sharp image made a significant difference in QLF analysis. It was concluded that QLF could detect and quantitatively monitor the mineral changes in an incipient caries on a longitudinal basis, however detection may be limited by the presence of saliva or plaque or enhanced by staining.

  14. Dental caries experience in young Australian Army recruits 2008.

    PubMed

    Hopcraft, M S; Yapp, K E; Mahoney, G; Morgan, M V

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies have shown a substantial decline in caries experience in Australian Army recruits between 1996 and 2002-2003, and in Australian adults between 1987-1988 and 2004-2006. However, studies in children have reported an increasing trend in caries experience between 1998 and 2002. The aim of this study was to investigate caries experience in Australian Army recruits in 2008. A cross-sectional study involving 1084 Australian Army recruits was conducted from January to May 2008. Data were obtained from a clinical dental examination with bitewing radiographs, and a questionnaire elicited socio-demographic data and history on lifetime exposure to fluoridated drinking water. Mean DMFT scores were 3.16, 4.08, 5.16 and 7.11 for recruits aged 17-20, 21-25, 26-30 and 31-35 years, respectively. Recruits with a lifetime exposure to fluoridated drinking water had a mean DMFT of 3.02, while recruits with no exposure had a mean DMFT of 3.87. Caries experience in Australian Army recruits aged 17-25 years increased between 2002-2003 and 2008. Recruits with lifetime exposure to fluoridated drinking water had 25 per cent less caries experience compared with recruits who had no exposure to fluoridated drinking water after adjusting for the effects of age, gender, education and socio-economic status.

  15. Prevalence of candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesion of early childhood caries (ECC) according to sampling site

    PubMed Central

    Ghasempour, Maryam; Sefidgar, Seyed Ali Asghar; Eyzadian, Haniyeh; Gharakhani, Samaneh

    2011-01-01

    Background: Candida albicans may have cariogenic potential but its role in caries etiology has not been established. The aim of this study was to determine candida albicans in supragingival dental plaque and infected dentine of cervical and proximal in early childhood caries (ECC). Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 6o children aged 2-5 years, which were divided into 3 groups: children with at least one cervical caries; children with at least one proximal caries and caries-free. The infected dentine was collected from cervical and proximal caries lesions and plaque samples were collected from the three groups in order to compare the frequency of candida albicans in the collected sites. All samples were cultured in Sabouraud and CHROMagar medium and the cases that were positive for candida albicans were cultured in germ tube. Data were collected and analyzed. Results: The mean age of the children was 3.9 years. From 100 samples, candida albicans samples were isolated in 55%, mold fungi were found in 29% cases and there was no fungal growth in 16% of the samples. In plaque samples, candida albicans were found in 15% of caries-free samples, 20% of the proximal and 80% of the cervical caries. In samples extracted from the caries, candida albicans were found in 60% of the proximal and 100% of the cervical caries. Mothers with university educational level had children with more cervical decays, caries free and proximal caries, respectively. Conclusion: The results showed that prevalence of Candida albicans in dental plaque and caries lesions of children with early childhood caries were relatively high and the prevalence was higher in cervical caries group. PMID:24551436

  16. [A socioeconomic classification and the discussion related to prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis].

    PubMed

    Meneghim, Marcelo de Castro; Kozlowski, Fábio Carlos; Pereira, Antonio Carlos; Ambrosano, Gláucia Maria Bovi; Meneghim, Zuleica M de A Pedroso

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between a socioeconomic classification model and prevalence of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Piracicaba, Sâo Paulo, Brazil. For this classification five indicators were used (family monthly income, number of residents in the same household, parents' formal educational level, type of housing and occupation of person responsible for the family). A scoring system was used in order to arrange in a hierarchy, 812 12 year old school children distributed between six different social classes. Volunteers were examined in the school's back patio under natural light with a dental mirror, by two examiners calibrated for DMFT index (dental caries) and T-F (dental fluorosis). The qui-square test (p<0.01) was used in the statistical analysis for the association of DMFT and the dental fluorosis and between the socioeconomic variable and the proposed social classes. The DMFT average was 1.7, while 31.4%, of the children had dental fluorosis (T-Fe"1). With respect to socioeconomic class a statistically significant association was only verified with dental caries.

  17. Lab-Test® 4: Dental caries and bacteriological analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cura, Francesca; Palmieri, Annalisa; Girardi, Ambra; Martinelli, Marcella; Scapoli, Luca; Carinci, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common infectious ultifactorial diseases worldwide, characterized by the progressive demineralization of the tooth, following the action of bacterial acid metabolism. The main factors predisposing the onset of the carious process are: 1) the presence of bacterial species able to lower the pH until critical values of 5.5, 2) the absence of adequate oral hygiene, 3) an inefficient immune response anti-caries, 4) the type of alimentary diet and 5) the structure of the teeth. Among the 200 bacterial species isolated from dental plaque the most pathogenic for dental caries are: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomices viscusus and Bifidobacterium dentium. Our laboratory (LAB® s.r.l., Codigoro, Ferrara, Italy) has developed a test for absolute and relative quantification of the most common oral cariogenic bacteria. The test uses specific primers and probes for the amplification of bacteria genome sequences in Polymerase Chain Reaction Real Time. The results provide a profile of patient infection, helpful for improving the diagnosis and planning of preventive treatment to reduce the bacterial load. PMID:23814571

  18. Lab-Test(®) 4: Dental caries and bacteriological analysis.

    PubMed

    Cura, Francesca; Palmieri, Annalisa; Girardi, Ambra; Martinelli, Marcella; Scapoli, Luca; Carinci, Francesco

    2012-12-01

    Dental caries is one of the most common infectious ultifactorial diseases worldwide, characterized by the progressive demineralization of the tooth, following the action of bacterial acid metabolism. The main factors predisposing the onset of the carious process are: 1) the presence of bacterial species able to lower the pH until critical values of 5.5, 2) the absence of adequate oral hygiene, 3) an inefficient immune response anti-caries, 4) the type of alimentary diet and 5) the structure of the teeth. Among the 200 bacterial species isolated from dental plaque the most pathogenic for dental caries are: Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Actinomices viscusus and Bifidobacterium dentium. Our laboratory (LAB(®) s.r.l., Codigoro, Ferrara, Italy) has developed a test for absolute and relative quantification of the most common oral cariogenic bacteria. The test uses specific primers and probes for the amplification of bacteria genome sequences in Polymerase Chain Reaction Real Time. The results provide a profile of patient infection, helpful for improving the diagnosis and planning of preventive treatment to reduce the bacterial load.

  19. Prevalence of Dental Caries in Kosovar Adult Population

    PubMed Central

    Begzati, Agim; Kelmendi, Jeta; Ilijazi, Donika; Kqiku, Lumnije

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in the Kosovar adult population. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study in Kosovo was conducted examining 9387 patients, aged 18 upwards, between January 2010 and December 2011. Clinical evaluation was done using WHO criteria for evaluation of dental health status and data collection. Results. The prevalence of caries for the whole study was 72.80%. The mean DMFT index was 9.61 (±5.12) in the 18–34-year age group, 11.6 (±6.42) in the 35–44-year age group, 13.68 (±8.12) among the 45–64-year age group, 17.98 (±9.81) in the 65–74-year age group, and 23.19 (±9.41) in the age group of 75+ years, respectively. A significant difference of mean DMFT and its each component was observed between the ages (P < 0.001). Conclusion. This study comes out with the significant levels of dental caries among young Kosovar population (18–34 years old). PMID:27516774

  20. Dental caries in Rome, 50-100 AD.

    PubMed

    Fejerskov, O; Guldager Bilde, P; Bizzarro, M; Connelly, J N; Skovhus Thomsen, J; Nyvad, B

    2012-01-01

    Scarce information exists on the clinical features of dental caries in the Imperial Roman population and no structural data on caries lesions from this period have so far been published. We report on the findings of 86 teeth (50-100 AD) found during archaeological excavations of the temple of Castor and Pollux in the Forum Romanum. We found that nearly all teeth had large carious cavities extending into the pulp. The distribution and size of the caries lesions were similar to those found in contemporary adult populations in Africa and China living without access to dental care. Most lesions had a hypermineralized zone in the dentin at the advancing front of the carious cavities as revealed by micro-computed tomography. This biological dentin reaction combined with the morphology of the cavities might indicate that some temporary topical pain relief and intervention treatment slowed down the rate of lesion progression. This is indirectly supported by examination of cavities of similar size and depth from a contemporary population without access to dental health care. In contrast to the lesions in the Roman teeth, these lesions did not exhibit a hypermineralized dentin reaction. We investigated whether the Pb isotopic composition of enamel and/or dentin of a single tooth matched that of a sample of an ancient Forum water lead pipe. The Pb isotopic composition of the tooth did not match that of the tube, suggesting that the subjects were exposed to different Pb sources during their lifetime other than the lead tubes.

  1. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake.

    PubMed

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world's population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to <5% of energy to protect dental health throughout life. These recommendations were informed by a systematic review of the evidence pertaining to amount of sugars and dental caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to <5% of energy. Available data were from ecologic studies and, although classified as being of low quality, showed lower dental caries when free sugar intake was <5% of energy compared with when it was >5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice.

  2. Sugars and Dental Caries: Evidence for Setting a Recommended Threshold for Intake123

    PubMed Central

    Moynihan, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries affects ≤80% of the world’s population with almost a quarter of US adults having untreated caries. Dental caries is costly to health care and negatively affects well-being. Dietary free sugars are the most important risk factor for dental caries. The WHO has issued guidelines that recommend intake of free sugars should provide ≤10% of energy intake and suggest further reductions to <5% of energy to protect dental health throughout life. These recommendations were informed by a systematic review of the evidence pertaining to amount of sugars and dental caries risk, which showed evidence of moderate quality from cohort studies that limiting free sugars to ≤10% of energy reduced, but did not eliminate, dental caries. Even low levels of dental caries in children are of concern because caries is a lifelong progressive and cumulative disease. The systematic review therefore explored if there were further benefits to dental health if the intake of free sugars was limited to <5% of energy. Available data were from ecologic studies and, although classified as being of low quality, showed lower dental caries when free sugar intake was <5% of energy compared with when it was >5% but ≤10% of energy. The WHO recommendations are intended for use by policy makers as a benchmark when assessing intake of sugars by populations and as a driving force for policy change. Multiple strategies encompassing both upstream and downstream preventive approaches are now required to translate the recommendations into policy and practice. PMID:26773022

  3. Antipsychotic medications and dental caries in newly diagnosed schizophrenia: A nationwide cohort study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Kai-Fang; Chou, Yu-Hsiang; Wen, Yen-Hsia; Hsieh, Kun-Pin; Tsai, Jui-Hsiu; Yang, Pinchen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Lin, Chun-Hung Richard

    2016-11-30

    We investigated the association between antipsychotic medications and the risk of dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. We enroled a nationwide cohort of patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia within 1 year of dental caries development. Exposure to antipsychotics and other medications was categorised according to their type and duration, and the association between exposure and dental caries was assessed through logistic regressions. Of the 3610 patients with newly diagnosed schizophrenia, 2149 (59.5%) exhibited an incidence of treated dental caries. Logistic regression analysis identified a younger age, female sex, high income, a 2-year history of dental caries, and exposure to first-generation antipsychotics, and antihypertensives as independent risk factors for treated dental caries in patients with schizophrenia. Hyposalivation, the adverse effect of first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives, was associated with an increased risk of treated dental caries. However, hypersalivation from first-generation antipsychotics for dental caries was associated with a protective factor. These findings suggest that clinicians should pay attention to the aforementioned risk factors for dental caries in patients with schizophrenia, particularly while prescribing first-generation antipsychotics and antihypertensives to such patients.

  4. Caries management pathways preserve dental tissues and promote oral health.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amid I; Tellez, Marisol; Pitts, Nigel B; Ekstrand, Kim R; Ricketts, David; Longbottom, Christopher; Eggertsson, Hafsteinn; Deery, Christopher; Fisher, Julian; Young, Douglas A; Featherstone, John D B; Evans, Wendell; Zeller, Gregory G; Zero, Domenick; Martignon, Stefania; Fontana, Margherita; Zandona, Andrea

    2013-02-01

    In May 2012, cariologists, dentists, representatives of dental organizations, manufacturers, and third party payers from several countries, met in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to define a common mission; goals and strategic approaches for caries management in the 21th century. The workshop started with an address by Mr. Stanley Bergman, CEO of Henry Schein Inc. which focused on the imperative for change in academia, clinical practice, and public health. For decades, new scientific evidence on caries and how it should be managed have been discussed among experts in the field. However, there has been some limited change, except in some Scandinavian countries, in the models of caries management and reimbursement which have been heavily skewed toward 'drilling and filling'. There is no overall agreement on a caries' case definition or on when to surgically intervene. The participants in the workshop defined a new mission for all caries management approaches, both conventional and new. The mission of each system should be to preserve the tooth structure, and restore only when necessary. This mission marks a pivotal line for judging when to surgically intervene and when to arrest or remineralize early noncavitated lesions. Even when restorative care is necessary, the removal of hard tissues should be lesion-focused and aim to preserve, as much as possible, sound tooth structure. Continuing management of the etiological factors of caries and the use of science-based preventive regimens also will be required to prevent recurrence and re-restoration. These changes have been debated for over a decade. The Caries Management Pathways includes all systems and philosophies, conventional and new, of caries management that can be used or modified to achieve the new mission. The choice of which system to use to achieve the mission of caries management is left to the users and should be based on the science supporting each approach or philosophy, experience, utility, and ease of use

  5. How do dental students determine patients' caries risk level using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system?

    PubMed

    Doméjean, Sophie; Léger, Stéphanie; Rechmann, Peter; White, Joel M; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-03-01

    Research has demonstrated the validation of specific caries risk assessment (CRA) systems, but little is known about how dental practitioners assign a caries risk level to their patients. The aim of this study was to explore dental students' decision making in caries risk assignment when using the Caries Management By Risk Assessment (CAMBRA) system. Multiple correspondence analysis and chi-squared automated interaction detector analysis were performed on data collected retrospectively for a period of six years (2003-09) at the University of California, San Francisco predoctoral dental clinic. The study population consisted of 12,952 patients from six years of age through adult who received a baseline CRA during the period, were new to CAMBRA, and had not received any prior CAMBRA recommendations. The results showed variation in decision making and risk level assignment, illustrated by the range of percentages for the three scores (low, moderate, and high/extreme caries risk) when CRA was assigned for the first time. For those first-time CRAs, decision making was mainly based on four factors: cavities or caries lesions into dentin on radiograph, restorations during the last three years due to caries, visible heavy plaque, and interproximal lesions into enamel (by radiographs). This study's findings provide important data regarding one group of CAMBRA users and thus contribute to the development of knowledge about the implementation of caries risk assessment in contemporary dental practice.

  6. Social inequalities and dental caries in six-year-old children from the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Tas, Justin T; Kragt, Lea; Elfrink, Marlies E C; Bertens, Loes C M; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Moll, Henriëtte A; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M; Wolvius, Eppo B

    2017-07-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the association of different socioeconomic and sociodemographic factors with dental caries in six-year-old children. Furthermore, we applied a district based approach to explore the distribution of dental caries among districts of low and high socioeconomic position (SEP). In our cross-sectional study 5189 six-year-olds were included. This study was embedded in a prospective population-based birth cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands, the Generation R Study. Parental education level, parental employment status, net household income, single parenting, and teenage pregnancy were considered as indicators for SEP. Dental caries was scored on intraoral photographs by using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) index. We compared children without caries (dmft=0) to children with mild caries (dmft=1-3) or severe caries (dmft >3). Multinomial logistic regression analyses and binary logistic regression analyses were performed to study the association between SEP and caries, and between district and caries, respectively. Only maternal education level remained significantly associated with mild caries after adjusting for all other SEP-indicators. Paternal educational level, parental employment status, and household income additionally served as independent indicators of SEP in children with severe caries. Furthermore, living in more disadvantaged districts was significantly associated with higher odds of dental caries. Dental caries is more prevalent among six-year-old children with a low SEP, which is also visible at the district level. Maternal educational level is the most important indicator of SEP in the association with caries. Our results should raise concerns about the existing social inequalities in dental caries and should encourage development of dental caries prevention strategies. New knowledge about the distribution of oral health inequalities between districts should be used to target the right audience

  7. Enzymes, Dentinogenesis and Dental Caries: a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sándor, George K. B.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives Search in PubMed with keywords “enzymes, dentinogenesis, and dental caries” revealed only 4 items, but when combined with “enzymes, osteogenesis, and osteoporosis” as high as 404 items resulted. Dental caries was associated with an order of magnitude fewer studies than the chronic bone disease, osteoporosis. This observation motivated this review. Material and Methods A comprehensive review of the available literature on role of enzymes in dentinogenesis and dental caries was undertaken using MEDLINE (PubMed) and Scopus. Keywords for the search were: enzymes and odontoblasts, enzymes and different forms of dentinogenesis as well as dental caries. Results Search revealed studies which described odontoblasts harbouring numerous enzymes (hydrolases, including metalloproteinases, transaminases and dehydrogenases) during primary dentinogenesis. Alkaline phosphatase activity sharply decreased when odontoblasts turned into quiescent odontoblasts. Tertiary dentinogenesis was characterized first by reactionary dentine formation when alkaline phosphatase was highly reactivated. Then later some of these odontoblasts may die out and be replaced by other progenitor cells of pulpal origin. This tertiary dentine was called reparative dentine. Pulpal progenitor/stem cells revealed alkaline phosphatase activity in areas encircling inflamed pulp sections. Soft carious dentine revealed high hydrolase, transaminase and dehyrogenase activities that may have originated from invading microbes, saliva or were endogenous. Proteolytic activity was especially demonstrable using histochemical and biochemical means. Specifically, matrix metalloproteases may have originated partly from activated proenzymes of host origin. Conclusions Though dental studies are scanty when compared to bone, the active role of large spectrum of enzymes in healthy and carious dentine was given support. PMID:25635210

  8. Predicting Dental Caries Outcomes in Children: A "Risky" Concept.

    PubMed

    Divaris, K

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, unprecedented gains in the understanding of the biology and mechanisms underlying human health and disease have been made. In the domain of oral health, although much remains to be learned, the complex interactions between different systems in play have begun to unravel: host genome, oral microbiome with its transcriptome, proteome and metabolome, and more distal influences, including relevant behaviors and environmental exposures. A reasonable expectation is that this emerging body of knowledge can help improve the oral health and optimize care for individuals and populations. These goals are articulated by the National Institutes of Health as "precision medicine" and the elimination of health disparities. Key processes in these efforts are the discovery of causal factors or mechanistic pathways and the identification of individuals or population segments that are most likely to develop (any or severe forms of) oral disease. This article critically reviews the fundamental concepts of risk assessment and outcome prediction, as they relate to early childhood caries (ECC)-a common complex disease with significant negative impacts on children, their families, and the health system. The article highlights recent work and advances in methods available to estimate caries risk and derive person-level caries propensities. It further discusses the reasons for their limited utility in predicting individual ECC outcomes and informing clinical decision making. Critical issues identified include the misconception of defining dental caries as a tooth or surface-level condition versus a person-level disease; the fallacy of applying population-level parameters to individuals, termed privatization of risk; and the inadequacy of using frequentist versus Bayesian modeling approaches to derive individual disease propensity estimates. The article concludes with the notion that accurate caries risk assessment at the population level and "precision dentistry" at the

  9. Diagnosis and management of dental caries throughout life.

    PubMed

    To provide health care providers, patients, and the general public with a responsible assessment of currently available data regarding the diagnosis and management of dental caries throughout life. A non-Federal, non-advocate, 13-member panel representing the fields of dentistry, epidemiology, genetics, medicine, oral biology, oral radiology, pathology, periodontics, public health, statistics, surgery, and including a public representative. In addition, 31 experts in these same fields presented data to the panel and to a conference audience of approximately 700. Presentations by experts; a systematic review of the dental research literature provided by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality; and an extensive bibliography of dental caries research papers, prepared by the National Library of Medicine. Scientific evidence was given precedence over clinical anecdotal experience. Answering predefined questions, the panel drafted a statement based on the scientific evidence presented in open forum and the scientific literature. The draft statement was read in its entirety on the final day of the conference and circulated to the experts and the audience for comment. The panel then met in executive session to consider these comments and released a revised statement at the end of the conference. The statement was made available on the World Wide Web at http://consensus.nih.gov immediately after the conference. This statement is an independent report of the panel and is not a policy statement of the NIH or the Federal Government. This Consensus Development Conference, the first sponsored by the NIH on dental caries, provided an excellent venue to describe the great success that has been achieved in reducing caries prevalence. More importantly, it provided a public forum to review both the strengths and weaknesses of current dental caries research and clinical procedures. Effective preventive practices, such as the use of fluoride, sugarless products, and dental

  10. Risk indicators for dental caries using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS).

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amid I; Sohn, Woosung; Tellez, Marisol; Willem, Jenefer M; Betz, James; Lepkowski, James

    2008-02-01

    While national surveys have found that African-Americans have a higher prevalence and severity of dental caries than white-Americans, there are only a few descriptive studies of the prevalence and severity of dental caries in low-income urban African-Americans. This study assessed the prevalence, severity and determinants of dental caries, using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). A representative sample of low-income families (a caregiver and a child aged 0-5 years) was selected from low-income census tracts in the city of Detroit, Michigan. Of the 12,655 randomly selected housing units, 10,695 were occupied and 9781 were successfully contacted (91.5%). There were 1386 families with eligible children in the contacted households; and of those, 1021 were interviewed and examined at a permanent examination center organized for this study. This represents an overall response rate of 73.7%. At the center, trained staff interviewed the main caregivers of the selected children, and trained and calibrated dentists examined the caregiver and her/his child. Data used in this study included information gathered from the social, behavioral and parenting questionnaires, the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire (total sugar intake), and data collected from community and census databases. Over 90% of the adults (ages 14-70 years, average 29.3) had at least one noncavitated carious lesion and 82.2% had at least one primary cavitated lesion. Negative binomial regression models found that the age of caregivers and the number of churches in neighborhoods were negatively associated with the number of noncavitated tooth surfaces. Cavitated tooth surfaces were positively associated with age, oral hygiene status, being worried about teeth, a recent visit to a dentist, and the number of grocery stores in the neighborhoods. However, the number of cavitated tooth surfaces was negatively associated with preventive dental visits, positive rating of oral health

  11. Dental caries, parents educational level, family income and dental service attendance among children in Italy.

    PubMed

    Cianetti, S; Lombardo, G; Lupatelli, E; Rossi, G; Abraha, I; Pagano, S; Paglia, L

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to verify whether socioeconomic determinants, such as parents' educational level, family income and dental service attendance by children, are associated with the presence of caries among an Italian population of children. An observational retrospective study was carried out in a population of children aged 4-14 years who visited the Paediatric Dentistry Department of the University of Perugia, Italy. Children were stratified according to familial socioeconomic level (father's and mother's educational level, family income) and dental service attendance of children. Age- and sex- adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated by means of multivariate logistic regression models. A sample of 231 children (mean age 8.1 yrs, SD 2.6; 127 males, 104 females) was recruited. One hundred and sixty three (70.46%) children in the study had caries. Caries presence in children was higher in children where the mothers' educational level was lower (OR =6.1; 95% CI = 3.1 to 12.7), in children where the fathers' educational level was lower (OR =2.9; 95% CI =1.6 to 5.5) and in children with lower family income (OR = 9.9; 95% 95% CI = 5.1 to 20.1). No statistically significant difference were observed in terms of caries presence between the children who were visited at least once by a dentist and children who were not previously seen by a dental practitioner (OR = 0.8; 95% CI = 0.4 to 1.6). Socioeconomic level was an important predictor of caries presence among children. Both low income and low parental educational level were related to an increased presence of caries, whereas previous dental visits experience did not affect caries presence in children.

  12. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  13. Early Childhood Dental Caries: A Rising Dental Public Health Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Grace Felix

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this article is to examine the literature and review the risk factors and disparities contributing to early childhood caries (ECC), which is a major health problem among preschoolers in the United States of America. A search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, Google Scholar, and the Cochrane Library databases and the key terms…

  14. Factors of deprivation associated with dental caries in young children.

    PubMed

    Gratrix, D; Holloway, P J

    1994-06-01

    Quantitative and qualitative data were collected on the communities in the Tameside and Glossop Health Authority district served by the five primary schools with the highest prevalences of dental caries among their 5-year-old children and contrasted with similar information from communities served by five schools whose 5-year-old pupils had the lowest prevalences of caries. Quantitative data were collected from a variety of sources including the health and education authorities, and qualitative information was gathered by interviewing health and education personnel with special knowledge of the primary and pre-school children involved. It was found that communities with a high caries activity among their primary school children had lower proportions of babies of normal birth weight and uptake of poliomyelitis vaccination, while more children were born to single parent families. They also had lower percentages of private housing, homes with a car and households in social classes 1 and 2. The high caries schools had more children receiving clothing allowances and free school meals. The communities they served had higher Townsend mean deprivation Z scores and lower percentages of crime rates per household. The high caries communities tended to bottle feed their babies, wean them earlier, use infant feeding bottles longer and give babies fruit juices more regularly. The parents in the high caries communities were reported to have higher proportions of social and financial problems, were less likely to form parent-teacher associations, their children had poorer attendance and punctuality records, worse behaviour and greater consumption of confectionery after school.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Epidemiology of dental caries in children in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Al-Bluwi, Ghada S M

    2014-08-01

    Dental caries has a significant impact on the general health and development of children. Understanding caries epidemiology is an essential task for the United Arab Emirates (UAE) policymakers to evaluate preventive programmes and to improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to collect and summarise all data available in the published literature on the epidemiology of dental caries in the UAE in children aged under 13 years. This will provide dental health planners with a comprehensive data summary, which will help in the planning for and evaluation of dental caries prevention programmes. Data were collected from the various published studies in PubMed, Academic Search Complete, Google, and the reference lists in relevant articles. Four keywords were used in the search: 'dental caries,' 'epidemiology,' 'prevalence,' and 'UAE'. All studies conducted in the UAE in general or any single emirate that sheds light on the prevalence of dental caries of children under 13 years were included in this literature review. Studies on early childhood caries and factors associated with dental caries were also included. The review comprises 11 published surveys of childhood caries in UAE. The earliest study was published in 1991 and the most recent was published in 2011. The range of decayed, missing and filled primary teeth (dmft) in UAE children (age between 4 years and 6 years) was 5.1-8.4. For the 12-year-old group the decayed missing and filled permanent teeth (DMFT) ranged from 1.6 to 3.24. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate goals and planning for preventive oral health programmes. The current data available on the dmft and DMFT indicate that childhood dental caries is still a serious dental public health problem in the UAE that warrants immediate attention by the government and policy makers. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  16. Which is a stronger indicator of dental caries: oral hygiene, food, or beverage? A clinical study.

    PubMed

    Jain, Poonam; Gary, Julie J

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial disease with various risk factors. Oral hygiene and dietary factors--specifically, the consumption of snacks and beverages with added sugars--have been shown to be risk indicators for this disease. It is critical for dental professionals to understand the relative roles of each of these food categories in the dental caries process. This article presents a cross-sectional study of 76 people living in a Southern Illinois fluoridated community. The amount of sugar-sweetened beverages, snack food consumption, plaque index, and age showed statistically significant relationships with the outcome variable--dental caries (P < 0.05). The results indicated that dietary factors and oral hygiene both contribute equally to dental caries in young adults living in a fluoridated community. Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption was a much stronger indicator of dental caries than snack food consumption in our study population.

  17. Prevalence of dental caries and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Meedani, Laila A.; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender and social factors status were obtained by questionnaires that had been answered by parents. Results: About 69% of children had dental caries with dmft score of 3.4 (± 3.6) and dmfs of 6.9 (± 9.9). There was no statistically significant difference between boys and girls. Less caries was observed among children whose parents worked and it was statistically significant as well as whose mothers had high or low educational level. Increased number of family members appeared to have a high incidence of dental caries which was also statistically significant. There was no significant difference in dental caries prevalence with birth order. Conclusions: Dental caries among preschool children in Saudi Arabia was still very common. Improvement of preventive measure at early age should be emphasized by parents and dental health professionals. More attention is required for Non-working parents telling them about the risk of dental caries affecting their children and the awareness of preventive care of dental health. PMID:27182260

  18. Prevalence of dental caries and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al-Meedani, Laila A; Al-Dlaigan, Yousef H

    2016-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of dental caries, and associated social risk factors among preschool children in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study consisted of a random sample of 3 to 5 years- old preschool children who were examined in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia; 388 children (184 boys and 204 girls) were examined from 10 different preschools. Each surface of their teeth was examined for dental caries utilizing modified WHO criteria (WHO, 1997). Data information about age, gender and social factors status were obtained by questionnaires that had been answered by parents. About 69% of children had dental caries with dmft score of 3.4 (± 3.6) and dmfs of 6.9 (± 9.9). There was no statistically significant difference between boys and girls. Less caries was observed among children whose parents worked and it was statistically significant as well as whose mothers had high or low educational level. Increased number of family members appeared to have a high incidence of dental caries which was also statistically significant. There was no significant difference in dental caries prevalence with birth order. Dental caries among preschool children in Saudi Arabia was still very common. Improvement of preventive measure at early age should be emphasized by parents and dental health professionals. More attention is required for Non-working parents telling them about the risk of dental caries affecting their children and the awareness of preventive care of dental health.

  19. [Salt fluoridation and dental caries: state of the question].

    PubMed

    Vautey, Solveig; Ranivoharilanto, Eva; Decroix, Bernard; Tubert-Jeannin, Stéphanie

    2017-04-27

    Objective: Dental caries remains a public health problem, particularly among socially deprived populations. In some developing countries, salt fluoridation programmes have been recently developed, but the use of fluoridated salt is limited worldwide and the level of evidence for its efficacy remains debated. Method: A literature review was conducted to identify epidemiological or clinical studies that have evaluated the effect of salt fluoridation on dental caries experiences in children. Results: After a literature search, 22 references were selected reporting data on the preventive effect of salt fluoridation programmes in Europe (Hungary, Switzerland, France, Germany) and South and Central America (Colombia, Mexico, Jamaica...). Data were mainly obtained from descriptive or retrospective epidemiological studies. The results indicate that, in the absence of topical fluoride support, salt fluoridation leads to a significant reduction in caries indexes among treated children compared to a control group. In a context of widespread use of fluoridated toothpastes, the additional effect achieved by salt fluoridation is limited. The prevalence of fluorosis is not markedly increased with fluoridated salt, but side effects were not always evaluated. Conclusion: Today, a salt fluoridation programme could be useful in areas in which fluoridated toothpastes are not widely used. The communication policy promoting the consumption of fluoridated salt is crucial to ensure the effectiveness of such a programme.

  20. Effect of antiasthmatic medication on dental disease: dental caries and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Shashikiran, N D; Reddy, V V S; Raju, P Krishnam

    2007-01-01

    The prevalence of asthma has been increasing since the 1980s. Asthma and tooth decay are the two major causes of school absenteeism. There are few studies present in the literature. The objectives of the present study were to know the severity of dental caries and periodontal problems in children before and after taking antiasthmatic medication. The present study was conducted on 105, six- to fourteen-year-old asthmatic children to determine the condition of their dental caries and their periodontal status before and after taking antiasthmatic medication, for a period of 1 year and these were matched with their controls. The results showed that salbutamol inhaler shows increased caries rate with high significance over other groups, which was followed by salbutamol tablets and beclamethasone inhaler respectively. It has been concluded that antiasthmatic medication has its effects on dental caries and periodontal disease and asthmatic patients are recommended to adopt more precautionary oral hygiene practices and keep their caries activity and periodontal health under constant check.

  1. Salivary protein polymorphisms and risk of dental caries: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lips, Andrea; Antunes, Leonardo Santos; Antunes, Lívia Azeredo; Pintor, Andrea Vaz Braga; Santos, Diana Amado Baptista Dos; Bachinski, Rober; Küchler, Erika Calvano; Alves, Gutemberg Gomes

    2017-06-05

    Dental caries is an oral pathology associated with both lifestyle and genetic factors. The caries process can be influenced by salivary composition, which includes ions and proteins. Studies have described associations between salivary protein polymorphisms and dental caries experience, while others have shown no association with salivary proteins genetic variability. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of salivary protein polymorphisms on the risk of dental caries by means of a systematic review of the current literature. An electronic search was performed in PubMed, Scopus, and Virtual Health Library. The following search terms were used: "dental caries susceptibility," "dental caries," "polymorphism, genetics," "saliva," "proteins," and "peptides." Related MeSH headings and free terms were included. The inclusion criteria comprised clinical investigations of subjects with and without caries. After application of these eligibility criteria, the selected articles were qualified by assessing their methodological quality. Initially, 338 articles were identified from the electronic databases after exclusion of duplicates. Exclusion criteria eliminated 322 articles, and 16 remained for evaluation. Eleven articles found a consistent association between salivary protein polymorphisms and risk of dental caries, for proteins related to antimicrobial activity (beta defensin 1 and lysozyme-like protein), pH control (carbonic anhydrase VI), and bacterial colonization/adhesion (lactotransferrin, mucin, and proline-rich protein Db). This systematic review demonstrated an association between genetic polymorphisms and risk of dental caries for most of the salivary proteins.

  2. A cross-sectional survey of dental caries, oral hygiene, and Helicobacter pylori infection in adults.

    PubMed

    Liu, Peng; Yue, Ji; Han, Shufang; Deng, Tianzheng; Fu, Chongjian; Zhu, Guoxiong; Chen, Dong

    2013-07-01

    We explored the epidemiological risk factors for dental caries to help explain differences in the prevalence of adult dental caries. We examined 841 people for the presence of Helicobacter pylori in their dental plaque and for dental caries. Of the 841 subjects, 574 (68.25%) were infected with H pylori, and 516 (61.36%) were diagnosed with dental caries. Among the 574 subjects with H pylori, the prevalence of dental caries was 73.52% (422/574), while the prevalence among the 267 cases without H pylori was 35.21% (94/267). A correlation existed between the presence of H pylori and the occurrence of dental caries (χ(2) = 112.8, P < .01, odds ratio = 5.110, 95% confidence interval = 3.740-6.982). The 574 persons with H pylori had a higher mean dental plaque index than those without. In conclusion, H pylori infection in the oral cavity is associated with dental caries and poor dental hygiene.

  3. [Epidemiology survey of dental caries and fluorosis of children in Kunming city].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qing; Liu, Juan; Zhang, Canhua; Zhang, Shinan; Li, Yanhong

    2011-10-01

    To determine the feasibility of water fluoridation to prevent caries in Kunming by investigating the epidemiological status of dental caries and dental fluorosis of children, and to provide the longitudinal reference data for the long-term epidemiology survey of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Kunming city. Through stratified cluster sampling method, 212 5-year-old children and 1149 12-year-old children were recruited in the survey. Dental caries condition of each child was clinically examined, dental fluorosis was examined in 12-year-old group. The prevalence of dental caries of primary teeth in 5-year-old group was 73.6%, mean value was 4.47 +/- 4.39. The values of permanent teeth in 12-year-old group were 53.5% and 1.42 +/- 1.83. The prevalence of dental fluorosis in 12-year-old group was 4.1% and the average community fluorosis index was 0.03. Based on the high prevalence of dental caries and the low prevalence of dental fluorosis, it is suggested that using water fluoridation to prevent caries is feasible and necessary in Kunming city.

  4. Role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries: a review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Prahlad; Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term "caries" denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries.

  5. Salivary SIgA and dental caries activity.

    PubMed

    Chawda, Jyoti G; Chaduvula, Nandini; Patel, Hemali R; Jain, Shikha S; Lala, Arti K

    2011-09-01

    This case-control study was conducted to determine the protective role of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels in the unstimulated whole saliva of dental caries active (Group I and II) and caries free children (Group III). Thirty children aged 4-8 years were selected. Their DMFT (Decayed Missing Filled teeth for permanent teeth) and/or df-t (decayed, filled teeth for deciduous teeth) scores were determined and the salivary SIgA levels were measured using Immunoturbidometry. SIgA levels of all three groups were in the the normal range of 4-30 mg/dL. The SIgA levels for both Group I and II were less than that in Group III (P=0.018 and P=0.0013, respectively).

  6. Dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital.

    PubMed

    Malvania, Ekta A; Sheth, Sona A; Sharma, Ashish S; Mansuri, Saloni; Shaikh, Faizan; Sahani, Saloni

    2016-12-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic metabolic disorder which affects millions of people. At present, India has the highest incidence of diabetes worldwide. Several oral lesions and conditions are associated with diabetes. However, there is a lack of consensus among researchers regarding the relationship between DM and dental caries. Hence, the present study was carried out to assess the dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital in Ahmedabad city. A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted. One hundred and twenty diabetics individuals attending the diabetic Outpatient Department (OPD) and age and sex-matched 120 nondiabetic individuals from general OPD were included in the study. The data were gathered through semi-close-ended questionnaire and clinical examination. Dental caries was assessed by using the World Health Organization's 2013 proforma. Data was analyzed by applying Student's independent t-test or one-way analysis of variance. Dental caries prevalence among the diabetic group was 73.33% and 33.33% among the nondiabetic group. Dental caries prevalence and mean dental caries was significantly higher among uncontrolled diabetic individuals than that among controlled diabetic individuals. Duration of the disease and dental caries prevalence did not show any significant difference. Dental caries prevalence was significantly high among diabetic individuals compared with nondiabetic individuals. Close collaboration between the patients, healthcare units, and oral health professionals could be a way of improving diabetic patients' general and oral health.

  7. Survey and Analysis of Dental Caries in Students at a Deaf-Mute High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hong; Wang, Yan-Ling; Cong, Xiao-Na; Tang, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping-Min

    2012-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence of dental caries of 229 deaf adolescents in a special senior high school and to identify factors related to dental caries, with a match group of 196 healthy adolescents in a normal senior high school, in Jiangsu province of East China. In this study the prevalence…

  8. Dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital

    PubMed Central

    Malvania, Ekta A.; Sheth, Sona A.; Sharma, Ashish S.; Mansuri, Saloni; Shaikh, Faizan; Sahani, Saloni

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a common chronic metabolic disorder which affects millions of people. At present, India has the highest incidence of diabetes worldwide. Several oral lesions and conditions are associated with diabetes. However, there is a lack of consensus among researchers regarding the relationship between DM and dental caries. Hence, the present study was carried out to assess the dental caries prevalence among type II diabetic and nondiabetic adults attending a hospital in Ahmedabad city. Materials and Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted. One hundred and twenty diabetics individuals attending the diabetic Outpatient Department (OPD) and age and sex-matched 120 nondiabetic individuals from general OPD were included in the study. The data were gathered through semi-close-ended questionnaire and clinical examination. Dental caries was assessed by using the World Health Organization's 2013 proforma. Data was analyzed by applying Student's independent t-test or one-way analysis of variance. Results: Dental caries prevalence among the diabetic group was 73.33% and 33.33% among the nondiabetic group. Dental caries prevalence and mean dental caries was significantly higher among uncontrolled diabetic individuals than that among controlled diabetic individuals. Duration of the disease and dental caries prevalence did not show any significant difference. Conclusion: Dental caries prevalence was significantly high among diabetic individuals compared with nondiabetic individuals. Close collaboration between the patients, healthcare units, and oral health professionals could be a way of improving diabetic patients' general and oral health. PMID:28217542

  9. Prevalence of Dental Caries among School Children in Chennai, Based on ICDAS II

    PubMed Central

    Arangannal, Ponnudurai; Jayaprakash, Jeevarathan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries is a common dental disease, which occurs during childhood and continues to be a major public health problem. The prevalence of dental caries was associated with oral hygiene practice, sugar consumption and implementation of the preventive oral health program. Aim The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in school children aged between 6-14 years using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II). Materials and Methods The study population consisted of 2796 school children living in Pallikkaranai, Chennai, India and studying in government recognized schools. Each student was examined by a single examiner using ICDAS system under natural light during normal school hours. Results The prevalence of dental caries was 68.8% in the total surveyed population. The gender-wise prevalence of dental caries shows, females to have slightly higher prevalence than male. The prevalence of dental caries at the age group of 6 years was 57%, seven year 67%, eight year 63%, nine year 74%, 10 year 76%, 11 year 74%, 12 year 69%, 13 year 71%, and 14 year 69%. The distribution of CARS (Caries associated with Sealants and Restorations) in the surveyed population was only 1.4% Conclusion The distribution of non-cavitated/early enamel lesions was higher in the studied population and indicated a requirement of a sustained dental health preventive program targeting specific segments of the population. PMID:27190939

  10. Differentiation of salivary bacterial profiles of subjects with periodontitis and dental caries

    PubMed Central

    Belstrøm, Daniel; Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Nielsen, Claus H.; Klepac-Ceraj, Vanja; Paster, Bruce J.; Twetman, Svante; Holmstrup, Palle

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries have been demonstrated to differ from that of oral health. The aim of this comparative analysis of existing data generated by the Human Oral Microbe Identification Microarray (HOMIM) from 293 stimulated saliva samples was to compare bacterial profiles of saliva in subjects with periodontitis and dental caries. PMID:25854857

  11. Survey and Analysis of Dental Caries in Students at a Deaf-Mute High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wei, Hong; Wang, Yan-Ling; Cong, Xiao-Na; Tang, Wan-Qin; Wei, Ping-Min

    2012-01-01

    The present cross-sectional study was conducted to assess and compare the prevalence of dental caries of 229 deaf adolescents in a special senior high school and to identify factors related to dental caries, with a match group of 196 healthy adolescents in a normal senior high school, in Jiangsu province of East China. In this study the prevalence…

  12. [Occlusal caries - early detection in school-based dental screenings].

