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Sample records for caries-affected primary tooth

  1. Temperature rise under normal and caries-affected primary tooth dentin disks during polymerization of adhesives and resin-containing dental materials.

    PubMed

    Tosun, Gul; Usumez, Aslihan; Yondem, Isa; Sener, Yagmur

    2008-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the temperature rise under normal and caries-affected primary tooth dentin during photopolymerization of two adhesives and resin-containing restorative materials. Caries-affected and normal dentin disks were prepared from extracted primary molars with only mesial or distal approximal caries (4 mm in diameter, 1 mm in height). Temperature rise during photopolymerization of adhesive materials was measured with a J-type thermocouple wire that was connected to a data logger. Data were analyzed with two-way ANOVA and independent samples t-test. Temperature rise under caries-affected primary tooth dentin disks was higher than that of normal primary tooth dentin disks during polymerization of both adhesive systems and resin-containing dental materials (p < 0.05). It was found that adhesive systems induced a higher temperature rise during polymerization as compared to the resin-containing restorative materials (p < 0.05). In particular, temperature rise during polymerization of adhesive materials exceeded 5.5 degrees C under caries-affected primary tooth dentin.

  2. Hardness and elasticity of caries-affected and sound primary tooth dentin bonded with 4-META one-step self-etch adhesives

    PubMed Central

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Tay, Franklin R.; Miyakoshi, Shoichi; Pashley, David H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study evaluated the quality of the interface of sound and carious primary tooth dentin bonded with two 4-META one-step self-etch adhesives. Methods Twelve sound and twelve carious primary molars were bonded with AQ Bond Plus (AQBP; Sun Medical) or Hybrid Bond (HB; Sun Medical) and restored with Clearfil Protect Liner F (Kuraray Medical Inc.). After 24 hours of water immersion, the teeth were sectioned and polished. Resin-dentin interfaces were measured with a nano-indentation tester and hardness and Young’s modulus were calculated. Data were analyzed using one-way or two-ways ANOVA and Fisher’s PLSD test with α=0.05. Resin-dentin interfaces were also observed with SEM and TEM. Ammoniacal silver nitrate was used as a tracer for TEM observation. Results Hardness and Young’s modulus of the interfacial dentin were significantly lower than the underlying intact dentin except for the carious-AQBP group. However, there was no significant difference of hardness and Young's moduli of the interfacial dentin among all groups. TEM revealed extensive interfacial nanoleakage in sound dentin bonded with either AQBP or HB. For the carious teeth, nanoleakage was absent in the hybrid layers bonded with the two adhesives. However, extensive silver deposits were identified from the subsurface, porous caries-affected dentin. PMID:18795517

  3. Bonding of simplified adhesive systems to caries-affected dentin of primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Alves, Fabiana Bucholdz; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Reis, Alessandra; Loguercio, Alessandro D; Carvalho, Thiago Saads; Raggio, Daniela Prócida

    2013-10-01

    To evaluate the bonding of simplified adhesive systems to sound and caries-affected dentin of primary teeth with microtensile (µTBS) and nanoleakage (NL) tests. Occlusal cavities were prepared in 36 sound second primary molars. Half of the specimens were submitted to pH cycling to simulate caries-affected dentin. Teeth were randomly restored with one of three materials: the etch-and-rinse adhesive system Adper Single Bond 2 (SB), the two-step self-etching adhesive system Adper SE Plus (SE), and the one-step self-etching adhesive system Adper Easy One (EASY). After storage for 24 h, specimens with cross-sectional areas of 0.8 mm2 were prepared for microtensile testing (1 mm/min). One stick from each tooth was immersed in silver nitrate solution (24 h) and allowed to develop for 8 h in order to score the nano leakage with SEM. The fracture pattern was evaluated using a stereomicroscope (400X). The µTBS means were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's post-hoc test. For NL, the Kruskal- Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used (α < 0.05). SB (35.5 ± 3.5) showed the highest µTBS value to sound dentin, followed by EASY (26.3 ± 1.9) and SE (18.2 ± 6.5) (p < 0.05). No difference among materials was observed for caries-affected dentin (SB: 17.8 ± 4.2; SE: 13.9 ± 3.2; EASY: 14.4 ± 4.2, p > 0.05). For all groups, adhesive/mixed fracture prevailed. Caries affected dentin promoted silver nitrate uptake into the adhesive interface; however, with SE, the nano leakage was more pronounced than in the other adhesive systems, even in sound dentin. Caries-affected dentin negatively influences the bond strength and nano leakage of the two-step etch-and-rinse and one-step self-etching adhesive systems tested in primary teeth.

  4. Bonding Performance of a Multimode Adhesive to Artificially-induced Caries-affected Primary Dentin.

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Raggio, Daniela Prócida; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; Rocha, Rachel de Oliveira

    2015-04-01

    To investigate the bonding of a new universal adhesive applied using different etching strategies on sound and caries-affected dentin of primary teeth. Flat dentin surfaces from 50 primary molars were randomly assigned to 10 groups according to substrate (sound dentin [SD] vs caries-affected dentin [CAD] pH cycled for 14 days) and bonding approach (Scotchbond Universal Adhesive: self-etching, vs dry or wet-bonding etch-and-rinse strategies; Adper Single Bond Plus [two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive] and Clearfil SE Bond [two-step self-etching system] as controls). After 24 h of water storage, bonded sticks with cross-sectional areas of 0.8 mm2 were tested for microtensile bond strength (μTBS). Two sticks from each tooth were immersed in silver nitrate solution in order to evaluate nanoleakage (NL) with SEM. The μTBS means were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests. For NL, the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used (α = 0.05). The influence of the etching strategy on the bonding performance of the universal adhesive was substrate dependent. The self-etching approach resulted in lower μTBS values and higher silver nitrate uptake into hybrid layers for Scotchbond Universal Adhesive on SD, while no difference among experimental groups was observed in CAD. It is preferable to use the universal adhesive following either a dry- or wet-bonding etch-and-rinse approach on both sound and caries-affected primary dentin.

  5. Ultrastructural examination of one-step self-etch adhesive bonded primary sound and caries-affected dentin

    PubMed Central

    HOSOYA, YUMIKO; TAY, FRANKLIN R.; GARCÍA-GODOY, FRANKLIN; PASHLEY, DAVID H.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the ultrastructure and silver nanoleakage of the resin-dentin interfaces in sound and caries-affected primary tooth dentin bonded with a 4-META one-step self-etch adhesive. Materials and Methods Each of five sound and carious primary molars was bonded with Hybrid Bond. Resin-dentin interfaces were observed with TEM micrographs obtained from silver-impregnated, unstained and undemineralized sections of bonded sound and caries-affected primary dentin, and stained and demineralized sections of bonded sound primary dentin with silver impregnation. Results For sound dentin, silver nanoleakage was observed extensively in the patent dentinal tubules, within the dentin beneath the hybrid layer, within the hybrid layer in some specimens, and as water trees that partially protruded into the overlying adhesive layer. The hybrid layer was about 1 μm thick. Smear plugs in the dentinal tubules and smear on the ground dentin protruded in the hybrid layer. Remnants of demineralized smear were observed overlying adhesive layer. For caries-affected dentin, the hybrid layer was obscure. Dentinal tubules were occluded with mineral deposits. There were no water trees or nanoleakage in the adhesive layer or hybrid layer. However, smear remnants were observed in adhesive layer and heavily silver deposits were observed in the highly porous underlying caries-affected dentin. PMID:19146129

  6. Is There a Best Protocol to Optimize Bond Strength of a Universal Adhesive to Artificially Induced Caries-affected Primary or Permanent Dentin?

    PubMed

    Nicoloso, Gabriel Ferreira; Antoniazzi, Bruna Feltrin; Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; Rocha, Rachel de Oliveira

    To evaluate whether the etch-and-rinse or self-etching mode of a universal adhesive is the best protocol to optimize bond strength to primary and permanent artificially-induced caries-affected dentin. Flat midcoronal dentin surfaces were exposed in 24 primary and 24 permanent molars and submitted to pH cycling for 14 days to induce artificial caries-affected dentin. For each tooth type (primary and permanent), the teeth were randomly assigned to 4 different groups according to the adhesive systems and bonding strategy: a universal adhesive, Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, in self-etching and etch-and-rinse modes; a twostep etch-and-rinse adhesive, Adper Single Bond 2 (control); and two-step self-etching system, Clearfil SE Bond (control). After bonding and restorative procedures, specimens were sectioned to obtain rectangular sticks (0.8 mm2) that were submitted to microtensile tests (crosshead speed: 1 mm/min). The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA (α = 0.05). The universal adhesive showed bond strengths similar to those of the control groups, irrespective of the bonding strategy. Likewise, statistically similar bonding performance was observed for all adhesives to either artificially- induced caries-affected primary or permanent dentin. The new universal adhesive, Scotchbond Universal Adhesive, can be used in both application modes in artificially-induced caries-affected primary and permanent dentin, as the bond strength was not influenced by the different substrates or application mode.

  7. Is It Possible to induce Artificial Caries-affected Dentin using the Same Protocol to Primary and Permanent Teeth?

    PubMed

    Lenzi, Tathiane Larissa; Soares, Fabio Zovico Maxnuck; Tedesco, Tamara Kerber; de Oliveira Rocha, Rachel

    2015-08-01

    This in vitro study compared the mineral loss of natural and artificially-created caries-affected dentin in primary and permanent teeth using the same protocol to induce caries lesions. Twenty molars presenting natural occlusal dentin caries lesions (10 primary-PriC and 10 perma-nent-PermC; control group), and 20 sound molars (10 primary -PripH and 10 permanent-PermpH; experimental group), were selected. Occlusal cavities were prepared in teeth of the experimental group that were submitted to pH-cycling for 14 days to simulate caries-affected dentin. All specimens were longitudinally sectioned and prepared in order to obtain Knoop micro-hardness values from 15 to 250 urn depth, starting in bottom of center of natural lesions or cavities. The microhardness (KHN) data were submitted to three-way repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). Considering all depths, there was no statistically significant differences (p > 0.05) between the mineral loss of the control (PriC = 30.9 ± 6.4 and PermC = 40.8 ± 8.6) and experimental (PripH = 27.3 ± 11.1 and PermpH = 35.5 ± 14.0) groups, neither between primary and permanent teeth. The mineral loss of the artificially-created caries-affected dentin is similar to that from naturally developed dentin caries lesions. The pH-cycling model may be a suitable method to simulate caries-affected dentin in both permanent and primary teeth.

  8. Effect of caries removal techniques on the bond strength of adhesives to caries-affected primary dentin in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, E; Sirinkaraarslan, E; Yegin, Z; Cebe, M A; Tosun, G

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this in vitro study is to evaluate the effects of three different caries removal techniques on the microtensile bond strength of adhesive materials to caries-affected dentin. Thirty primary molar teeth were used. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to the caries removal technique employed: conventional steel bur (group 1); Er:YAG laser (group 2); chemomechanical method (group 3). Each group was divided into two subgroups according to bonding agents: one-step self-etch adhesive and etch-and-rinse adhesive. The teeth were restored with composite resin. Vertical sticks were obtained and subjected to tensile stress. Data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Tukey's test and an independent samples t-test. The values for the laser groups were significantly lower than those of the bur groups for both bonding agents (p<0.05). There were no significant differences between the bur and chemomechanical groups (p > 0.05). Bur and chemomechanical techniques in primary teeth were found more successful. Similar results were found according to the adhesives used for each caries removal techniques.

  9. Salivary Microbiome Diversity in Caries-Free and Caries-Affected Children

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shan; Gao, Xiaoli; Jin, Lijian; Lo, Edward C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is an infectious disease. Its etiology is not fully understood from the microbiological perspective. This study characterizes the diversity of microbial flora in the saliva of children with and without dental caries. Children (3–4 years old) with caries (n = 20) and without caries (n = 20) were recruited. Unstimulated saliva (2 mL) was collected from each child and the total microbial genomic DNA was extracted. DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to Illumina Miseq sequencing. A total of 17 phyla, 26 classes, 40 orders, 80 families, 151 genera, and 310 bacterial species were represented in the saliva samples. There was no significant difference in the microbiome diversity between caries-affected and caries-free children (p > 0.05). The relative abundance of several species (Rothia dentocariosa, Actinomyces graevenitzii, Veillonella sp. oral taxon 780, Prevotella salivae, and Streptococcus mutans) was higher in the caries-affected group than in the caries-free group (p < 0.05). Fusobacterium periodonticum and Leptotrichia sp. oral clone FP036 were more abundant in caries-free children than in caries-affected children (p < 0.05). The salivary microbiome profiles of caries-free and caries-affected children were similar. Salivary counts of certain bacteria such as R. dentocariosa and F. periodonticum may be useful for screening/assessing children’s risk of developing caries. PMID:27898021

  10. Salivary Microbiome Diversity in Caries-Free and Caries-Affected Children.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shan; Gao, Xiaoli; Jin, Lijian; Lo, Edward C M

    2016-11-25

    Dental caries (tooth decay) is an infectious disease. Its etiology is not fully understood from the microbiological perspective. This study characterizes the diversity of microbial flora in the saliva of children with and without dental caries. Children (3-4 years old) with caries (n = 20) and without caries (n = 20) were recruited. Unstimulated saliva (2 mL) was collected from each child and the total microbial genomic DNA was extracted. DNA amplicons of the V3-V4 hypervariable region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene were generated and subjected to Illumina Miseq sequencing. A total of 17 phyla, 26 classes, 40 orders, 80 families, 151 genera, and 310 bacterial species were represented in the saliva samples. There was no significant difference in the microbiome diversity between caries-affected and caries-free children (p > 0.05). The relative abundance of several species (Rothia dentocariosa, Actinomyces graevenitzii, Veillonella sp. oral taxon 780, Prevotella salivae, and Streptococcus mutans) was higher in the caries-affected group than in the caries-free group (p < 0.05). Fusobacterium periodonticum and Leptotrichia sp. oral clone FP036 were more abundant in caries-free children than in caries-affected children (p < 0.05). The salivary microbiome profiles of caries-free and caries-affected children were similar. Salivary counts of certain bacteria such as R. dentocariosa and F. periodonticum may be useful for screening/assessing children's risk of developing caries.

  11. Effect of desensitizers on the bond strength of a self-etching adhesive system to caries-affected dentin on the gingival wall.

    PubMed

    Sengun, Abdulkadir; Koyuturk, Alp Erdin; Sener, Yagmur; Ozer, Fusun

    2005-01-01

    A self-etching dentin adhesive was evaluated for its ability to bond to caries-affected and sound dentin after applying three desensitizers to the gingival walls. Sixty extracted human molars, with approximal dentin caries, were cut horizontally on the long axis of the tooth through caries-affected gingival walls. Carious dentin was removed with SiC paper by means of a caries detector to expose caries-affected dentin. The molars were randomly assigned to four groups: control and three experimental groups-Micro Prime, Glauma Desentizer and Cervitec. Desensitizers were applied to the dentinal surfaces according to manufacturers' instructions. A resin composite was bonded to both the caries-affected and sound dentin of each tooth using a bonding system and plastic rings. The restoration was debonded by shear bond strength. The application of Micro Prime and Gluma Desensitizer to caries-affected dentin did not show any effect on bond strength testing. However, Cervitec caused a decrease in bond strength to caries-affected dentin. The effect of desensitizers on the bond strength of the self-etch bonding agent to caries-affected dentin changed according to the chemical composition of the materials. Desensitizer application on sound dentin is recommended with self-etch bonding systems.

  12. A report of an impacted primary maxillary central incisor tooth.

    PubMed

    Anthonappa, Robert P; Ongtengco, Kristine L; King, Nigel M

    2013-10-01

    Primary tooth impaction is a rare phenomenon when compared to permanent teeth impaction. The purpose of this report is to present a 5-year-old Chinese girl who exhibited impaction of tooth 51, its unusual consequence on the permanent successor tooth and its comprehensive management. Her parents revealed that at 6 months of age, the patient had fallen from her bed and struck her face on the floor; however, there were no teeth present in the oral cavity. The intraoral examinations identified a bony-like projection on the buccal aspect of the alveolus in the 51 region. Radiographic examination revealed that tooth 51 exhibited an unfavourable orientation, with the crown directed towards the palate. Therefore, the impacted tooth 51 was surgically removed, and two years later tooth 11 erupted into the oral cavity with an indentation on its incisal aspect, which resembled the crown of the primary teeth, thus giving the appearance of a tooth within a tooth or 'dens in dente'. Subsequently, enameloplasty and composite resin build-up was performed on tooth 11 for aesthetic reasons. It is very unusual to have the clinical crowns of both primary and permanent teeth in such close proximity within the alveolar bone, and the present case is a good example to emphasize that trauma to the primary teeth is of considerable importance due to the close proximity of the primary teeth to permanent tooth germs. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  13. Effects of Er:YAG laser on bond strength of self-etching adhesives to caries-affected dentin.

    PubMed

    Koyuturk, Alp Erdin; Ozmen, Bilal; Cortcu, Murat; Tokay, Ugur; Tosun, Gul; Erhan Sari, Mustafa

    2014-04-01

    The erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Er:YAG) laser may be effective the bond strength of adhesive systems on dentine surfaces, the chemical composition and aggressiveness of adhesive systems in clinical practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the Er:YAG laser system with the bonding ability of two different self-etching adhesives to caries-affected dentine in primary molars. Ninety mid-coronal flat dentine surfaces obtained from sound and caries-affected human primary dentine were treated with an Er:YAG laser or a bur. The prepared surfaces were restored with an adhesive system (Xeno V; Clearfil S³) and a compomer (Dyract Extra). The restored teeth were sectioned with a low-speed saw and 162 samples were obtained. The bond strength of the adhesive systems was tested using the micro-tensile test method. The data were statistically analyzed. A restored tooth in each group was processed for scanning electron microscopy evaluation. The values of the highest bond strength were obtained from the Clearfil S³-Er:YAG laser-sound dentine group in all groups. (24.57 ± 7.27 MPa) (P > 0.05). The values of the lowest bond strength were obtained from the Xeno V-Er:YAG laser-sound dentine group in all groups (11.01 ± 3.89 MPa). It was determined that the Clearfil S³ increased the bond strength on the surface applied with Er:YAG laser according to the Xeno V. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Bonding of resin composite to caries-affected dentin after Carisolv(®) treatment.

    PubMed

    Zawaideh, Feda; Palamara, Joseph E A; Messer, Louise B

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of Carisolv(®) on resin composite adhesion on caries-affected dentin. Carious lesion specimens (N =46) were prepared from 45 extracted primary molars: Group 1 (N =23)-chemomechanical (Carisolv(®)) treatment; Group 2 (N =23)-rotary instrumentation; and Group 3 (N =23)-caries-free specimens from 20 noncarious primary molars. After caries removal (Groups 1 and 2) or washing and drying (Group 3), a resin composite rod (2-mm high, 0.975-mm diameter) was bonded vertically to dentin. Specimens were stressed at constant displacement (1.0 mm/minute) to failure; treated surfaces were examined under a scanning electron microscope. The mean (±SD) microshear bond strengths of resin composite to dentin were: Group 1=6.69 (±4.08) MPa; Group 2=10.31 (±5.47) MPa; and Group 3=7.16 (±6.64) MPa. The mean bond strength of resin composite of Group 2 significantly exceeded that of Groups 1 (P=.02) and 3 (P=.01); Groups 1 and 3 did not differ significantly. There was no significant association between failure mode and treatment type (P=.22) or mean bond strength (P=.44). Carisolv(®) removed the smear layer or limited its formation, producing demineralization incompletely infiltrated by resin composite. Chemomechanical treatment of caries-affected dentin of primary teeth did not adversely affect resin composite bonding.

  15. The Prevalence and Treatment Outcomes of Primary Tooth Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Arikan, Volkan; Sari, Saziye; Sonmez, Hayriye

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the type and prevalence of primary tooth injuries, as well as their treatment and treatment outcomes, among children referred to the Department of Pedodontics at the Ankara University Faculty of Dentistry in Turkey. Methods: The study population consisted of patients applying to the department with a primary tooth injury over a period of 21 months. Fifty-one patients presented with trauma to 99 primary teeth. Clinical and radiographic examinations were conducted on each patient. Age, sex, time, cause of injury, and number of teeth affected were recorded, and the type of trauma was identified according to Andreasen’s classification. The teeth were treated by one of the authors. Results: The majority of trauma occurred between the ages of 2 and 4. The most common type of injury was lateral luxation (33.3%). Most injuries (33.3%) presented during May. The most common form of treatment was follow-up only (39.4%), followed by extraction (29.3%) and root canal treatment (12.1%). The average follow-up period was 11 months. During the follow-up period, complications were observed in 4 teeth. Conclusions: The study results show that in the absence of acute symptoms, parents tend not to apply to a dental clinic for children’s injuries. This finding highlights the importance of informing the public about primary tooth injuries and their consequences. PMID:20922165

  16. Primary Cilia Integrate Hedgehog and Wnt Signaling during Tooth Development

    PubMed Central

    Liu, B.; Chen, S.; Cheng, D.; Jing, W.; Helms, J.A.

    2014-01-01

    Many ciliopathies have clinical features that include tooth malformations but how these defects come about is not clear. Here we show that genetic deletion of the motor protein Kif3a in dental mesenchyme results in an arrest in odontogenesis. Incisors are completely missing, and molars are enlarged in Wnt1Cre+Kif3afl/fl embryos. Although amelogenesis and dentinogenesis initiate in the molar tooth bud, both processes terminate prematurely. We demonstrate that loss of Kif3a in dental mesenchyme results in loss of Hedgehog signaling and gain of Wnt signaling in this same tissue. The defective dental mesenchyme then aberrantly signals to the dental epithelia, which prompts an up-regulation in the Hedgehog and Wnt responses in the epithelia and leads to multiple attempts at invagination and an expanded enamel organ. Thus, the primary cilium integrates Hedgehog and Wnt signaling between dental epithelia and mesenchyme, and this cilia-dependent integration is required for proper tooth development. PMID:24659776

  17. Primary cilia integrate hedgehog and Wnt signaling during tooth development.

    PubMed

    Liu, B; Chen, S; Cheng, D; Jing, W; Helms, J A

    2014-05-01

    Many ciliopathies have clinical features that include tooth malformations but how these defects come about is not clear. Here we show that genetic deletion of the motor protein Kif3a in dental mesenchyme results in an arrest in odontogenesis. Incisors are completely missing, and molars are enlarged in Wnt1(Cre+)Kif3a(fl/fl) embryos. Although amelogenesis and dentinogenesis initiate in the molar tooth bud, both processes terminate prematurely. We demonstrate that loss of Kif3a in dental mesenchyme results in loss of Hedgehog signaling and gain of Wnt signaling in this same tissue. The defective dental mesenchyme then aberrantly signals to the dental epithelia, which prompts an up-regulation in the Hedgehog and Wnt responses in the epithelia and leads to multiple attempts at invagination and an expanded enamel organ. Thus, the primary cilium integrates Hedgehog and Wnt signaling between dental epithelia and mesenchyme, and this cilia-dependent integration is required for proper tooth development.

  18. Treatment of an avulsed maxillary permanent central incisor by autotransplantation of a primary canine tooth.

    PubMed

    Sönmez, D; Dalci, K; Tunç, E Sen

    2008-07-01

    To present a case in which an avulsed permanent maxillary central incisor was replaced by autotransplantation of a primary canine tooth. The present case describes transplantation of a primary canine tooth into the space left by an avulsed permanent maxillary central incisor after a delay of several days. After root canal treatment, the primary canine tooth was extracted and placed into the prepared socket. To provide better adaptation of the donor tooth, the recipient alveolar site was remodeled using surgical burs. Semi-rigid splinting was maintained for 15 days. The crown of the primary canine was reshaped with composite resin and with an interim prosthesis, preventing movement of the lateral incisor tooth into the space of the transplanted canine. After 24-month follow-up the autotransplanted primary canine showed ankylosis but the tooth was in an acceptable state. The use of permanent tooth autotransplantation has been well documented. However a literature search revealed only one case report on the autotransplantation of primary teeth. Long term results of primary tooth autotransplantation are scarce but the procedure in this case report could be considered as a temporary space maintainer for the treatment of a patient with a lost permanent incisor under 10 years of age. Success of primary tooth autotransplantation may be affected by several factors, such as case selection, extra oral time, surgical and endodontic procedures.

  19. A morphological and micro-tensile bond strength evaluation of a single-bottle adhesive to caries-affected human dentine after four different caries removal techniques.

    PubMed

    Cehreli, Zafer C; Yazici, A Rüya; Akca, Taner; Ozgünaltay, Gül

    2003-08-01

    This study evaluated the influence of different caries removal techniques (conventional bur; chemomechanical removal/Carisolv()-MediTeam; a sonic preparation system/SonicsysMicro-Kavo and air abrasion/PrepStar-Danville Engineering) on microtensile bond strength to caries-affected human dentine. Occlusal surfaces of extracted human permanent third molars with coronal dentine caries extending approximately halfway through the dentine was ground perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth to expose a flat surface of normal dentine surrounding the carious lesion with laser fluorescence values of approximately 30 (DIAGNODent), KaVo). Carious lesions were excavated with one of the four techniques until laser fluorescence values decreased to 15 in the center of the lesions. An ethanol-based dentine adhesive (Single Bond, 3M) was used to bond composite resin (P60, 3M) to the substrate. Vertical slices (n=11/group), approximately 0.8 mm thick were made through the caries-affected portions of each tooth, perpendicular to the bonding surface. Specimens were subjected to tensile stress at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test. SEM investigation was performed for the qualitative evaluation of resin-dentine hybridization. The microtensile bond strengths were as follows (mean+/-SD in MPa): 6.4+/-5.3 (bur), 8.4+/-3.3 (Carisolv), 8.5+/-5.9 (Sonicsys Micro), and 8.8+/-8.8 (air abrasion). Statistical analysis did not show significant differences between any of the treatment modalities (p=0.160). Tensile fracture was cohesive within caries-affected dentine in all specimens. The four different caries removal techniques used within this study did not influence the bond strength of the tested dentine adhesive to caries-affected human dentine.

  20. Esthetic management of a primary double tooth using a silicone putty guide: a case report.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Ravi; Chaudhry, Kalpna; Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Munshi, Autar Krishen

    2013-03-01

    The term double tooth is often used to describe fusion and gemination. The development of isolated large or joined teeth is not rare, but the literature is confusing when the appropriate terminology is presented. The objective of this paper is to present a case of a primary double tooth in a 5-year-old girl with a history of trauma. The tooth was endodontically treated and esthetic management was carried out using a silicone putty guide.

  1. Spatial distribution of trace element Ca-normalized ratios in primary and permanent human tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Tacail, Théo; Kovačiková, Lenka; Brůžek, Jaroslav; Balter, Vincent

    2017-12-15

    The trace elements distribution embedded in tooth enamel offers a means to study exposure of toxic metals and allows the reconstruction of dietary behaviors. The quantification of most of the elements with a spatial high resolution (~50μm) is routinely achieved using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICPMS). However, the lack of a comprehensive framework of trace elements distribution in enamel jeopardizes any endorsed sampling strategy using LA-ICPMS. The present work is an effort to improve our knowledge on this issue. We studied a suite of 22 sectioned teeth with known dietary history, including 12 3rd molars from 12 living individuals and 10 primary teeth from 3 living individuals. Using LA-ICPMS, we measured Ca, Cu, Zn, Ni, Sr, Ba and Pb variations along 2 or 3 rasters from cervical to occlusal enamel. Calcium concentrations are lower in primary than in permanent teeth and do not vary spatially within a tooth suggesting that enamel matures homogeneously before eruption. The Pb/Ca ratio does not vary within tooth enamel and between primary and permanent tooth enamel. The Cu/Ca and Ni/Ca ratios do not vary within tooth enamel but discriminate primary from permanent tooth enamel. The Zn/Ca ratios are higher in permanent than in primary tooth enamel, and increase up to an order of magnitude in the last hundred of microns at the enamel surface. The Sr/Ca and Ba/Ca ratios are higher in permanent than in primary tooth enamel, and decrease from the enamel-dentine junction towards outer enamel in permanent but not in primary tooth enamel. Considering the Ca-normalized intra-tooth variations of Zn, Sr and Ba, we recommend to perform laser ablation rasters along the enamel-dentine junction because this area is likely to retain most of the original and complete chemical information related to individual's life. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Indirect pulp capping and primary teeth: is the primary tooth pulpotomy out of date?

    PubMed

    Coll, James A

    2008-01-01

    Formocresol pulpotomy (FP) in the United States is most frequently used to treat asymptomatic caries near the pulp in primary teeth. Indirect pulp therapy (IPT) is also indicated and has a significantly higher long-term success. Pulpotomy is thought to be indicated for primary teeth with carious pulp exposures, but research shows the majority of such teeth are nonvital or questionable for treatment with vital pulp therapy. IPT has a significantly higher success in treating all primary first molars, but especially those with reversible pulpitis compared with FP. The purpose of this article was to review the dental literature and new research in vital pulp therapy to determine the following: (1) Is a pulpotomy indicated for a true carious pulp exposure? (2) Is there a diagnostic method to reliably identify teeth that are candidates for vital pulp therapy? (3) Is primary tooth pulpotomy out of date, and should indirect pulp therapy replace pulpotomy? )

  3. Indirect pulp capping and primary teeth: is the primary tooth pulpotomy out of date?

    PubMed

    Coll, James A

    2008-07-01

    Formocresol pulpotomy (FP) in the United States is most frequently used to treat asymptomatic caries near the pulp in primary teeth. Indirect pulp therapy (IPT) is also indicated and has a significantly higher long-term success. Pulpotomy is thought to be indicated for primary teeth with carious pulp exposures, but research shows the majority of such teeth are nonvital or questionable for treatment with vital pulp therapy. IPT has a significantly higher success in treating all primary first molars, but especially those with reversible pulpitis compared with FP. The purpose of this article was to review the dental literature and new research in vital pulp therapy to determine the following: (1) Is a pulpotomy indicated for a true carious pulp exposure? (2) Is there a diagnostic method to reliably identify teeth that are candidates for vital pulp therapy? (3) Is primary tooth pulpotomy out of date, and should indirect pulp therapy replace pulpotomy?

  4. Unusual ectopic eruption of a permanent central incisor following an intrusion injury to the primary tooth.

    PubMed

    Canoglu, Ebru; Akcan, Cenk Ahmet; Baharoglu, Erdinç; Gungor, H Cem; Cehreli, Zafer C

    2008-10-01

    Intrusive luxation of primary teeth carries a high risk of damage to underlying permanent tooth germs. Ectopic eruption of permanent incisors is an unusual outcome of traumatic injury to their predecessors. In this case report, we describe the multidisciplinary management of the consequences of a primary tooth intrusion that led to severe ectopic eruption of the permanent left central incisor in a horizontal position at the level of the labial sulcus.

  5. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the microtensile bond strength of two different adhesives to the sound and caries-affected dentin.

    PubMed

    Ergücü, Z; Celik, E U; Unlü, N; Türkün, M; Ozer, F

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the microtensile bond strength (microTBS) of a three-step etch-and-rinse and a two-step self-etch adhesive to sound and caries-affected dentin. Sixteen freshly extracted human molars with occlusal dentin caries were used. The caries lesion was removed by one of the following methods: conventional treatment with burs or Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Waterlase MD, Biolase). The adhesive systems (AdheSE, Ivoclar Vivadent and Scotchbond Multi Purpose, 3M ESPE) were applied to the entire tooth surface according to the manufacturers' instructions. Resin composites were applied to the adhesive-treated dentin surfaces and light-cured. Each tooth was sectioned into multiple beams with the "non-trimming" version of the microtensile test. The specimens were subjected to microtensile forces (BISCO Microtensile Tester, BISCO). The data was analyzed by three-way ANOVA and independent t-tests (p=0.05). Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation exhibited similar microTBS values compared to that of conventional bur treatment, regardless of the adhesive system and type of treated dentin. The self-etch system revealed lower microTBS values, both with conventional and laser treatment techniques, compared to the etch-and-rinse adhesive in sound and caries-affected dentin (p<0.05). Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation did not negatively affect the bonding performance of adhesive systems to sound and caries-affected dentin.

  6. Hippo pathway/Yap regulates primary enamel knot and dental cusp patterning in tooth morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyuk-Jae Edward; Li, Liwen; Jung, Han-Sung

    2015-11-01

    The shape of an individual tooth crown is primarily determined by the number and arrangement of its cusps, i.e., cusp patterning. Enamel knots that appear in the enamel organ during tooth morphogenesis have been suggested to play important roles in cusp patterning. Animal model studies have shown that the Hippo pathway effector Yap has a critical function in tooth morphogenesis. However, the role of the Hippo pathway/Yap in cusp patterning has not been well documented and its specific roles in tooth morphogenesis remain unclear. Here, we provide evidence that Yap is a key mediator in tooth cusp patterning. We demonstrate a correlation between Yap localization and cell proliferation in developing tooth germs. We also show that, between the cap stage and bell stage, Yap is crucial for the suppression of the primary enamel knot and for the patterning of secondary enamel knots, which are the future cusp regions. When Yap expression is stage-specifically knocked down during the cap stage, the activity of the primary enamel knot persists into the bell-stage tooth germ, leading to ectopic cusp formation. Our data reveal the importance of the Hippo pathway/Yap in enamel knots and in the proper patterning of tooth cusps.

  7. Timing of emergence of the first primary tooth in preterm and full-term infants.

    PubMed

    Pavičin, Ivana Savić; Dumančić, Jelena; Badel, Tomislav; Vodanović, Marin

    2016-01-01

    Variations in the timing of emergence of primary teeth are under strong genetic control, but there is also a significant contribution from external factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of preterm birth, birth weight and length, and feeding practices during the first 6 months of life on the timing of emergence of the first primary tooth. Data on pregnancy duration, birth weight and length, feeding practice, time of emergence and first emerged primary tooth were collected by electronic questionnaires. The study included 409 parents and 592 children of both genders. The sample was divided into two groups according to pregnancy duration (<37 weeks and ≥37 weeks), three groups according to feeding practice (exclusively breastfed, exclusively bottle fed, and a combination of breast feeding and bottle feeding), three groups by birth length (<50, 50-53, >53cm), and four groups by birth weight (<1500, 1500-2500, 2501-3500, >3500g). Data were analyzed considering chronological and postmenstrual age-which is the gestational age plus the infant's chronological age at the month of emergence of the first primary tooth. The mean time of first primary tooth emergence was 7.55±2.67 months when chronological age was considered. The first emerged tooth in most cases was a lower incisor (82.33%). There was a statistically significant difference in the timing of the first tooth emergence between preterm and full-term groups when chronological age was considered (p<0.005). However, no difference was found when age was adjusted. The age of emergence of the first tooth differed significantly when feeding, weight, and length groups (p<0. 05) were taken into account. In conclusion, the study indicates that shortened gestational age and very low birth weight are predictors for later ages of emergence of the first primary tooth.

  8. Composite resin bond strength to caries-affected dentin contaminated with 3 different hemostatic agents.

    PubMed

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Hosseini-Shirazi, Moeen; Farahbod, Foroozan; Keshani, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Bonding of composite resins to sound and caries-affected dentin in cervical areas may necessitate the use of hemostatic agents to control sulcular fluid and hemorrhage. The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strengths of a self-etching adhesive system to sound and caries-affected dentin after the use of 3 different hemostatic agents. Composite resin cylinders were bonded to 48 caries-affected and 48 sound dentin surfaces in 8 groups. Groups 1-4 utilized caries-affected dentin: group 1, uncontaminated control; 2, ViscoStat; 3, ViscoStat Clear; and 4, trichloroacetic acid (TCA). Groups 5-8 utilized sound dentin: group 5, uncontaminated control; 6, ViscoStat; 7, ViscoStat Clear; and 8, TCA. The hemostatic agents were applied for 2 minutes and rinsed. After 500 rounds of thermocycling, shear bond strength tests were carried out. Data were analyzed with 1- and 2-way analyses of variance, t test, and post hoc Tukey tests at a significance level of P < 0.05. Bond strength was significantly influenced by dentin type (F = 38.23; P = 0.0001) and hemostatic agent (F = 6.32; P = 0.001). Furthermore, groups 2 and 6 (ViscoStat) showed significantly lower bond strength values than the control groups (groups 1 and 5) in both affected and sound dentin (P = 0.043 and P = 0.009, respectively). Within the limitations of this study, the bond strength of composite resin to caries-affected dentin was significantly reduced compared to that with sound dentin. Among the studied hemostatic agents, ViscoStat resulted in a greater decrease in dentin bond strength. Contamination of both sound and caries-affected dentin with hemostatic agents decreased composite resin bond strength. Of the 3 hemostatic agents used, ViscoStat Clear appeared to have the least detrimental effect on bond strength.

  9. Tensile bond strength and SEM evaluation of caries-affected dentin using dentin adhesives.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, M; Sano, H; Burrow, M F; Tagami, J; Yoshiyama, M; Ebisu, S; Ciucchi, B; Russell, C M; Pashley, D H

    1995-10-01

    Tensile bond strength measurements are commonly used for the evaluation of dentin adhesive systems. Most tests are performed using extracted non-carious human or bovine dentin. However, the adhesion of resins to caries-affected dentin is still unclear. The objectives of this study were to test the hypothesis that bonding to caries-affected dentin is inferior to bonding to normal dentin, and that the quality of the hybrid layer plays a major role in creating good adhesion. We used a micro-tensile bond strength test to compare test bond strengths made to either caries-affected dentin or normal dentin, using three commercial adhesive systems (All Bond 2, Scotchbond Multi-Purpose, and Clearfil Liner Bond II). For scanning electron microscopy, the polished interfaces between the adhesive bond and dentin were subjected to brief exposure to 10% phosphoric acid solution and 5% sodium hypochlorite, so that the quality of the hybrid layers could be observed. Bonding to normal dentin with either All Bond 2 (26.9 +/- 8.8 MPa) or Clearfil Liner Bond II (29.5 +/- 10.9 MPa) showed tensile bond strengths higher than those to caries-affected dentin (13.0 +/- 3.6 MPa and 14.0 +/- 4.3 MPa, respectively). The tensile bond strengths obtained with Scotchbond Multi-Purpose were similar in normal and caries-affected dentin (20.3 +/- 5.5 MPa and 18.5 +/- 4.0 MPa, respectively). The hybrid layers created by All Bond 2 in normal dentin and by Clearfil Liner Bond II in normal or caries-affected dentin showed phosphoric acid and sodium hypochlorite resistance, whereas the hybrid layers created by All Bond 2 in caries-affected dentin and those created by Scotchbond Multi-Purpose to normal and caries-affected dentin showed partial susceptibility to the acid and sodium hypochlorite treatment. The results indicate that the strength of adhesion to dentin depends upon both the adhesive system used and the type of dentin. Moreover, the quality of the hybrid layer may not always contribute

  10. [The role of pulp in the root resorption of primary teeth without permanent tooth germs].

    PubMed

    Lin, Bi-chen; Yang, Jie; Zhao, Yu-ming; Ge, Li-hong

    2011-03-01

    To investigate the role of pulp in the root resorption of primary teeth without permanent tooth germs. The animal model without permanent tooth germs was established by surgery in Beagle dog. The root resorption was observed by taking periapical radiographs periodically. The samples of mandibular bone and pulp at different resorption stages were collected. The distribution of odontoclasts and the activating factor was analyzed by histological staining and semiquantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The role of pulp in the root resorption of primary teeth was tested by early pulpectomy. In the root resorption of primary molars without permanent teeth germs, a large number of odontoclasts were present on the pulpal surface of the root canal. Semi-quantification RT-PCR showed that the ratios of the expression of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) mRNA and β-actin in the pulp of permanent teeth and primary teeth without permanent teeth germ during different periods of root resorption are 0.1314, 0.1901, 0.2111 and 0.6058 (P > 0.05). The root resorption of primary teeth without permanent teeth germs in test groups was about 5 weeks later than that of control group. The pulp of primary tooth played an important role in the root resorption of primary tooth without permanent tooth germ.

  11. Bell's palsy following primary tooth extraction. A case report.

    PubMed

    Owsley, David; Goldsmith, Jay P

    2012-04-01

    Bell's palsy is characterized by acute peripheral facial nerve paralysis. Unilateral paralysis of CN 7 is reported in 20 to 30 people out of 100,000 in the general population. It affects individuals of all ages. Most cases are idiopathic, while a few are identified as resulting from infectious or non-infectious causes. The association between herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) and Bell's palsy has been considered since the 1970s. Few cases have been reported after tooth extraction.

  12. Clinical and SEM characterization of prolonged retention of a primary tooth with pulpectomy.

    PubMed

    Correa-Faria, Patricia; Alcantara, Carlos Eduardo Pinto; Mesquita, Ana Terezinha; Marques, Leandro Silva; Ramos-Jorge, Maria Leticia

    2013-01-01

    Root canal filling with zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) paste following primary tooth pulpectomy is a common practice in pediatric dentistry. This material offers high clinical and radiographic success rates. In some cases, however, it is not resorbed along with the root of the primary tooth. The aim of this study was to describe a case of prolonged retention of a primary maxillary incisor that was subjected to pulpectomy and filled with ZOE paste in order to characterize the aspects of root resorption using scanning electron microscopy.

  13. Mineral density, morphology and bond strength of natural versus artificial caries-affected dentin.

    PubMed

    Joves, Gerardo José; Inoue, Go; Nakashima, Syozi; Sadr, Alireza; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate an artificial caries-affected dentin (ACAD) model for in vitro bonding studies in comparison to natural caries-affected dentin (NCAD) of human teeth. ACAD was created over 7 days in a demineralizing solution. Mineral density (MD) at different depth levels (0-150 µm) was compared between NCAD and ACAD by transverse microradiography. Micro-tensile bond strengths (µTBS) of two two-step self-etch adhesives to sound dentin, NCAD and ACAD were evaluated. Caries-affected dentin type was not a significant factor when comparing MD at different lesion levels (p>0.05). Under SEM, the dentinal tubules appeared occluded with crystal logs 1-2 µm in thickness in the NCAD; whereas they remained open in the ACAD. The µTBS to caries-affected dentin was lower than sound dentin, but was not affected by the type of caries (p>0.05). In spite of their different morphologies, the ACAD model showed similar MD and µTBS compared to NCAD.

  14. Concentration of formocresol used by pediatric dentists in primary tooth pulpotomy.

    PubMed

    King, Sílvia R A; McWhorter, Alton G; Seale, N Sue

    2002-01-01

    Diluted formocresol is the most widely recommended primary tooth pulpotomy medicament, but it is not commercially available. This investigation surveyed practicing pediatric dentists about the concentration of formocresol that they use to perform pulpotomies and, if they use diluted formocresol, where they obtain it. Eight-hundred-and-six surveys were sent to a randomly selected sample of practicing pediatric dentists, and 422 were returned for a 52% response rate. Eighty-four percent of the respondents use formocresol for their primary tooth pulpotomies. Of those, 69% use full strength, 27% use diluted and 4% don't know. Sources of diluted formocresol for those who use the diluted form include: 34% who buy it that way, 58% who dilute it themselves and 8% who have the pharmacy dilute it. The majority of pediatric dentists who use formocresol for primary tooth pulpotomies use a full strength formulation.

  15. Digital Radiography for Determination of Primary Tooth Length: In Vivo and Ex Vivo Studies

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Maria D.; Jeremias, Fabiano; Cordeiro, Rita C. L.; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes

    2015-01-01

    Background. Methods for determining the root canal length of the primary tooth should yield accurate and reproducible results. In vitro studies show some limitations, which do not allow their findings to be directly transferred to a clinical situation. Aim. To compare the accuracy of radiographic tooth length obtained from in vivo digital radiograph with that obtained from ex vivo digital radiograph. Method. Direct digital radiographs of 20 upper primary incisors were performed in teeth (2/3 radicular resorption) that were radiographed by an intraoral sensor, according to the long-cone technique. Teeth were extracted, measured, and mounted in a resin block, and then radiographic template was used to standardise the sensor-target distance (30 cm). The apparent tooth length (APTL) was obtained from the computer screen by means of an electronic ruler accompanying the digital radiography software (CDR 2.0), whereas the actual tooth length (ACTL) was obtained by means of a digital calliper following extraction. Data were compared to the ACTL by variance analysis and Pearson's correlation test. Results. The values for APTL obtained from in vivo radiography were slightly underestimated, whereas those values obtained from ex vivo were slightly overestimated. No significance was observed (P ≤ 0.48) between APTL and ACTL. Conclusion. The length of primary teeth estimated by in vivo and ex vivo comparisons using digital radiography was found to be similar to the actual tooth length. PMID:25802894

  16. Radicular cyst of primary tooth associated with maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Bahadure, Rakesh N; Khubchandani, Monika; Thosar, Nilima R; Singh, Rajeev Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Radicular cyst is one of the most common odontogenic cystic lesions found in the jaws. It is inflammatory in nature and found mostly in relation to a non-vital tooth. It usually presents at a later stage in life because the formation of the cyst is the last step in the progression of inflammatory events after a periapical infection. The cyst usually goes unnoticed because of its painless nature and small size. We present the clinical, radiographic and histological characteristics of a radicular cyst along with its management. Cystic sac was removed surgically under general anaesthesia after the elevation of the mucoperiosteal flap. Histopathologically, the cystic sac was consistent with the features of a radicular cyst. Follow-up period of 21 months showed improved radiographical appearance on Coned Beam CT. Vestibular deepening was planned as a future treatment in the same region. PMID:23833085

  17. Bond strength of different adhesives to normal and caries-affected dentins.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Wei; Hou, Ben-xiang; Lü, Ya-lin

    2010-02-05

    Currently, several systems of dentin substrate-reacting adhesives are available for use in the restorative treatment against caries. However, the bond effectiveness and property of different adhesive systems to caries-affected dentin are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of different adhesives to both normal dentin (ND) and caries-affected dentin (CAD) and to analyze the dentin/adhesive interfacial characteristics. Twenty eight extracted human molars with coronal medium carious lesions were randomly assigned to four groups according to adhesives used. ND and CAD were bonded with etch-and-rinse adhesive Adper Single Bond 2 (SB2) or self-etching adhesives Clearfil SE Bond (CSE), Clearfil S(3) Bond (CS3), iBond GI (IB). Rectangular sticks of resin-dentin bonded interfaces 0.9 mm(2) were obtained. The specimens were subjected to microtensile bond strength (microTBS) testing at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. Mean microTBS was statistically analyzed with analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student-Newman-Keuls tests. Interfacial morphologies were analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Etch-and-rinse adhesive Adper(TM) Single Bond 2 yielded high bond strength when applied to both normal and caries-affected dentin. The two-step self-etching adhesive Clearfil SE Bond generated the highest bond strength to ND among all adhesives tested but a significantly reduced strength when applied to CAD. For the one-step self-etching adhesives, Clearfil S(3) Bond and iBond GI, the bond strength was relatively low regardless of the dentin type. SEM interfacial analysis revealed that hybrid layers were thicker with poorer resin tag formation and less resin-filled lateral branches in the CAD than in the ND for all the adhesives tested. The etch-and-rinse adhesive performed more effectively to caries-affected dentin than the self-etching adhesives.

  18. Nanoindentation hardness of intertubular dentin in sound, demineralized and natural caries-affected dentin.

    PubMed

    Joves, Gerardo José; Inoue, Go; Sadr, Alireza; Nikaido, Toru; Tagami, Junji

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the mechanical properties of intertubular dentin in sound, natural caries-affected (NCAD) and artificial caries-affected dentin (ACAD) using nanoindentation. Non-caries molars and caries molars with International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS II) score 5 at the occlusal site were used and caries was excavated using a spoon excavator, a round bur at low speed without water and a dye solution as guidance to detect the infected tissue. Specimens with remaining dentin thickness (RDT) >2mm were selected. ACAD teeth were created from sound teeth over 7 days in a demineralizing solution. Specimens were embedded into plastic rings with acrylic resin and then sagittal mesial-distal sectioned from crown to the long axis of the root under cooling water using a low-speed diamond blade. The surface of interest was fine polished sequentially. Hardness measurement was performed within an axial depth of 1000μm with at least of 320 indentations on each sample. Mann-Whitney U Test was used to compare the hardness as the variable among different dentin types (SOUND, NCAD and ACAD) at each dentin depth level. There was no significant difference in nanohardness between NCAD and ACAD up to a depth of 130μm (p>0.05). NCAD consistently showed lower hardness. ACAD showed no significant difference in hardness with SOUND dentin beyond 190μm (p<0.05). The lesion front in ACAD was considered to be located around the depth of 180μm. Natural and artificial caries-affected dentin tissues were superficially comparable in intertubular nanohardness. There is a certain layer within the natural caries-affected dentin with higher hardness; however the long-term effects of caries beneath the lesion extend deeply through intertubular dentin. Sound dentin at deep areas (close to the pulp chamber) is considered to be soft. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effects of periradicular inflamation and infection on a primary tooth and permanent successor.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Mabel Mariela Rodriguez; Rocha, Maria Jose de Carvalho

    2005-01-01

    Primary teeth and the permanent successors must be understood as interdependent units, where each one of them interacts with and depends on each other. Pulpal inflammation/infection of a primary tooth and the spread of this condition over the periradicular tissues can lead to alterations in the dental germ of the permanent successor and to the surrounding structures if no therapy is done, i.e. endodontics or extraction. This work will present cases of permanent teeth that showed alteration in eruption and / or in development, as a consequence of inflammation / infection of the preceding primary teeth, such as: hypoplasia, morphological alteration on the dental crown or total arrest of. radicular formation. The teeth analysed in this study belong to patients who attended the Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina Children's Dentistry Clinic. The earlier these lesions are diagnosed, the less were the destructive effects and the consequences on the primary tooth/permanent germ unit.

  20. Primary tooth size asymmetry in twins and singletons.

    PubMed

    Heikkinen, T; Harila, V; Ollikkala, A; Alvesalo, L

    2016-08-01

    To explore asymmetry values of antimeric deciduous tooth crown dimensions in three types of twins: monozygotic (MZ), dizygotic same-sex (DZ) and opposite-sex (OS) vs. single-born controls. Mesiodistal and labio-lingual crown dimensions of second deciduous molars and mesiodistal canine and first molar crown dimensions of 2159 children at 6-12 years of age were evaluated, originating from the US cross-sectional Collaborative Perinatal Study from the 1970s, including altogether MZ (n = 28), DZ same-sex (n = 33) and OS (n = 39) pairs. Single born (n = 1959) were used as controls. Dental casts were measured for comparison of variance relationships calculated from antimeric teeth, exhibiting fluctuating (FA), and directional (DA) asymmetry using anova. Significant differences appeared in MZ and OS girls in DA of deciduous canines, which gain size in the first and second trimester, and deciduous second molars, which finally stop crown growth during the early post-natal period. Significantly, increased FA values appeared for lower deciduous canines and second molars, indicating greatest environmental stress in OS girls, MZ girls and DZ boys. Twin girls had more fluctuating and directional crown asymmetry than twin boys, but in some dimensions, the twins were more symmetric than controls. Transmembrane hormonal influence between opposite-sex twins, and late gestational stress factors, caused by placental malfunction and/or monochorionicity, may be involved in asymmetric growth of antimers, during critical periods of crown size gain. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Buccal and palatal talon cusps with pulp extensions on a supernumerary primary tooth.

    PubMed

    Siraci, E; Cem Gungor, H; Taner, B; Cehreli, Z C

    2006-11-01

    This paper reports an unusual occurrence of talon cusp on a supernumerary primary incisor, presenting on both labial and palatal sides. The tooth was scheduled for extraction due to its interference with the occlusion. Morphometric analysis of the taloned cusps was performed on digitized replicas of the tooth crown using open-source image analysis toolkit (ImageJ). Further non-destructive investigation of the taloned crown under cone-beam X-ray computed tomography revealed pulpal extensions in both talon cusps.

  2. Mesiodistal tooth crown dimensions of the primary dentition: a worldwide survey.

    PubMed

    Harris, Edward F; Lease, Loren R

    2005-11-01

    This analysis reports on a spatial-temporal survey of published studies of primary tooth crown dimensions in humans (80 samples). Mesiodistal data are analyzed for the 10 tooth crown dimensions. The purpose was to evaluate the numerous case reports (descriptive analyses of single samples) in the literature in order to assess patterning of variation 1) in tooth size, 2) among tooth types, 3) across sexes, 4) with space (historical affinity), and 5) with time. Sexual dimorphism is low in the primary dentition, averaging 2% across all 10 tooth types. All size distributions of the samples are positively skewed because of megadont native Australians. Europeans, who are most frequently represented in the literature, have the smallest tooth crowns of any continental grouping assessed. The method by Darroch Mosimann ([1985] Biometrika 72:241-252) of reducing size effects was used, basically standardizing the data variable-wise, and then ordinating groups on their factor scores. Principal components analysis produced just two canonical axes: overall size (68%) and a front-back (i1-i2-c vs. m1-m2) polarity (11%), based on the intergroup (not ontogenetic) covariance matrix. This second component discriminates between groups with relatively large anterior teeth (Europeans) and those where relatively more tooth substance is apportioned to the molars (Africans and Asians). Size differences predominate over shape between sexes from the same groups. Europeans have small teeth with comparatively large anterior dimensions. Asian and sub-Saharan African samples share features of average crown size but large cheek teeth. Indian and European samples show considerable overlap on both canonical axes, with average size overall but comparatively large anterior teeth. The few Amerindian samples are too variable to characterize. Based on comparisons of archaeological and living samples, tooth size reductions are documented here for Europe, India, and the Near East compared to tooth sizes of

  3. Diagnosis and Management of Hidden Caries in a Primary Molar Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Gera, Arwa

    2017-01-01

    Hidden caries is a dentinal lesion beneath the dentinoenamel junction, visible on radiographs. A single report described this lesion in primary dentition. This case report describes a case of hidden caries in a mandibular second primary molar, misdiagnosed as malignant swelling. A 3-year-old white girl was referred to the Department of Pediatric Dentistry with a chief complaint of pain and extraoral swelling on the right side of the mandible for the last 3 months. She was earlier referred to the surgical department for biopsy of the lesion. Radiographic and computed tomography scan examination showed a periapical lesion with buccal plate resorption and radiolucency beneath the enamel on the mesial part of tooth 85. The tooth was extracted, and follow-up of 2 years showed normal development of tooth 45. The main problem is early detection and treatment, since the outer surface of enamel may appear intact on tactile examination. How to cite this article Gera A, Zilberman U. Diagnosis and Management of Hidden Caries in a Primary Molar Tooth. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):99-102. PMID:28377664

  4. Primary tooth enamel loss after manual and mechanical microabrasion.

    PubMed

    Zuanon, Angela Cristina Cilense; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Azevedo, Elcilaine Rizzato; Lima, Luciana Monti

    2008-01-01

    This study's purpose was to assess the amount of dental enamel loss on primary incisors after manual or mechanical microabrasion with a phosphoric acid/pumice paste. Ten exfoliated primary maxillary incisors were bisected faciolingually and the resulting 20 halves were randomly assigned to 2 groups: group 1 (N = 10)-manual technique (plastic spatula); and group 2 (N = 10)-mechanical technique (rubber cup attached to a low-speed handpiece). Microabrasion was performed on the buccal surface using an abrasive paste prepared with 37% phosphoric acid and pumice. Ten 20-second applications alternated with 20-second risings were performed in each group. Enamel thickness measurements made under stereomicroscopy before and after microabrasion were analyzed statistically by analysis of variance and pairwise t test. There was a statistically significant difference (P = .003) between the manual and mechanical techniques. The mechanical technique produced a mean enamel loss of 274.16 microm (66% of total enamel thickness), while the mean enamel loss with the manual technique was 152.59 microm (39% of total enamel thickness). Manual microabrasion using a plastic spatula removed less enamel, but was sufficient to eliminate most superficial stains and defects, and may be a viable option for the microabrasive technique on primary teeth.

  5. Self-etching adhesives: review of adhesion to tooth structure part I.

    PubMed

    Strydom, C

    2004-11-01

    Self-etching adhesives with their easy handling technique and promise of no post-op sensitivity are increasingly popular among dental practitioners. As with any new bonding material, in vitro and in vivo investigations are required to assess the clinical efficacy of these systems. The current literature was reviewed to provide information about these systems in terms of: etching of and adhesion to prepared and unprepared enamel, primary enamel and sclerotic or caries-affected dentine. Published abstracts and research papers on laboratory studies, as well as reviews available in the dental literature. Although the etching aggressiveness of self-etching systems can be used to predict the depth of demineralisation of tooth structure and the ultra-structure and thickness of the hybrid layer, it cannot be correlated to the bond strengths obtained on enamel and dentine. A certain mild two-step self-etching system, for example, consistently provides similar or higher bond strengths than more aggressive self-etching systems in laboratory studies. Where either intact enamel or sclerotic or caries-affected dentine is involved, self-etching systems generally provide lower bond strengths than total-etch systems; therefore coarsening of tooth structure, extra etching time or an extra application of the primer is recommended.

  6. A novel approach in management of lateral luxation of primary tooth

    PubMed Central

    Wankhade, Abhijit D; Pandey, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Rajeev Kumar; Gondhalekar, Rajashree

    2013-01-01

    Lateral luxation is defined as the displacement of the tooth in a direction other than axially. The present case report narrates management of laterally luxated primary maxillary central incisor with occlusal interference using an inclined plane fabricated with composite resin. The composite resin inclined plane was successfully used for correction of cross-bite caused due to lateral luxation particularly in delayed presentation of the case to the Pedodontics clinic after traumatic injury with occlusal interference. PMID:23524489

  7. Elemental analysis of caries-affected root dentin and artificially demineralized dentin

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Young-Hye; Son, Ho-Hyun; Yi, Keewook

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to analyze the mineral composition of naturally- and artificially-produced caries-affected root dentin and to determine the elemental incorporation of resin-modified glass ionomer (RMGI) into the demineralized dentin. Materials and Methods Box-formed cavities were prepared on buccal and lingual root surfaces of sound human premolars (n = 15). One cavity was exposed to a microbial caries model using a strain of Streptococcus mutans. The other cavity was subjected to a chemical model under pH cycling. Premolars and molars with root surface caries were used as a natural caries model (n = 15). Outer caries lesion was removed using a carbide bur and a hand excavator under a dyeing technique and restored with RMGI (FujiII LC, GC Corp.). The weight percentages of calcium (Ca), phosphate (P), and strontium (Sr) and the widths of demineralized dentin were determined by electron probe microanalysis and compared among the groups using ANOVA and Tukey test (p < 0.05). Results There was a pattern of demineralization in all models, as visualized with scanning electron microscopy. Artificial models induced greater losses of Ca and P and larger widths of demineralized dentin than did a natural caries model (p < 0.05). Sr was diffused into the demineralized dentin layer from RMGI. Conclusions Both microbial and chemical caries models produced similar patterns of mineral composition on the caries-affected dentin. However, the artificial lesions had a relatively larger extent of demineralization than did the natural lesions. RMGI was incorporated into the superficial layer of the caries-affected dentin. PMID:27847746

  8. Can Caries-Affected Dentin be Completely Remineralized by Guided Tissue Remineralization?

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Lin; Liu, Yan; Salameh, Ziad; Khan, Sara; Mao, Jing; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction To date, there is no evidence that conventional remineralization techniques using calcium and phosphate ion- containing media will completely remineralize carious lesions in regions where remnant apatite seed crystallites are absent. Conversely, guided tissue remineralization using biomimetic analogs of dentin matrix proteins is successful in remineralizing thin layers of completely demineralized dentin. The hypothesis Conventional remineralization strategy depends on epitaxial growth over existing apatite crystallites. If there are no or few crystallites, there will be no remineralization. Guided tissue remineralization uses biomimetic analogs of dentin matrix proteins to introduce sequestered amorphous calcium phosphate nanoprecursors into the internal water compartments of collagen fibrils. Attachment of templating analogs of matrix phosphoproteins to the collagen fibrils further guided the nucleation and growth of apatite crystallites within the fibril. Such a strategy is independent of apatite seed crystallites. Our hypothesis is that 250–300 microns thick artificial carious lesions can be completely remineralized in vitro by guide tissue remineralization but not by conventional remineralization techniques. Evaluation of the hypothesis Validation of the hypothesis will address the critical barrier to progress in remineralization of caries- affected dentin and shift existing paradigms by providing a novel method of remineralization based on a nanotechnology-based bottom-up approach. This will also generate important information to support the translation of the proof-of-concept biomimetic strategy into a clinically-relevant delivery system for remineralizing caries-affected dentin created by micro-organisms in the oral cavity. PMID:21909477

  9. Shear bond strengths of self-etching adhesives to caries-affected dentin on the gingival wall.

    PubMed

    Koyuturk, Alp Erdin; Sengun, Abdulkadir; Ozer, Fusun; Sener, Yagmur; Gokalp, Alparslan

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the bonding ability of five current self-etching adhesives to caries-affected dentin on the gingival wall. Seventy extracted human molars with approximal dentin caries were employed in this study. In order to obtain caries-affected dentin on the gingival wall, grinding was performed under running water. Following which, specimens mounted in acrylic blocks and composite resins of the bonding systems were bonded to dentin with plastic rings and then debonded by shear bond strength. With Clearfil SE Bond, bonding to caries-affected dentin showed the highest bond strength. With Optibond Solo Plus Self-Etch, bonding to caries-affected dentin showed higher shear bond strength than AQ Bond, Tyrian SPE & One-Step Plus, and Prompt-L-Pop (p<0.05). Further, the bond strengths of Clearfil SE Bond and Optibond Solo Plus Self-Etch to sound dentin were higher than those of Prompt-L-Pop, AQ Bond, and Tyrian SPE & One-Step Plus (p<0.05). In conclusion, besides micromechanical interlocking through hybrid layer formation, bond strength of self-etch adhesives to dentin may be increased from additional chemical interaction between the functional monomer and residual hydroxyapatite. The results of this study confirmed that differences in bond strength among self-etching adhesives to both caries-affected and sound dentin were due to chemical composition rather than acidity.

  10. Endodontic treatment and esthetic management of a primary double tooth with direct composite using silicone buildup guide.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, Vinaya Kumar; Ragavendra, T Raju; Deshmukh, Jeevanand; Vanka, Amit; Duddu, Mahesh Kumar; Patil, Anand Kumar G

    2012-04-01

    Gemination and fusion are morphological dental anomalies, characterized by the formation of a clinically wide tooth. Gemination occurs when one tooth bud tries to divide, while fusion occurs if two buds unite. The terms double teeth, double formation, conjoined teeth, geminifusion, vicinifusion and dental twinning are often used to describe fusion and gemination. Double teeth are associated with clinical problems such as poor esthetics, spacing problems and caries susceptibility. Management of such cases requires a comprehensive knowledge of the clinical entity as well as the problems associated with it. This report presents a case of primary double tooth in a 6-year-old boy involving maxillary left central incisor. The anomalous tooth was carious and pulpally involved. This was treated conservatively by endodontic treatment and esthetic rehabilitation was done with direct composite restoration using a silicone buildup guide. The treated tooth was followed up until exfoliation.

  11. [Microtensile bond strength and morphological evaluations of total-etch and self-etch adhesives to caries-affected dentin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Sa; Huang, Cui; Zheng, Tie-li; Zhang, Zhi-xing; Wang, Yi-ning; Cheng, Xiang-rong

    2006-06-01

    To evaluate the microtensile bond strength and bond interface of total-etch or self-etch adhesives to normal dentin and caries-affected dentin. A total of 20 molars with occlusal caries lesion were used. The caries-affected dentin was obtained by removing the caries-infected dentin under the guidance of the caries detector. Beyond the level of caries-affected dentin all the enamel and partial dentin were removed. The adhesive systems, two total-etch adhesives (All-Bond 2, Prime&Bond NT) and two self-etch adhesives (Clearfil SE Bond, Xeno III) were applied respectively under the instructions of manufacturers. A block of composite resin was build up superficially. All the teeth were sectioned to obtain bar-shaped specimens with bonded surface area about 0.9 mm x 0.9 mm. The specimens were divided into normal dentin group and caries-affected dentin group via stereomicroscope. The bond strength was tested in a microtensile tester with a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The mean values of bond strength were compared using two-way ANOVA. The bonding interface between the dentin and adhesives was qualitatively evaluated under the observation of scanning electron microscope (SEM). Two-way ANOVA revealed a significant influence of both the type of dentin and the adhesive systems tested on microtensile bond strength values. All the adhesives attained higher strength in normal dentin. In normal dentin, there was no significant difference between total-etch and self-etch adhesives. In caries-affected dentin, bond strength of Xeno III was significantly lower than the others. For SEM, the hybrid layer in caries-affected dentin was thicker but more porous than that in normal dentin. Compared with normal dentin, there was fewer resin tag exhibited in caries-affected dentin and no lateral branches were observed. The total-etch adhesive had higher bond strength than self-etch adhesive systems in caries-affected dentin.

  12. Timing and sequence of primary tooth eruption in children with cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    KOBAYASHI, Tatiana Yuriko; GOMIDE, Márcia Ribeiro; CARRARA, Cleide Felício de Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Objective To determine the timing and sequence of eruption of primary teeth in children with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at the Hospital for Rehabilitation of Craniofacial Anomalies of the University of São Paulo, Bauru, SP, Brazil, with a sample of 395 children (128 girls and 267 boys) aged 0 to 48 months, with complete bilateral cleft lip and palate Results Children with complete bilateral clefts presented a higher mean age of eruption of all primary teeth for both arches and both genders, compared to children without clefts. This difference was statistically significant for all teeth, except for the maxillary first molar. Mean age of eruption of most teeth was lower for girls compared to boys. The greatest delay was found for the maxillary lateral incisor, which was the eighth tooth of children with clefts of both genders. Analyzing by gender, the maxillary lateral incisor was the eighth tooth to erupt in girls and the last in boys. Conclusion The results suggest an interference of the cleft on the timing and sequence of eruption of primary teeth. PMID:20856997

  13. Prevalence of primary tooth traumatic injuries among children in a large industrial centre of Russian Federation.

    PubMed

    Makeeva, I; Sarapultseva, M; Sarapultsev, A

    2014-10-01

    Recently, the number of children seeking dental care for traumatic tooth injuries has increased substantially. This study was aimed at assessing the prevalence of primary tooth traumatic injuries (PTTI) in the paediatric populace of Ekaterinburg, a large industrial centre of the Russian Federation. Following ethical approval, an epidemiological investigation of primary dentition was conducted, evaluating 1,149 children aged 6-72 months (males 586/1,149, 51%; females 563/1,149, 49%). The average age of subjects overall was 43.9 ± 17.7 months (males 45.1 ± 17.9 months; females 42.6 ± 17.4 months). The prevalence of PTTI among paediatric residents of this region was 9.75%, with uncomplicated crown fracture (36.9%) as the chief primary dental injury. Dental visits attributable to PTTI were most frequent in the age group of 25-36 months, which clearly constitutes the period of greatest vulnerability. The findings of this study suggest that PTTI is a critical issue in children, requiring programmes that address preventive dental care and adhere to established medical treatment standards.

  14. Comparison of Amount of Primary Tooth Reduction Required for Anterior and Posterior Zirconia and Stainless Steel Crowns.

    PubMed

    Clark, Larkin; Wells, Martha H; Harris, Edward F; Lou, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    To determine if aggressiveness of primary tooth preparation varied among different brands of zirconia and stainless steel (SSC) crowns. One hundred primary typodont teeth were divided into five groups (10 posterior and 10 anterior) and assigned to: Cheng Crowns (CC); EZ Pedo (EZP); Kinder Krowns (KKZ); NuSmile (NSZ); and SSC. Teeth were prepared, and assigned crowns were fitted. Teeth were weighed prior to and after preparation. Weight changes served as a surrogate measure of tooth reduction. Analysis of variance showed a significant difference in tooth reduction among brand/type for both the anterior and posterior. Tukey's honest significant difference test (HSD), when applied to anterior data, revealed that SSCs required significantly less tooth removal compared to the composite of the four zirconia brands, which showed no significant difference among them. Tukey's HSD test, applied to posterior data, revealed that CC required significantly greater removal of crown structure, while EZP, KKZ, and NSZ were statistically equivalent, and SSCs required significantly less removal. Zirconia crowns required more tooth reduction than stainless steel crowns for primary anterior and posterior teeth. Tooth reduction for anterior zirconia crowns was equivalent among brands. For posterior teeth, reduction for three brands (EZ Pedo, Kinder Krowns, NuSmile) did not differ, while Cheng Crowns required more reduction.

  15. Evaluation of micro-tensile bond strength of caries-affected human dentine after three different caries removal techniques.

    PubMed

    Sirin Karaarslan, E; Yildiz, E; Cebe, M A; Yegin, Z; Ozturk, B

    2012-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect that different techniques for removing dental caries had on the strength of the microtensile bond to caries-affected human dentine created by three bonding agents. Forty-five human molar teeth containing carious lesions were randomly divided into three groups according to the technique that would be used to remove the caries: a conventional bur, an Er:YAG laser or a chemo-mechanical Carisolv(®) gel (n=15). Next, each of the three removal-technique groups was divided into three subgroups according to the bonding agents that would be used: Clearfil(®) SE Bond, G-Bond(®), or Adper(®) Single Bond 2 (n=5). Three 1mm(2) stick-shaped microtensile specimens from each tooth were prepared with a slow-speed diamond saw sectioning machine fitted with a diamond-rim blade (n=15 specimens). For each removal technique one dentine sample was analysed using scanning electron microscopy. There were statistically significant differences in the resulting tensile strength of the bond among the techniques used to remove the caries and there were also statistically significant differences in the strength of the bond among the adhesive systems used. The etch-and-rinse adhesive system was the most affected by the technique used to remove the caries; of the three techniques tested, the chemo-mechanical removal technique worked best with the two-step self etch adhesive system. The bond strength values of the etch-and-rinse adhesive system were affected by the caries removal techniques used in the present study. However, in the one- and two-step self etch adhesive systems, bond strength values were not affected by the caries removal techniques applied. While a chemo-mechanical caries removal technique, similar to Carisolv(®), may be suggested with self etch adhesive systems, in caries removal techniques with laser, etch-and-rinse systems might be preferred. Caries removal methods may lead to differences in the characteristics of dentine surface. Dentine

  16. The use of a natural tooth crown following traumatic injuries in primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Tannure, Patricia Nivoloni; Valinoti, Ana Carolina; Maia, Lucianne Cople

    2009-01-01

    Preschool children are frequently affected by traumatic dental injuries, most of them during the first three years of life. Due to the resiliency of the alveolar bone surrounding the primary teeth, most of these injuries fit into tooth luxations category. In this paper two different cases of early loss of primary incisors resulting from luxations are described. Removable esthetic space maintainers were placed using the natural crown of the traumatized teeth and the children were evaluated over a 12 month period. The treatment given could be considered an excellent rehabilitation option since it restores the esthetics and masticatory function, allows speech development, benefits oral hygiene and prevents the establishment of tongue habits and malocclusions.

  17. Effect of foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel after erosive challenge with hydrochloric acid.

    PubMed

    Mesquita-Guimarães, Késsia Suênia Fidelis de; Scatena, Camila; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Serra, Mônica Campos

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of industrialised foods and drinks on primary tooth enamel previously eroded with hydrochloric acid (HCl). The crowns of one hundred two specimens were subjected to an erosive challenge with HCl and randomly divided into six groups (n = 17): Chocolate Milk (Toddynho® - Pepsico) - negative control; Petit Suisse Yogurt (Danoninho® - Danone); Strawberry Yogurt (Vigor); Apple puree (Nestlé); Fermented Milk (Yakult® - Yakult); and Home Squeezed Style Orange Juice (del Valle) - positive control. The 28-day immersion cycles for the test products were performed twice daily and were interspersed with exposure of the test substrate to artificial saliva. Measurements of enamel surface microhardness (SMH) were performed initially, after immersion in HCl and at 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of experimentation. A two-way ANOVA, according to a split-plot design, followed by the sum of squares decomposition and Tukey's test, revealed a significant effect for the interaction between Foods and Drinks and Length of Exposure (p < 0.00001). Orange juice resulted in greater mineral loss of enamel after 28 days. None of the test products was associated with recovery of tooth enamel microhardness.

  18. Calcium and magnesium levels in primary tooth enamel and genetic variation in enamel formation genes.

    PubMed

    Halusic, Alina M; Sepich, Victoria R; Shirley, Daniel C; Granjeiro, José M; Costa, Marcelo C; Küchler, Erika C; Vieira, Alexandre R

    2014-01-01

    Evidence exists that a genetic component in caries susceptibility is related to variation in enamel formation genes. The purpose of this study was to explore the trends of demineralization and remineralization of teeth from individuals whose genotypes for selected genes (ENAM, MMP20, TUFT, TFIP, and AMBN) are known. In this study, primary baseline teeth (20) were exposed to an artificial caries solution, followed by a remineralizing solution. Biopsies of each tooth category (baseline, carious, and fluoridated) were completed via an acid wash solution. Concentrations of magnesium and calcium were measured using an optical emission spectrometer instrument. Allele and genotype frequencies for calcium and magnesium levels were compared between each tooth category. To help interpret the results, we also calculated odds ratios. Calcium levels exceeded magnesium levels in each sample. In addition, mineral concentration varied among samples. Associations could be seen between genetic variation in ENAM (P=.0003 baseline values for calcium, P<.001 baseline values for magnesium, P<.04 artificial caries values for magnesium) and AMBN (P<.02 artificial caries values for calcium) with mineral concentration. Our results suggest that genetic variation of enamel formation genes may influence calcium and magnesium concentrations of teeth and impact the development of caries.

  19. Bleaching a devital primary tooth using sodium perborate with walking bleach technique: a case report.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Volkan; Sari, Saziye; Sonmez, Hayriye

    2009-05-01

    Nowadays, both children and parents place a greater value on appearance and aesthetics than has previously been the case. Primary teeth with intrinsic discoloration may be treated by a number of methods, including facings and abrasion. However, dental bleaching may offer a safer alternative that can be completed with less chair time and without harming dental structures. This case report describes the treatment of a darkened primary tooth of a 4-year-old boy with sodium perborate using the walking bleach technique and its 1-year clinical and radiographical follow-up. During this 1-year follow-up period, no signs of any pathology were observed either clinically (sensitivity to percussion or palpation, fistulae, color change) or radiographically (external or internal root resorption, apical radiolucency). In this study, using sodium perborate with the walking bleach technique is found to be successful in whitening primary teeth and can be recommended as a safe alternative for the bleaching of devital primary teeth with intrinsic discoloration.

  20. The effect of caries excavation methods on the bond strength of etch-and-rinse and self-etch adhesives to caries affected dentine.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, V; Singla, M; Yadav, S; Yadav, H

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of chemomechanical caries removal and conventional caries excavation on the microtensile bond strength of three different dentine adhesive systems. Thirty extracted human mandibular molars with radiographic signs of dental caries extending up to the middle third of dentine were sectioned longitudinally through the centre of the carious lesion in a buccolingual direction to yield two sections. One half of each tooth was excavated by tungsten carbide bur and the other half was chemomechanically treated with Carisolv(®) . Three dentine bonding systems: an etch-and-rinse single bottle adhesive (Single Bond, 3M ESPE); a two bottle, two-step self-etch bonding system (One Coat Self Etching Bond, Coltene Whaledent); and a single-step, single bottle self-etch adhesive (Adper Easy Bond Self-Etch Adhesive, 3M ESPE) were applied and composite build-up was done. The specimens were tested for microtensile bond strength. Data were analysed using two-way analysis of variance and pair-wise multiple comparisons were done using the Holm-Sidak method. The etch-and-rinse adhesive and two bottle self-etch system showed significantly higher bond strength than the single bottle self-etch system. Caries excavation method had no influence on bond strength values. Carisolv(®) did not affect the microtensile bond strength values of different adhesive systems tested to the caries affected dentine. © 2013 Australian Dental Association.

  1. Microhardness of composite resin cured through different primary tooth thicknesses with different light intensities and curing times: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Mazhari, Fatemeh; Ajami, Behjatolmolok; Moazzami, Saied Mostafa; Baghaee, Bahareh; Hafez, Bahareh

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of increased exposure time and light intensity on microhardness of cured composite through different thicknesses of tooth structure in primary teeth. Materials and Methods: One hundred and seventy cylindrical resin composite specimens were prepared. All specimens were divided into 17 experimental and control groups. “Light-emitting diode” light curing unit (LCU) applied directly or through 1, 2, and 3 mm thicknesses tooth slices for experimental groups. The irradiation protocols were 25 and 50 s at 650 mW/cm2 and 15 and 30 s at 1100 mW/cm2. The “quartz-tungsten-halogen” LCU (400 mW/cm2) for 40 s was used in control group. Microhardness was measured by the Vickers hardness test. Results: Indirectly cured specimens and those cured through a 1 mm thick tooth structure, an increase in intensity caused hardness drop. In the specimens cured through 2 and 3 mm thick tooth structures, increased intensity and/or exposure time did not show any appropriate changes on microhardness. Conclusion: Irradiation through a 1.0 mm thick tooth slice resulted in reduced microhardness although it was still within the clinically acceptable level. The hardness values of the specimens cured through 2 or 3 mm thick tooth slices fell below the clinically acceptable level even after doubling the exposure time and/or light intensity. PMID:27095897

  2. Effect of ammonium hexafluorosilicate application for arresting caries treatment on demineralized primary tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Hosoya, Yumiko; Tadokoro, Katsumi; Otani, Hideji; Hidaka, Kiyoshi; Inoue, Takashi; Miyazaki, Masashi; Tay, Franklin R

    2013-01-01

    Ammonium hexafluorosilicate (AHF) has been applied to arrest caries without discoloration. The purpose of this study was to observe structural and elemental changes of demineralized and AHF applied primary tooth enamel. Enamel from the labial surface of 20 primary canines was divided into an unground side and ground side at the center of the tooth, and demineralized with 35% phosphoric acid for 6 min. The teeth were divided into 4 groups according to a 3-min application of AHF and 1 week of soaking in artificial saliva, as follows: group A (neither AHF nor saliva), group B (only saliva), group C (only AHF), and group D (AHF and saliva), and then subdivided according to whether the enamel was ground or unground. Specimens were analyzed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The data were statistically analyzed using ANOVA and Fisher's PLSD test at α = 0.05. In groups A and B, prism structures were seen, however, in groups C and D, enamel surfaces were covered with spherical particles. Ca/P ratio was significantly higher in groups C and D than in groups A and B. There was no significant difference between ground and unground enamel in the content of any element. The values for F, Na, Mg and Si persents and Ca/P ratio were significantly higher for the enamel surface than for points 10-30 µm beneath the surface. Results of this study suggest the possibility that AHF treatment arrests caries, although further study will be required to confirm this result.

  3. Effect of ethanol-wet bonding with hydrophobic adhesive on caries-affected dentine.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xueqing; Li, Li; Huang, Cui; Du, Xijin

    2011-08-01

    Frequently encountered in clinical practice, caries-affected dentine (CAD) is the most challenging bonding substrate. This study evaluated the effect of ethanol-wet bonding with hydrophobic adhesive to sound dentine and to CAD. In the control groups, prepared sound dentine and CAD were bonded with Adper Single Bond 2 using a traditional water-wet bonding technique. In the experimental groups, the specimens were treated as follows: Group 1, rinsed with stepwise ethanol dehydration; Group 2, immersion in 100% ethanol, three times, for 20 s each time; and Group 3, immersion in 100% ethanol for 20 s. Microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing was used to evaluate the effects of the different protocols on bonding. The microhardness of debonded dentine surfaces was measured to ensure the presence of CAD. Interfacial nanoleakage was evaluated by field-emission scanning electron microscopy. Treatment significantly improved the μTBS in CAD in Groups 1 and 2, but had no effect on Group 3. Conversely, treatment significantly reduced the μTBS in sound dentine in Groups 2 and 3, but had no effect in Group 1. The presence of nanoleakage varied with the ethanol-wet protocol used. In conclusion, ethanol-wet bonding can potentially improve bond efficacy to CAD when an appropriate protocol is used.

  4. Microshear bond strength of self-etching adhesives to caries-affected dentin identified using the dye permeability test.

    PubMed

    Mobarak, Enas H; El-Badrawy, Wafa H

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this study was to compare microshear bond strength (µSBS) of different adhesives to normal dentin (ND) and caries-affected dentin (AD) as differentiated using the dye permeability test. One hundred freshly extracted carious teeth were ground to expose normal and cariesaffected dentin. Differentiation between both substrates was carried out using microhardness and a new dye permeability method. Ground teeth were divided into 5 groups according to the adhesive tested; Clearfil SE Bond (SE), Clearfil DC Bond (DC) (Kuraray), Bond Force (BF) (Tokuyama), AdheseOne (AH) (Ivoclar), Adper Prompt-L-pop (PR) (3M ESPE). Adhesives were applied to selected substrate, and composite cylinders (0.9 mm diameter x 0.7 mm length) were formed. After 24 h, specimens were subjected to microshear testing at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Failure modes were determined using a stereomicroscope at 40X magnification. Data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U-tests. Normal dentin was permeable for the dye, while caries-affected dentin was impermeable. Vickers hardness numbers (VHN) for normal and caries-affected dentin were 63.98 ± 3.24 and 62.40 ± 3.49 respectively, which were not significantly different (p > 0.05). µSBS values were: SE-ND = 22.34 ± 6.4, SE-AD = 18.70 ± 4.0, BF-ND = 24.52 ± 4.9, BF-AD = 18.31 ± 4.9, DC-ND = 24.49 ± 8.0, DC-AD = 18.97 ± 9.4, AH-ND = 17.21 ± 6.8, AH-AD = 17.03 ± 10.3, PR-ND = 13.67 ± 4.4, PR-AD = 7.31 ± 2.4 MPa. A statistically significant difference was found among the adhesive systems to both normal (p < 0.01) and caries-affected dentin (p < 0.001). However, µSBS of SE, DC, and AH adhesives to normal dentin were not significantly different from those of caries-affected dentin (p > 0.05). The permeability test was an effective tool to differentiate between normal and caries-affected dentin. Some adhesive systems showed no significant difference in their bond to normal or affected dentin.

  5. Genome-wide association study of primary tooth eruption identifies pleiotropic loci associated with height and craniofacial distances.

    PubMed

    Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Hoggart, Clive J; Paternoster, Lavinia; Kemp, John P; Prokopenko, Inga; Horikoshi, Momoko; Wright, Victoria J; Tobias, Jon H; Richmond, Stephen; Zhurov, Alexei I; Toma, Arshed M; Pouta, Anneli; Taanila, Anja; Sipila, Kirsi; Lähdesmäki, Raija; Pillas, Demetris; Geller, Frank; Feenstra, Bjarke; Melbye, Mads; Nohr, Ellen A; Ring, Susan M; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J; Davey Smith, George; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Evans, David M

    2013-09-15

    Twin and family studies indicate that the timing of primary tooth eruption is highly heritable, with estimates typically exceeding 80%. To identify variants involved in primary tooth eruption, we performed a population-based genome-wide association study of 'age at first tooth' and 'number of teeth' using 5998 and 6609 individuals, respectively, from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and 5403 individuals from the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC1966). We tested 2 446 724 SNPs imputed in both studies. Analyses were controlled for the effect of gestational age, sex and age of measurement. Results from the two studies were combined using fixed effects inverse variance meta-analysis. We identified a total of 15 independent loci, with 10 loci reaching genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10(-8)) for 'age at first tooth' and 11 loci for 'number of teeth'. Together, these associations explain 6.06% of the variation in 'age of first tooth' and 4.76% of the variation in 'number of teeth'. The identified loci included eight previously unidentified loci, some containing genes known to play a role in tooth and other developmental pathways, including an SNP in the protein-coding region of BMP4 (rs17563, P = 9.080 × 10(-17)). Three of these loci, containing the genes HMGA2, AJUBA and ADK, also showed evidence of association with craniofacial distances, particularly those indexing facial width. Our results suggest that the genome-wide association approach is a powerful strategy for detecting variants involved in tooth eruption, and potentially craniofacial growth and more generally organ development.

  6. Effect of green tea extract on bonding durability of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to caries-affected dentin

    PubMed Central

    CARVALHO, Carolina; FERNANDES, Fernando Pelegrim; FREITAS, Valeria da Penha; FRANÇA, Fabiana Mantovani Gomes; BASTING, Roberta Tarkany; TURSSI, Cecilia Pedroso; AMARAL, Flávia Lucisano Botelho

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective Green tea extract has been advocated as a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor; however, its effect on bond durability to caries-affected dentin has never been reported. Thus, the aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two MMP inhibitors (2% chlorhexidine and 2% green tea extract), applied after acid etching, on bond durability of an etch-and-rinse adhesive system to caries-affected dentin. Material and Methods Occlusal enamel was removed from third molars to expose the dentin surface, and the molars were submitted to a caries induction protocol for 15 days. After removal of infected dentin, specimens were conditioned with 37% phosphoric acid (15 seconds) and randomly divided into three groups, according to the type of dentin pretreatment (n=10): NT: no treatment; GT: 2% green tea extract; CLX: 2% chlorhexidine. The etch-and-rinse adhesive system (Adper™ Single Bond 2, 3M ESPE, St. Paul, MN, USA) was applied according to the manufacturer's instructions, and composite resin restorations were built on the dentin. After 24 hours, at 37°C, the resin-tooth blocks were sectioned perpendicularly to the adhesive interface in the form of sticks (0.8 mm2 of adhesive area) and randomly subdivided into two groups according to when they were to be submitted to microtensile bond strength (μTBS) testing: immediately or 6 months after storage in distilled water. Data were reported in MPa and submitted to two-way ANOVA for completely randomized blocks, followed by Tukey’s test (α=0.05). Results After 24 hours, there was no significant difference in the μTBS of the groups. After 6 months, the GT group had significantly higher μTBS values. Conclusion It was concluded that the application of 2% green tea extract was able to increase bond durability of the etch-and-rinse system to dentin. Neither the application of chlorhexidine nor non-treatment (NT - control) had any effect on bond strength after water storage. PMID:27383701

  7. Effect of pretreatment with mildly acidic hypochlorous acid on adhesion to caries-affected dentin using a self-etch adhesive.

    PubMed

    Kunawarote, Sitthikorn; Nakajima, Masatoshi; Foxton, Richard M; Tagami, Junji

    2011-02-01

    Caries-affected dentin is covered with a thicker and organically enriched smear layer than normal dentin. This may affect the demineralization ability and the infiltration of self-etch adhesives, thus reducing the efficacy of bonding to caries-affected dentin. This study evaluated the adhesion of a two-step self-etching adhesive to normal and caries-affected dentin after pretreatment with mildly acidic hypochlorous acid (HOCl) solutions. We used a microtensile bond strength (μTBS) test to compare the μTBS of Clearfil SE Bond to either caries-affected dentin or to normal dentin, after pretreatment for 5 s with one of three solutions (806 mM NaOCl, or 0.95 or 1.91 mM HOCl). The μTBS of the self-etch adhesive was significantly lower to caries-affected dentin than to normal dentin. Pretreatment with 0.95 mM HOCl improved the μTBS of the self-etch adhesive to caries-affected dentin, but there was no significant difference compared with normal dentin. On the other hand, pretreatment with 806 mM NaOCl or 1.91 mM HOCl did not demonstrate a significant improvement in the μTBS to caries-affected dentin. None of the pretreatments demonstrated a negative effect on adhesion to normal dentin.

  8. Premature primary tooth eruption in cognitive/motor-delayed ADNP-mutated children

    PubMed Central

    Gozes, I; Van Dijck, A; Hacohen-Kleiman, G; Grigg, I; Karmon, G; Giladi, E; Eger, M; Gabet, Y; Pasmanik-Chor, M; Cappuyns, E; Elpeleg, O; Kooy, R F; Bedrosian-Sermone, S

    2017-01-01

    A major flaw in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) management is late diagnosis. Activity-dependent neuroprotective protein (ADNP) is a most frequent de novo mutated ASD-related gene. Functionally, ADNP protects nerve cells against electrical blockade. In mice, complete Adnp deficiency results in dysregulation of over 400 genes and failure to form a brain. Adnp haploinsufficiency results in cognitive and social deficiencies coupled to sex- and age-dependent deficits in the key microtubule and ion channel pathways. Here, collaborating with parents/caregivers globally, we discovered premature tooth eruption as a potential early diagnostic biomarker for ADNP mutation. The parents of 44/54 ADNP-mutated children reported an almost full erupted dentition by 1 year of age, including molars and only 10 of the children had teeth within the normal developmental time range. Looking at Adnp-deficient mice, by computed tomography, showed significantly smaller dental sacs and tooth buds at 5 days of age in the deficient mice compared to littermate controls. There was only trending at 2 days, implicating age-dependent dysregulation of teething in Adnp-deficient mice. Allen Atlas analysis showed Adnp expression in the jaw area. RNA sequencing (RNAseq) and gene array analysis of human ADNP-mutated lymphoblastoids, whole-mouse embryos and mouse brains identified dysregulation of bone/nervous system-controlling genes resulting from ADNP mutation/deficiency (for example, BMP1 and BMP4). AKAP6, discovered here as a major gene regulated by ADNP, also links cognition and bone maintenance. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time that early primary (deciduous) teething is related to the ADNP syndrome, providing for early/simple diagnosis and paving the path to early intervention/specialized treatment plan. PMID:28221363

  9. Effect of chemomechanical caries removal on bonding of resin-modified glass ionomer cement adhesives to caries-affected dentine.

    PubMed

    Hamama, Hhh; Yiu, Cky; Burrow, M F

    2015-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of: (1) chemomechanical caries removal (CMCR); (2) dentine surface treatments and (3) dentine substrates on adhesion of resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RMGIC) adhesives. One hundred and twenty permanent molars exhibiting moderate cavitation on the occlusal surface into dentine were used. Seventy-five carious molars were used for bond strength testing; the remaining 45 for micromorphological evaluation of the bonded interface. Caries was excavated with NaOCl-based CMCR (Carisolv), enzyme-based CMCR (Papacarie), or conventional rotary caries removal methods. Dentine surface treatment was performed using 37% phosphoric acid, 25-30% PAA or 20% PAA + 3% AlCl3 . Three-way ANOVA revealed that all three factors 'caries removal methods', 'dentine surface treatments' and 'dentine substrates' did not significantly affect bond strength (p > 0.05). Scanning electron microscopy micrographs showed that the acid-base resistant layer was thicker in caries-affected dentine compared to sound dentine. NaOCl- and enzyme-based CMCR methods have no adverse effect on adhesion of RMGIC adhesives to sound and caries-affected dentine. Dentine surface treatment with 37% phosphoric acid for 5 s has no negative effect on bonding of RMGIC adhesives to dentine compared with using polyacrylic acid for 10 s. RMGIC adhesives bonded well to both sound and caries-affected dentine. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  10. Effect of 2% Chlorhexidine Digluconate on the Bond Strength to Normal versus Caries-Affected Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Paula C. P.; Pashley, David H.; Tjäderhane, Leo; Breschi, Lorenzo; Mazzoni, Annalisa; de Goes, Mario Fernando; Wang, Linda; Carrilho, Marcela R.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY This study evaluated the effect of 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) used as a therapeutic primer on the long-term bond strengths of two etch-and-rinse adhesives to normal (ND) and caries-affected (CAD) dentin. Forty extracted human molars with coronal carious lesions, surrounded by normal dentin, were selected for this study. Flat surfaces of two types of dentin (i.e. ND and CAD) were prepared with a water-cooled high speed diamond disc, and then acid-etched, rinsed and air-dried. In control groups, dentin was re-hydrated with distilled water, blot-dried and bonded with a three-step (Scotchbond Multi-Purpose-MP) or a two-step (Single Bond 2-SB) etch-and-rinse adhesive. In experimental groups, dentin was re-hydrated with 2% CHX (60 s), blot-dried and bonded with the same adhesives. Resin composite build-ups were made. Specimens were prepared for microtensile bond testing in accordance with the non-trimming technique and then tested either immediately or after 6-month storage in artificial saliva. Data were analyzed by ANOVA/Bonferroni tests (α = 0.05). CHX did not affect the immediate bond strength to ND or CAD (p>0.05). CHX treatment significantly lowered the loss of bond strength after 6 months seen in control bonds for ND (p<0.05), but it did not alter the bond strength of CAD (p>0.05). Application of MP on CHX-treated ND or CAD produced bonds that did not change over 6 months of storage. PMID:19363971

  11. The Association between Primary Tooth Emergence and Anthropometric Measures in Young Adults: Findings from a Large Prospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Evans, David M.; Tobias, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    Cross sectional studies suggest a link may exist between tooth emergence and obesity. To explore this relationship, we aimed to evaluate the prospective associations between primary tooth emergence and anthropometric measures in young adults. Multivariable linear regression was used to analyse relationships between primary tooth emergence, and anthropometric measures measured at 17.8 years, in 2977 participants (1362 males and 1615 females) from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). In minimally adjusted models, ‘quintiles of number of paired teeth’ (assessed by questionnaire at 15 months) was positively associated with height [change in height (cm) per quintile increase in ‘number of paired teeth’ (β) = 0.35 (95%CI: 0.18, 0.52) P = 0.0001] and weight [ratio of geometric mean weight per quintile increase in ‘number of paired teeth’ (RGM) = 1.015 (95%CI: 1.010, 1.019) P<0.0001]. The relationship with weight was largely driven by fat mass, which showed an equivalent relationship with ‘quintiles of number of paired teeth’ to that seen for weight [RGM = 1.036 (95%CI: 1.022, 1.051) P<0.0001] (adjusted for height)]. Conversely, no association was seen between ‘quintiles of number of paired teeth’ and lean mass. An increase in ‘quintiles of number of paired teeth’ at age 15 months was associated with a higher Tanner stage at age 13 in girls but not boys, but further adjustment of associations between ‘quintiles of number of paired teeth’ and anthropometric traits for Tanner stage was without effect. Primary tooth emergence is associated with subsequent fat mass, suggesting these could share common constitutive factors, and that early primary tooth emergence may represent a hitherto unrecognised risk factor for the development of obesity in later life. PMID:24823714

  12. Bonding effectiveness of different adhesion approaches to unground versus ground primary tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Knirsch, M S; Bonifácio, C C; Shimaoka, A M; Andrade, A P; Carvalho, R C R

    2009-06-01

    This study aims to evaluate the bonding effectiveness of self-etch and etch-and-rinse adhesive systems in on intact and ground primary tooth enamel. Sixty primary incisors were divided into 6 groups according to the adhesive system (etch-and-rinse - Adper Single Bond 2 - SB, 2 steps self-etch -Clearfil SE Bond - SE, and 1 step self-etch - One Up Bond F Plus OBF) and to the substrate (ground or intact enamel): G1-SB/intact enamel; G2-SE/intact enamel; G3- OBF/intact enamel; G4-SB/ground enamel; G5- SE/ground enamel and G6-OBF/ground enamel. Microshear bond test specimens were prepared with microhybrid composite and after 24h of water storage the microshear test was performed. Data were submitted to statistical analysis using two-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (p<0.05). Comparing the enamel characteristics (ground or intact) only when SE was used a statistically significant difference was found, as G2 (21.12+/-4.52) was statistically lower than G5 (33.29+/-5.44). Among the intact enamel groups, SB (26.11+/-7.56) was statistically superior to SE (21.12+/-4.52) and OBF (17.01+/-3.96). However, when comparisons were made among groups of ground enamel, SE (33.29+/-5.44) was significantly higher than SB (26.35+/-8.18) and OBF (17.52+/-3.46). The two-step self-etch adhesive system is a reliable alternative to etch and rinse adhesive systems on both ground and intact primary enamel.

  13. Can persistence of primary molars be predicted in subjects with multiple tooth agenesis?

    PubMed

    Kjaer, Inger; Nielsen, Michael Hald; Skovgaard, Lene Theil

    2008-06-01

    The purpose of this research was to create a method for predicting the persistence of primary molars in patients with multiple agenesis. Dental pantomographs (DPTs) from 51 males with agenesis of 5-17 teeth and 54 females with agenesis of 5-21 teeth were investigated. All patients (6 years 9 months to 16 years 7 months) had agenesis of one or both lower second premolars. Patients with ectodermal dysplasia and craniofacial anomalies were not included. The DPTs were classified into two groups according to tooth morphology and agenesis pattern. Group--I-ectodermal symptoms: screwdriver-shaped maxillary central incisors, invaginations in incisors or narrow incisors, taurodontic molar roots, and atypical agenesis. At least two of these ectodermal symptoms had to be present for classification into group I. Group II: one or none of the criteria for group I. Each group was subdivided according to the number of missing teeth. The degree of root resorption of the lower second primary molar was analysed and converted to a metric scale for statistical analysis. Ectodermal status (group I versus group II) was analysed as a binary outcome with agenesis and gender as covariates (logistic regression), whereas ordinary multiple regression was performed in order to study the dependency of root resorption score on gender, ectodermal status, and age. The study showed that subjects with agenesis of more than seven teeth belonged more often to group I than group II, also when correcting for age differences. Root resorption of the primary molars was more severe in group I than in group II.

  14. Expanding the spectrum of PTH1R mutations in patients with primary failure of tooth eruption.

    PubMed

    Roth, Helmut; Fritsche, Lars G; Meier, Christoph; Pilz, Peter; Eigenthaler, Martin; Meyer-Marcotty, Philipp; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika; Proff, Peter; Kanno, Cláudia M; Weber, Bernhard Hf

    2014-01-01

    Primary failure of tooth eruption (PFE) is a rare autosomal-dominant disease characterized by severe lateral open bite as a consequence of incomplete eruption of posterior teeth. Heterozygous mutations in the parathyroid hormone 1 receptor (PTH1R) gene have been shown to cause PFE likely due to protein haploinsufficiency. To further expand on the mutational spectrum of PFE-associated mutations, we report here on the sequencing results of the PTH1R gene in 70 index PFE cases. Sanger sequencing of the PTH1R coding exons and their immediate flanking intronic sequences was performed with DNA samples from 70 index PFE cases. We identified a total of 30 unique variants, of which 12 were classified as pathogenic based on their deleterious consequences on PTH1R protein while 16 changes were characterized as unclassified variants with as yet unknown effects on disease pathology. The remaining two variants represent common polymorphisms. Our data significantly increase the number of presently known unique PFE-causing PTH1R mutations and provide a series of variants with unclear pathogenicity which will require further in vitro assaying to determine their effects on protein structure and function. Management of PTH1R-associated PFE is problematic, in particular when teeth are exposed to orthodontic force. Therefore, upon clinical suspicion of PFE, molecular DNA testing is indicated to support decision making for further treatment options.

  15. Morphology and microtensile bond strength of adhesive systems to in situ-formed caries-affected dentin after the use of a papain-based chemomechanical gel method.

    PubMed

    Botelho Amaral, Flavia Lucisano; Martão Florio, Flávia; Bovi Ambrosano, Glaucia Maria; Basting, Roberta Tarkany

    2011-02-01

    To evaluate the microtensile bond strength of adhesive systems to caries-affected dentin formed in situ after the use of a papain-based chemomechanical removal method. 84 human dentin specimens (5 x 5 x 3 mm) were sterilized and randomly distributed on palatal devices of 14 volunteers. Each palatal device, containing six dentin slabs, was used for 14 days according to a caries induction design involving plaque accumulation and sucrose use. After this, fragments were removed from devices and randomly assigned to two groups according to the caries removal method: (1) Chemomechanical (papain-based gel followed by curette), or (2) Mechanical (curette--control group). Specimens were subdivided into three subgroups according to the adhesive system tested: (SB) a two-step etch-and-rinse (Adper Single Bond 2); (SE) a two-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond) and (TriS) a one-step self-etching adhesive (Clearfil Tri-S Bond) and subsequently restored with microhybrid composite resin. After 24 hours, resin-tooth blocks were sectioned into 0.9 mm thick slabs, with one slab of each block being prepared for adhesive interface analysis by scanning electron microscopy, and the remaining blocks were sectioned into 0.8-mm2 sticks that were subjected to tensile stress (0.5 mm/minute). Data were subjected to two-way ANOVA and Tukey's test at a 5% level of significance. The application of the chemomechanical and mechanical methods to demineralized dentin did not affect the bond strength values. SB and SE adhesives promoted statistically similar and significantly higher bond strength values than the TriS. SEM analysis showed no interference of papain-based gel in the formation of hybrid layer; SB showed the thickest hybrid layer with presence of numerous tags; SE showed an intermediate hybrid layer thickness and quantity of tags and the TriS showed no evidence of tag formation.

  16. Expression patterns of genes critical for BMP signaling pathway in developing human primary tooth germs.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiuqing; Shen, Bin; Ruan, Ningsheng; Guan, Zhen; Zhang, Yanding; Chen, YiPing; Hu, Xuefeng

    2014-12-01

    The developing murine tooth has been used as an excellent model system to study the molecular mechanism of organ development and regeneration. While the expression patterns of numerous regulatory genes have been examined and their roles have begun to be revealed in the developing murine tooth, little is known about gene expression and function in human tooth development. In order to unveil the molecular mechanisms that regulate human tooth morphogenesis, we examined the expression patterns of the major BMP signaling pathway molecules in the developing human tooth germ at the cap and bell stages by in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and real-time RT-PCR. Expression of BMP ligands and antagonist, including BMP2, BMP3, BMP4, BMP7, and NOOGGIN, exhibited uniform patterns in the tooth germs of incisor and molar at the cap and bell stages with stronger expression in the inner dental epithelium than that in the dental mesenchyme. Both type I and type II BMP receptors were present in widespread expression pattern in the whole-enamel organ and the dental mesenchyme with the strongest expression in inner dental epithelium at the cap and bell stages. SMAD4 and SMAD1/5/8 showed an expression pattern similar to that of BMP ligands with more intensive signals in the inner dental epithelium. Despite some unique and distinct patterns as compared to the mouse, the intensive expression of BMP signaling pathway molecules in the developing human tooth strongly suggests conserved functions of BMP signaling during human odontogenesis, such as in mediating tissue interactions and regulating differentiation and organization of odontogenic tissues. Our results provide an important set of documents for studying molecular regulatory mechanisms underlying tooth development and regeneration in humans.

  17. Effect of chemomechanical caries removal on bonding of self-etching adhesives to caries-affected dentin.

    PubMed

    Hamama, Hamdi Hosni Hamdan; Yiu, Cynthia Kar Yung; Burrow, Michael Frances

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate the effect of enzyme-based (Papacárie) and sodium-hypochlorite-based (Carisolv) chemomechanical caries removal methods on bonding of self-etching adhesives to caries-affected dentin, in comparison to the standard rotary-instrument caries removal method. Seventy-eight carious permanent molars exhibiting frank cavitation into dentin were used. Forty-eight teeth were randomly divided into three groups, according to the caries excavation methods: (i) Papacárie, (ii) Carisolv and (iii) a round steel bur. After caries removal, each group was subdivided into two groups for two-step (Clearfil SE Bond) or one-step (Clearfil S3 Bond) self-etching adhesive application and resin composite buildups. Bonded specimens were sectioned into beams for microtensile bond strength testing. Bond strength data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey's test. For interfacial nanoleakage evaluation using a field-emission scanning electron microscope, caries was similarly removed from the remaining thirty carious molars, bonding was performed as for bond strength testing, and the teeth were sectioned. RESULTS of three-way ANOVA revealed that bond strength was significantly affected by "adhesive" (p<0.001) and "dentin" (p<0.001), but not "caries excavation methods" (p>0.05). The bond strength of the two-step self-etching adhesive was significantly higher than that of the one-step self-etching adhesive (p<0.001). Conversely, the bond strength of self-etching adhesives to sound dentin was significantly higher than to residual caries-affected dentin (p<0.001). Greater silver penetration was observed in the bonded interfaces of residual caries-affected dentin and in interfaces bonded with the one-step self-etching adhesive vs those bonded with the two-step self-etching adhesive. Chemomechanical caries removal did not affect the bonding of self-etching adhesives to caries-affected dentin as compared to caries excavation with rotary instruments.

  18. Extrinsic tooth staining potential of high dose and sustained release iron syrups on primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Pani, Sharat Chandra; Alenazi, Fahad Murdhi; Alotain, Abdullah Muhammad; Alanazi, Hamad Daher; Alasmari, Abdullah Saeed

    2015-08-04

    Iron in the form of oral supplements is routinely prescribed to children to help fight anemia, however tooth staining is a commonly reported complication. This study tests in vitro, the staining potential of two different forms of iron syrup on primary teeth. Forty caries free primary central incisors were divided into four groups of ten teeth each. The control group comprised of ten teeth immersed in artificial saliva, while the test solutions were comprised of different forms of iron mixed with vitamins such that the iron content of each solution was approximately 100 mg (from 100 to 101.1 mg). The test solutions used iron syrup (Ferrose®, SPIMACO, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia) with iron in the form of ferric oxide polymaltose (FOP), slow release formula (Ferroglobin®, Vitabiotics ltd., London, UK) containing ferrous fumarate (FF and a combination of the two (FOP + FF). All the teeth were then immersed for 72 h and subjected to a protocol developed by Lee et al. to test staining. Color changes were measured using a wave dispersion spectro-photometer (Color-Eye 7000A, X-Rite Gmbh, Regensdorf, Switzerland) on the exposed labial surface at 4, 8, 24, 48 and 72 h. Two-way ANOVA with Scheffe's post hoc test was used to determine significance of difference in shade, while the Kurskull-Wallis test used to determine the significance of difference in clinical staining (∆E > 3). While all three iron groups showed some amount of staining, the combination of the two forms of iron (FOP+FF) showed significantly lower incidence of clinical staining than the other two groups at the end of 72 h. At the end of 72 h the (FOP) had significantly higher ∆E than ferrous fumarate (FF ) while the combination (FOP+ FF) had a significantly lower ∆E than either group. In an in vitro model, combining different forms of iron seems to elicit a lower intensity of staining than equivalent doses of a single form of iron.

  19. Genome-wide association study of primary tooth eruption identifies pleiotropic loci associated with height and craniofacial distances

    PubMed Central

    Fatemifar, Ghazaleh; Hoggart, Clive J.; Paternoster, Lavinia; Kemp, John P.; Prokopenko, Inga; Horikoshi, Momoko; Wright, Victoria J.; Tobias, Jon H.; Richmond, Stephen; Zhurov, Alexei I.; Toma, Arshed M.; Pouta, Anneli; Taanila, Anja; Sipila, Kirsi; Lähdesmäki, Raija; Pillas, Demetris; Geller, Frank; Feenstra, Bjarke; Melbye, Mads; Nohr, Ellen A.; Ring, Susan M.; St Pourcain, Beate; Timpson, Nicholas J.; Davey Smith, George; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Evans, David M.

    2013-01-01

    Twin and family studies indicate that the timing of primary tooth eruption is highly heritable, with estimates typically exceeding 80%. To identify variants involved in primary tooth eruption, we performed a population-based genome-wide association study of ‘age at first tooth’ and ‘number of teeth’ using 5998 and 6609 individuals, respectively, from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) and 5403 individuals from the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC1966). We tested 2 446 724 SNPs imputed in both studies. Analyses were controlled for the effect of gestational age, sex and age of measurement. Results from the two studies were combined using fixed effects inverse variance meta-analysis. We identified a total of 15 independent loci, with 10 loci reaching genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10−8) for ‘age at first tooth’ and 11 loci for ‘number of teeth’. Together, these associations explain 6.06% of the variation in ‘age of first tooth’ and 4.76% of the variation in ‘number of teeth’. The identified loci included eight previously unidentified loci, some containing genes known to play a role in tooth and other developmental pathways, including an SNP in the protein-coding region of BMP4 (rs17563, P = 9.080 × 10−17). Three of these loci, containing the genes HMGA2, AJUBA and ADK, also showed evidence of association with craniofacial distances, particularly those indexing facial width. Our results suggest that the genome-wide association approach is a powerful strategy for detecting variants involved in tooth eruption, and potentially craniofacial growth and more generally organ development. PMID:23704328

  20. [The influence of the difference of caries detective methods on the bond strength for caries affected root canal dentin].

    PubMed

    Otake, Shiho

    2010-03-01

    Firm adhesion of composite resin and dentin is the basic premise for building up resin composite cores successfully. To assess the efficacy of several caries detective methods (stained with Caries Detector and probing with sharp probe) for caries affected root canal dentin, microtensile bond strengths of resin composite to caries-affected root canal dentin and failure mode distribution were analyzed in this study. Color and hardness were used for assessment of root caries as follows: Dye stain group (pale pink stained with Caries Detector), Probing group (probing with sharp probe) and Sound dentin group (Control). The bond strengths (mean +/- standard deviation) of the Probing group (64.6 +/- 11.9 MPa) and the Sound dentin group (68.7 +/- 11.1 MPa) were significantly higher than those of the Dye stain group (46.9 +/- 7.9 MPa, p<0.05). However, there is no significant difference in fracture mode between the Dye stain group and the Probing group (p<0.05). This could be attributed to that the thick smear layer caused a loss of hybrid layer strength. In conclusion, the caries removal technique of the root canal dentin affected the bond strength of the resin composite.

  1. Application of 17% EDTA Enhances Diffusion of (45)Ca-labeled OH(-) and Ca(2+) in Primary Tooth Root Canal.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Marcos; Cavalcanti Taguchi, Carolina Mayumi; Triches, Thaisa Cezaria; Sartori, Neimar; Pereira Dias, Luis Alberto; de Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti; Cardoso, Mariane

    2016-01-01

    Proper cleaning of the root canal is key to the success of endodontic treatment as it allows more effective diffusion of medication throughout the dentinal tubules. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the efficacy of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in enhancing diffusion of hydroxyl (OH(-)) and calcium ions (Ca(2+)) throughout the root canal in primary teeth. The canals of 25 primary tooth roots were cleaned with endodontic files and 1% sodium hypochlorite. Three groups (G) were then established: GI, in which final irrigation was performed with 1% sodium hypochlorite; GII, in which 17% EDTA was used; and GIII, in which no irrigation was performed. The roots canals in GI and GII were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste labeled with the radioisotope calcium-45. Diffusion of OH(-) was detected with pH strips and Ca(2+) analyzed by measuring radioactivity in counts per min. Group II differed statistically from the other groups in diffusion of OH(-) at 24 hr (p<0.05), but no significant difference among groups was found at the day 7 evaluation; GII also differed statistically from the other groups in diffusion of Ca(2+) at 24 hr (p<0.05). These results suggest that application of 17% EDTA in primary tooth enhances diffusion of OH(-) and Ca(2+).

  2. Knowledge and Attitude of Primary School Teachers toward Tooth Avulsion and Dental First Aid in Davangere City: A Cross-sectional Survey.

    PubMed

    Prasanna, Sapna; Giriraju, Anjan; Narayan, Nagesh Lakshmi

    2011-01-01

    Traumatic dental injuries including avulsed tooth is a tragic and ignored problem among school children. As children spend much of their time in schools, school teachers form the group who commonly supervise the physical activity of the children, so awareness about avulsed tooth emergency management among school teachers is an important concept for long-term success and to prevent its future consequences. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude regarding tooth avulsion and dental first aid among primary school teachers in Davangere city. The study was performed by administering a self-designed questionnaire on a sample of 300 primary school teachers. Sixty-eight percent of the school teachers (government, semi-aided and aided schools) admitted the possibility of an avulsed tooth to be replanted and thirty-two percent had no idea on tooth replantation and only twenty-three percent of the teachers knew the procedures taken in cases of avulsed teeth. Seventy-seven percent of all teachers did not feel the possibility of tooth replantation. There is poor knowledge in the management of avulsed teeth among the school teachers of Davangere city. They do not feel capable of replanting an avulsed tooth. As one of the child supervisors, all the school teachers should have the basic knowledge to recognize oral emergencies and regarding conservation of avulsed teeth to prevent its consequences in the child's future.

  3. PTH1R Mutants Found in Patients with Primary Failure of Tooth Eruption Disrupt G-Protein Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kollert, Sina; Rukoyatkina, Natalia; Sturm, Julia; Gambaryan, Stepan; Stellzig-Eisenhauer, Angelika; Meyer-Marcotty, Philipp; Eigenthaler, Martin; Wischmeyer, Erhard

    2016-01-01

    Aim Primary failure of tooth eruption (PFE) is causally linked to heterozygous mutations of the parathyroid hormone receptor (PTH1R) gene. The mutants described so far lead to exchange of amino acids or truncation of the protein that may result in structural changes of the expressed PTH1R. However, functional effects of these mutations have not been investigated yet. Materials and Methods In HEK293 cells, PTH1R wild type was co-transfected with selected PTH1R mutants identified in patients with PFE. The effects on activation of PTH-regulated intracellular signaling pathways were analyzed by ELISA and Western immunoblotting. Differential effects of wild type and mutated PTH1R on TRESK ion channel regulation were analyzed by electrophysiological recordings in Xenopus laevis oocytes. Results In HEK293 cells, activation of PTH1R wild type increases cAMP and in response activates cAMP-stimulated protein kinase as detected by phosphorylation of the vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP). In contrast, the PTH1R mutants are functionally inactive and mutant PTH1R/Gly452Glu has a dominant negative effect on the signaling of PTH1R wild type. Confocal imaging revealed that wild type PTH1R is expressed on the cell surface, whereas PTH1R/Gly452Glu mutant is mostly retained inside the cell. Furthermore, in contrast to wild type PTH1R which substantially augmented K+ currents of TRESK channels, coupling of mutated PTH1R to TRESK channels was completely abolished. Conclusions PTH1R mutations affect intracellular PTH-regulated signaling in vitro. In patients with primary failure of tooth eruption defective signaling of PTH1R mutations is suggested to occur in dento-alveolar cells and thus may lead to impaired tooth movement. PMID:27898723

  4. Zirconia-Prefabricated Crowns for Pediatric Patients With Primary Dentition: Technique and Cementation for Esthetic Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Carla

    2016-09-01

    Traditionally, many clinicians tend to forego esthetic considerations when full-coverage restorations are indicated for pediatric patients with primary dentitions. However, the availability of new zirconia pediatric crowns and reliable techniques for cementation makes esthetic outcomes practical and consistent when restoring primary dentition. Two cases are described: a 3-year-old boy who presented with severe early childhood caries affecting both anterior and posterior teeth, and a 6-year-old boy who presented with extensive caries of his primary posterior dentition, including a molar requiring full coverage. The parents of both boys were concerned about esthetics, and the extent of decay indicated the need for full-coverage restorations. This led to the boys receiving treatment using a restorative procedure in which the carious teeth were prepared for and restored with esthetic tooth-colored zirconia crowns. In both cases, comfortable function and pleasing esthetics were achieved.

  5. Identification of Six Novel PTH1R Mutations in Families with a History of Primary Failure of Tooth Eruption

    PubMed Central

    Risom, Lotte; Christoffersen, Line; Daugaard-Jensen, Jette; Hove, Hanne Dahlgaard; Andersen, Henriette Skovgaard; Andresen, Brage Storstein; Kreiborg, Sven; Duno, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Primary Failure of tooth Eruption (PFE) is a non-syndromic disorder which can be caused by mutations in the parathyroid hormone receptor 1 gene (PTH1R). Traditionally, the disorder has been identified clinically based on post-emergent failure of eruption of permanent molars. However, patients with PTH1R mutations will not benefit from surgical and/or orthodontic treatment and it is therefore clinically important to establish whether a given failure of tooth eruption is caused by a PTH1R defect or not. We analyzed the PTH1R gene in six patients clinically diagnosed with PFE, all of which had undergone surgical and/or orthodontic interventions, and identified novel PTH1R mutations in all. Four of the six mutations were predicted to abolish correct mRNA maturation either through introduction of premature stop codons (c.947C>A and c.1082G>A), or by altering correct mRNA splicing (c.544-26_544-23del and c.989G>T). The latter was validated by transfection of minigenes. The six novel mutations expand the mutation spectrum for PFE from eight to 14 pathogenic mutations. Loss-of-function mutations in PTH1R are also associated with recessively inherited Blomstrand chondrodysplasia. We compiled all published PTH1R mutations and identified a mutational overlap between Blomstrand chondrodysplasia and PFE. The results suggest that a genetic approach to preclinical diagnosis will have important implication for surgical and orthodontic treatment of patients with failure of tooth eruption. PMID:24058597

  6. Comparative evaluation of microshear bond strength of the caries-affected dentinal surface treated with conventional method and chemomechanical method (papain)

    PubMed Central

    Chittem, Jyothi; Sajjan, Girija S.; Varma, Kanumuri Madhu

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is a growing interest in chemomechanical excavation (papain) in permanent molar teeth. There are several studies dealing with primary molar teeth. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of conventional method and Carie-care (chemomechanical method) on the microshear bond strength (μSBS) and the type of failure of an adhesive system to caries-affected dentin of permanent molar teeth. Materials and Methods: Twenty permanent molar teeth with carious lesions extending into the dentin were selected. Through the center of the carious lesion, teeth were sectioned mesiodistally and divided into two groups based on the method of caries excavation (conventional and chemomechanical method). The time required for the completion of excavation procedure was noted. Samples were again divided into two subgroups in each according to the method of restoration (Ketac N100 and Filtek Z350 composite). The bonded interface was subjected to μSBS testing in a universal testing machine. Fractured surfaces were examined under a stereomicroscope, and representative specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope for the type of failure. Statistical Analysis: It was achieved with unpaired t-test and Kruskal-Wallis H-test at 5% level of significance. Results: The μSBS values of Carie-care groups were similar to that of the conventional method. The μSBSs of resin composite were significantly (P < 0.001) more than that of resin glass ionomer bonded irrespective of the method of caries excavation. Conclusion: A papain-based chemomechanical agent can be used safely as a method for caries removal when employing conventional adhesive systems. PMID:26430299

  7. Comparative evaluation of microshear bond strength of the caries-affected dentinal surface treated with conventional method and chemomechanical method (papain).

    PubMed

    Chittem, Jyothi; Sajjan, Girija S; Varma, Kanumuri Madhu

    2015-01-01

    There is a growing interest in chemomechanical excavation (papain) in permanent molar teeth. There are several studies dealing with primary molar teeth. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of conventional method and Carie-care (chemomechanical method) on the microshear bond strength (μSBS) and the type of failure of an adhesive system to caries-affected dentin of permanent molar teeth. Twenty permanent molar teeth with carious lesions extending into the dentin were selected. Through the center of the carious lesion, teeth were sectioned mesiodistally and divided into two groups based on the method of caries excavation (conventional and chemomechanical method). The time required for the completion of excavation procedure was noted. Samples were again divided into two subgroups in each according to the method of restoration (Ketac N100 and Filtek Z350 composite). The bonded interface was subjected to μSBS testing in a universal testing machine. Fractured surfaces were examined under a stereomicroscope, and representative specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope for the type of failure. It was achieved with unpaired t-test and Kruskal-Wallis H-test at 5% level of significance. The μSBS values of Carie-care groups were similar to that of the conventional method. The μSBSs of resin composite were significantly (P < 0.001) more than that of resin glass ionomer bonded irrespective of the method of caries excavation. A papain-based chemomechanical agent can be used safely as a method for caries removal when employing conventional adhesive systems.

  8. Alveolar dimensional changes relevant to implant placement after minimally traumatic tooth extraction with primary closure.

    PubMed

    Carranza, Nelson; Bonta, Hernan; Gualtieri, Ariel F; Rojas, Mariana A; Galli, Federico G; Caride, Facundo

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the dimensional changes that occur in the alveolar ridge after minimally traumatic tooth extraction by means of computed tomography (CT), with special focus on the portion of bone supporting the gingival zenith. Twenty subjects with indication for singlerooted tooth extraction and preserved alveolar walls were selected for this study. After a minimally traumatic extraction, two CT scans were performed; the first within 24 hours postextraction (TC1) and the second 6 months (TC2) later. A radiographic guide with a radiopaque marker was used to obtain references that enabled accurate measurements over time, in both vertical and horizontal directions. The bone crest immediately apical to the gingival zenith was identified and termed "osseous zenith". The displacement of the osseous zenith in horizontal and vertical direction was analyzed and correlated with several alveolar anatomical variables with the aim of identifying possible predictors for bone remodeling. Dimensional changes that occur in postextraction sockets within a 6month period showed significant vertical and horizontal displacement of the osseous zenith (p<0.001). Mean vertical resorption was 2.1 ± 1.7 mm, with a median of 1.9 mm and a range of 0.2 to 7.5 mm. Mean horizontal resorption was 1.8 ± 0.8 mm with a median of 1.7 mm and a range of 0.6 to 4.4 mm. However, no correlation was found between the width of the facial alveolar crest and the displacement of the osseous zenith. The results of the present study showed that if the width of the facial crest at the apicalcoronal midpoint is less than 0.7 mm, a high degree of displacement of the osseous zenith (> 3 mm) should be expected. The present study suggests that the width of the alveolar crest at its midlevel, rather than crestal width, may be correlated with the displacement of the osseous zenith.

  9. Comparison of Parental Satisfaction with Three Tooth-Colored Full-Coronal Restorations in Primary Maxillary Incisors.

    PubMed

    Salami, A; Walia, T; Bashiri, R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate and compare the parental satisfaction among resin composite strip crown, preveneered stainless steel crown (PVSSC) and the newly introduced pre-fabricated primary zirconia crown for restoring maxillary primary incisors. A prospective clinical study on 39 children with carious or traumatized primary maxillary incisors. They were randomly and equally distributed in three groups and received one of the full-coronal restorations. Children were recalled to evaluate and compare parental satisfaction about performance of crowns after one year through a questionnaire. Parents were satisfied with all three tooth colored full-coronal restoration techniques. A significant relationship was found between colour of PVSSC (p=0.003) and durability of resin strip crowns (p=0.009) with the overall parental satisfaction levels. Parents who gave poor ratings in these two variables however rated their overall acceptance levels as being satisfied. Parental overall satisfaction was highest for zirconia primary crowns followed by resin composite strip crowns and lowest satisfaction was reported for pre-veneered SSCs. Parents were least satisfied with durability of resin composite strip crowns and colour of pre-veneered stainless steel crowns. However, this did not affect their overall satisfaction with these crowns.

  10. Comparison of pre-emptive ibuprofen, paracetamol, and placebo administration in reducing post-operative pain in primary tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Baygin, Ozgul; Tuzuner, Tamer; Isik, Berrin; Kusgoz, Adem; Tanriver, Mehmet

    2011-07-01

    This study investigates preliminary investigations that a pre-emptive analgesia administration may reduce post-extraction pain. This prospective, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind trial was planned to compare the efficacy of the pre-emptive administration of ibuprofen, paracetamol, and placebo in reducing post-extraction pain in children. Forty-five children, ages 6-12, who needed primary mandibular molar tooth extraction were treated in paediatric dental clinics, with treatment preceded by local anaesthesia and analgesic drugs during the preoperative period. A five-face scale was used to evaluate pain reaction during the injection, extraction, and post-operative period. Self-report scores were recorded when the local anaesthesia had been administered in soft tissues and both before and after the extraction was completed. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests (with Bonferroni correction paired t-test as the post hoc test) were used at a confidence level of 95%. The use of pre-emptive analgesics showed lower scores compared to the placebo, irrespective of the age, weight, gender of the child, and the number of teeth extracted during the study period. Additionally, ibuprofen exhibited lower pain scores (P < 0.05) compared to paracetamol at the 15-min (P < 0.001) and 4-h (P < 0.009) periods. Preoperative use of ibuprofen and paracetamol may provide a pre-emptive analgesic effect in paediatric patients who receive adequate analgesia during mandibular primary tooth extraction. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Primary tooth radicular resorption as a consequence of self-corrected ectopic eruption: 2 unusual cases.

    PubMed

    Guzeler, Irem; Sara, Sezgi; Cehreli, Zafer C; Uysal, Serdar; Musselman, Robert J

    2011-01-01

    Resorption of the distal root of primary second molars is a common consequence of ectopically erupting permanent first molars. Here, we report 2 unusual cases of primary molar root resorption caused by reversible (self-correcting) ectopic eruption of premolar and canine teeth. In both cases, severe pathological resorption of the mesial roots of primary molars was detected on routine dental radiographs, and the affected molars remained asymptomatic until exfoliation. The purpose of this paper was, using 2 case studies, to highlight the possibility of primary root resorption as a sequel of self-corrected ectopic eruption in locations not frequently diagnosed or reported.

  12. Effects of Er, Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on external adaptation of restorations in caries-affected cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues Tonetto, Mateus; Coelho Bandéca, Matheus; Henrique Borges, Alvaro; Souza Pinto, Shelon Cristina; Cury Saad, José Roberto; Alves de Campos, Edson; de Toledo Porto Neto, Sizenando; Ferrarezi de Andrade, Marcelo

    2013-09-01

    This study evaluated the effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on the external adaptation of composite resin restorations in caries-affected cavities. Mixed class V cavity preparations were performed in 36 intact human third molars, in half of which caries was artificially induced. Both healthy and carious dentin were etched with 35% phosphoric acid (Ultradent Products Inc., South Jordan, Utah, USA), and the teeth were divided into three groups, i.e., (a) untreated etched dentin, (b) application of the Er, Cr:YSGG laser and (c) use of chlorhexidine as an adjunct in the bonding process. Restorations were fabricated with Z350 XT FiltekTM composite resin (3M ESPE) and subsequently the specimens were subjected to thermocycling to simulate artificial ageing. Quantitative analysis of external adaptation was performed by scanning electron microscopy in both healthy and affected dentin using epoxy resin replicas. It was concluded that the application of laser and chlorhexidine did not affect the percentages of marginal adaptation of class V restorations. Furthermore, thermocycling may influence adaptation values.

  13. Effects of simplified ethanol-wet bonding technique on immediate bond strength with normal versus caries-affected dentin

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Sharma, Ritu; Miglani, Sanjay; Bhasin, Saranjit Singh

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the use of simplified ethanol-wet bonding (EWB) technique improved the immediate microtensile bond strength (μTBS) between resin composite and caries-affected dentin (CAD). Materials and Methods: Twenty-four extracted carious human permanent molars were sectioned to expose the carious lesion. The carious dentin was excavated until CAD was exposed. The samples were divided into two groups: water-wet bonding with Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and a simplified EWB (three 100% ethanol applications for 30 s each), followed by application of an experimental hydrophobic primer and restoration. The samples were vertically sectioned to produce 1 mm × 1 mm thick slabs. The normal dentin (ND) slabs and CAD slabs were identified and were subjected to μTBS evaluation. Slabs from four teeth (two from each group) were evaluated under microscope. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Holm–Sidak test at P < 0.05. Results: EWB improved the μTBS in ND but not in CAD group. The dentinal tubules in CAD group showed sclerotic activity with minimal or no hybrid layer. Conclusions: Simplified ethanol bonding does not improve the bond strength in CAD. PMID:27656059

  14. Effects of simplified ethanol-wet bonding technique on immediate bond strength with normal versus caries-affected dentin.

    PubMed

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Sharma, Ritu; Miglani, Sanjay; Bhasin, Saranjit Singh

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether the use of simplified ethanol-wet bonding (EWB) technique improved the immediate microtensile bond strength (μTBS) between resin composite and caries-affected dentin (CAD). Twenty-four extracted carious human permanent molars were sectioned to expose the carious lesion. The carious dentin was excavated until CAD was exposed. The samples were divided into two groups: water-wet bonding with Adper Scotchbond Multi-Purpose and a simplified EWB (three 100% ethanol applications for 30 s each), followed by application of an experimental hydrophobic primer and restoration. The samples were vertically sectioned to produce 1 mm × 1 mm thick slabs. The normal dentin (ND) slabs and CAD slabs were identified and were subjected to μTBS evaluation. Slabs from four teeth (two from each group) were evaluated under microscope. Data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA and post hoc Holm-Sidak test at P < 0.05. EWB improved the μTBS in ND but not in CAD group. The dentinal tubules in CAD group showed sclerotic activity with minimal or no hybrid layer. Simplified ethanol bonding does not improve the bond strength in CAD.

  15. [A primary study of color tolerance of anterior tooth crown prosthesis].

    PubMed

    Ge, Qi-min; Zhang, Fu-qiang

    2008-12-01

    To study the color tolerance of anterior ceramic crown and seek an effective approach for color-matching of oral prostheses. 30 single maxillary incisor ceramic prostheses and the corresponding nature teeth were measured by a digital camera in a steady environment for image taking and color measurement, which based on the standard recommended by CIE. The color tolerance was analyzed in two groups based on satisfaction and dissatisfaction of prostheses color-matching. The deltaE of satisfaction group was 2.5503, while the deltaE of dissatisfaction group was 4.0772. There was significant difference between chromatic aberration of satisfaction group and dissatisfaction group (P<0.01). When the lightness and saturation of prosthesis were higher than nature teeth, there was no significant difference between deltaL*, deltab*, deltaC* of satisfaction group and dissatisfaction group (P>0.05). When the lightness and saturation of prosthesis were smaller than nature teeth, there was significant difference between deltaL*, deltab*, deltaC* of satisfaction group and dissatisfaction group (P<0.01). There was significant difference between deltaa*, deltaH of satisfaction group and dissatisfaction group (P<0.05, P<0.01). Control of color difference is the key for shade matching of anterior tooth prosthesis. Applying the color tolerance is beneficial to improving the prosthesis quality.

  16. Tooth enamel mineralization in ungulates: implications for recovering a primary isotopic time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Passey, Benjamin H.; Cerling, Thure E.

    2002-09-01

    Temporal changes in the carbon and oxygen isotopic composition of an animal are an environmental and behavioral input signal that is recorded into the enamel of developing teeth. In this paper, we evaluate changes in phosphorus content and density along the axial lengths of three developing ungulate teeth to illustrate the protracted nature of mineral accumulation in a volume of developing enamel. The least mature enamel in these teeth contains by volume about 25% of the mineral mass of mature enamel, and the remaining 75% of the mineral accumulates during maturation. Using data from one of these teeth (a Hippopotamus amphibius canine), we develop a model for teeth growing at constant rate that describes how an input signal is recorded into tooth enamel. The model accounts for both the temporal and spatial patterns of amelogenesis (enamel formation) and the sampling geometry. The model shows that input signal attenuation occurs as a result of time-averaging during amelogenesis when the maturation interval is long compared to the duration of features in the input signal. Sampling does not induce significant attenuation, provided that the sampling interval is several times shorter than the maturation interval. We present a detailed δ 13C and δ 18O record for the H. amphibius canine and suggest possible input isotope signals that may have given rise to the measured isotope signal.

  17. Traumatic tooth injuries to primary teeth of children aged 0-3 years.

    PubMed

    Avşar, Aysun; Topaloglu, Bengi

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze data according to gender, age, cause, number of traumatized teeth, type of tooth and trauma, from the records of traumatized children (0-3 years) referred to the Ondokuz Mayis University, Dental Faculty, Department of Pedodontics in middle Black Sea region of Turkey. A total of 563 boys and girls participated in the study. Traumatic dental injuries were recorded using the classification of the World Health Organization modified slightly by Andreasen & Andreasen. Traumatic dental injuries were identified in 17.4% of the children. The largest percentage of injuries were in the 13-18 months old children with no significant gender differences (P > 0.05). Periodontal tissue injuries were the most common (84.7%) with no statistical difference between different ages or gender (P > 0.05). The main etiological factor of traumatic dental injury was falls (73.5%) and it was not different between age and gender (P > 0.05). The maxillary central incisors were involved in a higher percentage of traumatic injuries (98%), with no differences between the right and the left sides (P > 0.05). Treatment was sought for 37.4% of children within 1-7 days. It is suggested that parents should be informed about prevention of traumatic injuries and to contact a dentist immediately.

  18. Postendodontic restoration of severely decayed primary tooth using modified omega loop as a post

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ruchi; Raiyani, Chirag M.; Singh, Vikram; Katageri, Abhinandan Anand

    2016-01-01

    The esthetic concern of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in the case of early childhood caries has been a challenge to pediatric dentist. Early childhood caries is the most common chronic disease of the preschool child. The case report presented here is of a three year old boy with severely decayed maxillary anterior teeth. After root canal treatment, the primary maxillary central incisors were reinforced using modified omega post and followed by using celluloid strip crowns. The technique described here offers a simple and effective method for restoring severely decayed primary anterior teeth that reestablishes shape, function, and esthetics. PMID:27003983

  19. Postendodontic restoration of severely decayed primary tooth using modified omega loop as a post.

    PubMed

    Arora, Ruchi; Raiyani, Chirag M; Singh, Vikram; Katageri, Abhinandan Anand

    2016-01-01

    The esthetic concern of severely mutilated primary anterior teeth in the case of early childhood caries has been a challenge to pediatric dentist. Early childhood caries is the most common chronic disease of the preschool child. The case report presented here is of a three year old boy with severely decayed maxillary anterior teeth. After root canal treatment, the primary maxillary central incisors were reinforced using modified omega post and followed by using celluloid strip crowns. The technique described here offers a simple and effective method for restoring severely decayed primary anterior teeth that reestablishes shape, function, and esthetics.

  20. Effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness: An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Mali, Gaurao Vasant; Dodamani, Arun Suresh; Karibasappa, Gundabaktha Nagappa; Kumar, Prashanth Vishwakarma; Jain, Vardhaman Mulchand

    2015-01-01

    To assess and compare the effect of conventional and sugar free pediatric syrup formulations on primary tooth enamel hardness over a period of 14 days. An in vitro study was done on 40 noncarious deciduous teeth. 10 teeth in each group were dipped in 4 pediatric medicinal syrups (1 sugarfree and 3 conventional) for 1 min thrice daily for 14 days and the enamel surface micro hardness was checked at baseline, 7 th day and 14 th day by Vickers hardness testing machine. The pH, titratable acidity and buffering capacity of the syrups were assessed. The pH of syrups were above critical pH for demineralization of the tooth but tiratable acidity and buffering capacity differed. ANOVA test indicated that the reduction in mean micro hardness was maximum in Group D (Conventional Analgesic syrup) and least in Group A (Sugarfree cough syrup) on 7 th and 14 th day. On intergroup comparison there was no difference (P > 0.05) in micro hardness between Group B (Conventional Cough syrup) and Group C (Conventional Antibiotic). However, highly significant (P < 0.01) difference between the either pair of Group B with Group D, and Group C with Group D on 14 th day. The percentage reduction in micro hardness on 14 th day was maximum for Group D (24.4 ± 2.2) and minimum for Group A (14.0 ± 1.3) which was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Sugar free pediatric medicines can be effective in reducing dental erosion and efforts should be made to incorporate sugar substitutes in formulation of pediatric medicines.

  1. Deproteinization treatment on bond strengths of primary, mature and immature permanent tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Aras, S; Küçükeşmen, C; Küçükeşmen, H C; Sönmez, I Saroğlu

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of pre-post deproteinization treatment with 5% sodium hypochloride on shear bond strength (sbs) of adhesive resin to primary, immature and mature permanent teeth enamel. 30 teeth were used for each of primary, immature and mature permanent teeth groups. (totally 90). In control groups, enamel was etched for 60s with 37% phosphoric acid (3M) and rinsed for 10s (Procedure A). In experimental groups, deproteinization was applied with 5% NaOCI solution for 120s before (Procedure D+A) and after acid-etching (Procedure A+D). Gluma Comfort Bond (Heraeus-Kulzer) and Charisma (Heraeus-Kulzer) composite resin were applied to etched enamel surfaces. Data were determined with Two-Way ANOVA and LSD Multiple Comparison Test (p < 0.05). SBS was significantly lower in primary and immature permanent teeth than mature permanent teeth (p < 0.05). "Procedure A+D" statistically increased sbs values in primary and immature permanent teeth (p < 0.05). Deproteinization after acid etching significantly enhanced the shear bond strength values in primary and immature permanent teeth.