    PubMed

    Goddon, I; Berger, S; Senkel, H; Kühnisch, J; Heinrich-Weltzien, R

    2008-11-01

    Concomitant to the general caries decline in children and adolescents, caries is mainly concentrated on occlusal surfaces of permanent molars. While occlusal cavities have been shifted to non-cavitated lesions, school-based visual tactile screenings on a cavity level based on the WHO standard (1997) are of limited value as evidence. To avoid cavities or extended restorations current dentistry targets at early prevention or minimal intervention. School-based visual screenings of non-cavitated lesions may support the preventive care strategies of dental practioners. A comparative diagnostic study in 8- to 12-year-olds in the Westfalian Ennepe-Ruhr district showed that occlusal surfaces scored as primarily sound under the WHO standard in fact revealed a high need for preventive (43%) and operative (30%) treatment after using additional visual and laser optical diagnostic measurements. Because of the limited information of the laser optical findings, laser fluorescence diagnostics should not be included in school-based dental screenings. Compromises are needed to introduce visual diagnostic examinations in school-based dental screenings.

  13. Salivary IgA versus HIV and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Malay; Acharya, Sonu; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Mohanty, Susant; Saha, Subrata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The inter-relationship of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and dental caries as well as Salivary Immunoglobulin-A (S-IgA) level appear to remain under explored while a manual and electronic search of the literature was made. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the relationship of S-IgA and dental caries status in HIV positive children. Aim The aim of this study was to find out the relationship of S-IgA antibody with dental caries by measuring the concentration of IgA in saliva of HIV positive and negative children and determine the dental caries status in HIV positive and HIV negative children, which may help in treatment planning and prevention of the same. Materials and Methods A total of 28 HIV positive children aged between 6-14 years and 28 age matched HIV negative children were included in this study and both samples were randomly selected from the same Non-Governmental Organization (NGO). The HIV status of both these samples was confirmed from their medical records provided by the NGO. Only 2cc of unstimulated saliva was collected from both groups in special tubes coded numerically using the method described by Collins and Dawes and the samples were analyzed to measure the concentration of IgA using commercially available ELISA kit (DRG Diagnostics, Germany). Examination of dental caries was carried out according to WHO criteria (1997) using a flat mouth mirror and CPI probe. Results In HIV +ve group mean S-IgA level was calculated as 81.61 ± 6.20 μg/ml, mean DMFT was 3.86 ± 3.37, mean deft was 4.75 ± 2.86. In HIV -ve group mean S-IgA level was calculated as 145.57 ± 17.83μg/ml, mean DMFT was 2.54 ± 0.69, mean deft was 2.43 ± 2.01. Strong-ve correlation between S-IgA and DMFT (r = -0.781, t = 6.38, p < 0.001) and negative but Not Significant (N.S.) correlation (r = -0.19, t = 0.99, p > 0.05) between S-IgA and deft was found in HIV +ve group. Strong –ve correlation between S-IgA and DMFT (r = -0.655, t = 4

  14. Salivary IgA versus HIV and Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Pradip Kumar; Mitra, Malay; Acharya, Sonu; Ghosh, Chiranjit; Mohanty, Susant; Saha, Subrata

    2016-09-01

    The inter-relationship of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and dental caries as well as Salivary Immunoglobulin-A (S-IgA) level appear to remain under explored while a manual and electronic search of the literature was made. Hence, the present study was undertaken to assess the relationship of S-IgA and dental caries status in HIV positive children. The aim of this study was to find out the relationship of S-IgA antibody with dental caries by measuring the concentration of IgA in saliva of HIV positive and negative children and determine the dental caries status in HIV positive and HIV negative children, which may help in treatment planning and prevention of the same. A total of 28 HIV positive children aged between 6-14 years and 28 age matched HIV negative children were included in this study and both samples were randomly selected from the same Non-Governmental Organization (NGO). The HIV status of both these samples was confirmed from their medical records provided by the NGO. Only 2cc of unstimulated saliva was collected from both groups in special tubes coded numerically using the method described by Collins and Dawes and the samples were analyzed to measure the concentration of IgA using commercially available ELISA kit (DRG Diagnostics, Germany). Examination of dental caries was carried out according to WHO criteria (1997) using a flat mouth mirror and CPI probe. In HIV +ve group mean S-IgA level was calculated as 81.61 ± 6.20 μg/ml, mean DMFT was 3.86 ± 3.37, mean deft was 4.75 ± 2.86. In HIV -ve group mean S-IgA level was calculated as 145.57 ± 17.83μg/ml, mean DMFT was 2.54 ± 0.69, mean deft was 2.43 ± 2.01. Strong-ve correlation between S-IgA and DMFT (r = -0.781, t = 6.38, p < 0.001) and negative but Not Significant (N.S.) correlation (r = -0.19, t = 0.99, p > 0.05) between S-IgA and deft was found in HIV +ve group. Strong -ve correlation between S-IgA and DMFT (r = -0.655, t = 4.42, p < 0.001), S-IgA and deft (r = -0.942, t =14

  15. Dental pain prevalence and association with dental caries and socioeconomic status in schoolchildren, Southern Brazil, 2002.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Lincon Hideo; Bastos, João Luiz Dornelles; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the relation between dental pain, dental caries and socioeconomic status among 12- and 13-year-old schoolchildren enrolled in a public school in Florianópolis, SC, Brazil in 2002. This study was a cross-sectional study involving 181 schoolchildren. Dental pain experience was the dependend variable analyzed. Socioeconomic data of the children's families were obtained through a questionnaire. Dental caries experience was registered according to the DMFT index (WHO, 1997). The field workteam consisted of an examiner and a recorder. The statistical analysis was performed using the chi-square test and the non-conditional multiple logistic regression. The response rate was 93.4%. The intraexaminer agreement measured on a tooth by tooth basis was high (kappa > 0.73). Dental pain prevalence was 33.7% (CI95% 26.0-42.0). The multiple regression analysis, adjusted by sex and other variables, showed that children with DMFT > 1 presented 2.9 (OR CI95% 1.4-6.1, p < 0.01) more chances of having dental pain when compared with those with DMFT < or = 1. Children whose mother's schooling level was equal or less than 4 years presented 2.5 (OR CI95% 1.2-5.6, p = 0.02) more chances of having dental pain when compared with others whose mothers had more than 5 years of schooling and, finally, children whose family income was up to U$ 67.00 showed 3.2 (OR CI95% 1.2-8.4, p = 0.02) more chances of having dental pain when compared with the ones whose families had higher income. High levels of caries attack, low mother schooling level and low family income were associated to dental pain.

  16. Untreated dental caries: impact on quality of life of children of low socioeconomic status.

    PubMed

    Martins-Júnior, P A; Oliveira, M; Marques, L S; Ramos-Jorge, M L

    2012-01-01

    This study's purpose was to evaluate the impact of untreated dental caries on the oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of children of low socioeconomic status. One hundred twelve impoverished 8- to 10-year-olds from a city in southeastern Brazil were selected. OHRQoL was measured using the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (CPQ8-10; total and subscale scores) and its global question on oral health. The clinical examination recorded the prevalence of untreated dental caries (corresponding to a non-zero D or d component in the DMFT or dmft indices). The children were categorized as without untreated dental caries=0 or with untreated dental caries ≥1. Malocclusions and dental trauma were determined using the Dental Aesthetic Index and Andreasen and Andreasen (1994) classification, respectively. Descriptive analysis, Mann-Whitney, chi-square test, and hierarchically adjusted Poisson regression models were employed. Eighty-four children (75%) had 1 or more carious teeth. The relative risk of having a negative perception of oral health was greater among the children with untreated dental caries (RR-1:41; 95% confidence interval=1.13-1.75), regardless of gender or malocclusion. Eight- to 10-year-olds with untreated dental caries have a greater relative risk of having a negative perception of oral health status than those without dental caries.

  17. Exploring the association of dental caries with social factors and nutritional status in Brazilian preschool children.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Luciana B; Sheiham, Aubrey; Bönecker, Marcelo

    2008-02-01

    The main objective of this study was to assess whether dental caries status was related to nutritional status in preschool urban Brazilian children aged 12-59 months. Dental and anthropometric examinations were conducted on 1,018 12-59-month-old children during the National Day of Children Vaccination. Dental caries prevalence and severity were measured using the decayed, missing or filled surfaces (dmfs) index. The World Health Organization (WHO) Child Growth Standards Reference was used to evaluate nutritional status. Results on nutritional status were presented as Z-scores. The data collected included socio-economic conditions. Multilevel linear regression was applied to investigate the effect of nutritional, socio-economic, and demographic factors on the status of children's dental caries. Caries was present in 23.4% of children. The final hierarchical logistic model showed a significant association between nutritional status and caries experience. Children with low Z-scores in some indexes had an increased risk of having caries. In addition, children whose mothers had < 8 yr of education and were from lower-income families had an increased risk of high levels of dental caries. There was an association between nutritional and socio-economic factors, and dental caries. In conclusion, underweight children and those with adverse socio-economic conditions were more likely to have caries experience.

  18. A 20-year study of dentists' and dental hygienists' assessment of dental caries lesions in bite-wing radiographs.

    PubMed

    Gabre, Pia; Birring, Eva; Gahnberg, Lars

    2006-01-01

    Epidemiological data reveal that the prevalence of dental caries in western countries has decreased in recent decades. The aim of this study was to investigate how dentists and dental hygienists assess dental caries lesions in bite-wing radiographs between 1983 and 2003. All dentists and dental hygienists in Public Dental Health in Uppsala County were offered to take part in the study. The participants assessed manifest and initial caries lesions in eight bite-wing radiographs from three patients individually. An X-ray viewer and binoculars were used. The assessments were repeated in the same radiographs every five years, a total of five times, between 1983 and 2003. In the different test occasions 80-103 dentists and 11-48 dental hygienists participated. The registration of dental caries changed between 1983 and 2003. The number of manifest lesions registered by dentists decreased between 1983 and 1988, but were stable after 1988. Dental hygienists showed no changes in the registration of manifest lesions during the study. Initial lesions registered by dentists and dental hygienists increased between 1988 and 1998. Assessments of initial caries lesions displayed a wider range than manifest lesions. Increasing age and more years in the profession resulted in fewer registered initial caries lesions. Dental hygienists had a tendency to register less caries than dentists. In conclusion, the result of the study indicate that inclusion of initial caries lesions in epidemiological reports should lead to a reduction in reliability. The changes in assessments of manifest caries lesions that took place in the 19805s should be considered when epidemiological data are evaluated.

  19. Dental caries experience and barriers to care in young children with disabilities in Ireland.

    PubMed

    Sagheri, Darius; McLoughlin, Jacinta; Nunn, June H

    2013-02-01

    Dental caries among preschool children remains a significant dental public health problem. In Ireland, there are no national data available regarding dental caries levels in preschool children. Furthermore, the number of young children with disabilities and their dental caries levels remains unknown. The aim of the present study was to measure the dental caries levels in a sample of preschool children with disabilities. A team of trained and calibrated dentists examined a sample of all 0- to 6-year old preschool children with disabilities in two health service administrative areas under standardized conditions. Dental caries was recorded using WHO criteria. Of a total of 422 participants, 337 datasets were included in the study. Of these 337 examined children, approximately 75.1% had a cognitive disability and 12.9% had a noncognitive disability. In 12% of the children, a diagnosis had not yet been established. Dental caries at dentin level was detected from the age of 4 years. The overall mean decayed/missing/ filled teeth (dmft) was 0.49 (SD, 1.39). The analysis of mean dmft levels in children with positive (dmft > 0) scores revealed a mean dmft of 1.14. The evidence from this study demonstrated that dental caries levels in preschool children with disabilities in Ireland are low when compared with the general population. Furthermore, children aged 3 years or younger exhibited no dental caries at dentin level and therefore were not affected by early childhood caries. An adjustment of current oral health prevention practice may lead to a further reduction in dental caries levels in this section of the child population.

  20. Influence of maternal dental anxiety on the child's dental caries experience.

    PubMed

    Goettems, M L; Ardenghi, T M; Romano, A R; Demarco, F F; Torriani, D D

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed the influence of maternal dental anxiety-related behavior on the child's caries experience. A cross-sectional study with 608 mother-child dyads during the Children's National Immunization Campaign in Pelotas, Brazil was performed. Mothers were asked to answer a questionnaire and dental examination of the children was performed (dmft). The association assessment used Poisson regression. Children from anxious mothers were more likely to present untreated caries even after covariate adjustment. Boys, older children and low-income family children presented a higher dmft mean. Preventive strategies should focus not only on child and family characteristics, but also on maternal dental anxiety-related behaviors. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. The Problem of Occlusal Surface Pit and Fissure Dental Caries in Naval Recruits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    been little attention devoted to oclusal surface pit and fissure dental caries. There is so= evidence that tooth morphology is related to susceptibility...AD-A0CM 755 NAVAL DENTAL RESEARCH INST GREAT LAKES IL F/S 6/5 THE PROBLEM OF OCCLUSAL SURFACE PIT AND FISSURE DENTAL CARIES I--ETC(U) JUN 80 M R...THE PROBLEM OF OCCLUSAL SURFACE PIT AND FISSURE DENTAL CARIES IN NAVAL RECRUITS M. R. WIRTHLIN 1. L. SHKLAIR R. G. WALTER J. C. CECIL 0 M. E. COHEN

  2. Dental caries and endemic dental fluorosis in rural communities, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Costa, Simone de Melo; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimaraes; Vargas, Andrea Maria Duarte; Vasconcelos, Mara; Ferreira e Ferreira, Efigenia; Castilho, Lia Silva de

    2013-12-01

    It is observational, analytical and cross-sectional aimed to evaluate the association between severity and prevalence of fluorosis and dental caries in rural communities with endemic dental fluorosis in the north state of Minas Gerais, Brazil, with fluoride concentrations in water up to 4.8 mg/L. Data were collected by one examiner (intra-examiner kappa, 0.96 to 0,95 for caries and fluorosis) after toothbrushing. The study included 511 individuals aged 7 - 22 years, categorized according to age: 7 - 9 years (n = 227), 10 to 12 years (n = 153), 13 to 15 years (n = 92), 16 to 22 years (n = 39). For the diagnosis of dental caries used the criteria of the World Health Organization to measure indices DMFT. For fluorosis used the index Thylstrup and Fejerskov (TF), dichotomized according to prevalence (TF = 0 and TF > 0) and severity (TF < 4 and TF > 5). In the two younger groups, the DMFT and its decay component were higher in the group with more severe fluorosis (p < 0.001). This association was not found among adolescents and adults (p > 0.05). The association was found between the conditions more severe fluorosis and caries in individuals under 12 years.

  3. [Dental caries resistance under conditions of a space flight].

    PubMed

    Malamuzh, S S; Leont'ev, V K

    2002-01-01

    The maxillodental status of aeronauts attracts special interest of scientists and causes apprehensions of physicians and scientists of countries with aeronautic industry because of long duration of space missions. Some scientists consider that the realization of mission to Mars can lead to development of multiple dental caries in aeronauts. The aim of this study was to study the effects of space mission factors on the resistance of hard dental tissues and remineralizing activity of the saliva in a simulation experiment. The results demonstrated dynamic changes in the studied parameters under the effect of space mission factors; based on these results, we determined the criteria for selection of candidates for prolonged experiments and space missions.

  4. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication and dental caries in children.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Sandra S; Kumar, Sajeesh; Williams, Nancy J

    2014-12-01

    Few studies have been conducted to investigate the effects, if any, of specific medication used to manage the symptoms of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as a risk factor for dental caries. A reported side-effect of the medication is a reduction in saliva. Healthy saliva has been shown to play many important functions in the prevention of dental caries. The focus of this review is to determine if any evidence exists to confirm that stimulant medication used to treat the symptoms of ADHD in children increases the risk of dental caries by virtue of its effect on the reduction of salivary flow. A MEDLINE search was conducted for relevant studies. Search terms used were dental caries, attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder, ADHD, pharmacologic treatment of ADHD, stimulant medication, xerostomia, dry-mouth and saliva flow. Publication dates ranged from 2002 to 2012. Although dental caries prevalence has been found to be higher in children with ADHD, decreased salivary flow as a side-effect of pharmacological treatment does not appear to be responsible. Dental caries is a multi-factorial disease process. The most effective method of reducing dental caries in ADHD children is more frequent recare visits focusing on home plaque removal practices along with dietary counseling to reduce the consumption of cariogenic foods and drinks. This can only be accomplished with inclusion of the parent/guardian in the process. Copyright © 2014 The American Dental Hygienists’ Association.

  5. Exploring the determinants of secular decreases in dental caries among Korean children.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hye-Ju; Han, Dong-Hun

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the contributions of sealant and water fluoridation to the time trends in dental caries from 2003 to 2010. Data were from three waves of the Korean National Oral Health Surveys between 2003 and 2010, including a total of 23 059 children (11 889 boys and 11 170 girls) aged 8, 10, and 12 years. The impacts of sealant and water fluoridation on dental caries were obtained by logistic regression for each age group of children. The contributions of sealant and water fluoridation to the time trends in the prevalence of dental caries were examined by a series of logistic regression models, and changes in the adjusted odds ratios for each survey year were also calculated. Over the past 7 years, the prevalence of dental caries decreased dramatically. Although sealant had a significant impact on dental caries in each survey year, remarkable decreases in dental caries from 2003 to 2010 were not explained by the secular changes in the dental sealant or water fluoridation factor. We observed important population declines in dental caries in Korea in children aged 8-12 years; however, the likely causes for these secular trends remain to be determined. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. [Fluoride content in potable water and drinks. Connection with dental caries prevention and dental fluorosis].

    PubMed

    Borinskiĭ, Iu N; Rumiantsev, V A; Borinskaia, E Iu; Beliaev, V V

    2009-01-01

    Content of fluoride by ion selective electrode in potable water (municipal water supply, bottled, from draw-wells and springs), in juices of industrial and compotes of domestic preparation, in drinks of various grades of the tea made by water with unequal contents of fluorine was analyzed. Fluoride entered organism of the population in non-control mode more often in minimum quantities that explained, in certain measures a wide caries incidence. Granting of the information upon concentration of fluorides in potable water, juices and drinks used by population would allow people to adjust this microelement intake in the organism with the purpose of preventing of dental caries and fluorosis.

  7. Co-Relationships between Glandular Salivary Flow Rates and Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    de Guillory, Carolina Diaz; Schoolfield, John D; Johnson, Dorthea; Yeh, Chih-Ko; Chen, Shuo; Cappelli, David P; Bober-Moken, Irene G; Dang, Howard

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to evaluate the relationship of age, gender, ethnicity and salivary flow rates on dental caries in an adult population using data collected from the Oral Health San Antonio Longitudinal Study of Aging (OH:SALSA). Background Saliva is essential to maintain a healthy oral environment and diminished output can result in dental caries. Although gender and age play a role in the quantity of saliva, little is known about the interaction of age, gender and ethnicity on dental caries and salivary flow rates. Materials and Methods Data from the 1,147 participants in the OH: SALSA was analyzed. The dependent variables were the number of teeth with untreated coronal caries, number of teeth with root caries, and the number of coronal and root surfaces with untreated caries. The independent variables were stimulated and unstimulated glandular salivary flow rates along with the age, sex, and ethnicity (e.g. European or Mexican ancestry) of the participants. Results Coronal caries experience was greater in younger participants while root surface caries experience was greater in the older participants. Coronal caries was lower in the older age groups while the root caries experience increased. Men had a statistically significant (p<0.02) higher experience of root caries than women. Values for unstimulated and stimulated parotid salivary flow rates showed no age difference and remained constant with age, whereas the age differences in the unstimulated and stimulated submandibular/sublingual salivary flow rates were significant. The mean number of teeth with coronal and root caries was higher in Mexican-Americans than in European-Americans. Conclusions Over one-fourth of the adults between the ages of 60 and 79 have untreated root caries over one-third having untreated coronal caries. Lower salivary flow rates play a significant role in the both the number of teeth and the number of surfaces developing caries in these adults. Women and individuals

  8. The social and behavioural pathway of dental caries experience among Jewish adults in Jerusalem.

    PubMed

    Zini, A; Sgan-Cohen, H D; Marcenes, W

    2012-01-01

    To report dental caries status, related health behaviours and social determinants among a representative sample of adults residing in Jerusalem. This cross-sectional study was conducted using a stratified sample of 254 Jewish and married adults aged 35-44 years in Jerusalem. Dental caries status was examined according to DMFT, percentage of caries-free persons and of people maintaining all their natural teeth (no teeth missing due to caries). The results were analysed by the independent variables and interpreted by weighted caries scores for the total Jerusalem population. The mean age was 38.63 years. Weighted DMFT was found to be 10.59; 6.8% of the population were caries-free; 67.1% demonstrated maintenance of all natural teeth. Level of education was the distal factor, associated with number of natural teeth, DMFT and untreated decay. Mediating behavioural determinants included dental attendance, plaque level and sugar consumption. The findings of this study demonstrated that caries experience among Jewish married adults in Jerusalem was moderate with low unmet dental caries needs. Additionally, data confirmed that a low level of education was a strong distal social determinant of caries experience, which affected dental health status via a pathway mediated by behavioural factors. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Inequality in dental caries distribution at noncavitated and cavitated thresholds in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, Chaiana; Tomazoni, Fernanda; Del Fabro, Joana; Buzzati, Bruna Cássia Schmidt; Mendes, Fausto Medeiros; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira; Ardenghi, Thiago Machado

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the inequality in dental caries distribution according to different thresholds assessed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) and to investigate the associations of socioeconomic factors with caries lesions at both noncavitated and cavitated thresholds. Study subjects were recruited in Santa Maria, Brazil, during the National Day of Children's Vaccination, and 639 children aged 12-59 months were included. Fifteen calibrated examiners performed the examinations using ICDAS criteria. Inequality in dental caries distribution was measured using the Gini coefficient, and the Significant Caries Index was calculated for several thresholds of ICDAS. Poisson regression analysis was used to assess the associations of socioeconomic factors with the highest caries scores. The inequality in the distribution of dental caries was lower when precavitated caries were included; the Gini coefficient decreased from 0.77 to 0.60 when noncavitated caries lesions were included in the analyses. Moreover, the inequalities were higher in the younger than in the older children for all thresholds. Socioeconomic factors were significantly (P < 0.001) associated with caries when an ICDAS score of 3 was considered as the cut-off point. Children whose mothers did not complete primary education (P < 0.001) and those with low household income (P < 0.001) were more likely to have increased dental caries. Caries lesions were more equally distributed when noncavitated lesions were included in the dental survey. Socioeconomic factors are found to be associated with the inequalities in caries distribution in this age group. © 2013 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  10. Sugar Consumption and Changes in Dental Caries from Childhood to Adolescence.

    PubMed

    Peres, M A; Sheiham, A; Liu, P; Demarco, F F; Silva, A E R; Assunção, M C; Menezes, A M; Barros, F C; Peres, K G

    2016-04-01

    There are no prospective studies investigating the effects of sugar-related feeding practices on changes in dental caries from early childhood to young adulthood. The aim of this study was to assess whether sugar-related feeding practices affect dental caries between the ages of 6 and 18 y. This birth cohort study was initiated in 1993 in Pelotas, Brazil. There were 3 dental clinical assessments; at ages 6 y (n = 359), 12 y (n = 339), and 18 y (n = 307). Sugar-related feeding practices were assessed at ages 4, 15, and 18 y. Covariates included sex and life course variables, such as family income, breast-feeding, mother's education, regularity of dental visit, and child's toothbrushing habits. Group-based trajectory analysis was performed to characterize trajectories of time-varying independent variables that had at least 3 time points. We fitted a generalized linear mixed model assuming negative binomial distribution with log link function on 3-time repeated dental caries assessments. One in 5 participants was classified as "high" sugar consumers, and nearly 40% were "upward consumers." "Low consumers" accounted for >40% of the sample. High and upward sugar consumers had higher dental caries prevalence and mean DMFT in all cohort waves when compared with low sugar consumers. Caries occurred at a relatively constant rate over the period of study, but in all sugar consumption groups, the increment of dental caries was slightly higher between ages 6 and 12 y than between 12 and 18 y. Adjusted analysis showed that dental caries increment ratio between ages 6 and 18 y was 20% and 66% higher in upward and high sugar consumer groups as compared with low consumers. The higher the sugar consumption along the life course, the higher the dental caries increment. Even the low level of sugar consumption was related to dental caries, despite the use of fluoride.

  11. Prevalence of dental caries among 12–14 year old children in Qatar

    PubMed Central

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed; El Ansari, Walid; Bener, Abdulbari

    2014-01-01

    Background To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. Objectives The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12–14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-demographic factors. Materials and methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar from October 2011 to March 2012. A total of 2113 children aged 12–14 were randomly selected from 16 schools located in different geographic areas. Three calibrated examiners using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose dental caries performed the clinical examinations. Data analyses were subsequently conducted. Results The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index values were respectively 4.62 (±3.2), 4.79 (±3.5), and 5.5 (±3.7), for 12, 13, and 14 year-old subjects. Caries prevalence was 85%. The mandibular incisors and canines were least affected by dental caries, while maxillary and mandibular molars exhibited the highest incidence of dental caries. Dental caries were affected by socio-demographic factors; significant differences were detected between female and male children, where more female children showed dental caries than male children. In addition, children residing in semi-urban areas showed more dental caries than in urban areas. Conclusion Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region. PMID:25057232

  12. Prevalence of dental caries among 12-14 year old children in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Al-Darwish, Mohammed; El Ansari, Walid; Bener, Abdulbari

    2014-07-01

    To ensure the oral health of a population, clinicians must deliver appropriate dental services, and local communities need to have access to dental care facilities. However, establishment of this infrastructure must be based on reliable information regarding disease prevalence and severity in the target population. The aims of this study were to measure the incidence of dental caries in school children aged 12-14 throughout Qatar, including the influence of socio-demographic factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted in Qatar from October 2011 to March 2012. A total of 2113 children aged 12-14 were randomly selected from 16 schools located in different geographic areas. Three calibrated examiners using World Health Organization (WHO) criteria to diagnose dental caries performed the clinical examinations. Data analyses were subsequently conducted. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth index values were respectively 4.62 (±3.2), 4.79 (±3.5), and 5.5 (±3.7), for 12, 13, and 14 year-old subjects. Caries prevalence was 85%. The mandibular incisors and canines were least affected by dental caries, while maxillary and mandibular molars exhibited the highest incidence of dental caries. Dental caries were affected by socio-demographic factors; significant differences were detected between female and male children, where more female children showed dental caries than male children. In addition, children residing in semi-urban areas showed more dental caries than in urban areas. Results indicated that dental caries prevalence among school children in Qatar has reached critical levels, and is influenced by socio-demographic factors. The mean decayed, missing, and filled teeth values obtained in this study were the second highest detected in the Eastern Mediterranean region.

  13. The Contribution of Dietary Factors to Dental Caries and Disparities in Caries

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, Connie; Marshall, Teresa A.; Milgrom, Peter; Coldwell, Susan E.

    2010-01-01

    Frequent consumption of simple carbohydrates, primarily in the form of dietary sugars is significantly associated with increased dental caries risk. Malnutrition (under or over nutrition) in children is often a consequence of inappropriate infant and childhood feeding practices and dietary behaviors associated with limited access to fresh, nutrient dense foods substituting instead, high-energy low cost and nutrient poor sugary and fatty foods. Lack of availability of quality food stores in rural and poor neighborhoods, food insecurity, and changing dietary beliefs resulting from acculturation including changes in traditional ethnic eating behaviors, can further deter healthful eating and increase risk for Early Childhood Caries and obesity. America is witnessing substantial increases in children and ethnic minorities living in poverty, widening the gap in oral health disparities noted in the Surgeon General's Report, Oral Health in America. Dental and other care providers can educate and counsel pregnant women, parents and families to promote healthy eating behaviors and should advocate for governmental policies and programs that decrease parental financial and educational barriers to achieving healthy diets. For families living in poverty, however, greater efforts are needed to facilitate access to affordable healthy foods, particularly in urban and rural neighborhoods in order to effect positive changes in children's diets and advance the oral components of general health. PMID:19945075

  14. Role of Sugar and Sugar Substitutes in Dental Caries: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nidhi; Pawar, Atish Prakash; Birajdar, Smita Shrishail; Natt, Amanpreet Singh; Singh, Harkanwal Preet

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is a chronic disease which can affect us at any age. The term “caries” denotes both the disease process and its consequences, that is, the damage caused by the disease process. Dental caries has a multifactorial aetiology in which there is interplay of three principal factors: the host (saliva and teeth), the microflora (plaque), and the substrate (diet), and a fourth factor: time. The role of sugar (and other fermentable carbohydrates such as highly refined flour) as a risk factor in the initiation and progression of dental caries is overwhelming. Whether this initial demineralization proceeds to clinically detectable caries or whether the lesion is remineralized by plaque minerals depends on a number of factors, of which the amount and frequency of further sugars consumption are of utmost importance. This paper reviews the role of sugar and sugar substitutes in dental caries. PMID:24490079

  15. Milk fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Bánóczy, Jolán; Rugg-Gunn, Andrew; Woodward, Margaret

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this review is to give an overview of 55 years experience of milk fluoridation and draw conclusions about the applicability of the method. Fluoridated milk was first investigated in the early 1950s, almost simultaneously in Switzerland, the USA and Japan. Stimulated by the favourable results obtained from these early studies, the establishment of The Borrow Dental Milk Foundation (subsequently The Borrow Foundation) in England gave an excellent opportunity for further research, both clinical and non-clinical, and a productive collaboration with the World Health Organization which began in the early 1980s. Numerous peer-reviewed publications in international journals showed clearly the bioavailability of fluoride in various types of milk. Clinical trials were initiated in the 1980s - some of these can be classed as randomised controlled trials, while most of the clinical studies were community preventive programmes. These evaluations showed clearly that the optimal daily intake of fluoride in milk is effective in preventing dental caries. The amount of fluoride added to milk depends on background fluoride exposure and age of the children: commonly in the range 0.5 to 1.0 mg per day. An advantage of the method is that a precise amount of fluoride can be delivered under controlled conditions. The cost of milk fluoridation programmes is low, about € 2 to 3 per child per year. Fluoridation of milk can be recommended as a caries preventive measure where the fluoride concentration in drinking water is suboptimal, caries experience in children is significant, and there is an existing school milk programme. Copyright © 2013 by Academy of Sciences and Arts of Bosnia and Herzegovina.

  16. Prenatal vitamin D and dental caries in infants.

    PubMed

    Schroth, Robert J; Lavelle, Christopher; Tate, Robert; Bruce, Sharon; Billings, Ronald J; Moffatt, Michael E K

    2014-05-01

    Inadequate maternal vitamin D (assessed by using 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25OHD]) levels during pregnancy may affect tooth calcification, predisposing enamel hypoplasia and early childhood caries (ECC). The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between prenatal 25OHD concentrations and dental caries among offspring during the first year of life. This prospective cohort study recruited expectant mothers from an economically disadvantaged urban area. A prenatal questionnaire was completed and serum sample drawn for 25OHD. Dental examinations were completed at 1 year of age while the parent/caregiver completed a questionnaire. The examiner was blinded to mothers' 25OHD levels. A P value ≤ .05 was considered significant. Overall, 207 women were enrolled (mean age: 19 ± 5 years). The mean 25OHD level was 48 ± 24 nmol/L, and 33% had deficient levels. Enamel hypoplasia was identified in 22% of infants; 23% had cavitated ECC, and 36% had ECC when white spot lesions were included in the assessment. Mothers of children with ECC had significantly lower 25OHD levels than those whose children were caries-free (41 ± 20 vs 52 ± 27 nmol/L; P = .05). Univariate Poisson regression analysis for the amount of untreated decay revealed an inverse relationship with maternal 25OHD. Logistic regression revealed that enamel hypoplasia (P < .001), infant age (P = .002), and lower prenatal 25OHD levels (P = .02) were significantly associated with ECC. This study found that maternal prenatal 25OHD levels may have an influence on the primary dentition and the development of ECC. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  17. Efficacy of Specific Plant Products on Microorganisms Causing Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Kanth, M Rajini; Prakash, A Ravi; Sreenath, G; Reddy, Vikram Simha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most common oral diseases seen globally, both in developed and developing countries. Oral microorganisms that is gram positive and gram negative bacteria are known to be involved in causation of these diseases. Nowadays commercially available dentrifices and mouth rinses are known to contain ingredients that can alter the oral microbial flora and have undesirable side effects such as vomiting, diarrhoea, disarrangement of oral, intestinal flora and tooth staining. Naturally available plant products are known to be less harmful with fewer side effects and also economical for the patient. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial properties of 10 naturally available plant products against oral microorganisms causing caries and to check the efficacy of these products in-vitro and to use these in mouth washes and dentrifices. Materials and Methods Sample of caries material was scrapped out from the extracted teeth and transferred to liquid broth, streaked over the agar media to allow for the growth of microorganisms. Plant products like clove oil, neem, ginger-garlic paste, tea tree oil, ginger, garlic, cinnamon oil, green tea, eucalyptus oil and turmeric were used. Antimicrobial efficacy of these products, was estimated by measuring zones of inhibition in the nutrient agar media. Results Clove oil was the most effective of all products against microorganisms causing caries with zone of inhibition - 30mm followed by ginger-garlic paste - 25mm, Neem - 15mm, tea tree oil - 15mm. Conclusion Based on the above results, it can be inferred that these natural products have the maximum efficacy against microorganisms and can be recommended in dentifrices, mouth rinses, topical gels, etc. PMID:28209019

  18. Efficacy of Specific Plant Products on Microorganisms Causing Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Kanth, M Rajini; Prakash, A Ravi; Sreenath, G; Reddy, Vikram Simha; Huldah, S

    2016-12-01

    Dental caries and periodontal diseases are the most common oral diseases seen globally, both in developed and developing countries. Oral microorganisms that is gram positive and gram negative bacteria are known to be involved in causation of these diseases. Nowadays commercially available dentrifices and mouth rinses are known to contain ingredients that can alter the oral microbial flora and have undesirable side effects such as vomiting, diarrhoea, disarrangement of oral, intestinal flora and tooth staining. Naturally available plant products are known to be less harmful with fewer side effects and also economical for the patient. The aim of this study was to determine the antimicrobial properties of 10 naturally available plant products against oral microorganisms causing caries and to check the efficacy of these products in-vitro and to use these in mouth washes and dentrifices. Sample of caries material was scrapped out from the extracted teeth and transferred to liquid broth, streaked over the agar media to allow for the growth of microorganisms. Plant products like clove oil, neem, ginger-garlic paste, tea tree oil, ginger, garlic, cinnamon oil, green tea, eucalyptus oil and turmeric were used. Antimicrobial efficacy of these products, was estimated by measuring zones of inhibition in the nutrient agar media. Clove oil was the most effective of all products against microorganisms causing caries with zone of inhibition - 30mm followed by ginger-garlic paste - 25mm, Neem - 15mm, tea tree oil - 15mm. Based on the above results, it can be inferred that these natural products have the maximum efficacy against microorganisms and can be recommended in dentifrices, mouth rinses, topical gels, etc.

  19. Examiner training and reliability in two randomized clinical trials of adult dental caries.

    PubMed

    Banting, David W; Amaechi, Bennett T; Bader, James D; Blanchard, Peter; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gullion, Christina M; Holland, Jan Carlton; Makhija, Sonia K; Papas, Athena; Ritter, André V; Singh, Mabi L; Vollmer, William M

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the training of dental examiners participating in two dental caries clinical trials and reports the inter- and intra-examiner reliability scores from the initial standardization sessions. Study examiners were trained to use a modified International Caries Detection and Assessment System II system to detect the visual signs of non-cavitated and cavitated dental caries in adult subjects. Dental caries was classified as no caries (S), non-cavitated caries (D1), enamel caries (D2), and dentine caries (D3). Three standardization sessions involving 60 subjects and 3,604 tooth surface calls were used to calculate several measures of examiner reliability. The prevalence of dental caries observed in the standardization sessions ranged from 1.4 percent to 13.5 percent of the coronal tooth surfaces examined. Overall agreement between pairs of examiners ranged from 0.88 to 0.99. An intra-class coefficient threshold of 0.60 was surpassed for all but one examiner. Inter-examiner unweighted kappa values were low (0.23-0.35), but weighted kappas and the ratio of observed to maximum kappas were more encouraging (0.42-0.83). The highest kappa values occurred for the S/D1 versus D2/D3 two-level classification of dental caries, for which seven of the eight examiners achieved observed to maximum kappa values over 0.90. Intra-examiner reliability was notably higher than inter-examiner reliability for all measures and dental caries classifications employed. The methods and results for the initial examiner training and standardization sessions for two large clinical trials are reported. Recommendations for others planning examiner training and standardization sessions are offered. © 2011 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  20. Trends in dental fluorosis and dental caries prevalences in Newburgh and Kingston, NY.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, J V; Green, E L; Wallace, W; Carnahan, T

    1989-01-01

    A study was undertaken in New York State to determine the changes in dental fluorosis prevalence from 1955 to 1986 in fluoridated Newburgh and non-fluoridated Kingston children. The frequency and severity of dental fluorosis among 884 7-14-year-old children were measured by two dentists utilizing Dean's Index. Data regarding residential and fluoride history were obtained from the parents of participants. Among the Newburgh residents, the prevalence of dental fluorosis (very mild to moderate) varied from a low of 5 per cent for the 9-10-year-old group to a high of 9.4 per cent for 11-12-year-olds. Except for the 13-14-year-old group, children in non-fluoridated Kingston had the lowest dental fluorosis prevalence rates. A comparison of Dean's Community Fluorosis Indices to the 1955 baseline data obtained from studies conducted after 10 years of fluoridation in Newburgh revealed no changes of consequence among Newburgh residents. However, the changes are apparent for Kingston residents, indicating the availability of fluorides in non-fluoridated areas. The increased risk for dental fluorosis for Kingston residents appears to be from the use of fluoride tablets. An analysis of dental caries data revealed that caries prevalence declined substantially in both fluoridated and non-fluoridated areas. PMID:2705588

  1. The Caries Management System: an evidence-based preventive strategy for dental practitioners. Application for adults.

    PubMed

    Evans, R W; Pakdaman, A; Dennison, P J; Howe, E L C

    2008-03-01

    In the absence of effective caries preventive methods, operative care became established as the means for caries control in general practice. Water fluoridation resulted in a declining caries incidence which decreased further following the advent of fluoridated toothpaste. The challenge today is to develop a non-invasive model of practice that will sustain a low level of primary caries experience in the younger generation and reduce risk of caries experience in the older generations. The Caries Management System is a ten step non-invasive strategy to arrest and remineralize early lesions. The governing principle of this system is that caries management must include consideration of the patient at risk, the status of each lesion, patient management, clinical management and monitoring. Both dental caries risk and treatment are managed according to a set of protocols that are applied at various steps throughout patient consultation and treatment. The anticipated outcome of implementing the Caries Management System in general dental practice is reduction in caries incidence and increased patient satisfaction. Since the attainment and maintenance of oral health is determined mainly by controlling both caries and periodontal disease, the implementation of the Caries Management System in general practice will promote both outcomes.

  2. Bilateral occurrence of dental caries and oral hygiene in preschool children of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Wyne, A H; Chohan, A N; Jastaniyah, N; Al-Khalil, R

    2008-12-01

    The objective of the study was to determine bilateral caries occurrence or caries bilaterality in preschool children of Riyadh. For this purpose, 789 randomly selected preschool children, 379 (48%) boys and 410 (52%) girls, were examined for dental caries utilizing the World Health Organization (WHO) criteria for diagnosis of dental caries. Caries were significantly bilateral (p < .05) in all the teeth. Among the posterior teeth, mandibular second molars showed the highest caries bilaterality (88%) and among the anterior teeth, maxillary central incisors had the highest caries bilaterality (88.9%). Mandibular canines had the lowest caries bilaterality (52.7%). There was more than 50% probability of left side tooth being carious given that right side tooth was carious for all the teeth. Amongst posterior teeth, the conditional probability for bilateral caries occurrence was highest in mandibular second molars (.88) and amongst the anterior teeth, maxillary central incisors had the highest conditional bilaterality (.89). Caries bilaterality was significantly high (p < .05) in children with poor and fair oral hygiene as compared to children with good oral hygiene for all the molars and maxillary central incisors. It can be concluded that bilateral caries occurrence or caries bilaterality is highly prevalent in all the primary teeth; especially in mandibular molars and maxillary incisors.

  3. ‘Use a Thorn to Draw Thorn’ Replacement Therapy for Prevention of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Marwah, Nikhil

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the use of conventional physical and chemotherapeutic agents for caries management, dental caries still continues to be the most prevalent oral infectious disease. Thus, there is a need of additional caries prevention approaches. Strain replacement therapy is one such novel approach. In this, relatively avirulent strains of Streptococcus mutans produced by recombinant DNA technology are implanted into the oral cavity. These may either interfere with the colonization of, or compete with the indigenous cariogenic mutans streptococci. This technique might provide a cost-effective, long-term means of achieving tailor made protection for the host against dental caries. PMID:27616834

  4. The Association Between Body Mass Index and Dental Caries: Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Alswat, Khaled; Mohamed, Waleed S.; Wahab, Moustafa A.; Aboelil, Ahmed A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is a growing health-related problem worldwide. Both obesity and dental caries are important health issues with multifactorial aspects. Some studies have shown an association between body mass index (BMI) and caries in childhood/adolescence but limited data about such an association are available in adults. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries and its relationship to BMI. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study at Taif University Outpatient Clinic, for adults who had a visit to the dental clinic. Baseline characteristics were obtained by the participating physician. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index was used to determine the prevalence of dental caries. Information about healthy eating, smoking, exercise, sleep patterns, media consumption, and brushing habits were collected. Results A total of 385 patients were enrolled with a mean age of 28.39 years, 72.8% were male, mean DMFT index score was 6.55, and 85.5% reported brushing their teeth at least once daily. Of the participants, 55.3% were either overweight or obese, and 42.2% demonstrated a high prevalence of dental caries with no significant difference in BMI when compared to the low dental caries group. Conclusions A high prevalence of overweight/obesity and dental caries was observed among the participants. After controlling for potential confounders like smoking and brushing habits, significant positive correlation between BMI and DMFT was observed. PMID:26767084

  5. Non-operative anti-caries agents and dental caries increment among adults at high caries risk: a retrospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Chaffee, Benjamin W; Cheng, Jing; Featherstone, John D B

    2015-09-24

    Consensus guidelines support non-operative preventives for dental caries management; yet, their use in practice is far from universal. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of non-operative anti-caries agents in caries prevention among high caries risk adults at a university clinic where risk-based caries management is emphasized. This retrospective observational study drew data from the electronic patient records of non-edentulous adult patients deemed to be at high risk for dental caries during baseline oral evaluations that were completed between July 1, 2007 and December 31, 2012 at a dental university in the United States. We calculated and compared adjusted mean estimates for the number of new decayed or restored teeth (DFT increment) from baseline to the next completed oral evaluation (N = 2,724 patients with follow-up) across three categories of delivery of non-operative anti-caries agents (e.g., high-concentration fluoride toothpaste, chlorhexidine rinse, xylitol products): never, at a single appointment, or at ≥2 appointments ≥4 weeks apart. Estimates were adjusted for patient and provider characteristics, baseline dental status, losses-to-follow-up, and follow-up time. Approximately half the patients did not receive any form of non-operative anti-caries agent. Most that received anti-caries agents were given more than one type of product in combination. One-time delivery of anti-caries agents was associated with a similar DFT increment as receiving no such therapy (difference in increment: -0.04; 95% CI: -0.28, 0.21). However, repeated, spaced delivery of anti-caries agents was associated with approximately one decayed or restored tooth prevented over 18 months for every three patients treated (difference in increment: -0.35; 95% CI: -0.65, -0.08). These results lend evidence that repeatedly receiving anti-caries agents can reduce tooth decay among high-risk patients engaged in regular dental care.