  2. Evaluation and comparison of white mineral trioxide aggregate and formocresol medicaments in primary tooth pulpotomy: clinical and radiographic study.

    PubMed

    Jayam, Cheranjeevi; Mitra, Malay; Mishra, Jiban; Bhattacharya, Bhaswar; Jana, Biswanath

    2014-01-01

    The primary aim of the following study is to evaluate and secondary aim is to compare clinically and radiographically the success of using white mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) versus formocresol (FC) medicament for primary tooth pulpotomy. A total of 100 teeth were selected for pulpotomy; of which 50 teeth underwent FC pulpotomy and 50 teeth underwent pulpotomy with white MTA. Out of 100 treated teeth, 82 teeth (42 FC and 40 MTA teeth) were available at the end of 24 months for evaluation. 4 failures were found in FC group at 1 st month evaluation and no failures were found in white MTA group. A statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the overall success rate of study and individual success rates of medicaments. Overall success rate of the study was 95%, success rate of FC group was 90.48% and success rate of MTA group was 100%. MTA produced better results as pulpotomy medicament in comparison to FC. The superior success obtained in the present study was matching other studies mentioned in the literature. MTA seems to be a promising pulpotomy medicament for future use.

  3. Elemental composition of normal primary tooth enamel analyzed with XRMA and SIMS.

    PubMed

    Sabel, Nina; Dietz, Wolfram; Lundgren, Ted; Nietzsche, Sandor; Odelius, Hans; Rythén, Marianne; Rizell, Sara; Robertson, Agneta; Norén, Jörgen G; Klingberg, Gunilla

    2009-01-01

    There is an interest to analyze the chemical composition of enamel in teeth from patients with different developmental disorders or syndromes and evaluate possible differences compared to normal composition. For this purpose, it is essential to have reference material. The aim of this study was to, by means of X-ray micro analyses (XRMA) and secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), present concentration gradients for C, O, P and Ca and F, Na, Mg, Cl, K and Sr in normal enamel of primary teeth from healthy individuals. 36 exfoliated primary teeth from 36 healthy children were collected, sectioned, and analyzed in the enamel and dentin with X-ray micro analyses for the content of C, O, P and Ca and F, Na MgCl, K and Sr. This study has supplied reference data for C, O, P and Ca in enamel in primary teeth from healthy subjects. No statistically significant differences in the elemental composition were found between incisors and molars.The ratio Ca/P is in concordance with other studies. Some elements have shown statistically significant differences between different levels of measurement. These results may be used as reference values for research on the chemical composition of enamel and dentin in primary teeth from patients with different conditions and/or syndromes.

  4. Microtensile and Microshear Bond Strength of an Antibacterial Self-Etching System to Primary Tooth Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Yildirim, Sibel; Tosun, Gül; Koyutürk, Alp Erdin; Şener, Yaḡmur; Şengün, Abdulkadir; Özer, Füsun; Imazato, Satoshi

    2008-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that the bonding ability of antibacterial bonding system to primary dentin was not different from the parental material which did not contain any antibacterial component. Methods Extracted human non-carious primary molars were ground to expose the coronal dentin, and then randomly divided into two experimental groups: treatment with Clearfil Protect Bond or with Clearfil SE Bond (Kuraray Medical Inc.). Composite-dentin sticks with a cross-sectional area of approximately 0.90 mm2 were prepared and subsequently subjected to microtensile bond strength (μTBS) and microshear bond strength (μSBS) tests. For the μTBS tests, specimens were attached to an Instron testing machine with a cyanoacrylate adhesive. For μSBS testing, the sticks were mechanically fixed to the μSBS testing apparatus. The bonds were stressed in shear or tension at a crosshead speed of 1mm/min until failure occurred. Resin-dentin interfaces produced by each system were examined using SEM. The data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney’s U test. Results The μTBS and μSBS of Clearfil Protect Bond were 30.69±9.71 and 9.94±3.78 MPa, respectively. Clearfil SE Bond showed significantly greater values of 37.31±9.57 and 12.83±3.15 MPa, respectively. SEM analysis demonstrated similar micro-morphological features including the thickness of the hybrid layer for both materials. Conclusions It was showed that antibacterial self-etching system Clearfil Protect Bond showed lower bond strength values compared to primary dentin than that of to Clearfil SE Bond on primary dentin. (Eur J Dent 2008;2:11–17) PMID:19212503

  5. Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    You call it a cavity. Your dentist calls it tooth decay or dental caries. They're all names for a hole in your tooth. The cause of tooth decay is plaque, a sticky substance in your mouth made up mostly of germs. Tooth decay starts in the outer layer, called the enamel. Without ...

  6. A SURVEY ON CURRENT TRENDS IN PRIMARY TOOTH PULPOTOMY IN KARACHI.

    PubMed

    Lone, Maham Muneeb; Khan, Farhan Raza; Lone, Muneeb Ahmed; Rehman, Munawar

    2015-01-01

    In comparison to USA and United Kingdom where Paediatric Dentistry is considered a separate specialty; there very few formal teaching programs in Pakistan for Paediatric Dentistry. Many surveys have been carried out internationally, but no survey has been carried out locally to ascertain practice of dentists when treating paediatric patients. Therefore, it appears important to map features of Paediatric Dentistry practice in our country. The purpose of this study was to assess practice regarding pulpotomy of primary teeth among dentists of Karachi and to compare difference in pulpotomy practice of primary teeth between private practitioners and teaching dentists. Questionnaire was distributed by hand to dentists working in private clinics and teaching hospitals of Karachi, involved in treating primary teeth of children. Questions captured information on aspects related to pulpotomy procedure as carried out by dentists. Descriptive statistics and frequency distribution were computed. Chi-square test was applied to compare difference between dentists working in teaching hospitals versus private practitioners. Level of significance was kept at 0.05. Although majority of dentists use the preferred medicament for pulpotomy, i.e., formocresol, it was seen that only a small proportion reported frequent use of radiographs and rubber dam. There was a significant difference in selecting post pulpotomy restorations for anterior teeth by teaching dentists (Composites) compared to private practitioners (who favoured GIC). Only 20-27% of dentists reported use of stainless steel crown for definitive restoration after pulpotomy. Although majority of dentists use formocresol as a preferred medicament for pulpotomy, it was seen that only a small proportion of participants reported frequent use of radiographs, rubber dam and stainless steel crowns which is far below the standard of care.

  7. Primary Tooth Vital Pulp Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Coll, James A; Seale, N Sue; Vargas, Kaaren; Marghalani, Abdullah A; Al Shamali, Shahad; Graham, Laurel

    2017-01-15

    This systematic review and meta-analysis assessed outcomes in primary teeth for the vital pulp therapy (VPT) options of indirect pulp therapy (IPT), direct pulp capping (DPC), and pulpotomy after a minimum of 12 months to determine whether one VPT was superior. The following databases were searched from 1960 to September 2016: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL, EBSCO, ICTRP, Dissertation abstracts, and grey literature for parallel and split-mouth randomized controlled trials of at least 12 months duration comparing the success of IPT, DPC, and pulpotomy in children with deep caries in primary teeth. Our primary outcome measure was overall success (combined clinical and radiographic). Three authors determined the included RCTs, performed data extraction, and assessed the risk of bias (ROB). Meta-analysis and assignment of quality of evidence by Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation approach were done. Forty-one articles qualified for meta-analysis (six IPT, four DPC, and 31 pulpotomy) from 322 screened articles. The 24-month success rates were: IPT=94.4 percent, and the liner material (calcium hydroxide [CH]/bonding agents) had no effect on success (P=0.88), based on a moderate quality of evidence; DP =88.8 percent, and the capping agent (CH/alternate agent) did not affect success (P=0.56), based on a low quality of evidence. The combined success rate for all pulpotomies was 82.6 percent based on 1,022 teeth. Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) (89.6 percent) and formocresol (FC) (85.0 percent) success rates were the highest of all pulpotomy types and were not significantly different (P=0.15), with a high quality of evidence. MTA's success rate (92.2 percent) was higher than ferric sulfate (FS) (79.3 percent) and approached significance (P=0.06), while FS's success rate (84.8 percent) was not significantly different from FC (87.1 percent), both with a moderate quality of evidence. MTA and FC success rates were significantly better than CH (P=0

  8. Photodynamic Therapy for the Endodontic Treatment of a Traumatic Primary Tooth in a Diabetic Pediatric Patient

    PubMed Central

    de Sant’Anna, Giselle

    2014-01-01

    Conservation of deciduous teeth with pulp alterations caused by caries or trauma is a major therapeutic challenge in pediatric dentistry. It is essential that the sanitizers used in root canal procedures perform well in eliminating bacteria. Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) is an emerging and promising adjuvant therapy for endodontic treatment in an attempt to eliminate microorganisms persistent after chemomechanical preparation. This paper reports the case of a five-year-old male with type I diabetes mellitus, presenting the need for pulp therapy in maxillary primary left central incisor due to injury. The proposed treatment included the use of PDT for decontamination of root canals with the application of 50 μg/mL of methylene blue dye for 3-5 minutes and 40 J/cm2 as energy density, taking into account the need for tissue penetration and effec-tiveness of PDT inside the dentinal tubules. PMID:25024841

  9. Surgical Management of a Rare Case of Massive Compound Odontome Associated with Missing Primary Tooth.

    PubMed

    Sankaran, Elengkumaran; Narasimhan, Sangeetha; Sabitha, K S; Chitlangia, Punit

    2017-04-01

    Odontomes are considered to be the most common odontogenic tumours of the jaws. They are benign, mixed tumours arising from the remnants of both odontogenic epithelium and the ectomesenchyme resulting in the deposition of varied propotions of enamel, dentin, cementum and pulp tissues. As these lesions show deficiency only in structural arrangement, some authors consider odontomes as hamartomas or tumour like malformations. Though these lesions are more common in children, very few cases have been reported in less than five years age group. Blood loss is a major issue in paediatric surgery. Careful and safe surgery is the primary goal of the surgeon. The external carorid artery which is the only feeder of blood to the face and oral cavity can be ligated to control bleeding in extensive maxillofacial injuries and orofacial malignancies. Herewith, we report a massive odontome in a three and half-year-old child which was treated by surgical excision along with carotid control to prevent excess bleeding.

  10. Primary tooth abscess caused by Mycobacterium bovis in an immunocompetent child.

    PubMed

    Maragou, Chrysoula; Theologie-Lygidakis, Nadia; Ioannidis, Panayotis; Stenou, Antonia; Kanavaki, Sophia; Iatrou, Ioannis; Tsolia, Maria N

    2010-09-01

    Bovine tuberculosis is a zoonotic disease, and although its incidence has dramatically decreased in developed countries where effective control measures are applied, it still remains a potential health hazard in the developing world. Tuberculosis of the oral cavity is extremely rare and is usually secondary to pulmonary involvement. We present the unusual case of an immunocompetent 6-year-old child residing in an urban area with primary oral tuberculosis due to Mycobacterium bovis, which was confirmed by the application of a molecular genetic approach. M. bovis belongs to Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex which comprises species with close genetic relationship, and for this reason, the use of new molecular techniques is a useful tool for the differentiation at species level of the closely related members of this complex.

  11. Impact of CO2 laser and stannous fluoride on primary tooth erosion.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Cristiane Tomaz; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated in vitro the effect of input power of CO2 laser, either associated or not to stannous fluoride (SnF2) gel, for the control of intrinsic erosion in primary teeth. One hundred four enamel slabs (3 × 3 × 2 mm) from human primary molars were flattened and polished. Adhesive tapes were placed on their surface leaving a window of 3 × 1 mm. Slabs were then cycled four times in 0.01 M hydrochloric acid (pH 2, 2 min) and in artificial saliva (2 h) for creation of erosive lesions. Specimens were randomly assigned into eight groups (n = 13) according to fluoride application [absent (control) or 0.4% stannous fluoride gel (SnF2)] and input power of CO2 laser [unlased (control), 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 W]. The CO2 laser irradiation was performed in an ultra-pulse mode (100 μs of pulse duration), 4-mm working distance, for 10 s. Specimens were then submitted to further erosive episodes for 5 days and evaluated for enamel relative permeability. Fluoride did not show any protective effect for any of the laser-treated groups or control (p = 0.185). However, a significant effect was detected for input power of CO2 laser (p = 0.037). Tukey's test showed that there was a significant statistically difference between specimens irradiated with 0.5 and 1.5 W (p = 0.028). The input power of 0.5 W showed lower permeability. Variation of input power CO2 laser can influence enamel permeability, at the power of 1.5 W which promoted greater permeability.

  12. Experimental study of iron and multivitamin drops on enamel microhardness of primary tooth.

    PubMed

    Pasdar, Nilgoon; Alaghehmand, Homayoon; Mottaghi, Fattane; Tavassoli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Iron and multivitamin drops are being frequently prescribed in children less than 2 years of age. Due to their low pH levels, these drops may lead to the softening of enamel and accelerate the destructive process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the enamel microhardness of primary teeth after exposing them to iron and multivitamin drops. Forty healthy anterior teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 10 samples each. Samples were exposed to two iron drops of Kharazmi (Iran) and Ironorm (UK) and two multivitamin drops of Shahdarou (Iran) and Eurovit (Germany) for 5 min. The surface microhardness was measured before and after exposure and data processing was done using statistical paired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The surface structure of the teeth was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). In all groups, microhardness was decreased, but it was not significant in Eurovit multivitamin group (P = 0.088). The reduction rate in Kharazmi iron group was significant compared to that in other groups (P < 0.005). Hardness reduction percent for Kharazmi iron drop was 28/12 ± 47/43. In SEM analysis, irregular granular appearance was observed in the enamel exposed to Kharazmi iron drop. The results showed that all the studied drugs have the potential to cause erosion; this potential is the most in Kharazmi iron drop and the least in Eurovit multivitamin drops. Therefore, after using these kinds of drops, preventive measures should be used in children.

  13. Comparison of ferric sulfate, formocresol, and a combination of ferric sulfate/formocresol in primary tooth vital pulpotomies: a retrospective radiographic survey.

    PubMed

    Burnett, Spence; Walker, Jerry

    2002-01-01

    Studies have suggested that formocresol has toxic and carcinogenic potential. A search for an alternative medicament for primary tooth pulpotomies has led to ferric sulfate as a possible alternative. A retrospective study was done in a multipractitioner IHS (Indian Health Service) clinic. Radiographic success or failure was determined for 202 primary tooth pulpotomies performed with either formocresol, ferric sulfate, or a combination procedure of formocresol and ferric sulfate. The post-operative period for the pulpotomies ranged from one month to thirty-six plus months. There was no statistical difference in radiographic failure rates between formocresol, ferric sulfate, or the combination procedure when results were analyzed regardless of post-op period. However, when post-op periods were considered, formocresol performed better at > 36 months and the combination procedure showed significantly more failures at > 36 months.

  14. Experimental study of iron and multivitamin drops on enamel microhardness of primary tooth

    PubMed Central

    Pasdar, Nilgoon; Alaghehmand, Homayoon; Mottaghi, Fattane; Tavassoli, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Iron and multivitamin drops are being frequently prescribed in children less than 2 years of age. Due to their low pH levels, these drops may lead to the softening of enamel and accelerate the destructive process. The aim of the present study was to investigate the enamel microhardness of primary teeth after exposing them to iron and multivitamin drops. Materials and Methods: Forty healthy anterior teeth were randomly divided into four groups of 10 samples each. Samples were exposed to two iron drops of Kharazmi (Iran) and Ironorm (UK) and two multivitamin drops of Shahdarou (Iran) and Eurovit (Germany) for 5 min. The surface microhardness was measured before and after exposure and data processing was done using statistical paired t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. The surface structure of the teeth was examined by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results: In all groups, microhardness was decreased, but it was not significant in Eurovit multivitamin group (P = 0.088). The reduction rate in Kharazmi iron group was significant compared to that in other groups (P < 0.005). Hardness reduction percent for Kharazmi iron drop was 28/12 ± 47/43. In SEM analysis, irregular granular appearance was observed in the enamel exposed to Kharazmi iron drop. Conclusion: The results showed that all the studied drugs have the potential to cause erosion; this potential is the most in Kharazmi iron drop and the least in Eurovit multivitamin drops. Therefore, after using these kinds of drops, preventive measures should be used in children. PMID:26759808

  15. Formocresol mutagenicity following primary tooth pulp therapy: an in vivo study.

    PubMed

    Zarzar, P A; Rosenblatt, A; Takahashi, C S; Takeuchi, P L; Costa Júnior, L A

    2003-09-01

    To investigate whether formocresol, in Buckley's original formulation, is mutagenic in vivo to lymphocyte cultures obtained from the peripheral blood of children aged from 5 to 10 years old. These children were recruited from those attending the dental clinics of Recife City Council and the University of Pernambuco School of Dentistry, Brazil. The sample comprised 20 children who had primary teeth with cariously exposed vital pulps. Two venous blood samples were collected (6-8 ml) from each child, the first prior to vital pulpotomy (control group) and the second 24 h after pulpotomy (treated group). This research is a case-control study. The peripheral lymphocytes were grown in a complete culture medium consisting of 78% RPMI 1640 medium (a), supplemented with streptomycin (0.01 mg/ml), penicillin (0.005 ml(-1)), 20% fetal bovine serum (b) and 2% phytohemagglutinin (c). The lymphocytes were assessed for chromosomal aberrations via a previously published method which was modified. The cytogenetic analysis was performed in a blind test, where the slides were codified by an annotator and the scorers did not know which group they were analyzing. For each sample, this envolved the analysis of 200 metaphases. The level of significance adopted in the statistical test was 5.0% (p<0.05). There was no statistically significant difference in clinical doses between the control and treated groups, using Wilcoxon's Signed Ranks test, for the chromosomal aberrations (P=0.251) and for the total chromosomal breaks (P=0.149). Although there were no statistically significant differences between the control and treated groups, Buckley's formocresol was mutagenic for one patient, raising doubt about the desirability of its use for pulpotomies in children. The results revealed that, from a statistical standpoint, formocresol is not mutagenic. However, further investigations are required, preferably with a larger sample, in patients needing more than one pulpotomy in order to observe

  16. Exome resequencing combined with linkage analysis identifies novel PTH1R variants in primary failure of tooth eruption in Japanese.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Tetsutaro; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Narita, Akira; Shirota, Tatsuo; Tomoyasu, Yoko; Maki, Koutaro; Inoue, Ituro

    2011-07-01

    Massively parallel sequencing of target regions, exomes, and complete genomes has begun to increase the opportunities for identifying genetic variants underlying rare and common diseases dramatically. Here we applied exome resequencing to primary failure of tooth eruption (PFE) to identify the genetic causality of the disease. Two Japanese families having PFE were recruited and examined by genome-wide linkage study and subsequently exome analyses. Linkage analyses of these two families comprising eight affected individuals and two unaffected individuals revealed linkage signals at 10 loci with a maximum LOD score of 1.5. Four affected individuals in one family were pooled and further processed for exome analysis, followed by massive parallel sequencing. After three-step filtering including annotation and functional expectation, three variants were found to be candidates for PFE. Among the three variants, only a novel variant of parathyroid hormone 1 receptor gene (PTH1R), R383Q, was cosegregated in the first PFE family. Accordingly, we screened the gene for variants at all coding exons and the respective intron-exon boundaries in the second family and two sporadic individuals with PFE. We also identified a novel missense variant, P119L, cosegregating in the second family and missense variants P132L and R147C in the sporadic cases. These variants all were in the highly conserved region across zebrafish to chimpanzee and not observed in 192 unrelated controls, supporting the pathogenicity of the variants. The combination of linkage and exome analyses employed in this study provides a powerful strategy for identifying genes responsible for Mendelian disorders.

  17. Tooth Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... include eating, speaking and even smiling. But tooth disorders are nothing to smile about. They include problems ... your teeth. Fortunately, you can prevent many tooth disorders by taking care of your teeth and keeping ...

  18. Tooth anatomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002214.htm Tooth anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... upper jawbone is called the maxilla. Images Tooth anatomy References Lingen MW. Head and neck. In: Kumar ...

  19. Tooth Problems

    MedlinePlus

    ... saved.Start OverDiagnosisYour pain may be from a FRACTURED, CRACKED or LOOSE TOOTH.Self CareSave any pieces of the tooth, wrap ... OverDiagnosisYour pain may be from TEMPOROMANDIBULAR JOINT (TMJ) syndrome, a condition that affects the jaw.Self CareTry ...

  20. The influence of smear layer removal on primary tooth pulpectomy outcome: a 24-month, double-blind, randomized, and controlled clinical trial evaluation.

    PubMed

    Barcelos, Roberta; Tannure, Patricia Nivoloni; Gleiser, Rogerio; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Primo, Laura Guimarães

    2012-09-01

    The effect of smear layer (SL) removal on primary tooth pulpectomy outcome has not been well elucidated. To determine the effect of SL removal on primary tooth pulpectomy outcome. This is a double-blind, randomized, and controlled clinical trial. Forty-eight patients were randomly divided into SL removal (G1 = 40 teeth) or smear layer nonremoval (G2 = 42 teeth) groups. Following the chemomechanical preparation with K-files and 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), teeth were irrigated with either 6% citric acid and 0.9% physiologic solution (G1) or only 0.9% physiologic solution (G2). Camphorated paramonochlorophenol was used as intracanal medication. At the second appointment, 1 week after, root canals were filled with zinc oxide-eugenol paste. Clinical and radiographical baseline criteria were stipulated equally for both groups. The success rate (G1 = 91.2%; G2 = 70.0%) was statistically different (P = 0.04) between the groups. In G2, the outcome was affected significantly by pulpal necrosis (P = 0.02), pre-operatory symptoms (P = 0.02), and periapical/inter-radicular radiolucency (P = 0.04). The pulpectomy outcome was improved by smear layer removal. The outcome for teeth with pulpal necrosis, pre-operatory symptoms, or periapical/inter-radicular radiolucency was significantly improved by removal of the smear layer. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry © 2011 BSPD, IAPD and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Neonatal line as a linear evidence of live birth: Estimation of postnatal survival of a new born from primary tooth germs.

    PubMed

    Janardhanan, Mahija; Umadethan, B; Biniraj, Kr; Kumar, Rb Vinod; Rakesh, S

    2011-01-01

    The presence of neonatal line indicates live birth and it is possible to estimate the exact period of survival of the infant in days by measuring the amount of postnatal hard tissue formation, and thus can be an evidence to the brutal act of infanticide. Primary tooth germs of both the arches were removed from the sockets of an infant who died few days after birth. Ground sections were made with hard tissue microtome. Decalcified sections were made from the crown of primary right mandibular canine and the sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. To visualize the neonatal line, the sections were subjected to light mocroscopy, polarized microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. A developing permanent molar from a one and a half year old boy and ten fully developed deciduous molars were used as controls. The ground sections of all the developing tooth germs showed the presence of neonatal line and the analysis of enamel showed six distinct cross striations along the enamel rod length indicating the period of survival of the baby to be six days which was later confirmed with the hospital records. Neonatal line could be used as an evidence of infanticide. Accurate detection of neonatal line with advanced techniques could rewrite this supplementary evidence of infanticide into substantial evidence.

  2. On modeling and nanoanalysis of caries-affected dentin surfaces restored with Zn-containing amalgam and in vitro oral function.

    PubMed

    Toledano, Manuel; Aguilera, Fátima S; Osorio, Estrella; López-López, Modesto T; Cabello, Inmaculada; Toledano-Osorio, Manuel; Osorio, Raquel

    2015-12-19

    The aim of this research was to assess the influence of mechanical loading on the ability of Zn-free versus Zn-containing amalgams to promote remineralization at the dentin interface. Sound and caries-affected dentin surfaces (CAD) were restored using Zn-free or Zn-containing dental amalgams. Midcoronal dentin surfaces were studied by (1) atomic force microscopy analysis (including plot and phase imaging, nanoindentation test [modulus of Young (Ei), nanoroughness measurements, and fibril diameter assessment], (2) Raman spectroscopy/cluster analysis, (3) x-ray diffraction, (4) field emission electron microscope and energy-dispersive analysis, for morphological, mechanical, and physicochemical characterization. Analyses were performed before amalgam placement and after amalgam removal, at 24 h and 3 weeks of load cycling. Zn-free and Zn-containing amalgams restorations promoted an increase in the modulus of Young of CAD surfaces, after 3 weeks of load cycling; at this time, Zn-containing amalgams attained higher Ei than Zn-free restorations. Zn-containing amalgams induced tubular occlusion after load cycling, in both sound and CAD. Zn free-amalgams promoted remineralization of both intertubular and peritubular dentin in CAD substrata. These minerals were identified as calcium-phosphate deposits and crystals as hydroxyl-apatite with augmented crystallographic maturity but with some components of lattice distortion. Crosslinking of collagen diminished and secondary structure of collagen increased in CAD substrate restored with Zn-containing amalgam after 3 weeks of load cycling, indicating an advanced preservation, molecular organization, and orientation of collagen fibrils after load cycling. Plot and phase images permitted to observe the topographical changes which were promoted by the mineral deposits; in general, the indexes related to higher remineralization gave rise to a decrease of nanoroughness and an augmentation of the bandwidth of the collagen fibrils. Zn

  3. Taxonomic and Functional Analyses of the Supragingival Microbiome from Caries-Affected and Caries-Free Hosts.

    PubMed

    He, Jinzhi; Tu, Qichao; Ge, Yichen; Qin, Yujia; Cui, Bomiao; Hu, Xiaoyu; Wang, Yuxia; Deng, Ye; Wang, Kun; Van Nostrand, Joy D; Li, Jiyao; Zhou, Jizhong; Li, Yan; Zhou, Xuedong

    2017-09-20

    Caries is one of the most prevalent and costly infectious diseases affecting humans of all ages. It is initiated by cariogenic supragingival dental plaques forming on saliva-coated tooth surfaces, yet the etiology remains elusive. To determine which microbial populations may predispose a patient to caries, we report here an in-depth and comprehensive view of the microbial community associated with supragingival dental plaque collected from the healthy teeth of caries patients and healthy adults. We found that microbial communities from caries patients had a higher evenness and inter-individual variations but simpler ecological networks compared to healthy controls despite the overall taxonomic structure being similar. Genera including Selenomonas, Treponema, Atopobium, and Bergeriella were distributed differently between the caries and healthy groups with disturbed co-occurrence patterns. In addition, caries and healthy subjects carried different Treponema, Atopobium, and Prevotella species. Moreover, distinct populations of 13 function genes involved in organic acid synthesis, glycan biosynthesis, complex carbohydrate degradation, amino acid synthesis and metabolism, purine and pyrimidine metabolism, isoprenoid biosynthesis, lipid metabolism, and co-factor biosynthesis were present in each of the healthy and caries groups. Our results suggested that the fundamental differences in dental plaque ecology partially explained the patients' susceptibility to caries, and could be used for caries risk prediction in the future.

  4. Effect of erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on surface micro-hardness of primary tooth enamel

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Priya; Pandey, Annu

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to evaluate the effect of Er, Cr: YSGG laser and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on surface micro-hardness of primary tooth enamel. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 freshly extracted caries free primary anterior teeth were cleaned and stored in 1% thymol. Teeth were embedded in acrylic resin such that only their buccal surfaces were exposed and were divided into four groups. Group I: Five intact teeth (negative control). The remaining 25 teeth were immersed for 30 min in 1% citric acid for demineralization. Group II: Five demineralized teeth (positive control), Group III: CPP-ACP (GC tooth mousse-GC International, Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo, Japan) application and Group IV: Etching using Er, Cr: YSGG laser + CPP-ACP application. Groups III and IV were subjected to pH cycling for 5 days. Surface micro-hardness of all the teeth was measured using Brinell hardness tester (Fuel Instruments and Engineers Pvt. Ltd.). Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Results: Mean surface micro-hardness of Groups I and II were 177.43 kgf/mm2 and 164.86 kgf/mm2, respectively. Group IV showed a higher mean surface micro-hardness (230.68 kgf/mm2) compared with that of Group III (190.28 kgf/mm2). In comparison to all other groups, laser etching prior to CPP-ACP application increased surface micro-hardness significantly (P < 0.001). Conclusion: Laser irradiation of primary teeth followed by CPP-ACP application increased surface micro-hardness of enamel. PMID:25202223

  5. Effect of erbium, chromium: yttrium, scandium, gallium, garnet laser and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate on surface micro-hardness of primary tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Priya; Pandey, Annu

    2014-07-01

    THE AIM WAS TO EVALUATE THE EFFECT OF ER, CR: YSGG laser and casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) on surface micro-hardness of primary tooth enamel. A total of 30 freshly extracted caries free primary anterior teeth were cleaned and stored in 1% thymol. Teeth were embedded in acrylic resin such that only their buccal surfaces were exposed and were divided into four groups. Group I: Five intact teeth (negative control). The remaining 25 teeth were immersed for 30 min in 1% citric acid for demineralization. Group II: Five demineralized teeth (positive control), Group III: CPP-ACP (GC tooth mousse-GC International, Itabashi-Ku, Tokyo, Japan) application and Group IV: Etching using Er, Cr: YSGG laser + CPP-ACP application. Groups III and IV were subjected to pH cycling for 5 days. Surface micro-hardness of all the teeth was measured using Brinell hardness tester (Fuel Instruments and Engineers Pvt. Ltd.). Data were analyzed using ANOVA. Mean surface micro-hardness of Groups I and II were 177.43 kgf/mm(2) and 164.86 kgf/mm(2), respectively. Group IV showed a higher mean surface micro-hardness (230.68 kgf/mm(2)) compared with that of Group III (190.28 kgf/mm(2)). In comparison to all other groups, laser etching prior to CPP-ACP application increased surface micro-hardness significantly (P < 0.001). Laser irradiation of primary teeth followed by CPP-ACP application increased surface micro-hardness of enamel.

  6. Tooth abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... tissue swelling within the tooth. This causes a toothache . The toothache may stop if pressure is relieved. But the ... tissue. Symptoms The main symptom is a severe toothache. The pain is continuous. It does not stop. ...

  7. The Biology Underlying Abnormalities of Tooth Number in Humans.

    PubMed

    Juuri, E; Balic, A

    2017-10-01

    In past decades, morphologic, molecular, and cellular mechanisms that govern tooth development have been extensively studied. These studies demonstrated that the same signaling pathways regulate development of the primary and successional teeth. Mutations of these pathways lead to abnormalities in tooth development and number, including aberrant tooth shape, tooth agenesis, and formation of extra teeth. Here, we summarize the current knowledge on the development of the primary and successional teeth in animal models and describe some of the common tooth abnormalities in humans.

  8. Analysis of tooth brushing cycles.

    PubMed

    Tosaka, Yuki; Nakakura-Ohshima, Kuniko; Murakami, Nozomi; Ishii, Rikako; Saitoh, Issei; Iwase, Yoko; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Ohuchi, Akitsugu; Hayasaki, Haruaki

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate the effectiveness of an analysis of tooth brushing cycles using a system that measures tooth brushing motion and brushing force with an accelerometer and strain tension gage attached to a toothbrush. Mechanical plaque removal with a manual toothbrush remains the primary method of maintaining good oral hygiene for the majority of the population. Because toothbrush motion has not been fully understood, it should be clarified by analysis of tooth brushing cycles. Twenty healthy female dental hygienists participated in this study. Their tooth brushing motions were measured and analyzed using an American Dental Association-approved manual toothbrush to which a three-dimensional (3-D) accelerometer and strain tension gage were attached. 3-D motion and brushing force on the labial surface of the mandibular right central incisor and the lingual surface of the mandibular left first molar were measured, analyzed, and compared. Multilevel linear model analysis was applied to estimate variables and compare motion and forces related to the two tooth surfaces. The analysis of tooth brushing cycles was feasible, and significant differences were detected for durations and 3-D ranges of toothbrush motion as well as brushing force between the two tooth surfaces. The analysis used in this study demonstrated an ability to detect characteristics of tooth brushing motion, showing tooth brushing motion to change depending on the brushed location. These results also suggest that more detailed instructions might be required according to patient's oral condition.

  9. Traumatic displacement of a maxillary primary canine tooth into the middle nasal concha presenting as chronic facial pain: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bušic, Njegoslav; Mihovilovic, Ante; Poljak, Nikola Kolja; Macan, Darko

    2015-01-01

    The case of a 32-year-old woman who sustained a nasal bone fracture and dental trauma at the age of 9 is described in this article. Misdiagnosis of the dental displacement into the middle turbinate at the initial examination led to chronic facial pain. The cause of the pain was incorrectly diagnosed or misinterpreted by several medical specialists, including an otolaryngologist, neurologist, physiatrist, ophthalmologist, internist, radiologist, oral surgeon, dentist, and the patient's family physician. Finally, 23 years after the dental trauma, a multislice computed tomogram revealed that the primary maxillary canine was dislocated into the right middle nasal concha. The tooth, which had become embedded into necrotic, inflammatory tissue, was removed by endoscopic surgery, which resulted in full resolution of the patient's pain.

  10. Effect of thermal and mechanical loading on marginal adaptation and microtensile bond strength of a self-etching adhesive with caries-affected dentin

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Vivek; Singla, Mamta; Miglani, Sanjay

    2011-01-01

    Aim: This study evaluated the effect of thermal and mechanical loading on marginal adaptation and microtensile bond strength in total-etch versus self-etch adhesive systems in caries-affected dentin. Materials and Methods: Forty class II cavities were prepared on extracted proximally carious human mandibular first molars and were divided into two groups: Group I — self-etch adhesive system restorations and Group II — total-etch adhesive system restorations. Group I and II were further divided into sub-groups A (Without thermal and mechanical loading) and B (With thermal and mechanical loading of 5000 cycles, 5 ± 2°C to 55 ± 2°C, dwell time 30 seconds, and 150,000 cycles at 60N). The gingival margin of the proximal box was evaluated at 200X magnification for marginal adaptation in a low vacuum scanning electron microscope. The restorations were sectioned, perpendicular to the bonded surface, into 0.8 mm thick slabs. All the specimens were subjected to microtensile bond strength testing. The marginal adaptation was analyzed using descriptive studies, and the bond strength data was analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results and Conclusions: The total-etch system performed better under thermomechanical loading. PMID:21691507

  11. Caries in the infundibulum of the second upper premolar tooth in the horse

    PubMed Central

    Lundström, Torbjörn S; Dahlén, Gunnar G; Wattle, Ove S

    2007-01-01

    Background Swedish equine dental practices have empirically found that the prevalence of infundibular caries as a primary disorder in the first permanent premolar teeth (P2) of the horse upper jaw has increased during the last 10 years. A previously unknown bacterial species, Streptococcus devriesei (CCUG 47155T), which is related to Streptococcus mutans, has recently been isolated from these carious lesions. To understand the aetiology of caries in horses, it is essential to elucidate the relationship between S. devriesei and P2 infundibular caries. Methods The anterior infundibulum of maxillary P2, or the occlusal surface at the site of the infundibulum, in 117 horses and ponies, 77 with and 40 without caries in this tooth, was sampled for bacteriological analyses between 1990 and 2004. Samples were transported in VMGA III medium and then inoculated onto MSB agar. The approximate number of bacteria was counted in each sample and the isolates were characterised biochemically, using a commercial kit. Results All 50 samples taken from carious lesions after 2002 were positive for an S. mutans-like strain, i.e. S. devriesei. The bacteria were also found in four of the control animals, but were much less numerous than in samples from caries-affected horses. None of the swabs taken prior to 2002 were positive for this bacteria. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that S. devriesei can colonise the infundibulum of P2 of the horse upper jaw, which can be fatal for the dental tissue. We conclude that S. devriesei is strongly associated with P2 caries in horses. PMID:17391523

  12. A transition scoring system of caries increment with adjustment of reversals in longitudinal study: evaluation using primary tooth surface data

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, Amid I.; Lim, Sungwoo; Sohn, Woosung

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this paper is to evaluate a new comprehensive scoring system for longitudinal studies using the International Caries Detection and Assessment System (ICDAS). Methods A sample of 638 children was examined in 2002–03 and again in 2007. Caries was assessed using the ICDAS criteria which assess six clinical stages of dental caries. Based on a transition matrix matching the baseline and follow-up ICDAS scores, we developed transition weights to best describe the progression, regression, or no progression nor regression of dental caries. Differential weights were assigned to transitions involved with non-cavitated, cavitated, filled, crowned, or missing lesions. This method (Transitional Scoring System (TSS)) differentiated biologically plausible reversals from those due to examiner’s misclassification. We computed and compared mean dmfs (decayed, missing, and filled tooth surfaces) increment scores including (dtmfs) or excluding the non-cavitated stage (dcmfs) from TSS and another adjustment method proposed by Beck (modified Beck’s method). The coefficients of variations (CV) of the two methods were also compared. Results Mean dtmfs from TSS was slightly higher than that from modified Beck’s method. There was no difference in mean dcmfs between two methods. The ratios of CV indicated that the CV of TSS was significantly smaller than those from modified Beck’s method. Conclusions There were differences in caries increment scores between the two methods when we accounted for the transition of non-cavitated lesions. The evaluation of CV concluded that TSS was more efficient because it requires less sample size compared with the modified Beck’s method to detect a treatment effect. Both methods can be used to compute caries increments for populations with similar distribution of the dmfs scores to the sample used in this study. PMID:20690932

  13. Prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth and its relation with tooth brushing habits among schoolchildren in Eastern Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Farooqi, Faraz A.; Khabeer, Abdul; Moheet, Imran A.; Khan, Soban Q.; Farooq, Imran; ArRejaie, Aws S.,

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To determine the prevalence of dental caries in the primary and permanent teeth, and evaluate the brushing habits of school children in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). Methods: This study was conducted at Dammam, KSA. Oral examination of the participants was conducted from February to May 2014. The total sample size for this cross-sectional study was 711. There were 397 children between the age of 6-9 years, who were examined for primary teeth caries, and 314 between the age 10-12 years were examined for permanent teeth caries. Primary and permanent dentitions were studied for decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft [primary teeth], DMFT [permanent teeth]). Results: The overall prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth was almost 73% (n=711). Among the 6-9-year-old, the prevalence of caries was approximately 78% (n=397) whereas, among the 10-12-year-old children, it was approximately 68% (n=314). Mean dmft value among the 6-9-year-olds was 3.66±3.13 with decayed (d) component of 3.28±2.92, missing (m) component of 0.11±0.69, and filled (f) component of 0.26±0.9. Mean DMFT value among the 10-12-year-old children was 1.94±2.0 with decayed (D) component of 1.76±1.85, missing (M) component of 0.03±0.22, and filled (F) of component 0.15±0.73. Daily tooth brushing had a positive effect on caries prevention, and this effect was statistically significant for caries in primary teeth. Conclusion: Although the prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth was not found to be as high as other researchers reported from different cities of KSA, still the prevalence was high considering the World Health Organization future oral health goals. Awareness should be provided to students, as well as, teachers and parents regarding the importance of good brushing habits and regular dental visits. PMID:25987118

  14. Silencing of the Charcot-Marie-Tooth associated MTMR2 gene decreases proliferation and enhances cell death in primary cultures of Schwann cells.

    PubMed

    Chojnowski, Alexandre; Ravisé, Nicole; Bachelin, Corinne; Depienne, Christel; Ruberg, Merle; Brugg, Bernard; Laporte, Jocelyn; Baron-Van Evercooren, Anne; LeGuern, Eric

    2007-05-01

    Loss of function of the myotubularin (MTM)-related protein 2 (MTMR2) in Schwann cells causes Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 4B1, a severe demyelinating neuropathy, but the consequences of MTMR2 disruption in Schwann cells are unknown. We established the expression profile of MTMR2 by real-time RT-PCR during rat myelination and showed it to be preferentially expressed at the onset of the myelination period. We developed a model in which MTMR2 loss of function was reproduced in primary cultures of Schwann cells by RNA interference. We found that depletion of MTMR2 in Schwann cells decreased their rate of proliferation. Furthermore, when cultivated in serum-free medium, MTMR2 depletion increased the number of Schwann cells that died by a caspase-dependent process. These results support the hypothesis that loss of MTMR2 in patients, by decreasing Schwann cells proliferation and survival, may impair the first stages of myelination of the peripheral nervous system.

  15. Effect of different adhesive protocols vs calcium hydroxide on primary tooth pulp with different remaining dentin thicknesses:24-month results.

    PubMed

    Büyükgüral, Bülent; Cehreli, Zafer C

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this randomized, controlled, single-blind and prospective study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic success rates of three different bonding protocols vs calcium hydroxide liner for protection of the dentin-pulp complex of primary molars with different remaining dentin thicknesses. Two hundred forty primary molar teeth with moderate to deep occlusal caries were restored in 97 children who met inclusion criteria. After cavity preparation, the teeth were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 60/group) with respect to the material used for protection of the dentin-pulp complex: (1) total-etching with 36% phosphoric acid followed by an acetone-based adhesive (Prime&Bond NT), (2) a self-etch adhesive system (Xeno III), (3) an acetone-based adhesive (Prime&Bond NT) without prior acid conditioning, and (4) control: calcium hydroxide cement (Dycal). Teeth in groups 1-3 were restored with a polyacid-modified resin-based composite (Dyract AP) and those in group 4 with amalgam. The remaining dentin thickness was calculated using image analysis software (ImageJ). The teeth were evaluated clinically and radiographically for 24 months. The distribution of restored teeth with minimal remaining dentin thickness (< or =0.5 mm) was 3.3, 8.3, 8.3, and 10% for groups 1, 2, 3, and 4, respectively. Despite the absence of pulpal protection in groups 1-3, none of those teeth exhibited any significant clinical or radiographic symptom during the study period. After 2 years, the clinical and radiographic success rate of restorative treatments was 100%. Protection of the dentin-pulp complex with the tested bonding protocols resulted in similar outcomes in mainly shallow and medium deep cavities as compared to calcium hydroxide amalgam in more deep cavities, when indirect pulp treatment was performed in class I compomer restorations.

  16. Acoustic comparison of Er,Cr:YSGG laser and dental high speed handpiece for primary anterior tooth preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorden, Monserrat; Chen, Jung-Wei; Easley, Elisabeth; Li, Yiming; Kurti, R. Steven

    The acoustics of a dental hard tissue laser (Er,Cr:YSGG laser, Waterlase MD, Biolase, USA) and a traditional dental high speed hand piece (Midwest®, Dentsply International, USA) were compared in vitro using a simple approach that can be easily adapted for in vivo studies. Thirty one extracted caries and restoration free primary anterior teeth were selected. These teeth were sectioned along a symmetry axis to give two identical halves for use in a split study. These halves were randomly assigned to either the laser (experimental) or the high speed (control) group. A miniature electret microphone was coupled to the sample using a polymer and used to collect the acoustic signal at the interface of the pulp chamber. This signal was captured periodically by a digitizing oscilloscope and multiple traces were stored for subsequent analysis. 2x1x1mm3 preparations were made according to manufacturers recommendations for the given method. Each cavity was prepared by the same clinician and calibration tests were performed to ensure consistency. The measurements indicated that the peak acoustic pressures as well as cumulative acoustic effects (due to duty cycle) were significantly higher (P<0.001, T-test) with the dental hand piece than with the dental laser. Our study suggests the need for further investigations into the neurological implications of acoustic effects in dental patient care such as pain studies.

  17. A competing risk survival analysis model to assess the efficacy of filling carious primary teeth.

    PubMed

    Stephenson, J; Chadwick, B L; Playle, R A; Treasure, E T

    2010-01-01

    In recent years a strategy of selective, symptom-based intervention of carious primary teeth has been developed amongst some British general dental practitioners. Practice-based studies appear to provide evidence that policies of restoration of symptomless carious primary teeth do not confer any significant benefits above those associated with non-restorative care. However, results from these studies contrast with those of many clinical trials and prospective studies of primary molar restorations. In the current investigation, cohort study data from 5,168 carious primary molar teeth from 2,654 British children aged 4-5 years at baseline, augmented with Dental Practice Board treatment data, was utilised to assess the effect of restorative treatment on the likelihood of carious teeth subsequently progressing to either exfoliation or extraction. The effect of demographic and tooth level covariates on the fate of these teeth was also assessed. Multivariate multilevel parametric survival models were applied to the analysis of the carious-exfoliation and carious-extraction transitions to which the teeth were subject, assuming an underlying data hierarchy with teeth nested within individuals. Time of occurrence of caries affected survival experience, with teeth in which caries occurred later in life being associated with higher survival rates to extraction. Amongst filled teeth, later fillings were also associated with higher survival rates to extraction. Demographic and tooth level variables had a limited effect on survival experience. Treatment was found to be significantly associated with survival with respect to extraction, with survival rates of over 80% at 14 years, double those of untreated teeth.

  18. Tooth whitening in children.

    PubMed

    Donly, Kevin J; Donly, Adriana Segura; Baharloo, Laila; Rojas-Candelas, Edith; Garcia-Godoy, Franklin; Zhou, Xiaojie; Gerlach, Robert W

    2002-01-01

    Although there are several case reports of vital tooth bleaching in children, there is limited clinical trial evidence of the safety or efficacy of this practice. Accordingly, a new clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of 2 different bleaching systems, a 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strip system and a 10% carbamide peroxide tray system, in a population of preteens and teens. A total of 106 volunteers, aged 11 to 18 years, took part in this 8-week study. Patients were randomized by a ratio of 2:1 to the strip or tray groups, with each group treating the maxillary arch first and then the mandibular arch for 4 consecutive weeks each. Individuals assigned to the strip group used the system twice daily for 30 minutes (a total of 56 contact hours over the 8-week study). Those assigned to the tray group used that system overnight (approximately 448 contact hours). Digital images were obtained at baseline and after every 2-week treatment period. Average tooth color was determined in L*, a*, b* color space, where L* indicated lightness, a* indicated red-green, and b* indicated yellow-blue. Both systems significantly whitened teeth (P < 0.0001). While there were no significant differences between groups with respect to the primary whitening response (delta b*) on the maxillary teeth, 4 weeks of overnight treatment with the 10% carbamide peroxide tray (approximately 224 contact hours) yielded statistically significant whitening (P < 0.05) on the mandibular teeth compared with the 6.5% hydrogen peroxide strip used for 28 hours. Both tooth-whitening systems had similar sensitivity/irritation reported after instructed use. This research demonstrates that tooth whitening in teens may be safely accomplished using either the short-contact-time hydrogen peroxide bleaching strips or the overnight carbamide peroxide tray systems tested in this study.

  19. Natural tooth as an interim prosthesis

    PubMed Central

    Dhariwal, Neha S.; Gokhale, Niraj S.; Patel, Punit; Hugar, Shivayogi M.

    2016-01-01

    A traumatic injury to primary maxillary anterior tooth is one of the common causes for problems with the succedaneous tooth leading to it noneruption. A missing anterior tooth can be psychologically and socially damaging to the patient. Despite a wide range of treatment options available, sometimes, it is inevitable to save the natural tooth. This paper describes the immediate replacement of a right central incisor using a fiber-composite resin splint with the natural tooth crown as a pontic following surgical extraction of the dilacerated impacted permanent maxillary central incisor. The abutment teeth can be conserved with minimal or no preparation, thus keeping the technique reversible and can be completed at chair side thereby avoiding laboratory costs. It can be used as an interim measure until a definitive prosthesis can be fabricated as the growth is still incomplete. PMID:27433074

  20. Cavities/Tooth Decay

    MedlinePlus

    ... minerals in your tooth's hard, outer enamel. This erosion causes tiny openings or holes in the enamel — ... Anorexia and bulimia can lead to significant tooth erosion and cavities. Stomach acid from repeated vomiting (purging) ...

  1. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    MedlinePlus

    ... vessels in the tooth pulps are rather large. Drilling down these teeth for crowns may expose the ... porcelain replacement tooth is held in place by metal extensions cemented to the backs of the adjacent ...

  2. Tooth - abnormal colors

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003065.htm Tooth - abnormal colors To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Abnormal tooth color is any color other than white to yellowish- ...

  3. Tooth sensitivity and whitening.

    PubMed

    Swift, Edward J

    2005-09-01

    This article presents a review of the basic concepts of tooth sensitivity and how those concepts apply to cervical dentin hypersensitivity and the sensitivity frequently associated with tooth whitening. The etiology and treatment of cervical dentin hypersensitivity are described. The clinical presentation, incidence, and predisposing factors for sensitivity associated with tooth whitening also are discussed.

  4. Dental anomaly patterns associated with tooth agenesis.

    PubMed

    Choi, Su Ji; Lee, Je Woo; Song, Ji Hyun

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the relationship between tooth agenesis and the occurrence of other dental anomalies in children and adolescents. Panoramic radiographs of 195 subjects with tooth agenesis, except for the third molar, were retrospectively examined and compared with a non-agenesis control group of 600 subjects. Their ages ranged from 7 to 15 years. Panoramic and periapical radiographs were used to analyze the presence of other associated dental anomalies. The occurrences of these anomalies were compared with those in the non-agenesis group. Subjects with tooth agenesis showed a significantly higher prevalence of a small maxillary lateral incisor (17.7%), distoangulation of the mandibular second premolar (6.5%), delayed development of a permanent tooth (10.8%), and hypo-occlusion of a primary molar (11.8%). In contrast, the prevalence of a supernumerary tooth was higher in the control group, and no difference was observed in the prevalence of ectopic eruption of a first molar. According to the agenesis area, microdontia of the maxillary lateral incisors occurred more often in patients with anterior or premolar agenesis than in the molar agenesis groups. Distoangulation of the mandibular second premolars, delayed tooth development, and hypo-occlusion of the primary molars were associated with premolar tooth agenesis. A small maxillary lateral incisor, distoangulation of the mandibular second premolar, delayed development of a permanent tooth, and hypo-occlusion of a primary molar were frequently associated with tooth agenesis, providing additional evidence of a genetic interrelationship in the causes of these dental anomalies.

  5. [Tooth-pick? Picking the Right Tooth].

    PubMed

    Apicella, Lysann; Cassis, Paola Rodoni; Balestra, Brenno

    2016-01-20

    We report about an 80-year-old patient, who underwent the extraction of an upper molar tooth because of facial pain. In the course of time the patient developed a maxillary sinusitis in presence of an ectopic tooth. Given that the patient got fever, neck pain and -stiffness, a purulent meningitis was first suspected. The liquor analysis was normal and the CT-scan showed a calcification around the dens axis. We finally diagnosed a “Crowned Dens”-syndrome.

  6. A survey of primary tooth pulp therapy as taught in US dental schools and practiced by diplomates of the American Board Of Pediatric Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Dunston, Bryan; Coll, James A

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to repeat a 1997 survey of current pulp therapy practice. The directors of dental school predoctoral pediatric dentistry programs (N=56) and board certified pediatric dentists (N=1200) were surveyed in 2005. More dental schools (83%) taught indirect pulp therapy (IPT) compared to 1997. Significantly more used glass ionomer for IPT with most dental schools and diplomates not re-entering a tooth after IPT. Over 30% of schools and diplomates do direct pulp cops using glass ionomer. For pulpotomy, diluted formocresol usage decreased in dental schools (54%) while ferric sulfate significantly increased (24%) and full strength remained at 22%. Shorter placement of pulpotomy medication was noted and ZOE alone the preferred base. Pulpectomy was advocated by 85% of 2005 schools and diplomates with ZOE filler use decreasing while iodoform/calcium hydroxide filler use increasing. More pediatric dentists are using glass ionomer for IPT and direct pulp capping, and there was a trend away from the use of 1:5 diluted formocresol with more using ferric sulfate for pulpotomy. For pulpectomy, most use ZOE but iodoform pastes and calcium hydroxide have increased in usage since 1997 Disagreements continue concerning when to use certain pulp therapies and some directors and diplomates did not follow the AAPD guidelines.

  7. Decellularized Tooth Bud Scaffolds for Tooth Regeneration.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Vazquez, B; Oreadi, D; Yelick, P C

    2017-01-01

    Whole tooth regeneration approaches currently are limited by our inability to bioengineer full-sized, living replacement teeth. Recently, decellularized organ scaffolds have shown promise for applications in regenerative medicine by providing a natural extracellular matrix environment that promotes cell attachment and tissue-specific differentiation leading to full-sized organ regeneration. We hypothesize that decellularized tooth buds (dTBs) created from unerupted porcine tooth buds (TBs) can be used to guide reseeded dental cell differentiation to form whole bioengineered teeth, thereby providing a potential off-the-shelf scaffold for whole tooth regeneration. Porcine TBs were harvested from discarded 6-mo-old pig jaws, and decellularized by successive sodium dodecyl sulfate/Triton-X cycles. Four types of replicate implants were used in this study: 1) acellular dTBs; 2) recellularized dTBs seeded with porcine dental epithelial cells, human dental pulp cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (recell-dTBs); 3) dTBs seeded with bone morphogenetic protein (BMP)-2 (dTB-BMPs); and 4) freshly isolated nondecellularized natural TBs (nTBs). Replicate samples were implanted into the mandibles of host Yucatan mini-pigs and grown for 3 or 6 mo. Harvested mandibles with implanted TB constructs were fixed in formalin, decalcified, embedded in paraffin, sectioned, and analyzed via histological methods. Micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis was performed on harvested 6-mo samples prior to decalcification. All harvested constructs exhibited a high degree of cellularity. Significant production of organized dentin and enamel-like tissues was observed in dTB-recell and nTB implants, but not in dTB or dTB-BMP implants. Micro-CT analyses of 6-mo implants showed the formation of organized, bioengineered teeth of comparable size to natural teeth. To our knowledge, these results are the first to describe the potential use of dTBs for functional whole tooth regeneration.

  8. Tooth whitening today.

    PubMed

    Sarrett, David C

    2002-11-01

    Methods to improve the esthetics of the dentition by tooth whitening are of interest to dentists, their patients and the public. In the past 20 years, research on bleaching and other methods of removing tooth discolorations has dramatically increased. Dentist-supervised and over-the-counter products now are available to solve a variety of tooth discoloration problems without restorative intervention. The indications for appropriate use of tooth-whitening methods and products are dependent on correct diagnosis of the discoloration. Tooth-whitening methods include the use of peroxide bleaching agents to remove internal discolorations or abrasive products to remove external stains. Peroxide bleaching procedures are completed by the dentist in single or multiple appointments, or by the patient over a period of weeks to months using custom trays loaded with a bleaching agent. Both methods are safe and effective when supervised by the dentist. Microabrasion is indicated for the removal of isolated discolorations that often are associated with fluorosis. Whitening toothpastes remove surface stains only through the polishing effect of the abrasives they contain. Tooth whitening is a form of dental treatment and should be completed as part of a comprehensive treatment plan developed by a dentist after an oral examination. When used appropriately, tooth-whitening methods are safe and effective.

  9. Vital tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Kihn, Patricia W

    2007-04-01

    Vital tooth whitening, when administered correctly, is by all accounts one of the safest, most conservative, least expensive, and most effective aesthetic procedures currently available to patients. This article traces the evolution of the technology, describes what is known about the mechanism of action and explores such issues as toxicology and side effects associated with tooth whitening. The article also describes the various tooth-whitening systems, which include dentist-supervised night-guard bleaching, in-office or power bleaching, and bleaching with over-the-counter bleaching products. Combination treatments and light-activated treatments are also discussed. Finally, the article summarizes the areas of research needed in this field.

  10. Prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth and its relation with tooth brushing habits among schoolchildren in Eastern Saudi Arabia‬‬‬‬‬‬‬‬.

    PubMed

    Farooqi, Faraz A; Khabeer, Abdul; Moheet, Imran A; Khan, Soban Q; Farooq, Imran; ArRejaie, Aws S

    2015-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of dental caries in the primary and permanent teeth, and evaluate the brushing habits of school children in Dammam, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).  Methods. This study was conducted at Dammam, KSA. Oral examination of the participants was conducted from February to May 2014. The total sample size for this cross-sectional study was 711. There were 397 children between the age of 6-9 years, who were examined for primary teeth caries, and 314 between the age 10-12 years were examined for permanent teeth caries. Primary and permanent dentitions were studied for decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft [primary teeth], DMFT [permanent teeth]).   The overall prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth was almost 73% (n=711). Among the 6-9-year-old, the prevalence of caries was approximately 78% (n=397) whereas, among the 10-12-year-old children, it was approximately 68% (n=314). Mean dmft value among the 6-9-year-olds was 3.66±3.13 with decayed (d) component of 3.28±2.92, missing (m) component of 0.11±0.69, and filled (f) component of 0.26±0.9. Mean DMFT value among the 10-12-year-old children was 1.94±2.0 with decayed (D) component of 1.76±1.85, missing (M) component of 0.03±0.22, and filled (F) of component 0.15±0.73. Daily tooth brushing had a positive effect on caries prevention, and this effect was statistically significant for caries in primary teeth.   Although the prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent teeth was not found to be as high as other researchers reported from different cities of KSA, still the prevalence was high considering the World Health Organization future oral health goals. Awareness should be provided to students, as well as, teachers and parents regarding the importance of good brushing habits and regular dental visits.

  11. To Tell the Tooth

    MedlinePlus

    ... Oral Health Made Easy Sesame Street Activity Sheets + Games and Quizzes Visit the Dentist with Marty To ... Resources Smile Smarts Dental Health Curriculum MouthHealthy Kids > Games and Quizzes > To Tell the Tooth To Tell ...

  12. Replacing a Missing Tooth

    MedlinePlus

    ... patient without a bone graft is a fixed bridge. The missing tooth is restored with an artificial ... be crowned to give adequate support to the bridge. This type of prosthesis is not removable. Its ...

  13. The cracked tooth.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, G R

    1998-01-01

    Fractured molars and premolars are very common. Fractures usually result from cracks that develop and slowly extend until the tooth separates into buccal and lingual fragments. Sometimes, as these cracks expand, the patient exhibits symptoms of what is commonly referred to as "cracked tooth syndrome" (CTS). When CTS occurs, an opportunity exists to diagnose and treat these patients, to relieve their discomfort and prevent sequelae that would require more extensive treatment.

  14. Tooth whitening: current status.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Kimberly; Berry, Thomas G; Woolum, James

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the history of tooth whitening and its rapid evolution and briefly discusses tooth whitening agents and protocols. The active ingredients and mode of action during the whitening process are explained. The factors affecting the speed of whitening and its final results are discussed, as well as adverse effects and safety precautions. Protocols are explained in detail, and the predicted outcomes, including those for tetracycline-stained teeth, are covered.

  15. Reptilian tooth development.

    PubMed

    Richman, Joy M; Handrigan, Gregory R

    2011-04-01

    Dental patterns in vertebrates range from absence of teeth to multiple sets of teeth that are replaced throughout life. Despite this great variation, most of our understanding of tooth development is derived from studies on just a few model organisms. Here we introduce the reptile as an excellent model in which to study the molecular basis for early dental specification and, most importantly, for tooth replacement. We review recent snake studies that highlight the conserved role of Shh in marking the position of the odontogenic band. The distinctive molecular patterning of the dental lamina in the labial-lingual and oral-aboral axes is reviewed. We explain how these early signals help to specify the tooth-forming and non-tooth forming sides of the dental lamina as well as the presumptive successional lamina. Next, the simple architecture of the reptilian enamel organ is contrasted with the more complex, mammalian tooth bud and we discuss whether or not there is an enamel knot in reptilian teeth. The role of the successional lamina during tooth replacement in squamate reptiles is reviewed and we speculate on the possible formation of a vestigial, post-permanent dentition in mammals. In support of these ideas, we present data on agamid teeth in which development of a third generation is arrested. We suggest that in diphyodont mammals, similar mechanisms may be involved in reducing tooth replacement capacity. Finally, we review the location of label-retaining cells and suggest ways in which these putative dental epithelial stem cells contribute to continuous tooth replacement. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  16. Treatment imprudence leading to missed tooth fragment

    PubMed Central

    Barua, Pranamee; Chaudhary, Seema; Kaur, Harsimran; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic dental injuries (TDI) represent one of the most common oral health problems in children and adolescents. Dental trauma requires a special consideration when it accompanies soft tissue lacerations. Tooth fragments occasionally penetrate into soft tissues and may cause severe complications. This article describes the case of a 12-year-old girl with a fractured tooth fragment embedded in the lower lip for 4 months, which went unnoticed at her primary health centre. This report highlights the importance of proper radiographic diagnosis along with clinical examination after trauma in order to prevent any future complications. PMID:23606390

  17. Influence of pulpotomy medicaments on the ultrastructure and shear bond strength of a self-etch adhesive to primary tooth dentin.

    PubMed

    Shalan, Hanaa; Awad, Salwa; El-Fallal, Abeer Abd-El Sallam

    2012-06-01

    To compare the effect of the pulpotomy medicaments glutaraldehyde, ferric sulfate, and formocresol on the structure and shear bond strength of a self-etch adhesive to the dentin of primary teeth. Forty human primary molars were sectioned mesiodistally and divided into four groups: group I (control group), dentin specimens were soaked in distilled water for 48 hours; group II, dentin specimens were soaked in 2% glutaraldehyde; group III, dentin specimens were soaked in formocresol; and group IV, dentin specimens were soaked in 15.5% ferric sulfate. All specimens were rinsed with tap water and dried with air. AdheSE One (a self-etch adhesive) and Valux Plus composite resin were applied to the dentin surfaces. The molecular structure of the adhesive itself and adhesive with composite resin were tested using an FTIR spectrometer. Shear bond strength was tested with a universal testing machine. Failure modes analyses were performed with a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Glutaraldehyde showed little changes in the molecular structure of the adhesive itself and adhesive with composite. However, ferric sulfate and formocresol affected the molecular structure of the adhesive alone and the adhesive with composite. The highest mean value of shear bond strength was for the glutaraldehyde group (11.17 ± 4.87 MPa). Ferric sulfate and formocresol significantly reduced shear bond strength after the application of pulpotomy medicaments (7.45 ± 3.73 and 5.31 ± 3.30 MPa, respectively). SEM analysis revealed that most of the specimens failed in cohesive and mixed modes. This study revealed that formocresol and ferric sulfate adversely affect the shear bond strength and molecular structure of the adhesive system to primary dentin.

  18. Effect of silver diamine fluoride and ammonium hexafluorosilicate applications with and without Er:YAG laser irradiation on the microtensile bond strength in sound and caries-affected dentin.

    PubMed

    Kucukyilmaz, Ebru; Savas, Selcuk; Akcay, Merve; Bolukbasi, Basak

    2016-01-01

    Cariostatic and preventive agents are applied to create caries-resistant dentin surfaces and may affect subsequent resin bonding. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different agents with and without Er:YAG laser irradiation on the microtensile bond strength (µTBS) of resin composite to sound dentin (SD) and caries-affected dentin (CAD), and to assess the morphological and chemical changes in the specimens. Ninety-six extracted molar teeth were divided into a control group (deionized water) and two experimental groups (ammonium hexafluorosilicate [SiF], silver diamine fluoride [SDF]), that subdivided according to different conditions (SD, CAD, SD+laser irradiation, CAD+laser irradiation). After treatment procedures, the teeth were restored and the µTBS was tested with a universal testing machine. Morover, 144 teeth were prepared and after treatment modalities; morphological changes of the surface were investigated and elemental analyses were performed using scanning electron microscope/energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. SDF and SiF applications reduced the µTBS values in both the SD and CAD subgroups (P < 0.05). Laser irradiation increased the µTBS values in the SiF group and the values were adversely affected in the SDF group (P < 0.05). Fluoride content of the specimens increased in all of the treatment groups, compared with the control group. Silver content was detected only in the SDF group, and silicon was detected only in the SiF group. The µTBS values of resin composite, surface morphology and chemical characteristics of dentin were affected by the material type, dentin condition and laser irradiation and the use of SiF and SDF solutions under the resin restorations do not seem appropriate. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Functional tooth regenerative therapy: tooth tissue regeneration and whole-tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Masamitsu; Tsuji, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Oral and general health is compromised by irreversible dental problems, including dental caries, periodontal disease and tooth injury. Regenerative therapy for tooth tissue repair and whole-tooth replacement is currently considered a novel therapeutic concept with the potential for the full recovery of tooth function. Several types of stem cells and cell-activating cytokines have been identified in oral tissues. These cells are thought to be candidate cell sources for tooth tissue regenerative therapies because they have the ability to differentiate into tooth tissues in vitro and in vivo. Whole-tooth replacement therapy is regarded as an important model for the development of an organ regenerative concept. A novel three-dimensional cell-manipulation method, designated the organ germ method, has been developed to recapitulate organogenesis. This method involves compartmentalisation of epithelial and mesenchymal cells at a high cell density to mimic multicellular assembly conditions and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. A bioengineered tooth germ can generate a structurally correct tooth in vitro and erupt successfully with the correct tooth structure when transplanted into the oral cavity. We have ectopically generated a bioengineered tooth unit composed of a mature tooth, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, and that tooth unit was successfully engrafted into an adult jawbone through bone integration. Such bioengineered teeth were able to perform normal physiological tooth functions, such as developing a masticatory potential in response to mechanical stress and a perceptive potential for noxious stimuli. In this review, we describe recent findings and technologies underpinning tooth regenerative therapy.

  20. Dental plaque, preventive care, and tooth brushing associated with dental caries in primary teeth in schoolchildren ages 6–9 years of Leon, Nicaragua

    PubMed Central

    del Socorro Herrera, Miriam; Medina-Solis, Carlo Eduardo; Minaya-Sánchez, Mirna; Pontigo-Loyola, América Patricia; Villalobos-Rodelo, Juan José; Islas-Granillo, Horacio; de la Rosa-Santillana, Rubén; Maupomé, Gerardo

    2013-01-01

    Background Our study aimed to evaluate the effect of various risk indicators for dental caries on primary teeth of Nicaraguan children (from Leon, Nicaragua) ages 6 to 9, using the negative binomial regression model. Material/Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out to collect clinical, demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data from 794 schoolchildren ages 6 to 9 years, randomly selected from 25 schools in the city of León, Nicaragua. Clinical examinations for dental caries (dmft index) were performed by 2 trained and standardized examiners. Socio-demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data were self-reported using questionnaires. Multivariate negative binomial regression (NBR) analysis was used. Results Mean age was 7.49±1.12 years. Boys accounted for 50.1% of the sample. Mean dmft was 3.54±3.13 and caries prevalence (dmft >0) was 77.6%. In the NBR multivariate model (p<0.05), for each year of age, the expected mean dmft decreased by 7.5%. Brushing teeth at least once a day and having received preventive dental care in the last year before data collection were associated with declines in the expected mean dmft by 19.5% and 69.6%, respectively. Presence of dental plaque increased the expected mean dmft by 395.5%. Conclusions The proportion of students with caries in this sample was high. We found associations between dental caries in the primary dentition and dental plaque, brushing teeth at least once a day, and having received preventive dental care. To improve oral health, school programs and/or age-appropriate interventions need to be developed based on the specific profile of caries experience and the associated risk indicators. PMID:24247119

  1. Twenty-year follow-up of a familial case of PTH1R-associated primary failure of tooth eruption.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Cláudia Misue; de Oliveira, José Américo; Garcia, José Fernando; Roth, Helmut; Weber, Bernhard H F

    2017-03-01

    Nonsyndromic primary failure of eruption (PFE) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder of dental eruption with no obvious dental or soft tissue interference. The purposes of this study were to genetically and clinically characterize a family with many members affected by PFE and to describe the natural evolution of the disorder. Three generations of a family with 18 members, 10 of them clinically affected by PFE, were evaluated periodically during 20 years of clinical follow-up. PFE was observed in varying degrees of severity in both sexes. Clinical presentation became more severe in adulthood. One patient had spontaneous reeruption of 2 posterior teeth. Cervical root resorptions were observed in 3 members. Genetic analysis showed a deleterious heterozygous mutation in intron 9 of the PTH1R gene (c.639-2A>G) and diagnosed an additional affected member. The long-term follow-up of PFE cases in this family permitted the following observations: (1) the onset occurred from the preemergence to the postemergence phases, (2) PFE appeared to be closely related to ankylosis, (3) affected teeth maintained the eruptive potential even in adulthood, (4) the earlier the onset the more severe the open bite, and (5) cervical root resorptions occurred in 3 affected members. Copyright © 2016 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Biomaterial Selection for Tooth Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Zhenglin; Nie, Hemin; Wang, Shuang; Lee, Chang Hun; Li, Ang; Fu, Susan Y.; Zhou, Hong

    2011-01-01

    Biomaterials are native or synthetic polymers that act as carriers for drug delivery or scaffolds for tissue regeneration. When implanted in vivo, biomaterials should be nontoxic and exert intended functions. For tooth regeneration, biomaterials have primarily served as a scaffold for (1) transplanted stem cells and/or (2) recruitment of endogenous stem cells. This article critically synthesizes our knowledge of biomaterial use in tooth regeneration, including the selection of native and/or synthetic polymers, three-dimensional scaffold fabrication, stem cell transplantation, and stem cell homing. A tooth is a complex biological organ. Tooth loss represents the most common organ failure. Tooth regeneration encompasses not only regrowth of an entire tooth as an organ, but also biological restoration of individual components of the tooth including enamel, dentin, cementum, or dental pulp. Regeneration of tooth root represents perhaps more near-term opportunities than the regeneration of the whole tooth. In the adult, a tooth owes its biological vitality, arguably more, to the root than the crown. Biomaterials are indispensible for the regeneration of tooth root, tooth crown, dental pulp, or an entire tooth. PMID:21699433

  3. Comparative evaluation of the effect of different bonding agents on the ultramorphology of primary tooth dentin and the resin dentin interface

    PubMed Central

    Vashisth, Pallavi; Goswami, Mousumi; Mittal, Mudit; Chaudhary, Seema

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To analyze and compare the changes in the ultramorphology of dentin in primary teeth using different bonding agents and to study the resin/dentin interface produced by them. Materials and Methods: Occlusal surfaces of 50 extracted human deciduous teeth were grounded to expose the dentin. The teeth were divided into two groups (A) For viewing surface morphology- 18 teeth divided into four groups: (a) for viewing dentinal morphology (3 teeth), (b) Scotchbond multi-purpose (5 teeth), (c) Adhe SE (5 teeth), (d) Futurabond (5 teeth). (B) For viewing interfacial morphology- 32 teeth divided into four groups with 8 teeth each: (a) Scotch Bond Multipurpose (3M, ESPE),), (b) Adhe Se (Vivadent), (c) Optibond All-in-One (Kerr), (d) Futurabond NR (VOCO, Cuxhaven, Germany). The adhesives were applied to each group following the manufacturer's instruction. All the samples were then prepared for viewing under SEM. Results: The photographs were graded using a four-step (0-3) scale method proposed by Ferrari et al. For Scotchbond, 12 (75%) were graded as 2 Grade 3 was observed in only 1 observation in the entire lot of materials. The results obtained for Adhe SE and Optibond AIO were similar, i.e. in 5 (31.25%) observations each the scores were 0 and in 11 (68.75%) observations each the scores were 1. In case of Futurabond, 3 (18.75%) observations were graded as 0 and 13 (81.25%) were graded as 1, thus showing a mean score of 0.81±0.40. Conclusion: Three- step bonding agent results in the complete removal of smear layer. While the self- etch approach is not efficient in removing the smear layer and opening of the dentinal tubules. The longest resin tags with lateral branches were seen in two groups- Scotch bond multipurpose and Optibond FL. PMID:23112484

  4. The supernumerary nasal tooth.

    PubMed

    Kirmeier, R; Truschnegg, A; Payer, M; Malyk, J; Daghighi, S; Jakse, N

    2009-11-01

    Teeth exceeding the normal dental complement that have erupted into the nasal cavity are a rare pathological entity. This case report describes a female patient with recurrent complaints and fetid discharge from the left nasal cavity. The suspected clinical diagnosis of a supernumerary nasal tooth was confirmed by computed tomography. After endoscopic removal, the tooth was examined using X-ray microtomography and thin-section preparations; these findings are presented for the first time. A literature search identified 25 supernumerary nasal teeth in 23 patients.

  5. Immediate total tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Garber, D A; Salama, M A; Salama, H

    2001-03-01

    Successful implant placement at the time of extraction has been documented. Implant placement at the time of extraction was initially performed as a two-stage procedure often with barrier membranes and sophisticated second-stage surgical uncoverings. The authors describe the next generation of this technique, including atraumatic tooth removal with simultaneous root form, implant placement, and temporization at one appointment. This technique of "Immediate Total Tooth Replacement" allows for the maintenance of the bony housing and soft-tissue form that existed before extraction, while at the same time establishing a root form anchor in the bone for an esthetic restoration.

  6. Acoustic tooth cleaner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heyman, J. S. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    An acoustic oral hygiene unit is described that uses acoustic energy to oscillate mild abrasive particles in a water suspension which is then directed in a low pressure stream onto the teeth. The oscillating abrasives scrub the teeth clean removing food particles, plaque, calculous, and other foreign material from tooth surfaces, interproximal areas, and tooth-gingiva interface more effectively than any previous technique. The relatively low power output and the basic design makes the invention safe and convenient for everyday use in the home without special training. This invention replaces all former means of home dental prophylaxis, and requires no augmentation to fulfill all requirements for daily oral hygienic care.

  7. Pneumomediastinum after Tooth Extraction

    PubMed Central

    Ocakcioglu, Ilhan; Koyuncu, Serhat; Kupeli, Mustafa; Bol, Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    Pneumomediastinum is defined as the presence of air in mediastinum. Pneumomediastinum can sometimes occur after surgery. Pneumomediastinum seen after dental procedures is rare. We presented the case of subcutaneous emphysema developed in the neck and upper chest after tooth extraction and discussed the possible mechanisms of pneumomediastinum. PMID:26989552

  8. The Rachitic Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Nociti, Francisco H.; Somerman, Martha J.

    2014-01-01

    Teeth are mineralized organs composed of three unique hard tissues, enamel, dentin, and cementum, and supported by the surrounding alveolar bone. Although odontogenesis differs from osteogenesis in several respects, tooth mineralization is susceptible to similar developmental failures as bone. Here we discuss conditions fitting under the umbrella of rickets, which traditionally referred to skeletal disease associated with vitamin D deficiency but has been more recently expanded to include newly identified factors involved in endocrine regulation of vitamin D, phosphate, and calcium, including phosphate-regulating endopeptidase homolog, X-linked, fibroblast growth factor 23, and dentin matrix protein 1. Systemic mineral metabolism intersects with local regulation of mineralization, and factors including tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase are necessary for proper mineralization, where rickets can result from loss of activity of tissue nonspecific alkaline phosphatase. Individuals suffering from rickets often bear the additional burden of a defective dentition, and transgenic mouse models have aided in understanding the nature and mechanisms involved in tooth defects, which may or may not parallel rachitic bone defects. This report reviews dental effects of the range of rachitic disorders, including discussion of etiologies of hereditary forms of rickets, a survey of resulting bone and tooth mineralization disorders, and a discussion of mechanisms, known and hypothesized, involved in the observed dental pathologies. Descriptions of human pathology are augmented by analysis of transgenic mouse models, and new interpretations are brought to bear on questions of how teeth are affected under conditions of rickets. In short, the rachitic tooth will be revealed. PMID:23939820

  9. Administration of the bisphosphonate zoledronic acid during tooth development inhibits tooth eruption and formation and induces dental abnormalities in rats.

    PubMed

    Hiraga, Toru; Ninomiya, Tadashi; Hosoya, Akihiro; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2010-06-01

    Bisphosphonates (BPs) are potent inhibitors of osteoclastic bone resorption and widely used for the treatment of osteoporosis and metastatic bone diseases. Recently, BPs have also been shown to benefit children with primary and secondary osteoporosis, including osteogenesis imperfecta; however, their long-term safety has not been established yet. Clinical and experimental studies have demonstrated that BPs delay or inhibit tooth eruption. The failure of tooth eruption causes several dental abnormalities. In this study, to determine the effects of BPs on tooth formation, the BP zoledronic acid (ZOL) was injected into 7- and 14-day-old rats, and the development of the mandibular teeth was examined. X-ray analysis demonstrated that ZOL inhibited the eruption of both incisors and molars and their formation, especially in the molar roots. Histological examination showed that, in ZOL-treated animals, alveolar bone remained unresorbed around tooth crowns, which injured ameloblasts and enamel matrix, leading to defects of the enamel. Furthermore, haphazard proliferation of odontogenic epithelium and mesenchyme associated with primitive tooth structures, which resembles human odontomas, was induced at the basal end of incisors but not around the molars. Tooth ankylosis to alveolar bone was occasionally observed in molars. These results suggest that administration of BPs during tooth development has the potential to inhibit tooth eruption and formation and to induce several types of dental abnormalities, which may be attributed to the altered osteoclastic activities.

  10. Three tooth kinematic coupling

    DOEpatents

    Hale, Layton C.

    2000-01-01

    A three tooth kinematic coupling based on having three theoretical line contacts formed by mating teeth rather than six theoretical point contacts. The geometry requires one coupling half to have curved teeth and the other coupling half to have flat teeth. Each coupling half has a relieved center portion which does not effect the kinematics, but in the limit as the face width approaches zero, three line contacts become six point contacts. As a result of having line contact, a three tooth coupling has greater load capacity and stiffness. The kinematic coupling has application for use in precision fixturing for tools or workpieces, and as a registration device for a work or tool changer or for optics in various products.

  11. Gear tooth topological modification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kish, Jules G. (Inventor); Isabelle, Charles (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The topology of parallel axis gears, such as spur and helical gears is modified to produce quieter and more smoothly operating gear sets with more uniform load distribution. A finite element analysis of the gear in its operating mode is made to produce a plot of radial and tangential deflections of the pinion and gear tooth surfaces which will occur when the gears are loaded during operation. The resultant plot is then inverted to produce a plot, or set of coordinates, which will define the path of travel of the gear tooth grinding wheel, which path is a mirror image of the plot of the finite element analysis. The resulting gears, when subjected to operating loads, will thus be deflected tangentially and radially to their optimum operating, or theoretical true involute, positions so as to produce quieter, smoother, and more evenly loaded gear trains.

  12. Solving tooth sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michael B

    2010-01-01

    Solving tooth sensitivity requires both you and the patients to be resilient and to understand that if one approach doesn't work, you can try another one that is non-invasive or, at worst, minimally invasive. Much like the clinician who posted the original question, I strongly believe that it is our responsibility to convince patients that jumping to a radical solution could be totally unnecessary--and expensive-- and still might not solve the problem.

  13. Chick tooth induction revisited.

    PubMed

    Cai, Jinglei; Cho, Sung-Won; Ishiyama, Mikio; Mikami, Masato; Hosoya, Akihiro; Kozawa, Yukishige; Ohshima, Hayato; Jung, Han-Sung

    2009-07-15

    Teeth have been missing from Aves for almost 100 million years. However, it is believed that the avian oral epithelium retains the molecular signaling required to induce odontogenesis, and this has been widely examined using heterospecific recombinations with mouse dental mesenchyme. It has also been argued that teeth can form from the avian oral epithelium owing to contamination of the mouse mesenchyme with mouse dental epithelial cells. To investigate the possibility of tooth formation from chick oral epithelium and the characteristics of possible chick enamel, we applied LacZ transgenic mice during heterospecific recombination and examined the further tooth formation. Transmission electron microscopy was used to identify the two tissues during development after heterospecific recombination. No mixing was detected between chick oral epithelium and mouse dental mesenchyme after 2 days, and secretory ameloblasts with Tomes' processes were observed after 1 week. Teeth were formed after 3 weeks with a single cusp pattern, possibly determined by epithelial factors, which is similar to that of the avian tooth in the late Jurassic period. These recombinant teeth were smaller than mouse molars, whereas perfect structures of both ameloblasts and enamel showed histological characteristics similar to those of mice. Together these observations consistent with previous report that odontogenesis is initially directed by species-specific mesenchymal signals interplaying with common epithelial signals.

  14. Exceptionally prolonged tooth formation in elasmosaurid plesiosaurians

    PubMed Central

    Kear, Benjamin P.; Larsson, Dennis; Lindgren, Johan; Kundrát, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Elasmosaurid plesiosaurians were globally prolific marine reptiles that dominated the Mesozoic seas for over 70 million years. Their iconic body-plan incorporated an exceedingly long neck and small skull equipped with prominent intermeshing ‘fangs’. How this bizarre dental apparatus was employed in feeding is uncertain, but fossilized gut contents indicate a diverse diet of small pelagic vertebrates, cephalopods and epifaunal benthos. Here we report the first plesiosaurian tooth formation rates as a mechanism for servicing the functional dentition. Multiple dentine thin sections were taken through isolated elasmosaurid teeth from the Upper Cretaceous of Sweden. These specimens revealed an average of 950 daily incremental lines of von Ebner, and infer a remarkably protracted tooth formation cycle of about 2–3 years–other polyphyodont amniotes normally take ~1–2 years to form their teeth. Such delayed odontogenesis might reflect differences in crown length and function within an originally uneven tooth array. Indeed, slower replacement periodicity has been found to distinguish larger caniniform teeth in macrophagous pliosaurid plesiosaurians. However, the archetypal sauropterygian dental replacement system likely also imposed constraints via segregation of the developing tooth germs within discrete bony crypts; these partly resorbed to allow maturation of the replacement teeth within the primary alveoli after displacement of the functional crowns. Prolonged dental formation has otherwise been linked to tooth robustness and adaption for vigorous food processing. Conversely, elasmosaurids possessed narrow crowns with an elongate profile that denotes structural fragility. Their apparent predilection for easily subdued prey could thus have minimized this potential for damage, and was perhaps coupled with selective feeding strategies that ecologically optimized elasmosaurids towards more delicate middle trophic level aquatic predation. PMID:28241059

  15. Expression of Sox genes in tooth development.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Katsushige; Kawasaki, Maiko; Watanabe, Momoko; Idrus, Erik; Nagai, Takahiro; Oommen, Shelly; Maeda, Takeyasu; Hagiwara, Nobuko; Que, Jianwen; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2015-01-01

    Members of the Sox gene family play roles in many biological processes including organogenesis. We carried out comparative in situ hybridization analysis of seventeen sox genes (Sox1-14, 17, 18, 21) during murine odontogenesis from the epithelial thickening to the cytodifferentiation stages. Localized expression of five Sox genes (Sox6, 9, 13, 14 and 21) was observed in tooth bud epithelium. Sox13 showed restricted expression in the primary enamel knots. At the early bell stage, three Sox genes (Sox8, 11, 17 and 21) were expressed in pre-ameloblasts, whereas two others (Sox5 and 18) showed expression in odontoblasts. Sox genes thus showed a dynamic spatio-temporal expression during tooth development.

  16. Expression of Sox genes in tooth development

    PubMed Central

    KAWASAKI, KATSUSHIGE; KAWASAKI, MAIKO; WATANABE, MOMOKO; IDRUS, ERIK; NAGAI, TAKAHIRO; OOMMEN, SHELLY; MAEDA, TAKEYASU; HAGIWARA, NOBUKO; QUE, JIANWEN; SHARPE, PAUL T.; OHAZAMA, ATSUSHI

    2017-01-01

    Members of the Sox gene family play roles in many biological processes including organogenesis. We carried out comparative in situ hybridization analysis of seventeen sox genes (Sox1-14, 17, 18, 21) during murine odontogenesis from the epithelial thickening to the cytodifferentiation stages. Localized expression of five Sox genes (Sox6, 9, 13, 14 and 21) was observed in tooth bud epithelium. Sox13 showed restricted expression in the primary enamel knots. At the early bell stage, three Sox genes (Sox8, 11, 17 and 21) were expressed in pre-ameloblasts, whereas two others (Sox5 and 18) showed expression in odontoblasts. Sox genes thus showed a dynamic spatio-temporal expression during tooth development. PMID:26864488

  17. Abiotic tooth enamel.

    PubMed

    Yeom, Bongjun; Sain, Trisha; Lacevic, Naida; Bukharina, Daria; Cha, Sang-Ho; Waas, Anthony M; Arruda, Ellen M; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2017-03-01

    Tooth enamel comprises parallel microscale and nanoscale ceramic columns or prisms interlaced with a soft protein matrix. This structural motif is unusually consistent across all species from all geological eras. Such invariability-especially when juxtaposed with the diversity of other tissues-suggests the existence of a functional basis. Here we performed ex vivo replication of enamel-inspired columnar nanocomposites by sequential growth of zinc oxide nanowire carpets followed by layer-by-layer deposition of a polymeric matrix around these. We show that the mechanical properties of these nanocomposites, including hardness, are comparable to those of enamel despite the nanocomposites having a smaller hard-phase content. Our abiotic enamels have viscoelastic figures of merit (VFOM) and weight-adjusted VFOM that are similar to, or higher than, those of natural tooth enamels-we achieve values that exceed the traditional materials limits of 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. VFOM values describe resistance to vibrational damage, and our columnar composites demonstrate that light-weight materials of unusually high resistance to structural damage from shocks, environmental vibrations and oscillatory stress can be made using biomimetic design. The previously inaccessible combinations of high stiffness, damping and light weight that we achieve in these layer-by-layer composites are attributed to efficient energy dissipation in the interfacial portion of the organic phase. The in vivo contribution of this interfacial portion to macroscale deformations along the tooth's normal is maximized when the architecture is columnar, suggesting an evolutionary advantage of the columnar motif in the enamel of living species. We expect our findings to apply to all columnar composites and to lead to the development of high-performance load-bearing materials.

  18. Biological tooth replacement

    PubMed Central

    Sartaj, Rachel; Sharpe, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Teeth develop from a series of reciprocal interactions that take place between epithelium and mesenchyme during development of the mouth that begin early in mammalian embryogenesis. The molecular control of key processes in tooth development such as initiation, morphogenesis and cytodifferentiation are being increasingly better understood, to the point where this information can be used as the basis for approaches to produce biological replacement teeth (BioTeeth). This review outlines the current approaches, ideas and progress towards the production of BioTeeth that could form an alternative method for replacing lost or damaged teeth. PMID:17005022

  19. Influence of tooth profile on the noncircular gear tooth contact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristescu, A.; Andrei, L.; Cristescu, B.

    2017-02-01

    With noncircular gears, the continuous modification of the tooth meshing, in terms of variation of the tooth profiles and the line of action position and inclination, makes difficult the implementation of a general standard procedure for the analysis of the noncircular gears tooth contact. In this paper, the authors present a graphical approach that enables the tooth contact static pattern to be produced and evaluated in case of a noncircular gear with complex geometry of the pitch curve. The study is virtually developed, in AutoCAD environment, by animating and investigating the gear solid models in mesh. The tooth static contact analysis enables the path of contact area and distribution to be evaluated in correlation with the following variable initial data: gear pitch curve geometry, tooth profile geometry, as a consequence of different generating procedures, and the gear pressure angle. It was found out that the noncircular gear tooth contact could be improved by choosing different procedures for the tooth flank generation in concave and convex zones and by increasing the gear pressure angle.

  20. Single implant tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Briley, T F

    1998-01-01

    It has been shown that direct bone anchorage of dental implants will provide long-term predictability for single tooth implants and multi-unit implants. The function of implant-supported restoration is now routinely achieved. The real challenge facing the restorative dentist and laboratory technician is to achieve optimal aesthetics. The learning objective of this article is to review the prosthodontic procedures essential to maximizing natural aesthetics in implant supported restorations. It will provide a review of master impression techniques, prepable titanium abutments and designing the cement on restoration. Particular emphasis is directed to the soft tissue model from which a series of sequenced techniques can be followed to achieve optimal aesthetics. Analysis of the implant alignment with regard to the neighboring teeth will result in having to make a choice of which prepable abutment will maximize the aesthetic result. The following case outlines how to replace a single missing tooth using an externally hexed implant system and a prefabricated titanium abutment on a 26-year-old male patient.

  1. Risk indicators for tooth wear in New Zealand school children.

    PubMed

    Ayers, K M S; Drummond, B K; Thomson, W M; Kieser, J A

    2002-02-01

    To investigate the prevalence and severity of tooth wear in the primary dentition of a representative sample of New Zealand school children and relate these to possible risk factors. A cross-sectional study. Primary schools in Dunedin, New Zealand. 104 children of both sexes, aged between 5 and 8 years, randomly selected. Clinical examinations of the buccal, occlusal/incisal and lingual surfaces of deciduous canines and molars. Degree of wear and the presence of dentinal cupping of teeth. Information on weaning and consumption of fruit-based drinks at bed time, frequency of consumption of fruits, yoghurt, pickled foods, fizzy and fruit-based drinks. The prevalence of tooth wear was similar in boys and girls and there were no significant differences between sides of the arches. A high percentage (82%) of children had at least one primary tooth with dentine exposed. While maxillary canines showed the greatest prevalence of dentine exposed, maxillary molars displayed the greatest prevalence of cupping. Severe tooth wear was less prevalent among children weaned after 12 months (14.3%) than those weaned earlier (27.9% P < 0.01). There were no statistically significant associations between wear and the consumption of fruit, yoghurt, pickled foods, fizzy drinks or fruit-based drinks. Tooth wear associated with dentine exposure is common in 5-8 year old children. This is not significantly associated with dietary factors, but appears to be related to early weaning from the breast.

  2. Risk Assessment for Tooth Wear.

    PubMed

    Kontaxopoulou, Isavella; Alam, Sonia

    2015-08-01

    Tooth wear has an increasing prevalence in the UK population. The aetiology is commonly multifactorial, and the aetiopathology is through a combination of erosion, attrition, abrasion and abfraction. Erosion is associated with intrinsic or extrinsic acids, and therefore subjects with reflux disease and eating disorders are at increased risk. Fruit juice, fruits and carbonated drink consumption, frequency of consumption and specific habits are also risk factors. Attrition is more prevalent in bruxists. Other habits need to be considered when defining the risk of tooth wear. Abrasion is usually associated with toothbrushing and toothpastes, especially in an already acidic environment. Patients with extensive lesions that affect dentin may be at higher risk, as well as those presenting with unstained lesions. Monitoring of the progress of tooth wear is recommended to identify those with active tooth wear. Indices for tooth wear are a helpful aid.

  3. Tooth anatomy risk factors influencing root canal working length accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lu; Sun, Tuo-qi; Gao, Xiao-jie; Zhou, Xue-dong; Huang, Ding-ming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the specific influence of root canal anatomy on the accessibility of working length during root canal therapy. Four hundred seventy-six root canal therapy cases (amounting to a total of 1 005 root canals) were examined. The anatomy risk factors assessed in each case included: tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, and root canal calcification, as well as endodontic retreatment. The investigation examined the correlation between each of these anatomic factors and the working length, with statistical analysis consisting of Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. In an independent factor analysis, tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, canal calcification, and endodontic retreatment were determined to be the primary risk factors. In a multiple-factor regression model, root curvature and canal calcification were found to most significantly influence root canal working length accessibility (P<0.05). Root canal anatomy increases the difficulty of root canal preparation. Appropriate consideration of tooth anatomy will assist in accurate determination of preparation difficulty before instrumentation. This study alerts clinical therapists to anatomical factors influencing the working length accessibility, and allows for a direct estimate of success rate given in situ measurements of tooth factors during the root canal treatment procedure. PMID:21789962

  4. Diagnosis of erosive tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Ganss, Carolina; Lussi, Adrian

    2014-01-01

    The clinical diagnosis 'erosion' is made from characteristic deviations from the original anatomical tooth morphology, thus distinguishing acid-induced tissue loss from other forms of wear. Primary pathognomonic features are shallow concavities on smooth surfaces occurring coronal from the enamel-cementum junction. Problems from diagnosing occlusal surfaces and exposed dentine are discussed. Indices for recording erosive wear include morphological as well as quantitative criteria. Currently, various indices are used, each having their virtues and flaws, making the comparison of prevalence studies difficult. The Basic Erosive Wear Examination (BEWE) is described, which is intended to provide an easy tool for research as well as for use in general dental practice. The cumulative score of this index is the sum of the most severe scores obtained from all sextants and is linked to suggestions for clinical management. In addition to recording erosive lesions, the assessment of progression is important as the indication of treatment measures depends on erosion activity. A number of evaluated and sensitive methods for in vitro and in situ approaches are available, but the fundamental problem for their clinical use is the lack of reidentifiable reference areas. Tools for clinical monitoring are described. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Social Determinants of Tooth Loss

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Gregg H; Paul duncan, R; Shelton, Brent J

    2003-01-01

    Objectives To quantify racial and socioeconomic status (SES) disparities in oral health, as measured by tooth loss, and to determine the role of dental care use and other factors in explaining disparities. Data Sources/Study Setting The Florida Dental Care Study, comprising African Americans (AAs) and non-Hispanic whites 45 years old or older who had at least one tooth. Study Design We used a prospective cohort design. Relevant population characteristics were grouped by predisposing, enabling, and need variables. The key outcome was tooth loss, a leading measure of a population's oral health, looked at before and after entering the dental care system. Tooth-specific data were used to increase inferential power by relating the loss of individual teeth to the disease level on those teeth. Data Collection Methods In-person interviews and clinical examinations were done at baseline, 24, and 48 months, with telephone interviews every 6 months. Principal Findings African Americans and persons of lower SES reported more new dental symptoms, but were less likely to obtain dental care. When they did receive care, they were more likely to experience tooth loss and less likely to report that dentists had discussed alternative treatments with them. At the first stage of analysis, differences in disease severity and new symptoms explained tooth loss disparities. Racial and SES differences in attitudes toward tooth loss and dental care were not contributory. Because almost all tooth loss occurs by means of dental extraction, the total effects of race and SES on tooth loss were artificially minimized unless disparities in dental care use were taken into account. Conclusions Race and SES are strong determinants of tooth loss. African Americans and lower SES persons had fewer teeth at baseline and still lost more teeth after baseline. Tooth-specific case-mix adjustment appears, statistically, to explain social disparity variation in tooth loss. However, when social disparities in

  6. Partial tooth gear bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vranish, John M. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A partial gear bearing including an upper half, comprising peak partial teeth, and a lower, or bottom, half, comprising valley partial teeth. The upper half also has an integrated roller section between each of the peak partial teeth with a radius equal to the gear pitch radius of the radially outwardly extending peak partial teeth. Conversely, the lower half has an integrated roller section between each of the valley half teeth with a radius also equal to the gear pitch radius of the peak partial teeth. The valley partial teeth extend radially inwardly from its roller section. The peak and valley partial teeth are exactly out of phase with each other, as are the roller sections of the upper and lower halves. Essentially, the end roller bearing of the typical gear bearing has been integrated into the normal gear tooth pattern.

  7. Detecting gear tooth fracture in a high contact ratio face gear mesh

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; Handschuh, Robert F.; Lewicki, David G.; Decker, Harry J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarized the results of a study in which three different vibration diagnostic methods were used to detect gear tooth fracture in a high contact ratio face gear mesh. The NASA spiral bevel gear fatigue test rig was used to produce unseeded fault, natural failures of four face gear specimens. During the fatigue tests, which were run to determine load capacity and primary failure mechanisms for face gears, vibration signals were monitored and recorded for gear diagnostic purposes. Gear tooth bending fatigue and surface pitting were the primary failure modes found in the tests. The damage ranged from partial tooth fracture on a single tooth in one test to heavy wear, severe pitting, and complete tooth fracture of several teeth on another test. Three gear fault detection techniques, FM4, NA4*, and NB4, were applied to the experimental data. These methods use the signal average in both the time and frequency domain. Method NA4* was able to conclusively detect the gear tooth fractures in three out of the four fatigue tests, along with gear tooth surface pitting and heavy wear. For multiple tooth fractures, all of the methods gave a clear indication of the damage. It was also found that due to the high contact ratio of the face gear mesh, single tooth fractures did not significantly affect the vibration signal, making this type of failure difficult to detect.

  8. Abiotic tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeom, Bongjun; Sain, Trisha; Lacevic, Naida; Bukharina, Daria; Cha, Sang-Ho; Waas, Anthony M.; Arruda, Ellen M.; Kotov, Nicholas A.

    2017-03-01

    Tooth enamel comprises parallel microscale and nanoscale ceramic columns or prisms interlaced with a soft protein matrix. This structural motif is unusually consistent across all species from all geological eras. Such invariability—especially when juxtaposed with the diversity of other tissues—suggests the existence of a functional basis. Here we performed ex vivo replication of enamel-inspired columnar nanocomposites by sequential growth of zinc oxide nanowire carpets followed by layer-by-layer deposition of a polymeric matrix around these. We show that the mechanical properties of these nanocomposites, including hardness, are comparable to those of enamel despite the nanocomposites having a smaller hard-phase content. Our abiotic enamels have viscoelastic figures of merit (VFOM) and weight-adjusted VFOM that are similar to, or higher than, those of natural tooth enamels—we achieve values that exceed the traditional materials limits of 0.6 and 0.8, respectively. VFOM values describe resistance to vibrational damage, and our columnar composites demonstrate that light-weight materials of unusually high resistance to structural damage from shocks, environmental vibrations and oscillatory stress can be made using biomimetic design. The previously inaccessible combinations of high stiffness, damping and light weight that we achieve in these layer-by-layer composites are attributed to efficient energy dissipation in the interfacial portion of the organic phase. The in vivo contribution of this interfacial portion to macroscale deformations along the tooth’s normal is maximized when the architecture is columnar, suggesting an evolutionary advantage of the columnar motif in the enamel of living species. We expect our findings to apply to all columnar composites and to lead to the development of high-performance load-bearing materials.

  9. Expression of fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) in murine tooth development.

    PubMed

    Porntaveetus, Thantrira; Otsuka-Tanaka, Yoko; Basson, M Albert; Moon, Anne M; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2011-05-01

    Fgf signalling is known to play critical roles in tooth development. Twenty-two Fgf ligands have been identified in mammals, but expression of only 10 in molars and three in the incisor loop stem cell region have been documented in murine tooth development. Our understanding of Fgf signalling in tooth development thus remains incomplete and we therefore carried out comparative in situ hybridisation analysis of unexamined Fgf ligands (eight in molars and 15 in cervical loops of incisors; Fgf11-Fgf14 were excluded from this analysis because they are not secreted and do not activate Fgf receptors) during tooth development. To identify where Fgf signalling is activated, we also examined the expression of Etv4 and Etv5, considered to be transcriptional targets of the Fgf signalling pathway. In molar tooth development, the expression of Fgf15 and Fgf20 was restricted to the primary enamel knots, whereas Etv4 and Etv5 were expressed in cells surrounding the primary enamel knots. Fgf20 expression was observed in the secondary enamel knots, whereas Fgf15 showed localised expression in the adjacent mesenchyme. Fgf16, Etv4 and Etv5 were strongly expressed in the ameloblasts of molars. In the incisor cervical loop stem cell region, Fgf17, Fgf18, Etv4 and Etv5 showed a restricted expression pattern. These molecules thus show dynamic temporo-spatial expression in murine tooth development. We also analysed teeth in Fgf15(-/-) and Fgf15(-/-) ;Fgf8(+/-) mutant mice. Neither mutant showed significant abnormalities in tooth development, indicating likely functional redundancy. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  10. Factors associated with black tooth stain in Chinese preschool children.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Zhan, Jing-Yu; Lu, Hai-Xia; Ye, Wei; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Wen-Jie; Feng, Xi-Ping

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence of black tooth stain and associated factors in primary dentition in Shanghai, China. Through a cross-sectional design, preschool children were randomly recruited from 12 kindergartens. Children's dental caries were assessed on the number of decayed, missing, and filled teeth (dmft) and surfaces (dmfs). The presence of black tooth stain was examined, and the visible plaque index was calculated. Questionnaires were completed by the children's parents or guardians. Negative binomial regression was used to investigate the associated factors. A total of 2,023 children were invited, and 1,397 examined participants with questionnaire data were included in final analysis. The rate of black tooth stain was 9.9 % with mean age of 4.55 years. Compared to children without black stain, children with black stain had a significant lower prevalence and experience of dental caries (P < 0.01). Factors for black stain were age, born in Shanghai, parents' higher education level, lower visible plaque index and mean dmfs, less use of nursing bottle, food with more soy sauce, and history of pneumonia. Preschool children with black tooth stain had fewer dental caries. Further studies are warranted to explore the microbiologic risk factors for black tooth stain and to evaluate the causal-effect factors using prospective study design. In clinics, dentists should pay more attention to this aesthetic problem for the relative high prevalence of black tooth stain in primary dentition. Also, the related factors can be explained to parents for the prevention of black tooth stain in children.

  11. Expression of fibroblast growth factors (Fgfs) in murine tooth development

    PubMed Central

    Porntaveetus, Thantrira; Otsuka-Tanaka, Yoko; Albert Basson, M; Moon, Anne M; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Fgf signalling is known to play critical roles in tooth development. Twenty-two Fgf ligands have been identified in mammals, but expression of only 10 in molars and three in the incisor loop stem cell region have been documented in murine tooth development. Our understanding of Fgf signalling in tooth development thus remains incomplete and we therefore carried out comparative in situ hybridisation analysis of unexamined Fgf ligands (eight in molars and 15 in cervical loops of incisors; Fgf11–Fgf14 were excluded from this analysis because they are not secreted and do not activate Fgf receptors) during tooth development. To identify where Fgf signalling is activated, we also examined the expression of Etv4 and Etv5, considered to be transcriptional targets of the Fgf signalling pathway. In molar tooth development, the expression of Fgf15 and Fgf20 was restricted to the primary enamel knots, whereas Etv4 and Etv5 were expressed in cells surrounding the primary enamel knots. Fgf20 expression was observed in the secondary enamel knots, whereas Fgf15 showed localised expression in the adjacent mesenchyme. Fgf16, Etv4 and Etv5 were strongly expressed in the ameloblasts of molars. In the incisor cervical loop stem cell region, Fgf17, Fgf18, Etv4 and Etv5 showed a restricted expression pattern. These molecules thus show dynamic temporo-spatial expression in murine tooth development. We also analysed teeth in Fgf15−/− and Fgf15−/−;Fgf8+/− mutant mice. Neither mutant showed significant abnormalities in tooth development, indicating likely functional redundancy. PMID:21332717

  12. Decreased face primary motor cortex (face-M1) excitability induced by noxious stimulation of the rat molar tooth pulp is dependent on the functional integrity of face-M1 astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Awamleh, L; Pun, H; Lee, J-C; Avivi-Arber, L

    2015-04-01

    Acute inflammatory dental pain is a prevalent condition often associated with limited jaw movements. Mustard oil (MO, a small-fiber excitant/inflammatory irritant) application to the rat molar tooth pulp induces increased excitability (i.e., central sensitization) of trigeminal medullary dorsal horn (MDH) nociceptive neurons that can be modulated by MDH application of the astrocytic inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO). The objectives of the study were to determine whether MO application to the rat right maxillary first molar tooth pulp affects left face-M1 excitability manifested as altered intracortical microstimulation thresholds for evoking electromyographic activity in the right anterior digastric (RAD, jaw-opening muscle), and whether MSO application to face-M1 can modulate this MO effect. Under Ketamine general anesthesia, Sprague-Dawley male rats had a microelectrode positioned at a low-threshold (≤30 μA) face-M1 site. Then MO (n = 16) or control solution (n = 16) was applied to the previously exposed tooth pulp, and RAD threshold was monitored for 15 min. MSO (0.1 mM, n = 8) or saline (n = 8) was then applied to the face-M1, and RAD thresholds were monitored every 15 min for 120 min. ANOVA followed by post hoc Bonferroni was used to analyze data (p < 0.05). Within 15 min of MO (but not control) pulp application, RAD thresholds increased significantly (p < 0.001) as compared to baseline. One hour following MSO (but not saline) application to the face-M1, RAD thresholds decreased significantly (p = 0.005) toward baseline. These novel findings suggest that acute inflammatory dental pain is associated with decreased face-M1 excitability that may be dependent on the functional integrity of face-M1 astrocytes and related to mechanisms underlying limited jaw movements in acute orofacial pain conditions.

  13. PiggyBac transposon-mediated gene delivery efficiently generates stable transfectants derived from cultured primary human deciduous tooth dental pulp cells (HDDPCs) and HDDPC-derived iPS cells

    PubMed Central

    Inada, Emi; Saitoh, Issei; Watanabe, Satoshi; Aoki, Reiji; Miura, Hiromi; Ohtsuka, Masato; Murakami, Tomoya; Sawami, Tadashi; Yamasaki, Youichi; Sato, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    The ability of human deciduous tooth dental pulp cells (HDDPCs) to differentiate into odontoblasts that generate mineralized tissue holds immense potential for therapeutic use in the field of tooth regenerative medicine. Realization of this potential depends on efficient and optimized protocols for the genetic manipulation of HDDPCs. In this study, we demonstrate the use of a PiggyBac (PB)-based gene transfer system as a method for introducing nonviral transposon DNA into HDDPCs and HDDPC-derived inducible pluripotent stem cells. The transfection efficiency of the PB-based system was significantly greater than previously reported for electroporation-based transfection of plasmid DNA. Using the neomycin resistance gene as a selection marker, HDDPCs were stably transfected at a rate nearly 40-fold higher than that achieved using conventional methods. Using this system, it was also possible to introduce two constructs simultaneously into a single cell. The resulting stable transfectants, expressing tdTomato and enhanced green fluorescent protein, exhibited both red and green fluorescence. The established cell line did not lose the acquired phenotype over three months of culture. Based on our results, we concluded that PB is superior to currently available methods for introducing plasmid DNA into HDDPCs. There may be significant challenges in the direct clinical application of this method for human dental tissue engineering due to safety risks and ethical concerns. However, the high level of transfection achieved with PB may have significant advantages in basic scientific research for dental tissue engineering applications, such as functional studies of genes and proteins. Furthermore, it is a useful tool for the isolation of genetically engineered HDDPC-derived stem cells for studies in tooth regenerative medicine. PMID:26208039

  14. The Human Sweet Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Danielle R; McDaniel, Amanda H

    2006-01-01

    Humans love the taste of sugar and the word "sweet" is used to describe not only this basic taste quality but also something that is desirable or pleasurable, e.g., la dolce vita. Although sugar or sweetened foods are generally among the most preferred choices, not everyone likes sugar, especially at high concentrations. The focus of my group's research is to understand why some people have a sweet tooth and others do not. We have used genetic and molecular techniques in humans, rats, mice, cats and primates to understand the origins of sweet taste perception. Our studies demonstrate that there are two sweet receptor genes (TAS1R2 and TAS1R3), and alleles of one of the two genes predict the avidity with which some mammals drink sweet solutions. We also find a relationship between sweet and bitter perception. Children who are genetically more sensitive to bitter compounds report that very sweet solutions are more pleasant and they prefer sweet carbonated beverages more than milk, relative to less bitter-sensitive peers. Overall, people differ in their ability to perceive the basic tastes, and particular constellations of genes and experience may drive some people, but not others, toward a caries-inducing sweet diet. Future studies will be designed to understand how a genetic preference for sweet food and drink might contribute to the development of dental caries. PMID:16934118

  15. Turner's tooth with unique radiographic presentation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lakshman, Anusha Rangare; Kanneppady, Sham Kishor; Castelino, Renita Lorina

    2014-01-01

    Hypoplasia--the result of a disruption in the enamel matrix formation process--causes a defect in the quality and thickness of enamel. Enamel formation is a complex and highly regulated process. Enamel defects have been associated with a broad spectrum of etiologies, including genetic, epigenetic, systemic, local, and environmental factors. An enamel defect in the permanent teeth caused by periapical inflammatory disease in the overlying primary tooth is referred to as Turner's tooth (also known as Turner's hypoplasia). This article presents a case of Turner's hypoplasia of the first mandibular premolar, with an unusual radiographic presentation.

  16. Shading of ceramic crowns using digital tooth shade matching devices.

    PubMed

    Baltzer, A; Kaufmann-Jinoian, V

    2005-04-01

    In the 1990s, there was great optimism due to the development of devices for measuring tooth shade. The frequently not so simple, visual determination of the shade of a tooth was to be done with the aid of a device which recognizes the shade and describes it accurately by reference to a color chart. However, the skepticism towards such devices was also great. It is known that the color effect frequently differs strongly when comparing a tooth from the shade guide with a metal ceramic crown, despite identical shade designation. Anyone who considers visual shade determination to be inadequate and places his hopes in digital shade matching devices will be disappointed. It is the shade-generating structures of the metal ceramic and frequently of the veneer layers that turn out to be too thin which, despite correct shade selection, cause a different color perception. Such problems have been reduced decisively with the development of fracture-proof hard porcelain caps (Vita In-Ceram) with optical characteristics similar to teeth. In addition, the Vita System 3D-Master tooth shade system developed in 1998 by Vita in cooperation with Dr. Hall from Australia, leads the practitioner to a better understanding of the primary tooth shade characteristics of "brightness (value)", "color intensity (chroma)" and "color (wave length of the visible light, hue)". These two innovations allow a more accurate estimate of the basic shade of a natural tooth (reference tooth) and the imitation in the laboratory of its natural, shade-generating structures. If digital shade measurement supplements the visual shade estimate, then a further improvement can be expected--especially in the recognition of the basic shade. Qualitative descriptions of subjective shade measurement of a natural tooth and of its imitation in the dental laboratory by ceramics can be found frequently in professional journals and publications. With digital tooth shade matching devices, which apart from the color code of

  17. Functional tooth restoration utilising split germs through re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Naomi; Oshima, Masamitsu; Tanaka, Chie; Ogawa, Miho; Nakajima, Kei; Ishida, Kentaro; Moriyama, Keiji; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    The tooth is an ectodermal organ that arises from a tooth germ under the regulation of reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Tooth morphogenesis occurs in the tooth-forming field as a result of reaction-diffusion waves of specific gene expression patterns. Here, we developed a novel mechanical ligation method for splitting tooth germs to artificially regulate the molecules that control tooth morphology. The split tooth germs successfully developed into multiple correct teeth through the re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field, which is regulated by reaction-diffusion waves in response to mechanical force. Furthermore, split teeth erupted into the oral cavity and restored physiological tooth function, including mastication, periodontal ligament function and responsiveness to noxious stimuli. Thus, this study presents a novel tooth regenerative technology based on split tooth germs and the re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field by artificial mechanical force. PMID:26673152

  18. Functional tooth restoration utilising split germs through re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Naomi; Oshima, Masamitsu; Tanaka, Chie; Ogawa, Miho; Nakajima, Kei; Ishida, Kentaro; Moriyama, Keiji; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-12-17

    The tooth is an ectodermal organ that arises from a tooth germ under the regulation of reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal interactions. Tooth morphogenesis occurs in the tooth-forming field as a result of reaction-diffusion waves of specific gene expression patterns. Here, we developed a novel mechanical ligation method for splitting tooth germs to artificially regulate the molecules that control tooth morphology. The split tooth germs successfully developed into multiple correct teeth through the re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field, which is regulated by reaction-diffusion waves in response to mechanical force. Furthermore, split teeth erupted into the oral cavity and restored physiological tooth function, including mastication, periodontal ligament function and responsiveness to noxious stimuli. Thus, this study presents a novel tooth regenerative technology based on split tooth germs and the re-regionalisation of the tooth-forming field by artificial mechanical force.

  19. Effectiveness of LANAP over time as measured by tooth loss.

    PubMed

    Tilt, Lloyd V

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of the laser-assisted new attachment procedure (LANAP) as measured by tooth loss, comparing data to published studies using conventional surgical treatment modalities for the primary treatment of Types III and IV periodontitis. Retrospective data from 107 patients presenting with Types III and IV periodontitis were gathered and evaluated. All patients received LANAP periodontal therapy as their primary surgical treatment according to the FDA-cleared LANAP protocol. The patients averaged 6.2 years post-treatment. The data were compared to several published studies for outcome classification and tooth loss over time. The effectiveness of LANAP as a primary treatment method for Types III and IV periodontitis compares very favorably with conventional surgical treatment modalities concerning tooth loss and stability over time, need for surgical retreatment, and outcome classification. Dentistry continues to develop less invasive means of providing patient care without sacrificing results. Less invasive treatment of periodontitis, with reduced postoperative morbidity yet equal results in tooth retention over time is an important goal. LANAP treatment for moderate and advanced periodontitis provides a less invasive treatment alternative for the dentist and patient to consider as a part of informed consent.

  20. A 15-Year Time-series Study of Tooth Extraction in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cunha, Maria Aparecida Goncalves de Melo; Lino, Patrícia Azevedo; dos Santos, Thiago Rezende; Vasconcelos, Mara; Lucas, Simone Dutra; de Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Tooth loss is considered to be a public health problem. Time-series studies that assess the influence of social conditions and access to health services on tooth loss are scarce. This study aimed to examine the time-series of permanent tooth extraction in Brazil between 1998 and 2012 and to compare these series in municipalities with different Human Development Index (HDI) scores and with different access to distinct primary and secondary care. The time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012, using data from the Brazilian National Health Information System. Time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012. Two annual rates of tooth extraction were calculated and evaluated separately according to 3 parameters: the HDI, the presence of a Dental Specialty Center, and coverage by Oral Health Teams. The time-series was analyzed using a linear regression model. An overall decrease in the tooth-loss tendencies during this period was observed, particularly in the tooth-extraction rate during primary care procedures. In the municipalities with an HDI that was lower than the median, the average tooth-loss rates were higher than in the municipalities with a higher HDI. The municipalities with lower rates of Oral Health Team coverage also showed lower extraction rates than the municipalities with higher coverage rates. In general, Brazil has shown a decrease in the trend to extract permanent teeth during these 15 years. Increased human development and access to dental services have influenced tooth-extraction rates. PMID:26632688

  1. A 15-Year Time-series Study of Tooth Extraction in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Maria Aparecida Goncalves de Melo; Lino, Patrícia Azevedo; Santos, Thiago Rezende Dos; Vasconcelos, Mara; Lucas, Simone Dutra; Abreu, Mauro Henrique Nogueira Guimarães de

    2015-11-01

    Tooth loss is considered to be a public health problem. Time-series studies that assess the influence of social conditions and access to health services on tooth loss are scarce.This study aimed to examine the time-series of permanent tooth extraction in Brazil between 1998 and 2012 and to compare these series in municipalities with different Human Development Index (HDI) scores and with different access to distinct primary and secondary care.The time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012, using data from the Brazilian National Health Information System. Time-series study was performed between 1998 and 2012. Two annual rates of tooth extraction were calculated and evaluated separately according to 3 parameters: the HDI, the presence of a Dental Specialty Center, and coverage by Oral Health Teams. The time-series was analyzed using a linear regression model.An overall decrease in the tooth-loss tendencies during this period was observed, particularly in the tooth-extraction rate during primary care procedures. In the municipalities with an HDI that was lower than the median, the average tooth-loss rates were higher than in the municipalities with a higher HDI. The municipalities with lower rates of Oral Health Team coverage also showed lower extraction rates than the municipalities with higher coverage rates.In general, Brazil has shown a decrease in the trend to extract permanent teeth during these 15 years. Increased human development and access to dental services have influenced tooth-extraction rates.

  2. Clinical measurement of tooth wear: Tooth wear indices

    PubMed Central

    López-Frías, Francisco J.; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Llamas-Carreras, José M.

    2012-01-01

    Attrition, erosion, and abrasion result in alterations to the tooth and manifest as tooth wear. Each classification corresponds to a different process with specific clinical features. Classifications made so far have no accurate prevalence data because the indexes do not necessarily measure a specific etiology, or because the study populations can be diverse in age and characteristics. Tooth wears (attrition, erosion and abrasion) is perceived internationally as a growing problem. However, the interpretation and comparison of clinical and epidemiological studies, it is increasingly difficult because of differences in terminology and the large number of indicators/indices that have been developed for the diagnosis, classification and monitoring of the loss of dental hard tissue. These indices have been designed to identify increasing severity and are usually numerical, none have universal acceptance, complicating the evaluation of the true increase in prevalence reported. This article considers the ideal requirements for an erosion index. A literature review is conducted with the aim of analyzing the evolution of the indices used today and discuss whether they meet the clinical needs and research in dentistry. Key words:Tooth wear, tooth wear indices, attrition, erosion, abrasion, abfraction. PMID:24558525

  3. Clinical measurement of tooth wear: Tooth wear indices.

    PubMed

    López-Frías, Francisco J; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; Martín-González, Jenifer; Llamas-Carreras, José M; Segura-Egea, Juan J

    2012-02-01

    Attrition, erosion, and abrasion result in alterations to the tooth and manifest as tooth wear. Each classification corresponds to a different process with specific clinical features. Classifications made so far have no accurate prevalence data because the indexes do not necessarily measure a specific etiology, or because the study populations can be diverse in age and characteristics. Tooth wears (attrition, erosion and abrasion) is perceived internationally as a growing problem. However, the interpretation and comparison of clinical and epidemiological studies, it is increasingly difficult because of differences in terminology and the large number of indicators/indices that have been developed for the diagnosis, classification and monitoring of the loss of dental hard tissue. These indices have been designed to identify increasing severity and are usually numerical, none have universal acceptance, complicating the evaluation of the true increase in prevalence reported. This article considers the ideal requirements for an erosion index. A literature review is conducted with the aim of analyzing the evolution of the indices used today and discuss whether they meet the clinical needs and research in dentistry. Key words:Tooth wear, tooth wear indices, attrition, erosion, abrasion, abfraction.

  4. Detecting Gear Tooth Fatigue Cracks in Advance of Complete Fracture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrajsek, James J.; Lewicki, David G.

    1996-01-01

    Results of using vibration-based methods to detect gear tooth fatigue cracks are presented. An experimental test rig was used to fail a number of spur gear specimens through bending fatigue. The gear tooth fatigue crack in each test was initiated through a small notch in the fillet area of a tooth on the gear. The primary purpose of these tests was to verify analytical predictions of fatigue crack propagation direction and rate as a function of gear rim thickness. The vibration signal from a total of three tests was monitored and recorded for gear fault detection research. The damage consisted of complete rim fracture on the two thin rim gears and single tooth fracture on the standard full rim test gear. Vibration-based fault detection methods were applied to the vibration signal both on-line and after the tests were completed. The objectives of this effort were to identify methods capable of detecting the fatigue crack and to determine how far in advance of total failure positive detection was given. Results show that the fault detection methods failed to respond to the fatigue crack prior to complete rim fracture in the thin rim gear tests. In the standard full rim gear test all of the methods responded to the fatigue crack in advance of tooth fracture; however, only three of the methods responded to the fatigue crack in the early stages of crack propagation.

  5. Complex patterns of tooth replacement revealed in the fruit bat (Eidolon helvum).

    PubMed

    Popa, Elena M; Anthwal, Neal; Tucker, Abigail S

    2016-12-01

    How teeth are replaced during normal growth and development has long been an important question for comparative and developmental anatomy. Non-standard model animals have become increasingly popular in this field due to the fact that the canonical model laboratory mammal, the mouse, develops only one generation of teeth (monophyodonty), whereas the majority of mammals possess two generations of teeth (diphyodonty). Here we used the straw-coloured fruit bat (Eidolon helvum), an Old World megabat, which has two generations of teeth, in order to observe the development and replacement of tooth germs from initiation up to mineralization stages. Our morphological study uses 3D reconstruction of histological sections to uncover differing arrangements of the first and second-generation tooth germs during the process of tooth replacement. We show that both tooth germ generations develop as part of the dental lamina, with the first generation detaching from the lamina, leaving the free edge to give rise to a second generation. This separation was particularly marked at the third premolar locus, where the primary and replacement teeth become positioned side by side, unconnected by a lamina. The position of the replacement tooth, with respect to the primary tooth, varied within the mouth, with replacements forming posterior to or directly lingual to the primary tooth. Development of replacement teeth was arrested at some tooth positions and this appeared to be linked to the timing of tooth initiation and the subsequent rate of development. This study adds an additional species to the growing body of non-model species used in the study of tooth replacement, and offers a new insight into the development of the diphyodont condition. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  6. Tooth mobility and periodontal therapy.

    PubMed

    Fleszar, T J; Knowles, J W; Morrison, E C; Burgett, F G; Nissle, R R; Ramfjord, S P

    1980-12-01

    Data collected as part of an 8-year longitudinal study on periodontal therapy involving 82 patients and 1974 teeth were analyzed to determine if tooth mobility influenced the result of treatment. For each patient, pocket depth, attachment level and tooth mobility were scored clinically at the initial appointment, and once a year for 8 years following periodontal therapy. The treatment consisted of scaling, oral hygiene instruction, occlusal adjustment, periodontal surgery (curettage, modified Widman or pocket elimination), followed by recall prophylaxes every 3 months. Tooth mobility data on a scale of 0--3 were related to changes in attachment levels for three grades of severity of periodontal disease, based on initial pocket depth (1--3 mm, 4--6 mm, and 7 + mm). Mean patient attachment changes were calculated from teeth in the same severity category for each patient. The data were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Scheffe's multiple comparison procedure to test the hypothesis of equal effects of tooth mobility on the results of the treatment for the three severity groups over 8 years. The results indicate that there is a statistically significant relationship between original tooth mobility and the change in level of attachment following treatment. Pockets of clinically mobile teeth do not respond as well to periodontal treatment as do those of firm teeth exhibiting the same initial disease severity.

  7. Tooth polishing: The current status

    PubMed Central

    Sawai, Madhuri Alankar; Bhardwaj, Ashu; Jafri, Zeba; Sultan, Nishat; Daing, Anika

    2015-01-01

    Healthy teeth and gums make a person feel confident and fit. As people go about their daily routines and with different eating and drinking habits, the tooth enamel turns yellowish or gets stained. Polishing traditionally has been associated with the prophylaxis procedure in most dental practices, which patients know and expect. However, with overzealous use of polishing procedure, there is wearing of the superficial tooth structure. This would lead to more accumulation of local deposits. Also, it takes a long time for the formation of the fluoride-rich layer of the tooth again. Hence, now-a-days, polishing is not advised as a part of routine oral prophylaxis procedure but is done selectively based on the patients’ need. The article here, gives an insight on the different aspects of the polishing process along with the different methods and agents used for the same. PMID:26392683

  8. Biological restorations using tooth fragments.

    PubMed

    Busato, A L; Loguercio, A D; Barbosa, A N; Sanseverino, M do C; Macedo, R P; Baldissera, R A

    1998-02-01

    A "biological" restoration technique using dental fragments and adhesive materials is described. These fragments were obtained from extracted human teeth which had been previously sterilized and stored in a tooth bank. The advantages are: the use of extracted teeth as restorative material, esthetics, and treatment cost. The positive sensation of having back the missing tooth was the most mentioned comment among patients. The disadvantages are: the difficulty of obtaining teeth with the needed characteristics, problems of making an indirect restoration, matching the original color, and the non-acceptance by some patients who consider it strange to have other people's teeth placed in their mouths.

  9. Tooth staining effects of an alexidine mouthwash.

    PubMed

    Formicola, A J; Deasy, M J; Johnson, D H; Howe, E E

    1979-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the amount of tooth staining produced by an alexidine mouthrinse. One hundred and eighty subjects rinsed twice daily for 1 month with either 15 ml of alexidine (0.035%) or a placebo solution. Prior to the study, the subjects were classified according to their smoking, coffee and tea drinking habits and these factors were subsequently considered in the analysis of the stain scores. Additionally, the effects on staining of a prior prophylaxis and the use of a fluoridated toothpaste during the study were determined. Upon termination of the study, subjects utilizing the active mouthrinse manifested a greater degree of staining than placebo users. The amount and intensity of the stain due to alexidine were not influenced (increased) by smoking, tea or coffee drinking habits. A prior prophylaxis did not reduce the staining propensity of alexidine users. The method of scoring developed can be used to assess the degree of tooth staining induced by antiplaque agents.

  10. Decreased face primary motor cortex (face-M1) excitability induced by noxious stimulation of the rat molar tooth pulp is dependent on the functional integrity of medullary astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Pun, H; Awamleh, L; Lee, J-C; Avivi-Arber, L

    2016-03-01

    We have recently shown that application of the small-fiber excitant and inflammatory irritant mustard oil (MO) to the rat molar tooth pulp can decrease face-M1 excitability, but increase the excitability of trigeminal medullary dorsal horn (MDH) nociceptive neurons and that application of the astrocytic inhibitor methionine sulfoximine (MSO) to the face-M1 or MDH can attenuate the MO-induced changes. The present study aimed to determine whether medullary MSO application could modulate the MO-induced decreased face-M1 excitability. Under ketamine general anesthesia, electromyographic (EMG) electrodes were implanted into the right anterior digastric (RAD, jaw-opening muscle) of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. A microelectrode was positioned at a low-threshold (≤30 μA) site in the left face-M1. Then MO (n = 16) or control-solution (n = 16) was applied to the previously exposed molar tooth pulp, and intracortical microstimulation threshold intensities for evoking RAD EMG activities were monitored for 15 min. MSO (0.1 mM, n = 8) or phosphate-buffered saline (PBS, n = 8) was then applied to the MDH and RAD thresholds monitored every 15 min for 120 min. Statistics used ANOVA followed by post hoc Bonferroni as appropriate (p < 0.05). As compared to baseline, RAD thresholds significantly increased (i.e., decreased excitability) within 1 min (26.3 ± 7.9%, p = 0.007) and peaked at 15 min following pulpal MO application (49.9 ± 5.7%, p < 0.001) but not following control-solution. Following MSO (but not PBS) application to the medulla, RAD thresholds significantly decreased within 15 min (26.5 ± 3.0%, p = 0.05) and at 60 min approached 6.3 ± 2.4%, of baseline values (p = 0.1). These novel findings suggest that clinically related motor disturbances arising from dental pain may involve decreased face-M1 excitability that is modulated by medullary astrocytes.

  11. Biology of tooth replacement in amniotes

    PubMed Central

    Whitlock, John A; Richman, Joy M

    2013-01-01

    Tooth replacement is a common trait to most vertebrates, including mammals. Mammals, however, have lost the capacity for continuous tooth renewal seen in most other vertebrates, and typically have only 1–2 generations of teeth. Here, we review the mechanisms of tooth replacement in reptiles and mammals, and discuss in detail the current and historical theories on control of timing and pattern of tooth replacement and development. PMID:23788284

  12. Tooth separation: a risk-free procedure?

    PubMed

    Monini, André da Costa; Guimarães, Murilo de Sousa; Gandini Júnior, Luiz Gonzaga; Santos-Pinto, Lourdes; Hebling, Josimeri

    2012-09-01

    This article reports the case of a 12-year-old patient with tooth extrusion, pain, gingival bleeding, and localized periodontitis near the maxillary second premolar. Despite probing and radiographic examination, it was not possible to establish the etiology. Tooth extraction was indicated because of the severe tooth mobility and extrusion. Curettage of the tooth socket revealed a rubber separator. Preventive approaches are suggested to avoid iatrogenesis and legal problems.

  13. 21 CFR 872.3920 - Porcelain tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Porcelain tooth. 872.3920 Section 872.3920 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3920 Porcelain tooth. (a) Identification. A porcelain tooth is a prefabricated device made of porcelain powder for clinical use (§ 872.6660) intended for...

  14. 21 CFR 872.3920 - Porcelain tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Porcelain tooth. 872.3920 Section 872.3920 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3920 Porcelain tooth. (a) Identification. A porcelain tooth is a prefabricated device made of porcelain powder for clinical use (§ 872.6660) intended for...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3920 - Porcelain tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Porcelain tooth. 872.3920 Section 872.3920 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3920 Porcelain tooth. (a) Identification. A porcelain tooth is a prefabricated device made of porcelain powder for clinical use (§ 872.6660) intended for...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3920 - Porcelain tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Porcelain tooth. 872.3920 Section 872.3920 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3920 Porcelain tooth. (a) Identification. A porcelain tooth is a prefabricated device made of porcelain powder for clinical use (§ 872.6660) intended for...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3920 - Porcelain tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Porcelain tooth. 872.3920 Section 872.3920 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3920 Porcelain tooth. (a) Identification. A porcelain tooth is a prefabricated device made of porcelain powder for clinical use (§ 872.6660) intended for...

  18. Tooth Avulsion in the School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause-Parello, Cheryl A.

    2005-01-01

    Tooth avulsions occur when a tooth is displaced from its socket. Tooth avulsions are common dental injuries that may occur before, during, or after school. Therefore, it is essential that school nurses be well prepared to intervene when such a dental emergency arises. It is also imperative that school nurses and school personnel are fully equipped…

  19. A simple rule governs the evolution and development of hominin tooth size.

    PubMed

    Evans, Alistair R; Daly, E Susanne; Catlett, Kierstin K; Paul, Kathleen S; King, Stephen J; Skinner, Matthew M; Nesse, Hans P; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Townsend, Grant C; Schwartz, Gary T; Jernvall, Jukka

    2016-02-25

    The variation in molar tooth size in humans and our closest relatives (hominins) has strongly influenced our view of human evolution. The reduction in overall size and disproportionate decrease in third molar size have been noted for over a century, and have been attributed to reduced selection for large dentitions owing to changes in diet or the acquisition of cooking. The systematic pattern of size variation along the tooth row has been described as a 'morphogenetic gradient' in mammal, and more specifically hominin, teeth since Butler and Dahlberg. However, the underlying controls of tooth size have not been well understood, with hypotheses ranging from morphogenetic fields to the clone theory. In this study we address the following question: are there rules that govern how hominin tooth size evolves? Here we propose that the inhibitory cascade, an activator-inhibitor mechanism that affects relative tooth size in mammals, produces the default pattern of tooth sizes for all lower primary postcanine teeth (deciduous premolars and permanent molars) in hominins. This configuration is also equivalent to a morphogenetic gradient, finally pointing to a mechanism that can generate this gradient. The pattern of tooth size remains constant with absolute size in australopiths (including Ardipithecus, Australopithecus and Paranthropus). However, in species of Homo, including modern humans, there is a tight link between tooth proportions and absolute size such that a single developmental parameter can explain both the relative and absolute sizes of primary postcanine teeth. On the basis of the relationship of inhibitory cascade patterning with size, we can use the size at one tooth position to predict the sizes of the remaining four primary postcanine teeth in the row for hominins. Our study provides a development-based expectation to examine the evolution of the unique proportions of human teeth.

  20. Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is a group of genetic nerve disorders. It is named after the three doctors who first identified it. ... a nerve biopsy. There is no cure. The disease can be so mild you don't realize ...

  1. Stem cells for tooth engineering.

    PubMed

    Bluteau, G; Luder, H U; De Bari, C; Mitsiadis, T A

    2008-07-31

    Tooth development results from sequential and reciprocal interactions between the oral epithelium and the underlying neural crest-derived mesenchyme. The generation of dental structures and/or entire teeth in the laboratory depends upon the manipulation of stem cells and requires a synergy of all cellular and molecular events that finally lead to the formation of tooth-specific hard tissues, dentin and enamel. Although mesenchymal stem cells from different origins have been extensively studied in their capacity to form dentin in vitro, information is not yet available concerning the use of epithelial stem cells. The odontogenic potential resides in the oral epithelium and thus epithelial stem cells are necessary for both the initiation of tooth formation and enamel matrix production. This review focuses on the different sources of stem cells that have been used for making teeth in vitro and their relative efficiency. Embryonic, post-natal or even adult stem cells were assessed and proved to possess an enormous regenerative potential, but their application in dental practice is still problematic and limited due to various parameters that are not yet under control such as the high risk of rejection, cell behaviour, long tooth eruption period, appropriate crown morphology and suitable colour. Nevertheless, the development of biological approaches for dental reconstruction using stem cells is promising and remains one of the greatest challenges in the dental field for the years to come.

  2. Wnt/beta-catenin signaling plays an essential role in activation of odontogenic mesenchyme during early tooth development.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianquan; Lan, Yu; Baek, Jin-A; Gao, Yang; Jiang, Rulang

    2009-10-01

    Classical tissue recombination studies demonstrated that initiation of tooth development depends on activation of odontogenic potential in the mesenchyme by signals from the presumptive dental epithelium. Although several members of the Wnt family of signaling molecules are expressed in the presumptive dental epithelium at the beginning of tooth initiation, whether Wnt signaling is directly involved in the activation of the odontogenic mesenchyme has not been characterized. In this report, we show that tissue-specific inactivation of beta-catenin, a central component of the canonical Wnt signaling pathway, in the developing tooth mesenchyme caused tooth developmental arrest at the bud stage in mice. We show that mesenchymal beta-catenin function is required for expression of Lef1 and Fgf3 in the developing tooth mesenchyme and for induction of primary enamel knot in the developing tooth epithelium. Expression of Msx1 and Pax9, two essential tooth mesenchyme transcription factors downstream of Bmp and Fgf signaling, respectively, were not altered in the absence of beta-catenin in the tooth mesenchyme. Moreover, we found that constitutive stabilization of beta-catenin in the developing palatal mesenchyme induced aberrant palatal epithelial invaginations that resembled early tooth buds both morphologically and in epithelial molecular marker expression, but without activating expression of Msx1 and Pax9 in the mesenchyme. Together, these results indicate that activation of the mesenchymal odontogenic program during early tooth development requires concerted actions of Bmp, Fgf and Wnt signaling from the presumptive dental epithelium to the mesenchyme.

  3. Tooth-Bleaching: A Review of the Efficacy and Adverse Effects of Various Tooth Whitening Products.

    PubMed

    Majeed, Abdul; Farooq, Imran; Grobler, Sias R; Rossouw, R J

    2015-12-01

    Tooth bleaching (whitening) is one of the most common and inexpensive method for treating discolouration of teeth. Dental aesthetics, especially tooth colour, is of great importance to majority of the people; and discolouration of even a single tooth can negatively influence the quality of life. Therefore, a review of the literature was carried out (limited to aesthetic tooth-bleaching) to provide a broad overview of the efficacy and adverse effects of various tooth whitening products on soft and hard oral tissues.

  4. [Tooth decay complications incidence].

    PubMed

    Petrikas, A Zh; Zakharova, E L; Ol'khovskaia, E B; Chestnykh, E V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to assess the quality of endodontic therapy and estimate further treatment needs. 900 orthopantomograms of 442 men and 458 women (aged 18-70) without any clinical manifestations of endodontic pathology were examined for endodontic treatment. 1,170 patients (41%) had additional intraoral radiographs taken for assessment of their periapical status. 2,852 (13.8%) of the 20,724 teeth examined had periapical lesions and/or root fillings. 2,503 of the 2,853 teeth were endodontically treated, only 1,011 of them (40.4%) having all their root canals obturated. 612 (41.3%) of the 1,492 (59.6%) teeth with inadequate root canal fillings hat a healthy apical periodontium. Of the 1,229 teeth to be endodontically treated 349 teeth required primary treatment, 880 required retreatment.