  6. DENTAL CARIES IN CHILDREN THAT PARTICIPATED IN A DENTAL PROGRAM PROVIDING MOTHER AND CHILD CARE*

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; de Toledo, Orlando Ayrton

    2006-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of caries in children that participate in a dental program attending mothers and children in Teresina, Piauí, Brazil. A selection was made of 343 children of both genders, from 3 to 6 years of age. The mothers answered questionnaires and children were examined at the Infant Dental Clinic of the Federal University of Piauí. The epidemiological index dmft was applied and active white spot lesions were included. The SPSS for Windows program, version 11.1 was used and non-parametric tests carried out (Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis). An alpha error of 5% (0.05) was considered for the null hypothesis of false rejection, with a confidence interval of 95%. The results showed that 57.5% (197) of the children were breast-fed for a period longer than 12 months. The mean dmft index and percentages of caries-free children at the age of 3 was 1.86 (58.82%); at 4 years of age 1.94 (57.60%); at 5 years of age 1.98 (56.86%) and at 6 years of age 2.42 (42.55%). The decay component (d) was prevalent at all ages. When active white spot lesions were added to the dmft index, there was an increase of 7.2% for children who had caries activity and/or previous caries experience and 2.61% for those with dmft equal to zero. The daily consumption of fermentable carbohydrates and free demand breast-feeding were factors increasing caries activity. Dental follow-up after the program and the number of daily brushings were shown to be factors providing protection against caries . Based on the results, the authors were able to conclude that the program caused a positive impact on caries disease control, as the number of dental appointments kept influenced the dmft index values in a statistically significant manner. PMID:19089031

  7. Dental caries experience and use of dental services among Brazilian prisoners.

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Alessandro Leite; Rodrigues, Iris Sant Anna Araujo; de Melo Silveira, Ingrid Thays; de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista Sarmento; de Almeida Pinto, Magaly Suenya; Xavier, Alidianne Fabia Cabral; de Castro, Ricardo Dias; Padilha, Wilton Wilney Nascimento

    2014-11-25

    This ross-sectional study involving 127 male prisoners evaluates the use of dental services and dental caries among Brazilian inmates. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination. Sociodemographic and sentencing information as well as use of dental services, self-reported dental morbidity, self-perception, and oral health impacts were investigated. The mean DMFT index value was 19.72. Of the components, the decayed component showed the highest mean value (11.06 ± 5.37). Statistically significant association was found between DMFTs with values from 22 to 32 and oral health satisfaction (p = 0.002), difficulty speaking (p = 0.024), shame of talking (p = 0.004) and smiling (p < 0.001). Regarding the use of dental services, 80% had their last dental appointment less than one year ago, with most visits occurring in prison (80%), with restorative treatment (32%), followed by dental pain (26.4%), being the main reasons for such appointments. Most prisoners used dental services provided by the prison. Although restorative treatment has been the main reason for the use of dental services, "decayed" and "missing" components contributed to the high mean DMFT index.

  8. Dental Caries Experience and Use of Dental Services among Brazilian Prisoners

    PubMed Central

    Leite Cavalcanti, Alessandro; Araujo Rodrigues, Iris Sant´Anna; de Melo Silveira, Ingrid Thays; Sarmento de Oliveira, Thaliny Batista; de Almeida Pinto, Magaly Suenya; Cabral Xavier, Alidianne Fabia; Dias de Castro, Ricardo; Nascimento Padilha, Wilton Wilney

    2014-01-01

    This ross-sectional study involving 127 male prisoners evaluates the use of dental services and dental caries among Brazilian inmates. Data were collected by interview and clinical examination. Sociodemographic and sentencing information as well as use of dental services, self-reported dental morbidity, self-perception, and oral health impacts were investigated. The mean DMFT index value was 19.72. Of the components, the decayed component showed the highest mean value (11.06 ± 5.37). Statistically significant association was found between DMFTs with values from 22 to 32 and oral health satisfaction (p = 0.002), difficulty speaking (p = 0.024), shame of talking (p = 0.004) and smiling (p < 0.001). Regarding the use of dental services, 80% had their last dental appointment less than one year ago, with most visits occurring in prison (80%), with restorative treatment (32%), followed by dental pain (26.4%), being the main reasons for such appointments. Most prisoners used dental services provided by the prison. Although restorative treatment has been the main reason for the use of dental services, “decayed” and “missing” components contributed to the high mean DMFT index. PMID:25429680

  9. Evaluating performance of dental caries detection methods among third-year dental students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Reliable caries detection is a cornerstone in the modern caries treatment schema. This study aimed to evaluate adopting traditional and new caries detection methods by third-year dental students. Methods Fifty-seven students were given lectures on caries detection, after which they evaluated 27 extracted carious teeth using traditional clinical assessment (CE), Nyvad’s, and ICDAS methods. On three teeth they also performed DIAGNOdent pen® (LF) scanning. Histological scores of the sectioned teeth (ICDAS, LF) and activity estimations of the lesions by the supervisors were used as golden standards (Nyvad, CE). For the ICDAS method , sensitivity and specificity were calculated using dentine caries (D3) as a cut-off point. Mean ICC and kappa values were calculated to evaluate interexaminer agreement for all lesions and methods. Spearman’s correlation coefficient evaluated LF scanning. Results ICDAS method presented good sensitivity (0.78) and specificity (0.87). The inter-examiner agreement for different methods was fair or good (CE ICC = 0.69, κ = 0.53; Nyvad’s method ICC = 0.68, κ = 0.48, ICDAS ICC = 0.66, κ = 0.47). Variation in LF values was the greatest with lesions extending to middle third of dentin. In that case, the Spearman’s correlation coefficient was also the weakest. Conclusions To follow the guidelines by the European Core Curriculum on Cariology, the third year dental students are introduced to methods for detecting lesion depth and assessing lesion activity as well as using new caries detection methods. Their performance in estimating lesion depth is good, and fair to good in estimating lesion activity even after basic training only. PMID:24314305

  10. [Clinical aspects of the evolution of dental caries and periodontal disease in patients treated with corticosteroids].

    PubMed

    Lăcătuşu, St; Ghiorghe, Angela

    2004-01-01

    Patients treated with adrenal glucocorticoids may run a higher risk of dental caries, both as a result of their medical condition and of the physical and physiological effects of their pharmacotherapy. Our clinical study reports about patients treated with glucocorticoids who were also having an odonto-periodontal condition. They were examined and we found rampant caries and periodontal diseases. The slow evolution of asymptomatic periodontal disease encouraged destruction of teeth in root caries. The rampant caries were correlated with immunodeficiency and treatment of these caries must take into account the general treatment.

  11. Genes and Their Effects on Dental Caries May Differ between Primary and Permanent Dentitions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, X.; Shaffer, J.R.; Weyant, R.J.; Cuenco, K.T.; DeSensi, R.H.; Crout, R.; McNeil, D.W.; Marazita, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    The importance of genetic factors in the genesis of dental caries of both primary and permanent dentitions is well established; however, the degree to which genes contribute to the development of dental caries, and whether these genes differ between primary and permanent dentitions, is largely unknown. Using family-based likelihood methods, we assessed the heritability of caries-related phenotypes for both children and adults in 2,600 participants from 740 families. We found that caries phenotypes in the primary dentition were highly heritable, with genes accounting for 54–70% of variation in caries scores. The heritability of caries scores in the permanent dentition was also substantial (35–55%, all p < 0.01), although this was lower than analogous phenotypes in the primary dentition. Assessment of the genetic correlation between primary and permanent caries scores indicated that 18% of the covariation in these traits was due to common genetic factors (p < 0.01). Therefore, dental caries in primary and permanent teeth may be partly attributable to different suites of genes or genes with differential effects. Sex and age explained much of the phenotypic variation in permanent, but not primary, dentition. Further, including pre-cavitated white-spot lesions in the phenotype definition substantially increased the heritability estimates for dental caries. In conclusion, our results show that dental caries are heritable, and suggest that genes affecting susceptibility to caries in the primary dentition may differ from those in permanent teeth. Moreover, metrics for quantifying caries that incorporate white-spot lesions may serve as better phenotypes in genetic studies of the causes of tooth decay. PMID:20516689

  12. Radiation-induced dental caries, prevention and treatment - A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Nishtha; Pal, Manoj; Rawat, Sheh; Grewal, Mandeep S.; Garg, Himani; Chauhan, Deepika; Ahlawat, Parveen; Tandon, Sarthak; Khurana, Ruparna; Pahuja, Anjali K.; Mayank, Mayur; Devnani, Bharti

    2015-01-01

    Treatment of head and neck cancers (HNCs) involves radiotherapy. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for HNCs are prone to dental complications. Radiotherapy to the head and neck region causes xerostomia and salivary gland dysfunction which dramatically increases the risk of dental caries and its sequelae. Radiation therapy (RT) also affects the dental hard tissues increasing their susceptibility to demineralization following RT. Postradiation caries is a rapidly progressing and highly destructive type of dental caries. Radiation-related caries and other dental hard tissue changes can appear within the first 3 months following RT. Hence, every effort should be focused on prevention to manage patients with severe caries. This can be accomplished through good preoperative dental treatment, frequent dental evaluation and treatment after RT (with the exception of extractions), and consistent home care that includes self-applied fluoride. Restorative management of radiation caries can be challenging. The restorative dentist must consider the altered dental substrate and a hostile oral environment when selecting restorative materials. Radiation-induced changes in enamel and dentine may compromise bonding of adhesive materials. Consequently, glass ionomer cements have proved to be a better alternative to composite resins in irradiated patients. Counseling of patients before and after radiotherapy can be done to make them aware of the complications of radiotherapy and thus can help in preventing them. PMID:27390489

  13. Pediatrician-recommended use of sports drinks and dental caries in 3-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Kawashita, Y; Fukuda, H; Kawasaki, K; Kitamura, M; Hayashida, H; Furugen, R; Fukumoto, E; Iijima, Y; Saito, T

    2011-03-01

    To determine whether children advised by a pediatrician to take sports drinks consume them more frequently than do other children and whether these children have an increased risk of dental caries. The subjects were 522 mother/child pairs who attended a dental checkup for 3-year-olds at one of ten community health centers in Nagasaki, Japan. Pearson's chi-square test was used to compare the prevalence of children with or without dental caries according to child-related variables. Multiple logistic regression was performed to assess the relationship between the presence of dental caries and child-related variables taken from a dental checkup and a questionnaire. A high frequency of sports drink consumption was strongly associated with dental caries in children. The highest proportion of mothers answered that they were advised by a pediatrician to give sports drinks to their children. However, these children consumed sports drinks significantly less frequently than did children who did so for reasons other than pediatrician recommendations. In addition, these children were significantly less likely to have dental caries than were children who consumed sports drinks for otherreasons. Pediatrician-recommended consumption of sports drinks does not lead to more frequent consumption of these beverages or to dental caries in 3-year-old children.

  14. Novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries: a patent survey

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Fu; Wang, Dong

    2010-01-01

    Importance of the field: Dental caries is one of the most common preventable childhood diseases; people are susceptible to this ailment throughout their lifetime. In the United States, 90% of late adolescents and young adults have dental caries, while 94% of all dentate adults had evidence of treated or untreated coronal caries. Dental caries is often not self-limiting and without proper care, caries can progress until the tooth is destroyed. Areas covered in this review: In this paper, the etiology of dental caries was briefly introduced. It was followed by a thorough review of patents and literatures on the recent development of various novel technologies for the prevention and treatment of dental caries. What the reader will gain: Recent advances in anti-plaque agents, including chemoprophylactic agents, antimicrobial peptides, vaccines, probiotics/replacement therapy and sugar substitutes, and remineralization agents including fluorides and casein phosphopeptides are analyzed. Take home massage: Both the discovery of new anti-caries agents and the development of dentotropic delivery systems will be the future focus of this research field. PMID:20230309

  15. The relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis in areas with moderate- and high-fluoride drinking water in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Wondwossen, Fantaye; Astrøm, Anne Nordrehaug; Bjorvatn, Kjell; Bårdsen, Asgeir

    2004-10-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the relationship between caries and dental fluorosis in Ethiopian children living in Rift Valley areas known for endemic fluorosis. A total of 306 children (12-15 years old), selected from areas with moderate (0.3-2.2 mg/l), or high (10-14 mg/l) fluoride concentration in the drinking water were interviewed and examined for caries and dental fluorosis. Scorings were recorded according to the DMF system, and the Thylstrup-Fejerskov (TF) Index. Prevalence of dental fluorosis (TF-score > or = 1) was 91.8% (moderate area) and 100% (high-fluoride area). The corresponding caries prevalence and mean DMFT in the areas were 45.3% versus 61.6%, and 1.2 versus 1.8, respectively. Age and severity of dental fluorosis were found to be independent predictors for DMFT > or = 1. When compared with 12-year olds with TF-scores 0-4, odds ratios were 3.0 (95% CI 1.6-5.7) and 2.0 (95% CI 1.2-3.2) if TF-scores were > or = 5 and age 13-15 years, respectively. A positive relationship between caries and fluorosis was observed across tooth types in both areas. The percentage of children with DMFT > or = 1 was highest in groups with TF-score > or = 5 in the second molar, followed by the first molar. The present findings indicate that the second molar is the tooth most severely affected by dental fluorosis and dental caries. Dental caries increased with increasing severity of dental fluorosis, both in moderate- and high-fluoride areas. Thus, a positive relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis was observed across various tooth types, in both areas. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004

  16. Dental caries experience, oral health status and treatment needs of dental patients with autism

    PubMed Central

    JABER, Mohamed Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether children with autism have higher caries prevalence, higher periodontal problems, or more treatment needs than children of a control group of non-autistic patients, and to provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services to autistic children. Material and Methods 61 patients with autism aged 6-16 years (45 males and 16 females) attending Dubai and Sharjah Autism Centers were selected for the study. The control group consisted of 61 non-autistic patients chosen from relatives or friends of autistic patients in an attempt to have matched age, sex and socioeconomic status. Each patient received a complete oral and periodontal examination, assessment of caries prevalence, and caries severity. Other conditions assessed were dental plaque, gingivitis, restorations and treatment needs. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test of significance were used to compare groups. Results The autism group had a male-tofemale ratio of 2.8:1. Compared to controls, children with autism had significantly higher decayed, missing or filled teeth than unaffected patients and significantly needed more restorative dental treatment. The restorative index (RI) and Met Need Index (MNI) for the autistic children were 0.02 and 0.3, respectively. The majority of the autistic children either having poor 59.0% (36/61) or fair 37.8% (23/61) oral hygiene compared with healthy control subjects. Likewise, 97.0% (59/61) of the autistic children had gingivitis. Conclusions Children with autism exhibited a higher caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment than non-autistic healthy control group. Thus oral health program that emphasizes prevention should be considered of particular importance for children and young people with autism. PMID:21625735

  17. Dental caries experience, oral health status and treatment needs of dental patients with autism.

    PubMed

    Jaber, Mohamed Abdullah

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a lifelong neurodevelopmental disorder. The aims of this study were to investigate whether children with autism have higher caries prevalence, higher periodontal problems, or more treatment needs than children of a control group of non-autistic patients, and to provide baseline data to enable comparison and future planning of dental services to autistic children. 61 patients with autism aged 6-16 years (45 males and 16 females) attending Dubai and Sharjah Autism Centers were selected for the study. The control group consisted of 61 non-autistic patients chosen from relatives or friends of autistic patients in an attempt to have matched age, sex and socioeconomic status. Each patient received a complete oral and periodontal examination, assessment of caries prevalence, and caries severity. Other conditions assessed were dental plaque, gingivitis, restorations and treatment needs. Chi-square and Fisher's exact test of significance were used to compare groups. The autism group had a male-to-female ratio of 2.8:1. Compared to controls, children with autism had significantly higher decayed, missing or filled teeth than unaffected patients and significantly needed more restorative dental treatment. The restorative index (RI) and Met Need Index (MNI) for the autistic children were 0.02 and 0.3, respectively. The majority of the autistic children either having poor 59.0% (36/61) or fair 37.8% (23/61) oral hygiene compared with healthy control subjects. Likewise, 97.0% (59/61) of the autistic children had gingivitis. Children with autism exhibited a higher caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene and extensive unmet needs for dental treatment than non-autistic healthy control group. Thus oral health program that emphasizes prevention should be considered of particular importance for children and young people with autism.

  18. Impact of malocclusion and dentofacial anomalies on the prevalence and severity of dental caries among adolescents.

    PubMed

    Feldens, Carlos Alberto; Dos Santos Dullius, Angela Isabel; Kramer, Paulo Floriani; Scapini, Annarosa; Busato, Adair Luiz Stefanello; Vargas-Ferreira, Fabiana

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the association between malocclusion/dentofacial anomalies and dental caries among adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 509 adolescents aged 11 to 14 years enrolled at public schools in the city of Osório in southern Brazil. Parents/caregivers answered a structured questionnaire on demographic and socioeconomic variables. A trained examiner recorded the presence of malocclusion (Dental Aesthetic Index [DAI]), traumatic dental injury, and dental caries. Data analysis involved the chi-square, Mann-Whitney, and Kruskal-Wallis tests. Poisson regression with robust variance was used for the multivariable analysis. A total of 44.8% of the adolescents had dental caries (mean DFMT  =  1.33 ± 1.84). The DAI index ranged from 15 to 77 (mean  =  29.0 ± 7.9); 43.6% of the sample had severe malocclusion and 11.6% had traumatic dental injury. The prevalence and severity of dental caries were significantly greater among adolescents with severe malocclusion. The multivariate analysis demonstrated that adolescents with severe or handicapping malocclusion had a 31% greater probability of having dental caries (prevalence ratio: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.02-1.67), independently of demographic, socioeconomic, or clinical aspects. The orthodontic characteristics associated with the occurrence and severity of caries were maxillary irregularity ≥3 mm (P  =  .021) and abnormal molar relationship (P  =  .021). Handicapping malocclusion, maxillary irregularity, and abnormal molar relationship were associated with the occurrence and severity of dental caries. The findings suggest that the prevention and treatment of these conditions can contribute to a reduction in dental caries among adolescents.

  19. Examiner Training and Reliability in Two Randomized Clinical Trials of Adult Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Banting, David W.; Amaechi, Bennett T.; Bader, James D.; Blanchard, Peter; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gullion, Christina M.; Holland, Jan Carlton; Makhija, Sonia K.; Papas, Athena; Ritter, André V.; Singh, Mabi L.; Vollmer, William M.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives This report describes the training of dental examiners participating in two dental caries clinical trials and reports the inter- and intra- examiner reliability scores from the initial standardization sessions. Methods Study examiners were trained to use a modified ICDAS-II system to detect the visual signs of non-cavitated and cavitated dental caries in adult subjects. Dental caries was classified as no caries (S), non-cavitated caries (D1), enamel caries (D2) and dentine caries (D3). Three standardization sessions involving 60 subjects and 3604 tooth surface calls were used to calculate several measures of examiner reliability. Results The prevalence of dental caries observed in the standardization sessions ranged from 1.4% to 13.5% of the coronal tooth surfaces examined. Overall agreement between pairs of examiners ranged from 0.88 to 0.99. An intra-class coefficient threshold of 0.60 was surpassed for all but one examiner. Inter-examiner unweighted kappa values were low (0.23– 0.35) but weighted kappas and the ratio of observed to maximum kappas were more encouraging (0.42– 0.83). The highest kappa values occurred for the S/D1 vs. D2/D3 two-level classification of dental caries, for which seven of the eight examiners achieved observed to maximum kappa values over 0.90.Intra-examiner reliability was notably higher than inter-examiner reliability for all measures and dental caries classification systems employed. Conclusion The methods and results for the initial examiner training and standardization sessions for two large clinical trials are reported. Recommendations for others planning examiner training and standardization sessions are offered. PMID:22320292

  20. Korean version of child perceptions questionnaire and dental caries among Korean children.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Sun; Han, Dong-Hun; Shin, Myung-Seop; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Hyun-Duck

    2015-01-01

    Although dental caries has been a major oral health problem for children, the association between dental caries and oral health related quality of life has been still controversial. This study aims to evaluate the association between the Korean version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (K-CPQ) and dental caries among Korean children. Eight hundred one school children aged 8 to 14 years participated in this study. After the K-CPQ was validated we performed an association study. The K-CPQ was self-reported. Dental caries were evaluated by dentists using the World Health Organization Index. Correlation analyses (intraclass correlation coefficient, Cronbach's alpha and Pearson's correlation coefficient [r]) and linear regression models (partial r) including age, gender and type of school were applied. Untreated deciduous dental caries was associated with the K-CPQ(8-10) overall score (partial r = 0.15, P <0.05). The link was highlighted in the domains of functional limitation and emotional well-being. Filled teeth due to caries (FT) was associated with the K-CPQ11-14 overall domain (partial r = 0.14, P = 0.002) as well as with the oral symptoms domain (partial r = 0.16, P = 0.001). This association was highlighted among public school children. Our data indicate that K-CPQ was independently associated with dental caries. The K-CPQ could be a practical tool to evaluate the subjective oral health among Korean children aged 8 to 14.

  1. Association between developmental defects of enamel and dental caries: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Ferreira, F; Salas, M M S; Nascimento, G G; Tarquinio, S B C; Faggion, C M; Peres, M A; Thomson, W M; Demarco, F F

    2015-06-01

    Dental caries is the main problem oral health and it is not well established in the literature if the enamel defects are a risk factor for its development. Studies have reported a potential association between developmental defects enamel (DDE) and dental caries occurrence. We investigated the association between DDE and caries in permanent dentition of children and teenagers. A systematic review was carried out using four databases (Pubmed, Web of Science, Embase, and Science Direct), which were searched from their earliest records until December 31, 2014. Population-based studies assessing differences in dental caries experience according to the presence of enamel defects (and their types) were included. PRISMA guidelines for reporting systematic reviews were followed. Meta-analysis was performed to assess the pooled effect, and meta-regression was carried out to identify heterogeneity sources. From the 2558 initially identified papers, nine studies fulfilled all inclusion criteria after checking the titles, abstracts, references, and complete reading. Seven of them were included in the meta-analysis with random model. A positive association between enamel defects and dental caries was identified; meta-analysis showed that individuals with DDE had higher pooled odds of having dental caries experience [OR 2.21 (95% CI 1.3; 3.54)]. Meta-regression analysis demonstrated that adjustment for sociodemographic factors, countries' socioeconomic status, and bias (quality of studies) explained the high heterogeneity observed. A higher chance of dental caries should be expected among individuals with enamel defects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dental caries management at a rural district hospital in northern Rwanda: a neglected disease

    PubMed Central

    Uzabakiriho, B.; Amoroso, C. L.; Mpunga, T.; Odhiambo, J.; Mukashema, P.; Seymour, B. A.; Sindayigaya, J. de D.; Hedt-Gauthier, B. L.

    2015-01-01

    Setting: While some studies have reported the prevalence of dental caries in sub-Saharan Africa, little is known about care-seeking behavior or how dental caries are managed, particularly at rural district hospitals. Objective: To describe the management of patients seeking care for dental caries at Butaro District Hospital (BDH) in rural Rwanda. Design: This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in BDH, in northern Rwanda. A sample of 287 patient encounters for dental caries between January and December 2013 was randomly selected and stratified by age group (⩽5 years, 6–21 years and >21 years). We estimated the treatment received with 95% confidence intervals in each age group, and differences between age groups were assessed using Fisher's exact test. Results: Nearly all patients (97.6%) underwent tooth extraction, and this did not vary significantly by age group (P = 0.558). In addition to dental caries, most patients also had chronic pulpitis (74.9%). Conclusion: Caries prevention and care should be prioritized through a developed community program on oral health. We recommend introducing advanced training, equipment and materials for dental caries management other than tooth extraction, and increasing the number of qualified dentists. PMID:26399283

  3. Prevention of dental caries: knowledge, practice and opinion of paediatricians in Lagos.

    PubMed

    Olatosi, O O; Sote, E O; Akinsola, O J; Oredugba, F A; Adenaike, A S

    2013-01-01

    Dental caries is the most prevalent oral disease in children and this is preventable. Paediatricians are the first professionals whom children visit and are in good position to begin the process of prevention of dental caries if they recognize and encourage good preventive habits. To determine the knowledge, practice and opinion of pediatricians in prevention of dental caries. A cross sectional survey was undertaken among pediatricians in Lagos. Questionnaires were administered to pediatricians practicing in Teaching hospitals, general and private hospitals in Lagos. The questionnaire assessed their personal details, knowledge about caries, practice guidelines and opinion towards its prevention. Less than one-third (27.7%) of the pediatricians knew that bacteria causing caries can be transmitted from mother to child. Only about one-third (30.8 %) of the paediatricians examine children's teeth for dental caries. Majority (87.7%) were of the opinion that paediatricians have a role in promoting oral health. A total of 59% of the paediatricians had moderate knowledge, while (71%) of them had poor practice and their opinion for prevention of dental caries was positive in more than two-thirds of them (71%). We concluded that most paediatricians in Lagos had moderate knowledge, poor practice and lacked proper awareness about prevention of dental caries. Recommendation: we recommend that preventive dentistry topics in oral health promotion and prevention of dental caries be part of their postgraduate curriculum, continued dental health education programme for paediatricians, referral of related cases to paediatric dentists and oral health related topics be published in paediatric medical journals.

  4. Tomographic imaging of incipient dental-caries using optical coherence tomography and comparison with various modalities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Jihoon; Baek, Jae Ho; Ryu, Seon Young; Lee, Changsu; Lee, Byeong Ha

    2009-07-01

    We present the optical coherence tomography (OCT) made to investigate the early dental caries in human teeth and compare its results with those taken by conventional imaging modalities including light illuminating examination (LIE), digital intra-oral radiography (DIOR), and electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA). Morphological features and caries-involved areas of the dental structure were mainly investigated by LIE, DIOR, and OCT to study the infection of the caries lesion in pits and fissures. The biochemical information acquired with EPMA and the morphological features taken with OCT in the early stage of caries were compared and analyzed to present an objective and practical index for the degree of caries. The experimental results allow us to conclude that OCT could be used to provide quantitative analysis of caries based on the reflectivity difference in the specimen.

  5. Dental Caries, and Supragingival Plaque and Calculus among Students, Tanga, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Carneiro, L. C.; Kabulwa, M. N.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence of dental caries and supragingival plaque and calculus in 785 secondary schools students was assessed. More than half (53.6%) of the students were caries-free, and the majority of those with dental caries experience were aged 14–17 (68.1%) and females (53%). Mean DMFT was 1.26, with mean D-component of 1.05, and molars were most affected. Most students had supragingival plaque (74%) and calculus (56.9%) and more so in males than females (P > 0.05). Less than half of the students had experience of dental caries and those with caries were mostly females and of the younger age group. The low DMFT was contributed to the D-component, and molars were the tooth type most affected.The majority of students had supra-gingival plaque and calculus and more so in males than females. PMID:22461985

  6. Genome-wide association Scan of dental caries in the permanent dentition

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Over 90% of adults aged 20 years or older with permanent teeth have suffered from dental caries leading to pain, infection, or even tooth loss. Although caries prevalence has decreased over the past decade, there are still about 23% of dentate adults who have untreated carious lesions in the US. Dental caries is a complex disorder affected by both individual susceptibility and environmental factors. Approximately 35-55% of caries phenotypic variation in the permanent dentition is attributable to genes, though few specific caries genes have been identified. Therefore, we conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genes affecting susceptibility to caries in adults. Methods Five independent cohorts were included in this study, totaling more than 7000 participants. For each participant, dental caries was assessed and genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) were genotyped or imputed across the entire genome. Due to the heterogeneity among the five cohorts regarding age, genotyping platform, quality of dental caries assessment, and study design, we first conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analyses on each of the five independent cohorts separately. We then performed three meta-analyses to combine results for: (i) the comparatively younger, Appalachian cohorts (N = 1483) with well-assessed caries phenotype, (ii) the comparatively older, non-Appalachian cohorts (N = 5960) with inferior caries phenotypes, and (iii) all five cohorts (N = 7443). Top ranking genetic loci within and across meta-analyses were scrutinized for biologically plausible roles on caries. Results Different sets of genes were nominated across the three meta-analyses, especially between the younger and older age cohorts. In general, we identified several suggestive loci (P-value ≤ 10E-05) within or near genes with plausible biological roles for dental caries, including RPS6KA2 and PTK2B, involved in p38-depenedent MAPK signaling

  7. Genome-wide association scan of dental caries in the permanent dentition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojing; Shaffer, John R; Zeng, Zhen; Begum, Ferdouse; Vieira, Alexandre R; Noel, Jacqueline; Anjomshoaa, Ida; Cuenco, Karen T; Lee, Myoung-Keun; Beck, James; Boerwinkle, Eric; Cornelis, Marilyn C; Hu, Frank B; Crosslin, David R; Laurie, Cathy C; Nelson, Sarah C; Doheny, Kimberly F; Pugh, Elizabeth W; Polk, Deborah E; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; McNeil, Daniel W; Weeks, Daniel E; Feingold, Eleanor; Marazita, Mary L

    2012-12-21

    Over 90% of adults aged 20 years or older with permanent teeth have suffered from dental caries leading to pain, infection, or even tooth loss. Although caries prevalence has decreased over the past decade, there are still about 23% of dentate adults who have untreated carious lesions in the US. Dental caries is a complex disorder affected by both individual susceptibility and environmental factors. Approximately 35-55% of caries phenotypic variation in the permanent dentition is attributable to genes, though few specific caries genes have been identified. Therefore, we conducted the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify genes affecting susceptibility to caries in adults. Five independent cohorts were included in this study, totaling more than 7000 participants. For each participant, dental caries was assessed and genetic markers (single nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) were genotyped or imputed across the entire genome. Due to the heterogeneity among the five cohorts regarding age, genotyping platform, quality of dental caries assessment, and study design, we first conducted genome-wide association (GWA) analyses on each of the five independent cohorts separately. We then performed three meta-analyses to combine results for: (i) the comparatively younger, Appalachian cohorts (N = 1483) with well-assessed caries phenotype, (ii) the comparatively older, non-Appalachian cohorts (N = 5960) with inferior caries phenotypes, and (iii) all five cohorts (N = 7443). Top ranking genetic loci within and across meta-analyses were scrutinized for biologically plausible roles on caries. Different sets of genes were nominated across the three meta-analyses, especially between the younger and older age cohorts. In general, we identified several suggestive loci (P-value ≤ 10E-05) within or near genes with plausible biological roles for dental caries, including RPS6KA2 and PTK2B, involved in p38-depenedent MAPK signaling, and RHOU and FZD1, involved

  8. Socially unequal improvements in dental caries levels in Brazilian adolescents between 2003 and 2010.

    PubMed

    Roncalli, Angelo G; Sheiham, Aubrey; Tsakos, Georgios; Watt, Richard G

    2015-08-01

    Although there are numerous reports on socioeconomic inequalities in dental caries, few studies have focused on whether improvements in dental status have been accompanied by changes in socioeconomic inequalities in caries. The objective of this study was to assess whether declines in caries between 2003 and 2010 were associated with reductions in inequalities in dental caries in adolescents. Data on dental caries in adolescents aged 15-19 were used from the Brazilian National Oral Health surveys conducted in 2003 (n = 16 833) and 2010 (n = 5445). The dependent variables were Decayed, Missing and Filled Teeth (DMFT) index and the percentage caries free. Household income and educational level were independent variables. Differences between surveys for DMFT and caries free were calculated, and measurement of inequality was performed using the Slope Index of Inequality (SII) and Relative Index of Inequality (RII). Both DMFT and percentage caries free showed significant differences in absolute (SII) and relative (RII) inequalities between the two surveys for both education and income. The SII for DMFT rose from 0.54 to 2.01 and from 1.44 to 3.67 for income and education, respectively. For caries free, these values were 3.64-19.40 and 5.06-22.93. Regarding to RII, a similar trend has been found. Despite the overall reduction in DMFT and an increase in caries free, there were increases in both income and education-related inequalities in caries in Brazilian adolescents. The findings on caries differ from those for other health conditions in Brazil, where there have been reductions in inequalities. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Photoacoustic imaging of hidden dental caries by using a fiber-based probing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koyama, Takuya; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2017-04-01

    Photoacoustic method to detect hidden dental caries is proposed. It was found that high frequency ultrasonic waves are generated from hidden carious part when radiating laser light to occlusal surface of model tooth. By making a map of intensity of these high frequency components, photoacoustic images of hidden caries were successfully obtained. A photoacoustic imaging system using a bundle of hollow optical fiber was fabricated for using clinical application, and clear photoacoustic image of hidden caries was also obtained by this system.

  10. Discrimination of Dental Caries Using Colorimetric Characteristics of Fluorescence Spectrum.

    PubMed

    Chen, Qingguang; Zhu, Haihua; Xu, Ying; Lin, Bin; Chen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of colorimetric parameters for the discrimination of the stages of dental caries based on a light-induced autofluorescence spectrum at a 405-nm excitation wavelength was investigated. The fluorescence spectra of 4 groups of tooth samples (10 sound, 10 early-stage decay, 14 established decay, and 10 severe decay), which were classified by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System, were experimentally measured in vitro. The carious lesion samples had an additional fluorescence peak at around 627 nm. The mathematical relation of the fluorescence spectrum and human color perception was established and computed. With increasing severity, the fluorescence color changed from green to yellow according to the colorimetric parameters of the CIE 1931 (x, y) chromaticity coordinates and dominant wavelengths. The results from a one-way ANOVA of the dominant wavelength showed a statistically significant difference among the 4 classified groups. The colorimetric parameters of the light-induced fluorescence spectrum can potentially be applied to evaluate the various carious levels. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Characterization of early dental caries by polarized Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Ko, Alex C.-T.; Hewko, Mark D.; Dong, Cecilia C.; Cleghorn, Blaine M.; Sowa, Michael G.

    2006-02-01

    The early approximal caries lesion in enamel is observed clinically as a white spot and is difficult to detect and/or monitor with current methods available to dentists. New methods with high sensitivity and specificity are required to enable improved early dental caries diagnosis. Using unpolarized Raman spectroscopy to examine unsectioned teeth, peak intensity changes in the phosphate (PO 4 3-) vibrations (ν II, ν 3 and ν 4) were observed between spectra of sound and carious enamel. However, there is little change in the ν I vibration with this approach. In contrast, when tooth sections were examined by unpolarized Raman spectroscopy, marked changes in the ν I peak at 959 cm -1 were noted between healthy and carious enamel. These differences suggest that sampling orientation play a role in understanding the spectral changes. Using polarized Raman spectroscopy to examine unsectioned samples, cross polarized measurements from sound enamel exhibited significant reduction of the ν I peak compared with parallel polarized measurements. A similar reduction was observed with carious enamel, however, the reduction was not as prominent. By calculating the depolarization ratio of the area under the ν I peak, sound enamel can be clearly distinguished from demineralized regions. The spectral changes observed are attributed to changes in the structure and/or orientation of the apatite crystals as a result of the acid demineralization process.

  12. Natural history of dental caries in very young Australian children.

    PubMed

    Gussy, Mark; Ashbolt, Rosie; Carpenter, Lauren; Virgo-Milton, Monica; Calache, Hanny; Dashper, Stuart; Leong, Pamela; de Silva, Andrea; de Livera, Alysha; Simpson, Julie; Waters, Elizabeth

    2016-05-01

    Whilst the global burden of caries is increasing, the trajectory of decay in young children and the point at which prevention should occur has not been well established. To identify the 'natural history' of dental caries in early childhood. A birth cohort study was established with 467 mother/child dyads followed at 1, 6, 12, 18, and 36 months of age. Parent-completed surveys captured demographic, social, and behavioural data, and oral examinations provided clinical and data. Eight per cent of children (95% confidence interval (CI): 5-12%) at 18 months and 23% (95% CI: 18-28%) at 36 months experienced decay. Interesting lesion behaviour was found between 18 and 36 months, with rapid development of new lesions on sound teeth (70% of teeth, 95% CI: 63-76%) and regression of many lesions from non-cavitated lesions to sound (23% of teeth, 95% CI: 17-30%). Significant associations were found between soft drink consumption and lesion progression. Findings suggest optimal time periods for screening and prevention of a disease which significantly impacts multiple health and well-being outcomes across the life course. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Cranberry polyphenols: potential benefits for dental caries and periodontal disease.

    PubMed

    Bonifait, Laetitia; Grenier, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Over the past decade, cranberries and their molecular components have received increasing attention from researchers in human health. In particular, the properties of the high-molecular-weight polyphenols isolated from cranberries have shown promise with regard to dental caries and periodontal disease. These potential anticaries agents inhibit the production of organic acids and the formation of biofilms by cariogenic bacteria. In addition, cranberry polyphenols may reduce the inflammatory response, as well as the production and activity of proteolytic enzymes contributing to the destruction of the extracellular matrix in periodontal disease. The polyphenols of cranberries also interfere with various activities (including formation of biofilm and adhesion) of Porphyromonas gingivalis, the main etiologic agent in chronic periodontitis. This article summarizes the scientific evidence supporting the potential of cranberry polyphenols to prevent and/or treat diseases of the mouth.

  14. Black stain and dental caries: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Żyła, Tomasz; Kawala, Beata; Antoszewska-Smith, Joanna; Kawala, Maciej

    2015-01-01

    Black stain is characterized as a dark line or an incomplete coalescence of dark dots localized on the cervical third of the tooth. Over the last century, the etiology of black stain has been the subject of much debate. Most of the studies concerning this issue were conducted in pediatric population. According to the reviewed articles published between 2001 and 2014, the prevalence of black stain varies from 2.4% to 18% with equal sex distribution. The majority of the authors confirm the correlation between the presence of black stain and lower caries experience. The microflora of this deposit is dominated by Actinomyces spp. and has lower cariogenic potential than nondiscolored dental plaque. Iron/copper and sulfur complexes are thought to be responsible for the dark color. In patients with black stain saliva has higher calcium concentrations and higher buffering capacity. Factors such as dietary habits, socioeconomic status, and iron supplementation may be contributing to the formation of black stain.

  15. Dental caries and associated factors among young male adults between 1999 and 2003 in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bastos, J L D; Nomura, L H; Peres, M A

    2007-06-01

    To assess the prevalence, severity and distribution of dental caries and associated factors among young male adults from Florianopolis (Southern Brazil) and to compare these results with those from a previous study. A cross-sectional study (n-414) was conducted among Brazilian Army subjects in 2003. Dental caries experience was recorded using the DMF-T Index (WHO, 1997). Non-clinical data were obtained through a questionnaire. The analyses included DMF-T descriptive statistics, calculation of the Gini coefficient to assess inequality in the distribution of caries and non-conditional multiple logistic regression, following a hierarchical approach. The response rate was 95.6%. High values of intra- and inter-examiner agreement were achieved (Kappa > 0.83). Reductions of 18.6% in prevalence and 26.7% in caries severity were accompanied by an increase of 18.6% in dental caries inequality. Individuals with eight or less years of study (OR 8.1 : CI95% 1.9-34.7), raised by mothers with eight or less years of study (OR 2.9 : CI 95% 1.7-5.0) were more likely to have dental caries. Subjects whose families earned less than six Brazilian minimum wages per month were also more likely to have dental caries (OR 2.3 : CI95% 1.4-3.8). Decreases in caries prevalence and severity were followed by an increased inequality in caries distribution. Low level of schooling, low maternal schooling and low monthly family income were statistically associated with dental caries.