  5. COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY OF TOOTH RESORPTION IN CATS.

    PubMed

    Lang, Linda G; Wilkinson, Thomas E; White, Tammy L; Farnsworth, Raelynn K; Potter, Kathleen A

    2016-09-01

    Tooth resorption is the most common dental disease in cats and can be a source of oral pain. The current clinical gold standard for diagnosis includes a combination of oral exam and dental radiography, however early lesions are not always detected. Computed tomography (CT) of the skull, including the dental arches, is a commonly performed diagnostic procedure, however the appearance of tooth resorption on CT and the diagnostic ability of CT to detect tooth resorption have not been evaluated. The purpose of this prospective, descriptive, diagnostic accuracy study was to characterize the CT appearance of tooth resorption in a sample of affected cats and to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of CT for tooth resorption compared to the clinical gold standard of oral exam and intraoral dental radiography. Twenty-eight cat cadaver specimens were recruited for inclusion. Each specimen was evaluated using oral exam, intraoral dental radiography, and computed tomography (four different slice thicknesses). Each tooth was evaluated for the presence or absence of tooth resorption. Teeth with lesions and a subset of normal teeth were evaluated with histopathology. On CT, tooth resorption appeared as irregularly marginated hypoattenuating defects in the mineral attenuating tooth components, most commonly involving the root or cementoenamel junction. Sensitivity for CT detection of tooth resorption was fair to poor (42.2-57.7%) and specificity was good to excellent (92.8-96.3%). Findings from this study indicated that CT has high specificity but low sensitivity for detection of tooth resorption in cats.

  6. Unicuspid and bicuspid tooth crown formation in squamates.

    PubMed

    Handrigan, Gregory R; Richman, Joy M

    2011-12-15

    The molecular and developmental factors that regulate tooth morphogenesis in nonmammalian species, such as snakes and lizards, have received relatively little attention compared to mammals. Here we describe the development of unicuspid and bicuspid teeth in squamate species. The simple, cone-shaped tooth crown of the bearded dragon and ball python is established at cap stage and fixed in shape by the differentiation of cells and the secretion of dental matrices. Enamel production, as demonstrated by amelogenin expression, occurs relatively earlier in squamate teeth than in mouse molars. We suggest that the early differentiation in squamate unicuspid teeth at cap stage correlates with a more rudimentary tooth crown shape. The leopard gecko can form a bicuspid tooth crown despite the early onset of differentiation. Cusp formation in the gecko does not occur by the folding of the inner enamel epithelium, as in the mouse molar, but by the differential secretion of enamel. Ameloblasts forming the enamel epithelial bulge, a central swelling of cells in the inner enamel epithelium, secrete amelogenin at cap stage, but cease to do so by bell stage. Meanwhile, other ameloblasts in the inner enamel epithelium continue to secrete enamel, forming cusp tips on either side of the bulge. Bulge cells specifically express the gene Bmp2, which we suggest serves as a pro-differentiation signal for cells of the gecko enamel organ. In this regard, the enamel epithelial bulge of the gecko may be more functionally analogous to the secondary enamel knot of mammals than the primary enamel knot.

  7. Towards tooth friendly soft drinks.

    PubMed

    Kolahi, Jafar; Fazilati, Mohamad; Kadivar, Mahdi

    2009-10-01

    Most soft drinks contain high concentration of simple carbohydrates and have a pH of 3 or even lower. Therefore, they are harmful for tooth structure. A tooth friendly soft drink (T.F.S.D) should have the following characteristics and elements; fluoride (approximately 1 ppm), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (2%), xylitol (4-6g/serving), tea polyphenols (2-4 mg/ml), cranberry extract (250 mg/ml of the flavonoids quercetin and myricetin), sugar free, pH close to 5.5 and super oxygenation (240,000 ppm) vs. carbonation. T.F.S.D can be packaged in a container which gaseous oxygen is dissolved in a liquid in the form of bubbles. However, looking at opportunities for so-called sophisticated soft drinks, T.F.S.D will be an example for a functional and health oriented soft drink.

  8. Tooth sensitivity: mechanisms and management.

    PubMed

    Markowitz, K

    1993-08-01

    Tooth sensitivity is a common complaint encountered in clinical practice. Exposed superficial dentin is free of nerve endings, yet sensitive. Experimental evidence indicates that stimuli, such as probing the dentin surface and air blasts, induce fluid movements in the dentinal tubules and these fluid movements, in turn, activate the intradental nerves. The condition of the dentin surface is critically important in allowing this process. In addition, the internal environment of the pulp may influence nerve excitability. Therapies for tooth sensitivity include both agents that obstruct the dentinal tubules and agents that can decrease the excitability of the intradental nerves. The exact treatment used depends on the etiology of the individual's problem and the extent of dentinal tissue damage.

  9. Pink tooth phenomenon: an enigma?

    PubMed

    Thapar, Raveena; Choudhry, Swati; Sinha, Anju; Bali, Ruchita; Shukla, Deepika

    2013-10-01

    The appearance of pink teeth is a common phenomenon which has been observed after death in certain circumstances on post-mortem examination. Extra fibrinolytic activity of pulp facilitates rapid breakdown of red blood cells and diffusion of hemoglobin and its derivatives to flow into dentine. We reviewed various studies on pink tooth phenomenon which have stated the various factors that lead to pink tooth formation. Most of the authors have stressed that post-mortem pink teeth must not be considered as a reliable odontological parameter for determining cause of death. No correlation has been found between the occurrence of pink teeth and the cause of death but condition of the surroundings certainly plays an important role in the development of this phenomenon. This paper reviews the factors and conditions responsible for formation of pink teeth. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  10. Optical spectroscopy and tooth decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, P.; De, T.; Singh, R.

    2005-11-01

    Optical spectroscopy in the ultraviolet, visible and mid-infrared spectral regions has been used to discriminate between healthy and diseased teeth of patients in the age range 15-75 years. Spectral scans of absorbance versus wavenumber and fluorescence intensity versus wavelength have been recorded and investigated for caries and periodontal disease. Such optical diagnostics can prove very useful in the early detection and treatment of tooth decay.

  11. Epithelial histogenesis during tooth development.

    PubMed

    Lesot, H; Brook, A H

    2009-12-01

    This paper reviews the current understanding of the progressive changes mediating dental epithelial histogenesis as a basis for future collaborative studies. Tooth development involves morphogenesis, epithelial histogenesis and cell differentiation. The consecutive morphological stages of lamina, bud, cap and bell are also characterized by changes in epithelial histogenesis. Differential cell proliferation rates, apoptosis, and alterations in adhesion and shape lead to the positioning of groups of cells with different functions. During tooth histo-morphogenesis changes occur in basement membrane composition, expression of signalling molecules and the localization of cell surface components. Cell positional identity may be related to cell history. Another important parameter is cell plasticity. Independently of signalling molecules, which play a major role in inducing or modulating specific steps, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions regulate the plasticity/rigidity of particular domains of the enamel organ. This involves specifying in space the differential growth and influences the progressive tooth morphogenesis by shaping the epithelial-mesenchymal junction. Deposition of a mineralized matrix determines the final shape of the crown. All data reviewed in this paper were investigated in the mouse.

  12. Mechanical modelling of tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Karme, Aleksis; Rannikko, Janina; Kallonen, Aki; Clauss, Marcus; Fortelius, Mikael

    2016-07-01

    Different diets wear teeth in different ways and generate distinguishable wear and microwear patterns that have long been the basis of palaeodiet reconstructions. Little experimental research has been performed to study them together. Here, we show that an artificial mechanical masticator, a chewing machine, occluding real horse teeth in continuous simulated chewing (of 100 000 chewing cycles) is capable of replicating microscopic wear features and gross wear on teeth that resemble wear in specimens collected from nature. Simulating pure attrition (chewing without food) and four plant material diets of different abrasives content (at n = 5 tooth pairs per group), we detected differences in microscopic wear features by stereomicroscopy of the chewing surface in the number and quality of pits and scratches that were not always as expected. Using computed tomography scanning in one tooth per diet, absolute wear was quantified as the mean height change after the simulated chewing. Absolute wear increased with diet abrasiveness, originating from phytoliths and grit. In combination, our findings highlight that differences in actual dental tissue loss can occur at similar microwear patterns, cautioning against a direct transformation of microwear results into predictions about diet or tooth wear rate. © 2016 The Author(s).

  13. Biomarkers in orthodontic tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A Anand; Saravanan, K; Kohila, K; Kumar, S Sathesh

    2015-08-01

    Tooth movement by orthodontic treatment is characterized by remodeling changes in the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and gingiva. A reflection of these phenomenons can be found in the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) of moving teeth, with significant elevations in the concentrations of its components like, cytokines, neurotransmitters, growth Factors, and a arachidonic acid metabolites. GCF arises at the gingival margin and can be described as a transudate or an exudate. Several studies have focused on the composition of GCF and the changes that occur during orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). GCF component analysis is a non-invasive method for studying the cellular response of the underlying periodontium. Clinically, GCF can be easily collected using platinum loops, filter paper strips, gingival washings, and micropipettes. A number of GCF biomarkers involve in bone remodeling during OTM. The data suggest that knowledge of all the biomarkers present in the GCF that can be used to mark the changes in tooth that is undergoing orthodontic treatment may be of clinical usefulness leading to proper choice of mechanical stress to improve and to shorten treatment time and avoid side effects.

  14. Molecular Genetics of Supernumerary Tooth Formation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu-Ping; Fan, Jiabing

    2011-01-01

    Summary Despite advances in the knowledge of tooth morphogenesis and differentiation, relatively little is known about the aetiology and molecular mechanisms underlying supernumerary tooth formation. A small number of supernumerary teeth may be a common developmental dental anomaly, while multiple supernumerary teeth usually have a genetic component and they are sometimes thought to represent a partial third dentition in humans. Mice, which are commonly used for studying tooth development, only exhibit one dentition, with very few mouse models exhibiting supernumerary teeth similar to those in humans. Inactivation of Apc or forced activation of Wnt/β(catenin signalling results in multiple supernumerary tooth formation in both humans and in mice, but the key genes in these pathways are not very clear. Analysis of other model systems with continuous tooth replacement or secondary tooth formation, such as fish, snake, lizard, and ferret, is providing insights into the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying succesional tooth development, and will assist in the studies on supernumerary tooth formation in humans. This information, together with the advances in stem cell biology and tissue engineering, will pave ways for the tooth regeneration and tooth bioengineering. PMID:21309064

  15. Multiphoton microscopy imaging of developing tooth germs.

    PubMed

    Pan, Pei-Yu; Chen, Rung-Shu; Ting, Chih-Liang; Chen, Wei-Liang; Dong, Chen-Yuan; Chen, Min-Huey

    2014-01-01

    Traditionally, tooth germ is observed by histological investigation with hematoxylin and eosin stain and information may loss during the process. The purpose of this study is to use multiphoton laser fluorescence microscopy to observe the developing tooth germs of mice for building up the database of the images of tooth germs and compare with those from conventional histological analysis. Tooth germs were isolated from embryonic and newborn mice with age of Embryonic Day 14.5 and Postnatal Days 1, 3, 5, and 7. Comparison of the images of tooth germ sections in multiphoton microscopy with the images of histology was performed for investigating the molar tooth germs. It was found that various signals arose from different structures of tooth germs. Pre-dentin and dentin have strong second-harmonic generation signals, while ameloblasts and enamel tissues were shown with strong autofluorescence signals. In this study, a novel multiphoton microscopy database of images from developing tooth germs in mice was set up. We confirmed that multiphoton laser microscopy is a powerful tool for investigating the development of tooth germ and is worthy for further application in the study of tooth regeneration. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. [Assessment of tooth bleaching efficacy with spectrophotometer].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenhao; Liu, Chang; Pan, Jie

    2014-06-01

    To analyze the changes in CIE L*, a*, and b* at cervical, body, and incisal sites after tooth bleaching by using a spectrophotometer. Sixty-seven intact and healthy maxillary central incisors were in-vestigated. These incisors were darker than A3 according to the Vita Classical shade guide. The CIE tooth shade parameters L*, a*, and b* were simultaneously recorded at three tooth areas (cervical, body, and incisal) with a spectrophotometer before and after tooth bleaching (35%H2O2 coordinating with Beyond whitening accelerator irradiating). The shade dif-ferential (DeltaE) was calculated. ANOVA, paired t-test, and Pearson correlation analysis were used for data analysis. The efficacy rates of tooth bleaching were satisfactory, with 86.6%, 86.6%, and 85.1% in the cervical, body, and incisal sites, respectively. The average values of DeltaE were 5.09, 4.44, and 4.40 in the cervical, body, and incisal sites. Tooth bleaching significantly increased L* and significantly decreased a* and b* in all tooth areas (P < 0.01). The decreasing range of Deltab* was more than the increasing range of DeltaL* at the cervical site; opposite results were observed at the incisal site. A positive correlation was detected between baseline b* and DeltaE. The spectrophotometer could objectively evaluate the whitening effect of tooth bleaching at the different tooth sites. The tooth bleaching system (35%H202 coordinating with Beyond whitening accelerator irradiating) exerts powerful bleaching actions in most of the tooth areas investigated. The order of tooth bleaching effectiveness is cervicalbody>incisal. Yellow coloration is decreased mainly at the cervical site, and brightness was increased mostly at theincisal site. The effectiveness of tooth bleaching increases as the baseline b* value increases.

  17. Automating digital leaf measurement: the tooth, the whole tooth, and nothing but the tooth.

    PubMed

    Corney, David P A; Tang, H Lilian; Clark, Jonathan Y; Hu, Yin; Jin, Jing

    2012-01-01

    Many species of plants produce leaves with distinct teeth around their margins. The presence and nature of these teeth can often help botanists to identify species. Moreover, it has long been known that more species native to colder regions have teeth than species native to warmer regions. It has therefore been suggested that fossilized remains of leaves can be used as a proxy for ancient climate reconstruction. Similar studies on living plants can help our understanding of the relationships. The required analysis of leaves typically involves considerable manual effort, which in practice limits the number of leaves that are analyzed, potentially reducing the power of the results. In this work, we describe a novel algorithm to automate the marginal tooth analysis of leaves found in digital images. We demonstrate our methods on a large set of images of whole herbarium specimens collected from Tilia trees (also known as lime, linden or basswood). We chose the genus Tilia as its constituent species have toothed leaves of varied size and shape. In a previous study we extracted c.1600 leaves automatically from a set of c.1100 images. Our new algorithm locates teeth on the margins of such leaves and extracts features such as each tooth's area, perimeter and internal angles, as well as counting them. We evaluate an implementation of our algorithm's performance against a manually analyzed subset of the images. We found that the algorithm achieves an accuracy of 85% for counting teeth and 75% for estimating tooth area. We also demonstrate that the automatically extracted features are sufficient to identify different species of Tilia using a simple linear discriminant analysis, and that the features relating to teeth are the most useful.

  18. Comparative tooth whitening and extrinsic tooth stain removal efficacy of two tooth whitening dentifrices: six-week clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Soparkar, Pramod; Rustogi, Kedar; Zhang, Yun Po; Petrone, Margaret E; DeVizio, William; Proskin, Howard M

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this six-week, examiner-blind clinical study was to assess the tooth whitening and extrinsic tooth stain removal efficacy of a new dentifrice delivering 1.0% hydrogen peroxide, 0.243% sodium fluoride, and sodium tripolyphosphate in a high-cleaning silica base (Test Dentifrice), relative to that of commercially available hexametaphosphate-containing whitening dentifrice (Positive Control Dentifrice). Following a baseline oral soft tissue examination and scoring of extrinsic tooth stain and tooth shade, qualifying adult male and female subjects from the Harrisburg, Pennsylvania area were randomized into either the Test or Positive Control Dentifrice group. The two groups were balanced for gender, extrinsic tooth stain, and tooth shade scores. All subjects were provided their assigned dentifrice and a soft-bristled adult toothbrush for home use. Subjects were instructed to brush their teeth for two minutes twice daily (morning and evening) using only the dentifrice provided, and to refrain from using any other oral hygiene products for the entire six weeks of the study. There were no restrictions regarding diet or smoking habits during the course of the study. Oral soft tissue, extrinsic tooth stain, and tooth shade assessments for each subject were repeated after two and six weeks of product use. All statistical tests were two sided and employed a level of significance of alpha = 0.05. Fifty-six (56) subjects complied with the protocol and completed the entire study. Compared to baseline at both the two- and six-week examinations, the Test Dentifrice group had statistically significant reductions in extrinsic tooth stain area and intensity, and statistically significant mean shade rank reductions, with a six-week reduction of 4.81. In contrast, at six weeks, the Positive Control dentifrice had a statistically significant increase in tooth stain area, a non-significant increase in tooth stain intensity, and a statistically significant mean 1.40 shade

  19. Endodontic management of a four rooted retained primary maxillary second molar

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Naveen

    2013-01-01

    The presence of accessory roots is rare in the primary dentition. Complete knowledge and understanding of tooth anatomy is essential to carry out high quality dental treatment with excellent outcome. In addition, the persistent primary tooth and its missing permanent successor in the dental arch pose several hurdles in front of the clinician due to doubtful survival of primary tooth. In this paper, highlights the root canal treatment of a rarest four rooted retained primary maxillary second molar. PMID:24347898

  20. Test Tube Tooth: The Next Big Thing

    PubMed Central

    Tahir, Mohammed; Yadav, Harsh; Sureka, Rakshit; Garg, Aarti

    2016-01-01

    Unlike some vertebrates and fishes, humans do not have the capacity for tooth regeneration after the loss of permanent teeth. Although artificial replacement with removable dentures, fixed prosthesis and implants is possible through advances in the field of prosthetic dentistry, it would be ideal to recreate a third set of natural teeth to replace lost dentition. For many years now, researchers in the field of tissue engineering have been trying to bioengineer dental tissues as well as whole teeth. In order to attain a whole tooth through dental engineering, that has the same or nearly same biological, mechanical and physical properties of a natural tooth, it’s necessary to deal with all the cells and tissues which are concerned with the formation, maintenance and repair of the tooth. In this article we review the steps involved in odontogenesis or organogenesis of a tooth and progress in the bioengineering of a whole tooth. PMID:27504430

  1. Tooth colour: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    To review current knowledge with respect to tooth colour and its measurement. 'Medline' database for the period 1966 to the present day and 'ISI Web of Science' database for the period 1974 to the present day were searched electronically with key words tooth, teeth, colour and color. The colour and appearance of teeth is a complex phenomenon, with many factors such as lighting conditions, translucency, opacity, light scattering, gloss and the human eye and brain influencing the overall perception of tooth colour. The measurement of tooth colour is possible via a number of methods including visual assessment with shade guides, spectrophotometry, colourimetry and computer analysis of digital images. These methods have successfully been used to measure longitudinal tooth colour changes when the dentition has undergone tooth whitening procedures.

  2. Mechanisms of Tooth Eruption and Orthodontic Tooth Movement

    PubMed Central

    Wise, G.E.; King, G.J.

    2008-01-01

    Teeth move through alveolar bone, whether through the normal process of tooth eruption or by strains generated by orthodontic appliances. Both eruption and orthodontics accomplish this feat through similar fundamental biological processes, osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis, but there are differences that make their mechanisms unique. A better appreciation of the molecular and cellular events that regulate osteoclastogenesis and osteogenesis in eruption and orthodontics is not only central to our understanding of how these processes occur, but also is needed for ultimate development of the means to control them. Possible future studies in these areas are also discussed, with particular emphasis on translation of fundamental knowledge to improve dental treatments. PMID:18434571

  3. Practical whole-tooth restoration utilizing autologous bioengineered tooth germ transplantation in a postnatal canine model

    PubMed Central

    Ono, Mitsuaki; Oshima, Masamitsu; Ogawa, Miho; Sonoyama, Wataru; Hara, Emilio Satoshi; Oida, Yasutaka; Shinkawa, Shigehiko; Nakajima, Ryu; Mine, Atsushi; Hayano, Satoru; Fukumoto, Satoshi; Kasugai, Shohei; Yamaguchi, Akira; Tsuji, Takashi; Kuboki, Takuo

    2017-01-01

    Whole-organ regeneration has great potential for the replacement of dysfunctional organs through the reconstruction of a fully functional bioengineered organ using three-dimensional cell manipulation in vitro. Recently, many basic studies of whole-tooth replacement using three-dimensional cell manipulation have been conducted in a mouse model. Further evidence of the practical application to human medicine is required to demonstrate tooth restoration by reconstructing bioengineered tooth germ using a postnatal large-animal model. Herein, we demonstrate functional tooth restoration through the autologous transplantation of bioengineered tooth germ in a postnatal canine model. The bioengineered tooth, which was reconstructed using permanent tooth germ cells, erupted into the jawbone after autologous transplantation and achieved physiological function equivalent to that of a natural tooth. This study represents a substantial advancement in whole-organ replacement therapy through the transplantation of bioengineered organ germ as a practical model for future clinical regenerative medicine. PMID:28300208

  4. Family income and tooth decay in US children: does the association change with age?

    PubMed

    Bernabé, E; Delgado-Angulo, E K; Murasko, J E; Marcenes, W

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether the association of family income with tooth decay changes with age among children in the United States. A second objective was to explore the role of access to dental health care services in explaining the interrelationships between family income, child age and tooth decay. Data from 7,491 2- to 15-year-old children who participated in the 1999-2004 National and Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were analyzed. The association of family income with the prevalence of tooth decay in primary, permanent and primary or permanent teeth was first estimated in logistic regression models with all children, and then, separately in four age groups that reflect the development of the dentition (2-5, 6-8, 9-11 and 12-15 years, respectively). Findings showed that the income gradient in tooth decay attenuated significantly in 9- to 11-year-olds only to re-emerge in 12- to 15-year-olds. The age profile of the income gradient in tooth decay was not accounted for by a diverse set of family and child characteristics. This is the first study providing some evidence for age variations in the income gradient in tooth decay among children in the United States. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Tooth fragment reattachment: An esthetic, biological restoration

    PubMed Central

    Choudhary, Ajay; Garg, Rakesh; Bhalla, Anindya; Khatri, Rohit Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Coronal fractures of the anterior teeth are a common form of dental trauma. If the original tooth fragment is retained following fracture, reattachment of the fractured fragment to the remaining tooth can provide better and long lasting esthetics, improved function, a positive psychological response, and is a faster and less complicated procedure. This paper reports on coronal tooth fracture case that was successfully treated using adhesive reattachment of fractured fragment and post placement. PMID:25810662

  6. The doppelganger tooth: A diagnostic conundrum!

    PubMed Central

    Dhawan, Preeti; Gaurav, Vivek; Singh, Aditi

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in tooth morphology and number are not uncommon. However, an exact clone of a normal tooth is a recondite clinical finding. Presence of supplementary teeth is mostly noticed in maxillary anterior, molar or premolar region, followed by mandibular premolar region in descending order of its site of occurrence. Supplemental tooth in mandibular anterior has a low prevalence of 0.01%. This paper reports one such rare case of nonsyndromic incisive jumeaux in mandibular anterior region during mixed dentition period. PMID:26097343

  7. The doppelganger tooth: A diagnostic conundrum!

    PubMed

    Dhawan, Preeti; Gaurav, Vivek; Singh, Aditi

    2015-01-01

    Abnormalities in tooth morphology and number are not uncommon. However, an exact clone of a normal tooth is a recondite clinical finding. Presence of supplementary teeth is mostly noticed in maxillary anterior, molar or premolar region, followed by mandibular premolar region in descending order of its site of occurrence. Supplemental tooth in mandibular anterior has a low prevalence of 0.01%. This paper reports one such rare case of nonsyndromic incisive jumeaux in mandibular anterior region during mixed dentition period.

  8. Clinico-pathological aspects of a residual natal tooth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tsubone, Hanako; Onishi, Tomoyuki; Hayashibara, Tetsuyuki; Sobue, Shizuo; Ooshima, Takashi

    2002-04-01

    A Japanese girl was referred to Osaka University Dental Hospital for examination of a tooth-like structure that had erupted following spontaneous exfoliation of a natal tooth in the lower left primary central incisor region. The structure had erupted at 6 months of age, and radiographic and clinical examination showed composition of pulp and dentin, but no enamel. On histological examination, the majority of the dentin area had a tubular dentin-like appearance, while the outer area of the root appeared to be composed of an osteodentin-like substance. Most of the dentin was covered by cementum. These findings suggest that the structure had originated from a developing remnant of the extracted natal tooth, which must have remained in the gingival tissues. We termed this calcified structure a residual natal tooth.

  9. Tooth brushing inhibits oral bacteria in dogs.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Kotaro; Kijima, Saku; Nonaka, Chie; Yamazoe, Kazuaki

    2015-10-01

    In this study, scaling, polishing and daily tooth brushing were performed in 20 beagle dogs, and the number of oral bacteria was determined using a bacterial counter. The dogs were randomized into the scaling (S), scaling + polishing (SP), scaling + tooth daily brushing (SB) and scaling + polishing + tooth daily brushing (SPB) groups. Samples were collected from the buccal surface of the maxillary fourth premolars of the dogs immediately after scaling and every week thereafter from weeks 1 to 8. Throughout the study, the number of bacteria was significantly lower in the SB and SPB groups compared with the S group. The findings suggest that daily tooth brushing inhibited oral bacterial growth in the dogs.

  10. Review of the Mechanism of Tooth Whitening.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Ran; Wertz, Philip W

    2015-01-01

    This review integrated the current literature on diffusion of whitening agents, their interactions with stain molecules, and changes to the surface, with the aim of establishing a better understanding of the mechanism underlying tooth whitening. An electronic PubMed database search, with combinations of the following terms was performed: Tooth Bleaching, Tooth Bleaching Agent, Hydrogen Peroxide, Pharmacokinetics, Tooth Permeability, Oxidation-Reduction, Tooth Demineralization, and Color. Tooth whitening is a dynamic process that involves diffusion of the whitening material to interact with stain molecules and also involves micromorphologic alterations on the surface and changes within the tooth that affect its optical properties. The interaction seems not to be limited to stain molecules, but rather an affinity-based interaction process that also accompanies effects on sound enamel and dentin structures. This review underlines that supervision by dental health professionals as recommended by the American Dental Association (ADA) Council on Scientific Affairs is critical to achieving a successful and safe whitening outcome. The mechanism that underlies tooth whitening with the use of peroxide-based materials is a complex phenomenon encompassing diffusion, interaction, and surfaces changes within the tooth. Therefore, supervision by dental health professionals as recommended by the ADA Council on Scientific Affairs is imperative to achieve a successful and safe whitening outcome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Tooth erosion caused by chewing aspirin.

    PubMed

    Grace, Edward G; Sarlani, Eleni; Kaplan, Sarit

    2004-07-01

    Although the effects of aspirin on the oral mucosa are well-documented, there is little documentation of the effects of aspirin-chewing on the enamel and dentin. The authors present two cases of patients with damage to their tooth enamel and dentin. Both patients had similiar symptoms, but had not been told that chewing aspirin could harm tooth structure. The authors identify clinical signs and symptoms and discuss ways to prevent erosion. The common factor in these cases is that aspirin was the only possible cause of the tooth erosion. Dentists should be aware of the effects of aspirin-chewing on tooth structure and advise their patients accordingly.

  12. Rehydration of a reattached fractured tooth fragment after prolonged dehydration.

    PubMed

    Arhun, Neslihan; Onay, Emel Olga; Ungor, Mete

    2012-01-01

    Crown fractures of the anterior teeth are one of the most common outcomes of trauma to the orofacial region. The reattachment of dental fragments is a conservative treatment and should be considered a primary treatment choice in the restoration of anterior tooth fractures. This article presents a clinical technique for the restoration of a fractured maxillary lateral incisor by reattaching the tooth fragment that was kept in dry conditions for five days with the aid of adhesive dentistry. The esthetic compromise of white color (due to excessive dehydration of the segment) was reconciled after one month of service in the mouth by regaining the natural color by rehydration. The one-year clinical evaluation revealed a successful outcome for this technique, and the patient was pleased with the esthetic results of the conservative treatment modality.

  13. The randomized shortened dental arch study: tooth loss.

    PubMed

    Walter, M H; Weber, A; Marré, B; Gitt, I; Gerss, J; Hannak, W; Hartmann, S; Heydecke, G; Huppertz, J; Jahn, F; Ludwig, A; Mundt, T; Kern, M; Klein, V; Pospiech, P; Stumbaum, M; Wolfart, S; Wöstmann, B; Busche, E; Böning, K; Luthardt, R G

    2010-08-01

    The evidence concerning the management of shortened dental arch (SDA) cases is sparse. This multi-center study was aimed at generating data on outcomes and survival rates for two common treatments, removable dental prostheses (RDP) for molar replacement or no replacement (SDA). The hypothesis was that the treatments lead to different incidences of tooth loss. We included 215 patients with complete molar loss in one jaw. Molars were either replaced by RDP or not replaced, according to the SDA concept. First tooth loss after treatment was the primary outcome measure. This event occurred in 13 patients in the RDP group and nine patients in the SDA group. The respective Kaplan-Meier survival rates at 38 months were 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74-0.91) in the RDP group and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.78-0.95) in the SDA group, the difference being non-significant.

  14. Molariform Mesiodens in Primary Dentition

    PubMed Central

    Mangalekar, Sachin B.; Ahmed, Tajammul; Zakirulla, M.; Shivappa, Halawar Sangmesh; Bheemappa, F. B.; Yavagal, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Mesiodens is a midline supernumerary tooth commonly seen in the maxillary arch, and incidence of molariform mesiodens in the maxillary midline is rare in permanent dentition and extremely uncommon in primary dentition. A midline supernumerary tooth in the primary dentition can cause ectopic or delayed eruption of permanent central incisors which will further alter occlusion and may compromise esthetics and formation of dentigerous cysts. This paper reports a rare case of the presence of a molariform mesiodens in the primary dentition. On clinical and radiographic examination, flaring of the primary central incisors was seen, with a molariform mesiodens consisting of multiple lobes or tubercles on the occlusal surface with the well-formed root. The treatment plan consisted of the extraction of the supernumerary tooth and regular observation of permanent central incisors for proper eruption and alignment. PMID:23606994

  15. Molariform mesiodens in primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Mangalekar, Sachin B; Ahmed, Tajammul; Zakirulla, M; Shivappa, Halawar Sangmesh; Bheemappa, F B; Yavagal, Chandrashekar

    2013-01-01

    Mesiodens is a midline supernumerary tooth commonly seen in the maxillary arch, and incidence of molariform mesiodens in the maxillary midline is rare in permanent dentition and extremely uncommon in primary dentition. A midline supernumerary tooth in the primary dentition can cause ectopic or delayed eruption of permanent central incisors which will further alter occlusion and may compromise esthetics and formation of dentigerous cysts. This paper reports a rare case of the presence of a molariform mesiodens in the primary dentition. On clinical and radiographic examination, flaring of the primary central incisors was seen, with a molariform mesiodens consisting of multiple lobes or tubercles on the occlusal surface with the well-formed root. The treatment plan consisted of the extraction of the supernumerary tooth and regular observation of permanent central incisors for proper eruption and alignment.

  16. Proteoglycans and orthodontic tooth movement.

    PubMed

    Waddington, R J; Embery, G

    2001-12-01

    Proteoglycans represent an important and diverse family of extracellular matrix components within the connective tissues of the periodontium. This review focuses on the function and metabolism of the various proteoglycans in periodontal tissues, such as alveolar bone and periodontal ligament, and considers their potential fate in response to an orthodontic force. Such considerations provide an important background in evaluating the potential for proteoglycan metabolites, alongside other connective tissue metabolites, as biomarkers for assessing the deep-seated metabolic changes and as a diagnostic tool in monitoring orthodontic tooth movement.

  17. Esthesioneuroblastoma presenting as tooth pain.

    PubMed

    Devi, Parvathi; Bhavle, Radhika; Aggarwal, Avanti; Walia, Cherry

    2014-09-01

    Esthesioneuroblastoma, also called olfactory neuroblastoma, is a rare malignant tumor originating in the olfactory epithelium in the upper nasal cavity with intracranial extension and may also be associated with secondary sinus diseases. Esthesioneuroblastoma has been observed to cause death by distant metastasis or by invasion through the cribriform plate and secondary meningitis. It usually produces nasal obstruction, epistaxis and less commonly anosmia, headache and pain. We report a case of esthesioneuroblastoma in a 50-year-old female who reported with tooth pain as a presenting symptom.

  18. Pediatric tooth extractions under sedoanalgesia

    PubMed Central

    Arpaci, Ayse Hande; Isik, Berrin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The present study aims to evaluate intravenous ketamine and inhalation sedation in children, their unwanted side-effects and surgeon satisfaction. Methods: In this study, data of 922 children aged between 1-18 who underwent tooth extraction under sedoanalgesia in our department between September 2015-January 2016 were gathered and anesthesia approaches, unwanted side effects and surgical satisfaction was investigated. Postoperative recovery emergence agitation or delirium was evaluated with Watcha Behavior Scale (WBS). Results: Patients were grouped and compared according to acceptance of intravenous line placement (Group-1) or not (Group- 2). Group 1 received intravenous ketamine anesthesia (n=822), Group 2 received inhalation anesthesia with sevoflurane (n=100). Number of patients, age, weight and gender was significantly different in two groups. When side effects were investigated nausea was observed in 30 patients (3.6%), skin rashes were observed in 26 patients (3.2%) in Group-1 while skin rashes were observed in one patient (1%) in Group 2. 95% of surgeons reported intravenous anesthesia, 18% of surgeons reported inhalation anesthesia to be the anesthesia of choice. Emergence of postoperative recovery agitation (WBS≥3) was observed more frequent in Group 2 (p<0.05) than Group 1. Conclusion: Ketamine, which has analgesic, hypnotic and amnestic effects and which does not alter pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes thus minimizes aspiration possibility, is a safe and effective anesthetic agent for tooth extractions of the pediatric population under sedoanalgesia. PMID:27882039

  19. [Tooth erosion - a multidisciplinary approach].

    PubMed

    Strużycka, Izabela; Rusyan, Ewa; Bogusławska-Kapała, Agnieszka

    2016-02-01

    During the last decades, an increasingly greater interest in dental erosion has been observed in clinical dental practice, in dental public health and in dental research because prevalence of erosive tooth wear is still increasing especially in young age group of population. Erosive tooth wear is a multifactorial etiology process characterized by progressive loss of hard dental tissue. It is defined as the exogenous and/or endogenous acids dissolution of the dental tissue, without bacterial involvement. In the development of dental erosive wear, interactions are required which include chemical, biological, behavioral, diet, time, socioeconomic, knowledge, education, and general health factors. Examples of risk groups could be patients with eating disorders, like anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, gastroesophageal reflux disease, chronic alcohol abuse or dependence. Special nutrition habits groups with high consumption of soft or sport drinks, special diets like vegetarian, vegan or raw food diet, the regular intake of drugs, medications and food supplements can also increase the risk for dental erosion. Comprehensive knowledge of the different risk and protective factors is a perquisite for initiating adequate preventive measures. © 2016 MEDPRESS.

  20. Tooth whitening: facts and fallacies.

    PubMed

    Heymann, H O

    2005-04-23

    Since the introduction of nightguard vital bleaching (tray bleaching) in 1989, dentistry has witnessed an astronomical rise in the interest in tooth whitening.(1) As a result, the most frequently asked question is, 'what bleaching technique works best?' Virtually all of today's whitening approaches work, because bleach is bleach. Whether a nightguard bleach is used with only 10% carbamide peroxide (which contains only 3% hydrogen peroxide), over-the-counter (OTC) whitening strips are applied containing 6% hydrogen peroxide, or an in-office bleach is employed using 25-35% hydrogen peroxide, the end results can potentially be the same. Similarity of results is possible because the mechanism of action is the same: oxidation of organic pigments or chromogens in the tooth. Granted, some bleaching approaches are more expeditious than others, owing to differences in concentration or exposure time. But as just noted, the most important factors in the efficacy of any bleaching treatment are concentration of the bleaching agent and duration of the exposure time.

  1. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  2. Investigation of EPR signals on tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlenko, A.; Mironova-Ulmane, N.; Polakov, M.; Riekstina, D.

    2007-12-01

    Calcified tissues are involved in continues metabolic process in human organism exchanging a number of chemical elements with environment. The rate of biochemical reactions is tissue dependent and the slowest one at the tooth enamel, the most mineralized tissue of human organism. The long time stability and unique chemical composition make tooth enamel suitable for number of application. The assessment of individual radiation dose by Electron Paramagnetic Resonance (EPR) and evaluations of elemental composition by Instrumentation Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) are the well known procedures where properties of tooth enamel intensively used. The current work is focused on investigation of EPR signals and determination of chemical composition on several teeth samples having different origin. The EPR spectra and INAA element content of milk tooth, caries tooth, and paradantose tooth have been compared to each other. The results showed that the intensity of EPR signal is much higher for the caries tooth than the for paradantose tooth that is in agreement with depleted Ca content.

  3. Addressing Tooth Decay in Head Start Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knowlden, Adam P.; Hill, Lawrence F.; Alles-White, Monica L.; Cottrell, Randall R.

    2012-01-01

    Tooth decay is the most prevalent chronic disease of childhood. Oral health education and dental services are crucial to reducing the number of children afflicted with dental cavities. Due to limited access to preventative care, Head Start children are particularly vulnerable to tooth decay. This article outlines practical implications of a…

  4. Orthodontic Tooth Movement: A Historic Prospective.

    PubMed

    Will, Leslie A

    2016-01-01

    The earliest report on orthodontic tooth movement in the English literature was published in 1911. Oppenheim carried out studies on baboons to determine what histologic changes occurred during tooth movement. Reitan and many others carried out research into the nature of tooth movement. The pressure-tension model of tooth movement developed from these studies, whereby the two sides of the tooth responded to forces as if in isolation. A second theory, proposed by Stuteville in 1938, was the hydraulic theory of tooth movement. In this theory, fluid from the vasculature, lymphatic system and intercellular spaces responds to the forces of tooth movement, damping the force and limiting movement. Bien and Baumrind expanded on this theory with their own studies in the 1960s. It is clear that both the pressure-tension and fluid flow concepts have merit, but considerable work needs to be done to ascertain the details so that tooth movement can be managed and controlled. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Biologically Based Restorative Management of Tooth Wear

    PubMed Central

    Kelleher, Martin G. D.; Bomfim, Deborah I.; Austin, Rupert S.

    2012-01-01

    The prevalence and severity of tooth wear is increasing in industrialised nations. Yet, there is no high-level evidence to support or refute any therapeutic intervention. In the absence of such evidence, many currently prevailing management strategies for tooth wear may be failing in their duty of care to first and foremost improve the oral health of patients with this disease. This paper promotes biologically sound approaches to the management of tooth wear on the basis of current best evidence of the aetiology and clinical features of this disease. The relative risks and benefits of the varying approaches to managing tooth wear are discussed with reference to long-term follow-up studies. Using reference to ethical standards such as “The Daughter Test”, this paper presents case reports of patients with moderate-to-severe levels of tooth wear managed in line with these biologically sound principles. PMID:22315608

  6. Autogenous Transplantation for Replacing a Hopeless Tooth

    PubMed Central

    Zakershahrak, Mehrsa; Moshari, Amirabbas; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Khalilak, Zohreh; Jalali Ara, Afsoon

    2017-01-01

    Autogenous tooth transplantation (ATT) is a simple and reasonable choice for replacing the missing teeth when a proper donor tooth is available. This report presents a case of successful ATT of a maxillary right third molar for replacement of mandibular right second molar with a concomitant endodontic-periodontal disease. The mandibular second molar was believed to be hopeless due to a severe damage to coronal tooth structure, inappropriate root canal treatment and apical radiolucency. After extraction of mandibular second molar and maxillary third molar (the donor), the tooth was re-implanted into the extracted socket of second molar site. Root canal therapy was then performed. After 3 years, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed satisfying results, with no signs and symptoms. The patient is asymptomatic and the transplanted tooth is still functional with no signs of marginal periodontal pathosis. Radiographies showed bone regeneration in the site of previous extensive periapical lesion, normal periodontal ligament with no signs of root resorption. PMID:28179939

  7. Tooth Whitening: What We Now Know

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Clifton M.

    2014-01-01

    Declarative Title Current research about tooth whitening shows that it is safe and effective when manufacturer’s protocol is followed, yet there are risks of which the profession and users should be aware. This update provides a summary of current research and assessment of the safety and efficacy of tooth whitening regimens. Background Tooth whitening has become one of the most frequently requested dental procedures by the public. The public has come to demand whiter, more perfect smiles and in response many choices for tooth whitening have been made available. These include home-based products such as toothpastes, gels, and films, as well as in-office based systems where products containing highly concentrated bleaching agents are applied under professional supervision. The profession and public have been aware of certain risks related to tooth whitening such as increased tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation. New research has shown that there are other risks such as tooth surface roughening and softening, increased potential for demineralization, degradation of dental restorations, and unacceptable color change of dental restorations. The new research is also focused on optimizing whitening procedures to reduce tooth sensitivity and to increase the persistence of the whitening. Methods Current reports in the literature are reviewed that are related to the use of peroxide based whitening methods. These reports include in vitro studies for method optimization and mechanism as well as clinical studies on effects of various whitening regimens. Conclusions When manufacturer’s instructions are followed, hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide based tooth whitening is safe and effective. Patients should be informed of the risks associated with tooth whitening and instructed on identification of adverse occurrences so that they may seek professional help asneeded. PMID:24929591

  8. Tooth whitening: what we now know.

    PubMed

    Carey, Clifton M

    2014-06-01

    Current research about tooth whitening shows that it is safe and effective when manufacturer's protocol is followed, yet there are risks of which the profession and users should be aware. This update provides a summary of current research and assessment of the safety and efficacy of tooth whitening regimens. Tooth whitening has become one of the most frequently requested dental procedures by the public. The public has come to demand whiter, more perfect smiles and in response many choices for tooth whitening have been made available. These include home-based products such as toothpastes, gels, and films, as well as in-office based systems where products containing highly concentrated bleaching agents are applied under professional supervision. The profession and public have been aware of certain risks related to tooth whitening such as increased tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation. New research has shown that there are other risks such as tooth surface roughening and softening, increased potential for demineralization, degradation of dental restorations, and unacceptable color change of dental restorations. The new research is also focused on optimizing whitening procedures to reduce tooth sensitivity and to increase the persistence of the whitening. Current reports in the literature are reviewed that are related to the use of peroxide based whitening methods. These reports include in vitro studies for method optimization and mechanism as well as clinical studies on effects of various whitening regimens. When manufacturer's instructions are followed, hydrogen peroxide and carbamide peroxide based tooth whitening is safe and effective. Patients should be informed of the risks associated with tooth whitening and instructed on identification of adverse occurrences so that they may seek professional help as needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Signaling Pathways Critical for Tooth Root Formation.

    PubMed

    Wang, J; Feng, J Q

    2017-10-01

    Tooth is made of an enamel-covered crown and a cementum-covered root. Studies on crown dentin formation have been a major focus in tooth development for several decades. Interestingly, the population prevalence for genetic short root anomaly (SRA) with no apparent defects in crown is close to 1.3%. Furthermore, people with SRA itself are predisposed to root resorption during orthodontic treatment. The discovery of the unique role of Nfic (nuclear factor I C; a transcriptional factor) in controlling root but not crown dentin formation points to a new concept: tooth crown and root have different control mechanisms. Further genetic mechanism studies have identified more key molecules (including Osterix, β-catenin, and sonic hedgehog) that play a critical role in root formation. Extensive studies have also revealed the critical role of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath in tooth root formation. In addition, Wnt10a has recently been found to be linked to multirooted tooth furcation formation. These exciting findings not only fill the critical gaps in our understanding about tooth root formation but will aid future research regarding the identifying factors controlling tooth root size and the generation of a whole "bio-tooth" for therapeutic purposes. This review starts with human SRA and mainly focuses on recent progress on the roles of NFIC-dependent and NFIC-independent signaling pathways in tooth root formation. Finally, this review includes a list of the various Cre transgenic mouse lines used to achieve tooth root formation-related gene deletion or overexpression, as well as strengths and limitations of each line.

  10. Immunohistochemical examination for the distribution of podoplanin-expressing cells in developing mouse molar tooth germs.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Yuri; Amano, Ikuko; Tsuruga, Eichi; Kojima, Hiroshi; Sawa, Yoshihiko

    2010-10-27

    We recently reported the expression of podoplanin in the apical bud of adult mouse incisal tooth. This study was aimed to investigate the distribution of podoplanin-expressing cells in mouse tooth germs at several developing stages. At the bud stage podoplanin was expressed in oral mucous epithelia and in a tooth bud. At the cap stage podoplanin was expressed on inner and outer enamel epithelia but not in mesenchymal cells expressing the neural crest stem cell marker nestin. At the early bell stage nestin and podoplanin were expressed in cervical loop and odontoblasts. At the root formation stage both nestin and podoplanin were weakly expressed in odontoblasts generating radicular dentin. Podoplanin expression was also found in the Hertwig epithelial sheath. These results suggest that epithelial cells of developing tooth germ acquire the ability to express nestin, and that tooth germ epithelial cells maintain the ability to express podoplanin in oral mucous epithelia. The expression of podoplanin in odontoblasts was induced as tooth germ development advanced, but was suppressed with the completion of the primary dentin, suggesting that podoplanin may be involved in the cell growth of odontoblasts. Nestin may function as an intermediate filament that binds podoplanin in odontoblasts.

  11. Bioengineered teeth from cultured rat tooth bud cells.

    PubMed

    Duailibi, M T; Duailibi, S E; Young, C S; Bartlett, J D; Vacanti, J P; Yelick, P C

    2004-07-01

    The recent bioengineering of complex tooth structures from pig tooth bud tissues suggests the potential for the regeneration of mammalian dental tissues. We have improved tooth bioengineering methods by comparing the utility of cultured rat tooth bud cells obtained from three- to seven-day post-natal (dpn) rats for tooth-tissue-engineering applications. Cell-seeded biodegradable scaffolds were grown in the omenta of adult rat hosts for 12 wks, then harvested. Analyses of 12-week implant tissues demonstrated that dissociated 4-dpn rat tooth bud cells seeded for 1 hr onto PGA or PLGA scaffolds generated bioengineered tooth tissues most reliably. We conclude that tooth-tissue-engineering methods can be used to generate both pig and rat tooth tissues. Furthermore, our ability to bioengineer tooth structures from cultured tooth bud cells suggests that dental epithelial and mesenchymal stem cells can be maintained in vitro for at least 6 days.

  12. TOOTH GROWTH IN EXPERIMENTAL SCURVY

    PubMed Central

    Dalldorf, Gilbert; Zall, Celia

    1930-01-01

    1. The incisor teeth of guinea pigs have a constant rate of growth in health. 2. Deprivation of Vitamin C causes the teeth to cease growing. Readministration of the vitamin restores the growth. 3. Administration of small amounts of antiscorbutic substance results in rates of growth roughly proportional to dosage. 4. Under standard experimental conditions used in the testing of foodstuffs for antiscorbutic value, the rate of tooth growth would appear to be a precise indication of the degree of scurvy, being more delicate than the Sherman score, and more constant as well as more simple, than the Höjer method. 5. Stress in terms of usage appears to exaggerate the scorbutic lesions in the teeth. PMID:19869749

  13. Towards Unraveling the Human Tooth Transcriptome: The Dentome

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the study was to characterize the transcriptome profiles of human ameloblasts and odontoblasts, evaluate molecular pathways and advance our knowledge of the human “dentome”. Laser capture microdissection was used to isolate odontoblasts and ameloblasts from human tooth buds (15-20week gestational age) from 4 fetuses. RNA was examined using Agilent 41k whole genome arrays at 2 different stages of enamel formation, presecretory and secretory. Probe detection was considered against the array negative control to control for background noise. Differential expression was examined using Significance Analysis of Microarrays (SAM) 4.0 between different cell types and developmental stages with a false discovery rate of 20%. Pathway analysis was conducted using Ingenuity Pathway Analysis software. We found that during primary tooth formation, odontoblasts expressed 14,802 genes, presecretory ameloblasts 15,179 genes and secretory ameloblasts 14,526 genes. Genes known to be active during tooth development for each cell type (eg COL1A1, AMELX) were shown to be expressed by our approach. Exploring further into the list of differentially expressed genes between the motile odontoblasts and non-motile presecretory ameloblasts we found several genes of interest that could be involved in cell movement (FN1, LUM, ASTN1). Furthermore, our analysis indicated that the Phospholipase C and ERK5 pathways, that are important for cell movement, were activated in the motile odontoblasts. In addition our pathway analysis identified WNT3A and TGFB1 as important upstream contributors. Recent studies implicate these genes in the development of Schimke immuno-osseous dysplasia. The utility of laser capture microdissection can be a valuable tool in the examination of specific tissues or cell populations present in human tooth buds. Advancing our knowledge of the human dentome and related molecular pathways provides new insights into the complex mechanisms regulating odontogenesis and

  14. Tooth loss and liver cancer incidence in a Finnish cohort.

    PubMed

    Yang, Baiyu; Petrick, Jessica L; Abnet, Christian C; Graubard, Barry I; Murphy, Gwen; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Männistö, Satu; Albanes, Demetrius; McGlynn, Katherine A

    2017-08-01

    Periodontal disease, a major cause of tooth loss in adults, may have systemic effects and has been associated with higher risk of several cancer types. However, the associations of periodontal disease or tooth loss with liver cancer have only been examined prospectively in two studies, neither of which had sufficient statistical power. In addition, no studies assessed the potential confounding by viral hepatitis or Helicobacter pylori infection status. In this study, we examined the association between tooth loss and primary liver cancer incidence in a prospective cohort of Finnish male smokers (n = 29,096). We used Cox proportional hazards models to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% CIs. As a sensitivity analysis, we conducted a nested case-control study within the original cohort to assess confounding by hepatitis B or C virus infection and seropositivity of H. pylori. A total of 213 incident primary liver cancers occurred during a mean follow-up of 17 years. Among these cases, having 11-31 permanent teeth lost (HR 1.42, 95% CI 1.01-1.98) or all 32 teeth lost (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.00-2.10) was each associated with higher risk of liver cancer, compared to those having 0-10 teeth lost. Adjusting for H. pylori seropositivity yielded a small attenuation of the effect estimate. Greater number of teeth lost was associated with higher risk of primary liver cancer in our study. The role of periodontal infection in the development of liver cancer warrants further investigation.

  15. Tooth colour change with Ozicure Oxygen Activator: a comparative in vitro tooth bleaching study.

    PubMed

    Grundlingh, A A; Grossman, E S; Witcomb, M J

    2012-08-01

    This in vitro study compared a new tooth bleaching product, Ozicure Oxygen Activator (O3, RSA) with Opalescence Quick (Ultradent, USA) using a randomised block design to assess tooth colour change. Colour change, stability and relapse in canine, incisor and premolar teeth was assessed following three bleach treatments and subsequent tooth colour assessment. Ninety nine teeth (canines, incisors and premolars), which were caries free, had no surface defects and were within the colour range 1M2 and 5M3 were selected. Teeth were randomly divided into the three experimental groups: Opalescence Quick, Ozicure Oxygen Activator and control. The three experimental groups received three treatments of one hour each over three consecutive days. Tooth colour was assessed using the Vitapan 3D Master Tooth Guide (VITA, Germany). A General Linear Models test for analysis of variance for a fractional design with significance set at P < 0.05 was used to test for significance. Both bleaching methods significantly lightened the teeth (P < 0.0001). Tooth colour change was mainly after the first hour of tooth bleaching. The tooth type was significant in tooth colour change (P = 0.0416). Tooth colour relapse and resistance to colour change were observed. Ozicure Oxygen Activator bleached teeth in a manner and to an extent similar to Opalescence Quick.

  16. Tooth crown heights, tooth wear, sexual dimorphism and jaw growth in hominoids.

    PubMed

    Dean, M C; Beynon, A D

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this review is to bring together data that link tooth morphology with tooth function and tooth growth: We aim to show how the microanatomy of hominoid teeth is providing evidence about rates of tooth growth that are likely to be a consequence of both masticatory strategy and social behaviour. First, we present data about incisor and molar tooth wear in wild short chimpanzees that demonstrate how crown heights are likely to be related to relative tooth use in a broad sense. Following this we review recent studies that describe the microanatomy of hominoid tooth enamel and show how these studies are providing evidence about tooth crown formation times in hominoids, as well as improving estimates for the age at death of certain juvenile fossil hominids. Next, we outline what is known about the mechanisms of tooth growth in the sexually dimorphic canine teeth of chimpanzees and compare these patterns of growth with tooth growth patterns in the canines of three fossil hominids from Laetoli, Tanzania. Finally, we discuss how selection pressures that operate to increase or reduce the size of anterior teeth interact with jaw size. We argue that the space available to grow developing teeth in the mandibles of juvenile hominoids is determined by the growth patterns of the mandibles, which in turn reflect masticatory strategy. The consequences of selection pressure to grow large or small anterior teeth are likely to be reflected in the times at which these teeth are able to emerge into occlusion.

  17. Light augments tooth whitening with peroxide.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Mary; Stultz, Jacyn; Newman, Margaret; Smith, Valerie; Kent, Ralph; Carpino, Elizabeth; Goodson, Jo Max

    2003-02-01

    The authors tested the adjunctive use of light with a 15 percent peroxide gel as a single-visit, in-office tooth whitening system. Subject (N = 87) with stained (> shade D4, Vita Zahnfabrik, Bad Säckingen, Germany) anterior teeth were randomly assigned to test (peroxide and light), peroxide control (peroxide gel) or light control (placebo gel and light) groups and were treated for one hour. The researchers evaluated tooth shade, color and subject response at baseline and posttreatment and at three and six months posttreatment. The initial shade unit reduction of combined light and peroxide treatment (8.4) was greatest compared with that of peroxide alone (5.9) and of light alone (4.9). Approximately 88 percent of these effects persisted for six months. Lightness was increased and yellowness decreased to a significantly greater extent in the test group than in either control. These findings were corroborated by subject evaluation. One week after treatment, moderate to greatly increased tooth sensitivity occurred in 20 percent of test subjects, 21.7 percent of peroxide control subjects and none of the light control subjects. Neither tooth sensitivity nor gingival redness was present at the three- and six-month visits. Peroxide and light treatment significantly lightened the color of teeth to a greater extent than did peroxide or light alone, with a low and transient incidence of tooth sensitivity. Light can increase the tooth-whitening effect of peroxide, thereby increasing the effectiveness of tooth-whitening procedures.

  18. A review of tooth colour and whiteness.

    PubMed

    Joiner, Andrew; Hopkinson, Ian; Deng, Yan; Westland, Stephen

    2008-01-01

    To review current knowledge on the definition of tooth whiteness and its application within dentistry, together with the measured range of tooth colours. 'Medline' and 'ISI Web of Sciences' databases were searched electronically with key words tooth, teeth, colour, colour, white and whiteness. The application of colour science within dentistry has permitted the measurement of tooth colour in an objective way, with the most common colour space in current use being the CIELAB (Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage). Indeed, many investigators from a range of different countries have reported L*, a* and b* values for teeth measured in vivo using instrumental techniques such as spectrophotometers, colorimeters and image analysis of digital images. In general, these studies show a large range in L*, a* and b* values, but consistently show that there is a significant contribution of b* value or yellowness in natural tooth colour. Further developments in colour science have lead to the description of tooth whiteness and changes in tooth whiteness based on whiteness indices, with the most relevant and applicable being the WIO whiteness index, a modified version of the CIE whiteness index.

  19. Spectroscopic investigations of carious tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Thareja, R K; Sharma, A K; Shukla, Shobha

    2008-11-01

    We report on the elemental composition of healthy and infected part of human tooth using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). We have used prominent constituent transitions in laser-excited tooth to diagnose the state of the tooth. A nanosecond laser pulse (355nm, 5ns) was used as an ablating pulse and the sodium (3s2S-3p2P) at 588.99 and (3s2S-3p2P) at 589.99nm, strontium (5s21S-1s5P) at 460.55nm, and calcium (3d3D-4f 3F0) at 452.55nm transitions for spectroscopic analysis. The spectroscopic observations in conjunction with discriminate analysis showed that calcium attached to the hydroxyapatite structure of the tooth was affected severely at the infected part of the tooth. The position-time plots generated from two-dimensional (2D) images conclusively showed a decrease in calcium concentration in the infected region of the irradiated tooth. Using the technique, we could distinguish between the healthy and carious parts of the tooth with significant accuracy.

  20. Tissue Interactions Regulating Tooth Development and Renewal.

    PubMed

    Balic, Anamaria; Thesleff, Irma

    2015-01-01

    Reciprocal interactions between epithelial and mesenchymal tissues play a fundamental role in the morphogenesis of teeth and regulate all aspects of tooth development. Extensive studies on mouse tooth development over the past 25 years have uncovered the molecular details of the signaling networks mediating these interactions (reviewed by Jussila & Thesleff, 2012; Lan, Jia, & Jiang, 2014). Five conserved signaling pathways, namely, the Wnt, BMP, FGF, Shh, and Eda, are involved in the mediation of the successive reciprocal epithelial-mesenchymal cross talk which follows the general principle of morphogenetic interactions (Davidson, 1993). The pathways regulate the expression of transcription factors which confer the identity of dental epithelium and mesenchyme. The signals and transcription factors are integrated in complex signaling networks whose fine-tuning allows the generation of the variation in tooth morphologies. In this review, we describe the principles and molecular mechanisms of the epithelial-mesenchymal interactions regulating successive stages of tooth formation: (i) the initiation of tooth development, with special reference to the shift of tooth-forming potential from epithelium to mesenchyme; (ii) the morphogenesis of the tooth crown, focusing on the roles of epithelial signaling centers; (iii) the differentiation of odontoblasts and ameloblasts, which produce dentin and enamel, respectively; and (iv) the maintenance of dental stem cells, which support the continuous growth of teeth. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The randomized shortened dental arch study: tooth loss over five years.

    PubMed

    Walter, M H; Hannak, W; Kern, M; Mundt, T; Gernet, W; Weber, A; Wöstmann, B; Stark, H; Werner, D; Hartmann, S; Range, U; Jahn, F; Passia, N; Pospiech, P; Mitov, G; Brückner, J; Wolfart, S; Busche, E; Luthardt, R G; Heydecke, G; Marré, B

    2013-04-01

    The study was designed to provide clinical outcome data for two treatments of the shortened dental arch (SDA). In a multicenter randomized controlled clinical trial, patients with complete molar loss in one jaw were provided with either a partial removable dental prosthesis (PRDP) retained with precision attachments or treated according to the SDA concept preserving or restoring a premolar occlusion. No implants were placed. The primary outcome was tooth loss. Of 152 treated patients, 132 patients reached the 5-year examination. Over 5 years, 38 patients experienced tooth loss. For the primary outcome tooth loss, the Kaplan-Meier survival rates at 5 years were 0.74 (95% CI 0.64, 0.84) in the PRDP group and 0.74 (95% CI 0.63, 0.85) in the SDA group. For tooth loss in the study jaw, the survival rates at 5 years were 0.88 (95% CI 0.80, 0.95) in the PRDP group and 0.84 (95% CI 0.74, 0.93) in the SDA group. The differences were not significant. No Cox regression models of appropriate fit explaining tooth loss on the patient level could be found. The overall treatment goals of a sustainable oral rehabilitation and the avoidance of further tooth loss over longer periods were not reliably achievable. The influence of the type of prosthetic treatment on tooth loss might have been overestimated. Regarding our results, the patient's view will gain even more importance in the clinical decision between removable and fixed restorations in SDAs.

  2. A retrospective radiographic study on the effect of natural tooth-implant proximity and an introduction to the concept of a bone-loading platform switch.

    PubMed

    Urdaneta, Rainer A; Seemann, Rudolf; Dragan, Irina-Florentina; Lubelski, William; Leary, Joseph; Chuang, Sung-Kiang

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth-implant proximity using an implant system with a double platform shift that was designed to load bone coronal to the implant-abutment cohort study was conducted between January 2008 and December 2009. The sample was composed of patients who had received at least one 5-mm-wide hydroxyapatite-coated single-tooth Bicon implant that had been placed adjacent to at least one natural tooth. Descriptive statistics and univariate and multivariate linear mixed-effects regression models, adjusted for multiple implants in the same patient, were utilized. The primary predictor variable was the horizontal distance between implant and adjacent tooth, and the primary outcome variable was the change in peri-implant bone levels over time. Two hundred six subjects who received 235 plateau root-form implants were followed for an average of 42 months. Tooth-implant distance ranged between 0 and 14.6 mm. Out of 235 implants, 43 implants were placed < 1 mm to an adjacent natural tooth on mesial and/or distal sides. The proximity of a plateau root-form implant was not associated with complications on the adjacent tooth such as bone loss, root resorption, endodontic treatment, pain, or extraction. The proximity of an adjacent tooth was not a risk factor for the failure of a plateau root-form implant. After adjusting for other covariates in a multivariate model, the proximity of a natural tooth did not have a statistically significant effect on peri-implant bone levels (P = .13). The extraction of an adjacent tooth was associated with a significant increase in peri-implant bone loss (P = .008). The placement of a plateau root-form implant with a sloping shoulder in close proximity to an adjacent tooth did not cause damage to that tooth or lead to bone loss or the failure of the implant.

  3. [Destructive and protective factors in the development of tooth-wear].

    PubMed

    Máté, Jász; Gábor, Varga; Zsuzsanna, Tóth

    2006-12-01

    The experience of the past decade proves that tooth wear occurs in an increasing number of cases in general dental practice. Tooth wear may have physical (abrasion and attrition) and/or chemical (erosion) origin. The primary physical causes are inadequate dental hygienic activities, bad oral habits or occupational harm. As for dental erosion, it is accelerated by the highly erosive foods and drinks produced and sold in the past decades, and the number of cases is also boosted by the fact that bulimia, anorexia nervosa and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease prevalence have become more common. The most important defensive factor against tooth wear is saliva, which protects teeth from the effect of acids. Tertiary dentin formation plays an important role in the protection of the pulp. Ideally, destructive and protective factors are in balance. Both an increase in the destructive forces, and the insufficiency of defense factors result in the disturbance of the equilibrium. This results in tooth-wear, which means an irreversible loss of dental hard tissue. The rehabilitation of the lost tooth material is often very difficult, irrespectively of whether it is needed because of functional or esthetic causes. For that reason, the dentist should carry out primary and secondary dental care and prevention more often, i.e. dental recall is indispensable every 4-6 months.

  4. Surgical Tooth Implants, Combat and Field.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-12-01

    R7D-RI34 135 SURGICAL TOOTH IMPLANTS C0ORT AND FIELD(U) BATTELLE / COLUMIBUS LABS OH C R HASSLER ET AL. DEC 79 DADAI7-69-C-9i11 UNCLAISIFIED F/G 6/5...31 - -.r* ’. . REPORT NUMBER 10 SURGICAL TOOTH IMPLANTS, COMBAT AND FIELD Annual Report SCraig R. Hassler, Robert H. Downes, Gary L. Messing and...b designated by other authorized documents. ~~88 i , - , t~~S ... * * , - *’ . ., .’-*• * -* °* • • .. * .•. . .•° REPORT NUMBER 10 SURGICAL TOOTH

  5. Surgical Tooth Implants, Combat and Field.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-15

    RD-A149 285 SURGICAL TOOTH IMPLANTS COMBAT AND FIELD(U) BATTELLE i/i COLUMBUS LABS OH C R HASSLER ET AL. 15 JUL 83 DRHD7-82-C-2820 UNCLSSIFIED F/G 6...L * ~1 *d~ F L4 , .I- /)/ REPORT NUMBER 13 SURGICAL TOOTH IPLAWTS, COMBAT AV .=V 2 Annual Report Craig R. Hassler, Robert H. Dovnes Larry G. McCoy...34 *" Surgical Tooth Implants, Combat and Field Annual Progress Report Jul. 16, 1982 - July 15. 1983 G. PEO O swo 0 .@ akCVIT ##WuOgot ". &UTP*O~~6. €,ONTlIACT

  6. Surgical Tooth Implants, Combat and Field.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-15

    AD-Ri34 212 SURGICRI TOOTH IMPLANTS COMBAT AiND FIELD(IJ) BATTELLE I/i COLUMBUS LABS OH C R HASSLER ET AL. 15 JUL 81 DADAI-69-C-9i~i UNCLSSIFIED F/G...6/5 N m I A2..0 - I W 2_ 12.2 - 6 3 am MICROCOPY RESOLUT!" 9N TEST CHARTno NATIONAL BUREAU OF SFANDARDS-1963-A REPORT NUMBER 11 SURGICAL TOOTH ...REPORT NUMBER 11 SURGICAL TOOTH IMPLANTS, COMBAT AND FIELD .*. Annual Report Craig R. Hassler, Robert H. Downes, p " and Larry G. McCoy . July

  7. Surgical Tooth Implants, Combat and Field.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-11-15

    mcIIII/i7 BMBMgMMMBBBBBB MENEM L10 1 1.25 1.NA 1111.6 htCROCJ’PY RESOLUIION 1ESI CHARI &lQ1.BURkAj 04 IANCAR ,143_1 - AD SURGICAL TOOTH IMPLANTS...ACCESSION NO 62775A 775A825 AA 055 11. TITLE (Include Security Classification) (U) Surgical Tooth Implants, Combat and Field 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Craig R...year. Clinical studies are presently continuing. The implants are single tooth rectangular design with serrations arranged for maximal stress

  8. Regenerative Applications Using Tooth Derived Stem Cells in Other Than Tooth Regeneration: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Park, Yun-Jong; Cha, Seunghee; Park, Young-Seok

    2016-01-01

    Tooth derived stem cells or dental stem cells are categorized according to the location from which they are isolated and represent a promising source of cells for regenerative medicine. Originally, as one kind of mesenchymal stem cells, they are considered an alternative of bone marrow stromal cells. They share many commonalties but maintain differences. Considering their original function in development and the homeostasis of tooth structures, many applications of these cells in dentistry have aimed at tooth structure regeneration; however, the application in other than tooth structures has been attempted extensively. The availability from discarded or removed teeth can be an innate benefit as a source of autologous cells. Their origin from the neural crest results in exploitation of neurological and numerous other applications. This review briefly highlights current and future perspectives of the regenerative applications of tooth derived stem cells in areas beyond tooth regeneration. PMID:26798366

  9. Evolution of high tooth replacement rates in sauropod dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    D'Emic, Michael D; Whitlock, John A; Smith, Kathlyn M; Fisher, Daniel C; Wilson, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days). Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size), and derived titanosaurs and diplodocoids independently evolved the highest known tooth replacement rates among archosaurs.

  10. Evolution of High Tooth Replacement Rates in Sauropod Dinosaurs

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kathlyn M.; Fisher, Daniel C.; Wilson, Jeffrey A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Tooth replacement rate can be calculated in extinct animals by counting incremental lines of deposition in tooth dentin. Calculating this rate in several taxa allows for the study of the evolution of tooth replacement rate. Sauropod dinosaurs, the largest terrestrial animals that ever evolved, exhibited a diversity of tooth sizes and shapes, but little is known about their tooth replacement rates. Methodology/Principal Findings We present tooth replacement rate, formation time, crown volume, total dentition volume, and enamel thickness for two coexisting but distantly related and morphologically disparate sauropod dinosaurs Camarasaurus and Diplodocus. Individual tooth formation time was determined by counting daily incremental lines in dentin. Tooth replacement rate is calculated as the difference between the number of days recorded in successive replacement teeth. Each tooth family in Camarasaurus has a maximum of three replacement teeth, whereas each Diplodocus tooth family has up to five. Tooth formation times are about 1.7 times longer in Camarasaurus than in Diplodocus (315 vs. 185 days). Average tooth replacement rate in Camarasaurus is about one tooth every 62 days versus about one tooth every 35 days in Diplodocus. Despite slower tooth replacement rates in Camarasaurus, the volumetric rate of Camarasaurus tooth replacement is 10 times faster than in Diplodocus because of its substantially greater tooth volumes. A novel method to estimate replacement rate was developed and applied to several other sauropodomorphs that we were not able to thin section. Conclusions/Significance Differences in tooth replacement rate among sauropodomorphs likely reflect disparate feeding strategies and/or food choices, which would have facilitated the coexistence of these gigantic herbivores in one ecosystem. Early neosauropods are characterized by high tooth replacement rates (despite their large tooth size), and derived titanosaurs and diplodocoids independently

  11. Diagnostic Dilemma of a Double Tooth: A Rare Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Nandini, D.B.; Deepak, B.S.; Selvamani, M.; Puneeth, H.K.

    2014-01-01

    Gemination or Schizodontism is a developmental anomaly affecting the tooth shape which is often confused with fusion. It affects primary dentition more often than permanent. It is a rare occurrence in the posterior teeth. Its etiology, pathogenesis, prevalence, differential diagnosis and management are discussed and a rare case of gemination of maxillary premolar is reported here. PMID:24596793

  12. Immediate Esthetic Rehabilitation of Periodontally Compromised Anterior Tooth Using Natural Tooth as Pontic

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, K. Pavan; Nujella, Surya Kumari; Gopal, S. Sujatha

    2016-01-01

    For patients who require removal of anterior teeth and their replacement various treatment modalities are available. With advancement in technology and availability of glass/polyethylene fibres, use of natural tooth as pontic with fibre reinforced composite restorations offers the promising results. The present case report describes management of periodontally compromised mandibular anterior tooth using natural tooth pontic with fibre reinforcement. A 1-year follow-up showed that the bridge was intact with good esthetics and no problem was reported. PMID:27195156

  13. Critical appraisal. In-office tooth whitening: pulpal effects and tooth sensitivity issues.

    PubMed

    Kwon, So Ran; Swift, Edward J

    2014-01-01

    In-office bleaching is an effective method for whitening teeth.Tooth sensitivity associated with in-office whitening is reversible and may range from mild to considerable. The incidence and severity of tooth sensitivity can be reduced by pretreatment with a desensitizer such as potassium nitrate. Histologic studies and clinical studies on long-term pulpal effects are lacking to definitively support the safety of in-office tooth whitening. Future studies on the etiology of tooth sensitivity related to whitening might greatly improve the means of preventing and managing this side effect.

  14. The tooth, the whole tooth and nothing but the tooth: tooth shape and ontogenetic shift dynamics in the white shark Carcharodon carcharias.

    PubMed

    French, G C A; Stürup, M; Rizzuto, S; van Wyk, J H; Edwards, D; Dolan, R W; Wintner, S P; Towner, A V; Hughes, W O H

    2017-10-01

    Results from this study of the white shark Carcharodon carcharias include measurements obtained using a novel photographic method that reveal significant differences between the sexes in the relationship between tooth cuspidity and shark total length, and a novel ontogenetic change in male tooth shape. Males exhibit broader upper first teeth and increased distal inclination of upper third teeth with increasing length, while females do not present a consistent morphological change. Substantial individual variation, with implications for pace of life syndrome, was present in males and tooth polymorphism was suggested in females. Sexual differences and individual variation may play major roles in ontogenetic changes in tooth morphology in C. carcharias, with potential implications for their foraging biology. Such individual and sexual differences should be included in studies of ontogenetic shift dynamics in other species and systems. © 2017 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  15. Robust tooth surface reconstruction by iterative deformation.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xiaotong; Dai, Ning; Cheng, Xiaosheng; Wang, Jun; Peng, Qingjin; Liu, Hao; Cheng, Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Digital design technologies have been applied extensively in dental medicine, especially in the field of dental restoration. The all-ceramic crown is an important restoration type of dental CAD systems. This paper presents a robust tooth surface reconstruction algorithm for all-ceramic crown design. The algorithm involves three necessary steps: standard tooth initial positioning and division; salient feature point extraction using Morse theory; and standard tooth deformation using iterative Laplacian Surface Editing and mesh stitching. This algorithm can retain the morphological features of the tooth surface well. It is robust and suitable for almost all types of teeth, including incisor, canine, premolar, and molar. Moreover, it allows dental technicians to use their own preferred library teeth for reconstruction. The algorithm has been successfully integrated in our Dental CAD system, more than 1000 clinical cases have been tested to demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  16. [Biological basis of orthodontic tooth movement].

    PubMed

    Maltha, J C; van Leeuwen, E J

    2000-04-01

    The effect of orthodontic therapy is dependent of the biological possibilities and limitations of the dento-alveolar complex. Biomechanical effects determine the first phase of tooth movement. In the second phase hyalinisation occurs in almost all cases. Elimination of the hyalinised tissue is associated with undermining bone resorption. Next, 'real' tooth movement starts. At the pressure side the normal structure of the periodontal ligament is destroyed and so is the tooth attachment. At the tension side deposition of trabecular bone is found and the tooth attachment remains. The regulation of these processes is still not completely understood, but cytokines and growth factors play an important role. The biological system does not react according to a simple dose-response relation and large individual differences in susceptibility of the system exist.

  17. Recent approaches in tooth engineering research.

    PubMed

    Svandová, E; Veselá, B; Křivánek, J; Hampl, A; Matalová, E

    2014-01-01

    Tooth absence and defects caused by various reasons are frequent events in humans. They are not life threatening but may bring about social consequences. Recent dentistry provides solutions in the form of prosthetics or dental implants; however, several complications and distinct limitations favour bioengineering of dental and periodontal structures. At least two types of cells (epithelial and mesenchymal) have to be recombined to produce a new functional tooth. Moreover, the tooth must be vascularized, innervated and properly anchored in the bone. To study these issues, different approaches have been established in both basic and applied research. In this review, recent strategies and techniques of tooth engineering are comprehensively summarized and discussed, particularly regarding manipulation using stem cells.

  18. Life of a Tooth: A Visual Timeline

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Men's Oral Health What is Baby Bottle Tooth Decay? Men: Looking ... Home | InfoBites | Find a Dentist | Your Family's Oral Health | Newsroom | RSS About AGD | Contact AGD | Site Map | ...

  19. Tooth brushing inhibits oral bacteria in dogs

    PubMed Central

    WATANABE, Kazuhiro; HAYASHI, Kotaro; KIJIMA, Saku; NONAKA, Chie; YAMAZOE, Kazuaki

    2015-01-01

    In this study, scaling, polishing and daily tooth brushing were performed in 20 beagle dogs, and the number of oral bacteria was determined using a bacterial counter. The dogs were randomized into the scaling (S), scaling + polishing (SP), scaling + tooth daily brushing (SB) and scaling + polishing + tooth daily brushing (SPB) groups. Samples were collected from the buccal surface of the maxillary fourth premolars of the dogs immediately after scaling and every week thereafter from weeks 1 to 8. Throughout the study, the number of bacteria was significantly lower in the SB and SPB groups compared with the S group. The findings suggest that daily tooth brushing inhibited oral bacterial growth in the dogs. PMID:25994486

  20. Autotransplantation donor tooth site harvesting using piezosurgery.

    PubMed

    Ylikontiola, Leena P; Sándor, George K

    2016-01-01

    The harvesting of a tooth as a candidate for tooth autotransplantation requires that the delicate dental tissues around the tooth be minimally traumatized. This is especially so for the periradicular tissues of the tooth root and the follicular tissues surrounding the crown. The aim of this report is to describe the use of piezosurgery as an attempt at morbidity reduction in the harvesting of teeth for autotransplantation. A piezosurgical handpiece and its selection of tips were easily adapted to allow the harvesting and delivery of teeth for autotransplantation purposes. Twenty premolar teeth were harvested using a piezosurgical device. The harvested teeth were subsequently successfully autotransplanted. All twenty teeth healed in a satisfactory manner without excessive mobility or ankyloses. Piezosurgery avoids some of the traumatic aspects of harvesting teeth and removing bone which are associated with thermal damage from the use of conventional rotary instruments or saws. Piezosurgery can be adapted to facilitate the predictable harvesting of teeth for autotransplantation purposes.

  1. Materials science: Lessons from tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, Horacio D.; Soler-Crespo, Rafael

    2017-03-01

    A remarkable composite material has been made that mimics the structure of tooth enamel. This achievement opens up the exploration of new composite materials and of computational methods that reliably predict their properties. See Letter p.95

  2. Computer simulation of gear tooth manufacturing processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mavriplis, Dimitri; Huston, Ronald L.

    1990-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate gear tooth manufacturing procedures is discussed. An analytical basis for the simulation is established for spur gears. The simulation itself, however, is developed not only for spur gears, but for straight bevel gears as well. The applications of the developed procedure extend from the development of finite element models of heretofore intractable geometrical forms, to exploring the fabrication of nonstandard tooth forms.

  3. Dielectric response of the human tooth dentine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leskovec, J.; Filipič, C.; Levstik, A.

    2005-07-01

    Dielectric properties of tooth dentine can be well described by the model which was developed for the dielectric response to hydrating porous cement paste. It is shown that the normalized dielectric constant and the normalized specific conductivity are proportional to the model parameters ɛ and σv, indicating the deposition of AgCl in the dentine tubules during the duration of the precipitation. The fractal dimension of the tooth dentine was determined by dielectric spectroscopy.

  4. Cracked tooth syndrome: Overview of literature

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Shamimul; Singh, Kuldeep; Salati, Naseer

    2015-01-01

    Pain is defined as an “unpleasant sensory and emotional feeling which is associated with actual or potential injury of tissue or expressed in terms of such injury.” Tooth pain usually refers to pain around the teeth or jaws mainly as a result of a dental condition. Mostly, toothaches are caused by a carious cavity, a broken tooth, an exposed tooth root or gum disease. The toothache may sometimes be the result of radiating pain from structures in the vicinity of tooth and jaws (cardiac pain, ear, nose, throat pain, and sinusitis). Therefore, evaluation by both dentists and physicians are sometimes necessary to diagnose medical illnesses causing “toothache.” Cracked tooth syndrome is a major diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment are complicated due to lack of awareness of this condition and its bizarre clinical features. Early diagnosis has been linked with successful restorative management and good prognosis. This article provides a detailed literature on the causes, classification, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment planning of cracked tooth syndrome. PMID:26539363

  5. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease: an update.

    PubMed

    Shy, Michael E

    2004-10-01

    The purpose of this review is to assist neurologists, neuroscientists and other interested readers in following the expanding volume of information relating to the inherited peripheral neuropathies collectively referred to as Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Currently, mutations in multiple different genes expressed in Schwann cells and neurons cause a variety of overlapping clinical phenotypes. Recent articles clarify molecular pathways involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders, and for the first time provide rational treatment strategies for the most common form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. The identification of many new genes associated with neuropathy demonstrate the role of axonal transport and abnormal protein trafficking in causing various forms of Charcot-Marie-Tooth. They also further define the role of axonal signaling and the molecular architecture of both Schwann cells and neurons in maintaining normal peripheral nervous system function. Finally, recent reports have shown that progesterone antagonists and ascorbic acid can successfully treat rodent models of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type 1A. Taken together, results from these articles support the concept that genetic causes of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease serve as a living microarray system to identify molecules necessary for normal peripheral nervous system function. When we can make sense of these microarrays we are likely to understand the pathogenesis and develop rational therapies for many neurodegenerative diseases including Charcot-Marie-Tooth.

  6. Cracked tooth syndrome: Overview of literature.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Shamimul; Singh, Kuldeep; Salati, Naseer

    2015-01-01

    Pain is defined as an "unpleasant sensory and emotional feeling which is associated with actual or potential injury of tissue or expressed in terms of such injury." Tooth pain usually refers to pain around the teeth or jaws mainly as a result of a dental condition. Mostly, toothaches are caused by a carious cavity, a broken tooth, an exposed tooth root or gum disease. The toothache may sometimes be the result of radiating pain from structures in the vicinity of tooth and jaws (cardiac pain, ear, nose, throat pain, and sinusitis). Therefore, evaluation by both dentists and physicians are sometimes necessary to diagnose medical illnesses causing "toothache." Cracked tooth syndrome is a major diagnostic challenge in clinical practice. Accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment are complicated due to lack of awareness of this condition and its bizarre clinical features. Early diagnosis has been linked with successful restorative management and good prognosis. This article provides a detailed literature on the causes, classification, signs and symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment planning of cracked tooth syndrome.

  7. Gear Tooth Wear Detection Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delgado, Irebert R.

    2015-01-01

    Vibration-based condition indicators continue to be developed for Health Usage Monitoring of rotorcraft gearboxes. Testing performed at NASA Glenn Research Center have shown correlations between specific condition indicators and specific types of gear wear. To speed up the detection and analysis of gear teeth, an image detection program based on the Viola-Jones algorithm was trained to automatically detect spiral bevel gear wear pitting. The detector was tested using a training set of gear wear pictures and a blind set of gear wear pictures. The detector accuracy for the training set was 75 percent while the accuracy for the blind set was 15 percent. Further improvements on the accuracy of the detector are required but preliminary results have shown its ability to automatically detect gear tooth wear. The trained detector would be used to quickly evaluate a set of gear or pinion pictures for pits, spalls, or abrasive wear. The results could then be used to correlate with vibration or oil debris data. In general, the program could be retrained to detect features of interest from pictures of a component taken over a period of time.

  8. Deletion of Osr2 Partially Rescues Tooth Development in Runx2 Mutant Mice.

    PubMed

    Kwon, H J E; Park, E K; Jia, S; Liu, H; Lan, Y; Jiang, R

    2015-08-01

    Tooth organogenesis depends on genetically programmed sequential and reciprocal inductive interactions between the dental epithelium and neural crest-derived mesenchyme. Previous studies showed that the Msx1 and Runx2 transcription factors are required for activation of odontogenic signals, including Bmp4 and Fgf3, in the early tooth mesenchyme to drive tooth morphogenesis through the bud-to-cap transition and that Runx2 acts downstream of Msx1 to activate Fgf3 expression. Recent studies identified Osr2 as a repressor of tooth development and showed that inactivation of Osr2 rescued molar tooth morphogenesis in the Msx1(-/-) mutant mice as well as in mice with neural crest-specific inactivation of Bmp4. Here we show that Runx2 expression is expanded in the tooth bud mesenchyme in Osr2(-/-) mutant mouse embryos and is partially restored in the tooth mesenchyme in Msx1(-/-)Osr2(-/-) mutants in comparison with Msx1(-/-) and wild-type embryos. Whereas mandibular molar development arrested at the bud stage and maxillary molar development arrested at the bud-to-cap transition in Runx2(-/-) mutant mice, both mandibular and maxillary molar tooth germs progressed to the early bell stage, with rescued expression of Msx1 and Bmp4 in the dental papilla as well as expression of Bmp4, p21, and Shh in the primary enamel knot in the Osr2(-/-)Runx2(-/-) compound mutants. In contrast to the Msx1(-/-)Osr2(-/-) compound mutants, which exhibit nearly normal first molar morphogenesis, the Osr2(-/-)Runx2(-/-) compound mutant embryos failed to activate the expression of Fgf3 and Fgf10 in the dental papilla and exhibited significant deficit in cell proliferation in both the dental epithelium and mesenchyme in comparison with the control embryos. These data indicate that Runx2 synergizes with Msx1 to drive tooth morphogenesis through the bud-to-cap transition and that Runx2 controls continued tooth growth and morphogenesis beyond the cap stage through activation of Fgf3 and Fgf10 expression

  9. Deletion of Osr2 Partially Rescues Tooth Development in Runx2 Mutant Mice

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, H.J.E.; Park, E.K.; Jia, S.; Liu, H.; Lan, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Tooth organogenesis depends on genetically programmed sequential and reciprocal inductive interactions between the dental epithelium and neural crest–derived mesenchyme. Previous studies showed that the Msx1 and Runx2 transcription factors are required for activation of odontogenic signals, including Bmp4 and Fgf3, in the early tooth mesenchyme to drive tooth morphogenesis through the bud-to-cap transition and that Runx2 acts downstream of Msx1 to activate Fgf3 expression. Recent studies identified Osr2 as a repressor of tooth development and showed that inactivation of Osr2 rescued molar tooth morphogenesis in the Msx1-/- mutant mice as well as in mice with neural crest–specific inactivation of Bmp4. Here we show that Runx2 expression is expanded in the tooth bud mesenchyme in Osr2-/- mutant mouse embryos and is partially restored in the tooth mesenchyme in Msx1-/-Osr2-/- mutants in comparison with Msx1-/- and wild-type embryos. Whereas mandibular molar development arrested at the bud stage and maxillary molar development arrested at the bud-to-cap transition in Runx2-/- mutant mice, both mandibular and maxillary molar tooth germs progressed to the early bell stage, with rescued expression of Msx1 and Bmp4 in the dental papilla as well as expression of Bmp4, p21, and Shh in the primary enamel knot in the Osr2-/-Runx2-/- compound mutants. In contrast to the Msx1-/-Osr2-/- compound mutants, which exhibit nearly normal first molar morphogenesis, the Osr2-/-Runx2-/- compound mutant embryos failed to activate the expression of Fgf3 and Fgf10 in the dental papilla and exhibited significant deficit in cell proliferation in both the dental epithelium and mesenchyme in comparison with the control embryos. These data indicate that Runx2 synergizes with Msx1 to drive tooth morphogenesis through the bud-to-cap transition and that Runx2 controls continued tooth growth and morphogenesis beyond the cap stage through activation of Fgf3 and Fgf10 expression in the dental

  10. Osteopathic manipulative treatment to resolve head and neck pain after tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Patricia M; Gustowski, Sharon M

    2012-07-01

    Pain is a common occurrence after tooth extraction and is usually localized to the extraction site. However, clinical experience shows that patients may also have pain in the head or neck in the weeks after this procedure. The authors present a case representative of these findings. In the case, cranial and cervical somatic dysfunction in a patient who had undergone tooth extraction was resolved through the use of osteopathic manipulative treatment. This case emphasizes the need to include a dental history when evaluating head and neck pain as part of comprehensive osteopathic medical care. The case can also serve as a foundation for a detailed discussion regarding how to effectively incorporate osteopathic manipulative treatment into primary care practice for patients who present with head or neck pain after tooth extraction.

  11. Esthetic and endosurgical management of Turner's hypoplasia; a sequlae of trauma to developing tooth germ.

    PubMed

    Bhushan, B A; Garg, S; Sharma, D; Jain, M

    2008-01-01

    Turner's hypoplasia usually manifests as a portion of missing or diminished enamel, generally affecting one or more permanent teeth in the oral cavity. A case report of 8 year old girl who met with trauma at 2 years of age leading to primary incisors being knocked out, reported after 6 years with complaint of pain and discharge in her anterior malformed teeth is discussed in this article. The permanent incisors erupted with dilacerated crown, root malformations and missing enamel. Further, patient developed sinus, lateral root pathology, tooth mobility and malocclusion in relation to affected teeth which were managed by esthetic, functional, endodontic and surgical procedure. Root canal treatment along with palatal contouring and esthetic restoration by light cure composite was performed on the tooth with crown dilaceration and sinus, where as surgical management was considered for the tooth with root malformation.

  12. Adhesion of Dental Materials to Tooth Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Sumita B.

    2000-03-01

    The understanding and proper application of the principles of adhesion has brought forth a new paradigm in the realm of esthetic dentistry. Modern restorative tooth procedures can now conserve the remaining tooth-structure and also provide for the strengthening of the tooth. Adhesive restorative techniques call for the application and curing of the dental adhesive at the interface between the tooth tissue and the filling material. Hence the success of the restoration depends largely on the integrity of this interface. The mechanism of adhesion of the bonding materials to the dental hard tissue will be discussed in this paper. There are four main steps that occur during the application of the dental adhesive to the oral hard tissues: 1) The first step is the creation of a microstructure in the tooth enamel or dentin by means of an acidic material. This can be through the application of a separate etchant or can be accomplished in situ by the adhesive/primer. This agent has to be effective in removing or modifying the proteinaceous “smear” layer, which would otherwise act as a weak boundary layer on the surface to be bonded. 2) The primer/adhesive must then be able to wet and penetrate the microstructure created in the tooth. Since the surface energies of etched enamel and that of etched dentin are different finding one material to prime both types of dental tissues can be quite challenging. 3) The ionomer types of materials, particularly those that are carboxylate ion-containing, can chemically bond with the calcium ions of the hydroxyapatite mineral. 4) Polymerization in situ allows for micromechanical interlocking of the adhesive. The importance of having the right mechanical properties of the cured adhesive layer and its role in absorbing and dissipating stresses encountered by a restored tooth will also be discussed.

  13. Prospective evaluation of immediate and delayed provisional single tooth restorations.

    PubMed

    Block, Michael S; Mercante, Donald E; Lirette, Denise; Mohamed, Waheed; Ryser, Mark; Castellon, Paulino

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this study was 2-fold: to determine whether there is a significant difference in the hard and soft tissue response comparing immediate with delayed implant placement after tooth removal, with immediate provisionalization, in maxillary anterior sites; and to determine and compare the crestal bone levels as the primary endpoint variable for implants placed and immediately temporized in extraction sites, to implants placed into extraction sites after the extraction site has been grafted and healed for 4 months, all immediately restored with an anatomic provisional restoration. This aim was to be evaluated by measuring crestal bone levels on standardized digital radiographs of the implants, using implant threads as a monitor of magnification and a pre-extraction reference. Secondary endpoint variables include soft tissue measures compared with method. A total of 76 patients were recruited and randomized into treatment groups. Group 1 had a maxillary tooth (premolar, canine, lateral or central incisor) removed, with immediate socket grafting, followed by implant placement and provisionalization 4 months later with a single tooth. Group 2 had immediate implant placement and provisionalization. Standardized radiograph holders were used to expose digital radiographs every 6 months from baseline to up to 2 years restored. Soft tissue measures were made from standardized reference points. Data collected were analyzed by a statistician to test the hypotheses. A total of 55 patients completed their follow-up. Twenty-one patients were lost to follow-up because of implant loss (n = 5), 1 treated out of protocol because of labial bone loss found at the time of tooth removal (n = 1), geographic relocation (n = 11), dropped for noncompliance (n = 3), or medical problems (n = 1). The analyses showed no significant differences between groups in implant integration or crestal interdental bone movement on either the implant or the adjacent tooth. The bone level on the

  14. Tooth Wear Prevalence and Sample Size Determination : A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Abd. Karim, Nama Bibi Saerah; Ismail, Noorliza Mastura; Naing, Lin; Ismail, Abdul Rashid

    2008-01-01

    Tooth wear is the non-carious loss of tooth tissue, which results from three processes namely attrition, erosion and abrasion. These can occur in isolation or simultaneously. Very mild tooth wear is a physiological effect of aging. This study aims to estimate the prevalence of tooth wear among 16-year old Malay school children and determine a feasible sample size for further study. Fifty-five subjects were examined clinically, followed by the completion of self-administered questionnaires. Questionnaires consisted of socio-demographic and associated variables for tooth wear obtained from the literature. The Smith and Knight tooth wear index was used to chart tooth wear. Other oral findings were recorded using the WHO criteria. A software programme was used to determine pathological tooth wear. About equal ratio of male to female were involved. It was found that 18.2% of subjects have no tooth wear, 63.6% had very mild tooth wear, 10.9% mild tooth wear, 5.5% moderate tooth wear and 1.8 % severe tooth wear. In conclusion 18.2% of subjects were deemed to have pathological tooth wear (mild, moderate & severe). Exploration with all associated variables gave a sample size ranging from 560 – 1715. The final sample size for further study greatly depends on available time and resources. PMID:22589636

  15. Glucose uptake mediated by glucose transporter 1 is essential for early tooth morphogenesis and size determination of murine molars.

    PubMed

    Ida-Yonemochi, Hiroko; Nakatomi, Mitsushiro; Harada, Hidemitsu; Takata, Hiroki; Baba, Otto; Ohshima, Hayato

    2012-03-01

    Glucose is an essential source of energy for body metabolism and is transported into cells by glucose transporters (GLUTs). Well-characterized class I GLUT is subdivided into GLUTs1-4, which are selectively expressed depending on tissue glucose requirements. However, there is no available data on the role of GLUTs during tooth development. This study aims to clarify the functional significance of class I GLUT during murine tooth development using immunohistochemistry and an in vitro organ culture experiment with an inhibitor of GLUTs1/2, phloretin, and Glut1 and Glut2 short interfering RNA (siRNA). An intense GLUT1-immunoreaction was localized in the enamel organ of bud-stage molar tooth germs, where the active cell proliferation occurred. By the bell stage, the expression of GLUT1 in the dental epithelium was dramatically decreased in intensity, and subsequently began to appear in the stratum intermedium at the late bell stage. On the other hand, GLUT2-immunoreactivity was weakly observed in the whole tooth germs throughout all stages. The inhibition of GLUTs1/2 by phloretin in the bud-stage tooth germs induced the disturbance of primary enamel knot formation, resulting in the developmental arrest of the explants and the squamous metaplasia of dental epithelial cells. Furthermore, the inhibition of GLUTs1/2 in cap-to-bell-stage tooth germs reduced tooth size in a dose dependent manner. These findings suggest that the expression of GLUT1 and GLUT2 in the dental epithelial and mesenchymal cells seems to be precisely and spatiotemporally controlled, and the glucose uptake mediated by GLUT1 plays a crucial role in the early tooth morphogenesis and tooth size determination. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The tooth, the whole tooth: an unusual fight bite with an unnoticed embedded tooth in the hand.

    PubMed

    Vijayan, Roshan; Awad, Guirgis

    2015-05-02

    A 19-year-old man presented to the plastic surgeons with a wound between his fourth and fifth metacarpophalangeal joints, with associated hand swelling and pain. He admitted to accidentally striking his brother in the mouth the previous evening. His brother reportedly made a hasty exit, and the patient dismissed the wound to his hand until waking up the next morning with swelling, pain and ascending lymphangitis. Radiographs revealed the unusual extent of his 'fight bite' injury with an entire human tooth embedded in his hand. Removal of the tooth and aggressive debridement was performed in theatre. Establishing an accurate account of events in these injuries can be difficult, with the orientation of the tooth in the soft tissues being more consistent with an uppercut than the reported jab. The patient made a good recovery following elevation, intravenous antibiotics, rigorous surgical debridement and postoperative hand therapy. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  17. Detecting Tooth Damage in Geared Drive Trains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nachtsheim, Philip R.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a method that was developed to detect gear tooth damage that does not require a priori knowledge of the frequency characteristic of the fault. The basic idea of the method is that a few damaged teeth will cause transient load fluctuations unlike the normal tooth load fluctuations. The method attempts to measure the energy in the lower side bands of the modulated signal caused by the transient load fluctuations. The method monitors the energy in the frequency interval which excludes the frequency of the lowest dominant normal tooth load fluctuation and all frequencies above it. The method reacted significantly to the tooth fracture damage results documented in the Lewis data sets which were obtained from tests of the OH-58A transmission and tests of high contact ratio spiral bevel gears. The method detected gear tooth fractures in all four of the high contact ratio spiral bevel gear runs. Published results indicate other detection methods were only able to detect faults for three out of four runs.

  18. The evolution of dinosaur tooth enamel microstructure.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sunny H

    2011-02-01

    The evolution of tooth enamel microstructure in both extinct and extant mammalian groups has been extensively documented, but is poorly known in reptiles, including dinosaurs. Previous intensive sampling of dinosaur tooth enamel microstructure revealed that: (1) the three-dimensional arrangement of enamel types and features within a tooth-the schmelzmuster-is most useful in diagnosing dinosaur clades at or around the family level; (2) enamel microstructure complexity is correlated with tooth morphology complexity and not necessarily with phylogenetic position; and (3) there is a large amount of homoplasy within Theropoda but much less within Ornithischia. In this study, the examination of the enamel microstructure of 28 additional dinosaur taxa fills in taxonomic gaps of previous studies and reinforces the aforementioned conclusions. Additionally, these new specimens reveal that within clades such as Sauropodomorpha, Neotheropoda, and Euornithopoda, the more basal taxa have simpler enamel that is a precursor to the more complex enamel of more derived taxa and that schmelzmusters evolve in a stepwise fashion. In the particularly well-sampled clade of Euornithopoda, correlations between the evolution of dental and enamel characters could be drawn. The ancestral schmelzmuster for Genasauria remains ambiguous due to the dearth of basal ornithischian teeth available for study. These new specimens provide new insights into the evolution of tooth enamel microstructure in dinosaurs, emphasizing the importance of thorough sampling within broadly inclusive clades, especially among their more basal members.

  19. [Growth factors in human tooth development].

    PubMed

    Bellone, C; Barni, T; Pagni, L; Balboni, G C; Vannelli, G B

    1990-03-01

    Our research concerns the immunohistochemical localization of EGF and IGF-I receptors in the tooth germ, using monoclonal antibodies. The results show that in the early phases of human tooth development EGF and IGF-I receptors are present. At bud stage both receptors are localized at dental laminae level, in some epithelial cells of the tooth bud and in some mesenchymal cells. At cap stage the receptors are present in the outer and inner enamel epithelium, and in some cells of stellate reticulum. As far as concerns the mesenchymal cells, some cells of dental papilla in contact with enamel organ, are intensely positive. The immunopositivity is present also in some mesenchymal cells at follicular level. At late cap stage and at early bell stage receptors are not present at inner enamel epithelium level but they can be detectable in the mesenchyma of dental papilla and in some cells of the follicle. On the basis of these results it may be hypothesized that EGF and IGF-I can act as growth factors in the modulation of cellular proliferation and differentiation during the human tooth morphogenesis. Moreover, it is possible that these substances can play a role in the mesenchymal-epithelial interaction in the developing human tooth.

  20. Malpractice claims related to tooth extractions.

    PubMed

    Koskela, Sanna; Suomalainen, Anni; Apajalahti, Satu; Ventä, Irja

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze malpractice claims related to tooth extractions in order to identify areas requiring emphasis and eventually to reduce the number of complications. We compiled a file of all malpractice claims related to tooth extractions (EBA code) between 1997 and 2010 from the Finnish Patient Insurance Centre. We then examined the data with respect to date, tooth, surgery, injury diagnosis, and the authority's decision on the case. The material consisted of 852 completed patient cases. Most of the teeth were third molars (66 %), followed by first molars (8 %), and second molars (7 %). The majority of claims were related to operative extraction (71 %) followed by ordinary extraction (17 %) and apicoectomy of a single-rooted tooth (7 %) or multi-rooted tooth (2 %). The most common diagnosis was injury of the lingual or inferior alveolar nerve. According to the authority's decision, the patient received compensation more often in cases involving a third molar than other teeth (56 vs. 46 %, P < 0.05). The removal of a mandibular third molar was the basis for the majority of malpractice claims. To reduce the numbers of lingual and inferior alveolar nerve injuries, the removal of mandibular third molars necessitates recent and high-quality panoramic radiograph, preoperative assessment of the difficulty of removal, and consciousness of the variable anatomical course of the lingual nerve.

  1. Pain experience after simple tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Al-Khateeb, Taiseer Hussain; Alnahar, Amir

    2008-05-01

    To assess pain experience after simple uncomplicated tooth extraction and to see if there is a need to prescribe analgesic drugs after such a procedure. A random sample of patients presenting for tooth extraction at the Maxillofacial Unit, Jordan University of Science and Technology was included. A baseline assessment of previously experienced general and dental pains using numeric scales was done. Subsequently, tooth extractions were done and telephone interviews were made during evenings for a week. Pain intensity was assessed on a numeric scale, and use of analgesic drugs and pain quality were recorded. At the evening of extraction 81.8% of patients had pain. Female gender predominance in pain reporting was statistically significant on postextraction days 3 and 5. Chronically inflamed teeth caused the highest mean pain intensity scores and nonsmokers showed significantly higher mean pain intensity scores compared with smokers. Mild pain was experienced by most patients (38.6%) on the evening of extraction. It was found that 55.3% of participants (largely females) used analgesic drugs on the evening of extraction, and 6.8% of participants still used analgesic drugs on day 7 postextraction. There was a significant correlation between mean pain intensity score and previous dental injection pain. Patients, notably females, experienced pain of varying intensity after simple uncomplicated tooth extraction maximally at the evening of extraction; and greater than 50% of the patients used analgesic drugs. We recommend offering regular analgesic drugs during the first week after tooth extraction.

  2. Tooth-derived bone graft material

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Kyun; Lee, Junho; Kim, Kyung-Wook; Murata, Masaru; Akazawa, Toshiyuki; Mitsugi, Masaharu

    2013-01-01

    With successful extraction of growth factors and bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) from mammalian teeth, many researchers have supported development of a bone substitute using tooth-derived substances. Some studies have also expanded the potential use of teeth as a carrier for growth factors and stem cells. A broad overview of the published findings with regard to tooth-derived regenerative tissue engineering technique is outlined. Considering more than 100 published papers, our team has developed the protocols and techniques for processing of bone graft material using extracted teeth. Based on current studies and studies that will be needed in the future, we can anticipate development of scaffolds, homogenous and xenogenous tooth bone grafts, and dental restorative materials using extracted teeth. PMID:24471027

  3. PKA regulatory subunit expression in tooth development.

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Sílvia Ferreira; Kawasaki, Katsushige; Kawasaki, Maiko; Volponi, Ana Angelova; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Gomes, Carolina Cavaliéri; Sharpe, Paul T; Ohazama, Atsushi

    2014-05-01

    Protein kinase A (PKA) plays critical roles in many biological processes including cell proliferation, cell differentiation, cellular metabolism and gene regulation. Mutation in PKA regulatory subunit, PRKAR1A has previously been identified in odontogenic myxomas, but it is unclear whether PKA is involved in tooth development. The aim of the present study was to assess the expression of alpha isoforms of PKA regulatory subunit (Prkar1a and Prkar2a) in mouse and human odontogenesis by in situ hybridization. PRKAR1A and PRKAR2A mRNA transcription was further confirmed in a human deciduous germ by qRT-PCR. Mouse Prkar1a and human PRKAR2A exhibited a dynamic spatio-temporal expression in tooth development, whereas neither human PRKAR1A nor mouse Prkar2a showed their expression in odontogenesis. These isoforms thus showed different expression pattern between human and mouse tooth germs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Dose rate assessment in tooth enamel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wieser, A.; Göksu, H. Y.; Regulla, D. F.; Vogenauer, A.

    A mammoth found in the southern part of Germany was dated by ESR spectroscopy. This dating method is based on the measurement of the accumulated dose in tooth enamel and assessment of the annual dose. The accumulated dose is obtained from the radiation induced ESR signal at g = 2.0018 of the enamel. The annual dose was first determined by measuring the 238U, 232Th and 40K content of the tooth and of the surrounding soil. As a crosscheck, the dose rate from the tooth was measured by inserting TL dosimeters in the dentine and storing them at 'zero' background in a salt mine. The cosmic dose rate and the gamma dose rate from the soil was evaluated from TL dosimeters buried at the excavation site. The results are discussed with respect to the applicability of ESR dating on teeth.

  5. Whole Tooth Regeneration as a Future Dental Treatment.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Masamitsu; Tsuji, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Dental problems caused by dental caries, periodontal disease and tooth injury compromise the oral and general health issues. Current advances for the development of regenerative therapy have been influenced by our understanding of embryonic development, stem cell biology, and tissue engineering technology. Tooth regenerative therapy for tooth tissue repair and whole tooth replacement is currently expected a novel therapeutic concept with the full recovery of tooth physiological functions. Dental stem cells and cell-activating cytokines are thought to be candidate approach for tooth tissue regeneration because they have the potential to differentiate into tooth tissues in vitro and in vivo. Whole tooth replacement therapy is considered to be an attractive concept for next generation regenerative therapy as a form of bioengineered organ replacement. For realization of whole tooth regeneration, we have developed a novel three-dimensional cell manipulation method designated the "organ germ method". This method involves compartmentalisation of epithelial and mesenchymal cells at a high cell density to mimic multicellular assembly conditions and epithelial-mesenchymal interactions in organogenesis. The bioengineered tooth germ generates a structurally correct tooth in vitro, and erupted successfully with correct tooth structure when transplanted into the oral cavity. We have ectopically generated a bioengineered tooth unit composed of a mature tooth, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, and that tooth unit was engrafted into an adult jawbone through bone integration. Bioengineered teeth were also able to perform physiological tooth functions such as mastication, periodontal ligament function and response to noxious stimuli. In this review, we describe recent findings and technologies underpinning whole tooth regenerative therapy.

  6. Tooth-on-tooth interlocking occlusion suggests macrophagy in the mesozoic marine crocodylomorph dakosaurus.

    PubMed

    Young, Mark T; Brusatte, Stephen L; Beatty, Brian L; De Andrade, Marco Brandalise; Desojo, Julia B

    2012-07-01

    Metriorhynchidae was a peculiar but long-lived group of marine Mesozoic crocodylomorphs adapted to a pelagic lifestyle. Recent discoveries show that metriorhynchids evolved a wide range of craniodental morphotypes and inferred feeding strategies. One genus, Dakosaurus, is arguably the most aberrant marine crocodylomorph due to its large, robust, ziphodont teeth; very low tooth count; and brevirostrine/oreinirostral snout. We here report an additional unusual feature of Dakosaurus that is unique among marine crocodylomorphs: tightly fitting tooth-to-tooth occlusion, whose inference is supported by reception pits along the upper and lower tooth rows, indicative of vertically orientated crowns that were in close contact during occlusion, and three distinct types of dental wear. These include irregular spalled surfaces near the apex (probably caused by tooth-food contact), semi-circular wear near the base, and elongate surfaces extending along the mesial and distal margins of the teeth, obliterating the carinae (including the denticles). Scanning electron micrographs show that these latter surfaces are marked by parallel apicobasal striations, which in extant mammals reflect tooth-tooth contact. As such, we interpret the carinal wear facets in Dakosaurus as being formed by repeated tooth-tooth contact between the mesial and distal margins of the teeth of the upper and lower jaw. We posit that this increased the available shearing surface on their high crowns. Together, these wear patterns suggest that occlusion in Dakosaurus was specialized for cutting large and abrasive prey items into portions small enough to swallow, making it a prime example of an aquatic reptile with macrophagous feeding habits.

  7. Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease and vincristine.

    PubMed

    Orejana-García, Angel M; Pascual-Huerta, Javier; Pérez-Melero, Andrés

    2003-01-01

    This article reports on a case of sensorimotor neuropathy in a 55-year-old man that developed after vincristine therapy. Subsequent biopsy of the sural nerve and electromyographic studies revealed the presence of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease. Only 17 patients who developed severe neuropathy with very low accumulated doses of vincristine have been described in the literature. Pain and lateral ankle instability were treated with a functional orthosis. Orthopedic treatment and the biomechanical basis of foot and ankle problems in patients with vincristine therapy-induced Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease are discussed.

  8. Molecular and structural assessment of alveolar bone during tooth eruption and function in the miniature pig, Sus scrofa

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Kuang-Dah; Popowics, Tracy

    2011-01-01

    Summary The development of alveolar bone adjacent to the tooth root during tooth eruption is not well understood. This study tested the hypothesis that predominantly woven bone forms adjacent to tooth roots during tooth eruption, but that this immature structure transitions to lamellar bone when the tooth comes into function. Additionally, bone resorption was predicted to play a key role in transitioning immature bone to more mature, load-bearing tissue. Miniature pigs were compared at two occlusal stages, 13 weeks (n=3), corresponding with the mucosal penetration stage of M1 tooth eruption, and 23 weeks (n=3), corresponding with early occlusion of M1/M1. Bone samples for RNA extraction and qRT-PCR analysis were harvested from the diastema and adjacent to M1 roots on one side. Following euthanasia, bone samples for hematoxylin and eosin and TRAP staining were harvested from these regions on the other side. In contrast to expectations, both erupting and functioning molars had reticular fibrolamellar structure in alveolar bone adjacent to M1. However, the woven bone matrix in older pigs was thicker and had denser primary osteons. Gene expression data and osteoclast cell counts showed a tendency for more bone resorptive activity near the molars than at distant sites, but no differences between eruptive stages. Thus, although resorption does occur, it is not a primary mechanism in the transition in alveolar bone from eruption to function. Incremental growth of existing woven bone and filling in of primary osteons within the mineralized scaffold generated the fortification necessary to support an erupted and functioning tooth. PMID:21434979

  9. Dietary and social characteristics of children with severe tooth decay.

    PubMed

    Cameron, F L; Weaver, L T; Wright, C M; Welbury, R R

    2006-08-01

    Dental decay remains a major public health problem in Scottish children. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between diet, bowel habit, social class, and body mass index (BMI) in children with severe tooth decay. A cross sectional study of 165 children aged 3 -11 years attending Glasgow Dental Hospital for extraction of teeth under dental general anaesthesia (DGA), was undertaken. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain information from each child on diet, bowel habit, and social status of their parents. Fibre and sugar scores were calculated from the frequency of consumption of a range of relevant foods. The children (mean age 5.7 (SD1.8) years) had between 1 and 20 decayed, missing or filled primary teeth (dmft) with a mean dmft of 7.9 (SD 3.5). 37% ate a chocolate bar daily, and 29% regularly drank a sugary drink after brushing their teeth. An excess of children were from the most deprived parts of the city and they had the worst decay. Children with the worst decay were also significantly thinner. No relationship was found between tooth decay and bowel habit. In this selected group of children with poor dental health, those from deprived families were over-represented and had significantly more decay. Severe dental decay was also associated with underweight.

  10. Seal Out Tooth Decay: A Fact Sheet for Parents

    MedlinePlus

    ... for getting sealants is to avoid tooth decay. • Fluoride in toothpaste and in drinking water protects the ... other ways to prevent tooth decay? Yes. Using fluoride toothpaste and drinking fluoridated water can help protect ...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3590 - Preformed plastic denture tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3590 Preformed plastic denture tooth. (a) Identification. A preformed plastic denture tooth is a prefabricated device, composed of materials such as methyl...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended to be painted...

  13. Are interventions for accelerating orthodontic tooth movement effective?

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Mohamed-Nur; Flores-Mir, Carlos

    2014-12-01

    Pubmed, Embase, Sciences Citation Index, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) and grey literature database of SIGLE were searched from January 1, 1990 to August 20, 2011 with no language restrictions. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) or quasi-RCTs in which the participants were healthy and received additional interventions to conventional orthodontic treatment for accelerating tooth movements were included. Subjects with defects in oral and maxillofacial regions (ie, cleft lip/palate), dental pathologies and medical conditions were excluded. Studies were selected by two independent reviewers and disagreements were resolved by discussion with a third reviewer. The primary outcomes included accumulative moved distance (AMD) or movement rate (MR) and time required to move the tooth to its destination. Secondary outcomes were pain improvement, anchorage loss, periodontal health, orthodontic caries, pulp vitality and root resorption. The reviewers performed statistical pooling, where possible, according to a priori criteria on the basis of comparability of patient type, treatments and outcomes measured and risk of bias. The reviewers tested for heterogeneity, publication bias and sensitivity. A quality assessment test was conducted to evaluate the method used to measure AMD. The authors selected seven RCTs and two quasi-RCTs, which included a total of 101 patients with an age range of 12-26.3 years. Eight studies compared four intervention methods to no intervention group (control group). From them, four studies assessed low laser therapy (LLL), two evaluated corticotomy (CC), one assessed electrical current therapy (EC) and one evaluated pulsed electromagnetic field (PEF). Another study compared dentoalveolar distraction (DAD) vs periodontal distraction (PDD).Quality assessment scores showed that only two studies were of high quality, five studies were of medium quality, while two studies were of low quality. All studies, except one, compared

  14. Masticatory ability and functional tooth units in Japanese adults.

    PubMed

    Ueno, M; Yanagisawa, T; Shinada, K; Ohara, S; Kawaguchi, Y

    2008-05-01

    The purposes of this study were (i) to examine the relationship between the number of natural teeth and the number of functional tooth units in Japanese adults, (ii) to evaluate how functional tooth units relate to subjective masticatory ability and (iii) to determine the minimum number of natural teeth and functional tooth units needed to maintain adequate self-assessed chewing function. A self-administered questionnaire was given and dental examination was conducted for 2164 residents aged 40 to 75 years. Counts were made on the number of functional tooth units of natural teeth (n-functional tooth units), the sum of natural teeth and artificial teeth on implant-supported and fixed prostheses (nif-functional tooth units) and the sum of natural teeth and artificial teeth on implant-supported, fixed and removable prostheses (total-functional tooth units). The average number of natural teeth, n-functional tooth units and nif-functional tooth units decreased with age, but these were often replaced by functional tooth units from artificial teeth on removable prostheses. Total-functional tooth units in 50-59 year old people were slightly lower compared with those in other age groups. Subjects who reported that they could chew every food item on an average had 23.4 total natural teeth, 12.6 posterior natural teeth, 7.6 n-functional tooth units, 8.6 nif-functional tooth units and 10.4 total-functional tooth units, and subjects without chewing difficulties had fewer functional tooth units from removable prostheses. Maintaining 20 and more natural teeth and at least eight nif-functional tooth units is important in reducing the likelihood of self-assessed chewing difficulties.

  15. A panorama of tooth wear during the medieval period.

    PubMed

    Esclassan, Rémi; Hadjouis, Djillali; Donat, Richard; Passarrius, Olivier; Maret, Delphine; Vaysse, Frédéric; Crubézy, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Tooth wear is a natural phenomenon and a universal occurrence that has existed from the origin of humankind and depends on the way of life, especially diet. Tooth wear was very serious in ancient populations up to the medieval period. The aim of this paper is to present a global view of tooth wear in medieval times in Europe through different parameters: scoring systems, quantity and direction of wear, gender, differences between maxilla and mandible, relations with diet, caries, tooth malpositions and age.

  16. Use of Metallic Endosseous Implants as a Tooth Substitute

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-11-25

    REPORT NUMBER 4 USE OF METALLIC ENDOSSEOUS IMPLANTS AS A TOOTH SUBSTITUTE ANNUAL REPORT Marvin B. Weiss, D.D.S., and William Rostoker, PhD. November...70-C-0114 USE OF METALLIC ENDOSSEOUS IMPLANTS AS A TOOTH SUBSTITUTE INTRODUCTION: OBJECTIVE The object of the study is to evaluate the viability of an...artificial metallic prosthesis as a tooth replacement when placed permanently in- to the jaw bone. The tooth substitute consists of two parts; (1) the

  17. Low-energy laser stimulates tooth movement velocity via expression of RANK and RANKL.

    PubMed

    Fujita, S; Yamaguchi, M; Utsunomiya, T; Yamamoto, H; Kasai, K

    2008-08-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that low-energy laser irradiation stimulates bone formation in vitro and in vivo. However, very little is known about the effects of laser irradiation on osteoclastogenesis. The receptor activator of the nuclear factor-kB (RANK) / RANK ligand (RANKL) / osteoprotegerin (OPG) system is essential and sufficient for osteoclastogenesis. The present study was designed to examine the effects of low-energy laser irradiation on expressions of RANK, RANKL, and OPG during experimental tooth movement. To induce experimental tooth movement in rats, 10 g of orthodontic force was applied to the molars. Next, a Ga-Al-As diode laser was used to irradiate the area around the moved tooth and the amount of tooth movement was measured for 7 days. Immunohistochemical staining with RANK, RANKL, and OPG was performed. Real time PCR was also performed to elucidate the expression of RANK in irradiated rat osteoclast precursor cells in vitro. In the irradiation group, the amount of tooth movement was significantly greater than in the non-irradiation group by the end of the experimental period. Cells that showed positive immunoreactions to the primary antibodies of RANKL and RANK were significantly increased in the irradiation group on day 2 and 3, compared with the non-irradiation group. In contrast, the expression of OPG was not changed. Further, RANK expression in osteoclast precursor cells was detected at an early stage (day 2 and 3) in the irradiation group. These findings suggest that low-energy laser irradiation stimulates the velocity of tooth movement via induction of RANK and RANKL.

  18. Adult tooth loss for residents of US coal mining and Appalachian counties.

    PubMed

    Hendryx, Michael; Ducatman, Alan M; Zullig, Keith J; Ahern, Melissa M; Crout, Richard

    2012-12-01

    The authors compared rates of tooth loss between adult residents of Appalachian coal-mining areas and other areas of the nation before and after control for covariate risks. The authors conducted a cross-sectional secondary data analysis that merged 2006 national Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data (BRFSS) (N = 242 184) with county coal-mining data and other county characteristics. The hypothesis tested was that adult tooth loss would be greater in Appalachian mining areas after control for other risks. Primary independent variables included main effects for coal-mining present (yes/no) residence in Appalachia (yes/no), and their interaction. Data were weighted using the BRFSS final weights and analyzed using SUDAAN Proc Multilog to account for the multilevel complex sampling structure. The odds of two measures of tooth loss were examined controlling for age, race\\ethnicity, drinking, smoking, income, education, supply of dentists, receipt of dental care, fluoridation rate, and other variables. After covariate adjustment, the interaction variable for the residents of Appalachian coal-mining counties showed a significantly elevated odds for any tooth loss [odds ratio (OR) = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.02, 1.38], and greater tooth loss measured by a 4-level edentulism scale (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.36). The main effect for Appalachia was also significant for both measures, but the main effect for coal mining was not. Greater risk of tooth loss among adult residents of Appalachian coal-mining areas is present and is not explained by differences in reported receipt of dental care, fluoridation rates, supply of dentists or other behavioral or socioeconomic risks. Possible contributing factors include mining-specific disparities related to access, behavior or environmental exposures. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  19. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A...

  1. 21 CFR 872.5525 - Preformed tooth positioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preformed tooth positioner. 872.5525 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5525 Preformed tooth positioner. (a) Identification. A preformed tooth positioner is a plastic device that is an impression of a perfected...

  2. 21 CFR 872.5525 - Preformed tooth positioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preformed tooth positioner. 872.5525 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5525 Preformed tooth positioner. (a) Identification. A preformed tooth positioner is a plastic device that is an impression of a perfected...

  3. 21 CFR 872.5525 - Preformed tooth positioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preformed tooth positioner. 872.5525 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5525 Preformed tooth positioner. (a) Identification. A preformed tooth positioner is a plastic device that is an impression of a perfected...

  4. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A...

  5. 21 CFR 872.5525 - Preformed tooth positioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preformed tooth positioner. 872.5525 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5525 Preformed tooth positioner. (a) Identification. A preformed tooth positioner is a plastic device that is an impression of a perfected...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended to be...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A...

  8. 21 CFR 872.5525 - Preformed tooth positioner.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preformed tooth positioner. 872.5525 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 872.5525 Preformed tooth positioner. (a) Identification. A preformed tooth positioner is a plastic device that is an impression of a perfected...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended to be...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification. A resin tooth bonding agent is a device material, such as methylmethacrylate, intended to be...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3690 - Tooth shade resin material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tooth shade resin material. 872.3690 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3690 Tooth shade resin material. (a) Identification. Tooth shade resin material is a device composed of materials such as bisphenol-A...

  12. The Importance of Tooth Decay Prevention in Children under Three

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen; Chi, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Tooth decay and tooth loss was once the norm but public health interventions have led to major improvements for most people. Nevertheless, not all children have benefited. Dental disease in young children is unacceptably high. Tooth decay is preventable. Early childhood educators are often the first to notice the problem. Professional…

  13. The Importance of Tooth Decay Prevention in Children under Three

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milgrom, Peter; Huebner, Colleen; Chi, Donald

    2010-01-01

    Tooth decay and tooth loss was once the norm but public health interventions have led to major improvements for most people. Nevertheless, not all children have benefited. Dental disease in young children is unacceptably high. Tooth decay is preventable. Early childhood educators are often the first to notice the problem. Professional…

  14. 21 CFR 872.3580 - Preformed gold denture tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preformed gold denture tooth. 872.3580 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3580 Preformed gold denture tooth. (a) Identification. A preformed gold denture tooth is a device composed of austenitic alloys or alloys containing...

  15. 21 CFR 872.3580 - Preformed gold denture tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preformed gold denture tooth. 872.3580 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3580 Preformed gold denture tooth. (a) Identification. A preformed gold denture tooth is a device composed of austenitic alloys or alloys containing...

  16. 21 CFR 872.3580 - Preformed gold denture tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preformed gold denture tooth. 872.3580 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3580 Preformed gold denture tooth. (a) Identification. A preformed gold denture tooth is a device composed of austenitic alloys or alloys containing...

  17. 21 CFR 872.3580 - Preformed gold denture tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preformed gold denture tooth. 872.3580 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3580 Preformed gold denture tooth. (a) Identification. A preformed gold denture tooth is a device composed of austenitic alloys or alloys containing...

  18. 21 CFR 872.3580 - Preformed gold denture tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preformed gold denture tooth. 872.3580 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3580 Preformed gold denture tooth. (a) Identification. A preformed gold denture tooth is a device composed of austenitic alloys or alloys containing...

  19. Complications following replantation of a primary incisor: a cautionary tale.

    PubMed

    Al-Khayatt, A S; Davidson, L E

    2005-06-11

    The replantation of avulsed primary incisors is contra-indicated. This case describes an 8-year-old child who six years previously had avulsed and had replanted a primary central incisor. At presentation, this tooth was retained, the permanent successor had failed to erupt and appearance of the adjacent lateral incisor was notably delayed. Investigation revealed a radicular cyst in relation to the replanted deciduous incisor together with severe displacement of the permanent tooth, which could not be saved.

  20. Computerized Inspection Of Gear-Tooth Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, R. F.; Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, Y.; Kuan, C.

    1994-01-01

    Method of manufacturing gears with precisely shaped teeth involves computerized inspection of gear-tooth surfaces followed by adjustments of machine-tool settings to minimize deviations between real and theoretical versions of surfaces. Thus, iterated cycles of cutting gear teeth, inspection, and adjustments help increase and/or maintain precision of subsequently manufactured gears.

  1. Effect of endodontic sealers on tooth color.

    PubMed

    Meincke, Débora Könzgen; Prado, Maíra; Gomes, Brenda Paula Figueiredo; Bona, Alvaro Della; Sousa, Ezilmara Leonor Rolim

    2013-08-01

    One of the goals of endodontic treatment is the adequate filling of the root canal,which is often done using gutta-percha and sealer. It has been reported that sealer remnants in the coronary pulp chamber cause tooth color changes. Therefore, this study was designed to examine the effect of endodontic sealer remnants on tooth color, testing the hypothesis that sealers cause coronal color changes. Forty single-rooted human teeth were endodontically treated leaving excess sealer material in the coronary pulp chamber. The specimens were divided into four groups (n = 10) according to the endodontic sealer used (AH, AH Plus; EF, Endofill; EN,endome´ thasoneN; and S26, Sealer 26). Teeth were stored at 37 8C moist environment.Color coordinates (L*a*b*) were measured with a spectrophotometer before endodontic treatment(baseline-control), 24 h and 6 months after treatment. L*a*b* values were used to calculate color changes (DE). Data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney-U tests. Color changes were observed for all groups with S26 and EN producing the greatest mean DE values after 6 months. Endodontic sealer remnants affect tooth color confirming the experimental hypothesis. This study examined the effect of endodontic sealer remnants on tooth color, and observed that after 6 months, the sealers produced unacceptable color changes. 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Tooth rotation and alveolar bone loss.

    PubMed

    Peretz, B; Machtei, E E

    1996-07-01

    Tooth rotation and periodontal breakdown has not been thoroughly studied due to lack of quantitative tools. The purpose of the present study was to examine this correlation, with respect to alveolar bone loss, from direct observation of 17 skulls. A photograph of the mandibular occlusal plane was taken from a fixed reference point, and the midcentral fossa and the extreme mesial and distal points of each tooth were marked on the photograph. A computer program established the arch form of each mandibular from the midtooth landmarks. The angle between individual teeth and the arch (at any given point) was calculated. Bone loss, indicated by the distance of the bone crest from the cementoenamel junction, was measured at six reference points around each tooth with a caliper. A positive correlation, through weak, was found between increased tooth rotation and greater bone loss. Mean bone loss of teeth with rotation of 20 degrees and greater was 4.03 mm, while that of teeth with less than 20 degrees of rotation was 3.49 mm.

  3. Autotransplantation donor tooth site harvesting using piezosurgery

    PubMed Central

    Ylikontiola, Leena P.; Sándor, George K.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The harvesting of a tooth as a candidate for tooth autotransplantation requires that the delicate dental tissues around the tooth be minimally traumatized. This is especially so for the periradicular tissues of the tooth root and the follicular tissues surrounding the crown. The aim of this report is to describe the use of piezosurgery as an attempt at morbidity reduction in the harvesting of teeth for autotransplantation. Methods: A piezosurgical handpiece and its selection of tips were easily adapted to allow the harvesting and delivery of teeth for autotransplantation purposes. Results: Twenty premolar teeth were harvested using a piezosurgical device. The harvested teeth were subsequently successfully autotransplanted. All twenty teeth healed in a satisfactory manner without excessive mobility or ankyloses. Conclusions: Piezosurgery avoids some of the traumatic aspects of harvesting teeth and removing bone which are associated with thermal damage from the use of conventional rotary instruments or saws. Piezosurgery can be adapted to facilitate the predictable harvesting of teeth for autotransplantation purposes. PMID:27563612

  4. Tooth wear: diet analysis and advice.

    PubMed

    Young, William George

    2005-04-01

    Diet analysis and advice for patients with tooth wear is potentially the most logical intervention to arrest attrition, erosion and abrasion. It is saliva that protects the teeth against corrosion by the acids which soften enamel and make it susceptible to wear. Thus the lifestyles and diet of patients at risk need to be analysed for sources of acid and reasons for lost salivary protection. Medical conditions which put patients at risk of tooth wear are principally: asthma, bulimia nervosa, caffeine addiction, diabetes mellitus, exercise dehydration, functional depression, gastroesophageal reflux in alcoholism, hypertension and syndromes with salivary hypofunction. The sources of acid are various, but loss of salivary protection is the common theme. In healthy young Australians, soft drinks are the main source of acid, and exercise dehydration the main reason for loss of salivary protection. In the medically compromised, diet acids and gastroesophageal reflux are the sources, but medications are the main reasons for lost salivary protection. Diet advice for patients with tooth wear must: promote a healthy lifestyle and diet strategy that conserves the teeth by natural means of salivary stimulation; and address the specific needs of the patients' oral and medical conditions. Individualised, patient-empowering erosion WATCH strategies; on Water, Acid, Taste, Calcium and Health, are urgently required to combat the emerging epidemic of tooth wear currently being experienced in westernised societies.

  5. Dynamic Tooth Loads for Spur Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornell, R.; Westervelt, W.

    1986-01-01

    Computer program developed using time-history, interactive, closed-form solution for dynamic tooth loads for both low- and high-contact-ratio spur gears. Facilitates application of high-contact-ratio spur gear concepts. Program written in FORTRAN IV.

  6. Computed tomography to quantify tooth abrasion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kofmehl, Lukas; Schulz, Georg; Deyhle, Hans; Filippi, Andreas; Hotz, Gerhard; Berndt-Dagassan, Dorothea; Kramis, Simon; Beckmann, Felix; Müller, Bert

    2010-09-01

    Cone-beam computed tomography, also termed digital volume tomography, has become a standard technique in dentistry, allowing for fast 3D jaw imaging including denture at moderate spatial resolution. More detailed X-ray images of restricted volumes for post-mortem studies in dental anthropology are obtained by means of micro computed tomography. The present study evaluates the impact of the pipe smoking wear on teeth morphology comparing the abraded tooth with its contra-lateral counterpart. A set of 60 teeth, loose or anchored in the jaw, from 12 dentitions have been analyzed. After the two contra-lateral teeth were scanned, one dataset has been mirrored before the two datasets were registered using affine and rigid registration algorithms. Rigid registration provides three translational and three rotational parameters to maximize the overlap of two rigid bodies. For the affine registration, three scaling factors are incorporated. Within the present investigation, affine and rigid registrations yield comparable values. The restriction to the six parameters of the rigid registration is not a limitation. The differences in size and shape between the tooth and its contra-lateral counterpart generally exhibit only a few percent in the non-abraded volume, validating that the contralateral tooth is a reasonable approximation to quantify, for example, the volume loss as the result of long-term clay pipe smoking. Therefore, this approach allows quantifying the impact of the pipe abrasion on the internal tooth morphology including root canal, dentin, and enamel volumes.

  7. Roles of Bmp4 during tooth morphogenesis and sequential tooth formation

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Shihai; Zhou, Jing; Gao, Yang; Baek, Jin-A; Martin, James F.; Lan, Yu; Jiang, Rulang

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that Bmp4 is a key Msx1-dependent mesenchymal odontogenic signal for driving tooth morphogenesis through the bud-to-cap transition. Whereas all tooth germs were arrested at the bud stage in Msx1–/– mice, we show that depleting functional Bmp4 mRNAs in the tooth mesenchyme, through neural crest-specific gene inactivation in Bmp4f/f;Wnt1Cre mice, caused mandibular molar developmental arrest at the bud stage but allowed maxillary molars and incisors to develop to mineralized teeth. We found that expression of Osr2, which encodes a zinc finger protein that antagonizes Msx1-mediated activation of odontogenic mesenchyme, was significantly upregulated in the molar tooth mesenchyme in Bmp4f/f;Wnt1Cre embryos. Msx1 heterozygosity enhanced maxillary molar developmental defects whereas Osr2 heterozygosity partially rescued mandibular first molar morphogenesis in Bmp4f/f;Wnt1Cre mice. Moreover, in contrast to complete lack of supernumerary tooth initiation in Msx1–/–Osr2–/– mice, Osr2–/–Bmp4f/f;Wnt1Cre compound mutant mice exhibited formation and subsequent arrest of supernumerary tooth germs that correlated with downregulation of Msx1 expression in the tooth mesenchyme. In addition, we found that the Wnt inhibitors Dkk2 and Wif1 were much more abundantly expressed in the mandibular than maxillary molar mesenchyme in wild-type embryos and that Dkk2 expression was significantly upregulated in the molar mesenchyme in Bmp4f/f;Wnt1Cre embryos, which correlated with the dramatic differences in maxillary and mandibular molar phenotypes in Bmp4f/f;Wnt1Cre mice. Together, these data indicate that Bmp4 signaling suppresses tooth developmental inhibitors in the tooth mesenchyme, including Dkk2 and Osr2, and synergizes with Msx1 to activate mesenchymal odontogenic potential for tooth morphogenesis and sequential tooth formation. PMID:23250216

  8. The art and science of tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Kugel, Gerard; Ferreira, Susana

    2005-01-01

    Although tooth whitening is one of the most popular dental procedures, it is also one of the least understood. We are still unclear as to its mechanism of action. There is little data as to the effects of both concentration and dose on outcome. The techniques for measuring color change have been brought into question. The cause(s) of sensitivity and the effects of long-term exposure to hydrogen peroxide are not clear. The issue of rebound in color has not been well examined, and issues related to maintenance of the whitening effect are also poorly understood. The immediate placement of composite resin on bleached teeth has been controversial. According to a study evaluating the shear bond strength of composite restorations placed on bleached and nonbleached teeth, there was no statistically significant difference when the composites were placed at 24 hours, 48 hours, four days, or six days. A different study, which evaluated the effects of take-home bleaching systems on enamel surfaces, suggests that a period of four days must elapse before bonding to a tooth bleached with a peroxide material, while no delay is necessary for a non-peroxide-based bleaching system. Most recently, there has been a push to find ways to accelerate and improve the delivery of the whitening process. These include the application of a number of different light sources believed to accelerate the breakdown of peroxide and thus speed up the whitening process. However, the research in this area has been controversial, with publications having quite different conclusions as to the efficacy of light-activated bleaching. Finally, the issues of adverse events and possible side effects were reviewed. The toxicological side effects of tooth bleaching systems seem to be minimal. However, tooth sensitivity can be quite significant. Although its causes are poorly understood, tooth sensitivity is most often seen as the result of tooth dehydration. So while patient demand for tooth whitening is at an all

  9. Developing a biomimetic tooth bud model.

    PubMed

    Smith, Elizabeth E; Zhang, Weibo; Schiele, Nathan R; Khademhosseini, Ali; Kuo, Catherine K; Yelick, Pamela C

    2017-01-08

    A long-term goal is to bioengineer, fully functional, living teeth for regenerative medicine and dentistry applications. Biologically based replacement teeth would avoid insufficiencies of the currently used dental implants. Using natural tooth development as a guide, a model was fabricated using post-natal porcine dental epithelial (pDE), porcine dental mesenchymal (pDM) progenitor cells, and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) encapsulated within gelatin methacrylate (GelMA) hydrogels. Previous publications have shown that post-natal DE and DM cells seeded onto synthetic scaffolds exhibited mineralized tooth crowns composed of dentin and enamel. However, these tooth structures were small and formed within the pores of the scaffolds. The present study shows that dental cell-encapsulated GelMA constructs can support mineralized dental tissue formation of predictable size and shape. Individually encapsulated pDE or pDM cell GelMA constructs were analysed to identify formulas that supported pDE and pDM cell attachment, spreading, metabolic activity, and neo-vasculature formation with co-seeded endothelial cells (HUVECs). GelMa constructs consisting of pDE-HUVECS in 3% GelMA and pDM-HUVECs within 5% GelMA supported dental cell differentiation and vascular mineralized dental tissue formation in vivo. These studies are the first to demonstrate the use of GelMA hydrogels to support the formation of post-natal dental progenitor cell-derived mineralized and functionally vascularized tissues of specified size and shape. These results introduce a novel three-dimensional biomimetic tooth bud model for eventual bioengineered tooth replacement teeth in humans. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Orthodontic tooth movement after different coxib therapies.

    PubMed

    de Carlos, Felix; Cobo, Juan; Perillan, Carmen; Garcia, Miguel A; Arguelles, Juan; Vijande, Manuel; Costales, Marina

    2007-12-01

    Anti-inflammatory substances used for treatment of pain and discomfort related to orthodontic treatment (OT) could slow down tooth movement. Selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors are an alternative to conventional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The aim of this study was to compare different coxibs on dental movement in the rat. Twenty-eight Wistar male rats (3 months old) divided into four experimental groups were studied: (1) Five rats underwent a 50 g coil spring implantation and received three injections of 0.5 mg/kg body weight (bw) of Rofecoxib in the maxillary gingiva, close to the first molar, on the day of implantation and after 3 and 5 days. Similar procedures were carried out (2) on six animals receiving 8 mg/kg bw of Celecoxib and (3) on five animals receiving 25 mg/kg bw of Parecoxib. (4) For the controls, 12 rats received the same OT but only equivolumetric 0.9 per cent saline solution injections. Tooth movement was measured on lateral cranial teleradiographs after 10 days of treatment. Non-parametric standard techniques (Wilcoxon, H, and Mann-Whitney, U) were used for statistical analysis. Mesial tooth displacement in the control animals was 0.33 +/- 0.07 mm. While no movement was found in rats treated with Rofecoxib, the Celecoxib- and Parecoxib-treated rats showed tooth movement of 0.42 +/- 0.09 mm and 0.22 +/- 0.04 mm, respectively. The differences were statistically significant (H = 13.07; P < 0.004). Celecoxib and Parecoxib, but not Rofecoxib, seem appropriate for discomfort and pain relief while avoiding interference during tooth movement.

  11. Analysis of the soluble human tooth proteome and its ability to induce dentin/tooth regeneration.

    PubMed

    Chun, So Young; Lee, Hyo Jung; Choi, Young Ae; Kim, Kyung Min; Baek, Sang Heum; Park, Hyo Sang; Kim, Jae-Young; Ahn, Jung-Mo; Cho, Je-Yeol; Cho, Dong-Woo; Shin, Hong-In; Park, Eui Kyun

    2011-01-01

    While the soluble proteins of human teeth consist of various extracellular matrix and bioactive proteins, they have not yet been characterized fully. Moreover, the role they play in tooth regeneration is not clear. Analysis of the soluble proteins in human teeth by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed 147 different ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid-soluble tooth proteins (ESTPs). Of these, 29 had not been shown previously to be present in human teeth. To determine their effect on the in vitro responses of dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs), DPSCs were cultured in ESTP-coated culture plates and three-dimensional scaffolds. The ESTPs significantly enhanced DPSC odontoblast differentiation and mineralization in vitro, but had only partial effect on bone marrow stem cells or adipose tissue stem cells. To test the effect of ESTPs on in vivo dentin and tooth formation, mouse embryonic tooth-forming primordia and xenogenic murine apical bud epithelium/human DPSC composites were treated with ESTPs before implantation under the renal capsule of ICR mice. ESTP treatment promoted the formation of morphologically normal teeth by the tooth-forming primordium regions and enhanced the development of a regular and large dentin structure by the composites. These observations suggest that human ESTPs contain dentinogenic proteins and can promote dentin and tooth formation.