  16. Considerations on Optimal Fluoride Intake using Dental Fluorosis and Dental Caries Outcomes – A Longitudinal Study

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John J.; Levy, Steven M.; Broffitt, Barbara; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Kanellis, Michael J.; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The “optimal” intake of fluoride has been widely accepted for decades as between 0.05 and 0.07 mg fluoride per kilogram of body weight but is based on limited scientific evidence. The purpose of this paper is to present longitudinal fluoride intake data for children free of dental fluorosis in the early-erupting permanent dentition and free of dental caries in both the primary and early-erupting permanent teeth as an estimate of optimal fluoride intake. Methods Data on fluoride ingestion were obtained from parents of 602 Iowa Fluoride Study children through periodic questionnaires at the ages of 6 weeks, 3, 6, 9, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28, 32 and 36 months, and then at 6-month intervals thereafter. Estimates of total fluoride intake at each time point were made by summing amounts from water, dentifrice, and supplements as well as other foods and beverages made with or containing water. Caries data were obtained from examinations of children at ages 5 and 9 years, while fluorosis data were obtained from examinations only at age 9. Results The estimated mean daily fluoride intake for those children with no caries history and no fluorosis at age 9 was at or below 0.05 mgF/kg bw for nearly all time points through the first 48 months of life, and this level declined thereafter. Children with caries had generally slightly less intakes, while those with fluorosis generally had slightly higher intakes. Conclusions Given the overlap among caries/fluorosis groups in mean fluoride intake and extreme variability in individual fluoride intakes firmly recommending an “optimal” fluoride intake is problematic. PMID:19054310

  17. Oral fluoride reservoirs and the prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Gerald Lee

    2011-01-01

    Current models for increasing the anti-caries effects of fluoride (F) agents emphasize the importance of maintaining a cariostatic concentration of F in oral fluids. The concentration of F in oral fluids is maintained by the release of this ion from bioavailable reservoirs on the teeth, oral mucosa and - most importantly, because of its association with the caries process - dental plaque. Oral F reservoirs appear to be of two types: (1) mineral reservoirs, in particular calcium fluoride or phosphate-contaminated 'calcium-fluoride-like' deposits; (2) biological reservoirs, in particular (with regard to dental plaque) F held to bacteria or bacterial fragments via calcium-fluoride bonds. The fact that all these reservoirs are mediated by calcium implies that their formation is limited by the low concentration of calcium in oral fluids. By using novel procedures which overcome this limitation, the formation of these F reservoirs after topical F application can be greatly increased. Although these increases are associated with substantive increases in salivary and plaque fluid F, and hence a potential increase in cariostatic effect, it is unclear if such changes are related to the increases in the amount of these reservoirs, or changes in the types of F deposits formed. New techniques have been developed for identifying and quantifying these deposits which should prove useful in developing agents that enhance formation of oral F reservoirs with optimum F release characteristics. Such research offers the prospect of decreasing the F content of topical agents while simultaneously increasing their cariostatic effect. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. Systemic effect of water fluoridation on dental caries prevalence.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyun-Jae; Jin, Bo-Hyoung; Park, Deok-Young; Jung, Se-Hwan; Lee, Heung-Soo; Paik, Dai-Il; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the systemic effect of water fluoridation on dental caries prevalence and experience in Cheongju, South Korea, where water fluoridation ceased 7 years previously. A cross-sectional survey was employed at two schools where water fluoridation had ceased (WF-ceased area) and at two schools where the water had never been fluoridated (non-WF area). The schools in the non-WF area were of a similar population size to the schools in the WF-ceased area. Children of three age groups were examined in both areas: aged 6 (n = 505), 8 (n = 513), and 11 years (n = 467). The differences in the mean number of decayed or filled primary teeth (dft) and the mean number of decayed, missing, or filled permanent teeth (DMFT) scores between areas after adjusting for oral health behaviors and socio-demographic factors were analyzed by a Poisson regression model. The regression model showed that the DMFT ratio for children aged 11 years in the WF-ceased area was 0.581 (95% CI 0.450-0.751). In contrast, the dft ratio for age 6 in the WF-ceased area was 1.158 (95% CI 1.004-1.335). Only the DMFT ratio for age 8 (0.924, 95% CI 0.625-1.368) was not significant. While 6-year-old children who had not ingested fluoridated water showed higher dft in the WF-ceased area than in the non-WF area, 11-year-old children in the WF-ceased area who had ingested fluoridated water for approximately 4 years after birth showed significantly lower DMFT than those in the non-WF area. This suggests that the systemic effect of fluoride intake through water fluoridation could be important for the prevention of dental caries. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Comparison of Dental Explorers and CPI-probes in Diagnosing Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Ishizuka, Yoichi; Maki, Yoshinobu; Kagami, Noriaki; Satou, Ryouichi; Sugihara, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    The primary aim of the present study was to compare efficiency in detecting suspected caries requiring observation (CO) and decayed teeth (DT) between dental explorers and Community Periodontal Index (CPI)-probes in school dental examinations and evaluate the effect of their respective use on Decayed, Missing, Filled Teeth (DMFT) Index scores. A total of 126 elementary and high school students were examined. All the clinical findings were obtained by a pair of trained dentists examining each student at routine annual school dental examinations. A dental explorer or CPI-probe and dental mirror were used for the examination. One dentist used the dental explorer, while the other used the CPI-probe. The choice of which instrument to use by the first dentist to examine the student was made at random. A comparison of the explorers and CPI-probes revealed that the numbers of patients and permanent teeth classified as CO were greater with the former in 6th-grade elementary and high school students (p<0.05). The Kappa value for CO and DT was 0.560 for 6th-grade elementary school and 0.846 for high school students. All DMFT scores were higher with the explorers than with the CPI-probes in the 6th-grade elementary school students. No significant difference was observed between the explorers and CPI-probes in any of the DMFT scores in any group, however. The present results indicate that as long as the low rate of caries in Japanese school children is maintained, the epidemiological data on this disease should not show any significant change if a CPI-probe is used instead of an explorer in school dental examinations.

  20. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children of Different Socioeconomic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Koleoso, Titilayo Abiodun

    1989-01-01

    Compares incidence of caries in 60 13 to 15 year olds in 2 Nigerian schools, 1 with an affluent population and the other with students from a lower socioeconomic level. Data on parental occupations, patterns of dental practice, and eating habits were collected. Caries incidence in different categories of social standing was similar. (NH)

  1. Caries Risk Assessment/Treatment Programs in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorty, Jack S.; Brown, K. Birgitta

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 42 U.S. dental schools was conducted to identify the number and characteristics of caries risk- assessment/treatment programs. Findings address lectures about caries risk, use of variable recall programs, categorization of risk level, early detection and treatment of lesions, and restoration of radiographically visible lesions. (DB)

  2. Genetic Association of MMP10, MMP14, and MMP16 with Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Feingold, E.; Cooper, M.; Vanyukov, M. M.; Maher, B. S.; Slayton, R. L.; Willing, M. C.; Reis, S. E.; Crout, R. J.; Weyant, R. J.; Levy, S. M.; Marazita, M. L.

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which degrade extracellular proteins as part of a variety of physiological processes, and their inhibitors have been implicated in the dental caries process. Here we investigated 28 genetic variants spanning the MMP10, MMP14, and MMP16 genes to detect association with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified (n = 3,587) samples from 6 parent studies. Analyses were performed separately for each sample, and results were combined across samples by meta-analysis. Two SNPs (rs2046315 and rs10429371) upstream of MMP16 were significantly associated with caries in an individual sample of white adults and via meta-analysis across 8 adult samples after gene-wise adjustment for multiple comparisons. Noteworthy is SNP rs2046315 (p = 8.14 × 10−8) association with caries in white adults. This SNP was originally nominated in a genome-wide-association study (GWAS) of dental caries in a sample of white adults and yielded associations in a subsequent GWAS of surface level caries in white adults as well. Therefore, in our study, we were able to recapture the association between rs2046315 and dental caries in white adults. Although we did not strengthen evidence that MMPs 10, 14, and 16 influence caries risk, MMP16 is still a likely candidate gene to pursue. PMID:28348596

  3. [Dental caries found in the human skull of Tang dynasty excavated fron Xi'an].

    PubMed

    Meng, Yong; Shao, Jin-ling; Li, Hai-tao; Xiao, Dan; Liu, Dai-yun

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the status of dental caries in the human of Tang dynasty. All teeth in 62 human skulls of Tang dynasty excavated from the Chang'an county in Xi'an city were examined and analyzed by statistics. The difference of prevalence in different group including age, sex and tooth position was tested with Chi-square test. The prevalence of dental caries was 62.9%. And there were 92 caries teeth, which was 14.6% of the whole teeth. The root caries (33.3%) was more than the occlusal caries (28.7%). The most frequent recorded caries were the third molar, followed by the second molar, then the first molar. There was no significant difference between male and female. The dental caries was popular in human of Tang dynasty, but the prevalence lowers than the modern people. And with the human evolution and the improvement of the social productivity, the prevalence of dental caries was gradually ascending.

  4. Comparison of Dental Caries Experience in Children of Different Socioeconomic Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abidoye, R. O.; Koleoso, Titilayo Abiodun

    1989-01-01

    Compares incidence of caries in 60 13 to 15 year olds in 2 Nigerian schools, 1 with an affluent population and the other with students from a lower socioeconomic level. Data on parental occupations, patterns of dental practice, and eating habits were collected. Caries incidence in different categories of social standing was similar. (NH)

  5. Caries Risk Assessment/Treatment Programs in U.S. Dental Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yorty, Jack S.; Brown, K. Birgitta

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 42 U.S. dental schools was conducted to identify the number and characteristics of caries risk- assessment/treatment programs. Findings address lectures about caries risk, use of variable recall programs, categorization of risk level, early detection and treatment of lesions, and restoration of radiographically visible lesions. (DB)

  6. Genetic Association of MMP10, MMP14, and MMP16 with Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Lewis, D D; Shaffer, J R; Feingold, E; Cooper, M; Vanyukov, M M; Maher, B S; Slayton, R L; Willing, M C; Reis, S E; McNeil, D W; Crout, R J; Weyant, R J; Levy, S M; Vieira, A R; Marazita, M L

    2017-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which degrade extracellular proteins as part of a variety of physiological processes, and their inhibitors have been implicated in the dental caries process. Here we investigated 28 genetic variants spanning the MMP10, MMP14, and MMP16 genes to detect association with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified (n = 3,587) samples from 6 parent studies. Analyses were performed separately for each sample, and results were combined across samples by meta-analysis. Two SNPs (rs2046315 and rs10429371) upstream of MMP16 were significantly associated with caries in an individual sample of white adults and via meta-analysis across 8 adult samples after gene-wise adjustment for multiple comparisons. Noteworthy is SNP rs2046315 (p = 8.14 × 10(-8)) association with caries in white adults. This SNP was originally nominated in a genome-wide-association study (GWAS) of dental caries in a sample of white adults and yielded associations in a subsequent GWAS of surface level caries in white adults as well. Therefore, in our study, we were able to recapture the association between rs2046315 and dental caries in white adults. Although we did not strengthen evidence that MMPs 10, 14, and 16 influence caries risk, MMP16 is still a likely candidate gene to pursue.

  7. Relation of salivary risk factors to dental caries in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Priya; Babu, K L Girish; Rodriguez, Anil

    2010-01-01

    One of the primary handicapping conditions of childhood is cerebral palsy (CP). Controversy exists about the incidence of dental caries and its associated salivary risk factors in cerebral palsied children. Thus the present study evaluated the correlation between dental caries and certain salivary risk factors in these children. One hundred non-institutionalized children in the age group of 5-12 years having cerebral palsy were selected. The W.H.O. criteria was used for diagnosis and recording of dental caries. Determination of the unstimulated salivary pH, buffering capacity and flow rate of stimulated saliva was carried out. The mean deft and DMFT values were 2.51 and 0.73, respectively. Salivary pH was 6.83, buffering capacity 10.84 and salivary flow rate 1.08ml/per min. A significant correlation was observed only between salivary pH and dental caries in the primary dentition of CP children.

  8. Childhood dental caries and childhood obesity. Different problems with overlapping causes.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Kaitlin A; Palmer, Carole A

    2012-02-01

    To review and summarize the current literature on the issues contributing to the increased prevalence of childhood obesity and dental caries and to provide direction and guidelines for dental practitioners as well as other health professionals for interventions that may help stem the tide of both conditions. Through a review of the recent literature, the most recent research on the nutritional issues in common to both childhood caries and childhood obesity are reported, as well as clinical interventions which are considered appropriate in dental practice. Factors contributing to both childhood caries and childhood obesity are psychosocial as well as nutritional. Family patterns, lifestyle issues, and school-based issues all play a role. The literature shows that many of the same issues contribute to both childhood caries and childhood obesity, and that it is within the scope of responsibility of dental practitioners to provide guidance for the prevention and reduction of both.

  9. Dentists' use of caries risk assessment and individualized caries prevention for their adult patients: findings from The Dental Practice-Based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Ajmo, Craig T.; Bockman, Hildegunn; Jackson, Marlon B.; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Few studies have examined dentists' subjective ratings of importance of caries risk factors or tested whether dentists use this information in treatment planning. This study tested several hypotheses related to caries risk assessment and individualized caries prevention. Methods Data were collected as part of a questionnaire entitled “Assessment of Caries Diagnosis and Caries Treatment”, completed by 547 practitioners who belong to The Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN), a consortium of participating practices and dental organizations. Results Sixty-nine percent of DPBRN dentists perform caries risk assessment on their patients. Recently-graduated dentists, dentists with busier practices, and those who believe a dentist can predict future caries were the most likely to use caries risk assessment. The association between caries risk assessment and individualized prevention was weaker than expected (r=.21). Dentists who perform caries risk assessment provide individualized caries prevention to 57% of their patients, compared to 42% for dentists who do not perform caries risk assessment. Based on their responses to radiographic and clinical scenarios in the questionnaire, dentists who use caries risk assessment appear to use this information in restorative decisions. Conclusion A substantial percentage of DPBRN dentists do not perform caries risk assessment, and there is not a strong linkage between its use and use of individualized preventive regimens for adult patients. More progress in implementation of current scientific evidence in this area is warranted. PMID:21726268

  10. Factors attributable for the prevalence of dental caries in Queensland children.

    PubMed

    Do, Loc Giang; Ha, Diep Hong; Spencer, A John

    2015-10-01

    Dental caries is a multifactorial condition, prevention of which requires comprehensive understanding of both contextual and compositional determinants and their population impact. To investigate contextual and compositional factors associated with the prevalence of dental caries in children and to estimate the population impact of those factors. Children in one Australian state were selected through stratified random sampling selection in 2010-2011. Oral epidemiological examinations provided individual-level outcomes: prevalence of dental caries in the primary (among 5- to 8-year-olds) and permanent dentitions (9- to 14-year-olds). Socioeconomic status, oral health behaviours and practices and dietary patterns were explanatory factors at the individual-level, school-level and area-level fluoridation status. Three-level multilevel multivariable models were sequentially specified for the prevalence of dental caries to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) associated with explanatory factors, adjusting for covariates and between- and within-group variances. Population attributable fraction (PAF) was estimated as the population impact of the statistically significant explanatory factors. Data from 2214 5- to 8-year-olds and 3186 9- to 14-year-olds from 207 schools in 16 areas were analysed. The prevalence of dental caries in the primary and the permanent dentitions was 47.1% (43.9-50.4) and 38.8% (36.1-41.6), respectively. The highest prevalence of dental caries was observed in the nonfluoridated areas. In bivariate associations, factors at three levels were associated with prevalence of dental caries. In the full models, children in the nonfluoridated areas had significantly higher prevalence of dental caries [PR for the primary: 1.29 (1.11-1.50); PR for the permanent 1.49 (1.01-2.21)] compared with children in fluoridated areas, controlling for other factors. PAF estimates indicated that lack of water fluoridation attributed to 21% and 31% of primary and permanent dental

  11. Anthropometric measurements and dental caries in children: a systematic review of longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  12. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS.

    PubMed

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05-2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65-3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07-2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother's schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15-4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother's schooling.

  13. Anthropometric Measurements and Dental Caries in Children: A Systematic Review of Longitudinal Studies123

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ling-Wei; Wong, Hai Ming; Peng, Si-Min; McGrath, Colman P

    2015-01-01

    There is growing interest in the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time (life-course studies). The aim of this review was to identify and systematically review the evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in childhood over time. PubMed, Institute for Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge, the Cochrane Library, and 6 other databases were searched to identify effective articles. A systematic approach involving critical appraisal was conducted to examine the relation between anthropometric measurements and dental caries in preschool- and school-aged populations from longitudinal studies. An initial search identified 1338 studies, with 59 potentially effective studies (κ = 0.82) and 17 effective studies (κ = 0.88). The quality of reporting among the studies ranged from 19.5 to 30.0 according to the Strengthening the Reporting of Observational studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) criteria. Among the effective studies, 2 studies in which caries was used to predict anthropometric measurements consistently found an inverse association and 15 studies in which anthropometric measurements were used to predict caries were inconsistent, with results appearing to be influenced by nonuniformity of assessments, setting, and procedure of measurements; age and ethnicity of participants; and confounders of dental caries. In conclusion, among >1000 studies identified, 17 informed this systematic review. The quality of reporting of these studies varied considerably. Evidence of the association between anthropometric measurements and dental caries is conflicting and remains inconclusive. PMID:25593143

  14. Psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics on periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices in young adults.

    PubMed

    Solomon, Deborah; Katz, Ralph V; Bush, Anneke C; Farley, Victoria K; McGerr, Trevor J; Min, Hoon; Carbonella, Anthony M; Kayne, Joseph D

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to determine whether the self-perceived image of a young adult's anterior dental esthetics is linked with periodontal health, dental caries, and oral hygiene practices. Two hundred subjects were assessed via a clinical examination, including intraoral photographs. The subjects were questioned about their demographics and oral hygiene practices and given the Psychosocial Impact of Dental Aesthetics Questionnaire (PIDAQ) to measure their self-perceived variables related to dental esthetics. A high PIDAQ score indicates a negative image of one's own dental esthetics, while a low PIDAQ score indicates a positive outlook. A self-perceived negative psychosocial impact of anterior dental esthetics was detected in subjects with higher levels of dental caries and visible gingival inflammation in the anterior region of the mouth.

  15. [Current and future prospects concerning the prevention of dental caries].

    PubMed

    Simonetti D'Arca, A; Marino, F; Rosica, L

    1989-01-01

    Caries is a disease which on the basis of numerous epidemiological data it should be possible to control. The preventive interventions which have proved to have the greatest effect on the diffusion of this disease are essentially: fluoroprophylaxis, oral hygiene, food hygiene and periodic dental examination. The common denominator, which has the greatest effect on success, is a good level of health education of the populations affected by the programme, with specific reference to the teeth. The importance of the diet as a possible element predisposing to caries is an ascertained fact by now, and in fact it is well known that the greatest cariogenic effect is achieved after eating foods containing large quantities of fermentable sugars at irregular intervals throughout the day, especially in the form of products of high density and viscosity. The proposal to replace sugar with substitutive sweeteners such as: xilitol, sorbitol, licasin, talin, palatinit and, more recently, aspartame does not completely solve the problem; and apart from this the clearcut reduction of caries achieved in different European and non-European countries does not appear to be directly connected with a drop in sugar consumption, while more and more importance is ascribed to individual food choices. Oral hygiene procedures aim not only at the cleaning of teeth but also, to some extent, controlling the bacterial plaque. For this reason these are sometimes included among anticaries interventions; however opinions differ in this regard, with a clear prevalence of negative views. The question changes radically if we combine with mechanical procedures alone the use of fluoride-based toothpastes, which are recognised, in combination with other interventions, as playing a fundamental role in the rapid decline of caries in industralised countries. Toothpaste is considered as an excellent vehicle for the topical application of fluoride since it comes into contact with the teeth is slight

  16. Development of fibre-optic confocal microscopy for detection and diagnosis of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, C; Poland, S; Girkin, J M; Hall, A F; Whitters, C J

    2007-01-01

    We report on the development of a fibre-optics-based confocal imaging system for the detection and potential diagnosis of early dental caries. A novel optical instrument, capable of recording axial profiles through caries lesions using single-mode optical fibres, has been developed. The practical study illustrates that miniature confocal devices based around single-mode optical fibres may provide additional diagnostic information for the general dental practitioner.

  17. The growing problems of dental caries and obesity: an Australian perspective.

    PubMed

    Hopcraft, M S; Beaumont, S

    2016-10-07

    Preventable diet-related diseases such as dental caries and obesity are a growing global problem, causing a significant burden on public health systems. Although there has been good evidence for the links between sugar consumption and dental caries for many decades, we are now seeing stronger links implicating sugar in obesity. There is a growing worldwide movement to tackle these problems by targeting the consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages through a range of public policy measures.

  18. Food labeling: health claims; D-tagatose and dental caries. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2003-07-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is adopting as a final rule, without change, the provisions of the interim final rule that amended the regulation authorizing a health claim on sugar alcohols and dental caries, i.e., tooth decay, to include the sugar D-tagatose as a substance eligible for the dental caries health claim. FDA is taking this action to complete the rulemaking initiated with the interim final rule.

  19. Lactobacillus species and genotypes associated with dental caries in Thai preschool children.

    PubMed

    Piwat, S; Teanpaisan, R; Thitasomakul, S; Thearmontree, A; Dahlén, G

    2010-04-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with the presence and progression of dental caries. Nevertheless, the relation between certain species or genotypes of Lactobacillus and caries is unclear and there are no data available for the Thai population. This study aimed to examine the distribution of species and genotypes of oral Lactobacillus among children with rather high caries prevalence, and to investigate whether certain species or genotypes were more related to caries activity than others. One hundred and sixty-five children were examined for caries status. Saliva samples were collected and the numbers of lactobacilli were counted. A total of 357 Lactobacillus isolates from 59 children were identified to species level by 16S ribosomal RNA genes polymerase chain reaction (PCR) -restriction fragment length polymorphism and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Furthermore, 304 isolates from 56 children were genotyped using arbitrarily primed PCR. Significant correlation was found between levels of lactobacilli and dental caries (P < 0.001). Among the 10 identified species of Lactobacillus, L. salivarius was more prevalent in children with moderate to high caries prevalence compared with children with low caries prevalence, while L. fermentum was the most predominant species in all study groups. Moreover, a genetic heterogeneity of Lactobacillus species was found among the children and those with high caries prevalence tended to be colonized with more than one clonal type. In summary, L. salivarius may be a putative caries pathogen among preschool Thai children.

  20. Longitudinal associations between children’s dental caries and risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Chankanka, Oitip; Cavanaugh, Joseph E.; Levy, Steven M.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Warren, John J; Broffitt, Barbara; Kolker, Justine L.

    2015-01-01

    Dental caries is a common disease in children of all ages. It is desirable to know whether children with primary, mixed and permanent dentitions share risk factors for cavitated and non-cavitated caries. Objective To assess the longitudinal associations between caries outcomes and modifiable risk factors. Methods One hundred and fifty-six children in the Iowa Fluoride Study met inclusion criteria of three dental examinations and caries-related risk factor assessments preceding each examination. Surface-specific counts of new non-cavitated caries and cavitated caries at the primary (Exam 1: age 5), mixed (Exam 2: age 9) and permanent (Exam 3: age 13) dentition examinations were outcome variables. Explanatory variables were caries-related factors, including averaged beverage exposure frequencies, toothbrushing frequencies, and composite water fluoride levels collected from 3–5, 6–8, and 11–13 years, dentition category, socioeconomic status and gender. Generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) were used to explore the relationships between new non-cavitated or cavitated caries and caries-related variables. Results Greater frequency of 100% juice exposure was significantly associated with fewer non-cavitated and cavitated caries surfaces. Greater toothbrushing frequency and high SES were significantly associated with fewer new non-cavitated caries. Children had significantly more new cavitated caries surfaces at the mixed dentition examination than at the primary and permanent dentition examinations. Conclusions There were common caries-related factors for more new non-cavitated caries across the three exams, including less frequent 100% juice exposure, lower toothbrushing frequency and lower socioeconomic status. Less frequent 100% juice exposures might be associated with higher exposures to several other cariogenic beverages. PMID:22320287

  1. Fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Marinho, Valeria C C; Chong, Lee Yee; Worthington, Helen V; Walsh, Tanya

    2016-07-29

    Fluoride mouthrinses have been used extensively as a caries-preventive intervention in school-based programmes and by individuals at home. This is an update of the Cochrane review of fluoride mouthrinses for preventing dental caries in children and adolescents that was first published in 2003. The primary objective is to determine the effectiveness and safety of fluoride mouthrinses in preventing dental caries in the child and adolescent population.The secondary objective is to examine whether the effect of fluoride rinses is influenced by:• initial level of caries severity;• background exposure to fluoride in water (or salt), toothpastes or reported fluoride sources other than the study option(s); or• fluoride concentration (ppm F) or frequency of use (times per year). We searched the following electronic databases: Cochrane Oral Health's Trials Register (whole database, to 22 April 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (the Cochrane Library, 2016, Issue 3), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to 22 April 2016), Embase Ovid (1980 to 22 April 2016), CINAHL EBSCO (the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, 1937 to 22 April 2016), LILACS BIREME (Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Information Database, 1982 to 22 April 2016), BBO BIREME (Bibliografia Brasileira de Odontologia; from 1986 to 22 April 2016), Proquest Dissertations and Theses (1861 to 22 April 2016) and Web of Science Conference Proceedings (1990 to 22 April 2016). We undertook a search for ongoing trials on the US National Institutes of Health Trials Register (http://clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization International Clinical Trials Registry Platform. We placed no restrictions on language or date of publication when searching electronic databases. We also searched reference lists of articles and contacted selected authors and manufacturers. Randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials where blind outcome assessment was stated or

  2. Fluoride intake of children: considerations for dental caries and dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Buzalaf, Marília Afonso Rabelo; Levy, Steven Marc

    2011-01-01

    Caries incidence and prevalence have decreased significantly over the last few decades due to the widespread use of fluoride. However, an increase in the prevalence of dental fluorosis has been reported simultaneously in both fluoridated and non-fluoridated communities. Dental fluorosis occurs due to excessive fluoride intake during the critical period of tooth development. For the permanent maxillary central incisors, the window of maximum susceptibility to the occurrence of fluorosis is the first 3 years of life. Thus, during this time, a close monitoring of fluoride intake must be accomplished in order to avoid dental fluorosis. This review describes the main sources of fluoride intake that have been identified: fluoridated drinking water, fluoride toothpaste, dietary fluoride supplements and infant formulas. Recommendations on how to avoid excessive fluoride intake from these sources are also given. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Associations among dental caries experience, fluorosis, and fluoride exposure from drinking water sources in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    AlDosari, Abdullah M; Akpata, Enosakhare S; Khan, Nazeer

    2010-01-01

    a) To correlate fluoride levels in drinking water sources with caries experience and dental fluorosis in Saudi Arabia, and suggest appropriate fluoride concentration for drinking water in the country. Fluoride levels were determined from 3,629 samples obtained from drinking water sources in 11 regions of Saudi Arabia. Based on the fluoride concentrations, a stratified sample of subjects aged 6-7, 12-13, and 15-18 years was obtained from the regions. A total of 12,200 selected subjects were examined for dental caries according to the World Health Organization criteria, and dental fluorosis, using Thylstrup and Fejerskov classification. There was an inverse relationship between fluoride exposure and caries experience, but the prevalence of dental fluorosis increased with increase in fluoride concentration. There was no significant difference in caries experience or in the prevalence of dental fluorosis when fluoride levels increased from 0.3 ppm to 0.6 ppm. In contrast, caries experience was lower, while severity of fluorosis was significantly higher at fluoride levels above 0.6 ppm. a) Fluoride levels in drinking water sources in Saudi Arabia correlate significantly with caries experience and prevalence of dental fluorosis. b) Appropriate fluoride concentration for drinking water in Saudi Arabia may be about 0.6 ppm.

  4. Association of salivary triglycerides and cholesterol with dental caries in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Priya; Sharma, Akhliesh; Kaje, Keerthan

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disturbances in diabetes mellitus can affect oral health. Altered levels of salivary lipids have been suggested as a risk for dental caries. There has been lack of research in this regard and in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. To assess the salivary triglycerides and cholesterol levels in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus and correlate them with their dental caries status. Thirty children aged 12-16 years with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 30 age- and gender-matched healthy children were included in the study. Unstimulated saliva was collected from each child and evaluated for salivary triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Dental caries status (DMFT) was recorded. Salivary cholesterol and triglyceride levels were significantly higher in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (p ≤ 0.05). In comparison to controls, mean DMFT score was higher in the diabetic children. Salivary triglycerides showed a significant correlation with dental caries status in the study group (p = 0.035). In normal children, salivary cholesterol levels showed a significant association with dental caries. (p = 0.008). Both salivary cholesterol and triglycerides levels were significantly higher in children with type 1 diabetes mellitus. Salivary triglycerides showed a significant association with dental caries in these children. © 2014 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Is income inequality related to childhood dental caries in rich countries?

    PubMed

    Bernabé, Eduardo; Hobdell, Martin H

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the correlates of income and income inequality with dental caries in a sample of all countries, as well as in rich countries alone. In this ecological study, the authors analyzed national data on income, income inequality and dental caries from 48 countries. Of them, 22 were rich countries (according to World Bank criteria). The authors determined income by gross national income (GNI) per capita (formerly known as gross national product) and income inequality by the Gini coefficient (a measure of income inequality on a scale between 0 and 1). They assessed dental caries according to the decayed, missing, filled teeth (dmft) index in 5- to 6-year-old children. The authors used Pearson and partial correlation coefficients to examine the linear associations of income and income inequality with dental caries. GNI per capita, but not the Gini coefficient, was inversely correlated with the dmft index in the 48 countries. However, the results showed an opposite pattern when analyses were restricted to rich countries (that is, the dmft index was significantly correlated with the Gini coefficient but not with GNI per capita). These findings support the income inequality hypothesis that beyond a certain level of national income, the relationship between income and the population's health is weak. Income inequality was correlated more strongly with dental caries than was income in rich countries. Among rich countries, income inequality is a stronger determinant of childhood dental caries than is absolute income.

  6. Intake of dairy products and the prevalence of dental caries in young children.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi

    2010-07-01

    In vitro studies show that milk or milk components may have cariostatic properties. However, the results of epidemiological studies on the association between intake of dairy products and dental caries have been inconsistent. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the association between intake of dairy products and the prevalence of dental caries in young children. Study subjects were 2058 Japanese children aged 3 years. Information on diet was assessed with a self-administered brief diet history questionnaire for children. The consumption of dairy products was categorized into 3 levels in order to represent the tertiles as closely as possible. Dental caries was assessed by a visual examination. Adjustment was made for sex, toothbrushing frequency, use of fluoride, between-meal snack frequency, maternal smoking during pregnancy, environmental tobacco smoke exposure at home, and paternal and maternal educational levels. Compared with yogurt consumption at the lowest tertile (<1 time/week), its intake at the highest level (> or =4 times/week) was significantly associated with a lower prevalence of dental caries, showing a clear dose-response relationship (adjusted prevalence ratio=0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.62-0.98, P for trend=0.04). There were no material associations between intake of cheese, bread and butter, or milk and the prevalence of dental caries. These data suggest that a high consumption of yogurt may be associated with a lower prevalence of dental caries in young children. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of Caries Prevention Agents in Children: Findings from the Dental Practice-based Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Richman, Joshua S.; Rindal, D. Brad; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Qvist, Vibeke; Gilbert, Gregg H.; Gordan, Valeria V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Scientific evidence supports the application of caries preventive agents in children and this knowledge must transfer into the practice of dentistry. There is little multi-region data that allow for comparisons of practice patterns between types of dental practices and geographic regions. The aim of this study was to characterize the use of caries preventive agents in pediatric patients in a large multi-region sample of dental practices. Methods This study surveyed Dental Practice-based Research Network dentists who perform restorative dentistry in their practices. The survey asked a range of questions about caries risk assessment and use of prevention techniques in children ages 6-18. Results Dental sealants (69%) or in-office fluoride (82%) were the most commonly used of the caries preventive regimens. The recommendation of at-home caries preventive agents ranged from 36%-7%, with non-prescription fluoride rinse the most common. Dentists who practiced in a large group practice model and dentists from the Scandinavian region more frequently use caries risk assessment than regions that were predominately dentists in private practice. Whether or not dentists used caries risk assessment with their pediatric patients was poorly correlated with the likelihood of actually using caries preventive treatments on patients. Conclusion Although dentists reported the use of some form of in-office caries prevention, there was considerable variability across practices. These differences could represent a lack of consensus across practicing dentists about the benefits of caries preventive agents or a function of differing financial incentives or patient pools with differing levels of overall caries risk. PMID:21180672

  8. Genetic Susceptibility to Dental Caries Differs between the Sexes: A Family-based Study

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Wang, Xiaojing; McNeil, Daniel W.; Weyant, Robert J.; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary L.

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting susceptibility to dental caries are likely influenced by genetics. In fact, genetics accounts for up to 65% of inter-individual variation in dental caries experience. Sex differences in dental caries experience has been widely reported, with females usually exhibiting higher prevalence and severity of disease across all ages. The cause for this sex bias is currently uncertain, although may be partly explained by the differential effects of genetic factors between the sexes: gene-by-sex interactions. In this family-based study (N=2,663; 740 families; ages 1–93 years), we assessed dental caries via intra-oral examination and generated six indices of caries experience (DMFS, dfs, and indices of both pit-and-fissure surface caries and smooth surface caries in both primary and permanent dentitions). We used likelihood-based methods to model the variance in caries experience conditional on the expected genetic sharing among relatives in our sample. This modeling framework allowed us to test two lines of evidence for gene-by-sex interactions: (1) whether the magnitude of the cumulative effect of genes differs between the sexes, and (2) whether different genes are involved. We observed significant evidence of gene-by-sex interactions for caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentitions. In the primary dentition, the magnitude of the effect of genes was greater in males than females. In the permanent dentition, different genes may play important roles in each of the sexes. Overall, this study provides the first direct evidence that sex differences in dental caries experiences may be explained, in part, by gene-by-sex interactions. PMID:25612913

  9. Genetic susceptibility to dental caries differs between the sexes: a family-based study.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Wang, Xiaojing; McNeil, Daniel W; Weyant, Robert J; Crout, Richard; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-01-01

    Many of the factors affecting susceptibility to dental caries are likely influenced by genetics. In fact, genetics accounts for up to 65% of inter-individual variation in dental caries experience. Sex differences in dental caries experience have been widely reported, with females usually exhibiting a higher prevalence and severity of disease across all ages. The cause for this sex bias is currently uncertain, although it may be partly due to the differential effects of genetic factors between the sexes: gene-by-sex interactions. In this family based study (N = 2,663; 740 families; ages 1-93 years), we assessed dental caries via intra-oral examination and generated six indices of caries experience (DMFS, dfs, and indices of both pit-and-fissure surface caries and smooth surface caries in both primary and permanent dentitions). We used likelihood-based methods to model the variance in caries experience conditional on the expected genetic sharing among relatives in our sample. This modeling framework allowed us to test two lines of evidence for gene-by-sex interactions: (1) whether the magnitude of the cumulative effect of genes differs between the sexes, and (2) whether different genes are involved. We observed significant evidence of gene-by-sex interactions for caries experience in both the primary and permanent dentitions. In the primary dentition, the magnitude of the effect of genes was greater in males than females. In the permanent dentition, different genes may play important roles in each of the sexes. Overall, this study provides the first direct evidence that sex differences in dental caries experiences may be explained, in part, by gene-by-sex interactions.

  10. Associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist, and IL-10 with dental caries.

    PubMed

    Cogulu, Dilsah; Onay, Huseyin; Ozdemir, Yasemin; I Aslan, Gulcin; Ozkinay, Ferda; Kutukculer, Necil; Eronat, Cemal

    2015-03-01

    Streptococcus mutans is important in dental caries. Although the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of dental caries is not clear, components of S. mutans were found to stimulate production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. We examined the associations of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), and IL-10 with dental caries. Unstimulated whole saliva and blood samples were obtained from 108 children aged 6-12 years with high caries (decayed, missing, or filled teeth [dmft/DMFT] index >4, n = 37), moderate caries (dmft/DMFT = 1-4, n = 37), or caries-free (dmft/DMFT = 0, n = 34). S. mutans level was classified as low (<10(5) colony-forming units [CFU]/mL) or high (≥10(5) CFU/mL). Saliva and serum concentrations of IL-1β, IL-1ra, and IL-10 were determined by ELISA. IL-1β, IL-1ra, and IL-10 gene polymorphisms were genotyped using PCR and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis. The chi-square, Mann-Whitney U, one-way ANOVA, posthoc, Fisher's exact, and t tests were used in statistical analysis. Dental caries was not correlated with salivary or serum concentrations of the studied cytokines. S. mutans level positively correlated with saliva IL-1β concentration and inversely correlated with saliva IL-1ra concentration. There was no correlation of IL-1β, IL-1ra, or IL-10 gene polymorphisms with dental caries. S. mutans is important in stimulating saliva IL-1β and inhibiting IL-1ra. Future studies of associations between cytokines and dental caries should investigate additional cytokines and enroll a larger number of participants.

  11. Dental Hygienist-Led Chronic Disease Management System to Control Early Childhood Caries.

    PubMed

    Ng, Man Wai; Fida, Zameera

    2016-06-01

    Management of the complex chronic disease of early childhood caries requires a system of coordinated health care interventions which can be led by a dental hygienist and where patient self-care efforts are paramount. Even after receiving costly surgical treatment under general anesthesia in the operating room, many children develop new and recurrent caries after only 6-12 months, a sequela that can be prevented. This article describes the chronic disease management (CDM) of dental caries, a science-based approach that can prevent and control caries. In this article, we (1) introduce the concept of CDM of dental caries, (2) provide evidence that CDM improves oral health outcomes, and (3) propose a dental hygienist-led team-based oral health care approach to CDM. Although we will be describing the CDM approach for early childhood caries, CDM of caries is applicable in children, adolescents, and adults. Early childhood caries disease control requires meaningful engagement of patients and parents by the oral health care team to assist them with making behavioral changes in the unique context of their families and communities. The traditional dentist/hygienist/assistant model needs to evolve to a collaborative partnership between care providers and patients/families. This partnership will be focused on systematic risk assessment and behaviorally based management of the disease itself, with sensitivity toward the familial environment. Early pilot study results demonstrate reductions in the rates of new caries, dental pain, and referral to the operating room compared with baseline rates. Dental hygienists are the appropriate team members to lead this approach because of their expertise in behavior change and prevention. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Ethnic Disparities in Dental Caries among Six-Year-Old Children in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    van der Tas, Justin T; Kragt, Lea; Veerkamp, Jaap J S; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Moll, Henriette A; Ongkosuwito, Edwin M; Elfrink, Marlies E C; Wolvius, Eppo B

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate potential differences in caries prevalence of children from ethnic minority groups compared to native Dutch children and the influence of socio-economic status (SES) and parent-reported oral health behaviour on this association. The study had a cross-sectional design, embedded in a population-based prospective multi-ethnic cohort study. 4,306 children with information on caries experience, belonging to 7 different ethnic groups, participated in this study. The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) index was assessed at the age of 6 and categorized in two ways for analysis: children without caries (dmft = 0) versus any caries experience (dmft >0) and children without caries (dmft = 0) versus children with mild caries (dmft = 1-3) or severe caries (dmft >3). Compared to native Dutch children, children with a Surinamese-Hindustani, Surinamese-Creole, Turkish, Moroccan, and Cape Verdean background had significantly higher odds for dental caries. Especially the Surinamese-Hindustani, Turkish, and Moroccan group had significantly higher odds for severe dental caries. Household income and educational level of the mother explained up to 43% of the association between ethnicity and dental caries, whereas parent-reported oral health behaviour did not mediate the association. Alarming disparities in caries prevalence between different ethnic (minority) groups exist, which cannot be fully explained by social inequalities. Public health strategies can apply this new knowledge and specifically focus on the reduction of ethnic disparities in oral health. More research is needed to explain the high caries prevalence among different ethnic minority groups. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents: a systematic review of literature published 2004 to 2011

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The objective The authors undertook an updated systematic review of the relationship between body mass index and dental caries in children and adolescents. Method The authors searched Medline, ISI, Cochrane, Scopus, Global Health and CINAHL databases and conducted lateral searches from reference lists for papers published from 2004 to 2011, inclusive. All empirical papers that tested associations between body mass index and dental caries in child and adolescent populations (aged 0 to 18 years) were included. Results Dental caries is associated with both high and low body mass index. Conclusion A non-linear association between body mass index and dental caries may account for inconsistent findings in previous research. We recommend future research investigate the nature of the association between body mass index and dental caries in samples that include a full range of body mass index scores, and explore how factors such as socioeconomic status mediate the association between body mass index and dental caries. PMID:23171603

  14. Oral lactic acid bacteria related to the occurrence and/or progression of dental caries in Japanese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Ayumi; Noda, Masafumi; Matoba, Yasuyuki; Kumagai, Takanori; Kozai, Katsuyuki; Sugiyama, Masanori

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that the presence of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), especially those classified into the genus Lactobacillus, is associated with the progression of dental caries in preschool children. Nevertheless, the kinds of species of LAB and the characteristics that are important for dental caries have been unclear. The aims of this study were: (1) to investigate the distribution of oral LAB among Japanese preschool children with various prevalence levels of caries; and (2) to reveal the characteristics of these isolated LAB species. Seventy-four Japanese preschool children were examined for caries scores and caries progression, and their dental cavity samples were collected for LAB isolation and identification. The saliva-induced agglutination rate and the resistance to acidic environments of the identified strains were measured. Statistical analysis showed that preschool children carrying Lactobacillus (L.) salivarius or Streptococcus mutans have a significantly higher prevalence of dental caries, the growth ability in acidic environments correlates with the caries scores of individuals with L. salivarius, and the caries scores exhibit positive correlation with saliva-induced agglutination in L. salivarius. These results show that specific Lactobacillus species are associated with dental caries based on the level of carious lesion severity. The present study suggests that these specific Lactobacillus species, especially those with easily agglutinated properties and acid resistance, affect the dental caries scores of preschool children, and that these properties may provide useful information for research into the prevention of dental caries.

  15. Effects of enamel matrix genes on dental caries are moderated by fluoride exposures.

    PubMed

    Shaffer, John R; Carlson, Jenna C; Stanley, Brooklyn O C; Feingold, Eleanor; Cooper, Margaret; Vanyukov, Michael M; Maher, Brion S; Slayton, Rebecca L; Willing, Marcia C; Reis, Steven E; McNeil, Daniel W; Crout, Richard J; Weyant, Robert J; Levy, Steven M; Vieira, Alexandre R; Marazita, Mary L

    2015-02-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of non-amelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N = 3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-by-fluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p < 0.002) and the suggestive association for multiple variants in TFIP11 across child samples (p < 0.05). Moreover, we discovered two genetic variants (rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 and missense rs7439186 in AMBN) involved in gene-by-fluoride interactions. For each interaction, participants with the risk allele/genotype exhibited greater dental caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles.

  16. [Investigation on deciduous dental caries among preschool children in Chongqing city].

    PubMed

    Lin, Jiang; Qingming, Zhuang; Jinhua, Wang; Jun, Deng; Hechuan, Zhao; Songlin, He; Lina, Dai

    2014-10-01

    To investigate the status of deciduous dental caries among preschool children in Chongqing city and to compare the oral health status of preschoolers from public and private kindergarten. According to the criteria recommended by The Third National Oral Health Investigation, the deciduous caries of 5 030 preschool children aged 3 to 6 years old from 40 private kindergartens and 16 public kindergartens in Yuzhong district of Chongqing were examined. The prevalence of dental caries and the mean dmft and filling rate were calculated. The results were analyzed using SPSS 21.0 software package. Maxillary deciduous central incisors and mandibular deciduous molar were most prone to decay in 5,030 children. The prevalence of dental caries was 54.08% (2,720/5,030). The mean dmft score was 2.58 and the filling rate was 0.98% (127/12,993). The prevalence of dental caries and mean dmft increased gradually as the children were growing up (P < 0.05). The rate of filling teeth of the 6 year old group was higher than other groups (P < 0.05). No significant difference between males and females were noted (P > 0.05). The prevalence rate of deciduous dental caries among private kindergartens was 61.04% (1,656/2,713), with a mean dmft of 3.12 and filling rate of 0.35% (30/8,465). The prevalence rate of deciduous dental caries among public kindergartens was 45.92% (1,064/2,317), with a mean dmft of 1.95 and filling rate of 2.14% (97/4,528). Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in the prevalence rate, mean dmft, and filling rate between two kinds of kindergarten (P < 0.05). Deciduous dental caries of preschool children is an important problem in Chongqing city and the children from private kindergarten had very low filling rate.

  17. Trends in dental caries among Brazilian schoolchildren: 40 years of monitoring (1971-2011).

    PubMed

    Constante, Helena Mendes; Souza, Marina Leite; Bastos, João Luiz; Peres, Marco Aurélio

    2014-08-01

    The study aimed to estimate the prevalence, severity, and inequality in the distribution of dental caries in schoolchildren from Florianópolis, Santa Catarina, Brazil, in 2011, and to compare the results with data from previous studies carried out since 1971. All 12- and 13-year-old schoolchildren enrolled in a public school were eligible. Dental caries were assessed according to the World Health Organisation diagnostic criteria. Decayed, missing and filled surfaces and teeth (DMFS/DMFT) indexes, the Significant Caries Index (SiC) and the Gini coefficient (to assess inequalities in the distribution of dental caries) were estimated. The response rate was 82.3% (n = 130). The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 98.0% (95% CI 96.0-100.0) in 1971 to 36.9% (95% CI 28.5-45.3) in 2011. The mean DMFT ranged from 9.2 in 1971 to 0.7 in 2011. The mean DMFS index was 1.2 (95% CI 0.8-1.6) in 2011. The Gini coefficient was 0.624 in 2002 but increased to 0.725 in 2011; the Lorenz curve showed that 70-75% of dental caries attacks was restricted to 20% of the population in 2011. A reduction of 41.2% in the mean SiC index was observed between 2002 (3.4, 95% CI 3.0-3.8) and 2011 (1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.1). An effective decline in the prevalence and severity of dental caries in schoolchildren was observed throughout 40 years of monitoring. However, a small proportion of the population has experienced most of the caries burden in the recent years studied. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  18. Prevalence and clinical consequences of untreated dental caries using PUFA index in suburban Nigerian school children.

    PubMed

    Oziegbe, E O; Esan, T A

    2013-08-01

    Dental caries is the most common childhood disease and the most frequent non-communicable disease worldwide. In developing countries, a vast majority of the caries remains unrestored. However, the severity and consequences of untreated dental caries among Nigerian children is unknown. To determine the prevalence using the DMFT/dmft index and severity of oral conditions related to dental caries using the PUFA/pufa index in suburban Nigerian children. The study population consisted of 1,266 randomly selected school children in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. Dental caries status was assessed using the DMFT/dmft index, described by WHO for epidemiological studies. The PUFA/pufa index was used to assess the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries. The mean dmft was 0.58 for the 4-6 years age group while the mean pufa score was 0.16 for the same age group. The mean DMFT score (0.16) was highest for the 13-16 years age group, while the mean PUFA score was 0.05 for the same age group. The prevalence of dmft > 0 was highest in the 4-6 years age group (16.9 %) while the prevalence of DMFT > 0 was highest in the 13-16 years age group (7.2 %). The mean pufa > 0 was highest in the 4-6 years age group (9.2 %). The overall caries prevalence was highest in the 4-6 years age group (17.4 %). Thirty-three percent of decayed teeth in the permanent dentition and 28.2 % of the primary dentition had signs of odontogenic infections. Despite the increase in the consumption of westernised diets by Nigerian children coupled with limited access to dental care, the prevalence was low but the clinical consequences of untreated dental caries was still high.

  19. Effects of enamel matrix genes on dental caries are moderated by fluoride exposures

    PubMed Central

    Shaffer, John R.; Carlson, Jenna C.; Stanley, Brooklyn O. C.; Feingold, Eleanor; Cooper, Margaret; Vanyukov, Michael M.; Maher, Brion S.; Slayton, Rebecca L.; Willing, Marcia C.; Reis, Steven E.; McNeil, Daniel W.; Crout, Richard J.; Weyant, Robert J.; Levy, Steven M.; Vieira, Alexandre R.; Marazita, Mary L.

    2014-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is the most common chronic disease, worldwide, affecting most children and adults. Though dental caries is highly heritable, few caries-related genes have been discovered. We investigated whether 18 genetic variants in the group of nonamelogenin enamel matrix genes (AMBN, ENAM, TUFT1, and TFIP11) were associated with dental caries experience in 13 age- and race-stratified samples from six parent studies (N=3,600). Linear regression was used to model genetic associations and test gene-byfluoride interaction effects for two sources of fluoride: daily tooth brushing and home water fluoride concentration. Meta-analysis was used to combine results across five child and eight adult samples. We observed the statistically significant association of rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 with dental caries experience via meta-analysis across adult samples (p<0.002) and the suggestive association for multiple variants in TFIP11 across child samples (p<0.05). Moreover, we discovered two genetic variants (rs2337359 upstream of TUFT1 and missense rs7439186 in AMBN) involved in gene-by-fluoride interactions. For each interaction, participants with the risk allele/genotype exhibited greater dental caries experience only if they were not exposed to the source of fluoride. Altogether, these results confirm that variation in enamel matrix genes contributes to individual differences in dental caries liability, and demonstrate that the effects of these genes may be moderated by protective fluoride exposures. In short, genes may exert greater influence on dental caries in unprotected environments, or equivalently, the protective effects of fluoride may obviate the effects of genetic risk alleles. PMID:25373699

  20. Oral diagnosis and treatment planning: part 5. Preventive and treatment planning for dental caries.

    PubMed

    Yip, K; Smales, R

    2012-09-01

    The practice of operative dentistry continues to evolve, to reflect the many changes occurring in society and in dental diseases and conditions. However, the belief that all questionable and early carious lesions should be restored still persists. This belief is largely based upon the concept that the removal of all carious tissue followed by meticulous restoration of the tooth is the treatment of choice for dental caries. Yet restorations are not permanent and do not cure caries, as the causes remain. On the other hand, preventive measures can remove or partially remove the causes, thereby reducing the risks for future caries recurrence at the same site or elsewhere in the mouth.

  1. Use of dental care and prevalence of caries among immigrant and Spanish-born children.

    PubMed

    Tapias-Ledesma, Miguel Angel; Garrido, Pilar Carrasco; Y Peña, Mercedes Esteban; Hernánez-Barrera, Valentín; de Miguel, Angel Gil; Jiménez-Garcia, Rodrigo

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper was to describe the use of dental services and the prevalence of dental caries in children living in Madrid, Spain. A descriptive, cross-sectional study was conducted using data from the Madrid City Health Survey. The questions asked were: (1) When was the last time your child visited the dentist? (2) What was the reason for your child's last visit? and (3) Is your child currently suffering from caries, fillings, or bleeding from the gums when brushing? The independent variables included: sex; age; education level; and nationality. Data from 960 children (approximately 27% of whom were immigrants) were analyzed. Over the last year, approximately 59% of the children had received dental care and 28% suffered from caries. After multivariate analysis, we observed that 3- to 6-year-old children, immigrants, and children of parents with low education levels are more likely not to have received dental care during the last year. We also found that children are more likely to suffer from caries as they get older and if they are immigrants. Being an immigrant and from a lower education level typically results in a less frequent use of dental health services, and children of immigrants have a greater risk of suffering from dental caries. It is essential to investigate the reasons why and introduce strategies to reduce barriers to dental health access among immigrants.

  2. Clinical Evaluation of an Adhesive Sealant for Controlling Dental Caries in Naval Personnel: One-Year Results

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-08-20

    NUMBER 792 CLINICAL EVALUATION OF AN ADHESIVE SEALANT FOR CONTROLLING DENTAL CARIES IN NAVAL PERSONNEL: ONE-YEAR RESULTS by George T. Eden, CDR...s Approved for public release; distribution unlimited CLINICAL EVALUATION OF AN ADHESIVE SEALANT FOR CONTROLLING DENTAL CARIES IN NAVAL...SUMMARY PAGE THE PROBLEM To ascertain the effectiveness of an adhesive type sealant material in reducing the incidence of dental caries in Naval

  3. The prevalence and treatment of dental caries among Israeli permanent force military personnel.

    PubMed

    Sgan-Cohen, H D; Horev, T; Zusman, S P; Katz, J; Eldad, A

    1999-08-01

    A survey was conducted to determine dental caries prevalence and treatment among 1,095 25- to 44-year-old permanent force Israeli military personnel. Caries experience, by decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth (DMFT), was 11.66, with an average of 1.37 untreated caries, 2.40 extracted teeth, and 7.90 treated teeth. Caries was positively associated with age (p < 0.001). Females demonstrated statistically higher DMFT levels than males (p = 0.009). Negative associations were detected for education levels and untreated and extracted components (p < 0.001), and a positive association was detected for the treated caries component (p < 0.001). Permanent military personnel treated by private dentists exhibited 17.6% untreated caries, compared with 9.4% among personnel treated in the army. Officers had lower levels of untreated caries (8.6%) than others (13.3%). Among the present population, 77% had attended a dental clinic in the preceding 2 years. Permanent force personnel are offered free, comprehensive, and accessible dental treatment. The data emphasize a need for further dental health education.

  4. Comparison of relationship between salivary electrolyte levels and dental caries in children with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Vikram; Arora, Ruchi; Bhayya, Deepak; Singh, Deepesh; Sarvaiya, Bhumi; Mehta, Dhaval

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to relate the salivary electrolyte levels with dental caries in children with Down syndrome and to compare salivary electrolyte levels and dental caries of these children with their siblings. Materials and Methods: Study population consisted of 30 Down syndrome children (study group) and their 30 healthy siblings (control group). Caries status was determined by dental caries indices in deciduous and permanent dentitions. Un-stimulated saliva from both groups was collected for salivary electrolyte examination. Results: In the study group, mean caries experience in primary dentition was 1.00 ± 0.79 and in the control group it was 2.33 ± 1.42, the difference being statistically significant. Mean caries experience in the permanent dentition of the study group (0. 97 ± 0.76) was significantly lower than the control group (2.47 ± 1.25). Salivary electrolyte levels in the study group were significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in dental caries in primary as well as permanent dentition of Down syndrome patients with increase in their salivary electrolyte levels. PMID:25810652

  5. Dental caries: A complete changeover, PART III: Changeover in the treatment decisions and treatments

    PubMed Central

    Carounanidy, Usha; Sathyanarayanan, R

    2010-01-01

    Comprehensive management of dental caries should involve the management of disease as well as the lesion. Current decision making process in cariology is influenced by numerous factors such as the size/ depth/ activity of the carious lesion and age/ the caries risk status of the patient. Treatment decisions should involve planning the non-operative/ preventive treatment for non-cavitated or early cavitated lesions and also formulating operative treatment for cavitated lesions. Apart from these two responsibilities, a clinician should also be knowledgeable enough to decide when not to interfere in the caries dynamics and how frequently to recall the patient for follow-ups. The non-operative treatment prescriptions vary in dose, intensity and mode of delivery according to the caries risk status. Minimal invasion and maximal conservation of tooth structure has become the essence of current operative treatments. This part of the series elaborates on the paradigm shift in the management of dental caries. PMID:21217948

  6. Concepts in critical thinking applied to caries risk assessment in dental education.

    PubMed

    Guzman-Armstrong, Sandra; Warren, John J; Cunningham-Ford, Marsha A; von Bergmann, HsingChi; Johnsen, David C

    2014-06-01

    Much progress has been made in the science of caries risk assessment and ways to analyze caries risk, yet dental education has seen little movement toward the development of frameworks to guide learning and assess critical thinking in caries risk assessment. In the absence of previous proactive implementation of a learning framework that takes the knowledge of caries risk and critically applies it to the patient with the succinctness demanded in the clinical setting, the purpose of this study was to develop a model learning framework that combines the science of caries risk assessment with principles of critical thinking from the education literature. This article also describes the implementation of that model at one dental school and presents some preliminary assessment data.

  7. Cariology for the 21st Century: current caries management concepts for dental practice.

    PubMed

    Fontana, Margherita; Cabezas, Carlos Gonzalez; Fitzgerald, Mark

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this manuscript is to provide an overview of currently accepted, evidence-based and/or expert opinion recommendations for the prevention and management of dental caries in dental practice. Discussions are centered on current concepts for caries lesion detection (e.g., cavitated and non-cavitated lesions) and diagnosis (e.g., active vs. arrested lesions), including thresholds for non-surgical (e.g., fluorides, sealant) and surgical (i.e., restorative) interventions, risk assessment, and a review of caries management interventions for caries disease management. The goal is to prevent and manage the caries disease process using patient-centered, risk-based interventions supported by the best available evidence, taking into account the dentist's clinical expertise and the patient's treatment needs and preferences, in order to maintain or re-establish health and preserve tooth structure.

  8. Genetic specificity to 6-n-propylthiouracil and its association to dental caries: A Comparative study.

    PubMed

    Vandal, Vidya B; Noorani, Hina; Shivaprakash, P K; Walikar, Basavaraj

    2017-01-01

    Dental caries is one of the most prevalent infectious diseases to affl ict humanity. Although caries has multifactorial etiology, inherited genetic behavior and taste threshold may play an important role on caries. Thirty mothers and thirty children in the age group of 6-14 years of both sexes who have stable mental condition and ASA physical status were selected for the study & 6-n-propylthiouracil testing is done. It is observed that nontaster siblings have higher caries prevalence than medium tasters and supertasters. Genetic sensitivity to taste is an inherited trait in children from their parents, inheritance from mother being more pronounced. Hence, this study is intended. Dental caries is multi-factorial. No significant correlation between susceptibility of mother and child to genetic sensitivity exists, and genetic sensitivity is not the only criteria for severity.

  9. The role of school-based dental programme on dental caries experience in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Amalia, Rosa; Schaub, Rob M H; Widyanti, Niken; Stewart, Roy; Groothoff, Johan W

    2012-05-01

    To assess the effectiveness of a school-based dental programme (SBDP) in controlling caries by measuring the relationship between the SBDP performance and caries experience in children aged 12 in Yogyakarta Province, Indonesia, by taking into account influencing factors. A cross-sectional survey was undertaken of 1906 children participating in SBDPs. Four SBDPs were chosen by good and poor performances in urban and rural areas. Caries was assessed using WHO criteria whereas behaviour and socio-demographic factors were collected using a questionnaire administered to the children. The decayed, missed, and filled teeth (DMFT) of children in good SBDPs (2.8 ± 2.4) was lower than that of the counterparts (3.8 ± 3.4). From path analysis using a structural equation model (SEM), place of residence (OR = 4.0) was shown to have a strongest direct relationship to caries experience, whereas SBDP performance showed no direct relationship. At the same time, SBDP performance was significantly related to frequencies of dental visits (OR = 0.3), sugar consumption (OR = 0.8), and tooth brushing (OR = 3.2), which in turn are interrelated with place of residence, gender, and mother's education. The study suggests that the differences in DMFT of children in good and poor performance SBDPs were caused by relation to social factors rather than by relation to oral health service activities. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Dental fluorosis, dental caries and fluoride exposure among 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Riordan, P J

    1993-01-01

    Mild dental fluorosis is frequently linked to fluoridated water, but discretionary fluoride sources may also be important. The aim of this study was to record age of weaning and fluoride exposure from water, toothpaste and supplements, and to relate these to the presence of caries and fluorosis in children born in 1983. In Perth (Western Australia) 14 school classes were selected. The 350 children (mean age 7.5 years) ultimately included gave fluoride exposure data for the period birth to 4 years of age. Caries (DMFT, WHO criteria, no radiographs) and dental fluorosis (TF index, dry permanent incisors) were registered clinically. Most (89%) children had lived at least 2.5 years in a fluoridated area. Supplement use was minimal and unrelated to caries or fluorosis. Mean age of weaning of those who had been breast-fed was 7.7 months; by 9 months, 74% had been weaned. Eighty-five percent liked toothpaste, 60.7% had swallowed it, and the mean age of starting to use it was 1.5 (SD 0.96) years. Caries prevalence was 0.1 and mean DMFT was 0.13. The prevalence of fluorosis was 0.48; 63% of fluorosis was TF score 1. Residence in a fluoridated area for > or = 2.5 of the first 4 years of life had an odds ratio (OR) of 4.9 for fluorosis. Weaning before 9 months of age, swallowing toothpaste and liking toothpaste were also statistically significant risk factors. Major risk factors for more severe fluorosis (TF > or = 2) were early weaning and swallowing toothpaste (ORs 2.77 and 2.64, respectively). Residence in a fluoridated area (OR 2.2) was not a statistically significant risk factor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Prevalence and Correlates of Dental Caries in an Elderly Population in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lu; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Wei; Cheng, Min; Li, Yan; Cheng, Ruibo

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The present study aimed to investigate the prevalence and correlates of dental caries in elderly population in northeast China. Methods A community-based, cross-sectional study among 2376 elderly subjects (age: 65–74 years) from nine urban areas and nine rural areas in three provinces of northeast China was conducted using multistage stratified random sampling per the World Health Organization oral health survey methodology. Decayed-missing-filled teeth (DMFT) and decayed-filled teeth (DFT) indices were used to evaluate the prevalence of dental caries. Face-to-face questionnaire survey on oral health was performed in a randomly selected subset (n = 1197). T test and chi square test were employed to compare groups for continuous and categorical variables, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding confidence intervals (CIs). Results 67.5% of elderly subjects reported dental caries (average DFT = 2.68±3.40), and the prevalence was higher in urban areas (P<0.01). Missing teeth accounted for 80.72% of DMFT, and filled teeth due to caries accounted for 2.08% with a rate higher in urban areas (P<0.01). Logistic regression analysis indicated significant association among elderly population in urban areas (OR 1.713; 95% CI 1.337–2.195), smoking (OR 1.779; 95% CI 1.384–2.288), and individuals without dental insurance (OR 2.050; 95% CI 1.120–3.754) with dental caries. Conclusions The prevalence of dental caries in the elderly population in northeast China is high. The elderly from urban areas who smoke and who do not have a dental insurance are at a higher risk to develop dental caries. PMID:24260129

  12. A systematic review of population-based dental caries studies among children in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al Agili, Dania Ebrahim

    2012-01-01

    Objective Dental caries critically impacts the health and development of children. Understanding caries experience is an important task for Saudi Arabian policymakers to identify intervention targets and improve oral health. The purpose of this review is to analyze current data to assess the nationwide prevalence and severity of caries in children, to identify gaps in baseline information, and to determine areas for future research. Methods A search of published and unpublished studies in PubMed, Google, and local Saudi medical and dental journals was conducted for the three keywords “dental,” “caries,” and “Saudi Arabia.” The inclusion criteria required that the articles were population-based studies that assessed the prevalence of dental caries in healthy children attending regular schools using a cross-sectional study design of a random sample. Results/discussion The review was comprised of one unpublished thesis and 27 published surveys of childhood caries in Saudi Arabia. The earliest study was published in 1988 and the most recent was published in 2010. There is a lack of representative data on the prevalence of dental caries among the whole Saudi Arabian population. The national prevalence of dental caries and its severity in children in Saudi Arabia was estimated to be approximately 80% for the primary dentition with a mean dmft of 5.0 and approximately 70% for children’s permanent dentition with a mean DMFT score of 3.5. The current estimates indicate that the World Health Organization (WHO) 2000 goals are still unmet for Saudi Arabian children. Conclusion Childhood dental caries is a serious dental public health problem that warrants the immediate attention of the government and the dental profession officials in Saudi Arabia. Baseline data on oral health and a good understanding of dental caries determinants are necessary for setting appropriate oral health goals. Without the ability to describe the current situation, it is not possible to

  13. Association between developmental defects of enamel and dental caries in schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Ferreira, F; Zeng, J; Thomson, W M; Peres, M A; Demarco, F F

    2014-05-01

    Despite improvement, dental caries is still the main public oral health problem worldwide and the major cause of pain, tooth loss and chewing difficulties in children and adolescents; and it impacts negatively on oral health-related quality of life. A cross-sectional study of a multistage representative sample of 8-12-year-old Brazilian school children was carried out in order to investigate the association between enamel defects and dental caries. Children's mothers completed a questionnaire about socio-demographic and behavioural characteristics at home. Firth's bias reduced logistic regression models were undertaken to assess the association between the main exposure (enamel defects) and caries experience. The prevalence of any enamel defect was 64.0%; the prevalence of diffuse opacities, demarcated opacities and enamel hypoplasia was 35.0%, 29.5% and 3.7%, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was 32.4%, with mean DMFT of 0.6 (SD, 1.2). Dental caries experience was more common among children who had enamel hypoplasia in their posterior teeth (OR=2.79; 95% CI: 1.05, 6.51) than among those with none. In anterior teeth, there was no association. Enamel hypoplasia appears to be an important risk factor for dental caries. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Influence of tooth crowding on the prevalence of dental caries. A literature review].

    PubMed

    Szyszka-Sommerfeld, Liliana; Buczkowska-Radlińska, Jadwiga

    2010-01-01

    Dental caries is a disease of the mineralized tissues of teeth. It usually has a chronic course and is caused by external factors which can be modified. Current opinions about the contribution of malocclusions to the etiology of dental caries are conflicting. Some researchers believe that malocclusions like crowded teeth cause improper contacts between neighboring teeth and make effective oral hygiene more difficult. The difficulty in cleaning crowded teeth is believed to increase plaque accumulation and consequently predisposes the tooth to the development of dental caries and periodontal disease. Others claim that malocclusion has a minimal influence on the development of dental caries and periodontal disease. Ideal oral hygiene is of basic importance for plaque elimination which is the harmful factor in caries and in this way is decisive for the health of mineral and soft tissues to a much greater extent than lack of malocclusion. However, if a person with malocclusion is more susceptible to dental caries, oral hygiene cannot be the decisive factor.

  15. Dental caries and associated factors in Mexican schoolchildren aged 6-13 years.

    PubMed

    Casanova-Rosado, Alejandro José; Medina-Solís, Carlo Eduardo; Casanova-Rosado, Juan Fernando; Vallejos-Sánchez, Ana Alicia; Maupomé, Gerardo; Avila-Burgos, Leticia

    2005-08-01

    The objectives of the present study were to establish dental caries prevalence (percentage with caries) and experience in the primary and permanent dentition (dmft and DMFT) of 6 to 13-year-old schoolchildren in Campeche, Mexico, and to estimate the contributing roles of the likely risk indicators. A cross-sectional study was carried out in 1,644 children aged 6-13 years. Self-administered questionnaires obtained information on social, economic, behavioral, and demographic variables. The primary dentition of 1,309 children and the permanent dentition of 1,640 children were evaluated in the oral examinations. The main outcome measures were DMFT, dmft, and SiC indices. Data were modeled using logistic regression analysis. The overall caries prevalence was 77.4%, 73.6% in the primary dentition (61.6% in 6-year-olds), and 49.4% in the permanent dentition. The dmft and DMFT indices were 2.85+/-2.73 and 1.44+/-2.05, respectively (DMFT = 3.11+/-2.62 in 12-year-olds). The SiC index was 6.05 at 12 years of age. Associated variables to dental caries in both dentitions were presence of enamel defects, presence of dental plaque, low socio-economic status, female sex, and older age. Mother's schooling was negatively associated (OR = 0.95) with caries in primary dentition. Caries experience in the primary dentition (OR = 6.02) was positively associated with caries in the permanent dentition. Dental caries status in these Mexican children was closer to the goals proposed by the WHO/FDI for 2000 than previous studies. This study has identified clinical, socio-economic, and behavioral determinants for dental caries in primary and permanent dentition on Mexican schoolchildren.

  16. Factors associated with dental caries in a group of American Indian children at age 36 months.

    PubMed

    Warren, John J; Blanchette, Derek; Dawson, Deborah V; Marshall, Teresa A; Phipps, Kathy R; Starr, Delores; Drake, David R

    2016-04-01

    Early childhood caries (ECC) is rampant among American Indian children, but there has been relatively little study of this problem. This article reports on risk factors for caries for a group of American Indian children at age 36 months as part of a longitudinal study. Pregnant women from a Northern Plains Tribal community were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study of caries and caries risk factors. Standardized dental examinations were completed on children, and questionnaires were completed by mothers at baseline and when children were 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 28, and 36 months of age. Examinations were surface-specific for dental caries, and the questionnaires collected data on demographic, dietary, and behavioral factors. Nonparametric bivariate tests and logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for caries at 36 months, and negative binomial regression was used to identify factors related to caries severity (dmf counts). Among the 232 children, and caries prevalence for cavitated lesions was 80%, with an additional 15% having only noncavitated lesions. The mean dmfs was 9.6, and of the total dmfs, nearly 62% of affected surfaces were decayed, 31% were missing, and 7% were filled. Logistic regression identified higher added-sugar beverage consumption, younger maternal age at baseline, higher maternal DMFS at baseline, and greater number of people in the household as significant (P < 0.05) risk factors. Negative binomial regression found that only maternal DMFS was associated with child dmf counts. By the age of 36 months, dental caries is nearly universal in this population of American Indian children. Caries risk factors included sugared beverage consumption, greater household size, and maternal factors, but further analyses are needed to better understand caries in this population. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Factors Associated with Dental Caries in a Group of American Indian Children at age 36 Months

    PubMed Central

    Warren, John J.; Blanchette, Derek; Dawson, Deborah V.; Marshall, Teresa A.; Phipps, Kathy R.; Starr, Delores; Drake, David R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Early childhood caries (ECC) is rampant among American Indian children, but there has been relatively little study of this problem. This paper reports on risk factors for caries for a group of American Indian children at age 36 months as part of a longitudinal study. Methods Pregnant women from a Northern Plains Tribal community were recruited to participate in a longitudinal study of caries and caries risk factors. Standardized dental examinations were completed on children and questionnaires were completed by mothers at baseline and when children were 4, 8, 12, 16, 22, 28 and 36 months of age. Examinations were surface-specific for dental caries, and the questionnaires collected data on demographic, dietary and behavioral factors. Non-parametric bivariate tests and logistic regression models were used to identify risk factors for caries at 36 months, and negative binomial regression was used to identify factors related to caries severity (dmf counts). Results Among the 232 children, and caries prevalence for cavitated lesions was 80%, with an additional 15% having only non-cavitated lesions. The mean dmfs was 9.6, and of the total dmfs, nearly 62% of affected surfaces were decayed, 31% were missing, and 7% were filled. Logistic regression identified higher added sugar beverage consumption, younger maternal age at baseline, higher maternal DMFS at baseline, and greater number of people in the household as significant (p<0.05) risk factors. Negative binomial regression found that only maternal DMFS was associated with child dmf counts. Conclusions By the age of 36 months, dental caries is nearly universal in this population of American Indian children. Caries risk factors included sugared beverage consumption, greater household size and maternal factors, but further analyses are needed to better understand caries in this population. PMID:26544674

  18. Dental fluorosis, caries experience and snack intake of 13-15 year olds in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Makhanu, M; Opinya, G; Mutave, R J

    2009-03-01

    To determine the dental caries experience in relation to the severity of dental fluorosis and; to evaluate the dietary snacking habits of adolescents. A descriptive cross-sectional study. A peri-urban primary school in Nairobi, Kenya. Two hundred and seventy five adolescents aged 13-15 years among whom 128 were males and 149 were females. Two hundred and seventy five adolescents were examined for varying degrees of dental fluorosis according to the Thylystrup Fejerskov Index (TFI) scores and the dental caries was determined in the four first permanent molars. One hundred and five individuals were found to have had a TFI score of zero with a corresponding decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT) for dental caries of 1.30-1.03 and 88 (52%) individuals had mild to moderate severity of dental fluorosis (TF scores 1-4) and had a corresponding mean DMFT of 1.53 +/- 1.005 for dental caries. Furthermore, 82 (48.2%) adolescents had severe degrees of dental fluorosis of TFI scores 5-9 and had a corresponding DMTF value of 1.85 +/- 1.24 for dental caries. When the prevalence of dental caries was compared among individuals with TFI scores zero (non-fluorosed teeth) with those who had fluorosed first permanent molars the Chi square test showed that there was a high statistical significance with a p-value of 0.001 (P = 0.005). Amongst the 175 adolescents with varying degrees of severity of dental fluorosis it was noted that 44 (26%) did not like taking snacks and had a DMFT of 1.54 +/- 1:1.17 while 126 (74%) adolescents who enjoyed taking snacks had a DMFT of 1.64 +/- 1.08. However, there was no statistical significance. While there was a statistically significant association between the severity of dental fluorosis and caries experience among the participants in the present study, there was no co-relation between the caries experience and snacking habits among those who had varying degrees of dental fluorosis.

  19. [The role of clinical laboratory diagnostics in dental caries prognosis in children].

    PubMed

    Skripkina, G I

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to identify informative, in terms of predicting caries process, laboratory parameters of homeostasis of the oral cavity in children of different age groups. A total of 1158 children of preschool and school age with caries were screened to determine laboratory parameters of homeostasis of the oral cavity by examining of the oral fluid. Caries in children was characterized by certain age specific physico-chemical parameters shift in the oral fluid. Complex set of the most informative laboratory indices reflecting the resistance and susceptibility to dental caries in children of different age groups was revealed. The obtained data allowed creating mathematical models for prenosological prediction of caries in preschool and school age, which formed the basis of "Stop caries" software.

  20. The role of fluoride mouthrinses in the control of dental caries: a brief review.

    PubMed

    Adair, S M

    1998-01-01

    Fluoride mouthrinses have generally proved to be effective in controlling caries in clinical studies. Caries reductions in North American studies have averaged about 30%. Large-scale school-based mouthrinse programs conducted during the 1970s, however, used historical controls at a time when caries rates were now known to be declining. Post-hoc analysis of the absolute (not relative) caries reductions in these studies showed that school-based fluoride mouthrinse programs were of questionable benefit from a cost standpoint. Fluoride mouthrinses have been shown to reduce demineralization and enhance remineralization of enamel adjacent to orthodontic bands and brackets. Benefits in adults have been less well documented. Use of fluoride mouthrinses by young children is discouraged until they have mastery of their swallowing reflexes. This paper recommends the use of fluoride mouthrinses for patients at increased or high risk for dental caries, but cautions that school-based programs be undertaken only in communities with a high population caries rate.

  1. Current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Park, Young-Seok; Ahn, Jin-Soo; Kwon, Ho-Beom

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this article is to review the current status of dental caries diagnosis using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Materials and Methods An online PubMed search was performed to identify studies on caries research using CBCT. Results Despite its usefulness, there were inherent limitations in the detection of caries lesions through conventional radiograph mainly due to the two-dimensional (2D) representation of caries lesions. Several efforts were made to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) image of lesion, only to gain little popularity. Recently, CBCT was introduced and has been used for diagnosis of caries in several reports. Some of them maintained the superiority of CBCT systems, however it is still under controversies. Conclusion The CBCT systems are promising, however they should not be considered as a primary choice of caries diagnosis in everyday practice yet. Further studies under more standardized condition should be performed in the near future. PMID:21977474

  2. The aetiology of dental caries--an outline of current thought.

    PubMed

    Levine, R S

    1977-12-01

    Nearly 90 years after being put forward by W.D. Miller, the acidogenic theory of dental caries aetiology is supported by a wealth of experimental evidence. However, while explaining the basic mechanism of caries, it does not indicate how the effect of the mechanism is modified to give the observable pattern of caries attack. This explanation is attempted on the basis of the interaction of two groups of variable factors. Firstly, those which affect the tooth's resistance to caries attack, which include the chemical, microstructural and morphological nature of the enamel surface. Secondly the factors which determine the cariogenicity of the tooth's environment. These include the nature of the diet, plaque and saliva. Finally the caries initiation is considered at an atomic level in terms of the dynamic ionic exchange between enamel and plaque. This brief review highlights the need for considerably more research to shed more light on the nature of the variable aetiological factors of caries.

  3. Social support and social network as intermediary social determinants of dental caries in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Fontanini, Humberto; Marshman, Zoe; Vettore, Mario

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association between intermediary social determinants, namely social support and social network with dental caries in adolescents. An adapted version of the WHO social determinants of health conceptual framework was used to organize structural and intermediary social determinants of dental caries into six blocks including perceived social support and number of social networks. A cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative sample of 542 students between 12 and 14 years of age in public schools located in the city of Dourados, Brazil in 2012. The outcome variables were caries experience (DMFT ≥ 1) and current dental caries (component D of DMFT ≥ 1) recorded by a calibrated dentist. Individual interviews were performed to collect data on perceived social support and numbers of social networks from family and friends and covariates. Multivariate Poisson regressions using hierarchical models were conducted. The prevalence of adolescents with caries experience and current dental caries was 55.2% and 32.1%, respectively. Adolescents with low numbers of social networks and low levels of social support from family (PR 1.47; 95% CI = 1.01-2.14) were more likely to have DMFT ≥ 1. Current dental caries was associated with low numbers of social networks and low levels of social support from family (PR 2.26; 95% CI = 1.15-4.44). Social support and social network were influential psychosocial factors to dental caries in adolescents. This finding requires confirmation in other countries but potentially has implications for programmes to promote oral health. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Exposure to high-fluoride drinking water and risk of dental caries and dental fluorosis in Haryana, India.

    PubMed

    Marya, Charu Mohan; Ashokkumar, B R; Dhingra, Sonal; Dahiya, Vandana; Gupta, Anil

    2014-05-01

    The present study aimed to determine the prevalence of and relationship between dental caries and dental fluorosis at varying levels of fluoride in drinking water. The study was conducted among 3007 school children in the age group of 12 to 16 years in 2 districts of Haryana having varying fluoride levels in drinking water. Type III examination for dental caries according to the WHO index and dental fluorosis estimation according to Dean's index was done. The prevalence of dental caries decreased from 48.02% to 28.07% as fluoride levels increased from 0.5 to 1.13 ppm, but as the fluoride level increased further to 1.51 ppm, there was no further reduction in caries prevalence, but there was a substantial increase in fluorosis prevalence. The optimum level of fluoride in drinking water was found to be 1.13 ppm, at which there was maximum caries reduction with minimum amount of esthetically objectionable fluorosis. © 2012 APJPH.

  5. Dentists’ practice patterns regarding caries prevention: results from a dental practice-based research network

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Yoko; Kakudate, Naoki; Sumida, Futoshi; Matsumoto, Yuki; Gilbert, Gregg H; Gordan, Valeria V

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purposes of this study were to (1) quantify dentists' practice patterns regarding caries prevention and (2) test the hypothesis that certain dentists' characteristics are associated with these practice patterns. Design The study used a cross-sectional study design consisting of a questionnaire survey. Participants The study queried dentists who worked in outpatient dental practices who were affiliated with the Dental Practice-Based Research Network Japan, which seeks to engage dentists in investigating research questions and sharing experiences and expertise (n=282). Measurement Dentists were asked about their practice patterns regarding caries preventive dentistry. Background data on patients, practice and dentist were also collected. Results 38% of dentists (n=72) provided individualised caries prevention to more than 50% of their patients. Overall, 10% of the time in daily practice was spent on caries preventive dentistry. Dentists who provided individualised caries prevention to more than 50% of their patients spent significantly more time on preventive care and less time on removable prosthetics treatment, compared to dentists who did not provide individualised caries prevention. Additionally, they provided oral hygiene instruction, patient education, fluoride recommendations, intraoral photographs taken and diet counselling to their patients significantly more often than dentists who did not provide individualised caries prevention. Multiple logistic regression analysis suggested that the percentage of patients interested in caries prevention and the percentage of patients who received hygiene instruction, were both associated with the percentage of patients who receive individualised caries prevention. Conclusions We identified substantial variation in dentists' practice patterns regarding preventive dentistry. Individualised caries prevention was significantly related to provision of other preventive services and to having a higher percentage

  6. Dental caries in Uruguayan adults and elders: findings from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Álvarez, Licet; Liberman, Judith; Abreu, Soledad; Mangarelli, Carolina; Correa, Marcos B; Demarco, Flávio Fernando; Lorenzo, Susana; Nascimento, Gustavo G

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to assess dental caries status and associated factors in Uruguayan adults and elders using data from the first Uruguayan National Oral Health Survey. Data were representative of the country as a whole. Socio-demographic information was collected with a closed questionnaire. Dental caries was assessed by clinical examination using the DMFT index. The final sample consisted of 769 participants. Mean DMFT was 15.20 and 24.12 for the 35-44 and 65-74-year age groups, respectively. Mean number of decayed teeth was 1.70 in adults and 0.66 in elders. Multivariate analyses showed higher prevalence of dental caries associated with age 65-74 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, presence of gingivitis; for decayed teeth, age 35-44 years, low socioeconomic status, use of public dental services, infrequent tooth brushing, need for oral health care, and presence of root caries showed higher severity. Uruguayan adults and elders from disadvantaged backgrounds concentrated a heavier burden of dental caries.

  7. Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries – a review

    PubMed Central

    Frencken, Jo E.; Peters, Mathilde C.; Manton, David J.; Leal, Soraya C.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Eden, Ece

    2012-01-01

    This publication describes the history of Minimal Intervention Dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the ‘surgical’ care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI’s policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing. PMID:23106836

  8. Correlation between water fluoride levels and dental caries in Davangere District, India.

    PubMed

    Acharya, S; Anuradha, K P

    2003-01-01

    Areas with natural fluoride in the drinking water are natural laboratories where the effect of fluoride on dental caries can be studied in a real life situation. This study was conducted to assess the prevalence of dental caries and to study its correlation with fluoride in the drinking water in Davangere District. 1128 school children in the age groups of 12 and 15 years from 12 villages with different concentrations of fluoride in drinking water were studied. Ion Selective electrode method (Orion, USA) was used to estimate Fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Dentition Status (WHO, 1997) was used to assess dental caries status. Results showed that there was a significant trend towards reduction in dental caries with increase in water fluoride levels. A negative correlation between fluoride levels and mean DMFT was seen among the subjects with the Karl Pearson's Correlation Co efficient being -0.65 and -0.72 for the 12 and 15 year olds respectively. It was concluded from the study that although dental caries was negatively associated with increasing fluoride levels, the problem of attendant dental fluorosis should also be considered seriously.

  9. Total Breast-Feeding Duration and Dental Caries in Healthy Urban Children.

    PubMed

    Wong, Peter D; Birken, Catherine S; Parkin, Patricia C; Venu, Isvarya; Chen, Yang; Schroth, Robert J; Maguire, Jonathon L

    2017-04-01

    To determine if there is an association between longer breast-feeding duration and dental caries in healthy urban children. We conducted a cross-sectional study of urban children aged 1 to 6 years recruited through The Applied Research Group for Kids (TARGet Kids!) practice-based research network between September 2011 and August 2013. The main outcome measure was parental report of dental caries. The adjusted predicted probability of dental caries was 7%, 8%, 11%, and 16% with total duration of breast-feeding duration of 12, 18, 24, and 36 months, respectively. In the adjusted logistic regression analyses, relative to breast-feeding 0 to 5 months, the odds of dental caries with total breast-feeding duration >24 months was 2.75 (95% confidence interval 1.61-4.72). Among healthy urban children, longer breast-feeding duration was associated with higher odds of dental caries. These findings support heightened awareness and enhanced anticipatory guidance for preventive dental care, particularly among children who breast-feed beyond 2 years of age. Copyright © 2016 Academic Pediatric Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Influence of feeding practices on dental caries. A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bahuguna, R; Younis Khan, S; Jain, A

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship of feeding practices with dental caries in a group of respondents of 1-18 years of age of Lucknow city, India. A case-control study was carried out in the outpatient department of Paedodontics and Preventive Dental Clinic, Saraswati Dental College and Hospital, Lucknow (UP), India. A total sample of 800 subjects in the 1- 18 years age group was equally divided among cases (DMFT/deft>0) and controls (DMFT/deft = 0). Cases matched with controls for age, sex and religion. Clinical examination (DMFT /deft index) was performed in accordance with the WHO criteria for epidemiological studies. Respondents were interviewed in depth and retrospectively by means of a self- administered questionnaire. Prolonged breast feeding beyond 6 months, bottle feeding, nocturnal bottle feeding containing sweet drink and milk and higher frequency of consumption of sweets emerged as significant risk factors for dental caries. Based on the differences between the caries and non-caries age groups, an educational and preventive programme should be initiated addressing the associated risk factors of specific age groups accordingly. In our present study nocturnal bottle feeding emerged as the most significant risk factor for dental caries in the 1-6 years age group. Hence health professionals should recognise the benefits of breastfeeding up to six months of life and should educate mothers about the importance of implementing beneficial dental habits to ensure that a child reaches oral health.