  12. Effect of Fluoridated Sealants on Adjacent Tooth Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Cagetti, M.G.; Carta, G.; Cocco, F.; Sale, S.; Congiu, G.; Mura, A.; Strohmenger, L.; Lingström, P.; Campus, G.

    2014-01-01

    A double-blind randomized clinical trial was performed in 6- to 7-yr-old schoolchildren to evaluate, in a 30-mo period, whether the caries increment on the distal surface of the second primary molars adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with fluoride release compounds would be lower with respect to those adjacent to permanent first molars sealed with a nonfluoridated sealant. In sum, 2,776 subjects were enrolled and randomly divided into 3 groups receiving sealants on sound first molars: high-viscosity glass ionomer cement (GIC group); resin-based sealant with fluoride (fluoride-RB group); and a resin-based sealant without fluoride (RB group). Caries (D1 – D3 level) was recorded on the distal surface of the second primary molar, considered the unit of analysis including only sound surfaces at the baseline. At baseline, no differences in caries prevalence were recorded in the 3 groups regarding the considered surfaces. At follow-up, the prevalence of an affected unit of analysis was statistically lower (p = .03) in the GIC and fluoride-RB groups (p = .04). In the GIC group, fewer new caries were observed in the unit of analysis respect to the other 2 groups. Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) were 0.70 (95% confidence interval: 0.50, 0.68; p < .01) for GIC vs. RB and 0.79 (95% confidence interval: 0.53, 1.04; p = .005) for fluoride-RB vs. RB. Caries incidence was significantly associated with low socioeconomic status (IRR = 1.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.10, 1.42; p = .05). Dental sealant high-viscosity GIC and fluoride-RB demonstrated protection against dental caries, and there was evidence that these materials afforded additional protection for the tooth nearest to the sealed tooth (clinical trial registration NCT01588210). PMID:24846910

  13. Relationship between growth and the pattern of tooth initiation in alligator embryos.

    PubMed

    Osborn, J W

    1998-09-01

    The temporal and spatial patterns in which teeth are initiated in the growing jaws of embryos are constant for a species but different for different species. The sources of the patterns have been explained in two ways. First, they are the outcome of reactions between molecules created at stationary targets and those which diffuse through embryonic tissues (e.g., Edmund, 1960). Second, Osborn (1978) supposed that the patterns mirror the way a (mixed) population of parent cells, the tooth clone, grows. Westergaard and Ferguson (1986, 1987, 1990) concluded, from their observations of the sequence of tooth initiation in alligators, that the complicated sequences in which 20 teeth are initiated in each tooth quadrant could not be explained by jaw growth. The present study attempts to refute this criticism by means of measurements made from the raw data published by Westergaard and Ferguson. These data reveal that new teeth, here called primary teeth, are added at a constant rate at the back of the jaw. Interstitial growth of the cells between primary teeth creates space for secondary teeth in secondary regions. The secondary regions increase in length exponentially with time. The sequence in which teeth are initiated in the growing secondary regions was found to be the same in every part of the upper and lower jaws. It was accurately reproduced by a computer program based on a linear contraction rate of inhibitory zones and exponential growth of secondary regions. The results suggest that the posterior progress zone in alligator embryos grows about 125 microm a day. Newly initiated tooth germs are surrounded by an inhibitory zone about 250 microm in diameter. These zones contract from 20 to 30 microm a day until they are about 170 microm in diameter. The sequences in which tooth positions are initiated in embryos may be more the result of the pattern in which cells escape from molecules that inhibit induction rather than the pattern in which cells create molecules that

  14. [Process of the tooth brushing habit formation in children. 2. Factors forming the behavior of tooth brushing in children].

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Y

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to find in the factors forming the habit of tooth brushing in children. Questionnaires about the habit of tooth brushing were collected in Nagoya and the suburbs from mothers of kindergarten pupils aged from one to six. These data were analysed by the second class of Hayashi's quantifying theory. The results of this study were summarised as follows: 1. Habit of tooth brushing: 1) A high correlation ratio was obtained in the discriminatory efficiency of the habit of tooth brushing, at ages one to three this was 0.44 and for ages four to six it was 0.47. 2) The following six items were chosen in relation to the habit formation of tooth brushing at ages one to three, "motive for starting tooth brushing", "frequency of tooth brushing per day on the average", "co-operative of the child towards its mother's help", "positive attitude towards tooth brushing", "experienced guidance in tooth brushing from its mother", "experienced guidance in tooth brushing from a dentist or dental hygienist". 3) Similarly for ages four to six, the following four items were chosen, "frequency of tooth brushing per day on the average", "persons who actually brush the children's teeth at night", "attitude of the child towards tooth brushing", "experienced guidance in tooth brushing from a dentist or dental hygienist". 2. Ability of tooth brushing: 1) A comparative high correlation ratio was obtained in the discriminatory efficiency of the ability of tooth brushing, at ages one to three this was 0.37 and for ages four to six it was 0.20. 2) The following five items were chosen in relation to the ability of tooth brushing at ages one to three, "age", "motive for the start of tooth brushing", "mother's attitude to child not brushing its teeth", "frequency of using tooth paste", "experienced guidance in tooth brushing from a dentist or dental hygienist". 3) Similarly for ages four to six, the following five items were chosen, "age", "persons who actually brush the

  15. Generation of a crowned pinion tooth surface by a plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Zhang, J.; Handschuh, R. F.

    1988-01-01

    The topology of a crowned spur pinion tooth surface that reduces the level of transmission errors due to misalignment is described. The geometry of the modified pinion tooth surface and of the regular involute gear tooth surface is discussed. The tooth contact analysis between the meshing surfaces is also described. Generating a modified pinion tooth surface by a plane whose motion is controlled by a 5-degree-of-freedom system is investigated. The numerical results included indicate that the transmission error remains low as the gears are misaligned.

  16. Tooth regeneration: challenges and opportunities for biomedical material research.

    PubMed

    Du, Chang; Moradian-Oldak, Janet

    2006-03-01

    Tooth regeneration presents many challenges to researchers in the fields of biology, medicine and material science. This review considers the opportunities for biomedical material research to contribute to this multidisciplinary endeavor. We present short summaries and an overview on the collective knowledge of tooth developmental biology, advances in stem-cell research, and progress in the understanding of the tooth biomineralization principles as they provide the foundation for developing strategies for reparative and regenerative medicine. We emphasize that various biomaterials developed via biomimetic strategies have great potential for tooth tissue engineering and regeneration applications. The current practices in tooth tissue engineering approaches and applications of biomimetic carriers or scaffolds are also discussed.

  17. Computer aided design and analysis of gear tooth geometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    A simulation method for gear hobbing and shaping of straight and spiral bevel gears is presented. The method is based upon an enveloping theory for gear tooth profile generation. The procedure is applicable in the computer aided design of standard and nonstandard tooth forms. An inverse procedure for finding a conjugate gear tooth profile is presented for arbitrary cutter geometry. The kinematic relations for the tooth surfaces of straight and spiral bevel gears are proposed. The tooth surface equations for these gears are formulated in a manner suitable for their automated numerical development and solution.

  18. Impact of Obesity on Orthodontic Tooth Movement in Adolescents: A Prospective Clinical Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Saloom, H F; Papageorgiou, S N; Carpenter, G H; Cobourne, M T

    2017-05-01

    Obesity is a widespread chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by an increased overall disease burden and significant association with periodontitis. The aim of this prospective clinical cohort study was to investigate the effect of obesity on orthodontic tooth movement. Fifty-five adolescent patients (27 males, 28 females) with a mean (SD) age of 15.1 (1.7) years and mean (SD) body mass index (BMI) of 30.2 (3.5) kg/m(2) in obese and 19.4 (2.2) kg/m(2) in normal-weight groups were followed from start of treatment to completion of tooth alignment with fixed orthodontic appliances. Primary outcome was time taken to complete tooth alignment, while secondary outcomes included rate of tooth movement and change in clinical parameters (plaque/gingival indices, unstimulated whole-mouth salivary flow rate, gingival crevicular fluid biomarkers). Data collection took place at baseline (start of treatment: appliance placement), 1 h and 1 wk following appliance placement, and completion of alignment. Results were analyzed by descriptive statistics followed by generalized estimating equation regression modeling. There were no significant differences between groups in time taken to achieve tooth alignment (mean [SD] 158.7 [75.3] d; P = 0.486). However, at 1 wk, initial tooth displacement was significantly increased in the obese group ( P < 0.001), and after adjusting for confounders, obese patients had a significantly higher rate of tooth movement compared with normal-weight patients (+0.017 mm/d; 95% confidence interval, 0.008-0.025; P < 0.001) over the period of alignment. Explorative analyses indicated that levels of the adipokines leptin and resistin, the inflammatory marker myeloperoxidase (MPO), and the cytokine receptor for nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL) were significantly different between obese- and normal-weight patients and associated with observed rates of tooth movement. This represents the first prospective data demonstrating a different response in

  19. An in vitro comparison of tooth whitening techniques on natural tooth colour.

    PubMed

    Patel, A; Louca, C; Millar, B J

    2008-05-10

    Tooth whitening has become a popular treatment regime but there is little quantitative evidence to compare techniques and so confusion may exist for the clinician as to which regime to prescribe for greatest efficacy. The aim of this study was to compare immediate and longer-term colour change on natural tooth colour in vitro, using five current tooth whitening techniques with blind matched control groups. A total of 100 human teeth of matched size were cleaned, stored in sterile deionised water at 4 degrees C then randomly allocated to one of the five active treatment groups or five matched control groups. The active treatments were: 10% carbamide peroxide (CP) x 60 min, 35% CP x 30 min or 35% hydrogen peroxide (HP) treatment x 30 min activated by one of three sources of energy (diode laser, halogen light, and plasma arc curing light). Tooth colour was analysed with a colorimeter before and after treatment: immediate, one week and nine months post-bleaching designed to generate tooth colour value (L(*)) according to the L(*)a(*)b system. The change in colour was determined as DeltaL (the difference in the value of the colour) for each tooth, then the mean differences were obtained for each group and compared. Tooth surface temperature was monitored. Comparing active treatments with controls it was found that 10% CP, 35% CP, 35% HP with halogen provided significantly greater tooth whitening. Comparing the different treatments showed that 10% CP was significantly more effective (P <0.05) than all other treatments except 35% HP with halogen activation. The effect of each treatment regime over time showed that the 10% CP gave a significant gain immediately and one week later (P <0.05), however, all the whitening effects were lost over time following these single treatments. The temperature rise on the tooth surface was greatest when using laser activation during power whitening. This study suggests that 10% CP is an effective technique for tooth whitening and can

  20. Tooth abnormalities in congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face.

    PubMed

    Sun, Lisha; Sun, Zhipeng; Zhu, Junxia; Ma, Xuchen

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to present a literature review and case series report of tooth abnormalities in congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face (CIL-F). Four typical cases of CIL-F are presented. Tooth abnormalities in CIL-F documented in the English literature are also reviewed. The clinical and radiological features of tooth abnormalities are summarized. In total, 21 cases with tooth abnormalities in CIL-F were retrieved for analysis. Accelerated tooth formation and eruption (17 cases), macrodontia (9 cases), and root hypoplasia (8 cases) were observed in CIL-F. Tooth abnormalities including accelerated tooth formation or eruption, macrodontia, and root hypoplasia are common in CIL-F. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Noncontact intraoral measurement of force-related tooth mobility.

    PubMed

    Göllner, Matthias; Holst, Alexandra; Berthold, Christine; Schmitt, Johannes; Wichmann, Manfred; Holst, Stefan

    2010-10-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to measure force-related tooth mobility. Vertical and horizontal anterior tooth mobility in 31 healthy periodontal subjects was measured by a noncontact optical measurement technique. The subjects continuously increased the force on each tooth by biting on a load cell. An automated software program recorded tooth displacement at 9-N intervals. Vertical and horizontal displacements were subsequently measured. The vector of tooth mobility in the buccal direction was calculated using the Pythagorean theorem. The average displacements over all subjects for each tooth were determined. Global differences were assessed with the Wilcoxon test. There were no significant differences between contralateral teeth overall load stages. There were no significant differences in tooth mobility between the central and lateral incisors except for in the horizontal direction. However, there were significant differences between central incisor and canine and lateral incisor and canine teeth.

  2. Multilobed mesiodens: a supernumerary tooth with unusual morphology.

    PubMed

    Dave, Bhavna; Patel, Jalark; Swadas, Milan; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-02-06

    An 8-year-old boy came with a chief complaint of an abnormally shaped tooth situated in upper front teeth region. On examination a supernumerary tooth with multiple lobes was present palatally to the maxillary right permanent central incisor. The morphology of the tooth crown was found to be unusual due to the presence of five lobes in the crown portion. Because of the supernumerary tooth, the permanent right central incisor was displaced labially. Radiographic examination showed a completely formed supernumerary tooth with dilacerated root. On the basis of clinical and radiographic examination, the supernumerary tooth was diagnosed as multilobed mesiodens. Since patient expressed dissatisfaction with the presence of supernumerary tooth, it was decided to extract this mesiodens followed by orthodontic treatment for alignment of labially placed maxillary right permanent central incisor.

  3. Multilobed mesiodens: a supernumerary tooth with unusual morphology

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Bhavna; Patel, Jalark; Swadas, Milan; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    An 8-year-old boy came with a chief complaint of an abnormally shaped tooth situated in upper front teeth region. On examination a supernumerary tooth with multiple lobes was present palatally to the maxillary right permanent central incisor. The morphology of the tooth crown was found to be unusual due to the presence of five lobes in the crown portion. Because of the supernumerary tooth, the permanent right central incisor was displaced labially. Radiographic examination showed a completely formed supernumerary tooth with dilacerated root. On the basis of clinical and radiographic examination, the supernumerary tooth was diagnosed as multilobed mesiodens. Since patient expressed dissatisfaction with the presence of supernumerary tooth, it was decided to extract this mesiodens followed by orthodontic treatment for alignment of labially placed maxillary right permanent central incisor. PMID:23391956

  4. Clinical management of the avulsed tooth.

    PubMed

    Trope, M

    1995-01-01

    Treatment outside the dental office: Replant immediately after gentle washing if practical. If replantation is not practical, store the tooth in the best medium available. Storage media in order of preference are Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS), milk, saline, and saliva (buccal vestibule). Water is the least desirable storage medium. Treatment in the office: Emergency visit; Place tooth in HBSS while exam is conducted and history is taken. Prepare socket for gentle repositioning of the tooth. Prepare the root. Extraoral dry time < 20 minutes: Closed apex--replant immediately after gentle washing. Open apex--soak in 1 mg doxycycline in 20 mg saline for 5 minutes. Extraoral dry time 20 to 60 minutes: Soak in HBSS for 30 minutes and replant. Extraoral dry time > 60 minutes: soak in citric acid, 2% stannous fluoride, and doxycycline and replant. Endodontics can be done extraorally. Semirigid splint for 7 to 10 days. (If alveolar fracture is present, rigid splint for 4 to 8 weeks). Suture soft-tissue lacerations, particularly in the cervical area. Administer systemic antibiotics (penicillin V potassium if possible) Chlorhexidine rinses and stringent oral hygiene while the splint is in place (7 to 10 days). Analgesics as required. Second visit after 7 to 10 days: Endodontic treatment: Tooth with open apex and extraoral dry time of < 60 minutes: No endodontic treatment initially. Recall every 3 to 4 weeks to examine for evidence of pathosis. If pathosis is noted, disinfect the pulp space and start apexification procedure. Tooth with open apex and extraoral dry time > 60 minutes: If endodontics was not completed in the emergency visit, start endodontics and follow apexification procedure. Tooth with closed apex: Endodontics should be initiated after 7 to 10 days. Careful chemomechanical instrumentation under strict asepsis. Splint removed at end of visit. Obturation visit: If endodontics was initiated 7 to 10 days after the avulsion, obturation can take place after

  5. Reasons for Placement of Restorations on Previously Unrestored Tooth Surfaces by Dental PBRN Dentists

    PubMed Central

    Nascimento, Marcelle M.; Gordan, Valeria V.; Qvist, Vibeke; Litaker, Mark S.; Rindal, D. Brad; Williams, O.D.; Fellows, Jeffrey L.; Ritchie, Lloyd K.; Mjör, Ivar A.; McClelland, Jocelyn; Gilbert, Gregg H.

    2010-01-01

    Objective To identify and quantify the reasons for placing restorations on unrestored permanent tooth surfaces and the dental materials used by Dental Practice-Based Research Network (DPBRN; www.DentalPBRN.org) dentists. Methods A total of 229 DPBRN practitioner-investigators collected data on 9,890 consecutive restorations from 5,810 patients. Information included: (1) reasons for restoring; (2) tooth and surfaces restored; and (3) restorative materials employed. Results Primary caries (85%) and non-carious defects (15%), which included abrasion/ abfraction/ erosion lesions and tooth fracture, were the main reasons for placement of restorations. Restorations due to caries were frequently placed on occlusal surfaces (49%), followed by distal, mesial, buccal/facial, lingual/palatal, and incisal surfaces. Amalgam was used for 46% of the molar and 45% of the premolar restorations. Directly placed resin-based composite (RBC) was used for 48% of the molar, 49% of the premolar, and 92% of the anterior restorations. Conclusion Dental caries on occlusal and proximal surfaces of molar teeth are the main reasons for placing restorations on previously unrestored tooth surfaces by DPBRN practitioner-investigators. RBC is the material most commonly used for occlusal and anterior restorations. Amalgam remains the material of choice to restore proximal caries in posterior teeth, although there are significant differences by DPBRN region. PMID:20354094

  6. Molariform Mesiodens in Primary Dentition: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Indira, MD; R, Sujatha; Kumar PS, Praveen; Devi BM, Gayatri

    2014-01-01

    A supernumerary tooth is a developmental anomaly and it has been argued to arise from multiple aetiologies. Mesiodens is a midline supernumerary tooth which is commonly seen in the maxillary arch, and incidence of molariform mesiodens in the maxillary midline is rare in permanent dentition and extremely uncommon in primary dentition. A midline supernumerary tooth in the primary dentition can cause an ectopic or a delayed eruption of permanent central incisors, which will further alter occlusion and may compromise aesthetics and formation of dentigerous cysts. This paper reports a rare case which had the presence of a molariform mesiodens in the primary dentition. The treatment plan consisted of extraction of the supernumerary tooth and regular observation of permanent central incisors for proper eruption and alignment. PMID:24995262

  7. Molariform mesiodens in primary dentition: a case report.

    PubMed

    Indira, Md; Dhull, Kanika Singh; R, Sujatha; Kumar Ps, Praveen; Devi Bm, Gayatri

    2014-05-01

    A supernumerary tooth is a developmental anomaly and it has been argued to arise from multiple aetiologies. Mesiodens is a midline supernumerary tooth which is commonly seen in the maxillary arch, and incidence of molariform mesiodens in the maxillary midline is rare in permanent dentition and extremely uncommon in primary dentition. A midline supernumerary tooth in the primary dentition can cause an ectopic or a delayed eruption of permanent central incisors, which will further alter occlusion and may compromise aesthetics and formation of dentigerous cysts. This paper reports a rare case which had the presence of a molariform mesiodens in the primary dentition. The treatment plan consisted of extraction of the supernumerary tooth and regular observation of permanent central incisors for proper eruption and alignment.

  8. Measuring the short-term impact of fluoridation cessation on dental caries in Grade 2 children using tooth surface indices.

    PubMed

    McLaren, Lindsay; Patterson, Steven; Thawer, Salima; Faris, Peter; McNeil, Deborah; Potestio, Melissa; Shwart, Luke

    2016-06-01

    To examine the short-term impact of fluoridation cessation on children's caries experience measured by tooth surfaces. If there is an adverse short-term effect of cessation, it should be apparent when we focus on smooth tooth surfaces, where fluoride is most likely to have an impact for the age group and time frame considered in this study. We examined data from population-based samples of school children (Grade 2) in two similar cities in the province of Alberta, Canada: Calgary, where cessation occurred in May 2011 and Edmonton where fluoridation remains in place. We analysed change over time (2004/2005 to 2013/2014) in summary data for primary (defs) and permanent (DMFS) teeth for Calgary and Edmonton, for all tooth surfaces and smooth surfaces only. We also considered, for 2013/2014 only, the exposed subsample defined as lifelong residents who reported usually drinking tap water. We observed, across the full sample, an increase in primary tooth decay (mean defs - all surfaces and smooth surfaces) in both cities, but the magnitude of the increase was greater in Calgary (F-cessation) than in Edmonton (F-continued). For permanent tooth decay, when focusing on smooth surfaces among those affected (those with DMFS>0), we observed a non-significant trend towards an increase in Calgary (F-cessation) that was not apparent in Edmonton (F-continued). Trends observed for primary teeth were consistent with an adverse effect of fluoridation cessation on children's tooth decay, 2.5-3 years post-cessation. Trends for permanent teeth hinted at early indication of an adverse effect. It is important that future data collection efforts in the two cities be undertaken, to permit continued monitoring of these trends. © 2016 The Authors. Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Effective property of tooth enamel: monoclinic behavior.

    PubMed

    Lu, Cunyou; Nakamura, Toshio; Korach, Chad S

    2012-05-11

    Human tooth enamel possesses a unique morphology characterized by a repeated cell arrangement, which is composed of varying orientations of hydroxyapatite crystals. In the past, various investigators have reported diverse mechanical properties based on isotropic or orthotropic mechanical models in their experimental and numerical studies. However, these models are insufficient to capture the accurate microstructural effects on the enamel mechanical response. In this paper, a monoclinic anisotropic model, which offers correct descriptions of enamel deformation behaviors, is introduced. The model takes into account the 3D orientation changes of the hydroxyapatite crystals and their spatial elastic property variations. The proposed approach is based on a unit-cell and periodic boundary conditions, and it utilizes the collective deformation characteristics of many rods to determine 13 independent material constants required for the monoclinic model. These constants are necessary to utilize the effective property model to study various mechanical conditions such as abrasion, erosion, wear and fracture of whole tooth enamel.

  10. Aggregatibacter Actinomycetemcomitans – A Tooth Killer?

    PubMed Central

    Ummer, Fajar; Dhivakar, C.P

    2014-01-01

    Strong evidence is available on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (A.a) on its role as the causative agent of localised juvenile periodontitis (LJP), a disease characterised by rapid destruction of the tooth-supporting tissues. This organism possesses a large number of virulence factors with a wide range of activities which enable it to colonise the oral cavity, invade periodontal tissues, evade host defences, initiate connective tissue destruction and interfere with tissue repair. Adhesion to epithelial and tooth surfaces is dependent on the presence of surface proteins and structures such as microvesicles and fimbriae. Invasion has been demonstrated in vivo and in vitro. The organism has a number of means of evading host defences which include: (i) production of leukotoxin; (ii) producing immunosuppressive factors; (iv) secreting proteases capable of cleaving IgG; and (v) producing Fc-binding. PMID:25302290

  11. Two stage gear tooth dynamics program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boyd, Linda S.

    1989-01-01

    The epicyclic gear dynamics program was expanded to add the option of evaluating the tooth pair dynamics for two epicyclic gear stages with peripheral components. This was a practical extension to the program as multiple gear stages are often used for speed reduction, space, weight, and/or auxiliary units. The option was developed for either stage to be a basic planetary, star, single external-external mesh, or single external-internal mesh. The two stage system allows for modeling of the peripherals with an input mass and shaft, an output mass and shaft, and a connecting shaft. Execution of the initial test case indicated an instability in the solution with the tooth paid loads growing to excessive magnitudes. A procedure to trace the instability is recommended as well as a method of reducing the program's computation time by reducing the number of boundary condition iterations.

  12. Tooth whitening clinical trials: a global perspective.

    PubMed

    Gerlach, Robert W

    2007-09-01

    Tooth whitening has been the subject of extensive clinical trials research since the introduction of the first hydrogen-peroxide whitening strips in 2000. Availability of digital image analysis, an unambiguous and reproducible method for assessing color change, has contributed to global clinical research and product development on whitening strips. The research has included a series of global randomized controlled trials in distinct sites and cultures, involving 6-6.5% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips used for 7-21 days. These studies, conducted at research hospitals, dental schools, and private dental practice, demonstrated significant color improvement with whitening strips relative to baseline and/or various controls without serious adverse events. This integrated clinical trials research provides important evidence of long-term safety and effectiveness of tooth whitening with 6-6.5% hydrogen peroxide whitening strips.

  13. Non-surgical management of tooth hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Clark, Danielle; Levin, Liran

    2016-10-01

    Tooth sensitivity is a common complaint of patients in dental practices. Studies have demonstrated dentinal hypersensitivity to affect 10-30% of the population. There are various potential causes of tooth sensitivity and a variety of available treatment options. This narrative review will discuss the possible aetiology of this condition, as well as the treatment modalities available. A tailor-made treatment plan that starts with the most non-invasive treatment options and escalates only when those options have proven insufficient in alleviating symptoms should be provided for each patient. Only after all non- and less-invasive methods have failed to reduce the symptoms should more invasive treatment options, such as root-coverage, be considered.

  14. Distribution of amelotin in mouse tooth development.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuguang; Wang, Wanchun; Sun, Yan; Zhang, Juanjuan; Li, Dongliang; Wei, Yahong; Han, Tingting

    2010-01-01

    Amelotin is expressed and secreted by ameloblasts in tooth development, but amelotin distribution during enamel development is not clear. In this report, we first investigated amelotin expression in developing teeth by immunohistochemistry. Amelotin was detected in the enamel matrix at the secretion and maturation stages of enamel development. Amelotin was also observed at Tomes' processes on the apical ends of secretory ameloblasts. We then compared amelotin gene expression with those of amelogenin, enamelin, and ameloblastin in the mandibles of postnatal mice by RT-PCR. The expression of amelotin was detected as early as in postnatal day 0 mandibles and amelotin was coexpressed with amelogenin, ameloblastin, and enamelin during tooth development. These data strongly suggest that amelotin is an enamel matrix protein expressed at the secretion and maturation stages of enamel development. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  15. New method of control of tooth whitening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelov, I.; Mantareva, V.; Gisbrecht, A.; Valkanov, S.; Uzunov, Tz.

    2010-10-01

    New methods of control of tooth bleaching stages through simultaneous measurements of a reflected light and a fluorescence signal are proposed. It is shown that the bleaching process leads to significant changes in the intensity of a scattered signal and also in the shape and intensity of the fluorescence spectra. Experimental data illustrate that the bleaching process causes essential changes in the teeth discoloration in short time as 8-10 min from the beginning of the application procedure. The continuation of the treatment is not necessary moreover the probability of the enamel destroy increases considerably. The proposed optical back control of tooth surface is a base for development of a practical set up to control the duration of the bleaching procedure.

  16. Large scale study of tooth enamel

    SciTech Connect

    Bodart, F.; Deconninck, G.; Martin, M.Th.

    1981-04-01

    Human tooth enamel contains traces of foreign elements. The presence of these elements is related to the history and the environment of the human body and can be considered as the signature of perturbations which occur during the growth of a tooth. A map of the distribution of these traces on a large scale sample of the population will constitute a reference for further investigations of environmental effects. One hundred eighty samples of teeth were first analysed using PIXE, backscattering and nuclear reaction techniques. The results were analysed using statistical methods. Correlations between O, F, Na, P, Ca, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn, Pb and Sr were observed and cluster analysis was in progress. The techniques described in the present work have been developed in order to establish a method for the exploration of very large samples of the Belgian population.

  17. Atomic force microscopy study of tooth surfaces.

    PubMed

    Farina, M; Schemmel, A; Weissmüller, G; Cruz, R; Kachar, B; Bisch, P M

    1999-03-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was used to study tooth surfaces in order to compare the pattern of particle distribution in the outermost layer of the tooth surfaces. Human teeth and teeth from a rodent (Golden hamster), from a fish (piranha), and from a grazing mollusk (chiton) with distinct feeding habits were analyzed in terms of particle arrangement, packing, and size distribution. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used for comparison. It was found that AFM gives high-contrast, high-resolution images and is an important tool as a source of complementary and/or new structural information. All teeth were cleaned and some were etched with acidic solutions before analysis. It was observed that human enamel (permanent teeth) presents particles tightly packed in the outer surface, whereas enamel from the hamster (continuously growing teeth) shows particles of less dense packing. The piranha teeth have a thin cuticle covering the long apatite crystals of the underlying enameloid. This cuticle has a rough surface of particles that have a globular appearance after the brief acidic treatment. The similar appearance of the in vivo naturally etched tooth surface suggests that the pattern of globule distribution may be due to the presence of an organic material. Elemental analysis of this cuticle indicated that calcium, phosphorus, and iron are the main components of the structure while electron microdiffraction of pulverized cuticle particles showed a pattern consistent with hydroxyapatite. The chiton mineralized tooth cusp had a smooth surface in an unabraded region and a very rough structure with the magnetite crystals (already known to make part of the structure) protruding from the surface. It was concluded that the structures analyzed are optimized for efficiency in feeding mechanism and life span of the teeth.

  18. Tooth surface treatment strategies for adhesive cementation.

    PubMed

    Rohr, Nadja; Fischer, Jens

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth surface pre-treatment steps on shear bond strength, which is essential for understanding the adhesive cementation process. Shear bond strengths of different cements with various tooth surface treatments (none, etching, priming, or etching and priming) on enamel and dentin of human teeth were measured using the Swiss shear test design. Three adhesives (Permaflo DC, Panavia F 2.0, and Panavia V5) and one self-adhesive cement (Panavia SA plus) were included in this study. The interface of the cement and the tooth surface with the different pre-treatments was analyzed using SEM. pH values of the cements and primers were measured. The highest bond strength values for all cements were achieved with etching and primer on enamel (25.6 ± 5.3 - 32.3 ± 10.4 MPa). On dentin, etching and priming produced the highest bond strength values for all cements (8.6 ± 2.9 - 11.7 ± 3.5 MPa) except for Panavia V5, which achieved significantly higher bond strengths when pre-treated with primer only (15.3 ± 4.1 MPa). Shear bond strength values were correlated with the micro-retentive surface topography of enamel and the tag length on dentin except for Panavia V5, which revealed the highest bond strength with primer application only without etching, resulting in short but sturdy tags. The highest bond strength can be achieved for Panavia F 2.0, Permaflo DC, and Panavia SA plus when the tooth substrate is previously etched and the respective primer is applied. The new cement Panavia V5 displayed low technique-sensitivity and attained significantly higher adhesion of all tested cements to dentin when only primer was applied.

  19. Tooth surface treatment strategies for adhesive cementation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of tooth surface pre-treatment steps on shear bond strength, which is essential for understanding the adhesive cementation process. MATERIALS AND METHODS Shear bond strengths of different cements with various tooth surface treatments (none, etching, priming, or etching and priming) on enamel and dentin of human teeth were measured using the Swiss shear test design. Three adhesives (Permaflo DC, Panavia F 2.0, and Panavia V5) and one self-adhesive cement (Panavia SA plus) were included in this study. The interface of the cement and the tooth surface with the different pre-treatments was analyzed using SEM. pH values of the cements and primers were measured. RESULTS The highest bond strength values for all cements were achieved with etching and primer on enamel (25.6 ± 5.3 - 32.3 ± 10.4 MPa). On dentin, etching and priming produced the highest bond strength values for all cements (8.6 ± 2.9 - 11.7 ± 3.5 MPa) except for Panavia V5, which achieved significantly higher bond strengths when pre-treated with primer only (15.3 ± 4.1 MPa). Shear bond strength values were correlated with the micro-retentive surface topography of enamel and the tag length on dentin except for Panavia V5, which revealed the highest bond strength with primer application only without etching, resulting in short but sturdy tags. CONCLUSION The highest bond strength can be achieved for Panavia F 2.0, Permaflo DC, and Panavia SA plus when the tooth substrate is previously etched and the respective primer is applied. The new cement Panavia V5 displayed low technique-sensitivity and attained significantly higher adhesion of all tested cements to dentin when only primer was applied. PMID:28435616

  20. Ectopic Premolar Tooth in the Sigmoid Notch

    PubMed Central

    Akgül, H. M.; Bayrakdar, I. S.

    2016-01-01

    Impaction of a mandibular premolar is relatively uncommon. Ectopic placement is more unusual and there has been no discussion in the literature of an ectopic mandibular premolar in the coronoid process. In this case report, we present an impacted ectopic mandibular permanent premolar in the sigmoid notch (incisura mandibulae) region. Etiology of the tooth and treatment options are discussed and illustrated by Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) images. PMID:27547475

  1. Surgical Tooth Implants, Combat and Field.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-11-01

    assisted by Mr. Larry G. McCoy, We are gratefully indebted to our dental consultants from The Ohio State University , College of Dentistry: Dr...SURGICAL TOOTH IMPLANTS , COMBAT AND FIELD by Craig R. Hassler and Larry G. McCoy BACKGROUND Research interest in dental restorations has continued...terman, R.B., and Marshall , R.P. , “ Dental Anchors of Non-Natural Design Implanted In Miniature Swine ” , J. Dent. Res., 52, 124 (1973). (11) Mills

  2. Enamel alteration following tooth bleaching and remineralization.

    PubMed

    Coceska, Emilija; Gjorgievska, Elizabeta; Coleman, Nichola J; Gabric, Dragana; Slipper, Ian J; Stevanovic, Marija; Nicholson, John W

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of professional tooth whitening agents containing highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide (with and without laser activation), on the enamel surface; and the potential of four different toothpastes to remineralize any alterations. The study was performed on 50 human molars, divided in two groups: treated with Opalescence(®) Boost and Mirawhite(®) Laser Bleaching. Furthermore, each group was divided into five subgroups, a control one and 4 subgroups remineralized with: Mirasensitive(®) hap+, Mirawhite(®) Gelleѐ, GC Tooth Mousse™ and Mirafluor(®) C. The samples were analysed by SEM/3D-SEM-micrographs, SEM/EDX-qualitative analysis and SEM/EDX-semiquantitative analysis. The microphotographs show that both types of bleaching cause alterations: emphasized perikymata, erosions, loss of interprizmatic substance; the laser treatment is more aggressive and loss of integrity of the enamel is determined by shearing off the enamel rods. In all samples undergoing remineralization deposits were observed, those of toothpastes based on calcium phosphate technologies seem to merge with each other and cover almost the entire surface of the enamel. Loss of integrity and minerals were detected only in the line-scans of the sample remineralized with GC Tooth Mousse™. The semiquantitative EDX analysis of individual elements in the surface layer of the enamel indicates that during tooth-bleaching with HP statistically significant loss of Na and Mg occurs, whereas the bleaching in combination with a laser leads to statistically significant loss of Ca and P. The results undoubtedly confirm that teeth whitening procedures lead to enamel alterations. In this context, it must be noted that laser bleaching is more aggressive for dental substances. However, these changes are reversible and can be repaired by application of remineralization toothpastes.

  3. Bivalent histone modifications during tooth development.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Li-Wei; Zhang, Bin-Peng; Xu, Ruo-Shi; Xu, Xin; Ye, Ling; Zhou, Xue-Dong

    2014-12-01

    Histone methylation is one of the most widely studied post-transcriptional modifications. It is thought to be an important epigenetic event that is closely associated with cell fate determination and differentiation. To explore the spatiotemporal expression of histone H3 lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) and histone H3 lysine 27 trimethylation (H3K27me3) epigenetic marks and methylation or demethylation transferases in tooth organ development, we measured the expression of SET7, EZH2, KDM5B and JMJD3 via immunohistochemistry and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis in the first molar of BALB/c mice embryos at E13.5, E15.5, E17.5, P0 and P3, respectively. We also measured the expression of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 with immunofluorescence staining. During murine tooth germ development, methylation or demethylation transferases were expressed in a spatial-temporal manner. The bivalent modification characterized by H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 can be found during the tooth germ development, as shown by immunofluorescence. The expression of SET7, EZH2 as methylation transferases and KDM5B and JMJD3 as demethylation transferases indicated accordingly with the expression of H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 respectively to some extent. The bivalent histone may play a critical role in tooth organ development via the regulation of cell differentiation.

  4. Sensitivity of tooth enamel to penetrating radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Mel`nikov, P.V.; Moiseev, B.M.

    1994-04-01

    Since integral radiation doses are important in the causation of cancers, this article proposes that everyone should carry a dosimeter that stores accumulated information over many decades. It is further noted that tooth enamel can serve as such a dosimeter. Ionizing radiation produces carbonate radicals, with a concentration linearly related to the absorbed dose. In this paper, the sensitivities of teeth to gamma and beta radiation has been measured.

  5. Functional Tooth Regeneration Using a Bioengineered Tooth Unit as a Mature Organ Replacement Regenerative Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Imamura, Aya; Ogawa, Miho; Yasukawa, Masato; Yamazaki, Hiromichi; Morita, Ritsuko; Ikeda, Etsuko; Nakao, Kazuhisa; Takano-Yamamoto, Teruko; Kasugai, Shohei; Saito, Masahiro; Tsuji, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Donor organ transplantation is currently an essential therapeutic approach to the replacement of a dysfunctional organ as a result of disease, injury or aging in vivo. Recent progress in the area of regenerative therapy has the potential to lead to bioengineered mature organ replacement in the future. In this proof of concept study, we here report a further development in this regard in which a bioengineered tooth unit comprising mature tooth, periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, was successfully transplanted into a properly-sized bony hole in the alveolar bone through bone integration by recipient bone remodeling in a murine transplantation model system. The bioengineered tooth unit restored enough the alveolar bone in a vertical direction into an extensive bone defect of murine lower jaw. Engrafted bioengineered tooth displayed physiological tooth functions such as mastication, periodontal ligament function for bone remodeling and responsiveness to noxious stimulations. This study thus represents a substantial advance and demonstrates the real potential for bioengineered mature organ replacement as a next generation regenerative therapy. PMID:21765896

  6. Anthropology, tooth wear, and occlusion ab origine.

    PubMed

    Young, W G

    1998-11-01

    The purpose of this essay is to emphasize that anthropology, the study of man in his environments, is a potent tool for scientific discovery and inspiration in dental science. It attempts to capture flashes of creative anthropological insight which have illuminated studies of tooth wear and occlusion in the past. While it documents contributions, understandings, and misunderstandings from Australian and New Zealand dentists, it is not a hagiography. The real saint of this essay is the Australian aborigine. For when men and women are understood in their environments, much is learned from them which challenges preconceptions of our dental science culture. The essay concludes that new, contemporary Australian culture needs to be studied by anthropological approaches if we are to understand how dental erosion is exacerbating tooth wear and damaging the occlusions of contemporary Australians. Much remains to be discovered about contemporary lifestyles, habits, and diets that lead to dental erosion, the principal cause of contemporary tooth wear in this part of the world.

  7. Mechanics analysis of molar tooth splitting.

    PubMed

    Barani, Amir; Chai, Herzl; Lawn, Brian R; Bush, Mark B

    2015-03-01

    A model for the splitting of teeth from wedge loading of molar cusps from a round indenting object is presented. The model is developed in two parts: first, a simple 2D fracture mechanics configuration with the wedged tooth simulated by a compact tension specimen; second, a full 3D numerical analysis using extended finite element modeling (XFEM) with an embedded crack. The result is an explicit equation for splitting load in terms of indenter radius and key tooth dimensions. Fracture experiments on extracted human molars loaded axially with metal spheres are used to quantify the splitting forces and thence to validate the model. The XFEM calculations enable the complex crack propagation, initially in the enamel coat and subsequently in the interior dentin, to be followed incrementally with increasing load. The fracture evolution is shown to be stable prior to failure, so that dentin toughness, not strength, is the controlling material parameter. Critical conditions under which tooth splitting in biological and dental settings are likely to be met, however rare, are considered.

  8. Iatrogenic traumatic brain injury during tooth extraction.

    PubMed

    Troxel, Mark

    2015-01-01

    An 8 yr old spayed female Yorkshire terrier was referred for evaluation of progressive neurological signs after a routine dental prophylaxis with tooth extractions. The patient was circling to the left and blind in the right eye with right hemiparesis. Neurolocalization was to the left forebrain. MRI revealed a linear tract extending from the caudal oropharynx, through the left retrobulbar space and frontal lobe, into the left parietal lobe. A small skull fracture was identified in the frontal bone through which the linear tract passed. Those findings were consistent with iatrogenic trauma from slippage of a dental elevator during extraction of tooth 210. The dog was treated empirically with clindamycin. The patient regained most of its normal neurological function within the first 4 mo after the initial injury. Although still not normal, the dog has a good quality of life. Traumatic brain injury is a rarely reported complication of extraction. Care must be taken while performing dental cleaning and tooth extraction, especially of the maxillary premolar and molar teeth to avoid iatrogenic damage to surrounding structures.

  9. Tooth Wear Inclination in Great Ape Molars.

    PubMed

    Knight-Sadler, Jordan; Fiorenza, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Primate dietary diversity is reflected in their dental morphology, with differences in size and shape of teeth. In particular, the tooth wear angle can provide insight into a species' ability to break down certain foods. To examine dietary and masticatory information, digitized polygon models of dental casts provide a basis for quantitative analysis of wear associated with tooth attrition. In this study, we analyze and compare the wear patterns of Pongo pygmaeus, Gorilla gorillagorilla and Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii lower molars, focusing on the degree of inclination of specific wear facets. The variation in wear angles appears to be indicative of jaw movements and the specific stresses imposed on food during mastication, reflecting thus the ecology of these species. Orangutans exhibit flatter wear angles, more typical of a diet consisting of hard and brittle foods, while gorillas show a wear pattern with a high degree of inclination, reflecting thus their more leafy diet. Chimpanzees, on the other hand, show intermediate inclinations, a pattern that could be related to their highly variable diet. This method is demonstrated to be a powerful tool for better understanding the relationship between food, mastication and tooth wear processes in living primates, and can be potentially used to reconstruct the diet of fossil species. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Vital tooth bleaching with Nightguard vital bleaching.

    PubMed

    Haywood, V B; Robinson, F G

    1997-01-01

    Between July 1994 and May 1996, several landmark articles were published concerning the safety and efficacy of vital tooth bleaching with 10% carbamide peroxide in a customfitted tray. The American Dental Association (ADA) published guidelines for ADA acceptance, and three products received approval. Long-term clinical trials on 38 patients indicated 92% successful bleaching after 6 weeks of treatment. Results were stable in 74% of the patients at 1.5 years, and in 62% of the patients at 3-year follow-up with no further treatment. Clinical pulpal studies and periodontal studies indicated no detrimental safety problems, although some laboratory cell studies suggested concerns. The noncarcinogenic potential of 10% carbamide peroxide was established in animal studies. Successful bleaching of tetracycline-stained teeth was achieved after 6 months of treatment, with no tooth problems detected clinically or by scanning electron micrograph. Extended treatment times are effective on other stains from dentinogenesis imperfecta or nicotine. On insertion in the mouth, 10% carbamide peroxide elevated the pH in the tray and saliva. After 4 hours of clinical wear, over 60% of the newer, thicker materials (Opalescence [Ultraclent Products, South Jordon, UT] and Platinum [Colgate Oral Pharmaceuticals, Canton, MA]) was present and active in the tray. Nightguard vital bleaching seems to be the most cost-efficient, user-friendly, patient-accepted method of bleaching teeth available to the profession and is safe and effective. Over-the-counter products can have harmful effects on tooth structure and may not lighten teeth.

  11. Orthodontic Tooth Movement with Clear Aligners

    PubMed Central

    Drake, Carl T.; McGorray, Susan P.; Dolce, Calogero; Nair, Madhu; Wheeler, Timothy T.

    2012-01-01

    Clear aligners provide a convenient model to measure orthodontic tooth movement (OTM). We examined the role of in vivo aligner material fatigue and subject-specific factors in tooth movement. Fifteen subjects seeking orthodontic treatment at the University of Florida were enrolled. Results were compared with data previously collected from 37 subjects enrolled in a similar protocol. Subjects were followed prospectively for eight weeks. An upper central incisor was programmed to move 0.5 mm. every two weeks using clear aligners. A duplicate aligner was provided for the second week of each cycle. Weekly polyvinyl siloxane (PVS) impressions were taken, and digital models were fabricated to measure OTM. Initial and final cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were obtained to characterize OTM. Results were compared to data from a similar protocol, where subjects received a new aligner biweekly. No significant difference was found in the amount of OTM between the two groups, with mean total OTM of 1.11 mm. (standard deviation (SD) 0.30) and 1.07 mm. (SD 0.33) for the weekly aligner and biweekly control groups, respectively (P = 0.72). Over eight weeks, in two-week intervals, material fatigue does not play a significant role in the rate or amount of tooth movement. PMID:22928114

  12. Influence of musical instruments on tooth positions.

    PubMed

    Herman, E

    1981-08-01

    A 2-year longitudinal investigation was conducted at five New York City junior high schools on 11- to 13-year-old children starting instrumental music education to determine what tooth movement, if any, resulted from the playing of certain musical instruments. Questionnaires, interviews, oral examinations, and dental casts were used at the start of instrumental study, after one year, and then after a second year. Statistically significant anterior tooth movements occurred in an overwhelming majority of the instrumentalists, while negligible movements were recorded for the controls over this period. As a result of this study, certain recommendations can be made by dentists when they are asked to suggest instruments which are dentally suited for children. In most cases they can suggest more than one instrument which would be of benefit dentally to the individual child, especially in the increase or reduction of overjet and overbite. The playing of the correct musical instrument can serve as an adjunct to the dentist or orthodontist in trying to accomplish certain tooth movements.

  13. Expression of HMGB1 during tooth development.

    PubMed

    Sugars, R; Karlström, E; Christersson, C; Olsson, M-L; Wendel, M; Fried, K

    2007-03-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear and cytosolic protein that can act as a transcription factor, a growth factor, or a cytokine. To elucidate a possible role for HMGB1 in tooth development, we have studied the expression of HMGB1 and its receptor RAGE (receptor for advanced glycation end-products) during the late fetal and early postnatal period of rat by using light- and electron-microscopic immunohistochemistry. Low HMGB1 protein expression was observed during fetal and newborn stages of tooth development. However, from postnatal day 5 (P5) onward, a marked increase occurred in the levels of the protein in most dental cell types. Expression was particularly high in ameloblasts and odontoblasts at regions of ongoing mineralization. Although most HMGB1 immunoreactivity was confined to cell nuclei, it was also present in odontoblast cytoplasm. At P5, ameloblasts and odontoblasts also showed RAGE immunoreactivity, and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction demonstrated both HMGB1 and RAGE mRNA in human dental pulp cells in vitro. Immunoblots performed on extracts from bovine dentin demonstrated a principal band at approximately 27 kDa, indicating that HMGB1 participates in tooth mineralization. The expression of both ligand and receptor suggests an autocrine/paracrine HMGB1 signalling axis in odontoblasts.

  14. Current challenges in human tooth revitalization.

    PubMed

    Ducret, Maxime; Fabre, Hugo; Celle, Alexis; Mallein-Gerin, Frédéric; Perrier-Groult, Emeline; Alliot-Licht, Brigitte; Farges, Jean-Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Tooth vitality and health are related to the presence of a living connective tissue, the dental pulp (DP), in the center of the dental organ. The DP contains the tooth immune defence system that is activated against invading oral cariogenic bacteria during the caries process and the tissue repair/regeneration machinery involved following microorganisms' eradication. However, penetration of oral bacteria into the DP often leads to complete tissue destruction and colonization of the endodontic space by microorganisms. Classical endodontic therapies consist of disinfecting then sealing the endodontic space with a gutta percha-based material. However, re-infections of the endodontic space by oral bacteria can occur, owing to the lack of tightness of the material. Recent findings suggest that regenerating a fully functional pulp tissue may be an ideal therapeutic solution to maintain a tooth defence system that will detect and help manage future injuries. The objective of this paper was to explain the different revascularization and regeneration strategies that have been proposed to reconstitute a living DP tissue and to discuss the main challenges that have to be resolved to improve these therapeutic strategies.

  15. Influence of tooth profile modification on spur gear dynamic tooth strain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents results of dynamic strain gage measurements performed on the NASA gear-noise rig. The experiments were part of a joint research program between NASA and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory to advance the technology of rotorcraft transmissions. Tests were performed on six sets of low contact ratio spur gears with different tooth profile modifications. Results presented include static and dynamic measurements of gear tooth strain taken over a matrix of operating conditions. The results demonstrate that a well-designed tooth profile modification can significantly reduce dynamic loads in spur gears, especially for gears which operate at high speed and under high torque. The two parabolic modifications tested were not as effective as linear modifications, possibly because the modification zone was too long.

  16. Influence of tooth profile modification on spur gear dynamic tooth strain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents results of dynamic strain gage measurements performed on the NASA gear-noise rig. The experiments were part of a joint research program between NASA and the U.S. Army Research Laboratory to advance the technology of rotorcraft transmissions. Tests were performed on six sets of low contact ratio spur gears with different tooth profile modifications. Results presented include static and dynamic measurements of gear tooth strain taken over a matrix of operating conditions. The results demonstrate that a well-designed tooth profile modification can significantly reduce dynamic loads in spur gears, especially for gears which operate at high speed and under high torque. The two parabolic modifications tested were not as effective as linear modifications, possibly because the modification zone was too long.

  17. Inhibition of apoptosis in early tooth development alters tooth shape and size.

    PubMed

    Kim, J-Y; Cha, Y-G; Cho, S-W; Kim, E-J; Lee, M-J; Lee, J-M; Cai, J; Ohshima, H; Jung, H-S

    2006-06-01

    Apoptosis plays important roles in various stages of organogenesis. In this study, we hypothesized that apoptosis would play an important role in tooth morphogenesis. We examined the role of apoptosis in early tooth development by using a caspase inhibitor, z-VAD-fmk, concomitant with in vitro organ culture and tooth germ transplantation into the kidney capsule. Inhibition of apoptosis at the early cap stage did not disrupt the cell proliferation level when compared with controls. However, the macroscopic morphology of mice molar teeth exhibited dramatic alterations after the inhibition of apoptosis. Crown height was reduced, and mesiodistal diameter was increased in a concentration-dependent manner with z-VAD-fmk treatment. Overall, apoptosis in the enamel knot would be necessary for the proper formation of molar teeth, including appropriate shape and size.

  18. [Study on the appropriate parameters of automatic full crown tooth preparation for dental tooth preparation robot].

    PubMed

    Yuan, F S; Wang, Y; Zhang, Y P; Sun, Y C; Wang, D X; Lyu, P J

    2017-05-09

    Objective: To further study the most suitable parameters for automatic full crown preparation using oral clinical micro robot. Its purpose is to improve the quality of automated tooth preparing for the system and to lay the foundation for clinical application. Methods: Twenty selected artificial resin teeth were used as sample teeth. The micro robot automatic tooth preparation system was used in dental clinic to control the picosecond laser beam to complete two dimensional cutting on the resin tooth sample according to the motion planning path. Using the laser scanning measuring microscope, each layer of cutting depth values was obtained and the average value was calculated. The monolayer cutting depth was determined. The three-dimensional (3D) data of the target resin teeth was obtained using internal scanner, and the CAD data of full-crown tooth preparation was designed by CAD self-develged software. According to the depth of the single layer, 11 complete resin teeth in phantom head were automatically prepared by the robot controlling the laser focused spot in accordance with the layer-cutting way. And the accuracy of resin tooth preparation was evaluated with the software. Using the same method, monolayer cutting depth parameter for cutting dental hard tissue was obtained. Then 15 extracted mandibular and maxillary first molars went through automatic full crown tooth preparation. And the 3D data of tooth preparations were obtained with intra oral scanner. The software was used to evaluate the accuracy of tooth preparation. Results: The results indicated that the single cutting depth of cutting resin teeth and in vitro teeth by picosecond laser were (60.0±2.6) and (45.0±3.6) μm, respectively. Using the tooth preparation robot, 11 artificial resin teeth and 15 complete natural teeth were automatically prepared, and the average time were (13.0±0.7), (17.0±1.8) min respectively. Through software evaluation, the average preparation depth of the occlusal surface

  19. Altered states: Effects of diagenesis on fossil tooth chemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Kohn, M.J.; Schoeninger, M.J.; Barker, W.W.

    1999-09-01

    Investigation of modern and fossil teeth from northern and central Kenya, using the ion microprobe, electron microprobe, and transmission electron microscope, confirms that fossil tooth chemistry is controlled not only by the diagenetic precipitation of secondary minerals but also by the chemical alteration of the biogenic apatite. Increases in the concentrations of Fe, Mn, Si, Al, Ba, and possibly Cu in fossil vs. modern teeth reflect mixtures of apatite and secondary minerals. These secondary minerals occur in concentrations ranging from {approximately}0.3% in enamel to {approximately}5% in dentine and include sub-{micro}m, interstitial Fe-bearing manganite [(Fe{sup 3+}, Mn{sup 3+})O(OH)], and smectite. The pervasive distribution and fine grain size of the secondary minerals indicate that mixed analyses of primary and secondary material are unavoidable in in situ methods, even in ion microprobe spots only 10 {micro}m in diameter, and that bulk chemical analyses are severely biased. Increases in other elements, including the rare earth elements, U, F, and possibly Sr apparently reflect additional alteration of apatite in both dentine and enamel. Extreme care will be required to separate secondary minerals from original biogenic apatite for paleobiological or paleoclimate studies, and nonetheless bulk analyses of purified apatite may be suspect. Although the PO{sub 4} component of teeth seems resistant to chemical alteration, the OH component is extensively altered. This OH alteration implies that bulk analyses of fossil tooth enamel for oxygen isotope composition may be systematically biased by {+-}1%, and seasonal records of oxygen isotope composition may be spuriously shifted, enhanced, or diminished.

  20. [Development of a screening scale for children at risk of baby bottle tooth decay].

    PubMed

    Khadra-Eid, J; Baudet, D; Fourny, M; Sellier, E; Brun, C; François, P

    2012-03-01

    Baby bottle tooth decay is a severe form of early childhood caries. This study aims to elaborate a screening tool for at risk children in order to facilitate primary prevention. A case-control study was conducted among children suffering from baby bottle tooth decay and children with no dental caries. Cases were children aged 5 years or less at diagnosis who experienced at least four caries with one or more affecting maxillary incisors. Controls were children matched for age and sex. Parents were interviewed by phone about their child's exposure to potential risk factors. We included 88 children suffering from baby bottle tooth decay and 88 children with no dental caries. In multivariate analysis, low social class (OR 6.39 [95% CI, 1.45-28.11]), prolonged bottle feeding or bedtime feeding (OR 153.2 [95% CI, 11.77-1994.96]), and snacking (OR 5.94 [95% CI, 1.35-26.2]) were significantly associated with baby bottle tooth decay. Regular dental visits were a significant protecting factor (OR 0.13 [95% CI, 0.02-0.77]). A score was developed using these significant risk factors and tested on the survey population. The mean score was 13/20 for cases and 4/20 for controls. These results are in accordance with the literature, except for brushing teeth, which was not significantly associated with baby bottle tooth decay in our study. A screening scale with a score of 20 points was proposed. Future validation is required. Pediatricians and general practitioners should encourage parents to change their habits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Tooth loss and risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma in Chinese Han population.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Chenqi; Zhu, Yaqiao; Wang, Xiayong; Zeng, Xiantao; Huang, Cui

    2015-01-01

    Association between tooth loss and oral cancer risk was investigated primary studies and meta-analyses, however, the results remain inconsistent. This study is to test the association between tooth loss and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in Chinese Han population. Case-control study including histologically confirmed OSCC cases and healthy controls individually matched to the cases for age, sex, and district of residence between May 1, 2010, and Match 31, 2014. Univariate and multiple logistic regression models were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using the STATA 12.0 software. Finally included 150 OSCC patients and 167 healthy controls. Cases had a significantly higher mean (SD) number of lost teeth than controls (10.03±6.62 vs. 8.69±5.20; P = 0.045). The results of univariate analysis and adjustment for smoking and alcohol showed a non-significant association between tooth loss and OSCC. After adjustment for age at diagnosis, gender, smoking, alcohol use, body mass index, and history of diabetes mellitus, those in the upper tertiles of lost tooth were significantly more likely to have OSCC (OR = 3.64, 95% CI = 1.15-11.53, P = 0.03; P for trend = 0.11) than in the lower tertiles. The unadjusted and adjusted results of per teeth also revealed non-significant association. Tooth loss may be not associated with risk of oral cancer in this case-control study. The relevant large-scale studies in Chinese are suggested to perform.

  2. School teachers' knowledge of tooth avulsion and dental first aid before and after receiving information about avulsed teeth and replantation.

    PubMed

    Al-Asfour, Adel; Andersson, Lars; Al-Jame, Quomasha

    2008-02-01

    School teachers can play an important role in improving the prognosis of avulsed permanent teeth of school children after they are informed about the immediate and proper dental first aid steps to be taken at the time of an accident. The aims of this study were: (i) to assess the knowledge level of emergency measures for tooth avulsion in Kuwaiti intermediate school teachers and (ii) to determine if a short lecture about tooth avulsion and replantation could improve teachers' knowledge on this topic. Eighty-five teachers at two intermediate schools (children 10-14 years old) in Kuwait were interviewed using a questionnaire about their first-aid knowledge with particular focus on the following five categories: General knowledge of teeth and avulsion, replantation of primary and permanent teeth, how to clean an avulsed tooth before replantation, extra-oral time and storage methods and media for an avulsed tooth. For each category, a score ranging from 0-3 was possible. An informative 30-min lecture about tooth avulsion and replantation was presented to a group of 43 teachers. After the lecture, the knowledge level of the teachers was re-tested using the same method. Descriptive statistics was used to describe and analyze the data. Improvement in teacher knowledge to an adequate (score of 2) or complete (score of 3) level was observed after the lecture in all five categories. The general knowledge of tooth avulsion and replantation improved from 39% to 97% and knowledge of avulsed permanent and primary teeth from 8% to 71%. Knowledge of how to clean an avulsed tooth improved from 5% to 93%. The knowledge level on the importance of extra-alveolar time before replantation increased from 1% to 74% and knowledge of a suitable storage medium for the avulsed tooth improved from 4% to 86%. Many avulsed permanent teeth in school children can be saved by replantation if school teachers learn what to do when a tooth is avulsed. A lecture followed by discussion proved to be an

  3. Parental Attitudes and Tooth Brushing Habits in Preschool Children in Mangalore, Karnataka: A Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Shenoy Panchmal, Ganesh; Shenoy, Rekha

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Adoption of consistent behavioral habits in childhood takes place at home, with the parents especially the mother, being the primary model for behavior. Tooth brushing habits which is learnt during early years of life, is deeply ingrained in the child's mind and it is expected that this leads to an adaptation of good oral hygiene in their later life. Objectives: To assess the tooth brushing habits of preschool children and to determine the role and amount of supervision given to them by parents. Study design: A pretested self-designed questionnaire was used to collect information from parents of 130 preschool children in Anganwadi and Kindergarten in Mangalore. Statistical analysis was done and Chi-square test was used. Results: Tooth brushing habits in these children was started at a mean age of 22.4 months (SD 8.4).62% of the preschool children used toothbrush and toothpaste for cleaning teeth and brushing habits were mainly (84%) introduced by mothers. Seventy-one percent of the children were cooperative when they were introduced to tooth brushing. Conclusion: Preschool children of Mangalore were introduced to tooth brushing at a mean age of 22.4 months. Mothers played a vital role in introducing and teaching the child how to brush. In children less than 10 months of age tooth brushing was not started at all. How to cite this article: Pullishery F, Panchmal GS, Shenoy R. Parental Attitudes and Tooth Brushing Habits in Preschool Children in Mangalore, Karnataka: A Cross-sectional Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2013;6(3):156-160. PMID:25206214

  4. Unusual morphology of permanent tooth related to traumatic injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minji; Kim, Euiseong

    2014-10-01

    Root duplication, or multiple roots, is a very rare anatomy of the maxillary central incisor. This case report describes a permanent central incisor having 2 distinct roots as an assumed sequela of the avulsion and replantation of a primary incisor. The permanent successor might have had a disturbance of development because of the traumatic injury and discontinuity in the treatment after replantation. Conventional endodontic treatment followed by esthetic restoration was performed on the tooth. Clinicians should consider the potential prognoses and complications of traumatic injuries to primary teeth. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Associations between smoking and tooth loss according to the reason for tooth loss: the Buffalo OsteoPerio Study.

    PubMed

    Mai, Xiaodan; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; Hovey, Kathleen M; LaMonte, Michael J; Chen, Chaoru; Tezal, Mine; Genco, Robert J

    2013-03-01

    Smoking is associated with tooth loss. However, smoking's relationship to the specific reason for tooth loss in postmenopausal women is unknown. Postmenopausal women (n = 1,106) who joined a Women's Health Initiative ancillary study (The Buffalo OsteoPerio Study) underwent oral examinations for assessment of the number of missing teeth, and they reported the reasons for tooth loss. The authors obtained information about smoking status via a self-administered questionnaire. The authors calculated odds ratios (ORs) and 95 percent confidence intervals (CIs) by means of logistic regression to assess smoking's association with overall tooth loss, as well as with tooth loss due to periodontal disease (PD) and with tooth loss due to caries. After adjusting for age, education, income, body mass index, history of diabetes diagnosis, calcium supplement use and dental visit frequency, the authors found that heavy smokers (≥ 26 pack-years) were significantly more likely to report having experienced tooth loss compared with never smokers (OR = 1.82; 95 percent CI, 1.10-3.00). Smoking status, packs smoked per day, years of smoking, pack-years and years since quitting smoking were significantly associated with tooth loss due to PD. For pack-years, the association for heavy smokers compared with that for never smokers was OR = 6.83 (95 percent CI, 3.40 -13.72). The study results showed no significant associations between smoking and tooth loss due to caries. Smoking may be a major factor in tooth loss due to PD. However, smoking appears to be a less important factor in tooth loss due to caries. Further study is needed to explore the etiologies by which smoking is associated with different types of tooth loss. Dentists should counsel their patients about the impact of smoking on oral health, including the risk of experiencing tooth loss due to PD.

  6. Hypoplasia of a permanent incisor produced by primary incisor intrusion: a case report.

    PubMed

    Altun, Ceyhan; Esenlik, Elçin; Tözüm, Tolga Fikret

    2009-04-01

    Orofacial trauma is a serious orodental and general health problem that may have medical, esthetic and psychological consequences for children and their parents. When the root of the primary tooth is close to the unerupted permanent tooth, primary tooth trauma may result in developmental disturbances and pulpal reaction in that permanent tooth. We report an unusual case in which injury to the primary dentition resulted in developmental disturbances in the crown and the calcified structures in the pulp chamber of the permanent tooth. Localized malformation of the crown and enamel hypoplasia were treated with a light-cured composite resin restoration. We also discuss the formation of pulp calcification and the need for endodontic treatment.

  7. Rare sequelae in the permanent successor due to trauma in the primary incisor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Juliana Sayuri; Cadioli, Isabela Capparelli; Alves, Daniela Mazzotti Bressan; Alencar, Cássio José Fornazari; Fonoff, Ricardo De Nardi; Wanderley, Marcia Turolla

    2017-01-01

    Severe dental trauma-such as intrusion or avulsion-to the primary dentition in infants and toddlers may cause developmental disturbances in the permanent successor. In this case, a 9-year-old boy was referred for treatment due to the absence of his permanent maxillary right central incisor. The mother reported avulsion of the corresponding primary tooth when the patient was 2 years old. The radiographic examination revealed impaction and root dilaceration of the permanent tooth; therefore, the treatment plan was tooth extraction. The extracted tooth presented multiple abnormalities, including enamel discoloration, enamel hypoplasia, root dilaceration, and root duplication. Several factors need to be considered when treatment of traumatic sequelae to a permanent successor is planned, including the age of the patient, the developmental stage of the permanent successor at the time of trauma, and the type of trauma to the primary tooth.

  8. Generation of spiral bevel gears with conjugate tooth surfaces and tooth contact analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Tsung, Wei-Jiung; Lee, Hong-Tao

    1987-01-01

    A new method for generation of spiral bevel gears is proposed. The main features of this method are as follows: (1) the gear tooth surfaces are conjugated and can transform rotation with zero transmission errors; (2) the tooth bearing contact is localized; (3) the center of the instantaneous contact ellipse moves in a plane that has a fixed orientation; (4) the contact normal performs in the process of meshing a parallel motion; (5) the motion of the contact ellipse provides improved conditions of lubrication; and (6) the gears can be manufactured by use of Gleason's equipment.

  9. Local Synthesis and Tooth Contact Analysis of Face-Milled, Uniform Tooth Height Spiral Bevel Gears

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Wang, A. G.

    1996-01-01

    Face-milled spiral bevel gears with uniform tooth height are considered. An approach is proposed for the design of low-noise and localized bearing contact of such gears. The approach is based on the mismatch of contacting surfaces and permits two types of bearing contact either directed longitudinally or across the surface to be obtained. Conditions to avoid undercutting were determined. A Tooth Contact Analysis (TCA) was developed. This analysis was used to determine the influence of misalignment on meshing and contact of the spiral bevel gears. A numerical example that illustrates the theory developed is provided.

  10. [The effect of bedding type on implant and abutment tooth in tooth/implant-supported bridgework].

    PubMed

    Krämer, A; Weber, H

    1991-10-01

    17 distal extension cases were treated with IMZ implants supporting a fixed-removable bridge connected to a natural tooth abutment with a precision attachment. Instead of the polyoxmethylene internal shock absorber an identically dimensioned titanium element was incorporated in the implants of every second patient. Patients were monitored on a recall schedule. Implant and tooth mobility, pocket probing depth, and bone loss were the parameters evaluated. The results after a mean incorporation time of 16.5 months indicate that, at least during this initial time of function, there are no differences between a mobile and rigid bedding of the superstructure on the implants.

  11. Crown-root fracture of fused primary teeth--a case report.

    PubMed

    Lima, Marina de Deus de Moura; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; Leopoldino, Valeria de Deus; Batista-Netto, Otacilio de Sousa; Carvalho, Carmen Milena Rodrigues Siqueira; Moura, Lucia de Fatima Almeida de Deus

    2012-01-01

    In the primary dentition, traumatic injuries affecting the tooth-supporting structures are common due to increased bone resilience in children. Crown-root fracture, defined as a fracture involving enamel, dentin, and cementum, is uncommon in the primary dentition, comprising only 2% of dental traumas. This article reports the treatment and follow-up of a 2-year-old boy who suffered a traumatic crown-root fracture involving a primary anterior incisor that was fused to a supernumerary tooth.