  11. Minimal intervention dentistry for managing dental caries - a review: report of a FDI task group.

    PubMed

    Frencken, Jo E; Peters, Mathilde C; Manton, David J; Leal, Soraya C; Gordan, Valeria V; Eden, Ece

    2012-10-01

    This publication describes the history of minimal intervention dentistry (MID) for managing dental caries and presents evidence for various carious lesion detection devices, for preventive measures, for restorative and non-restorative therapies as well as for repairing rather than replacing defective restorations. It is a follow-up to the FDI World Dental Federation publication on MID, of 2000. The dental profession currently is faced with an enormous task of how to manage the high burden of consequences of the caries process amongst the world population. If it is to manage carious lesion development and its progression, it should move away from the 'surgical' care approach and fully embrace the MID approach. The chance for MID to be successful is thought to be increased tremendously if dental caries is not considered an infectious but instead a behavioural disease with a bacterial component. Controlling the two main carious lesion development related behaviours, i.e. intake and frequency of fermentable sugars, to not more than five times daily and removing/disturbing dental plaque from all tooth surfaces using an effective fluoridated toothpaste twice daily, are the ingredients for reducing the burden of dental caries in many communities in the world. FDI's policy of reducing the need for restorative therapy by placing an even greater emphasis on caries prevention than is currently done, is therefore, worth pursuing.

  12. Dental caries is correlated with knowledge of comprehensive food education in Japanese university students.

    PubMed

    Ekuni, Daisuke; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Mizutani, Shinsuke; Furuta, Michiko; Irie, Koichiro; Azuma, Tetsuji; Kojima, Azusa; Iwasaki, Yoshiaki; Morita, Manabu

    2013-01-01

    In Japan, the "Food Education Basic Law" (The Basic Law on Shokuiku, food education) was enacted in 2005. The comprehensive food education programs, namely Shokuiku, aim to improve dietary practices to reduce lifestyle-related diseases. Dental caries is one of the diseases associated with inappropriate dietary habits. Thus, food education may influence the prevalence of dental caries. However, there are no data regarding the association between public based-food education and dental caries. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between knowledge about comprehensive food education (Shokuiku) and dental caries experience in Japanese university students. A total of 2,184 students (1,240 men, 944 women), aged 18-20 years, were examined. They had attended the Shokuiku program while in junior/senior high school. The numbers of teeth present, and decayed, missing and filled teeth (DMFT) (dental caries experience) were recorded. Additional information was collected via a questionnaire regarding knowledge about food education, dietary habits and oral health behavior. Of the students, 315 men (20.7%) and 345 women (52.8%) reported that they know and can explain the meaning and content of the word "Shokuiku". After adjusting for potential confounding factors, subjects who did not have knowledge about Shokuiku had higher adjusted odds ratio (OR) for dental caries experience (DMFT >0) than those who had (adjusted OR, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.02-1.48; p<0.05). These observations revealed that having knowledge about comprehensive food education in university students correlates with low prevalence of dental caries.

  13. [Inequalities in untreated dental caries prevalence in preschool children in Brazil].

    PubMed

    Ardenghi, Thiago Machado; Piovesan, Chaiana; Antunes, José Leopoldo Ferreira

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the influence of social inequalities of individual and contextual nature on untreated dental caries in Brazilian children. The data on the prevalence of dental caries were obtained from the Brazilian Oral Health Survey (SBBrasil 2010) Project, an epidemiological survey of oral health with a representative sample for the country and each of the geographical micro-regions. Children aged five (n = 7,217) in 177 municipalities were examined and their parents/guardians completed a questionnaire. Contextual characteristics referring to the municipalities in 2010 (mean income, fluorodized water and proportion of residences with water supply) were supplied by the Fundação Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística (Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics). Multilevel Poisson regression analysis models were used to assess associations. The prevalence of non-treated dental caries was 48.2%; more than half of the sample had at least one deciduous tooth affected by dental caries. The index of dental caries in deciduous teeth was 2.41, with higher figures in the North and Northeast. Black and brown children and those from lower income families had a higher prevalence of untreated dental caries. With regards context, the mean income in the municipality and the addition of fluoride to the water supply were inversely associated with the prevalence of the outcome. Inequalities in the prevalence of untreated dental caries remain, affecting deciduous teeth of children in Brazil. Planning public policies to promote oral health should consider the effect of contextual factors as a determinant of individual risk.

  14. Dairy products and calcium intake during pregnancy and dental caries in children.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Keiko; Miyake, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Satoshi; Hirota, Yoshio

    2012-05-17

    Maternal nutrition status during pregnancy may affect fetal tooth development, formation, and mineralization, and may affect dental caries susceptibility in children. We investigated the association between maternal intake of dairy products and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries. Subjects were 315 Japanese mother-child pairs. Data on maternal intake during pregnancy were assessed through a diet history questionnaire. Outcome data was collected at 41-50 months of age. Children were classified as having dental caries if one or more primary teeth had decayed or been filled. Higher maternal cheese intake during pregnancy was significantly inversely associated with the risk of dental caries in children, showing a clear inverse dose-response relationship; the adjusted odds ratio (OR) in comparison of the highest tertile with the lowest was 0.37 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17-0.76, P for trend=0.01). The inverse associations between maternal intake of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium during pregnancy and the risk of childhood dental caries were of borderline significance: the adjusted ORs for the highest tertile of total dairy products, yogurt, and calcium were 0.51 (95% CI: 0.23-1.09, P for trend=0.07), 0.51 (95% CI: 0.23-1.10, P for trend=0.07), and 0.50 (95% CI: 0.23-1.07, P for trend=0.08), respectively. There was no evident relationship between maternal milk intake and the risk of childhood dental caries. These data suggested that high intake of maternal cheese during pregnancy may reduce the risk of childhood dental caries.

  15. Prevalence of dental caries and dental care utilization in preschool urban children enrolled in a comparative-effectiveness study

    PubMed Central

    Kopycka-Kedzierawski, D T.; Billings, R J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim To assess dental caries prevalence and dental care utilization in pre-school children enrolled in urban childcare centres that participated in a comparative-effectiveness study. Study design Cross-sectional study. Methods Caries prevalence was determined in a cohort of children 12-60 months of age. Eligible children were randomized into two groups: group one received a traditional visual/tactile oral examination and group two received a Teledentistry examination. Questionnaires were administered to the children's parents/guardians to gather demographics and information about using dental and medical services. Results Of 234 children examined, approximately 28% had caries experience. The mean dfs score was 1.56 with a range of 0 to 34 carious surfaces. The mean dfs score for the children examined by means of Teledentistry was 1.75 and for the children examined by means of the traditional visual/tactile method mean dfs was 1.40; the means between the two groups were not significantly different. Twenty-six children showed evidence of being treated for dental caries. According to the parents, 31.5% of the children had never had a dental check-up before, only 3% of the children were lacking dental insurance and majority of the parents (92%) did not perceive accessing dental care for the children as a problem. Statistics The Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to assess statistical differences among groups of children. Conclusions The data show that 28% of the children had caries and, of these, 61% had never been treated for caries, thus indicating that continued efforts are needed to improve oral health care utilization by inner-city preschool children. PMID:21640057

  16. Prevalence of dental caries and dental care utilisation in preschool urban children enrolled in a comparative-effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Kopycka-Kedzierawski, D T; Billings, R J

    2011-06-01

    To assess dental caries prevalence and dental care utilisation in pre-school children enrolled in urban childcare centres that participated in a comparative effectiveness study. Cross-sectional study. Caries prevalence was determined in a cohort of children 12-60 months of age. Eligible children were randomised into two groups: group one received a traditional visual/tactile oral examination and group two received a teledentistry examination. Questionnaires were administered to the children's parents/guardians to gather demographics and information about using dental and medical services. Of 234 children examined, approximately 28% had caries experience. The mean dfs score was 1.56 with a range of 0-34 carious surfaces. The mean dfs score for the children examined by means of teledentistry was 1.75 and for the children examined by means of the traditional visual/tactile method mean dfs was 1.40; the means between the two groups were not significantly different. Twenty-six children showed evidence of being treated for dental caries. According to the parents, 31.5% of the children had never had a dental check-up before, only 3% of the children were lacking dental insurance and majority of the parents (92%) did not perceive accessing dental care for the children as a problem. The Wilcoxon Mann-Whitney test and the Kruskal-Wallis test were used to assess statistical differences among groups of children. The data showed that 28% of the children had caries and, of these, 61% had never been treated for caries, thus indicating that continued efforts are needed to improve oral health care utilisation by inner-city preschool children.

  17. Pediatric Dental Care: Prevention and Management Protocols Based on Caries Risk Assessment

    PubMed Central

    RAMOS-GOMEZ, FRANCISCO J.; CRYSTAL, YASMI O.; NG, MAN WAI; CRALL, JAMES J.; FEATHERSTONE, JOHN D.B.

    2012-01-01

    Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children, especially among minorities and the economically disadvantaged, highlight the need for early establishment of dental homes and simple, effective infant oral care preventive programs for all children as part of a medical disease prevention management model.1–3 This article presents an updated approach and practical tools for pediatric dental caries management by risk assessment, CAMBRA, in an effort to stimulate greater adoption of infant oral care programs among clinicians and early establishment of dental homes for young children. PMID:21162350

  18. Pediatric dental care: prevention and management protocols based on caries risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Ramos-Gomez, Francisco J; Crystal, Yasmi O; Ng, Man Wai; Crall, James J; Featherstone, John D B

    2010-10-01

    Recent increases in caries prevalence in young children, especially among minorities and the economically disadvantaged, highlight the need for early establishment of dental homes and simple, effective infant oral care preventive programs for all children as part of a medical disease prevention management model. This article presents an updated approach and practical tools for pediatric dental caries management by risk assessment in an effort to stimulate greater adoption of infant oral care programs among clinicians and early establishment of dental homes for young children. [corrected

  19. Maternal Dental Anxiety and its Effect on Caries Experience Among Children in Udaipur, India.

    PubMed

    Khawja, Shabnam Gulzar; Arora, Ruchi; Shah, Altaf Hussain; Wyne, Amjad Hassan; Sharma, Anshu

    2015-06-01

    Dental caries is a common oral disease among children. There are various factors that influence caries development. Parents and family environment influence oral health behaviours among children. Dental Anxiety is a common hindrance in seeking dental treatment. Mothers' dental anxiety may act as a barrier to seek professional advice about their children's caries experience. To evaluate dental anxiety among mothers and its possible relationship with caries experience in their children in Udaipur city, India. The sample was selected from those attending Darshan Dental College and Hospital, Udaipur for dental treatment. The study period was from June 2014 to November 2014. A cross-sectional survey was designed. A total of 187 mother-child pairs were recruited for the study. The children's age ranged from 3-14 years. Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS), Hindi version, was used to evaluate dental anxiety among the mothers that categorizes the dental anxiety into five levels. Demographic detail such as age, educational level, and family income was also collected. The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria was utilized for the diagnosis of dental caries in children. DMFT (Decayed, missing and filled teeth) and DMFS (Decayed, missing and filled surfaces) scores were then calculated. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 was used to interpret data. Maternal anxiety scores taken as mean MDAS were compared with various independent variables. Statistical tests were used to compare maternal anxiety and children's caries experience. A p value equal or less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Almost half (49.7%) of the mothers reported as being 'fairly anxious' or 'very anxious'. There was a significant (p=.001) difference in maternal dental anxiety level in relation to age of the children. Mothers of younger children reported higher anxiety scores. Similarly, mothers with lesser education and lesser family income reported higher

  20. Maternal Dental Anxiety and its Effect on Caries Experience Among Children in Udaipur, India

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ruchi; Shah, Altaf Hussain; Wyne, Amjad Hassan; Sharma, Anshu

    2015-01-01

    Context Dental caries is a common oral disease among children. There are various factors that influence caries development. Parents and family environment influence oral health behaviours among children. Dental Anxiety is a common hindrance in seeking dental treatment. Mothers’ dental anxiety may act as a barrier to seek professional advice about their children’s caries experience. Aim To evaluate dental anxiety among mothers and its possible relationship with caries experience in their children in Udaipur city, India Setting and Design The sample was selected from those attending Darshan Dental College and Hospital, Udaipur for dental treatment. The study period was from June 2014 to November 2014. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional survey was designed. A total of 187 mother-child pairs were recruited for the study. The children’s age ranged from 3-14 years. Modified Dental Anxiety Scale (MDAS), Hindi version, was used to evaluate dental anxiety among the mothers that categorizes the dental anxiety into five levels. Demographic detail such as age, educational level, and family income was also collected. The World Health Organization (WHO) criteria was utilized for the diagnosis of dental caries in children. DMFT (Decayed, missing and filled teeth) and DMFS (Decayed, missing and filled surfaces) scores were then calculated. Statistical Analysis Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 20.0 was used to interpret data. Maternal anxiety scores taken as mean MDAS were compared with various independent variables. Statistical tests were used to compare maternal anxiety and children’s caries experience. A p value equal or less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results Almost half (49.7%) of the mothers reported as being ‘fairly anxious’ or ‘very anxious’. There was a significant (p=.001) difference in maternal dental anxiety level in relation to age of the children. Mothers of younger children reported higher anxiety

  1. Attitudes to fluorosis and dental caries by a response latency method.

    PubMed

    Williams, D M; Chestnutt, I G; Bennett, P D; Hood, K; Lowe, R; Heard, P

    2006-04-01

    Understanding socially relevant attitudes to fluorosis and dental caries is important. Previous studies have concentrated mainly on aesthetic implications. To investigate social judgements beyond the aesthetic, made when viewing digitally manipulated extraoral images of dental fluorosis of varying degrees of severity and images of dental caries. Using a response latency technique, which allowed both the direction and strength of attitudes to be measured, 40 volunteers made judgements on 144 image/characteristic combinations. Participants made social judgements which extended beyond the aesthetic to factors such as sociability, reliability and cleanliness. Judgements on mild fluorosis were not markedly different from those made about the same individual with normal enamel, but severe fluorosis had a significant negative impact on social judgements. Untreated dental caries was judged less favourably than normal enamel and mild fluorosis. Attribution of characteristics that go beyond the aesthetic are significantly influenced by altered tooth appearance.

  2. Strategies for caries risk assessment in children and adolescents at public dental clinics in a Swedish county.

    PubMed

    Sarmadi, Roxana; Gabre, Pia; Gahnberg, Lars

    2009-03-01

    Since caries prevalence has decreased and become polarized, high-risk preventive strategies have been widely adopted. The underlying factors leading to assessment and management of caries risk are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify the factors forming the basis for dentist's caries risk assessment in dental care for children and adolescents. From all 3372 children in a Swedish county identified as at high risk for developing caries, a sample of dental records from 432 children, aged 3-19 years, were randomly selected to be analysed in the study. Information about medical and social history, dental status, dietary habits, oral hygiene, and salivary data was obtained from the records. The results show that the only data registered in the majority of the dental records were dental status from the clinical examination and bitewing radiographs. In approximately half of the dental records, medical history and data concerning oral hygiene were registered. Dental history and dietary habits were noted in approximately 25% of the dental records, whereas other risk factors/indicators were occasionally registered. Dentists mainly base their caries risk assessments on past caries experience, a reliable risk indicator for assessing the risk of being affected by caries again. In children with no experience of caries, knowledge of other risk factors/indicators needs to be available to perform a caries risk assessment. In this study, documentation of such knowledge was strongly limited.

  3. Oral Health Education Program on Dental Caries Incidence for School Children.

    PubMed

    Jaime, R A; Carvalho, T S; Bonini, G C; Imparato, Jcp; Mendes, F M

    2015-01-01

    This 3-year retrospective controlled clinical trial assessed the effect of a school-based oral health education program on caries incidence in children. A total of 240 students, aged 5 to 7 years, from two public schools in Monte Sião, Brazil, were included in this study. A school-based oral health education program was developed in one of the schools (experimental group), including 120 students, while the 120 students from the other school did not participate in the program (control group). All children were initially examined for dental caries (dmf-t), and after 3 years, 98 children from the experimental group and 96 from the control group were again examined and answered a questionnaire on oral health issues. The between-groups difference in caries incidence on permanent teeth was calculated using Poisson regression analyses. Logistic regression was used to observe the association between caries incidence and other variables. More students from the experimental group stated knowing what was dental caries and declared that they use dental floss daily, but no significant differences in caries incidence was observed between the experimental and control groups. The school-based oral health education program is not adequately efficient to decrease caries incidence after three years, but some issues about oral health knowledge could be slightly improved.

  4. Dental caries at Lapa do Santo, central-eastern Brazil: An Early Holocene archaeological site.

    PubMed

    DA-Gloria, Pedro; Oliveira, Rodrigo E; Neves, Walter A

    2017-02-06

    The origin and dispersion of the first Americans have been extensively investigated from morphological and genetic perspectives, but few studies have focused on their health and lifestyle. The archaeological site of Lapa do Santo, central-eastern Brazil, has exceptionally preserved Early Holocene human skeletons, providing 19 individuals with 327 permanent and 122 deciduous teeth dated to 9,250 to 7,500 years BP. In this study, we test whether the inhabitants of Lapa do Santo had high prevalence of dental caries as previous studies of Lagoa Santa collection have indicated, using individual and tooth as units of analyses. The results show a high prevalence of dental caries in the permanent dentition (5.50%, n=327 teeth; 69.23%, n=13 individuals) compared to other samples of hunter-gatherers worldwide. In addition, dental caries in deciduous teeth start occurring as early as 3 to 4 years old, suggesting an early start to caries. Compared with other samples from Lagoa Santa, Lapa do Santo shows statistically similar prevalence of overall caries but different caries location pattern. We believe that a subsistence adaptation to a tropical environment rich in sources of carbohydrates, such as fruits, is the best explanation for the overall caries prevalence.

  5. Maternal Depression Increases Childhood Dental Caries: A Cohort Study in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Pinto, Gabriela; de Ávila Quevedo, Luciana; Britto Correa, Marcos; Sousa Azevedo, Marina; Leão Goettems, Marília; Tavares Pinheiro, Ricardo; Demarco, Flávio Fernando

    2017-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between maternal depression and childhood caries in a cohort of adolescent mothers. This cross-sectional study nested in a cohort evaluated a sample of 538 mother/child dyads. When the children were 24-36 months of age, data regarding oral health from children and mothers were collected by clinical dental examination. A mother's major depressive disorder was assessed by using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI [Plus]), at the current moment. Independent variables were obtained by using questionnaires. The outcome on dental caries experience was dichotomized by using 2 cut points: dmfs ≥1 and dmfs ≥3. Poisson regression analysis, using a hierarchical approach, was applied to assess the association between major depressive disorder in mothers with and those without caries experience and the outcome. The prevalence of dental caries in children was 15.1% (n = 82). The mean dmfs index was 1.12 (SD = 3.72). The prevalence of major depressive disorder was 32.6% (n = 168). An interaction between caries status and depressive disorder was found, and after adjusted analysis, children from mothers with major depressive disorder with negative caries experience presented a higher caries prevalence (prevalence ratio 4.00, 95% confidence interval 1.29-12.41). Our findings suggest that maternal psychiatric disorders could have a negative impact on children's oral health. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  6. Explaining sex differences in dental caries prevalence: saliva, hormones, and "life-history" etiologies.

    PubMed

    Lukacs, John R; Largaespada, Leah L

    2006-01-01

    When dental caries rates are reported by sex, females are typically found to exhibit higher prevalence rates than males. This finding is generally true for diverse cultures with different subsistence systems and for a wide range of chronological periods. Exceptions exist, but are not common. In this paper, we present new data for sex differences in dental caries rates among the Guanches (Tenerife, Canary Islands), summarize results of meta-analyses of dental caries prevalence, and emphasize new research that stresses the critical role of female hormones and life-history events in the etiology of dental caries. Among the Guanches, corrected tooth-count caries rates for females (8.8%, 158/1,790) are approximately twice the frequency of caries among males (4.5%, 68/1,498). Higher caries prevalence among females is often explained by one of three factors: 1) earlier eruption of teeth in girls, hence longer exposure of girls' teeth to the cariogenic oral environment, 2) easier access to food supplies by women and frequent snacking during food preparation, and 3) pregnancy. Anthropologists tend to favor explanations involving behavior, including sexual division of labor and women's domestic role in food production. By contrast, the causal pathways through which pregnancy contributes to poorer oral health and higher caries rates are deemphasized or discounted. This paper presents recent research on physiological changes associated with fluctuating hormone levels during individual life histories, and the impact these changes have on the oral health of women. The biochemical composition of saliva and overall saliva flow rate are modified in several important ways by hormonal fluctuations during events such as puberty, menstruation, and pregnancy, making the oral environment significantly more cariogenic for women than for men. These results suggest that hormonal fluctuations can have a dramatic effect on the oral health of women, and constitute an important causal factor in

  7. Cone Beam Computed Tomography- An Effective Tool in Detecting Caries Under Fixed Dental Prostheses

    PubMed Central

    Gondivkar, Shailesh Madhukar; Bhoosreddy, Ajay Ramesh; Shah, Karan Rajendra; Verma, Gaurav Ravishankar; Mehrotra, Gayatri Praveen; Nerkar, Ashwini Chandrakant

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Caries under restorations is the most common reason for re-treatment and replacement in restorative failures. To avoid failures of fixed dental prostheses, it is important to diagnose caries under it earlier. Without image degradation and metal artifacts, Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) can be the solution to detect caries without removing fixed dental prostheses. Aim The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of CBCT in detecting caries under fixed dental prostheses. Materials and Methods Each specimen was scanned with CBCT for evaluation of secondary caries under fixed prostheses. Exposure parameters were 60 kVp and 3mA. Field of View (FOV) used was 8cm X 8cm. According to International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS) criteria, six Grade 6 carious extracted teeth were selected. All teeth were prepared with four different specimens - full metal, metal-ceramic, full ceramic and metal-acrylic crowns for each tooth. Each specimen was scanned by CBCT. T-test was performed for mean gray value differences between caries and noncaries regions of each material. Gray values were recorded and evaluated for different parameters using two-way analysis of variance. Results Significant differences were found with respect to material (full metal, metal-ceramic, full ceramic and metal-acrylic) and situation (caries/noncaries) (p<0.001). There were no significant differences with respect to location (anterior or posterior). Mean gray values of caries and noncaries regions were found to be different for each material. Conclusion CBCT can be used as a post-treatment diagnostic technique for detecting caries under fixed prostheses without removing it. PMID:27656548

  8. Sugar substitutes, chewing gum and dental caries--a review.

    PubMed

    Edgar, W M

    1998-01-10

    The prevalent use of chewing gum has prompted interest in its dental effects. Important defining aspects are the ability to use sugar substitutes in gum manufacture and the prolonged stimulation of a protective flow of saliva. The main sugar substitutes used are sorbitol and xylitol. Because it is not fermented by oral bacteria, xylitol is considered to be non-cariogenic, and while sorbitol in solution can be fermented slowly by mutants streptococci, chewing sorbitol-sweetened gum does not cause a fall in plaque pH. Effects of chewing sugar-free gum on the ability of plaque to form acid from sucrose are equivocal, although the tendency is for the plaque acidogenicity to be reduced with the use of xylitol gum for 2-3 weeks, due to its inhibitory effects on mutants streptococci. Gum-chewing also stimulates a protective salivary flow when used after an acidogenic stimulus, and may enhance salivary function, especially in subjects with low flow rates. Sorbitol and xylitol gums have similar beneficial effects in promoting enamel remineralisation in short-term in-situ experiments. Clinical trials indicate that xylitol gum has a useful anticaries role, superior to the effects of sorbitol gum. In conclusion, both sorbitol and xylitol chewing gums are non-cariogenic in contrast to sugared gum, and exhibit beneficial anticaries properties through salivary stimulation. In addition, xylitol's antibacterial properties seem likely to lead to caries reductions superior to the more modest reductions with sorbitol gum.

  9. Genetic polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase VI gene and dental caries susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Li, Z-Q; Hu, X-P; Zhou, J-Y; Xie, X-D; Zhang, J-M

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the role of 7 single nucleotide polymorphisms in the carbonic anhydrase (CA) VI gene (rs2274328, rs17032907, rs11576766, rs2274333, rs10864376, rs3765964, and rs6680186) and the possible association between these polymorphisms and dental caries susceptibility in a Northwestern Chinese population. We collected samples from 164 high caries experience and 191 very low caries experience and conducted a case-control study according to the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index and genotyped the 7 polymorphisms using a 384-well plate format with the Sequenom MassARRAY platform. Individuals carrying the rs17032907 TT genotype were more likely to have an increased risk of dental caries compared with carriers of the C/C genotype in the co-dominant model, with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 2.144 (1.096-4.195). We also found that the haplotype (ACA) (rs2274328, rs17032907 and rs11576766) was associated with a low number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth index with an odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of 0.635 (0.440-0.918). However, we found no association between dental caries susceptibility and the rs2274328, rs11576766, rs2274333, rs10864376, rs3765964, and rs6680186 polymorphisms and other haplotypes. The rs17032907 genetic variant and the haplotype (ACA) of CA VI may be associated with dental caries susceptibility.

  10. Genetic Association of MPPED2 and ACTN2 with Dental Caries.

    PubMed

    Stanley, B O C; Feingold, E; Cooper, M; Vanyukov, M M; Maher, B S; Slayton, R L; Willing, M C; Reis, S E; McNeil, D W; Crout, R J; Weyant, R J; Levy, S M; Vieira, A R; Marazita, M L; Shaffer, J R

    2014-07-01

    The first genome-wide association study of dental caries focused on primary teeth in children aged 3 to 12 yr and nominated several novel genes: ACTN2, EDARADD, EPHA7, LPO, MPPED2, MTR, and ZMPSTE24. Here we interrogated 156 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these candidate genes for evidence of association with dental caries experience in 13 race- and age-stratified samples from 6 independent studies (n = 3600). Analysis was performed separately for each sample, and results were combined across samples via meta-analysis. MPPED2 was significantly associated with caries via meta-analysis across the 5 childhood samples, with 4 SNPs showing significant associations after gene-wise adjustment for multiple comparisons (p < .0026). These results corroborate the previous genome-wide association study, although the functional role of MPPED2 in caries etiology remains unknown. ACTN2 also showed significant association via meta-analysis across childhood samples (p = .0014). Moreover, in adults, genetic association was observed for ACTN2 SNPs in individual samples (p < .0025), but no single SNP was significant via meta-analysis across all 8 adult samples. Given its compelling biological role in organizing ameloblasts during amelogenesis, this study strengthens the hypothesis that ACTN2 influences caries risk. Results for the other candidate genes neither proved nor precluded their associations with dental caries. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  11. Log-linear analysis of dental caries occurrence in four skeletal series.

    PubMed

    Burns, P E

    1979-11-01

    Four skeletal series (Corinth, Greece; Gran Quivira, New Mexico; Semna South, Sudanese Nubia, and a large group from scattered sites in England) were coded for sex, jaw, tooth group, dental attrition, dental caries, site and time period. Through thec concepts of a basal level of caries and a cariosity gradient, a single model was found which best described the occurrence of this disease in these samples. All factors were found to contribute significantly to the model. Within the possible subsamples the general characteristics are that the profiles of males, of the mandibulae and of those with light attrition are more likely to have lower overall dental caries levels and to be relatively more carious in the back of the mouth than the front when compared to the pooled sample of all teeth and caries. The opposite is also found to be generally true; the teeth of females, maxillae and heavy attrition are associated with more caries, especially toward the front of the mouth. These results imply that samples appearing otherwise homogeneous display much variation. They also reveal distinct regularities in the reactions of diverse human groups to dental caries.

  12. Dental Caries Level and Sugar Consumption in 12-Year-Old Children from Poland.

    PubMed

    Olczak-Kowalczyk, Dorota; Turska, Anna; Gozdowski, Dariusz; Kaczmarek, Urszula

    2016-01-01

    The frequent and high consumption of sugar products, particularly sucrose, is one of the causative factors of dental caries. Meta-analyses assessing the relationship between sugar intake and dental caries revealed that a restricted sugar intake to less than 10% of the daily energy intake results in substantial health benefits. Sugar consumption in Poland is 2-fold higher than recommended by the WHO. As change in dietary habits is slow, knowledge of whether a gradual reduction of sugar consumption influences beneficially the dental condition is important. Assessment of the relationship between caries experience and sugar consumption in 12-year-old children. The data obtained from the Statistical Agricultural Yearbooks of the Central Statistical Office in Poland regarding the average yearly sugar intake by a person in the years 1995-2013, and caries prevalence (frequency and DMFT) resulting from the national epidemiological studies of the 12-year-old children conducted by the Ministry of Health in those years were analyzed. The data was analyzed by linear regression. Regression function parameters and coefficients of determination were assessed for a possible link between sugar consumption and dental caries frequency and severity was expressed as DMFT value. The mean yearly sugar intake by a statistical Pole ranged from 43.6 kg (2002) to 35.3 kg (2006). Despite a slight trend to lower the sugar consumption, its mean intake in 1995 and 2013 was the same (41.9 kg). Caries frequency and DMFT decreased in 2012 compared to 1995 from 90.5% to 79.6% and from 4.3 to 3.53 kg in 2012, respectively. The increased sugar intake by 1 kg/year caused the increase of caries frequency by 1% and DMFT value by 0.2. Even a relatively low decrease in sugar consumption can exert some beneficial influence on the dental condition in adolescents, particularly upon the severity of caries.

  13. Association between the prevalence of dental caries in children and factors related to their mothers.

    PubMed

    Shin, B-M; Park, D-Y

    2016-12-06

    We assessed the association between the socio-economic, behavioural, psychological and oral health status factors of Korean mothers with the status of dental caries in their children using nationwide representative data from the Fourth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Children were categorized into child (CG, 6-11 years) and adolescent (AG, 12-18 years) groups. Responses from both the child and his/her mother were included in the analysis. The data for mother-child pairs were analysed using the chi-square test and multiple logistic regression of complex samples along with other covariates, including frequency of daily tooth brushing, tooth brushing before going to bed, regular dental check-up and unmet dental care needs. The prevalence of dental caries in the CG was 2.4 times higher in children with mothers having ≥1 permanent tooth caries than in those with mothers having no caries (P < 0.001). In the AG, the risk of permanent tooth caries was higher in children with mothers who received less education and experienced stress (P < 0.05), and the risk was also higher (2.4 times) in children with mothers with ≥1 active permanent tooth caries than in those whose mothers did not have caries (P < 0.001). The mothers' oral health status was significantly associated with the existence of dental caries in their children, even after adjusting for child-related variables. Strategies for promoting oral health in children and adolescents by including individual and family factors based on the sociocultural background of the country will be necessary. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Anterior tooth crowding and prevalence of dental caries in children in Szczecin, Poland.

    PubMed

    Buczkowska-Radlinska, J; Szyszka-Sommerfeld, L; Wozniak, K

    2012-06-01

    To test the effect of anterior tooth crowding on dental caries in Polish patients with primary, mixed and permanent dentition. Dental examinations based on WHO criteria and questionnaire surveys were performed on 225 children from Poland selected by stratified random sampling. The mean dmft/DMFT scores were recorded for primary, mixed and permanent dentition. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify associations between caries prevalence and other possible caries risk factors including crowding. The study population had high overall caries prevalence. Both caries prevalence and DMFT in anterior teeth of 15-19 year old adolescents with crowding were higher than in those without crowding. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with anterior caries prevalence in patients aged 15-19 years were crowding (OR 3.71) and tooth brushing twice a day or less without interdental cleaning (OR 2.15). Tooth crowding may have been associated with anterior caries experienced in children aged 15-19 years and must be taken into consideration as a caries risk indicator.

  15. High proportions of Staphylococcus epidermidis in dental caries harbor multiple classes of antibiotics resistance, significantly increase inflammatory interleukins in dental pulps.

    PubMed

    Devang Divakar, Darshan; Muzaheed; Aldeyab, Sultan Salem; Alfawaz, Sara A; AlKheraif, Abdulaziz Abdullah; Ahmed Khan, Aftab

    2017-08-01

    Staphylococcus epidermidis is one of most prevalent in dental caries or dental pulp which has the capability of horizontal genetic transfer between different bacterial species in the oropharynx, suggesting that it may evolve with the dissemination of resistant determinants, This study was performed to molecularly characterize and differentiate S. epidermidis isolated from dental caries and healthy individual. Also, two important cytokines in inflammation were assayed caused due to S. epidermidis of health and dental caries sources. Dental caries strains were more resistant with high MIC 50 and MIC 90 value. These isolates also showed the presence of mecA gene and another virulence gene i. e sea and seb comparatively more than healthy individual isolates. SCCmec types, III and IV was more prevalent in dental caries isolates where an as healthy individual was more non-typable. Additionally, the quantity of IL-1β and IL-8 caused due to dental caries isolates was seen more which indicate dental caries isolates are able to induce. This study showed that S. epidermidis a normal flora of oropharyngeal are more diverse to those strains which cause dental caries. S. epidermidis owns a prodigious genetic plasticity that permits to obtain, lose or regulate genetic elements that provide compensations to improve its colonization in the host. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dental caries and prolonged breast-feeding in 18-month-old Swedish children.

    PubMed

    Hallonsten, A L; Wendt, L K; Mejàre, I; Birkhed, D; Håkansson, C; Lindvall, A M; Edwardsson, S; Koch, G

    1995-09-01

    Three thousand children aged 18 months were screened for dental caries and ongoing breast-feeding at 46 child welfare centres in different parts of Sweden. Of these, 200 children were selected for a more comprehensive examination, involving investigation of dietary, toothbrushing and sucking habits, use of fluoride, and determination of salivary levels of mutans streptococci and lactobacilli. The children were divided into four groups: group 1: children with caries not being breast-fed; group 2: children with caries being breast-fed; group 3: caries-free children being breast-fed; group 4: caries-free gender- and age-matched reference children not being breast-fed. The results showed that 63 of the children (2.1%) had caries and 61 (2.0%) were still being breast-fed. Twelve (19.7%) of the 61 children still being breast-fed had caries compared with 51 (1.7%) of the 2939 children not being breast-fed; the difference was statistically significant. Children with caries and still being breast-fed had a mean defs of 5.3, and those with caries not being breast-fed 4.9; the difference was not statistically significant. Children with caries, irrespective of whether they were being breast-fed or not, had significantly higher numbers of cariogenic food intakes per day than caries-free children. Mutans streptococci were detected in 67% of the children and lactobacilli in 13%. Children with detectable mutans streptococci and lactobacilli had significantly more caries than those without. The results indicate that Swedish children with prolonged breast-feeding have a tendency to establish unsuitable dietary habits which constitutes a risk situation for developing caries at an early age.

  17. Risk factors for dental caries in childhood: a five-year survival analysis.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Jin-Bom; Jin, Bo-Hyoung; Paik, Dai-Il; Bae, Kwang-Hak

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the risk factors of dental caries at the level of an individual person with survival analysis of the prospective data for 5 years. A total of 249 first-grade students participated in a follow-up study for 5 years. All participants responded to a questionnaire inquiring about socio-demographic variables and oral health behaviors. They also received an oral examination and were tested for Dentocult SM and LB. Over 5 years, the participants received yearly oral follow-up examinations to determine the incidence of dental caries. The incidence of one or more dental caries (DC1) and four or more dental caries (DC4) were defined as one or more and four or more decayed, missing, and filled permanent teeth increments, respectively. Socio-demographic variables, oral health behaviors, and status and caries activity tests were assessed as risk factors for DC1 and DC4. The adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) of risk factors for DC1 and DC4 were calculated using Cox proportional hazard regression models. During the 5-year follow-up period, DC1 and DC4 occurred in 87 and 25 participants, respectively. In multivariate hazard models, five or more decayed, missing, and filled primary molar teeth [HR 1.93, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.19-3.13], and Dentocult LB of two or three (HR 2.21, 95% CI 1.37-3.56) were independent risk factors of DC1. For DC4, only Dentocult LB of two or three was an independent risk factor (HR 2.95, 95% CI 1.11-7.79). Our results suggest that dental caries incidence at an individual level can be associated with the experience of dental caries in primary teeth and Dentocult LB based on the survival models for the 5-year prospective data. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Korean Version of Child Perceptions Questionnaire and Dental Caries among Korean Children

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye-Sun; Han, Dong-Hun; Shin, Myung-Seop; Lee, Hyun-Jin; Kim, Mi-Sun; Kim, Hyun-Duck

    2015-01-01

    Although dental caries has been a major oral health problem for children, the association between dental caries and oral health related quality of life has been still controversial. This study aims to evaluate the association between the Korean version of the Child Perceptions Questionnaire (K-CPQ) and dental caries among Korean children. Eight hundred one school children aged 8 to 14 years participated in this study. After the K-CPQ was validated we performed an association study. The K-CPQ was self-reported. Dental caries were evaluated by dentists using the World Health Organization Index. Correlation analyses (intraclass correlation coefficient, Cronbach’s alpha and Pearson’s correlation coefficient [r]) and linear regression models (partial r) including age, gender and type of school were applied. Untreated deciduous dental caries was associated with the K-CPQ8-10 overall score (partial r = 0.15, P <0.05). The link was highlighted in the domains of functional limitation and emotional well-being. Filled teeth due to caries (FT) was associated with the K-CPQ11-14 overall domain (partial r = 0.14, P = 0.002) as well as with the oral symptoms domain (partial r = 0.16, P = 0.001). This association was highlighted among public school children. Our data indicate that K-CPQ was independently associated with dental caries. The K-CPQ could be a practical tool to evaluate the subjective oral health among Korean children aged 8 to 14. PMID:25675410

  19. [Serial clinical examinations as the main approach to dental caries prevention in children].

    PubMed

    Skripkina, G I; Garifullina, A Zh

    2015-01-01

    Leading scientific and organizational prerequisites for the feasibility of clinical examination of the entire child population of the Russian Federation to the dentist is, above all, the high prevalence and intensity of dental diseases in children of all ages. As a result of many years of research and follow-up of children of preschool and school age we have proved the need to distinguish a group of children with zero activity of dental caries. The referring criteria are determined according to the results of comprehensive clinical and laboratory examination in order to determine the degree of risk of dental caries and individual caries resistance. The age-specific risk group is settled by "Stop caries" software. In order to optimize the preventive activities children are divided in 5 groups for routine preventive dental care. Unfortunately the efforts of modern dental services aimed at eliminating the consequences of caries process by filling cavities. Individualized preventive approach will increase the effectiveness of preventive measures and save public funds allocated in the amount of compulsory health insurance for pediatric dentistry.

  20. A Systematic Review of Socioeconomic Indicators and Dental Caries in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Simone M.; Martins, Carolina C.; Bonfim, Maria de Lourdes C.; Zina, Lívia G.; Paiva, Saul M.; Pordeus, Isabela A.; Abreu, Mauro H. N. G.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that socioeconomic factors may be associated with an increased risk of dental caries. To provide better evidence of the association between dental caries in adults and socioeconomic indicators, we evaluated the relation between these two conditions in a thorough review of the literature. Seven databases were systematically searched: Pubmed, Cochrane, Web of Science, Bireme, Controlled Trials, Clinical Trials and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. No restrictions were placed on the language or year of publication. The search yielded 41 studies for systematic review. Two independent reviewers screened the studies for inclusion, extracted data and evaluated quality using the Newcastle-Ottawa scale. The following socioeconomic indicators were found: educational level, income, occupation, socio-economic status and the community index. These indicators were significantly associated with a greater occurrence of dental caries: the subject’s education, subject’s income, subject’s occupation and the Gini coefficient. A high degree of heterogeneity was found among the methods. Quality varied across studies. The criteria employed for socioeconomic indicators and dental caries should be standardized in future studies. The scientific evidence reveals that educational level, income, occupation and the Gini coefficient are associated with dental caries. PMID:23202762

  1. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sapna B.; Mahin-Syed-Ismail, Prabu; Varghese, Shaji; Thomas-George, Bibin; Kandathil- Thajuraj, Pathinettam; Baby, Deepak; Haleem, Shaista; Sreedhar, Sreeja

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethnomedicine is gaining admiration since years but still there is abundant medicinal flora which is unrevealed through research. The study was conducted to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for dental caries pathogens. Material and Methods Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Results Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. Aqueous extracts were effective at very high concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against both the dental caries pathogens. Conclusions Citrus sinensispeels extract was found to be effective against dental caries pathogens and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy. Key words:Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus. PMID:26855710

  2. Prevalence of enamel defects and association with dental caries in preschool children.

    PubMed

    Massignan, C; Ximenes, M; da Silva Pereira, C; Dias, L; Bolan, M; Cardoso, M

    2016-12-01

    This was to evaluate the prevalence of the developmental defects of enamel (DDE) in primary teeth and its association with dental caries. A cross-sectional study with a randomised representative sample was carried out with 1101 children aged 2-5 years enrolled in public preschools (50% prevalence of DDE in primary teeth, a standard error of 3%, and a confidence level of 95%). Three calibrated dentists (K > 0.62) performed clinical examination. Data collected were: sex, age, DDE (Modified DDE Index) and dental caries (WHO). Descriptive analysis, Chi-square test and multinomial logistic regression were applied for data analysis. Among children, 565 (51.3%) were boys; mean age was 3.7 (±0.9 years). The prevalence of enamel defect was 39.1%; the prevalence of diffuse opacities, demarcated opacities and enamel hypoplasia was 25.3, 19.1 and 6.1%, respectively. The prevalence of dental caries was 31.0%, with mean def-t 1.14 (±2.44). Primary teeth with enamel hypoplasia had three times the odds of having dental caries than those with absence of enamel defects (OR = 3.10; 95% CI: 1.91, 5.01). The presence of enamel defects was moderate and associated with dental caries.

  3. Antimicrobial effects of Citrus sinensis peel extracts against dental caries bacteria: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Sapna B; Mahin-Syed-Ismail, Prabu; Varghese, Shaji; Thomas-George, Bibin; Kandathil-Thajuraj, Pathinettam; Baby, Deepak; Haleem, Shaista; Sreedhar, Sreeja; Devang-Divakar, Darshan

    2016-02-01

    Ethnomedicine is gaining admiration since years but still there is abundant medicinal flora which is unrevealed through research. The study was conducted to assess the in vitro antimicrobial potential and also determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of Citrus sinensis peel extracts with a view of searching a novel extract as a remedy for dental caries pathogens. Aqueous and ethanol (cold and hot) extracts prepared from peel of Citrus sinensis were screened for in vitro antimicrobial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, using agar well diffusion method. The lowest concentration of every extract considered as the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were determined for both test organisms. One way ANOVA with Post Hoc Bonferroni test was applied for statistical analysis. Confidence level and level of significance were set at 95% and 5% respectively. Dental caries pathogens were inhibited most by hot ethanolic extract of Citrus sinensispeel followed by cold ethanolic extract. Aqueous extracts were effective at very high concentrations. Minimum inhibitory concentration of hot and cold ethanolic extracts of Citrus sinensis peel ranged between 12-15 mg/ml against both the dental caries pathogens. Citrus sinensispeels extract was found to be effective against dental caries pathogens and contain compounds with therapeutic potential. Nevertheless, clinical trials on the effect of these plants are essential before advocating large-scale therapy. Agar well diffusion, antimicrobial activity, dental caries, Streptococcus mutans, Lactobacillus acidophilus.

  4. Focus on Fluorides: Update on the Use of Fluoride for the Prevention of Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title: Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Background Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Methods Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Conclusions The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. PMID:24929594

  5. Focus on fluorides: update on the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Carey, Clifton M

    2014-06-01

    Improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies reduces dental caries and lowers fluoride exposure. Fluoride is delivered to the teeth systemically or topically to aid in the prevention of dental caries. Systemic fluoride from ingested sources is in blood serum and can be deposited only in teeth that are forming in children. Topical fluoride is from sources such as community water, processed foods, beverages, toothpastes, mouthrinses, gels, foams, and varnishes. The United States Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the American Dental Association (ADA) have proposed changes in their long standing recommendations for the amount of fluoride in community drinking water in response to concerns about an increasing incidence of dental fluorosis in children. Current research is focused on the development of strategies to improve fluoride efficacy. The purpose of this update is to inform the reader about new research and policies related to the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. Reviews of the current research and recent evidence based systematic reviews on the topics of fluoride are presented. Topics discussed include: updates on community water fluoridation research and policies; available fluoride in dentifrices; fluoride varnish compositions, use, and recommendations; and other fluoride containing dental products. This update provides insights into current research and discusses proposed policy changes for the use of fluoride for the prevention of dental caries. The dental profession is adjusting their recommendations for fluoride use based on current observations of the halo effect and subsequent outcomes. The research community is focused on improving the efficacy of fluoride therapies thus reducing dental caries and lowering the amount of fluoride required for efficacy. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Trehalulose does not induce dental caries in rats infected with mutans streptococci.

    PubMed

    Ooshima, T; Izumitani, A; Minami, T; Fujiwara, T; Nakajima, Y; Hamada, S

    1991-01-01

    The effects of trehalulose, a structural isomer of sucrose, and a syrup (TP syrup) rich in trehalulose and palatinose on caries development were examined in specific pathogen-free Sprague-Dawley rats. Streptococcus mutans MT8148R and Streptococcus sobrinus 6715 fermented the syrup which resulted in acid production, while both strains were found not to utilize trehalulose. Furthermore, trehalulose did not serve as a substrate for glucosyltransferases of these mutans streptococci to synthesize water-insoluble glucan, and it inhibited the sucrose-dependent adherence of mutans streptococci to a glass surface. Although trehalulose induced no significant dental caries in specific pathogen-free rats infected with either MT8148R or 6715, TP syrup was found to induce significant but low dental caries. Furthermore, replacement of the dietary sucrose content with trehalulose resulted in a significant reduction of caries development in rats infected with strain 6715.

  7. Therapeutic effect of llama derived VHH fragments against Streptococcus mutans on the development of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Carina; Hultberg, Anna; Marcotte, Harold; Hermans, Pim; Bezemer, Sandra; Frenken, Leon G J; Hammarström, Lennart

    2006-10-01

    Streptococcus mutans is the main cause of dental caries. We evaluated the therapeutic effect of variable regions of a llama heavy chain antibody fragments directed against S. mutans named S36-VHH (S for Streptococcus) alone or fused with glucose oxidase (GOx) from Aspergillus niger. Western blot analysis and ELISA revealed binding of the S36-VHH to the streptococcal antigen I/II adhesin molecule of S. mutans serotype C. In a rat-desalivated caries model, daily administration of S36-VHH significantly reduced the development of smooth surface caries. No additional therapeutic effect of GOx was observed. Our results suggest that llama VHH antibodies may be a potential benefit as prophylaxis against dental caries.

  8. Sugary drink consumption and dental caries in New South Wales teenagers.

    PubMed

    Skinner, J; Byun, R; Blinkhorn, A; Johnson, G

    2015-06-01

    The consumption of water, milk and various sugary drinks and their relationship with the caries experience of a random sample of teenagers aged 14 to 15 years living in New South Wales, Australia was investigated. Data were obtained from both clinical and questionnaire components of the NSW Teen Dental Survey, 2010. The analyses allowed for various demographic and behavioural risk factors using caries experience (DMFT >0) and mean DMFT as the key outcome variables. Males were more likely than females to consume large volumes of sugary drinks. Consuming two or more glasses of sugary drinks per day led to significantly increased caries experience amongst this sample of 14 and 15 year olds. Factors found to be associated with elevated sugary drink consumption included family income, gender, and mother's education level. There is a strong correlation between increased caries experience of NSW teenagers and high levels of consumption of sugary drinks. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  9. Clinical trial for detection of dental caries using laser-induced fluorescence ratio reference standard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Shiny Sara; Mohanty, Soumyakant; Jayanthi, J. L.; Varughese, Jolly Mary; Balan, Anitha; Subhash, Narayanan

    2010-03-01

    We present the clinical applicability of fluorescence ratio reference standard (FRRS) to discriminate different stages of dental caries. Toward this, laser-induced autofluorescence emission spectra are recorded in vivo in the 400- to 800-nm spectral range on a miniature fiber optic spectrometer from 65 patients, with a 404-nm diode laser as the excitation source. Autofluorescence spectra of sound teeth consist of a broad emission at 500 nm that is typical of natural enamel, whereas in caries teeth additional peaks are seen at 635 and 680 nm due to emission from porphyrin compounds in oral bacteria. Scatter plots are developed to differentiate sound teeth from enamel caries, sound teeth from dentinal caries, and enamel caries from dentinal caries using the mean fluorescence intensity (FI) and ratios F500/F635 and F500/F680 measured from 25 sites of sound teeth and 65 sites of carious teeth. The sensitivity and specificity of both the FI and FRRS are determined. It is observed that a diagnostic algorithm based on FRRS scatter plots is able to discriminate enamel caries from sound teeth, dentinal caries from sound teeth, and enamel from dentinal caries with overall sensitivities of 85, 100, and 88% and specificities of 90, 100, and 77%, respectively.

  10. Microbiomes of Site-Specific Dental Plaques from Children with Different Caries Status.

    PubMed

    Richards, Vincent P; Alvarez, Andres J; Luce, Amy R; Bedenbaugh, Molly; Mitchell, Mary Lyn; Burne, Robert A; Nascimento, Marcelle M

    2017-08-01

    The oral microbiota associated with the initiation and progression of dental caries has yet to be fully characterized. The Human Oral Microbe Identification Using Next-Generation Sequencing (HOMINGS) approach was used to analyze the microbiomes of site-specific supragingival dental plaques from children with different caries status. Fifty-five children (2 to 7 years of age) were assessed at baseline and at 12 months and grouped as caries free (CF), caries active with enamel lesions (CAE), and caries active with dentin carious lesions (CA). Plaque samples from caries-free tooth surfaces (PF) and from enamel carious lesions (PE) and dentin carious lesions (PD) were collected. 16S community profiles were obtained by HOMINGS, and 408 bacterial species and 84 genus probes were assigned. Plaque bacterial communities showed temporal stability, as there was no significant difference in beta diversity values between the baseline and 12-month samples. Irrespective of collection time points, the microbiomes of healthy tooth surfaces differed substantially from those found during caries activity. All pairwise comparisons of beta diversity values between groups were significantly different (P < 0.05), except for comparisons between the CA-PF, CAE-PE, and CA-PE groups. Streptococcus genus probe 4 and Neisseria genus probe 2 were the most frequently detected taxa across the plaque groups, followed by Streptococcus sanguinis, which was highly abundant in CF-PF. Well-known acidogenic/aciduric species such as Streptococcus mutans, Scardovia wiggsiae, Parascardovia denticolens, and Lactobacillus salivarius were found almost exclusively in CA-PD. The microbiomes of supragingival dental plaque differ substantially among tooth surfaces and children of different caries activities. In support of the ecological nature of caries etiology, a steady transition in community species composition was observed with disease progression. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Early Childhood Dental Caries, Mouth Pain, and Malnutrition in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region

    PubMed Central

    So, Marvin; Ellenikiotis, Yianni A.; Husby, Hannah M.; Paz, Cecilia Leonor; Seymour, Brittany; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Malnutrition and dental caries in early childhood remain persistent and intertwined global health challenges, particularly for indigenous and geographically-remote populations. To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the oral health and nutrition status of 1407 children from birth through age 6 in the “Alli Kiru” program (2011–2013). We used multivariate regression analysis to examine relationships between severe caries, parent-reported mouth pain measures, and nutritional status. The prevalence of dental caries was 65.4%, with 44.7% of children having deep or severe caries, and 33.8% reporting mouth pain. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) increased dramatically with age. Malnutrition was prevalent, with 35.9% of children stunted, 1.1% wasted, 7.4% underweight, and 6.8% overweight. As mouth pain increased in frequency, odds for severe caries increased. For each unit increase in mouth pain frequency interfering with sleeping, children had increased odds for being underweight (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02–1.54) and decreased odds for being overweight (AOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58–0.97). This relationship was most pronounced among 3–6 year-olds. Early childhood caries, mouth pain and malnutrition were prevalent in this sample of young children. Parent-reported mouth pain was associated with severe caries, and mouth pain interfering with sleeping was predictive of poor nutritional status. We demonstrate the utility of a parsimonious parent-reported measure of mouth pain to predict young children’s risk for severe early childhood caries and malnutrition, which has implications for community health interventions. PMID:28531148

  12. Early Childhood Dental Caries, Mouth Pain, and Malnutrition in the Ecuadorian Amazon Region.

    PubMed

    So, Marvin; Ellenikiotis, Yianni A; Husby, Hannah M; Paz, Cecilia Leonor; Seymour, Brittany; Sokal-Gutierrez, Karen

    2017-05-22

    Malnutrition and dental caries in early childhood remain persistent and intertwined global health challenges, particularly for indigenous and geographically-remote populations. To examine the prevalence and associations between early childhood dental caries, parent-reported mouth pain and malnutrition in the Amazonian region of Ecuador, we conducted a cross-sectional study of the oral health and nutrition status of 1407 children from birth through age 6 in the "Alli Kiru" program (2011-2013). We used multivariate regression analysis to examine relationships between severe caries, parent-reported mouth pain measures, and nutritional status. The prevalence of dental caries was 65.4%, with 44.7% of children having deep or severe caries, and 33.8% reporting mouth pain. The number of decayed, missing and filled teeth (dmft) increased dramatically with age. Malnutrition was prevalent, with 35.9% of children stunted, 1.1% wasted, 7.4% underweight, and 6.8% overweight. As mouth pain increased in frequency, odds for severe caries increased. For each unit increase in mouth pain frequency interfering with sleeping, children had increased odds for being underweight (Adjusted Odds Ratio (AOR): 1.27; 95% CI: 1.02-1.54) and decreased odds for being overweight (AOR: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.58-0.97). This relationship was most pronounced among 3-6 year-olds. Early childhood caries, mouth pain and malnutrition were prevalent in this sample of young children. Parent-reported mouth pain was associated with severe caries, and mouth pain interfering with sleeping was predictive of poor nutritional status. We demonstrate the utility of a parsimonious parent-reported measure of mouth pain to predict young children's risk for severe early childhood caries and malnutrition, which has implications for community health interventions.

  13. Is treatment under general anaesthesia associated with dental neglect and dental disability among caries active preschool children?

    PubMed

    Kvist, T; Zedrén-Sunemo, J; Graca, E; Dahllöf, G

    2014-10-01

    To study if treatment under general anaesthesia (GA) is associated with dental neglect or dental disability. This was a retrospective study. Dental records of all children in the age 0-6 years who underwent GA at a specialist paediatric dentistry clinic during 2006-2011 were studied with regard to decayed-missed-filled teeth, traumatic injuries, emergency visits, behaviour management problems and the history of attendance. The final sample consisted of 134 children. Matched controls were selected among recall patients who had not received treatment under GA. Fishers exact test or Pearson Chi-square test analysed response distribution and comparisons between groups, and for multivariate analyses, logistic regression was used. The results show that children treated under GA had significantly higher caries prevalence, apical periodontitis and infections due to pulpal necrosis. Dental neglect as well as dental disability was significantly more prevalent in the GA group compared to the control group. In a multivariate analysis with dental neglect as independent factor, dental disability was the only significant factor (p = 0.006). Children treated under general anaesthesia were significantly more often diagnosed with both dental neglect and dental disability. Dental disability was the only factor significantly related to dental neglect. There is a need for improved documentation in the dental records to better identify dental neglect and dental disability, and also a continued training of dentists regarding child protection.

  14. Socio-behavioral factors influence prevalence and severity of dental caries in children with primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Borges, Heloisa Carvalho; Garbín, Cléa Adas Saliba; Saliba, Orlando; Saliba, Nemre Adas; Moimaz, Suzely Adas Saliba

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of socio-behavioral variables on the prevalence and severity of dental caries in 4- to 6-year-old children. A cross-sectional study was performed on a sample of 1993 children enrolled in 58 public preschools from Araçatuba City, São Paulo State, Brazil, during 2010. The exams were made using the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index (World Health Organization methodology) and detection criteria for non-cavitated lesions. A tested, self-administered questionnaire was sent to parents to obtain information about their socio-behavioral characteristics. Standardization was performed to verify concordance among examiners (kappa = 0.84). The prevalence of cavitated caries lesions was 41.2% (821), and the prevalence of both, cavitated and non-cavitated caries lesions, was 43.9% (875). The means ± standard deviations of the decayed, missing, and filled teeth index for children aged 4, 5, and 6 years were 1.18 ± 2.45, 1.65 ± 2.67, and 1.73 ± 2.77, respectively. Caries were significantly more prevalent in children from families with low incomes and low educational levels. The presence of dental caries was associated with access to dental services (p < 0.05). The associations between both, cavitated and non-cavitated dental caries lesions, and the frequency of oral hygiene were statistically significant. The prevalence of dental caries in preschoolers was strongly associated with factors related to the children's parents. Therefore, information about parents' socio-economic status, behaviors, and attitudes in relation to oral health should be considered when planning prevention and educational programs for the oral health of preschool children.

  15. Determinant Factors of Untreated Dental Caries and Lesion Activity in Preschool Children Using ICDAS

    PubMed Central

    Pinto-Sarmento, Tássia Cristina de Almeida; Abreu, Mauro Henrique; Gomes, Monalisa Cesarino; Costa, Edja Maria Melo de Brito; Martins, Carolina Castro; Granville-Garcia, Ana Flávia; Paiva, Saul Martins

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate determinant factors associated with the presence of dental caries and lesion activity in preschool children. A population-based, cross-sectional study was carried out with 843 children of aged three to five years enrolled at public and private preschools in the city of Campina Grande, Brazil. A questionnaire addressing socio-demographic data and oral health care was self-administered by parents/caregivers. Three dentists previously calibrated examined the children for the diagnosis of dental caries and lesion activity using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Nutritional status was evaluated based on the body mass index. Logistic regression analysis for complex samples was performed (α = 5%). The prevalence of dental caries was 66.3%. Among the children with caries, 88.0% had active lesions. Dental caries was more prevalent in girls (OR = 1.53, 95%CI: 1.05–2.23), in children from families with a monthly household income ≤US$312.50 (OR = 2.38, 95%CI: 1.65–3.43) and those whose mothers had up to eight years of schooling (OR = 1.55, 95%CI: 1.07–2.23). Lesion activity was significantly associated with mother’s schooling ≤ 8 years (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.15–4.00). The prevalence rates of dental caries and lesion activity were high and mainly associated with a lower socioeconomic status and mother’s schooling. PMID:26900846

  16. Dental caries in the primary dentition of german children with cleft lip, alveolus, and palate.

    PubMed

    Kirchberg, Anja; Makuch, Almut; Hemprich, Alexander; Hirsch, Christian

    2014-05-01

    Objective : The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of dental caries in children with cleft lip, alveolus, and/or cleft palate living in central Germany between 1996 and 2010. Participants : A total of 295 children 1 to 6 years of age from three birth cohorts (BC) with clefts from central Germany were included in the study. They were compared with 548 1- to 6-year-old cleft-free children from the same region. Setting : Children with clefts underwent a dental examination in an outpatient dental clinic at the University of Leipzig. The first BC was examined between 1996 and 1998, the second between 2002 and 2004, and the third between 2008 and 2010. Controls were examined at day-care centers in Leipzig during the same periods. Main Outcome Measure : The standard dental caries index for the primary dentition (dmf/t3-4) was used for clinical assessment. Results : Over the entire study period, the mean prevalence of dental caries in deciduous teeth was significantly higher (1.32 dmf/t3-4) in children with clefts compared with cleft-free children. However, a decline in caries (approximately 1 dmf/t3-4) and an increase in the proportion of children with healthy primary dentition were observed in both groups. These results represent a caries decline of 61% in children with clefts. Conclusions : Caries rates for children 1 to 6 years of age with clefts from central Germany showed a considerable decline over the last years. The caries rates for clefts patients in the third BC (2008 to 2010) was similar to that of cleft-free children in the first BC (1996 to 1998).

  17. Gender differences in practice patterns for diagnosis and treatment of dental caries: Findings from The Dental PBRN

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Joseph L.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Rouisse, Kathleen M.; McClelland, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives A number of articles have addressed gender differences in the productivity of dentists, but little is known about differences in practice patterns for caries management. This study compared the use of a comprehensive range of specific diagnostic methods, preventive agents, and restorative decision making for caries management between male and female dentists who were members of The Dental Practice-Based Research Network(DPBRN). Methods This study surveyed general dentists who were members of DPBRN and who practiced within the United States. The survey asked about dentist, practice, and patient characteristics, as well as prevention, assessment, and treatment of dental caries. Differences in years since dental school graduation, practice model, full/part-time status, and practice owner/employee were adjusted in the statistical models, before making conclusions about gender differences. Results Three hundred ninety-three male (84%) and seventy-three female (16%) dentists participated. Female dentists recommended at-home fluoride to a significantly larger proportion of their patients, whereas males had a preference for using in-office fluoride treatments with pediatric patients. Female dentists also choose to restore interproximal lesions at a significantly later stage of development, preferring to use preventive therapy more often at earlier stages of dental caries. There were few differences in diagnostic methods, time spent on or charges for restorative dentistry, and busyness of their practices. Conclusion DPBRN female dentists differ from their male counterparts in some aspects of the prevention, assessment, and treatment of dental caries, even with significant covariates taken into account. Practice patterns of female dentists suggest a greater caries preventive treatment philosophy. PMID:21454850

  18. Dental Caries and its Socio-Behavioral Predictors- An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Santhosh; Tadakamadla, Jyothi; Duraiswamy, Prabu; Kulkarni, Suhas

    To assess dental caries status and oral health related behavior of 12 year old school children in relation to urbanization and gender; to analyze the effect of socio-demographic and behavioral variables on dental caries experience. Study sample comprised 831, 12 year old school children in, India. Caries status was assessed by Decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT) index and a 16 item closed ended questionnaire was administered to children for assessing their oral health related knowledge, beliefs and behavior. Mean caries experience and prevalence was 1.94 and 64.9% respectively. Decay was the dominant component of DMFT. Greater proportion of female and urban children presented better oral health knowledge, beliefs and practices. Boys were more liable (OR=1.2, 95% CI=1.10-1.96) for having caries than girls. Children living in rural areas and whose parents were not professionals or semiprofessionals were more likely to experience caries. Children whose mothers were unskilled or house wives were more than twice likely to present caries (OR=2.14, 95% CI-2.03-2.45) than those children whose mothers were skilled or semi-skilled. Children of illiterate fathers and mothers were 1.09 (95% CI, 1.02-1.49) and 1.98 (95% CI, 1.13-1.99) times more likely to have dental caries than those children whose parents had greater than 10 years of education. Children, those who cleaned their teeth less than once a day presented an odds ratio of 1.36 (CI-1.17-1.86) also higher odds of dental caries was observed in children consuming sweets or soft drinks more than once a day. The prevalence and severity of dental caries was low among urban children and girls than their rural and boy counterparts. In general, oral health knowledge, beliefs and practices were low, predominantly in rural and male children. Caries experience was significantly associated with gender, location of residence, brushing frequency, frequency of consumption of soft drinks and sweets, parents' occupation and education.

  19. Association of ENAM gene single nucleotide polymorphisms with dental caries in Polish children.

    PubMed

    Gerreth, Karolina; Zaorska, Katarzyna; Zabel, Maciej; Borysewicz-Lewicka, Maria; Nowicki, Michal

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this study was to prove the association between dental caries and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the ENAM gene. The research was carried out in 96 children (48 with caries and 48 counterparts free of this disease), aged 20-42 months, with 11-20 erupted teeth. All children were from four day nurseries located in Poznan. The study included the dental examination to select individuals to the research and oral swab collection for molecular evaluation. Seven selected SNPs markers of the ENAM gene were genotyped, five using TaqMan probe assay (rs2609428, rs7671281, rs36064169, rs3796704, and rs12640848) and two by Sanger sequencing (rs144929717 and rs139228330). Statistically significant higher prevalence of the alternative G allele and the alternative GG homozygote in the control group in comparison with the caries group in SNP rs12640848 was observed, respectively, p = 0.0062 and 0.0010. Although the prevalence of the AG heterozygote was higher for the caries subjects in comparison with controls (OR = 2.9), and the result was statistically significant (p = 0.0010), the overall prevalence of the G allele for this SNP was significantly higher in control group (OR = 2.3; p = 0.0062). The study revealed the strong association between rs12640848 marker of ENAM gene and caries susceptibility in primary teeth in children from Poznan. The presence of SNPs in the ENAM gene may be important as suspected predictive factor of dental caries occurrence in children.

  20. Genetic Association of MPPED2 and ACTN2 with Dental Caries

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, B.O.C.; Feingold, E.; Cooper, M.; Vanyukov, M.M.; Maher, B.S.; Slayton, R.L.; Willing, M.C.; Reis, S.E.; McNeil, D.W.; Crout, R.J.; Weyant, R.J.; Levy, S.M.; Vieira, A.R.; Marazita, M.L.; Shaffer, J.R.

    2014-01-01

    The first genome-wide association study of dental caries focused on primary teeth in children aged 3 to 12 yr and nominated several novel genes: ACTN2, EDARADD, EPHA7, LPO, MPPED2, MTR, and ZMPSTE24. Here we interrogated 156 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within these candidate genes for evidence of association with dental caries experience in 13 race- and age-stratified samples from 6 independent studies (n = 3600). Analysis was performed separately for each sample, and results were combined across samples via meta-analysis. MPPED2 was significantly associated with caries via meta-analysis across the 5 childhood samples, with 4 SNPs showing significant associations after gene-wise adjustment for multiple comparisons (p < .0026). These results corroborate the previous genome-wide association study, although the functional role of MPPED2 in caries etiology remains unknown. ACTN2 also showed significant association via meta-analysis across childhood samples (p = .0014). Moreover, in adults, genetic association was observed for ACTN2 SNPs in individual samples (p < .0025), but no single SNP was significant via meta-analysis across all 8 adult samples. Given its compelling biological role in organizing ameloblasts during amelogenesis, this study strengthens the hypothesis that ACTN2 influences caries risk. Results for the other candidate genes neither proved nor precluded their associations with dental caries. PMID:24810274

  1. Pyrosequencing analysis of oral microbiota in children with severe early childhood dental caries.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Wen; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Hui

    2013-11-01

    Severe early childhood caries are a prevalent public health problem among preschool children throughout the world. However, little is known about the microbiota found in association with severe early childhood caries. Our study aimed to explore the bacterial microbiota of dental plaques to study the etiology of severe early childhood caries through pyrosequencing analysis based on 16S rRNA gene V1-V3 hypervariable regions. Forty participants were enrolled in the study, and we obtained twenty samples of supragingival plaque from caries-free subjects and twenty samples from subjects with severe early childhood caries. A total of 175,918 reads met the quality control standards, and the bacteria found belonged to fourteen phyla and sixty-three genera. Our results show the overall structure and microbial composition of oral bacterial communities, and they suggest that these bacteria may present a core microbiome in the dental plaque microbiota. Three genera, Streptococcus, Granulicatella, and Actinomyces, were increased significantly in children with severe dental cavities. These data may facilitate improvements in the prevention and treatment of severe early childhood caries.

  2. Relationship between obesity/overweight status, sugar consumption and dental caries among adolescents in South India.

    PubMed

    Honne, T; Pentapati, K; Kumar, N; Acharya, S

    2012-11-01

    To evaluate the relationship between obesity/overweight status, sugar consumption and dental caries among adolescents in Udupi District, India. Study population consisted of 463 school children aged between 13 and 15 years. Information on age, sex, type of school attending and frequency of sugar consumption per day was recorded by a structured self-administered questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI) (height in metres and weight in kilograms) and caries measurements (DMFT) were taken by a trained recorder according to standard criteria. Majority of the children were having low normal weight, with 18.6% in overweight and 3.5% in obese groups. There was a significant difference in the frequency of sugar consumption between the BMI groups. Obese group of children had more caries than the overweight and low-normal-weight children. Correlation analysis showed significant positive relation with BMI, decayed teeth and DMFT. Regression analysis showed that caries experience had a significant association with male sex (OR = 2.09, CI = 1.01-4.33), overweight/obese (OR = 3.68, CI = 1.79-7.56) and frequency of sugar consumption more than once per day (OR = 3.13, CI = 1.25-7.85). There was a significant association between overweight/obesity and caries experience among school children of Udupi District. Obesity and dental caries have common risk determinants and require a comprehensive multidisciplinary approach to paediatric patients by both medical and dental healthcare professionals. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  3. Prevention and reversal of dental caries: role of low level fluoride.

    PubMed

    Featherstone, J D

    1999-02-01

    Dental caries is a bacterially based disease that progresses when acid produced by bacterial action on dietary fermentable carbohydrates diffuses into the tooth and dissolves the mineral, that is, demineralization. Pathological factors including acidogenic bacteria (mutans streptococci and lactobacilli), salivary dysfunction, and dietary carbohydrates are related to caries progression. Protective factors which include salivary calcium, phosphate and proteins, salivary flow, and fluoride in saliva can balance, prevent or reverse dental caries. Fluoride works primarily via topical mechanisms which include (1) inhibition of demineralization at the crystal surfaces inside the tooth, (2) enhancement of remineralization at the crystal surfaces (the resulting remineralized layer is very resistant to acid attack), and (3) inhibition of bacterial enzymes. Fluoride in drinking water and in fluoride-containing products reduces tooth decay via these mechanisms. Low but slightly elevated levels of fluoride in saliva and plaque provided from these sources help prevent and reverse caries by inhibiting demineralization and enhancing remineralization. The level of fluoride incorporated into dental mineral by systemic ingestion is insufficient to play a significant role in caries prevention. The effect of systemically ingested fluoride on caries is minimal. Fluoride "supplements" can be best used as a topical delivery system by sucking or chewing tablets or lozenges prior to ingestion.

  4. Use of laser fluorescence for the early detection of dental caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stookey, George K.; Analoui, Mostafa

    1998-04-01

    Dental caries continues to be the most prevalent oral disease in spite of remarkable progress made during the past half- century to reduce its prevalence. Conventional procedures for caries detection are unable to detect the lesions until they are well advanced and involve about one-third of the thickness of enamel. Laboratory research on alternative caries detection methods based upon alterations in the conductance and optical properties associated with enamel demineralization has shown significant promise in recent years. Of these alternative measures, quantitative laser/light fluorescence appears to show the greatest promise for the detection of dental caries at a much earlier stage of development than is currently possible. A clinical trial was initiated in 150 children to evaluate, compare and validate several caries detection methods; in addition to the conventional diagnostic procedure, these detection methods involved quantitative light fluorescence, electrical conductivity, and direct digital radiography. Although the clinical trial is not yet complete, early results suggest the possibility for the earlier detection of dental caries with these alternative methods.

  5. Long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience among British adults: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Aldossary, Arwa; Harrison, Victoria E; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-02-01

    There is inconclusive evidence on the value of regular dental attendance. This study explored the relationship between long-term patterns of dental attendance and caries experience. We used retrospective data from 3,235 adults, ≥ 16 yrs of age, who participated in the Adult Dental Health Survey in the UK. Participants were classified into four groups (always, current, former, and never regular-attenders) based on their responses to three questions on lifetime dental-attendance patterns. The association between dental-attendance patterns and caries experience, as measured using the decayed, missing, or filled teeth (DMFT) index, was tested in negative binomial regression models, adjusting for demographic (sex, age, and country of residence) and socio-economic (educational attainment, household income, and social class) factors. A consistent pattern of association between long-term dental attendance and caries experience was found in adjusted models. Former and never regular-attenders had a significantly higher DMFT score and numbers of decayed and missing teeth, but fewer filled teeth, than always regular-attenders. No differences in DMFT or its components were found between current and always regular-attenders. The findings of this study show that adults with different lifetime trajectories of dental attendance had different dental statuses.

  6. Dental caries development among African-American children: results from a 4-year longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sungwoo; Tellez, Marisol; Ismail, Amid I.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine dental caries development and caries risk factors among preschool African-American children from low-income families in Detroit, Michigan over a four- year window. Methods Data came from a representative sample of 1,021 children (zero to five years) and their caregivers in Detroit. The baseline participants in 2002–03 (W1) were reexamined in 2004–05 (W2) and 2007 (W3). Caries was measured using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Bivariate and multivariate analyses for repeated data were conducted to explore associations between caries increment outcomes and demographics, access to dental care, oral health-related behaviors, and social and physical environments. Results The mean number of new NCCL (non-cavitated caries lesions) was 2.8 between W1 and W2 and 2.6 between W2 and W3, while the mean number of new CCL (cavitated caries lesions) was 2.0 and 2.0, respectively, during the same time periods. In younger children (< three years old in W1) higher number of new NCCL than new CCL were observed in both W1–W2 and W2–W3. The risk of new NCCL was associated with child’s soda intake and caregiver’s age. For the risk of new CCL, significant risk factors included baseline NCCL, baseline CCL, as well as child’s age. Baseline caries and child’s soda intake were also associated with the risk of developing new decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces. Conclusions Higher number of new NCCL relative to CCL was developed among low-income Africa-American children during early childhood. New caries development was associated with baseline caries and child’s soda intake. PMID:25441657

  7. Effect and acceptance of silver diamine fluoride treatment on dental caries in primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Clemens, Jennifer; Gold, Jaana; Chaffin, Jeffrey

    2017-07-27

    Silver diamine fluoride (SDF) treatment has been identified as a potential solution to address the dental public health issues of untreated dental caries and insufficient access to care. The current study assessed the effectiveness of 38 percent SDF in arresting active dental caries lesions and in reducing or preventing associated dental pain and infections in young, at-risk children. We enrolled 32 children aged 2-5 years with 118 active caries lesions in primary teeth from a community dental clinic in Oregon. After baseline examinations, carious lesions were treated with 1-2 applications of 38 percent SDF. Children were re-evaluated at 3-week and 3-month recalls to assess color and consistency changes in lesions (soft/hard). Parents were interviewed regarding symptoms of pain or infection and were surveyed regarding subjective feelings about SDF. Of 102 lesions (16 excluded from analyses), 100 were found to be arrested at first recall and all at second recall. The duration of SDF application was not associated with arrest of decay (P = 0.68). No incidence of pain or infection of an SDF-treated tooth was recorded. Parental impression of ease of application, taste, and esthetics was favorable. Our results suggested SDF was effective in arresting active caries lesions in primary teeth in young children and was well accepted by parents. SDF offers an easy and highly efficient nonsurgical alternative treatment to traditional restorative dental treatment in young children, and it has great potential to aid the dental public health community to address dental caries in at-risk populations. © 2017 American Association of Public Health Dentistry.

  8. Oral Lactobacilli and Dental Caries: A Model for Niche Adaptation in Humans.

    PubMed

    Caufield, P W; Schön, C N; Saraithong, P; Li, Y; Argimón, S

    2015-09-01

    Lactobacilli have been associated with dental caries for over a century. Here, we review the pertinent literature along with findings from our own study to formulate a working hypothesis about the natural history and role of lactobacilli. Unlike most indigenous microbes that stably colonize a host, lactobacilli appear to be planktonic, opportunistic settlers that can gather and multiply only in certain restrictive niches of the host, at least within the oral cavity. We postulate that the following essential requirements are necessary for sustained colonization of lactobacilli in humans: 1) a stagnant, retentive niche that is mostly anaerobic; 2) a low pH milieu; and 3) ready access to carbohydrates. Three sites on the human body meet these specifications: caries lesions, the stomach, and the vagina. Only a handful of Lactobacillus species is found in caries lesions, but they are largely absent in caries-free children. Lactobacilli present in caries lesions represent both a major contributor to caries progression and a major reservoir to the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. We extend the assertion from other investigators that lactobacilli found in the GI tract originate in the oral cavity by proposing that lactobacilli in the oral cavity arise from caries lesions. This, in turn, leads us to reflect on the health implications of the lactobacilli in the mouth and downstream GI and to ponder whether these or any of the Lactobacillus species are truly indigenous to the human GI tract or the oral cavity. © International & American Associations for Dental Research.

  9. Caries risk profile of Korean dental patients with severe intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Chang, Juhea; Lee, Jung-Hyun; Son, Ho-Hyun; Kim, Hae-Young

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the caries risk profile of patients with severe intellectual disabilities (IDs) who received dental treatment under general anesthesia. One hundred and two patients with ID [ID group, mean age (SD); 23.8(9.3)] and 100 healthy patients without ID [NID group, mean age (SD); 23.19(3.3)] were included. Medication, disability type, oral hygiene maintenance, and cooperation of the patients were investigated. Dietary habits, plaque index, mutans streptococci counts, fluoride availability, and salivary buffering were scored and analyzed using the Cariogram. The mean chance of avoiding caries (SD) was 28.1(20.4) in the ID group and 54.7(18.4) in the NID group. The ID group had significantly higher numbers of decayed and missing teeth, but fewer filled teeth than the NID group (p < .05). Significant disparities existed in the distributions of all caries-related factors except for mutans streptococci counts between the two groups (p < .05). The low chance to avoid future caries in ID patients was closely associated with insufficient oral hygiene maintenance (p < .05). Fluoride availability was strongly associated with the chance of avoiding caries in the ID group. Dental patients with severe ID exhibited a higher risk of developing caries than normal patients. Among several caries-related factors, insufficient oral hygiene maintenance and low fluoride availability most contributed to the high risk. © 2014 Special Care Dentistry Association and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Prevalence, Severity and Related Factors of Dental Caries in School Going Children of Vadodara City – An Epidemiological Study

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Niyanta; Sujan, SG; Joshi, Keyur; Parekh, Harshik; Dave, Bhavna

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Among dental diseases, dental caries is an important dental public health problem in India which is irreversible in nature, and is predominantly a disease of childhood. Till date no study has been carried out in Vadodara. As baseline data of caries is required to improve oral health of children, the present study was undertaken to determine the pattern of dental caries in school children of Vadodara city in the mixed dentition period considering age, sex and dietary patterns. Methods: An epidemiological cross sectional descriptive study was carried out among 1600 school children aged 6-12 years in Vadodara city. A closed ended questionnaire according to World Health Organisation 1997 methodology was used to collect the data. The children were examined for the presence of dental caries using decayed missing filled teeth/decayed missing filled surfaces and Decayed Missing Filled Teeth/Decayed Missing Filled Surfaces index. Related factors which predispose caries such as age, sex and dietary patterns were recorded. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 69.12%. The mean dmft/dmfs and DMFT/DMFS were 3.00/4.79 and 0.45/0.56 respectively. The prevalence was higher in deciduous teeth than in permanent teeth. Positive association was found between dental caries and age, sex, frequency of sugar consumption in between meals. Conclusion: The study concludes that the prevalence and severity of dental caries in Vadodara city is high. So, in developing country like India, it is imperative to introduce primary prevention and increased restorative care for the purpose of both reducing the caries prevalence and maintaining those caries free children. How to cite this article: Joshi N, Sujan SG, Joshi K, Parekh H, Dave B. Prevalence, Severity and Related Factors of Dental Caries in School Going Children of Vadodara City – An Epidemiological Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(4):40-48. PMID:24155618

  11. Association between black stains and dental caries in primary teeth: findings from a Brazilian population-based birth cohort.

    PubMed

    França-Pinto, C C; Cenci, M S; Correa, M B; Romano, A R; Peres, M A; Peres, K G; Matijasevich, A; Santos, I S; Barros, A J D; Demarco, F F

    2012-01-01

    Lower dental caries experience has been observed in children and teenagers with the presence of black stains on dental structures. However, none of the previous investigations were population-based studies or adjusted the analysis for potential confounders. This study assessed the prevalence of black stains at the age of 5 in a population-based birth cohort from Pelotas, Brazil and investigated the association between black stains and dental caries. A total of 1,129 children from the 2004 Pelotas birth cohort were examined at age 5, and their mothers were interviewed at their households. Dental examinations included a search for black stains and dental caries on the primary dentition through the dmf-s index. The mothers' questionnaire comprised data on demographic, social, and behavior aspects. Prevalence of black stains was 3.5% (95% CI 2.5-4.7) and the prevalence of dental caries was 48.4% (95% CI 45.4-51.4). Multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess the association between black stains and dental caries. Adjusted analysis revealed that the presence of black stains was associated with lower levels of dental caries (OR = 0.51; 95% CI 0.26-0.99). The results of the present study suggest that black stains are a protective factor for dental caries development. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Molecular analysis of the microflora associated with dental caries.

    PubMed

    Munson, M A; Banerjee, A; Watson, T F; Wade, W G

    2004-07-01

    Molecular techniques have revealed many novel, presumed unculturable, taxa in oral infections. The aim of this study was to characterize the bacterial community of the middle and advancing front of carious dental lesions by cultural and molecular analyses. Samples were collected with a hand excavator from five teeth with carious lesions involving dentine. Samples were cultured on blood agar and Rogosa agar incubated in air plus 5% CO(2) and on fastidious anaerobe agar anaerobically. DNA was also extracted directly from the samples and 16S rRNA genes were amplified by PCR with universal primers. PCR products were singularized by cloning, and the cloned inserts and cultured isolates were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. We identified 95 taxa among the 496 isolates and 1,577 clones sequenced; 44 taxa were detected by the molecular method alone; 31 taxa were previously undescribed. Only three taxa, Streptococcus mutans, Rothia dentocariosa, and an unnamed Propionibacterium sp., were found in all five samples. The predominant taxa by anaerobic cultivation were the novel Propionibacterium sp. (18%), Olsenella profusa (14%), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (8%). The predominant taxa in the molecular analysis were Streptococcus mutans (16%), Lactobacillus gasseri/johnsonii (13%), and Lactobacillus rhamnosus (8%). There was no significant difference between the compositions of the microflora in the middle and advancing front samples (P < 0.05, Wilcoxon matched pairs, signed ranks test). In conclusion, combined cultural and molecular analyses have shown that a diverse bacterial community is found in dentinal caries and that numerous novel taxa are present.

  13. Use of fluoride products for young patients at high risk of dental caries.

    PubMed

    Croll, Theodore P; Berg, Joel H

    2014-09-01

    Extensive education in oral hygiene home care, nutrition counseling, and routine reinforcement of home-care instructions at periodic check-ups lead to better oral health for many young children and teenagers. In addition, resistance to dental caries infection can be increased significantly by intelligent use of bonded resin sealants and systemic and topical fluoride products. This article discusses protocols for use of in-office applied topical fluoride and daily at-home use of topical fluoride products for children and teens at high risk of dental caries.

  14. Dental Caries and Associated Factors in Children Aged 2-4 Years Old in Mbeya City, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Mwakayoka, Hery; Masalu, Joyce Rose; Namakuka Kikwilu, Emil

    2017-06-01

    Dental caries in infants and young children is prevalent worldwide; its magnitude and associated factors vary between communities because of cultural and social economic differences. No such information was available for pre-school children in Mbeya city. To determine dental caries status and associated factors in 2 to 4-year-old children in Mbeya city. A cross sectional study was conducted among 525 children aged 2-4 years and their parents/caregivers. Caries was assessed using caries assessment spectrum and treatment index, oral hygiene by visual inspection for visible plaque on index teeth, and dietary and oral hygiene habits by a questionnaire. Kappa statistics was used to test reliability of study instruments, χ(2)-test and logistic regression was employed for studying associations. Caries free children for dmft1, dmft2 and dmft3 were 79.8%, 83.8% and 94.7% and caries experience was 0.49 (1.23), 0.4 (1.14) and 0.10 (0.53) respectively. Older age [(OR =2.722 (1.617-4.582) p=< 0.001)]; and frequent consumption of factory made sugary foods/snacks at age 1-2 years [(OR=3.061 (1.188-7.887) p=0.021] were associated with caries. Prolonged breastfeeding for more than 1 year and breastfeeding at night had no association with dental caries. The prevalence of dental caries was very low. Older age and frequent consumption of factory made sugary foods at age 1-2 years were associated with higher odds of developing dental caries. Prolonged breasfeeding and breastfeeding at night had no association with dental caries. Prevention of dental caries should be instituted as soon as primary teeth start erupting, especially through discouraging consumption of factory made sugary foods/snacks.