  12. The role of traditional healers in tooth extractions in Lekie Division, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The extraction of the teeth by traditional healers in Cameroon is an established cultural practice in the central region of the Cameroon. Traditional healers (TH) use herbs and crude un-sterilized instruments and tools for the tooth extraction procedure. The present study investigates the knowledge and practices of traditional healers regarding tooth extraction and the management of its complications. Methods A cross sectional design utilizing semi-structured questionnaires was used to collect the data from traditional healers and their patients. Results Sixteen traditional healers (TH) were interviewed. All were male and the majority were between 25-35 years old. The most important reason given for the removal of a tooth was "if it has a hole". All reported using herbs to control bleeding and pain after extractions. Only 20% used gloves between patients when extracting a tooth and just over a third (31.3%) gave post-operative instructions. Eighty seven percent managed complications with herbs and 62.5% reported that they would refer their patients to a dentist whenever there are complications. Only a third (31.3%) was familiar with the basic anatomy of a tooth and more than half (56.3%) reported that tooth extractions are the only treatment for dental problems. One hundred and fifty patients were interviewed with a mean age of 29 years. More than two thirds were in the 21-30 year age group and just over half were male. Sixty six percent reported that they visited the TH because it is cheap, 93.3% were satisfied with the treatment they received while 95.3% reported said they never had a problem after an extraction. Conclusions Tooth extractions using medicinal plants is well established in Lekie division, Cameroon. Infection control during extraction is not the norm. Traditional healers are willing to co-operate with oral health workers in improving the oral health of their patients. Mutual cooperation, collaboration and integrating TH into primary oral

  13. Knowledge about tooth avulsion and its management among dental assistants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Halawany, Hassan Suliman; AlJazairy, Yousra Hussain; Alhussainan, Nawaf Sulaiman; AlMaflehi, Nassr; Jacob, Vimal; Abraham, Nimmi Biju

    2014-05-06

    Studies evaluating dental assistants' knowledge about tooth avulsion and its management are rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge about tooth avulsion and its management among dental assistants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and to assess its relationship with their educational background. A convenience sampling methodology was employed for sample selection. Over a period of four months starting in February, 2013, 691 pretested 17-item questionnaires were distributed. A total of 498 questionnaires were returned for an overall response rate of 72.1%. Six questions were related to knowledge about permanent tooth avulsion and one question was related to knowledge about primary tooth avulsion. Correct answers to these questions were assigned one point each, and based on this scoring system, an overall knowledge score was calculated. An analysis of covariance was used to test the association between the level of knowledge (total score) and the educational qualifications of the respondents (dental degree and others). A P-value of 0.05 was considered the threshold for statistical significance. The majority of the respondents (n = 387; 77.7%) were non-Saudis (377 were from the Philippines), and 79.1% (n = 306) of the Filipinos had a dental degree. The question about recommendations for an avulsed tooth that is dirty elicited the highest number of correct responses (n = 444; 89.2%), whereas the question about the best storage media elicited the lowest number of correct responses (n = 192; 38.6%). The overall mean score for knowledge about tooth avulsion was 6.27 ± 1.74. The mean knowledge score among the respondents with a dental degree was 6.63 ± 1.37, whereas that among the respondents with other qualifications was 5.71 ± 2.08. The educational qualifications of the surveyed dental assistants were strongly correlated with the level of knowledge about tooth avulsion and its management.

  14. Knowledge about tooth avulsion and its management among dental assistants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Studies evaluating dental assistants’ knowledge about tooth avulsion and its management are rare. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the level of knowledge about tooth avulsion and its management among dental assistants in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia and to assess its relationship with their educational background. Methods A convenience sampling methodology was employed for sample selection. Over a period of four months starting in February, 2013, 691 pretested 17-item questionnaires were distributed. A total of 498 questionnaires were returned for an overall response rate of 72.1%. Six questions were related to knowledge about permanent tooth avulsion and one question was related to knowledge about primary tooth avulsion. Correct answers to these questions were assigned one point each, and based on this scoring system, an overall knowledge score was calculated. An analysis of covariance was used to test the association between the level of knowledge (total score) and the educational qualifications of the respondents (dental degree and others). A P-value of 0.05 was considered the threshold for statistical significance. Results The majority of the respondents (n = 387; 77.7%) were non-Saudis (377 were from the Philippines), and 79.1% (n = 306) of the Filipinos had a dental degree. The question about recommendations for an avulsed tooth that is dirty elicited the highest number of correct responses (n = 444; 89.2%), whereas the question about the best storage media elicited the lowest number of correct responses (n = 192; 38.6%). The overall mean score for knowledge about tooth avulsion was 6.27 ± 1.74. The mean knowledge score among the respondents with a dental degree was 6.63 ± 1.37, whereas that among the respondents with other qualifications was 5.71 ± 2.08. Conclusions The educational qualifications of the surveyed dental assistants were strongly correlated with the level of knowledge about tooth avulsion and its

  15. The Role of MSX1 in Human Tooth Agenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lidral, A.C.; Reising, B.C.

    2009-01-01

    MSX1 has a critical role in craniofacial development, as indicated by expression assays and transgenic mouse phenotypes. Previously, MSX1 mutations have been identified in three families with autosomal-dominant tooth agenesis. To test the hypothesis that MSX1 mutations are a common cause of congenital tooth agenesis, we screened 92 affected individuals, representing 82 nuclear families, for mutations, using single-strand conformation analysis. A Met61Lys substitution was found in two siblings from a large family with autosomal-dominant tooth agenesis. Complete concordance of the mutation with tooth agenesis was observed in the extended family. The siblings have a pattern of severe tooth agenesis similar that in to previous reports, suggesting that mutations in MSX1 are responsible for a specific pattern of inherited tooth agenesis. Supporting this theory, no mutations were found in more common cases of incisor or premolar agenesis, indicating that these have a different etiology. PMID:12097313

  16. Tooth form design supporting system in module design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagasawa, Junji; Namiki, Ryou; Tanaka, Souichi; Aoyama, Shigeru

    A lot of time was spent in designing the tooth form because there was no Computer Aided Design (CAD) system suitable for designing the tooth form of gears. A CAD system to support the tooth form design to promote efficiency of the tooth form design of gears for a wristwatch was developed. This system can perform calculation of torque transmission factor of gears, automatic drawing of tooth form drawing, and engagement simulation, and by utilizing this system the tooth form can be designed in less than one fourth of the time required by the conventional method. The characteristics of the system used to calculate the torque transmission factor of a pair of gears are summarized and the displayed results are shown.

  17. The cracked-tooth syndrome and fractured posterior cusp.

    PubMed

    Snyder, D E

    1976-06-01

    1. Even from such a small sample as that reported in this study, it is evident that the fractured cusp and cracked-tooth syndrome are common problems. The large number of fractured cusps compared to the cracked-tooth syndrome suggests that some of the cases of fractured cusp could have been diagnosed earlier. 2. It is most important that dentists be aware of the cracked-tooth syndrome in order to relieve the patient's discomfort, prevent the possible eventual loss of the pulp or tooth, and avoid unnecessary and possibly damaging treatment for misdiagnosed facial pain. 3. Conservation of tooth structure in restorative procedures is most necessary in order to prevent the cracked-tooth syndrome or fractured posterior cusp.

  18. Efficacy of Nonthermal Atmospheric Pressure Plasma for Tooth Bleaching

    PubMed Central

    Nam, Seoul Hee; Lee, Hae June; Hong, Jin Woo; Kim, Gyoo Cheon

    2015-01-01

    The conventional light source used for tooth bleaching has the potential to cause thermal damage, and the actual role of the light source is doubtful. In this study, we evaluated bleaching efficacy, temperature, and morphological safety after tooth bleaching with nonthermal atmospheric pressure plasma. Tooth bleaching combined with plasma had improved efficacy in providing a higher level of brightness. The temperature of the pulp chamber was maintained around 37°C, indicating that the plasma does not cause any thermal damage. The morphological results of tooth bleaching with plasma did not affect mineral composition under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations. On the basis of these results, the application of plasma and low concentration of 15% carbamide peroxide (CP) has a high capability for effective tooth bleaching. It can be documented that plasma is a safe energe source, which has no deleterious effects on the tooth surface. PMID:25685843

  19. Orthodontic tooth extrusion to enhance soft tissue implant esthetics.

    PubMed

    Brindis, Marco A; Block, Michael S

    2009-11-01

    The purpose of this report was to review the published data on orthodontic extrusion and make recommendations for its use according to the evidence presented, including the technique for use by clinicians. A MEDLINE search was performed to identify reports in referenced journals in English. These studies were collated and reviewed for clinical and animal data on orthodontic extrusion. In addition, the experiences of our team using orthodontic extrusion was added to the evidence used to make the recommendations. From this background information, orthodontic tooth extrusion is able to move the soft tissues when the sulcular attachment apparatus is intact. Bone formation as the tooth is extruded is dependent on the vector of the movement of the tooth. The rate of tooth extrusion is effected by the bone-tooth attachment. When used as we have described, extrusion can effectively move the facial gingival margin to allow for esthetic restoration of implants placed in the extruded tooth position.

  20. IBA analysis of a possible therapeutic ancient tooth inlay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrade, E.; Pineda, J. C.; Zavala, E. P.; Murillo, G.; Chavez, R.; Lazcurain, R.; Espinosa, Ma. L.; Villanueva, O.

    1998-03-01

    Five pre-Columbian human teeth from the same skeleton found during excavation in an ancient ceremonial center in Mexico, have been analyzed by two conventional Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques: PIXE and 4He RBS. The anthropologists have estimated that the skeleton is about 2000 years old. X-ray radiography studies of one of these teeth have revealed that they contain an inlay in the tooth crown. The IBA methods have been used to study the inlay materials and also the tooth enamel. The IBA studies show that the tooth inlay materials have almost the same atomic composition as the tooth enamel. These results suggest that the tooth inlay were made for therapeutic purposes, using healthy tooth grains as inlay materials which were glued into the prepared teeth to fill it up.

  1. The interactions between attrition, abrasion and erosion in tooth wear.

    PubMed

    Shellis, R Peter; Addy, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Tooth wear is the result of three processes: abrasion (wear produced by interaction between teeth and other materials), attrition (wear through tooth-tooth contact) and erosion (dissolution of hard tissue by acidic substances). A further process (abfraction) might potentiate wear by abrasion and/or erosion. Knowledge of these tooth wear processes and their interactions is reviewed. Both clinical and experimental observations show that individual wear mechanisms rarely act alone but interact with each other. The most important interaction is the potentiation of abrasion by erosive damage to the dental hard tissues. This interaction seems to be the major factor in occlusal and cervical wear. The available evidence is insufficient to establish whether abfraction is an important contributor to tooth wear in vivo. Saliva can modulate erosive/abrasive tooth wear, especially through formation of pellicle, but cannot prevent it. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Clinical and ultrastructural study of the natal tooth: enamel and dentin assessments.

    PubMed

    Bigeard, L; Hemmerle, J; Sommermater, J I

    1996-01-01

    A natal tooth, the lower left central primary incisor, extracted from a twenty-eight-day-old boy was the subject of a clinical and ultrastructural (S.E.M., T.E.M., H.R.T.E.M.) study. The right one having been lost shortly after birth, the places of the natal teeth were taken by two hyperplastic structures which disappeared one year later, ejecting two little pearls of hard tissue. Scanning electron microscopic investigation of the extracted natal tooth showed a reduced enamel thickness corresponding to the development stage of the tooth as well as the absence of Hunter-Schreger bands and of an outer prism-free layer probably related with amelogenesis perturbations. Transmission electron microscopy disclosed characteristic ultrastructure of the enamel rods, the morphology of the enamel crystals evaluated by their width-to-thickness ratio taking logically place between fetal and adult enamel. A central dark line, which is thought to be in relation to the initial growth process, was observed in enamel crystals. Dentin aspects did not reveal significant perturbations compared to normal primary teeth.

  3. Anterior tooth crowding and prevalence of dental caries in children in Szczecin, Poland.

    PubMed

    Buczkowska-Radlinska, J; Szyszka-Sommerfeld, L; Wozniak, K

    2012-06-01

    To test the effect of anterior tooth crowding on dental caries in Polish patients with primary, mixed and permanent dentition. Dental examinations based on WHO criteria and questionnaire surveys were performed on 225 children from Poland selected by stratified random sampling. The mean dmft/DMFT scores were recorded for primary, mixed and permanent dentition. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to identify associations between caries prevalence and other possible caries risk factors including crowding. The study population had high overall caries prevalence. Both caries prevalence and DMFT in anterior teeth of 15-19 year old adolescents with crowding were higher than in those without crowding. Multivariate analysis showed that the risk factors associated with anterior caries prevalence in patients aged 15-19 years were crowding (OR 3.71) and tooth brushing twice a day or less without interdental cleaning (OR 2.15). Tooth crowding may have been associated with anterior caries experienced in children aged 15-19 years and must be taken into consideration as a caries risk indicator.

  4. Sonosurgery for atraumatic tooth extraction: a clinical report.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou, Dimitrios E V; Geminiani, Alessandro; Zahavi, Thomas; Ercoli, Carlo

    2012-12-01

    The preservation of an intact labial plate during tooth extraction is a critical determinant of whether an immediate implant can be placed and is also an important predictor of the esthetic result. The purpose of this clinical report was to present a method for atraumatic tooth extraction by using an air-driven sonic instrument with specially designed inserts. This surgical technique provides the clinician with an efficient method for atraumatic tooth extraction and preservation of an intact labial plate.

  5. A clinical study to evaluate the correlation between maxillary central incisor tooth form and face form in an Indian population.

    PubMed

    Koralakunte, Pavankumar R; Budihal, Dhanyakumar H

    2012-09-01

    A study was performed to examine the correlation between maxillary central incisor tooth form and face form in males and females in an Indian population. The selection of prosthetic teeth for edentulous patients is a primary issue in denture esthetics, especially in the case of maxillary central incisors, which are the most prominent teeth in the arch. Two hundred dental students of Indian origin comprising 79 males and 121 females aged 18-28 years studying at Bapuji Dental College and Hospital were randomly selected as the study subjects. A standardized photographic procedure was used to obtain images of the face and the maxillary central incisors. The outline forms of the face and the maxillary right central incisor tooth were determined using a standardized method. The outline forms obtained were used to classify both face form and tooth form on the basis of visual and William's methods. The means were considered after evaluation by five prosthodontists, and the results were tabulated. Statistical analysis was performed using the chi-squared test for association and Z-test for equality of proportions. A correlation greater than 50% was observed between tooth form and face form by the visual method, compared with one of 31.5% by William's method. There was no highly defined correlation between maxillary central incisor tooth form and face form among the male and female Indian subjects studied.

  6. Joubert syndrome: congenital cerebellar ataxia with the molar tooth.

    PubMed

    Romani, Marta; Micalizzi, Alessia; Valente, Enza Maria

    2013-09-01

    Joubert syndrome is a congenital cerebellar ataxia with autosomal recessive or X-linked inheritance, the diagnostic hallmark of which is a unique cerebellar and brainstem malformation recognisable on brain imaging-the so-called molar tooth sign. Neurological signs are present from the neonatal period and include hypotonia progressing to ataxia, global developmental delay, ocular motor apraxia, and breathing dysregulation. These signs are variably associated with multiorgan involvement, mainly of the retina, kidneys, skeleton, and liver. 21 causative genes have been identified so far, all of which encode for proteins of the primary cilium or its apparatus. The primary cilium is a subcellular organelle that has key roles in development and in many cellular functions, making Joubert syndrome part of the expanding family of ciliopathies. Notable clinical and genetic overlap exists between distinct ciliopathies, which can co-occur even within families. Such variability is probably explained by an oligogenic model of inheritance, in which the interplay of mutations, rare variants, and polymorphisms at distinct loci modulate the expressivity of the ciliary phenotype. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Alveolar Fracture Caused by Tooth Extraction at Home.

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Fabrício Kitazono; Xavier, Thaís Aparecida; Lima, Nicole Gonçalves; de Queiroz, Alexandra Mussolino; Vinhorte, Marcilene Coelho; Nelson-Filho, Paulo

    Injuries to the teeth and surrounding structures are relatively common. Although traumatic injuries caused by falls or activities related to sports are widely discussed, the same cannot be said regarding accidents arising from non-professional extraction of primary teeth. The present study reports a 6-year-old male child who underwent mandibular alveolar bone fracture during non-professional extraction of his central lower left incisor at home, performed by his 30-year-old aunt. The root of the tooth was with an irregular physiological resorption, which acted as a lever component for the mechanical force applied, leading to bone fracture. Although not common, the possibility that dental roots with irregular resorption can act as a possible risk factor for accidents if the parents or guardians of children during the period of transitional dentition try to perform intentional extraction of primary teeth should be highlighted. Parents should always consult a professional, preferably a pediatric dentist, for monitoring this period of transitional dentition.

  8. Computer-aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuo, Hung Chang; Huston, Ronald L.; Coy, John J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  9. Computer aided design of bevel gear tooth surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, S. H.; Huston, R. L.; Coy, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a computer-aided design procedure for generating bevel gears. The development is based on examining a perfectly plastic, cone-shaped gear blank rolling over a cutting tooth on a plane crown rack. The resulting impression on the plastic gear blank is the envelope of the cutting tooth. This impression and envelope thus form a conjugate tooth surface. Equations are presented for the locus of points on the tooth surface. The same procedures are then extended to simulate the generation of a spiral bevel gear. The corresponding governing equations are presented.

  10. Tooth positioners and their effects on treatment outcome

    PubMed Central

    Pravindevaprasad, A.; Therese, Beena Agnes

    2013-01-01

    Malocclusion can also be corrected by means of clear removable appliances called as “tooth positioners” or “aligners”. A tooth positioner is used to control settling and to minimize or eliminate relapse of the teeth after an orthodontic treatment. In this article, a complete review of the objectives, course of treatment, fabrication, and the materials used for fabrication of tooth positioners along with their importance and disadvantages were discussed. Tooth positioners did improve the overall orthodontic treatment outcome as quantified by the ABO (American Board of orthodontics) objective scoring method. But once the initial occlusal contact was achieved, the vertical movement of teeth was found to be inhibited. PMID:24082720

  11. Functional constraints on tooth morphology in carnivorous mammals.

    PubMed

    Smits, Peter D; Evans, Alistair R

    2012-08-16

    The range of potential morphologies resulting from evolution is limited by complex interacting processes, ranging from development to function. Quantifying these interactions is important for understanding adaptation and convergent evolution. Using three-dimensional reconstructions of carnivoran and dasyuromorph tooth rows, we compared statistical models of the relationship between tooth row shape and the opposing tooth row, a static feature, as well as measures of mandibular motion during chewing (occlusion), which are kinetic features. This is a new approach to quantifying functional integration because we use measures of movement and displacement, such as the amount the mandible translates laterally during occlusion, as opposed to conventional morphological measures, such as mandible length and geometric landmarks. By sampling two distantly related groups of ecologically similar mammals, we study carnivorous mammals in general rather than a specific group of mammals. Statistical model comparisons demonstrate that the best performing models always include some measure of mandibular motion, indicating that functional and statistical models of tooth shape as purely a function of the opposing tooth row are too simple and that increased model complexity provides a better understanding of tooth form. The predictors of the best performing models always included the opposing tooth row shape and a relative linear measure of mandibular motion. Our results provide quantitative support of long-standing hypotheses of tooth row shape as being influenced by mandibular motion in addition to the opposing tooth row. Additionally, this study illustrates the utility and necessity of including kinetic features in analyses of morphological integration.

  12. The role of the dental lamina in mammalian tooth replacement.

    PubMed

    Järvinen, Elina; Tummers, Mark; Thesleff, Irma

    2009-06-15

    We have applied the ferret, Mustela putorius furo, as a model for tooth replacement. Ferret has a heterodont dentition, which includes all tooth families, and all antemolar teeth are replaced. Compared with mouse, the ferret therefore has a less derived mammalian dentition resembling that of humans. We have studied tooth replacement in serial histological sections in embryonic and young postnatal ferrets. Our observations indicate that the replacement teeth form from the dental lamina that is intimately connected to the lingual aspect of the deciduous tooth enamel organ. It grows as an offshoot from the enamel organ, elongates in cervical direction and later buds to give rise to the replacement tooth. The extent of the dental lamina growth, preceding replacement tooth budding, varied between different teeth. The dynamic gene expression patterns of Sostdc1, Shh and Axin2 brought new insight into the signal networks regulating the tooth replacement process. The distinct expression of Sostdc1 at the interface between the dental lamina and the deciduous tooth is the first indication of a specific tissue identity of the dental lamina. We suggest that the reactivation of a competent dental lamina is pivotal for the replacement tooth formation. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Evaluation of scaffold materials for tooth tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Ohara, Takayuki; Itaya, Toshimitsu; Usami, Kazutada; Ando, Yusuke; Sakurai, Hiroya; Honda, Masaki J; Ueda, Minoru; Kagami, Hideaki

    2010-09-01

    Recently, the possibility of tooth tissue engineering has been reported. Although there are a number of available materials, information about scaffolds for tooth tissue engineering is still limited. To improve the manageability of tooth tissue engineering, the effect of scaffolds on in vivo tooth regeneration was evaluated. Collagen and fibrin were selected for this study based on the biocompatibility to dental papilla-derived cells and the results were compared with those of polyglycolic acid (PGA) fiber and beta-tricalcium phosphate (beta-TCP) porous block, which are commonly used for tooth, dentin and bone tissue engineering. Isolated porcine tooth germ-derived cells were seeded onto one of those scaffolds and transplanted to the back of nude mice. Tooth bud-like structures were observed more frequently in collagen and fibrin gels than on PGA or beta-TCP, while the amount of hard tissue formation was less. The results showed that collagen and fibrin gel support the initial regeneration process of tooth buds possibly due to their ability to support the growth of epithelial and mesenchymal cells. On the other hand, maturation of tooth buds was difficult in fibrin and collagen gels, which may require other factors. (c) 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Physiological Root End Closure in a Traumatized Young Permanent Tooth Using Collagen Particles as Pulpal Dressing

    PubMed Central

    Gaur, Divya; Kumar, CH Santosh; Shilpa, G

    2017-01-01

    The management of traumatized young permanent teeth has always been a challenge to the clinician, considering the importance of retaining the vitality of the tooth. Recently, collagen particles have been successfully used as pulpotomy medicaments in primary teeth. This case report shows the use of collagen particles as pulpal dressing in a traumatized young permanent tooth of a nine-year-old child presenting with complicated fracture of young permanent left maxillary central incisor. Partial pulpotomy was performed with collagen particles (Biofil-AB) as pulpal dressing. At six months follow up, apexogenesis was found to be nearly complete. Thus, collagen can be considered as a potential pulpal medicament for apexogenesis procedures. PMID:28274076

  15. Reliability in age determination by pulp/tooth ratio in upper canines in skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Cameriere, Roberto; Brogi, Giuseppe; Ferrante, Luigi; Mirtella, Dora; Vultaggio, Claudia; Cingolani, Mariano; Fornaciari, Gino

    2006-07-01

    Estimation of age of skeletal remains is one of the most complex questions for anthropologists. The most common macroscopic methods are based on dental wear and histological evaluation of bone remodeling. These methods are often qualitative, require great technical expertise, and have proved inexact in the estimation of ages over 50 years. Certain dental methods investigate the apposition of secondary dentine, in the study of tooth cross-sections, and X-rays to study width, height, and pulp area. The primary author previously proposed a method of estimating the age of a living person based on the pulp/tooth ratio (PTR) method in the upper canines. The aim of the present study is to verify whether the PTR method can also be used to estimate the age at death of skeletal remains. This paper investigates the study of historical samples of known age as a means to validate the proposed method.

  16. Restoring primary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, William F

    2002-01-01

    A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available for restoring primary incisors. Knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages and the clinical conditions of placement may be a strong determining factor as to which material is utilized. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and those crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are some type of stainless steel crown. However, due to lack of supporting clinical data, none of the crowns can be said to be superior to the others under all circumstances. Though caries in the mandibular region is rare, restorative solutions for mandibular incisors are needed. Neither stainless steel crowns nor celluloid crown forms are made specifically for mandibular incisors. Many options exist to repair carious primary incisors, but there is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. This does not discount the fact that dentists have been using many of these crowns for years with much success. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables which affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative treatment is chosen.

  17. Gene Expression Profiling during Murine Tooth Development.

    PubMed

    Landin, Maria A Dos Santos Silva; Shabestari, Maziar; Babaie, Eshrat; Reseland, Janne E; Osmundsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the expression of genes, including ameloblastin (Ambn), amelogenin X chromosome (Amelx), and enamelin (Enam) during early (pre-secretory) tooth development. The expression of these genes has predominantly been studied at post-secretory stages. Deoxyoligonucleotide microarrays were used to study gene expression during development of the murine first molar tooth germ at 24 h intervals, starting at the 11th embryonic day (E11.5), and up to the 7th day after birth (P7). The profile search function of Spotfire software was used to select genes with similar expression profile as the enamel genes (Ambn, Amelx, and Enam). Microarray results where validated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), and translated proteins identified by Western-blotting. In situ localization of the Ambn, Amelx, and Enam mRNAs were monitored from E12.5 to E17.5 using deoxyoligonucleotide probes. Bioinformatics analysis was used to associate biological functions with differentially expressed (DE; p ≤ 0.05) genes. Microarray results showed a total of 4362 genes including Ambn, Amelx, and Enam to be significant DE throughout the time-course. The expression of the three enamel genes was low at pre-natal stages (E11.5-P0) increasing after birth (P1-P7). Profile search lead to isolation of 87 genes with significantly similar expression to the three enamel proteins. These mRNAs were expressed in dental epithelium and epithelium derived cells. Although expression of Ambn, Amelx, and Enam were lower during early tooth development compared to secretory stages enamel proteins were detectable by Western-blotting. Bioinformatic analysis associated the 87 genes with multiple biological functions. Around 35 genes were associated with 15 transcription factors.

  18. Gene Expression Profiling during Murine Tooth Development

    PubMed Central

    Landin, Maria A. dos Santos Silva; Shabestari, Maziar; Babaie, Eshrat; Reseland, Janne E.; Osmundsen, Harald

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the expression of genes, including ameloblastin (Ambn), amelogenin X chromosome (Amelx), and enamelin (Enam) during early (pre-secretory) tooth development. The expression of these genes has predominantly been studied at post-secretory stages. Deoxyoligonucleotide microarrays were used to study gene expression during development of the murine first molar tooth germ at 24 h intervals, starting at the 11th embryonic day (E11.5), and up to the 7th day after birth (P7). The profile search function of Spotfire software was used to select genes with similar expression profile as the enamel genes (Ambn, Amelx, and Enam). Microarray results where validated using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (real-time RT-PCR), and translated proteins identified by Western-blotting. In situ localization of the Ambn, Amelx, and Enam mRNAs were monitored from E12.5 to E17.5 using deoxyoligonucleotide probes. Bioinformatics analysis was used to associate biological functions with differentially expressed (DE; p ≤ 0.05) genes. Microarray results showed a total of 4362 genes including Ambn, Amelx, and Enam to be significant DE throughout the time-course. The expression of the three enamel genes was low at pre-natal stages (E11.5–P0) increasing after birth (P1–P7). Profile search lead to isolation of 87 genes with significantly similar expression to the three enamel proteins. These mRNAs were expressed in dental epithelium and epithelium derived cells. Although expression of Ambn, Amelx, and Enam were lower during early tooth development compared to secretory stages enamel proteins were detectable by Western-blotting. Bioinformatic analysis associated the 87 genes with multiple biological functions. Around 35 genes were associated with 15 transcription factors. PMID:22866057

  19. Storing Tooth Segments for Optimal Esthetics.

    PubMed

    Tuzuner, Tamer; Turgut, Sedanur; Ozen, Bugra; Kılınç, Hamiyet; Bagiş, Bora

    2016-01-01

    A fractured whole crown segment can be reattached to its remnant; crowns from extracted teeth may be used as pontics in splinting techniques. We aimed to evaluate the effect of different storage solutions on tooth segment optical properties after different durations. Sixty central incisor crowns were divided into 6 groups (n = 10); Group 1 was kept dry; Groups 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 were placed in an isotonic solution, water, milk, saliva, and casein-phosphopeptide-amorphous-calcium-phosphate (CPP-ACP), respectively, for 30 min, 12 h, 1 day, 1 week, and 3 weeks. Color values were measured using a colorimeter. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis tests, Mann-Whitney U-tests, and Friedman Wilcoxon tests with Bonferroni stepwise corrections (p < 0.05). ΔE* values varied from 0.3 to 15.3 over the 3 week period. Group 1 demonstrated the greatest color changes over all durations; Group 6 exhibited the least. L*, a*, b*, and ΔE* values varied between time periods in all groups; the differences were significant (p < 0.01), except for L* and ΔE* values in Group 2 and a* values in Group 6 (p > 0.01). Comparing ΔE* values, Group 6 was significantly different from the other groups for all durations (p < 0.01), except Group 4. A CPP-ACP complex solution seems a good choice for tooth fragment storage. Milk and saliva solutions may cause perceptible color changes if tooth fragments are stored for 3 weeks before use.

  20. Epithelial topography for repetitive tooth formation

    PubMed Central

    Gaete, Marcia; Fons, Juan Manuel; Popa, Elena Mădălina; Chatzeli, Lemonia; Tucker, Abigail S.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT During the formation of repetitive ectodermally derived organs such as mammary glands, lateral line and teeth, the tissue primordium iteratively initiates new structures. In the case of successional molar development, new teeth appear sequentially in the posterior region of the jaw from Sox2+ cells in association with the posterior aspect of a pre-existing tooth. The sequence of molar development is well known, however, the epithelial topography involved in the formation of a new tooth is unclear. Here, we have examined the morphology of the molar dental epithelium and its development at different stages in the mouse in vivo and in molar explants. Using regional lineage tracing we show that within the posterior tail of the first molar the primordium for the second and third molar are organized in a row, with the tail remaining in connection with the surface, where a furrow is observed. The morphology and Sox2 expression of the tail retains characteristics reminiscent of the earlier stages of tooth development, such that position along the A-P axes of the tail correlates with different temporal stages. Sox9, a stem/progenitor cell marker in other organs, is expressed mainly in the suprabasal epithelium complementary with Sox2 expression. This Sox2 and Sox9 expressing molar tail contains actively proliferating cells with mitosis following an apico-basal direction. Snail2, a transcription factor implicated in cell migration, is expressed at high levels in the tip of the molar tail while E-cadherin and laminin are decreased. In conclusion, our studies propose a model in which the epithelium of the molar tail can grow by posterior movement of epithelial cells followed by infolding and stratification involving a population of Sox2+/Sox9+ cells. PMID:26538639

  1. CHIPPING FRACTURE RESISTANCE OF DENTURE TOOTH MATERIALS

    PubMed Central

    Quinn, G. D.; Giuseppetti, A. A.; Hoffman, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The applicability of the edge chipping method to denture tooth materials was assessed. These are softer materials than those usually tested by edge chipping. The edge chipping fracture resistances of polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) based and two filled resin composite denture tooth materials were compared. Methods An edge chipping machine was used to chip rectangular blocks and flattened anterior denture teeth. Force versus edge distance data were collected over a broad range of forces and distances. Between 20 and 65 chips were made per condition depending upon the material, the scatter, and the indenter type. Different indenter types were used including Rockwell C, sharp conical 120°, Knoop, and Vickers. The edge toughness, Te, was evaluated for different indenter types. Results The edge chipping data collected on the blocks matched the data collected from flattened teeth. High scatter, particularly at large distances and loads, meant that many tests (up to 64) were necessary to compare the denture tooth materials and to ascertain the appropriate data trends. A linear force – distance trend analysis was adequate for comparing these materials. A power law trend might be more appropriate, but the large scatter obscured the definitive determination of the precise trend. Different indenters produce different linear trends, with the ranking of: sharp conical 120°, Rockwell C, and Knoop, from lowest to highest edge toughness. Vickers indenter data were extremely scattered and a sensible trend could not be obtained. Edge toughness was inversely correlated to hardness. Significance Edge chipping data collected either from simple laboratory scale test blocks or from actual denture teeth may be used to evaluate denture materials. The edge chipping method’s applicability has been extended to another class of restorative materials. PMID:24674342

  2. Cracked tooth syndrome. Part 2: restorative options for the management of cracked tooth syndrome.

    PubMed

    Banerji, S; Mehta, S B; Millar, B J

    2010-06-01

    The second of this two part series on 'cracked tooth syndrome' will focus on the available methods for the immediate, intermediate and definitive management of patients affected by this condition. Included in this article is a comprehensive account of the relative merits/drawbacks of various restorative materials and their respective techniques of application for the treatment of symptomatic, incompletely fractured posterior teeth.

  3. Pediatric Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.

    PubMed

    Jani-Acsadi, Agnes; Ounpuu, Sylvia; Pierz, Kristan; Acsadi, Gyula

    2015-06-01

    Heritable diseases of the peripheral nerves (Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease [CMT]) affect the motor units and sensory nerves, and they are among the most prevalent genetic conditions in the pediatric patient population. The typical clinical presentation includes distal muscle weakness and atrophy, but the severity and progression are largely variable. Improvements in supportive treatment have led to better preservation of patients' motor functions. More than 80 genes have been associated with CMT. These genetic discoveries, along with the developments of cellular and transgenic disease models, have allowed clinicians to better understand the disease mechanisms, which should lead to more specific treatments.

  4. Measurement of Gear Tooth Dynamic Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebbechi, Brian; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of dynamic friction forces at the gear tooth contact were undertaken using strain gages at the root fillets of two successive teeth. Results are presented from two gear sets over a range of speeds and loads. The results demonstrate that the friction coefficient does not appear to be significantly influenced by the sliding reversal at the pitch point, and that the friction coefficient values found are in accord with those in general use. The friction coefficient was found to increase at low sliding speeds. This agrees with the results of disc machine testing.

  5. Measurement of Gear Tooth Dynamic Friction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebbechi, Brian; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1996-01-01

    Measurements of dynamic friction forces at the gear tooth contact were undertaken using strain gages at the root fillets of two successive teeth. Results are presented from two gear sets over a range of speeds and loads. The results demonstrate that the friction coefficient does not appear to be significantly influenced by the sliding reversal at the pitch point, and that the friction coefficient values found are in accord with those in general use. The friction coefficient was found to increase at low sliding speeds. This agrees with the results of disc machine testing.

  6. Dentition and tooth replacement pattern in Chalcides (Squamata; Scincidae).

    PubMed

    Delgado, Sidney; Davit-Beal, Tiphaine; Sire, Jean-Yves

    2003-05-01

    This study was undertaken as a prerequisite to investigations on tooth differentiation in a squamate, the Canarian scincid Chalcides. Our main goal was to determine whether the pattern of tooth replacement, known to be regular in lizards, could be helpful to predict accurately any stage of tooth development. A growth series of 20 laboratory-reared specimens, aged from 0.5 month after birth to about 6 years, was used. The dentition (functional and replacement teeth) was studied from radiographs of jaw quadrants. The number of tooth positions, the tooth number in relation to age and to seasons, and the size of the replacement teeth were recorded. In Chalcides, a single row of pleurodont functional teeth lies at the labial margin of the dentary, premaxillary, and maxillary. Whatever the age of the specimens, 16 tooth positions were recorded, on average, in each quadrant, suggesting that positions are maintained throughout life. Replacement teeth were numerous whatever the age and season, while the number of functional teeth was subject to variation. Symmetry of tooth development was evaluated by comparing teeth two by two from the opposite side in the four jaw quadrants of several specimens. Although the relative size of some replacement teeth fitted perfectly, the symmetry criterion was not reliable to predict the developmental stage of the opposite tooth, whether the pair of teeth compared was left-right or upper-lower. The best fit was found when comparing the size of successive replacement teeth from the front to the back of the jaw. Every replacement tooth that is 40-80% of its definitive size is followed, in the next position on the arcade, by a tooth that is, on average, 20% less developed. Considering teeth in alternate positions (even and odd series), each replacement tooth was a little more developed than the previous, more anterior, one (0.5-20% when the teeth are from 10-40% of their final size). The latter pattern showed that tooth replacement occurred in

  7. Common developmental pathways link tooth shape to regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Fraser, Gareth J.; Bloomquist, Ryan F.; Streelman, J. Todd

    2013-01-01

    In many non-mammalian vertebrates, adult dentitions result from cyclical rounds of tooth regeneration wherein simple unicuspid teeth are replaced by more complex forms. Therefore and by contrast to mammalian models, the numerical majority of vertebrate teeth develop shape during the process of replacement. Here, we exploit the dental diversity of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes to ask how vertebrates generally replace their dentition and in turn how this process acts to influence resulting tooth morphologies. First, we used immunohistochemistry to chart organogenesis of continually replacing cichlid teeth and discovered an epithelial down-growth that initiates the replacement cycle via a labial proliferation bias. Next, we identified sets of co-expressed genes from common pathways active during de novo, lifelong tooth replacement and tooth morphogenesis. Of note, we found two distinct epithelial cell populations, expressing markers of dental competence and cell potency, which may be responsible for tooth regeneration. Related gene sets were simultaneously active in putative signaling centers associated with the differentiation of replacement teeth with complex shapes. Finally, we manipulated targeted pathways (BMP, FGF, Hh, Notch, Wnt/β-catenin) in vivo with small molecules and demonstrated dose-dependent effects on both tooth replacement and tooth shape. Our data suggest that the processes of tooth regeneration and tooth shape morphogenesis are integrated via a common set of molecular signals. This linkage has subsequently been lost or decoupled in mammalian dentitions where complex tooth shapes develop in first generation dentitions that lack the capacity for lifelong replacement. Our dissection of the molecular mechanics of vertebrate tooth replacement coupled to complex shape pinpoints aspects of odontogenesis that might be re-evolved in the lab to solve problems in regenerative dentistry. PMID:23422830

  8. Tooth cusp sharpness as a dietary correlate in great apes.

    PubMed

    Berthaume, Michael A

    2014-02-01

    Mammalian molars have undergone heavy scrutiny to determine correlates between morphology and diet. Here, the relationship between one aspect of occlusal morphology, tooth cusp radius of curvature (RoC), and two broad dietary categories, folivory and frugivory, is analyzed in apes. The author hypothesizes that there is a relationship between tooth cusp RoC and diet, and that folivores have sharper teeth than frugivores, and further test the correlation between tooth cusp RoC and tooth cusp size. Eight measures of tooth cusp RoC (two RoCs per cusp) were taken from 53 M(2) s from four species and subspecies of frugivorous apes (Pongo pygmaeus, Pan troglodytes troglodytes, Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii, and Gorilla gorilla gorilla) and two subspecies of folivorous apes (Gorilla beringei beringei, and Gorilla beringei graueri). Phylogenetically corrected ANOVAs were run on the full dataset and several subsets of the full dataset, revealing that, when buccolingual RoCs are taken into account, tooth cusp RoCs can successfully differentiate folivores and frugivores. PCAs revealed that folivores consistently had duller teeth than frugivores. In addition, a weak, statistically significant positive correlation exists between tooth cusp size and tooth cusp RoC. The author hypothesizes differences in tooth cusp RoC are correlated with wear rates, where, per vertical unit of wear, duller cusps will have a longer length of exposed enamel ridge than sharper cusps. More data need to be gathered to determine if the correlation between tooth cusp RoC and tooth cusp size holds true when small primates are considered. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Common developmental pathways link tooth shape to regeneration.

    PubMed

    Fraser, Gareth J; Bloomquist, Ryan F; Streelman, J Todd

    2013-05-15

    In many non-mammalian vertebrates, adult dentitions result from cyclical rounds of tooth regeneration wherein simple unicuspid teeth are replaced by more complex forms. Therefore and by contrast to mammalian models, the numerical majority of vertebrate teeth develop shape during the process of replacement. Here, we exploit the dental diversity of Lake Malawi cichlid fishes to ask how vertebrates generally replace their dentition and in turn how this process acts to influence resulting tooth morphologies. First, we used immunohistochemistry to chart organogenesis of continually replacing cichlid teeth and discovered an epithelial down-growth that initiates the replacement cycle via a labial proliferation bias. Next, we identified sets of co-expressed genes from common pathways active during de novo, lifelong tooth replacement and tooth morphogenesis. Of note, we found two distinct epithelial cell populations, expressing markers of dental competence and cell potency, which may be responsible for tooth regeneration. Related gene sets were simultaneously active in putative signaling centers associated with the differentiation of replacement teeth with complex shapes. Finally, we manipulated targeted pathways (BMP, FGF, Hh, Notch, Wnt/β-catenin) in vivo with small molecules and demonstrated dose-dependent effects on both tooth replacement and tooth shape. Our data suggest that the processes of tooth regeneration and tooth shape morphogenesis are integrated via a common set of molecular signals. This linkage has subsequently been lost or decoupled in mammalian dentitions where complex tooth shapes develop in first generation dentitions that lack the capacity for lifelong replacement. Our dissection of the molecular mechanics of vertebrate tooth replacement coupled to complex shape pinpoints aspects of odontogenesis that might be re-evolved in the lab to solve problems in regenerative dentistry. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Pulp canal obliteration in an unerupted permanent incisor following trauma to its primary predecessor: a case report.

    PubMed

    Katz-Sagi, Hadas; Moskovitz, Moti; Moshonov, Joshua; Holan, Gideon

    2004-06-01

    Trauma to a primary tooth may result in damage to the underlying developing permanent tooth bud because of the close proximity between the root of the primary tooth and its permanent successor. We report an unusual case where injury to the primary dentition resulted in pulp canal obliteration (PCO) of a permanent maxillary central incisor prior to its eruption. The other permanent maxillary central incisor was diagnosed as malformed because of trauma to the primary dentition at an earlier age. The occurrences of PCO or crown malformation dose not routinely disrupt the eruption of those teeth. Periodic assessment is required to determine the need for endodontic intervention. Copyright Blackwell Munksgaard, 2004

  11. Role of Primary Cilia in Odontogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hampl, M; Cela, P; Szabo-Rogers, H L; Bosakova, M Kunova; Dosedelova, H; Krejci, P; Buchtova, M

    2017-08-01

    Primary cilium is a solitary organelle that emanates from the surface of most postmitotic mammalian cells and serves as a sensory organelle, transmitting the mechanical and chemical cues to the cell. Primary cilia are key coordinators of various signaling pathways during development and maintenance of tissue homeostasis. The emerging evidence implicates primary cilia function in tooth development. Primary cilia are located in the dental epithelium and mesenchyme at early stages of tooth development and later during cell differentiation and production of hard tissues. The cilia are present when interactions between both the epithelium and mesenchyme are required for normal morphogenesis. As the primary cilium coordinates several signaling pathways essential for odontogenesis, ciliary defects can interrupt the latter process. Genetic or experimental alterations of cilia function lead to various developmental defects, including supernumerary or missing teeth, enamel and dentin hypoplasia, or teeth crowding. Moreover, dental phenotypes are observed in ciliopathies, including Bardet-Biedl syndrome, Ellis-van Creveld syndrome, Weyers acrofacial dysostosis, cranioectodermal dysplasia, and oral-facial-digital syndrome, altogether demonstrating that primary cilia play a critical role in regulation of both the early odontogenesis and later differentiation of hard tissue-producing cells. Here, we summarize the current evidence for the localization of primary cilia in dental tissues and the impact of disrupted cilia signaling on tooth development in ciliopathies.

  12. Alveolar bone changes in autogenous tooth transplantation.

    PubMed

    Waikakul, Aurasa; Punwutikorn, Jirapun; Kasetsuwan, Julalux; Korsuwannawong, Suwanna

    2011-03-01

    To assess the alveolar bone formation after autogenous tooth transplantation by conventional radiographic method and digital subtraction radiography. This retrospective study was done in 54 of 136 patients who received the third molar tooth transplantation and attended the first week, as well as the 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up. Postoperative periapical radiographs were subsequently evaluated by direct visual interpretation and digital subtraction radiography. The data were analyzed by using McNemar test and 1-way repeated-measure analysis of variance as well as Bonferroni multiple comparison. Fifty-four cases of transplantation were studied. Most of them had normal wound healing. The direct radiographic interpretation and digital subtraction radiography found significant alveolar bone formation in the first-and the third-month follow-ups (P < .05). Lamina dura appeared in the third month and kept increasing until the sixth month. Postoperative radiographs revealed the distinctive bone formation up to the third month. The clinical and radiographic assessment found that the third molar transplants could bear a normal chewing load within 3 months. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Rheological characteristics of tooth bleaching materials.

    PubMed

    Wille, T; Combe, E C; Pesun, I J; Giles, D W

    2000-12-01

    Tooth bleaching materials need to flow easily on insertion but should have high viscosity at low stresses to stay in place on the teeth. Some degree of elasticity may also aid retention on the teeth thereby maximizing efficacy. The present work was undertaken to study the comparative rheology of three tooth bleaching systems: two gels (Opalescence, Ultradent; Perfecta Trio, American Dental Hygienics) and a paste (Colgate Platinum, Colgate). A dynamic stress rheometer (Rheometrics Scientific) with cone and plate geometry was used, with the materials maintained at 37.0+/-0.1 degrees C with a vapour hood to minimize volatilization. Stress creep and recovery experiments were carried out. Steady shear viscosity for all three systems was high (>10(6) Pa s(-1)) for stresses <20 Pa. Between 100 and 200 Pa stress, all three materials showed a large drop in viscosity and flowed readily. The recovery portion of the data showed a marked difference where the elasticity of the gels was nearly two orders of magnitude higher than that of the paste. It was concluded that all materials would flow readily on insertion into the mouth and all have desirable high viscosity at low stress, but the paste material had the lowest elasticity. The effect of elasticity on performance needs to be determined clinically.

  14. Inadvertent tooth movement with fixed lingual retainers.

    PubMed

    Shaughnessy, Timothy G; Proffit, William R; Samara, Said A

    2016-02-01

    Fixed retainers are effective in maintaining the alignment of the anterior teeth more than 90% of the time, but they can produce inadvertent tooth movement that in the most severe instances requires orthodontic retreatment managed with a periodontist. This is different from relapse into crowding when a fixed retainer is lost. These problems arise when the retainer breaks but remains bonded to some or all teeth, or when an intact retainer is distorted by function or was not passive when bonded. In both instances, torque of the affected teeth is the predominant outcome. A fixed retainer made with dead soft wire is the least likely to create torque problems but is the most likely to break. Highly flexible twist wires bonded to all the teeth appear to be the most likely to produce inadvertent tooth movement, but this also can occur with stiffer wires bonded only to the canines. Orthodontists, general dentists, and patients should be aware of possible problems with fixed retainers, especially those with all teeth bonded, because the patient might not notice partial debonding. Regular observations of patients wearing fixed retainers by orthodontists in the short term and family dentists in the long term are needed.

  15. Reasons for tooth extraction in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Chestnutt, I G; Binnie, V I; Taylor, M M

    2000-05-01

    A 1984 study investigated the reasons underlying the extraction of teeth in Scotland. The survey described in this paper, used a similar methodology and aimed to determine the reasons for the extraction of permanent teeth by general dental practitioners and investigate changes in the influences on tooth extraction over a 10 year period. During a 1 week period in November 1994, 139 general dental practitioners working throughout Scotland, recorded the reasons for all permanent tooth extractions. A total of 917 permanent teeth were extracted from 613 patients, the reason for extraction being stated as dental caries (51%), periodontal disease (21%), orthodontics (11%) and failed endodontics (4%). Trauma, pericoronitis and other reasons accounted for 5.5% of extractions whilst, in 7.5% of cases, patients requested extraction in preference to other treatments. The proportion of extractions attributed to periodontal disease increased from age 31-60 years, but declined thereafter. Comparing the results with those obtained in the 1984 study, whilst the mean number of teeth extracted by each practitioner had reduced, the overall relative contribution of different reasons for extraction was similar.

  16. 3D Simulation Modeling of the Tooth Wear Process

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Ning; Hu, Jian; Liu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Severe tooth wear is the most common non-caries dental disease, and it can seriously affect oral health. Studying the tooth wear process is time-consuming and difficult, and technological tools are frequently lacking. This paper presents a novel method of digital simulation modeling that represents a new way to study tooth wear. First, a feature extraction algorithm is used to obtain anatomical feature points of the tooth without attrition. Second, after the alignment of non-attrition areas, the initial homogeneous surface is generated by means of the RBF (Radial Basic Function) implicit surface and then deformed to the final homogeneous by the contraction and bounding algorithm. Finally, the method of bilinear interpolation based on Laplacian coordinates between tooth with attrition and without attrition is used to inversely reconstruct the sequence of changes of the 3D tooth morphology during gradual tooth wear process. This method can also be used to generate a process simulation of nonlinear tooth wear by means of fitting an attrition curve to the statistical data of attrition index in a certain region. The effectiveness and efficiency of the attrition simulation algorithm are verified through experimental simulation. PMID:26241942

  17. Genetics Home Reference: Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Roussy-Lévy syndrome Genetic Testing Registry: X-linked hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy Other Diagnosis and Management Resources (16 links) GeneReview: Charcot-Marie-Tooth Hereditary Neuropathy Overview GeneReview: Charcot-Marie-Tooth Neuropathy Type ...

  18. Specificity protein 7 is not essential for tooth morphogenesis.

    PubMed

    Clarke, John C; Bae, Ji-Myung; Adhami, Mitra; Rashid, Harunur; Chen, Haiyan; Napierala, Dobrawa; Gutierrez, Soraya E; Sinha, Krishna; Crombrugghe, Benoit de; Javed, Amjad

    2014-08-01

    Tooth formation is a multifaceted process involving numerous interactions between oral epithelium and neural crest derived ecto-mesenchyme from morphogenesis to cyto-differentiation. The precise molecular regulator that drives the cyto-differentiation and dynamic cross-talk between the two cell types has yet to be fully understood. Runx2 along with its downstream target Sp7 are essential transcription factors for development of the mineralizing cell types. Global knockout of the Runx2 gene results in an arrest of tooth morphogenesis at the late bud stage. Like Runx2, Sp7-null mutants exhibit peri-natal lethality and are completely devoid of alveolar bone. However, the role of Sp7 in tooth development remains elusive. Here, we report the effects of Sp7 deletion on tooth formation. Surprisingly, tooth morphogenesis progresses normally until the mid bell stage in Sp7-homozygous mutants. Incisors and multi-cusped first and second molars were noted in both littermates. Thus, formation of alveolar bone is not a prerequisite for tooth morphogenesis. Tooth organs of Sp7-null however, were significantly smaller in size when compared to WT. Differentiation of both ameloblasts and odontoblasts was disrupted in Sp7-null mice. Only premature and disorganized ameloblasts and odontoblasts were noted in mutant mice. These data indicate that Sp7 is not required for tooth morphogenesis but is obligatory for the functional maturation of both ameloblasts and odontoblasts.

  19. Specificity protein 7 is not essential for tooth morphogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, John C.; Bae, Ji-Myung; Adhami, Mitra; Rashid, Harunur; Chen, Haiyan; Napierala, Dobrawa; Gutierrez, Soraya E.; Sinha, Krishna; de Crombrugghe, Benoit; Javed, Amjad

    2014-01-01

    Tooth formation is a multifaceted process involving numerous interactions between oral epithelium and neural crest derived ecto-mesenchyme from morphogenesis to cytodifferentiation. The precise molecular regulator that drives the cyto-differentiation and dynamic cross-talk between the two cell types has yet to be fully understood. Runx2 along with its downstream target Sp7 are essential transcription factors for development of the mineralizing cell types. Global knockout of the Runx2 gene results in an arrest of tooth morphogenesis at the late bud stage. Like Runx2, Sp7-null mutants exhibit peri-natal lethality and are completely devoid of alveolar bone. However, the role of Sp7 in tooth development remains elusive. Here, we report the effects of Sp7 deletion on tooth formation. Surprisingly, tooth morphogenesis progresses normally until the mid bell stage in Sp7-homozygous mutants. Incisors and multi-cusped first and second molars were noted in both littermates. Thus, formation of alveolar bone is not a prerequisite for tooth morphogenesis. Tooth organs of Sp7-null however, were significantly smaller in size when compared to WT. Differentiation of both ameloblasts and odontoblasts was disrupted in Sp7-null mice. Only premature and disorganized ameloblasts and odontoblasts were noted in mutant mice. These data indicate that Sp7 is not required for tooth morphogenesis but is obligatory for the functional maturation of both ameloblasts and odontoblasts. PMID:25158188

  20. [Tooth decay and its complication prognosis in smokers].

    PubMed

    Orekhova, L Iu; Osipova, M V

    2014-01-01

    The study focuses on complicated and non-complicated tooth decay course and prognosis in smokers. Oral status, prevention and treatment effectiveness was assessed in 330 non-smokers and 345 smoking patients. The results allowed concluding with guidelines for tooth decay prevention and treatment in smokers.

  1. 3D Simulation Modeling of the Tooth Wear Process.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ning; Hu, Jian; Liu, Hao

    2015-01-01

    Severe tooth wear is the most common non-caries dental disease, and it can seriously affect oral health. Studying the tooth wear process is time-consuming and difficult, and technological tools are frequently lacking. This paper presents a novel method of digital simulation modeling that represents a new way to study tooth wear. First, a feature extraction algorithm is used to obtain anatomical feature points of the tooth without attrition. Second, after the alignment of non-attrition areas, the initial homogeneous surface is generated by means of the RBF (Radial Basic Function) implicit surface and then deformed to the final homogeneous by the contraction and bounding algorithm. Finally, the method of bilinear interpolation based on Laplacian coordinates between tooth with attrition and without attrition is used to inversely reconstruct the sequence of changes of the 3D tooth morphology during gradual tooth wear process. This method can also be used to generate a process simulation of nonlinear tooth wear by means of fitting an attrition curve to the statistical data of attrition index in a certain region. The effectiveness and efficiency of the attrition simulation algorithm are verified through experimental simulation.

  2. Peroxide dental bleaching via laser microchannels and tooth color measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altshuler, Gregory; Belikov, Andrey; Skrypnik, Alexei; Feldchtein, Felix; Pushkareva, Alexandra; Shatilova, Ksenia; Cernavin, Igor; Tuchin, Valery

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to use microchannels drilled by an Er:YAG laser into a human tooth through the enamel into the dentin for direct injection of hydrogen peroxide (HP) to produce a minimally invasive, rapid, tooth bleaching effect. The experiments were conducted in vitro. Five microchannels with a diameter of ˜200 μm and a depth of ˜2 mm were drilled through the palatal side of a human tooth crown using the microbeam of an Er:YAG-laser with a wavelength of 2.94 μm. After injection of an aqueous solution of 31%-HP through the microchannels, the tooth color was evaluated using a VITA shade guide and International Commission on Illumination L*ab color parameters. A tooth model used for the evaluation of the distribution of HP concentration was created and the amount of HP which can be injected into tooth dentin to bleach it safely was estimated. Injection of 1.5±0.1 mm3 of 31%-HP into the tooth led to noticeable bleaching within 3 h and significant improvement of tooth color within 24 h.

  3. Peroxide dental bleaching via laser microchannels and tooth color measurements.

    PubMed

    Altshuler, Gregory; Belikov, Andrey; Skrypnik, Alexei; Feldchtein, Felix; Pushkareva, Alexandra; Shatilova, Ksenia; Cernavin, Igor; Tuchin, Valery

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to use microchannels drilled by an Er:YAG laser into a human tooth through the enamel into the dentin for direct injection of hydrogen peroxide (HP) to produce a minimally invasive, rapid, tooth bleaching effect. The experiments were conducted in vitro. Five microchannels with a diameter of ?200???m and a depth of ?2??mm were drilled through the palatal side of a human tooth crown using the microbeam of an Er:YAG-laser with a wavelength of 2.94???m. After injection of an aqueous solution of 31%-HP through the microchannels, the tooth color was evaluated using a VITA shade guide and International Commission on Illumination L*ab color parameters. A tooth model used for the evaluation of the distribution of HP concentration was created and the amount of HP which can be injected into tooth dentin to bleach it safely was estimated. Injection of 1.5±0.1??mm3 of 31%-HP into the tooth led to noticeable bleaching within 3 h and significant improvement of tooth color within 24 h.

  4. Distribution pattern of cholinesterase enzymes in human tooth germs.

    PubMed

    Nandasena, T L; Jayawardena, C K; Tilakaratne, W M; Nanayakkara, C D

    2010-08-01

    The two distinct molecular forms of cholinesterase (ChE) are acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). Our previous studies have reported that ChE is involved in tooth development. However, further experiments are needed to understand the precise action of ChE in tooth development. This study aimed to localise types of ChE in human tooth germs, and identify their distribution pattern. ChE were localised in frozen sections of jaws which were prepared from dead fetuses, neonates and stillborns who were free from visible abnormalities by Karnovsky and Root method. AChE was identified in the inner and outer enamel epithelia including the cervical loop region, stratum intermedium and preameloblasts of tooth germs at bell stage. Secretory ameloblasts were free from staining. The bud and cap stages of permanent tooth germs showed AChE activity on the lingual aspect and top surface of the epithelial ingrowths, respectively. BuChE activity was localised in the degenerating dental lamina. Our study reported the first evidence of localisation of ChE in human tooth development and identified the possible molecular form of ChE in tooth germs as AChE. Also, our results have provided strong evidence to speculate the action of AChE is on the cells of enamel organ during tooth development.

  5. 21 CFR 872.3200 - Resin tooth bonding agent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Resin tooth bonding agent. 872.3200 Section 872.3200 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3200 Resin tooth bonding agent. (a) Identification...

  6. 21 CFR 872.3590 - Preformed plastic denture tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Preformed plastic denture tooth. 872.3590 Section 872.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3590 Preformed plastic denture tooth. (a...

  7. 21 CFR 872.3590 - Preformed plastic denture tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Preformed plastic denture tooth. 872.3590 Section 872.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3590 Preformed plastic denture tooth. (a...

  8. 21 CFR 872.3590 - Preformed plastic denture tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Preformed plastic denture tooth. 872.3590 Section 872.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3590 Preformed plastic denture tooth. (a...

  9. 21 CFR 872.3590 - Preformed plastic denture tooth.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Preformed plastic denture tooth. 872.3590 Section 872.3590 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3590 Preformed plastic denture tooth. (a...

  10. Fractographic study of tooth fractures for carburized helical gear wheels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuruts, N. I.; Aleksandrov, B. I.

    1982-08-01

    With fatigue tests on helical gears the source of crack initiation is located in the trailing side of the teeth at a distance of 3-6 mm from its throat. After initiation the crack moves parallel to the base of the tooth to emerge at the second face and simultaneously into the tooth material.

  11. Characterization of Natural, Decellularized and Reseeded Porcine Tooth Bud Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Traphagen, Samantha B.; Fourligas, Nikos; Xylas, Joanna; Sengupta, Sejuti; Kaplan, David; Georgakoudi, Irene; Yelick, Pamela C.

    2012-01-01

    Dental tissue engineering efforts have yet to identify scaffolds that instruct the formation of bioengineered teeth of predetermined size and shape. Here we investigated whether extracellular matrix (ECM) molecules present in natural tooth scaffolds can provide insight on how to achieve this goal. We describe methods to effectively decellularize and demineralize porcine molar tooth buds, while preserving natural ECM protein gradients. Natural tooth ECM composition was assessed using histological and immunohistochemical (IHC) analyses of fibrillar and basement membrane proteins. Our results showed that Collagen I, Fibronectin, Collagen IV, and Laminin gradients were detected in natural tooth tissues, and retained in decellularized samples. Second harmonic generation (SHG) image analysis and 3D reconstructions were used to show that natural tooth tissue exhibited higher collagen fiber density, and less oriented and less organized collagen fibers, as compared to decellularized tooth tissue. We also found that reseeded decellularized tooth scaffolds exhibited distinctive collagen content and organization as compared to decelluarized scaffolds. Our results show that SHG allows for quantitative assessment of ECM features that are not easily characterized using traditional histological analyses. In summary, our results demonstrate the potential for natural decellularized molar tooth ECM to instruct dental cell matrix synthesis, and lay the foundation for future use of biomimetic scaffolds for dental tissue engineering applications. PMID:22551485

  12. Simulation of orthodontic tooth movements. A comparison of numerical models.

    PubMed

    Bourauel, C; Freudenreich, D; Vollmer, D; Kobe, D; Drescher, D; Jäger, A

    1999-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movements are based on the ability of bone to react to mechanical stresses with the apposition and resorption of alveolar bone. Currently, the underlying biophysical, biochemical, and cellular processes are the subject of numerous studies. At present, however, an analytical description of orthodontic tooth movements including all components of the processes involved seems to be impossible. It was the aim of the present study to develop a mechanics-based phenomenological model capable of describing the alveolar bone remodeling. Thus, 2 different models were developed. The first is based on the assumption that deformations of the periodontal ligament (PDL) are the key stimulus to starting orthodontic tooth movement. The second supposes that deformations of the alveolar bone are the basis of orthodontic bone remodeling. Both models were integrated into a finite element package calculating stresses, strains and deformations of tooth and tooth supporting structures and from this simulating the movement of the tooth and its alveolus through the bone. Clinically induced canine retractions in 5 patients as well as force systems were exactly measured and the tooth movements were simulated using both models. The results show that the first model allows reliable simulation of orthodontic tooth movements, whereas the second is to be rejected.

  13. Numerical simulation of tooth movement in a therapy period.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yingli; Fan, Yubo; Liu, Zhan; Zhang, Ming

    2008-01-01

    Orthodontic tooth movements are based on the ability of bone reaction to mechanical stimulus with the deposition and resorption of alveolar bone. The numerical simulation of tooth movement could be helpful for the treatment strategy. However, at present, few calculations have been carried out on the tooth movement simulation. Finite element (FE) models were developed to simulate an orthodontic treatment of mandibular canine tipping movement during a therapy period with decayed loads. The tooth movement was based on the surface bone remodeling method, and the normal strain of periodontal ligament was assumed as the key mechanical stimulus for alveolar bone remodeling. Changes in the tooth position and the geometry of the tooth supporting structures were taken into account. The highest normal strain in the periodontal ligament was observed at the cervix or apex and the lowest normal strain was observed near the middle of the root. The tipping degrees of the simulation were similar to the observed in clinical studies. It was acceptable to simulate clinical tooth tipping movements by finite element method based on these mechanical assumptions. Such a numerical simulation would be used to predict clinical tooth movements and help the planning of the therapy.

  14. Evaluation of the effect of laser tooth whitening.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Huei; Chou, Tsau-Mau; Chen, Jen-Hao; Chen, Jheng-Huei; Chuang, Fu-Hsiung; Lee, Huey-Er; Coluzzi, Donald J

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether gender, age, and initial tooth hue impacted the effect of laser tooth whitening. Ninety-one subjects were enrolled in a laser tooth whitening study at Kaohsiung Medical University. Sensitivity was evaluated by asking the patients about any tooth sensitivity they experienced after the whitening procedures were performed. The LaserSmile tooth whitener, containing 35% hydrogen peroxide, was applied to the tooth surfaces of both arches from the central incisor to the second premolar, and the LaserSmile Twilite diode laser was applied to the same maxillary and mandibular teeth. After removal of the whitening gel, shade matching was immediately performed with the ShadeEye NCC Dental Chroma Meter. Patients were classified into the following groups: tetracycline stain, gender, age, and initial tooth hue. Only 5 of the 91 individuals had tetracycline staining. The initial tooth shade and the amount of shade change showed no significant differences between female and male patients, but a significant difference was found between hue and age group. Teeth with hue A showed greater shade improvement than teeth with hue C and hue D. Whitening response was better in younger individuals, and gender was not a factor that affected the whitening response. Sensitivity is common during the whitening procedure but can be tolerated by the patients.

  15. Finite element modeling of occlusal variation in durophagous tooth systems.

    PubMed

    Crofts, Stephanie

    2015-09-01

    In addition to breaking hard prey items, the teeth of durophagous predators must also resist failure under high loads. To understand the effects of morphology on tooth resistance to failure, finite element models were used to examine differences in total strain energy (J), first principal strain and the distribution of strains in a diversity of canonical durophagous tooth morphologies. By changing the way loads were applied to the models, I was also able to model the effects of large and small prey items. Tooth models with overall convex morphologies have higher in-model strains than those with a flat or concave occlusal surface. When a cusp is added to the tooth model, taller or thinner cusps increase in-model strain. While there is little difference in the relationships between tooth morphology and strain measurements for most models, there is a marked difference between effects of the large and small prey loads on the concave and flat tooth morphologies. Comparing these data with measurements of force required by these same morphologies to break prey items illustrates functional trade-offs between the need to prevent tooth failure under high loads by minimizing in-tooth strain versus the drive to reduce the total applied force. © 2015. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  16. Two-Dimensional Identification of Fetal Tooth Germs.

    PubMed

    Seabra, Mariana; Vaz, Paula; Valente, Francisco; Braga, Ana; Felino, António

    2017-03-01

      To demonstrate the efficiency and applicability of two-dimensional ultrasonography in the identification of tooth germs and in the assessment of potential pathology.   Observational, descriptive, cross-sectional study.   Prenatal Diagnosis Unit of Centro Hospitalar de Vila Nova de Gaia / Espinho-Empresa Pública in Portugal.   A total of 157 white pregnant women (median age, 32 years; range, 14 to 47 years) undergoing routine ultrasound exams.   Description of the fetal tooth germs, as visualized by two-dimensional ultrasonography, including results from prior fetal biometry and detailed screening for malformations.   In the first trimester group, ultrasonography identified 10 tooth germs in the maxilla and 10 tooth germs in the mandible in all fetuses except for one who presented eight maxillary tooth germs. This case was associated with a chromosomal abnormality (trisomy 13) with a bilateral cleft palate. In the second and third trimesters group, ultrasonography identified a larger range of tooth germs: 81.2% of fetuses showed 10 tooth germs in the maxilla and 85.0% of fetuses had 10 tooth germs in the mandible. Hypodontia was more prevalent in the maxilla than in the mandible, which led us to use qualitative two-dimensional ultrasonography to analyze the possible association between hypodontia and other variables such as fetal pathology, markers, head, nuchal, face, and spine.   We recommend using this method as the first exam to evaluate fetal morphology and also to help establish accurate diagnosis of abnormalities in pregnancy.

  17. "ToothPIC": An Interactive Application for Teaching Oral Anatomy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Javaid, Maria; Ashrafi, Seema; Zefran, Mil; Steinberg, Arnold D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and evaluation of an interactive educational program, "Tooth" "P"lacement and "I"dentification "C"oach ("ToothPIC"). The program uses a game-based learning paradigm and 3D visualization techniques to allow first year dentistry and hygiene students to get…

  18. [Tooth regeneration in the guinea pig (Cavia porcellus)].

    PubMed

    Stephan, F; Artis, J P; Lanot, R

    1977-01-01

    The first inferior molar has been extracted, a part of its being reimplanted or not. A new molar of normal form regenerated, apparently from the apex of the tooth germ, in all cases in which the alveolus was left free or implanted with a tooth freagment deprived of pulpa.

  19. Natal primary molar: clinical and histological aspects.

    PubMed

    Ruschel, Henrique C; Spiguel, Monica H; Piccinini, Daniela D; Ferreira, Simone H; Feldens, Eliane G

    2010-06-01

    The authors report a case of natal primary molar in a healthy 14-day-old child. The diagnosis of the case and the treatment plan are discussed, as well as histological analyses of the natal tooth. The tooth presented an immature appearance, with high mobility and insertion only in soft tissue, and therefore the clinical option adopted was dental extraction. Histological analyses revealed enamel hypoplasia and dentin showing a typical tubular pattern without alterations. The soft tissue had young and richly vascularized pulp with areas of chronic inflammatory infiltration.

  20. Crowned spur gears - Methods for generation and tooth contact analysis. I - Basic concepts, generation of the pinion tooth surface by a plane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Litvin, F. L.; Handschuh, R. F.; Zhang, J.

    1988-01-01

    A topology of crowned spur pinion tooth surface that reduces the level of transmission errors due to misalignment is proposed. The geometry of the deviated pinion tooth surface and regular gear tooth surface, along with tooth contact analysis is discussed. Generation of the deviated pinion tooth surface by a plane whose motion is controlled by a five-degree-of-freedom system is proposed. Numerical results are included and indicate that transmission errors remain low as the gears are misaligned.