  15. Dental Caries and Associated Factors in Children Aged 2-4 Years Old in Mbeya City, Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Mwakayoka, Hery; Masalu, Joyce Rose; Namakuka Kikwilu, Emil

    2017-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Dental caries in infants and young children is prevalent worldwide; its magnitude and associated factors vary between communities because of cultural and social economic differences. No such information was available for pre-school children in Mbeya city. Purpose: To determine dental caries status and associated factors in 2 to 4-year-old children in Mbeya city. Materials and Method: A cross sectional study was conducted among 525 children aged 2-4 years and their parents/caregivers. Caries was assessed using caries assessment spectrum and treatment index, oral hygiene by visual inspection for visible plaque on index teeth, and dietary and oral hygiene habits by a questionnaire. Kappa statistics was used to test reliability of study instruments, χ2-test and logistic regression was employed for studying associations. Results: Caries free children for dmft1, dmft2 and dmft3 were 79.8%, 83.8% and 94.7% and caries experience was 0.49 (1.23), 0.4 (1.14) and 0.10 (0.53) respectively. Older age [(OR =2.722 (1.617-4.582) p=< 0.001)]; and frequent consumption of factory made sugary foods/snacks at age 1-2 years [(OR=3.061 (1.188-7.887) p=0.021] were associated with caries. Prolonged breastfeeding for more than 1 year and breastfeeding at night had no association with dental caries. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries was very low. Older age and frequent consumption of factory made sugary foods at age 1-2 years were associated with higher odds of developing dental caries. Prolonged breasfeeding and breastfeeding at night had no association with dental caries. Prevention of dental caries should be instituted as soon as primary teeth start erupting, especially through discouraging consumption of factory made sugary foods/snacks. PMID:28620634

  16. Dental caries and associated factors among primary school children in Bahir Dar city: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Mulu, Wondemagegn; Demilie, Tazebew; Yimer, Mulat; Meshesha, Kassaw; Abera, Bayeh

    2014-12-23

    Dental caries is the most common chronic infectious disease of childhood caused by the interaction of bacteria, mainly Streptococcus mutans and sugary foods on tooth enamel. This study aimed at determining the prevalence and associated factors of dental caries among primary school children at Bahir Dar city. A school based cross-sectional study was conducted at Bahir Dar city from October 2013 to January 2014. Systematic random sampling technique was used to select the children. Structured questionnaire was used to interview children and/or parents to collect socio demographic variables. Clinical dental information obtained by experienced dentist using dental caries criteria set by World Health Organization. Binary and multiple logistic regression analysis were computed to investigate factors associated with dental caries. Of the 147 children, 82 (55.4%) were girls. Majority of the children (67.6%) cleaned their teeth using traditional method (small stick of wood made of a special type of plant). The proportion of children having dental caries was 32 (21.8%). Primary tooth decay accounted for 24 (75%) of dental caries. The proportion of missed teeth was 7 (4.8%). The overall proportion of toothache and dental plaque among school children were 40 (27.2%) and 99 (67.3%), respectively. Grade level of 1-4 (AOR = 3.9, CI = 1.49 -10.4), poor habit of tooth cleaning (AOR = 2.6, CI = 1.08 - 6.2), dental plaque (AOR = 5.3, CI = 1.6 - 17.7) and toothache (AOR = 6.3, CI = 2.4 - 15.4) were significantly associated with dental caries. Dental caries is a common public health problem in school children associated with poor oral hygiene, dietary and dental visit habits. Therefore, prevention measures such as health education on oral hygiene, dietary habits and importance of dental visit are obligatory for children.

  17. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: a path analytic study.

    PubMed

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchita

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both the caregiver and the child. The results supported the hypothesis: caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists compared with those who did not complete high school (e(0.56) = 1.76, 95% CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e(1.76) = 5.78, 95% CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e(-0.31) = 0.74, 95% CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e(-0.42) = 0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e(-0.32) = 0.72, 95% CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health.

  18. Epidemiology of dental caries among adults in a rural area in India.

    PubMed

    Maru, Ami M; Narendran, Sena

    2012-05-01

    Data on epidemiology of dental caries of adults in rural India appear to be sparse. The purpose of the study was to assess the oral health status and dental treatment needs of a rural Indian population. The study population consisted of 189 volunteer subjects with a mean age of 34.9 ± 14.2 years and 54% males. Decayed, missing due to caries and filled teeth (DMFT) and tooth surfaces (DMFS) assessed the dental caries experience. Structured interviews collected data on perception of health including oral health, oral hygiene practices and snacking habits. While only 38.1% perceived themselves to be in good or very good dental health, nearly 85% felt the same about general health. The most common sugar exposure was sweetened tea; 75% consumed the beverage at least once a day. More than 80% of the subjects had untreated caries with mean DMFT and DMFS scores of 5.1 ± 3.9 and 13.8 ± 17.8, which lacked any gender differences. Dental treatment needs ranged from 16.9% two-surface fillings to 60.8% one-surface fillings; 23.8% crowns or bridges and 37.6% extractions. Those who perceived themselves to be in better oral health had significantly lower DMFT (4.0 ± 3.2 vs 5.9 ± 4.1) and DMFS (8.4 ± 11.7 vs 17.1 ± 20.0) scores (p < 0.05). A similar trend was observed between perception of general health and DMFT (4.8 ± 3.4 vs 7.0 ± 5.6) and DMFS (11.9 ± 13.7 vs 24.1 ± 30.7) scores. Results indicate high levels of dental caries as well as dental treatment needs among the study participants.

  19. Caregiver's education level and child's dental caries in African Americans: A path analytic study

    PubMed Central

    Heima, Masahiro; Lee, Wonik; Milgrom, Peter; Nelson, Suchitra

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of caregiver education level on children's dental caries mediated by both caregiver and child oral health behaviors. Participants were 423 low-income African American kindergarteners and their caregivers who were part of a school-based randomized clinical trial. Path analysis tested the hypothesis that caregiver education level affected untreated dental caries and cumulative overall caries experience (decayed or filled teeth) through the mediating influence of frequency of dental visits, use of routine care, and frequency of toothbrushing for both caregiver and child. The results supported the hypothesis: Caregivers who completed high school were 1.76 times more likely to visit dentists themselves compared with those who did not complete high school (e0.56=1.76, 95%CI: 1.03-2.99), which in turn was associated with 5.78 times greater odds of dental visits among their children (e1.76=5.78, 95%CI: 3.53-9.48). Children's dental visits, subsequently, were associated with 26% fewer untreated decayed teeth compared with children without dental visits (e-0.31=0.74, 95%CI: 0.60-0.91). However, this path was not present in the model with overall caries experience. Additionally, caregiver education level was directly associated with 34% less untreated decayed teeth (e-0.42=0.66, 95% CI: 0.54-0.79) and 28% less decayed or filled teeth (e-0.32=0.72, 95%CI: 0.60-0.88) among the children. This study overcomes important conceptual and analytic limitations in the existing literature. The findings confirm the role of caregiver education in child dental caries and indicate that caregiver's behavioral factors are important mediators of child oral health. PMID:25661111

  20. Factors associated with dental caries experience in 1-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Warren, John J; Weber-Gasparoni, Karin; Marshall, Teresa A; Drake, David R; Dehkordi-Vakil, Farideh; Kolker, Justine L; Dawson, Deborah V

    2008-01-01

    Dental caries in early childhood is an important public health problem. Previous studies have examined risk factors, but they have focused on children during the later stages of the disease process. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with caries in children aged 6 to 24 months as part of a cross-sectional analysis. Two hundred twelve mothers with children 6 to 24 months of age were recruited from Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children clinic sites in southeastern Iowa for participation in a longitudinal study of dental caries. Baseline assessments included detailed questions regarding the children's beverage consumption, oral hygiene, and family socioeconomic status. Dental caries examinations using the d(1)d(2-3)f criteria and semiquantitative assessments of salivary mutans streptococci (MS) levels of mother and child were also conducted. Counts of the number of teeth with visible plaque were recorded for maxillary and mandibular molars and incisors. Of the 212 child/mother pairs, 187 children had teeth. Among these children, the mean age was 14 months, and 23 of the children exhibited either d(1), d(2-3), or filled lesions. Presence of caries was significantly associated with older age, presence of MS in children, family income <$25,000 per year, and proportion of teeth with visible plaque. Results suggest that not only microbial measures, including MS and plaque levels, are closely associated with caries in very young children, but that other age-related factors may also be associated with caries. Continued study is necessary to more fully assess the risk factors for caries prevalence and incidence in preschool children.

  1. [Prevalence of dental caries among 12-year old schoolchildren in the Dakar region].

    PubMed

    Benoist, F Leye; Bane, K; Aidara, A W; Ndiaye, D; Chouker, Y; Kane, A W

    2014-06-01

    Oral diseases are considered as major public health problem. Dental caries restricts the school activities and are the dominant cause of dental morbidity. The aims of this survey were to determine prevalence of dental caries among pupils of Dakar and to study their food habits and oral hygiene. A descriptive transversal study was conducted from February 15th to May 07th, 2011 with respect of WHO directives (protocol of 1997) readjusted to Senegalese context. Our results showed a prevalence of 41.8%; a mean DMF index of 0.644; a proportion of teeth decayed of 65%, 32.2% for missing teeth and 2.7% of filled teeth. The multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that snacking, consumption of sweetened drinks far from meals and brushing teeth before the meals were significantly linked to the presence of dental caries. These results showed that the state of oral health and the prevention level of dental caries among these children were not so good. A new orientation of oral health policy based on messages regarding the main etiologic factors is imperative.

  2. The role of behaviour in inequality in increments of dental caries among Finnish adults.

    PubMed

    Sabbah, Wael; Suominen, Anna L; Vehkalahti, Miira M; Aromaa, Arpo; Bernabé, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Evidence from cross-sectional studies implies that dental behaviours partially explain inequalities in oral health. To assess whether dental behaviours completely eliminate inequality in increments of dental caries in a sample of Finnish adults. The baseline data were collected from the Health 2000 survey, a nationally representative survey of 8,028 individuals aged 30 years or older living in mainland Finland. Four years later, 1,248 subjects were invited for oral re-examination, and 1,049 agreed to participate (84% response rate). At baseline, participants provided information on demographics, education and dental behaviours (dental attendance, tooth brushing with fluoride toothpaste, sugar consumption and daily smoking). Oral examinations at baseline and follow-up were identical. Adults with basic education had significantly greater increments of DMFT (incidence rate ratio 1.41, 95% CI 1.07-1.85) and DT (incidence rate ratio 2.23, 95% CI 1.27-3.90) than those with high education. Adjusting for single behaviours attenuated but did not eliminate education inequality in DMFT and DT increments, tooth brushing having the greatest impact on inequality. Simultaneous adjustment for all behaviours eliminated the significant relationship between education and caries increment. Accounting for important dental behaviours appears to explain all education inequality in dental caries in Finnish adults. The results should be interpreted with caution when applied to less egalitarian populations. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. Barriers encountered using skill-mix to deliver caries prevention in dental practices.

    PubMed

    Hatim, Eman; Kendall, Nick

    2012-04-01

    This opinion paper provides an analysis of the barriers and successes experienced when developing and implementing a pilot scheme to deliver caries prevention using skill-mix in the National Health Service (NHS) General Dental Services. A training programme was initiated to develop the skills of extended duties dental nurses to deliver fluoride varnish to patients in selected dental practices in Croydon, London, UK. In the light of the evaluation of this programme, a recommendation is made that similar preventive schemes should be delivered in the future within the NHS dental contract.

  4. Association between obesity and dental caries in a group of preschool children in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Nava, Francisco; Vázquez-Rodríguez, Eliza Mireya; Saldívar-González, Atenógenes Humberto; Lin-Ochoa, Dolores; Martinez-Perales, Gerardo Manuel; Joffre-Velázquez, Víctor Manuel

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the association between obesity and caries by utilizing the data of a cohort of preschool children aged 4-5 years. Data were obtained from a cohort of 1,160 children. Dental caries detection was performed according to the World Health Organization criteria. The caries index was measured as the number of decayed (d), extracted (e), and filled (f) teeth (t) (deft), or surfaces (defs). The body mass index (BMI) in units of kg/m2 was determined, and children were categorized according to age- and gender-specific criteria as normal weight (5th-85th percentile), at-risk overweight (> or = 85th-<95th percentile), and overweight (> or = 95th percentile). Odds ratios were determined for at-risk overweight and overweight children using logistic regression. The prevalence of dental caries was 17.9 percent. A slightly higher percentage of dental caries was found in boys (19.6 percent) than in girls (16.4 percent). From the total sample, the mean BMI was 17.10 +/- 3.83. Approximately 53.7 percent of children were classified as normal weight, 14.2 percent as at-risk overweight, and 32.1 percent as overweight. At-risk overweight children were higher among girls (17.1 percent) than among boys (11.3 percent). When adjusted for covariates, the logistic regression model showed that there was a significant association between at-risk overweight children (P < 0.001), overweight children (P < 0.001), and caries in the primary dentition. Mean (SD) deft value of the sample was 1.08 (2.34), while the corresponding defs value was 1.43 (3.29). Obesity appears to be associated with dental caries in the primary dentition of preschool Mexican children.

  5. Maternal identification of dental caries lesions in their children aged 1-3 years.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, I B; Sá-Pinto, A C; Silva Marques, L; Ramos-Jorge, J; Ramos-Jorge, M L

    2017-06-01

    To analyse the maternal identification of different stages of dental caries in children aged 1-3 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 274 children and their mothers. The mothers answered a questionnaire on the occurrence of dental caries in their children and completed questions addressing their demographic/socio-economic status. The oral examination of the children was performed using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System. Descriptive, Chi square test and Poisson regression statistical analyses were performed. The prevalence of initial and established/severe dental caries lesions by age were: 1 year (23.2 and 24.2%), 2 years (17.9 and 55.7%) and 3 years (23.3 and 60.3%) respectively. Significant associations between clinical examinations and the mothers' reports were observed among children aged 1 year old who had initial stage caries lesions (p = 0.006) and in children aged 1, 2 and 3 years old who had established/severe stage caries lesions (p < 0.001). After adjustment for confounding variables it was found that mothers were more able to identify dental caries both at initial (PR 4.01, 95% CI 1.35-11.94) and established/severe stages (PR 9.14, 95% CI 2.49-33.56) in children aged 1 year old. In children aged 2 and 3 years, this identification was more evident in the established/severe stage (2 years, PR 2.98, 95% CI 1.42-6.26; 3 years, PR 2.75, 95% CI 1.09-6.93). Mothers of children aged 1 year old identified dental caries at initial and established/severe stages. Mothers of children aged 2 and 3 years identified dental caries only at established/severe stages.

  6. The relationship between dental caries and obesity among primary school children aged 5 to 14 years.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yingshui; Ren, Xiaohua; Song, Xiuli; He, Lianping; Jin, Yuelong; Chen, Yan; Lu, Wei; Guo, Daoxia; Ding, Lingling; Tang, Hui; Wei, Ningkai; Qiu, Shenwei; Li, Chaopin

    2014-07-01

    Previous study revealed that the link between dental caries and obesity has been controversial. The purpose of this research is to investigate the association between dental caries and obesity among primary school children in Wannan area, China. A cross-sectional study was designed to collect the routine health screening data for primary school children aged 5-14 years in Wannan area,China, Overweight and obesity status were determined using the International Obesity Task Force standard (IOTF) BMI cut-off points. Caries status was recorded based on WHO recommendations. Our results revealed that the overall caries prevalence of the subjects was 44.9%, Maximum number of caries affected children belonged to underweight and normal group, followed by overweight, and the least number was obesity. These differences were statistically significant (chi-square test, P < 0.001). Children with obesity were 1.908 times (OR =1.908; CI95%=1.750, 2.079) more likely have caries than children with underweight or health weight. Overweight children were 1.547 times (OR = 1.547; CI95% = 1.479, 1.618) more likely to have caries than children with underweight or health weight. After adjusted the gender and age, a statistically significant association was also observed between body mass index categories and caries. Obesity may have a significant effect on caries prevalence of primary school children in Wannan area, China. The importance of obesity should not only be emphasized with respect to general diseases but also with regard to carious lesions. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Inter-relationship of intelligence-quotient and self-concept with dental caries amongst socially handicapped orphan children.

    PubMed

    Virk, Pks; Jain, R L; Pathak, A; Sharma, U; Rajput, J S

    2012-01-01

    India has been the focus of many health surveys among normal, physically, and mentally handicapped children. However, the data, concerning oral health conditions of socially handicapped children living in orphanages, are scanty. To study the effect of parental inadequacy, environmental deprivation, and emotional disturbances on dental caries through intelligence quotient (IQ) and self-concept in orphan children and also to co-relate dental caries with different levels of IQ and self-concept. The study was carried out amongst socially handicapped children living in orphanages. 100 children in the age group of 10-14 years from orphanages were selected. Malin's Intelligence Scale for Indian Children (MISIC) was used to assess the intelligence quotient; self-concept questionnaire to assess self-concept of the child and recording of dental caries status of children was done as per WHO Index (1997). To assess the relationship of dental caries with IQ, student's unpaired t-test was used and; to find the relationship between self-concept and dental caries, Karl-Pearson's coefficient of co-relation was applied. the children in orphanages had a lower IQ and high caries experience but had an above average self-concept. There was also no co-relation between dental caries and self-concept. Orphan children, being socially handicapped, are at an increased risk for dental caries due to a lower IQ level, parental deprivation, and institutionalization. Moreover, lack of co-relation between dental caries and self-concept could be explained by the fact that dental caries is a lifelong process whereas different dimensions of self-concept are in a state of constant flux.

  8. Allergic rhinitis, feeding and oral habits, toothbrushing and socioeconomic status. Effects on development of dental caries in primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Nava, F; Vázquez, R E M; Saldivar, G A H; Beltrán, G F J; Almeida, A V M; Vázquez, R C F

    2008-01-01

    The aim was to determine the effect of feeding and oral habits, toothbrushing, socioeconomic status and allergic rhinitis on the development of dental caries in primary dentition. In a cross-sectional study, data were obtained by means of a structured questionnaire on 1,160 children, 4-5 years old (mean = 4.5 +/- 0.5) and born in 1999, 2000 or 2001. The children also had a physical examination by an allergist and dentists. Dental caries was diagnosed according to WHO criteria. Caries experience was measured as number of deft and defs. Logistic regression analysis assessed the association between dental caries and independent variables. The dental caries prevalence was 17.9%, 28.8% of the children had allergic rhinitis symptoms, digit sucking was reported by 9.8% and pacifier use by 13.6% of the children. The mean number of deft of the sample was 1.02 (SD = 2.37) and that of defs was 1.33 (SD = 3.54). Analysis showed that breast-feeding for >12 months (p < 0.01), toothbrushing frequency (p < 0.01), sugar consumption (p < 0.01) and pacifier use (p < 0.01) each had a significant association with dental caries occurrence in primary dentition. Children with pacifier use and allergic rhinitis had more than double the risk of dental caries development. Allergic rhinitis alone has no effect on dental caries. Healthcare professionals attempting to limit dental caries should consider the effect of prolonged breast-feeding, sugary product consumption between meals and nonnutritive habits on dental caries.

  9. Comments on Soltysiak's paper: "Comment: low dental caries rate in Neandertals: the result of diet or the oral flora compositions?".

    PubMed

    Tomczyk, Jacek

    2012-08-01

    A low frequency of dental caries in Neandertal population is still puzzling. Many authors stress that the lower frequency of dental caries was related to a meat diet. However, a recent publication in HOMO - Journal Comparative Human Biology presented a new interpretation of dental caries in Neandertals. In this article, Soltysiak supports the thesis that the lower frequency of caries in the Neandertal population from the Near East could not be related to the low-sugar diet, but rather to the absence of cariogenic bacteria species (S. mutans). Although this hypothesis is interesting, I suspect it to be based on several erroneous assumptions, and a misunderstanding of caries as a disease. Although he stressed that the caries lesion is related to many different factors, in his argument he considers one of two alternatives "a low-sugar diet or a lack of cariogenic bacterial species". Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. The association between dental caries and television viewing among Chinese adolescents in Guangxi, China.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xiaojuan; Sheiham, Aubrey; Sabbah, Wael

    2014-11-25

    Television viewing has been implicated as a possible risk factor for the increase in a number of chronic diseases, particularly those related to sedentary life style. Given the rapid economic and societal changes in China over the past few decades, this study aimed to examine the association between dental caries experience and television viewing among Chinese adolescents. This study utilized data pertaining to the province of Guangxi from the 2010 National Physical Fitness and Health Surveillance, a national survey of school children and adolescents in China. The survey used stratified sampling methods. Four experienced dentists conducted the clinical examination in each province. The survey included data on socio-demographic and behavioural factors including television viewing and a clinical dental examination. Regression models were used to examine the association between time spent viewing television and mean DMFT and untreated caries among 12-17 year-old adolescents, adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, area of residence, and markers of dietary habits. The prevalence of caries in this sample was 52.3%. Longer duration of television viewing was significantly and consistently associated with greater number for decayed teeth and higher DMFT among Chinese adolescents. The relationship persisted even after adjusting for demographic and behavioural factors. Being female, living in rural area, being of Zhuang ethnicity were all significantly associated with higher levels of dental caries. This study showed, for the first time in China, that television viewing is associated with risk of developing dental caries among adolescents. Future research should examine potential pathways linking television viewing and dental caries among Chinese adolescents.

  11. Frequency of dental caries in active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous patients: salivary and bacterial factors.

    PubMed

    Loyola Rodriguez, J P; Galvan Torres, L J; Martinez Martinez, R E; Abud Mendoza, C; Medina Solis, C E; Ramos Coronel, S; Garcia Cortes, J O; Domínguez Pérez, R A

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine dental caries frequency and to analyze salivary and bacterial factors associated with active and inactive systemic lupus erythematous (SLE) patients. Also, a proposal to identify dental caries by a surface, teeth, and the patient was developed. A cross-sectional, blinded study that included 60 SLE patients divided into two groups of 30 subjects each, according to the Activity Index for Diagnosis of Systemic Lupus Erythematous (SLEDAI). The decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index and Integrative Dental Caries Index (IDCI) were used for analyzing dental caries. The saliva variables recorded were: flow, pH, and buffer capacity. The DNA copies of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus were estimated by real-time PCR. The caries frequency was 85% for SLE subjects (73.3% for inactive systemic lupus erythematous (ISLE) and 100% for active systemic lupus erythematous (ASLE)); DMFT for the SLE group was 12.6 ± 5.7 and the IDCI was (9.8 ± 5.9). The ASLE group showed a salivary flow of 0.65 compared with 0.97 ml/1 min from the ISLE group; all variables mentioned above showed a statistical difference (p < 0.05). The salivary pH was 4.6 (6.06 for ISLE and 3.9 for ASLE). The DNA copies of S. mutans and S. sobrinus were high; all variables mentioned above show a significant statistical difference (p < 0.05) between groups. SLE patients had high DMFT and IDCI scores that were associated with a decrease in salivary flow, pH, and buffer capacity. There were high counts of S. sobrinus and S. mutans species, and IDCI is a useful tool to provide more detail about dental caries in epidemiological studies. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Impact of Prolonged Breastfeeding on Dental Caries: A Population-Based Birth Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Peres, Karen Glazer; Nascimento, Gustavo G; Peres, Marco Aurelio; Mittinty, Murthy N; Demarco, Flavio Fernando; Santos, Ina Silva; Matijasevich, Alicia; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-07-01

    Few studies have assessed the effect of breastfeeding, bottle feeding, and sugar consumption on children's dental caries. We investigated whether the duration of breastfeeding is a risk factor for dental caries in the primary dentition, independently of sugar consumption. An oral health study (n = 1303) nested in a birth cohort study was carried out in southern Brazil. The average number of decayed, missing, and filled primary tooth surfaces (dmfs) and severe early childhood caries (S-ECC: dmfs ≥6) were investigated at age 5 years. Breastfeeding was the main exposure collected at birth and at 3, 12, and 24 months of age. Data on sugar consumption were collected at 24, 48, and 60 months of age. Marginal structural modeling was used to estimate the controlled direct effect of breastfeeding (0-12, 13-23, and ≥24 months) on dmfs and on S-ECC. The prevalence of S-ECC was 23.9%. The mean number of dmfs was 4.05. Children who were breastfed for ≥24 months had a higher number of dmfs (mean ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.5-2.4) and a 2.4 times higher risk of having S-ECC (risk ratio: 2.4; 95% confidence interval: 1.7-3.3) than those who were breastfed up to 12 months of age. Breastfeeding between 13 and 23 months had no effect on dental caries. Prolonged breastfeeding increases the risk of having dental caries. Preventive interventions for dental caries should be established as early as possible because breastfeeding is beneficial for children's health. Mechanisms underlying this process should be investigated more deeply. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Dental caries in Mexican schoolchildren: A comparison of 1988–1989 and 1998–2001 surveys

    PubMed Central

    Mejía-González, Adriana; Zepeda-Zepeda, Marco A.; Betancourt-Linares, Armando; Lezana-Fernández, Miguel Á.; Álvarez-Lucas, Carlos H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare two surveys across seven states for the prevalence of dental caries among Mexican schoolchildren. Study Design: Analysis of two cross-sectional surveys: Schoolchildren from 6 to 10 years of age were examined in the 1988–1989 survey and 6- to 10-year-old and 12-year-old students were included in the 1998–2001 survey. The baseline data of seven states were available for analysis. Representative probability samples were conducted statewide in both surveys. The World Health Organization (WHO) method was used to obtain the dental caries index (dmft, DMFT). At present, additional and more recent epidemiological data representative statewide in Mexico are unavailable. Results: The participants were 9798 schoolchildren in the 1988–1989 survey and 16882 schoolchildren in the 1998–2001 survey. The prevalence of caries in children ages 6 to 10 years was 86,6% in the first survey and 65,5% in the second survey, showing a 24,4% reduction. The primary teeth index in the first survey was dmft = 3,86 (IC95% 3,68 4,04) and in permanent teeth, it was DMFT = 1,03 (IC95% 0,95 1,11). In the second survey, the comparable values were dmft = 2,36 (IC95% 2,20 2,52) and DMFT = 0,35 (IC95% 0,29 0,40), corresponding to a reduction of 38,89% and 66,02% in the primary and permanent dentition, respectively. Treatment needs remain high: In the second survey, as 92,75% of the index DMFT was conformed as decayed teeth. Conclusion: Overall, we detected a downward trend in the dental caries indices, particularly in the permanent dentition. The increase in the availability of fluoride likely contributed to the observed decline in dental caries. Key words:Schoolchildren, dental caries, treatment needs, salt fluoridation, Mexico. PMID:22549683

  14. Dietary determinants of dental caries and dietary recommendations for preschool children.

    PubMed

    Tinanoff, N; Palmer, C A

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this review, commissioned by the Administration for Children and Families, the Health Resources and Services Administration, the Health Care Financing Administration, and the Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service, was to update the evidence of the dietary factors that affect dental caries, and subsequently formulate dietary recommendations for preschool children based on principles of cariology. Literature on the dental caries process, dietary factors affecting dental caries initiation and progression, and nutrition education and counseling were reviewed and synthesized. Dietary guidelines for children at various ages were then constructed based on the review. Dental caries in preschool children is due to a combination of factors, including colonization of teeth with cariogenic bacteria, type of foods and frequency of exposure of these foods to the cariogenic bacteria, and susceptible teeth. Caries risk is greatest if sugars are consumed at high frequency and are in a form that is retained in the mouth for long periods. Sucrose is the most cariogenic sugar because it can form glucan that enables firm bacterial adhesion to teeth and limits diffusion of acid and buffers in the plaque. There is emerging interest in the effects of tooth development and its role in the future dental caries risk of the child. Nutrition education and counseling for the purposes of reducing caries in children is aimed at teaching parents the importance of reducing high frequency exposures to obvious and hidden sugars. Guidelines include: avoiding frequent consumption of juice or other sugar-containing drinks in the bottle or sippy cup, discouraging the behavior of a child sleeping with a bottle, promoting noncariogenic foods for snacks, fostering eating patterns consistent with the Food Guide Pyramid, limiting cariogenic foods to mealtimes, rapidly clearing cariogenic foods from the child's oral cavity either by toothbrushing or by consumption of protective

  15. Dietary determinants of dental caries and dietary recommendations for preschool children.

    PubMed

    Tinanoff, Norman; Palmer, Carol A

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this review, commissioned by the Administration for Children and Families, the Health Resources and Services Administration, the Health Care Financing Administration, and the Department of Agriculture's Food and Nutrition Service, was to update the evidence of the dietary factors that affect dental caries, and subsequently formulate dietary recommendations for preschool children based on principles of cariology. Literature on the dental caries process, dietary factors affecting dental caries initiation and progression, nutrition education and counseling were reviewed and synthesized. Dietary guidelines for children at various ages were then constructed based on the review. Dental caries in preschool children is due to a combination of factors, including colonization of teeth with cariogenic bacteria, type of foods and frequency of exposure of these foods to the cariogenic bacteria, and susceptible teeth. Caries risk is greatest if sugars are consumed at high frequency and are in a form that is retained in the mouth for long periods. Sucrose is the most cariogenic sugar because it can form glucan that enables firm bacterial adhesion to teeth and limits diffusion of acid and buffers in the plaque. There is emerging interest in the effects of tooth development and its role in the future dental caries risk of the child. Nutrition education and counseling for the purposes of reducing caries in children is aimed at teaching parents the importance of reducing high frequency exposures to obvious and hidden sugars. Guidelines include: avoiding frequent consumption of juice or other sugar containing drinks in bottle or sippy cup; discouraging the behavior of a child sleeping with a bottle; promoting non-cariogenic foods for snacks; fostering eating patterns consistent with Food Guide Pyramid; limiting cariogenic foods to mealtimes; rapidly clearing cariogenic foods from the child's oral cavity either by tooth brushing or by consumption of protective foods; and

  16. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Traumatic Dental Injuries among 6- to 12-year-old Children in Bhopal City, India

    PubMed Central

    Shashikiran, ND; Ahirwar, Pratibha; Maran, Priyanka; Raj Kannojiya, Pawan; Niranjan, Babita

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Dental caries and trauma are the most common oral health problems for many decades. There is need for prevalence data to analyze the nature of the problems and to take necessary steps in improving public health. Aim and objectives To assess the prevalence of dental caries and traumatic dental injuries among schoolchildren of age 6 to 12 years in Bhopal city. Settings and design Cross-sectional study design was selected. Universal sampling method was followed in this study. Materials and methods A total of 1,204 children were examined. The distribution of samples was done based on age, gender, residing area, and type of school. Statistical analysis Data were collected and statistically evaluated under chi-square test and analysis of variance. Results The overall caries experience (73.17%) was found to be higher than that of traumatic injury experience (20.9%). There was age-related correlation between age and decay, missing, and filled teeth score. Conclusion Since most injuries occur at home or at school, educating the individual is the key that will have a great impact on the prognosis of traumatic injuries. Also good food habits need to be instilled in children from a tender age with the help of parents, which is the ultimate solution to fight caries. How to cite this article Maran S, Shashikiran ND, Ahirwar P, Maran P, Kannojiya PR, Niranjan B. Prevalence of Dental Caries and Traumatic Dental Injuries among 6- to 12-year-old Children in Bhopal City, India. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017; 10(2): 172-176. PMID:28890618

  17. [Determinants of dental caries in Haitian schoolchildren and implications for public health].

    PubMed

    Bedos, C; Brodeur, J M

    2000-01-01

    This work was carried out as part of a community development project in North-West Haiti. The aim was to determine the prevalence of dental caries among young Haitians and to identify the principal determinants and risk factors. A total of 322 schoolchildren, all aged 12 years, participated in the study in March and April 1996. Demographic characteristics, hygiene and dietary habits were recorded. In parallel, a dentist assessed the amount of debris present on the teeth and investigated the children's history of caries. Almost two thirds of the children examined were free of caries. The mean number of decayed missing and filled teeth (DMFT index) was 0.93, which is low. However, a high-risk group was identified with a mean DMFT index of 3.8. This group is a source of some concern, particularly as the region's health services are often inaccessible resulting in dental caries frequently remaining untreated until tooth extraction is required. Logistic regression analysis showed that dental hygiene and, to a lesser extent, sugar intake, were the principal risk factors for dental caries. Adolescents who consume more than three meals per day and who, presumably, have a higher intake of cariogenic food, present more caries than those who consume less. These schoolchildren meet the objectives of the WHO for dental caries for 2000, but two courses of action are nonetheless necessary: caries prevention and improved access to dental health care. To prevent caries, techniques for increasing the resistance of teeth could be recommended, as in industrialized countries. However, such strategies would be difficult to implement in the rural context of a developing country. The addition of fluoride to drinking water, for example, is not practical as most of the inhabitants of rural areas do not have access to running water. The use of sealing agents, which protect against decay affecting the occlusal surfaces of molars, is also impractical, for financial reasons. Thus, basic

  18. Glycemic control with insulin prevents progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in diabetic WBN/KobSlc rats.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, Yutaka; Sano, Tomoya; Kodama, Yasushi; Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Matsuura, Tetsuro

    2013-07-01

    We have previously reported that dental caries progress in spontaneously and chemically induced diabetic rodent models. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between hyperglycemia and dental caries by evaluating the preventive effect of glycemic control with insulin on the progression of the lesions in diabetic rats. Male WBN/KobSlc rats aged 15 weeks were divided into groups of spontaneously diabetic rats (intact group), spontaneously diabetic rats with insulin treatment (INS group), alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats (AL group), and alloxan-induced prolonged diabetic rats with insulin treatment (AL + INS group). The animals were killed at 90 weeks of age, and their oral tissue was examined. Dental caries and periodontitis were frequently detected in the intact group, and the lesions were enhanced in the AL group (in which there was an increased duration of diabetes). Meanwhile, glycemic control with insulin reduced the incidence and severity of dental caries and periodontitis in the INS group, and the effects became more pronounced in the AL + INS group. In conclusion, glycemic control by insulin prevented the progression of dental caries and caries-related periodontitis in the diabetic rats.

  19. Association of anthropometric measures and dental caries among a group of adolescent cadets of Udupi district, South India.

    PubMed

    Chakravathy, P K; Chenna, D; Chenna, V

    2012-10-01

    To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measures and dental caries among a group of adolescent cadets of Udupi district, India. Demographic information such as age, sex and parental education were collected. Various anthropometric measures such as weight, body mass index (BMI), height, mid-upper arm circumference, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference were recorded as per standard guidelines. Dental caries was recorded using mouth mirrors and CPI probes. A total of 211 cadets with age range of 12-19 years constituted the final sample. Caries experience was significantly different with respect to age and gender (p=0.049 and 0.05 respectively). Multivariate analysis was performed using Poisson regression with DMFT as dependent variable. Height, weight, BMI and WC showed significant association with dental caries status (OR = 10.61, 1.03, 1.09 and 1.02 respectively). Stratified analysis showed no association with anthropometric measures (height, weight, BMI and WC) and dental caries in 12-14 years. Among 15-19 years age group, there was a significant association between anthropometric measures (height, weight and BMI) and dental caries. There was a significant association between anthropometric measures and caries status in 15-19 years age group while no association was found in 12-14 years age group. Obesity and dental caries have common risk determinants and require a comprehensive multi-disciplinary approach by health care professionals.

  20. Sugar, dental caries and the incidence of acute rheumatic fever: a cohort study of Māori and Pacific children.

    PubMed

    Thornley, Simon; Marshall, Roger J; Bach, Katie; Koopu, Pauline; Reynolds, Gary; Sundborn, Gerhard; Ei, Win Le Shwe Sin

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether dental caries, as an indicator of cumulative exposure to sugar, is associated with the incidence of acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease, in Māori and Pacific children aged 5 and 6 years at their first dental visit. A cohort study was undertaken which linked school dental service records of caries with national hospital discharge and mortality records. Cox models were used to investigate the strength of the association between dental caries and rheumatic fever incidence. A total of 20 333 children who were free of rheumatic heart disease at enrolment were available for analysis. During a mean follow-up time of 5 years, 96 children developed acute rheumatic fever or chronic rheumatic heart disease. After adjustment for potential confounders, children with five or more primary teeth affected by caries were 57% (95% CI: 20% to 106%) more likely to develop disease during follow-up, compared to children whose primary teeth were caries free. The population attributable to the risk for caries in this cohort was 22%. Dental caries is positively associated with the incidence of acute rheumatic fever and chronic rheumatic heart disease in Māori and Pacific children. Sugar intake, an important risk factor for dental caries, is also likely to influence the aetiology of rheumatic fever. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  1. Dental caries: A complete changeover (Part II)-Changeover in the diagnosis and prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Carounanidy, Usha; Sathyanarayanan, R

    2009-01-01

    Realization that dental caries is a reversible, dynamic biochemical event at a micron level has changed the way the profession recognizes the caries disease and the caries lesion. The diagnosis of dental caries poses challenges due to the complex interaction of multiple endogenous causal factors. The most appropriate diagnostic aid for this purpose is the risk model of caries risk assessment. The analyses of the biological determinants provide clues to the dominant causal factor. The detection of a carious lesion has undergone a rigorous revision and revolution in order to identify the earliest mineral change so that it can be controlled without resorting to invasive management options. Apart from detection, it became mandatory to assess the extent of the lesion (noncavitated/cavitated), assess the activity status of the lesion (active/arrested), monitor the lesion progress (progression/regression over a period of time), and finally to predict the prognosis of the lesion as well as the disease. The prognosis of the disease can be best assessed by analyzing the predictor factors in caries risk assessment. The ultimate objective of such a meticulous and methodical approach aids in devising a tailor-made treatment plan, using preventing measures precisely and restorative measures minimally. This ensures the best oral health outcome of the patient. PMID:20543914

  2. Ex vivo imaging of early dental caries within the interproximal space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choo-Smith, Lin-P'ing; Hewko, Mark D.; Dufour, Marc L.; Fulton, Crystal; Qiu, Pingli; Gauthier, Bruno; Padioleau, Christian; Bisaillon, Charles-Etienne; Dong, Cecilia; Cleghorn, Blaine M.; Lamouche, Guy; Sowa, Michael G.

    2009-02-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is emerging as a technology that can potentially be used for the detection and monitoring of early dental enamel caries since it can provide high-resolution depth imaging of early lesions. To date, most caries detection optical technologies are well suited for examining caries at facial, lingual, incisal and occlusal surfaces. The approximal surfaces between adjacent teeth are difficult to examine due to lack of visual access and limited space for these new caries detection tools. Using a catheter-style probe developed at the NRC-Industrial Materials Institute, the probe was inserted into the interproximal space to examine the approximal surfaces with OCT imaging at 1310 nm. The probe was rotated continuously and translated axially to generate depth images in a spiral fashion. The probe was used in a mock tooth arch model consisting of extracted human teeth mounted with dental rope wax in their anatomically correct positions. With this ex vivo model, the probe provided images of the approximal surfaces revealing morphological structural details, regions of calculus, and especially regions of early dental caries (white spot lesions). Results were compared with those obtained from OCT imaging of individual samples where the approximal surfaces of extracted teeth are accessible on a lab-bench. Issues regarding access, regions of interest, and factors to be considered in an in vivo setting will be discussed. Future studies are aimed at using the probe in vivo with patient volunteers.

  3. [Systematic review about dental caries in children and adolescents with obesity and/or overweight].

    PubMed

    González Muñoz, María; Adobes Martín, Milagros; González de Dios, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Obesity and overweight (O/OW) in children have reached epidemic character and both are a risk factor for chronic serious health problems. This study was perfomed in order to research the relationship between O/OW and dental caries. [corrected] A SR was conducted between 2007-2011 in tertiary information sources (Trip, Cochrane and NGC), secondary (PubMed, IME, MEDES IBECS) and primary (reference checks). Patients (children 0-18 years), risk factor (O/OW) and outcomes (primary: caries, secondary: other oral pathology). Author, year, country, type of study, patient age, cases (with O/OW) and controls (body mass index-BMI-normal or low), comorbidities, socioeconomic status, prevalence of caries and other results in oral health. Forty-seven documents were located, 37 of them met the criteria of the RS, temporarily distributed in 2007 (6 articles), 2008 (6), 2009 (5), 2010 (11) and 2011 (9). They presented a very wide degree of heterogeneity (in patients, intervention, primary outcome and type of design), which does not allow to apply quantitative synthesis of data (meta-analysis). Studies are conflicting regarding the relationship between BMI and frequency of dental caries (DMFT, dmft). Systematic review allows dentists and pediatricians to know the relationship between O/OW and dental caries. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  4. Social Inequalities in Childhood Dental Caries: The Convergent Roles of Stress, Bacteria and Disadvantage

    PubMed Central

    Boyce, W. Thomas; Den Besten, Pamela K; Stamperdahl, Juliet; Zhan, Ling; Jiang, Yebin; Adler, Nancy E; Featherstone, John D

    2010-01-01

    The studies reported here examines stress-related psychobiological processes that might account for the high, disproportionate rates of dental caries, the most common chronic disease of childhood, among children growing up in low socioeconomic status (SES) families. In two 2004 – 2006 studies of kindergarten children from varying socioeconomic backgrounds in the San Francisco Bay Area of California (Ns = 94 and 38), we performed detailed dental examinations to count decayed, missing or filled dental surfaces and microtomography to assess the thickness and density of microanatomic dental compartments in exfoliated, deciduous teeth (i.e., the shed, primary dentition). Cross-sectional, multivariate associations were examined between these measures and SES-related risk factors, including household education, financial stressors, basal and reactive salivary cortisol secretion, and the number of oral cariogenic bacteria. We hypothesized that family stressors and stress-related changes in oral biology might explain, fully or in part, the known socioeconomic disparities in dental health. We found that nearly half of the five-year-old children studied had dental caries. Low SES, higher basal salivary cortisol secretion, and larger numbers of cariogenic bacteria were each significantly and independently associated with caries, and higher salivary cortisol reactivity was associated with thinner, softer enamel surfaces in exfoliated teeth. The highest rates of dental pathology were found among children with the combination of elevated salivary cortisol expression and high counts of cariogenic bacteria. The socioeconomic partitioning of childhood dental caries may thus involve social and psychobiological pathways through which lower SES is associated with higher numbers of cariogenic bacteria and higher levels of stress-associated salivary cortisol. This convergence of psychosocial, infectious and stress-related biological processes appears to be implicated in the production

  5. Dental caries status and oral health practice among 12-15 year old children in Jorpati, Kathmandu.

    PubMed

    Khanal, S; Acharya, J

    2014-09-01

    Oral health is an essential component of health throughout life. There has been a decline in dental caries and periodontal disease in developed countries which can be attributed to the implementation of preventive programmes but in developing countries dental diseases are still on the rise. Therefore this cross sectional study was carried out to asses